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Wine glasses of white (left) and red wines(right).
16th century wine press
e. Yeast consumes the sugars found in the grapes and converts them into alcohol.oînos. Although other fruits such as apples and berries can also be fermented. Wine is produced by fermenting crushed grapes using various types of yeast. The natural chemical balance of grapes is such that they can ferment without the addition of sugars. Wine has also played an important role in religion throughout history. and the drink is also used in Catholic Eucharist ceremonies and the Jewish Kiddush. The Greek god Dionysus and the Roman equivalent Bacchus represented wine. In these cases. Aeolic Greek . apple wine or elderberry wine) and are generically known as fruit wine or country wine (not to be confused with the French term vin de pays). such as barley wine and rice wine (i. The earliest attested terms referring to wine are the Mycenaean Greek me-tu-wo ne-wo meaning "the month of new wine" or "festival of the new wine" and wo-no-wa-ti-si meaning "wine garden"." itself derived from the Proto-Indo-European stem *win-o. Wine first appeared in Europe at about 4500 BC in the Balkans. Wine has a rich history dating back to around 6000 BC and is thought to have originated in areas now within the borders of Georgia and Iran. The commercial use of the English word "wine" (and its equivalent in other languages) is protected by law in many jurisdictions. while ginger wine is fortified with brandy. enzymes or other nutrients. . the resultant wines are normally named after the fruit from which they are produced (for example. Ancient Greek . Thrace and Rome. rather than production process.woinos).Wine boy at a symposium Wine is an alcoholic beverage. "wine" or "(grape) vine. acids. and was very common in ancient Greece. Hittite: wiyana. Different varieties of grapes and strains of yeasts are used depending on the type of wine being produced.. Lycian: Oino. sake). written in Linear B inscriptions. Etymology The word "wine" comes from the Proto-Germanic "*winam. typically made of fermented grape juice." an early borrowing from the Latin vinum. the use of the term "wine" is a reference to the higher alcohol content. Others.(cf. are made from starch-based materials and resemble beer and spirit more than wine.
Henan were found to contain traces of tartaric acid and other organic compounds commonly found in wine. these grapes were of any of the several dozen indigenous wild species of grape in China. However. which were introduced into China some 6000 years later. A 2003 report by archaeologists indicates a possibility that grapes were used together with rice to produce mixed fermented beverages in China in the early years of 7000 BC.As explained in the History section below. Pottery jars from the Neolithic site of Jiahu. storing it underground in caves to age. the earliest known cultivation of the vitis vinifera grapevine occurred in present-day Georgia. In Ancient Egypt. six of 36 wine amphoras were found in the tomb of King Tutankhamun bearing the name "Kha'y". hinting to the possibility that this word diffused into all these language families from a common origin. Chanakya condemns the use of alcohol while chronicling the emperor and his court's frequent indulgence of a style of grape wine known as Madhu. could not be ruled out. Alkman (7th century BC).  History Main article: History of wine Archaeological evidence suggests that the earliest known production of wine. Monks in France made wine for years. Viticulture in India has a long history dating back to the time of the Indus Valley civilization when grapevines were believed to have been introduced from Persia sometime in the 5000 BC. rather than from Vitis vinifera. In medieval Europe.g. Georgian ghvino) Semitic (*wayn) and Indo-European languages (e. Russian vino). The same sites also contain the world¶s earliest evidence of crushed grapes. In his writings. a royal chief vintner. but possibly composed even earlier). dating from the second and first millennia BC. These locations are all within the natural area of the European grapevine Vitis vinifera. Although no clear evidence has been found of any linguistic connection. Traces of wine have also been found in central Asian Xinjiang. took place in sites in Georgia and Iran. . The oldest known evidence of wine production in Europe is dated to 4500 BC and comes from archaeological sites in Greece. some scholars have noted the similarities between the words for wine in the Kartvelian (e. There is an old English recipe which survived in various forms until the 19th century for refining white wine using Bastard²bad or tainted bastardo wine. The first known mentioning of grape-based wines was in the late 4th century BC writings of Chanakya who was the chief minister of Emperor Chandragupta Maurya.g. Five of these amphoras were designated as from the King's personal estate with the sixth listed as from the estate of the royal house of Aten. such as hawthorn. which seem to be the precursors of rice wine. Literary references to wine are abundant in Homer (9th century BC. included grapes rather than other fruits. made by fermenting grapes. other fruits indigenous to the region. and others. the Roman Catholic Church was a staunch supporter of wine since it was necessary for the celebration of Mass. Some Georgian scholars have speculated that Georgian was the origin of this word and that it entered into the Indo-European languages via Semitic. from as early as 6000 BC. If these beverages.
Gamay and Merlot. as opposed to a blended. Wine can also be made from other species of grape or from hybrids. When one of these varieties is used as the predominant grape (usually defined by law as a minimum of 75% or 85%). This is common practice because North American grape species are resistant to phylloxera. The range of possibilities here can result in great differences between wines. Vitis aestivalis. type and chemistry of soil. or jelly. Most of the world's vineyards are planted with European V. a root louse that eventually kills the vine. Vitis rupestris. and aging processes as well. Vitis rotundifolia and Vitis riparia are native North American grapes usually grown for consumption as fruit or for the production of grape juice. influencing the fermentation. where consistency is more important. wine. In the context of wine production. jam. elevation and shape of the vineyard. most of Europe's vineyards (only excluding some of the driest vineyards in Southern Europe) were devastated by the bug. Such producers will try to minimize differences in sources of grapes by using . Chardonnay. some of the world's most expensive wines. are blended from different grape varieties of the same vintage. and the local yeast cultures. Grafting is done in every wineproducing country of the world except for Argentina. Blended wines are not necessarily considered inferior to varietal wines. Grape varieties Main article: List of grape varieties Grape vineyard Wine is usually made from one or more varieties of the European species Vitis vinifera. created by the genetic crossing of two species. terroir is a concept that encompasses the varieties of grapes used. which are the only ones that have not yet been exposed to the insect. Vitis labrusca (of which the Concord grape is a cultivar). finishing. the Canary Islands and Chile. such as Pinot Noir. from regions like Bordeaux and the Rhone Valley. vinifera vines that have been grafted onto North American species rootstock. However. climate and seasonal conditions. Many wineries use growing and production methods that preserve or accentuate the aroma and taste influences of their unique terroir. In the late 19th century. Cabernet Sauvignon. but sometimes made into wine. leading to massive vine deaths and eventual replanting. the result is a varietal. flavor differences are not desirable for producers of mass-market table wine or other cheaper wines. Hybridization is not to be confused with the practice of grafting.
production techniques such as micro-oxygenation. thin film evaporation. Petit Verdot. while non-European wines are most often classified by grape (e. Vale dos Vinhedos in Brazil. Rioja and Chianti). . cross-flow filtration. For example. Willamette Valley in Oregon. and the use of these names is governed by trademark law rather than by specific wine laws. Barossa Valley and Hunter Valley in Australia. tannin filtration.g. and Malbec. Examples of non-European recognized locales include Napa Valley in California. Hawke's Bay and Marlborough in New Zealand. however.  Classification Wine grapes on a vine Main article: Classification of wine Regulations govern the classification and sale of wine in many regions of the world. Some blended wine names are marketing terms. Bordeaux. Okanagan Valley and Niagara Peninsula in Canada. and spinning cones. European wines tend to be classified by region (e. Central Valley in Chile.g. Columbia Valley in Washington. More and more. Meritage (sounds like "heritage") is generally a Bordeaux-style blend of Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot. Pinot Noir and Merlot). market recognition of particular regions is leading to their increased prominence on nonEuropean wine labels. and may also include Cabernet Franc. Commercial use of the term "Meritage" is allowed only via licensing agreements with an organization called the "Meritage Association".
  Beyond Europe New World wine²wines from outside of the traditional wine growing regions of Europe tend to be classified by grape rather than by terroir or region of origin. In the United States. Spain. it is not uncommon for wine enthusiasts and traders to save bottles of an especially good vintage wine for future consumption. High-quality wines can improve in flavor with age if properly stored. Greece and Italy have classifications which are based on a dual system of region of origin and quality of product. in fact. Consequently. although their system has not yet achieved the authority of those of the other countries'. depending on the region. it must contain at least 95% of . and labelled as such. although there have been nonofficial attempts to classify them by quality. for a wine to be vintage dated and labeled with a country of origin or American Viticultural Area (AVA) (such as "Sonoma Valley"). Variations in a wine's character from year to year can include subtle differences in color. palate. body and development. with classifications ranging from Vin de Table ("table wine") at the bottom. pioneered this technique back in 1756 with a royal charter which created the "Demarcated Douro Region" and regulated wine production and trade. Germany did likewise in 2002. a DOCG wine France has various appellation systems based on the concept of terroir.  Vintages Main article: Vintage A "vintage wine" is one made from grapes that were all or mostly grown in a particular year. European classifications Moscato d'Asti. through Vin de Pays and Appellation d'Origine Vin Délimité de Qualité Supérieure (AOVDQS) up to Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée (AOC) or similar. nose. Most countries allow a vintage wine to include a portion that is not from the labelled vintage. Portugal has something similar and.
although wine connoisseurs continue to place great importance on it. chocolate. Individual flavors may also be detected. Thus. Dry wine. Typical intentional flavor elements in wine are those imparted by aging in oak casks. Wines are made up of chemical compounds which are similar or identical to those in fruits. vanilla. has only a small amount of residual sugar. .its volume from grapes harvested in that year. due to the complex mix of organic molecules such as esters and terpenes that grape juice and wine can contain. If a wine is not labeled with a country of origin or AVA the percentage requirement is lowered to 85%. Some vintage wines. and spices. Non-vintage wines can be blended from more than one vintage for consistency. a process which allows wine makers to keep a reliable market image and maintain sales even in bad years. The sweetness of wine is determined by the amount of residual sugar in the wine after fermentation. One recent study suggests that for normal drinkers. will often fetch much higher prices than their average vintages. for example. or coffee almost always come from the oak and not the grape itself. are only made in betterthan-average years. Vintage wines are generally bottled in a single batch so that each bottle will have a similar taste. Climate can have a big impact on the character of a wine to the extent that different vintages from the same vineyard can vary dramatically in flavor and quality. from reputable producers and regions. relative to the acidity present in the wine. vintage wines are produced to be individually characteristic of the vintage and to serve as the flagship wines of the producer. vegetables. Experienced tasters can distinguish between flavors characteristic of a specific grape and flavors that result from other factors in wine making.  Tasting Main article: Wine tasting See also: Wine tasting descriptors Judging color is the first step in tasting a wine Wine tasting is the sensory examination and evaluation of wine. vintage year may not be as significant to perceived wine quality as currently thought. like Brunellos. Superior vintages.
Banana flavors (isoamyl acetate) are the product of yeast metabolism. The most common wines purchased for investment include those from Bordeaux. "Investment wines" are considered by some to be Veblen goods²that is. Characteristics of highly collectible wines include: 1. is highly collectible. and rotten egg (hydrogen sulfide). as are spoilage aromas such as sweaty. a First Growth from the Bordeaux region of France. and Vintage port. For red wines that are already highly aromatic. Vaporization of these compounds can be sped up by twirling the wine glass or serving the wine at room temperature. goods for which demand increases instead of decreases as its price rises. like Chinon and Beaujolais. A drinking window plateau (i. Some varietals can also have a mineral flavor due to the presence of water-soluble salts (like limestone). cult wines from Europe and elsewhere. band-aid (4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol). A proven track record of holding well over time 2. A consensus amongst experts as to the quality of the wines . Wine aroma comes from volatile compounds in the wine that are released into the air. though the broader term fine wine covers bottles typically retailing at over about $US 30-50. the period for maturity and approachability) that is many years long 3. many people prefer them chilled.. barnyard.e.  Collecting See also: Aging of wine and Storage of wine Château Margaux. Burgundy. Outstanding vintages from the best vineyards may sell for thousands of dollars per bottle.
300. proper research is essential before investing.665 3.450.232.000 4.550.643.711.087 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Italy France Spain United States Argentina China South Africa Australia Germany Chile 5.050.711.000 1.400.483 1.000 1.333 4.000 1.4.600 3. and the northernmost are in Flen.410. Like any investment.645. Sweden. just north of the 59th parallel north.050.972 891.000 1.000 2.600 827.666 2. Wine fraudsters often work by charging excessively high prices for off-vintage or lower-status wines from famous wine regions. .600 1.980 977. while claiming that they are offering a sound investment unaffected by economic cycles.746 891.600 10 Wine grapes grow almost exclusively between thirty and fifty degrees north or south of the equator.000 961.539. Rigorous production methods at every stage.349. The world's southernmost vineyards are in the Central Otago region of New Zealand's South Island near the 45th parallel south.000 1. including grape selection and appropriate barrelaging Investment in fine wine has attracted fraudsters who prey on their victims' ignorance of this sector of the wine market.  Production Main article: Winemaking See also: List of wine-producing countries and List of wine-producing regions Wine production by country 2006 Country Rank (with link to wine article) Wine production by country 2007 Country Rank (with link to wine article) Production (tonnes) Production (tonnes) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 France Italy Spain United States Argentina Australia China South Africa Chile Germany 5.012.
4% Portugal 3.0% France 34.3% Italy 18.353 New Zealand 1.5% United States 3. semi-official or estimated data.7% Australia 9. ** May include official.793 1 1.0% Germany 3.8% South Africa 2.6% Chile 4.337 3 762 4 472 5 369 6 316 7 302 8 286 9 272 10 8.3% Spain 8.9% 2006 export market shares Market share Country (% of value in US$) * Unofficial figure.462 2 1.  Uses . Exporting countries Top ten wine exporting countries in 2006 Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Country Italy* France Spain* Australia Chile* United States Germany Argentina Portugal South Africa World** 1000 tonnes Rank 1. The UK was the world's biggest importer of wine in 2007.
primarily in stocks and braising. breathing does not necessarily benefit all wines. More than 30 litres. since its acidity lends balance to rich savory or sweet dishes. or lose their character and flavor intensity. and are sometimes fortified to make them richer and sweeter. During aeration. and flavor. Red. the exposure of younger wines to air often "relaxes" the flavors and makes them taste smoother and better integrated in aroma.Per capita annual wine consumption: less than 1 litre. Christianity and alcohol. from 1 to 7 litres. from 7 to 15 litres. Sediment is more common in older bottles but younger wines usually benefit more from aeration. Older wines generally fade. decanting with a filter allows one to remove bitter sediments that may have formed in the wine. and sparkling wines are the most popular. while others recommend drinking it immediately. white. with extended aeration. Apéritif and dessert wines contain 14±20% alcohol. but as a flavor agent. Wine should be tasted as soon as it is opened to determine how long it should be aerated. Some wine labels suggest opening the bottle and letting the wine "breathe" for a couple of hours before serving. In addition to aeration. Wine is a popular and important beverage that accompanies and enhances a wide range of European and Mediterranean-style cuisines. if at all. from the simple and traditional to the most sophisticated and complex. and are known as light wines because they are only 10±14% alcohol-content by volume. Despite these general rules. Wine is important in cuisine not just for its value as a beverage. texture.  Religious uses See also: Kosher wine. and Islam and alcohol Silver kiddush cup and wine decanter . from 15 to 30 litres. Decanting²the act of pouring a wine into a special container just for breathing²is a controversial subject in wine.
On Pesach (Passover) during the Seder. Ancient religions The use of wine in religious ceremonies is common to many cultures and regions. our God. it is a Rabbinic obligation of men and women to drink four cups of wine. A blessing over wine said before indulging in the drink is: "Baruch atah Hashem (Adonai) elokeinu melech ha-olam. boray p¶ree hagafen"² "Praised be the Lord. The Kiddush is a blessing recited over wine or grape juice to sanctify the Shabbat or a Jewish holiday. . a 14th-century fresco from the Visoki De ani monastery. Note that this does not mean that wine is a symbol of blood. the libation of wine was part of the sacrificial service."  Christianity Jesus making wine from water in The Marriage at Cana. Libations often included wine. and the religious mysteries of Dionysus used wine as a sacramental entheogen to induce a mind-altering state. In the Tabernacle and in the Temple in Jerusalem. King of the universe. a common misconception which contributes to the myth of the blood libel. Creator of the fruit of vine.  Judaism Wine is an integral part of Jewish laws and traditions.
there has been a long tradition of drinking wine. pasteurized grape juice as a substitute. While most Christians consider the use of wine from the grape as essential for validity of the sacrament. wine is used in a sacred rite called the Eucharist. Some Christians who were part of the growing temperance movement pressed for a switch from wine to grape juice. All alcohol is strictly forbidden under Islamic law. Methodist dentist and prohibitionist Thomas Bramwell Welch applied new pasteurization techniques to stop the natural fermentation process of grape juice.See also: Christianity and alcohol and Alcohol in the Bible The bishop elevates the chalice while the deacon fans the Gifts with the ripidion. but especially in Persia. Wine was used in Eucharistic rites by all Protestant groups until an alternative arose in the late 19th century. which originates in Gospel accounts of the Last Supper in which Jesus shared bread and wine with his disciples and commanded his followers to "do this in remembrance of me" (Gospel of Luke 22:19). and the substitution spread quickly over much of the United States and to other countries to a lesser degree. There remains an ongoing debate between some American . many Protestants also allow (or require) unfermented. In Christianity. Beliefs about the nature of the Eucharist vary among denominations (see Eucharistic theologies contrasted).
 Islam Alcohol is largely forbidden under Islamic law.Protestant denominations as to whether wine can and should be used for the Eucharist or allowed as an ordinary beverage.5 oz) . Mei (Persian wine) has been a central theme of poetry for more than a thousand years. However. people of Nuristan in Afghanistan have produced wine since ancient times and still do so. Iran and Afghanistan used to have a thriving wine industry that disappeared after the Islamic Revolution in 1979 and earlier in Afghanistan.  Health effects See also: Wine and health [show] v d e Alcohol and health Short-term effects of alcohol/Alcohol intoxication · Long-term effects of alcohol · Fetal alcohol syndrome/Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder · Alcoholism · Binge drinking digestive system nervous system Alcoholic hepatitis · Alcoholic liver disease Alcohol dementia · Alcoholic hallucinosis · Blackout (alcohol-related amnesia) · Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome cardiovascular Alcoholic cardiomyopathy · Alcoholic lung disease system Red table wine Nutritional value per 100 g (3. In Greater Persia.
6 g 0.1 g 10.6 g alcohol is 13%vol. Studies have also found that moderate consumption of other alcoholic beverages may be cardioprotective. Population studies have observed a J curve association between wine consumption and the risk of heart disease. epidemiological studies have consistently demonstrated that moderate consumption of alcohol and wine is statistically associated with a decrease in death due to cardiovascular events such as heart failure.) Sugar and alcohol content can vary. The French paradox refers to the comparatively lower incidence of coronary heart disease in France despite high levels of saturated fat in the traditional French diet.Energy Carbohydrates Sugars Fat Protein Alcohol 355 kJ (85 kcal) 2. and to be of a higher educational and socioeconomic class. to be more health conscious.4 fl oz. a boom in red wine consumption was initiated in the 1990s by the TV show 60 Minutes. while moderate drinkers (at most two five-ounce servings of wine per day) have a lower risk than non-drinkers. The average moderate wine drinker is more likely to exercise more. Specifically. Red wine contains more polyphenols than white wine. In the United States. Source: USDA Nutrient database Although excessive alcohol consumption has adverse health effects. and these are thought to be particularly protective against cardiovascular disease.0 g 0. although the association is considerably stronger for wine. low doses of resveratrol mimic the effects of what is known as caloric .6 g 10. Some epidemiologists suspect that this difference is due to the higher consumption of wines by the French. some studies have found increased health benefits for red wine over white wine. This means that heavy drinkers have an elevated risk. Low doses of resveratrol in the diet of middle-aged mice has a widespread influence on the genetic levers of aging and may confer special protection on the heart. but the scientific evidence for this theory is limited. Also. A chemical in red wine called resveratrol has been shown to have both cardioprotective and chemoprotective effects in animal studies.6 g 0. 100 g wine is approximately 100 ml (3. though other studies have found no difference. evidence that the association between moderate wine drinking and health may be related to confounding factors. and additional news reports on the French Paradox.
it is recommended to sip slowly when drinking wines. "It's an absolute myth that red wine is good for you. including exposure to yeast during fermentation. However. particularly those with asthma. This has led the lead author of the study. To fully get the benefits of resveratrol in wines. Other beneficial compounds in wine include other polyphenols. and flavonoids. no controlled studies have been completed on the effect of alcoholic drinks on the risk of developing heart disease or stroke. Another study concluded that among alcoholics. Biomarkers and Prevention. and many wine producers add sulfur dioxide in order to help preserve wine. pharynx and liver cancer. the American Heart Association cautions people to "consult your doctor on the benefits and risks of consuming alcohol in moderation. Due to inactivation in the gut and liver. While evidence from laboratory and epidemiological (observational) studies suggest a cardioprotective effect. counters that two small glasses . One study concluded that wine made from the Cabernet Sauvignon grape reduces the risk of Alzheimer's Disease. Sulphites in wine can cause some people. including breast. absorption via the mucous membranes in the mouth can result in up to around 100 times the blood levels of resveratrol. it generally contains lower levels of the chemical." Wine's effect on the brain is also under study. As white wine has minimal contact with grape skins during this process. A study of women in the United Kingdom. Sulphites are present in all wines and are formed as a natural product of the fermentation process. to have adverse reactions. Also. to assert that there is not enough evidence to conclude that any positive health effects of red wine outweigh the risk of cancer. which are compounds in grape seeds suspected to be responsible for red wine's heart benefits. and some wines have been marketed with low sulphite content. Excessive consumption of alcohol can cause cirrhosis of the liver and alcoholism. antioxidants. concluded that moderate alcohol consumption can increase the risk of certain cancers. a report in the October 2008 issue of Cancer Epidemiology.restriction . Procyanidins suppress the synthesis of a peptide called endothelin-1 that constricts blood vessels. author of The Red Wine Diet." Professor Roger Corder. and is quoted as saying. Professor Valerie Beral. wine damages the hippocampus to a greater degree than other alcoholic beverages. Red wines from these areas have between two and four times as much procyanidins as other red wines. most of the resveratrol in imbibed red wine does not reach the blood circulation.diets with 20-30 percent fewer calories than a typical diet. Resveratrol is produced naturally by grape skins in response to fungal infection. called The Million Women Study. The level of added sulphites varies. A 2007 study found that both red and white wines are effective anti-bacterial agents against strains of Streptococcus. posits that moderate consumption of red wine may decrease the risk of lung cancer in men. when sipping slowly. Red wines from the south of France and from Sardinia in Italy have been found to have the highest levels of procyanidins. Sulfur dioxide is also added to foods such as dried apricots and orange juice.
although they have been blamed for other problems such as excessive reduction. and Screw cap (wine) Most wines are sold in glass bottles and are sealed using corks (50% of production comes from Portugal).of a very tannic. Wine bottle. Closure (bottle). although "most supermarket wines are low procyanadin and high alcohol. Box wine. . or synthetic plastic "corks". procyanadin rich wine would confer a benefit."  Packaging Assorted wine corks Corrugated box to carry bottles See also: Cork (material). An increasing number of wine producers have been using alternative closures such as screwcaps. Alternative wine closures. alternative closures prevent cork taint. In addition to being less expensive.
Boxed wine plastics. as it is completely recyclable. A cooperage is a company that produces such casks. and is considerably degraded within a few days. usually without pedigree and located in Bordeaux. An amateur wine maker. Storage Main article: Storage of wine Related professions Name Description Craftsman of wooden barrels and casks. A New York Times editorial suggested that box wine. has a reduced carbon footprint from its distribution. A wine merchant. Wine scientist or wine chemist. even though possibly recyclable. wine bottle manufacturers have been cited for Clean Air Act violations.Some wines are packaged in heavy plastic bags within cardboard boxes. Box wine can maintain an acceptable degree of freshness for up to a month after opening. Cooper Garagiste Négociant Oenologist . And while a wine box is recyclable. whereas plastics as used in box wines are typically considered to be much less environmentally friendly. However. while bottled wine will more rapidly oxidize. most specifically those who assemble the produce of smaller growers and winemakers and sells them under their own name. can be more labor-intensive (and therefore expensive) to process than glass bottles. being lighter in package weight. its plastic wine bladder most likely is not. but often hires a consultant instead. and are called box wines. These wines are typically accessed via a tap on the side of the box. Glass used to make bottles has a decent environmental reputation. or a derogatory term used for small scale operations of recent inception. a student of oenology. or cask wine. A winemaker may be trained as oenologist. Environmental considerations of wine packaging reveal benefits and drawbacks of both bottled and box wines.
Some wine experts contend that the optimal temperature for aging wine is 55 °F (13 °C). educating the staff about wine. flavor. perishable food product. usually under 50%. including red. Someone (often a consultant or academic) with special knowledge of the interplay between the environmental factors such as soil. Winemaker A wine producer. In an active wine cellar. They are available in capacities ranging from small 16-bottle units to furniture pieces that can contain 400 bottles. Lower humidity levels can dry corks out over time. Viticulturist A person who specializes in the science of grapevines. and pest control. all types of wine. sparkling.also known as terroir . others 59 °F (15 °C). Passive wine cellars are not climate-controlled. can spoil. Wine is a natural. climate and topography . are places designed specifically for the storage and aging of wine. Wine refrigerators are not ideal for aging. irrigation. Can also be someone who manages vineyard pruning. Oak wine barrels . allowing oxygen to enter the bottle and reduce the wine's quality. vibration or fluctuations in temperature and humidity. or wine rooms if they are above-ground. when exposed to heat. and complexity as they age. temperature and humidity are maintained by a climate control system. and so must be carefully located. which is below the optimal humidity of 50% to 70%. Wine refrigerators offer an alternative to wine cellars. and assisting customers with their wine selections. wines can maintain their quality and in some cases improve in aroma.and wine grape quality or wine character. These refrigerators keep the humidity low. Terroir specialist Vintner. but rather serve to chill wine to the perfect temperature for drinking. and fortified. a person who makes wine.Sommelier A restaurant specialist in charge of assembling the wine list. light. white. Wine cellars. When properly stored.
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