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CHAPTER-1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 GENERAL
National Thermal Power Corporation Limited was formed in
1975 to plan, promote and organize an integrated and efficient
development of Central Sector Power Stations.The Singrauli Super
Thermal Power Station was the first of the series of pithead power
stations along with 400kV AC transmission line network. It is
located on the banks of Govind Ballabh Pant Sagar (Rihand
Reservoir), about 200km south of Varanasi in the Sonebhadra
district of Uttar Pradesh. For coal transportation, a railway system
with rapid loading and unloading facility known as Merry-Go
Round (MGR), continuously hauls coal from the Jayant block of
Singrauli coalfields to the plant site. The rake consists of 30
wagons and will deliver 1800 MT of coal in each cycle. The
average daily consumption of coal is 25,000 MT per day i.e. 8.0
million tonnes per annum considering average calorific value of
4000 kcal/kg and 7000 hrs of operation in an year for the ultimate
capacity of the plant of 2000 MW having 5 units of 200 MW each
and 2 units of 500 MW each.The 5× 200MW generating units of
Stage I are each equipped with coal-fired, regenerative, re-heat
type steam generators with electrostatic precipitators, each
generating 700 tonnes/hr of steam at 138 kg/cm 2 pressure and
535°C temperature. The steam generator feeds steam to a
condensing, horizontal, tandem compound 3-cylinder re-heat type
turbo generator rotating at 3000 rpm and each generates 200
MW. Three phase generator transformer of 250 MVA capacity
steps up the generation voltage from 15.75 KV to 400 KV. Cooling
water from the Rihand Reservoir is drawn through an approach
channel. It is then pumped into concrete intake duct by vertical
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pumps of 15000 m 3 /hr capacity each. From the ducts, the water
is circulated through condensers and is then discharged into a
duct from where it flows into an open channel. This open channel
carries the water for a distance of 6 km to affect sufficient cooling
before it joins back into Rihand Reservoir.
The 2× 500MW generating units of Stage II are each
equipped with coal-fired, regenerative, re-heat type steam
generators with electrostatic precipitators, each generating 1725
tonnes/hr of steam at 178 kg/cm 2 pressure and 540°C
temperature. The steam generator feeds steam to a condensing,
horizontal, tandem compound 3-cylinder re-heat type turbo
generator rotating at 3000 rpm and each generates 500 MW.
Turbine is a single shaft machine with separate high pressure
(HP), intermediate pressure (IP) and low pressure (LP) parts. The
HP part being a single flow cylinder and the IP and LP parts double
flow cylinders. The individual rotor generator is connected by rigid
coupling. The generator is three-phase, horizontal, 2-pole
cylindrical rotor type with a rated output of 588 MVA and terminal
voltage of 21 KV and full load current of 16,200 A. Three single
phase generator transformers of 200 MVA capacity each steps up
the generation voltage from 21 KV to 400 KV.
The circulating water system for cooling the steam in
condensers is an open cycle system utilizing the water from
Rihand Reservoir through 2.9 km long intake channel and pumped
through underground RCC duct and the return water is discharged
to the reservoir through 6 km long discharge canal. The intake
channel and the discharge canal are common for both stage I and
II units. For supplying cooling water 6 nos. of vertical pumps each
of 27,000 m 3 /hr capacity have been provided.To reduce the air
pollution 220 m high multi-flue stack are there for better
dispersion of the gases emitted by the boilers. There are total four
stacks is SSTPS  one for units 1, 2 & 3, second for units 4 & 5

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and one each for units 6 & 7. Electrostatic precipitators are
provided between the boiler and stack in each unit to precipitate
the ash content of the flue gases and help in the reduction of air
pollution. The ash so collected is dumped in the ash disposal yard
in the slurry form.

1.2 BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF VARIOUS PLANT IN INDIA

NORTHERN & NATIONAL CAPITAL REGION

Details Hy Coal based Gas/liquid fuel based


dro
Project Kolda Singra Rihan Unchah Dadri Tanda Anta Auraiy Dadri Fari
m uli d ar (Uttar (Uttar (Raj- a (Uttar d-
(state)
(Him (Uttar (Uttar (Uttar Prades Prades astha (Uttar Prades abad
achal Prades Prades Pradesh h) h) n) Prades h) (Har
Prade h) h) ) h) -
sh) yana
)

Capaci- 800 2000 2000 840 840 440 413 652 817 430

ty(MW)
Units ---- 5x200 2x500 4x210 4x210 4x110 3x88 4x112 4x131 2x14
+ + + + 3
Comm-
2x500 1x14 2x102 2x146. +1x
Ssioned 9 5 144
Units to 4x20 ---- 2x500 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----
0
be
commi-
ssioned
Energy ---- Jayant Amlor North North North HBJ HBJ HBJ HBJ
/ i Karanp Karan Karan-
Source
Bina u- p- pura
Ra ura
Water River Rihan Rihan Sharda Mat Saryu Anta Auraiy Hindo Gurg
Satluj d d Sahaya branch River Kota a n an
Source
Dam Dam k canal/ Right Etawa River Cana
Canal Hindo Canal Canal l
n
River

3
Benefi- North U.P., Uttaranchal, J&K, Delhi, U.P. U.P., Uttaranchal, J&K, Hary
ern H.P., Chandigarh, Rajasthan, U.P. H.P., Chandigarh, Punjab, ana
Ciaries
Regio Haryana, Punjab, Delhi Delhi, Haryana, Rajasthan,
n Railways
states
&
UT’s
:
Table:1.1 Northern & national capital region

PROJECT KORBA VINDHYACHA KAWAS JHANOR


(STATE) (CHHATI L (MADHYA (GUJRAT) GANDHAR(G
SGARH) PRADESH) UJARAT)

Capacity( 2100 3260 645 648


MW)
Units 3x200+3x 6x200+2x500 4x106+2x11 3x131+1x255
commissio 500 0.5
ned
Units to be ---- 2x500 ---- -----
commissio
ned
Energy Kusmunda Nigahi HBJ Gandhar Gas
source Block Fields
Water Hasdeo Discharge canal Hazira Narmada River
source River of Singrauli Branch canal

Table1.2 Western region

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SOUTHERN REGION
Details Coal based Gas/liquid based
Project Ramagundam Simhadari Kayamkulam
(state) (Andhra Pradesh) (Andhra Pradesh) (Kerala)
Capacity(MW) 2600 1000 350
Units 3x200+3x500 2x500 3x115+1x120
commissioned
Units to be 1x500 ---- ----
commissioned
Energy source South Godavari Talcher Naphtha
Water source Pochampad Dam Sea water Achankovil River
Beneficiaries Andhra Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh Kerala, Tamilnadu
Tamilnadu, Kerala,
Goa,
Pondichery

Table1.3 Southern region

5
EASTERN REGION
Details Coal based
Project Farakka Khalgaon Talcher Talcher
(state) (West Bengal) (Bihar) Kaniha Thermal
(Orissa) (Orissa)
Capacity(MW) 1600 2340 3000 460
Units 3x200+2x500 4x210 2x500 4x60+2x110
commissioned
Units to be ---- 3x500 4x500 ----
commissioned
Energy source Rajmahal Rajmahal Talcher Talcher
Water source Farakka Feeder Ganga River Samal Bhramani
Canal Barrage River
Beneficearies West Bengal, Bihar, Jharkhand, Orissa, Orissa
Sikkim,
Assam, Damodar Veally Corporation &
Southern region states.

Table1.4 Eastern region

CHAPTER-2

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PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION

For each process in a vapour power cycle, it is possible to assume a


hypothetical or ideal process which represents the basis intended operation and do
not produce any extraneous effect like heat loss.

1. For steam boiler, this would be a reversible constant pressure heating


process of water to form steam.
2. For turbine, the ideal process would be a reversible adiabatic expansion of
steam.
3. For condenser, it would be a reversible a constant pressure heat rejection as
the steam condenser till it becomes saturated liquid.
4. For pump, the ideal process would be the reversible adiabatic compression
of liquid ending at the initial pressure.

When all the above four cycles are combined, the cycle achieved is called
RANKINE CYCLE. Hence the working of a thermal power plant is based upon
Rankine cycle with some modification.

Flow diagram:

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Steam
Furnace
Flue Generator
gas Wt

Super heater

Turbine
Fuel Air
Evaporator Condenser
Outlet
Q1
Q2

Inlet
Economizer

Pump
Wp
Exhaust gas

Figure:2.1 Rankine cycle


where, Q1 – Heat supplied
Q2 – Heat ejected
Wt – Work obtained form turbine
Wp – Work supplied to pump
Cycle’s efficiency = (Wt – Wp)/Q1

2.1 PROCEDURE

2.1.1 COAL TO STEAM


Coal from the coal wagons is unloaded in the coal handling plant. This
coal is transported upto the raw coal bunkers with the help of belt conveyors. Coal
is transported to bowl mills by coal feeders. The coal is pulverized in the bowl mill,
where it is ground to a powder form. The mill consists of a round metallic table on
which coal particles fall. This table is rotated with the help of a motor. There are
three large steel rollers, which are spaced 120° apart. When there is no coal, these

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rollers do not rotate but when the coal is fed to the table it packs up between the
roller and the table and this forces the roller to rotate. Coal is crushed by the
crushing action between the rollers and the rotating table. This crushed coal is taken
away to the furnace through coal pipes with the help of hot and cold air mixture
from the primary air (P.A.) fan. The P.A. fan takes atmospheric air, a part of which
is sent to the air preheaters for heating while a part goes directly to the mill for
temperature control. Atmospheric air from forced draft (F.D.0 fan is heated in the
air heaters and sent to the furnace as combustion air.
Water from the boiler feed pump passes through economiser and reaches
the boiler drum. Water from the drum passes through down comers and goes to
bottom ring header. Water from the bottom ring header is divided to all the four
sides of the furnace. Due to heat and the density difference water rises up in the
water wall tubes. Water is partly converted into steam as it rises up in the furnace.
This steam and water mixture is again taken to the boiler drum where the steam is
separated from water. Water follows the same path while steam is sent to the
superheaters for superheating. The superheaters are located inside the furnace and
the steam is superheated (540°C) and finally goes to the turbine.
Flue gases from the furnace are extracted by the induced draft (I.D.) fan,
which maintains a balanced draft in the furnace with F.D. fan. These flue gases
emit their heat energy to various superheaters in the plant house and finally pass
through the air preheaters and goes to the electrostatic precipitator where the ash
particles are extracted. Electrostatic precipitators consist of metal plates, which are
electrically charged. Ash particles are attracted to these plates, so that they do not
pass through the chimney to pollute the atmosphere. Regular mechanical hammer
blows cause the accumulation of ash to fall to the bottom of the precipitator where
they are collected in a hopper for disposal. This ash is mixed with water to form
slurry and is pumped to ash dyke.

2.1.2 STEAM TO MECHANICAL POWER


From the boiler, a steam pipe conveys steam to the turbine through a stop
valve (which can be used to shut off steam in an emergency) and through control
valves that automatically regulate the supply of steam to the turbine. Stop valves
and control valves are located in the steam chest and a governor, driven from the

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main turbine shaft, operates the control valves to regulate the amount of steam used
(this depends upon the speed of the turbine and the amount of electricity required
from the generator).
Steam from the control valves enters the high pressure cylinder of the
turbine, where it passes through a ring of stationary blades fixed to the cylindrical
wall. These act as nozzles and direct the steam into a second ring of moving blades
mounted on a disc secured to the turbine shaft. This second ring turns the shafts as
a result of the force of the steam. The stationary and moving blades together
constitute a ‘stage’ of the turbine and in practice many stages are necessary, so that
the cylinder contains a number of rings of stationary blades with rings of moving
blades arranged between them. The steam passes through each stage in turn until it
reaches the end of the high pressure cylinder and in its passage some of its heat
energy is changed into mechanical energy. The steam leaving the high pressure
cylinder goes back to the boiler for reheating and returns by a further pipe to the
intermediate pressure cylinder. Here it passes through another series of stationary
and moving blades.Finally, the steam is taken to the low pressure cylinders, each of
which it enters at the center flowing outwards in opposite directions through the
rows of turbine blades – an arrangement known as double flow – to the extremities
of the cylinder. As the steam gives up its heat energy to drive the turbine, its
temperature and pressure fall and it expands. Because of this expansion the blades
are much larger and longer towards the low pressure end of the turbine.
The turbine shaft usually rotates at 3,000 rpm. This speed is determined by
the frequency of the electrical system used in the country. In India, it is the speed at
which a 2- pole generator is driven to generate alternating current at 50 Hz.When as
much energy as possible has been extracted from the steam it is exhausted directly
to the condenser. This runs the length of the low pressure part of the turbine and
may be beneath or on either side of it. The condenser consists of a large vessel
containing some 20,000 tubes, each about 25 mm in diameter. Cold water from the
water source i.e. the Rihand Reservoir is circulated through these tubes and as the
steam from the turbine passes round them it is rapidly condensed into water
condensate. Because water has a much smaller comparative volume than steam, a
vacuum is created in the condenser. This allows the steam pressure to reduce down
to pressure below that of the normal atmosphere and more energy can be utilized.

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From the condenser, the condensate is pumped through low pressure heaters by the
extraction pump, after which its pressure is raised to boiler pressure by the boiler
feed pump. It is further passed through feed heaters to the economiser and the
boiler for reconversion into steam. The cooling water drawn from the reservoir is
returned directly to the source after use.

2.1.3 MECHANICAL POWER TO ELECTRICITY

The turbine shaft is mechanically coupled to the generator rotor shaft through thrust
bearings. The steam rotates the turbine at 3000 rpm thus the rotor of the generator
also rotates at 3000 rpm. This speed is necessary to generate electricity at a
frequency of 50 Hz with a two pole turbo- generator.The rotor carries the field
winding over it. This field winding is excited by a DC excitation system. The
supply to the excitation system is tapped from the unit auxiliary transformer. The
flux generated by this field current cuts the armature coil. The armature coil is star-
star connected and is induced with three phase emf. The emf is tapped with the help
of slip rings and brushes. This emf is carried over to the generator transformer
through a bus duct. The bus duct is voltage transformer grounded.
The generator transformer has delta connection in the primary side and star
connection in the secondary side. The generator bus supplies electric power per
phase to the three-phase transformer or bank of three single-phase transformers.
These transformers transmit electric power to the switchyard for further
transmission. These transformers also supply the unit auxiliary transformers
required for the working of various electric motors, pumps and other equipments
installed in the unit.

2.1.4 TRANSMISSION

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The electricity is usually produced in the stator windings of large modern
generators and is fed through terminal connections to one side of a generator
transformer that steps up the voltage to 400KV. From here conductors carry it to a
series of three switches comprising of an isolator, a circuit breaker and another
isolator.
The circuit breaker, which is a heavy- duty switch capable of operating in a
fraction of second, is used to switch off the current flowing to the transmission
lines. Once the current has been interrupted the isolators can be opened. These
isolate the circuit breaker connected to its terminals. Here after the maintenance or
repair work can be carried out safely. From the circuit breakers the current is taken
to the busbar conductors, which run the length of the switching compound – and
then to another circuit breaker with its associated isolators, before being fed to the
Grid. Each generator in a power station has its own transformer, circuit breaker and
associated isolators but the electricity generated is fed into a common set of
busbars. Circuit breakers work like combined switches and fuses but they have
certain special features and are very different from the domestic switch and fuse.
When electrical current is switched off by separating two contacts, an arc is created
between them. At the voltage use in homes, this arc is very small and lasts for a
fraction of a second but at very high voltages used for transmission, the size and
power of the arc is considerable and it must be quickly quenched to prevent
damage. Three phase, four-wire system is used for large power transmission, as it is
cheaper than the single-phase two-wire system that supplies the home. Also power
is generated in a three-phase system.
The center of the power station is the control room. Here the engineers
monitor the output of electricity, supervising and controlling the operation of
generating plant and high voltage switchgear and directing power to the grid system
as required. Instruments on the control panels show the output and the existing
condition of the whole main plant and a miniature diagram indicates the precise
state of the electrical system.

CHAPTER-3

COAL HANDLING PLANT

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Every thermal power plant is based on steam produced on the expanse of heat
energy produced on combustion of fuel. Fuels used are coal and fuel oil. Coal is
more important as oil is occasionally used. Coal is categorised as follows
depending upon fixed carbon, volatile matter and moisture content:
 Anthracite having 86% fixed carbon
 Bituminous having 46 to 86% fixed carbon
 Lignite having 30% fixed carbon and
 Peat having 5 to 10% fixed carbon
Coal from mines is transported to CHP in railway wagons. It is
unloaded in track hoppers. Each project requires transportation of large quantity of
coal mines to the power station site. Each project is established near coal mine
which meets the coal requirements for the span of its entire operational life. For the
purpose each plant has Merry Go-Round (MGR) rail transportation system. The
loading operation of the coal rake takes place while it is moving under the silo at a
present speed of 0.8 Km/hr. the loading time for each wagon is one minute. For
unloading of coal from the wagons an under ground track hopper is provided at the
power station end.

CHP then normally follows three coal paths:

1. Path A – from track hoppers to bunkers.


2. Path B – from track hoppers to stockyard.
3. Path C – from stockyard to bunkers.

Path A

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Path-B

Path C

Figure: 3.1 coal paths for C.H.P

3.1 PARTS OF CHP

3.1.1 PADDLE FEEDERS


Four nos. of traveling paddle feeders are provided to collect coal from the
track hopper. They travel along the entire length of the hopper and transfer the coal
from the hopper, uniformly to the pair of underground conveyors 1A &1B. The
paddle feeders move to and fro on the rail with the help of 4 nos. of wheel mounted

14
on the supporting structures. The wheels are driven by electric motor of 415V
supply.

3.1.2 BELT CONVEYOR SYSTEM


The belting system is designed for conveyor capacity of 1200T/hr and belt
speed of 2.6metre/sec. The belt is of cotton fabric with rubber covers of adequate
strength having width of 1400mm.

3.1.3 MAGNETIC SEPARATORS


This is an electromagnet placed above the conveyor to attract magnetic
materials. Over this magnet there is one conveyor to transfer these materials to
chute provided for dumping at ground level. Because of this, continuous removal is
possible and it is also not necessary to stop the electric supply to the magnetic
separators for removal of separated material.

3.1.4 STACKER AND RECLAIMER


Two nos. of traveling stacker/reclaimer each capable of both stacking and
reclaiming are installed which operate on rail tracks running for adequate length to
cover the entire coal storage yard. The belt of the stacker/reclaimer is mounted on a
cantilever boom and has a capacity of 1200T/hr for both stacking and reclaiming.
The boom can revolve about the center of the receiving hopper and
discharge/reclaim materials on/from both sides of the track anywhere between 28
meters radius of the boom. These units work in conjunction with the conveyor 9A
& 9B.

3.1.5 CRUSHER HOUSE


The plant has four nos. of crushers each capable of crushing coal of 200mm
size at the rate of 600T/hr. the crusher with hammer tips is symmetrical in size and
shape on either side. In case of wearing out of one side, the other can be used by
turning over the tips. These crushers are placed in the crusher house, which have
special strong foundations to bear the vibrations due to running of the crushers.

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3.1.6 VIBRATING FEEDER
The vibrating feeder is used for throwing the coal on the underground
conveyor belt from where coal goes to the bunker. Coal from the stockyard, with
the help of bulldozer, is taken to the vibrating feeder via reclaimer hopper and
underground conveyor belt. In case the bunker requirement is more than the
capacity of crusher or stacker reclaimer, then with the help of bulldozer the coal is
sent to the bunker from the stockyard, through these feeders.

CHAPTER-4

MILLS

16
These are basically coal pulverizing mills. Thermal power stations use pulverized
coal firing system. In this the coal is reduced to fineness such that 70 to 80% passes
through a 200 mesh sieve. This fine powdered coal is called pulverized coal and is
carried forward to the burner by air through pipes.
Advantage of pulverized coal firing system:–
1. Efficient utilization of low grade and cheap coal.
2. Flexibility in firing.
3. Ability to meet fluctuating load.
4. Better reaction to automatic control.
5. High efficiency of boiler.
6. Easy complete combustion.
The only disadvantage being its high initial cost.

4.1 BOWL MILL


The most widely used mills are bowl mills. Even SSTPS uses these kinds of
mills. Bowl mill is a medium speed mill with 30 rpm speed. It pulverizes coal to a
size of 200 microns with a purity of 600 micron. Bowl mills are available in
varying capacities ranging from 1.7 to 100 tons per hour.A 200 MW unit uses 6
mills of 32 tons per hour capacity, out of which 4-5 run at a time and one is in
stand-by condition for emergency. A 500 MW unit uses 8 mills of 60 tons per hour
capacity, out of which 6-7 run at a time.

4.1.1 CONSTRUCTION
Bowl mill has a bowl covered with bull rings. It is mounted on a gear called
worm gear and bearings assembly. This assembly is held in a casing filled with
lubricating oil along with cooling arrangements. Worm gear is coupled to helical
gear shaft which is in turn coupled to AC motors.A bowl mill has three grinding
rollers each weighing three tons. There is a 3mm clearance between bowl and roller
and both are at an angle of 22o to each other. A spring mechanism with 25 kg/cm2
tension is used to maintain the clearance. Rollers are free to rotate about their
axis.The mill has five openings at the top. Out of these, one is inlet of gravimetric
feeder and rest four is outlet openings to each corner of furnace. There are
classifiers around openings and scrapers around the bowl.
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4.1.2 WORKING
Coal is fed into mill through Gravimetric feeder. When the A.C. supply is
switched on the bowl rotate and due to centrifugal force, the coal moves in the
outward direction. As the coal come between grinder and bowl, it gets pulverized.
The unwanted material is removed through scrapers. The pulverized coal is then
carried to burners by primary air through outlet openings. The heavier particles, as
they rise, collide with classifiers and fall back in mill for further grind. Sealing air
is provided through seal air fan to avoid deposition of coal dust in bearings and
spring mechanism.

4.1.3 SPECIFICATIONS

1.Air flow/mill 60 T/hr.


2.Air temp. at mill inlet 260° C.
3.Mill outlet temperature 77° C.
4.Coal flow/mill 36 T/hr.
5.Fineness of coal Milled 70 % through 200 mesh
6.Primary air pressure inlet 650 mmwcl.
7.Primary air pressure outlet 244 mmwcl.

CHAPTER-5

DRAFT FANS

18
Like water circulation, air circulation is equally important in boilers. It helps in
complete combustion of fuel and removal of flue gases and ash from furnace. It
also helps in maintaining furnace’s pressure below atmospheric pressure.Draft fans
are used for fulfilling the above requirements. There are three types of draft fans

used:-

5.1 FD FAN (FORCED DRAFT)


FD fan is located prior to furnace. It forces air to flow through furnace via
pre-heater. This air helps in complete combustion of fuel. FD fan is an axial fan and
has Pitch Control i.e. the pressure of forced air is controlled by rotating the blades
of fan using oil control.
FD fan is run by an A.C. motor at 1490 rpm. A.C. motor used is 3 phases,
squirrel cage induction motor that takes 6600V, 84.5A, 800KW supply. It is 94.5%
efficient.

5.1.1 Specification

Fan
1.Type & size Axial Reaction API 18/11.
2.Orientation Horizontal.
3.Medium handled Air.
4.Location Ground level.
5.No. of fans/boiler 2
6.Capacity 105 m3/sec.
7.Temp of medium 50° C.
8.Speed 740 rpm.
Motor
1,Type Squirrel cage induction motor

2.Rated power 1100 KW.


3.Rated voltage 6.6 KV.

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4.Rated frequency 50 Hz.
5.Lubricating system Grease lubrication.
6.No. of phases 3
7.Bearing type hydrodynamic ring assisted bearing
8.Speed 1480 rpm.

5.2 ID FAN (INDUCED DRAFT)


ID fan, induces a draft that helps in removal of flue gases from the furnace.
It also causes the flue gases to flow through ESP and then out of chimney and
ESP.ID fan is an axial fan made of croton steel. It is driven by 3 phase squirrel cage
induction motor at 744 rpm. Motor uses 6600V, 138.5A, 1300KW supply and is
95.5% efficient. ID fan has Inlet Guide Vane control pressure.

5.2.1 Specification
Fan
1.Type & size Axial Impulse AN 28e6.
2.Orientation Horizontal.
3.Medium handled Flue gas.
4.No. of fans/boiler 2
5.Capacity 225 m3/sec.
6.Temperature of medium 136° C.
7.Speed 740 rpm.
.
Motor
1.Type Squirrel cage induction motor
2.Rated power 1100 KW.
3.Rated voltage 6.6 KV.
4.Rated frequency 50 Hz.
5.Lubricating system Forced oil lubrication.
6.No. of phases 3
7.Bearing type hydrodynamic ring assisted bearing
8.Speed 740 rpm.

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5.3 PA FAN (PRIMARY AIR)

PA fan supplies primary air that carries the pulverized coal from mills to
furnace. Primary air passes to mills through 2 different ducts. One duct carries air
1st to pre-heater and then to mills while the other carries directly to mills. Air
through pre-heater is hot air while other is cold air. Hot air helps in removal of
moisture content from pulverized coal. PA fan is a radial fan runs at 1480 rpm by
an A.C. motor and has Inlet Guide Vane control.

5.3.1 Specification:-
Fan
1.Type & size Single suction, Radial fan.
2.Orientation Horizontal.
3.Medium handled Air.
4.No. of fans/boiler 2
5.Capacity 75 m3/sec.
6.Temp of medium 50° C.
7.Lubricating system Forced oil lubrication.
.
Motor
1.Type 3-phase, air cooled, Squirrel cage
Induction motor.
2.Rated power 1250 KW.
3.Rated voltage 6.6 KV.
4.Rated frequency 50 Hz.
5.Lubricating system Grease lubrication.

6.No. of phases 3
7.Speed 1480 rpm.

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CHAPTER-6

BOILER

22
Boiler can simply defined as the device where any liquid is boiled or Boiler may be
defined as a device that is used to transfer heat energy being produced by burning
of fuel to liquid, generally water, contended in it to cause its vaporization.Boiler, in
simple terms, can be called “Steam Generator”.
The following are factors essential for the efficient combustion usually
referred as “The three T’s”.
a) Time – It will take a definite time to heat the fuel to its ignition
temperature and having ignited, it will also take time to burn.
b) Temperature – A fuel will not burn until it reaches its ignition
temperature.
c) Turbulence – Turbulence is introduced to achieve a rapid relative
motion between the air and fuel particles.
6.1 SPECIFICATIONS
Following are the specifications of the main boiler used at Singrauli Super
Thermal Power Station for (200) MW:

1.Type: Natural circulation, Dry bottom,


Tangentially fired, balanced draft,
Radiant Reheat type with direct fired
pulverized coal system.
2.Manufacturer: BHEL
3 .Nominal rating 210 MW
4. Peak loading (without HP heaters) 229 MW
5.Rated speed 3000 rpm
6.Main steam flow at full load
(with HP heater in service) 630 tons per hour
7.Main steam pressure /temperature
at full load 147.1 kg/cm2 535° C.
8.Condenser pressure 76 mm Hg CW inlet
temperature 33°
9.Designed fuel: Indian Bituminous coal
10.Furnace type: Fusion welded

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11.Drum:
 Material Carbon Steel
 Overall length 15.700 mtr
 Designed pressure 176 Kg/cm2
 Designed metal temp. 354 o C

Fig 6.1 Arrangement of boiler auxiliaries

6.2BOILER AUXILIARIES

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Efficiency of a system is of most concerned. Thus it is very important to
maintain a system as efficient as possible. Boiler auxiliaries help in improving
boiler’s efficiency. Following are the important auxiliaries used

6.2.1Economizer: Its purpose is to preheat feed water before it is introduced


into boiler drum by recovering heat from flue gases leaving the furnace.
6.2.2Super Heater: It increases the temperature of steam to super heated
region.
6.2.3Reheater: It is used for heat addition and increase the temperature of
steam coming from high pressure turbine to 540o.
6.2.4Soot Blower: It blows off the ash deposited on the water wall surface. It
uses steam for blowing purpose.
6.2.5Air Preheater: It pre-heats the air entering the furnace by recovering heat
from flue gases in order to ease the combustion process.
6.2.6Draft Fans: They handle the supply of air and the pressure of furnace.
6.2.7Oil Guns: They are used to spray oil to raise the temperature of furnace
to ignition temperature of fuel.
6.2.8Wind Box: It distributes the excess air uniformly through out furnace.

CHAPTER-7

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GENERATOR AND TURBINE
7.1 Generator
The 200 MW generator is a 3-phase, horizontally mounted 2-pole
cylindrical rotor type, synchronous machine driven by steam turbine. The stator
windings are cooled by de-mineralized water flowing through the hollow conductor
while the rotor winding is cooled by hydrogen gas. Fans mounted on the generator
rotor facilitate the circulation of the H2 inside the machine requiring cooling. 4
coolers mounted inside the machine cool the H2 gas.The generator winding is
insulated by epoxy thermo- setting type insulation. It is provided with static
excitation system. 2 H2 driers are provided to facilitate moisture removal. H2 is
circulated through them via the fans in dry condition. Normally one drier is kept in
service and other is in standby. Liquid Level Detectors (LLDs) are provided to
indicate liquid in the generator casing, to indicate whether oil is leaking or water. It
can be drained through drain valves. H2 gas purity is to be maintained at more than
99%.
The cooling water system consists of 2x100% duty AC motor driven
pumps, 2x100% duty water coolers, 2x100% duty mechanical filters, 1x100% duty
magnetic filter, expansion tank, polishing unit and ejector system. The stator water
pump drive the water through coolers, filters and winding and finally discharges
into the expansion tank situated at a height of about 5m above the TG floor. It is
maintained at a vacuum of about 250mm Hg by using water ejectors. A gas trap is
provided in the system to detect any traces of hydrogen gas leaking into the stator
water system. To prevent leakage of hydrogen from generator housing, ring type
seals are provided at the both ends of the generator. The seal ring is free to adjust
its position according to shaft position.

7.1.1 SPECIFICATIONS
 Maximum Continuous KVA rating ~~ 235300 KVA
 Rated Terminal Voltage ~~ 15750 V
 Rated Stator Current ~~ 9050 A
 Rated Power Factor ~~ 0.85 lag

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 Excitation Voltage at MCR condition ~~ 310 V
 Excitation Voltage at MCR condition ~~ 2600 A
 Excitation voltage at no load ~~ 102 V
 Excitation current at no load ~~ 917 A
 Rated speed ~~ 3000 rpm
 Rated frequency ~~ 50 c/s
 Efficiency at MCR condition ~~ 98.49%
 Short circuit ratio ~~ 0.49
 Direction of rotation from slip ring ~~ Anti clockwise
 Phase connection ~~ Double star
 No. of terminals brought out ~~ 9(6 neutral, 3 phase)
 Generator gas volume ~~ 56 m 3
 Nominal pressure of H2 ~~ 3.5 Kg/cm 2
 Nominal temp of cold gas ~~ 40 0 C (Alarm)
 Purity of hydrogen ~~ > 97% (min)
 Relative humidity of H2 ~~ 60 %
 Hot gas temp ~~ 75 0C
 Stator water flow
1. Normal ~~ 27 + 3 m 3 / hr
2. Alarm ~~ 21 m 3 / hr
3. Trip ~~ 13 m 3 / hr
 Stator water conductivity
1. Normal ~~ < 5.0 µ mho/ cm
2. High ~~ 13.3 µ mho/ cm
3. Trip ~~ 13 m 3 / hr
 Stator water expansion tank volume ~~ 200-300 mm wcl

 Nominal consumption of cooling water


1. At 35 0C ~~ 95 m 3 / hr
2. At 37 0C ~~ 110 m 3 / hr

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3. At 40 0C ~~ 130 m 3 / hr
 Seal oil outlet temperature
1. Normal ~~ 40 0C
2. Alarm ~~ 65 0C
 Safety Valve release (AC seal oil pump) ~~ 9 Kg/cm 2
 0Safety Valve release (DC seal oil pump) ~~ 9 Kg/cm 2

7.1.2 GENERATOR PROTECTION


The core of an electrical power system is generator. During operating conditions
certain components of the generator are subjected to increase stress and therefore,
could fail, referred to as faults. It can be internal fault or external fault depending
upon whether they are inside or outside of the machine. The machine with fault
must be tripped immediately. The corrective measures against generator’s abnormal
operation are taken care by stubborn system.

7.1.3TASK OF THE PROTECTIVE SYSTEM:

 Detect abnormal condition or defect.


 Limit its scope by switching to isolate the defect.
 Alarm the operating staff.
 Unload and/or trip the machine immediately.

7.1.4 PROTECTIVE DEVICES

The choice of protective equipment for the generator should


precisely understand the type of fault and do the necessary preventive measures for
avoiding it.

Electrical protection
 Differential protection:
 Earth fault protection:

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 Stator earth fault
 Rotor earth fault
 Stator Inter turn fault
 Over voltage
 Generator Transformer Protections
 Buchholz Protection
 Winding Temperature High
 Oil Temperature High
 Fire Protection
 Bus Bar Protection

7.2 TURBINE
A steam turbine has two main parts viz. the cylinder and the
rotor. The cylinder (stator) is a cast iron or steel housing usually
divided at the horizontal centerline. Its halves are bolted together
for easy access. The cylinder contains fixed blades, vanes and
nozzles that direct steam into moving blades carried by the rotor.
Each fixed blade set is mounted in diaphragms located in front of
each disc on the rotor, or directly in the casing. A disc and
diaphragm together make a turbine stage. Steam turbine can
have many stages. The rotor is a rotating shaft that carries the
moving blades on the outer edges of either drums or discs. The
blades rotate as the rotor rotates. The rotor of a large steam
turbine consists of high, intermediate and low pressure sections.

In a multiple stage turbine, steam at a high pressure and high temperature


enters the first row of fixed blades or nozzles through an inlet valve or valves. As
the steam passes through the fixed blades or nozzles it expands and its velocity
increases. The high velocity jet of steam strikes the first set of moving blades. The
kinetic energy of the steam changes into mechanical energy, causing the shaft to
rotate. The steam then enters the next set of fixed blades and strikes the next row of
moving blades. As the steam flows through the turbine, its pressure and

29
temperature decreases, while its volume increases. The decrease in pressure and
temperature occurs as the steam transmits energy to the shaft and performs work.
After passing through the last turbine stage, the steam exhausts into the condenser
or process steam system.Large turbines use both impulse and reaction types. These
combination turbines have impulse blades at the high pressure end and reaction
blades at the low pressure end. The blade length and size increases throughout the
turbine to use the expanding steam efficiently. Blade rows require seals to prevent
steam leakage where the pressure drops. Seals for impulse blades are provided
between the rotor and the diaphragm to stop leakage past the nozzle. Seals for
reaction blades are provided at the tips of both the fixed and moving blades.In stage
I, condensing, tandem reheat, impulse type turbine is installed. The HP cylinder has
12 stages, IP cylinder has 11 stages and LP cylinder has 4× 2 stages. The HP and IP
parts are single flow cylinders and the LP part has double flow cylinder.In stage II,
3 cylinder, reheat, reaction type turbine is installed. The HP cylinder has 18 stages,
IP cylinder has 14× 2 stages and LP cylinder has 6× 2 stages. The HP part is a
single- flow cylinder and the IP and LP parts are double flow cylinders.

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CHAPTER-8

ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR

Indian coal contains about 30% of ash. The hourly consumption of coal of a
200 MW unit is about 110 tons. With this, the hourly production of ash will be 33
tons. If such large amount of ash is discharge in atmosphere, it will create heavy air
pollution thereby resulting health hazards. Hence it is necessary to precipitate dust
and ash of the flue gases.
Precipitation of ash has another advantage too. It protects the wear and erosion of
ID fan.
To achieve the above objectives, Electrostatic Precipitator (ESP) is used. As
they are efficient in precipitating particle form submicron to large size they are
preferred to mechanical precipitation.
8.1 CONSTRUCTION
An ESP has series of collecting and emitting electrons in a chamber
collecting electrodes are steal plates while emitting electrodes are thin wire of
2.5mm diameter and helical form. Entire ESP is a hanging structure hence the
electrodes are hung on shock bars in an alternative manner.
It has a series of rapping hammer mounted on a single shaft device by a
motor with the help of a gear box at a speed of 1.2 rpm. At the inlet of the chamber
there are distributor screens that distributes the gas uniformly through out the
chamber.
There are transformer and rectifiers located at the roof of chamber. Hopper
and flushing system form the base of chamber.
8.2 WORKING

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Flue gases enter the chamber through distributor screen and get uniformly
distributed. High voltage of about 40 to 70 KV form the transformer is fed to
rectifier. Here ac is converted to dc. The negative polarity of this dc is applied
across the emitting electrode while the positive polarity is applied across the
collecting electrodes. This high voltage produces corona effect negative (–ve) ions
from emitting electrode move to collecting electrode. During their motion, they
collide with ash particles and transfer their charge. On gaining this charge, ash
particles too move to collecting electrode and stock to them. Similar is the case
with positive (+ve) ions that moves in opposite direction.
The rapping hammers hit the shock bars periodically and dislodge the collected
dust from it. This dust fall into hopper and passes to flushing system. Here it is
mixed with water to form slurry which is passed to AHP. Efficiency of ESP is
approximately 99.8%.

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CHAPTER-9

ROLE OF TRANSFORMERS

After the electricity is generated by the turbogenerators of Unit-1 to 5 (generating


15.75KV) & Unit 6 & 7(generating 21 KV),it is sent to the Generating
Transformer(G.T.) and Unit-Auxiliary Transformer(U.A.T.) at the same time.

9.1 Generating Transformer


Steps–up this voltage of 15.75/21 KV to a higher voltage of 400 KV (hence,
working as a step-up Transformer).This voltage of 400 KV is then transmitted to
switchyard.

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Figure9.1 generating transformer (G.T)

9.2 Unit-Auxiliary Transformer (U.A.T.)


Steps-down this voltage of 15.75/21 KV to a comparatively lower voltage
of 6.9 KV which is required to run the auxiliaries of the Main Plant such as I.D.
Fan, P.A. Fan, F.D. Fan and other auxiliary motors. Each unit has its own separate
G.T. & U.A.T.

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Figure9.2 Unit auxiliary transformer(U.A.T)

9.3 STATION TRANSFORMER


There is one more Transformer known as station transformer used only for
initializing the start-up of the station (Main Plant).It is very beneficial during
emergency situations such as tripping of Units, shut-down etc.
It gets the supply in its primary from 132 KV switchyard, steps-down it to 6.6
KV which is used for starting various equipments & devices used in the Main
Power Plant.

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Figure9.3 Station transformer(S.T.)

9.4RATINGS

9.4.1 GENERATING TRANSFORMER

 Type of cooling: O.F.W.F.


 Rating H.V.(MVA): 200
 Rating L.V.(MVA): 200
 No-load Voltage (KV):
H.V. 400/√3
L.V. 21
 Line current(Amps.):
H.V. 866.0
L.V. 9523.8
 Temperature rise(°C):
Oil 50
Windings 60

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 Phase: 1
 Frequency (Hz): 50
 Connection symbol: YND11
 Makers Serial No: 60046
 Electrical Specification No: 600626
 Year of manufacture: 1985
 Core & winding(Kg.): 123050
 Weight of Oil(Kg.): 27500
 Total weight (Kg.): 179500
 Oil quantity(l.): 29540
 Transport weight(Kg.): 138000
 Untanking weight(Kg.): 12000

9.4.2 UNIT AUXILIARY TRANSFORMER

 Rating (KVA): 12000/16000

 Cooling: Method ONAN/ONAF


% 75/100
 KV (At no load):
H.V. 15.75
L.V. 6.9
 Amperes:
H.V. 439.8/586.53
L.V. 1004.1/1338.8

 Phases: H.V. & L.V. Three


 Vector group: H.V. & L.V. DY ∩1
 Temp.rise (˚C):
Tap oil 40

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Winding 50
 Total Mass(Kg.): 37700
 Untanking Mass(Kg.): 19200
 Mass of Oil(Kg.): 7100
 Volume of Oil(l.): 8250
 Transport Mass with Oil(Kg.): 30000
 Manufacture’s Serial No: 37893
 Year of manufacture: 1982
 Frequency(Hz): 50

9.4.3 STATION TRANSFORMER

 Rating(KVA): 19000/25000/31500
 Amperes:
H.V. 83.1/109.3/137.8
L.V. 1589.8/2091.8/2635.7
 KV at no-load:
H.V. 132
L.V. 6.9
 Phases: H.V. & L.V. 3
 Vector group: H.V. & L.V. YNY∩O
 Temp. rise(°C):
Tap Oil 40
Winding 55
 Frequency(Hz): 50
 Total Mass(Kg.): 63000
 Untanking Mass(Kg.): 29000
 Mass of Oil(Kg.): 17000
 Volume of Oil(l.): 19600
 Transport Mass with Oil(Kg.): 47000
 Insulation level(KVp):

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H.V./H.V.N. 550/170
L.V. 60
 Cooling Methods: ONAN/ONAF/OFAF
% 60/80/100
 Manufacture’s Serial No: 37899
 Year of manufacture: 1980

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CHAPTER-10

POWER TRANSMISSION

Figure10.1 Switchyard

10.1 SWITCHYARD
Switchyard is considered as the HEART of the Power Plant. Power
generated can be worthful only if it is successfully transmitted and received by its
consumers. Switchyard plays a very important role as a buffer between the

40
generation and transmission. It is a junction, which carries the generated power to
its destination (i.e. consumers). Switchyard is basically a yard or an open area
where many different kinds of equipments are located (isolator, circuit breaker
etc…), responsible for connecting & disconnecting the transmission line as per
requirement (e.g. any fault condition). Power transmission is done at a higher
voltage. (Higher transmission voltage reduces transmission losses). Therefore, the
power generated by the Turbogenerator of 1 to 5 units is 15.75KV and of 6&7 units
is 21KV which is further stepped-up to 400KV by the Generating transformer &
then transmitted to switchyard.
Switchyards can be of 400KV, 200KV&132KV.
In SSTPS there are two interconnected switchyards:-

(i) 400KV SWITCHYARD


(ii) 132KV SWITCHYARD

10.1.1 400KV SWITCHYARD


There are on total 21 bays in this switchyard.
(A bay is basically a way for the incoming power from generator as well as
outgoing power for distribution).

 7 for unit Generating Transformer.


 7 for various distribution lines such as:
Lucknow line;
Allahabad #1 line;
Anpara line;
Allahabad #2 line;
Rihand #1 line;
VSTPP line;
Rihand #2 line;
 2 for Bus coupler.
 2 for TBC.
 2 for ICT.

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 1 for the Bus Section.
There are on total 6 buses in 400KV switchyard.

 Bus-1
 Bus-2
 Bus-3
 Bus-4

There are two transfer buses:


 Transfer bus-1
 Transfer bus-2
Transfer buses are kept spare and remain idle and are used only for emergency
purposes.
Bus-1 & Bus-3, Bus-2 & Bus-4; both are joined together by bus section (1 & 2)
respectively.

10.1.2 132KV SWITCHYARD:

There are 15 bays in 132KV switchyard.

 4 for Station Transformer.


 4 for C.W. Transformer.
 2 for Colony Transformer.
 2 for I.C.T.
 1 for S-V-R line.
 1 for Pipri line.
 1 for Bus Coupler.

10.2 SWITCHYARD EQUIPMENTS

10.2.1 LIGHTENING ARRESTOR:

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It is a protective device, which protects the costly equipments such as overhead
lines, poles or towers, transformer etc. against lightening. As the name suggests it
arrests the lightening of very high voltage (crores of KV) and dump it into the
ground. It works on the principle of easy path for the flow of current.L.A. is
connected in parallel with the line with its lower end connected and the upper end
projected above the pole of tower.

10.2.2 LIGHTENING MOST:

It is present at the highest point, at the topmost tower of the switchyard and is
connected together by wires forming a web. The reason for its presence at the
topmost point is to grasp the lightening before it can come, fall and damage the
costly equipments present in the switchyard.

10.2.3. WAVE TRAP:

It is equipment used to trap the high carrier frequency of 500 KHz and above and
allow the flow of power frequency (50 Hz). High frequencies also get generated
due to capacitance to earth in long transmission lines. The basic principle of wave
trap is that it has low inductance (2 Henry) & negligible resistance, thus it offers
high impedance to carrier frequency whereas very low impedance to power
frequency hence allowing it to flow in the station.

10.2.4. CIRCUIT BREAKER:

It is an automatic controlling switch used in power house, substation & workshop


as well as in power transmission during any unwanted condition (any fault
condition-earth fault, over-current, flashover, single phasing,).
During such condition it cuts down the supply automatically by electromagnetic
action or thermal action. It can be used in off-load as well as on-load condition.
When a circuit breaker is operated by sending an impulse through relay, C.B.
contact is made or broken accordingly. During

43
this making and breaking, an arc is produced which has to be quenched; this is done
by air, oil, SF6 gas etc….
Depending on the medium being used C.B.s can be categorized into various
types.In SSTPS for 400 KV/132 KV switchyard only 4 main types are being used:-
 ABCB (Air operated circuit breaker):- operated as well as arc quenched
through air.
 Air operated SF6 circuit breaker:- operated through air but arc quenching
done through SF6 gas.
 MOCB (Minimum oil circuit breaker):-operated through spring action but
arc quenching done through oil (Aerosol fluid oil).
 Hydraulic operated SF6 circuit breaker:- operated through hydraulic oil
and arc quenching done through SF6 gas.
Hydraulic operated SF6 circuit breaker is the most efficient due to following
reasons:-
1. Less maintenance.
2. Arc quenching capability of SF6 gas is more effective than air.
3. Heat transfer capacity is better in this C.B.

10.2.5. ISOLATOR:

An isolator is also a switching device used to disconnect the line. As the name
suggests it isolate the line from the supply. It is always used in OFF-LOAD
condition. Whenever any fault occurs in the equipments present in the line, in order
to remove the fault or replace the device first of all supply is disconnected. But
even after the disconnection of the supply, the line remains in charged mode so
before working on the device (to remove fault) isolator should be made open.
Depending on the structure there are mainly two types of isolators:-
 Pantagraph isolator.
 Centre-break isolator (also known as Sequential isolator).
Pantagraph is generally used in buses whereas Centre-break (Sequential) is
used in line.
Isolators may be operated in air (pneumatic), electrically or even manually.

44
10.2.6. P.T (Potential Transformer):

This Transformer is connected in parallel with the line with one end earthed. It is
only used for voltage measurement by stepping-down the voltage to the required
measurable value.

10.2.7. C.T (Current Transformer):

This Transformer is used for basically two major functions: -


 Metering which means current measurement.
 Protection such as over current protection, overload earth fault protection,
Bus-bar protection, Bus differential protection.

NOTE:-Secondary of the C.T should be kept shorted because (when secondary is


kept open) even the presence of a very small voltage in the primary of C.T will
prove to be harmful as it will start working as a step-up Transformer & will
increase the voltage to such a high value that primary would not be able to bear it &
will get burned.

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CHAPTER-11

CONCLUSION

The entire system configuration study helped me understand the following.


1.Use of instrument in power plant.
2.The various instrument available for industry.
3.various cables and specified use.

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REFERENCES

1.www.ntpc.co.in
2.Power plant familiarization by Poonam khurana
3.Power system engineering by A.Chakrabarti

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