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CANAL CROSS DRAINAGE WORKS/STRUCTURES

Necessity of Cross Drainage Works/Structures

A cross drainage work (also called CD work) is a structure built on a canal where it is crosses

a natural drainage, such as a stream or a river. Sometimes, a cross-drainage work is required

when the canal crosses another canal. The cross-drainage work is required to dispose of the drainage water so that the canal supply remains uninterrupted. A cross-drainage work is also called as drainage crossing. The canal at a cross-drainage work is generally taken either over

or below the drainage. However, it can also be at the same level as the drainage.

The canals are, preferably, aligned on the watershed so that there are no drainage crossings. However, it is not possible to avoid the drainages in the initial reach of a main canal because it takes off from a diversion headworks (or storage works) located on a river which is a valley. The canal, therefore, requires a certain distance before it can mount the watershed (or ridge). In this initial reach, the canal is usually a contour canal and it intercepts

a number of natural drainages flowing from the watershed to the river. After the canal has

mounted the watershed, no cross-drainage work will normally be required, because all the drainage originate from the watershed and flow away from it. However, in some cases, it may be necessary for the canal to leave the watershed and flow away from it. It may be necessary for the canal to leave the watershed for a short distance where the watershed takes a sudden small loop and it is not possible to align the canal along the loop. In that case, the canal intercepts the drainages which carry the water of the pocket between the canal and the

watershed and hence the cross-drainage works are required.

A cross-drainage work is an expensive structure and should be avoided as far as possible. The number of cross-drainage works can be reduced to some extent by changing the alignment of the canal. However, it may increase the length and hence the cost of the canal. Sometimes it is possible to reduce the number of cross-drainage works by diverting the small drainages into large drainages or by constructing the cross-drainages work below the confluence of two drainages by shifting the alignment. However, the suitability of the site for the construction of the structure should also be considered while deciding the location of the cross-drainage works.

Types of CD Works

Depending upon the relative positions

of the canal and the drainage, the cross-

drainage works may be broadly classified into 3 categories. In each category, there are further sub-types:

3 categories. In each category, there are further sub-types: 1. Canal over the drainage • Aqueduct

1. Canal over the drainage

Aqueduct

Syphon aqueduct

2. Canal below the drainage

Superpassage

Canal syphon

3. Canal at the same level as drainage

Level crossing

Inlet

Inlet and outlet

1. Canal over the drainage

(i) Aqueduct: An aqueduct (also called an ordinary aqueduct) is a structure in which the canal flows over the drainage and the flow of the drainage in the barrel is open channel flow. An aqueduct is similar to an ordinary road bridge (or railway bridge) across drainage, but in this case, the canal is taken over the drainage instead of a road (or a railway). The canal is taken over the drainage in a trough supported over the piers constructed on the drainage bed. An aqueduct is provided when the canal bed level is higher than the H.F.L. of the drainage. [Note: In the case of an aqueduct, the term culvert is commonly used for the barrel.]

(ii) Syphon aqueduct: In a syphon aqueduct also the canal is taken over the drainage, but the flow in the barrel of the drainage is pipe flow. A syphon aqueduct is constructed when the H.F.L. of the drainage is higher than the canal bed level. When sufficient level difference is not available between the canal bed and the H.F.L. of the drainage to pass the drainage water, the bed of the drainage may be depressed below its normal bed level. The drainage is provided with an impervious floor at the crossing and thus a barrel is formed between the piers to pass the drainage water under pressure. These barrels actually form an inverted syphon and not syphon. However, in the common usage, the term syphon is generally used.

2. Canal below the drainage

(i) Superpassage: In a superpassage, the canal is taken below the drainage and flow in the canal is open channel flow. A superpassage is thus reverse of an aqueduct. A superpassage is required when the canal F.S.L. is below the drainage bed level. In this case, the drainage water is taken in a trough supported over the piers constructed on the canal bed.

(ii) Canal syphon: A canal syphon (or simply a syphon) is a structure in which the canal is taken below the drainage and the flow in the barrel of the canal is pipe flow. It is thus the reverse of a syphon aqueduct. A canal syphon is constructed when the F.S.L. of the canal is above the

It is thus the reverse of a syphon aqueduct. A canal syphon is constructed when the
It is thus the reverse of a syphon aqueduct. A canal syphon is constructed when the
It is thus the reverse of a syphon aqueduct. A canal syphon is constructed when the

drainage bed level. Because some loss of head invariably occurs when the canal flows through the barrel of the canal syphon, the command of the canal is reduced. Moreover, there may be silting problem in the barrel. As far as possible, a canal syphon should be avoided.

3. Canal at the same level as the drainage

(i) Level crossing: A level crossing is provided when the canal and the drainage are

practically at the same level. In a level crossing, the drainage water is admitted into the canal at one bank and is taken out at the

opposite bank. A level crossing usually consists of a crest wall provided across the drainage on the upstream of the junction with its crest level at the F.S.L. of the canal. The drainage water passes over the crest and enters the canal whenever the water level in the drainage rises above the F.S.L. of the canal. There is a drainage regulator on the drainage at the d/s of the junction and a cross- regulator on the canal at the d/s of the junction for regulating the outflows. A level crossing is provided on the canal when it is more or less at the same level as the drainage and there is a large discharge in the drainage for a short duration. The main disadvantage of a level crossing is that an operator is required to regulate the discharge.

(ii) Inlet: An inlet alone is sometimes provided when the drainage is very small with a very

low discharge and it does not bring heavy silt load. Of course, it increases the discharge in the

canal, which is absorbed in the space provided as the free board above the F.S.L.

(iii) Inlet and outlets: An inlet-outlet structure is provided when the drainage and the canal are almost at the same level, and the discharge in the drainage is small. The drainage water is admitted into the canal at a suitable site where the drainage bed is at the F.S.L. of the canal. The excess water is discharged out the canal through an outlet provided on the canal at some distance downstream of the junction. An outlet is usually combined with some other masonry work where an arrangement for removing the excess water is even otherwise required.

Selection of a Suitable Site of Cross Drainage Work

The following points should be considered while selecting the site of a cross-drainage work:

1. At the site, the drainage should cross the canal alignment at right angles. Such a site

provides good flow conditions and also the cost of the structure is usually a minimum.

2. The stream at the site should be stable and should have stable banks.

3. For economical design and construction of foundations, a firm and strong sub-stratum

should exit below the bed of the drainage at a reasonable depth.

of foundations, a firm and strong sub-stratum should exit below the bed of the drainage at
of foundations, a firm and strong sub-stratum should exit below the bed of the drainage at

4.

The site should be such that long and high approaches of the canal are not required.

5. The length and height of the marginal banks and guide banks for the drainage should be

small.

6. In the case of an aqueduct, sufficient headway should be available between the canal trough and the high flood level of the drainage.

7. The water table at the site should not be high, because it will create dewatering problems

for laying foundations.

8. As far as possible, the site should be selected d/s of the confluence of two streams, thereby

avoiding the necessity of construction of two cross-drainage works.

9. The possibility of diverting one stream into another stream upstream of the canal crossing

should also be considered and adopted, if found feasible and economical.

10. A cross-drainage work should be combined with a bridge, if required. If necessary, the bridge site can be shifted to the cross-drainage work or vice versa. The cost of the combined structure is usually less. Moreover, the marginal banks and guide banks required for the river training can be used as the approaches for the village roads.

Selection of a Suitable Type of Cross Drainage Work

The following factors should be considered while selecting the most suitable type of the cross-drainage work.

1. Relative levels and discharges: The relative levels and discharges of the canal and of the

drainage mainly affect type of cross-drainage work required. The following are the broad outlines: (i) If the canal bed level is sufficiently above the H.F.L. of the drainage, an aqueduct is selected. (ii) If the F.S.L. of the canal is sufficiently below the bed level of the drainage, a superpassage is provided. (iii) If the canal bed level is only slightly below the H.F.L. of the drainage, and the drainage is small, a syphon aqueduct is provided. If necessary, the drainage bed is depressed below the canal. (iv) If the F.S.L. of the canal is slightly above the bed level of the drainage and the canal is of small size, a canal syphon is provided. (v) If the canal bed and the drainage bed are almost at the same level, a level crossing is provided when the discharge in the drainage is large, and an inlet-outlet structure is provided when the discharge in the drainage is small. However, the relative levels of the canal and the drainage can be altered to some extent by changing the canal alignment to have another crossing. In that case, the most suitable type of the cross-drainage work will be selected depending upon the levels at the changed crossing.

2. Performance: As far as possible, the structure having an open channel flow should be

preferred to the structure having a pipe flow. Therefore, an aqueduct should be preferred to a

syphon aqueduct. Likewise, a superpassage should be preferred to a canal syphon. In the case of a syphon aqueduct and a canal syphon, silting problems usually occur at the crossing. Moreover, in the case of a canal syphon, there is considerable loss of command due to loss of head in the canal. The performance of inlet-outlet structures is not good and should be avoided.

3. Provision of road: An aqueduct is better than a superpassage because in the former, a road

bridge can easily be provided along with the canal trough at a small extra cost, whereas in the latter, a separate road bridge is required.

4. Size of drainage: When the drainage is of small size, a syphon aqueduct will be preferred

to an aqueduct as the latter involves high banks and long approaches. However, if the

drainage is of large size, an aqueduct is preferred.

5.

Cost of earthwork: The type of cross-drainage work which does not involve a large

quantity of earthwork of the canal should be preferred.

6. Foundation: The type of cross-drainage work should be selected depending upon the

foundation available at the site of work.

7. Material of construction: Suitable types of material of construction in sufficient quantity

should be available near the site for the type of cross-drainage work selected. Moreover, the soil in sufficient quantity should be available for constructing the canal banks if the structure requires long and high canal banks.

8. Cost of construction: The cost of construction of cross-drainage work should not be

excessive. The overall cost of the canal banks and the cross-drainage work, including maintenance cost, should be a minimum.

9. Permissible loss of head: Sometimes, the type of cross-drainage is selected considering the

permissible loss of head. For example, if the head loss cannot be permitted in a canal at the site of cross-drainage, a canal syphon is ruled out.

10. Subsoil water table: If the subsoil water table is high, the types of cross-drainage which requires excessive excavation should be avoided, as it would involve dewatering problems.

11. Canal alignment: The canal alignment is sometimes changed to achieve a better type of cross-drainage work. By changing the alignment, the type of cross-drainage can be altered. The canal alignment is generally finalised after fixing the sites of the major cross-drainage works.

General Design Requirements for CD Works

1. Data

For preparing the design of a cross drainage structure, the following specified hydraulic data should be made available.

(a) Canal - Full supply discharge, Q; Bed width; Full supply depth; Water surface slope; Bed level; Bed slope; Full supply level; Top of bank level; Cross section of canal showing Natural Ground Level; Subsoil water level; and Nature of bed material and value of ‘n’ (rugosity coefficient in Manning’s formula).

(b) Drainage Channel - Extent and nature of drainage area (catchment area); Maximum annual rainfall and the period (years) of data; Maximum intensity of rainfall with year; Maximum observed flood discharge at the site; Maximum flood level; Water surface slope; Site plan of proposed crossing including contours; Log of borehole or trial pit data; Type of bed load of drainage channel; Longitudinal section of the stream for suitable distance upstream and downstream of the canal depending upon site conditions; Cross section of the drainage channel for a distance 100 m to 300 m upstream and downstream, at intervals of 10 m to 50 m; Waterways provided in road and railway bridges or other hydraulic structures on the drainage channel; Spring water level at the crossing site in May and October; and Silt factor.

2. Design flood

The design discharge of the drainage should be selected considering various factors such as the size of the drainage, the size of canal, importance of the canal and type of the cross- drainage work. The following are the broad guidelines for estimating the design discharge.

1. For very large cross-drainage works where the failure of the structure may lead to

disruption of canal supplies over a long period, the design flood should be taken equal to the

standard project flood (S.P.F.).

2. For moderate type of structures, the waterway is usually determined for the flood of 50

years recurrence interval but for the foundation and free board, the flood of 100 years recurrence interval is taken.

3. For small cross-drainage works, the design flood is usually taken as 10 to 25 years flood,

and an increased afflux is also considered.

4. For important structures, an additional margin of safety is usually provided in the design of

foundation and free board fixation to the take care of unexpected large floods by increasing

the design discharge, depending upon the area of catchment.

3. Waterway

Waterway for a cross drainage work is fixed from hydraulic and economic considerations with particular reference to: a) design flood, b) topography of the site, c) existing and proposed section and slope of the drainage channel in the vicinity of the crossing, d) permissible afflux, and e) construction and maintenance aspects. In plains, the drainage channels are generally in alluvium and the waterway usually provided in works without rigid

and the waterway usually provided in works without rigid floor is about sixty to eighty percent

floor is about sixty to eighty percent of the perimeter, given by Lacey’s formula P = C Q where C = a coefficient varying from 4.5 to 6.3 according to local conditions, the usual value adopted being 4.8 for regime channel.

the usual value adopted being 4.8 for regime channel. NOTES 1. When flow carries abrasive materials

NOTES

1. When flow carries abrasive materials with it, the permissible values may be further reduced by 25%.

2. Hard steel troweling, power floating, smooth surface finish and continuous long curing can have higher abrasion resistance, and higher velocities than that given in this table can be permitted, for surface using cement.

The value of wetted perimeter obtained is the total waterway between the two faces of the abutments. In works with rigid floors, however, waterway can be further flumed within the permissible limits of velocity negotiated through the available ventages. Ordinarily such velocities should be limited to the values given in Table. For sub-mountainous and mountainous terrains with flashy flows, the waterway is provided within the width of the existing stream. Where the slope of the natural drainage channel is quite steep suitable methods may be adopted to bring the velocity within the desired limits. The minimum dimension of openings should be such as to permit, as far as possible, manual clearing of deposits therein.

4. Free board

Free board in the case of canals is the difference between the F.S.L. of the canal to the top level of banks or the formation level of guide banks. In the case of a drainage, the free board

is the difference between the H.F.L., including afflux, and the top of the embankment or

guide banks. A minimum free board of 0·6 m is usually provided. However, it should be increased suitably for large discharges or wherever heavy wave action is anticipated.

5. Canal Transitions

A canal is flumed to reduce the length of barrels (or culverts) in an aqueduct (or a syphon

aqueduct). Fluming Ratio - Except when dictated by conditions particular to a specific structure, a fluming ratio less than seventy percent may not be adopted. For the purpose of computing the fluming ratio of canal, the width at mid depth may be taken as one hundred percent. In drainage channel when the course is undefined, a fluming ratio from seventy to ninety percent of the Lacey’s waterway may be adopted.

Suitable canal transitions are provided on the u/s and d/s of the flumed section. A channel transition is a gradual change in the cross-section of the channel that produces a change of flow from one uniform state to another. This change in flow occurs over the length

of transition. A transition avoids excessive energy loss, eliminates cross-currents and turbulence and thus provides safety to the structure. Transition walls as seen in plan, should

at their ends turn nearly at right angles to the flow in the channel and should extend for a

minimum length of 0.6 m into the earth bank. Suitable pitching may be provided to the slopes, beyond the Transition end. In a transition, varied flow (non-uniform flow) occurs, and the accelerating or decelerating forces are more predominant than the frictional resistance. Besides aqueducts and syphon aqueducts, fluming of canal is also sometimes done at superpassages and canal syphons, falls, regulators and bridges to reduce the cost of the structure. In all these cases, transitions are provided to minimise the head loss and reduce the maintenance cost. Fluming can be done by either of the following two methods.

By reducing the width of the channel without varying the depth of the channel.

By reducing the depth of the channel with or without varying the width. However, generally the width is also varied.

The transitions may be classified into two types:

1. Contraction transitions

2. Expansion transitions

1. Contraction transitions: In contraction transitions, the cross-sectional area is gradually reduced. The design of contraction transition is relatively easy. In this case, the accelerating forces tend to counterbalance the boundary shear and consequently the losses are small. Unless the velocity is very high or the contraction too severe, any suitable streamlined shape like a bell-mouth or a cylindrical quadrant of transition can be provided as a contraction transition. The flow through a contraction transition is always stable because of favourable

pressure gradient. The length of transition depends upon the degree of contraction adopted, the approach condition, the type of structure and the permissible head loss. An average splay of 2: 1 is usually provided. However, for important high-velocity flumes, an average splay of 3 : 1 to 4 : 1 will give better flow conditions. On the other hand, for low velocity, unimportant structures, the splay may be even 1 : 1. The contraction transition should be tangential to the walls at the throat of flume where velocity is high.

2. Expansion transitions: In expansion transitions, the cross-sectional area is gradually increased. In this case, the decelerating forces tend to increase the boundary layer effect and the losses are more. The pressure gradient is positive and hence unfavourable. The boundary flow is unstable and may result in flow separation from the boundary and lead to turbulence and eddies. Moreover, the high intensity of shear at the separation surface produces appreciable circulation and rollers may be formed. These rollers are the main sources of head loss associated with such flows, since the main flow has to infuse the energy to sustain them. Therefore, expansions transitions should effect the change more gradually as compared to that in contraction transitions. The exact laws governing the complex flow in expanding transitions are not known. Simplifications are usually done to arrive at approximate solutions. Providing very long transitions is quite costly. A splay of 3 : 1 is usually adopted. Sometimes, splay of 4 : 1 and 5 : 1 are adopted in the cause of high velocity flumes. In addition, separation control devices, such as splitter vanes, bed deflectors, sills, baffles, etc. are also sometimes used for minimising the separation of flow.

Methods of Design of Transitions: The following methods are commonly used for the design of transitions:

1. Chaturvedi's method

2. Mitra's method

3. Hind's method

In the first two methods, it is assumed that the depth remains constant and the width varies; whereas in the third method, both the depth and width are varied.

1. Chaturvedi's method: Chaturvedi used the two dimensional approach to analyse the flow. He assumed that the lateral velocity is a function of the depth but the longitudinal velocity remains constant. He demonstrated that for a hyperbolic expansion, the lateral acceleration of water is positive and increases with width. On the basis of experimental studies, he proposed the following equations for a semi-cubical transition of constant depth

equations for a semi-cubical transition of constant depth L f B 1.5 c ( 1 −

L

f

B

1.5

c

( 1

(

B

f

transition of constant depth L f B 1.5 c ( 1 − ( B f B

B

x

)

1.5 )

x

=

B

1.5

c

B

1.5

f

where x is the distance from the throat, L f is the length of transition flume, B c is the normal width of the channel, B f is the width of throat and B x is the width of transition at a distance x from the throat.

2. Mitra's method: Mitra proposed a hyperbolic transition, based on the following two assumptions:

1. The rate of change of velocity along the length of transition remains constant.

2. The depth of flow remains constant.

An equation for the shape of transition can be derived these assumptions. According to the first assumptions

V

f

V

x

x

=

V

f

V

c

L

f

where V f and V c are velocities in the flume and channel respectively; and V x is the velocity in the transition at a distance x from the throat.

From continuity and the second assumption d V = B d V = B d
From continuity and the second assumption
d V
=
B d V
=
B d V
=
Q
B f
f
c
c
x
x
Therefore,
= C
B
V
= C
B
V
= C
B
V f
f
c
c
x
x

B

f

V

f

=

B

1

c

V

c

=

B

1

x

V

x

=

C (say)

1

xB

 

xB

x

=

L

f

B

f

L

f

B

c

Substituting these values in the Equation based on the first assumption

1

 

 

C C

x

B

f B

x

 

 

=

1

L

f

C

C

B

f

C

C

B

c

1

  ⇒

f

Solving for B x

B

x

=

B B

c

f

L

f

B L

c

f

c

B

f

(

x B

)

Mitra's transitions have been commonly used in U.P. and elsewhere and have been found to be quite satisfactory. In these transitions, there is a positive lateral acceleration which eliminates separation. However, these transitions are useful for constriction less than 50% i.e. width at the throat is more than 50% of the normal width.

Disadvantages of transitions: It is very costly to provide long expanding transitions. Sometimes transitions of shorter length are used and various separations control devices, such as splitter vanes, bed deflector, sills, and baffles are provided to reduce separation of flow. However, these devices increase the loss of head and should be used with caution

6. Foundations of Cross-Drainage Works

The cross-drainage works are somewhat like road and railway bridges. The load acting on these works is mainly due to the weight of water. However, some portion of the aqueducts and syphon aqueduct is generally used as a road bridge which should be designed for the loads specified for the bridges. The choice of the type of super-structure depends upon the most economical arrangement possible at a given site. A common criterion used for the determination of the most economical span is to keep the cost of superstructure equal to that of substructure. However, while applying this criterion, the foundation conditions should also be considered. If the cost of individual piers and their foundations is high, the minimum number of piers should be provided by increasing the span and vice-versa. The cost of substructure depends upon the type of foundation and the height of piers.

7. Depth of Scour

The type of foundation usually depends upon the depth of scour. If the scour is small, shallow foundations may be adopted. However, if the scour is excessive, deep foundations are required. Generally, the well foundations are used as deep foundations. The normal scour depth in alluvial streams is usually determined by Lacey's formula. The mean depth of scour

in metres below the check/high flood level may be calculated from the equation:

d

sm

=

1.34

( D

2

i

may be calculated from the equation: d sm = 1.34 ( D 2 i K sf

K

sf

) 1/ 3

where D i = the discharge in cumecs per metre width. The value of D i should be the maximum of the following: (i) the design flood divided by the effective linear waterway between abutments or guide bunds, as the case may be. (ii) The value obtained should take into account any concentration of flow through a portion of the waterway assessed from the study of the cross section of the drainage channel. Such modifications of the value may not be deemed applicable to minor cross drainage structures with overall waterway less than 60 m. (iii) Actual observation, if any. K sf = the silt factor for representative sample of the bed material obtained up to the level of the deepest anticipated scour and given by the expression

in which d m being the weighted mean diameter in millimetres. d m may be taken as

the grain size at 50% passing from grain size distribution curve. The above method of estimating d sm is based on Lacey’s theory for regime conditions in alluvial beds.

Maximum Depth of Scour for Design of Foundation: The maximum depth of scour below the Highest Flood Level (H.F.L.) at obstructions and configurations of the channel should be estimated from the value of ‘d sm ’ on the following basis : For the design of piers and abutments located in a straight reach and having individual foundations without any floor protection works

1.76

d m
d
m

(i) In the vicinity of piers = 2.0 d sm

(ii) Near abutments = 1.27 d sm (approach retained) or 2.00 d sm (scour all around).

For the design of floor protection works, for raft foundations or shallow foundations, the following scour values should be adopted:

(i) in a straight reach 1.27 d sm

(ii) at a moderate bend 1.50 d sm

(iii) at a severe bend 1.75 d sm

(iv) at a right angled bend 2.00 d sm .

NOTE - The values of scour depth obtained as above may be suitably modified where actual observed data is available.

8. Bank Connection

The bank connection consists of masonry wing walls of the canal and the drainage. These are required to connect the regular section of the canal and the drainage to the modified section at the cross-drainage site.

Canal wing walls are provided on the upstream and downstream side of the aqueduct to guide the canal flow and to retain the earth of the canal banks on both sides of the canal trough. The foundation of the canal wing walls should kept on the sound natural ground. It should not be left on the made up formation. The faces of wing walls are warped from the natural section of the canal (usually, 1.5 : 1) to the vertical at the trough.

Drainage wing walls are provided on the upstream and downstream of the barrel (or culvert) to guide the drainage flow and to retain the natural banks of the drainage. The wing walls should be taken sufficiently deep into the guide banks. The wing walls should be shaped such as to provide smooth entry and exit at the drainage barrel. As the bed of the drainage gets scoured during floods, the foundation of the drainage wing walls should be

taken deep below the maximum scour depth. The wing walls of canal and drainage are

taken deep below the maximum scour depth. The wing walls of canal and drainage are designed to withstand earth pressure due to the dry soil above the hydraulic gradient line and due to the submerged soil below this line.

9. Weep holes

Weep holes are small openings in the retaining walls, like wings (i.e. transitions of natural stream). These are to facilitate the drainage of backfills and avoid build up of pressure. Weep holes may be provided above the flow net line of zero water pressure, under the condition of canal flowing full and natural stream with lowest annual flow. Weep holes if provided, should have filters with graded material suitably provided to avoid piping of earth fill behind the wall and also to avoid choking of the holes. The provision of weep holes should be so, as to not render the creep coefficient of seepage unsafe, and. should also not contribute to enhanced loss of canal water.

DESIGN OF AQUEDUCTS

Types: Depending upon the cross-section of the canal over the barrel (or culvert), the aqueducts and syphon aqueducts are classified into the following three types:

1. Type I Aqueduct: In this type of aqueduct (or syphon aqueducts), the cross-section of the

canal is not changed. The original cross-section of the canal with normal side slopes is thus retained. The length of the barrel through which the drainage passes under the canal is a maximum in this type of structures, because the width of the canal section is a maximum. In this type of structures, the canal wings are not required. This type is suitable when the width of the drainage is small (say less than 2.5 m). If the section is changed, the cost of canal wings would be large in comparison to the saving resulting from decreasing the length of culvert.

2. Type II Aqueduct: In this type of aqueduct (or syphon aqueduct), the outer slopes of the

canal banks are discontinued and replaced by retaining walls. Thus the length of the barrel is reduced, but the cost of retaining wall is added to the overall cost. This type of structure is suitable when the width of the drainage is moderate (say 2.5 m to 15 m) so that the cost of retaining walls is less in comparison to the saving resulting from decreasing the length of

barrel.

3. Type III Aqueduct: In this type of aqueduct (or syphon. aqueduct), the entire earth section

of the canal is discontinued and replaced by a concrete or masonry trough over the drainage. This type of structure is generally suitable when the width of the drainage is very large (say more than 15 m), so that the cost of the trough and canal wing walls is less in comparison to the saving resulting from decreasing the length of barrel. In this type of structure, the canal can be easily flumed, which further reduces the length of the barrel.

Selection of suitable type: The choice of the type of aqueduct should depend on consideration

of economy which in turn would depend mainly upon the size of the drainage to be passed in

relation to the size of the canal and the foundation strata. Over a small drainage channel, an aqueduct of Type 1 may be suitable as NO canal transitions would be required. The savings made due to absence of canal transitions would more than compensate the increased cost due

to the length of drainage culverts which would have larger length (across the canal). Over a

large river an aqueduct of Type 3 may be more economical as the length of drainage culverts across the canal is small and the saving made in cost of drainage culverts would be greater than the increased cost of canal transitions. For intermediate conditions an aqueduct of Type

2 may work out to be more economical. However, techno- economic studies should be carried out to decide the exact type of aqueduct to be constructed. Therefore, a very small drainage requires a type I aqueduct, which in many cases may be merely a pipe or a small culvert passing under the canal.

On the other hand, over a river of

a large size type III aqueduct

would be the most economical. For moderate size of the drainage, type II aqueduct may be most suitable. However, the actual limits with regard to the size of drainage for which one particular type of aqueduct will be the most suitable will vary with local conditions and the cost of construction. Comparative estimates should be prepared for finding out the most economical type of aqueduct for a particular site.

Design Load and Structural Stability: The forces acting on the various parts of the structure are evaluated and the worst combination of forces is taken in the design. The loads and forces to be considered in designing aqueducts are as follows: (a) Dead load; (b) Water load; (c) Live load; (d) Impact or dynamic effect of the live load; (e) Longitudinal forces

caused by the tractive effort or by braking force of vehicles and/or those caused by restraint

to free movement of bearings; (f) Wind load; (g) Horizontal force due to water currents; (h)

Centrifugal forces - in case the aqueduct and/or the road is curved in plan; (i) Buoyancy; (k) Earth pressure; (1) Forces due to temperature variation; (m) Erection loads; (n) Seismic load; and (p) Water pressure.

NOTE - (d) and (e) are applicable only in case a road bridge is provided over the aqueduct. Wind load should not be considered simultaneously with earthquake.

Generally the following design combinations should be considered: (a) Canal empty and stream/drain at its low water level - normal condition without earthquake; (b) Canal running full up to its F.S.L. and stream/drain at its low water level – normal condition without earthquake; (c) Canal empty and stream/drain at its H.F.L. without earthquake; (d)

level – normal condition without earthquake; (c) Canal empty and stream/drain at its H.F.L. without earthquake;

Canal running full up to F.S.L. and stream/drain at its H.F.L. without earthquake; (e) Construction condition (i) Pier is constructed and superstructure is not constructed and stream/drain at it’s H. F. L. (design) without earthquake. (ii) Superstructure is constructed on one side of a pier and stream/drain at it’s H.F.L (design) without earthquake. NOTE - (a) and (b) combinations of loadings may also be checked for seismic conditions after accounting for higher permissible stresses. For design of aqueducts the effect of earthquake forces in all the three directions that is longitudinal (L), transverse (T) and vertical (V) should be taken into account. The combination of these should be either T + V or L + V at a time.

Layout

The layout of the aqueduct should be so fixed that it is preferably in a straight reach of drainage channel. The canal/carrier channel should be at right angles to the drainage channel as far as possible. Bank connections to canal and drainage channel should be provided depending upon the properties of the soil available in the area. Wing walls for drainage may be provided with 2 : 1 and 3 : 1 splays on upstream and downstream side; the splay should not be flatter than 3 : 1 and 4 : 1 respectively. Drainage wing walls should be suitably connected to high ground. Canal transitions should preferably be provided with 2 : 1 and 3 : 1 splays on upstream and downstream side, but not flatter than 3 : 1 and 5 : 1 respectively. However, it should be ensured that the flow follows the boundaries of the transition. The drainage .channel shall be directed towards the structure by suitable training works like training walls, guide banks, spurs, etc. The canal banks adjacent to the cross drainage work should be protected by suitable protective measures such as turfing, pitching and launching apron, wherever necessary. Uplift pressure and exit gradient caused by seepage flow from the canal when it is running full and the drainage channel is dry, be accounted for in design. For reducing the uplift pressure and exit gradient pucca floor should be provided for in the canal bed in adequate lengths upstream and downstream of the work with cut-off walls at the ends. Pucca floors of adequate lengths should be provided at either end of the barrel in the drain with cut-off wall at the end.

Clearance for Aqueducts

The clearance for Rectangular Openings will depend upon the relative levels of the canal bed and high flood level of the drainage channel. Values given in Table are suggested as suitable minimum clearances (taking into account allowable afflux) for purposes of design, where available.

allowable afflux) for purposes of design, where available. Design Steps As already discussed, an aqueduct carries

Design Steps

As already discussed, an aqueduct carries the canal water over the drainage such that the bottom of the canal trough (or the roof of the culvert or barrel) is above the H.F.L. of the

drainage. Before the actual design, all the available data of the canal and drainage at the crossing site should be collected. The design discharge and H.F.L. of the drainage should be estimated. The types of super-structure should be selected. The design procedure may be summarised as follows:

1. Check whether proper clearance is available or not.

2. Determine the required waterway from Lacey's equation, P = 4.75 Q . From the waterway, select suitable span and the number of spans.

3. Determine the canal waterway after deciding the fluming ratio and type of aqueduct. Generally for large canals, the canal is flumed and type III aqueduct is provided.

4. Fix the dimensions of the canal trough, and the number of compartments. Generally, an inspection road is provided over one of the compartments of the trough.

5. If the canal is flumed, deign the transitions.

6. Find the losses in transitions and canal trough and then fix levels of the TEL, WSL and canal bed level at key points.

levels of the TEL, WSL and canal bed level at key points. 7. Determine the height
levels of the TEL, WSL and canal bed level at key points. 7. Determine the height

7. Determine the height of the piers and abutments.

8. Estimate the maximum scour and design the foundation.

9. Provide suitable bank connections.

DESIGN OF SYPHON AQUEDUCTS

Layout: The layout of syphon aqueduct shall be so fixed that the drainage channel crosses the carrier channel preferably at right angles.

Materials: For the construction of the syphon barrels, prestressed concrete, RCC or masonry or a combination of these may be used depending upon the availability of materials, labour

and relative economy.

Types of Syphon aqueducts: Syphon aqueducts may be classified into the following two types:

1. Barrel type, using barrel for drainage waterways, and

2. Trough type, using trough section for carrier channel waterways.

The type of syphon aqueduct to be adopted shall be decided on the basis of relative economy and restraints of carrier channel design.

Barrel Type

In barrel type of syphon aqueducts, the entire carrier channel portion may be taken as it is over the barrel or it may be flumed to a rectangular or trapezoidal section to reduce the length of barrels. The floor level of barrels shall be fixed in relation to the drainage bed level at the syphon aqueduct site. The future retrogression and regrading of drainage channel depending on outfall conditions may also be considered. The floor level is combination with ventway shall be judiciously fixed below the existing drainage bed in such a manner that a water seal of 1.5 times the change in velocity head, with a minimum of 150 mm, should be provided over the crown of barrels at start to prevent air entering the barrel. At the outlet end of the syphon, the top of the barrel may be kept slightly depressed below the normal downstream flood level in the drainage channel. The amount of this depression may be equal to the difference in the velocity head at the exit end of the barrel and that in the drainage channel on the downstream side. In case of barrel of RCC box type or RCC slab with masonry walls, a minimum cushion of 300 mm may be provided with the precaution that heavy vehicles do not ply over the barrels unless the cover is suitably increased and the structure is properly designed. In case of RCC pipes and circular barrels, a minimum cushion of 900 mm should be provided. This will protect the pipes and barrels against damage by the movement of construction equipment over them. This cover also permits any future regrading of the carrier channel.

At the site of syphon aqueduct the drainage bed is generally depressed and provided with PUCCA floor. On the upstream side, the drainage bed may be joined to the PUCCA floor by a vertical drop (when drop is of the order of 1 m or less) or by a glacis of 3:1 (when drop is more then 1 m). The downstream rising slope should not be steeper than 5:1.

Depending upon the bed level of carrier channel and HFL of drainage channel, the barrels under the carrier channel bed portion are generally lower than the barrels at the entry and exit. This difference is negotiated with the provision of sloping length of barrels under carrier channel banks. The upward inclination of the barrel shall start from a point at least 1.0 m away from the end of the carrier channel bed width on either side.

The length of barrels should be fixed on the consideration of economics of increasing barrel length with respect to reduction in length of wing walls of drainage channel and height of breast wall and practical and economical depth of cutoff under barrels for safe exit gradient. However the length should be sufficient to accommodate the width of service road.

The main considerations for design of syphon barrels are the following: a) It should be safe against uplift, b) It should be strong to resist internal and external forces, c) It should be safe against subsurface flow, and d) It should be safe against surface flow.

Safety against Uplift: The barrels shall have enough loads to resist upward buoyancy force tending to lift it. The barrels underneath carrier channel bed are critical for checking against uplift. The safety of barrels should be checked for the following three conditions: a) Carrier

channel at full supply level and drainage barrels empty, b) The drainage channel at designed flood level and carrier channel empty, and c) Carrier channel is suddenly closed and drainage barrel is empty thereby causing two thirds of the head corresponding to carrier channel full supply level to act. Lesser percentage of head up to one-third of total head may be considered in case the carrier channel section is made of relatively permeable material. The minimum factor of safety against uplift should be 1.2 in all the three conditions.

NOTE: Full hydrostatic head from carrier channel full supply level to the drainage barrel foundation should be taken for checking the stability. The bottom slab of barrel may be suitably projected beyond its side walls to take advantage of the weight of the earth wedge over the projection in counteracting the uplift forces. If the weight is taken to counteract uplift in design computation, the earth cushion over the barrels should not be allowed to fall below the corresponding design depth. In such cases the carrier channel bed should be adequately protected against erosion by providing a suitable protective cover over the earth extending 20 m upstream and downstream of the syphon. Lean concrete/random rubble masonry over the barrel as additional weight may be provided.

Safety against Internal and External Forces: The barrels should be designed strong enough for the dead load of the structure, earth and water loads, earth and water pressures, soil reaction and uplift pressure and live load, if any. The combination of loads which will result in maximum stresses shall be carefully considered. Due to the difference in loading, the length of barrels of major structures can be divided into two portions, one under carrier channel bed and the other under carrier channel banks for economical design. The barrels for the purpose of transverse analysis shall be treated as a box. The box shall be analyzed by any standard method. For the following conditions and loadings to determine the worst moments, shear and thrust at any section: Condition (i) Carrier channel at full supply level and barrels dry. Condition (ii) Carrier channel dry and the drainage channel at degined HFL including afflux. Longitudinal analysis shall be made in cases where loose soil or various types of soils are met with at the completed final level of foundation.

Safety against Sub Surface Flow: Cut-offs: The depths of cut-off shall be calculated from scour and exit gradient considerations. Depth of cut off below the entrance and exit ends of barrels may be provided along the width of the barrels and along the river or the drainage channel wings up to 1.25 to 1.5 times the normal scour depths below HFL based on the site conditions. In case of rocks the cut off shall be taken minimum 1.0 m from the sill of the barrel into the fresh rock. The width of concrete cut off shall not be less than 0.3 m. Depth of cut off shall be checked for safe exist gradient in accordance with Khosla’s theory for two dimensional flow. In syphons of carrying capacity over 20 cumecs the effect of 3 dimensional seepage flows on exit gradient shall be considered. For this, electrical analogy model testing should be carried out and cut offs at the end of the barrels should be provided accordingly. The safe value of exit gradient for different types of soil generally adopted can be as follows:

Clay - l in 4; Shingle - l in 4 to 5; Coarse sand – l in 5 to 6; Fine sand – l in 6 to 7. The vertical cut off shall also be provided under river or drainage channel wings. However, the depth of cut off may be suitably reduced under wings depending upon the length of wings, but should be adequate from scour considerations. Ribs at suitable spacings may be provided to increase the seepage path. A suitable filter under open jointed cement concrete blocks or rubble should be provided along the cutoff that is u/s of upstream cut-off and d/s of downstream cut-off. The length of filter to be provided should be 1.5 times the, scour depth (below drainage bed). The filter should be designed in accordance with standard criteria conforming to IS 8237. The safety of filter should also be checked against heave. Scour shall be considered at entry and exit of syphon barrels in accordance with IS 7784 (Part 1) and launching appron adequate to provide a cover of 0.6 to 0.9 m over the entire slope of the

scour shall be provided.

Trough type

In trough type of syphon aqueducts, carrier channel water is taken across drainage channel through a trough supported on barrels or on piers/abutments raised from the drainage bed. Bottom of the trough of carrier channel is lower than HFL of drainage channel. An impervious floor, if necessary, with protection against surface and subsurface flow may be provided in drainage bed. In the case of trough type syphon aqueduct, both carrier channel transitions and drainage wings shall be provided.

The basic design features of this type shall be the same as those of aqueducts [see IS 7784 (Part 2/See l)]. However, the carrier channel trough in this type should be designed so as to provide the dead load of the trough at least 1.2 times the upward thrust acting on it when the drainage channel is in high floods and the carrier channel is dry. If it is not so, the trough shall be suitably anchored to the piers. The floor of the syphon aqueduct shall be suitably designed for the uplift pressures acting on it.

Additional Provisions

The outer slopes of carrier channel banks and drainage channel slope should be protected in the vicinity of syphon aqueduct by pitching. For large size drainage channel, properly designed guide banks should be provided. In major syphon aqueducts stop-log grooves in the barrels at the upstream and downstream ends may be provided by extending the partition walls to facilitate isolating one or more barrels for annual repairs and maintenance. Stability of barrels shall be suitably ensured in this case. A retaining wall should be constructed over the barrels to retain the carrier channel banks slopes over the barrels. If constructed in reinforced cement concrete, these walls (breast wall) should be constructed monolithically with the top slab of the barrels. Adequate anchorage of reinforcement as well as reinforcement for proper transference of loads and moments to the top slab shall be provided. The effect of live load, wherever applicable, shall also be considered in the design of this wall. At the junction of this wall with barrel, a haunch of suitable size shall be provided. The design of the wings, both for carrier channel and the drainage channel shall be carried out for earth and water pressures calculated according to standard practice. The effect of live load and surcharged effect, if any, shall be taken into account while designing the wings. Wing walls shall be checked for earthquake conditions also, in seismic zones.

Drainage Wings

The length of drainage wings shall be adjusted so as to contain the slopes of carrier channel embankments. The wings shall be provided straight or in a smooth curve giving a minimum splay of 2:1 on upstream and 3:1 on downstream. If necessary, return wall may be provided thereafter. The top of wings shall be kept at least 300 mm higher than the HFL of the drainage channel. The wing wall sections shall be checked for carrier channel full and drainage channel dry condition, considering backfill as saturated. No passive resistance shall be considered from drainage channel side. If the foundation of wing wall requires to be taken deeper than 1.5m from consideration of scour, a concrete cut-off of required depth shall be provided along the upstream face of the wing wall.

Carrier Channel Section and its Fluming

The carrier channel embankment adjoining the syphon aqueduct should have adequate provisions to avoid possibility of any breach and to minimize seepage. The outer slope of bank should have a clear cover of 600 to 900 mm over the designed phreatic line often referred to as hydraulic gradient. High banks (say, more than 6 m height above ground level)

should be checked for slope stability and normal provisions of filter and rock toe should be made. In cases where HFL in the drainage channel is substantially higher than bed of the carrier channel, the bank of the carrier channel should be checked for the condition when drainage channel is in high floods and the carrier channel is dry.

Fluming ratio shall be adopted as given in IS 7784 (Part 1) keeping in view the permissible head loss in the carrier channel, and whether the carrier channel is lined or unlined.

Limiting Velocity

The vertical slope on approaches should not be steeper than 1 in 3 on the entry side and 1 in 4 on the exit side. The minimum permissible velocity allowed in the drainage channel may be derived from Table. However, the velocity in the barrels shall not exceed the maximum permissible velocity.

barrels shall not exceed the maximum permissible velocity. Afflux The afflux to be adopted in the

Afflux

The afflux to be adopted in the design should be that which would correspond to the design flood. The afflux should be restricted to such a value that the resulting velocity does not cause serious bed scour in the drainage or does not create submergence which cannot be permitted.

Rational formulae Broad crested weir discharge formula or orifice discharge formula depending upon the flow

Rational formulae

Broad crested weir discharge formula or orifice discharge formula depending upon the flow conditions through the cross drainage work openings, may be applied for calculating afflux. When the performance of the cross drainage work openings remains unaffected by the depth downstream of the obstruction, that is, a standing wave is formed, weir formula is applicable, otherwise the orifice formula holds good. Approximately, when the downstream depth D d above the crest is more than eighty percent of the upstream depth D u the weir formula does not hold good.

a) Weir formula

Q

=

1.7C LH

w

3/ 2

where Q = discharge through the openings in m 3 /s; C w = coefficient of discharge accounting for losses in friction; the values may be taken as 0.94 for Narrow openings with or without floors; as 0.96 for Wide openings with floors; and as 0.98 for Wide openings without floors; L = Linear waterway in m; H = total energy head upstream of the obstruction in m, that is,

; V = average velocity in the approach section worked out from the known width

of unobstructed section (W).

b) Orifice formula

D

u

+

V

2
2

2 g

Q

=

C

0

b) Orifice formula D u + V 2 2 g Q = C 0 2 g

2g LD

d

( h

+

(1

+

e)V

2
2

2g

) 1/ 2

where C 0 = coefficient of discharge; g = acceleration due to gravity in m/s 2 ; h = afflux in m, e =a factor accounting for recovery of some velocity as potential head on emergence from the cross drainage work openings. The value of C 0 and e to be adopted from given Figures. The afflux can be calculated knowing (a) the discharge, (b) the unobstructed width of the stream, and (c) the average depth downstream of the cross drainage work opening.

Empirical formula When the area of obstruction is not very large compared to the original

Empirical formula

When the area of obstruction is not very large compared to the original unrestricted area, the following formula gives reasonably good results:

h =

(0.0152

+V

2 2 1) 17.85)(( A / a ) −
2
2
1)
17.85)((
A
/
a
)

where A = the unobstructed sectional area drainage channel in m 2 , and a = sectional area of the drainage provided in the construction in m 2 . If the value of V varies considerably in the unobstructed cross section of the drainage channel, as in the case of a drainage channel which spills over its banks, V for the purposes of this formula may be taken as the average velocity in the main channel and correspondingly the value of A should be determined by dividing the total discharge by V. In case of readily erodable beds, full afflux as calculated may not occur.

It may be noted that greater the afflux, the more will be submerged area on the U/S of the syphon aqueduct. The extent of submergence which can be permitted at a particular site will depend upon the value of the property on the upstream side and the topography of the area. If the submergence can be increased without submergence of property, the afflux may be kept more. Thus the waterway may be reduced and the number of barrels can be reduced. However, the velocity in the barrel should not be permitted to increase beyond the safe limit which is normally taken as 3 m/s for concrete barrels; otherwise abrasion of the barrel surface will occur. The afflux is usually limited to 1 m for large catchments. In the case of a canal syphon, the afflux occurs in the canal u/s. It can be computed using the same procedure.

Uplift Pressure on the Roof of a Barrel

As the barrel of a syphon aqueduct runs full during floods, an uplift pressure acts on the roof of barrel (or on the under of the canal trough). The uplift pressure at any point of the barrel can be obtained from the hydraulic gradient line H.G.L. The uplift pressure at any point is obviously equal to the ordinate between the hydraulic gradient line and the roof of the barrel at that point. Because of entry loss, there is a sudden drop in the HGL at that entrance. It is followed by a gradual drop due to friction throughout the length of barrel and again there is a

sudden drop at the exit. The maximum uplift occurs just after the entry point at the upstream end of the barrel. While designing the trough, the following two extreme conditions are considered (i) The canal trough is carrying full discharge but the barrel is empty; (ii) The barrel is running full but there is no water in the trough.

Generally, the thickness of the trough designed for downward loads is sufficient to counterbalance the uplift pressure. In case it not sufficient, it is generally more economical to anchor the trough to the piers and abutment than to increase the thickness of slab. The uplift pressure on the roof of a canal syphon can be found by the same method.

Uplift Pressure on the Floor of a Syphon Aqueduct

The floor of a syphon aqueduct is subjected to an uplift pressure due to following causes:

1. Rise of water table: The maximum uplift on the bottom surface of the floor occurs when

the barrel is empty and the subsoil water table rises upto the drainage bed. The uplift pressure is equal to the difference of the bed level of the drainage and the bottom surface of the floor. Thus, Uplift head (h 1 ) = Drainage bed level - bottom level of floor.

2. Seepage from canal: The maximum uplift pressure due to seepage from the canal occurs

when the canal is full and the barrel is empty. The uplift pressure due to seepage from canal

is difficult to compute because the subsurface flow is three-dimensional. Because the flow cannot be approximated as two dimensional, Khosla's theory cannot be used for the estimation of uplift pressure. Relaxation method can be used but it is very laborious. Generally a simple analysis based on Bligh's theory is used for small works. Total seepage head = Canal F.S.L. - D/s bed level of drainage. However, for large and important works the uplift pressures should be obtained by electrical analogy method or by model studies.

In order to reduce the thickness of floor, a RCC raft may be provided as the impervious floor. In that case, a part of the uplift pressure is resisted by the weight of floor and the remaining part resisted by bending strength of the raft supported between the piers. Thus the uplift pressure gets transferred to the piers and is resisted by the weight of the entire superstructure. If the uplift pressure is very high, it can be reduced by the following methods:

The creep length is increased by increasing the length of the impervious floor at the bed of the canal.

Drainage holes (or relief holes) are drilled in the floor of the barrels to release the

at the bed of the canal. • Drainage holes (or relief holes) are drilled in the
at the bed of the canal. • Drainage holes (or relief holes) are drilled in the

uplift pressure. Inverted filter is provided below the holes to prevent piping. These holes are covered by flap values which open only upwards.

A depressed floor is usually required in the case of a syphon aqueduct. The floor should be

protected against scour by providing suitable sheet piles and loose apron on either side of floor. The floor may be designed as a gravity section. However, when the thickness required

is large, a RCC raft is provided. The choice between a gravity section and a RCC raft is

usually a matter of economy. A raft is structurally superior and is usually more economical in the case of poor foundations.

Design Steps

The design of a syphon aqueduct in many respects is similar to that of an aqueduct. However, the design of barrel is somewhat different, as explained below

1. Design of barrel: The area of flow of the barrel is determined from the maximum

permissible velocity V, thus Cross-sectional area, A

permissible velocity V , thus Cross-sectional area, A A = Q V The maximum permissible velocity

A = Q V

The maximum permissible velocity depends on the material as listed in the previous table. This velocity is usually limited to 3 m/s. The higher velocity may cause abrasion of the barrel surface by rolling grits. Moreover, it will cause more afflux, requiring higher and larger marginal banks. The total required area when divided by the number of spans gives the cross- sectional area of each opening. While designing a syphon aqueduct barrel, care shall be taken to maintain the minimum scouring velocity required to prevent silting. The minimum scouring velocity should be maintained for the normal floods which may occur quite frequently so as to cause flushing of the deposited sediment in the barrels.

2.

Knowing the span and the shape of opening, the height of opening can be calculated. That

is:

the height of barrel is determined as h = A/Clear water way.

However, the height of barrel should not be less than 2 m so that a person can enter for cleaning the barrel when required. If necessary, the floor of the barrel is depressed. Generally a vertical drop in provided at inlet to join the drainage bed to the barrel. However, if the drop is greater then 1 m, a glacis of 3: 1 is provided. On the d/s side, a ramp with a slope of 5: 1 is provided so that silt is carried by the drainage water. The vertical distance between the d/s bed and the underside of the trough should be not less than 1·0 m. Likewise, the distance between the vertical drop wall and the u/s end of the pier should not be less than 1 m.

3. Compute afflux from orifice formula and then find uplift on the barrel roof. The roof of the

barrel is designed for the maximum uplift pressure which occurs when the canal is empty and the maximum discharge occurs through the barrel.

4. The floor of the barrel is designed for the maximum uplift pressure which occurs when the

canal is full and the barrel is empty.

5. The design for canal, its fluming, u/s and d/s transitions and fixing of bed levels remain

similar to aqueduct.