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Published by: Ally Syed on Dec 20, 2010
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Wine glasses of white (left) and red wines(right).

16th century wine press

and was very common in ancient Greece. such as barley wine and rice wine (i. Although other fruits such as apples and berries can also be fermented. enzymes or other nutrients. sake).(cf. rather than production process. Different varieties of grapes and strains of yeasts are used depending on the type of wine being produced. are made from starch-based materials and resemble beer and spirit more than wine. In these cases." itself derived from the Proto-Indo-European stem *win-o. acids.[5][6] Wine first appeared in Europe at about 4500 BC in the Balkans. "wine" or "(grape) vine." an early borrowing from the Latin vinum. the use of the term "wine" is a reference to the higher alcohol content. written in Linear B inscriptions. apple wine or elderberry wine) and are generically known as fruit wine or country wine (not to be confused with the French term vin de pays).[1] The natural chemical balance of grapes is such that they can ferment without the addition of sugars. typically made of fermented grape juice. and the drink is also used in Catholic Eucharist ceremonies and the Jewish Kiddush. while ginger wine is fortified with brandy. Aeolic Greek . Wine has also played an important role in religion throughout history.oînos.[2] Wine is produced by fermenting crushed grapes using various types of yeast.e. Yeast consumes the sugars found in the grapes and converts them into alcohol. Thrace and Rome.[4] Wine has a rich history dating back to around 6000 BC and is thought to have originated in areas now within the borders of Georgia and Iran.. Hittite: wiyana.woinos). The Greek god Dionysus and the Roman equivalent Bacchus represented wine. Ancient Greek . Lycian: Oino.[9][10][11][12] . the resultant wines are normally named after the fruit from which they are produced (for example.[3] The commercial use of the English word "wine" (and its equivalent in other languages) is protected by law in many jurisdictions.Wine boy at a symposium Wine is an alcoholic beverage.[7][8] The earliest attested terms referring to wine are the Mycenaean Greek me-tu-wo ne-wo meaning "the month of new wine" or "festival of the new wine" and wo-no-wa-ti-si meaning "wine garden". Others. Etymology The word "wine" comes from the Proto-Germanic "*winam.

storing it underground in caves to age. The first known mentioning of grape-based wines was in the late 4th century BC writings of Chanakya who was the chief minister of Emperor Chandragupta Maurya.[15][16] The same sites also contain the world¶s earliest evidence of crushed grapes. and others. dating from the second and first millennia BC. other fruits indigenous to the region.[19] A 2003 report by archaeologists indicates a possibility that grapes were used together with rice to produce mixed fermented beverages in China in the early years of 7000 BC.[18] Viticulture in India has a long history dating back to the time of the Indus Valley civilization when grapevines were believed to have been introduced from Persia sometime in the 5000 BC. Russian vino). Henan were found to contain traces of tartaric acid and other organic compounds commonly found in wine. from as early as 6000 BC.[23] . Georgian ghvino) Semitic (*wayn) and Indo-European languages (e. Pottery jars from the Neolithic site of Jiahu. hinting to the possibility that this word diffused into all these language families from a common origin. six of 36 wine amphoras were found in the tomb of King Tutankhamun bearing the name "Kha'y". the earliest known cultivation of the vitis vinifera grapevine occurred in present-day Georgia.[5][6] These locations are all within the natural area of the European grapevine Vitis vinifera.[22] There is an old English recipe which survived in various forms until the 19th century for refining white wine using Bastard²bad or tainted bastardo wine. The oldest known evidence of wine production in Europe is dated to 4500 BC and comes from archaeological sites in Greece. took place in sites in Georgia and Iran. included grapes rather than other fruits. Alkman (7th century BC).[20] In medieval Europe.[13] Some Georgian scholars have speculated that Georgian was the origin of this word and that it entered into the Indo-European languages via Semitic. some scholars have noted the similarities between the words for wine in the Kartvelian (e.[17] Traces of wine have also been found in central Asian Xinjiang. but possibly composed even earlier).g.g. could not be ruled out. the Roman Catholic Church was a staunch supporter of wine since it was necessary for the celebration of Mass. Chanakya condemns the use of alcohol while chronicling the emperor and his court's frequent indulgence of a style of grape wine known as Madhu. Monks in France made wine for years. In Ancient Egypt. such as hawthorn. these grapes were of any of the several dozen indigenous wild species of grape in China.[15] Literary references to wine are abundant in Homer (9th century BC.[20][21] If these beverages. Although no clear evidence has been found of any linguistic connection.As explained in the History section below. which seem to be the precursors of rice wine. However. a royal chief vintner. rather than from Vitis vinifera. Five of these amphoras were designated as from the King's personal estate with the sixth listed as from the estate of the royal house of Aten.[14] [edit] History Main article: History of wine Archaeological evidence suggests that the earliest known production of wine. made by fermenting grapes. which were introduced into China some 6000 years later. In his writings.

The range of possibilities here can result in great differences between wines. Vitis labrusca (of which the Concord grape is a cultivar). Vitis aestivalis. leading to massive vine deaths and eventual replanting. Grafting is done in every wineproducing country of the world except for Argentina. as opposed to a blended. the Canary Islands and Chile.[edit] Grape varieties Main article: List of grape varieties Grape vineyard Wine is usually made from one or more varieties of the European species Vitis vinifera. flavor differences are not desirable for producers of mass-market table wine or other cheaper wines. and aging processes as well. or jelly. Vitis rupestris. finishing. Most of the world's vineyards are planted with European V. Hybridization is not to be confused with the practice of grafting. This is common practice because North American grape species are resistant to phylloxera. Gamay and Merlot. some of the world's most expensive wines. Many wineries use growing and production methods that preserve or accentuate the aroma and taste influences of their unique terroir. such as Pinot Noir. jam. the result is a varietal. terroir is a concept that encompasses the varieties of grapes used. created by the genetic crossing of two species. elevation and shape of the vineyard. vinifera vines that have been grafted onto North American species rootstock. type and chemistry of soil. and the local yeast cultures. are blended from different grape varieties of the same vintage. from regions like Bordeaux and the Rhone Valley. Vitis rotundifolia and Vitis riparia are native North American grapes usually grown for consumption as fruit or for the production of grape juice. Such producers will try to minimize differences in sources of grapes by using .[25] However.[24] In the context of wine production. influencing the fermentation. Chardonnay. most of Europe's vineyards (only excluding some of the driest vineyards in Southern Europe) were devastated by the bug. which are the only ones that have not yet been exposed to the insect. a root louse that eventually kills the vine. wine. Cabernet Sauvignon. but sometimes made into wine. Blended wines are not necessarily considered inferior to varietal wines. When one of these varieties is used as the predominant grape (usually defined by law as a minimum of 75% or 85%). climate and seasonal conditions. In the late 19th century.[citation needed] Wine can also be made from other species of grape or from hybrids. where consistency is more important.

and spinning cones. . however. European wines tend to be classified by region (e. Columbia Valley in Washington. market recognition of particular regions is leading to their increased prominence on nonEuropean wine labels. Commercial use of the term "Meritage" is allowed only via licensing agreements with an organization called the "Meritage Association". Okanagan Valley and Niagara Peninsula in Canada. Bordeaux. tannin filtration. Vale dos Vinhedos in Brazil. Examples of non-European recognized locales include Napa Valley in California. and the use of these names is governed by trademark law rather than by specific wine laws. thin film evaporation. For example. Hawke's Bay and Marlborough in New Zealand. Meritage (sounds like "heritage") is generally a Bordeaux-style blend of Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot. Barossa Valley and Hunter Valley in Australia. Pinot Noir and Merlot). and may also include Cabernet Franc. Petit Verdot. Rioja and Chianti).production techniques such as micro-oxygenation. Willamette Valley in Oregon. while non-European wines are most often classified by grape (e. and Malbec. Central Valley in Chile.g. Some blended wine names are marketing terms. More and more.g. cross-flow filtration.[26] [edit] Classification Wine grapes on a vine Main article: Classification of wine Regulations govern the classification and sale of wine in many regions of the world.

In the United States. Variations in a wine's character from year to year can include subtle differences in color.[edit] European classifications Moscato d'Asti. Most countries allow a vintage wine to include a portion that is not from the labelled vintage.[33][34] [edit] Vintages Main article: Vintage A "vintage wine" is one made from grapes that were all or mostly grown in a particular year. it must contain at least 95% of .[27][28] Portugal has something similar and.[29] Germany did likewise in 2002. body and development. pioneered this technique back in 1756 with a royal charter which created the "Demarcated Douro Region" and regulated wine production and trade. for a wine to be vintage dated and labeled with a country of origin or American Viticultural Area (AVA) (such as "Sonoma Valley"). High-quality wines can improve in flavor with age if properly stored. although their system has not yet achieved the authority of those of the other countries'. it is not uncommon for wine enthusiasts and traders to save bottles of an especially good vintage wine for future consumption. Greece and Italy have classifications which are based on a dual system of region of origin and quality of product. and labelled as such. in fact. nose. a DOCG wine France has various appellation systems based on the concept of terroir. through Vin de Pays and Appellation d'Origine Vin Délimité de Qualité Supérieure (AOVDQS) up to Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée (AOC) or similar.[32] [edit] Beyond Europe New World wine²wines from outside of the traditional wine growing regions of Europe tend to be classified by grape rather than by terroir or region of origin. with classifications ranging from Vin de Table ("table wine") at the bottom. although there have been nonofficial attempts to classify them by quality. palate.[30][31] Spain.[1] Consequently. depending on the region.

its volume from grapes harvested in that year. and spices. vintage year may not be as significant to perceived wine quality as currently thought. Non-vintage wines can be blended from more than one vintage for consistency. although wine connoisseurs continue to place great importance on it. Some vintage wines. Climate can have a big impact on the character of a wine to the extent that different vintages from the same vineyard can vary dramatically in flavor and quality. Individual flavors may also be detected. Wines are made up of chemical compounds which are similar or identical to those in fruits. has only a small amount of residual sugar. will often fetch much higher prices than their average vintages. due to the complex mix of organic molecules such as esters and terpenes that grape juice and wine can contain.[39] [edit] Tasting Main article: Wine tasting See also: Wine tasting descriptors Judging color is the first step in tasting a wine Wine tasting is the sensory examination and evaluation of wine. like Brunellos.[35] If a wine is not labeled with a country of origin or AVA the percentage requirement is lowered to 85%. chocolate. The sweetness of wine is determined by the amount of residual sugar in the wine after fermentation. for example. a process which allows wine makers to keep a reliable market image and maintain sales even in bad years. vintage wines are produced to be individually characteristic of the vintage and to serve as the flagship wines of the producer. are only made in betterthan-average years. from reputable producers and regions. relative to the acidity present in the wine. Typical intentional flavor elements in wine are those imparted by aging in oak casks. vegetables. vanilla. Superior vintages.[36] Thus.[37][38] One recent study suggests that for normal drinkers. or coffee almost always come from the oak and not the grape itself. Dry wine.[40] .[35] Vintage wines are generally bottled in a single batch so that each bottle will have a similar taste. Experienced tasters can distinguish between flavors characteristic of a specific grape and flavors that result from other factors in wine making.

A drinking window plateau (i.[41] and rotten egg (hydrogen sulfide).Banana flavors (isoamyl acetate) are the product of yeast metabolism. the period for maturity and approachability) that is many years long 3.[42] Some varietals can also have a mineral flavor due to the presence of water-soluble salts (like limestone). like Chinon and Beaujolais. A proven track record of holding well over time 2. as are spoilage aromas such as sweaty.e. band-aid (4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol). Outstanding vintages from the best vineyards may sell for thousands of dollars per bottle.[44] [edit] Collecting See also: Aging of wine and Storage of wine Château Margaux. many people prefer them chilled. though the broader term fine wine covers bottles typically retailing at over about $US 30-50. The most common wines purchased for investment include those from Bordeaux. Characteristics of highly collectible wines include: 1.[45] "Investment wines" are considered by some to be Veblen goods²that is. For red wines that are already highly aromatic. and Vintage port. barnyard. a First Growth from the Bordeaux region of France. A consensus amongst experts as to the quality of the wines . goods for which demand increases instead of decreases as its price rises. Wine aroma comes from volatile compounds in the wine that are released into the air.. Burgundy. is highly collectible. cult wines from Europe and elsewhere.[43] Vaporization of these compounds can be sped up by twirling the wine glass or serving the wine at room temperature.

Like any investment.665 3.050.483 1.087 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Italy France Spain United States Argentina China South Africa Australia Germany Chile 5.539.012.972 891.450.349. proper research is essential before investing.746 891.711.000 961.550.300.000 1.000 1.980 977.000 2.000 1.333 4.711. while claiming that they are offering a sound investment unaffected by economic cycles.232.410.000 1.[48] . including grape selection and appropriate barrelaging Investment in fine wine has attracted fraudsters who prey on their victims' ignorance of this sector of the wine market.643.600 10 Wine grapes grow almost exclusively between thirty and fifty degrees north or south of the equator.666 2. The world's southernmost vineyards are in the Central Otago region of New Zealand's South Island near the 45th parallel south.600 3. [edit] Production Main article: Winemaking See also: List of wine-producing countries and List of wine-producing regions Wine production by country 2006[46] Country Rank (with link to wine article) Wine production by country 2007[46] Country Rank (with link to wine article) Production (tonnes) Production (tonnes) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 France Italy Spain United States Argentina Australia China South Africa Chile Germany 5.000 1. just north of the 59th parallel north.050.645. Rigorous production methods at every stage.[47] and the northernmost are in Flen.600 827. Wine fraudsters often work by charging excessively high prices for off-vintage or lower-status wines from famous wine regions.600 1. Sweden.000 4.400.4.

5% United States 3.462 2 1.[edit] Exporting countries Top ten wine exporting countries in 2006[49] Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Country Italy* France Spain* Australia Chile* United States Germany Argentina Portugal South Africa World** 1000 tonnes Rank 1.793 1 1.0% France 34.8% South Africa 2.0% Germany 3.3% Italy 18.4% Portugal 3.9% 2006 export market shares[49] Market share Country (% of value in US$) * Unofficial figure.353 New Zealand 1.3% Spain 8.6% Chile 4. The UK was the world's biggest importer of wine in 2007.337 3 762 4 472 5 369 6 316 7 302 8 286 9 272 10 8.7% Australia 9. ** May include official.[50] [edit] Uses . semi-official or estimated data.

Christianity and alcohol. More than 30 litres.[51] During aeration. if at all. with extended aeration. and Islam and alcohol Silver kiddush cup and wine decanter . from 1 to 7 litres. decanting with a filter allows one to remove bitter sediments that may have formed in the wine. since its acidity lends balance to rich savory or sweet dishes. Wine is a popular and important beverage that accompanies and enhances a wide range of European and Mediterranean-style cuisines. and flavor. and sparkling wines are the most popular.Per capita annual wine consumption: less than 1 litre. texture. breathing does not necessarily benefit all wines. from 7 to 15 litres. Wine should be tasted as soon as it is opened to determine how long it should be aerated. primarily in stocks and braising. [edit] Religious uses See also: Kosher wine. Some wine labels suggest opening the bottle and letting the wine "breathe" for a couple of hours before serving. Red. from the simple and traditional to the most sophisticated and complex. Apéritif and dessert wines contain 14±20% alcohol. Older wines generally fade. from 15 to 30 litres. the exposure of younger wines to air often "relaxes" the flavors and makes them taste smoother and better integrated in aroma. Decanting²the act of pouring a wine into a special container just for breathing²is a controversial subject in wine. or lose their character and flavor intensity. Wine is important in cuisine not just for its value as a beverage. In addition to aeration. but as a flavor agent. Sediment is more common in older bottles but younger wines usually benefit more from aeration. white. and are known as light wines because they are only 10±14% alcohol-content by volume. while others recommend drinking it immediately. and are sometimes fortified to make them richer and sweeter.[52] Despite these general rules.

a common misconception which contributes to the myth of the blood libel.[53] In the Tabernacle and in the Temple in Jerusalem. boray p¶ree hagafen"² "Praised be the Lord. and the religious mysteries of Dionysus used wine as a sacramental entheogen to induce a mind-altering state. our God. On Pesach (Passover) during the Seder. A blessing over wine said before indulging in the drink is: "Baruch atah Hashem (Adonai) elokeinu melech ha-olam. it is a Rabbinic obligation of men and women to drink four cups of wine. King of the universe. a 14th-century fresco from the Visoki De ani monastery. Libations often included wine. The Kiddush is a blessing recited over wine or grape juice to sanctify the Shabbat or a Jewish holiday.[edit] Ancient religions The use of wine in religious ceremonies is common to many cultures and regions. the libation of wine was part of the sacrificial service. . Creator of the fruit of vine.[54] Note that this does not mean that wine is a symbol of blood. [edit] Judaism Wine is an integral part of Jewish laws and traditions." [edit] Christianity Jesus making wine from water in The Marriage at Cana.

All alcohol is strictly forbidden under Islamic law. Some Christians who were part of the growing temperance movement pressed for a switch from wine to grape juice. Wine was used in Eucharistic rites by all Protestant groups until an alternative arose in the late 19th century. but especially in Persia. While most Christians consider the use of wine from the grape as essential for validity of the sacrament.See also: Christianity and alcohol and Alcohol in the Bible The bishop elevates the chalice while the deacon fans the Gifts with the ripidion. pasteurized grape juice as a substitute. wine is used in a sacred rite called the Eucharist. many Protestants also allow (or require) unfermented.[55] There remains an ongoing debate between some American . Beliefs about the nature of the Eucharist vary among denominations (see Eucharistic theologies contrasted). there has been a long tradition of drinking wine. and the substitution spread quickly over much of the United States and to other countries to a lesser degree. In Christianity. which originates in Gospel accounts of the Last Supper in which Jesus shared bread and wine with his disciples and commanded his followers to "do this in remembrance of me" (Gospel of Luke 22:19). Methodist dentist and prohibitionist Thomas Bramwell Welch applied new pasteurization techniques to stop the natural fermentation process of grape juice.

5 oz) .[57] In Greater Persia. people of Nuristan in Afghanistan have produced wine since ancient times and still do so. Mei (Persian wine) has been a central theme of poetry for more than a thousand years.[56] Iran and Afghanistan used to have a thriving wine industry that disappeared after the Islamic Revolution in 1979 and earlier in Afghanistan.Protestant denominations as to whether wine can and should be used for the Eucharist or allowed as an ordinary beverage. However. [edit] Islam Alcohol is largely forbidden under Islamic law. [edit] Health effects See also: Wine and health [show] v d e Alcohol and health Short-term effects of alcohol/Alcohol intoxication · Long-term effects of alcohol · Fetal alcohol syndrome/Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder · Alcoholism · Binge drinking digestive system nervous system Alcoholic hepatitis · Alcoholic liver disease Alcohol dementia · Alcoholic hallucinosis · Blackout (alcohol-related amnesia) · Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome cardiovascular Alcoholic cardiomyopathy · Alcoholic lung disease system Red table wine Nutritional value per 100 g (3.

100 g wine is approximately 100 ml (3. to be more health conscious. Some epidemiologists suspect that this difference is due to the higher consumption of wines by the French. Source: USDA Nutrient database Although excessive alcohol consumption has adverse health effects.6 g alcohol is 13%vol.) Sugar and alcohol content can vary. and these are thought to be particularly protective against cardiovascular disease.4 fl oz.Energy Carbohydrates Sugars Fat Protein Alcohol 355 kJ (85 kcal) 2. although the association is considerably stronger for wine. low doses of resveratrol mimic the effects of what is known as caloric . This means that heavy drinkers have an elevated risk.[58] A chemical in red wine called resveratrol has been shown to have both cardioprotective and chemoprotective effects in animal studies.[59] The French paradox refers to the comparatively lower incidence of coronary heart disease in France despite high levels of saturated fat in the traditional French diet. while moderate drinkers (at most two five-ounce servings of wine per day) have a lower risk than non-drinkers.[58] In the United States. Specifically.[60] Low doses of resveratrol in the diet of middle-aged mice has a widespread influence on the genetic levers of aging and may confer special protection on the heart. Studies have also found that moderate consumption of other alcoholic beverages may be cardioprotective. some studies have found increased health benefits for red wine over white wine.6 g 0.6 g 10.[58] Population studies have observed a J curve association between wine consumption and the risk of heart disease. a boom in red wine consumption was initiated in the 1990s by the TV show 60 Minutes. The average moderate wine drinker is more likely to exercise more. and additional news reports on the French Paradox. but the scientific evidence for this theory is limited. Also. Red wine contains more polyphenols than white wine. evidence that the association between moderate wine drinking and health may be related to confounding factors. though other studies have found no difference.6 g 0.1 g 10. and to be of a higher educational and socioeconomic class.0 g 0. epidemiological studies have consistently demonstrated that moderate consumption of alcohol and wine is statistically associated with a decrease in death due to cardiovascular events such as heart failure.

counters that two small glasses . As white wine has minimal contact with grape skins during this process. and flavonoids.[68] the American Heart Association cautions people to "consult your doctor on the benefits and risks of consuming alcohol in moderation. including breast." Professor Roger Corder. Professor Valerie Beral. which are compounds in grape seeds suspected to be responsible for red wine's heart benefits. Sulfur dioxide is also added to foods such as dried apricots and orange juice.[67] While evidence from laboratory and epidemiological (observational) studies suggest a cardioprotective effect.[63] To fully get the benefits of resveratrol in wines. particularly those with asthma. posits that moderate consumption of red wine may decrease the risk of lung cancer in men. most of the resveratrol in imbibed red wine does not reach the blood circulation. Procyanidins suppress the synthesis of a peptide called endothelin-1 that constricts blood vessels. author of The Red Wine Diet. wine damages the hippocampus to a greater degree than other alcoholic beverages. A study of women in the United Kingdom.[65] A 2007 study found that both red and white wines are effective anti-bacterial agents against strains of Streptococcus. when sipping slowly.diets with 20-30 percent fewer calories than a typical diet.[70][71] Another study concluded that among alcoholics. "It's an absolute myth that red wine is good for you. Excessive consumption of alcohol can cause cirrhosis of the liver and alcoholism. pharynx and liver cancer. and is quoted as saying.[72] Sulphites are present in all wines and are formed as a natural product of the fermentation process.[64] Red wines from the south of France and from Sardinia in Italy have been found to have the highest levels of procyanidins. The level of added sulphites varies. to have adverse reactions.[73] Sulphites in wine can cause some people. a report in the October 2008 issue of Cancer Epidemiology. called The Million Women Study. One study concluded that wine made from the Cabernet Sauvignon grape reduces the risk of Alzheimer's Disease.[66] Also. it generally contains lower levels of the chemical.[74] This has led the lead author of the study. to assert that there is not enough evidence to conclude that any positive health effects of red wine outweigh the risk of cancer. antioxidants. concluded that moderate alcohol consumption can increase the risk of certain cancers."[69] Wine's effect on the brain is also under study. Due to inactivation in the gut and liver. it is recommended to sip slowly when drinking wines. including exposure to yeast during fermentation. no controlled studies have been completed on the effect of alcoholic drinks on the risk of developing heart disease or stroke. Red wines from these areas have between two and four times as much procyanidins as other red wines.[61] Resveratrol is produced naturally by grape skins in response to fungal infection.[62] Other beneficial compounds in wine include other polyphenols.restriction . Biomarkers and Prevention. However. absorption via the mucous membranes in the mouth can result in up to around 100 times the blood levels of resveratrol. and some wines have been marketed with low sulphite content. and many wine producers add sulfur dioxide in order to help preserve wine.

Closure (bottle). alternative closures prevent cork taint. and Screw cap (wine) Most wines are sold in glass bottles and are sealed using corks (50% of production comes from Portugal). procyanadin rich wine would confer a benefit.of a very tannic. or synthetic plastic "corks". Wine bottle. although "most supermarket wines are low procyanadin and high alcohol. In addition to being less expensive. Box wine."[75] [edit] Packaging Assorted wine corks Corrugated box to carry bottles See also: Cork (material). Alternative wine closures.[citation needed] .[76] An increasing number of wine producers have been using alternative closures such as screwcaps. although they have been blamed for other problems such as excessive reduction.

and is considerably degraded within a few days. as it is completely recyclable. a student of oenology. even though possibly recyclable. A winemaker may be trained as oenologist. while bottled wine will more rapidly oxidize. can be more labor-intensive (and therefore expensive) to process than glass bottles. A cooperage is a company that produces such casks. And while a wine box is recyclable. or a derogatory term used for small scale operations of recent inception. Environmental considerations of wine packaging reveal benefits and drawbacks of both bottled and box wines. However. Wine scientist or wine chemist. These wines are typically accessed via a tap on the side of the box. A wine merchant. Glass used to make bottles has a decent environmental reputation. Box wine can maintain an acceptable degree of freshness for up to a month after opening. most specifically those who assemble the produce of smaller growers and winemakers and sells them under their own name. has a reduced carbon footprint from its distribution.Some wines are packaged in heavy plastic bags within cardboard boxes.[77] Storage Main article: Storage of wine Related professions Name Description Craftsman of wooden barrels and casks. Boxed wine plastics. and are called box wines. wine bottle manufacturers have been cited for Clean Air Act violations. whereas plastics as used in box wines are typically considered to be much less environmentally friendly. Cooper Garagiste Négociant Oenologist . its plastic wine bladder most likely is not. A New York Times editorial suggested that box wine. or cask wine. usually without pedigree and located in Bordeaux. being lighter in package weight. An amateur wine maker. but often hires a consultant instead.

and pest control. Can also be someone who manages vineyard pruning. When properly stored. irrigation. light. allowing oxygen to enter the bottle and reduce the wine's quality. flavor. which is below the optimal humidity of 50% to 70%. and complexity as they age. Wine refrigerators are not ideal for aging. Passive wine cellars are not climate-controlled. They are available in capacities ranging from small 16-bottle units to furniture pieces that can contain 400 bottles.Sommelier A restaurant specialist in charge of assembling the wine list. These refrigerators keep the humidity low. Terroir specialist Vintner.also known as terroir . Wine cellars. and so must be carefully located. Wine is a natural. wines can maintain their quality and in some cases improve in aroma. and fortified. In an active wine cellar.[79] Wine refrigerators offer an alternative to wine cellars. others 59 °F (15 °C). sparkling. educating the staff about wine. Lower humidity levels can dry corks out over time. vibration or fluctuations in temperature and humidity. but rather serve to chill wine to the perfect temperature for drinking. can spoil. white. temperature and humidity are maintained by a climate control system.and wine grape quality or wine character. all types of wine. or wine rooms if they are above-ground. Someone (often a consultant or academic) with special knowledge of the interplay between the environmental factors such as soil. including red. perishable food product. and assisting customers with their wine selections. are places designed specifically for the storage and aging of wine. usually under 50%. climate and topography . Winemaker A wine producer. Oak wine barrels . when exposed to heat. a person who makes wine. Viticulturist A person who specializes in the science of grapevines. Some wine experts contend that the optimal temperature for aging wine is 55 °F (13 °C).

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