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CALL Overview

CALL Overview

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CALL Overview

Porntip Bodeepongse

What is CALL? is the acronym for Computer Assisted Language Learning and it is related to the use of computers for language teaching and learning. .

CALL Typology (1) the type of CALL packages that were available at the time (Davies & Higgins. 1982 and Davies & Higgins 1985): Gap-filling exercises Multiple-choice exercises Free-format exercises .

CALL Typology (2) Re-ordering exercises Simulations Adventures Action mazes Games Total Cloze: text manipulation Exploratory programs Writing .word-processing .

Phases of CALL Warschauer (1996) distinguishes 3 phases of CALL: Behaviouristic CALL Communicative CALL Integrative CALL .

Behaviouristic CALL late 70s. serving mainly as a vehicle for delivering instructional materials to the learner computer as a tutor which never grew tired or judgmental and allowed students to work at an individual pace . early 80s computer as a mechanical tutor.

and using the target language predominantly or even exclusively (Jones & Fortescue. 1984). focus more on using forms. but in a non-drill format and with a greater degree of student choice. teaching grammar implicitly. allowing and encouraging students to generate original utterances. Phillips.Communicative CALL (1) emerged in the late 1970s and early 1980s used for skill practice. 1987. . Underwood. control and interaction. 1987.

using programs such as Sim City.Communicative CALL (2) This phase also includes (a) using the computer to stimulate discussion. and concordancers.) (b) using the computer as a tool or workhorse examples include word-processors. etc. . writing or critical thinking (e.g. reading mazes. spelling and grammar checkers.

Integrative CALL seeks both to integrate various skills (e.g. listening. reading. speaking. and writing) and also integrate technology more fully into the language learning process This phase is marked by the introduction of two important innovations: (a) Multimedia (b) The Internet ..

Restricted CALL Open CALL Integrated CALL .Approaches to CALL Bax (2003) prefers to talk about approaches rather than phases.

Restricted CALL "I call the first approach 'Restricted CALL¶«since it allows us to refer not only to a supposed underlying theory of learning but also to the actual software and activity types in use at the time." (Bax 2003:20) .all were relatively 'restricted'. The term is more comprehensive. to the teachers' role. to the feedback offered to students and to other dimensions . more flexible and therefore more satisfactory as a descriptor. but not all were 'behaviourist'.

. It includes simulations and games. this variety of CALL is more open in terms of feedback given to students. software types and the role of the teacher. Bax argues that we are still using the Open CALL approach.Open CALL According to Bax.

shoes. writing these are all technologies which have become normalised to the extent that we hardly even recognise them as technologies. a pen. a wristwatch. embedded in everyday practice and hence 'normalised'.Integrated CALL "This concept is relevant to any kind of technological innovation and refers to the stage when the technology becomes invisible." (Bax 2003:24) . To take some commonplace examples.

Benefits of CALL (1) multimodal practice with feedback individualization in a large class pair and small group work on projects. either collaboratively or competitively the fun factor variety in the resources available and learning styles used real-life skill-building in computer use .

.Benefits of CALL (2) exploratory learning with large amounts of language data Interest and Motivation Compatible Learning Style Immediate Feedback Optimal Use of ALT: Academic Learning Time (ALT) is the amount of time a student spends attending to relevant academic tasks while performing those tasks with a high rate of success.

How to use CALL in ELT As a resource (e.g. a source of material to be used in the class) on line or printed out? As a means of communication Between teacher and learner(s) Between learners .

As a tool Word-processing web-based teaching or learning materials As a replacement for teacher How does it replace a teacher? ‡ Presenting the language content ‡ Giving students language practice ‡ Giving students feedback or suggestions .

Get to know the software before you use it.Ti s f r si LL Software is more important than the hardware. . Co-operate with your students. Software varies in its complexity. Don¶t panic when something goes wrong.

Skills needed to use CALL: Searching Evaluating Communicating Creating .

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