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Made by: Adil Hussain Khan 9997 Owais Nathani 10218 Danish Mujtaba 10115 Course: Organizational Behaviour Submitted To: Sir Humayu Zafar Chaudry Date: 09th December 2010
The study of Organizational Behavior is one of the important criteria in the corporate sector. Organizational Behavior is a key of success for an organization. By this report we will be able to know to reduce the stress level of the employees working in an organization. By this way the productivity of the employee increases.
Now a day the corporate sector is booming in a high speed that the people have to work for prolonged hours to maintain the standard of living and achieve their basic needs. So is the condition in the hospitals, colleges, BPO’s and lots of other places. In spit of having the modern technologies and facilities, people are feeling themselves to be work loaded and stressed. Stress arises because of many reasons which are discussed in the following project. The project report also contain techniques how to reduce the stress and overcome such problems.
Stress arises because of unfulfilled wants, lack of job satisfaction etc. before starting the topic of stress; let’s first understand what actually stress is.
To make this report we got the help from our parents who have given full support to carry out this work. They are the one who motivated and helped us for the completion of this project report.
Further, we would like to thank to our teacher Sir. Humayu Zafar Chaudry who has given full support and co operated with us to complete this report. Then we would like to thank our class mates who have supported us. I am also thankful to Dr. Munawer Hussain (Lecturer DAW Medical College) who provided us the relevant information for our report.
For more detailed study the types of the stress is also defined. By looking at the starting of the project you will find: o Introduction and Definition of stress o Stress in biological terms o What is stress? o Coping with stress at work place. o Stress management o Workplace stress o Reducing of stress.Executive Summery This project gives us a detailed idea of what is stress and also the definition of stress is been defined. 4 .
INDEX No Concept of stress 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Content Page no 6 6 11 12 16 18 21 25 Introduction to stress Stress in Biological terms What is stress Coping with stress at workplace Stress Management Workplace stress Reduce your stress Conclusion Bibliography 30 32 5 .
During this time. His view in 1956 was that “stress is not necessarily something bad – it all depends on how you take it. Since then. A definition should therefore be obvious…except that it is not. What complicates this is that intuitively we all feel that we know what stress is. there seems to have been something approaching open warfare between competing theories and definitions: Views have been passionately held and aggressively defended. CONCEPT OF STRESS (1) INTRODUCTION TO STRESS A lot of research has been conducted into stress over the last hundred years. humiliation or infection is detrimental. These effects have rarely been observed in positive situations. a great deal of further research has been conducted. The stress of exhilarating. and ideas have moved on. creative successful work is beneficial. Stress is now viewed as a "bad thing".1. Some of the theories behind it are now settled and accepted. as it is something we have all experienced. others are still being researched and debated.” Selye believed that the biochemical effects of stress would be experienced irrespective of whether the situation was positive or negative. Definition: Hans Selye was one of the founding fathers of stress research. with a range of harmful biochemical and long-term effects. while that of failure. The most commonly accepted definition of stress (mainly attributed to Richard S Lazarus) is that stress is a condition or feeling experienced when a person 6 .
the stress at which a material begins to deform plastically. persistent stress which can lead to illness and mental disorder o o Eustress. physiological or psychological stress. stress caused by employment 7 . The types of stress are as follows Mechanical Stress (physics). This is the main definition used by this section of Mind Tools.” In short. some types include: o Chronic stress. the average amount of force exerted per unit area. although we also recognize that there is an intertwined instinctive stress response to unexpected events. The stress response inside us is therefore part instinct and part to do with the way we think. Biological Stress (biological). Yield stress. Compressive stress. positive stress that can lead to improved long-term functioning Workplace stress. it's what we feel when we think we've lost control of events.perceives that “demands exceed the personal and social resources the individual is able to mobilize. the stress applied to materials resulting in their compaction.
the average amount of force exerted per unit area. stress is expressed as Where Is the average stress. Chronic Stress Chronic stress is stress that lasts a long time or occurs frequently. Stress is a measure of the average amount of force exerted per unit area. as a reaction to external applied forces and body forces. In general. Symptoms of chronic stress can be: upset stomach headache backache insomnia anxiety depression anger 8 . Stress is a concept that is based on the concept of continuum. Chronic stress is potentially damaging. It is a measure of the intensity of the total internal forces acting within a body across imaginary internal surfaces. It was introduced into the theory of elasticity by Cauchy around 1822. and Is the force acting over the area . also called engineering or nominal stress.Stress (physics).
relaxation techniques. It has been discovered that there is a huge upsurge in the number of people who suffer from this condition. In a review of the scientific literature on the relationship between stress and disease. 9 . in those individuals with lower levels of magnesium or those who have a magnesium deficiency. When a material is subjected to compressive stress. According to the properties of the material. failure will occur as yield for materials with ductile behavior (most metals. Compressive stress: Compressive stress is the stress applied to materials resulting in their compaction (decrease of volume). etc). stress management. and relaxing hobbies. Usually. which can be a factor in continued chronic stress. Chronic stress can also lead to a magnesium deficiency. etc. glass. There are a variety of methods to control chronic stress.In the most severe cases it can lead to panic attacks or a panic disorder. healthy diet. some soils and plastics) or as rupture for brittle behavior (geometries. and a whole host of other negative medical conditions caused by a magnesium deficiency. including exercise. Ensuring a healthy diet containing magnesium may help control or eliminate stress. cast iron. A very large number of these new cases suffer from insomnia. compressive stress applied to bars. leads to shortening. columns. Loading a structural element or a specimen will increase the compressive stress until the reach of compressive strength. adequate rest. then this material is under compression. the authors found that stress plays a role in triggering or worsening depression and cardiovascular disease and in speeding the progression of HIV/AIDS.
However in geotechnical engineering.In long. Compressive stress has stress units (force per unit area). slender structural elements -. usually with negative values to indicate the compaction. compressive stress is represented with positive values.such as columns or truss bars -. 10 .an increase of compressive force F leads to structural failure due to buckling at lower stress than the compressive strength.
a way of referring to problems and eliciting sympathy without being explicitly confessional. can be an adaptive response prompting the activation of internal resources to meet challenges and achieve goals. The term is commonly used by laypersons in a metaphorical rather than literal or biological sense. "stress" refers to the reaction of the organism.(2) Stress in Biological terms: Stress is a biological term which refers to the consequences of the failure of a human or animal body to respond appropriately to emotional or physical threats to the organism. It also became a euphemism. whether actual or imagined. just "stressed out". inability to concentrate and a variety of physical reactions. Common stress symptoms include irritability. as a catch-all for any perceived difficulties in life. He later broadened and popularized the concept to include the perceptions and responses of humans trying to adapt to the challenges of everyday life. and "stressor" to the perceived threat. It covers a huge range of phenomena from mild irritation to the kind of severe problems that might result in a real breakdown of health. Stress in certain circumstances may be experienced positively. such as headaches and accelerated heart rate. It includes a state of alarm and adrenaline production. In Selye's terminology. for example. short-term resistance as a coping mechanism. and exhaustion. muscular tension. It refers to the inability of a human or animal body to respond. Eustress. The term "stress" was first used by the endocrinologist Hans Selye in the 1930s to identify physiological responses in laboratory animals. In popular usage almost any event or situation between these extremes could be described as stressful. 11 .
depending on each individual’s unique perception of the tension between the two forces. Hence. heart palpitations. whilst some stress may be seen as a motivating force. Modern day stresses can take the form of monetary needs. as stress management refers to using stress to our advantage. Competition at work and an increased workload can also cause greater levels of stress. The presence of a deadline. This knowledge will help you to identify when you need to take a break. it is evident that some form of positive stress can add more color and vibrancy to our lives. headaches and an inability to focus. On the other hand. Part of managing your stress levels include learning about how stress can affect you emotionally and physically. It is important to keep this in mind. for example.(3) what is Stress? Stress refers to the strain from the conflict between our external environment and us. For example. negative stress can result in mental and physical strain. positive stress. Physical 12 . or emotional frictions. also known as eustress. How do you identify if you are suffering from excessive stress? Psychological symptoms commonly experienced include insomnia. irritability and in extreme cases. it is important to manage stress levels so that it does not have an adverse impact on your health and relationships. can push us to make the most of our time and produce greater efficiency. The individual will experience symptoms such as tensions. as well as how to identify if you are performing at your optimal stress level (OSL) or if you are experiencing negative stress. or perhaps seek professional help. There is both positive and negative stress. headaches. Hence. Not all stress is bad. can help an individual to function at optimal effectiveness and efficiency. leading to emotional and physical pressure. In our fast paced world. whether you are a student or a working adult. It is also your first step towards developing techniques to managing your stress levels. and not on eradicating the presence of stress in our lives. it is impossible to live without stress.
There are 4 main categories of stress.symptoms take the form of heart palpitations. This will help us to learn to cope with negative stress. and harness the power of positive stress to help us achieve more. Here’s how we differentiate between them. Good stress v/s Bad stress: Stress has often been misunderstood to be negative. Negative stress can cause many physical and psychological problems. Performance stressors are triggered when an individual is placed in a situation where he feels a need to excel. and what is bad. or from an accident. threat. with few people acknowledging the importance and usefulness of positive stress. 13 . lunch with the boss. This could be during performance appraisals. bereavement stressors occur when there is a sense of loss such as the death of a loved one. hence our emphasis should be on differentiating between what is good stress. we must learn to tell when we have crossed the line from positive to negative stress. or a prized possession. whilst positive stress can be very helpful for us. In our everyday lives. or giving a speech. Thus. such as an economic downturn. breathlessness. distress. excessive sweating and stomachaches. In order to do so. Common lifestyle stressors include performance. and even more varied methods and techniques of dealing with stress and turning it to our advantages. What causes stress? There are many different causes of stress. and that which causes stress is also known as a stressor. and bereavement stressors. there are various stressors. Lastly. stress is everywhere and definitely unavoidable. Threat stressors are usually when the current situation poses a dangerous threat. hyper stress and hypo stress. to name a few. namely eustress.
chronic stress persists over a long period of time. Hypo stress Lastly. If you suspect that you are suffering from hyper stress. you are likely to have sudden emotional breakdowns over insignificant issues. Trigger events for distress can be a change in job scope or routine that the person is unable to handle or cope with. Examples include highly stressful jobs. the proverbial straws that broke the camel’s back. On the other hand. hypo stress occurs when a person has nothing to do with his time and feels 14 . Acute stress is intense. This occurs when the mind and body is unable to cope with changes. Athletes before a competition or perhaps a manager before a major presentation would do well with eustress. but does not last for long. which prepares your mind and body for the imminent challenges that it has perceived. Distress We are familiar with this word. Eustress is a natural physical reaction by your body which increases blood flow to your muscles. and know that it is a negative form of stress. It is important for you to recognize that your body needs a break. allowing them to derive the inspiration and strength that is needed. and usually occurs when there are deviations from the norm. Hyper stress This is another form of negative stress that occurs when the individual is unable to cope with the workload. which require longer working hours than the individual can handle. resulting in a higher heart rate.Eustress: this is a positive form of stress. They can be categorized into acute stress and chronic stress. or you may end up with severe and chronic physical and psychological reactions.
The types of stress are named as eustress and distress. Companies should avoid having workers who experience hypo stress as this will cause productivity and mindfulness to fall. usually related to desirable events in person's life. Distress is the most commonly-referred to type of stress.constantly bored and unmotivated. whereas eustress is a positive form of stress. If the job scope is boring and repetitive. hence some stress is inevitable and helpful to us. having negative implications. Both can be equally taxing on the body. it would be a good idea to implement some form of job rotation so that there is always something new to learn. depending on a person's way of adapting to a change that has caused it. 15 . This is due to an insufficient amount of stress. and are cumulative in nature.
More and more people are feeling isolated and disrespected at work. Hence. not all companies have such measures in place. This is important. If left unacknowledged. occupational stress is one of the most commonly cited stressors faced by people all over the world. However. Here are 3 simple steps to help you with coping with stress in the workplace. leading to disastrous consequences to your health and overall wellbeing. hence the term “Monday Blues”. What is the reason for this? There is partly the fear from being retrenched in bad times. and some have not gotten it quite right. leading to greater job insecurity on the part of those who remain. translating into greater productivity. and this has led to greater occupational stress. Many people dread going to work. Whilst some stress is good for motivation and increasing efficiency. as being able to identify signs of being stressed can help you to take steps to ensure that your overall quality of life does not drop. These are measures to motivate employees and help them to feel secure at their jobs. too much stress can result in negative impacts such as reduced effectiveness and efficiency. Many companies have taken to consulting experts and professionals on ways to increase connectedness and motivation of their employees.(4) Coping with Stress at Work place With the rapid advancement of technology. it is up to you to make sure that you can cope with stress at your workplace. the stresses faced at work have also increased. and use it to help you work better. tipping the scales from positive to negative. Step 1: Raising Awareness Help yourself to identify when you are facing rising levels of stress. Stress refers to the pressure and reactions to our environment which results in psychological and physical reactions. 16 . Undoubtedly. Some companies organize parties and make their employees feel valued at work. the problem will only snowball.
Step 3: Coping with Stress In order to deal with the situation that is causing you stress. you need to calm your mind and body so as to stave off the reactions and cope with it in a positive way. stop your thought process until you are able to deal with it logically. you can try implementing relaxation techniques such as deep breathing. This will help you to identify the causes of your stress. These stressors can be external and internal. External stressors refer to things beyond your control. Whilst it is not always possible to eradicate them. If you experience any of these reactions. identify if you are feeling any overwhelming negative emotions. or that are likely stressors. we can change the way that we cope with it. we only start reacting to stress when a combination of stressors working together exceeds our ability to cope. such as taking time off. If a situation is triggering your stress and you are unable to calm down.You can identify if you are feeling stressed by checking if you have any physical or psychological reactions. The key to making these 3 steps work for you is to practice them. Keep a diary or a list of events that have caused you to feel strong negative emotions. remove yourself from it. and if you are constantly worried. Alternatively. If it is an internal stressor. This can be through different methods. such as excessive sweating or heart palpitations. Internal stressors refer to your own thinking and attitude. Go outside and take a walk to calm down. or the onset of headaches. Step 2: Identify the Cause You need to be able to analyze the situation and identify what is causing the rise in stress. such as the environment or your colleagues at work. 17 . and you need to condition your mind and practice them so that you can implement it when you are feeling stressed. Often. These are not instantaneous solutions. irritability or the need to escape.
However hard we try to go beyond a stress situation. "relaxation responses" and stress management techniques are some of the body's important built-in response systems. The knotted nerves. Immediate disorders such as dizzy spells. tension. cardiovascular and nervous systems and lead individuals to habitual addictions. anxiety attacks. life seems to find new ways of stressing us out and plaguing us with anxiety attacks. we don't get relaxing and soothing situations without asking. we tend to overlook causes of stress and the conditions triggered by those. sleeplessness. are fairly manageable and treatable. which are inter-linked with stress. tightened muscles and an exhausted mind crave for looseness. In such unsettling moments we often forget that stressors. Like "stress reactions". can induce risky body-mind disorders. They may also affect our immune. mind-body exhaustion or our erring attitudes. nervousness and muscle cramps can all result in chronic health problems. be it our anxiety. Moreover. 18 . To be relaxed we have to strive to create such situations. and restore the energy level. Unfortunately. if not escapable. either quick or constant. Some hormones released during the 'fight or flight' situation prompt the body to replace the lost carbohydrates and fats.(5) Stress Management Stress management is the need of the hour. Stress. As a relaxation response the body tries to get back balance in its homeostasis. today.
tight muscles or various body aches that something is wrong. The body constantly tries to tell us through symptoms such as rapid palpitation. During stress. Not being too serious or in a constant alert mode helps maintain the equanimity of mind and promote clear thinking. The positive emotions can create neurochemical changes that buffer the immunosuppressive effects of stress. promotion or layoff. A sense of humor also allows us to perceive and appreciate the incongruities of life and provides moments of delight. We cope better with stressful situation. But.Recognizing a stressor: It is important to recognize whether you are under stress or out of it. we tend to respond positively under stress. The emotions we experience directly affect our immune system. This also happens when the causes of stress are there long enough for us to get habituated to them. For instance. when we encounter them voluntarily. the adrenal gland releases corticosteroids. we wilt at the face of unknown and imagined threats. Laughter: Adopting a humorous view towards life's situations can take the edge off everyday stressors. adventurous sports or having a baby. It is important to remain attentive to such symptoms and to learn to cope with the situations. when we are compelled into such situations against our will or knowledge. dizzy spells. we fail to realize that we are reacting under stress. Being able to laugh stress away is the smartest way to ward off its effects. stress may mount when one is coerced into undertaking some work against one's will. which are converted to cortical 19 . In cases of relocation. more often than not. even if we are under the influence of a stressful condition and our body reacts to it internally as well as externally. Many times.
associated with stress response). • Laughter cleanses the lungs and body tissues of accumulated stale air as it empties more air than it takes in. • Produces a general sense of well-being. • It provides good cardiac conditioning especially for those who are unable to perform physical exercise. 20 . Dr. disease-fighting proteins called Gamma-interferon and disease-destroying antibodies called B-cells. Stanley Tan at Loma Linda University School of Medicine have produced carefully controlled studies showing that the experience of laughter lowers serum cortical levels. These have an immunosuppressive effect. dopac. • It increases muscle flexion. Lee Berk and fellow researcher Dr. • Reduces stress hormones (studies shows. It is beneficial for patients suffering from emphysema and other respiratory ailments. and growth hormone. What Laughter Can Do Against Stress And Its Effects? • Laughter lowers blood pressure and reduces hypertension. • Boosts immune function by raising levels of infection-fighting T-cells. relaxation and fluent blood circulation in body. cortical.in the blood stream. increases the amount and activity of T lymphocytes—the natural killer cells. laughter induces reduction of at least four of neuroendocrine hormones—epinephrine. • Laughter triggers the release of endorphins—body's natural painkillers. Laughter also increases the number of T cells that have suppresser receptors.
tension.(6) Workplace Stress Workplace stress is the harmful physical and emotional response that occurs when there is a poor match between job demands and the capabilities. it is widely believed that job stress increases the risk for development of back and upper-extremity musculoskeletal disorders. or needs of the worker... fatigue. post-traumatic stress disorder) and other types of emotional strain (e. substance abuse). resources. Many studies suggest that psychologically demanding jobs that allow employees little control over the work process increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. Evidence also suggests that stress is the major cause of turnover in organizations. concentration and memory problems). Stress is a prevalent and costly problem in today's workplace. Job stress is also associated with various biological reactions that may lead ultimately to compromised health.g. these conditions may lead to poor work performance or even injury. such as cardiovascular disease.g. dissatisfaction.g. On the basis of research by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and many other organizations. High levels of stress are associated with substantial increases in health service utilization. Workers who report experiencing 21 . About one-third of workers report high levels of stress. maladaptive behaviors (e. etc. Stress-related disorders encompass a broad array of conditions.. depression.. aggression. In turn. Three-quarters of employees believe the worker has more on-the-job stress than a generation ago. anxiety. including psychological disorders (e.).g. Health and Healthcare Utilization Problems at work are more strongly associated with health complaints than are any other life stressor-more so than even financial problems or family problems. and cognitive impairment (e. One-quarter of employees view their jobs as the number one stressor in their lives.
increasing to 54% in 1995 and to 56% in 2000. health care costs were nearly 50% greater for workers reporting high levels of stress in comparison to “low risk” workers. The increment rose to nearly 150%. including conditions recognized as risk factors for job stress. differences in individual characteristics such as personality and coping skills are most important in predicting whether certain job conditions will result in stress-in other words. In a 1998 study of 46. In 1990.stress at work also show excessive health care utilization. and for job redesign as a primary prevention strategy. A substantial 22 . 1995. an increase of more than $1.700 per person annually.000 workers. what is stressful for one person may not be a problem for someone else. According to one school of thought. Personal interview surveys of working conditions. increasing to 56% in 1995 and 60 % in 2000. Results showed a trend across these periods suggestive of increasing work intensity. scientific evidence suggests that certain working conditions are stressful to most people. Similarly. However. Although the importance of individual differences cannot be ignored. for workers reporting high levels of both stress and depression. Views differ on the importance of worker characteristics versus working conditions as the primary cause of job stress. This viewpoint leads to prevention strategies that focus on workers and ways to help them cope with demanding job conditions. no change was noted in the period 1995–2000 (data not collected in 1990) in the percentage of workers reporting sufficient time to complete tasks. periods of disability due to job stress tend to be much longer than disability periods for other occupational injuries and illnesses. Such evidence argues for a greater emphasis on working conditions as the key source of job stress. 50% of workers reported they work against tight deadlines at least one-fourth of their working time in 1990. Causes of Workplace Stress Job stress results from the interaction of the worker and the conditions of work. Additionally. the percentage of workers reporting that they worked at high speeds at least one-fourth of their working time was 48%. The differing viewpoints suggest different ways to prevent stress at work. were conducted in Member States of the European Union in 1990. and 2000.
percentage of Americans work very long hours. Give workers opportunities to participate in decisions and actions affecting their jobs. and opportunities for workers to use their skills. friends and girlfriends or boyfriends are examples of stress-related problems. Clearly define workers' roles and responsibilities. there has been an upward trend in hours worked among employed women. musculoskeletal disorders. According to the Department of Labor. By one estimate. Nonetheless. How to Change the Organization to Prevent Job Stress Ensure that the workload is in line with workers' capabilities and resources. and a considerable increase in combined working hours among working couples. especially for women. Prevention A combination of organizational change and stress management is often the most useful approach for preventing stress at work. an increase in extended work weeks (>40 hours) by men. evidence is rapidly accumulating to suggest that stress plays an important role in several types of chronic health problems-especially cardiovascular disease. The effects of job stress on chronic diseases are more difficult to see because chronic diseases take a long time to develop and can be influenced by many factors other than stress. 23 . These figures represent a considerable increase over the previous three decades. Signs of Workplace Stress Mood and sleep disturbances. and psychological disorders. and disturbed relationships with family. more than 26% of men and more than 11% of women worked 50 hours per week or more in 2000. upset stomach and headache. Design jobs to provide meaning. stimulation. particularly couples with young children.
In a second study.g. and (3) establishment of employee assistance programs. Discrimination inside the workplace. Establish work schedules that are compatible with demands and responsibilities outside the job. Program activities included (1) employee and management education on job stress. nationality and language ) St. there was a 70% reduction in malpractice claims in 22 hospitals that implemented stress prevention activities. Provide opportunities for social interaction among workers. In contrast. the frequency of medication errors declined by 50% after prevention activities was implemented in a 700-bed hospital. 24 . (e. Paul Fire and Marine Insurance Company conducted several studies on the effects of stress prevention programs in hospital settings. (2) changes in hospital policies and procedures to reduce organizational sources of stress. In one study. there was no reduction in claims in a matched group of 22 hospitals that did not implement stress prevention activities. Improve communications-reduce uncertainty about career development and future employment prospects.
We have all experienced that appalling sense of having far too much work to do and too little time to do it in. and keep your workload under control. by focusing on the things that are important for job success and reducing the time we spend on low priority tasks. This helps you get the greatest return from the work you do. in the hurly-burly of a new. Job Analysis is the first step in doing this. Job analysis: . Rational & positive thinking: You are thinking negatively when you fear the future. it is oftentimes something that is easy to overlook. you can focus on these activities and minimize work on other tasks as much as possible. While this may seem obvious. put yourself down. or expect failure. The risks here are that we become exhausted. harms performance and paralyzes mental skills. and work unreasonably long hours to stay on top of our workload. It helps you to cut through clutter and distraction to get to the heart of what you need to do. To do an excellent job. Job Analysis is a key technique for managing job overload – an important source of stress. Each of these can lead to intense stress. Job Analysis is a useful technique for getting a firm grip on what really is important in your job so that you are able to perform excellently. and what constitutes success within it. 25 . By understanding the priorities in your job. criticize yourself for errors. 2. The first of the action-oriented skills that we look at is Job Analysis. you need to fully understand what is expected of you. high-pressure role. The alternative is to work more intelligently. fast-moving. Negative thinking damages confidence. doubt your abilities. that we have so much to do that we do a poor quality job and that we neglect other areas of our life. We can choose to ignore this.(7) Reduce your stress 1.
you should be able to see the most common and the most damaging thoughts. Do not suppress any thoughts. When you analyze your diary at the end of the period. Worry about how the audience (especially important people in it like your boss) or the press may react to you. as you cannot manage thoughts that you are unaware of. negative thoughts tend to flit into our consciousness.Unfortunately. Thought Awareness is the process by which you observe your thoughts and become aware of what is going through your head. with their significance having barely been noticed. Thought awareness is the first step in the process of managing negative thoughts. Since we barely realize that they were there. do their damage and flit back out again. Dwelling on the negative consequences of a poor performance. which means that they can be completely incorrect and wrong. 26 . Tackle these as a priority using the techniques below. just let them run their course while you watch them. we do not challenge them properly. Here are some typical negative thoughts you might experience when preparing to give a major presentation: Fear about the quality of your performance or of problems that may interfere with it. and write them down on our free worksheet as they occur. One approach to it is to observe your "stream of consciousness" as you think about the thing you're trying to achieve which is stressful. or Self-criticism over a less-than-perfect rehearsal. Instead. Another more general approach to Thought Awareness comes with logging stress in your Stress Diary. Then let them go.
Problems with issues outside your control: Have you identified the risks of these things happening. Worries about performance during rehearsal: If some of your practice was less than perfect. the following challenges could be made to the negative thoughts we identified earlier: Feelings of inadequacy: Have you trained yourself as well as you reasonably should have? Do you have the experience and resources you need to make the presentation? Have you planned. Look at every thought you wrote down and challenge it rationally. so that these can be sorted out before the performance. then fair people are likely to respond well. then remind yourself that the purpose of the practice is to identify areas for improvement. and you do the best you can. 27 . What evidence is there for and against the thought? Would your colleagues and mentors agree or disagree with it? Looking at the examples. and have you taken steps to reduce the likelihood of them happening or their impact if they do? What will you do if they occur? And what do you need others to do for you? Worry about other people's reactions: If you have prepared well. If you perform as well as you reasonably can. you've done as much as you can to give a good performance.Rational Thinking The next step in dealing with negative thinking is to challenge the negative thoughts that you identified using the Thought Awareness technique. Ask yourself whether the thought is reasonable. the best thing to do is ignore their comments and rise above them. If people are not fair. then you should be satisfied. prepared and rehearsed enough? If you have done all of these.
think how you would challenge these thoughts. Tip: If you find it difficult to look at your negative thoughts objectively. you should be able to see quickly whether the thoughts are wrong or whether they have some substance to them. Look at the list of negative thoughts and imagine the negative thoughts were written by someone you were giving objective advice to. you can use them to undo the damage that negative thinking may have done to your self-confidence. make sure that your negative thoughts are genuinely important to achieving your goals. However. you made a mistake at work. which everyone has to go through at some stage.Tip: Don't make the mistake of generalizing a single incident. and don't just reflect a lack of experience. It can also be useful to look at the situation and see if there are any useful opportunities that are offered by it. rational assessments of facts that you made using Rational Thinking. but that doesn't mean you're bad at your job. take appropriate action. Then. positive thoughts and affirmations to counter any remaining negativity. Similarly. By basing your affirmations on the clear. make sure you take the long view about incidents that you're finding stressful. Positive Thinking & Opportunity Seeking By now. When you challenge negative thoughts rationally. 28 . OK. Where there is some substance. imagine that you are your best friend or a respected coach or mentor. Just because you're finding these new responsibilities stressful now. The final step is to prepare rational. doesn't mean that they will ALWAYS be so for you in the future. you should already be feeling more positive.
As well as allowing you to structure useful affirmations." Worries about performance: "I have prepared well and rehearsed thoroughly. successfully overcoming the situations causing the original negative thinking will open up opportunities. I am going to perform well and enjoy the event." If appropriate. This has put me in a position where I can deliver a great performance. 29 . positive affirmations might be: Problems during practice: "I have learned from my rehearsals.Tip: Your affirmations will be strongest if they are specific. part of Positive Thinking is to look at opportunities that the situation might offer to you." Problems issues outside your control: "I have thought through everything that might reasonably happen and have planned how I can handle all likely contingencies. In the examples above." Worry about other people's reaction: "Fair people will react well to a good performance. I am very well placed to react flexibly to events. Continuing the examples above. are expressed in the present tense and have strong emotional content. Make sure that identifying these opportunities and focusing on them is part of your positive thinking. you will be seen as someone who can handle difficult challenges. I am well positioned to give an excellent performance. I will rise above any unfair criticism in a mature and professional way. You will acquire new skills. write these affirmations down on your worksheet so that you can use them when you need them. and you may open up new career opportunities.
Consider for example. Both can be equally taxing on the body. It’s an opportunity when it offers potential gain. However hard we try to go beyond a stress situation. This is a complicated definition.Conclusion Stress is a dynamic condition in witch an individual is confronted with an opportunity. it also has a positive value. depending on a person's way of adapting to a change that has caused it. Stress management is the need of the hour. The employees who have the simple table work also have to face the problem of stress. the superior performance that an athlete or stage performer gives in “clutch” situations. Such individuals often use stress positively to rise to the occasion and perform at or near their maximum. usually related to desirable events in person's life. many professionals see the pressures of heavy workloads and deadlines as positive challenges that enhance the quality of their work and the satisfaction the get from their job. life seems to find new ways of 30 . The types of stress are named as eustress and distress. having negative implications. The bank employees are the people who also have to achieve the certain target and so for the non achievement of target the employees remain stressed and tensed. But it is different in the case of bank employees. Although stress is typically discussed in a negative context. Similarly. demand or resource related to what the individual desires and for which the outcome is perceived to be both uncertain and important. Due to recession the banking sector is also facing the problem of employee cut-offs and so the work load of the existing employees increases and the feel stressed. and are cumulative in nature. Distress is the most commonly-referred to type of stress. whereas eustress is a positive form of stress. Stress is not necessarily bad in and of itself.
can induce risky body-mind disorders. today. sleeplessness. BIBILIOGRAPHY 31 . Moreover. tension. Stress. Unfortunately. Some hormones released during the 'fight or flight' situation prompt the body to replace the lost carbohydrates and fats. 3. and restore the energy level. are fairly manageable and treatable. so a sample of 14 to 15 employees are selected from all the three banks for the research of stress among them. mindbody exhaustion or our erring attitudes. either quick or constant. nervousness and muscle cramps can all result in chronic health problems. This research is to carry out the study that how much stressed the employees of the banks are and how do their stress affect their work life. In such unsettling moments we often forget that stressors. anxiety attacks. cardiovascular and nervous systems and lead individuals to habitual addictions. tightened muscles and an exhausted mind crave for looseness. we don't get relaxing and soothing situations without asking. output etc. They may also affect our immune. The knotted nerves. Immediate disorders such as dizzy spells. be it our anxiety. we tend to overlook causes of stress and the conditions triggered by those. which are inter-linked with stress. if not escapable. Like "stress reactions".stressing us out and plaguing us with anxiety attacks. "relaxation responses" and stress management techniques are some of the body's important built-in response systems. social life. To be relaxed we have to strive to create such situations. As a relaxation response the body tries to get back balance in its homeostasis.
mindtool.o www.com o Organizational Behavior “Stephen P. Robbins” o Burn Out tool – Questionnaire o Self analysis of questionnaire 32 .
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