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Made by: Adil Hussain Khan 9997 Owais Nathani 10218 Danish Mujtaba 10115 Course: Organizational Behaviour Submitted To: Sir Humayu Zafar Chaudry Date: 09th December 2010
The study of Organizational Behavior is one of the important criteria in the corporate sector. Organizational Behavior is a key of success for an organization. By this report we will be able to know to reduce the stress level of the employees working in an organization. By this way the productivity of the employee increases.
Now a day the corporate sector is booming in a high speed that the people have to work for prolonged hours to maintain the standard of living and achieve their basic needs. So is the condition in the hospitals, colleges, BPO’s and lots of other places. In spit of having the modern technologies and facilities, people are feeling themselves to be work loaded and stressed. Stress arises because of many reasons which are discussed in the following project. The project report also contain techniques how to reduce the stress and overcome such problems.
Stress arises because of unfulfilled wants, lack of job satisfaction etc. before starting the topic of stress; let’s first understand what actually stress is.
To make this report we got the help from our parents who have given full support to carry out this work. They are the one who motivated and helped us for the completion of this project report.
Further, we would like to thank to our teacher Sir. Humayu Zafar Chaudry who has given full support and co operated with us to complete this report. Then we would like to thank our class mates who have supported us. I am also thankful to Dr. Munawer Hussain (Lecturer DAW Medical College) who provided us the relevant information for our report.
4 . By looking at the starting of the project you will find: o Introduction and Definition of stress o Stress in biological terms o What is stress? o Coping with stress at work place. o Stress management o Workplace stress o Reducing of stress.Executive Summery This project gives us a detailed idea of what is stress and also the definition of stress is been defined. For more detailed study the types of the stress is also defined.
INDEX No Concept of stress 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Content Page no 6 6 11 12 16 18 21 25 Introduction to stress Stress in Biological terms What is stress Coping with stress at workplace Stress Management Workplace stress Reduce your stress Conclusion Bibliography 30 32 5 .
Definition: Hans Selye was one of the founding fathers of stress research. These effects have rarely been observed in positive situations. a great deal of further research has been conducted.1. Stress is now viewed as a "bad thing". What complicates this is that intuitively we all feel that we know what stress is. humiliation or infection is detrimental. Some of the theories behind it are now settled and accepted. and ideas have moved on. During this time. Since then. CONCEPT OF STRESS (1) INTRODUCTION TO STRESS A lot of research has been conducted into stress over the last hundred years. as it is something we have all experienced. others are still being researched and debated. there seems to have been something approaching open warfare between competing theories and definitions: Views have been passionately held and aggressively defended. with a range of harmful biochemical and long-term effects. creative successful work is beneficial. The most commonly accepted definition of stress (mainly attributed to Richard S Lazarus) is that stress is a condition or feeling experienced when a person 6 . The stress of exhilarating. A definition should therefore be obvious…except that it is not.” Selye believed that the biochemical effects of stress would be experienced irrespective of whether the situation was positive or negative. while that of failure. His view in 1956 was that “stress is not necessarily something bad – it all depends on how you take it.
some types include: o Chronic stress. although we also recognize that there is an intertwined instinctive stress response to unexpected events. Compressive stress. the average amount of force exerted per unit area. stress caused by employment 7 . it's what we feel when we think we've lost control of events. The stress response inside us is therefore part instinct and part to do with the way we think. This is the main definition used by this section of Mind Tools. physiological or psychological stress. The types of stress are as follows Mechanical Stress (physics). Biological Stress (biological). Yield stress. persistent stress which can lead to illness and mental disorder o o Eustress.perceives that “demands exceed the personal and social resources the individual is able to mobilize. positive stress that can lead to improved long-term functioning Workplace stress. the stress at which a material begins to deform plastically.” In short. the stress applied to materials resulting in their compaction.
Chronic Stress Chronic stress is stress that lasts a long time or occurs frequently. stress is expressed as Where Is the average stress. the average amount of force exerted per unit area. Chronic stress is potentially damaging. and Is the force acting over the area . Stress is a measure of the average amount of force exerted per unit area.Stress (physics). It is a measure of the intensity of the total internal forces acting within a body across imaginary internal surfaces. In general. Symptoms of chronic stress can be: upset stomach headache backache insomnia anxiety depression anger 8 . Stress is a concept that is based on the concept of continuum. It was introduced into the theory of elasticity by Cauchy around 1822. as a reaction to external applied forces and body forces. also called engineering or nominal stress.
then this material is under compression. and relaxing hobbies. in those individuals with lower levels of magnesium or those who have a magnesium deficiency. cast iron. and a whole host of other negative medical conditions caused by a magnesium deficiency. some soils and plastics) or as rupture for brittle behavior (geometries. etc). which can be a factor in continued chronic stress. A very large number of these new cases suffer from insomnia. columns. etc. compressive stress applied to bars. According to the properties of the material. healthy diet. leads to shortening. adequate rest. It has been discovered that there is a huge upsurge in the number of people who suffer from this condition. failure will occur as yield for materials with ductile behavior (most metals. 9 . There are a variety of methods to control chronic stress. the authors found that stress plays a role in triggering or worsening depression and cardiovascular disease and in speeding the progression of HIV/AIDS. Ensuring a healthy diet containing magnesium may help control or eliminate stress. including exercise. stress management. In a review of the scientific literature on the relationship between stress and disease. Loading a structural element or a specimen will increase the compressive stress until the reach of compressive strength. glass. When a material is subjected to compressive stress. Chronic stress can also lead to a magnesium deficiency. Usually.In the most severe cases it can lead to panic attacks or a panic disorder. relaxation techniques. Compressive stress: Compressive stress is the stress applied to materials resulting in their compaction (decrease of volume).
compressive stress is represented with positive values.In long. slender structural elements -.an increase of compressive force F leads to structural failure due to buckling at lower stress than the compressive strength. 10 . usually with negative values to indicate the compaction.such as columns or truss bars -. However in geotechnical engineering. Compressive stress has stress units (force per unit area).
It includes a state of alarm and adrenaline production. whether actual or imagined. can be an adaptive response prompting the activation of internal resources to meet challenges and achieve goals. just "stressed out". and exhaustion. muscular tension. It covers a huge range of phenomena from mild irritation to the kind of severe problems that might result in a real breakdown of health. Common stress symptoms include irritability. Stress in certain circumstances may be experienced positively. inability to concentrate and a variety of physical reactions. In popular usage almost any event or situation between these extremes could be described as stressful. In Selye's terminology. It also became a euphemism. "stress" refers to the reaction of the organism. He later broadened and popularized the concept to include the perceptions and responses of humans trying to adapt to the challenges of everyday life. It refers to the inability of a human or animal body to respond. Eustress. a way of referring to problems and eliciting sympathy without being explicitly confessional.(2) Stress in Biological terms: Stress is a biological term which refers to the consequences of the failure of a human or animal body to respond appropriately to emotional or physical threats to the organism. and "stressor" to the perceived threat. short-term resistance as a coping mechanism. 11 . such as headaches and accelerated heart rate. The term is commonly used by laypersons in a metaphorical rather than literal or biological sense. as a catch-all for any perceived difficulties in life. for example. The term "stress" was first used by the endocrinologist Hans Selye in the 1930s to identify physiological responses in laboratory animals.
for example. or perhaps seek professional help. The presence of a deadline. negative stress can result in mental and physical strain. or emotional frictions. Hence. For example. Part of managing your stress levels include learning about how stress can affect you emotionally and physically. as stress management refers to using stress to our advantage. as well as how to identify if you are performing at your optimal stress level (OSL) or if you are experiencing negative stress. Modern day stresses can take the form of monetary needs. irritability and in extreme cases. depending on each individual’s unique perception of the tension between the two forces. it is impossible to live without stress. In our fast paced world. There is both positive and negative stress. Not all stress is bad. can help an individual to function at optimal effectiveness and efficiency. and not on eradicating the presence of stress in our lives. headaches. whether you are a student or a working adult. headaches and an inability to focus. Physical 12 . leading to emotional and physical pressure. The individual will experience symptoms such as tensions. heart palpitations. it is evident that some form of positive stress can add more color and vibrancy to our lives. Hence. It is important to keep this in mind. whilst some stress may be seen as a motivating force. it is important to manage stress levels so that it does not have an adverse impact on your health and relationships. It is also your first step towards developing techniques to managing your stress levels. How do you identify if you are suffering from excessive stress? Psychological symptoms commonly experienced include insomnia. positive stress. can push us to make the most of our time and produce greater efficiency. also known as eustress. Competition at work and an increased workload can also cause greater levels of stress. This knowledge will help you to identify when you need to take a break. On the other hand.(3) what is Stress? Stress refers to the strain from the conflict between our external environment and us.
Good stress v/s Bad stress: Stress has often been misunderstood to be negative. or from an accident. stress is everywhere and definitely unavoidable.symptoms take the form of heart palpitations. to name a few. What causes stress? There are many different causes of stress. or giving a speech. 13 . and even more varied methods and techniques of dealing with stress and turning it to our advantages. Common lifestyle stressors include performance. such as an economic downturn. namely eustress. threat. Here’s how we differentiate between them. There are 4 main categories of stress. bereavement stressors occur when there is a sense of loss such as the death of a loved one. Performance stressors are triggered when an individual is placed in a situation where he feels a need to excel. lunch with the boss. whilst positive stress can be very helpful for us. hence our emphasis should be on differentiating between what is good stress. In our everyday lives. and harness the power of positive stress to help us achieve more. distress. and that which causes stress is also known as a stressor. This will help us to learn to cope with negative stress. we must learn to tell when we have crossed the line from positive to negative stress. In order to do so. excessive sweating and stomachaches. with few people acknowledging the importance and usefulness of positive stress. Thus. there are various stressors. breathlessness. hyper stress and hypo stress. Lastly. Threat stressors are usually when the current situation poses a dangerous threat. This could be during performance appraisals. or a prized possession. Negative stress can cause many physical and psychological problems. and what is bad. and bereavement stressors.
hypo stress occurs when a person has nothing to do with his time and feels 14 . This occurs when the mind and body is unable to cope with changes. Hypo stress Lastly. Trigger events for distress can be a change in job scope or routine that the person is unable to handle or cope with. Eustress is a natural physical reaction by your body which increases blood flow to your muscles. On the other hand. chronic stress persists over a long period of time. allowing them to derive the inspiration and strength that is needed. which prepares your mind and body for the imminent challenges that it has perceived. Acute stress is intense. It is important for you to recognize that your body needs a break. Distress We are familiar with this word. and usually occurs when there are deviations from the norm. the proverbial straws that broke the camel’s back. which require longer working hours than the individual can handle. and know that it is a negative form of stress. but does not last for long. or you may end up with severe and chronic physical and psychological reactions. If you suspect that you are suffering from hyper stress. you are likely to have sudden emotional breakdowns over insignificant issues. They can be categorized into acute stress and chronic stress.Eustress: this is a positive form of stress. Athletes before a competition or perhaps a manager before a major presentation would do well with eustress. resulting in a higher heart rate. Hyper stress This is another form of negative stress that occurs when the individual is unable to cope with the workload. Examples include highly stressful jobs.
depending on a person's way of adapting to a change that has caused it. hence some stress is inevitable and helpful to us.constantly bored and unmotivated. Both can be equally taxing on the body. it would be a good idea to implement some form of job rotation so that there is always something new to learn. Distress is the most commonly-referred to type of stress. 15 . whereas eustress is a positive form of stress. having negative implications. and are cumulative in nature. If the job scope is boring and repetitive. usually related to desirable events in person's life. This is due to an insufficient amount of stress. Companies should avoid having workers who experience hypo stress as this will cause productivity and mindfulness to fall. The types of stress are named as eustress and distress.
and this has led to greater occupational stress. and some have not gotten it quite right. More and more people are feeling isolated and disrespected at work. the problem will only snowball. and use it to help you work better. Whilst some stress is good for motivation and increasing efficiency.(4) Coping with Stress at Work place With the rapid advancement of technology. However. occupational stress is one of the most commonly cited stressors faced by people all over the world. Stress refers to the pressure and reactions to our environment which results in psychological and physical reactions. Many companies have taken to consulting experts and professionals on ways to increase connectedness and motivation of their employees. Many people dread going to work. leading to greater job insecurity on the part of those who remain. as being able to identify signs of being stressed can help you to take steps to ensure that your overall quality of life does not drop. What is the reason for this? There is partly the fear from being retrenched in bad times. Here are 3 simple steps to help you with coping with stress in the workplace. 16 . too much stress can result in negative impacts such as reduced effectiveness and efficiency. Undoubtedly. leading to disastrous consequences to your health and overall wellbeing. If left unacknowledged. the stresses faced at work have also increased. This is important. translating into greater productivity. Hence. Some companies organize parties and make their employees feel valued at work. tipping the scales from positive to negative. not all companies have such measures in place. Step 1: Raising Awareness Help yourself to identify when you are facing rising levels of stress. hence the term “Monday Blues”. it is up to you to make sure that you can cope with stress at your workplace. These are measures to motivate employees and help them to feel secure at their jobs.
If a situation is triggering your stress and you are unable to calm down. we can change the way that we cope with it. and you need to condition your mind and practice them so that you can implement it when you are feeling stressed. such as the environment or your colleagues at work. Step 3: Coping with Stress In order to deal with the situation that is causing you stress. The key to making these 3 steps work for you is to practice them. stop your thought process until you are able to deal with it logically. remove yourself from it. Internal stressors refer to your own thinking and attitude. These are not instantaneous solutions. If it is an internal stressor. These stressors can be external and internal. such as taking time off. we only start reacting to stress when a combination of stressors working together exceeds our ability to cope. This can be through different methods. This will help you to identify the causes of your stress. Alternatively. such as excessive sweating or heart palpitations. you need to calm your mind and body so as to stave off the reactions and cope with it in a positive way. 17 . identify if you are feeling any overwhelming negative emotions. Often. or the onset of headaches. or that are likely stressors. you can try implementing relaxation techniques such as deep breathing. Whilst it is not always possible to eradicate them. Keep a diary or a list of events that have caused you to feel strong negative emotions. and if you are constantly worried. Step 2: Identify the Cause You need to be able to analyze the situation and identify what is causing the rise in stress. If you experience any of these reactions. Go outside and take a walk to calm down. External stressors refer to things beyond your control.You can identify if you are feeling stressed by checking if you have any physical or psychological reactions. irritability or the need to escape.
Immediate disorders such as dizzy spells. can induce risky body-mind disorders. As a relaxation response the body tries to get back balance in its homeostasis. The knotted nerves. and restore the energy level. 18 . To be relaxed we have to strive to create such situations. tightened muscles and an exhausted mind crave for looseness. if not escapable. In such unsettling moments we often forget that stressors.(5) Stress Management Stress management is the need of the hour. Some hormones released during the 'fight or flight' situation prompt the body to replace the lost carbohydrates and fats. However hard we try to go beyond a stress situation. which are inter-linked with stress. today. cardiovascular and nervous systems and lead individuals to habitual addictions. They may also affect our immune. Like "stress reactions". either quick or constant. anxiety attacks. sleeplessness. tension. life seems to find new ways of stressing us out and plaguing us with anxiety attacks. mind-body exhaustion or our erring attitudes. are fairly manageable and treatable. Unfortunately. "relaxation responses" and stress management techniques are some of the body's important built-in response systems. nervousness and muscle cramps can all result in chronic health problems. be it our anxiety. we don't get relaxing and soothing situations without asking. Moreover. Stress. we tend to overlook causes of stress and the conditions triggered by those.
when we are compelled into such situations against our will or knowledge. Not being too serious or in a constant alert mode helps maintain the equanimity of mind and promote clear thinking. we wilt at the face of unknown and imagined threats. we fail to realize that we are reacting under stress. the adrenal gland releases corticosteroids. The positive emotions can create neurochemical changes that buffer the immunosuppressive effects of stress. In cases of relocation. Being able to laugh stress away is the smartest way to ward off its effects. The emotions we experience directly affect our immune system. During stress. promotion or layoff. even if we are under the influence of a stressful condition and our body reacts to it internally as well as externally. Laughter: Adopting a humorous view towards life's situations can take the edge off everyday stressors. dizzy spells. stress may mount when one is coerced into undertaking some work against one's will. For instance. A sense of humor also allows us to perceive and appreciate the incongruities of life and provides moments of delight. We cope better with stressful situation. when we encounter them voluntarily.Recognizing a stressor: It is important to recognize whether you are under stress or out of it. The body constantly tries to tell us through symptoms such as rapid palpitation. more often than not. adventurous sports or having a baby. which are converted to cortical 19 . It is important to remain attentive to such symptoms and to learn to cope with the situations. tight muscles or various body aches that something is wrong. Many times. This also happens when the causes of stress are there long enough for us to get habituated to them. we tend to respond positively under stress. But.
laughter induces reduction of at least four of neuroendocrine hormones—epinephrine. relaxation and fluent blood circulation in body. • Produces a general sense of well-being. dopac. • Laughter cleanses the lungs and body tissues of accumulated stale air as it empties more air than it takes in. • It increases muscle flexion. Stanley Tan at Loma Linda University School of Medicine have produced carefully controlled studies showing that the experience of laughter lowers serum cortical levels. and growth hormone. 20 . Dr. It is beneficial for patients suffering from emphysema and other respiratory ailments. • Laughter triggers the release of endorphins—body's natural painkillers. associated with stress response). Lee Berk and fellow researcher Dr. increases the amount and activity of T lymphocytes—the natural killer cells. What Laughter Can Do Against Stress And Its Effects? • Laughter lowers blood pressure and reduces hypertension. These have an immunosuppressive effect. Laughter also increases the number of T cells that have suppresser receptors. • It provides good cardiac conditioning especially for those who are unable to perform physical exercise. • Reduces stress hormones (studies shows.in the blood stream. • Boosts immune function by raising levels of infection-fighting T-cells. cortical. disease-fighting proteins called Gamma-interferon and disease-destroying antibodies called B-cells.
anxiety. Health and Healthcare Utilization Problems at work are more strongly associated with health complaints than are any other life stressor-more so than even financial problems or family problems. tension.. Stress-related disorders encompass a broad array of conditions... depression.).g. including psychological disorders (e. One-quarter of employees view their jobs as the number one stressor in their lives. On the basis of research by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and many other organizations.g.g. Three-quarters of employees believe the worker has more on-the-job stress than a generation ago.. maladaptive behaviors (e. these conditions may lead to poor work performance or even injury. and cognitive impairment (e. Many studies suggest that psychologically demanding jobs that allow employees little control over the work process increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. substance abuse). post-traumatic stress disorder) and other types of emotional strain (e. such as cardiovascular disease. aggression.g. dissatisfaction. concentration and memory problems). High levels of stress are associated with substantial increases in health service utilization. About one-third of workers report high levels of stress.(6) Workplace Stress Workplace stress is the harmful physical and emotional response that occurs when there is a poor match between job demands and the capabilities. Job stress is also associated with various biological reactions that may lead ultimately to compromised health. Evidence also suggests that stress is the major cause of turnover in organizations. Stress is a prevalent and costly problem in today's workplace. or needs of the worker. Workers who report experiencing 21 . In turn. etc. it is widely believed that job stress increases the risk for development of back and upper-extremity musculoskeletal disorders. fatigue. resources.
an increase of more than $1. The differing viewpoints suggest different ways to prevent stress at work. scientific evidence suggests that certain working conditions are stressful to most people.000 workers. health care costs were nearly 50% greater for workers reporting high levels of stress in comparison to “low risk” workers. According to one school of thought. 50% of workers reported they work against tight deadlines at least one-fourth of their working time in 1990. Results showed a trend across these periods suggestive of increasing work intensity. differences in individual characteristics such as personality and coping skills are most important in predicting whether certain job conditions will result in stress-in other words. and for job redesign as a primary prevention strategy. including conditions recognized as risk factors for job stress. In a 1998 study of 46. what is stressful for one person may not be a problem for someone else.700 per person annually. Such evidence argues for a greater emphasis on working conditions as the key source of job stress. A substantial 22 . However. increasing to 54% in 1995 and to 56% in 2000. 1995. Additionally. the percentage of workers reporting that they worked at high speeds at least one-fourth of their working time was 48%. increasing to 56% in 1995 and 60 % in 2000. and 2000. were conducted in Member States of the European Union in 1990. Similarly. This viewpoint leads to prevention strategies that focus on workers and ways to help them cope with demanding job conditions. for workers reporting high levels of both stress and depression. Personal interview surveys of working conditions. The increment rose to nearly 150%. In 1990. Views differ on the importance of worker characteristics versus working conditions as the primary cause of job stress. Although the importance of individual differences cannot be ignored.stress at work also show excessive health care utilization. no change was noted in the period 1995–2000 (data not collected in 1990) in the percentage of workers reporting sufficient time to complete tasks. periods of disability due to job stress tend to be much longer than disability periods for other occupational injuries and illnesses. Causes of Workplace Stress Job stress results from the interaction of the worker and the conditions of work.
According to the Department of Labor. and disturbed relationships with family. especially for women. Design jobs to provide meaning. stimulation. evidence is rapidly accumulating to suggest that stress plays an important role in several types of chronic health problems-especially cardiovascular disease. more than 26% of men and more than 11% of women worked 50 hours per week or more in 2000. upset stomach and headache. particularly couples with young children. an increase in extended work weeks (>40 hours) by men. and opportunities for workers to use their skills. musculoskeletal disorders. These figures represent a considerable increase over the previous three decades. How to Change the Organization to Prevent Job Stress Ensure that the workload is in line with workers' capabilities and resources. Prevention A combination of organizational change and stress management is often the most useful approach for preventing stress at work. 23 . there has been an upward trend in hours worked among employed women. and a considerable increase in combined working hours among working couples. and psychological disorders. The effects of job stress on chronic diseases are more difficult to see because chronic diseases take a long time to develop and can be influenced by many factors other than stress.percentage of Americans work very long hours. Clearly define workers' roles and responsibilities. Nonetheless. By one estimate. Give workers opportunities to participate in decisions and actions affecting their jobs. Signs of Workplace Stress Mood and sleep disturbances. friends and girlfriends or boyfriends are examples of stress-related problems.
there was no reduction in claims in a matched group of 22 hospitals that did not implement stress prevention activities. (e. Provide opportunities for social interaction among workers. there was a 70% reduction in malpractice claims in 22 hospitals that implemented stress prevention activities. Paul Fire and Marine Insurance Company conducted several studies on the effects of stress prevention programs in hospital settings. Program activities included (1) employee and management education on job stress. In a second study. In contrast. 24 . Establish work schedules that are compatible with demands and responsibilities outside the job. nationality and language ) St. the frequency of medication errors declined by 50% after prevention activities was implemented in a 700-bed hospital.g. Improve communications-reduce uncertainty about career development and future employment prospects. Discrimination inside the workplace. and (3) establishment of employee assistance programs. (2) changes in hospital policies and procedures to reduce organizational sources of stress. In one study.
25 . that we have so much to do that we do a poor quality job and that we neglect other areas of our life. doubt your abilities. It helps you to cut through clutter and distraction to get to the heart of what you need to do. and work unreasonably long hours to stay on top of our workload. While this may seem obvious.We have all experienced that appalling sense of having far too much work to do and too little time to do it in. The first of the action-oriented skills that we look at is Job Analysis. or expect failure. We can choose to ignore this. fast-moving. The alternative is to work more intelligently. criticize yourself for errors. Job analysis: .(7) Reduce your stress 1. The risks here are that we become exhausted. Job Analysis is a useful technique for getting a firm grip on what really is important in your job so that you are able to perform excellently. and keep your workload under control. This helps you get the greatest return from the work you do. high-pressure role. and what constitutes success within it. in the hurly-burly of a new. you need to fully understand what is expected of you. by focusing on the things that are important for job success and reducing the time we spend on low priority tasks. Job Analysis is the first step in doing this. put yourself down. To do an excellent job. Rational & positive thinking: You are thinking negatively when you fear the future. you can focus on these activities and minimize work on other tasks as much as possible. it is oftentimes something that is easy to overlook. Job Analysis is a key technique for managing job overload – an important source of stress. 2. Each of these can lead to intense stress. harms performance and paralyzes mental skills. Negative thinking damages confidence. By understanding the priorities in your job.
Tackle these as a priority using the techniques below. Do not suppress any thoughts. Since we barely realize that they were there. which means that they can be completely incorrect and wrong.Unfortunately. 26 . we do not challenge them properly. you should be able to see the most common and the most damaging thoughts. do their damage and flit back out again. Then let them go. just let them run their course while you watch them. One approach to it is to observe your "stream of consciousness" as you think about the thing you're trying to achieve which is stressful. Another more general approach to Thought Awareness comes with logging stress in your Stress Diary. When you analyze your diary at the end of the period. Thought Awareness is the process by which you observe your thoughts and become aware of what is going through your head. negative thoughts tend to flit into our consciousness. or Self-criticism over a less-than-perfect rehearsal. Worry about how the audience (especially important people in it like your boss) or the press may react to you. Here are some typical negative thoughts you might experience when preparing to give a major presentation: Fear about the quality of your performance or of problems that may interfere with it. and write them down on our free worksheet as they occur. Instead. Thought awareness is the first step in the process of managing negative thoughts. Dwelling on the negative consequences of a poor performance. as you cannot manage thoughts that you are unaware of. with their significance having barely been noticed.
the best thing to do is ignore their comments and rise above them. then remind yourself that the purpose of the practice is to identify areas for improvement. you've done as much as you can to give a good performance. so that these can be sorted out before the performance. and you do the best you can. and have you taken steps to reduce the likelihood of them happening or their impact if they do? What will you do if they occur? And what do you need others to do for you? Worry about other people's reactions: If you have prepared well. the following challenges could be made to the negative thoughts we identified earlier: Feelings of inadequacy: Have you trained yourself as well as you reasonably should have? Do you have the experience and resources you need to make the presentation? Have you planned. Ask yourself whether the thought is reasonable. Problems with issues outside your control: Have you identified the risks of these things happening. then fair people are likely to respond well. Worries about performance during rehearsal: If some of your practice was less than perfect.Rational Thinking The next step in dealing with negative thinking is to challenge the negative thoughts that you identified using the Thought Awareness technique. If people are not fair. Look at every thought you wrote down and challenge it rationally. If you perform as well as you reasonably can. then you should be satisfied. 27 . What evidence is there for and against the thought? Would your colleagues and mentors agree or disagree with it? Looking at the examples. prepared and rehearsed enough? If you have done all of these.
Then.Tip: Don't make the mistake of generalizing a single incident. you should be able to see quickly whether the thoughts are wrong or whether they have some substance to them. take appropriate action. Look at the list of negative thoughts and imagine the negative thoughts were written by someone you were giving objective advice to. OK. imagine that you are your best friend or a respected coach or mentor. Tip: If you find it difficult to look at your negative thoughts objectively. but that doesn't mean you're bad at your job. Where there is some substance. Positive Thinking & Opportunity Seeking By now. The final step is to prepare rational. which everyone has to go through at some stage. When you challenge negative thoughts rationally. you should already be feeling more positive. make sure you take the long view about incidents that you're finding stressful. It can also be useful to look at the situation and see if there are any useful opportunities that are offered by it. Just because you're finding these new responsibilities stressful now. think how you would challenge these thoughts. and don't just reflect a lack of experience. By basing your affirmations on the clear. positive thoughts and affirmations to counter any remaining negativity. you can use them to undo the damage that negative thinking may have done to your self-confidence. 28 . doesn't mean that they will ALWAYS be so for you in the future. rational assessments of facts that you made using Rational Thinking. you made a mistake at work. However. Similarly. make sure that your negative thoughts are genuinely important to achieving your goals.
" Problems issues outside your control: "I have thought through everything that might reasonably happen and have planned how I can handle all likely contingencies.Tip: Your affirmations will be strongest if they are specific. I will rise above any unfair criticism in a mature and professional way. Make sure that identifying these opportunities and focusing on them is part of your positive thinking. I am going to perform well and enjoy the event. write these affirmations down on your worksheet so that you can use them when you need them. positive affirmations might be: Problems during practice: "I have learned from my rehearsals. I am well positioned to give an excellent performance. As well as allowing you to structure useful affirmations. are expressed in the present tense and have strong emotional content. 29 ." Worry about other people's reaction: "Fair people will react well to a good performance. I am very well placed to react flexibly to events. You will acquire new skills. In the examples above." Worries about performance: "I have prepared well and rehearsed thoroughly. and you may open up new career opportunities. successfully overcoming the situations causing the original negative thinking will open up opportunities." If appropriate. part of Positive Thinking is to look at opportunities that the situation might offer to you. This has put me in a position where I can deliver a great performance. Continuing the examples above. you will be seen as someone who can handle difficult challenges.
many professionals see the pressures of heavy workloads and deadlines as positive challenges that enhance the quality of their work and the satisfaction the get from their job. The bank employees are the people who also have to achieve the certain target and so for the non achievement of target the employees remain stressed and tensed. This is a complicated definition. Due to recession the banking sector is also facing the problem of employee cut-offs and so the work load of the existing employees increases and the feel stressed. Both can be equally taxing on the body. The employees who have the simple table work also have to face the problem of stress. Stress is not necessarily bad in and of itself. The types of stress are named as eustress and distress. Although stress is typically discussed in a negative context. usually related to desirable events in person's life. It’s an opportunity when it offers potential gain. However hard we try to go beyond a stress situation. and are cumulative in nature. Stress management is the need of the hour. Consider for example. demand or resource related to what the individual desires and for which the outcome is perceived to be both uncertain and important. Distress is the most commonly-referred to type of stress. But it is different in the case of bank employees. having negative implications.Conclusion Stress is a dynamic condition in witch an individual is confronted with an opportunity. whereas eustress is a positive form of stress. life seems to find new ways of 30 . Such individuals often use stress positively to rise to the occasion and perform at or near their maximum. the superior performance that an athlete or stage performer gives in “clutch” situations. Similarly. it also has a positive value. depending on a person's way of adapting to a change that has caused it.
Some hormones released during the 'fight or flight' situation prompt the body to replace the lost carbohydrates and fats. today. "relaxation responses" and stress management techniques are some of the body's important built-in response systems. if not escapable. BIBILIOGRAPHY 31 . They may also affect our immune. The knotted nerves. so a sample of 14 to 15 employees are selected from all the three banks for the research of stress among them. sleeplessness. are fairly manageable and treatable. Stress. tension. and restore the energy level. To be relaxed we have to strive to create such situations. cardiovascular and nervous systems and lead individuals to habitual addictions. which are inter-linked with stress. output etc. Like "stress reactions". Unfortunately.stressing us out and plaguing us with anxiety attacks. anxiety attacks. we don't get relaxing and soothing situations without asking. we tend to overlook causes of stress and the conditions triggered by those. tightened muscles and an exhausted mind crave for looseness. can induce risky body-mind disorders. either quick or constant. social life. be it our anxiety. Immediate disorders such as dizzy spells. Moreover. nervousness and muscle cramps can all result in chronic health problems. As a relaxation response the body tries to get back balance in its homeostasis. 3. mindbody exhaustion or our erring attitudes. This research is to carry out the study that how much stressed the employees of the banks are and how do their stress affect their work life. In such unsettling moments we often forget that stressors.
o www. Robbins” o Burn Out tool – Questionnaire o Self analysis of questionnaire 32 .com o Organizational Behavior “Stephen P.mindtool.
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