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Publicado porNurul Istiqomah

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Published by: Nurul Istiqomah on Dec 14, 2010
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Subnets areimportant in TCP/IP communications because TCP/IP packets cannot cross
to another subnet without going through a bridge,router,switch,and so on. This is true
even if the two subnets exist on a common wire.

Every IP address conveys two pieces of information:

1.The address of the subnet

2.The address of the computer within that subnet

Some subnets are huge,with all but the first byte identifying the computer. Others are
small,with only the last byte identifying the computer. Obviously,the existing subnet
space can be carved into more subnets if each subnet is small.

Modern IP addresses do not need to split the subnet on byte boundaries but can,in fact,
split on any bit. This is called classless addressing,and such IP addresses are called
classless addresses.

There’s nothing within the IP address to specify where the subnet/computer split occurs.
That job falls to a second number,called the netmask. The netmask is a number that
modifies a computer’s IP address. It specifies how many bytes are devoted to the subnet.
In fact,it’s an IP address to be bitwise and’ed to the IP address to yield the subnet
address. This netmask (also calledsubnet mask) is typically appended to the network
address with a slash or input as a data piece in a file. As a simple example,let’s take a
look at the following:

This is a typical Class C situation,with the first three bytes specifying the subnet and the
final byte specifying the computer within the subnet. Note that bitwise and’ing the pre-
ceding subnet with the preceding IP address yields 192.168.100,which is the network
address of the subnet.

Introduction to Samba



05 8628 CH03 3/17/00 1:09 PM Page 62

Netmasks can also be written as the number of address bits (not bytes) consumed by the
subnet. For instance,here’s the same subnet mask written as a number of bits:

Note that 24 bits are 3 bytes,so it’s the equivalent of Once again,a
bitwise andof the two yields 192.168.100.

It’s obvious that an organization or department or other subnet needing only four IP
addresses could split on a nonbyte boundary. Let’s say it needs addresses This can be accomplished as follows:

Here it is stated another way:

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