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Human Resource Management is defined as the people who staff and manage organization. It comprises of the functions and principles that are applied to retaining, training, developing, and compensating the employees in organization. It is also applicable to non-business organizations, such as education, healthcare, etc Human Resource Management is defined as the set of activities, programs, and functions that are designed to maximize both organizational as well as employee effectiveness…………… Scope of HRM without a doubt is vast. All the activities of employee, from the time of his entry into an organization until he leaves, come under the horizon of HRM. The divisions included in HRM are Recruitment, Payroll, Performance Management, Training and Development, Retention, Industrial Relation, etc. Out of all these divisions,one such important division is Training & Development. Training – Introduction This activity is both focussed upon, and evaluated against, the job that an individual currently holds education . This activity focusses upon the jobs that an individual may potentially hold in the future, and is evaluated against those jobs.
Training and personal development is an important method for a business to improve the performance of employees. Training is a process whereby an individual acquires job-related skills and knowledge. It is a cost to firms to pay for the training and also to suffer the loss of working hours whilst an employee is being trained. However, the potential gains from employee training are significant. The main benefits of training are improved productivity and motivation of staff and also better quality products being made. Some of the specific reasons as to why a business should train its employees are: • • • • • • • Introduce new employees to the business (this is known as “induction training”) – see below Help provide the skills the business needs (in particular making the workforce more flexibleor being trained on new higher technology machinery) Provide employees with better knowledge about the business and the market it operates in Provide support for jobs that are complex and for which the required skills and knowledge are often changing (e.g. a firm of lawyers training staff about new legislation) Support the introduction of new working methods, such as a firm introducing new lean production techniques Reduce the need for supervision and therefore free up valuable manager timeHelp achieve a good health and safety recordHelp improve quality of a product or service and lower customer complaints Increase employee motivation and loyalty to the business
Induction training Induction training is important as it enables a new recruit to become productive as quickly as possible. It can avoid costly mistakes by recruits not knowing the procedures or techniques of their new jobs. The length of induction training will vary from job to job and will depend on the complexity of the job, the size of the business and the level or position of the job within the business. The following areas may be included in induction training: • • • • • Learning about the duties of the job Meeting new colleagues Seeing the layout the premises Learning the values and aims of the business Learning about the internal workings and policies of the business
On-the-job training On the job training occurs when workers pick up skills whilst working along side experienced workers at their place of work. For example this could be the actual assembly line or offices where the employee works. New workers may simply “shadow” or observe fellow employees to begin with and are often given instruction manuals or interactive training programmes to work through. Off-the-job training This occurs when workers are taken away from their place of work to be trained. This may take place at training agency or local college, although many larger firms also have their own training centres. Training can take the form of lectures or self-study and can be used to develop more general skills and knowledge that can be used in a variety of situations, e.g. management skills programme.
Methods of training
Human Resource Management is concerned with the planning, acquisition, training & developing human beings for getting the desired objectives & goals set by the organization. The employees have to be transformed according to the organizations' & global needs. This is done through an organized activity called Training. Training is a process of learning a sequence of programmed behavior. It is the application of knowledge & gives people an awareness of rules & procedures to guide their behavior. It helps in bringing about positive change in the knowledge, skills & attitudes of employees. Thus, training is a process that tries to improve skills or add to the existing level of knowledge so that the employee is better equipped to do his present job or to mould him to be fit for a higher job involving higher responsibilities. It bridges the gap between what the employee has & what the job demands. Since training involves time, effort & money by an organization, so an organization should to be very careful while designing a training program. The objectives & need for training should be clearly identified & the method or type of training should be chosen according to the needs & objectives established. Once this is done accurately, an organization should
take a feedback on the training program from the trainees in the form of a structured questionnaire so as to know whether the amount & time invested on training has turned into an investment or it was a total expenditure for an organization. Training is a continuous or never ending process. Even the existing employees need to be trained to refresh them & enable them to keep up with the new methods & techniques of work. This type of training is known as Refresher Training & the training given to new employees is known as Induction Training. This is basically given to new employees to help them get acquainted with the work environment & fellow colleagues. It is a very short informative training just after recruitment to introduce or orient the employee with the organization's rules, procedures & policies. Training plays a significant role in human resource development. Human resources are the lifeblood of any organization. Only through trained & efficient employees, can an organization achieve its objectives. * To impart to the new entrants the basic knowledge & skills they need for an intelligent performance of definite tasks. * To prepare employees for more responsible positions. * To bring about change in attitudes of employees in all directions. * To reduce supervision time, reduce wastage & produce quality products. * To reduce defects & minimize accident rate. * To absorb new skills & technology. * Helpful for the growth & improvement of employee's skills & knowledge. METHODS OF TRAINING: The most widely used methods of training used by organizations are classified into two categories: On-the-Job Training & Off-the-Job Training. ON-THE-JOB TRAINING is given at the work place by superior in relatively short period of time. This type of training is cheaper & less time-consuming. This training can be imparted by basically four methods: Coaching is learning by doing. In this, the superior guides his sub-ordinates & gives him/her job instructions. The superior points out the mistakes & gives suggestions for improvement. Job Rotation: - In this method, the trainees move from one job to another, so that he/she should be able to perform all types of jobs. E.g. In banking industry, employees are trained for both back-end & front-end jobs. In case of emergency, (absenteeism or resignation), any employee would be able to perform any type of job. OFF THE JOB TRAINING: - is given outside the actual work place. Lectures/Conferences:- This approach is well adapted to convey specific information,
but the training is conducted away from the actual work floor. Vestibule training allows employees to get a full feel for doing task without real world pressures. evaluate alternative courses of action & decide what course of action would be most satisfactory. Management Games: . The trainee is presented with a pack of papers & files in a tray containing administrative problems & is asked to take decisions on these problems & are asked to take decisions on these within a stipulated time. discussions to clarify & amplify those points that the film emphasized. the trainees are required to enact defined roles on the basis of oral or written description of a particular situation.rules. The decisions taken by the trainees are compared with one another. Decisions made by the groups are evaluated & the likely implications of the decisions are fed back to the groups. Vestibule Training: . The cost per trainee is low in this method. Here are seven . procedures or methods. The trainees are provided feedback on their performance. In-Basket Exercise: .The game is devised on a model of a business situation. vestibule training.present an in depth description of a particular problem an employee might encounter on the job. where the information is to be shared among a large number of trainees. For instance.Its just like acting out a given role as in a stage play. RECOMMENDATIONS & CONCLUSION: No doubt Training is a very powerful tool for the smooth functioning of the organization. Motion pictures are often used in conjunction with Conference. Simulation activities include case experiences. rather than talking about inter-personal conflicts & how to deal with them. The trainees are divided into groups who represent the management of competing companies. experiential exercises. Simulation Exercise: . Role Play: . management games & role-play. The game goes on in several rounds to take the time dimension into account.are usually short.Employees learn their jobs on the equipment they will be using.Also known as In-tray method of training.Any training activity that explicitly places the trainee in an artificial environment that closely mirrors actual working conditions can be considered a Simulation.can provide information & explicitly demonstrate skills that are not easily presented by other techniques. an experiential exercise could be used to create a conflict situation where employees have to experience a conflict personally & work out its solutions. This method is useful. it minimizes the problem of transferring learning to the job. The employee attempts to find and analyze the problem. Cases: . structured learning experiences where individuals learn by doing. Experiential Exercises: . While expensive. Films: . Additionally. but it needs to be used with care in order to derive all the benefits. They make decisions just like these are made in real-life situations. In this method of training.
7.recommendations for getting the best out of this tool: 1. the content. should give training. help employees prepare themselves for learning. time & money on training. 3. The method or type of training should be very cautiously selected by the organization depending upon the organizations' resources & an employee's individual need for training. Focus of training should be on priority development needs and to produce strong motivation to bring change in employees. Thus. the business¡¦ environment. so that the organization comes to know about the deficiencies in the training program & also suggestions to improve upon the same. 4. Its better to identify the needs & shortcomings in an employee before actually imparting training to him/her. or level of education of the trainees -Learning styles of the trainees . Learn about the needs and proficiency of each and every employee before an organization invests its effort. Ideally. who possesses good amount of knowledge & understanding about the organization's objectives. Other factors affecting the choice of a training method include: -Age. Feedback should be taken from the trainees after the training is over. There should be a two-way communication between the trainer & trainee. & everchanging environment. Active participation from the trainees should be encouraged. the trainee. training is a vital tool to cope up with the changing needs & technologies. and on the task being performed. The cost incurred on the training program should not exceed its benefits. entire books have been written on the ways to deliver training. 5. Experienced & skilled trainer. gender. 6. enable the trainees to apply and practice what they've been taught. individual abilities & the present environment. 2. and the learning objective. The method by which training is delivered often varies based on the needs of the company. How can a manager charged with training his or her employees choose an appropriate method? This article defines some of the most common training methods and reviews pros and cons for each one. There are many different ways to train. The method should suit the audience. the method chosen will motivate employees to learn. It benefits both the organization as well as the employees. and integrate performance with other skills and knowledge. Indeed. help trainees retain and transfer what they have learned.
poor work habits can be learned by the trainee. There also needs to be an adequate space for the training to take place. He or she may use handouts. The trainer can use many group methods as part of the seminar activity. Seminar Seminars often combine several group methods: lectures. conferences. or posters to support the lecture. touching. Pros: Less time is needed for the trainer to prepare than other methods. The trainer shows trainees how to do something. discussions. It engages several senses: seeing. one person (the trainer) does all of the talking. If the trainer is not skilled in the task being taught. The trainees forget much information if it is presented only orally. In this method. hearing. Pros: This method emphasizes the trainee involvement. Communication is primarily one-way: from the instructor to the learner. The trainer must have skill in conducting a seminar. It provides a lot of information quickly when it is less important that the trainees retain a lot of details. Cons: Planning is time-consuming. it is also considered one of the least effective methods to use for adult learners. visual aids. . Cons: It requires a great deal of trainer preparation and planning. Demonstration Demonstration is very effective for basic skills training.-Number of trainees -Budget -Trainer's skills and training style Common group training methods include: Lecture A lecture is the method learners often most commonly associate with college and secondary education. More time is needed to conduct a seminar than is needed for many other methods. Yet. demonstrations. Pros: Group members are involved in the training. feeling. question/answer. The trainer may provide an opportunity for trainees to perform the task being demonstrated. Cons: Does not actively involve trainees in training process.
It can present a wide variety of skills in which applying knowledge is important. The trainees recommend solutions based on the content provided. Role Playing During a role play. only a few people get to practice while others watch. It is possible to experiment with many different approaches to a situation without alienating any actual customers. Pros: There is a lot of trainee participation. the trainees assume roles and act out situations connected to the learning concepts. It is good for customer service and sales training. causing conflict. Trainers must be skilled and creative in helping the class learn from the situation. Pros: Trainees can learn possible results of certain behaviors in a classroom situation. seminar) to keep sessions interesting. The trainees build consensus and the trainer can use several methods (lecture. . Panel A panel provides several points of view on a topic to seek alternatives to a situation. Pros: A case study can present a real-life situation which lets trainees consider what they would do. Cons: It requires a great deal of preparation. Cons: A lot of time is spent making a single point. Panel members may have differing views but they must also have objective concerns for the purpose of the training. A group considers a specific problem or issue and they work to reach agreement on statements or solutions.Conference The conference training method is a good problem-solving approach. The process invites employees to share their opinions and they are challenged to consider alternatives. In some role play situations. Opinions generated at the conference may differ from the manager¡¦s ideas. The results of the method can be difficult to evaluate. Pros: Trainees often find it interesting to hear different points of view. Case Studies A case study is a description of a real or imagined situation which contains information that trainees can use to analyze what has occurred and why. Cons: It can be difficult to control a group. panel. This is an excellent method for using outside resource people. They get an opportunity to practice people skills.
and keeping trainees on track.Cons: Cases can be difficult to write and time-consuming to discuss. Pros: Training becomes more reality-based. It is also more difficult to measure the employee¡¦s progress. interactive activity where they imitate actions required on the job. the creation of a database. Trainees get first-hand experience in the topic of the training. Also. Cons: Simulations are time-consuming. trainees may think they are doing somebody else¡¦s work. if they do not have an interest in the project or there is no immediate impact on their own jobs. They are able to move at their own pace and have a great deal of ownership over their learning. It is a useful technique for skills development. Cons: Without proper introduction to the project and its purpose. making points. The type of project will vary by business and the skill level of the trainee. increasing the chance that trainees will retain what they have learned. Projects can be chosen which help solve problems or otherwise improve the operation. Pros: This is a good training activity for experienced employees. it will be difficult to obtain and maintain their interest. Cons: Trainees can easily get side-tracked and may move slower than the trainer desires. The trainer must be creative and very skilled at leading discussions. Pros: Trainees are able to choose the learning style that works the best for them. Common individual training methods include: Self-discovery Trainees discover the competencies on their own using such techniques as guided exercises. Simulations involve yet another learning style. or the forming of a new process. It directly applies to jobs performed after training. as trainees are actively involved in the learning process. books. Simulations Trainees participate in a reality-based. Projects Projects require the trainees to do something on the job which improves the business as well as helps them learn about the topic of training. The trainer must be very skilled and make sure that trainees practice the skills correctly. Movies/videos/computer-based training . Only perfect practice makes perfect. Little time is needed to prepare the training experience. It might involve participation on a team. and research.
making the content less specific to their needs. On-the-job training This is the most common method of training. It also helps the trainee get information regarding the business culture and organizational structure. When choosing from among these methods. Pros: The training can be made extremely specific to the employee's needs. Pros: It can take place before. If a properly trained mentor is not chosen.Content for the training experience comes primarily from a videotape or computer-based program. a trainer is limited only by his or her creativity. Pros: It is easy to provide this training and the trainer can follow-up with questions and discussion. and performance standards as a lesson plan. It gives the trainee individual attention and immediate feedback. job breakdowns. Training and Human Resource . the environment. Cons: Training can be interrupted if the mentor moves on. Mentoring A mentor can tutor others in their learning. and the investments available. the trainee can pick up bad habits. the training should be done according to a structured program that uses task lists. the trainer must decide which one best suits the trainees. Most trainers choosing this option must purchase the training from an outside vendor. Mentors help employees solve problems both through training them in skills and through modeling effective attitudes and behaviors. It is also easy to assure that the same information is presented to each trainee. providing no real training. It is highly practical and reality-based. or after a shift. Others will select a single method that works best for them and never vary. during. It also helps the employee establish important relationships with his or her supervisor or mentor. Many trainers will choose to combine methods or vary them. Cons: It is expensive to develop. This system is sometimes known as a buddy system. There is often a tendency to have a person learn by doing the job. The trainee is placed on the job and the manager or mentor shows the trainee how to do the job. With so many options. Cons: Training is not standardized for employees. To be successful.
several of which . finance. marketing & sales. etc depends on training for its survival. Providing pre-employment market oriented skill development education and post employment support for advanced education and training 5. increasing the level of job satisfaction. It is determined by comparing post-test scores with pre-test scores and then measuring the net change. when training was considered to be futile. on a per-“skill point” base or on a per-dollar basis. Let’s look at the skill-point base. Gone are the days. Role of HRD Professionals in Training This is the era of cut-throat competition and with this changing scenario of business. then it is difficult to accept that such a company has effectively carried out HRM. Flexible access i. To increase the commitment level of employees and growth in quality movement (concepts of HRM). senior management team is now increasing the role of training. resources. training is an investment because the departments such as. anytime. anywhere training Training Effectiveness The effectiveness of training is a measurement of learning. and money. etc. Training is now the important tool of Human Resource Management to control the attrition rate because it helps in motivating employees. the role of HR professionals in training has been widened. Training actually provides the opportunity to raise the profile development activities in the organization. which measures the cost of raising a student’s skill by one unit.Management Traning and Development Home » Training and Human Resource Management The HR functioning is changing with time and with this change. Active involvement in employee education 2. achieving their professional and personal goals. production. If training is not considered as a priority or not seen as a vital part in the organization. HR role now is: 1. Rewards to be associated with self esteem and self worth 4. Rewards for improvement in performance 3.e." This is dangerously wrong! Let me explain! The difference between a pre-test score and a post-test score can be for many reasons. The training and development activities are now equally important with that of other HR functions. the relationship between the training function and other management activity is also changing. HR. Such concepts of HRM require careful planning as well as greater emphasis on employee development and long term education. waste of time. There are several methods to measure this—on a per-student basis. As a result training is given on a variety of skill development and covers a multitude of courses. Now-a-days.
you cannot say WHY they are like this.. It would be quite easy to have a large overlap here with efficiency measures. Effectiveness at Level 1 (Reactions of trainees) could be measured in terms of getting at least 4 out of 5 in each area being rated. Without any root cause analysis to identify the causal links between the different scores (pre-test and post-test) all you can truthfully say about this situation is that the pre-test scores were X and the post-test scores were Y . then arguably the training at Level 4 (Business Impact of training) is just 40% effective. even if you follow Kirkpatrick or Phillips' approach . Training in organisations is ALMOST ALWAYS about achieving a better performance or capability than is currently available .it's not about learning that's a bonus (in my humble opinion!). Generally effectiveness measures are defined in terms of the extent to which a set of objectives are met.you have to have PROOF when the CFO and CEO ask for it . But if these same trainees have line managers sho report that these trainees are only demonstrating new but required behaviours for 40% of the time. but fail to put it to required use and the required outcomes are not achieved.yes.x 100% Total number of training courses delivered Or 100% x (Number of trainees behaving as requried/operating equipment to required standard) / (Total number of people trained) Or 100% x Total benefits / Total costs Coming back to the effectiveness focus again there is some help to be found from our old friend Kirkpatrick.. (Training) efficiency is generally defined as the number of units output for the number of units input.and this is where evaluation practitioners get in to bother . Taking a similar theme I suggest training efficiency can be measured several ways . IF you can demonstrate causal links as I discussed earlier. then at Level 1 we'd be 100% effective.it's a measure of learning! You can learn everything required.---. This does NOT mean there is no link. Read carefully with definitions!! . If 100% of trainees rate all the aspects at least 4 out of 5. just that you haven't demonstrated one .may actually apply together.here are some examples: Number of training courses achieving the required outcomes ----------------------------------------------------------------.CORRELATION IS NOT CAUSATION!!! A measurement of learning is not training effectiveness . Going back to the article I quoted from above.it's about OUTCOMES that favour the customer and the shareholder . then arguably the pre and post test scores CAN be seen as a measure of effectiveness.
The training apparatus and costs have multiplied but Unhappiness persists and is growing at the working level where the benefits of training should show up most clearly. Training has made remarkable contributions to the improvement of all kinds. With disillusionment mounting in the midst of expansion. organizations should train the employees to enrich them in the areas of changing technical skills and knowledge from time to time. expanding fast but controversies seem to envelop any attempts to find benefits commensurate with the escalating costs of training. What is required is an insight into what training can or cannot do. but it is still young.. should espouse the most modern technology. i. it is important to develop business intelligence tools that will help companies improve the measurement of training effectiveness. Hence. as well as the organizational and technical infrastructure (systems) to implement the methodology. Complaints are growing over its ineffectiveness and waste. Given the large expenditures for training in many organizations. and continuously improve training. however. but doubts arise over its contribution in practice.Measuring of training Training is a critical component in any organization's strategy. The Input-Process-Output Model for an Effective Training . This disillusionment shows in many ways reluctance to send the most talented workforce for training. Training is neither a panacea for all ills nor is it a waste of time. Technical know-how alone. etc. in order to continue to exist in the competitive global market and to be effectual. but organizations don't always evaluate the business impact of a training program. evaluate. all the organizations give more trust on commercializing their activities. inadequate use of personnel after training. training has entered a dangerous phase in its development. training as an activity has been going on as a distinct field with its own roles. mechanization. however.e. All the firms. structures and budgets. Cross-functional and reporting and learning analytics provide important connections between the measures of learning effectiveness offered by a learning management system (LMS) and the larger enterprise metrics that indicate whether learning is transferred and positively affects business results. computerization and automation. At the present time. These tools need to provide a methodology to measure. This field is. Training is essential. and skill in designing and executing training successfully and cost-effectively. Training Effectiveness & its Significance In India. does not assure success unless it is sustained by workforce possessing indispensable expertise.
technological changes. and changes in the environment. • Information on new recruitments. Output • Release of training plan • Issue of orders of deputation for individual programmes • Feedback on effectives: from participants. • Monitoring the training conducted by various departments. rules & regulations. strategic moves. • Deputation of employees for short term training programmes conducted by local training institutes. • Implementation of changes in the prgramme as necessitated by the feedback. if large number of participants require training. • Training policy of the administration Process • Exercise of determining needs & maintenance of training register • Verification of need to prepare training plans • Deciding to conduct onsite programmes. • Periodical request from department heads based on potential appraisal exercises. from departmental heads . • Information on implementation of new practices.Input • Training need analysis: survey based on performance gaps in previous year & performance opportunities in the next year. • Conducting induction training for new recruits. • Updation of procedures.
therefore.More flexibility . may partake in the future. monitoring progress and training effectiveness Benefits of training to a business The main benefits to a business of a well-trained workforce are: . lower production / operating costs) . and is almost impossible to evaluate. TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT :- . .Draw up an action plan to show how investment in training and development will help meet business goals and objectives.Introduction This activity focusses upon the activities that the organization employing the individual.Training starts with a strategy It is important that a business provides training that is consistent with the business strategy.training helps employees develop a variety of skills. The main steps in developing a training strategy are to: . This might also improve motivation .Less supervision .and then keep them .More successful recruitment and employee retention .Better productivity (and.Identify the skills and abilities needed by employees.through greater empowerment . .Implement the plan.Higher quality .businesses with strong training systems and culture find it easier to implement change programmes Development .lower supervision and management costs if employees can get on with their jobs. Multi-skilling is only possible if the workforce is well trained . or that the individual is part of.Help in achieving change .businesses with a good reputation for training are likely to find it easier to attract good quality staff .
In the field of human resource management. Eventually. they encompass three separate. Moreover. Training and development encompasses three main activities: training. The conflicts are the best part of career consequences are those that take place between employees and their bosses. The sponsors of training and development are senior managers. Costine. And the providers are specialists in the field. which sometimes conflict with the agendas and motivations of the others. and Heraty. It ensures that randomness is reduced and learning or behavioural change takes place in structured format. who objected to the idea that people were "resources" — an idea that they felt to be demeaning to the individual. and development. The facilitators are Human Resource Management staff. The participants are those who actually undergo the processes. And yet. workplace relationship authority. and performance. Line managers are responsible for coaching. activities The "stakeholders" in training and development are categorized into several classes. The number one reason people leave their jobs is conflict with their bosses. although interrelated. and learning and development. "learning" being an overgeneral and ambiguous name. of the Irish Institute of Training and Development. However. including employee development. the CIPD settled upon "Learning and Development". although that was itself not free from problems. to practitioners. Garavan.It is a subsystem of an organization. resources. Each of these groups has its own agenda and motivations. "Human Resource Development" was rejected by academics. The clients of training and development are business planners. the field is still widely known by the other names. as author. "Employee Development" was seen as too evocative of the master-slave relationship between employer and employee for those who refer to their employees as "partners" or "associates" to be comfortable with. education. human resource development. Harrison observes that the name was endlessly debated by the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development during its review of professional standards in 1999/2000. training and development is the field concerned with organizational activity aimed at bettering the performance of individuals and groups in organizational settings. and . It has been known by several names. note that these ideas are often considered to be synonymous.
In addition to that. The training system in Indian Industry has been changed to create a smarter workforce and yield the best results. "Tempting as it is. Talent. The modern approach of training and development is that Indian Organizations have realized the importance of corporate training. • Organizational. • Functional. But now the scenario seems to be changing. peer.executive coach. there are four other objectives: • Individual. Organizations used to believe more in executive pinching. knowledge. or customer TRADITIONAL AND MODERN APPROACH OF TRAINING AND DEVLOPMENT Traditional Approach – Most of the organizations before never used to believe in training. Training is now considered as more of retention tool than a cost. enhances the individual contribution to an organization. John Hoover points out. Individual Objectives – help employees in achieving their personal goals. TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENTS OBJECTIVES :The principal objective of training and development division is to make sure the availability of a skilled and willing workforce to an organization. nobody ever enhanced his or her career by making the boss look stupid. Organizational Objectives – assist the organization with its primary objective by bringing Individual effectiveness. . There were also some views that training is a very costly affair and not worth. which in turn. and skill alone won't compensate for a sour relationship with a superior. Dr. and • Societal. They were holding the traditional view that managers are born and not made." Training an employee to get along well with authority and with people who entertain diverse points of view is one of the best guarantees of long-term success.
The employees get these feelings from leaders. It helps to build good employee. relationship so that individuals goals aligns with organizational goal. • Team spirit – Training and Development helps in inculcating the sense of team work. • Health and Safety – Training and Development helps in improving the health and safety of the organization thus preventing obsolescence.life. and inter-team collaborations. • Quality – Training and Development helps in improving upon the quality of work and work. • Organization Culture – Training and Development helps to develop and improve the organizational health culture and effectiveness.Functional Objectives – maintain the department’s contribution at a level suitable to the organization’s needs. It helps in inculcating the zeal to learn within the employees. It helps in creating the learning culture within the organization. • Healthy work-environment – Training and Development helps in creating the healthy working environment. • Development of skills of employees – Training and Development helps in increasing the job knowledge and skills of employees at each level. • Organization Climate – Training and Development helps building the positive perception and feeling about the organization. • Development of Human Resources – Training and Development helps to provide an opportunity and broad structure for the development of human resources’ technical and behavioral skills in an organization. subordinates and peers. It also helps the employees in attaining personal growth. Societal Objectives – ensure that an organization is ethically and socially responsible to the needs and challenges of the society Importance Of Training and Development • Optimum Utilization of Human Resources – Training and Development helps in optimizing the utilization of human resource that further helps the employee to achieve the organizational goals as well as their individual goals. Productivity – Training and Development helps in increasing the productivity of the employees that helps the organization further to achieve its long-term goal. team spirit. It helps to expand the horizons of human intellect and all over personality of the employees. .
Poor management (although management training might help!) . production organisation . • Image – Training and Development helps in creating a better corporate image.Recruitment If training is so important. Some businesses are reluctant to spend on training because: . It helps in understanding and carrying out organizational policies.A desire to minimise short-term costs .Ineffective or inefficient equipment. • Profitability – Training and Development leads to improved profitability and more positive attitude towards profit orientation. better attitudes.e. there are some things that training can rarely solve: these include: .• Morale – Training and Development helps in improving the morale of the work force.They cannot make a justifiable investment case Training should meet two basic objectives. why do some businesses invest so little in it? Ideally training should be seen as an investment in the future of the business. What training cannot solve it is tempting to think that training is the solution to many if not all business problems. loyalty.They fear employees will be poached by competitors (who will then benefit from the training) . motivation. However. it takes time for the effects of training to impact business performance. • Training and Development aids in organizational development i. . and other aspects that successful workers and managers usually display.Poor job design . Organization gets more effective decision making and problem solving. • Training and Development helps in developing leadership skills.
The TRAINAIR is a programme of the International Civil Aviation Organization that was evolved to strengthen the basic civil aviation concept of safety and and regularity of air transport operations. TRAINAIR methodology has both process and product standards. 1. The TRAINAIR course development methodology is a scientific approach of developing training courses for a job-oriented objective. The TRAINAIR Standardized Training Package (STP) preparation methodology is based on an engineering approach called the system approach. This methodology seeks to impart skill. and duration of absence of the workforce from the operational units are minimized. In this connection. The training duration should be as short as possible and resources used efficiently for meeting objective number 2. I would like to describe about a training approach. Because of this. Process standard means the standard in which the process is important but no weightage is given to the end result. 2. Training must be based on scientific approach and quality training material to meet objective number one. which is accepted and followed by many Civil Aviation Training establishments all over the world. This methodology has both the process standard and product standard. training becomes focussed and the training time and costs. That means the trainees are taught only the “Need-to-Know Things” and not the “Nice-toKnow Things”. knowledge and attitude required to perform the job and eliminate all things which are extraneous and not required to perform that job. Product standard means the standard in which end result is important but no weightage is given to the process. by means of a high standard of training for aviation personnel through what are known as Standardized Training Packages (STPs). It consists of following three activities. Training should make the personnel skilled enough to do the job on hand efficiently leading to targeted productivity levels.1. Analysis . Training should be cost effective. called ICAO TRAINAIR Methodology.
Progress tests. Phase 1. The modules and sequence of training program are decided in this phase. all the course materials such as Trainee Handouts. Develop a Standard Training Package (STP) as a training solution If it is found appropriate to proceed with a training solution by development of an STP. learning preferences are collected and analyzed. Design of Curriculum. Population Analysis. In Phase 2. 2. job experience. intended trainee group) acquired skill/ knowledge/ attitude. key to mastery tests will be developed. The course developers team visits the operational unit.. The result of analysis is interviews the working experts. . The job is divided into duties. analyzes the system and interviews the personnel working. In Phase 5. tasks are divided into sub-tasks. flow charts or automation etc. Design of modules. Preliminary analysis. Mastery tests. one of the following: 1. Instructor guide. In the Phase 3. key to progress tests. again the Course Developers team visits operational unit. then assistance of a qualified Course Developers team is requested. is invoked when a decision is to be taken whether or not training is needed to do a job on hand. the Phase 2 activities commence. duties are divided into tasks. Recommending non-training management solutions like developing a job aid such as checklists.2. social background. Design and production 3. Practical exercise sheets. Job analysis. qualifications. Evaluation All these activities are divided into 9 Phases. and further the skill/ knowledge/ attitude required to carryout sub-tasks are decided. the difference in skill/knowledge/ attitude required (decided in phase 2) and those acquired (decided in phase 3) will become the Course Curriculum. the data on target population’s (i.e. In Phase 4.
. Was there the desired improvement of the trainees’ performance when they return to their jobs? 2. If 80% of the participants passes with 80% marks or attain the standard. the effectiveness of the course which is now implemented is evaluated by analyzing 1. for the first time. Validation and Revision. Detailed lesson plans to guide the instructors. Production and developmental testing. the prepared course material will be tried on a group of trainees for whom the course is designed. They also take a note of the result at the end of the course. and observe the reactions of trainees and instructors. At the end of this phase. the prepared Mastery tests. Did the training program effectively meet the operational need which gave rise to it?. In Phase 7. all the developed training materials will be sent to the ICAO TRAINAIR Central Unit. Montreal for accord of approval as full-fledged STP. then the same course will be administered to the remaining trainee population in subsequent sessions. The group of Course Developers will monitor the delivery of the course throughout. hand outs for the trainees. audio-visual materials etc are all prepared ready for the initial Validation delivery of the package. Progress tests and practical exercises are tried out as developmental testing to check the accuracy and reliability of training materials. .In Phase 6. In Phase 9. Implementation. Post-training evaluation. The same course is also available for global sharing among the members of TRAINAIR programme. full STP Course is available for future deliveries. In Phase 8. Any deficiencies noted will be corrected during this phase.
especially in the case of longer term contract based relationships. as a key differentiator of sales team performance. Productivity differentials between high and medium performing sales people can be significant. Sales Organisation Effectiveness . The challenges many organisations face in response to the above factors: • • • Developing sales managers who lift performance through best practice leadership of sales teams. Organisations moving towards preferred supplier agreements.This is done by gathering information which is used to make improvement in the training and determine the costs and benefits of the training development project. Course Developers interact with the Subject Matter Experts and skilled job performers as and when required and get the required inputs. Drive reliable processes and practices throughout the sales organisation. driven by various factors in the marketplace: • • • • • Increased competition. Support cross-functional teams who develop high value strategic customer relationships. where customers are looking for value and insight from their suppliers. Impact of technology. Globalisation of markets. During the entire process of course of development. including from non-traditional competitors. Development and retention of high performing sales people.High Performing Sales Organisations Sales organisations are facing higher level challenges. Rising customer expectations. Cross-functional teams developing strategic customer relationships. leading to new purchasing methods and changing relationships with customers (more e-based business). Create differentiated skills and behaviours in sales teams to lift the performance of sales people. Hemsley Fraser works with organisations to: • • • • Develop sales managers. .
Create a strong focus on a strategy. with supporting processes. learning and skills. to reaffirm the performance outcomes expected and to make changes to training plans where necessary. This programme has been designed to aid all Human Resource practitioners in measuring the effectiveness of training. to acquire and retain long-term profitable customers. Measuring the Effectiveness of Training and Development More and more successful organisations are increasingly intent on measuring the impact of training on their organisations. Who Should Attend . Key Benefits • • • Introduction to the different Training Evaluation models Learn how to make detailed measurements of training Measure the effectiveness at various levels up to the impact of training on the organisation Course Content • • • • • • Introduction to various Training Evaluation Models Measuring the Impact of Training on Operational Results Measuring the Impact of Training on the Organisation using Corporate Indicators Identifying and Measuring “Soft” Areas in the Organisation Understanding and Measuring Organisational Development through a Morale Survey Measuring the Personal Competencies of Employees Learning Methodology • Group work and exercises will be used to provide participants with many opportunities to demonstrate their knowledge.• • Create clear strategies for development and retention of high performing sales people. Having an evaluation of training effectiveness in place is also one of the dimensions of the People Developer Standard.
Lack of proper and scientific selection procedure. Training emplyees Importaance of training Training your employees do have a significant role in modern business era. 8. 3. 7. People have to work in multidimensional areas . 5. This is a must read if you employ or mean to employ in future atleast one person. there is a lot more to it. Not just to equip them with latest tools your company has implemented. To make the job challenging and interesting 9. For self and development 10. Training your emplyess is important because 1. Change in the style of management. Rapid technological innovations impacting the workplace have made it necessary for people to consistently update their knowledge and skills 2. 4. For higher motivation and productivity. Due to non-practical collage education.I have sorted down them in a list.• All Human Resource Personnel who are involved in Training and Development and those responsible for attaining the People Developer Standard for their organisation. For employee motivation and retention . 6. which usually demand far more from their area of specialisation. For career advancement.
The benefits of evaluating training and development are to: .11. Evaluation is the process of finding out how the development or training process has affected the individual. 13. To improve organisational climate Prevention of obsolescence To help an organisation to fulfil its future manpower needs. 16. unit and individual levels. 12. It is therefore important that the transfer of learning into the workplace is assessed through a process of review and evaluation so that its success or otherwise can be established and so that we can demonstrate the contribution learning makes towards overall organisational success. To keep in pace with times To bridge gap between skills requirement and skills availability For survival and growth of organisation and nation EVALUATION OF STAFF DEVELOPMENT AND TRAINING Introduction Staff development is an important part of assisting performance improvement at organisational. faculty/central department. team and the organisation. 14. 15.
observing Performance: Evaluation at this stage looks at the impact of a learning experience on individual/team performance at work. Ensure the transfer of learning into the workplace. tests and practical application and after the activity by re-testing knowledge and skills and comparing them with pretraining results.Promote business efficiency by linking efforts to train anddevelop staff to operational priorities. Identify cost effective and valuable training events orprogrammes. Use and reinforce techniques learned to help improve quality and customer service within the organisation. goals and targets. Stages of Evaluation There are four key stages at which training and development should be evaluated: Reaction: At this stage evaluation provides information on the attitudes and opinions of participants to the learning they have undertaken typically via evaluation forms or comment sheets Learning attained: Evaluation at this stage looks at the extent to which learning objectives have been achieved. Key to this level of evaluation is the need to have agreed clear . Help define future development objectives. Evaluation of learning can take place during the activity using interactive sessions. leading to better focused learning anddevelopment.
learning objectives prior to the learning experience so that when evaluation takes place there are measures to use. Responsibility for evaluation Responsibility for evaluation of staff development rests at the following levels: Individual: The University’s Staff Development Application Form and Record requires individuals to identify their objectives linked to strategic development and training priorities and job role for the requested development activity. Manager: The manager is responsible for ensuring that staff have identified learning objectives for any development activity they plan to undertake and to agree on the methods to be used to evaluate learning Faculties/Central Departments: The Staff Development Plan template requires Faculties and Central Departments to annually set out their planned staff development activities and an explanation of how they will be evaluated. and whether or not it is cost effective in organisational terms. Organisational Impact: At this level evaluation assesses the impact of learning on organisational effectiveness.. Central Training Providers: All training courses delivered by central training providers are assessed by the University end of .
course review form. and training. transfer of knowledge at the work place. . Purposes of Training Evaluation The five main purposes of training evaluation are : Feedback: It helps in giving feedback to the candidates by defining the objectives and linking it To learning outcomes. Training Program Evaluation The process of examining a training program is called training evaluation. At this level evaluation provides information on the attitudes of a participant to learning but does not measure how much they have actually learned. Organisation Development and Training (ODT): ODT will carry out follow up evaluation of a sample of centrally delivered courses/programmes 3-6 months after the event to measure how learning has been applied in the workplace. Training evaluation checks whether training has had the desired effect. Research: It helps in ascertaining the relationship between acquired knowledge. or to the regular work routines. Training evaluation ensures that whether candidates are able to implement their learning in their respective workplaces.
the top management (higher authoritative employee) uses the evaluative data to manipulate it for their own benefits. Power games: At times. then It can be dealt with accordingly.Control: It helps in controlling the training program because if the training is not effective. candidates generally perceive it as a waste of resources because at . During the start of training. Process of Training Evaluation : Before Training: The learner’s skills and knowledge are assessed before the training program. Intervention: It helps in determining that whether the actual outcomes are aligned with the Expected outcomes.
During Training: It is the phase at which instruction is started. Once aware.most of the times candidates are unaware of the objectives and learning outcomes of the program. This phase is designed to determine whether training has had the desired effect at individual department and organizational levels. This phase usually consist of short tests at regular intervals After Training: It is the phase when learner’s skills and knowledge are assessed again to measure the effectiveness of the training. There are various evaluation techniques for this phase. . they are asked to give their opinions on the methods used and whether those methods confirm to the candidates preferences and learning style.
the top management (higher authoritative employee) uses the evaluative data to manipulate it for their own benefits. Power games: At times. Evaluation Before Training: The learner’s skills and knowledge are assessed before the training program. they are asked to give their opinions on the methods used and whether those methods confirm to the candidates preferences and learning style. Intervention: It helps in determining that whether the actual outcomes are aligned with the expected Process of Training outcomes. candidates generally perceive it as a waste of resources because at most of the times candidates are unaware of the objectives and learning outcomes of the program. . During the start of training. then it can be dealt with accordingly. Once aware.Control: It helps in controlling the training program because if the training is not effective.
Techniques of Evaluation : • • • • • Observation Questionnaire Interview Self Diaries Self recording of special incidents . This phase usually consist of short tests at regular intervals After Training: It is the phase when learner’s skills and knowledge are assessed again to measure the effectiveness of the training. There are various evaluation techniques for this phase. This phase is designed to determine whether training has had the desired effect at individual department and organizational levels.During Training: It is the phase at which instruction is started.
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