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Wine glasses of white (left) and red wines(right).
16th century wine press
sake).oînos. Etymology The word "wine" comes from the Proto-Germanic "*winam. Ancient Greek .(cf. In these cases. typically made of fermented grape juice. Thrace and Rome.e.Wine boy at a symposium Wine is an alcoholic beverage. Yeast consumes the sugars found in the grapes and converts them into alcohol. the use of the term "wine" is a reference to the higher alcohol content. apple wine or elderberry wine) and are generically known as fruit wine or country wine (not to be confused with the French term vin de pays). Wine first appeared in Europe at about 4500 BC in the Balkans. while ginger wine is fortified with brandy. rather than production process. The Greek god Dionysus and the Roman equivalent Bacchus represented wine. Although other fruits such as apples and berries can also be fermented.woinos). The natural chemical balance of grapes is such that they can ferment without the addition of sugars. Wine has a rich history dating back to around 6000 BC and is thought to have originated in areas now within the borders of Georgia and Iran. enzymes or other nutrients. Wine is produced by fermenting crushed grapes using various types of yeast. Aeolic Greek . Wine has also played an important role in religion throughout history. and was very common in ancient Greece. Others. such as barley wine and rice wine (i. Different varieties of grapes and strains of yeasts are used depending on the type of wine being produced. Lycian: Oino. .. and the drink is also used in Catholic Eucharist ceremonies and the Jewish Kiddush. Hittite: wiyana. acids. The earliest attested terms referring to wine are the Mycenaean Greek me-tu-wo ne-wo meaning "the month of new wine" or "festival of the new wine" and wo-no-wa-ti-si meaning "wine garden"." an early borrowing from the Latin vinum." itself derived from the Proto-Indo-European stem *win-o. the resultant wines are normally named after the fruit from which they are produced (for example. "wine" or "(grape) vine. written in Linear B inscriptions. are made from starch-based materials and resemble beer and spirit more than wine. The commercial use of the English word "wine" (and its equivalent in other languages) is protected by law in many jurisdictions.
some scholars have noted the similarities between the words for wine in the Kartvelian (e. The same sites also contain the world¶s earliest evidence of crushed grapes.As explained in the History section below. Five of these amphoras were designated as from the King's personal estate with the sixth listed as from the estate of the royal house of Aten. In his writings. Alkman (7th century BC). Monks in France made wine for years. Traces of wine have also been found in central Asian Xinjiang. The oldest known evidence of wine production in Europe is dated to 4500 BC and comes from archaeological sites in Greece. In medieval Europe. included grapes rather than other fruits.g. made by fermenting grapes. a royal chief vintner. Chanakya condemns the use of alcohol while chronicling the emperor and his court's frequent indulgence of a style of grape wine known as Madhu. took place in sites in Georgia and Iran. However. which seem to be the precursors of rice wine. dating from the second and first millennia BC. Pottery jars from the Neolithic site of Jiahu. these grapes were of any of the several dozen indigenous wild species of grape in China. six of 36 wine amphoras were found in the tomb of King Tutankhamun bearing the name "Kha'y". which were introduced into China some 6000 years later. In Ancient Egypt.g. rather than from Vitis vinifera. other fruits indigenous to the region. There is an old English recipe which survived in various forms until the 19th century for refining white wine using Bastard²bad or tainted bastardo wine. storing it underground in caves to age. The first known mentioning of grape-based wines was in the late 4th century BC writings of Chanakya who was the chief minister of Emperor Chandragupta Maurya. could not be ruled out. hinting to the possibility that this word diffused into all these language families from a common origin. from as early as 6000 BC. Henan were found to contain traces of tartaric acid and other organic compounds commonly found in wine. and others. If these beverages. Literary references to wine are abundant in Homer (9th century BC. These locations are all within the natural area of the European grapevine Vitis vinifera. the Roman Catholic Church was a staunch supporter of wine since it was necessary for the celebration of Mass. Russian vino). Although no clear evidence has been found of any linguistic connection. such as hawthorn. but possibly composed even earlier). Viticulture in India has a long history dating back to the time of the Indus Valley civilization when grapevines were believed to have been introduced from Persia sometime in the 5000 BC. A 2003 report by archaeologists indicates a possibility that grapes were used together with rice to produce mixed fermented beverages in China in the early years of 7000 BC. the earliest known cultivation of the vitis vinifera grapevine occurred in present-day Georgia. Some Georgian scholars have speculated that Georgian was the origin of this word and that it entered into the Indo-European languages via Semitic.  History Main article: History of wine Archaeological evidence suggests that the earliest known production of wine. . Georgian ghvino) Semitic (*wayn) and Indo-European languages (e.
The range of possibilities here can result in great differences between wines. Many wineries use growing and production methods that preserve or accentuate the aroma and taste influences of their unique terroir. where consistency is more important. Vitis rotundifolia and Vitis riparia are native North American grapes usually grown for consumption as fruit or for the production of grape juice. Grape varieties Main article: List of grape varieties Grape vineyard Wine is usually made from one or more varieties of the European species Vitis vinifera. and aging processes as well. Most of the world's vineyards are planted with European V. Cabernet Sauvignon. In the context of wine production. climate and seasonal conditions. Vitis rupestris. most of Europe's vineyards (only excluding some of the driest vineyards in Southern Europe) were devastated by the bug. and the local yeast cultures. some of the world's most expensive wines. Blended wines are not necessarily considered inferior to varietal wines. Gamay and Merlot. flavor differences are not desirable for producers of mass-market table wine or other cheaper wines. When one of these varieties is used as the predominant grape (usually defined by law as a minimum of 75% or 85%). Vitis labrusca (of which the Concord grape is a cultivar). Vitis aestivalis. In the late 19th century. but sometimes made into wine. vinifera vines that have been grafted onto North American species rootstock. which are the only ones that have not yet been exposed to the insect. However. elevation and shape of the vineyard. terroir is a concept that encompasses the varieties of grapes used. the Canary Islands and Chile. from regions like Bordeaux and the Rhone Valley. are blended from different grape varieties of the same vintage. finishing. a root louse that eventually kills the vine. Grafting is done in every wineproducing country of the world except for Argentina. jam. created by the genetic crossing of two species. This is common practice because North American grape species are resistant to phylloxera. Hybridization is not to be confused with the practice of grafting. Such producers will try to minimize differences in sources of grapes by using . type and chemistry of soil. Chardonnay. or jelly. leading to massive vine deaths and eventual replanting. such as Pinot Noir. influencing the fermentation. Wine can also be made from other species of grape or from hybrids. wine. as opposed to a blended. the result is a varietal.
Some blended wine names are marketing terms. Barossa Valley and Hunter Valley in Australia. and spinning cones. Columbia Valley in Washington.g. Okanagan Valley and Niagara Peninsula in Canada.  Classification Wine grapes on a vine Main article: Classification of wine Regulations govern the classification and sale of wine in many regions of the world. tannin filtration. market recognition of particular regions is leading to their increased prominence on nonEuropean wine labels. and the use of these names is governed by trademark law rather than by specific wine laws. and may also include Cabernet Franc. More and more. Hawke's Bay and Marlborough in New Zealand. Examples of non-European recognized locales include Napa Valley in California. while non-European wines are most often classified by grape (e. Commercial use of the term "Meritage" is allowed only via licensing agreements with an organization called the "Meritage Association". Vale dos Vinhedos in Brazil.g. European wines tend to be classified by region (e. Rioja and Chianti). Meritage (sounds like "heritage") is generally a Bordeaux-style blend of Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot. and Malbec. Central Valley in Chile.production techniques such as micro-oxygenation. thin film evaporation. For example. Pinot Noir and Merlot). Willamette Valley in Oregon. however. Petit Verdot. cross-flow filtration. Bordeaux. .
it must contain at least 95% of . nose. Variations in a wine's character from year to year can include subtle differences in color. pioneered this technique back in 1756 with a royal charter which created the "Demarcated Douro Region" and regulated wine production and trade. depending on the region.  Beyond Europe New World wine²wines from outside of the traditional wine growing regions of Europe tend to be classified by grape rather than by terroir or region of origin. In the United States. Portugal has something similar and. through Vin de Pays and Appellation d'Origine Vin Délimité de Qualité Supérieure (AOVDQS) up to Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée (AOC) or similar. a DOCG wine France has various appellation systems based on the concept of terroir. Consequently. Greece and Italy have classifications which are based on a dual system of region of origin and quality of product. although their system has not yet achieved the authority of those of the other countries'. Spain.  Vintages Main article: Vintage A "vintage wine" is one made from grapes that were all or mostly grown in a particular year. Germany did likewise in 2002. body and development. with classifications ranging from Vin de Table ("table wine") at the bottom. High-quality wines can improve in flavor with age if properly stored. it is not uncommon for wine enthusiasts and traders to save bottles of an especially good vintage wine for future consumption. in fact. palate. and labelled as such. European classifications Moscato d'Asti. although there have been nonofficial attempts to classify them by quality. for a wine to be vintage dated and labeled with a country of origin or American Viticultural Area (AVA) (such as "Sonoma Valley"). Most countries allow a vintage wine to include a portion that is not from the labelled vintage.
chocolate. vintage wines are produced to be individually characteristic of the vintage and to serve as the flagship wines of the producer.its volume from grapes harvested in that year. Vintage wines are generally bottled in a single batch so that each bottle will have a similar taste. has only a small amount of residual sugar. will often fetch much higher prices than their average vintages. vintage year may not be as significant to perceived wine quality as currently thought. Wines are made up of chemical compounds which are similar or identical to those in fruits. Individual flavors may also be detected. Thus. although wine connoisseurs continue to place great importance on it. Non-vintage wines can be blended from more than one vintage for consistency. Dry wine. Climate can have a big impact on the character of a wine to the extent that different vintages from the same vineyard can vary dramatically in flavor and quality.  Tasting Main article: Wine tasting See also: Wine tasting descriptors Judging color is the first step in tasting a wine Wine tasting is the sensory examination and evaluation of wine. Superior vintages. Typical intentional flavor elements in wine are those imparted by aging in oak casks. like Brunellos. relative to the acidity present in the wine. Some vintage wines. from reputable producers and regions. vegetables. If a wine is not labeled with a country of origin or AVA the percentage requirement is lowered to 85%. One recent study suggests that for normal drinkers. due to the complex mix of organic molecules such as esters and terpenes that grape juice and wine can contain. . or coffee almost always come from the oak and not the grape itself. Experienced tasters can distinguish between flavors characteristic of a specific grape and flavors that result from other factors in wine making. The sweetness of wine is determined by the amount of residual sugar in the wine after fermentation. are only made in betterthan-average years. a process which allows wine makers to keep a reliable market image and maintain sales even in bad years. for example. vanilla. and spices.
 Vaporization of these compounds can be sped up by twirling the wine glass or serving the wine at room temperature. Some varietals can also have a mineral flavor due to the presence of water-soluble salts (like limestone). a First Growth from the Bordeaux region of France.Banana flavors (isoamyl acetate) are the product of yeast metabolism.. Characteristics of highly collectible wines include: 1. though the broader term fine wine covers bottles typically retailing at over about $US 30-50. as are spoilage aromas such as sweaty. A proven track record of holding well over time 2. Burgundy. and Vintage port.  Collecting See also: Aging of wine and Storage of wine Château Margaux. and rotten egg (hydrogen sulfide). "Investment wines" are considered by some to be Veblen goods²that is. the period for maturity and approachability) that is many years long 3.e. Outstanding vintages from the best vineyards may sell for thousands of dollars per bottle. goods for which demand increases instead of decreases as its price rises. For red wines that are already highly aromatic. many people prefer them chilled. The most common wines purchased for investment include those from Bordeaux. cult wines from Europe and elsewhere. A consensus amongst experts as to the quality of the wines . is highly collectible. band-aid (4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol). A drinking window plateau (i. Wine aroma comes from volatile compounds in the wine that are released into the air. barnyard. like Chinon and Beaujolais.
000 1.000 2. including grape selection and appropriate barrelaging Investment in fine wine has attracted fraudsters who prey on their victims' ignorance of this sector of the wine market.000 1. Like any investment.000 1. .000 1. Wine fraudsters often work by charging excessively high prices for off-vintage or lower-status wines from famous wine regions.600 1.550.711. and the northernmost are in Flen.000 4.450.050.400. Sweden.746 891.483 1.600 827. while claiming that they are offering a sound investment unaffected by economic cycles.666 2. just north of the 59th parallel north.600 3.980 977.333 4.643. The world's southernmost vineyards are in the Central Otago region of New Zealand's South Island near the 45th parallel south.972 891.  Production Main article: Winemaking See also: List of wine-producing countries and List of wine-producing regions Wine production by country 2006 Country Rank (with link to wine article) Wine production by country 2007 Country Rank (with link to wine article) Production (tonnes) Production (tonnes) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 France Italy Spain United States Argentina Australia China South Africa Chile Germany 5.000 1.645.665 3.600 10 Wine grapes grow almost exclusively between thirty and fifty degrees north or south of the equator.012.410.349.087 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Italy France Spain United States Argentina China South Africa Australia Germany Chile 5.300.4.711. Rigorous production methods at every stage.000 961. proper research is essential before investing.050.539.232.
462 2 1. ** May include official.8% South Africa 2. Exporting countries Top ten wine exporting countries in 2006 Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Country Italy* France Spain* Australia Chile* United States Germany Argentina Portugal South Africa World** 1000 tonnes Rank 1.5% United States 3.337 3 762 4 472 5 369 6 316 7 302 8 286 9 272 10 8.3% Italy 18.0% Germany 3.9% 2006 export market shares Market share Country (% of value in US$) * Unofficial figure. semi-official or estimated data. The UK was the world's biggest importer of wine in 2007.0% France 34.793 1 1.  Uses .4% Portugal 3.3% Spain 8.353 New Zealand 1.6% Chile 4.7% Australia 9.
decanting with a filter allows one to remove bitter sediments that may have formed in the wine. if at all. with extended aeration. Apéritif and dessert wines contain 14±20% alcohol. In addition to aeration. More than 30 litres. from the simple and traditional to the most sophisticated and complex. Older wines generally fade. and are known as light wines because they are only 10±14% alcohol-content by volume.  Religious uses See also: Kosher wine. Sediment is more common in older bottles but younger wines usually benefit more from aeration. but as a flavor agent. white. while others recommend drinking it immediately. and Islam and alcohol Silver kiddush cup and wine decanter . from 1 to 7 litres. from 15 to 30 litres. Wine is important in cuisine not just for its value as a beverage. primarily in stocks and braising. Christianity and alcohol. Despite these general rules. and are sometimes fortified to make them richer and sweeter. and sparkling wines are the most popular. since its acidity lends balance to rich savory or sweet dishes. breathing does not necessarily benefit all wines. texture. Red. Decanting²the act of pouring a wine into a special container just for breathing²is a controversial subject in wine. from 7 to 15 litres.Per capita annual wine consumption: less than 1 litre. Wine is a popular and important beverage that accompanies and enhances a wide range of European and Mediterranean-style cuisines. Some wine labels suggest opening the bottle and letting the wine "breathe" for a couple of hours before serving. During aeration. the exposure of younger wines to air often "relaxes" the flavors and makes them taste smoother and better integrated in aroma. Wine should be tasted as soon as it is opened to determine how long it should be aerated. or lose their character and flavor intensity. and flavor.
 Note that this does not mean that wine is a symbol of blood."  Christianity Jesus making wine from water in The Marriage at Cana. our God. a common misconception which contributes to the myth of the blood libel. the libation of wine was part of the sacrificial service. In the Tabernacle and in the Temple in Jerusalem. Ancient religions The use of wine in religious ceremonies is common to many cultures and regions. King of the universe. a 14th-century fresco from the Visoki De ani monastery. it is a Rabbinic obligation of men and women to drink four cups of wine. The Kiddush is a blessing recited over wine or grape juice to sanctify the Shabbat or a Jewish holiday. boray p¶ree hagafen"² "Praised be the Lord. Libations often included wine. .  Judaism Wine is an integral part of Jewish laws and traditions. and the religious mysteries of Dionysus used wine as a sacramental entheogen to induce a mind-altering state. A blessing over wine said before indulging in the drink is: "Baruch atah Hashem (Adonai) elokeinu melech ha-olam. Creator of the fruit of vine. On Pesach (Passover) during the Seder.
but especially in Persia. Wine was used in Eucharistic rites by all Protestant groups until an alternative arose in the late 19th century. Methodist dentist and prohibitionist Thomas Bramwell Welch applied new pasteurization techniques to stop the natural fermentation process of grape juice. pasteurized grape juice as a substitute. there has been a long tradition of drinking wine. Some Christians who were part of the growing temperance movement pressed for a switch from wine to grape juice.See also: Christianity and alcohol and Alcohol in the Bible The bishop elevates the chalice while the deacon fans the Gifts with the ripidion. There remains an ongoing debate between some American . In Christianity. All alcohol is strictly forbidden under Islamic law. wine is used in a sacred rite called the Eucharist. While most Christians consider the use of wine from the grape as essential for validity of the sacrament. which originates in Gospel accounts of the Last Supper in which Jesus shared bread and wine with his disciples and commanded his followers to "do this in remembrance of me" (Gospel of Luke 22:19). Beliefs about the nature of the Eucharist vary among denominations (see Eucharistic theologies contrasted). many Protestants also allow (or require) unfermented. and the substitution spread quickly over much of the United States and to other countries to a lesser degree.
However. Iran and Afghanistan used to have a thriving wine industry that disappeared after the Islamic Revolution in 1979 and earlier in Afghanistan. people of Nuristan in Afghanistan have produced wine since ancient times and still do so. Mei (Persian wine) has been a central theme of poetry for more than a thousand years.  Health effects See also: Wine and health [show] v d e Alcohol and health Short-term effects of alcohol/Alcohol intoxication · Long-term effects of alcohol · Fetal alcohol syndrome/Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder · Alcoholism · Binge drinking digestive system nervous system Alcoholic hepatitis · Alcoholic liver disease Alcohol dementia · Alcoholic hallucinosis · Blackout (alcohol-related amnesia) · Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome cardiovascular Alcoholic cardiomyopathy · Alcoholic lung disease system Red table wine Nutritional value per 100 g (3. In Greater Persia.  Islam Alcohol is largely forbidden under Islamic law.5 oz) .Protestant denominations as to whether wine can and should be used for the Eucharist or allowed as an ordinary beverage.
Specifically. Studies have also found that moderate consumption of other alcoholic beverages may be cardioprotective. Some epidemiologists suspect that this difference is due to the higher consumption of wines by the French. Also. and additional news reports on the French Paradox. to be more health conscious. low doses of resveratrol mimic the effects of what is known as caloric . The average moderate wine drinker is more likely to exercise more. This means that heavy drinkers have an elevated risk.4 fl oz. although the association is considerably stronger for wine. The French paradox refers to the comparatively lower incidence of coronary heart disease in France despite high levels of saturated fat in the traditional French diet. and to be of a higher educational and socioeconomic class. Source: USDA Nutrient database Although excessive alcohol consumption has adverse health effects. Low doses of resveratrol in the diet of middle-aged mice has a widespread influence on the genetic levers of aging and may confer special protection on the heart.6 g alcohol is 13%vol. and these are thought to be particularly protective against cardiovascular disease. 100 g wine is approximately 100 ml (3. evidence that the association between moderate wine drinking and health may be related to confounding factors. though other studies have found no difference. Red wine contains more polyphenols than white wine.) Sugar and alcohol content can vary.6 g 0. epidemiological studies have consistently demonstrated that moderate consumption of alcohol and wine is statistically associated with a decrease in death due to cardiovascular events such as heart failure. while moderate drinkers (at most two five-ounce servings of wine per day) have a lower risk than non-drinkers. some studies have found increased health benefits for red wine over white wine. a boom in red wine consumption was initiated in the 1990s by the TV show 60 Minutes. Population studies have observed a J curve association between wine consumption and the risk of heart disease.6 g 10.0 g 0. In the United States.1 g 10. but the scientific evidence for this theory is limited.6 g 0. A chemical in red wine called resveratrol has been shown to have both cardioprotective and chemoprotective effects in animal studies.Energy Carbohydrates Sugars Fat Protein Alcohol 355 kJ (85 kcal) 2.
absorption via the mucous membranes in the mouth can result in up to around 100 times the blood levels of resveratrol. including breast. A study of women in the United Kingdom. To fully get the benefits of resveratrol in wines. particularly those with asthma. The level of added sulphites varies. no controlled studies have been completed on the effect of alcoholic drinks on the risk of developing heart disease or stroke. when sipping slowly.restriction . and some wines have been marketed with low sulphite content. Also. it is recommended to sip slowly when drinking wines. concluded that moderate alcohol consumption can increase the risk of certain cancers." Professor Roger Corder. which are compounds in grape seeds suspected to be responsible for red wine's heart benefits. Professor Valerie Beral. antioxidants. Biomarkers and Prevention. pharynx and liver cancer. While evidence from laboratory and epidemiological (observational) studies suggest a cardioprotective effect. A 2007 study found that both red and white wines are effective anti-bacterial agents against strains of Streptococcus. This has led the lead author of the study. and many wine producers add sulfur dioxide in order to help preserve wine. to have adverse reactions. "It's an absolute myth that red wine is good for you. Due to inactivation in the gut and liver. counters that two small glasses . most of the resveratrol in imbibed red wine does not reach the blood circulation. and flavonoids. One study concluded that wine made from the Cabernet Sauvignon grape reduces the risk of Alzheimer's Disease. Sulphites are present in all wines and are formed as a natural product of the fermentation process. Red wines from these areas have between two and four times as much procyanidins as other red wines. called The Million Women Study. Procyanidins suppress the synthesis of a peptide called endothelin-1 that constricts blood vessels. As white wine has minimal contact with grape skins during this process. Another study concluded that among alcoholics. and is quoted as saying. it generally contains lower levels of the chemical.diets with 20-30 percent fewer calories than a typical diet. to assert that there is not enough evidence to conclude that any positive health effects of red wine outweigh the risk of cancer. Other beneficial compounds in wine include other polyphenols. the American Heart Association cautions people to "consult your doctor on the benefits and risks of consuming alcohol in moderation." Wine's effect on the brain is also under study. Resveratrol is produced naturally by grape skins in response to fungal infection. However. a report in the October 2008 issue of Cancer Epidemiology. Sulphites in wine can cause some people. including exposure to yeast during fermentation. Sulfur dioxide is also added to foods such as dried apricots and orange juice. Red wines from the south of France and from Sardinia in Italy have been found to have the highest levels of procyanidins. author of The Red Wine Diet. posits that moderate consumption of red wine may decrease the risk of lung cancer in men. Excessive consumption of alcohol can cause cirrhosis of the liver and alcoholism. wine damages the hippocampus to a greater degree than other alcoholic beverages.
or synthetic plastic "corks". although "most supermarket wines are low procyanadin and high alcohol.of a very tannic. Alternative wine closures. although they have been blamed for other problems such as excessive reduction. . In addition to being less expensive. Closure (bottle). procyanadin rich wine would confer a benefit. and Screw cap (wine) Most wines are sold in glass bottles and are sealed using corks (50% of production comes from Portugal). Wine bottle. alternative closures prevent cork taint. Box wine. An increasing number of wine producers have been using alternative closures such as screwcaps."  Packaging Assorted wine corks Corrugated box to carry bottles See also: Cork (material).
 Storage Main article: Storage of wine Related professions Name Description Craftsman of wooden barrels and casks. A cooperage is a company that produces such casks. or cask wine. being lighter in package weight. as it is completely recyclable. Wine scientist or wine chemist. Cooper Garagiste Négociant Oenologist . even though possibly recyclable. Environmental considerations of wine packaging reveal benefits and drawbacks of both bottled and box wines. A winemaker may be trained as oenologist. whereas plastics as used in box wines are typically considered to be much less environmentally friendly. a student of oenology. And while a wine box is recyclable.Some wines are packaged in heavy plastic bags within cardboard boxes. has a reduced carbon footprint from its distribution. but often hires a consultant instead. Glass used to make bottles has a decent environmental reputation. These wines are typically accessed via a tap on the side of the box. can be more labor-intensive (and therefore expensive) to process than glass bottles. most specifically those who assemble the produce of smaller growers and winemakers and sells them under their own name. A New York Times editorial suggested that box wine. An amateur wine maker. Boxed wine plastics. A wine merchant. and are called box wines. Box wine can maintain an acceptable degree of freshness for up to a month after opening. while bottled wine will more rapidly oxidize. usually without pedigree and located in Bordeaux. wine bottle manufacturers have been cited for Clean Air Act violations. and is considerably degraded within a few days. its plastic wine bladder most likely is not. However. or a derogatory term used for small scale operations of recent inception.
Winemaker A wine producer. all types of wine.also known as terroir . Oak wine barrels . Wine refrigerators offer an alternative to wine cellars. Lower humidity levels can dry corks out over time. but rather serve to chill wine to the perfect temperature for drinking. Can also be someone who manages vineyard pruning. others 59 °F (15 °C). wines can maintain their quality and in some cases improve in aroma. and pest control. are places designed specifically for the storage and aging of wine. which is below the optimal humidity of 50% to 70%.and wine grape quality or wine character. and fortified. flavor. These refrigerators keep the humidity low. Wine is a natural. In an active wine cellar. Wine cellars. usually under 50%. They are available in capacities ranging from small 16-bottle units to furniture pieces that can contain 400 bottles. temperature and humidity are maintained by a climate control system. and so must be carefully located. white. climate and topography . irrigation. Someone (often a consultant or academic) with special knowledge of the interplay between the environmental factors such as soil. perishable food product. allowing oxygen to enter the bottle and reduce the wine's quality. Passive wine cellars are not climate-controlled. or wine rooms if they are above-ground. Wine refrigerators are not ideal for aging.Sommelier A restaurant specialist in charge of assembling the wine list. light. vibration or fluctuations in temperature and humidity. can spoil. sparkling. a person who makes wine. Terroir specialist Vintner. and assisting customers with their wine selections. When properly stored. including red. Some wine experts contend that the optimal temperature for aging wine is 55 °F (13 °C). and complexity as they age. Viticulturist A person who specializes in the science of grapevines. educating the staff about wine. when exposed to heat.
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