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Wine glasses of white (left) and red wines(right).
16th century wine press
Different varieties of grapes and strains of yeasts are used depending on the type of wine being produced. Lycian: Oino.(cf. typically made of fermented grape juice. sake). Wine has also played an important role in religion throughout history. and was very common in ancient Greece. written in Linear B inscriptions. The commercial use of the English word "wine" (and its equivalent in other languages) is protected by law in many jurisdictions. Yeast consumes the sugars found in the grapes and converts them into alcohol. Wine is produced by fermenting crushed grapes using various types of yeast. The earliest attested terms referring to wine are the Mycenaean Greek me-tu-wo ne-wo meaning "the month of new wine" or "festival of the new wine" and wo-no-wa-ti-si meaning "wine garden". Aeolic Greek . the resultant wines are normally named after the fruit from which they are produced (for example. Ancient Greek . such as barley wine and rice wine (i.e.woinos). and the drink is also used in Catholic Eucharist ceremonies and the Jewish Kiddush.oînos. Wine first appeared in Europe at about 4500 BC in the Balkans. while ginger wine is fortified with brandy." itself derived from the Proto-Indo-European stem *win-o. enzymes or other nutrients.Wine boy at a symposium Wine is an alcoholic beverage. . Although other fruits such as apples and berries can also be fermented. Wine has a rich history dating back to around 6000 BC and is thought to have originated in areas now within the borders of Georgia and Iran. Others. The natural chemical balance of grapes is such that they can ferment without the addition of sugars. the use of the term "wine" is a reference to the higher alcohol content. Etymology The word "wine" comes from the Proto-Germanic "*winam. are made from starch-based materials and resemble beer and spirit more than wine.. In these cases." an early borrowing from the Latin vinum. "wine" or "(grape) vine. The Greek god Dionysus and the Roman equivalent Bacchus represented wine. acids. Hittite: wiyana. Thrace and Rome. apple wine or elderberry wine) and are generically known as fruit wine or country wine (not to be confused with the French term vin de pays). rather than production process.
from as early as 6000 BC. which seem to be the precursors of rice wine. The first known mentioning of grape-based wines was in the late 4th century BC writings of Chanakya who was the chief minister of Emperor Chandragupta Maurya. Viticulture in India has a long history dating back to the time of the Indus Valley civilization when grapevines were believed to have been introduced from Persia sometime in the 5000 BC.g. Literary references to wine are abundant in Homer (9th century BC. In Ancient Egypt. The same sites also contain the world¶s earliest evidence of crushed grapes. and others. other fruits indigenous to the region. Some Georgian scholars have speculated that Georgian was the origin of this word and that it entered into the Indo-European languages via Semitic.g. a royal chief vintner. the Roman Catholic Church was a staunch supporter of wine since it was necessary for the celebration of Mass. . six of 36 wine amphoras were found in the tomb of King Tutankhamun bearing the name "Kha'y". rather than from Vitis vinifera. Although no clear evidence has been found of any linguistic connection. took place in sites in Georgia and Iran. Henan were found to contain traces of tartaric acid and other organic compounds commonly found in wine.  History Main article: History of wine Archaeological evidence suggests that the earliest known production of wine. storing it underground in caves to age. These locations are all within the natural area of the European grapevine Vitis vinifera. which were introduced into China some 6000 years later. the earliest known cultivation of the vitis vinifera grapevine occurred in present-day Georgia. Chanakya condemns the use of alcohol while chronicling the emperor and his court's frequent indulgence of a style of grape wine known as Madhu. such as hawthorn. Georgian ghvino) Semitic (*wayn) and Indo-European languages (e. There is an old English recipe which survived in various forms until the 19th century for refining white wine using Bastard²bad or tainted bastardo wine. Pottery jars from the Neolithic site of Jiahu. included grapes rather than other fruits. Five of these amphoras were designated as from the King's personal estate with the sixth listed as from the estate of the royal house of Aten.As explained in the History section below. Monks in France made wine for years. Traces of wine have also been found in central Asian Xinjiang. In medieval Europe. some scholars have noted the similarities between the words for wine in the Kartvelian (e. hinting to the possibility that this word diffused into all these language families from a common origin. but possibly composed even earlier). dating from the second and first millennia BC. If these beverages. Alkman (7th century BC). The oldest known evidence of wine production in Europe is dated to 4500 BC and comes from archaeological sites in Greece. Russian vino). made by fermenting grapes. could not be ruled out. A 2003 report by archaeologists indicates a possibility that grapes were used together with rice to produce mixed fermented beverages in China in the early years of 7000 BC. these grapes were of any of the several dozen indigenous wild species of grape in China. However. In his writings.
from regions like Bordeaux and the Rhone Valley. Chardonnay. type and chemistry of soil. the result is a varietal. which are the only ones that have not yet been exposed to the insect. created by the genetic crossing of two species. Grafting is done in every wineproducing country of the world except for Argentina. a root louse that eventually kills the vine. Such producers will try to minimize differences in sources of grapes by using . Vitis rupestris. most of Europe's vineyards (only excluding some of the driest vineyards in Southern Europe) were devastated by the bug. Many wineries use growing and production methods that preserve or accentuate the aroma and taste influences of their unique terroir. In the context of wine production. Vitis labrusca (of which the Concord grape is a cultivar). leading to massive vine deaths and eventual replanting. However. and the local yeast cultures. When one of these varieties is used as the predominant grape (usually defined by law as a minimum of 75% or 85%). Grape varieties Main article: List of grape varieties Grape vineyard Wine is usually made from one or more varieties of the European species Vitis vinifera. where consistency is more important. Cabernet Sauvignon. Gamay and Merlot. elevation and shape of the vineyard. but sometimes made into wine. In the late 19th century. or jelly. climate and seasonal conditions. and aging processes as well. Blended wines are not necessarily considered inferior to varietal wines. Vitis aestivalis. are blended from different grape varieties of the same vintage. Vitis rotundifolia and Vitis riparia are native North American grapes usually grown for consumption as fruit or for the production of grape juice. jam. Wine can also be made from other species of grape or from hybrids. terroir is a concept that encompasses the varieties of grapes used. some of the world's most expensive wines. influencing the fermentation. This is common practice because North American grape species are resistant to phylloxera. as opposed to a blended. The range of possibilities here can result in great differences between wines. vinifera vines that have been grafted onto North American species rootstock. Most of the world's vineyards are planted with European V. wine. flavor differences are not desirable for producers of mass-market table wine or other cheaper wines. finishing. Hybridization is not to be confused with the practice of grafting. the Canary Islands and Chile. such as Pinot Noir.
Rioja and Chianti). and the use of these names is governed by trademark law rather than by specific wine laws. and may also include Cabernet Franc. European wines tend to be classified by region (e. . Barossa Valley and Hunter Valley in Australia. Pinot Noir and Merlot). Vale dos Vinhedos in Brazil.g. and spinning cones. Okanagan Valley and Niagara Peninsula in Canada. Some blended wine names are marketing terms. Petit Verdot. Bordeaux. Hawke's Bay and Marlborough in New Zealand. while non-European wines are most often classified by grape (e. More and more. cross-flow filtration. Examples of non-European recognized locales include Napa Valley in California. tannin filtration. Commercial use of the term "Meritage" is allowed only via licensing agreements with an organization called the "Meritage Association".g. Columbia Valley in Washington. For example.  Classification Wine grapes on a vine Main article: Classification of wine Regulations govern the classification and sale of wine in many regions of the world. Central Valley in Chile.production techniques such as micro-oxygenation. thin film evaporation. Willamette Valley in Oregon. and Malbec. Meritage (sounds like "heritage") is generally a Bordeaux-style blend of Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot. however. market recognition of particular regions is leading to their increased prominence on nonEuropean wine labels.
  Vintages Main article: Vintage A "vintage wine" is one made from grapes that were all or mostly grown in a particular year. palate. although there have been nonofficial attempts to classify them by quality. although their system has not yet achieved the authority of those of the other countries'. body and development. Variations in a wine's character from year to year can include subtle differences in color. in fact. and labelled as such. Consequently. In the United States. pioneered this technique back in 1756 with a royal charter which created the "Demarcated Douro Region" and regulated wine production and trade. depending on the region. Greece and Italy have classifications which are based on a dual system of region of origin and quality of product. Portugal has something similar and.  Beyond Europe New World wine²wines from outside of the traditional wine growing regions of Europe tend to be classified by grape rather than by terroir or region of origin. a DOCG wine France has various appellation systems based on the concept of terroir. High-quality wines can improve in flavor with age if properly stored. Most countries allow a vintage wine to include a portion that is not from the labelled vintage. Germany did likewise in 2002. it is not uncommon for wine enthusiasts and traders to save bottles of an especially good vintage wine for future consumption. nose. with classifications ranging from Vin de Table ("table wine") at the bottom. Spain. European classifications Moscato d'Asti. it must contain at least 95% of . for a wine to be vintage dated and labeled with a country of origin or American Viticultural Area (AVA) (such as "Sonoma Valley"). through Vin de Pays and Appellation d'Origine Vin Délimité de Qualité Supérieure (AOVDQS) up to Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée (AOC) or similar.
Individual flavors may also be detected. vintage year may not be as significant to perceived wine quality as currently thought.  Tasting Main article: Wine tasting See also: Wine tasting descriptors Judging color is the first step in tasting a wine Wine tasting is the sensory examination and evaluation of wine. will often fetch much higher prices than their average vintages. and spices. Non-vintage wines can be blended from more than one vintage for consistency. or coffee almost always come from the oak and not the grape itself. Dry wine. Wines are made up of chemical compounds which are similar or identical to those in fruits. due to the complex mix of organic molecules such as esters and terpenes that grape juice and wine can contain. If a wine is not labeled with a country of origin or AVA the percentage requirement is lowered to 85%. Thus. relative to the acidity present in the wine. chocolate. Some vintage wines. for example. has only a small amount of residual sugar. The sweetness of wine is determined by the amount of residual sugar in the wine after fermentation. although wine connoisseurs continue to place great importance on it. vanilla. vintage wines are produced to be individually characteristic of the vintage and to serve as the flagship wines of the producer. Superior vintages. Climate can have a big impact on the character of a wine to the extent that different vintages from the same vineyard can vary dramatically in flavor and quality. like Brunellos. Typical intentional flavor elements in wine are those imparted by aging in oak casks. Vintage wines are generally bottled in a single batch so that each bottle will have a similar taste. Experienced tasters can distinguish between flavors characteristic of a specific grape and flavors that result from other factors in wine making. One recent study suggests that for normal drinkers. from reputable producers and regions. . vegetables. a process which allows wine makers to keep a reliable market image and maintain sales even in bad years. are only made in betterthan-average years.its volume from grapes harvested in that year.
 "Investment wines" are considered by some to be Veblen goods²that is. Characteristics of highly collectible wines include: 1. and rotten egg (hydrogen sulfide). A consensus amongst experts as to the quality of the wines . is highly collectible. and Vintage port. Some varietals can also have a mineral flavor due to the presence of water-soluble salts (like limestone).Banana flavors (isoamyl acetate) are the product of yeast metabolism. Vaporization of these compounds can be sped up by twirling the wine glass or serving the wine at room temperature. as are spoilage aromas such as sweaty. the period for maturity and approachability) that is many years long 3.  Collecting See also: Aging of wine and Storage of wine Château Margaux. band-aid (4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol). A drinking window plateau (i.e. The most common wines purchased for investment include those from Bordeaux. goods for which demand increases instead of decreases as its price rises.. though the broader term fine wine covers bottles typically retailing at over about $US 30-50. cult wines from Europe and elsewhere. barnyard. like Chinon and Beaujolais. A proven track record of holding well over time 2. Burgundy. many people prefer them chilled. Outstanding vintages from the best vineyards may sell for thousands of dollars per bottle. For red wines that are already highly aromatic. Wine aroma comes from volatile compounds in the wine that are released into the air. a First Growth from the Bordeaux region of France.
000 4. and the northernmost are in Flen. including grape selection and appropriate barrelaging Investment in fine wine has attracted fraudsters who prey on their victims' ignorance of this sector of the wine market.000 1.600 10 Wine grapes grow almost exclusively between thirty and fifty degrees north or south of the equator.483 1.665 3.349.050.410. The world's southernmost vineyards are in the Central Otago region of New Zealand's South Island near the 45th parallel south. Like any investment.000 1.000 1.711. Rigorous production methods at every stage.333 4.643.980 977. while claiming that they are offering a sound investment unaffected by economic cycles.550.539.746 891.012. just north of the 59th parallel north. .300.600 1.600 3.  Production Main article: Winemaking See also: List of wine-producing countries and List of wine-producing regions Wine production by country 2006 Country Rank (with link to wine article) Wine production by country 2007 Country Rank (with link to wine article) Production (tonnes) Production (tonnes) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 France Italy Spain United States Argentina Australia China South Africa Chile Germany 5.972 891.400.000 1. proper research is essential before investing.666 2.000 1.232.600 827.000 961.087 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Italy France Spain United States Argentina China South Africa Australia Germany Chile 5.711.000 2.450.050.645. Sweden.4. Wine fraudsters often work by charging excessively high prices for off-vintage or lower-status wines from famous wine regions.
 Exporting countries Top ten wine exporting countries in 2006 Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Country Italy* France Spain* Australia Chile* United States Germany Argentina Portugal South Africa World** 1000 tonnes Rank 1.6% Chile 4.9% 2006 export market shares Market share Country (% of value in US$) * Unofficial figure.3% Spain 8.  Uses .462 2 1. semi-official or estimated data. The UK was the world's biggest importer of wine in 2007.7% Australia 9.337 3 762 4 472 5 369 6 316 7 302 8 286 9 272 10 8.0% Germany 3.8% South Africa 2.0% France 34.5% United States 3.793 1 1. ** May include official.353 New Zealand 1.4% Portugal 3.3% Italy 18.
Wine should be tasted as soon as it is opened to determine how long it should be aerated. Christianity and alcohol. Sediment is more common in older bottles but younger wines usually benefit more from aeration. since its acidity lends balance to rich savory or sweet dishes. Wine is a popular and important beverage that accompanies and enhances a wide range of European and Mediterranean-style cuisines. texture. Despite these general rules. During aeration. if at all. and are known as light wines because they are only 10±14% alcohol-content by volume. from the simple and traditional to the most sophisticated and complex. the exposure of younger wines to air often "relaxes" the flavors and makes them taste smoother and better integrated in aroma. Some wine labels suggest opening the bottle and letting the wine "breathe" for a couple of hours before serving. Decanting²the act of pouring a wine into a special container just for breathing²is a controversial subject in wine. primarily in stocks and braising. and Islam and alcohol Silver kiddush cup and wine decanter . with extended aeration. Older wines generally fade.  Religious uses See also: Kosher wine. but as a flavor agent. More than 30 litres. Wine is important in cuisine not just for its value as a beverage. and are sometimes fortified to make them richer and sweeter. Apéritif and dessert wines contain 14±20% alcohol. decanting with a filter allows one to remove bitter sediments that may have formed in the wine. In addition to aeration. or lose their character and flavor intensity. from 15 to 30 litres. breathing does not necessarily benefit all wines. and flavor. white.Per capita annual wine consumption: less than 1 litre. while others recommend drinking it immediately. and sparkling wines are the most popular. from 1 to 7 litres. Red. from 7 to 15 litres.
the libation of wine was part of the sacrificial service. In the Tabernacle and in the Temple in Jerusalem. and the religious mysteries of Dionysus used wine as a sacramental entheogen to induce a mind-altering state. Note that this does not mean that wine is a symbol of blood. Creator of the fruit of vine. our God. King of the universe. a common misconception which contributes to the myth of the blood libel. Ancient religions The use of wine in religious ceremonies is common to many cultures and regions.  Judaism Wine is an integral part of Jewish laws and traditions. . Libations often included wine. boray p¶ree hagafen"² "Praised be the Lord. it is a Rabbinic obligation of men and women to drink four cups of wine. A blessing over wine said before indulging in the drink is: "Baruch atah Hashem (Adonai) elokeinu melech ha-olam. a 14th-century fresco from the Visoki De ani monastery. On Pesach (Passover) during the Seder. The Kiddush is a blessing recited over wine or grape juice to sanctify the Shabbat or a Jewish holiday."  Christianity Jesus making wine from water in The Marriage at Cana.
All alcohol is strictly forbidden under Islamic law.See also: Christianity and alcohol and Alcohol in the Bible The bishop elevates the chalice while the deacon fans the Gifts with the ripidion. many Protestants also allow (or require) unfermented. While most Christians consider the use of wine from the grape as essential for validity of the sacrament. and the substitution spread quickly over much of the United States and to other countries to a lesser degree. Methodist dentist and prohibitionist Thomas Bramwell Welch applied new pasteurization techniques to stop the natural fermentation process of grape juice. pasteurized grape juice as a substitute. which originates in Gospel accounts of the Last Supper in which Jesus shared bread and wine with his disciples and commanded his followers to "do this in remembrance of me" (Gospel of Luke 22:19). Wine was used in Eucharistic rites by all Protestant groups until an alternative arose in the late 19th century. wine is used in a sacred rite called the Eucharist. there has been a long tradition of drinking wine. In Christianity. Beliefs about the nature of the Eucharist vary among denominations (see Eucharistic theologies contrasted). Some Christians who were part of the growing temperance movement pressed for a switch from wine to grape juice. There remains an ongoing debate between some American . but especially in Persia.
Mei (Persian wine) has been a central theme of poetry for more than a thousand years.Protestant denominations as to whether wine can and should be used for the Eucharist or allowed as an ordinary beverage.  Health effects See also: Wine and health [show] v d e Alcohol and health Short-term effects of alcohol/Alcohol intoxication · Long-term effects of alcohol · Fetal alcohol syndrome/Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder · Alcoholism · Binge drinking digestive system nervous system Alcoholic hepatitis · Alcoholic liver disease Alcohol dementia · Alcoholic hallucinosis · Blackout (alcohol-related amnesia) · Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome cardiovascular Alcoholic cardiomyopathy · Alcoholic lung disease system Red table wine Nutritional value per 100 g (3. In Greater Persia.5 oz) .  Islam Alcohol is largely forbidden under Islamic law. However. Iran and Afghanistan used to have a thriving wine industry that disappeared after the Islamic Revolution in 1979 and earlier in Afghanistan. people of Nuristan in Afghanistan have produced wine since ancient times and still do so.
but the scientific evidence for this theory is limited.4 fl oz. and additional news reports on the French Paradox. Studies have also found that moderate consumption of other alcoholic beverages may be cardioprotective. evidence that the association between moderate wine drinking and health may be related to confounding factors. The French paradox refers to the comparatively lower incidence of coronary heart disease in France despite high levels of saturated fat in the traditional French diet. In the United States. The average moderate wine drinker is more likely to exercise more. epidemiological studies have consistently demonstrated that moderate consumption of alcohol and wine is statistically associated with a decrease in death due to cardiovascular events such as heart failure.6 g 0. a boom in red wine consumption was initiated in the 1990s by the TV show 60 Minutes. although the association is considerably stronger for wine.1 g 10. while moderate drinkers (at most two five-ounce servings of wine per day) have a lower risk than non-drinkers. to be more health conscious. and these are thought to be particularly protective against cardiovascular disease. Some epidemiologists suspect that this difference is due to the higher consumption of wines by the French.) Sugar and alcohol content can vary. A chemical in red wine called resveratrol has been shown to have both cardioprotective and chemoprotective effects in animal studies. Source: USDA Nutrient database Although excessive alcohol consumption has adverse health effects.6 g 0.0 g 0. Also. 100 g wine is approximately 100 ml (3. Specifically. low doses of resveratrol mimic the effects of what is known as caloric . and to be of a higher educational and socioeconomic class.6 g alcohol is 13%vol.6 g 10. Low doses of resveratrol in the diet of middle-aged mice has a widespread influence on the genetic levers of aging and may confer special protection on the heart. though other studies have found no difference. some studies have found increased health benefits for red wine over white wine. Red wine contains more polyphenols than white wine. This means that heavy drinkers have an elevated risk.Energy Carbohydrates Sugars Fat Protein Alcohol 355 kJ (85 kcal) 2. Population studies have observed a J curve association between wine consumption and the risk of heart disease.
restriction . including breast. However. concluded that moderate alcohol consumption can increase the risk of certain cancers. counters that two small glasses ." Professor Roger Corder. and is quoted as saying. and some wines have been marketed with low sulphite content. Red wines from the south of France and from Sardinia in Italy have been found to have the highest levels of procyanidins. Sulfur dioxide is also added to foods such as dried apricots and orange juice. author of The Red Wine Diet. To fully get the benefits of resveratrol in wines. Biomarkers and Prevention. Also. and many wine producers add sulfur dioxide in order to help preserve wine. Sulphites are present in all wines and are formed as a natural product of the fermentation process. it generally contains lower levels of the chemical. "It's an absolute myth that red wine is good for you. Professor Valerie Beral. particularly those with asthma. posits that moderate consumption of red wine may decrease the risk of lung cancer in men. antioxidants. absorption via the mucous membranes in the mouth can result in up to around 100 times the blood levels of resveratrol. which are compounds in grape seeds suspected to be responsible for red wine's heart benefits. no controlled studies have been completed on the effect of alcoholic drinks on the risk of developing heart disease or stroke. One study concluded that wine made from the Cabernet Sauvignon grape reduces the risk of Alzheimer's Disease.diets with 20-30 percent fewer calories than a typical diet. The level of added sulphites varies. when sipping slowly. a report in the October 2008 issue of Cancer Epidemiology. Red wines from these areas have between two and four times as much procyanidins as other red wines. Other beneficial compounds in wine include other polyphenols." Wine's effect on the brain is also under study. A 2007 study found that both red and white wines are effective anti-bacterial agents against strains of Streptococcus. Due to inactivation in the gut and liver. called The Million Women Study. Procyanidins suppress the synthesis of a peptide called endothelin-1 that constricts blood vessels. to have adverse reactions. Another study concluded that among alcoholics. Excessive consumption of alcohol can cause cirrhosis of the liver and alcoholism. most of the resveratrol in imbibed red wine does not reach the blood circulation. Resveratrol is produced naturally by grape skins in response to fungal infection. A study of women in the United Kingdom. the American Heart Association cautions people to "consult your doctor on the benefits and risks of consuming alcohol in moderation. it is recommended to sip slowly when drinking wines. and flavonoids. As white wine has minimal contact with grape skins during this process. wine damages the hippocampus to a greater degree than other alcoholic beverages. While evidence from laboratory and epidemiological (observational) studies suggest a cardioprotective effect. pharynx and liver cancer. This has led the lead author of the study. Sulphites in wine can cause some people. to assert that there is not enough evidence to conclude that any positive health effects of red wine outweigh the risk of cancer. including exposure to yeast during fermentation.
although "most supermarket wines are low procyanadin and high alcohol."  Packaging Assorted wine corks Corrugated box to carry bottles See also: Cork (material).of a very tannic. or synthetic plastic "corks". procyanadin rich wine would confer a benefit. although they have been blamed for other problems such as excessive reduction. In addition to being less expensive. and Screw cap (wine) Most wines are sold in glass bottles and are sealed using corks (50% of production comes from Portugal). . Closure (bottle). alternative closures prevent cork taint. Wine bottle. An increasing number of wine producers have been using alternative closures such as screwcaps. Box wine. Alternative wine closures.
A cooperage is a company that produces such casks. A winemaker may be trained as oenologist. or a derogatory term used for small scale operations of recent inception. whereas plastics as used in box wines are typically considered to be much less environmentally friendly. as it is completely recyclable. or cask wine. An amateur wine maker. Wine scientist or wine chemist. Environmental considerations of wine packaging reveal benefits and drawbacks of both bottled and box wines. and is considerably degraded within a few days. being lighter in package weight. Cooper Garagiste Négociant Oenologist . A New York Times editorial suggested that box wine. and are called box wines. even though possibly recyclable. wine bottle manufacturers have been cited for Clean Air Act violations. A wine merchant. a student of oenology.Some wines are packaged in heavy plastic bags within cardboard boxes. but often hires a consultant instead. Box wine can maintain an acceptable degree of freshness for up to a month after opening. can be more labor-intensive (and therefore expensive) to process than glass bottles. Glass used to make bottles has a decent environmental reputation. However. has a reduced carbon footprint from its distribution. its plastic wine bladder most likely is not. most specifically those who assemble the produce of smaller growers and winemakers and sells them under their own name. usually without pedigree and located in Bordeaux. Boxed wine plastics. And while a wine box is recyclable. while bottled wine will more rapidly oxidize. Storage Main article: Storage of wine Related professions Name Description Craftsman of wooden barrels and casks. These wines are typically accessed via a tap on the side of the box.
 Wine refrigerators offer an alternative to wine cellars. and pest control. Winemaker A wine producer. usually under 50%. others 59 °F (15 °C). They are available in capacities ranging from small 16-bottle units to furniture pieces that can contain 400 bottles. Wine refrigerators are not ideal for aging. wines can maintain their quality and in some cases improve in aroma. which is below the optimal humidity of 50% to 70%. a person who makes wine. are places designed specifically for the storage and aging of wine. climate and topography . but rather serve to chill wine to the perfect temperature for drinking. flavor. Some wine experts contend that the optimal temperature for aging wine is 55 °F (13 °C). vibration or fluctuations in temperature and humidity. and fortified. and so must be carefully located. Can also be someone who manages vineyard pruning. Someone (often a consultant or academic) with special knowledge of the interplay between the environmental factors such as soil. white. and complexity as they age. perishable food product. can spoil. including red. These refrigerators keep the humidity low. Passive wine cellars are not climate-controlled. temperature and humidity are maintained by a climate control system. or wine rooms if they are above-ground. Wine cellars. and assisting customers with their wine selections. Terroir specialist Vintner. When properly stored. Oak wine barrels . Viticulturist A person who specializes in the science of grapevines. Wine is a natural. sparkling. light. allowing oxygen to enter the bottle and reduce the wine's quality. all types of wine.and wine grape quality or wine character. Lower humidity levels can dry corks out over time. when exposed to heat. irrigation.Sommelier A restaurant specialist in charge of assembling the wine list. In an active wine cellar.also known as terroir . educating the staff about wine.
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