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Hardware Fundamentals

Hardware Fundamentals

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Published by: firoz52 on Nov 08, 2010
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PC Parts

http://edweb.tusd.k12.az.us/sandre/computers/index.htm Let's take a look at the main components of a typical desktop computer:

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Central processing unit (CPU) - The microprocessor "brain" of the computer system is called the central processing unit. It's a chip that holds a complete computational engine. It uses assembly language as its native language. Everything that a computer does is overseen by the CPU. Memory - This is very fast storage used to hold data. It has to be fast because it connects directly to the microprocessor. There are several specific types of memory in a computer: • Random-access memory (RAM) - Used to temporarily store information with which the computer is currently working • Read-only memory (ROM) - A permanent type of memory storage used by the computer for important data that doesn't change • Basic input/output system (BIOS) - A type of ROM that is used by the computer to establish basic communication when the computer is first powered on • Caching - The storing of frequently used data in extremely fast RAM that connects directly to the CPU • Virtual memory - Space on a hard disk used to temporarily store data and swap it in and out of RAM as needed • Flash memory - a solid state storage device, Flash memory requires no moving parts and retains data even after the computer powers off Motherboard - This is the main circuit board to which all of the other internal components connect. The CPU and memory are usually on the motherboard. Other systems may be found directly on the motherboard or connected to it through a secondary connection. For example, a sound card can be built into the motherboard or connected through an expansion slot. Power supply - An electrical transformer regulates the electricity used by the computer. Hard disk - This is large-capacity permanent storage used to hold information such as programs and documents. Traditional hard drives contain moving parts -- the drive has platters on which it stores data. The drive spins the platters to record and read data. But some newer hard drives are flash-based with no moving parts. These drives are called solid-state drives. Operating system - This is the basic software that allows the user to interface with the computer. Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE) Controller - This is the primary interface for the hard drive, CD-ROM and floppy disk drive. Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP) - This is a very high-speed connection used by the graphics card to interface with the computer. Sound card - This is used by the computer to record and play audio by converting analog sound into digital information and back again. Graphics card - This translates image data from the computer into a format that can be displayed by the monitor. Some graphics cards have their own powerful processing units

The components in a computer generate heat. PC Connections A typical computer connects to the world around it in three different ways: input/output devices. Real-time clock .The keyboard is the primary device for entering information into the computer. The GPU can handle operations that normally would require the CPU. o Flash memory . but many computers still have ports to help you connect to a wide selection of peripherals. You may use Bluetooth or Wi-Fi to sync your music player or print driving directions. heat sinks and cooling systems . ports and networking. performance can suffer. No matter how powerful the components inside your computer are. as well as save information that you want to carry to a different location. CompactFlash. read-only memory) is similar to CD-ROM but is capable of holding much more information. Flash memory provides fast.In computer hardware terms. a port is an interface that allows a computer to communicate with peripheral equipment. two are most commonly found on newer computers: . Complementary Metal-oxide Semiconductor .DVD-ROM (digital versatile disc. read-only memory) is a popular form of distribution of commercial software. This interaction is called input/output (I/O).Removable storage devices allow you to add new information to your computer very easily.Every PC has a clock containing a vibrating crystal. permanent storage.CD-ROM (compact disc. SmartMedia and PCMCIA cards are all types of Flash memory. Ports .• • • (called a GPU -. all the components in a computer can synchronize properly. Removable storage . The most common types of I/O in PCs are: • • • • Monitor . The battery provides uninterrupted power. Keyboard .The mouse is the primary device for navigating and interacting with the computer. o DVD-ROM . Many systems now offer CD-R (recordable) and CD-RW (rewritable).The CMOS and CMOS battery allow a computer to store information even when the computer powers down. Fans. While there have been others.graphics processing unit). CD-RW discs can be erased and rewritten many times.The monitor is the primary device for displaying information from the computer. There are several types of removable storage: o CD-ROM . By referring to this clock.Based on a type of ROM called electrically erasable programmable read-only memory (EEPROM). which can also record. As heat rises. Mouse . Cooling systems keep computers from overheating. you need a way to interact with them.

like the kind you might use to subscribe to cable TV. The speed of the bus. The faster a computer's bus speed. FSB speed can dramatically affect a computer's performance.• • Universal Serial Bus (USB) . The more data a bus can handle at one time. to connect to the Internet. The memory bus connects the northbridge to the memory. the faster it allows information to travel. especially to the Internet. BUS A bus is simply a circuit that connects one part of the motherboard to another.This is used by many computers. the faster it will operate -. .This is a high-speed connection that works over a standard telephone line.]. Your computer can probably use one or more of these methods: • • • • • Modem . such as camcorders or digital cameras. A fast bus speed cannot make up for a slow processor or chipset. Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) modem . Bus speed usually refers to the speed of the front side bus (FSB). to your computer. Networking. Since the CPU reaches the memory controller though the northbridge.This type of modem uses the cable system in your home.A newer variation of DSL. the speed of the PCI bus is 33 MHz. On most systems. The processor determines the speed of the back side bus. The PCI bus connects PCI slots to the southbridge. Cable modem . which connects the CPU to the northbridge. Here are some of the other busses found on a motherboard: • • • • • The back side bus connects the CPU with the level 2 (L2) cache. et al. VDSL requires that your phone line have fiber-optic cables. USB ports offer power and versatility and are incredibly easy to use. The IDE or ATA bus connects the southbridge to the disk drives. is very important to today's computer users. particularly those in an Ethernet office network. to connect to one another. The speed of the AGP bus is usually 66 MHz. The AGP bus connects the video card to the memory and the CPU. also known as secondary or external cache.This is the standard method of connecting to the Internet. Very high bit-rate DSL (VDSL) modem . An even faster version called the gigabit per second DSL (GDSL) may follow [source: Cioffi. PCI Express is likely to replace both PCI and AGP busses. Also compatible with PCI is PCI Express. which is much faster than PCI but is still compatible with current software and operating systems. refers to how much data can move across the bus simultaneously. Local area network (LAN) card . FireWire (IEEE 1394) .to a point.FireWire is a very popular method of connecting digital-video devices.The most popular external connection. measured in megahertz (MHz). FSB speeds can range from 66 MHz to over 800 MHz.

Dynamic RAM has to be dynamically refreshed all of the time or it forgets what it is holding. For dynamic memory to work. How RAM Works Random access memory (RAM) is the best known form of computer memory. you'll learn all about what RAM is. Also. on the other hand. what kind you should buy and how to install it. In this article. where the data is normally stored in the order in which it will be used (a good example is the texture buffer memory on a video card). most motherboards have space for multiple memory chips. and on newer motherboards. This further reduces the amount of time it takes for the processor to get information from the memory. The downside of all of this refreshing is that it takes time and slows down the memory. In the most common form of computer memory. a memory chip is an integrated circuit (IC) made of millions of transistors and capacitors. See the next page to learn more about dynamic RAM and memory cells. can be accessed in any order.a 0 or a 1 (see How Bits and Bytes Work for information on bits). RAM data. The capacitor holds the bit of information -. This refresh operation is where dynamic RAM gets its name. either the CPU or the memory controller has to come along and recharge all of the capacitors holding a 1 before they discharge.184-pin DDR DIMM RAM Much of the memory available today is dual data rate (DDR) memory. To do this. which represents a single bit of data. This refresh operation happens automatically thousands of times per second. they often connect to the northbridge via a dual bus instead of a single bus. Similar to a microprocessor. a transistor and a capacitor are paired to create a memory cell. SAM stores data as a series of memory cells that can only be accessed sequentially (like a cassette tape). RAM is considered "random access" because you can access any memory cell directly if you know the row and column that intersect at that cell. each memory cell is checked until the needed data is found. the memory controller reads the memory and then writes it right back. The opposite of RAM is serial access memory (SAM). dynamic random access memory (DRAM). The transistor acts as a switch that lets the control circuitry on the memory chip read the capacitor or change its state. If the data is not in the current location. SAM works very well for memory buffers. This refresh operation happens automatically thousands of times per second. This means that the memory can transmit data twice per cycle instead of once. . which makes the memory faster.

FPM DRAM: Fast page mode dynamic random access memory was the original form of DRAM. It is used primarily for cache.064 MBps (for DDR SDRAM 133 MHZ). EDO DRAM begins looking for the next bit. In static RAM. you get less memory per chip. DDR SDRAM: Double data rate synchronous dynamic RAM is just like SDRAM except that is has higher bandwidth. Maximum transfer rate to L2 cache is approximately 264 MBps. reading each bit as it goes. EDO DRAM: Extended data-out dynamic random access memory does not wait for all of the processing of the first bit before continuing to the next one. Designed by Rambus. typically four to six. Static RAM is fast and expensive.Memory Cells and DRAM Static RAM Static RAM uses a completely different technology. but never has to be refreshed. and that makes static RAM a lot more expensive. RDRAM: Rambus dynamic random access memory is a radical departure from the previous DRAM architecture. a static memory cell takes up a lot more space on a chip than a dynamic memory cell. RDRAM uses a Rambus in-line . for each memory cell but doesn't have a capacitor in each cell. The idea is that most of the time the data needed by the CPU will be in sequence. and dynamic RAM is less expensive and slower. SDRAM is about five percent faster than EDO RAM and is the most common form in desktops today. However. while dynamic RAM forms the larger system RAM space. This makes static RAM significantly faster than dynamic RAM. Types of RAM The following are some common types of RAM: • • • • • • • SRAM: Static random access memory uses multiple transistors. It does this by staying on the row containing the requested bit and moving rapidly through the columns. Maximum transfer rate to L2 cache is approximately 528 MBps. Therefore. Maximum transfer rate to L2 cache is approximately 176 MBps. DRAM: Dynamic random access memory has memory cells with a paired transistor and capacitor requiring constant refreshing. meaning greater speed. A flip-flop for a memory cell takes four or six transistors along with some wiring. So static RAM is used to create the CPU's speed-sensitive cache. Maximum transfer rate to L2 cache is approximately 1. As soon as the address of the first bit is located. a form of flip-flop holds each bit of memory (see How Boolean Logic Works for details on flip-flops). It waits through the entire process of locating a bit of data by column and row and then reading the bit before it starts on the next bit. SDRAM: Synchronous dynamic random access memory takes advantage of the burst mode concept to greatly improve performance. because it has more parts. It is about five percent faster than FPM.

True multiport VRAM tends to be expensive. which stands for single in-line memory module. PCMCIA Memory Card: Another self-contained DRAM module for notebooks. In most computers. This memory uses a small battery to provide it with the power it needs to maintain the memory contents.600 MBps. which is similar in size and pin configuration to a standard DIMM. they generate much more heat than other types of chips. many graphics cards use SGRAM (synchronous graphics RAM) instead. The first types were proprietary. Then came SIMM. which looks like a long thin wafer. To help dissipate the excess heat Rambus chips are fitted with a heat spreader. The amount of VRAM is a determining factor in the resolution and color depth of the display. or 1. Memory Modules The type of board and connector used for RAM in desktop computers has evolved over the past few years. designed for notebook computers. The "multiport" part comes from the fact that VRAM normally has two independent access ports instead of one. cards of this type are not proprietary and should work with any notebook computer whose system bus matches the memory card's configuration. while the system bus could handle 16 bits at a time. there are also SO-RIMMs. is a type of RAM used specifically for video adapters or 3-D accelerators. . allowing the CPU and graphics processor to access the RAM simultaneously. but SGRAM is cheaper. you had to install SIMMs in pairs of equal capacity and speed. Credit Card Memory: Credit card memory is a proprietary self-contained DRAM memory module that plugs into a special slot for use in notebook computers. Since they operate at such high speeds. VRAM is also used to hold graphics-specific information such as 3-D geometry data and texture maps. VRAM is located on the graphics card and comes in a variety of formats. meaning that different computer manufacturers developed memory boards that would only work with their specific systems. This is because the width of the bus is more than a single SIMM. RDRAM memory chips work in parallel to achieve a data rate of 800 MHz. many of which are proprietary. also known as multiport dynamic random access memory (MPDRAM).• • • • memory module (RIMM). For example. Performance is nearly the same. you would install two 8-megabyte (MB) SIMMs to get 16 megabytes total RAM.see Why does my computer need a battery? for details. What makes RDRAM so different is its use of a special high-speed data bus called the Rambus channel. VRAM: VideoRAM. so today. Just like there are smaller versions of DIMMs. CMOS RAM: CMOS RAM is a term for the small amount of memory used by your computer and some other devices to remember things like hard disk settings -. Each SIMM could send 8 bits of data at one time.

the industry adopted a new standard in dual in-line memory module (DIMM). the Apple iMac desktop computer uses SODIMMs instead of the traditional DIMMs.3 volts. is comparable in size and pin configuration to DIMM but uses a special memory bus to greatly increase speed. Most PC memory modules and the modules for the Mac G5 systems operate at 2. Rambus in-line memory module (RIMM). SODIMM cards are small.4 x 1 inch (about 14 x 2. and have 144 or 200 pins. while older Mac G4 systems typically use 3. With a whopping 168-pin or 184-pin connector and a size of 5. Many brands of notebook computers use proprietary memory modules. but several manufacturers use RAM based on the small outline dual in-line memory module (SODIMM) configuration. . Capacity ranges from 16 MB to 1 GB per module.5 cm). Sub-notebook computers use even smaller DIMMs. known as MicroDIMMs. DIMMs range in capacity from 8 MB to 1 GB per module and can be installed singly instead of in pairs. To conserve space. which have either 144 pins or 172 pins.• As processors grew in speed and bandwidth capability. Another standard.5 volts. about 2 x 1 inch (5 x 2.5 cm).

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