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Ecological Zonation and Identification of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park

A thesis; submitted to Department of Biological Science, Quaid- i- Azam University Islamabad, in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of degree of

M. Phil

in Environmental Sciences

By Saadullah Ayaz

DEPARTMENT OF BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES Quaid- i- Azam University, Islamabad 2005

IN THE NAME OF ALLAH THE MOST BENEFICENT THE MOST MERCIFUL (AND HE IS ALONE THE HELPER)

"Like water, air and soil, biological diversity is the hub of the wheel of life. Destroy it, and the wheel, however technologically sophisticated…, will no longer run" (Anonymous)

CERTIFICATE
It is certified that the Department of Biological Sciences, Quaid- i- Azam University, Islamabad, do hereby accept the thesis by Mr. Saadullah Ayaz in its present form, as satisfying the thesis requirements for the award of degree of M. Phil in Environmental Biology.

Supervisor:

____________________ Prof. Dr. Tahira Ahmad Environmental Biology Section Department of Biological Sciences Quaid- i- Azam University Islamabad.

External Examiner:

____________________ Dr. Ghulam Akbar Head, World Wide Fund for Nature Islamabad Office

Chairperson:

____________________ Prof. Dr. Samina Jalali Chairperson Department of Biological Sciences Quaid- i- Azam University Islamabad.

Dated:

August, 2005

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS iii LIST OF FIGURES v LIST OF TABLES vi LIST OF ANNEXURES vii ACKNOWLDEGEMENTS ix ABSTRACT xi 1 INTRODUCTION 13 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE 18 2.1. Biodiversity and Protected Areas 18 2.2. Geographic Information System (GIS) in Biodiversity Assessment 20 2.3. Ecological Zonation and Biodiversity Core Zones/ Hotspots 21 2.3.1. The Paradigms of Zonation 22 2.4. Margallah Hills National Park 27 3 MATERIALS AND METHODS 21 Table. 3.2. Domin- Hadaĉ Values 33 A Single Individual 33 The area of interest (AOI) comprising of MHNP was extracted from the satellite imagery using the ARCView® 3.1 (Fig. 3.14) 40 Defining Training Areas 41 Class Credibility 41 4 RESULTS 51 Jeffrey, A., et al. (1994). People, Parks and Biodiversity: Issues and Population-Environment Dynamics. IUCN- The World Conservation Union. 95 Moir, W. H., Ludwig, J. A. and Scholes, R. T. (2000). Soil Erosion and Vegetation in Grasslands of the Peloncillo Mountains, New Mexico. Maercian Journal of Soil Science. The Soil Science Society of America. (:64). p. 1055- 1067. 96 Annex- I 112 LIST OF NATIONAL PARKS IN PAKISTAN (AS OF 2005) 112 COVER VALUE FOR SPECIES 122 1 122 2 122 3 122 4 122 5 122 6 122 7 122 8 122 9 122 10 122 DOMIN- KRAJINA VALUE 122 Annex- VI 123

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FUEL WOOD CONSUMPTION DATA Annex- VII Asslam’o aliaikum! Saadullah Ayaz FACILITY

123 93 94 94 96

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ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS

AOI BA BAP BR CBCP CBD CDA DEM DIC FCC GIS GPS ha. IADB ICDP ICT IUCN km LCC m MBC MCIC MHNP NVRPA PAs PCDR PEPC PRA PSL RRA

Area of Interest Bioregional Approach Biodiversity Action Plan of Pakistan Biosphere Reserve Community Based Conservation Paradigm Convention on Biological Diversity (Rio Summit 1992) Capital Development Authority, Islamabad Digital Elevation Model Digital Image Classification False Color Composite Geographic Information System Global Positioning System Hectares Inter- American Development Bank Integrated Conservation and Development Paradigm Islamabad Capital Territory The World Conservation Union Kilometer Lambert Conformal Conic Meters Meso- American Biological Corridor Margallah Conservation and Information Centre Margallah Hills National Park Northern Virginia Regional Park Authority Protected Areas Parallelpiped Classification Decision Rule Pakistan Environmental Protection Council Participatory Rural Appraisal Pseudo- species Level Rapid Rural Appraisal

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RA RMSE SED TM TPPAP TWINSPAN UNEP WCMC WWF

Reciprocal Averaging Ordination Root Mean Square Error Spectral Euclidean Distance Thematic Mapper Traditional Parks and Protected Areas Paradigm Two- Way Indicator Species Analysis United Nations Environment Program World Conservation and Monitoring Centre World Wide Fund

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LIST OF FIGURES

Ecological Zonation and Identifications of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park

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LIST OF TABLES

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LIST OF ANNEXURES

Annex- I Annex- II Annex- III Annex- IV Annex- V Annex- VI Annex- VII Annex- VIII

List of National Parks in Pakistan Flora of Margallah Hills National Park Fauna of Margallah Hills National Park Relevant Web Sites Performa for Phytosociological Data Performa for Fuel- wood Consumption Socio- economic Questionnaire Performa for Ecological Data

112 113 116 119 121 122 123 124

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ACKNOWLDEGEMENTS

I invoke all due praises to Almighty Allah, who bestowed with me with labor, knowledge and intelligence to successfully complete this task. All respect to the Holy Prophet (PBUH) for enlightening my conscience with the essence of faith in Allah, converging all His kindness and mercies upon me. I am immensely pleased to acknowledge the keen and persistent support extended by Prof. Dr. Samina Jalali, Chairperson, Department of Biological Sciences and former Chairperson Dr. Afsari Qureshi. Their overall patronization was extremely helpful in completing the work. Owing great debt of gratitude, I would thank Prof. Dr. Tahira Ahmed for taking up the responsibility as my supervisor. Her patience, guidance, encouragement, scholarly supervision and selfless help have been the sole asset during the course of this research. Many sincere thanks are extended to my friend Zafeer Saqib, Ph. D Scholar, who spent his days and nights working with me. The technical help provided by Mr. Salman Ashraf, Head GIS at WWF Lahore, is praise worthy. He contributed his precious time in analysis the GIS data. Special thanks are extended to Asim Daud Rana (WWF- Lahore) for helping with the analysis and maintaining high esteem of professionalism. I am extremely grateful to Dr. Ghulam Akbar, Head, WWF- Islamabad for his guidance. Mr. Qasim, Manager WWF Islamabad, Mr. Babar Coordinator Environmental Education WWF and Mr. Yasir Aziz, Environmental Education Officer WWF are also thanked for their cooperation. No proper words can be used to thank my worthy teachers Prof. Dr. Rizwana Aleem and Prof. Dr. Mir Ajab for being a source of information on the technical side. The name of Mushtaq Ahmad from Plant Taxonomy Lab is specially mentioned in this regard. Mr. Aurangzeb Awan, Deputy Director Forests from CDA, is acknowledged for his kind cooperation and for being my host at the Margallah Hills National Park. This publication is an outcome of the precious contributions made by a number of professionals from a broad range of disciplines. I thank them all for sharing their valuable knowledge. They include; Kashif Sheikh (Biodiversity Programme IUCN), Mr. Abid Ghafoor (Asst. Prof. Arid University) and Dr. Maqsood Anwar (NARC Islamabad). The great endurance of Lateef, Arjumand and Lubna, from Arid Agriculture University and my friend Aamir Jadoon (Plant Scientist) are praise worthy, who accompanied me in field facing the rugged conditions and hot weather.

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I cherish the sweet moments spent with my lab fellows; Sadiq Ibrahim, Raheel Zuberi, Audil Rasheed, Sheikh Saeed, Syeda Maria Ali, Syeda Hina Fatima, Naseem Sheikh, Majahabeen Niazi, Ayesha Karamat, Saira Naqvi, Yasmeen Zafar, Mohammad Ishtiaq, Waqar Ahmad, Waqar Azeem and Hina Naureen. The fellows; Mr. Khalid and Mr. Mohammad Afzal are also duly acknowledged for their help in the lab. My senior lab fellows Dr. Ghulam Ali Awan and Mr. Rizwan, Irshad are specially thanked for enriching my technical knowledge and providing with valuable suggestions in carrying out the research. Dearest friend Abdul Qadir is thanked for lending a helping hand and facilitation during the work. I pay tribute to my father Dr. Mohammad Ayaz, Park Planner, WWF- Pakistan (Ex- Director General, Pakistan Forest Institute) and brother, Abdullah Ayaz (Ex- Project Officer, WWF) for their love and encouragement. In fact their technical know how in the subject matter guided me all the way. Utmost respect is offered to Dr. Mohammad Mumtaz Malik, Chief Conservator of Wildlife, NWFP for providing me with an opportunity to be a part of the conservation efforts in Pakistan. The privilege of having company of my friends can never be forgotten. They include: Ishtiaq Hussain (Plant Physiology), Munawar Ahmad (Bio Technology), Faisal Nouroz (Plant Physiology), Fazal Hadi (Phytohormones), Mohammad Ismail (Microbiology), Aqeel Saleem (Microbiology), Zakir Hussain (Taxonomy), Dr. Athar Abbas (Microbiology), Wajahat Ali (Taxonomy), Amir Jadoon (Computer Sciences), Amir Jadoon (Geo Physics) and many others. Special credit goes to my cousin and friend Fakhr e Alam from Gray Matter Graphics, for graphical designing and preparing the layout of this publication.

Saadullah Ayaz

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ABSTRACT

National parks are being managed round the world by making use of different tools in order to safeguard biodiversity and ecosystems. Ecological zonation is one of the tools, which is used to delineate an area into different sub- units (zones) on the basis of their ecological characteristics. It is a geographically based procedure through which it became possible to integrate the ecological, social and cultural values of the ecosystems. Its main objective is to regulate and manage the use of resources in the defined sub- areas and also allows protection of sensitive areas. This study deals with the ecological zonation of the Margallah Hills National Park (MHNP) in order to ensure its effective management. The zones were declared on the basis of ecological features, nature of land use and the services being derived. For this purpose assessment of the area was done by evaluation of the state of vegetation, ecological parameters and socio- economic survey in order to assess the burden on the resources of the national park.
Flora was used as an indicator of forest biodiversity. A total of 44 randomly as well as systematically laid

stands (comprising of 10 quadrats in each stand) were laid in the park area. The data collected included species composition and cover percentage. The ecological data on the parameters of logging/ lopping, grazing, erosion, fire, agriculture and stone quarries was collected by using various disturbance indicators and their verifiers. The geographical data was collected by recording the coordinates for field using Geographical Positioning System (GPS) during the phytosociological and ecological survey. The phytosociological data was processed by using TURBOVEG®. The cover values of flora were instated into TWINSPAN (Two Way INdicator Species ANalysis), which resulted in identification of thirteen plant communities in the Margallah Hills National Park. Geographic Information System (GIS) was used for spatio- temporal analysis, in which the ground truthed vegetation and ecological data were analyzed in order to generate vegetation classification and distribution

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maps. GIS software ARCView® 3.1 was used for this analysis. The Supervised Image Classification by Maximum Likelihood Algorithm was used on a geo- rectified satellite image of the park area. The logical units for zonation were marked on the basis of easily recognizable topographic features such as: major creeks, distinct ridges and roads and the study area was divided into 64 logical zonation units. The phytosociological and ecological data was analyzed and applied to the zonation units. Based on the subjective classification, the zonation was carried out. In first step the area was divided into two major classes/ categories viz., scrub zone and pine zone. Similarly the sub- zones were formed on the basis of presence of erosion/ bare soil in each of the major classes. In the next step, the management zones were declared upon the presence to exotic species in the area. The core biodiversity zones were declared upon the criteria that they harbor a great diversity of species and at the same time have not been significantly impacted and altered by human activities. About 70 percent of the original habitat in such zones is intact. Based on the subjective classification, a principle tree was prepared to carry out zonation. The core biodiversity zones were marked in each of the pine and scrub vegetation zone. Eight of the logical units were marked as core zone in the scrub vegetation while seven in the pine vegetation.

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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1

INTRODUCTION

The earth’s biological resources are vital to our economic and social development (Annan 2000). The diversity of life forms on earth is essential for maintaining the ecological balance among the organisms (Jeffrey et al. 1994). Biodiversity is the key indicator of health of the environment in which we live (BAP 2000). Our cultural identity is deeply rooted in our biological environment. Plants and animals are symbols of our world, preserved in flags, sculptures and other images that define us and our society. We draw inspiration just from looking at the nature’s beauty (Annan 2000). Due to its crucial role in our lives, there is a growing recognition that biological diversity is a global asset of tremendous value (UNEP- WCMC 1998). About 1.75 million species have been identified on earth, though estimates range from 3 to 100 million (CBD 1992). While considering the Global Biodiversity Index (UNEP-WCMC 2002), our country Pakistan is located in such a position, where there is medium level of species richness (Fig. 1.1). The species diversity of Pakistan includes: about, 5,500 to 6,000 species of vascular plants (Nasir & Ali 1979) and around 3,000 indigenous crop verities. The faunal diversity includes; 174 mammals (BAP 2000), 668 birds (Roberts 1991), around 177 species of reptiles, 22 species of amphibians, 198 freshwater fishes and about 5,000 species of invertebrates (BAP 2000) have been recorded from the country. On the basis of tremendous variation in its ecological features, Pakistan has been divided into nine ecological zones by World Wide Fund (WWF) in 1998 (Figure 1.2), which shows the great ecological diversity of our country.

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INTRODUCTION

(Source: National Biodiversity Index UNEP- WCMC 2002.) Fig: 1.1. An Index of Diversity from a Database of Species Richness and Endemism in Countries around the World

The loss of biodiversity threatens our existence and also interferes with essential ecological functions. Threats to species and ecosystem have never been so great as they are today. Human population places greater demands on ecosystems, as a result species extinction continues at an alarming rate (WWF 1998). Ecosystems are being fragmented or eliminated. Population of innumerable species is declining and many are already extinct. These extinctions are irreversible (BirdLife 2004) and pose a threat to our own wellbeing. The loss of biodiversity often reduces the productivity of ecosystems and weakens their ability to deal with natural disasters such as floods, droughts, and hurricanes, and with human- caused stresses, such as pollution and climate change. Today the ecological threat is greatest with continuing loss, fragmentation and degradation of habitats. The biodiversity is fast heading towards complete annihilation (IUCN 2000). Loss of habitats is the principal cause of the present high rate of global extinction and poses a severe threat to all ecosystems (UNEPWCMC 1998). Keeping in view its tremendous value, efforts are being made to conserve biodiversity around the world.

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INTRODUCTION

Fig: 1.2.

Ecological Zones in Pakistan

The conservation of biodiversity revolves around different approaches. One of the important is by management of ecosystems in form of various protected areas (Dourojeanni 2000). National parks are among such ecologically significant areas that are managed to safeguard biodiversity (Maxakovsky 2002). These parks are being managed around the world to conserve their intrinsic worth and typical ecosystem, landscape and the cultural elements and to allow the ecological cycle propagate itself in its original state (WWF 1998). In order to conserve its rich biodiversity and to protect the ecological integrity of its rich ecosystems, Pakistan has declared 17 of its ecologically significant areas as national parks (IUCN 2000). (List attached as Annex- I). For meeting conservation objectives, the national parks are being managed by making use of different tools. Zonation is one of such tools that is important for national park management (Trisurat 1990) and has already been widely and effectively used in different countries (Akbar 2003). Zonation is a term used by conservation planners to denote the division of land into logical units, in order to limit or manage use in sub defined areas (Trisurat 1990). It is carried out often to regulate activity in a particular area to meet management objectives, usually related to conservation (Jain 1997). The purpose of

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zoning is to carry out land- use planning and to separate areas with similar sets of potentials and constraints for development (FAO 1996). It is a kind of grouping of various resource functions according to different levels of management restrictions (Muziol 1999). Specific programmes can then be formulated to provide the most effective support to each zone (FAO 1996). The major objective is to safeguard various resource functions by ensuring that management is compatible with the prevailing conditions of the area, so that the different interests of natural environment and human society are reconciled and balanced (FAO 1996). Zonation is a geographically based procedure that communicates specific resource management objectives and strategies. It takes into account ecosystem structure, function and sensitivity as well as the opportunities for existing and potential public use. Through zonation it becomes possible to integrate the ecological, social and cultural values of the ecosystems (Rao 2001). The zonation tool is applied on the basis of primary determined goals, objectives, resource analyses and the use capabilities of the park landscape. It helps the resource managers by separating areas of conflicting uses and in managing areas for multiple uses (Trisurat 1990). Zonation also helps in regulating and managing the use of resources in defined sub- areas and also allows protection of sensitive areas (Muziol 1999). It thus ensures concentration of conservation efforts on those areas that are most vulnerable, which are regarded as: “Core Zones”. The idea of core zone is analogous to the concept of “Biodiversity Hotspots”, as described by British ecologist Norman Myers in 1998 (Mayers 1998). He designated areas in which there is a disproportionate number of endemic species and are losing habitat at a high rate. The basic concept of zonation system follows Mayers concept, which suggests a highly protected core area surrounded by a buffer zone. The core area protects critical habitat and species and the buffer zone allows a broader range of uses and is intended to insulate the core from threats to its conservation status (Trisurat 1990). The level of detail to which a zone is defined depends on the scale of the study and sometimes on the power of the data processing facilities (FAO 1996). This idea can be applied at a range of levels from defining management zones in individual protected areas to planning landscape or ecosystem conservation schemes where only the core areas are represented by protected areas (IUCN 2003). The chapter (Applying the Categories) in IUCN’s 1994 “Guidelines for Protected Area Management Categories”, deals with zonation of protected areas. The guidelines recognize that zonation is an accepted feature of the management of many protected areas and states that; “…management plans will often contain management zones for a variety of purposes….”. The IUCN guidelines also recommend that zones within protected areas should be identified separately for accounting and reporting purposes. The need for carrying out zonation in protected areas is also highly emphasized in the Biodiversity Action Plan for Pakistan (BAP 2000), which addresses the biodiversity conservation issue by stating that; “…Most ecological zones are not adequately presented within the protected areas system”.

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The process of zonation involves the use of various complex spatio- temporal ecological assessments. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is one of such powerful tools, which is used for representation and analysis of such ecological functions (Ballantyne 1994). It is a computer based system for the management and analysis of spatially referenced data and can also be used to create ecological maps for easier input, storage, manipulation and output (Nicholas 1998). GIS and remote sensing in combination are used in vegetation or ecotype analysis, habitat evaluation and monitoring the progress of conservation activities and quantifying spatial patterns of ecosystems. This tool can be used to geographically display objects according to the attributes in the database (Davis et al. 1990). GIS has already been successfully used in protected areas management (Yan & Fellows 1996) and also for carrying out zonation of such areas (Amarakul & Sanyong 2002). This study deals with the ecological zonation of the Margallah Hills National Park, in order to carry out the ecological assessment of the natural resources and provide future guidelines for its effective management. The objectives of the study are; 1. To collect data of different ecological parameters in Margallah Hills National Park, in order to study the state of biodiversity and natural resources, 2. To study the phytosociology and identify the major plant communities of the area, 3. Conduct baseline socio- economic survey and access the effect of biotic activities on the vegetation of area, 4. Characterize and prepare GIS based thematic vegetation classification map of the Margallah Hills National Park, 5. To delineate the Margallah Hills National Park into different ecological zones, on basis of the ecological features, nature of land use and the services being derived, 6. To identify Core Biodiversity Zones for conservation.

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE

The present study aims at the ecological zonation of Margallah Hills National Park. For the purpose a review of literature was made on different aspects of this study which is presented as follows: 2.1. Biodiversity and Protected Areas

“Biological diversity” or “biodiversity” is the term given to the variety of life on Earth and the natural patterns it forms. It constitutes the web of life, of which we are an integral part and upon which we fully depend (UNEP 2002). At the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, world leaders agreed on a comprehensive strategy for sustainable development, that focuses on meeting our needs while ensuring that we leave a healthy and viable world for future generations. The key agreement adopted was the Convention of Biodiversity (CBD 1992) also called the “Rio Summit”. It defines biodiversity as: “The variety and variability among living organisms from all sources including terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are part. This includes the diversity within and between ecosystems. It comprises of three distinct levels and components, (i) ecological diversity, (ii) species diversity and (iii) ecosystem diversity” (CBD 1992). The rich tapestry of life on our planet is the outcome of over 3.5 billion years of evolutionary history. It has been shaped by forces such as changes in the earth's crust, ice ages, fire, and interaction among all these. Now, it is increasingly being altered by human activities (UNEP 2002). Explaining the current conditions of life around the globe, Croombridge and Jenkins in 2001, prepared a report that was published by United Nations Environment Programme and World Conservation and Monitoring Centre (UNEP- WCMC) in which, focus was laid on the patterns of global biodiversity. They explained that the natural patterns in global biodiversity are now obscured by changes brought about by human influence, which is a factor of overwhelming significance in distribution and status of habitats of all the varieties of flora and fauna. Our country Pakistan is blessed with a variety of biotic resources. Many studies were done in this regard. While addressing the importance of biodiversity Mirza in 1998, wrote about the animal biodiversity. He has described all the habitat types in the country from tropical swaps upto the alpine regions and described all the associated key animal species, by creating pictorial illustrations of fauna of the eco- zones of Pakistan. Being a progressive nation and in order to conserve its ecological integrity, Pakistan became a signatory to the CBD in 1992 and ratified it in 1994. In order to meet the planning requirements of the convention, a comprehensive strategic and policy frame work was prepared in Pakistan, that is called Biodiversity Action Plan (BAP 2000). It was prepared after a broad level of consultation with the different stake holders. BAP lays emphasis on the current status of the biodiversity of Pakistan. It describes the principle goals and

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broad aims along with planning policies, legislation and the tools for biodiversity conservation and suggests the necessary measures for the implementation of the conservation efforts in the country. The objectives of conservation of biological diversity cannot be met without studying the ecosystem functions. National park being ecologically significant areas are managed to conserve biodiversity and other natural resources. Many studies are conducted around the world to study the ecology and management of national parks, some of them are summarized as: Studying the biodiversity in protected areas, a survey was conducted in 2003 in Great Menderes Delta National Park of Turkey by Celik et al. In this report they emphasized on the protection of landscapes and declaration of more protected areas as degradation of lands due to demographic pressures which resulted in loss of biodiversity. Their investigation dealt with the biodiversity and forest formations in area of Dilek Penninsula. They outlined different plant communities and described the role of forest formations as ecologically important biotopes as an important habitats for a number of species. Focusing on the biodiversity in our country, IUCN- The World Conservation Union in 2000, published a review of the Protected Area Systems in Pakistan. It gives a detailed analysis of the current situation of the protected areas in the country and describes the history of setting up and management of these areas. Protected areas system planning is a systematic logical, organized and goal oriented approach to the planning and designation of protected areas. This report gives description and situational analysis of all the protected areas in country and emphasizes on the different conservation needs in Pakistan. Floral assessment is an important criterion for the assessment of life forms and habitat of an area. Phytosociology is the science that describes the diversity in plant communities. It is the study of the characteristics, classification, relationships, and distribution of plant communities (The American Heritage Dictionary, 4th edn.). Phytosociology attempts to describe the diversity in plant communities and its methods often involve the quantative estimation of various parameters of vegetation like cover, abundance and frequency etc. Plant scientists have tried to apply different methods for quantitative estimation of vegetation. TWINSPAN (Hill 1979), is one of the classification utilities that is most widely used by phytosociologists for floral biodiversity assessment. It is a FORTRAN based program for Two- Way INdicator SPecies ANalysis and is an improvement upon the original Indicator Analysis. The results obtained by TWINSPAN are similar to that of Braun- Blanquet’s table arrangements. Making use of TWINSPAN numerical analysis, Du- Preez and Venter in 1990 studied the woodyvegetation in the southern part of Verdefort Dome area in South Africa. They further refined their results using Braun- Blanquet’s procedures. This analysis resulted in the identification of four sub- communities of trees. Difference in species composition between the communities and sub- communities was found related to difference in topography of the area.

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Similarly Hennekens in 1995, introduced the use of TURBO(VEG). It is a computer based software package that is now being used for input processing and presentation of phytosociological data. 2.2. Geographic Information System (GIS) in Biodiversity Assessment

In the fast changing world different specialized tools are being tested and are used for the assessment of biodiversity of a particular area. These often include the use of advance techniques and computer softwares, in order to speed up the task and get reliable assessments. Geographic Information System is one of such tool that is currently being used for such purposes. It has proved to be useful in analyzing the spatio- temporal attributes of biodiversity, including: habitat inventories and distribution mapping of ecosystems. Various studies on the use of GIS in assessment of biodiversity are discussed below: In a study conducted by Horta in 2002, Geographic Information System was used to map the floral diversity. Landsat TM image, topographic maps and Digital Elevation Model were used to perform Principal Component Analysis and maps of the human influence on the ecosystem were generated. The sample plots were classified according to variation in vegetation degradation. They used regression analysis to investigate the relationship between vegetation degradation and human and physical factors. For ecosystem conservation, data is needed on all the elements of diversity, that also includes the factor associated with increasing or decreasing species richness. Iverson and Anthana in 1998, estimated the regional plant biodiversity using the GIS modeling techniques in counties of Illinois, USA. Their results showed that several landscape patterns have general negative influence on plant diversity and species richness increases with the proportion of forest lands. Identification of potential habitat sites is a prerequisite of possible subsequent protection of threatened wildlife in Thailand. Mongkolsawat and Thirangoon (2001), in their study identified potential habitat sites for 7 wildlife species in Phusitan Wildlife Sanctuary. The habitat influencing factors included: forest type, topography, water resource and distance from human activity centers etc. They applied GIS to each model in order to identify the most suitable and moderately suitable habitats. Landsat imagery and topographic maps were employed to generate thematic layers relevant to each model in the GIS database. Using GIS for habitat analysis, Ahmad in 2001, carried out mapping of dry scrub forest for biodiversity conservation planning in Salt Range of Pakistan. Remote sensing and GIS were regarded as powerful and useful tools for biodiversity assessment. He employed Gap Analysis and Rapid Biodiversity Appraisal methods for the study. The results indicated a total of 17 forest fragments and found that there was a difference in the forest condition. He results showed that most of the identified priority forest patches were excluded from the highest levels of protection in the existing management plans.

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2.3.

Ecological Zonation and Biodiversity Core Zones/ Hotspots

The ecological zonification approach has been widely used in different countries for management of the natural resources in the protected areas. Literature was reviewed regarding various aspects, which is presented as follows: Forest zonation is the most important strategic planning tool for multi- functional forest management. Explaining this, Muziol in 1999, assessed the condition of the forest resources in Kuala Terengganu in Malaysia. He used the process of zonation for overlapping the different levels of restrictiveness in forest areas, in order to improve the management in the specific areas. These could be conservation, tourism and other type of productive uses of forest resources. A relationship between forest and environment which includes both the demographic and social components was explained by Vargas and his colleagues in 1995. They aimed to discern management zones based on the ecology of oak in states of Jalisco and Colima in Mexico. In their investigation, they used classification and ordination techniques in order to recognize groups based on species composition and stand structure in order to identify the environmental parameters that cause variation in the species composition of these oak forests. Based on this approach they were successful in determining the ecological parameters that determined the distribution of vegetation in the area. The zonation process can also be applied to the ecosystems within the protected areas. National park zoning is a park management device that is applied on the basis of pre determined goals, objectives, resource analyses and the use capabilities of the park landscape. In 1990, Trisurat and his co- workers illustrated the practical application of zonation tool in Phu Rua National Park in Thailand. GIS technique was applied to evaluate the location of the zones. They were successful in demarcation of different zones base on demography and ecology of the area. The proper and improper activities in different ecological zones should be decided by consensus of all the stakeholders. Explaining this, Amarkul and Sirirat in 2001, developed detailed criteria for declaration of different zones in Phitsanulo Province of Thailand. They also described the role of applying GIS in developing the strategy for sustainable development in such ecologically significant areas. They emphasized on the management of resources by delineating the area into protection, production, development and multiple use zones. Identification of biodiversity core zones is based on the high concentration of unique wildlife as explained by Kemp in 2001. In his project document he identified the biodiversity hotspots in order to establish conservancies in areas around Australia. He further mentioned that hotspots are declared upon two criteria one revolves round that there are real conservation threats to wildlife in these key areas and the second in terms of degree of endemism in the area.

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Zonation tool has also been tested in Pakistan. While applying this, Akbar in 2003 carried out the zonation of the valley catchments of Bar Palas valley in district Kohistan. Realizing the variation in the socioeconomic and ecological dimensions of the area, he demarcated the core and buffer zones in the valley based on the demographic, socio- economic and ecological dimension. He suggested that the area which is recommended as “Core zone” must be restricted for uses like fuel wood collection and grazing in order to provide maximum protection to wildlife for their undisturbed breeding, feeding and refuge. 2.3.1. The Paradigms of Zonation Natural resources do not exist in isolation, their quality and magnitude over different temporal and spatial scales varies as a result of interaction of biophysical forces. Human beings are the major interacting variables. Zonation is an option for effective yet sustainable management of natural resources in a given situation. Anon in 2002, described the different paradigms for the zonation of protected areas, which are: Traditional Parks and Protected Areas Paradigm (TPPAP) This paradigm is based on traditional approach to conservation and management of protected areas. It gives the idea of eliminating the human component altogether from the conservation area, which is declared as “Core Zone” and is set aside in total seclusion and is separated from human influence by erection of boundaries or fences. The area is intensely protected and resource use is not allowed inside the hard edged boundaries. This paradigm failed because it created multitude of problems mainly because of eliminating the stakes of local communities and of the limited resources to erect huge fences around the area or hire manpower to enforce strict management.

Fig. 2.1. Traditional Parks and Protected Areas Paradigm (TPPAP)

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Integrated Conservation and Development Paradigm (ICDP) According to this paradigm the core zone is protected by a buffer zone which surrounds it and where economic incentives are provided for the local communities in lieu of restricting their activities in the core zone. Buffers zone functions to filter out negative impacts moving into and out from core areas. This model is widely used in developing world and currently being applied in Pakistan. However, this paradigm also has some drawbacks like; lack of monitoring of the magnitude of threats and improper measures to mitigate these threats.

Fig. 2.2. Integrated Conservation and Development Paradigm (ICDP)

Community- Based Conservation Paradigm (CBCP) This idea started to emerge in late 1980s. According to it, the biodiversity conservation issue in an area is merged with the demographic component. This approach emphasizes on developing direct links between biodiversity and the local communities with the developing of understanding that if people start realizing the benefits of biodiversity, they will not only care for it but also take actions to mitigate internal and external threats to biodiversity. It however takes much longer to establish such links between local communities and biodiversity for sustainable conservation and requires capacity building and creating sense of ownership and understanding among the custodian communities.

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Fig. 2.3. Community- Based Conservation Paradigm (CBCP)

Besides these paradigms, some other approaches are also being tested, they are: The Meso- American Biological Corridor (MBC) This concept was proposed by Wilson & Willis in 1975 and was tested in Central America, which aims to conserve biological diversity while fostering sustainable development and promoting ecofriendly production alternatives. Its particular significance lies in the scope and complexity of its goals and the wide range of institutions and social actors. It involves and emphasizes on connectivity between habitats and focuses on growing awareness of the need to maintain links between biological habitat areas to ensure survival and aims to maximize the conservation functions of protected areas by promoting forms of land- use in the wider landscape that offer both conservation benefits and sustainable livelihoods. It gives the ideas of four zones, that are: Core Zones: are locations designated as protected areas, designed to provide secure habitats for wild fauna and flora. Buffer Zones: surround protected areas and function to filter out negative impacts moving into and out from these areas. Corridor Zones: link core areas with one another and either remain under natural vegetation, or are managed to ensure that human land- uses are compatible with the maintenance of a high degree of biological connectivity.

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Multiple- Use Zones: are devoted primarily to human use, but managed to facilitate the creation of broader landscapes that are hospitable to wild species. Each type of zone provides both ecological and socio- economic benefits as part of an integrated system for regional land- use.

Fig. 2.4. The Meso- American Biological Corridor (MBC)

Bioregional Approach (BA) Bioregional approach is considered to be a modern idea for the conservation of resources. It defines a geographic space that contains one or several whole nested ecosystems that are characterized by its landforms, vegetation, human culture and history etc. This approach gives the idea of conserving biodiversity at the ecosystem, landscape or regional scale rather than in single protected areas and that this form of conservation planning should include programmes for restoration activities and the integration of economic land use with biodiversity conservation.

Fig. 2.5. Bioregional Approach (BA)

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Biosphere Reserves (BR) This concept comes from UNESCO (1968) and is compatible with IUCN Protected Areas Management Categories, which addresses the effective planning and management of these areas. It promotes solution to reconcile the conservation of biodiversity along with its sustainable use, ensuring an interaction and balance of humans with nature. The boundaries of biosphere reserves are not static. Its concept is based on two distinct management tools, (i) participatory management approach and (ii) a geographical zoning scheme. The zoning schemes give and idea of three zones, that are: Core Zone: are legally protected and devoted to the conservation of the biodiversity. Buffer Zone: surrounds core area where only activities compatible with the conservation objectives are allowed. Transition Zone: surrounds the buffer zone where sustainable resource management initiatives and practices are allowed, with the cooperation of the population. The management of this area is done according to the local custom of the communities.

Fig. 2.6. Biosphere Reserve (BR)

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2.4.

Margallah Hills National Park

Margallah Hills National Park (MHNP) is one of the important protected areas in Pakistan. It is being studied for its ecological significance. The various studies conducted in the MHNP are reviewed as: Vegetation and soil survey was conducted at various topographic levels of Chirani Peak by Sultan in 1990. He described the various plant communities and the altitudinal variation in forest crop in relation to the properties of soil in Margallah Hills National Park. Fatima in 1999, studied the phytosociology along both sides of the streams of the catchment area of Rawal lake in Islamabad. She used TWINSPAN in order to analyze the collected data. Selecting 7 stands in total she divided the area in two major zones i.e. one with less disturbed Dodonaea viscosa vegetation that is native to Margallah Hills and the other more disturbed area with widely spreading Lantana camara vegetation along with a number of annual grasses. A comparison of the burnt and un- burnt sites with the overall effect of fire occurrences on vegetation, soil and viability of vesicular- mycorrhizal propagules was made by Rashid in 1995. The study was conducted on fire behavior in relation to its ecological effects in Margallah Hills. He found that the burnt plots were rich in nutrients, but were devoid of any stratification. Soil nutrients increased after fire occurrence then gradually decreased to the level of un- burnt soils. He also concluded that the burnt plots were subjected to severe erosion due to exposed slopes on which the vegetation was lost due to fire. A preliminary study on the phytosociology of Islamabad was carried out by Khattak in 1989. He selected 30 stands on the basis of uniform physiognomy of the vegetation and made ecological observations and recognized an independent community in each stand on the basis of highest importance value. He reported that the general vegetation was mesophytic in central part of Islamabad with a little original vegetation that prevailed at the periphery of the city. In order to study the floral diversity and to highlight conservation problems in MHNP, Malik in 1999 followed the stratified random sampling techniques. In the analysis Supervised Classification by using Maximum Likelihood Algorithm was used. Thus she prepared a thematic vegetation map by making use of SPOT XS scene. To assess the habitat suitability for the mammals, Anwar in 1997, conducted a study on the distribution of barking deer in the Margallah ranges. He studied the population status and distribution of the species and reported its association with different plant communities. He concluded that human induced disturbances have resulted in the habitat destruction, which is the principle cause of population decline of mammal species in the area.

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3
3.1.

MATERIALS AND METHODS
SITE DESCRIPTION

The Margallah Hills National Park is one of the ecologically significant protected areas in Pakistan. It was established on 27th April 1980 by the Federal Government, vide order No. S.R.O 443 [1] /80. (ICT), in order to preserve the natural landscape of the surroundings of the capital city and biodiversity of the area. The total area of the National Park is 158,83 ha (Management Plan 1992). The park area represents a scrub forest ecosystem which is considered to be of great ecological importance due to its species diversity. The proximity of the park to the capital city is its uniqueness. Due to the variety of its land- use types, the Margallah Hills National Park is considered as a remarkable blend of cultural, biological, physiographic and recreational avenues. A view of the Faisal Mosque and Islamabad city is shown in Fig 3.1, where as a detailed Map of Margallah Hills National Park is shown in Fig. 3.2.

Fig 3.1. View of Faisal Mosque from Margallah Hills National Park

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MATERIALS AND METHODS

N ▲

Fig. 3.2. Map of Margallah Hills National Park

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3.1.1. Location The Margallah Hills National Park is located in the Islamabad Capital Territory (ICT) and forms the northern boundary of Islamabad, the capital city of Pakistan. The area of park lies between geographical coordinates: 330 36’ to 360 33’ N latitude 720 50’ to 730 26’ E longitudes

and

The national park area abodes diverse ecological features. Due to the variability of its land- types the national park is divided into three components that are: Margallah Hills Comprises of most of the Margallah mountainous range, it stretches in north- west of Islamabad city. The total area of Margallah hills range falling in the national park is 12,605 ha. (Mgt. Plan 1992). It stretches in east towards Murree hills and in west up to the Wah Cement Industries. To the north it is bounded by the capital boundary behind which lies the district of Haripur, (NWFP). Rawal Lake The area of this component is 19,02 ha. including a 2 km perimeter around its lakeshore. It comprises of a perennial water reservoir with a total capacity of 47,500 acre foot (Mgt. Plan 1992) Fig. 3.3. The lake provides water for domestic use to the habitants of Rawalpindi. Besides being a favorite picnic spot, it is also a winter stop- over ground for a number of waterfowl. It serves as a source of irrigation water for the local farms and also serves in buffering against floods. The catchment area of Rawal Lake is spread over 275 sq km (Mgt. Plan 1992) and is drained by Kaurang river, which originates from Murree hills towards north- east.

Fig. 3.3. View of Rawal Lake

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Shakarparian It is an urban, spacious and partially developed recreational place with a total area of 13,76 ha. (Mgt. Plan 1992). Shakarparian provides out door recreation and hosts sports and cultural activities. It includes number of gardens and a sports complex. Shakarparian also hosts a Lok Virsa Museum and Open Air Theatre and Pakistan Museum of Natural History. 3.1.2. Topography The topography of the area varies from steep to precipitous, comprising mainly of steep slopes and gullies of varying elevation from 465 m to 1600 m (Nasir & Ali 1979). Fig. 3.4. The highest peak in the park area is “Chirani” with a height of 1604 m (Mgt. Plan 1992) Fig. 3.5. The rock structure is basically of lime stone (Mohammad 1990), predominantly comprised of greenish- brown shale and the massive grayish- blue limestone. Geologically the rocks belong to Paleocene and Eocene Period (40- 60 million years old). A fault zone can be traced along the foot of Margallah hills stretching from Islamabad city up to the Murree town (Fatima 1999).

Fig. 3.4. Topography of Margallah Hills

The soils of the area are derived from wind and water laid deposits. The top soil is very thin composed of silt clay with reddish appearance with color ranging from dark to yellow brown with a medium structure and well developed profile. The slopes are mostly rocky having a spongy structure and are comprised of calcimorphic gray brown soils (Fatima 1999). The natural streams originating from these hills provide drinking water for all the inhabitants of the surrounding areas and also support other domestic needs (Shinwari & Khan 2000).

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Fig. 3.5. A View of Chirani Peak (1604 m)

3.1.3. Climate The climate of the area is sub- tropical with moderate summers and winters. The average temperature is 94 0F. Snow is rare, the average rainfall being 1200 mm per annum (Hijazi 1984). The maximum average temperature is recorded to be 134 0F in the month of June, while the maximum precipitation is recorded to be 10 inches in months of July and August. The climatic data for Islamabad is represented below in figures, 3.6 and 3.7.

Source: www.weatherbase.com Fig. 3.6. Temperature Data for Islamabad

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Formatted: English (U.S.)

Source: www.weatherbase.com
Fig. 3.7. Precipitation Data for Islamabad

3.1.4. Flora The area represents the sub- tropical broad leaved evergreen forest type Fig. 3.8. It includes about 608 species of plants, belonging to 101 families and 548 genera (Mohammad 1990). The dominant species include: Kao (Olea cuspidata), Phulai (Acacia modesta), Bhaikar (Adhatoda vasica), Granda (Carissa opaca) and Sunatha (Dodonaea viscosa). The vegetation above 1000 m elevation falls in sub- tropical chir pine zone and comprises of pure stands of Chir (Pinus roxburghii). In some places the vegetation is dominated by species like: Lantana camara and paper mulberry (Broussonettia papyrifera). (Detailed floral list is attached as Annex- II.

Fig. 3.8. Vegetation of Margallah Hills

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3.1.5. Fauna The park and adjacent areas host 250 species of birds, 38 mammals, 13 taxa of reptiles and numerous taxa of insects (Mgt. Plan 1992). The key mammal species include: Common Leopard (Panthera pardus), Rhesus Monkey (Macacca mulata), Gray Goral (Nemorhaedus goral), Barking Deer (Muntiacus muntjak), Fox (Vulpes bengalensis), Wild Boar (Sus scrofa), Porcupine (Hystrix indica) and Fruit Bat (Pteropus giganteus). The common bird species include: Himalayan Griffon (Gypus himalayensis), Spotted Owlet (Athene brama), Rose- Ringed Parakeet (Pisttacula krameri), Golden Oriole (Oriolus oriolus), Common Babbler (Turdoides caudatus) and Ringed Dove (Streptopelia decaocta). The wetland component of the national park is a favorite stop- over ground for a variety of water birds. (Fatima 1999). Water- fowl include: Marsh Harier (Circus aeruginosus), White- backed Kingfisher (Halcyon smynrensis), Pintail (Anas acuta), Little Egret (Egretta grazatta) and Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos). The fish species in Rawal lake and its tributaries include: Doula (Channa channa), Rahu (Labeo rohita), Thaila (Catla catla), Mori (Cirrhinus mrigala), Carp fish (Cyprinus carpio) and Talapia (Tilapia mossambica). The detailed list of fauna is attached as (Annex- III). 3.1.6. Agriculture and Livestock Majority of the people (about 60%) living in the park area are engaged in agriculture and livestock production and marketing. They practice subsistence rain- fed agriculture with low yields (Fig. 3.9). Wheat and corn are the main crops. Some farmers are also cultivating sorghum and practicing kitchen gardening. In almost all villages farmers are the owners. There are no tenants or ownercum- tenants. The average size of livestock holding is five to six animals per household (Mustafa 2003).

Fig. 3.9. Subsistence Agriculture in Park Area

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3.1.7. Tourism There are various recreational places in and around the MHNP. Rawal Lake provides fishing, boating and swimming opportunities to a number of people. Shakarparian is a wonderful place for those who wish to enjoy in seclusion. The Pakistan Museum of Natural History is located in Shakarparian and aims at carrying research and providing information to the people about our rich natural heritage. Lok Virsa Open Air Theatre hosts number of cultural and recreational shows every year. The play land located near Marghazar is an excellent out door recreational place for children. The zoo at Marghazar provides opportunities to folks to watch and carry out research of the indigenous and some exotic animal and bird species. The Capital Development Authority in collaborations with World Wide Fund (WWF- Pakistan) has established a “Margallah Conservation and Information Centre (MCIC)” at Marghazar in order to provide information about the MNHP and raise awareness about the natural resources and conservation needs. The MCIC also provides information to students and researchers. Fig. 3.10.

Fig. 3.10. Margallah Conservation and Information Centre

Daman- e- Koh is a view point that provides panoramic view of the capital city. Chowki, Pir Sohawa and Shahdara valley are ideal picnic spots for sight lovers. There are few caves located in the park area which are a source of attraction for explorers Fig. 3.11.

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Fig. 3.11. Caves in Margallah Hills

The Shah Faisal Mosque, International Islamic University and Quaid- i- Azam University are situated in the vicinity of the park. The famous archeological site of Taxila and the Taxila Archeological Museum are also located at the north of MHNP. The Margallah Hills also provide opportunity of hiking, camping, sight seeing and exploration to a number of people. The tourist facilities comprise of a boating club, view points, tent village world, camping sites, hiking and walking trails and a number of hotels and restaurants. There are a number of spiritual shrines inside and around the national park area. These include: the shrine of Saint Shah Abdul Lateef, who is famous by the name of “Bari Imam” and the shrine of Pir Mehr Ali Shah, famous by the name of “Golra Sharif”. A large number of people visit these sacred places to pay their respects and offer salutations and pray to Allah seeking their intercession. 3.1.8. Population and Social Structure Human population in the national park is recorded to be 920,00 individuals, living in 37 villages or small hamlets called Dhoks or Moras which are randomly distributed near or around water sources. The gender distribution in the area is estimated with a male to female ratio of 55:65. The traditional councils are called “Jirgas” which retain considerable authority in order of settling disputes between families and make decisions for social welfare. Most of the people in the locality work and do business in the twin cities of Islamabad and Rawalpindi while others are dependent on subsistence agriculture and live stock rearing practices. The average number of livestock population is 3 to 4 animal heads per house (Mustafa 2003). The village wise profile of eight main villages is summarized in Table 3.1.

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Table 3.1. Demographic Data for Major Villages in MHNP

Village Gokina Khurd Gokina Kalan Talhar Shadara Kalan Shadara Khurd Mandla Jhang Bagial Rumli

Population 1800 – 2000 1500 – 2000 2800 – 3000 2500 900 – 1200 1500 – 2000 950 – 1200 800

No. of Houses 260 270 325 298 140 206 110 120

Avg. Household Size 7 6–7 6–8 6–9 6–8 4 – 10 8 – 10 6–7
Source: (Mustafa 2003)

The communities in the park area are heavily dependant on park resources for timber, fuel wood, non- timber forest products and subsistence agriculture. This is resulting in the rapid depletion of natural resources. The deforestation is resulting in habitat shrinkage causing negative trends in the population of wild flora and fauna which is ultimately adding to the unbalancing of ecosystem. 3.1.9. Management of Margallah Hills National Park The management of the MHNP is the sole responsibility of the Environment Directorate of the Capital Development Authority (CDA), which in collaboration with a number of Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs) manages the national park. The park is divided into 31 beats for better management. The over all management is supervised by the Director General Environment (CDA). There is a Deputy Director, 3 Range Forest Officers and number of other support staff to manage the national park. The office of the Environment Directorate of CDA is located in Sector F-9 in Islamabad. The management plan of the park was revised in 1992, by Government in collaborations with IUCN- The World Conservation Union. It proposes a permanent committee comprising of Government and Non Government bodies to give advice for the park management. The resources of the park face the following major threats (Mgt. Plan 1992):
• • • • • • • •

Fuel wood cutting both for domestic and commercial purposes Overgrazing Encroachments on forest land for agriculture Poaching Forest fires Stone quarries Misuse of other natural resources Unorganized tourism

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3.2.

METHODOLOGY

The present study aims at the ecological zonation and identification of core zones of prime importance in regard to biodiversity. For the purpose a detailed phytosociological, ecological and socio- economic survey was conducted in the Margallah Hills National Park. The methodology of the study can be divided in to three phases i. e: 3.2.1 3.2.2 3.2.3 Preparatory Phase Field Data Collection Phase Analyzing Phase

3.2.1. Preparatory Phase To start with the research work detailed review of literature was carried out regarding various aspects of the proposed title. Relevant papers were gathered on similar studies by making use of libraries, relevant web- sites (Annex- IV) and by contacting researchers around the world personally through post and email. A proposal was developed in order to outline the aims and objectives of the study and for streamlining of the research work. Development of Field Survey Performa and Socio- Economic Questionnaire In order to collect data on different ecological parameters various field performa were developed. These included: the performa for phytosociological data (Annex- V), fuel- wood consumption data (Annex- VI) and ecological data (Annex- VII). Each of these performa was personally tested in field and subsequent rectifications were made from time to time. Planning of Field Visits The planning for detailed field visits was done with the suggestions of experts who had a previous experience of conducting field work in the area and by personal consultation with the local inhabitants. Keeping in view the rugged field conditions and accessibility to the national park area from different routes were discussed by making use of available maps. Acquiring of Field Equipment and Area Maps The necessary equipment and maps was collected for the study which were:
• • • • • • •

Global Positioning System (GPS III) handheld receiver, Garmin 12 XL. Compass, clinometer, altimeter, an ordinary measuring tape. Digital Camera. Topographic Map (1:250 000 scale) of the area showing boundaries. Software, ESRI ARCView® 3.1 and ESRI ERDAS® Imagine. Satellite image of study of LANDSAT 5 TM with 30 m ground resolution. Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of study area with 30 m ground resolution.

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3.2.2. FIELD DATA COLLECTION PHASE For data collection a series of field visits were made to the Margallah Hills National Park. The area was visited in the months of July, August and September 2004, from several locations in order to make access to all the possible sampling sites. The different access routes were:
• • • • • • • •

From Murree Road to Shahdara and Rumli. From Marghazar to Damn- e- Koh, Chowki, Pir Sohawa and Makhnial. From Chowki to Gokina and Talhar. From G-11, to Shah Allah Ditta and Makhnial. From Kashmir Highway to Golra. Hike to Loi Dandi from Bari Imam. Hike to Shahdara from Quaid- i- Azam University. Hike from Faisal Mosque to Damn- e- Koh.

Phytosociological Survey For the phytosociological assessment, a survey was conducted in the MHNP. Flora was used as an indicator of forest biodiversity as suggested by Mayers (1998), Dallmeier (1998) and Reid et al. (1993) due to the following reasons:
• • • • • • •

Plants are easy to study because they are immobile. Plants are more sensitive to environmental changes, such as hydrologic or edaphic changes as compared to wild animals. They are the basis of diversity in the taxonomic groups and are well known to researchers. Plants, in general, have a central role in terrestrial ecosystems and also provide adequate information to interpret biodiversity indices. The diversity of plants in a region does not fluctuate over short time intervals. Data on plants is often available and easier to collect. Areas with high plant species richness tend to have high species richness in other groups of animals.

As the area represents the sub- tropical broad leaved evergreen vegetation and is dominated by the shrubby and medium sized trees, so quadrat size suitable for scrub vegetation was selected. Each of the stand comprised of ten quadrats with a size of 100 m2 (10 x 10 m). Thus a total of 44 stands were laid in the park area. Measuring tape and objects like colored ribbons and stones were used in field to define the quadrats. The stands were laid randomly as well as systematically in field in order to cover the variation of vegetation for different site conditions. The following two parameters were considered for defining the stands: I. II. The stand was large enough to contain all the species belonging to the plant community. The vegetation was uniform with in the stand.

The phytosociological data collected from each quadrat included its species composition and cover percentage of individual species. The cover values were determined by visual estimation and

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registered on eleven- grade Domin and Hadač scale (Mueller- Dombis & Heinz 1974). The scale is presented in Table. 3. 2.
Table. 3.2. Domin- Hadaĉ Values

Domin Score + 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Cover %age A Single Individual Seldom ( with insignificant Cover) <1 1-4 5-10 11-25 26-33 34-50 51-75 76-90 91-100

Visual estimation of crown diameter was calculated as follows: (Barbour et al, 1987). Crown cover =

Where, D1 = First measured crown diameter D2 = Second measured crown diameter The cover percentage was determined as; Percentage Cover = Total Cover of Individual Plant Total Area Sampled X 100

The plant species that were collected from field were classified and identified with the help of taxonomists from the Department of Biological Science, Quaid- i- Azam University. Thus complete floristic list of the species was prepared for reference (Annex- II). Plants were named following (Stewart 1957) and (Nasir & Ali 1972). Socio- Economic Survey A detailed survey was conducted in order to assess the socio- economic conditions of the people living in the park vicinity. For this purpose frequent visits were made to the villages to conduct personal interviews with the community. The exercise was facilitated by female field investigators (interns from WWF). Their participation in the survey was helpful in obtaining information from the female folks. A questionnaire (Annex- VIII) for conducting the socio- economic survey was developed after consultation with an Environmental Sociologist. Subsequent rectifications were made after the pre- testing of the questionnaire in the field.

Ecological Zonation and Identification of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park

4 2D 1D

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+

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2

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MATERIALS AND METHODS

Based on 20% sampling intensity, the following eight villages were selected at random for socioeconomic survey. They were:
• • • • • • • •

Shahdara Talhar Gokina Kalan Gokina Khurd Shah Allah Ditta Malwar Rumli Jhang Bagial

Interviews were conducted in the above mentioned sampled village in accordance to the PRA and RRA Techniques (Chambers 1994). Both Random and Snow- ball sampling methods were used, in which interviews were facilitated by few influential informers from within the community. Ecological Survey In order to collect the data, various ecological parameters were taken in to consideration. They were:
• • • • • •

Logging/ Lopping Grazing Erosion Fire Agriculture Stone quarries

The data for these parameters was recorded in already described 44 stands, that contained randomly and systematically laid ten quadrats of 100 m2 (10x10 m) size. Visual estimation method was employed to record the disturbance in the quadrats (Goldsmith and Harrison 1976). (Annex IX.) The various disturbance indicator and their verifiers along with the scores used in the field (Modified from Ahmad 2001) are described in Table. 3. 3.

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Table. 3. 3. Disturbance Indicators and their Verifiers Used

INDICATORS i). ii). iii). i). ii). iii). iv). i). ii). iii).

VERIFIERS Presence of wood debris Signs of lopping Presence of stumps Presence of droppings Presence on animals in or around plot Signs of grass cutting Grazed grass. Exposed roots Rill/ gully formation Stony soil surface

Logging/ Lopping

Grazing

Erosion

Fire

i). Presence of burnt ash or vegetation ii). Burnt stems i). ii). iii). iv). Presence of crops in or around plots Signs of ploughing Clearance of vegetation Leveled area or Terracing

Agriculture

Stone Quarries

i). Presence of excavated sites ii). Presence of loose rubble

The scores that were used to quantify these disturbance indicators (Modified from Ahmad 2001) are given in Table 3.4 below.
Table. 3. 4. Score for Disturbance Indicators

Description No Visible Effect Not Visible Effect Visible Effect at Moderate Level Visible Effect at Remarkable Level Visible Effect at Very High Level

Score 1 2 3 4 5

Similarly, different scores were developed in order to collect the topographical data. The data for slope was recorded by using a Clinometer. The scores used to define the slope (Saqib 2003) are given in Table. 3. 5.

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Table. 3. 5. Score for Slope

Score 0 1 2 3 4

Description Level Gentle Moderate Steep Very Steep

Slope 00 – 30 40 – 80 90 – 160 170 – 260 >260

A Compass was used for recording aspect. The following codes were used (Louis 1989) are given in Table 3. 6.
Table. 3. 6. Code for Aspect

Aspect North East South West North- East South- East South- West North- West Geographical Data/ Ground Truthing of Data

Code 0 2 4 2.5 1 3 3.3 1.3

The geographical data was collected by recording the coordinates of sampling stands for phytosociological and ecological survey. In order to collect the data for later verification and use for vegetation and ecological classification through GIS software. The observation was made in each stand using the GARMIN® Global Positioning System (GPS III) handheld receiver (Fig 3.12).

Fig. 3.12. GARMIN® Global Positioning System (GPS III) Handheld Receiver

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Fuel- wood Consumption Data The data for fuel- wood consumption in villages and other sites were collected through questionnaire. Shrines of Bari Imam and Golra Sharif were the major fuel- wood consumption sites, where it is used for cooking. The data was collected through conduction of visits to consumption sites and personal interviews with the people. Tourists Data The data for tourism was recorded at various famous tourist spots within the national park area. For this purpose personal observations and physical counting were done. The following were the major tourist sites:
• • • • • • • •

Marghazar Daman- e- Koh Chowki Pir Sohawa Loi Dandi Bari Imam Golra Sharif Shahdara

3.2.3. ANALYSING PHASE Socio- Economic Data Analysis In order to analyze the socio- economic data, the feed back obtained from the communities through questionnaire were incorporated into Microsoft® Excel spread sheet. Graphs were generated from the available data in order to get a comprehensive picture of the results. Phytosociological Data Analysis Organization In order to organize the field data, it was incorporated in Microsoft® Excel spreadsheet. The data was instated with corresponding cover values for individual species in a two- way matrix. The data file was converted to Comma Delimited Text File (CSV) format, which allowed the data table to be easily retrieved into application used for processing. Processing The data was processed by using TURBOVEG® (Hennekens 1995). It is a MS Windows® based computer software package that is now being used for input processing and presentation of phytosociological data. TURBOVEG® is comprised of easy to use data base management system

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MATERIALS AND METHODS

and provides methods for input, import, selection and export of phytosociological data in different relevés. The species data was exported from TURBOVEG® in Cornell Condensed Format, which served as input for the classification and ordination program (TWINSPAN). Analysis The data for cover of sampled plots were instated to TWINSPAN (Two Way INdicator Species ANalysis), following Hill 1979. It is a FORTRAN based computer package designed primarily for ecologists and phytosociologists that is used to analyze and classify the vegetation data. The program first constructs a classification of the samples, and then uses this classification to obtain a classification of the species according to their ecological preferences. The two classifications are then used together to obtain an ordered two- way table that expresses synecological relations between species. This package aims at recording the floristic variation and to detect natural groups of quadrats. TWINSPAN is based on Reciprocal Averaging Ordination (RA). In RA the samples were placed in order according to the abundances of the various species. These were then assigned weights to correspond with the relative sample positions and the sample scores were re- calculated. The samples were then placed in order, according to their scores and the species weights were re- calculated in a recursive process. Finally, this settled down with the samples in the best order according to their species composition and the species in the best order according to their occurrence in the samples. Following steps were involved in TWINSPAN analysis. I. II. III. IV. V. Ordinate the samples by Reciprocal Averaging. Find the best place (center of gravity) at which to split the data set into two groups. Identify the species showing the most difference in occurrence on the two sides (+ve and – ve) of the split. These are termed as indicator species. Use these species to do a refined ordination and verify the best split. Calculate indicator scores for the samples (adding +1 for each positive indicator species present and –1 for each negative indicator species).

This process can then be repeated going down in the forms of a dendrogram in each of the subgroup, until the required number of classes is obtained. The division between classes can be described in terms of the differences and the indicator species. Based on the TWINSPAN classification of the vegetation, a dendrogram was obtained for whole classification of vegetation. All the plant communities thus obtained were classified and described on the basis of the ecological prevalence. Tourists Data Analysis The tourist’s data was incorporated in Microsoft® Excel spread sheet. Graphs were generated in order to analyze the data.

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MATERIALS AND METHODS

Geographical Data Analysis As a result of phytosociological analysis, thirteen plant communities were identified in the Margallah Hills National Park. In order to mark these communities on the satellite image, the ground truthed geographical data was analyzed using GIS, in order to generate vegetation classification maps. Similarly the ecological zonation was carried out using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The analysis was performed in following steps: I. Generation of Thematic Land Cover/ Vegetation Classification Map A thematic land cover/ classification map shows the spatial distribution of a particular theme (like vegetation classes) on the satellite image. The process involved assigning a finite number of individual classes or categories to continuous raster pixels of the satellite image. This way, the contained information was converted into a continuous raster pixel that spreads the multiple spectral bands of image into definite classes. These classes represent different physiognomic features of ground, like vegetation types etc. For developing the land cover/ vegetation classification map of the MHNP, the geo- rectified satellite image of the park was used. The GIS software ESRI ARCView® 3.1 was used for this purpose. This process involved the following steps: a. Acquiring Satellite Image and Digital Elevation Model To start with the analysis of geographical data, a geo- rectified satellite image of LANDSAT5 Thematic Mapper (TM), with a ground resolution of 30 m, was acquired from GIS Lab of WWF- Lahore (Fig. 3.13). The satellite image was taken on 11th April 2000, at 10:30 am.

Fig. 3.13. LANDSAT- 5 TM Satellite Image (30 m Ground Resolution) Showing MHNP and surrounding areas of Islamabad city

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A Digital Elevation Model (DEM), with 30 m resolution of Pakzone 1, comprising of the major portion of the study area was also acquired from GIS Lab of WWF Lahore (Fig. 3.3). b. Extraction of Area of Interest (AOI) The area of interest (AOI) comprising of MHNP was extracted from the satellite imagery using the ARCView® 3.1 (Fig. 3.14)

Fig. 3.14. Digital Elevation Model of AOI with Logical Zonation Units (30 m Ground Resolution)

c.

Supervised Image Classification

Supervised Image Classification by Maximum Likelihood Algorithm was used (Horta 2002). Classified images were filtered by using neighboring function to eliminate underrepresented groups of pixels. This procedure was used because of the availability of DEM and knowledge of the vegetation of the area. On screen polygons were drawn, that defined known vegetation types of the area that were already recorded by the ground truthing during the field work. The supervised image classification involved the following steps: Feature Space Image Defining Training Sites Classification Process Class Credibility

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Feature Space Image It has a similar raster file structure as an ERDAS Imagine® file, expect that instead of raster satellite image pixels it represents the plot of two bands, which is often called a “Scatter Plot”. Different colors in this scatter plot represent different densities of the pixels in the image with particular brightness. For this image classification, the False Color Composite (FCC) was used with a band combination of 342. This band combination gives maximum information for vegetation classes. Band- 4 of near- infrared strongly reflected vegetation in infrared region and Band- 2 exhibits maximum reflectance of vegetation in visible part of electromagnetic spectrum. Defining Training Areas A training area is the sample of earth’s surface feature that is recognizable on the satellite image with known information and confidence. For defining and refining the signatures of different vegetation classes, the non- parametric signatures are used which defines the training areas in form of polygons and rectangles. The already analyzed and ground truthed vegetational data was referred to check the accuracy of the process and to identify the know plant communities on the satellite image. Classification Process To generate a signature the Parallelepiped Classification Decision Rule (PCDR) was used. In PCDR the data file values are compared with the upper and the lower limits of the parallelepiped. The size of the rectangle depends upon the Spectral Euclidean Distance (SED), which is specified before growing an individual class in the feature space image. Hence all the pixels with the defined hard boundaries were classified as the class they are named against. The method of defining training areas with non- parametric signatures has an advantage that it provides with the confusing boundaries in the form of overlapping rectangles. Such over lapping classes should be avoided the signature identification process. This resulted in a better class identification and classification. Class Credibility To assess the credibility of the sample sites for each vegetation cover class, spectral signatures for each individual site were observed and the subtle spectral variations in these signatures were taken into account. These spectral signatures provided an extra support in finalizing any of the selected signatures that lead towards better class identification. Preparation of Altitudinal Land- Cover Distribution Graph The data from the Thematic Vegetation Classification Map was plotted on a Graph using MS® Excel. The obtained graph shows altitudinal distribution of different land- cover classes in percentage. The elevation was derived from the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and the percentages of different landcover classes were obtained from the Digital Image Classification (DIC).

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MATERIALS AND METHODS

Preparation of Logical Zonation Units In order to generate maps for the zonation of MHNP, on screen digitization of the satellite image was carried out using the “Digitizer” extension of the ESRI ARCView® 3.1. The zonation logical units were selected on the basis of easily recognizable topographic features such as: major creeks, distinct ridges and roads (Shaw 1999). A separate ESRI ARCView® theme was laid in which the watersheds of the area were marked in order to facilitate the exercise. The contour lines with a contour interval of 10 m were also laid as a separate theme in order to get help in recognizing the salient topographic features on the satellite image. By this process whole of the study area was divided into 64 logical zonation units. Each unit has a different area depending upon the topography. The logical zonation units (Fig. 3.15) were numbered as 1, 2, 3,…, 64 accordingly.

Fig. 3.15. AOI with marked Watersheds and Logical Units

Generation of Zonation Map In order to generate the Zonation map for MHNP, the data from the Vegetation Classification Map was analyzed in MS® Excel and the area of each vegetation class was obtained on percentage basis. Similarly the data from ecological analysis was also incorporated. The obtained data resulted in formation of a principal tree showing the distinct vegetation zones. This data was incorporated in ESRI ARCView® in order to generate map of these zones by marking the logical units with different color schemes that were described by a legend.

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MATERIALS AND METHODS

Based on the subjective classification according to the ecological parameters of the area, the zonation was carried out/ The area was divided into two major zones on the basis of occurrence of dominant species. In second step each of two major zones was then subdivided into two zones on the basis of relative proportion of characteristic/ dominant tree species. The sub- zones in these major zones were declared on the basis of relative abundance dominant species. The sub- zones formed at step two were again divided into minor zones on the basis of proportionate soil erosion/ bare soil. The minor zones were divided into management zones. This bifurcation was carried out by presence exotic species. The Core Biodiversity Zones The core biodiversity zones were identified in both the vegetation types as of scrub and pine vegetation zone on the basis of dominant species that have lesser erosion and lesser presence of exotic species.

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RESULTS

4
4.1.

RESULTS
PHYTOSOCIOLOGICAL RESULTS

The phytosociological data was analyzed in order to get a comprehensive picture of vegetational cover of the area. This data was incorporated in TWINSPAN (Two- Way INdicator Species ANalysis), which is a widely used algorithm for the classification of vegetation. To get the results a total of 440 quadrats were laid at random in 44 sampling stands, which were subjected to TWINSPAN analysis. A presumptive TWINSPAN classification analysis is presented in Fig. 4.1. Five levels of the classification of vegetation were considered. The division resulting at level I was considered as groups. The division at the level II was considered as sub- groups due to sufficient variation in the floral composition. The next three levels i. e. Level III, IV and V were considered as communities. Level I. Division of 440 Quadrats in Group I At the very first level all the 440 quadrats were divided into two un- equal sized groups i.e. The negative group 2 and positive group 3. The negative group -2 contained 240 quadrats and the positive group 3 contained 200 quadrats. The division took place at eign value of 0.414 at the second iteration. The indicator species for this group along with their Pseudo- species Level (PSL) value were: Dodonaea viscosa (-2), Acacia modesta (1), Celtis australis (1), Carissa opaca (-2), Dicanthium annulatum (1) and Malvastrum coromandelianum (1). Level II. Division of 240 Quadrats in Negative Group 2 The negative group that was formed as a result of first bifurcation at Level I of the TWINSPAN analysis was sub divided into negative group 4, with 43 quadrats and negative group 5, with 197 quadrats. The bifurcation took place at the eign value of 0.376 at the second iteration.

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Fig. 4.1. Dendrogram Showing TWINSPAN Vegetation Classification at Five Levels

Fig. 4.1. Dendrogram Showing TWINSPAN Vegetation Classification at Five Levels

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Division of 200 Quadrats in Positive Group 3 The positive group 3 was sub divided into group 6, with 150 quadrats and group 7, with 50 quadrats. The bifurcation took place at the eign value of 0.472 at iteration 2. LEVEL III. Division of 43 Quadrats in Negative Group 4. The negative group 4 was sub divided into two groups. The group 8, with 24 quadrats and the group 9, with 19 quadrats. The bifurcation took place at eign value of 0.359 at second iteration. Division of 197 Quadrats in Negative Group 5. The negative group 5 was sub divided into two sub- groups. Group 10, with 83 quadrats and group 11, with 114 quadrats. The bifurcation took place at the eign value of 0.262 at second iteration. Division of 150 Quadrats in Group 6. The group was sub divided into two sub- groups. Group 12, with 36 quadrats and group 13, with 114 quadrats, the bifurcation took place at eign value of 0.329 at iteration 2. Division of 50 Quadrats in Group 7. The group was sub divided into group 14 with 41, quadrats and group 15 with 9 quadrats. The bifurcation took place at eign value of 0.515 at iteration 3. LEVEL IV. Division of 24 Quadrats in Negative Group 8 The group was further divided into group 14 with 4 quadrats and group 17, with 20 quadrats. The bifurcation took place at eign value of 0.392 at iteration 2. Division of 19 Quadrats in Negative Group 9 The group was further divided into group 18, with 6 quadrats and group 19, with 13 quadrats. The bifurcation took place at eign value of 0.412 at iteration 3. Division of 83 Quadrats in Negative Group 10 The group was further divided into two groups; the group 20, with 13 quadrats and group 21, with 70 quadrats. The bifurcation took place at the eign value of 0.284 at iteration 2.

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RESULTS

Division of 114 Quadrats in Negative Group 11 The negative group 11 was further divided into two sub- groups. The group 22, contains 94 quadrats and the group 23, contains 20 quadrats. The bifurcation took place with the eign value of 0.253 at iteration 2. Division of 36 Quadrats in Group 12 The group 12 was further subdivided into sub- group 24, with 16 quadrats and group 25, with 20 quadrats. The bifurcation took place at eign value of 0.311 at iteration 2. Division of 114 Quadrats in Group 13 The 114 quadrats of group 13 were subdivided into group 26 with 89 quadrats and group 27, with 25 quadrats. The bifurcation took place with the eign value of 0.310 at iteration 3. Division of 41 Quadrats in Group 14 The 41 quadrats in group 14 were sub divided into subgroups 28, with 14 quadrats and sub- group 29, with 27 quadrats. The bifurcation took place at the eign value 0.460 at iteration 4. Division of 9 Quadrats in Group 15 The group 15 with 9 quadrats was divided into group 30, with 7 quadrats and group 31, with 2 quadrats. The bifurcation took place at the eign value 0.706 at iteration 3. LEVEL V. Division of 4 Quadrats in Group 16 The division failed due to in sufficient number of species. Division of 20 Quadrats in Group 17 The group 17 with 20 quadrats was divided further into two groups. The group 34, with 7 quadrats and group 35 with 13 quadrats. The division occurred at the eign value 0.407, at iteration 3. Division of 6 Quadrats in Group 18 Group 18 were further divided into group 36, with 3 quadrats and group 37, with 3 quadrats. The division took place at the eign value of 0.572, at iteration 2. Division of 13 Quadrats in Group 19

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RESULTS

Group 19 with 13 quadrats was sub divided into Group 38 with 10 quadrats and group 39, with 3 quadrats. The division took place at the eign value 0.414 at iteration 2. Division of 13 Quadrats in Group 20 This group was divided into two groups, the Group 40, with 1 quadrats and group 41, with 12 quadrats. The division took place at the eign value 0.323 at iteration 2. Division of 70 Quadrats in Group 21 The group 21 was divided into two groups: the group 42, with 12 quadrats and the group 43, with 58 quadrats. The division took place at the eign value 0.247 at iteration 2. Division of 94 Quadrats in Group 22 This group was divided into two groups: the group 44, with 84 quadrats and the group 45, with 10 quadrats. The division took place at the eign value 0.205 at iteration 4. Division of 20 Quadrats in Group 23 Group 23 was divided into two groups: the group 46, with 19 quadrats and the group 47, with 1 sample. The division took place at the eign value 0.460 at iteration 2. Division of 16 Quadrats in Group 24 The group 24 with 16 quadrats was divided into two groups: the group 48, with 5 quadrats and the group 49, with 11 quadrats. The division took place at the eign value 0.367 at iteration 2. Division of 20 Quadrats in Group 25 This group was further divided into two sub- groups: the group 50, with 6 quadrats and the group 51, with 14 quadrats. The division took place at the eign value 0.325 at iteration 2. Division of 89 Quadrats in Group 26 This group was divided into two sub- groups: the group 52, with 50 quadrats and the group 53, with 39 quadrats. The division took place at the eign value 0.325 at iteration 1. Division of 25 Quadrats in Group 27 This group was divided into two sub- groups: the group 54, with 19 quadrats and the group 55, with 6 quadrats. The division took place at the eign value 0.403 at iteration 2.

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RESULTS

Division of 14 Quadrats in Group 28 This group was divided into two sub- groups: the group 56, with 4 quadrats and the group 57, with 10 quadrats. The division took place at the eign value 0.647 at iteration 4. Division of 27 Quadrats in Group 29 This group was sub divided into two groups: the group 58, with 3 quadrats and the group 59, with 24 quadrats. The division took place at the eign value 0.364 at iteration 2. Division of 7 Quadrats in Group 30 This group was divided into two sub- groups: the group 60, with 5 quadrats and the group 61, with 2 quadrats. The division took place at the eign value 0.610 at iteration 3. Division of 2 Quadrats in Group 31 The further division of this group failed.

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RESULTS

4.1.1. Plant Communities in Margallah Hills National Park The TWINSPAN classification resulted in the identification of thirteen major plant communities, i.e. (H, I, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, X and Y) (Fig. 4.1). These are described in detail as:
Pinus roxburghii- Myrsine- Mallotus phillippinensis Community (H).

The upper reaches of Margallah Hills ranging above 950 m were dominated by this community. On the higher altitudes (exceeding 1000 m) the vegetation totally comprised of pure stands of Pinus roxburghii. At lower elevations the pine was found mixed with Myrsine africana. The transition zone between 800- 950 m was characterized by the presence of Carissa opaca bushes and a good cover of Mallotus phillippinensis along with M. africana which were found mixed with the P. roxburghii trees. The ground flora consisted of a variety of perennial grass species such as Dicanthium annulatum and Cynodon dactylon.
Dodonaea- Carissa- Olea cuspidata Community (I).

This type of vegetation dominated the southern slopes at lower altitudes in the park area. At southern aspect and altitude below 650 m, the vegetation comprised of pure stands of Dodonaea viscosa. At higher altitude on northern, or north- eastern slopes D. viscosa was mixed with Carissa opaca bushes. At altitudes range of 650- 800 m the vegetation comprised of these two species with an increased cover of Olea cuspidata.
Dodonaea- Carissa- Dicanthium annulatum Community (P).

Such type of community was found in extreme southern aspects with elevation below 650 m. Most of the area comprised of a mixed vegetation of Dodonaea viscosa and Carissa opaca. The signs of soil erosion due to exposed surface were highly visible in such areas. The ground was semigraveled and dry, with very less ground cover comprising of tufts of grasses like Dicanthium annulatum.
Dodonaea- Carissa- Adhatoda vasica Community (Q).

This plant community was observed at elevation between 500- 750 m. At drier southern aspect and lower elevation the vegetation comprised of stands of Dodonaea viscosa along with Carissa opaca. At elevation range of 600- 750 m and cooler northern aspects the vegetation comprised of these two species along with good cover of Adhatoda vasica bushes. The soil in such areas was dry and stony with scanty distribution of grasses.
Dodonaea- Mallotus- Ziziphus nummularia Community (R).

In most of the middle reaches of the Margallah Hills such type of community was observed. Dodonaea viscosa dominated the area along with good growth of Mallotus phillippinensis, while

Ecological Zonation and Identification of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park

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RESULTS

Ziziphus nummularia was found in protected patches away from influence of grazing animals. Much of the area was located in flat regions where the slope was less and the soil was drier. These areas showed higher species diversity and the edaphic conditions were good for growth of perennial grass species. Such vegetation was found in the protected pockets of the core zone of the national park. Dodonaea- Cassia- Adhatoda vasica Community (S).

This type of plant community was reported in negative group of vegetational analysis. This area was subjected to lesser biotic pressure and showed good ground cover. At more open places the number of Adhatoda vasica bushes increased along with Dodonaea viscosa. Much of the area showed thick patches of undisturbed vegetation. At lesser disturbed places there were scanty Cassia fistula trees mostly around human settlements. Fire incidence was common in such type of vegetation because of the availability of a good amount of combustible material.
Adhatoda- Buxus- Mallotus phillippinensis Community (T).

This plant community was reported from small area of the national park. It dominated the medium elevation throughout the Margallah Hills or some western part with medium elevation of 600- 800 m. These areas lie in saddles around human settlements with some signs of grazing and trespassing. Most of the vegetation was comprised of Adhatoda vasica with Mallotus phillippinensis. Buxus papillosa was found in relatively more disturbed areas. The area had good developed soil. The accessibility to the area is enhanced by less steep slopes. Much of the area was located in plainer regions where the slope was lesser and the soils were drier.
Adhatoda- Buxus- Dodonaea viscosa Community (U).

This community was recorded from cooler shady northern aspects with elevation between 650- 800 m elevation. There are villages and settlements around the area where Adhatoda vasica dominated with occasional presence of Buxus papillosa. In drier places, where natural vegetation was very much disturbed, Dodonaea viscosa was found with scanty grass cover.
Acacia- Carissa- Dicanthium annulatum Community (V).

This plant community dominated the medium elevation throughout the Margallah Hills or some western part with elevation range of 600- 800 m and extreme southern areas with low water availability. There was lesser biotic pressure on the vegetation thus the original vegetation of Acacia modesta was the most dominant species. However, the area was subjected to erosion. The area generally was located in plainer regions of the national park where the slope was very gentle and the open patches were covered with sparse growth of grasses like Dicanthium annulatum.

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RESULTS

Acacia- Adhatoda- Cynodon dactylon Community (W).

This community was recorded from drier southern aspects in medium elevation range between 650- 800 m elevation. The area was dominated by thick cover of Acacia modesta. The drier open slopes were occupied by Adhatoda vasica bushes. The area was disturbed and showed signs of erosion and grazing. The ground flora was comprised of a good cover of grass species Cynodon dactylon. Soil in the area was stony and dry.
Acacia- Lantana- Carissa opaca Community (X).

Such plant communities were reported from southern end of the national park that face Islamabad city and around recreational sites of Daman- e- Koh and Pir Sohawa. The original vegetation was comprised of Acacia modesta and Carissa opaca. The slope was generally gentle and the open spaces in the canopy were occupied by Lantana camara. Such places were mostly found around disturbed sites. Some places were subjected to soil compaction and erosion. The absence of associated species indicated grazing of livestock in the area.
Carissa- Cynodon- Olea cuspidata Community (Y).

Such plant communities were reported from southern end of the national park that face Islamabad city. The area shows lesser influence of human and livestock activities because of having dense canopy cover comprising of Carissa opaca as major species with Olea cuspidata in protected places. The open patches were occupied by good ground cover of grasses like Cynodon dactylon. This community represents much of the original flora of the national park, which is least disturbed by any biotic influence.
Cynodon- Sageretia- Otostegia limbata Community (O)

Around tourist’s spots such type of community was observed, where there was high human impact and lesser grazing. Such areas showed high biotic stress due to increased human influence as indicated by the presence of Sageretia brandrethiana and Otostegia limbata. The good cover of Cynodon dactylon in some areas indicated lesser grazing pressure. The soil conditions were mostly very poor with eroded and compacted. The vegetation is highly disturbed in these areas. 4.2. SOCIO- ECONOMIC SURVEY RESULTS

Based on 20% sampling intensity, a survey was conducted in eight sample villages situated inside the MHNP. The objective was to study the socio- economic conditions of the area besides obtaining feed back from the people about their attitude towards biodiversity and conservation needs, evaluation of the current situation of the resources and quantification of the biotic pressure on them. The results are presented as follows:

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4.2.1

Population of Sampled Villages

The population of the villages falling in the national park is directly related to the state of the natural resources and biodiversity in the area. These communities are highly dependent on the park resources and meet their demand by consuming the natural resources of the park. According to the results, Shah Allah Ditta was the most populated village with an estimated population of 45,00 people. Shahdara and Talhar were also very populated with a population count of 3,500 and 3,000 people respectively. Gokina Kalan and Gokina Khurd have a population of 2,000 individuals each. The population of eight sampled villages in represented in Fig.4.2. 4.2.2. Average Household Size The average household size in the park area varied from 7- 9 individuals. The maximum household size was recoded to be 9 in Jhang Bagial. Talhar and Gokina Khurd villages had an average household size of 8, while Shah Allah Ditta, Shahdara, Gokina Kalan, Malwar and Rumli had an average household size of seven persons. The average household size of the sampled villages is represented in Fig. 4.3.

Approximate Population of Sampled Villages
5000 4500 4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0
an tta r li hd ar a ar Ru m lha Ta Ba g Jh an g Kh u Ka l al w Di ial rd

4500

3500 3000

2000

2000 1200 800 262

Al lah

Sh a

ok in a

ok in a

Fig.4.2. Approximate Population of Sampled Villages

Ecological Zonation and Identification of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park

Sh ah

G

G

M

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RESULTS

Average Household Size
10 9 9 8 8 7 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Shahdara Talhar Gokina Kalan Gokina Khurd Shah Allah Ditta Malw ar Rumli Jhang Bagial 7 8 7 7 7

Fig. 4.3. Average Household Size in Sampled Villages

4.2.3. Monthly Income The people of the MHNP are poor. There are not many economic activities in the area resulting in their increased dependency on the natural resources which are utilized for subsistence living. Most of the people work or do business in the nearby cities of Islamabad and Rawalpindi. The average monthly income on the people in the sampled villages in MHNP is represented in Fig. 4.4.

Monthly Income of People
30
25

Below 3000
22 20

Number of Sampled Houses

25 20
16 17 16 12 9 6 10 17 13 9 5 5 2 10 11 7 4 4 33 1 1 17 13 13 11 9 6 3 2 6 5

3 to 5000 6 to 1000 11 to 2000 above 2000
4 1

15 10 5 0

12

G ok in a Ka G la ok n in a Kh Sh ur ah d Al la h D itt a

Fig. 4.4. Monthly Income of People in Sampled Villages

Ecological Zonation and Identification of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park

R um Jh li an g Ba gi al

a

Ta lh ar

Sh ah da r

M al w ar

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RESULTS

4.2.4. Livestock Population The major factor causing degradation of habitat of the national park is the presence of livestock and associated human activities. People own a large number of animal heads to meet their demands of milk and meat. The highest livestock population was recorded in Talhar village with a total animal heads of 1857, village Shahdara host 834 animal heads, Gokina Kalan and Shah Allah Ditta hosts 1207 and 788, while Jhang Bagial has 752 animal heads. The average number of livestock by type in the sampled villages is given in Fig.4.5.
Livestock Population in Sampled Villages
1200 1071 1000

Goat/ Sheep Cow Buffallow
600

800 705

723

600 455 400 360 258 200 200 120 90 19 0 Shahdara Talhar Gokina Kalan Gokina Khurd Shah Allah Dit t a Malwar Rumli Jhang Bagial 141 22 47 175 120 30 1213 52 23 40 10 3 200 101 43 193 100 11 9 450

Donkeys / Mules

Fig. 4.5. Livestock Population in Sampled Villages

4.2.5. Land Ownership The habitants of the villages inside the MHNP practice subsistence agriculture. Most of the people in the villages have no agricultural land while others own small land areas. These agricultural practices are rain- fed and merely meet their food demands. Details of agricultural land holdings of the people in the sampled villages are given in Fig. 4.6.

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RESULTS

Land Ownership in Sampled Villages
25

Below 5
20

20

6 to 10
18

11 to 25
Kanals 15
11 13 11 10 99 7 5 9 77 5 9

25 to 40 above 40

10

5
2 1 00 00 Talhar

4 2 00 Gokina Kalan 00 Gokina Khur d 0 Shah Allah Dit t a 2 1 00 Malwar 00 Rumli 00 J hang Bagial 2

0
Shahdara

Fig. 4.6. Land Ownership in Sampled Villages

4.2.6. Fuel- wood Consumption The folks in the park area are heavily dependent on the park resources for meeting their energy demands. The fuel- wood is collected by the people for heating and cooking purposes. Such activities pose threat to the vegetation in the park. The data for fuel- wood consumption is presented in Fig. 4.7.
Fuelwood Consumption
25
22

SUMMER
19 18 18 17 19

20

WINTER

16 15 15 15
14

14

Mounds

13 11
10

10 8 7

5

0 Shahdara Talhar Gokina Kalan Gokina Khurd Shah Allah Dit t a Malwar Rumli Jhang Bagial

Fig. 4.7. Fuel- wood Consumption Data for Sampled Villages

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RESULTS

4.2.7. Opinion about the Importance of National Park to their Livelihood Though the folks in the area are not much educated but due to their dependence on the natural resources of the area, they do realize that the park resources are vital and important for their livelihood. The opinion of the people in this regard is represented in Fig. 4.8.
Importance of the NP to the Livelihood

71 Percentage of Respondents

20 7 2 Not at All Some Fair Good A Lot

Fig. 4.8. Opinion about the Importance of MHNP to their Livelihood

4.2.8. Opinion about their Concern for Biodiversity The people living inside the park boundaries do have sufficient awareness about the role of biodiversity in maintaining ecosystem health. The response obtained from them about their concern for the biodiversity is presented in Fig 4.9.
How Much Do You Care About Biodiversity
71

Percentage of Respondents

14 8 3 Not at All 4

Some

Fair

Good

A Lot

Fig.4.9. Opinion about the Concern for Biodiversity

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RESULTS

4.2.9. Changes Observed in the Park Resources in Past Ten Years There was a growing concern among the local folks about the changes in the park area. Most of the people thought that the forest cover has not changed significantly in past ten years; therefore the population of wildlife species has not been significantly affected. But there was a growing concern about the increase in tourist activities and an increase in human population and pollution in the area. The results are summarized in Fig. 4.10.
Changes Observed in NP Resources in Past 10 Years
85 89

100 90 Percentage of Respondents 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

Increase Decrease
64

No Change

42 27 31 22

38 40

36

14 1 Forest Cover Population of Wildlife Species Tourism

11

Human Population

Pollution

Fig.4.10. Opinion about Changes Observed in MHNP in Past 10 Years 4.2.10. Awareness about the Obligations of a National Park The people were also interviewed about their awareness of obligations of the national park. Most of the people didn’t have an idea even about what a national park is?. Very few of them had some idea about their obligations. The results are shown in Fig. 4.11.

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RESULTS

Awareness about the Obligations of the NP

87

Percentage of Respondents

7

4

2 Good

0 A Lot

Not at All

Some

Fair

Fig. 4.11. Awareness about the Obligations of a NP 4.2.11. Threats to Resources of the National Park According to the people’s view, poor management was considered as the major threat to park resources, while growing population, tourist activities and forest fires were regarded as serious threats. The results are presented in Fig. 4.12.

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RESULTS

Major Threats to The Resources of the NP
40 35 38

Percentage

30 25 20 15 10 5 0 3 17 11 9 2 20

Po pu la ti o n/ To La ur ck is m of Aw ar en es Po s or M an ag em en t

se

an ds lid es

ra zi ng

ai na bl e

Fo re st F

G

on -s us t

N

Fig 4.12. Major Threats to the Resources in MHNP 4.3. TOURISTS SURVEY RESULTS

The results of the tourist’s survey revealed a high visitation in the park area. These activities have high impact on the park resources and contribute towards their degradation. The data of weekly tourist visitation on the major picnic spots is summarized in Fig. 4.13.

Weekly Tourists Visitiation
2500
2120

H

un ti g /F

is hi ng /

Q

ua rri

es /L

No. of Tourists

2000
1640

1970

1500 1000 500 0
ar gh az Da ar m an -e -K oh
970 1120

1250 800 850

Ch ow ki

Sh ar if ol ra

di

rS oh a

Da n

ri Im

M

Pi

Ba

Fig. 4.13. Weekly Tourist Visitation Data for Famous Picnic Spots in MHNP

Ecological Zonation and Identification of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park

G

Sh a

Lo i

hd ar a

wa

am

O

th er s

ire s

U

CHAPTER 4

RESULTS

4.4.

ECOLOGICAL SURVEY RESULTS

The geographical data was analyzed using GIS techniques in order to obtain vegetation distribution maps of the MHNP. The GIS software ESRI ARCView® 3.1 was used for this purpose. 4.4.1. Preparation of Thematic Vegetation Classification/ Land Cover Map

Thematic Vegetation Classification/ Land Cover Map was obtained by spectral classification of satellite image. In this process, the information about the distribution of vegetation was obtained by converting the multiple spectral bands on a satellite image into definite vegetation classes, which appeared in form of continuous raster pixels. This map shows 21 different classes of vegetation. These classes were lumped together and re- coded and represented in 10 vegetational classes. Each vegetational class is defined in a legend using color codes on the image. Thematic Vegetation Classification/ Land Cover Map of MHNP is shown in Fig. 4.14.

Fig.4.14. Thematic Vegetation Classification/ Land Cover Map of MHNP.

Ecological Zonation and Identification of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park

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RESULTS

4.4.2. Altitudinal Distribution of Land Cover Classes The Altitudinal Land Cover Distribution Graph shows the different land cover classes and their distribution along the altitudinal gradient. In the graph (Fig. 4.15), X- axis shows the elevation as it appeared of the Thematic Vegetation Classification Map. While the numbers on Y- axis show the occurrence of each land- cover class. The distribution of various floral species is indicated by Vegetation Curves in figure 4.15. These curves are drawn on basis of 50 percent moving averages of all the classes. These vegetation curves are shown with different colors in the legend. The Vegetation Distribution Curves The following are the different vegetation distribution curves formed in the graph. Conifer Curve The conifer curve is shown in the graph with dark green color. The curve represents a mixture of Pinus roxburghii along with little presence of Dodonaea viscosa and Carissa opaca. As per ground data and the documented conifer zone, most of the conifer forest lies between elevations of 1050 m to 1510 m, after which the curve shows an abrupt fall thus validating the results of the classification. The data existing beyond these specified ranges however may be due to the effect of shadow or mix forest. From the graph it is also clear that relatively larger number of conifers exist between 1450-1550 m of elevation. This is because of the fact that in the lower elevations valley is steep and closed, resulting in severe shadowing problem, which resulted in more pixels to be classified as conifer. At higher elevations, certain broadleaved species are mixed with conifer class. The prevalence to curve upto 1050 m shows the presence of other two associated species of Dodonaea viscosa and Carissa opaca.
Altitudinal Distribution of Land Cover Classes
120.00
Acacia- Dodonaea- Lantana

100.00

Acacia- Celtis- Adhatoda

Occurence of Land Cover Class

80.00

Nyctanthese- Lannea- Broussonetia

Sparse Grasses/ Soil

60.00
Dodonaea- Carissa- Adhatoda

40.00
Adhatoda- Carissa- Dodonaea

20.00
Pinus- Carissa- Dodonaea

0.00 537 587 629 671 713 755 797 839 881 923 965 1007 1049 1091 1133 1175 1217 1259 1301 1343 1385 1427 1469 1511 1553 1596

-20.00 Elevation (m)

Fig. 4.15. Altitudinal Distribution of Land Cover Classes

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RESULTS

Adhatoda, Carissa, Dodonaea and Broussonetia Curve

This curve is shown in orange color. This curve represents almost a uniform distribution of this broad leaf vegetation throughout the area, ranging from 587 m- 1596 m. The curve shows a slight rise in elevation between 710 m – 1510 m. The ground data also confirms the formation of this type of community which is widely distributed in the park area. The vegetation of Broussonetia papyrifera is found widely in area where the vegetation is disturbed. The prevalence of this curve at other elevation is due to spectral reflectance of certain broad- leaved species at higher elevation in the area.
Dodonaea, Carissa, Adhatoda Curve.

This curve represents the presence to the scrub species of Dodonaea viscosa, Carissa opaca and Adhatoda vasica and is represented by navy blue color. The abrupt rise in the curve from 670 m to 920 m shows the abundance of these species at this elevation range thus validating the ground data, which also confirms that these three species are the most widely distributed in the scrub forest in the Margallah Hills National Park. The slight prevalence of the curve above this range indicates the presence of a mixture of other species with same reflectance. Sparse Grass/ Bare Soil Curve This curve is indicated in graph by magenta color. This vegetation class is reported throughout the elevation range in Margallah showing more increase between 630 m – 710 m and from 1550 – 1590 meters. Showing more presence of grass species at higher elevation. The decline at medium elevation is because of the presence of good cover of broad leaved species. A slight rise of this curve at higher elevation shows scanty distribution of grass lands before conifer zone.
Nyctanthes, Lantana and Broussonetia Curve

This vegetation class is represented in dark red color. Due to spectral reflectance and missclassification this class shows prevalence throughout the elevation range. The graph shows high concentration of these species at lower elevations between 580 m – 620 m. These species were more abundant in the disturbed areas around settlement and recreational sites that fall in almost the same range. That validates the ground results. The main reason in the rising of curve is due to seasonal change because in July shrubs and bushes are lush green and show high reflectance in 5th band, so they have been included in broad leaved class.
Acacia, Celtis and Adhatoda Curve

This curve is represented in light green color, it shows a mixture of the scrub species such as; Acacia modesta, Celtis australis and Adhatoda vasica. The curve shows high concentration of this class of scrub species at elevations between 710 m– 960 m indicates abundance of these broad

Ecological Zonation and Identification of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park

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RESULTS

leaved species in the area. The presence of curve at the higher elevations up to 1510 m is because of higher cover of Celtis australis which in combination with other species has given the same reflectance thus have been grouped in this class.
Acacia, Dodonaea, Lantana and Carissa Curve

This curve is represented in orange color. It rises at elevation of 670 m and falls at around 1000 m, showing distribution of this type of scrub uniformly between the range. The continuity of this curve up to higher elevation is because of presence of higher occurrence of broad leaved species that gave the same reflectance and were mis- classified into this class. Bare Soil/ Bare Rocks Curve This graph shows presence throughout the Margallah hills. The graph shows high presence of bare soil at elevation up to 750 m. This is probably due to presence of bare soil at lower elevation, as shown by ground data. The higher presence of bare soil was recorded at drier sunny and southern slopes in the park area. The prevalence of the curve at higher elevation shows increased number of rock surfaces at higher altitude that is because of the steep slopes of the area. 4.4.3 Ecological Zonation

Analysis of ecological data resulted in formation of the major ecological zones in the area. A decision tree made for the analysis is shown in Table. 4.1. This decision tree is based on the subjective classification developed according to the ecological parameters.

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RESULTS

Table. 4.1. Decision Tree Showing for the Analysis and Formation of Zones Steps ► All Zones Step I Major Zones Step II Relative Proportion of Dominants Acacia >3% Erosion <4% Scrub Zone Erosion >4% Acacia <3% Erosion <7 % Park Area Erosion >7 % Pine >3% Erosion <7 % Pine Zone Erosion >7 % Pine <3% Erosion <7 % The following are the major ecological zones formed as a result of analysis. STEP I. Major Zones In first step the area was divided into two major classes/ categories viz., Scrub Zone and Pine Zone (Fig. 4.16). Occurrence of a dominant species was taken as a criterion for this bifurcation. I. a. Scrub Zone In this zone Acacia modesta was the dominating species. I. b. Pine Zone This zone was classified on the basis of dominating species. In this area Pinus roxburghii (Chir Pine) was the major species. This zone is indicated in the map by dark green color. Step III Proportionate Soil Erosion Erosion >4% Step IV Proportionate occurrence of Exotic Species Exotics >5% Exotics <5% Exotics >5% Exotics <5% Exotics >5% Exotics <5% Exotics >5% Exotics <20 Exotics >20 Exotics <20 Exotics >20 Exotics <20 Exotics >20 Exotics <20 Exotics >20 Exotics <20

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RESULTS

Fig. 4.16. Vegetation Distribution in Major Zones (Yellow: Scrub Zone, Green: Pinus Zone) STEP II. Relative Proportion of Dominants in Each Major Zone Each of two major zones was then subdivided into two zones on the basis of relative proportion of characteristic/ dominant tree species. A threshold of <3%> was defined to delineate zones.

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RESULTS

II. a. Sub- division of Scrub Zone Scrub zone was sub- divided into two sub-zones on the basis of relative abundance of Acacia modesta, the dominant tree species in the zone. Following sub- zones resulted by this division (Fig. 4.17). II. a. (i). II. a. (ii). Relative percentage of Acacia modesta > 3 Relative percentage of Acacia modesta < 3

Fig. 4.17. Relative Percentage of Acacia modesta (Brown- Green: Acacia >3%, Yellow- Green: Acacia <3%)

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RESULTS

I. b. Sub- division of Pine Zone Pine zone was subdivided into two sub- zones on the basis of relative abundance of Pinus roxburghii, dominant tree species in the zone. Following sub- zones resulted by this division (Fig. 4.18). II. b. (i). II. b. (ii). Relative percentage of Pinus roxburghii >3 Relative percentage of Pinus roxburghii <3

Fig: 4.18. Relative Percentage of Pinus roxburghii (Dark Green: Pine >3%, Light Green: Pine <3%)

Ecological Zonation and Identification of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park

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RESULTS

Step III. Proportionate Soil Erosion/ Bare Soil in Each Sub- Zone Four sub- zones formed at step II were again divided into minor zones on the basis of proportionate soil erosion/ bare soil. III. a (i). Class 2. a. (i) Acacia modesta with relative percentage of > 3 was divided into two minor zones (Fig. 4.19). The zone with scrub more than 3% along with erosion/ bare soil less than 4% and the other with scrub more than 3% with and erosion/ bare soil more than 4%.

Fig. 4.19. Erosion/ Bare Soil in Scrub Zone (Brown: Erosion/ Bare Soil >4%, Light Green: Erosion <4%)

Ecological Zonation and Identification of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park

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RESULTS

III. a (ii) Class 2. a. (ii) Acacia modesta with relative percentage of < 3 was divided into two minor zones on the basis of soil erosion/ bare soil into minor zones (Fig. 4.20). The zone with scrub less than 3% along with erosion/ bare soil less than 4% and the other with scrub less than 3% and erosion/ bare soil more than 4%.

Fig. 4. 20. Erosion/ Bare soil in Scrub Zone (Brown: Erosion/ Bare Soil >4%, Light Green: Erosion <4%)

Ecological Zonation and Identification of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park

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RESULTS

III. b. (i) Class 2. b. (i). Pinus roxburghii with relative percentage of >3 was divided into two minor zones on the basis of soil erosion/ bare soil into minor zones (Fig. 4.21). The zone with pine more than 3% along with erosion/ bare soil less than 4% and the other with pine more than 3 and with erosion/ bare soil more than 4%.

Fig. 4. 21. Erosion/ Bare soil in Chir Zone (Brown: Erosion/ Bare Soil >4, Yellow: Erosion/ Bare Soil <4%)

Ecological Zonation and Identification of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park

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RESULTS

III. b. (ii) Class 2. b. (ii) Pinus roxburghii with relative percentage of <3 was divided into two minor zones on the basis of soil erosion/ bare soil into minor zones (Fig. 4.22). The zone with pine less than 3% along with erosion/ bare soil less than 4% and the other zone with Pine less than 3% and erosion more than 4%.

Fig. 4. 22. Erosion/ Bare Soil in Chir Zone (Brown: Erosion > 4%, Yellow: Erosion <4%)

Ecological Zonation and Identification of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park

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RESULTS

Step IV. Subdivision of Minor Zones into Management Zones The final bifurcation was carried out by using exotic species as a criterion. In this step, first the scrub was divided on the basis of presence of exotic species. Step IV a. Division of Scrub minor Zones into management zones: Step IV a. (i) This minor zone (Fig. 4.23) had percentage of Acacia modesta greater than 3 along with erosion/ bare soil less than 4% and presence of exotics like Lantana camara and others less that 20%.

Fig. 4. 23. Presence of Exotic Species in Scrub Zone. (Brown: Exotics >20%, Yellow: Exotics< 20%)

Ecological Zonation and Identification of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park

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RESULTS

Step IV a. (ii) This minor zone (Fig. 4.24) had percentage of Acacia modesta greater than 3% along with erosion/ bare soil less than 4% along with the presence of exotic species.

Fig. 4. 24. Presence of Exotic Species in Scrub Zone. (Brown: Exotics >20%, Yellow: Exotics >20%)

Ecological Zonation and Identification of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park

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RESULTS

Step IV a. (iii) This minor zone (Fig. 4.25) had percentage of Acacia modesta less than 3 along with erosion/ bare soil less than 4% along with the presence of exotics.

Fig. 4. 25. Presence of Exotic Species in Scrub Zone. (Brown: Exotics >20%, Yellow: Exotics< 20%)

Ecological Zonation and Identification of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park

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RESULTS

Step IV a. (iv) This minor zone (Fig. 4.26) had percentage of Acacia modesta less than 3 along with erosion/ bare soil more than 4% along with the presence of exotics.

Fig. 4. 26. Presence of Exotic Species in Scrub Zone. (Brown: Exotics >20%, Yellow: Exotics< 20%)

Ecological Zonation and Identification of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park

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RESULTS

Step IV a. Division of Pine Minor Zones into Management Zones: Step IV a. (i) This minor zone (Fig. 4.27) had percentage of Pinus roxburghii greater than 3 along with erosion/ bare soil less than 7% along with the presence of exotics.

Fig. 4. 27. Presence of Exotic Species in Pine Zone. (Brown: Exotics >20%, Yellow: Exotics< 20%)

Ecological Zonation and Identification of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park

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RESULTS

Step IV a. (ii) This minor zone (Fig. 4.28) had percentage of Pinus roxburghii greater than 3 along with erosion/ bare soil more than 7% along with the presence of exotics.

Fig. 4. 28. Presence of Exotic Species in Pine Zone. (Brown: Exotics >20%, Yellow: Exotics< 20%)

Ecological Zonation and Identification of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park

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RESULTS

Step IV a. (iii) This minor zone (Fig. 4.29) had percentage of Pinus roxburghii less than 3 along with erosion/ bare soil less than 7% along with the presence of exotics.

Fig. 4. 29. Presence of Exotic Species in Pine Zone. (Brown: Exotics >20%, Yellow: Exotics< 20%)

Ecological Zonation and Identification of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park

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RESULTS

Step IV a. (iv) This minor zone (Fig. 4.30) had percentage of Pinus roxburghii less than 3 along with erosion/ bare soil more than 7% along with the presence of exotics.

Fig. 4.30. Presence of Exotic Species in Pine Zone. (Brown: Exotics >20%, Yellow: Exotics< 20%)

Ecological Zonation and Identification of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park

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RESULTS

The Core Biodiversity Zones These zones harbor a great diversity of species and at the same time have not been significantly impacted and altered by human activities (Annon 2002). The original habitat in such zones is intact (Mayers 1998). Based on the principle tree the Core Biodiversity Zones were marked in each of the Pine and Scrub zone following the criteria: Core Biodiversity Zones in Scrub: The zones had the presence of Acacia modesta more than 3% with presence or erosion/ bare soil less than 4% along with the presence of exotics species less than 5%. The logical units in this zone were; 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, 31, 35, and 36. These zones are indicated in Fig. 4.31 with yellow color. Core Biodiversity Zones in Pine: The zones had the presence of Pinus roxburghii more than 3% with presence or erosion/ bare soil less than 7% along with the presence of exotics species less than 20%. Logical units falling in this zone were; 19, 42, 44, 46, 47, 53 and 58. These zones are indicated in Fig. 4.31 with green color.

Fig. 4.31. Map of MHNP Showing the Core Biodiversity Zones. (Yellow: Core Biodiversity Zones in Scrub, Green: Core Biodiversity Zone

Ecological Zonation and Identification of Core Biodiversity Zones in Margallah Hills National Park

CHAPTER 5

DISCUSSION

5

DISCUSSIONS

The present study aimed at the ecological zonation of the Margallah Hills National Park. The zones were declared upon the quantitative estimation of ecological parameters like type and cover percentage of vegetation, the threats to natural resources, and nature of land- use. For this purpose ecological parameters were evaluated in the area by phytosociological, socio- economic and ecological assessment of the park area. 5.1. PHYTOSOCIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT

The phytosociological assessment revealed the tremendous diversity of vegetation in and facilitated in the demarcation of distinct plant communities in Margallah Hills National Park. The distribution of major floral species was found dependent on the topographic, edaphic and demographic variables. The vegetation data was processed through TWINSPAN classification procedures Shaltout et al (1995), Bork et al (1997), Dixit (1997), Moe and Botnen (1997), Priedistis (1999), Hovestadt et al (1999). The TWINSPAN analysis resulted in clear demarcation of two very un- equal vegetation groups. The further classification up to five levels resulted in formation of thirteen plant communities in the area. The TWINSPAN results not only reflect the general vegetation type in the area but also give the details of the prevailing plant communities. On the highest elevation ranging from 1100 to 1600 m, the vegetation comprised of a typical sub- tropical Pinus roxburghii community. The distribution of this type of vegetation is chiefly attributed to the presence of adequate soil moisture, with rainfall up to 5000 mm per annum (Champion & Seth 1968). The area is subjected to frequent fire incidents due to open canopy and dryness especially in the dry months of May and June (Chhetri 1994). The chir pine is regarded as climax species of this area, which is maintained due to fire occurences, as it self is much fire tolerant (Chaturvedi & Singh 1987). The under of canopy in this area is occupied by species like Mallotus phillippinensis, Carissa opaca and Myrsine africana, which occur because of opening in canopy due to lopping of chir branches (Saqib 2003). Dodonaea viscosa and Carissa opaca tolerate dry sandy or rocky soils and drought conditions. They favor areas that receive full sun (Edward and Gilman 1999), therefore they are the major species in the area. Both these species are less prone to grazing (Bekele 2000) and not very much palatable, thus they have been able to attain ecological success in the area. Distribution of species like Dodonaea viscosa, Adhatoda vasica and Olea cuspidata is chiefly attributed to aspect with elevation ranging from 650 to 850 m. On sunny or southern slopes the vegetation was dominated by these species. Adhatoda is more vastly distributed because of its hardy characteristic and occupies well drained sites (Holzner and Kriechbaum 1998). Olea cuspidata is palatable species so was not reported from areas subjected to grazing as noticed by Bekele, 2000 and was only found in far off protected patches. Acacia modesta occupies elevation range between 700 to 850m on sunny slopes with well developed soil. It is more prone to grazing (Noble and Randall 1998), so was only reported from drier slopes, away from livestock influence.

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DISCUSSION

Lantana camara is an invader species and only found in cooler forest edges where the original vegetation of the area was disturbed by biotic pressure, chiefly by tourists activities (Holzner & Kriechbaum 1998). The species like Sageretia brandrethiana and Otostegia limbata were reported form disturbed areas by human influence as both of the species are hardy and can survive under biotic influence (Malik & Hussain 1990). Such vegetation was reported from areas around human settlements. The abundance of grass species like Cynodon dactylon represents protected areas as these species are highly palatable and were not reported from areas with high grazing intensity. 5.2. SOCIO- ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT

People in the area are heavily dependent on the natural resources of the park (Mustafa 2003). A socioeconomic survey was conducted in order to assess the impact of human and other associated activities on the resources. The results of this survey revealed a direct negative influence on the existing vegetation, which is resulting in the depletion and loss of habitat, which is the principle cause of species extinction (UNEP 1995). This can be inferred from the demographic pressure and has a direct impact on the vegetation and other ecological dimensions of the area. According to the results obtained, the communities possess a great deal of knowledge about their environment and how to manipulate to best meet their needs (Brokensha et al. 1980 and Richards 1985). Majority of the people regard the vegetation and the natural resources as highly significant. The population of the villages falling in the national park is directly related to the state of the natural resources and biodiversity in the area. It was observed by the results that the vegetation degradation occured under influence of associated human activities. The demographic influence alters the natural environment (FAO 1996). The human impact can be in the form of habitat destruction, species eradication, over- harvesting and introduction of invasive species (Scott 2003). The results of population distribution in the national park showed that the highest number of people were inhabiting Shah Allah Ditta, Shahdara and Talhar. These villages are much developed which has direct impact on the surrounding areas. This can well be justified from the results, where the areas around these major human habitations show denuded or disturbed vegetation to a greater extent. The areas with people with higher income seem to have lower impact on the resources, as they are in financially better off position to adopt alternate energy sources (Scott 2003), such people own lesser number of livestock thus their impact on surrounding vegetation for fuel- wood and other consumptive uses is greatly reduced. Overgrazing by livestock is very problematic (CBD 2002). It impacts biodiversity through trampling and removal of biomass, alteration of species composition through selective consumption and changed interplant competition, and redistribution of nutrients through dropping. Changes in grazing intensity and selectivity inevitably effects vegetation. The higher grazing pressure has more detrimental effects on biodiversity (UNEP 1995). Similarly the amount of fuel- wood consumed is also related to heavy impact on resources, as the people are dependent for their timber demand on surrounding forest resources causing tremendous damage to them (Usman 2003). This is validated by the results as the areas around the major human settlements have scanty distribution of vegetation.

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DISCUSSION

The socio- economic survey results also show that most of the people don’t know about the obligations of a national park but are well aware about the importance of biodiversity and natural resources. They have observed change in the resources of the park especially in regard to the growing tourist’s activities, which have negative impact on surrounding environment. Lack of management is considered to be the biggest threat to park resources, while growing population, tourist’s activities and forest fires are considered as other major threats. 5.3. ECOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT

For ecological assessments, the phytosociological data was analyzed in order to mark the major plant communities on the satellite image and to prepare the vegetation classification map which show the distribution of major vegetation communities in the MHNP. On this basis the qualification of any area into an ecological zone was derived. There were certain issues that affected the accuracy of these results. During the fieldwork, a GPS was used to record position of sample plots. These readings were recorded in the WGS- 84 datum. During the analysis, a geo- referenced and atmospherically corrected satellite image was used. According to experts of WWF- Pakistan, the accuracy of this image was within acceptable limits i.e. RMSE (root mean square error) was less than one pixel or 30 meters. The use of satellite imagery to classify shrub communities in complex terrain is often problematic. In such area many land cover types exhibit similar reflectance and small-scale topographic influences on vegetation patterns create a mosaic of spectral signatures, ultimately resulting in misclassification. Topographic variability also creates a shadow which further complicates land cover interpretations (Vergas, et al. 1995). The GPS readings were another source of error in determining the true position on ground as noticed by Ahmad in 2001. However, this error is generally less than 10- 20 meters ever since the USA government decided to stop the selective availability option with effect from 1st of May, 2000 (Canadian Management Resources 2000). GPS along with RMSE errors resulted in assigning sample plots on the ground with wrong corresponding pixels on the image which in turn affected the accuracy of image classification (Ahmad 2001). More complex classification errors could be due to the sampling strategies (Charles 2000). Presence of clouds and their shadow can be the one reason of not identifying some of the classes purely on an image (Ambareen 2002). The other influencing factor was the sample size that was not large enough to provide a high confidence level in the map classes (Paul et al, 2001). 5.3.1. The Vegetation Distribution Curves The distribution of major plant communities along the altitudinal gradient was represented by a graph (Chapter 4, Fig. 4.15). Each of the plant community showed its altitudinal distribution by a vegetation curve. These curves were drawn on basis of 50 percent moving averages of all the vegetation classes. Some of the curves prevailed through the elevation range in the area. This shows the error in the classification process. In the documented conifer zone, most of the conifer forest lies between elevations of 1050 m 1510 m, but the curve shows prevalence below this elevation. The formation of conifer curve on the lower elevations is due to the inclusion of vegetation in shade, cloud and cloud

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CHAPTER 5

DISCUSSION

shadow and also due to seasonal variations. The other source may be the mixture of vigorously growing broad leaves that gave the same reflectance as Pinus on the image (Ambareen 2002). The scrub species curve that represents a mixture of Adhatoda vasica, Carissa opaca, Dodonaea viscosa and Broussonetia papyrifera shows slight prevalence above the specified elevation range which is also due to misclassification, as some of the other broad leaved species gave the same spectral reflectance resulting in the classification into this vegetation class. This was also noted by Welch in 2002, in his study in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, the same happened in the classification of the scrub and broad leaved vegetation classes like; Acacia modesta, Celtis australis, Lantana camara and Adhatoda vasica when these vegetation classes were misclassified due to the same spectral reflectance. The curve that represents the distribution of sparse grass and bare soil also shows the misclassification. As most of the southern slopes in the park area have almost a uniform distribution of eroded soil. This behavior can be well justified, as these areas exhibit scanty distribution of any other plant species. Similarly, a symmetric low value of grass curve indicates the physiognomic change due to seasonal effect on the vegetation. The growth of grasses is vigorous in months of July and August and exhibit more reflectance in dark- green range like that of shrubs and bushes. So it was picked as broad leaved class. The same was experienced by Ambareen 2002 in her study in Ayubia National Park. 5.3.2. The Zonation The zonation was carried out by formation of logical zonation units. This was done of the basis of physical and topographic features in the area. The accuracy of this process was quite satisfactory. Though the boundary between each zone was clearly demarcated on the map but it is often very difficult to notice the real boundary on the ground because ecological features on small scale change continuously (Trisurat et al, 1990). To qualify for any zone a decision tree was developed base on the subjective classification. The different parameters that were considered for inclusion in the zone were the type of vegetation, cover percentage of dominant species, erosion and the presence of invasive species. Dissimilarity exists between characteristics of vegetation according to aspect. The formation of such type of zonation was chiefly because of the distribution and cover of the floral species. The southern aspect of MHNP that faces Islamabad city is more occupied by human habitations seemed to have a higher degree of soil erosion, grazing pressure and higher presence of invasive plants species as compared to eastern forests, which revealed that the degradation is directly related to increased human activities. Same type of result was obtained by Ahmad in 2001 from the vegetation characteristics in Salt Range of Pakistan where the vegetation cover was much affected due to the biotic disturbances. The denuded slopes that are devoid of any vegetation tend to have more erosion (Vargas et al 1995). Similarly in this study the areas falling in the eroded category were near to human settlements and were under high influence of felling, lopping, trampling and grazing. A broad similarity can be observed between the vegetation characteristics of habitat in depressions. Such sites are expected to have deeper soils and better soil moisture conditions and were found

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CHAPTER 5

DISCUSSION

richer in plant species and have more cover of grasses. This phenomenon was also observed by Moir et al, in 2000. Thus the zones falling in such areas were richer in species and its diversity. The presence of invasive species was attributed to the areas which were more subjected to biotic pressure, as these disturbances cause changes in the original flora, thus the invasive species can occupy open spaces in vegetation (Heger 1999). Our results also show the same observation. It is obvious that the areas around the major tourists sites of Daman- e- Koh, Chowki, Pir Sohawa and Shahdara have more presence of exotic species as compared to far away areas. 5.3.3. The Core Biodiversity Zones The core zones correspond to the idea of “Hotspots” introduced by Mayers in 1998. These areas harbor a great diversity of endemic species and at the same time have not been significantly altered by human activities (Annon 2002). It is regarded as a natural area with high ecological integrity of a unique and undisturbed ecosystem. The area is fragile and/ or sensitive to disturbance. In this study, plants were used as qualifiers for biodiversity, as plants in general have a central role in terrestrial ecosystems and also provide adequate information to interpret biodiversity indices (Mayers 1998). Areas with high plant species richness tend to have high species richness in other groups of animals (Dallmeier 1998). The core zones were demarcated on the criteria that more than 70 percent of original flora was intact. The core biodiversity zones were identified in both the major plant communities i.e. pine and scrub zone, where the erosion was less than 4 percent and seven percent respectively. Similarly the presence of exotic species was less than five percent and 20 percent respectively.

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CHAPTER 6

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

6

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

6. 1.

CONCLUSIONS

The TWINSPAN vegetation classification resulted in the identification of thirteen major plant communities in the Margallah Hills National Park. Based on the dominant vegetation type two major vegetation zones were identified in Margallah Hills National Park i. e. Pinus Zone and Scrub Zone. On the basis of vegetation intactness and the threat of erosion and exotic species, a total of eight logical units were included in core biodiversity zone in pine vegetation zone, while a total of seven logical units were included in the core biodiversity zones in the scrub vegetation. 6. 2. RECOMMENDATIONS

The increasing human population and non sustainable resource use are resulting in the depletetion of natural resources in the park area. This impact can be significantly seen by the disturbance of vegetation in the area. The following recommendations are made to combat the threat to the resources of the park area: • There is a need to prepare a comprehensive management plan for the MHNP in consultation with all the stakeholders like Government agencies, NGO’s and the local communities. A participatory strategy for the conservation and management of natural resources should be developed and implemented in the area. There is a need to geographically demarcate the exact boundaries and forest management units in order to facilitate the effective implementation of the management plan. There is a need to initiate awareness and community mobilization process in order to sensitize people about the conservation and sustainable use needs. Ecological and social baseline studies should be conducted in the area, to study the ecosystem function and the effects of human interactions with the nature. Bio- geographical studies should be conducted to address the issues of long term habitat destruction and ecosystem management. A GIS based detailed study should be conducted to demarcate the extent of habitat destruction in the area. Various existing resources should be explored in order to increase the derivation of economic incentives for the community along with ensuring the sustainable use. Management policies should be prepared for future. Better law enforcement should be strictly ensured in order to effective implementation of the management plan and reduce the burden on the resources.

• •

• •

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CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Scientific management of forest and rangelands through participatory approaches should be initiated. There is a need to put an end to illegal exploitation of resources. Prosecution of individuals involved in illegal deforestation is required. Alternate energy technologies should be introduced and promoted in the area, in order to reduce the pressure of the forest resources. The core zones should be protected from further loss and adequate measures must be taken to protect the fragile ecosystem. Economic incentives should be provided to people in the buffer area of the park and they should be motivated to restrict the consumptive activities in the core zones. Areas subjected to more erosion should be protected through biological means by protection and revival of vegetation and by construction of engineering structures like check dams and gabions. Fire incidences should be controlled through community participation and strict law enforcement. Law enforcement may be ensured and community mobilization for the fire control may be adopted. The sustainable tourism should be encouraged in the area, the present tourists facilities may be further developed. Use of proper media in this regard can prove to be very effective in this regard. Alien species and scavengers should be controlled and where possible must be eradicated. Habitat of mammal species should be effectively managed and wherever if required the species may be re- introduced.

• •

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Annex- I LIST OF NATIONAL PARKS IN PAKISTAN (AS OF 2005) S. #. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. Name Ghamot Machiara Hazarganji- Chiltan Hingol Margallah Hills Central Karakoram Deosai Handrup Shandoor Khunjerab Ayubia Chitral Gol Lolusar Saiful Malook Sheikh Buddin Chinji Lal Sohenra Kirthar IUCN Category In Process Un assigned V II V Un assigned Un assigned Un assigned II V II II II IV II V (Biosphere Reserve) II Area (ha.) 2, 7394 1, 3593 1, 5555 6, 19043 1, 5883 9, 73845 3, 63600 5, 1800 2, 27143 1,684 7,750 3, 0014 4,815 1, 5540 6,070 5, 1588 3, 02733 Province A. J. Kashmir A. J. Kashmir Balochistan Balochistan Capital Territory Northern Areas Northern Areas Northern Areas Northern Areas NWFP NWFP NWFP NWFP NWFP Punjab Punjab Sindh Declaration 2004 1996 1980 1988 1980 1995 1993 1993 1975 1984 1984 2003 2003 1993 1987 1972 1974

(SOURCE: IUCN- The World Conservation Union 2000)

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ANNEX- II

LIST OF FLORA RECORDED FROM MHNP S. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. BOTANICAL NAME Acacia modesta Acacia nilotica Achyranthes aspera Adhatoda vasica Adiantum capillus-veneris Adiantum incisum Aillanthus altissima Ajuga bracteosa Albizzia lebbeck Albizzia procera Amranthus viridis Andropogan pertusus Anisomeles indica Arisaema sp. Aristida depressa Asparagus gracilis Barleria cristata Bauhinia variegata Berberis lyciuim Bidens biternata Bothriochloa pertusa Broussonetia papyrifera Butea monopserma Buxus papillosa Cannabis sativa Carissa opaca Cassia fistula Cederella serrata Celtis australis Centaurea iberica Chrysopogan montanus Cordia myxa Cucumis melo-agrestis Cynodon dactylon Cyprus alternifolius Dalbergia sisoo Debregeasia salicifolia Dendrocalamus strictus Desmodium gangeticum Desmostachia bipinnata Dicanthium annulatum Dicliptera roxburghiana Dioscorea deltoidea FAMILY Mimosaceae Mimosaceae Amaranthaceae Acanthaceae Pteridaceae Pteridaceae Sinaroubaceae Lamiaceae Mimosaceae Mimosaceae Amaranthaceae Poaceae Lamiaceae Araceae Poaceae Liliaceae Acanthaceae Papillionaceae Berberidaceae Asteraceae Poaceae Moraceae Papillionaceae Buxaceae Cannabiaceae Apocynaceae Caesalpinaceae Meliaceae Celtaceae Asteraceae Poaceae Boraginaceous Cucurbitaceae Poaceae Cypraceae Papillionaceae Urticaceae Poaceae Papillionaceae Poaceae Poaceae Acanthaceae Dioscoreaceae

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44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 80. 81. 82. 83. 84. 85. 86. 87. 88. 89. 90. 91.

Dodonaea viscosa Dombeya sp. Ehretia acuminata Erythrina suberosa Euphorbia dabia Euphorbia hirta Ficus palmata Ficus benghalensis Ficus carica Flacourtia indica Gloriossa superba Grewia optiva Helecteris isora Heteropogan contortus Imperata cylinderica Incarvillea emodi Ipomoea carnea Jasminum officinale Lannea coromandelica Lantana camara Lonicera arborea Mallotus phillippinensis Malvastrum coromandelianum Maytenus royaleanus Melia azedirach Micromeria biflora Reptonia buxifolia Morus alba Myrsine africana Nerium oleander Onethra rosea Nyctanthes arbor-tristis Olea cuspidata Oplismenus burmannii Otostegia limbata Oxalils corniculata Parthenium hysterophorus Pennisetum orientale Peristrophe bicalyculata Phylanthus emblica Phoenix dactylifera Pinus roxburghii Pistacia integerrima Pongamia pinnata Populus deltoides Porana paniculata Prunus padus Punica granatum

Acanthaceae Sterculiaceae Boraginaceae Papillionaceae Euphorbiaceae Euphorbiaceae Moraceae Moraceae Moraceae Flacourtiaceae Liliaceae Tiliaceae Sterculiaceae Poaceae Poaceae Bignoniaceae Convolvulaceae Oleaceae Anacardiaceae Verbenaceae Caprifoliaceae Euphorbiaceae Malvaceae Celastraceae Meliaceae Lamiaceae Sapotaceae Moraceae Myrsinaceae Apocynaceae Onagraceae Verbanaceae Oleaceae Poaceae Lamiaceae Oxalidaceae Asteraceae Poaceae Acanthaceae Euphorbiaceae Palmaceae Pinaceae Anacardiaceae Papillionaceae Salicaceae Convolvulaceae Rosaceae Punicaceae

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92. 93. 94. 95. 96. 97. 98. 99. 100. 101. 102. 103. 104. 105. 106. 107. 108. 109. 110. 111. 112. 113. 114. 115. 116.

Pyrus pashia Quercus glauca Quercus leucotrichophora Rhus cotinus Rubus ulmifolius Sageretia brandrethiana Salix tetrasperma Salmalia malabarica Salvia officinalis Scilla griffithii Sesbania sessban Setaria tomentosa Sonchus asper Syzigium cumini Themeda anathera Thevetia peruviana Trichodesma indicum Vitex negundo Vitis trifolia Woodfordia fruticosa Xanthium strumarium Xanthoxylum armatum Xylosma longifolia Ziziphus mauritiana Ziziphus nummularia

Rosaceae Fagaceae Fagaceae Anacardiaceae Rosaceae Rhamnaceae Salicaceae Bombacaceae Lamiaceae Liliaceae Papillionaceae Poaceae Asteraceae Myrtaceae Poaceae Apocynaceae Boraginaceae Verbenaceae Vitaceae Lythraceae Asteraceae Rutaceae Flacourtiaceae Rhamnaceae Rhamnaceae

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ANNEX- III

FAUNA OF MARGALLAH HILLS NATIONAL PARK S. No. Birds 1. 2. 3. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. Common Name Himalayan Griffon Brain Fever Bird Chit Chat Booted Warbler Gold Finch Greenish Warbler Starling Olivaceous Warbler Black- throated Thrush Pintail Black- headed Gull Tilyar Little Stint Common River Tern Great Crested Grebe Garganey Brahminy Kite Tufted Duck Mallard Shovellor Common Teal Common Pochard Sand Martin Little Ringed Plover Herring Gull Little Cormorant Golden oriole Ringed Dove Spotted Owlet Blue whistling Thrush Rose- ringed Parakeet Tree Pie Wryneck Spotted Owlet Common Parrot Himalayan Griffon Golden Oriole Common Babbler Ringed Dove Common Crow Scientific Name Gypus himalayensis Cuculus varius Pylloscopus collybita Hippolais caligata Carduelis carduelis Pylloscopus trochiloides Sturnus vulgaris Hippolais pallida Turudus atrogularis Anas acuta Larus rudibundus Surnus vulgaris Calidris munutus Sterna aurantia Podicets cristatus Anas querquedula Haliastur indus Aythya fuligula Anas platyrhynchos Anas clypeata Anas crecca Aythya ferina Riparia riparia Charadrius dubius Larus argentatus Phalacrocorax niger Oriolos oriolus Streptopelia decacta Athene brama Myiophoneus caeruleus Pisttacula krameri Dendrocitta vagabunda Jynx torquilla Athene brama Pisttacula krameri Gypus himalayensis Oriolus oriolus Turdoides caudatus Streptopelia decaocta Corvus brachyrynchos Status Winter Visitor Winter Visitor Winter Visitor Winter Visitor Winter Visitor Winter Visitor Winter Visitor Winter Visitor Winter Visitor Winter Visitor Winter Visitor Winter Visitor Winter Visitor Winter Visitor Winter Visitor Winter Visitor Winter Visitor Winter Visitor Winter Visitor Winter Visitor Winter Visitor Winter Visitor Winter Visitor Resident+ Winter Visitor Winter and Spring Visitor Rare Winter Visitor Summer Visitor Resident Resident Resident Resident Resident Resident Resident Resident Resident Resident Resident Resident Resident

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42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60.

61. 62. 63. 64. 65. Mammals 66. Fruit Bat 67. Common Leopard 68. Barking Deer 69. Grey Goral 70. Wild Boar 71. Rhesus Monkey 72. Jackal 73. Red Fox 74. Porcupine 75. Wooly Flying Squirrel 76. Indian Mongoose 77. Murree Vole 78. Pangolin 79. Hedge Hog 80. Porcupine Reptiles (Snakes) 81. 82. 83. 84. 85. 86. -

House Sparrow Common Myna Common Hoopoe Red- vented Bulbul Lark Tree Pie Kite Kestrel Kaleej Pheasant Koklass Pheasant Black Partridge Grey Partridge Chukoor Pond Heron White-backed Kingfisher Common Morhen Coucal Lesser Golden- backed Woodpecker Common Babler Red- wattled Lapwing Marsh Harrier White- backed Kingfisher Little Egret

Passer domesticus Acridotheres tristis Upopa epops epops Pycnonotus cafer stanfordi Halycon smyrensis Pyrnonotus cafer cafer Dendrocitta vagabunda Milvus migrans Accipeter spp. Lophura leucomelanos, Pucrasia macrolopha Francolinus francolinus Francolinus pondicerianus Alectoris chukar Ardeola grayii Halcyon smynrensis Gallinula chloropus Centropus sinensis Dinopium bengalensis Tudoides caudatus Vanellus indicus Circus aeruginosus Halcyon smynrensis Egretta garzetta Pteropus giganteus Panther pardus Muntiacus muntjac Nemorhaedus goral Sus scrofa Rhesus macacca Canis aurcus Vulpes vulpes Hystrix indica Eupetaurus cinereous Herpestes edwardsii Hyperacrius wynnei Manis temminckii Hemiechinus auritus Hystrix indica Ptyas mucosus Bungarus caruleus Naja naja Coluber ventromaculatus Xenochophis piscator Ramphotyphlops braminus

Resident Resident Resident Resident Resident Resident Resident Resident Resident Resident Resident Resident Resident Resident Resident Resident Resident Resident Resident Resident Resident Resident Resident Resident -

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87. 88. Reptiles (Lizards) 89. 90. 91. 92. 93. 94. 95. 96. Amphibians (Frogs/ Toads) 97. 98. 99. 100. Fishes 101. Doula 102. Rahu 103. Thaila 104. Mori 105. Carp fish 106. Talapia

Leptotyphops blanfordi Boiga trigonata Cyrtopodian scaber Hemidactylus flaviviridus Varanus bengalensis Calotes versicolar Eublepharis macularius Ophisos jerdoni Hemidactylus brokii Uromastix hardusichii Haplobatrachus tigerinus Bufo stomaticus Bufo melanosticus Bufo virdis Channa channa Labeo rohita Catla catla Cirrhinus mrigala Cyprinus carpio Tilapia mossambica

-

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ANNEX- IV

RELEVANT WEB SITES Bio Seek (Biodiversity Search Engine) http://www.biodiv.org/search Eco-Portal (a search engine) http://www.eco-portal.com Virtual Library of Ecology and Biodiversity http://conbio.net/VL/search Global Biodiversity Information Facility http://www.gbif.org/links/search Biodiversity Organization http://www.biodiversity.org People and Planet https://www.peopleandplanet.net Biodiversity Programme IUCN Pakistan http://www.biodiversity.iucnp.org World Species List - Animals Plants Microbes http://envirolink.org/species Biodiversity Hotspots https://www.biodiversityhotspots.org Center for Applied Biodiversity Science http://www.biodiversityscience.org Conservation International http://www.conservation.org Wildlife of Pakistan http://www.wildlifeofpakistan.com IUCN- The World Conservation Union http://www.edu.iucnp.org World Wide Fund for Nature Conservation http://www.worldwildlife.org United Nations Environment Programme http://www.unep.org/Biodiversity Biodiversity Project http://www.biodiversityproject.org Enviro- Link (Online Environmental Community) http://www.envirolink.org World Watch Institute http://www.worldwatch.org National Geographic Society http://www.nationalgeographic.com Society for Conservation Biology http://conbio.org United Nations Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Centre http://www.unep-wcmc.org The Nature Conservancy http://www.nature.org World Resources Institute http://www.wri.org

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Biodiversity Support Program http://www.bsponline.org Investigate Biodiversity http://www. investigate.conservation.org Interactive Map of Biodiversity Hotspots http://www.biodiversityhotspots.org/xp/Hotspots/home/interactive_map.xml Biodiversity and World Map http://www.nhm.ac.uk/science/projects/worldmap/worldmap/soft.htm World Atlas of Biodiversity http://stort.unep-wcmc.org/imaps/gb2002/book/viewer.htm

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ANNEX- V PERFORMA FOR PHYTOSOCIOLOGICAL DATA

COVER VALUE FOR SPECIES QUADRAT No. ► S. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. SPECIES NAMES ▼ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

DOMIN- KRAJINA VALUE

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Annex- VI FUEL WOOD CONSUMPTION DATA

S. No: _________ GEO REFERENCE: Longitude: ______________ Latitude: ________________

Date: __________ / 2004

NAME OF SITE: _________________________

S. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

NAME OF CONSUMER

AMOUNT / MONTH (Mounds)

PREFERRED SPECIES

SOURCE (National Park/ Market)

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A n n e x V I I ECOLOGICAL DATA S. No: _________ Date: ________________/ 2004

COMPARTMENT No: _______________________ GEO REFERENCE: Longitude: ___________________ Stand No. ____________ Latitude: _____________________ Plot No. ____________ TOPOGRAPHY QUADRAT No. ►

Locality: ______________________

1 ALTITUDE (m) ASPECT SLOPE (Avg.)

2

3

10

ECOLOGICAL THREATS S. PARAMETERS ▼ No. 1. STEMS 2. STUMPS 3. LOPPING 4. GRAZING 5. EROSION 6. AGRICULTURE 7. STONE QUARRIES

SCORE

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ANNEX- VIII QUESTIONNAIRE SOCIO- ECONOMIC AND RESOURCE SURVEY OF MHINP Asslam’o aliaikum! The sole purpose of my research here is to learn from locals about natural resources and biodiversity of Margallah Hills National Park. The information provided by you will be treated synonymously and will only be used for research purpose. Any input from you here will help towards conservation of these resources for the benefit of yourself and the coming generations, because our future is linked with the conservation of this precious asset. Answering these questions is your moral obligation. Hoping for a positive response and cooperation. Saadullah Ayaz PERSONAL PROFILE: 1. NAME (Respondent) _________________, Date: __________ 2004 GENDER □ Male □ Female

2, AGE GROUP □ below 13 yrs, □ 14-20, □ 21-35, □ 36-50, □ 51-65, □ above 65 yrs. 3. POSITION IN FAMILY □ Grand Father/ Mother, □ Father/ Mother, □ Son/ Daughter, □ Other. _______ 4. EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION □ Primary, □ Middle, □ High, □ Graduate, □ Masters 5. CAST ___________________, ETHNIC GROUP _____________________

6. NAME OF VILLAGE _____________________ 7. OCCUPATION □ Farming, □ Livestock Rearing, □ Business, □ Teaching, □ Student, □ Service, □ Military, □ House Keeping, □ None, □ Other. ________________ 8. APPROXIMATE AVERAGE MONTHLY INCOME OF ALL FAMILY MEMBERS (Rs.) □ <3000, □ 3-5000, □ 6-10,000, □ 11- 20,000, □ above 20,000 9. TOTAL FAMILY MEMBERS

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Males __________, Children ________,

Females____________ Literate ____________

Total: ________

10. NUMBER OF LIVE STOCK BY TYPE FEEDING GRAZING STALL FEEDING

TYPE Cow Buffalo Sheep/ Goat Horses/ Mules Poultry Total

NUMBER

AMOUNT

11. FUEL WOOD CONSUMPTION Source: □ Forest, □ Market Consumption (mounds/ month) _______

Preferred Fuel- wood Species _________________________________ Alternatives □ LPG, □ Sui Gas, □ Kerosene, □ Others. ______ Amount/ month _____ 12. DO YOU OWN LAND? □ Yes □ No AREA (Kanals) Below 5 6- 10 11- 25 26- 40 Above 50 CULTIVATED UNCULTIVATED OWN GOVT. PROPERTY

13. AGRILCTURAL PRODUCTION Name of Crop Yield (mounds) Income (Rs.)

1. _______________ ______________ ____________ 2. _______________ ______________ ____________ 3. ___________________ __________________ _______________ 14. OTHER PRODUCTS (□ Fruits, □ Vegetable, □ Dairy Products etc.)

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Name of Products 1. __________________ 2. __________________ 3. __________________

Yield (mounds) ________________ ________________ ________________

Income (Rs.) _______________ _______________ _______________

%age of Total Area of Compartment under Agriculture/ Horticultural Practices ________________ VILLAGE PROFILE: 15. FOREST COMPARTMENT No. ______________ 16. TOTAL POPULATION OF VILLAGE (DCR) _, (RESPONDENT’S ESTIMATE) __ 17. NUMBER OF HOUSES IN VILLAGE (DCR) __, (RESPONDENT’S ESTIMATE) __ 18. DISTANCE FROM METALLED ROAD (Km) ________________________ 19. ARE THERE ANY CONFLICTS IN VILLAGE? □ Yes □ No Reasons for Conflicts □ Land/ Property, □ Ethnic, □ Political, □ Religion, □ Language Decision Making Structure of Village _________________________ Number of Conflicts Resolved up till now _____________________ 20. BASIC FACILITIES AVAIABLE IN VILLAGE FACILITY Health Education Water Supply Electricity Access Markets Others. _____________ RESOURCE PROFILE: 21. HOW MUCH YOU ARE AWARE OF THE OBLIGATIONS OF A NATIONAL PARK? □ Not al all, □ Some, □ Fair, □ Good, □ A lot DETAILS Hospital, BHU, Dispensary, Private Clinic, Quakes College, High/ Middle/ Primary School Pipeline, Water Channel, Storage Tank, Tube Well Grid Station, Main Power Line Metelled/ Un Metelled Road, Bridal Path/ Trail Shop, Huts, Restaurants

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22. HOW MUCH DO YOU CARE ABOUT BIODIVERSITY? □ Not al all, □ Some, □ Fair, □ Good, □ A lot Suggestions for Conservation _________________________________ 23. WHAT IS YOUR DEPENDENCE ON NATIONAL PARK RESOURCES? □ Fuel wood, □ Fodder, □ Medicinal plants, □ Others (NTFPs) _________ 24. IS THEIR ANY NTFP THAT IS BEING COMERCIALLY EXPLOITED? □ Yes □ No Name Amount (Mounds) Income (Rs.)

25. DO YOU HUNT OR HAVE EVER HUNTED BEFORE? □ Yes □ No Specie Hunted _________________ Last Date of Hunt ________________

26. DO YOU FACE ANY PROBLEM BECAUSE OF THE WILDLIFE SPECIES IN YOUR COMPT.? □ Yes □ No Kind of Problem _____________________________ 27. ANY KIND OF WILDLIFE YOU EVER OBSERVED IN THIS COMPT.? □ Yes □ No Species _____________________ Year ___________

28. CHANGE THAT YOU HAVE OBSERVED IN WILDLIFE POPULATION. PARAMETERS Total Wildlife Population Population of Ungulates Population of Birds Population of Predators Population of Scavengers INCREASE DECREASE NO CHANGE

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29. HOW MUCH IS NATIONAL PARK IMPORTANT FOR YOUR LIVELIHOOD? □ Not al all, □ Some, □ Fair, □ Good, □ A lot 30. DO YOU THINK THAT THE PARK RESOURCES SHOULD BE CONSERVED? □ Yes, □ No, □ I Don’t Know Suggestions for Conservation __________________________________ 31. IN YOUR OPNION, WHAT ARE THE MAJOR THREATS TO THE BIODIVERSITY? (Rating Wise) THREATS Population/ Tourism Lack of Awareness Poor Management Grazing Hunting/ Fishing/ Un sustainable Use Forest fires Quarries/ Land slides Military Activity Others. __________ RATING

Suggestions for Reducing Threats __________________________________

32. ARE THERE ANY OF THE BELOW AGENCIES THAT DISTURB THE ENVIRONMENT IN THIS COMPT.? □ Yes □ No □ Mill, □ Brick Kiln, □ Stone Quarry, □ Shrine, □ Military Establishment, □ Poultry Farm, □ Dumping Site, □ Others. ____________ 33. IS THEIR ANY RECREATIONAL FACILITY IN THIS COMPARTMENT? □ Yes □ No □ Zoo/ Park, □ Camping/ Hiking Site, □ View Points, □ Wet land, □ Tourists Center, □ Other. ________

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34. IS THEIR ANY CONFLICT BETWEEN THE COMMUNITY AND THE AUTHORITIES OF THE NATIONAL PARK IN YOUR COMPT.? [ □ Yes □ No Kind of Conflict _______________________________ Impact of the Conflict on Management of National Park ____________ 35. ARE THERE ANY LOCAL NGOs WORKING IN YOUR VILLAGE? □ Yes □ No Names ______________________________ Objectives: □ Nature Conservation, □ Women in Development, □ Human Rights,□ Youth Affairs, □ Basic Education, □ Sports Activities, □ Infrastructure Development, □ Village Committee, □ Political, etc. 36. CHANGES THAT YOU HAVE OBSERVED IN THE PARK IN PAST 10 YEARS? PARAMETERS Forest Cover Population of Wildlife Tourism Human Population Pollution Others. __________ INCREASE DECREASE NO CHANGE

Reasons for Change. _______________________________________ 37. DO YOU THINK THAT THE PARK IS BEING OVERCROWDED? □ Yes □ No 38. CHANGES THAT YOU HAVE OBSERVED IN FOREST SPECIE COMPOSITION IN YOUR COMPT.? CROP Tree Species Shrub Species Range Species Alien Species INCREASE DECREASE NO CHANGE

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39. ANY ACTIVITIES CARRIED OUT FOR HABITAT IMPROVEMENT IN THE NATIONAL PARK BY AUTHORITIES IN YOUR COMPARTMENT? □ Yes □ No ACTIVITY Afforestation Species Reintroduction Alien Species Eradication Predator Control Soil Conservation Garbage/ Trash Collection Others. ____________ YEAR DETAILS

40. WHAT OTHER ACTIVITIES SHOULD BE CARRIED OUT TO REDUCE PRESSURE ON RESOURCES? □ Provide Alternative Sources of Fuel, □ Improve Management, □ Raise Awareness, □ Reduce Tourism/ Settlements/ Military Activities, 41. ANY SUGGESTIONS FOR IMPROVEMENT OF THE NATIONAL PARK? ____________________________________________________________ RESEARCHER’ S REMARKS Respondent’s Attitude: ____________________________________________ Site Conditions: Management Issues: Conservation Issues: ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________

Conservation Prospects: ____________________________________________ Resource Potential: Other Observations: Prescribed Zone: ____________________________________________ _________________________________________________ □ Disturbed Zone, □ Military Zone, □ Agriculture Zone, □ Recreational Zone, □ Sustainable Use Zone, □ Services Zone, □ Buffer Zone, □ Core Zone, □ Biodiversity Hotspot, □ Other ______

Field Notes: __________________________________________________

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