P. 1
Modern Control Theory

Modern Control Theory

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Publicado porZhenhua Gao

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Published by: Zhenhua Gao on Nov 10, 2010
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11/06/2011

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Separators are curves in the phase portrait that bound areas of similar behaviour. We
have seen one so far for the undamped pendulum represented by the trajectories through
the saddle points. Inside we got the swinging and outside the rotations.
Another separator is found in example1 of section 1.2.3 where it was found by means of
describing functions that the system could either show a relaxation oscillation or activity
could damp out depending on the initial values. In this case the trajectories can be

1.4. STATE SPACE DESCRIPTIONS/ PHASE PORTRAITS.

41

1 − u * u

(1−x1*x1)

s

1

*

1

+

x1out
To Workspace1

x2out
To Workspace

tout
To Workspace2

Clock

s

1

Figure 1.46: Blockscheme of Van der Pol Equation.

0

5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50

−2.5

−2

−1.5

−1

−0.5

0

0.5

1

1.5

2

2.5

time

y=x1

vdPol oscillation

, −4

−3

−2

−1

0

1

2

3

4

−4

−3

−2

−1

0

1

2

3

4

x1

x2

vdPol phase portrait

Figure 1.47: Time behaviour of Van der Pol Equation and various trajectories.

computed analytically. Given the transfer-function H = K/(s+s2

τ) it is obvious that the

describing differential equation for zero reference is:

s(1 +sτ).−e = Kp ⇒

(1.92)

τ¨e+ ˙e = −pK

(1.93)

where p indicates the output of the relays and thus the input of the linear system:

p {−A,0,A}

(1.94)

Now the following general ”trick” can be applied:

¨e = d˙e

dt = d˙e
de

de

dt = d˙e

de ˙e ⇒

de =

˙ed˙e
¨e

(1.95)

so that for:

¨e = −pK − ˙e
τ

(1.96)

results:

42

CHAPTER 1. ANALYSIS OF NONLINEAR SYSTEMS

de =

−τ ˙ed˙e
pK + ˙e

(1.97)

e = −τ ˙e+pτK ln( p

|p|(˙e+pK)) +C

(1.98)

For p = 0 the logarithmic term disappears so that we have a linear relationship between

e and de/dt. This holds for the area where all activity is damped out and where we deal
with a degenerate node (one integration!). This area is represented in the center of Fig.
1.48 where the phase portrait is indicated by several trajectories.

−1 −0.8 −0.6 −0.4 −0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

−40

−30

−20

−10

0

10

20

30

e

edot

phaseportrait example1

Figure 1.48: Phase portrait of the relay system example1

For clarity’s sake just trajectories starting at several positive values for e and zero de/dt
have been drawn. Of course there is symmetry with respect to the e = 0 axis. We clearly
observe the straight trajectories ending on the e-axis between −(u+h) and (u+h) = .6.
If they end outside this interval the relay is activated and a logarithmic curve is followed
until one of the lines e = ±u = ±.4 is reached. Then the relay falls off and we are back
to a linear trajectory again until one of the lines e = ±(u + h) = ±.6 is encountered
where again the relays switches on and a logarithmic curve is followed etc. The amplitude
increases with each revolution until the clearly visible limit cycle is reached asymptotically.
Starting at points outside the limit cycle will cause a trajectory that converges from the
outside according to the same principles.
The separator is drawn explicitly. It is defined by the straight trajectories that end in
(±.6,0), extended with the corresponding logarithmic trajectories that themselves start at
about (±.4493,0) and completed with the small line-pieces on the horizontal axis linking
the last points to (±.6,0). Inside this separator the trajectories stop on the horizontal
axis between -.6 and +.6. Outside this separator the trajectories converge to the limit
cycle. So the separator clearly indicates which initial values will lead to an oscillation or
will simply die out. We have foreseen this in the describing function section but there we
could only roughly indicate these effects.

1.4. STATE SPACE DESCRIPTIONS/ PHASE PORTRAITS.

43

Such an improved insight in what leads to limit cycles seems to have caused M. Schuler
to heaving the following sigh (after a presentation by K. Magnus on this topic in Heidelberg
25-29 september 1956): ”Ich habe manche von meinen Sch¨ulern bei den Versuchen mit
automatischen Flugzeugsteuerungen verloren. Jetzt, nach den Ausf¨uhrungen von Herrn
Magnus, wird mir mit einem Schlage klar, wie so etwas m¨uglich war.”2
Fortunately, we take better care of our students nowadays (in our group).

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