HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

Human Resource Management is defined as the people who staff and manage organization. It comprises of the functions and principles that are applied to retaining, training, developing, and compensating the employees in organization. It is also applicable to non-business organizations, such as education, healthcare, etc Human Resource Management is defined as the set of activities, programs, and functions that are designed to maximize both organizational as well as employee effectiveness…………… Scope of HRM without a doubt is vast. All the activities of employee, from the time of his entry into an organization until he leaves, come under the horizon of HRM. The divisions included in HRM are Recruitment, Payroll, Performance Management, Training and Development, Retention, Industrial Relation, etc. Out of all these divisions,one such important division is Training & Development. Training – Introduction This activity is both focussed upon, and evaluated against, the job that an individual currently holds education . This activity focusses upon the jobs that an individual may potentially hold in the future, and is evaluated against those jobs.
Training and personal development is an important method for a business to improve the performance of employees. Training is a process whereby an individual acquires job-related skills and knowledge. It is a cost to firms to pay for the training and also to suffer the loss of working hours whilst an employee is being trained. However, the potential gains from employee training are significant. The main benefits of training are improved productivity and motivation of staff and also better quality products being made. Some of the specific reasons as to why a business should train its employees are: • • • • • • • Introduce new employees to the business (this is known as “induction training”) – see below Help provide the skills the business needs (in particular making the workforce more flexibleor being trained on new higher technology machinery) Provide employees with better knowledge about the business and the market it operates in Provide support for jobs that are complex and for which the required skills and knowledge are often changing (e.g. a firm of lawyers training staff about new legislation) Support the introduction of new working methods, such as a firm introducing new lean production techniques Reduce the need for supervision and therefore free up valuable manager timeHelp achieve a good health and safety recordHelp improve quality of a product or service and lower customer complaints Increase employee motivation and loyalty to the business

Induction training Induction training is important as it enables a new recruit to become productive as quickly as possible. It can avoid costly mistakes by recruits not knowing the procedures or techniques of their new jobs. The length of induction training will vary from job to job and will depend on the complexity of the job, the size of the business and the level or position of the job within the business. The following areas may be included in induction training: • • • • • Learning about the duties of the job Meeting new colleagues Seeing the layout the premises Learning the values and aims of the business Learning about the internal workings and policies of the business

On-the-job training On the job training occurs when workers pick up skills whilst working along side experienced workers at their place of work. For example this could be the actual assembly line or offices where the employee works. New workers may simply “shadow” or observe fellow employees to begin with and are often given instruction manuals or interactive training programmes to work through. Off-the-job training This occurs when workers are taken away from their place of work to be trained. This may take place at training agency or local college, although many larger firms also have their own training centres. Training can take the form of lectures or self-study and can be used to develop more general skills and knowledge that can be used in a variety of situations, e.g. management skills programme.

Methods of training
Human Resource Management is concerned with the planning, acquisition, training & developing human beings for getting the desired objectives & goals set by the organization. The employees have to be transformed according to the organizations' & global needs. This is done through an organized activity called Training. Training is a process of learning a sequence of programmed behavior. It is the application of knowledge & gives people an awareness of rules & procedures to guide their behavior. It helps in bringing about positive change in the knowledge, skills & attitudes of employees. Thus, training is a process that tries to improve skills or add to the existing level of knowledge so that the employee is better equipped to do his present job or to mould him to be fit for a higher job involving higher responsibilities. It bridges the gap between what the employee has & what the job demands. Since training involves time, effort & money by an organization, so an organization should to be very careful while designing a training program. The objectives & need for training should be clearly identified & the method or type of training should be chosen according to the needs & objectives established. Once this is done accurately, an organization should

take a feedback on the training program from the trainees in the form of a structured questionnaire so as to know whether the amount & time invested on training has turned into an investment or it was a total expenditure for an organization. Training is a continuous or never ending process. Even the existing employees need to be trained to refresh them & enable them to keep up with the new methods & techniques of work. This type of training is known as Refresher Training & the training given to new employees is known as Induction Training. This is basically given to new employees to help them get acquainted with the work environment & fellow colleagues. It is a very short informative training just after recruitment to introduce or orient the employee with the organization's rules, procedures & policies. Training plays a significant role in human resource development. Human resources are the lifeblood of any organization. Only through trained & efficient employees, can an organization achieve its objectives. * To impart to the new entrants the basic knowledge & skills they need for an intelligent performance of definite tasks. * To prepare employees for more responsible positions. * To bring about change in attitudes of employees in all directions. * To reduce supervision time, reduce wastage & produce quality products. * To reduce defects & minimize accident rate. * To absorb new skills & technology. * Helpful for the growth & improvement of employee's skills & knowledge. METHODS OF TRAINING: The most widely used methods of training used by organizations are classified into two categories: On-the-Job Training & Off-the-Job Training. ON-THE-JOB TRAINING is given at the work place by superior in relatively short period of time. This type of training is cheaper & less time-consuming. This training can be imparted by basically four methods: Coaching is learning by doing. In this, the superior guides his sub-ordinates & gives him/her job instructions. The superior points out the mistakes & gives suggestions for improvement. Job Rotation: - In this method, the trainees move from one job to another, so that he/she should be able to perform all types of jobs. E.g. In banking industry, employees are trained for both back-end & front-end jobs. In case of emergency, (absenteeism or resignation), any employee would be able to perform any type of job. OFF THE JOB TRAINING: - is given outside the actual work place. Lectures/Conferences:- This approach is well adapted to convey specific information,

The trainees are divided into groups who represent the management of competing companies.The game is devised on a model of a business situation. Experiential Exercises: . For instance. Films: . Cases: .Employees learn their jobs on the equipment they will be using.rules. The employee attempts to find and analyze the problem. Role Play: . rather than talking about inter-personal conflicts & how to deal with them. In-Basket Exercise: . experiential exercises. an experiential exercise could be used to create a conflict situation where employees have to experience a conflict personally & work out its solutions.can provide information & explicitly demonstrate skills that are not easily presented by other techniques. Simulation Exercise: . RECOMMENDATIONS & CONCLUSION: No doubt Training is a very powerful tool for the smooth functioning of the organization. While expensive.Any training activity that explicitly places the trainee in an artificial environment that closely mirrors actual working conditions can be considered a Simulation. but the training is conducted away from the actual work floor.present an in depth description of a particular problem an employee might encounter on the job.Also known as In-tray method of training. Simulation activities include case experiences. structured learning experiences where individuals learn by doing. This method is useful. In this method of training. The trainees are provided feedback on their performance.Its just like acting out a given role as in a stage play. Management Games: . Decisions made by the groups are evaluated & the likely implications of the decisions are fed back to the groups. it minimizes the problem of transferring learning to the job. vestibule training. where the information is to be shared among a large number of trainees. The decisions taken by the trainees are compared with one another. but it needs to be used with care in order to derive all the benefits. The game goes on in several rounds to take the time dimension into account. the trainees are required to enact defined roles on the basis of oral or written description of a particular situation. The cost per trainee is low in this method. procedures or methods.are usually short. The trainee is presented with a pack of papers & files in a tray containing administrative problems & is asked to take decisions on these problems & are asked to take decisions on these within a stipulated time. Vestibule Training: . They make decisions just like these are made in real-life situations. evaluate alternative courses of action & decide what course of action would be most satisfactory. management games & role-play. Here are seven . Motion pictures are often used in conjunction with Conference. discussions to clarify & amplify those points that the film emphasized. Vestibule training allows employees to get a full feel for doing task without real world pressures. Additionally.

The method by which training is delivered often varies based on the needs of the company. Feedback should be taken from the trainees after the training is over. & everchanging environment. and integrate performance with other skills and knowledge. and the learning objective. Experienced & skilled trainer. Other factors affecting the choice of a training method include: -Age. 4. time & money on training. help employees prepare themselves for learning. How can a manager charged with training his or her employees choose an appropriate method? This article defines some of the most common training methods and reviews pros and cons for each one. It benefits both the organization as well as the employees. Focus of training should be on priority development needs and to produce strong motivation to bring change in employees. who possesses good amount of knowledge & understanding about the organization's objectives. Ideally. Learn about the needs and proficiency of each and every employee before an organization invests its effort. enable the trainees to apply and practice what they've been taught. should give training.recommendations for getting the best out of this tool: 1. individual abilities & the present environment. so that the organization comes to know about the deficiencies in the training program & also suggestions to improve upon the same. 3. Thus. help trainees retain and transfer what they have learned. The method should suit the audience. entire books have been written on the ways to deliver training. the content. or level of education of the trainees -Learning styles of the trainees . gender. Its better to identify the needs & shortcomings in an employee before actually imparting training to him/her. 6. the trainee. the method chosen will motivate employees to learn. The method or type of training should be very cautiously selected by the organization depending upon the organizations' resources & an employee's individual need for training. There should be a two-way communication between the trainer & trainee. and on the task being performed. the business¡¦ environment. 2. Indeed. Active participation from the trainees should be encouraged. The cost incurred on the training program should not exceed its benefits. 5. There are many different ways to train. training is a vital tool to cope up with the changing needs & technologies. 7.

conferences. He or she may use handouts. It engages several senses: seeing. Seminar Seminars often combine several group methods: lectures. In this method. question/answer. Cons: Does not actively involve trainees in training process. . More time is needed to conduct a seminar than is needed for many other methods. or posters to support the lecture. visual aids. hearing. Pros: Less time is needed for the trainer to prepare than other methods. The trainer may provide an opportunity for trainees to perform the task being demonstrated. The trainer can use many group methods as part of the seminar activity. It provides a lot of information quickly when it is less important that the trainees retain a lot of details. Pros: This method emphasizes the trainee involvement. The trainees forget much information if it is presented only orally. Yet. feeling.-Number of trainees -Budget -Trainer's skills and training style Common group training methods include: Lecture A lecture is the method learners often most commonly associate with college and secondary education. touching. discussions. The trainer shows trainees how to do something. demonstrations. it is also considered one of the least effective methods to use for adult learners. There also needs to be an adequate space for the training to take place. The trainer must have skill in conducting a seminar. Communication is primarily one-way: from the instructor to the learner. Demonstration Demonstration is very effective for basic skills training. If the trainer is not skilled in the task being taught. poor work habits can be learned by the trainee. Cons: It requires a great deal of trainer preparation and planning. one person (the trainer) does all of the talking. Cons: Planning is time-consuming. Pros: Group members are involved in the training.

Trainers must be skilled and creative in helping the class learn from the situation. Case Studies A case study is a description of a real or imagined situation which contains information that trainees can use to analyze what has occurred and why. panel. only a few people get to practice while others watch. Panel A panel provides several points of view on a topic to seek alternatives to a situation. Cons: It can be difficult to control a group.Conference The conference training method is a good problem-solving approach. It is possible to experiment with many different approaches to a situation without alienating any actual customers. the trainees assume roles and act out situations connected to the learning concepts. causing conflict. Cons: It requires a great deal of preparation. They get an opportunity to practice people skills. . Pros: There is a lot of trainee participation. Pros: Trainees often find it interesting to hear different points of view. Pros: Trainees can learn possible results of certain behaviors in a classroom situation. The trainees recommend solutions based on the content provided. The process invites employees to share their opinions and they are challenged to consider alternatives. The trainees build consensus and the trainer can use several methods (lecture. Cons: A lot of time is spent making a single point. Panel members may have differing views but they must also have objective concerns for the purpose of the training. In some role play situations. This is an excellent method for using outside resource people. It can present a wide variety of skills in which applying knowledge is important. A group considers a specific problem or issue and they work to reach agreement on statements or solutions. Opinions generated at the conference may differ from the manager¡¦s ideas. Role Playing During a role play. The results of the method can be difficult to evaluate. Pros: A case study can present a real-life situation which lets trainees consider what they would do. It is good for customer service and sales training. seminar) to keep sessions interesting.

Common individual training methods include: Self-discovery Trainees discover the competencies on their own using such techniques as guided exercises. books. The trainer must be creative and very skilled at leading discussions. They are able to move at their own pace and have a great deal of ownership over their learning. Cons: Without proper introduction to the project and its purpose. the creation of a database. Movies/videos/computer-based training . Trainees get first-hand experience in the topic of the training. Projects Projects require the trainees to do something on the job which improves the business as well as helps them learn about the topic of training. The trainer must be very skilled and make sure that trainees practice the skills correctly. Only perfect practice makes perfect. Cons: Trainees can easily get side-tracked and may move slower than the trainer desires.Cons: Cases can be difficult to write and time-consuming to discuss. and research. Cons: Simulations are time-consuming. trainees may think they are doing somebody else¡¦s work. and keeping trainees on track. It is a useful technique for skills development. It is also more difficult to measure the employee¡¦s progress. The type of project will vary by business and the skill level of the trainee. increasing the chance that trainees will retain what they have learned. it will be difficult to obtain and maintain their interest. Simulations involve yet another learning style. Simulations Trainees participate in a reality-based. making points. It directly applies to jobs performed after training. Projects can be chosen which help solve problems or otherwise improve the operation. interactive activity where they imitate actions required on the job. Pros: Trainees are able to choose the learning style that works the best for them. Also. Pros: This is a good training activity for experienced employees. It might involve participation on a team. as trainees are actively involved in the learning process. if they do not have an interest in the project or there is no immediate impact on their own jobs. Pros: Training becomes more reality-based. or the forming of a new process. Little time is needed to prepare the training experience.

Others will select a single method that works best for them and never vary. It is highly practical and reality-based. It gives the trainee individual attention and immediate feedback. There is often a tendency to have a person learn by doing the job. To be successful. Pros: It can take place before. and the investments available. Most trainers choosing this option must purchase the training from an outside vendor. making the content less specific to their needs. It is also easy to assure that the same information is presented to each trainee. Mentoring A mentor can tutor others in their learning. the trainer must decide which one best suits the trainees. On-the-job training This is the most common method of training. Cons: Training is not standardized for employees. the training should be done according to a structured program that uses task lists. the trainee can pick up bad habits. providing no real training. Pros: It is easy to provide this training and the trainer can follow-up with questions and discussion. a trainer is limited only by his or her creativity. It also helps the trainee get information regarding the business culture and organizational structure. or after a shift. and performance standards as a lesson plan. the environment.Content for the training experience comes primarily from a videotape or computer-based program. It also helps the employee establish important relationships with his or her supervisor or mentor. job breakdowns. When choosing from among these methods. Pros: The training can be made extremely specific to the employee's needs. Cons: Training can be interrupted if the mentor moves on. Many trainers will choose to combine methods or vary them. Cons: It is expensive to develop. With so many options. If a properly trained mentor is not chosen. This system is sometimes known as a buddy system. during. Training and Human Resource . The trainee is placed on the job and the manager or mentor shows the trainee how to do the job. Mentors help employees solve problems both through training them in skills and through modeling effective attitudes and behaviors.

Active involvement in employee education 2. As a result training is given on a variety of skill development and covers a multitude of courses. Let’s look at the skill-point base. the role of HR professionals in training has been widened. increasing the level of job satisfaction. Flexible access i. Now-a-days. which measures the cost of raising a student’s skill by one unit. then it is difficult to accept that such a company has effectively carried out HRM. the relationship between the training function and other management activity is also changing. anywhere training Training Effectiveness The effectiveness of training is a measurement of learning. Training is now the important tool of Human Resource Management to control the attrition rate because it helps in motivating employees. Rewards to be associated with self esteem and self worth 4." This is dangerously wrong! Let me explain! The difference between a pre-test score and a post-test score can be for many reasons. resources. several of which . and money. etc. waste of time. To increase the commitment level of employees and growth in quality movement (concepts of HRM). There are several methods to measure this—on a per-student basis. The training and development activities are now equally important with that of other HR functions. marketing & sales. Training actually provides the opportunity to raise the profile development activities in the organization. Gone are the days. If training is not considered as a priority or not seen as a vital part in the organization. anytime. on a per-“skill point” base or on a per-dollar basis. HR role now is: 1.e. production. achieving their professional and personal goals. training is an investment because the departments such as. HR. Such concepts of HRM require careful planning as well as greater emphasis on employee development and long term education.Management Traning and Development Home » Training and Human Resource Management The HR functioning is changing with time and with this change. Rewards for improvement in performance 3. It is determined by comparing post-test scores with pre-test scores and then measuring the net change. when training was considered to be futile. senior management team is now increasing the role of training. finance. Role of HRD Professionals in Training This is the era of cut-throat competition and with this changing scenario of business. etc depends on training for its survival. Providing pre-employment market oriented skill development education and post employment support for advanced education and training 5.

yes. This does NOT mean there is no link.it's about OUTCOMES that favour the customer and the shareholder . It would be quite easy to have a large overlap here with efficiency measures.and this is where evaluation practitioners get in to bother . Taking a similar theme I suggest training efficiency can be measured several ways .here are some examples: Number of training courses achieving the required outcomes ----------------------------------------------------------------.it's a measure of learning! You can learn everything required. but fail to put it to required use and the required outcomes are not achieved.x 100% Total number of training courses delivered Or 100% x (Number of trainees behaving as requried/operating equipment to required standard) / (Total number of people trained) Or 100% x Total benefits / Total costs Coming back to the effectiveness focus again there is some help to be found from our old friend Kirkpatrick. But if these same trainees have line managers sho report that these trainees are only demonstrating new but required behaviours for 40% of the time.it's not about learning that's a bonus (in my humble opinion!). even if you follow Kirkpatrick or Phillips' approach .may actually apply together.you have to have PROOF when the CFO and CEO ask for it . just that you haven't demonstrated one .---. Effectiveness at Level 1 (Reactions of trainees) could be measured in terms of getting at least 4 out of 5 in each area being rated. Training in organisations is ALMOST ALWAYS about achieving a better performance or capability than is currently available . Without any root cause analysis to identify the causal links between the different scores (pre-test and post-test) all you can truthfully say about this situation is that the pre-test scores were X and the post-test scores were Y . If 100% of trainees rate all the aspects at least 4 out of 5. then at Level 1 we'd be 100% effective.you cannot say WHY they are like this. then arguably the pre and post test scores CAN be seen as a measure of effectiveness. then arguably the training at Level 4 (Business Impact of training) is just 40% effective.. (Training) efficiency is generally defined as the number of units output for the number of units input. IF you can demonstrate causal links as I discussed earlier..CORRELATION IS NOT CAUSATION!!! A measurement of learning is not training effectiveness . Going back to the article I quoted from above. Read carefully with definitions!! . Generally effectiveness measures are defined in terms of the extent to which a set of objectives are met.

all the organizations give more trust on commercializing their activities. as well as the organizational and technical infrastructure (systems) to implement the methodology.e. Given the large expenditures for training in many organizations. Training has made remarkable contributions to the improvement of all kinds. but it is still young.. Training Effectiveness & its Significance In India.Measuring of training Training is a critical component in any organization's strategy. This field is. i. should espouse the most modern technology. however. but organizations don't always evaluate the business impact of a training program. and continuously improve training. The training apparatus and costs have multiplied but Unhappiness persists and is growing at the working level where the benefits of training should show up most clearly. computerization and automation. All the firms. Training is essential. etc. At the present time. it is important to develop business intelligence tools that will help companies improve the measurement of training effectiveness. does not assure success unless it is sustained by workforce possessing indispensable expertise. in order to continue to exist in the competitive global market and to be effectual. Cross-functional and reporting and learning analytics provide important connections between the measures of learning effectiveness offered by a learning management system (LMS) and the larger enterprise metrics that indicate whether learning is transferred and positively affects business results. Hence. This disillusionment shows in many ways reluctance to send the most talented workforce for training. organizations should train the employees to enrich them in the areas of changing technical skills and knowledge from time to time. training has entered a dangerous phase in its development. structures and budgets. Technical know-how alone. mechanization. evaluate. however. These tools need to provide a methodology to measure. expanding fast but controversies seem to envelop any attempts to find benefits commensurate with the escalating costs of training. but doubts arise over its contribution in practice. Training is neither a panacea for all ills nor is it a waste of time. inadequate use of personnel after training. With disillusionment mounting in the midst of expansion. What is required is an insight into what training can or cannot do. Complaints are growing over its ineffectiveness and waste. and skill in designing and executing training successfully and cost-effectively. The Input-Process-Output Model for an Effective Training . training as an activity has been going on as a distinct field with its own roles.

Input • Training need analysis: survey based on performance gaps in previous year & performance opportunities in the next year. and changes in the environment. Output • Release of training plan • Issue of orders of deputation for individual programmes • Feedback on effectives: from participants. technological changes. from departmental heads . • Implementation of changes in the prgramme as necessitated by the feedback. • Periodical request from department heads based on potential appraisal exercises. • Deputation of employees for short term training programmes conducted by local training institutes. • Updation of procedures. • Training policy of the administration Process • Exercise of determining needs & maintenance of training register • Verification of need to prepare training plans • Deciding to conduct onsite programmes. • Information on new recruitments. rules & regulations. if large number of participants require training. • Conducting induction training for new recruits. • Information on implementation of new practices. • Monitoring the training conducted by various departments. strategic moves.

through greater empowerment .Higher quality .businesses with a good reputation for training are likely to find it easier to attract good quality staff .More successful recruitment and employee retention . The main steps in developing a training strategy are to: . or that the individual is part of.businesses with strong training systems and culture find it easier to implement change programmes Development .Implement the plan. .Introduction This activity focusses upon the activities that the organization employing the individual.Draw up an action plan to show how investment in training and development will help meet business goals and objectives.lower supervision and management costs if employees can get on with their jobs. This might also improve motivation .Less supervision . may partake in the future.More flexibility . therefore.Better productivity (and.training helps employees develop a variety of skills.and then keep them .Help in achieving change . TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT :- . Multi-skilling is only possible if the workforce is well trained . .Training starts with a strategy It is important that a business provides training that is consistent with the business strategy. monitoring progress and training effectiveness Benefits of training to a business The main benefits to a business of a well-trained workforce are: . lower production / operating costs) .Identify the skills and abilities needed by employees. and is almost impossible to evaluate.

In the field of human resource management. The conflicts are the best part of career consequences are those that take place between employees and their bosses. workplace relationship authority. and Heraty. resources. the CIPD settled upon "Learning and Development". It has been known by several names. the field is still widely known by the other names. as author. which sometimes conflict with the agendas and motivations of the others. training and development is the field concerned with organizational activity aimed at bettering the performance of individuals and groups in organizational settings. human resource development. The number one reason people leave their jobs is conflict with their bosses. The clients of training and development are business planners. However. education. although interrelated. Costine. "Human Resource Development" was rejected by academics. Harrison observes that the name was endlessly debated by the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development during its review of professional standards in 1999/2000. activities The "stakeholders" in training and development are categorized into several classes. Eventually. The participants are those who actually undergo the processes. who objected to the idea that people were "resources" — an idea that they felt to be demeaning to the individual. "Employee Development" was seen as too evocative of the master-slave relationship between employer and employee for those who refer to their employees as "partners" or "associates" to be comfortable with. The facilitators are Human Resource Management staff. although that was itself not free from problems. to practitioners. The sponsors of training and development are senior managers. "learning" being an overgeneral and ambiguous name. note that these ideas are often considered to be synonymous. and . Each of these groups has its own agenda and motivations. Line managers are responsible for coaching. And yet. including employee development. and performance. Garavan. and development. Training and development encompasses three main activities: training. they encompass three separate. of the Irish Institute of Training and Development. And the providers are specialists in the field. It ensures that randomness is reduced and learning or behavioural change takes place in structured format. and learning and development.It is a subsystem of an organization. Moreover.

Training is now considered as more of retention tool than a cost. In addition to that. peer.executive coach. • Organizational. and • Societal. there are four other objectives: • Individual. John Hoover points out. which in turn. nobody ever enhanced his or her career by making the boss look stupid. enhances the individual contribution to an organization. Organizations used to believe more in executive pinching. Dr. TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENTS OBJECTIVES :The principal objective of training and development division is to make sure the availability of a skilled and willing workforce to an organization. Individual Objectives – help employees in achieving their personal goals. . "Tempting as it is. knowledge. Talent. Organizational Objectives – assist the organization with its primary objective by bringing Individual effectiveness. • Functional. The training system in Indian Industry has been changed to create a smarter workforce and yield the best results. and skill alone won't compensate for a sour relationship with a superior. There were also some views that training is a very costly affair and not worth." Training an employee to get along well with authority and with people who entertain diverse points of view is one of the best guarantees of long-term success. or customer TRADITIONAL AND MODERN APPROACH OF TRAINING AND DEVLOPMENT Traditional Approach – Most of the organizations before never used to believe in training. They were holding the traditional view that managers are born and not made. The modern approach of training and development is that Indian Organizations have realized the importance of corporate training. But now the scenario seems to be changing.

It helps in creating the learning culture within the organization. subordinates and peers. relationship so that individuals goals aligns with organizational goal. team spirit. Societal Objectives – ensure that an organization is ethically and socially responsible to the needs and challenges of the society Importance Of Training and Development • Optimum Utilization of Human Resources – Training and Development helps in optimizing the utilization of human resource that further helps the employee to achieve the organizational goals as well as their individual goals. Productivity – Training and Development helps in increasing the productivity of the employees that helps the organization further to achieve its long-term goal. It helps in inculcating the zeal to learn within the employees. • Organization Climate – Training and Development helps building the positive perception and feeling about the organization. • Quality – Training and Development helps in improving upon the quality of work and work. • Development of skills of employees – Training and Development helps in increasing the job knowledge and skills of employees at each level. . • Health and Safety – Training and Development helps in improving the health and safety of the organization thus preventing obsolescence. • Organization Culture – Training and Development helps to develop and improve the organizational health culture and effectiveness. It helps to expand the horizons of human intellect and all over personality of the employees.Functional Objectives – maintain the department’s contribution at a level suitable to the organization’s needs. It helps to build good employee.life. • Healthy work-environment – Training and Development helps in creating the healthy working environment. It also helps the employees in attaining personal growth. The employees get these feelings from leaders. • Development of Human Resources – Training and Development helps to provide an opportunity and broad structure for the development of human resources’ technical and behavioral skills in an organization. and inter-team collaborations. • Team spirit – Training and Development helps in inculcating the sense of team work.

.They fear employees will be poached by competitors (who will then benefit from the training) . better attitudes.They cannot make a justifiable investment case Training should meet two basic objectives.Ineffective or inefficient equipment.• Morale – Training and Development helps in improving the morale of the work force. production organisation . What training cannot solve it is tempting to think that training is the solution to many if not all business problems. Some businesses are reluctant to spend on training because: . It helps in understanding and carrying out organizational policies.Recruitment If training is so important. • Training and Development aids in organizational development i. there are some things that training can rarely solve: these include: . loyalty.Poor management (although management training might help!) . • Image – Training and Development helps in creating a better corporate image. However.A desire to minimise short-term costs . Organization gets more effective decision making and problem solving. and other aspects that successful workers and managers usually display. why do some businesses invest so little in it? Ideally training should be seen as an investment in the future of the business. • Profitability – Training and Development leads to improved profitability and more positive attitude towards profit orientation. motivation. • Training and Development helps in developing leadership skills. it takes time for the effects of training to impact business performance.Poor job design .e.

1. called ICAO TRAINAIR Methodology. The TRAINAIR Standardized Training Package (STP) preparation methodology is based on an engineering approach called the system approach. 2. training becomes focussed and the training time and costs. TRAINAIR methodology has both process and product standards. Analysis . Training must be based on scientific approach and quality training material to meet objective number one. knowledge and attitude required to perform the job and eliminate all things which are extraneous and not required to perform that job. Training should make the personnel skilled enough to do the job on hand efficiently leading to targeted productivity levels. The TRAINAIR course development methodology is a scientific approach of developing training courses for a job-oriented objective. I would like to describe about a training approach. which is accepted and followed by many Civil Aviation Training establishments all over the world. by means of a high standard of training for aviation personnel through what are known as Standardized Training Packages (STPs). The training duration should be as short as possible and resources used efficiently for meeting objective number 2. Training should be cost effective. Product standard means the standard in which end result is important but no weightage is given to the process. The TRAINAIR is a programme of the International Civil Aviation Organization that was evolved to strengthen the basic civil aviation concept of safety and and regularity of air transport operations. and duration of absence of the workforce from the operational units are minimized. This methodology seeks to impart skill. 1. Process standard means the standard in which the process is important but no weightage is given to the end result. This methodology has both the process standard and product standard. In this connection. Because of this. It consists of following three activities. That means the trainees are taught only the “Need-to-Know Things” and not the “Nice-toKnow Things”.

duties are divided into tasks. job experience. 2. flow charts or automation etc. Recommending non-training management solutions like developing a job aid such as checklists. the difference in skill/knowledge/ attitude required (decided in phase 2) and those acquired (decided in phase 3) will become the Course Curriculum. learning preferences are collected and analyzed.e. Mastery tests. Population Analysis. Progress tests. intended trainee group) acquired skill/ knowledge/ attitude. is invoked when a decision is to be taken whether or not training is needed to do a job on hand. Design and production 3. Job analysis. The modules and sequence of training program are decided in this phase. Design of Curriculum. Instructor guide. The job is divided into duties. Preliminary analysis. again the Course Developers team visits operational unit. all the course materials such as Trainee Handouts. then assistance of a qualified Course Developers team is requested. social background. and further the skill/ knowledge/ attitude required to carryout sub-tasks are decided. . Evaluation All these activities are divided into 9 Phases. qualifications. Phase 1. In Phase 4. In the Phase 3.. the data on target population’s (i. Practical exercise sheets. one of the following: 1. key to progress tests. In Phase 2. Design of modules. key to mastery tests will be developed. tasks are divided into sub-tasks. Develop a Standard Training Package (STP) as a training solution If it is found appropriate to proceed with a training solution by development of an STP. The course developers team visits the operational unit. analyzes the system and interviews the personnel working. The result of analysis is interviews the working experts. the Phase 2 activities commence.2. In Phase 5.

the effectiveness of the course which is now implemented is evaluated by analyzing 1. They also take a note of the result at the end of the course. The group of Course Developers will monitor the delivery of the course throughout. full STP Course is available for future deliveries. then the same course will be administered to the remaining trainee population in subsequent sessions. all the developed training materials will be sent to the ICAO TRAINAIR Central Unit. Did the training program effectively meet the operational need which gave rise to it?. . In Phase 9. the prepared course material will be tried on a group of trainees for whom the course is designed. In Phase 8. Any deficiencies noted will be corrected during this phase. Detailed lesson plans to guide the instructors. Validation and Revision. . At the end of this phase. Implementation. Production and developmental testing. hand outs for the trainees. audio-visual materials etc are all prepared ready for the initial Validation delivery of the package. If 80% of the participants passes with 80% marks or attain the standard. and observe the reactions of trainees and instructors. the prepared Mastery tests. In Phase 7. Post-training evaluation. Progress tests and practical exercises are tried out as developmental testing to check the accuracy and reliability of training materials. Montreal for accord of approval as full-fledged STP. Was there the desired improvement of the trainees’ performance when they return to their jobs? 2. for the first time.In Phase 6. The same course is also available for global sharing among the members of TRAINAIR programme.

The challenges many organisations face in response to the above factors: • • • Developing sales managers who lift performance through best practice leadership of sales teams. . Hemsley Fraser works with organisations to: • • • • Develop sales managers.This is done by gathering information which is used to make improvement in the training and determine the costs and benefits of the training development project. Cross-functional teams developing strategic customer relationships. including from non-traditional competitors. Drive reliable processes and practices throughout the sales organisation. Create differentiated skills and behaviours in sales teams to lift the performance of sales people.High Performing Sales Organisations Sales organisations are facing higher level challenges. leading to new purchasing methods and changing relationships with customers (more e-based business). Organisations moving towards preferred supplier agreements. During the entire process of course of development. Support cross-functional teams who develop high value strategic customer relationships. especially in the case of longer term contract based relationships. Impact of technology. Productivity differentials between high and medium performing sales people can be significant. Sales Organisation Effectiveness . where customers are looking for value and insight from their suppliers. as a key differentiator of sales team performance. driven by various factors in the marketplace: • • • • • Increased competition. Globalisation of markets. Course Developers interact with the Subject Matter Experts and skilled job performers as and when required and get the required inputs. Rising customer expectations. Development and retention of high performing sales people.

• • Create clear strategies for development and retention of high performing sales people. to reaffirm the performance outcomes expected and to make changes to training plans where necessary. This programme has been designed to aid all Human Resource practitioners in measuring the effectiveness of training. Having an evaluation of training effectiveness in place is also one of the dimensions of the People Developer Standard. Create a strong focus on a strategy. learning and skills. Key Benefits • • • Introduction to the different Training Evaluation models Learn how to make detailed measurements of training Measure the effectiveness at various levels up to the impact of training on the organisation Course Content • • • • • • Introduction to various Training Evaluation Models Measuring the Impact of Training on Operational Results Measuring the Impact of Training on the Organisation using Corporate Indicators Identifying and Measuring “Soft” Areas in the Organisation Understanding and Measuring Organisational Development through a Morale Survey Measuring the Personal Competencies of Employees Learning Methodology • Group work and exercises will be used to provide participants with many opportunities to demonstrate their knowledge. Who Should Attend . with supporting processes. to acquire and retain long-term profitable customers. Measuring the Effectiveness of Training and Development More and more successful organisations are increasingly intent on measuring the impact of training on their organisations.

I have sorted down them in a list. 5. 6. To make the job challenging and interesting 9. For employee motivation and retention . For career advancement. Training emplyees Importaance of training Training your employees do have a significant role in modern business era. For self and development 10. Training your emplyess is important because 1. 3. there is a lot more to it. People have to work in multidimensional areas . Not just to equip them with latest tools your company has implemented. which usually demand far more from their area of specialisation. 4. For higher motivation and productivity. This is a must read if you employ or mean to employ in future atleast one person. Rapid technological innovations impacting the workplace have made it necessary for people to consistently update their knowledge and skills 2. 8. Change in the style of management. Lack of proper and scientific selection procedure.• All Human Resource Personnel who are involved in Training and Development and those responsible for attaining the People Developer Standard for their organisation. 7. Due to non-practical collage education.

It is therefore important that the transfer of learning into the workplace is assessed through a process of review and evaluation so that its success or otherwise can be established and so that we can demonstrate the contribution learning makes towards overall organisational success. unit and individual levels. 15.11. To improve organisational climate Prevention of obsolescence To help an organisation to fulfil its future manpower needs. 12. 16. team and the organisation. faculty/central department. To keep in pace with times To bridge gap between skills requirement and skills availability For survival and growth of organisation and nation EVALUATION OF STAFF DEVELOPMENT AND TRAINING Introduction Staff development is an important part of assisting performance improvement at organisational. The benefits of evaluating training and development are to: . 14. Evaluation is the process of finding out how the development or training process has affected the individual. 13.

Evaluation of learning can take place during the activity using interactive sessions. goals and targets.Promote business efficiency by linking efforts to train anddevelop staff to operational priorities. Ensure the transfer of learning into the workplace. Use and reinforce techniques learned to help improve quality and customer service within the organisation. Help define future development objectives. Key to this level of evaluation is the need to have agreed clear . tests and practical application and after the activity by re-testing knowledge and skills and comparing them with pretraining results. observing Performance: Evaluation at this stage looks at the impact of a learning experience on individual/team performance at work. Identify cost effective and valuable training events orprogrammes. leading to better focused learning anddevelopment. Stages of Evaluation There are four key stages at which training and development should be evaluated: Reaction: At this stage evaluation provides information on the attitudes and opinions of participants to the learning they have undertaken typically via evaluation forms or comment sheets Learning attained: Evaluation at this stage looks at the extent to which learning objectives have been achieved.

and whether or not it is cost effective in organisational terms. Central Training Providers: All training courses delivered by central training providers are assessed by the University end of . Responsibility for evaluation Responsibility for evaluation of staff development rests at the following levels: Individual: The University’s Staff Development Application Form and Record requires individuals to identify their objectives linked to strategic development and training priorities and job role for the requested development activity. Manager: The manager is responsible for ensuring that staff have identified learning objectives for any development activity they plan to undertake and to agree on the methods to be used to evaluate learning Faculties/Central Departments: The Staff Development Plan template requires Faculties and Central Departments to annually set out their planned staff development activities and an explanation of how they will be evaluated. Organisational Impact: At this level evaluation assesses the impact of learning on organisational effectiveness..learning objectives prior to the learning experience so that when evaluation takes place there are measures to use.

.course review form. Purposes of Training Evaluation The five main purposes of training evaluation are : Feedback: It helps in giving feedback to the candidates by defining the objectives and linking it To learning outcomes. and training. or to the regular work routines. Training evaluation checks whether training has had the desired effect. At this level evaluation provides information on the attitudes of a participant to learning but does not measure how much they have actually learned. Research: It helps in ascertaining the relationship between acquired knowledge. Organisation Development and Training (ODT): ODT will carry out follow up evaluation of a sample of centrally delivered courses/programmes 3-6 months after the event to measure how learning has been applied in the workplace. Training evaluation ensures that whether candidates are able to implement their learning in their respective workplaces. Training Program Evaluation The process of examining a training program is called training evaluation. transfer of knowledge at the work place.

the top management (higher authoritative employee) uses the evaluative data to manipulate it for their own benefits. then It can be dealt with accordingly. Intervention: It helps in determining that whether the actual outcomes are aligned with the Expected outcomes.Control: It helps in controlling the training program because if the training is not effective. candidates generally perceive it as a waste of resources because at . During the start of training. Power games: At times. Process of Training Evaluation : Before Training: The learner’s skills and knowledge are assessed before the training program.

There are various evaluation techniques for this phase. This phase is designed to determine whether training has had the desired effect at individual department and organizational levels. This phase usually consist of short tests at regular intervals After Training: It is the phase when learner’s skills and knowledge are assessed again to measure the effectiveness of the training. Once aware. they are asked to give their opinions on the methods used and whether those methods confirm to the candidates preferences and learning style. . During Training: It is the phase at which instruction is started.most of the times candidates are unaware of the objectives and learning outcomes of the program.

During the start of training. . Intervention: It helps in determining that whether the actual outcomes are aligned with the expected Process of Training outcomes. Once aware. Power games: At times. then it can be dealt with accordingly. Evaluation Before Training: The learner’s skills and knowledge are assessed before the training program. candidates generally perceive it as a waste of resources because at most of the times candidates are unaware of the objectives and learning outcomes of the program.Control: It helps in controlling the training program because if the training is not effective. they are asked to give their opinions on the methods used and whether those methods confirm to the candidates preferences and learning style. the top management (higher authoritative employee) uses the evaluative data to manipulate it for their own benefits.

Techniques of Evaluation : • • • • • Observation Questionnaire Interview Self Diaries Self recording of special incidents . There are various evaluation techniques for this phase. This phase usually consist of short tests at regular intervals After Training: It is the phase when learner’s skills and knowledge are assessed again to measure the effectiveness of the training. This phase is designed to determine whether training has had the desired effect at individual department and organizational levels.During Training: It is the phase at which instruction is started.

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