Human Resource Management is defined as the people who staff and manage organization. It comprises of the functions and principles that are applied to retaining, training, developing, and compensating the employees in organization. It is also applicable to non-business organizations, such as education, healthcare, etc Human Resource Management is defined as the set of activities, programs, and functions that are designed to maximize both organizational as well as employee effectiveness…………… Scope of HRM without a doubt is vast. All the activities of employee, from the time of his entry into an organization until he leaves, come under the horizon of HRM. The divisions included in HRM are Recruitment, Payroll, Performance Management, Training and Development, Retention, Industrial Relation, etc. Out of all these divisions,one such important division is Training & Development. Training – Introduction This activity is both focussed upon, and evaluated against, the job that an individual currently holds education . This activity focusses upon the jobs that an individual may potentially hold in the future, and is evaluated against those jobs.
Training and personal development is an important method for a business to improve the performance of employees. Training is a process whereby an individual acquires job-related skills and knowledge. It is a cost to firms to pay for the training and also to suffer the loss of working hours whilst an employee is being trained. However, the potential gains from employee training are significant. The main benefits of training are improved productivity and motivation of staff and also better quality products being made. Some of the specific reasons as to why a business should train its employees are: • • • • • • • Introduce new employees to the business (this is known as “induction training”) – see below Help provide the skills the business needs (in particular making the workforce more flexibleor being trained on new higher technology machinery) Provide employees with better knowledge about the business and the market it operates in Provide support for jobs that are complex and for which the required skills and knowledge are often changing (e.g. a firm of lawyers training staff about new legislation) Support the introduction of new working methods, such as a firm introducing new lean production techniques Reduce the need for supervision and therefore free up valuable manager timeHelp achieve a good health and safety recordHelp improve quality of a product or service and lower customer complaints Increase employee motivation and loyalty to the business

Induction training Induction training is important as it enables a new recruit to become productive as quickly as possible. It can avoid costly mistakes by recruits not knowing the procedures or techniques of their new jobs. The length of induction training will vary from job to job and will depend on the complexity of the job, the size of the business and the level or position of the job within the business. The following areas may be included in induction training: • • • • • Learning about the duties of the job Meeting new colleagues Seeing the layout the premises Learning the values and aims of the business Learning about the internal workings and policies of the business

On-the-job training On the job training occurs when workers pick up skills whilst working along side experienced workers at their place of work. For example this could be the actual assembly line or offices where the employee works. New workers may simply “shadow” or observe fellow employees to begin with and are often given instruction manuals or interactive training programmes to work through. Off-the-job training This occurs when workers are taken away from their place of work to be trained. This may take place at training agency or local college, although many larger firms also have their own training centres. Training can take the form of lectures or self-study and can be used to develop more general skills and knowledge that can be used in a variety of situations, e.g. management skills programme.

Methods of training
Human Resource Management is concerned with the planning, acquisition, training & developing human beings for getting the desired objectives & goals set by the organization. The employees have to be transformed according to the organizations' & global needs. This is done through an organized activity called Training. Training is a process of learning a sequence of programmed behavior. It is the application of knowledge & gives people an awareness of rules & procedures to guide their behavior. It helps in bringing about positive change in the knowledge, skills & attitudes of employees. Thus, training is a process that tries to improve skills or add to the existing level of knowledge so that the employee is better equipped to do his present job or to mould him to be fit for a higher job involving higher responsibilities. It bridges the gap between what the employee has & what the job demands. Since training involves time, effort & money by an organization, so an organization should to be very careful while designing a training program. The objectives & need for training should be clearly identified & the method or type of training should be chosen according to the needs & objectives established. Once this is done accurately, an organization should

take a feedback on the training program from the trainees in the form of a structured questionnaire so as to know whether the amount & time invested on training has turned into an investment or it was a total expenditure for an organization. Training is a continuous or never ending process. Even the existing employees need to be trained to refresh them & enable them to keep up with the new methods & techniques of work. This type of training is known as Refresher Training & the training given to new employees is known as Induction Training. This is basically given to new employees to help them get acquainted with the work environment & fellow colleagues. It is a very short informative training just after recruitment to introduce or orient the employee with the organization's rules, procedures & policies. Training plays a significant role in human resource development. Human resources are the lifeblood of any organization. Only through trained & efficient employees, can an organization achieve its objectives. * To impart to the new entrants the basic knowledge & skills they need for an intelligent performance of definite tasks. * To prepare employees for more responsible positions. * To bring about change in attitudes of employees in all directions. * To reduce supervision time, reduce wastage & produce quality products. * To reduce defects & minimize accident rate. * To absorb new skills & technology. * Helpful for the growth & improvement of employee's skills & knowledge. METHODS OF TRAINING: The most widely used methods of training used by organizations are classified into two categories: On-the-Job Training & Off-the-Job Training. ON-THE-JOB TRAINING is given at the work place by superior in relatively short period of time. This type of training is cheaper & less time-consuming. This training can be imparted by basically four methods: Coaching is learning by doing. In this, the superior guides his sub-ordinates & gives him/her job instructions. The superior points out the mistakes & gives suggestions for improvement. Job Rotation: - In this method, the trainees move from one job to another, so that he/she should be able to perform all types of jobs. E.g. In banking industry, employees are trained for both back-end & front-end jobs. In case of emergency, (absenteeism or resignation), any employee would be able to perform any type of job. OFF THE JOB TRAINING: - is given outside the actual work place. Lectures/Conferences:- This approach is well adapted to convey specific information,

but it needs to be used with care in order to derive all the benefits. but the training is conducted away from the actual work floor. Cases: . the trainees are required to enact defined roles on the basis of oral or written description of a particular situation. The cost per trainee is low in this method. discussions to clarify & amplify those points that the film emphasized.Any training activity that explicitly places the trainee in an artificial environment that closely mirrors actual working conditions can be considered a Simulation. vestibule training. The employee attempts to find and analyze the problem. Films: . Here are seven . Additionally. Simulation activities include case experiences. experiential exercises. Decisions made by the groups are evaluated & the likely implications of the decisions are fed back to the groups. They make decisions just like these are made in real-life situations.Also known as In-tray method of training. Vestibule training allows employees to get a full feel for doing task without real world pressures. an experiential exercise could be used to create a conflict situation where employees have to experience a conflict personally & work out its solutions.Employees learn their jobs on the equipment they will be using. The trainee is presented with a pack of papers & files in a tray containing administrative problems & is asked to take decisions on these problems & are asked to take decisions on these within a stipulated time. structured learning experiences where individuals learn by doing. Management Games: . The game goes on in several rounds to take the time dimension into account.The game is devised on a model of a business situation. For instance.rules. The trainees are divided into groups who represent the management of competing companies. In-Basket Exercise: . it minimizes the problem of transferring learning to the job. This method is useful. procedures or methods. While expensive. Role Play: . Vestibule Training: . evaluate alternative courses of action & decide what course of action would be most satisfactory. In this method of training. rather than talking about inter-personal conflicts & how to deal with them. The trainees are provided feedback on their performance.can provide information & explicitly demonstrate skills that are not easily presented by other techniques. where the information is to be shared among a large number of trainees. The decisions taken by the trainees are compared with one another. RECOMMENDATIONS & CONCLUSION: No doubt Training is a very powerful tool for the smooth functioning of the organization. Motion pictures are often used in conjunction with Conference. Simulation Exercise: . management games & role-play. Experiential Exercises: .present an in depth description of a particular problem an employee might encounter on the job.Its just like acting out a given role as in a stage play.are usually short.

and integrate performance with other skills and knowledge. Its better to identify the needs & shortcomings in an employee before actually imparting training to him/her. 3. help employees prepare themselves for learning. training is a vital tool to cope up with the changing needs & technologies. gender. There should be a two-way communication between the trainer & trainee. 4. & everchanging environment. the trainee. 5. individual abilities & the present environment. and the learning objective. Ideally. The cost incurred on the training program should not exceed its benefits. time & money on training. enable the trainees to apply and practice what they've been taught. help trainees retain and transfer what they have learned. 2. The method should suit the audience. 6. and on the task being performed. Other factors affecting the choice of a training method include: -Age. entire books have been written on the ways to deliver training. There are many different ways to train. Learn about the needs and proficiency of each and every employee before an organization invests its effort. Focus of training should be on priority development needs and to produce strong motivation to bring change in employees. How can a manager charged with training his or her employees choose an appropriate method? This article defines some of the most common training methods and reviews pros and cons for each one. Experienced & skilled trainer. who possesses good amount of knowledge & understanding about the organization's objectives. Active participation from the trainees should be encouraged. Thus. the content. Indeed. so that the organization comes to know about the deficiencies in the training program & also suggestions to improve upon the same. It benefits both the organization as well as the employees. the method chosen will motivate employees to learn.recommendations for getting the best out of this tool: 1. The method by which training is delivered often varies based on the needs of the company. 7. Feedback should be taken from the trainees after the training is over. should give training. the business¡¦ environment. or level of education of the trainees -Learning styles of the trainees . The method or type of training should be very cautiously selected by the organization depending upon the organizations' resources & an employee's individual need for training.

More time is needed to conduct a seminar than is needed for many other methods. Seminar Seminars often combine several group methods: lectures. It engages several senses: seeing. It provides a lot of information quickly when it is less important that the trainees retain a lot of details. poor work habits can be learned by the trainee. If the trainer is not skilled in the task being taught. one person (the trainer) does all of the talking. Yet. The trainees forget much information if it is presented only orally. conferences. . Pros: Less time is needed for the trainer to prepare than other methods. demonstrations. Communication is primarily one-way: from the instructor to the learner. The trainer must have skill in conducting a seminar. discussions.-Number of trainees -Budget -Trainer's skills and training style Common group training methods include: Lecture A lecture is the method learners often most commonly associate with college and secondary education. it is also considered one of the least effective methods to use for adult learners. Cons: Planning is time-consuming. The trainer shows trainees how to do something. The trainer may provide an opportunity for trainees to perform the task being demonstrated. He or she may use handouts. Demonstration Demonstration is very effective for basic skills training. In this method. question/answer. Pros: This method emphasizes the trainee involvement. There also needs to be an adequate space for the training to take place. The trainer can use many group methods as part of the seminar activity. touching. Cons: It requires a great deal of trainer preparation and planning. or posters to support the lecture. Pros: Group members are involved in the training. feeling. visual aids. Cons: Does not actively involve trainees in training process. hearing.

Panel A panel provides several points of view on a topic to seek alternatives to a situation. This is an excellent method for using outside resource people. the trainees assume roles and act out situations connected to the learning concepts. It is good for customer service and sales training. Pros: Trainees often find it interesting to hear different points of view. Case Studies A case study is a description of a real or imagined situation which contains information that trainees can use to analyze what has occurred and why. They get an opportunity to practice people skills. A group considers a specific problem or issue and they work to reach agreement on statements or solutions. only a few people get to practice while others watch. The trainees build consensus and the trainer can use several methods (lecture. Trainers must be skilled and creative in helping the class learn from the situation. The results of the method can be difficult to evaluate. Pros: There is a lot of trainee participation. seminar) to keep sessions interesting. The trainees recommend solutions based on the content provided. panel. It can present a wide variety of skills in which applying knowledge is important. Cons: It can be difficult to control a group. In some role play situations. It is possible to experiment with many different approaches to a situation without alienating any actual customers. . Pros: A case study can present a real-life situation which lets trainees consider what they would do. Pros: Trainees can learn possible results of certain behaviors in a classroom situation. causing conflict. Cons: A lot of time is spent making a single point. Opinions generated at the conference may differ from the manager¡¦s ideas. The process invites employees to share their opinions and they are challenged to consider alternatives.Conference The conference training method is a good problem-solving approach. Cons: It requires a great deal of preparation. Panel members may have differing views but they must also have objective concerns for the purpose of the training. Role Playing During a role play.

Common individual training methods include: Self-discovery Trainees discover the competencies on their own using such techniques as guided exercises. Cons: Trainees can easily get side-tracked and may move slower than the trainer desires. It might involve participation on a team. It is a useful technique for skills development. Simulations Trainees participate in a reality-based. or the forming of a new process. Projects Projects require the trainees to do something on the job which improves the business as well as helps them learn about the topic of training. The trainer must be very skilled and make sure that trainees practice the skills correctly. It is also more difficult to measure the employee¡¦s progress. Pros: Training becomes more reality-based. trainees may think they are doing somebody else¡¦s work. as trainees are actively involved in the learning process. Projects can be chosen which help solve problems or otherwise improve the operation. The trainer must be creative and very skilled at leading discussions. Cons: Without proper introduction to the project and its purpose. Cons: Simulations are time-consuming. Little time is needed to prepare the training experience. Only perfect practice makes perfect. Also. making points.Cons: Cases can be difficult to write and time-consuming to discuss. and keeping trainees on track. interactive activity where they imitate actions required on the job. Trainees get first-hand experience in the topic of the training. It directly applies to jobs performed after training. it will be difficult to obtain and maintain their interest. Simulations involve yet another learning style. and research. Movies/videos/computer-based training . The type of project will vary by business and the skill level of the trainee. increasing the chance that trainees will retain what they have learned. Pros: This is a good training activity for experienced employees. the creation of a database. books. Pros: Trainees are able to choose the learning style that works the best for them. They are able to move at their own pace and have a great deal of ownership over their learning. if they do not have an interest in the project or there is no immediate impact on their own jobs.

the trainer must decide which one best suits the trainees. If a properly trained mentor is not chosen. Others will select a single method that works best for them and never vary. a trainer is limited only by his or her creativity. It also helps the employee establish important relationships with his or her supervisor or mentor. providing no real training. Most trainers choosing this option must purchase the training from an outside vendor. Pros: It is easy to provide this training and the trainer can follow-up with questions and discussion. Cons: It is expensive to develop.Content for the training experience comes primarily from a videotape or computer-based program. When choosing from among these methods. Training and Human Resource . Pros: The training can be made extremely specific to the employee's needs. There is often a tendency to have a person learn by doing the job. It gives the trainee individual attention and immediate feedback. It also helps the trainee get information regarding the business culture and organizational structure. To be successful. the training should be done according to a structured program that uses task lists. Pros: It can take place before. Cons: Training can be interrupted if the mentor moves on. Many trainers will choose to combine methods or vary them. the environment. Mentors help employees solve problems both through training them in skills and through modeling effective attitudes and behaviors. or after a shift. On-the-job training This is the most common method of training. It is highly practical and reality-based. The trainee is placed on the job and the manager or mentor shows the trainee how to do the job. Cons: Training is not standardized for employees. making the content less specific to their needs. With so many options. It is also easy to assure that the same information is presented to each trainee. during. job breakdowns. and the investments available. and performance standards as a lesson plan. Mentoring A mentor can tutor others in their learning. the trainee can pick up bad habits. This system is sometimes known as a buddy system.

training is an investment because the departments such as. on a per-“skill point” base or on a per-dollar basis. which measures the cost of raising a student’s skill by one unit. waste of time. achieving their professional and personal goals. Let’s look at the skill-point base. HR role now is: 1. etc. Rewards for improvement in performance 3. resources.e.Management Traning and Development Home » Training and Human Resource Management The HR functioning is changing with time and with this change. senior management team is now increasing the role of training. etc depends on training for its survival. Flexible access i. Active involvement in employee education 2. finance." This is dangerously wrong! Let me explain! The difference between a pre-test score and a post-test score can be for many reasons. Training is now the important tool of Human Resource Management to control the attrition rate because it helps in motivating employees. the role of HR professionals in training has been widened. and money. Now-a-days. the relationship between the training function and other management activity is also changing. Gone are the days. To increase the commitment level of employees and growth in quality movement (concepts of HRM). several of which . anywhere training Training Effectiveness The effectiveness of training is a measurement of learning. Such concepts of HRM require careful planning as well as greater emphasis on employee development and long term education. It is determined by comparing post-test scores with pre-test scores and then measuring the net change. increasing the level of job satisfaction. anytime. when training was considered to be futile. The training and development activities are now equally important with that of other HR functions. There are several methods to measure this—on a per-student basis. Training actually provides the opportunity to raise the profile development activities in the organization. If training is not considered as a priority or not seen as a vital part in the organization. then it is difficult to accept that such a company has effectively carried out HRM. Providing pre-employment market oriented skill development education and post employment support for advanced education and training 5. production. Rewards to be associated with self esteem and self worth 4. As a result training is given on a variety of skill development and covers a multitude of courses. marketing & sales. HR. Role of HRD Professionals in Training This is the era of cut-throat competition and with this changing scenario of business.

it's about OUTCOMES that favour the customer and the shareholder . Effectiveness at Level 1 (Reactions of trainees) could be measured in terms of getting at least 4 out of 5 in each area being are some examples: Number of training courses achieving the required outcomes ----------------------------------------------------------------. even if you follow Kirkpatrick or Phillips' approach .. (Training) efficiency is generally defined as the number of units output for the number of units input. This does NOT mean there is no have to have PROOF when the CFO and CEO ask for it . It would be quite easy to have a large overlap here with efficiency measures. Going back to the article I quoted from cannot say WHY they are like this. Without any root cause analysis to identify the causal links between the different scores (pre-test and post-test) all you can truthfully say about this situation is that the pre-test scores were X and the post-test scores were Y . Taking a similar theme I suggest training efficiency can be measured several ways . Read carefully with definitions!! .it's not about learning that's a bonus (in my humble opinion!). If 100% of trainees rate all the aspects at least 4 out of 5. Generally effectiveness measures are defined in terms of the extent to which a set of objectives are met. IF you can demonstrate causal links as I discussed earlier. Training in organisations is ALMOST ALWAYS about achieving a better performance or capability than is currently available . but fail to put it to required use and the required outcomes are not achieved.and this is where evaluation practitioners get in to bother .it's a measure of learning! You can learn everything required. then at Level 1 we'd be 100% effective. just that you haven't demonstrated one .yes.CORRELATION IS NOT CAUSATION!!! A measurement of learning is not training effectiveness . then arguably the training at Level 4 (Business Impact of training) is just 40% effective. then arguably the pre and post test scores CAN be seen as a measure of effectiveness.may actually apply together.x 100% Total number of training courses delivered Or 100% x (Number of trainees behaving as requried/operating equipment to required standard) / (Total number of people trained) Or 100% x Total benefits / Total costs Coming back to the effectiveness focus again there is some help to be found from our old friend Kirkpatrick. But if these same trainees have line managers sho report that these trainees are only demonstrating new but required behaviours for 40% of the time.

mechanization. however.Measuring of training Training is a critical component in any organization's strategy. but doubts arise over its contribution in practice. This disillusionment shows in many ways reluctance to send the most talented workforce for training. evaluate. With disillusionment mounting in the midst of expansion. Training is essential. expanding fast but controversies seem to envelop any attempts to find benefits commensurate with the escalating costs of training. Complaints are growing over its ineffectiveness and waste. All the firms. The Input-Process-Output Model for an Effective Training . Given the large expenditures for training in many organizations.e. inadequate use of personnel after training. Training is neither a panacea for all ills nor is it a waste of time. does not assure success unless it is sustained by workforce possessing indispensable expertise. Technical know-how alone. Cross-functional and reporting and learning analytics provide important connections between the measures of learning effectiveness offered by a learning management system (LMS) and the larger enterprise metrics that indicate whether learning is transferred and positively affects business results. What is required is an insight into what training can or cannot do. but organizations don't always evaluate the business impact of a training program. computerization and automation. however. it is important to develop business intelligence tools that will help companies improve the measurement of training effectiveness. should espouse the most modern technology. and continuously improve training. organizations should train the employees to enrich them in the areas of changing technical skills and knowledge from time to time. etc. Hence.. This field is. training has entered a dangerous phase in its development. all the organizations give more trust on commercializing their activities. training as an activity has been going on as a distinct field with its own roles. in order to continue to exist in the competitive global market and to be effectual. but it is still young. and skill in designing and executing training successfully and cost-effectively. i. Training has made remarkable contributions to the improvement of all kinds. The training apparatus and costs have multiplied but Unhappiness persists and is growing at the working level where the benefits of training should show up most clearly. as well as the organizational and technical infrastructure (systems) to implement the methodology. Training Effectiveness & its Significance In India. At the present time. structures and budgets. These tools need to provide a methodology to measure.

from departmental heads . • Monitoring the training conducted by various departments. if large number of participants require training. • Information on new recruitments. • Training policy of the administration Process • Exercise of determining needs & maintenance of training register • Verification of need to prepare training plans • Deciding to conduct onsite programmes. • Updation of procedures. • Conducting induction training for new recruits. • Periodical request from department heads based on potential appraisal exercises. technological changes. rules & regulations. strategic moves. and changes in the environment.Input • Training need analysis: survey based on performance gaps in previous year & performance opportunities in the next year. • Information on implementation of new practices. • Deputation of employees for short term training programmes conducted by local training institutes. • Implementation of changes in the prgramme as necessitated by the feedback. Output • Release of training plan • Issue of orders of deputation for individual programmes • Feedback on effectives: from participants.

More flexibility .businesses with a good reputation for training are likely to find it easier to attract good quality staff . therefore. This might also improve motivation . TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT :- .Less supervision .Training starts with a strategy It is important that a business provides training that is consistent with the business strategy.through greater empowerment . may partake in the future. .Better productivity (and. The main steps in developing a training strategy are to: .More successful recruitment and employee retention .Implement the plan.and then keep them . .Help in achieving change .Draw up an action plan to show how investment in training and development will help meet business goals and objectives.Introduction This activity focusses upon the activities that the organization employing the individual.Higher quality . and is almost impossible to evaluate.Identify the skills and abilities needed by helps employees develop a variety of skills. lower production / operating costs) . monitoring progress and training effectiveness Benefits of training to a business The main benefits to a business of a well-trained workforce are: . or that the individual is part of. Multi-skilling is only possible if the workforce is well trained .lower supervision and management costs if employees can get on with their jobs.businesses with strong training systems and culture find it easier to implement change programmes Development .

who objected to the idea that people were "resources" — an idea that they felt to be demeaning to the individual. The participants are those who actually undergo the processes. although that was itself not free from problems. It has been known by several names. Garavan. and Heraty. Eventually. Training and development encompasses three main activities: training. The clients of training and development are business planners. and . note that these ideas are often considered to be synonymous. activities The "stakeholders" in training and development are categorized into several classes. and performance. Line managers are responsible for coaching. human resource development. as author. of the Irish Institute of Training and Development. Costine. The facilitators are Human Resource Management staff. Moreover. Harrison observes that the name was endlessly debated by the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development during its review of professional standards in 1999/2000. which sometimes conflict with the agendas and motivations of the others. And the providers are specialists in the field. The sponsors of training and development are senior managers. workplace relationship authority. education. "learning" being an overgeneral and ambiguous name. and learning and development. to practitioners. However. the CIPD settled upon "Learning and Development". including employee development. although interrelated. "Employee Development" was seen as too evocative of the master-slave relationship between employer and employee for those who refer to their employees as "partners" or "associates" to be comfortable with. The conflicts are the best part of career consequences are those that take place between employees and their bosses. they encompass three separate. And yet. Each of these groups has its own agenda and motivations. the field is still widely known by the other names.It is a subsystem of an organization. In the field of human resource management. The number one reason people leave their jobs is conflict with their bosses. training and development is the field concerned with organizational activity aimed at bettering the performance of individuals and groups in organizational settings. and development. resources. It ensures that randomness is reduced and learning or behavioural change takes place in structured format. "Human Resource Development" was rejected by academics.

enhances the individual contribution to an organization. or customer TRADITIONAL AND MODERN APPROACH OF TRAINING AND DEVLOPMENT Traditional Approach – Most of the organizations before never used to believe in training. peer. The modern approach of training and development is that Indian Organizations have realized the importance of corporate training. • Organizational. Organizational Objectives – assist the organization with its primary objective by bringing Individual effectiveness. TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENTS OBJECTIVES :The principal objective of training and development division is to make sure the availability of a skilled and willing workforce to an organization. • Functional. The training system in Indian Industry has been changed to create a smarter workforce and yield the best results. Training is now considered as more of retention tool than a cost. there are four other objectives: • Individual. and • Societal. Individual Objectives – help employees in achieving their personal goals.executive coach. "Tempting as it is. There were also some views that training is a very costly affair and not worth. John Hoover points out. Organizations used to believe more in executive pinching. But now the scenario seems to be changing. In addition to that. Dr." Training an employee to get along well with authority and with people who entertain diverse points of view is one of the best guarantees of long-term success. Talent. which in turn. and skill alone won't compensate for a sour relationship with a superior. They were holding the traditional view that managers are born and not made. nobody ever enhanced his or her career by making the boss look stupid. . knowledge.

Societal Objectives – ensure that an organization is ethically and socially responsible to the needs and challenges of the society Importance Of Training and Development • Optimum Utilization of Human Resources – Training and Development helps in optimizing the utilization of human resource that further helps the employee to achieve the organizational goals as well as their individual goals. team spirit. • Healthy work-environment – Training and Development helps in creating the healthy working environment. It helps in creating the learning culture within the organization. • Development of Human Resources – Training and Development helps to provide an opportunity and broad structure for the development of human resources’ technical and behavioral skills in an organization. It helps in inculcating the zeal to learn within the employees. The employees get these feelings from leaders. • Organization Climate – Training and Development helps building the positive perception and feeling about the organization. Productivity – Training and Development helps in increasing the productivity of the employees that helps the organization further to achieve its long-term goal. • Health and Safety – Training and Development helps in improving the health and safety of the organization thus preventing obsolescence. • Organization Culture – Training and Development helps to develop and improve the organizational health culture and effectiveness. and inter-team collaborations. relationship so that individuals goals aligns with organizational goal. It helps to build good Objectives – maintain the department’s contribution at a level suitable to the organization’s needs. subordinates and peers. • Quality – Training and Development helps in improving upon the quality of work and work. It helps to expand the horizons of human intellect and all over personality of the employees. • Development of skills of employees – Training and Development helps in increasing the job knowledge and skills of employees at each level. • Team spirit – Training and Development helps in inculcating the sense of team work. . It also helps the employees in attaining personal growth.

What training cannot solve it is tempting to think that training is the solution to many if not all business problems. • Image – Training and Development helps in creating a better corporate image.They cannot make a justifiable investment case Training should meet two basic objectives.Poor management (although management training might help!) . why do some businesses invest so little in it? Ideally training should be seen as an investment in the future of the business. and other aspects that successful workers and managers usually display. there are some things that training can rarely solve: these include: . It helps in understanding and carrying out organizational policies.They fear employees will be poached by competitors (who will then benefit from the training) .Poor job design .A desire to minimise short-term costs . However.• Morale – Training and Development helps in improving the morale of the work force. better attitudes. Organization gets more effective decision making and problem solving.e. • Training and Development aids in organizational development i. . Some businesses are reluctant to spend on training because: . • Training and Development helps in developing leadership skills. motivation.Recruitment If training is so important.Ineffective or inefficient equipment. • Profitability – Training and Development leads to improved profitability and more positive attitude towards profit orientation. loyalty. production organisation . it takes time for the effects of training to impact business performance.

which is accepted and followed by many Civil Aviation Training establishments all over the world. Because of this. by means of a high standard of training for aviation personnel through what are known as Standardized Training Packages (STPs). This methodology seeks to impart skill. In this connection. Training should be cost effective. Training should make the personnel skilled enough to do the job on hand efficiently leading to targeted productivity levels. This methodology has both the process standard and product standard. called ICAO TRAINAIR Methodology. The TRAINAIR is a programme of the International Civil Aviation Organization that was evolved to strengthen the basic civil aviation concept of safety and and regularity of air transport operations. Process standard means the standard in which the process is important but no weightage is given to the end result. Training must be based on scientific approach and quality training material to meet objective number one. The TRAINAIR course development methodology is a scientific approach of developing training courses for a job-oriented objective. Product standard means the standard in which end result is important but no weightage is given to the process. The training duration should be as short as possible and resources used efficiently for meeting objective number 2. The TRAINAIR Standardized Training Package (STP) preparation methodology is based on an engineering approach called the system approach. and duration of absence of the workforce from the operational units are minimized.1. training becomes focussed and the training time and costs. TRAINAIR methodology has both process and product standards. That means the trainees are taught only the “Need-to-Know Things” and not the “Nice-toKnow Things”. It consists of following three activities. 2. Analysis . knowledge and attitude required to perform the job and eliminate all things which are extraneous and not required to perform that job. I would like to describe about a training approach. 1.

Phase 1. The job is divided into duties. tasks are divided into sub-tasks. key to progress tests. again the Course Developers team visits operational unit. the difference in skill/knowledge/ attitude required (decided in phase 2) and those acquired (decided in phase 3) will become the Course Curriculum. Recommending non-training management solutions like developing a job aid such as checklists. . Practical exercise sheets. the Phase 2 activities commence. the data on target population’s (i. In Phase 2. The course developers team visits the operational unit. intended trainee group) acquired skill/ knowledge/ attitude.. all the course materials such as Trainee Handouts. Population Analysis. Design and production 3. Design of Curriculum. Job analysis. is invoked when a decision is to be taken whether or not training is needed to do a job on hand. qualifications. Progress tests. Develop a Standard Training Package (STP) as a training solution If it is found appropriate to proceed with a training solution by development of an STP. Preliminary analysis. key to mastery tests will be developed. then assistance of a qualified Course Developers team is requested. In the Phase 3. learning preferences are collected and analyzed. Design of modules. one of the following: 1. and further the skill/ knowledge/ attitude required to carryout sub-tasks are decided. job experience.2. duties are divided into tasks.e. The modules and sequence of training program are decided in this phase. In Phase 5. Mastery tests. flow charts or automation etc. The result of analysis is interviews the working experts. In Phase 4. Evaluation All these activities are divided into 9 Phases. Instructor guide. social background. 2. analyzes the system and interviews the personnel working.

In Phase 7. The group of Course Developers will monitor the delivery of the course throughout. Production and developmental testing. Progress tests and practical exercises are tried out as developmental testing to check the accuracy and reliability of training materials. Did the training program effectively meet the operational need which gave rise to it?. the prepared Mastery tests. If 80% of the participants passes with 80% marks or attain the standard. the effectiveness of the course which is now implemented is evaluated by analyzing 1. and observe the reactions of trainees and instructors. Was there the desired improvement of the trainees’ performance when they return to their jobs? 2. audio-visual materials etc are all prepared ready for the initial Validation delivery of the package.In Phase 6. Montreal for accord of approval as full-fledged STP. hand outs for the trainees. In Phase 9. . Post-training evaluation. In Phase 8. Validation and Revision. full STP Course is available for future deliveries. the prepared course material will be tried on a group of trainees for whom the course is designed. They also take a note of the result at the end of the course. all the developed training materials will be sent to the ICAO TRAINAIR Central Unit. Implementation. Any deficiencies noted will be corrected during this phase. The same course is also available for global sharing among the members of TRAINAIR programme. for the first time. Detailed lesson plans to guide the instructors. then the same course will be administered to the remaining trainee population in subsequent sessions. . At the end of this phase.

Hemsley Fraser works with organisations to: • • • • Develop sales managers. Create differentiated skills and behaviours in sales teams to lift the performance of sales people. Course Developers interact with the Subject Matter Experts and skilled job performers as and when required and get the required inputs. The challenges many organisations face in response to the above factors: • • • Developing sales managers who lift performance through best practice leadership of sales teams. Productivity differentials between high and medium performing sales people can be significant.High Performing Sales Organisations Sales organisations are facing higher level challenges. Development and retention of high performing sales people. Rising customer expectations. driven by various factors in the marketplace: • • • • • Increased competition.This is done by gathering information which is used to make improvement in the training and determine the costs and benefits of the training development project. as a key differentiator of sales team performance. including from non-traditional competitors. Sales Organisation Effectiveness . where customers are looking for value and insight from their suppliers. Impact of technology. especially in the case of longer term contract based relationships. Support cross-functional teams who develop high value strategic customer relationships. leading to new purchasing methods and changing relationships with customers (more e-based business). Drive reliable processes and practices throughout the sales organisation. . Cross-functional teams developing strategic customer relationships. Organisations moving towards preferred supplier agreements. Globalisation of markets. During the entire process of course of development.

• • Create clear strategies for development and retention of high performing sales people. Measuring the Effectiveness of Training and Development More and more successful organisations are increasingly intent on measuring the impact of training on their organisations. with supporting processes. to acquire and retain long-term profitable customers. Key Benefits • • • Introduction to the different Training Evaluation models Learn how to make detailed measurements of training Measure the effectiveness at various levels up to the impact of training on the organisation Course Content • • • • • • Introduction to various Training Evaluation Models Measuring the Impact of Training on Operational Results Measuring the Impact of Training on the Organisation using Corporate Indicators Identifying and Measuring “Soft” Areas in the Organisation Understanding and Measuring Organisational Development through a Morale Survey Measuring the Personal Competencies of Employees Learning Methodology • Group work and exercises will be used to provide participants with many opportunities to demonstrate their knowledge. This programme has been designed to aid all Human Resource practitioners in measuring the effectiveness of training. to reaffirm the performance outcomes expected and to make changes to training plans where necessary. Create a strong focus on a strategy. Who Should Attend . Having an evaluation of training effectiveness in place is also one of the dimensions of the People Developer Standard. learning and skills.

5. there is a lot more to it. Due to non-practical collage education. To make the job challenging and interesting 9. 7. People have to work in multidimensional areas . For employee motivation and retention . 8. 3. Training your emplyess is important because 1. Training emplyees Importaance of training Training your employees do have a significant role in modern business era. Change in the style of management. 6. which usually demand far more from their area of specialisation. Lack of proper and scientific selection procedure.I have sorted down them in a list. Rapid technological innovations impacting the workplace have made it necessary for people to consistently update their knowledge and skills 2. For career advancement. For self and development 10. This is a must read if you employ or mean to employ in future atleast one person. 4. Not just to equip them with latest tools your company has implemented.• All Human Resource Personnel who are involved in Training and Development and those responsible for attaining the People Developer Standard for their organisation. For higher motivation and productivity.

faculty/central department. 15. 12. 13. To keep in pace with times To bridge gap between skills requirement and skills availability For survival and growth of organisation and nation EVALUATION OF STAFF DEVELOPMENT AND TRAINING Introduction Staff development is an important part of assisting performance improvement at organisational. The benefits of evaluating training and development are to: . It is therefore important that the transfer of learning into the workplace is assessed through a process of review and evaluation so that its success or otherwise can be established and so that we can demonstrate the contribution learning makes towards overall organisational success. 14. Evaluation is the process of finding out how the development or training process has affected the individual. 16. unit and individual levels.11. team and the organisation. To improve organisational climate Prevention of obsolescence To help an organisation to fulfil its future manpower needs.

observing Performance: Evaluation at this stage looks at the impact of a learning experience on individual/team performance at work. tests and practical application and after the activity by re-testing knowledge and skills and comparing them with pretraining results. Identify cost effective and valuable training events orprogrammes. Stages of Evaluation There are four key stages at which training and development should be evaluated: Reaction: At this stage evaluation provides information on the attitudes and opinions of participants to the learning they have undertaken typically via evaluation forms or comment sheets Learning attained: Evaluation at this stage looks at the extent to which learning objectives have been achieved. Key to this level of evaluation is the need to have agreed clear . Use and reinforce techniques learned to help improve quality and customer service within the organisation. leading to better focused learning anddevelopment. Evaluation of learning can take place during the activity using interactive sessions. Ensure the transfer of learning into the workplace. goals and targets.Promote business efficiency by linking efforts to train anddevelop staff to operational priorities. Help define future development objectives.

learning objectives prior to the learning experience so that when evaluation takes place there are measures to use.. Organisational Impact: At this level evaluation assesses the impact of learning on organisational effectiveness. and whether or not it is cost effective in organisational terms. Central Training Providers: All training courses delivered by central training providers are assessed by the University end of . Responsibility for evaluation Responsibility for evaluation of staff development rests at the following levels: Individual: The University’s Staff Development Application Form and Record requires individuals to identify their objectives linked to strategic development and training priorities and job role for the requested development activity. Manager: The manager is responsible for ensuring that staff have identified learning objectives for any development activity they plan to undertake and to agree on the methods to be used to evaluate learning Faculties/Central Departments: The Staff Development Plan template requires Faculties and Central Departments to annually set out their planned staff development activities and an explanation of how they will be evaluated.

and training. Training Program Evaluation The process of examining a training program is called training evaluation. transfer of knowledge at the work place. Training evaluation ensures that whether candidates are able to implement their learning in their respective workplaces.course review form. . Research: It helps in ascertaining the relationship between acquired knowledge. Purposes of Training Evaluation The five main purposes of training evaluation are : Feedback: It helps in giving feedback to the candidates by defining the objectives and linking it To learning outcomes. At this level evaluation provides information on the attitudes of a participant to learning but does not measure how much they have actually learned. or to the regular work routines. Organisation Development and Training (ODT): ODT will carry out follow up evaluation of a sample of centrally delivered courses/programmes 3-6 months after the event to measure how learning has been applied in the workplace. Training evaluation checks whether training has had the desired effect.

then It can be dealt with accordingly.Control: It helps in controlling the training program because if the training is not effective. the top management (higher authoritative employee) uses the evaluative data to manipulate it for their own benefits. During the start of training. Intervention: It helps in determining that whether the actual outcomes are aligned with the Expected outcomes. Power games: At times. candidates generally perceive it as a waste of resources because at . Process of Training Evaluation : Before Training: The learner’s skills and knowledge are assessed before the training program.

. This phase usually consist of short tests at regular intervals After Training: It is the phase when learner’s skills and knowledge are assessed again to measure the effectiveness of the training. This phase is designed to determine whether training has had the desired effect at individual department and organizational levels.most of the times candidates are unaware of the objectives and learning outcomes of the program. Once aware. There are various evaluation techniques for this phase. they are asked to give their opinions on the methods used and whether those methods confirm to the candidates preferences and learning style. During Training: It is the phase at which instruction is started.

candidates generally perceive it as a waste of resources because at most of the times candidates are unaware of the objectives and learning outcomes of the program. Power games: At times. Evaluation Before Training: The learner’s skills and knowledge are assessed before the training program. the top management (higher authoritative employee) uses the evaluative data to manipulate it for their own benefits. Once aware.Control: It helps in controlling the training program because if the training is not effective. . During the start of training. then it can be dealt with accordingly. Intervention: It helps in determining that whether the actual outcomes are aligned with the expected Process of Training outcomes. they are asked to give their opinions on the methods used and whether those methods confirm to the candidates preferences and learning style.

There are various evaluation techniques for this phase. Techniques of Evaluation : • • • • • Observation Questionnaire Interview Self Diaries Self recording of special incidents . This phase usually consist of short tests at regular intervals After Training: It is the phase when learner’s skills and knowledge are assessed again to measure the effectiveness of the training. This phase is designed to determine whether training has had the desired effect at individual department and organizational levels.During Training: It is the phase at which instruction is started.

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