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Motivation 2

Motivation 2

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Publicado porAmandeep Garai

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Published by: Amandeep Garai on Jan 04, 2011
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MOTIVATION

 ´The willingness to exert high levels of effort to reach organizational goals, conditioned by the effort·s ability to satisfy some individual needµ
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The Motivation Process
Unsatisfied Need Tension Drives Search Behavior Satisfied Need Reduction of Tension

Early Theories of Motivation ‡ Maslow s Hierarchy of Needs ‡ McGregor s Theory X and Theory Y ‡ Herzberg s Motivation-Hygiene Theory .

Early Theories of Motivation ‡ Maslow s Hierarchy of Needs ± 5 needs ± motivate until substantially satisfied ‡ McGregor s Theory X and Theory Y ‡ Herzberg s Motivation-Hygiene Theory .

Maslow·s Hierarchy of Needs Self Actualization Esteem Social Safety Physiological .

Early Theories of Motivation ‡ Maslow s Hierarchy of Needs ‡ McGregor s Theory X and Theory Y ± view of human nature ‡ Herzberg s Motivation-Hygiene Theory .

Theory X and Theory Y Theory X Avoid Work Must be Controlled Avoid Responsibility Theory Y Work is Natural SelfDirection Seek Responsibility Good Decisions Widely Dispersed Seek Security .

Early Theories of Motivation ‡ Maslow s Hierarchy of Needs ‡ McGregor s Theory X and Theory Y ‡ Herzberg s Motivation-Hygiene Theory ± satisfaction vs no satisfaction ± dissatisfaction vs no dissatisfaction .

Contrasting Views of SatisfactionDissatisfaction Traditional View Satisfaction Dissatisfaction Herzberg¶s View Motivators Satisfaction No Satisfaction Hygiene Factors No Dissatisfaction Dissatisfaction .

Motivation-Hygiene Theory Achievement Recognition Work Itself Responsibility Advancement Growth Supervision Company Policy Supervisor Relations Working Conditions Salary Peers Personal Life Subordinate Relations Status Security Extremely Dissatisfied Extremely Satisfied Neutral .

Equity Theory Vroom .3 needs Theory z z Adams .CONTEMPORARY THEORIES OF MOTIVATION  McClelland .Expectancy Theory 11 .

McClelland s Three-Needs Theory ‡ Need for Achievement (nAch) ± Drive to excel. feedback and an intermediate amount of risk ‡ Need for Power (nPow) ± Desire to be influential ± Best managers ‡ Need for Affiliation (nAff) ± Desire to be liked and accepted . strive to succeed ± Want personal responsibility.

Expectancy Theory 13 .3 needs Theory  Adams .Equity Theory z Vroom .CONTEMPORARY THEORIES OF MOTIVATION  McClelland .

Equity Theory ± People compare their job inputs-outputs ratio with relevant others ± Adjust work motivation according to results .

Equity Theory Relationships PERCEIVED RATIO COMPARISON* EMPLOYEE¶S ASSESSMENT Outcomes A Inputs A < = > Outcomes B Inputs B Inequity (under-rewarded) Outcomes A Inputs A Outcomes B Inputs B Equity Outcomes A Inputs A Outcomes B Inputs B Inequity (over-rewarded) .

Equity Theory Relationships You Comparison Outcomes A Inputs A = Outcomes B Inputs B .

Equity Theory Relationships You Comparison You Comparison 2 2 < 4 2 2 1 = 4 2 .

Equity Theory Equity Theory Inputs Referents Outcomes Perceived Inequities May Lead To: Distort Change Others Change Self New Referent Quit .

3 needs Theory  Adams .Equity Theory 3Vroom .CONTEMPORARY THEORIES OF MOTIVATION McClelland .Expectancy Theory 19 .

Expectancy Theory ‡ Individuals tend to act in certain ways based on the expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and the attractiveness of the outcome. ‡ Focus is on the linkages: ± Effort and Performance ± Performance and Rewards ± Attractiveness (Rewards and Individual Goals) .

Individual Effort A Individual Performance B Simplified Expectancy Theory Organizational Rewards A B C = Effort-performance linkage = Performance-reward = Attractiveness C Individual Goals linkage .

praise.Contemporary Issues in Motivation ‡ Motivating a Diverse Workforce ± Requires flexibility ± Employees have different needs and goals ‡ Pay for Performance (rather than time) ± Piece rate.... ‡ ESOPs ± Employees become owners. bonuses . authority . need communication as well as stock ‡ Minimum Wage Employees ± Non-monetary incentives. . profit sharing..

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