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Depositional environment and diagenesis of carbonates at the Mamu/Nkporo formation, anambra


basin, Southern Nigeria

S.O. Akande† and A. Mücke*



Department of Geology, University of Ilorin P.M.B. 1515, Ilorin, Nigeria
*
Mineralogisch-Petrologishes Institut, der Universität Göttingen, Goldschmidtstrassel, D-37077
Gottingen, Germany

Received 28 April 1993;


revised 18 October 1993.
Available online 10 April 2003.

Abstract

At Leru-Okigwe, the Enugu-Port Harcourt expressway cuts through the Campanian Nkporo
Shales which pass upwards into the cyclic, ripple laminated sandstones and shales of the Lower
Maastrichtian Mamu Formation. The Mamu Formation at this locality consists of a 60 m thick
shale-sandstone sequence with the basal and middle part of the section consisting of a total of 9
carbonate units. These carbonate units vary from 10 to 70 cm in thickness, cyclically interbedded
with shales and are overlain by coarsening upwards sandstone bodies. Detailed mapping and
petrographic studies indicate that the carbonate units are divisible into a lower finely laminated
mudstone which passes upwards into oolitic packstone/grainstone in the middle and is overlain
by an upper set of laminated mudstones. The lowest mudstone unit (dark grey to greenish rock)
is finely laminated, pelleted, oncolitic and sparsely fossiliferous. The oolitic
packstone/grainstone consists of oolites cemented together by siderite microspar. Identifiable
bioclasts include tests of small size benthic foraminifera, pelecypods and rare ostracod carapace.
This unit attains a maximum thickness of about 70 cm. The upper mudstone units consist
essentially of uniformly recrystallised siderite microspar. Intraclasts include micritised pelecypod
fragments and small foraminifera tests. Ovoid, flat bottomed and biconvex vugs developed good
geopetal structures in the mudstone.

Petrographic, Xray diffraction and microprobe analyses indicate that the carbonate constituent in
these units consists of solid solutions of FeCO3---MgCO3---CaCO3 and minor MnCO3.
Sideritization, the dominant replacement process has led to the recrystallization of the micritic
matrix and microcrystalline siderite is commonly associated with goethite, chamosite relics and
quartz.
The carbonates with associated chamosite are thought to have formed in a shallow marine
subtidal to intertidal environment developed during periods of rise and fall in sea level.
Formation of chamosite-bearing oolites record periods of increasing wave energy corresponding
to storm conditions between quiet shallow marine sedimentation. At least five diagenetic stages
involving micritization, dissolution of the primary chamosite, replacements of chamosite by
siderite cement, growth of blocky calcite and a continuing replacement of the preexisting
minerals by goethite were establised from textural and compositional evidence.

Predictive Petroleum System Model of Prospective Anambra Basin, Nigeria


Yahaya Mohammed, Geology Department, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo state, Nigeria,
yahayam@gmail.com, yahmoh12@yahoo.com

Anambra basin; a Cretaceous/Tertiary basin is the structural link between the Cretaceous Benue
trough and the Tertiary Niger Delta basin. Spatially, it is the Sedimentary wedge bordered by the
Abakaliki anticlinorium to the East, the basement rock and the Benue hinge line to the north and
northwest respectively.
Petroleum-Hydrocarbon system encompass source rocks, the process of generation and
migration of the hydrocarbons and the geologic elements of traps, seals, and reservoirs that are
essential for a hydrocarbon accumulation to exist,
The Anambra basin contains about 6000m thickness of Shales and Sandstones. Potential source
rocks are the shales of Asata/Nkporo formation and Mamu formation that have total organic
contents ranging from 0.4% to 4.8%. Kerogen is mostly of type Ц and Ш. Sandstone stringers in
the Nkporo formation and Sandstone interbed of the coal measures have proven to be adequate
hydrocarbon reservoir with porosity value from 15% to 35% and adequate permeability.
The early Cenomanian and later Santonian deformation lead to the formation of simple folds and
faults that play a part in the hydrocarbon trapping mechanism of the basin. The stacking of
sediments in a Southerly direction, have also promoted the formation of growth faults. The
rejuvenation of movements on the basement faults also lead to formation of possible traps. The
alternation of marine and continental deposits is also highly conducive to the formation of
stratigraphic traps.
The Imo shale deposited during the Tertiary marine transgression has good sealing
characteristics as it has not suffered any regional deformational event.
Journal of African Earth Sciences (and the Middle East)
Volume 17, Issue 4, November 1993, Pages 445-456
n
ABSTRACT

The studied area is bounded by longitude 7o25’E – 7o30’E and latitude 5o55’N – 6o09N; is underlain

by three lithologic units; medium-coarse grains sandstone, mud rock and shale. Tectonic activity that

affected the area is responsible for the presence of deformation as observed in the area eventually

resulting to surface exposure of hydrocarbon around Ugwueme area, thereby destroying any

possible trap mechanism for any of such hydrocarbon accumulation. Thus, the area shows a general

trend of NE-SW and average dip direction with unconformity or deformation affecting some parts.

The studied unit belongs to Owelli/Awgu Sandstone, Mamu Formation [all cretaceous Campanian-

Maastrichtian sediments]; while the Shale material belongs to Eze-Aku Shale [Turonian– Coniacian

sediment] and the mottled clay belonging to Awgu Ndeaboh Shale [Santonian Sediment]. Pebbles

and Sieve analysis of the medium to coarse

grained sandstone units of Owelli/Awgu Sandstone and Mamu Formation suggest a tidally

influenced fluvial environment though of deltaic origin and the shale of Eze-Aku and Ndeaboh

Nkporo deposited in range of environments ranging from shoreface to shallow marine environment

for the Eze-Aku shale and swamp environment for Ndeaboh Nkporo Shale.
vi

Petroleum Geology of Benue Trough and Southeastern Chad Basin, Nigeria: GEOLOGIC NOTES
S. W. Petters , C. M. Ekweozor
AAPG Bulletin
Volume 66, Issue 8. (August), Pages 1141 - 1149 (1982)
Cretaceous cyclic sedimentation in the southern Benue trough, together with unconformities, provide a
tripartite subdivision of the sedimentary succession into (1) the Albian Asu River Group, (2) the late
Cenomanian to early Santonian Cross River Group (new name) comprising the marine Nkalagu
Formation (new name) and interfingering marginal marine sandstones, and (3) the post-Santonian coal
measures sequence. Most of the Albian to Eocene marine shales in the Benue trough and the Turonian
shales in the southern Chad basin contain well over 0.5% total organic carbon, with values of up to 7.4%
in Turonian anaerobic shales. Based on the high content of soluble organic matter, thermal maturity,
and the predominantly terrigenous character of the Late Cretaceous shales, mostly natural gas was
probably generated in both basins. The late Santonian folding and uplift would have disrupted
petroleum reservoirs. Also, crude oil accumulations which were not dissipated by tectonism would be
relocated at relatively shallow depths and hence become accessible to invading meteoric waters.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Introduction

Once there is a depression as a result of tectonic activity, a “basin” is created and thus

sedimentation starts in such a basin. The Anambra basin like every other sedimentary basins has it

peculiar characteristics, which can be attributed to it geographic location. The basin is 300km NE-

SW trending syncline, located at the southwestern dip of the Benue trough in southeastern Nigeria.

The trough is characteristically linear in shape and its sedimentary formations are continuous with

the Nigerian Coastal Basin. Structurally, the trough had been thought to be an ordinary rift valley but

recently, Burke and others have attempted to explain its origin in the light of the new ocean

spreading and plate tectonic theory. Their conclusion seems inconclusive owing to non- availability

or insufficiency of data.

The Benue trough in which the Anambra Basin is located at it dip is marked by a lot of

igneous activities. In the cause of this research, the lower Benue trough outcrop as exposed along

the Enugu port-Harcourt express road and other parts within the study area is studied in detail in

order to extract all possible available information necessary to the field of geosciences.
1.2 Objective of the Study

Objective of the study is to extract all possible information from the study area as far as the

scope permits. They include detailed study of the area in order to understand the following:
1 Geology of the area;
2 Igneous / tectonic activities and how they contribute to the
deformation of sediments in the area;
3 Interpretation of structural pattern in the area; and

4 Hydrocarbon prospects (issues, trend and analysis) in the area.


1.3 Scope and Method of Study

Scope of this research project includes:

1 Detailed field mapping of the study area;


2 Detailed study of the structural trends in the area;

3 Identification of different lithologic unit;


4 Identification of different igneous bodies and their relation to the host
rocks; and
5 Identification of different oil smell and show within the study area.
Method of study employed in this work is grouped into three as follows:
(a)
Preliminary Studies / Desk Work

This aspect of the work is basically research on studies that had earlier been carried out

within the study area and also helped in the understanding of the nature of research that is being

carried out currently. This constitutes the early part of this project.
(b)
Field Work

In the field, outcrop are sited, observed and the position is marked using Global Positioning

System (GPS [Garmin-12]), this is followed by detailed logging of the outcrop taking note of rock

type (lateral extent, gross thickness, bed thickness); textural features (colour, grain size, shape and

sorting of grains, clay content, cementation/compaction if present); sedimentary structures (nature of

bedding, internal structures); tectonic structure (fracturing, joints, fault, folds); and biologic structures.

This constitutes the central part of this project.

(c)
Laboratory Work and Analysis

Samples of representative outcrops collected from the outcrop site were sent into research

laboratory for proper analysis. This is the most tedious aspect of the project and is the last part of

this project.
1.4 Location and Accessibility

The Anambra basin is large and wide but the area under study is bounded by latitudes 5o55’

and 6o09’ all north and longitudes 7o25’ and 7o30’ all east. (See Fig. 1.1a). Other neighboring towns

(Awgu, Ugwueme, Mmaku, Ogo, Lekwesi etc.) bound the area as shown in figs.1.1b.
Fig. 1.1a: Geologic Framework of Nigeria showing the study area
Study Area
Sedimentary Deposit
Basement Complex
3
(c)
Laboratory Work and Analysis

Samples of representative outcrops collected from the outcrop site were sent into research

laboratory for proper analysis. This is the most tedious aspect of the project and is the last part of

this project.
1.4 Location and Accessibility

The Anambra basin is large and wide but the area under study is bounded by latitudes 5o55’

and 6o09’ all north and longitudes 7o25’ and 7o30’ all east. (See Fig. 1.1a). Other neighboring towns

(Awgu, Ugwueme, Mmaku, Ogo, Lekwesi etc.) bound the area as shown in figs.1.1b.
Fig. 1.1a: Geologic Framework of Nigeria showing the study area
Study Area
Sedimentary Deposit
Basement Complex
3
Journal of Applied Sciences Research, 4(11): 1534-1545, 2008
© 2008, INSInet Publication
Corresponding Author: Michael Ilesanmi Oladapo, Department of Applied Geophysics, Federal University of Technology,
Akure.
Email. oladapom@yahoo.co.uk
1534
Geoelectric Study of Coal Deposits at UNWANA/AFIKPO Area of Southeastern Nigeria
Michael Ilesanmi Oladapo, Oluwakemi Olanike Adeoye-1 2 Oladapo, 3Temitope Olorundare Alao
1Department of Applied Geophysics, Federal University of Technology, Akure.
2Department of Physics, Adeyemi College of Education, Ondo.
1,3Department of Applied Geophysics, Federal University of Technology, Akure.
Abstract: Geoelectric study of coal deposits has been undertaken at the Unwana/Afikpo area of
Southeastern Nigeria. The Afikpo coal bearing sequence occurs within Abakaliki sub-basin of the Benue
Trough Complex. The electrical resistivity method utilizing the Schlumberger electrodes configuration was
adopted while sixty-two sounding stations were occupied on six traverses in the study area. Observation
in two pits that intercepted coal seams in Unwana showed that they are contained within conductive
peat/shale units. Thus, the high resistivity characteristics of coal may be masked by the conductive host
rocks. The delineation of the coal seams thus became more intricate than ordinarily assumed. Sounding
curves were analyzed for anomalous points (geoelectric attributes) on presumably smooth outlay. Data
points outside smooth trend (positive cusps) are considered as anomalies presumably diagnostic of coal.
Shallow geoelectric attributes zones are situated within the northeastern, south central and southern parts
of the study area. Range of shallow coal seam thickness varies from 0.5 to 1.9m with average shallow
coal seam thickness estimated at 1.02m. Range of shallow coal seam overburden varies from 1.4 to 7.9m
while average overburden thickness is estimated at 3.42m. Moderately deep geoelectric attributes were
identified on ten (10) sounding stations with the attributes zones situated at the northeastern and southern
limits of the area. Moderately deep coal seam thickness vary from 1.1 to 7.7m, average lower coal seam
thickness is estimated at 3.37m. Range of moderately deep coal seam overburden varies from 7.4 to 27.9m
while average overburden thickness is estimated at 12.05m.
Key words: Coal seam, conductive peat/shale, geoelectric attributes, shallow, deep
INTRODUCTION
Many of the coal fields discovered in Nigeria are
situated in the Benue Trough Complex (Figure 1). Over
the years, exploration for coal in Nigeria has been
around Udi, Enugu, Ezimo, Orukpa, Okaba, Ogboyoga-
Odukpono and west of Enugu Escarpment. Coal was
first discovered at Afikpo in 1948[4]. Another area of
coal occurrence in Nigeria is Lafia-Obi. The Afikpo
and some other discoveries occur in Cretaceous
formations which are older than Nsukka Formation
where few discoveries were made. The Afikpo coal
bearing sequence occurs within Abakaliki sub-basin of
the Benue Trough Complex.
Geophysical studies conducted for coal in Kamptee
coal field of Maharashtra in India involved the
electrical resistivity and magnetic methods.[3] The
Kamptee coal field is situated in a geologic
environment consisting of sandstones and shales
preserved in a faulted trough within granites and
gneisses. High resistivity values were associated with
occurrence of coal in contrast to the low resistivity
associated with the sandstone host rocks in Kamptee.[3].
Unlike the environment of study referred to above,
crystalline rocks are absent in Afikpo thus the adoption
of the electrical resistivity method in this study.
Location Description: The study area covers from
about 2.7km south of Afikpo near Mgbom in to
Kpogrikpo (Fig. 2). The area is traversed by a major
road that rends North-South. On the East-West limit,
the area of study covers from Kpogrikpo to northern
limit of Ogbu hill.
The study area covers a total of 15 km[2]. with the
North-South traverse being 5 km and East-West
traverse being 3 km. Major towns within the area are:
Kpogrikpo, Enohia Itim, Ogbu, Akpughuru and the area
south of Mgbom just before the Iyioka River.
Access to the study area is primarily through the
Afikpo-Unwana road and secondarily through minor
roads used as access which include the Ogbu-Unwana
road, the Akpughuru-Enohia road, and the Asaga-
Amangwu road. The minor roads run east-west
of the area.
J. Appl. Sci. Res., 4(11): 1534-1545, 2008
1535
Fig. 1: South-East Nigeria: Simplified Geology and Location of Coal Deposits (NIMAMOP, 2001).
Geomorphology: The study area is located within the
Cross River plains. The topography of the area is
highly undulating. It rises gently from the Iyioka River
at an elevation of about 29m at the northern end and
attaining a height of about 85m at Ogbu at the
southern end of the area (Fig. 2). The low lying lands
are dissected by streams and river channels which flow
from west to east; and into the Cross River. Three
main rivers flow within the area. These are the Iyioka
and Ubeyi at the northern and southern end
respectively of the traverses with the river Wowo at
almost the centre of the area.
The vegetation of the area consists of thick forest
at the southern part with patches of same thick forest
around some of the villages and rivers at the central
parts of the study area. The central areas are
characterized by grass and farmlands.
The climate of the area is that typical of the
tropical rain forest: with the raining (wet) season
spanning from late March to October while dry season
lasts from November to early March, with the NE trade
winds (harmattan wind) intervening between December
and January. The mean annual rainfall ranges between
1875mm and 2500mm (Inyang, 1975) and the average
temperature is about 28°C.[4,2].
Geology of the Study Area: Afikpo belongs to the
Abakaliki Trough which is one of the Pre-Santonian
rift systems. From stratigraphic information, two
formations; Nkporo Shale and Nsukka Formation
contain coal seams (Fig. 3). The Nkporo shale is of
Upper Cenonian age.
These are composed dominantly of blue or dark
grey shale with occasional thin beds of sandy shale and
sandstones.[7,9]. The sediments passes upwards into the
Lower Coal Measures now called Mamu Formation
(Reyment, 1965) which is Maestrichtian in age.[6,8]. The
Mamu Formation consists of sandstones, shale and
sandy shale with coal seams.[9].
J. Appl. Sci. Res., 4(11): 1534-1545, 2008
1536
Fig. 2: Map of the study area showing Vegetation and Settlement Pattern (courtesy: Ebonyi State Ministry of
Lands, Surveys and Housing, Abakaliki Nigeria).
The Nsukka Formation was deposited under paralic
condition and consists of alternations of sandstones,
shales and coal seams[9]. The coal seam within this
formation is referred to as the Upper Coal Measure.
Of the four stratigraphic levels, the Mamu
Formation has been the most extensively explored and
exploited for coal. The older Awgu Shale Formation at
Lafia-Obi is known to contain Bituminous coal rank
with coking properties[5]. Thus these formations are
generally considered to hold the best economic
potential of the coal bearing formations highlighted.
Nkporo Formation around Afikpo has not been tested,
though coal occurrences have been reported.
Previous exploration data around Afikpo indicate coal
of sub-bituminous rank occurs within the Nkporo Shale
Formation.[5].
The coals could have been sources of gas in
Anambra Basin.[9]. Detail description of the coals has
been given by De Swardt and Casey.[1].
MATERIALS AND METHOD
ABEMSAS 1000. Terrameter complete with
peripherals were used for field apparent resistivity
measurements. A minimum of four (4) stacks
measurement was adopted to ensure high signal/noise
ratio. GARMIN (Global Positioning System) 72 was
used to determine co-ordinates and altitude while a
theodolite (Zeis Jena theo 10B model) was used to
measure angles and establish traverses.
Traverses were laid out with Vertical Electrical
Sounding (VES) positionings in the area (Figure 4)
using the Schlumberger electrode configuration. Five
test soundings were carried out at two pits at Ubeyi
area of Unwana. Geological logs of the pits are
presented in Figure 5. The results of the test soundings
served as control in the interpretation of geoelectric
sounding curves in the study area.
J. Appl. Sci. Res., 4(11): 1534-1545, 2008
1537
Fig. 3: The Cretaceous and Tertiary Sequence in Southeastern Nigeria[6].
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The results of the electrical resistivity field data
are presented as geoelectric sounding curves (Figure 6),
tables (Tables 1-4), geoelectric sections (Figures 7- 8)
and maps (Figures 8-11).
Geoelectric Sounding Curves and Sections: The
geoelectric sounding curves were evaluated for
signatures that are diagnostic of coal occurrence in the
study area. Further interpretation of curves involved
partial curve matching. Outputs were modelled using
computer iterations.
The summary of selected geoelectric data
interpretation is presented in Table 1. All the
geoelectric sounding curves obtained show patterns that
are indicative of geologic sequence consisting of
laterite, sandstone, clay, peat and shale. One-
Dimensional (1-D) geoelectric sections of the sounding
curves are presented in Figures 7 and 8.
The coal seams were hitherto expected to be
characterized by high resistivity since coal is a poor
conductor of electric current. However, preliminary
studies around two pits that intercepting shallow coal
seams in Ubeyi area have shown that the coal seams
are contained within conductive peat/shale units.
J. Appl. Sci. Res., 4(11): 1534-1545, 2008
1538
Fig. 4: Map showing geophysical (VES) data points.
Fig. 5: Geological logs of two pits at Ubeyi.
J. Appl. Sci. Res., 4(11): 1534-1545, 2008
1539
Fig. 6: Typical Geoelectric Sounding Curves Obtained from Unwana/Afikpo Coal Field.
J. Appl. Sci. Res., 4(11): 1534-1545, 2008
1540
Table. 1: Summary of Selected Geoelectric Data Interpretation Results of Afikpo Coal Survey
1 2 n-1 1 2 n VES No. Depths (m) d /d /……../d Resistivity (¿-m) p /p /……../p Curve Type Remarks

1 0.8/3.3/8.0/28.8 1422/2244/1591/3930/383 KHK No anomaly traceable to coal


2 0.7/1.3/2.1/2.5/7.5/15.3 1827/1483/1313/1047/30/61/2.3 QQQHK 1 deep coal? anomaly
3 0.5/1.9/2.4/4.5/8.5/10.9/31.0 593/182/310/114/32/40/5.1/14 HKQHKH 2 coal? anomalies
4 0.6/2.8/17.5/23.9 2968/208/17/14/0.3 QQQ 1 deep coal? anomaly
5 0.8/1.3/1.7/5.3/7.4/8.7/18.3 1384/1394/707/154/43/20/3.1/2528 KQQQQH 1 deep coal? Anomaly + peat
6 0.6/3.9/4.5/9.4/11.9/47.7 649/122/99/26/51/21/1170 QQHKH 2 coal? anomalies
7 0.8/3.3/6.2 1435/938/1882/764 HK 1 shallow coal? anomaly
8 1.2/11.1/12.2/69.1 402/34/53/4/1281 HKH 1 deep coal? Anomaly + peat
10 0.9/2.4/9.1 193/112/32/8 QQ Anomaly diagnostic of peat
11 0.5/2.3/5.3/11.1/21.5 3324/22665/4264/3222/1754/250 KQQQ 1 deep coal? anomaly
12 0.5/2.7/10.6/24.2 435/123/18/1.1/1517 QQH Anomaly diagnostic of peat
16 0.4/1.4/3.1/3.7/9.5/14.7/20.5 460/101/163/81/7/36/38/2825 HKQHAA 1 shallow coal seam + peat
18 0.5/3.7/5.9/7.5 794/60095/11590/13072/977 KHK No anomaly traceable to coal
19 0.8/3.3/4.6/11.1/33.7 387/23/13/5/23/11 QQHK 1 shallow coal seam + peat
21 1.5/31.8 782/12/2489 H Anomaly diagnostic of peat
22 0.5/2.3/4.5/17.8 168/3356/261/39/2684 KQH No anomaly traceable to coal
23 0.7/2.8/8.7/27.9 261/99/28/2.3/5012 QQH Anomaly diagnostic of peat
24 0.5/1.2/1.8/2.3 1348/2956/1355/1697/6 KHK Anomaly diagnostic of peat
25 1.3/2.3/7.9/8.6 2760/3048/520/1335/17 KHK 1 shallow coal anomaly + peat
26 0.4/1.8/2.3/7.5/18.8/34.0 528/118/131/7/45/18/10079 HKHKH 1 shallow coal anomaly + peat
27 1.2/4.8/6.6/15.1 4633/124/38/7/2546 QQH 1 shallow coal anomaly + peat
28 0.4/1.1/1.4/1.8/4.9/14.9 2445/8934/3177/2403/148/1189/31 KQQHK 1 shallow coal? anomaly
29 0.8/2.0/13.9 1738/3202/681/3868 KH No anomaly traceable to coal
30 0.7/3.1/9.1/24.1 373/129/7/14/2.4 QHK Anomaly diagnostic of peat
32 0.6/1.4/1.9/2.6/8.1/10.3/25.6 313/389/227/232/116/98/16/55 KHKQQH 2 coal? anomalies
33 1.0/4.6/6.5/13.0/16.9 1687/55/22/8/66/3.6 QQHK 2 coal? anomalies
34 0.5/1.2/2.2/17.2/25.5/38.4 109/517/128/11/29/18/1315 KQHKH 1 deep coal anomaly + peat
38 0.7/2.5/4.1/7.0 3711/40315/43675/7461/554 AKQ Deep peat anomaly
41 1.8/10.1 1979/10/10250 H Moderately thick peat + coal?
43 0.7/2.7/3.2/20.0/25.1 361/119/171/9/10/4.4 HKHK 2 coal? anomalies
45 0.9/2.4/9.8 727/53/968/145 HK No anomaly traceable to coal
46 1.0/1.6/5.8/8.7/28.3 2656/1687/4115/1464/44/1302 HKQH Deep peat anomaly
47 1.8/7.3 3554/19/11018 H Moderately thick peat + coal?
48 0.9/7.4/17.3/21.6 7811/27705/1202/1571/81 KHK 1 deep coal? anomaly + peat
49 0.4/4.0/9.1/10.6 729/107/10/51/1.2 QHK 1 deep coal? anomaly + peat
54 0.9/8.7/16.4 71/32/48/6 HK 1 deep coal? anomaly + peat
60 0.8/2.7/5.7/10.2/27.9/35.0 788/1329/844/283/91/145/28 KQQHK 2 coal? anomalies
Table. 2: Geoelectric Characteristics Typifying Shallow Coal Seams
VES No Resistivity of Coal Seam Depth to top of
Layer(Ù-m) Thickness (m) coal seam (m)
3 310 0.5 1.9
6 99 0.6 3.9
16 163 1.7 1.4
19 13 1.3 3.3
25 1335 0.7 7.9
26 131 0.5 1.8
27 38 1.8 4.8
32 232 0.7 1.9
33 22 1.9 4.6
43 171 0.5 2.7
Table. 3: Geoelectric Characteristics Typifying Moderately Deep
Coal Seams
VES No Resistivity of Coal Seam Depth to top of
Layer (Ù-m) Thickness (m) coal seam (m)
3 40 2.4 8.5
5 20 1.2 7.4
6 51 2.5 9.4
8 53 1.1 11.1
32 98 2.2 8.1
33 66 3.9 13.0
48 1571 4.3 17.3
49 51 1.4 9.1
54 48 7.7 8.7
60 145 7.0 27.9
Table. 4: Geoelectric Characteristics Typifying Peat (Sub-bituminous
coal?)
VES No Resistivity of Peat Depth to top of
Layer(Ù-m) Thickness (m) peat (m)
2 61 7.7 7.5
4 14 6.4 17.5
5 3.1 9.6 8.7
10 32 6.8 2.4
12 18 7.9 2.7
16 37 11 9.5
21 12 10 1.5
23 28 5.7 2.9
25 50 5.6 2.3
26 45 11.3 7.5
27 7 8.5 6.6
30 7 6 3. 1
34 29 8.3 17.2
38 554 5 7.0
41 10 8.3 1.8
43 10 5.1 20.0
46 44 9.6 8.7
47 19 5.5 1.8
49 10 5.2 4.0
54 48 7.7 8.7
J. Appl. Sci. Res., 4(11): 1534-1545, 2008
1541
Fig. 7: 1-D Geoelectric Sections of VES 1, VES 8, VES 12, VES 19, VES 23, VES 30, VES 34, VES 41 and
VES 45 on Traverse 4
Fig. 8: 1-D Geoelectric Sections of VES 5, VES 16, VES 21, VES 27, VES 32, VES 38, VES 43, VES 49, VES
54 and VES 60 on Traverse 5.
J. Appl. Sci. Res., 4(11): 1534-1545, 2008
1542
Fig. 9: Isopach Map of Shallow Coal Seam.
As a result, the high resistivity characteristics of
the coal are significantly masked by the overwhelming
low resistivity peat/shale units encasing the coal seams.
Thus, the delineation of the coal seams became more
intricate than assumed. In this investigation the curves
were observed for anomalous inconsistency of data
points on presumably smooth outlay. Data points
outside smooth trend (positive cusps) are treated as
favourable anomalies (or geoelectric attributes) and are
presumably diagnostic of coal seams. Such positive
cusps are interpreted as coal seams within conductive
peat/shale horizon. The peat in the area of study is
generally characterized by low resistivity values.
Thus, areas of low resistivities in this study are likely
to contain coal seams and are thus marked out and
presented along with areas of possible coal occurrence
in Figure 12.
Arising from the assumption that anomalies
observed on presumably smooth bi-log curve could be
diagnostic of target, shallow positive cusps were
identified on ten (10) sounding stations. The sounding
locations showing shallow attributes considered to be
diagnostic of coal are VES 3, 6, 16, 19, 25, 26, 27, 32,
33 and 43 (Table 2). Map showing areas of possible
deposit of shallow coal seams is shown in Fig. 13.
Shallow coal attributes zones are situated within the
northeastern, south central and southern parts of the
study area.
J. Appl. Sci. Res., 4(11): 1534-1545, 2008
1543
Fig. 10: Isopach Map of Moderately Deep Coal Seam.
Moderately deep geoelectric attributes (Table 3)
presumed to be diagnostic of coal (positive cusps) were
identified on ten (10) sounding stations. The sounding
locations exhibiting such attributes are VES 3, 5, 6, 8,
32, 33, 48, 49, 54 and 60. The map presenting the
distribution of the attributes is presented in Fig 14.
Deep attributes zones are situated within the
northeastern and southernmost limits of the area.
Low resistivity zones that are presumably underlain by
peat (Sub-bituminous coal?) were delineated beneath
twenty (20) sounding stations. Sounding stations
exhibiting peat attributes are VES 2, 4, 5, 10, 12, 16,
21, 23, 25, 26, 27, 30, 34, 38, 41, 43, 46, 47, 49 and
54. The summary of the peat attributes are presented in
Table 4 and Fig 15.
Eight (8) sounding curves are not displaying
attributes traceable to coal or peat and are thus
considered to be barren zones. The curves are VES 1,
7, 11, 18, 22, 28, 29 and 45.
Conclusions: A qualitative geoelectric study has been
undertaken at Unwana/Afikpo area of Southeastern
Nigeria for the delineation of coal seams. The results
of the electrical resistivity study have shown that the
coal seams are predominant on the northeastern flank
of the area of study with possible coal occurrences
outside the present area of study in the direction of the
Cross River.
Signatures diagnostic of shallow coal seams observed
on resistivity data typified the northeast, central and
southern limits of the study area.
J. Appl. Sci. Res., 4(11): 1534-1545, 2008
1544
Fig. 11: Isopach Map of Peat.
The western, northwestern and east central to
southeast areas appear barren. Signatures depicting
moderately deep coal seams were obtained in the
northern and northeastern areas while other areas
appear barren.
Low resistivity columns diagnostic of peat/shale
are more widespread. They are predominant in
northeast, central and southwestern parts of the study
area. The areas delineated as peat are likely to also
contain coal. This is due to the masking of the high
resistivity coal seams by the conductive peat/shale/clay
columns within which the coals occur.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The authors are grateful to Messrs Kefas Malguri,
Abraham Enukpere, Opalua, A.K. Ogundana, A.J.
Bello, C.A. Fagoroyo and Kola Jegede for assisting in
the field apparent resistivity data acquisition.
J. Appl. Sci. Res., 4(11): 1534-1545, 2008
1545
Fig. 12: General Area of Coal Occurrence.
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