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Philippine Democracy Agenda Vol. 1 - Democracy & Citizenship in Filipino Political Culture

Philippine Democracy Agenda Vol. 1 - Democracy & Citizenship in Filipino Political Culture

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Published by: UP Third World Studies Center on Jan 26, 2011
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rI shed by the THI RD WORLD


Cop yr~!;Iht ·.(11 997 All rrg.ht~ fl;!serviid .. No p.ut" Of this po6 k 1'l'li.'J.V b~, raproducedor u~IHtE!d I'!l' <:i:nY'fQtm or' whatever: means, e~ tr oni'c or ms cbanical , ~ndud i nq ph"otot:o'pying (!'t recordi ng or by any tnformatlcnretrt eval svstern , wit,llO.ut pc,rmLs,sf,0r from the publli$he.r. lrrquiries should

Base m Mt. Un ~v~ts iW of tht':. PhU[pp Quezon CHy, .,

be addressedto, Third Wqr!d Stwdh'ls Ce,.ht~r, Pfl:im'1d-l1tI;1

~n:{]s..Pi Hman

I ~;O ~ .I

t'e'is. '920·5,301 eo S399.lo'C. 64151/6783 fax 902 o-s 42 8e ·maJlttwst@CS:S.p.IApd.e.tlu_ph This public~tJQnw~.s made
;\;GeiNq F.QR

pG$&ible throuqh

the support

by lh~

QFFlCE OF coY~WI'.t'-itE

Ao,;'D EAn 1"lCIPAl'ION., I)_~_


No. 4~2-Q43"2-A-OO-60~6cOO. Opinions -exf-'tre.sse·dherein are. th. OSGl af th e. authon ·.jld do not" t"I~r~ sarHv refl e,~ . es
~he views .of the· uJ. ""c;~w;v ~'OR
IMTE.~~iATi'}Nh OEV£LO~M~f.:I'\

under t:he terms o:fGr~~


Co unte rpart

furl d in 9 was- ··ab 0 pro vfded

by the

s o·~ L I...

fH~LG~.U~HY ~ .~EA RCI~ PC l.'NoATloN "

Cover by N@ no for SAD.mAYA lDisellYo Boot. Defiig~nby- SADmAYA DisElnyo
ISBN 971"9 lI11-2-7















1 .,


ON CmZf"W5Hlf


3: 9 69








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A ,,",0'1I!(l U F.lBAN M'I DD LE, CLA:.s.S FAMi

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WOR.KER.$~ Pm.lTleAL






J/II MfI;U!fmN


N,~;I:;I!.O~ OFt.lENTAl

2 7.3


Crn~E.NSHI p




of A. COrvlMUNllT'Ii' AN rNlT!ilL



of! Tt-I~ EDUClmrw FOR. LIn; fOUNDATION MA. ~NGELE:5 G~j,~Nzo.N-u..P~NA AND iR:O(l[:,RT JAVI Ell , JR.


At. liST RAClfS












MIt~,.=., E,



Cl."nUNliH ~p










A T'l"IT'U


5 ("1,00 I.. T~,!IC HERS



FtJot;~F .... G_ N,t,VA


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Ii" 0 R E W 0 R'.[1





tlon a,gains,r fOfe.igrn colonizers. ln many wa,ys the strlUgg~e: continues to the present as WI@! strive. to denM ourselves as one people." appr~ciativ~ of the ric h div,enity of cultures across our land, and workl 1'119 towards a better, more hu mane q ualltv .of life for all

IN 'I998 We c~lebrat'e ths


the centenn ial anmversarv

of the philippi Fie revel u·

This endeavor is one in w:h lch social scientists have a. role to play. Ou r Co ntrlbutton lies In our stuev of todav's complex social problems and issues and ttl basic research 011 Fillipino lif@, culture and society. The COLLEGE DF SOCl.Al·$-mtKES AND PHILOSOPHY strongly encouraaes multl-rftsclpllnary resear(Jl, convinced i,t is the best way to produce a comprehen s~ive.!il'it~9rat~d analvsls of our s.Qciety and soclal reality, Various sociat sclence disci plines exami~ning one problem, E!!.•ach apply] n·g ns,en wqth its own theories and tools, yet be Lind by ;;lJ common objecuve of understandtne lhe whole piletu ni!- that is the way to capture the pmblemsmultl-faceted flavor arro bring us closer


to its essence.


Our task as F.i ll plno .soclal sclentlsts ls to help ln 'the 1.1 nderstand itl'g of Flli.pi I'm IffE;! and real ity so that 0 u r pea ole may have a better life. It is in this spirit that the Coutct

has supported the P'1·liIJPPI,NE DE.MOCiRJ\{,:Y AC;I;NOA project of the THIIm WORlfJ S'fUtlIEs CENTER. The project's analysis of the many basic concepts underlvlnq .eu r self-lmaqes, lnstitutio ns and social and political cultures lis an important step towards our goal. The COLtlGf: takes pride in present: ng 'the frun of ·the CEr'm~!/s labor; aware that ou r work does not end with 'ev.ery projeC:l we complete. Our job is to siimply keep go~ng, for each time. W@ think we are ne,arit19 (,l1J F goat we fe(l.c~t2e. how much farther yet we. need to tread,





es "NO






-- --






:IIN'T'R 00



DEMOCRATIZATION l~ perhtlp~ ene of [he )i!'lgle' rnest cOffl,pem!'1Y and mean fng ful huI n tn!;! pre1ol1:nt Ce'!1lury. Ai .it reactlen to colOf'! lal n~ le, nice k ~he fOUl"! of $t! iJg,yl~r> fO'F inde-pendenc1e, with ';!Ii!d w~~t\(HHi1Htn. As .;I reacttcnto dcrnestlc a,uthorl'[,ariaJi regimes, il was (,01,51 hi ve~ ilineth~r striI.J:g~lle.for lhe il.s$rtr"lia n ofth~ po pu lar will ~r1 varleus asnecrs toiJJch~irh; Hie pecp'l,e"5 I~ndivldua,iand co Ileniv-e liv(!s. '

mall developments

Wh~11 the p~,I i pp~nes removed the d!u"not~hip I nl9S6, Ith~ democranzano n t\lfI fon took Y~l another turn. Alrl'!mugh ,rebuHding the ranered demccracv was seen as part of the: process, a n~er,~ r~com;nlJll(Uol'II was not dae mad eno ug h !by rhose who ~CllJgl1t profound 'sodall :r~fo~m, Cen;llilnly (he procf55 would ~majl far more than a
stmple renrrn [0 the day5heforernarllil~ law lIllthen ellJ~e> dan politics re1gflled and pclitical parties differed more in appearance than anyHn~.ng else. Natkmal recone!l iaJUC)f] th~ , d~l'I'Io,ror a people d iv~d~d. had 10 b~ lel'npered ~if~h,ju5tke, wh~ch meant at the V~fy le[l.$l,a recognition of wrongdoing and 9,enUIIU~ e~fQns, U) correct the mistakes of tn'e

pas tor preve not the Ifree u rre nee.

The decade slrrce the. popular


at H];5A has witnessed

a tremendous

grow~h ;111 Phmppil1f scrtalrnovemenrs. WhilJeV~r thelr speclflc cause or ldeoiog ic~t motlve, whether located 111 comrnantues, wHhfn or ac ross soctal sectors" Dr i n bread coalitions or fed~t,ations. the!.lrger'UHal orlenta.t~oll has been towards the rOfmul~.tijo n and..appl lcatl 0 11 of altern atlvesol uri ens to mdav"!i~ 1'70 b~e rns, ConsQl1dat ing and:; t retch i [['1 £Ii

the gairns of d~moua(v

has be'Nl~he:~iI frequent

ap(Jt:al. Wh:ll elections


devol ution of power 'to local g9ve.rrlrnel!'!~'~.fU!~W arena'S-ford~mtlCT:atization (!:V~fI as. featu res. cfthe oM, pre-milirtidJ.~ ~a\\liipCl!il:ilcs rtngered-


and rhe opened

Yet de,spite.~hdi[:@d a.5,pirollvol1 for a free, demccranc .and peaceful llfe, oplnipl1s s diverged on a number nf basteand no~ so bMI( ClUe5tiorl.S. ,Fio,\'I,I should org<l;n:~zed far grcl'l.lps relate with the S'LatI2Jfo~~x;ampjE:, Wilhou( endang~r~T1gtheijr own a,ge.,da7Wha:t rnechanlsrns nnight be devised tn IHitig<H.~ t'l:'!:Jl.siclrl:S, arisfrlg from diverse views and M:rategles,slow bureaucratlc prnredures, and the o\l~rwhe.lm ing, al rt'Iastgldvit.ation.d pull of corruarand O'lne~ antldemacratic p'ranic:es? Giventt"llE div@rsity of Phmppjll~ society. and the open as weUa5 ~,lLIblimun<ll~[ onfltrts betw@.en die st<l:~@ and i nterest c gHl!JPS, COmmlJ nltles and arm'te:d rnevernents. couid a consensus be Je r,ged while respeLling the pluralttv afperspecrlves, gOi.li~$ ~M'Njifne(e.s,~S! P~.rt of the delTltOcr.nizatio:r'I

tI.~SO reql.litres the economic



the peoplie. Pr,~S'~f1U human righn (OIflC@:ms, for ~inSt.lnCI.L have expanded from civil and 'floB'tic:al wlghu dating bad: ro the d.ilY'~ (If marnal law, W I@(onamk, soctal and cuhural rights" 1,11tlte light of acts 110W coliled w~evelo[[Eimentag:,gH~'!i:5.k:lI'i~. Trll~ pc pula; artkLJla· tiofl$ of economic and .soclal needs h,tlve row nd t.hel~rway into off~d~1 documents 011 the envlronmant and tnt(! social ndou'til agenda. But here, as ln the PQ~~tl(ar aspects or

the demecrarlzarlon



qnd bEn~fh.:larie~, of change .. Conversions·


aib()und as to the nature,


dlrecuo n

lzatlon, globallz.a.tion w~lJH:U.Jl Fill pine labor for' foreign exchanqe, the cani!~Hnt@ c:ofldlil(.t of oil companies in the brief 11ft: of the deregYlated-~etroieLl~tl industry. an: amrong some 'of the mes t IJre.s'S1f'1g olf'!d

OI!grk:uluJifai land ~nthe' name of ind us trial" safety nets f·[J:Ji" thil1! pOOft missive reliance em overseas


Issues in the nnJI'gg~e ~[lr dl!\(\el,opmern.

that the question

D:t...g~lItACyAc IJ*DAIP ro~re \'!/'aS, (~ncell'l: ua~~ C1 zed in rn is ~0 n te x t, Aware of popular empo.welrme'Ii'IE has been taken up olgain and ag1!l.il1. [he project team s,oughl a differer'll focus" R:a:rl'ler than look ~n[o the pol.iCY tssues 'wl1ich are the 5.ubject of numerous docllJmenu.! the aurnors of the p'rojec~ 0 rued [0 probe tnto tile richness efrhe dlscusr>i-cn~ that alCXotnpa.ll'li'ed Un!! dO(Um@fUS, the panh:ipallh involved ln the pmc.es~ as well as those ~en out of ~t! Vt!l.~irmodes. of il1tcr~'Uof!. [he poi nts of tJ nderstandl ng and ml'5L.inderstiliildlll1g both in [he realm ,0 f pen:eption and pracrtce. These indeed were rhe areas of tmmense rlil{erest [0 the pmje,c[ceil.rn.

1~<I'St htC! u:s ~n ifll.kli~g of how dernecratk g prucasses have aCHJallv worked (orfai1ed to 'oi'/,{'ol~IiI;). mQ~e far"rll:achmg reason is that these TIIi!'~' stories pomay th~ workings at dvU ~,O(ltew. ~".].~~ de,fiMd as beh19 dJn~lI1ct from the
Dr lit

these stories be~l ~xplil,l ~

Why? The 51mplc rea~ol1l rs ~,hat these


tih>e srcrres the documents

do not treII. Yel

stare. The fundamental

Ufy ways (hence, an acnon llgenda~ m5n·,engHu~.IfIC:IVi~ 5o(;iet.y as the arena ur Ph~:lli:pIli fie drtnor.racy, an author of democn:il~C: :Ideils and approaches, <l,f1d a prlnc Ipal actor in the impllementatrorl (rf dernO(rilUrsmneg~es.
The D~MQLRACr' AGENUiA proj~tI @;(lpIIOred three major themes in pursu ~t of lts Dbjec· t.Jve, fHlmedy: p~rsp~Clive~, of demccracv and dt~.'Zen:shjfJ if! FiIipino pol Itlea! culture: PI1ilipp~"e .st a.te-c:lv~I society re'~iJtior!S lJo~k:y·makin.g; and dynamics and relations within civil soctetv, Each theme was d~st'!,J,ssed ~n Oil tCQl'irrer~nc~. WhE~ i;lV@f'i;!tili!!W papers

tsrhe pro per terram for the e'vol~uuon ~M'1ddevelepment of demccratlc processes, i nstlrune n 5 and po,n'l:ical cu ltures. The I~:mmtilirypuepese of the proJen. then. was to ldan-




iDEIdClc[v'('I' .A.'~NOA


is that dvl'l



and CaS~ stud les were presented and disc:usse[,J 10 workshops and ~n'pl~ nary sessions. These volu rnes one 'for 'each c:·onferE!ncEthieme. contatn same. of the p<l.p@r~in full

0 rgalll izat iom; a few a.re.fro m the acaderne, although even these fe. bdong te or work do;s.e~y with NGOs. The choice oftheir background was dellber:al~ evenas we. reallzed that for S·O!11JE. their work ill the field leftthem liule ttme to reftecr on .i1n,d! rite ,about the:iIr eXIl~.r~enc@s. aut it waS w eS,se:ntlal that [h e pro j ect e ~ kite.dlthe v~ ew~ ef clivll .sothely'S rno st <l.(tiv~ Pa rtlc ipa nts and ppin ion make rs " for how e~:'5,ewas a democ.racy agenda. to b~ formulated?

while abs-tracts of the. rest a;r~ provide:d. The paper w rlters .c0 me from dtff'eremS'e,c:~t,)r5, o r

The project ream undenookffl/ery

eft:Q,n '[0 make pal!1icipatt(Hl

ences we r~ held separately over a fivre-mo,nth period, from Se'plember 1996 to February

repn~se.m,iltive as possible

tg1ven IOlgisw::,rul andume


In the conferences The confer-

1997, in the citie.s of Baguio" lDaVilO iiIlm~1Cebu. '1IrH~'J'egio!'lailorigin, gend.er andsectoral affilll~tion of 'the partklpants were taken lnto account. Irndige:nous commun rties were represented. A few "unorgilrlized~ Ifild~v~duaJI$, s well as gPOv.ernrnent representatives a from various branchesand 1e'v@lsaliso took Pll.r:t in r~1i:l! arrf@fe:nc,es. The names of the c p"artici pants, are listed Ii1"1 U1E! dir\@Clij)'Ir)' .liI!t the end of I@tl!ch ve I ume, Th{! writers ~nd iXlI'Ife!fe nit~ parttcl pants are uhe Uul'!! authors tof thts praj,@ct and we 9'rt'lte:tu IIV ac knewlt!dg,e their primary rola In Ihis u !i1d€:rrntkl~g. The mi)( of Pil:l1icipants ens ured thal various perspectlves were shtl.r'Eldand grlffer· en'l sides or aspects of 'Ihli: .liUlb·th,tmu, f!>!illmined. Ifhe team opted for the workshop method In order to ,ensure topen. fl~e di'5'cu~slcns in w~~h.:hrI'O 5>ubjeu was ~'eld sarro5 ill nc lor prtvll e:g,E!;d. AI tho u9 h nat pall1ic.1Jl [illr'ly ne IN,. [he method wal, e spec.iali v ap pro p rt-

ate to the form u latl on of a dem ocracy ag en ca. Inso me ways t he team was 9 ul ded by the tenets of discourse ethics, which holds that the means used to come to an under~tandin9 also confers vaHdfty on the ag reemsnt that reselts from the d lscourse I In other words! the process of dlscusslon and understandtnq was crucial to the for m 1.1 I a-

tion of. the democracy [la.nicipa"nts.

agenda which

became the common

nerrn of lhe: conference

!i'lmce in <l.rriv!ng at thedemceracv agenda" a Iionger ttme was giv.en to the workshop sessrens which were kept deliberately small (about fiv,e partictp'ants 'each). The process of consal~~dadng the, workshop discusslons was mora d ifflcu It; Imwe,ver,in part beCa;!.i5~of the lack of time during the plenary sessions (the dLsc,us~ion~ CQuid have gone on fo,rever) .. Mare importanUy; th.e workshops each had th~Jr DWIl points of em p holds and ina: se ns e ~brln gi ng th eir \de'INS tog et h er prove d to be a t ri aJ pract ice 0 f th~ very action age.nda they were propostnq, Whl;!r·ePQ]intt; of view differed these were

notM and ~l;f1a~yzedIn the wnthe:$,is papers that mtroduce

each volume.

syntheses of the .wJ!lfer~nte ~x.chang~s wer~ circulated to the b'e'fore lhi1!:y w~r@f;~n.al,ized.The agenda presented in eachof the volumes ts therefore' drawn from the t;onfer'~Hlce dtscusstons, We a~so p'n:!slll'l'ted the agenda and etherIrthial fit'!dings In separate f;o'riiJm as pan of OUJr validtlYh:i'n process. In addition, we rnvi;t,ed our wr~ters to a-smaller; post-conference ~fi;scU'!i5ionand some 0'( those unable toattend it sent their comments in writing. '
writers and p~r1I:i.ti.pan.ts for comment

The prelhniriary


Couzcs OF SOCIAL under the jo1m di,u:s.piees of the SflCIP..I SCIENCE Af'fD PHILOSOPHY :RESEARCH FOUNDATION and the UNITroo' SlATES AGENCY ItOR l~nERNATIQNAL DEVWJruENT" The p ro] ect team a eprectares the 5U Pport of the trustees of tine FOUtiWATPON led by"the presrdL!r:lt. FE ARCINNi. and the eXHutilve off~icer, De-an CCmSlJEW 1P,'!"t-" R,1.'lO We thank the Office ,of C:ov.ernance:aAd Pankipati'on oH,LS. A'!D:it5' he-ad Mr. JOHN CRAlEI.: Mr.,M~[HAEL CA:LAVAN, chlefcf the Dec@l'i1t.faHzation and! Local lDevetopm·el1t Divis~on; imd project development speclallst LilY, HII:OAL{jO-SANlO~"













The entlre sealf of the CENTER. was rrlobH lzed for this t s-month proje.ct CO{Wflm·FElmBl, the CENTER's deputy director; mallaged the. project jo~ntly with me the chief edttor of th,(l third volume, on intra"clyll ·s,o(jel:y ~vnamic:s; Whatev:N this pr,ojeu might bring to the C,H;NTERis due in larg,e 'par~ 1:0 MIIiiV\M. Our res~dJch
GL.!IJes, MML():N WUI,


and is uedit


conference discussions,
C:OlJrS,El of



,editMrhe second volume, on sta'te",civil~ soctetv relaticns, whl I~ JuarlintD helped me cut wilh the first, on c~t~2enship and democracy in Fili ptno potfLtiCtdcl:Jltu reo III ~he


BJ!_1lWA, rk~d tlrelesslv we

tapes Inthe process.

to consolldate


MARtoN: and


the project, the C~TEI~ .adopred ACfo.IES PAr;ULDAk and Aurm:m lu~p>'NC UnQ the family. ACN~ and F[l,~D[lot orWr asslsted 1lJS! in the techntcal arranoernents but ~ e Ip~d r MIRJAM wo·rk Dr! the third VQII~me., P!lA BrnNM;Etj, who was with U$ in the early part efths ptoJect" did an an notated bibiiogl<lphy of books and articles relevant tothe conference

au r ad min iSo tranve Q fficer, M~A PRA:NCr;.r:O,and staff me rnbe rs BlfI'M}I,IIDA, lAC.'iAMMA and IRENEn FMlNCfSCD' handledtbe tectmlcal arranqements, iridLl!ding secretariat support !Iervtce 5'. IircIIA MEF.(CA,Oq·, 0 n loan fro m the 5.o£I'Al SClfNC.[ AMO PH luis.oPtf'l:' R6Eo!\IK H Fo:l,lNPATIOf1, was 0 U r cash i fr. But it feJ ~ u pan au r boo kk@@:p@r, ELlZA~E'tH PffiJ;\LT1l", 0 u r <:ICC\IU ntant, D IOMe[lE~ CACIJ'IN'<CUIN. tl nd RANiDY tOIf!~CA of JOAQUIN CUNAiNM Mil CqA,to p~rast:J_ki Iy se e it rt~ t ~ n9 ~ complied with .111 u.s, A!D!s (lediol,JsHirlancial ot' pmcsdures. U.S. AID's ftnarrclal anaIlyst CYNTH RAze, he I ped 9 ui die, IA th mug h th eaccou nli n'9 ,Iabyri nth .




workshop facilitators,

~ev~ ral

CQ lI@aguesfrom

mented the workshops.

whlh~ faculty from local inniHJtions

tb e


OF $otlAll


PH itQWPtly





II~Hh@ conferenc~

We are grateful to uean


of UP CmHcEBAGllIto,

sites docu[lean





Davao' GUy, for lendlnq us; 'Some: of thelr facuitv during the conference, TIle editors' a,nal:ysP:5<f 'the pr10jec tiilem'es were r~viewed by a number of colo
i 1[1

sos of UP


O!nd D~recto r


FU~'O'AOOII <I F ttl e




league5i"\r the lin lversn yofrl'le helped us Improve our papers. D'epanmetl't, pc I ltlcal scientist

whose lnslqhts and forrhrig hi crtttclsms owe eur rhanks W CARMEN JIMEl'IIEl of the Psyc.hology l~~!ARID RMM., Luii'> TtoC01U:'1 of the CmlEcE OF MA~ COMMtlNIrI'lIIHpplru~s, WE


ASIAt~ ('rnm~'s

AR:~ANOO M..... JR. A'I'.

01.1 gratitude, r
NAI.iSM; MAt:["'M.

lOO, UN',VEHSllY'S, English

goes to our technical edltors:


f the




and [ou rt~ali5t CMOUN" MI\.L"¥ 01 the UP Cow,d




a frllend and colleague at Up, aJ~o h'lrped cut wi'tn rhe ,~di~i ng to ball me! 0 ut, I
n9 to cloud my san itV.

suspect, of the stress that was threaten

We lhank NOE TIO, who designed our cover, and SADIDAYA DISf.N'I'O for .he Iav-cut and logo des1911l. The fina~ uage ofa project 15 usually Hue most frentied, which SADIDAYA (as mdeed the rei! of rhe team) c,a,n:1e 10 expertence, SI nee we completed the proJect i3J few months a~,o" we cend ucred several discus sions.; wlth local non'government and peolple's (Hganllatiom~ in taclcban, Leyle; Tigbiliilrarl, Bohal: and legl,EI,l.jJi, Alb "I, We were holpl~d U1~mendou5Iy by our 10c,,1part ners In organ Izing the verlU~ ,uld mobilizb'llg locall parlicipams. 'O!l.ARFIIANCISCO and I-APYI_'fN lIM-M/IkIIGAI:l1I in leylf!, ANn'~ I)O~ PUEaLO~ fn !lo~'l(DI.and JOW't'N VKCNT£ ANG[LL~ in Albay ensured W~ had a heah hy blend of peo.pl:e v,·ho ~,'1ould ~'H!'lpUS validate and review our initial fjnd~ng~. Our sesstens
resuns of O'!,1r proj!l'!ct. Ha.d vile documented

end with th Isthree-vclume piece. We are ~lIbl~s~ tng as w~1I a pamp~iel (in FiIiplno and' In :Engllish) for distrtbutlon to lilt g:enero'll pu~lit. It is our hope thatthe pamphlet will reach a broader number of Fjlipino). e'ngage them in the dtscourse cif dernocrattzatlcn, and undertake an action agenda at the ground level. Our ultimate 'goal i 11 sharing the results of our we rk, aftler all, ts to, de:e'pen !h@ IJ nderstane fng of democracy or, batter stl II!, hel,p cornmunitres, .groups· and ye'$" the gOIJernmeru, carry outan action i!'I9t'!r1da for Philippine demecracy, In this sense the Calm has tried to live up to its, '2 a-year rnisslon: 10 combl ne research and advocacy without s,actificin~ one or the oth@~, In its. earlv life the CEto,fTF.r~ was J in the W 0 rds 0 fits fou Ild er; f~ CISCO. NwE'Nzo. JR., "a refu ge fa r rad lc a I acad e mli C§,,' during the 'tiJn~ of the dictators-hill. Deip~te rhe threats to academl freedom, the Cen-


n these provinces were: lively. UNIting interesting reacnons to the: the additional insights we qathered in the of the dJ.'>Cu55ions, ow work woulld ,n,1:H: have ended, ln truth, our wo,rk does not

ter carried out researches and publis.l'Ied their flindil'lgs, crtttcal as these were of the Marcos reg i me's developmem stra ,e,gy.
Today the CENTER nl!milins steadfa's.f to its mandate

and remnants of old ones. The
this rna ndate,



In response. [0 new plob!erm project proudly forms pan: of


I h~" L lollt" ft ~d AndlF~w ,II'ln~_ (;1,0,1 2 rr;;mr,IKfQ N'itn'"l~,lr, '1f'I',~ flUid \tYc>f'd

Scl~""~d Pp,i'lJ(1Ir r ....:oVjI [YmbHotlQt .
!.1')~1o!1 {U!U ,i!

ID lIi ..r'rlrnWli:

~I., ('~lGIrTmdhlolL.·

MIT PII ~, 19Q1J, ~p J~ 1 ~~~r KD~rlflln,'i Il. ~ II ~9~! ,S







Civi I Society

An Operational Definition

SOCI ETY has become the locus of discou rses 011 demo, ranzatton in the last decade, The ,.980,5. collapse M 'totalitarian states in Eastern Europe, .the endto m·i·Ht.aryreg lmes hi Latin An1:ericat th~ far~ of dlcratorsh ips in As~a, the Philippine;?
CIVIL i rrduded ---- Civil society ,gets much credit for these upheavals that have brolJgfn forth democratic change.

Most of these newly formed "democratic" governments have: been fa und short of expectanc ris, however, Whil~ iln many cases, the formal quarantees have b-e€! n put in place, the old/new eUtes ·i nfact preferred to rule the old way. Powar conttnuedto corrupt. The fundamentals of good- governance - accouH'labilli'("'y, transparel1cy,. and efficiency - were sorelv lac.-k.iflg in practice. In short" despite the: restoration of democracy, llh@'n~ was 110 real democracy. '



The shakv foundations of these post-authorltartan states and the broader CCH'1{:eption of what co nstltutes dsmccracv have increa$ing Iy favored the L1S·.~. of tJH~term "democratlzatlon."
De mocracv, for one, is no longer merely viewed in terms ofelectoral exercises where the pee plss wil'l Is freely exercised and determined - althoup h frea and fair elections remal tlJ one Irn po rtan t area naedinq II rrstitutto nalization in many socnetues,a.nd it m.ay have been the st,art~ng point fo"r udelltifyung the f'lew leadersh tp, tncreasl n'giy" democracy is viewed as the active. particlpatlo n, of cltlzens ln d.edsiol1-making if I alii aspects of life; and in actuahzi ng these declslons as well.

Libera! democrarv

has .also been forced to remove its bltndsrs and accornrno-

d~lte the FeQ'rdeTihg Of ~eli'lde,rr race. and class relarlcnsas integ:ral pam of the democratk ag@nd3. In the intense S'tfUgg le for baste civl I and po:1 ltlcal ltbertres. these divisions may have been obscu red. The relative freedomenjoved in the
post-authoritanan transttlon has allowed the resurfacing of these concerns. lin the: context of globalization wh lch, like the Insatiable Pacm;;J,l1, g(;lbbles up lesser econctnles, democratlc measures are 0.:1$0 deemed needed toeq ual lze the cpportunttles for gal nand protect local, national and reg tonal i nh! rests frorn rhe mighty powers of financial capital, C@rtairily, eq L.l.ity and protectton technocrats' notion of saf'etY nets. Does one have to fair first" to transcend the

be saved! The.

6 • Mil,,!";'''' CORO.... FE;RRER El

more critlcal dernocranc agellts bellsve they cannot. like child ren watching an acrobatic performance, ~it s~mplv !i n awe or 11'115g loballaerion. Democ rauc checks must be. put on 9 loballzatio n, They have to keep the 0 rdinarv people walking the tightrope of aconomic development from falling, or better stili" broaden the f1lank of development to incl ude rnors peoples,

There 15the growill9 realtzancn therefore that dernocracv is nota. one shot deal: it is attained rather dlrough a, political • soctal and cultural transformative process - democratization. Democracy. rnoreovet pertai ned it formal i nstltutlo nal arranqement, the elements of whlchara usually .drawri hom Wes,(ern countries' political lnstltutlcns, values and norms, This' equation of the human ideal with a set format has created part of the controversy between th~ so-called Westem govern mants' u ntversallsm and the Eastern states' Insistence: on cultu ral relativity. nemocranzatlo n, 0 n the othe r hand. is somewhat detachable from til i s set "western "model. It is iii. complex, rnultl-llnear process operating under certain contexts and structures unlq ua to each countrv albeit deltrnltec by derrn nan!' gJilobdJ.t st ru c t I) res.



Dernocratizatioa evolves prinld,rily from the lnteractlcn of tnternal grOLJp5 and i tlsti:tutlons 9 rappllnq with each o:~her'inthe c~om@:s~Jc context and the global order. Pr'z~wor5 ki .speclflcallv describes it as the shifting of the balance of competin,g forces toward those interest categorie.s-Iabor, consumers, renters, worherithat are composed of ~arge numbers of relatlvelv dispersed and subordl nate actors, and that have freq uentlv been oppressed by authoritarian rulers, I The nation and 'the stale and structu res subsumed under them (local govern merits: local communities, sectors) remain in the present time the main arenacf this democratlzaHon process. But from the lnstltutlon and fnWatives on th@se local and national levels, the forces for transformlnp the g.~obar arena are honed.

The Burden Oof Civil Society
secause the. dernocrattc project is 5.0 manu mental, somehow the govern rnents and thf; ruling elites cannot berelied o.n to do the job ale ne. This is, why 50 rnuc h now seems to depend on civil socletv With the broadening of the parameters of democracy (the outcome) and the emphasts On democratlzation (the process). the rol~.S ascribed to CiV1,lsociety havealso expand-ed.
Civil sQciety, writes KIlUT,is cruclal to dernocrattzanon because it enables and Widens participa'tioFl. protects ctuaens from the abuse of state powe~, arid :gouaran

t~es the pohtlcal accountabtlitv of the stats. "Whereas the: seat cfdamorrary
prevlouslv consldered to be the nation the hands of civill SO Clie'ty,,,'.


state, many now consider its fate to be: in

likewise, by vlrtue of b-eing se;~f".sstalrrtnq, comments Si\AD" EDDIN ~BRAHIM, civi I u society or'gaf"iiza:tio·tlS are the onlv mechanisms to ensure a. minimum of aCCOlJf1Tabllity.J
PUfNiAM co rrel at es p DS ttrvel v the S uccess 0 f de moe ratlc g'ove rn ments an d il1e effectiveness of public institutions with the degree to which the society approximates, the ideal ofa clvtc community. The qualltv of civic engagement in a cornrnunlty, measurable by active. dttzen participation, poHti:tal equalltv and hortzomal relations of reclprocnv and cooperatton for mutual benefit, was deemed the key to

the varied performance


leads to be:tt@:rgovernment.'

puehc ilnstiWUons_ rn tllis sense, a vrbrant civil socletv -

one g!?:f1~:nalunctlon of t:IVU scclerv emerg es eut 0 f thes~ elabo ratio ns t Illal ls, ch.dl~odely as guardian or prurector of the pee pie'. Clv~I societv preve nts Ihe state from abu.s.ing us powers 3i1lc! ~u ~,t1e: same tlmE! prods h to no better by


and rransparene.

Other cencepnons

see an even more radical rol

for crvll socletv, For David,

fe r lnstence, clv 1 lodety aims t.o transfarm unaq ual newer 11 tatlons 1!1 s!x sphe res; (OlJlury .and class, ~H!UOr Ild sp CI(!~. gen ration and gender.' Th'IS fu FlCUO n as change.-advocates. tr ascends Il'm~rePl'Ot@.CiJOO or guardiaMhip because they seck to r arrange soclal relatlcns. on~idering the !,evi.a.Ihan powers and IMtuence or
t:HlCC. S~rl.lgg.IQ and

those who have the upparhand, Clivi! sodeW confr mauon.

an hi


ls nurrurso



services which r he state ~s IJ nable tel provide ftJlly; and organJ;dng re'fief and reh.lbUhdi~ 1011 cenU!F ~ tn cI lsas rer i'lrid war-to rn ar eas of the world almest like pseudo·goverf'llmern~. Through 11llLJ'tiJ IIsucpcrt gmups, credil nd marketing cooperatives. they are ;a' Ie to sa~is y basic needs and irn prov the lives. of many. A third 'lLmnJOIl 'thus anses out of these rvpes 01 n deaver: hilt is. as dlspen ell' of so,ci~1 welfarf and generator of social wealth.

c~re, Oldull li'ler,m.cy.he,ahh and

Finallv. dvll ~oei!!ty Is 150, credited For pro,v,d~ln9 ~o





r tl~'d



up; ovrl socletv


looked upon


prmec tor and guard



advocate and dispenser andqenerator of social wealth an,d w!;ll tare. Actl rig as such, it possesses botf wlnsfont1i!Jthve and arnellorarlve qualines. It engage~ ill e·:I'1~'il.ncing oth negMJve, Lll'!lrj po~,lUve ~~beni@s. Dvi~ sorlety a.gents may have dl'f· b f.er~rn thrust in d if"f~rent ccnrexts but as slJu:h. (h;f,1 sertetv brings about democra-


As a concept, {I 997). I't Is useful

civil society also serves ,[I heurlsrir purpose, As PFIlIKE says making us tlnnk rrf ~ hat kind of relarlons we want between Individuals, socif.W. the state and the market.



POs ;;;;; ivil Society" C

I(;xpllil,n why the: term civil socretv In presentrefers to non-gevemment organizations (NGDs) and other volunteer gmlJ ps llke peoptes orqanlzatlons (POs} self-desc rtbed as WOof king for democ racy. tndaed, If the burden of protectl rig and chanqinq th-e wo rld ls 0 n c:MI society, one cannot expect comeruat'lve ~nstlturtens, charltv-orlenred civic orqan lzattcns, cpportu ii'lnstc and ~rolffj[-orlenttd grou es IIke business ro be "civil i soclety," That Is why the mere progressive NGOs ha.ve som~wh.u adopl ed a pro pl'iIH,H'y claim to 1 h~ word, and wr'lt.ers anrl schO~3irs who see NGOs 'favorably have used the 'lWO terms il'lferchang1ftably, (UnfOrtUfloa[f~V. MNGO~as equally an over-used

The roles ascribed

civH soclerv

day discourse





Why have NCO:>. pr~'t11ari.ly, nd POs, secondan Iy, become the dominant fqrrns a soc i,ety? "N GO" w as tI sed by the Unite'd- Nat.i0 n 5 (UN)i nits foundil1g to refer to private orqanizatronal entiti@s.ln the 1990s. a. distinction wo uld be' made between NGOs as servlce-provlders, and POs .as orqanizatlons worki ngfo;i' the interest of their .mernbe rs.

S soc lated With clvl I


beer'! tnstituncnaltzed and their roles regarded legitlimate by the very lnstituuons m~ny of them have questioned (the state, financial capltal). They attend internatlonal conferences where In many cases they set the agenda. They are recoqnlxed as legit;rmat~ contributors and as i,o'tegralto the UN miss iOI1. Even the World Baak engages civil sOci.e'ty 9 rou in its development pl.ar'!ning:. ..

Part of ths cogency of NCOs ls that in manv parts of the. world" thev have


lin lnternatlcnal

women's conferences


by the UN, fo r in stance; NCO


grew from 6,000 d,~legatesin

1975 (MexicQ); 8,000 In 1'980

(Copenhagen); 11,000 in 1990 (Nairobi); and 4Q,OOOIn 1~9 5 (BeijingV NGOs, rtltrght hard for this rijght and (ecog nltlon. But the path has somewhat been made eas,¥ by international fu nd i rig mace available to them and the. recognition of their "comptementarv" role in governan,c@. ACCQrding to OEeD estimates, 13% of development assistance (U5$8.3 btl110n)was channeled to ctvl I society Or:ga.l1izatiol15 tn 199.2. From 1 g.g 3-1 9.96, us Official [)e'1elopm~ nt Asslsrance (O!DA) passl r'I~ through priiVatt@ 9 roups doubled


almost half went toei·g ht bu~.iNGOs.


Empirical studies hava also shewn tlle posttlve.coatrlbution of NCOs, espedornestko n'll'!s,i n bu Itding peace constltuencies. "They can promote long·
r H

term conflict transformatjon 'they reachand represent the popu latto n, and can bu i Id a consclousness for peaceful cclex~stence."
Su rveyin9 this. trend, SALAMON hai Is the "glob.al assoclational revolutlon' taking place wo rldwtde. He saw this trend as sJignifitant as the rise of 'the narton-stare ln the. latter pan of the 19TH centurv, and as permananrlv altering the relauons

between the state and the clttzerts." His descrtpnon of this assoclatlonal revolution as the: massive anay of self-governi ng private organizations riot dedicated to dlstrlbut] ng profits to shareholders or directors. pursulnq pub' lc purposes outside
the state, Is quit.e clearlv a referel1i'c_,eo the non-profit t

the 'formal apparatusof

These prtvate, no n-profit groups weTttthe dbmi nant actors iln the democ raik u pheavals 1n thai r respectiv-e states, althcuqh .they were probably not yet called so loosely as NlCOs and POs in the. local ;;etting in the early ~ galls. For mstance, annMarco,s. dictatorship 9 roll ps were 't9,gged in Phlllppl ne mass m~dia as "cause-ertented groups" (COGs); Duri rig martial law, social activlsrs used the terms mass organizatlons (MOs)~ local orgai:lTzalions (LOs), alliances and undergro und orqantzatlcns: These in the ccrnmu nltv Q'rga,ni'zling trad ltlon prior to and du riFlg martial law built, naturally, community organizations (COS).I~ In the post-Marcos period, these terms lost their potency, The open space allowed for the .surfaCing of otherwtse banned orqantzations, political dissent was converted to social development, . . ender, peCl![~"and/or e:t'IVt,rolimentalactivlsm, g a.nd the ,groups were s~b5equenliy called NGOs and POs, or civil society. The. o~d terms became passe.rthe new terms,


The- recognition of NGOs and PO$" in th€! 19"8.7 Philippine Censtltutlor, has prove.n t.Q be botih a boon and bane, Or! th,'€ one hand ,it h.1:s. al!IIQw~d the enthus],815m ofactlvlst sectors to flo~risil 'witho I..It the dalllgef5 ass,odated wlth slmllar work during marttal law. On the other hand, it has el1lgendered oppertun ism from ind'ivtduals, notably po Iitidans, who want ~'O cash ill on die popu laritv of NCO bu i Id~ng" In any case, ths more. ,as,serHve: and sustained 'e-H6rt.$ come fro 1111 , the

farmer, making the- NCO sector in the PhiliPpines a: huge, vibrant and dy(latn~c cornmun iW. They are vocal in -their protests a-g'ainst abuses. They are pigg:e,r l'i1<lrl tha PO se{Hilr;aJth6vgl, tth~ trade unions and p~a:stHlt'orgaFlI?a.t~o1l1 s theo redcally should make up the majoritY of the 6r~ran ized populace, I:h,~se,9rou ps havs bsen

wei3)~~n~'dand ha.ve con.s,equenUy ralleden NeOs fCinechrdca,1 and logistic $!,..Ifl" port. PhiHppiine NG'Os, moreover; are- attached to ,c hurches, the academe, tn@. me." d~ia,and~v~n business groups maklnq 'them quite ubiqutteus, espectallv in urbanlzed (~nt~r:s, ltis not very s,wrplrising, therefQr~, that in the Phili ppl n~ settlnq, civll

S'oclety is easllv construed as NCOs, first, and POs, 'Second.



MAL-'\'r' ~xpr~s,j'e.s hls cynlcLsm at this "Ncos + POs - Clvl] SOd~ty'i formula adopted uncrttlenllv bvsectrons of the Philippine left InsiSti ngCl'Fl tills r t1e~tlys, "ls iik~. de:5igna~Tng Hawan as. the liSA, and thus, make 'Wh.el~ I was ~n O,ahu' equi'valent to -Whe'tli was Statesrde,;"l1 '

State y:!;. Civi I Socii ety
Now, if c;:ivi;115oc.~etydoes riot on Iy mean pm,g ressiv@;NGOs and POs, what : make up (ivi~ soci~~ty? Befa re w@: answer thts, lst us' first see what it is'claimed it is not.

The most commcn demarcatlcn lin~ is placed b€.twe:et:J the. state and civil soctetv," CiiVi I sccietv 'errti'tle.s, writes OAIIIO, are org.at1lh:atiot1ls~n~ti ntersect wlth tlhe cfcl'tllaif'!o-nhe state but are norp~rt of-the 5taH~,~.ippa,ratu$; hey eperate with iTI t ~,xi$fing structt!'res. but contest state power.'(o !KORB,?N~KI t;fefines: civu! s,oc.i~ty as th~ web of autonomous ~5:SJ)ciati~H1S indepe'ndent of the state, bring i rig citizens roge'ther ~n pursuit of thel r CQIll men Interests, PEJ\!RO;:E note,'; that', ln contrast to the

sltuatlo n in absolute monarchv, theseparatlon betw@:f!n state and [iv~~ HKil!ty arose with the development of the, modem natton-state, allongstde the rise of a public sphere of discourse and comrnunlcatloa, public, oplniOl) and as.sertlon of socieHdst)vere.ignty .. In the. .~ 980s context, the .s.eparatJon preds,ely provides-the check and balance to abusenf p,ower by thc= state .. lf civUsode'ty is state-sportsored, H. ceasesto be civjL'~ Th us, ch/ril .5(jde~y t!y def~niti6 F1I mu'st be sepa«rt~ from the State"

and necessity: and -civill societv a's a sphere of vol Irion and freedom." Tn@: disti ncticn between poliirtk.a,j and dvi I laws. promulga.ted by modern governments ha.d~n
the same vein IMCQl:!pled the norms of politics, from ~SDci€tyat Jar'ge.~~ Although there appears to be, a. broad consensus On the state no! being pan of (~vil' society (and vlce-versaj, not a.~1 agree. CIl.AM~R poses a difHculty i n approachlng civil soeletv as a. dlstlnct-and d~~metrical.ly opposed social space from that of {he state as PQI.itical space. Fa r him doing ,50 u rmecessanlv .fsoiares the {lO I lttcal dimension'S of sode~y;.' more.over, the social space. may al~Q'~~nC:[impass breadactivr'tt~ s 'Of the, So t ate, ~I AMAN 00 Do ~ONHA asserts t ha:~clv HI sQciHy WVIU:S lit II ins tit urlons and group.s el'lgag'il1g ~ach other in-the demccratlzatlorr process, e.g" the

AKE states

that tlh.e. usual co nstructio n is to de-fine. the. slq_te as a .sph'e'reof law







toward an ethical and plurahstlccu lrure." Toe. Islarnlc wo rldvfeW, I ikewi$e, doe.snot distinguush between the state and civtli society, The .stat~, and religious and ctvtc leaders, are (1.11 i rtstru ments for promotl ng Islamic values and goals that make up the ideal h urnan sotie.ty.

Churc h. business groups


and even the bureaucracy,

lE!g tslature and potlncrans,

Mar kat 'VS'. Civil Soci ely
The emphasis on private action for publ lc good as agafiflst private actio. n for private profit also draws a line between civil soclerv and the market Tile centanuon I s thatthe market is utility and profit-oriented wh i I'e clvil society Is eth ica~ and non-profit, Business Is thus 110t part of civil soctetv, bur the state, the: market and civi I society all 'tOge~he-r provide atria.ng ular model of relatlonshlps operatl rig i n

use evldentlv departs fro m the way it was elaborated ItT centu tv 'ib~ral theories. Eli1 ~tghti;':i'imef'lt theories emphastzed rninl mal gov" emment lnterventton and the. flcwerinq of private initiatives. The. t"lVil sooetv construct was uS'eful in helpl ng define the' space for personal, autonomy {list' net

TI9ls contetnporary

, 8TH.

nomtc order is fr)unded:~ SimTI<l.rly.AKt=; describes civil sec letv a-s· cheno merion Of a lnd ustrial capttalism. It is, h"€ says, "bou rgeols s.ocletv whlch is not anarc hie, al'thQug h It is made IJ p of atornlzed and utll i'W·ma)(irl'li~if'lg egoi sts, because of the
re~Jprocltles of genera'i tzed

from the powe r of the state but where ind ivid uals, at the same ume, are bound to a larger society with moral and ethical codes. tn thtssense, civil socie~v promoted the private sector and enhanced the ima,.9_e, a society' that fu netic ns best ln an of unregulated market because with lnnovatton and entrepreneurshfp, a Vibrant eco-

cornmod ity produnic;.m."l.


been enhanced.

Civil SOCiety, in effect, is market society. By keepinq lit.1toeintervention if'] civil societv mlnlrnal, condttlons for the. advance of tha free enterprtse system have:

In any rase, market RS the curse .of the poor and underprivueqed - from whose ranks or for Whom .antl-starus que civil sQcie:ty groups are formed In the

present context - has -engendered a shift from '{he 18th (~ntu r~1essence of civl I society. ALAN WOtf~ claims that the experience of western capitalism altered the
conceptions of civil socletv into a
5 p.a.(~ between

the market and the

bodying neither self-l nterest nor coerctve authority. In thts rnarrne r, clvl I socletv act's as a mediatOr,. or an "lntarmedtarv sector;" fEso!I'''/ing conflicts. between the state and th~: market;" Simil<LJly, PE.A~C.E says that the 1980~ context has tasked civil society ~Hh preservrnq the publk good by reconcl IIrig It with the pu rsult of self-


e rn-


l.lkewlse, the rise of NGOs is explained as the response


the demands

of the popu laue n due: to the: failure 'of the market and the state," We can presu me that present-dav societies wh ien went 'th roug h orthodox. so (I al is mand ;a~ G1 ow mcv i1'1 9 tnwa rd open market eco nom i-e s \I'll 0< U Id hav e ~hel f own svolutlcnarv process different from the Westl1!:rn i'ndustria,1 world and the rapltaltsnc eccnornles of the; Third World. is interesting to find out in 'these cases if {:iv~~ socletv wtl,~ be the active pushe r of a market socletv before been rnil"lg Its


critique. or conscience.

;Civil .Socie.ty: All Dpe~tit;inii'





vs, Civil Socie'ty

Other than the. state; and the market; other authors also distlnqulsh ctvtl soclety from the household. Civil soclety, says KRLJT, is a sphere of social inreractlon between the household and the state." AtE cites H£C;~l'S PhilQsophy of Right where: Hegecl describes clvll sodety as a moment of partlcularltv mediatlrrq between the UI'1 ity of th~ family aruithe universal itv ofthe state: ~n the sphete of eth real Ilfe." To RUE!SCHEMl:'r'ffi et 8,1., clvllsocletv represents "the totalltv of sccial i naritutiuns and assectattons, both formal and informal, that are not strtnly productlon-related nor governmental and fam iIial iII'I character.?" The exclustonof'the household from the public sphere is probably premised on the privacy and self-interestedness of family life ,But when confronted wrth issues tirkf! domestic vialence wh lch 1ncreasl ngly is seen as a public concern, and since the rami Iy is part of value formatlon important in promoting clvlc virtue, the boundary may be found artlflclal, likewise, in many developinq secletlss, families and clans an} formidable economic arid pal ltlcal force's.

Political P,artie.s vs. Crvil Society
For KRlJT, pOlliiti'cal parties are likewise outside of civllsocjetv, This may be becaus~ polltlca .. 1parties are agents ge-ared at seizing state power. Thus. th~y are the potential! state, or they actually hold state power. However, if polttlcal parties are treated as entities d lstl net from their leaders and with their own socletal programs, assoclational networks, and values, taking It away from civil society puts, i't in some kind of limbo. As an entttv independent of its members (who may be i n p®wer), it. cannot sJmplv be. co~llapsed with other state: lnstltutrons .. This is especially :~ru'!'in socjettes whel'(! -e.lectoral conrests are high Iy cnmpennve among par" ties and where pol itl cal parties emerged fromsccfal movements. In sll1gle.-party socialist states, 'the cornrnun lst party; on the other hand i is so pervasive. it encompasses both state and socterv I@ading to CRAMER'~ expressed d lffirultv in disti ngui$hing the state from civil' sccletv,

Armed InSI!uge!'iit Groups vs. Civil Society,
In many soclettes, i nsurgent gro'iJps add tothe rnllltjp~k.ilY of fo rces engage~ ln societal proCes.ses. Are thev also pan of clvll soc,letY? On 'the OrH! hand. Jt can be ar9u'ed that civi I society precisely precludes the use .of extremely coerclve rnearrs to eJfer;t changes. lif socletv I,S ruled by qu ns, as In a sltuanon of (.ivil war, them there is no civil society 1:0 speak of. Mon~over, armed lnsu rgem grew ps are effeclively cotJliltel'-~tate forces whose intention Ls to replace the state. They opera'(€ outSide of th~ ccnstltutlonal framework and. in cases where thtw have established themselves, act effectively as sovereign governments. On the other fund, insurgent gmupsare just like other lobby groups neqotlati 119with the state, With their own program of govern ment and'ideoh:lgy. The diffe-ren,ce ls that thelr bargain i rig power rests on their armed capability" ~mong others. They also operate wfrh In the realm of civil socletv ~hrough their leaders, o.rganize.rs and frorrt orqanlzatlons. And U "!'lil they are able. to seize political power and/or establtsh sufficiellt h!g'itimacy aJ5 the government, they rern.;jjn non-state actors, In 'Ehi::;way, 'they ".Ire part of the clvll soclety, although apparentlv, a very

fractured one.



IZ •



Inclusive vs, Exclusive View
imSCOllinting the controversial elements like the state" th~ market/business, i nSurg@l1t groups and political parties" what then ai'e the cornponents of dv~~lsoc.iety? vartc us authors have. enumerated sample elements rnakl rig UIP civl~ socletv; trade u t'iions.,.NGOs, bustness assoclatlons, sports clubs, cinema (I ubs, women's lnstltutlons;" or, in more g·,eirleralterms, structu res of vo Iuntary assocla tlons and networks of public commlnnk:ation.~3The book Eme·rging CivilSociet·V in the AsJa Pacific CommunUl·studiliuJ the spread ofNCOs, researr h i nstltutlens and phllanth ropk 9 rou ps it1 the region. As, sue,h, civil society was effectively equaled wl;th the "non-profit sector."


and vi rtues associated with clvll society are pi urality, diverand autonomy, tolerance. and community cooperation. These positive fea.tur~sassoclated with cMI ~odew imbue lt w~trl a normative: value, Thus, ccnservanve lnstltutlo ns-for one. schoo I of rhq;ug ht do not tn themselves belong to civil s.Qdety~ because more offer! than not they ara aqents 'of the status, quo that is wanting.


sity, individualitY

lin the svnthests of the conference on "Civl] Socletv Makif)9 Civil Soe-feW" organized by the Third World Studies Center In February i 997, w~ have labele.c;l this view as "exclusicnarv," DAVID'~ definition of civil society as the totality of voluntary. self-conscious organizations tMt intersect With, in fact contest the power of the state and tns lst 0 n a CtJlture of involvement in order to transform uneq UJI power relations~~ belo ngs. to this exdu sronary view, The 'same with Philippinebased Jesuit Fr. C/lJlJI:oL''siew of civil society as simply the organlzed cltizenrv v assen:ing Its self 'to advance land reform, health care am) .dll other issues that affect their lives. N In r,hese def mttons, only the transformatlve e'l@:rn@r'Its f ~O([o ety make u p civil society; moreover" they have to be' -self-consclo LIS actors, IiIOl merely incidental democrats or chanqe-aqents. '
A more tnclustvs VIew, on the other hand, lncorporates all lndlvlduals and insUtutions shortof the Slate and' its" various apparatus, It includes reactlcnarv and revoluttonarv groups. conservative and reformtsts individuals. Taking in the good with the bad, "it u suallv does not Imbue ctvtl sccretv with lnherentlv posntve qualities, After ail., who is to say who ls the good and who is HIE; bad? The resclut.ion of what isthe common good is, acmethinq that ls resolved by the: unfolding of the soclal and polltlcal process and sometimes, even history can't tell for sureBesides. don't allprou ps and ~ndivtdt.!a.r$.ciai m to speakfor the commonqood, {he people, and the 9'(meraJ welfare? In the inc! uslve view, civil society 1,5 thus the space where 9rQu ps of people live;$r the emif@ spectrum of assoclatlonal life;~8and the constellattons of power centers and countervailing fon:;·es,lgThose who sse the state and society as porous also belong to this more. i nclusfve view of civil society.

The inch.isive view lis usuaUy, althouqh not always, pred lsposed to have a more crnkal attitude 'to civil socletv, Cases have shown that civil scctetv when too ptural and to·o·colfifrontatlonil:!. can spell disaster. KDl'l80MS~K;li for instance, points .to !?:'Xcessive:p,luralinUon of present-day Polis h polity, and the inability of the rullnq elite to cope wi1;h the complex transltlon and lnstttutlon-bu i Iding as the causes 0,' the country's scclo-ecenomlc crlsls. In Po~and. he savs, civil society. groups pursued narrow h'lleresti rather than the common good:" Similarly" a study on the reinstltution of 'the so-catled Irndig,EmollJsPopulist Institutions in Uganda

ftlun.d it a ccntroverstat and h.liZardous ffiOVe uh.a~ cou~d fuel ethnic dtvlstcn and n~gatively affect central governmen[ 'hilllllc'Ucns_ It advised to apprnac n the reirlini'(u!ion cautiously to prevent muU!a~ d~s.~rust and the denial of aluunatlv@. liinkaQ'es to disenfranchtsed groupS:1 MAlAY cites the Ipermll:nen't lobbv of the Na& tlonal Rl~le Association in the Uni~ed S~ates as an e·;.:'trr,em>example of ~l1e demoe Y.l flilr'ir fu r1ct~ o,n 0 Fciv i I .$ och~'['1.·1

ObvIOlJ5ly. [Nil society groups do noOtalways ado~:n Hie same analvsts, posllion and nrategy regardlf'lga certain il1.su.eor paney. The uneven power, inffu nee and res eurces of CJ Iffe rem eIv11 society gro''i:.lps can also create ebstac les to lhi! forward movemem of 'lhle dem~crati~iniDii1 process .. [Business,. rellqlous lnstltutiOIiS, 'I he media and .1Iude-me, 'ror ~nS'larilCe.have !far more resources PQsa11 than do cemmunhies, NCO~ and p~OP~~5' orgarl~utlofU. and sund poles, ,UilU1 from the latter set 011 their po,I,'lcy Positions.

their d:ls·

they often

Au thus il.f1gues th~, the means by which eMI socu==w is supposed fa enqender de mocr ec y ITlay acru td Iv '1Ie,ad (01 h es til@' irn:.e rae CPO 1 s, vto !ern co n n ien a n d s ys1' ~Ilmlc breakdowns. In rhts sense, "how tivl I society relates to demO(folcy depends on the partiClLllilr way in wl1iij(h 1~]5 CfllSI,UlJu!d, Us 50clolrogy. Its economtr charactrariistiesl Its CIJII.lJl"eand normative strucrores. and Its Qogni[ive maps.?"

PiJ~t..Mod er n Vi BW
A slightly different concepn I!) 11 stresses II'l'Ol S() milch the parts but the broader social! sphere. Thus. civil sortetv IS. soeral Ii e. that aspect beyond the state and priv~te lnteresrs, that arena wl,e1f'l~' udi l'l1,ary pecp'le II'jv,f and act together in every( ~a.y Ilk. Civi~ society is the c:o,mmuli'luty ns~n aad the shared fe·e~~g of community n lpakiklpagkapw,aJ arnongiu members, U I~:S foCiEt€!d da'l"to-day and face-to-face. tn transscricns, but entails fr;.lt~mal orgamizatlo,ns. ceal Hans. etc., in any case, to address power relations. Il aspllres 'for the insUtutio nail zatlon of socletal processes and falrness in 'lieu of the rule oJ [power and monev_ ...

nlty'to prearnlnence ..The domain ofeverydav

Thls a. nd 'ot he r po n- m 0 dern vi,e'w S reseore Ih e

I1t\W ra llv-co nst I t uti ng co m m ulife provides; a ecuntes-publtc sphere,

apart from other o rg'a:niz,e!dforms of socla~ reiations. The post-modernist view, for me. helps us arnveat it batanced appre.da.tion .of the orqanlc whole and the assoclatlcnal gro'lJp.s, hat comprise rt5p.ar:ts: of [be lives crf ordinary people. 011 the one t

hand, and the s.elf~wmed gro~s,and

h'ldi'..... iolual's who on the other; ol.l'Id of cUllture as ft iruerpiavs wIth the heg.emol"ldc and CQunte~-he!:glemonk precesses. To ordinaryfu]!t, thIs

iuemp'r re change. ,SQciety. scoal and the politica;l in
be closerto home.

~ a fOfum In Bo he I 11lthe VIsayas, tI'hm pp in'H", we as ked partie i1J.a,rns to id en tj fy a n term in the 'Ifi.s·ayaJ'I hwg;lJ1lg@: 'that 'bi;S~ ·t'I'iI:(ollmp.u:ses thalr understanding of the. word civU SQci,t!ty and the imme.di.u:e 'Ii'e's,polise was ,b,rmngb.a:n, or communltv,


of civil

society-may indeed

Ope ration a'i Defi II'! ition
111 lH'Iderta:kiIl9 the Philippine DelmfbcfilfV Agellu:l,a, Projec1, W,I!! worked on the premise that ciVil 50cle'Ly ma.y be: de'Rliilledl as !i IPLd,Hc: sphere where autonomous group.s Sind individuals Interac.t W lh ,each lo~liIlr01'1 m'iIIlU!r5 of co,I'lective con ern. As an 21ena, ·Qne VIi'Qiuld ftnd. th- roilllo,w~ngi n1'~o:r ,gilll.lIP~lfIgs operating: r





NCOs (pFIV.l'Lte inltlatlves which provide welfare, lr'~n~ng; advocacy, afid other sarvlces te other 9raups~ • pecpla's Cli'~aniza.tiort~ (,re,pres'enting group Interests) ~ t~ligioll'; ~n!;m:utlC1ns
~,ademe: media bus! ness


• ~ ,.

politkal and sccral movements and p~rUes. and basic cornrnunltlas (imduding farnllles and dflJ)$) exception of the 'state, thls ccnceptlon


covers pracncallv

all other

gr~u ps. It can thus. qut:dify as lnrlustonarv,

grou ps and ldeoloqlcal fa rces fall in th is elabo ratlon and rs that they falll Lmd.e..rsO,cia'l and lpollitical movements, Tr-adijtiotlal and new/alternative political parties also filill unde-r scctal and political movements.

have bel:!n asked in d ifferent fm:a

o urresporrse

where armed revolutlonarv

M@anwhlile, w@ opted ferthe word business ratherthan market, In our-conceptlon, the market i 5 .an arena supertmposed on the worklnqs of civll society, while bustness refers to g;roups_.• institutions: and Irritiatlve:i within civil scclety arid

the market that operates wilhin. Iii thp$ .sense, clV'l~ society i ncludes but is riot llmlted to market relations. Ma.rket relations can not b-e artificia,lly detac hed from civil So,Ciety, nor from the state as we'll. .

By unciudtnq basic: cornmumnes as a distinct catgg~ory U nder civil society, we the. contrtburlon of the post-rnodernlst view;. Indeed, we b~tieve. the community ernbcdles a 5L'?'t of relations that cannotsfmply be collapsed with other tnstltutiorrs or movements. The post-rncdern view ol.l&o hi'ghltgi1ts the aspect of etfuilkity and cutture which are usuallv drowned out by title VOices of 'the more dominant, more orqanlzed groups. '


Other soclettes have their own culture arid hlstoncal development, Hope.· ftill,y, this operational d@firrr't-ion would provide sorne of the para'(r'lIHerS 'for examinl ng their, own dernocratrzatton processes, and the' roles thelr respective cTviI
society groups actually or potentially play ..


Adam PrzeworskL atal., SU-5l<lii'ifitileD'emo'c~<lty CC;ambridge,: C:~mbrild.gfl Unlwrsity Pre··ss·,199'S), 'p. 56, 2 Rava fi<rut, NGO ,lflfhl!aI1C~ In Irl,[:errlOlt{6rJ<'If Deets/on Makirw {Geneva: LIN Resi!!arch Ihstitu.~ for Social DeVe!r;;'Dttumt. 199,7}. pp, 2.7.. . .,
3 In Raben H_Wilso'l'l!atlcl R~it:l Cramer (eds.), lnMm~tjon a l workshop on GovernancE?, nllrd Ann!J'J!llm· c(n~dings (Texas: lIniversiW·of Texas, 1'9~7), p, 38. 4 R~!d Crame'r, ·Ovil So.do€tJ!"atId Accountabllltv; An Exploration of Rival Di!!finiHoM," WII~nn and [ramer. 'S Karina DavId. "Intra-Civil $(lcl:ety Re:l,atioFl~; /.I. Synoptic P;;lper,' p<\P'~r presented a:Lthe CQorrf~:r@n(e en Civil ::;[)ci~W M<\ll::ing Civil sodety ilrR<lnfz.£!.d by the Third W.o'rld 5'llu::!nes C~I1.tf!r. D:avao c:~ty. Fehruary 1997 . ,5~e Phifrppj ne Uerrwcracy AgenQil, vel, ::I ,), 6 .l~F1r1y P@'1l:rre'. "CIVil S<Qci,{!ly;T:rlck o,r Trnat?' The Spoke~milfJ6~3 (l9.'97), 7 ~ee lJavid C. xorten. Liming w zhe 21 s! C@ntury, Vo/.t./Illary Action <lnd tM Clob;j/ Agenda (C;onhe(;tlcut~ Kumari::!." P-ll1!~s.~f1c.! 1!:l90}; also Alan Alegr.:e. , (eO), Trends: ;rna Traditions, Charler,g~~· arid Cnorc·f;!:s,. A Strlu:glc Study of Philippine Nr:;().5. (QU~ZDI1 City.: l\tan4!!O Center far Soclal Policy and Public A.ff~irs,


NGOs as <t Key ~Q,D~\Jel(JpiIHJ I'Ii1:aC€ CbnSlilWI1('ie.s In the New t:aH~rn Demqcra~~',' P8a es :and SI!!GJfUy :2 9 (M.att h 1997): 3)'_ 1,z CL~te(llilT~dti~hl Ya(n:lim~w (ed.,), £mer_glng Civil S(:)ti~ry in th~~,5i.l Pat.ific Comm~tI1ity (Sirlgaparf! ahd ij@kyJ;l: '11"I~_N\tI~fi; Cfr-s,QtI the"'~t A;')~ani Stl.!~l~~b~.('ij9 Jap.m C(l;nt~ rfQr In temMI'<)l'ial cMilang e, 1995}. lAJ~e, Third Werkl S~Wldi~~ enter, Tfre L~1:I9uOlge.ofOrg~nl?l119.A Cu[.debOQk fo(FiUpl(Jp"Org'4f!I;Jer~· (ClQe<::(ln C

10 I~~~\ p~'r-~,

8 ·Krut.p;p. e. HI', 9' Ih'fd:, p, 11,

11.\~nW ~lI.~i.is, "lllh~Qer



1~ Arm~hdci

,~ a;~I;d,

"qn Sm;ne Oi!lviitl'U'S b.;;;ynwrUIls.," ,!(asatin/iUl '!j;2 (4lil .Q\Jp.r~e·r. 1 ~~4); 6·2, I~ I1I~re 'I,IS~th e Weberl an dilfinmtm of th~ S~aJ~e!1,$ J b [;J rQQULf<!tic -, < Jomi is lr.9'tivr!: .urrit -J q;i wn t!!fri ~dt)i ,w;itt) tli(f t,l!:gitit]l1.ilk! <t!J~hOfit~ to p05tes5 a:i'ld rnobllize ll1e I,Jn~or ~nei<l:;r(Jf'I Hl'itd v~det:lce_ The: ~t;'l.te Inch.idg~ Ov,liIr~n.anJdmilitary aqepc~e-~ that make. tip thl't gov@rnment system, as-well as the judicial and l~gT~btjvl!,'b rant I~Q§.


S, M~fiay, Jr:,


rl d

Sttn::liIlS. CIi! F1ter.o






, 7.~f'inai.~~j It:.Cirb'pn~~~; "H9-.....MlIch 15 En'OUJ~? E)::ce~slvePlurali~m a:~nla. CdUS'(;!: l1PMat'ld's o C:rr.s)~ ,·lr~t~rnatjD'I1.~f fiDHt/cal 3tient'~ Revl,Nv I? s 9·6) :2'98,



18 Pear.clfl, nj:r; '£12, 94, Ht~m~;tti3Elf.~)i,kl!.M..iWd';.~1:'I~denti~i{!s: I-Io~ MiS(OIl.,cePtiCins of rt··~I~ti'Q"s · &etwe:el'1 'Q~mocracv,· Civl~ SOt'i~~V. '1(n'i:)GQllem annlo PevOi:I we [)e,tlro ~~a().y,. w! I s 0 n a:rlcl.~r<;Lln(!r • ..2.e R(l'itl~e·~ Ibafla, 'jl~:l;n,g: Mahlwakat1l9 iF'8;tm:ncaw.·s;\ Te.ory1l.at F!i3,gpaf'l.~hlpad sa f\i.fil~1 ng .,Civij Srcme.tv 0 IKaJlt.illnaFi ng)mga Kwrai:lfcwOLf'Il')lKapwOl.·lau. (KJ;lt() ~·a pj'o~:e~o !'I.9 D~.mokr.aH~a.syDllsa Pilipinas." p<op1tr p r~'e~1~;cl'l!;llnl! Co~f~rE'm::e,'oh .Gvi II Sociillty' M<lki!'l'g CM~ $0 del y 0 rg aMIied bY. rha Th Irei Wrlfld' ~tu'ElIf!:j. .r.:~nler, DavO;lioCI lY, f ehruary. 1M 7. (5 e8 Phifippina D@moc-rZ!cy Agen.d;;:, vel, 3.)

"-21 Ibid ~:2.0t~d in liHliia.
"·2B r(:r.~e7_ i1'l'A'i!<e" ,~S M~~II.Y; ~6 W'.~ne ctt~d iri Cram~:r;' ~ee '<Jl~Q At:lhlli'Qrn/S.~ibe! i,n Weiss. ' 27. p·~art~{P', .94, ,2tE,.l)',t KUiti n 990) cited in Wei s.s, p.3 B.



flIlQ Democl'<lCr

il 1 [}i@lriCh I~uesuhe.m~y·er,CapitalisUJ.welopm.em


.;w ·1l'~lI:rdL
~3! ~rat~ml ~994 (·ita.:;! :1 Krul, n ~,IfYam am oM , ~fCi, ~h6\
~511lId_. 0% 'CiH!d


~J Ib~fl~h

ss P8'ar£ie:


:4 0 ~:orbiJrlski:, P'P. l'!M. j·OO. -, lC0mfr1,~ms by Ri~I:I~C;GI iJi<yala.-M<J.kiik-a ~, M ~2 III 1:t:I'i, p_ Ifjit

In Wlts.on an.d Cramer; p. 40.

,44 IIli'aiia,

Becomi ng a FiIipi no Citizen

Perspectiv,es oil Citizenship and Democracy

More than a decade

after the

d,e,mQcracyinto a more rneaningfu'l way of life remai

lertging task, EquaUy challe.nging

Marcos dlctatorshl p, tran slati"ng 11~ the: Pl1m pplnes' most (hal1$ the: tas k of redef n;~ng the 1"0 I.e5, of citiae 115 in

0 Lister of the

particrpatrpn i 11 decls lon-makinq andg reate!' access to bas lc g,f citizel1sl1 i p. WI1He there is no q uestlon that cltizenship and democracy are 11 igh~y valued, the ranqe of 0 pin ron on what (hey entail, bot~h COtTc~prua.lIyand eperartcnaltv, is broad. As described by MAe.CH and OLSEN, "~erTrocra,tic tradrtrcns iirlVQlve ill. richly evojvi rig collection of diver's~ hel lefs, pro.fe&S~S'1and structu res. that .<lJ@ neither eas i Iy characterized in concise terms tlOf $ummarrzed in a .sin.gle svsterrtatk philosophy of gow'mance.'" D'iversiW being a welcome featur~ of demccracvthe slH:~es.s of democratic in lttanves by both c ltisens and ,government rests nonetheless on a shared understand i ng of such con-

s~rvkes and- the benefits

the:"context of-their

'Options and

cepts as, democracy and cltlzensh i p, 0 r atleast mearunqs. "

a rnutuallv acceptable

ranue of

able to exerrlse their rights and nbl igati.ons. ~ In understand I ng how d@'l1'IoCI'<lt<::V ;;l,riddtlzenshlp operate in .the realm of both thought ~JH:J action, the broader project obj€tt.ive was to draw up OJ. set of measures that could enhance the practice of ·tiHl~nship and democracy at different levels of socletv and social interaction.
There :is some e.v'id'l;ru:ethat s,uggeslS that certain perceptions of citizenship more co mmon than others, For exarnpte, majority of-the reo s,polldiet'lts i n the. 1994 Survey on Contemporarv Phillppi ne Values professed Iovalty to and I,Qv@of (01.1 mry (bpth anrlbutes of cftLzensh:ip) In terms of svmbohc -gestU,res5uch as standing .ar aHerltion when the national anthem i~ played. - The survey also Ina lcates there 'Is !'lgreerne.r1t on some of the o~~g.,aliQns of citlaens,
and dernorracvare

The awareness and understanding of self and community are both the foundation of.democranc pracnce and a result of it. The Philippine Democracy Agenda ju?Jecr was undertaken preds@ly to determme, amollg others, the percepttcns of citizen.ship and democracy iii Hllpl no pod iHeal culture across social sectOrs. arid. glitlUps. The. project worked on tha prermse that citizenship and democracy are frrntrin.sic:ally linked, but fully aware that In practice. the two do not always go hand-in-hand. Indeed as PRZEWijRSKL points out, and which 'the researc h findlnqs confirm" the prasence of demccrattc lnstftutions is. 1110 gtlarantee that :r:hizem an~

such as awareness

of co mrnu nity affairs, and payment Of t<;l.x.e,5. But there are areas

of marked d ivergeflce i.n oplnicn,

such as the neads of -the family vts-a-vls those

PHILIPPINE DEMOCRACY AGENDA Demot:nu::y a.n d Citi:z'ill'lshi:p in Fi Up hUll Pol ili cal Cu ltu roe

18, • MARIA



of the larger Phitlippln~ society and the treatment of public property. Some of the areas in which the diff.erences emerged I t1 the 5lJl'Vey also surfaced in the De moeracy Agenda project, Notably, these account for some of the very issues that underptn or dlOl,III€!ng@: the effectiveness of democratic values, practices and ~rlstit'l.:ltlons in the ccunnv, as this paper wi II show.

A conference

was held ln 1Ri3!.gu loon

i1-,22 September

1 996,

in which


papers. on the perceptions o-f citlzenshlp and democracvtro m various vlewpo i nts were presented for disc usslon. Two of these were overview papers wh i le the rest wer~ case stud les of specific Institutions or sectors of soc iety, Nearly 50 participants from' d'iffer'~rit parts of the CO UIntry. some' he:lon9i'll,g to. or-gani1zarions and





the conference,

The partlct pants were organ lzed into nine. workshops to dtscuss ~h·erole of the fcllowl ng in th-e co nceptual and value formaricnof C'lti2ensl'lip and democracy: 'farnl Iy. school, chu rches, indigenqus cornrnun itles, b,IJsine.s.sand workplace, government, Je~,lalsystem, I'l1!l!dla,and NGOs. In gel1leral, the questtcns as ~ed of the paper writer~, arid ths worksho p parrlclpants owe lied not on lyon perceptlo t15, but on vai ues and baltsf systems, practices ami structures in the family, the WQ(k· place and other sectors that reinforce or contradict the ideas and exercise democracy and responsible citizenship. The exchanges In the. workshops, the


plenary discussions as well as the papers presented during the conference as-the primary basts of the analysis dlscussed here.


Perspecthl'es on Democrucy

and Citi:z.ensh.ip

AmM!;j theterrns used. by theconference workshops to eescnbe democ racv are empowerment of the peopJe, consultatlon, popu lar dectslo n-rnakinq, total de-


delivery of services, fair and i rnpartlal system .of justice, and accountwhich the

of public officials. The attnoutes

elated with democracy are respect for the rights of others, COnC~n; for their welfare, unity, jusnce and equity. lin essence these descrtpncns boil down to two
Its distribution lin society, the: re'lations that and the responsiblltnes invo lved in the exerc lse of po,wer; and the fru Its of power - its moral d imens-ion and pu rpose, powerrelated sets of concepts:




result from th~ pattern of d inributioR,

the benefits that accrue from a just or- unjust dlstrlbutton eficiarh~s at 'the receiving end.

of power, and the ben-

TI1 us of the four elements of the democratic vision' surnmarlzed by MARCH and OlSEN,'" three were am~med by the study, namelv: the commitment to indlVidual freedom andthe persons n~sPQosibility in the exercise of thls freedom; the

concept of popular s.ow!r@ignty and pcdit.ica.1eq uality; and the necessltv of a leg~1 system to ensure stability and protection from arbitrary acts and declslens. The. fourth element, the be lief irn th~ power of human ratio t1ali[y,irn partlcular, its abjli.ty to influence- the cou rse of human events, was implicit in the conference disCUSSfOI'!lS.

S~e.veraJworkshops, for lnstance, stressed the need for moore dlaloque, deeper analysis M Issues, and thou9 htful dellberatlon in the resolutlon of problems. and conflict.


Redistributive Democracy

'dse:s' hi viil.vor of the rno neyed. Both I n the works hops and Hie pie-naN sessions. 't'ht p~rt,ci pants linsfSte:dthere was far more to democracy than the ballot. Indeed, thlefiHlJ'~ places in the country where vO'ring means v ery little. The more dominant Vi·ew expressed Jn the conference was that democracy Is a process: fundamenta:lly a way of life, a means of relatt ng wlth other lndlvlduals,
srare, and
<Ij ceuecttve process otdecislon-maklnq erty, soclal justice and -eq uny.

Moreoyer, while re'cogn [zing the role of elections and other fa rrnal mec ha11 mS'l tb~ wnf@!~nce. participants is we re .crttical of the in herem blas of thecse exe r-

9 m LIpS and {fie
p~Hticai lib-

til order teattatn




demob"rhcy, in ccntrasctc the elite. model which the conference rejected. It is ItltE'fE:Sting note that in theirewn words, the cunference parnctpants dascrlbed ·ej(·ac.tly how pC11'itilcailtheorists. d lsnnqu ls h l;letwe,enell~t.e at'ld parttclpatc rv demouri!iy, tOHr~~ and AMTO. fOJ .exampie·i,ex.p~aifl that tn elite dernocracv, the "true function of the vote is simply to, c hoese am-a ng the bid s for power by pohttcal "elites and t·o.<lcce.pt leadership", whe reas In panictpa.tory democracy. "what makes for good leaders also makes for good I; ltlzens - active partlcrpanon in ru Ii n'Qand being ruled and also ln public will and opinion formatton.:"



prefe rred mode of


The conference as a. whole malntained that democratic processes' work 0 n d iffe.rent<planes. Fa rexarnple, '[he wo rkshop on i I1digenou.s cornmu nitles pointed out two levels of activity: irldige~nous 0.- tradhlonal democracy, which ls practiced "without tneorv". (that 15 to say', wir!h PC!- written laws)" and Western-deriVed de'mpcracYr wi~h '~lectioi1ls and a whole ga~m~t of coded laws and. poHtiul msntu ti9n~,~1n.~igetlol!~ practtces democ racy were de5crrbe'!d ,as pragmatic (:i .e., prob1I'!m-dri,ei~ted), parth::i'p·at.ary. represematlve.and with a clear ssn s~ of the. common goold" serne of the: very eh!t1H~I'1.t$ which the conference part~c'l pants feu nd to be missing in tcdavs formal demccracv


Furttlermore,tne results of the project indica-te a strong preference for redistrii;ll.lt,jve and developmental modes ofdemocratic governance as defined by MA,RCH and O:LS~N.~ The first emphasizes gO\iem ments res po nslbl Iity ("0 effect a me re equltable distribution of resou rcesand capabl Ilues. From th~ polm of viewqf the cMference parrtclpants, land, mcomeand w~altll ara the most crucial talf'"gets. for ·redhstrlbuticm. Without r~d lstributlve measures, there. wi II .alway.s be. obstacles to the e,xe·rci~e. 'of rights and the pra.c~Fceof democracy; The second, th~ developmental mode of g6vemal1ce, highl'i.ght5 government's role iln shaping a j ust sectetY by "crearl t1g and sustaln i FIg a shared cultu re of demccrattc val ues and habitS.",7 The cu~tl!r'iI'l aspects of democracy figured pm rni'ne mly in the co nference cli.sc.us:s·i6ns citizenship and tts attendant norms and values. on
Idlentlity and

a Sense of .Belonging
by conventlon. is the most basic 'Identification with the. nation
the state

and its' exarsssicns tn law and policy. Gsner'atlYr i'lowE'!vert except perhaps a.mong ·the pol ttlclans and gov~mmern offldals interviewed in one case studv," a legalistic framework of c;it!ze.l1ship did not fi'g'ure str·ongly ;lmong the perceptions identified ill the proj!.!u. lnstead, cltlzenship was frequ~ntly dsscrtbad in terms of attributes associated with bel,angling to a larger cemmunttv, and of processes by which citizens negotiate th~ nature and
and as such, is .orn~l1ted towards


extent of their rignts as indivlduals and theh obligdi.tioil1!s 'to th@ cornrnun ity, In this sense, therefore i the perspective of citi:;::ens hip ap pro xi mates that of MARCI! and OLSEN, who look upon (iti~ens.h,i-p as "an tdentttv deflned by a bu rid le of rights and duties and by .an awareness of others in a slrnilar PQSrtiofl,""
Fro·ma. normative po,irn of view, [he qualtties Clfdtizensh~ p suggested by the conference are hone~w, loyalW to the larger cc'ti101'unity, .collecrtve pride€!arid nationa] identity. It is Tt1te:r~slin9 that th€s~ p:ttrib!.lte~> were .3Inlong."1I;e ,ejght clusters or values pl'Otred into. by (he I 994 NSO,4\,le neo survey, Aithoug h these. <lJ@ the norms comm OJ rHy us ed tad e scrl D~ c ~Htet'l ship, partlc i'p:ants i 11 'the oS tLu;J W ffe red y

from. theusual perceptlon in rwo respeers: fir~t, I n their conceptton of the- com· munitv: and second. i ntheir assertion that citize nship .ernbodies net just ohl:lga· rlons but also fiyghts;. . common
T'h<e"larger comrnun itv", which ls the convenrlo nallvaccepted SOiU rCe of a. i:dentity and the foca~ poiflt of a citiz.-en's I~oyallty, rs the nsnon. CQnfeJenee pan:ki.panis, however, wt!re:.ilns lstent that the local cornmu t1i~y. too, deserves a place in the citizen's nexus of loyaJw, pr~di;. and tdemily. The. reasons far the ex·panded' deJinitionl stem large:iy from the: dlfflculuesencounteredi FI identifying wi~h ;;i"ostrac:tion such as the nation. 1i'I ccntrast to the more concrete re.. al'ity of the 1rnmedtate commun iWI n ~:ome i'nM~nceS:, as the. s ubse,q.uent disc u ssion will s;tlo.w,the two ccntllct With each other, 'AlsO', in some parts of the cou i'my (pep haps, ion more places than we would care admit), 50C tal afA'liat10n is. !Tl'W Iti~ layeres ,i n wn~ch ~d€rnincajt~.otl with the fa'mily or dan lies clcsest to the heart,



.;IJ!d identification

wlth the Fil i plno, farthest away..


Furthermore, whereas. the nsual notloa of cttlzenshlsemobaslzes the person's duttes as taug ht nome and in sc hOD!, and often Invoked bygoveJr'ltner:ll, PZfrticrpants- ill the project asserted the body ofef1tit~ements (ilizen5 enjoy (or oug hit to e'njoy) alcnq wlththelr respon'sibi litles. The typicalirtil,age of a gCiOd citizen is the tax-D,ayitlg citizen, the:' hpnest voter, the- driver who obeys traffir TU les (a ra,r,lty


out in defens€ of the votcetess, respects the envlronrnent, nea:ts w-pmen a,nd men eq;ual~y, and S,Q on. The em.ph~;5iis buikli~ga sensebf community,. with its accorn pan V'Irig body of rights and obl i.grations, is therefore the b€d rOC k of Lftizen·


Bur-a g60.0 ctttaen is abo one who asserts his or her righl~., speaks


shfp. Conference participants abo lin ked the. practice of s,ha.rrrlg to 'the: concept of steward's hip ln the care and management of reseurces and the environment,

EHecfiv€! Citizenship

in Demecrney

procedures (such as the branches of ga:vemmel'l'[, how laws are made}; wh kh are the subject of civics class, BtH the mo re pro-active approach, wh k:h the CQ nferenceadcpted, is to view cltizenshlp, ill one case study, as "a deolo.c(c\cvof a del tberatlve process."

Ftn.a1Iy. the project aJf~rm~ "the basiC Ifnk betweer1 cttlzensh i IE) and dernorracy. The more trad hio na I: t rae:Ik e S pOIiJ d by perscn 5 i n au th Q rity ~gcve:rn m €! nt S€ leade rs, school teachers) has been to focus on formal gave rnrnent structu res and i FI. the words

of-a busl nessrnan intervlewe:d shared values and understand i n-g-s thrGll~ h . . Hence the: t.'!mpl1<1s ill th i's paper onthe democratiii.!'Tg is


of citizenship.



Partidpanfs in the research cited several examples of pro-active: cltizenshlp, which can be summed up in ~WQ carecorles. The first deals w.ith i nd,igenous. day" to-day practices of dernorrarvand decision"maki 119 in cemmunttles wl'i~re formal

government mechanisms, and elle,cted offlclais mav or may J1IO~ exist. These cornmu'nitie,s· selecttheir own leaders conduct their own ccnsultations with cornrnunay members and :'ii~ttle.disputes with9u~ recourse to the courts. 5 well assertions of power by the cornmu nlty, even [hough tMey are hot defined as democrattc In th~ formal sense, are exercises of democracy from the- standpoint of popular decision-making. They, reo, constttute the. practice of cittzenshtp as defined by members of the cornm unity.

The second (ah~gory conslsts of i nttiattves, taken by orgallized g;rotJps or sectors who engage in formal democratic processes, ro also explore other venues
of expression and d,lterllative soluuons. The'~e actions are ClftM made when citlzens feel thej r rig hts or fnte:res!s are th reatened. Trade un ion workers in{erv'rewed in one ·.t:a:sestudv of the Ie:gai syste:m learned from thei r experience that l!egal methods alone wen~ not S"uffl~:j,er1tto win thelr case illi court. " Slnceaceess to the gr~ased with money, which the workers d,ld not have, they decided to rally in the streets. in order to gain an additional venue ofadvo-ca.ty. "No (street) rally, FlO (court) decision" became their battle cry. The workers won ·their· case (though no final dectstcn has vet been made owinqtc 'the. endless rnund of appeals by management) and ·.attributed their victory to the concerted acttons thev took outside the h.!'didaf system. As the case study concludes; "deep ilnthe: r h,~art5,tt1,e raspo ndents were aware 'that '[he key to thetr vlctorv I,ay out-sid~,the narrow constraints of the COlJ,rts,"" . Cltlzenshlp the refora involves a :set of QbH9at.i.ons on boththe part of cttlzsns and of ,[hI! state, Had the. workers not come- 'together to asse n their rig hts arid pressure the state (throuqh the [udlclal system], for example, to carrv out its .d uty 'to prctect the rig hts or its citizens, the y,~rv idea of cttizenship would have become useless, or i naffecrual, -t_enshilJ Is not effective, there Making crtlzenshlp

courts is normally


And; asa pollticaltheorist concludes, be 110 real derno-cracy.'-' then! is, the work of government

where dtj·
and' of crti·


zens, On the part- of govern rnent, the (o·riferel'lce :?iressed the: need for public
arcountabtlrtv; which involves 11()t merely taking re5PoFls,ibility for one's acts but conducting oneself accardil'lg to democranc ways and beliefs. Cove rnment, too, must apply the legal system equallv '[0 all. Just' as i mporrant, rt is goverriment's respcnslbllltv to ensu re that thesocial requisites for the prachi:@ of derncc racy are present: a decent standard of livin9'.employrrll~nt educatlcn, health and other services, and access to opportun ity to r I mprovernent and a better lIf.e,

ernment, and aoplv pressure, when necessary,

On the part of citizens, the conference emphasized the need to perform 'their Obligations and exercise their rig hts, ln order to strengthen thei r cap:adty to carry these out, the .p'e6ple. must organize at va,;rious levels ln the cornmu n1ily, the workplace, ac:cprding to rhelr social sector, by gender and so on. Collectively, they can map out and, implement their plans, Ilegot~ate' with other ernmes il'lCIl u'dit'l9 govto

br.ing about the desired change.

Moldi.ng nSen5e of Community Tlhere are, however, other percepttons of dbizenship and democracy which [he partldpants reco.gni:ced and criticized. On,e is the vrew that good dttze n ship


being able to do what one warl,ts 10 do as


as no one is hurt lin rhe.





process. The J 994 survey On Philippine values alsn reflected this p-erception. For
lnstance, respondents were dh/id~d on 'the ques,t.i,on of concern for the problems

of others when they have their own difficulties 'to contend with. The extreme version of this perception is total lack of concern for the other (wa/ang pakiaJamaff),
which the. confarence The consrrucnon found antnhettcal togaod


of identity

and a sense of belol1ging

several points of view. From the: standpoint of-democratic qovernance, the ide ntltv of c:i\izMship is the verv base of colleetlve actio [1, a shared vision, the means to a sustal nabla future, aild the. lin k to generations of cltizens yet unborn, From that tile person relates herself or himself 1tO a .group of others who also see themselves as Citizens of a larger politY. Group fderllhy the n serves as "a cog'll ~ttve. and motivational basis- for the elaboration of beliefs and be.havior."L1
th€! sectal p'.sydologica.1 perspective,
the il1ldrhlidual's claim to dtizenstJ i p Fl1'eanS


thus crucial


Bui!lding an ldentltv has three main concernsrtnstrurnenral, if! which cittzens and officials. act in accordance: with rulesand ~dentities conststem with arid SUp· pcrtive of democranc processes: moral, In which values arid b~:lilefs embody and reinforce dsmccranc prlnclples: and transformatlve, which encouraqes. the process of "self-retlectlon and redol1'!fi11 of lndtvlduals, lnstltutlonsand ltlon ccmmu nlties." I', In all three concerns, several. factors. s,imultaneoustv come: i nto ptW at various levels: the level of the individual, the tnstltutlcn r and the comrnun ity to which the individual belonq s.

II cHvidual Attitudes n

and T~aib
oointed out ccntractcttcns in 'the ev-

Several of the- conference

eryday behavior of-some FilipInos. Filipinos bathe daily and value cleanliness in the horne. for instance, but many throw ci9'aren-e butts and other garbage il1 the streets, FHipi nos wllJ hel p 0 wi w~thout question in an err'!e,r'9@!ncy but may be

non between seif-lnterest and the good of the communtty; which also su rfaczd in the 1994 values survey. The re::;pondents were divided!. fer i nstance, on the 'lues"
tton 00 caring fer public property
(9 lith as

indifferent to violations

of human righ'ts. This dualtsm. highlights

the ccntradic-

care shou ld be taken hl the same way they care for th~ir own possessions."
Accon:Hng 'to some of the conference partlcipants, tile negative trans that re,inrorce ttl Is dualismare the excesslve desire to 90 alotlg, with one's peers i n order to belong or be accepted (sobrang piikikis<],ma), subservience and lack of concern for the public good. On the other hand. there are positive tralts that enhancea sense of community, sl.!ch as caring for others ~f)afJiingap), sympathy. in time pf need 0 r' trouble am:c1ydn), and a basic respect fa r elders and social ins titut ions.

tollats, bulldinqs)

and 011 whether



The case: swdy Dforgai'lized labor in Davao notes the tendencv of w-orkers 10 passlve, )J'They normatty do not exerdse their riqhts unless their mterests are threatened by', either thelremployers or the state. The Study flnds that "under normal ccndltlons, workers are obedient ~nd law-abtding. They bel leve ,.• tll'1ey must follow ma,r\agement poHcJes, be law"abiding and loyal to thegovernment .. :' Some workers., aacordtnq to the study •.actually lnvokethel r -right "not to partjctbe.

pater'f even in matters that affect their welfare.

they are: changed by events that sweep a survey of elementary students' ldentlftcatlon with the nation .$Ihowed 9. low leve I in ]982 d url nrg martial law. and a high level in 11986
Hut attltudes do changle. Sometimes

the nanon, For tnstance,

after EDSA. I~ Not all national events, however,



an overwhelminq

c har-

acterand even when th>ey do (such as the cases of overseas domestic workers :Flor Contemplaclon and Sarah Balabagart), dH~,lr i mpact does not always mU1scend rtl@ leval of public sympathy Of emctlon that they Invoke"
chanqed by involvement i 11 servlce-orleriten actlvlBusiness for Social Pm.g ress observed that the 50(121,1.development projects of the bLl5IrH~SS commLinity (such (!.s- <\sS-lsting' cooperatlves, starting up' cnmmunitv-based llvelthood projects) affect 1"10t only the benefici~uy commu nity but also the bustness sector itself,sometime$ to the dismay of business. As h@_.xpla,ined: e Othertimes attitudesare

ties, The. chalr of ths Phllippine


ill a poor communltv

affects the- traditio hal pow~r structure,

·Socral credlt llmlts the dOl.tof

villa9'e usurer, Direct rice 'tr<ld~l1g by a coeperativa raiMl:>, real Income aJIld does away wl'tth mid(H~nTe.ll. B~]t when YOli foster entrepreneurship and self-reliance, YOLI foste:r also ~he d@sin,! forself-datermlnatlon. The community may press (jack .again·st the buslness 'S.eCtor when, s.ay, th'L;lneeds of t'1'i@ [andlass farmers dash with the oQje:ctive~ ·I)f · . ~I I'Iarttatterr econonrles. 'B,ecalJseef this, he concluded, member-firms of the tcundanen are lncreas-

Ingly compelled 'ttl, factor the soclal costs-and soctall mpact of their bus Iness into thetr daclskms. This, is a welcome change from the prevalent im'a9~ of cold-hearted business firms run so~~ly by the logic. of pr,o<fit. But ~t b; a change HUH is, also
bro1Jght about by an organized

than not, tile companvs
that the community

offers by business to swe'eten lnstltutienal Factors

community's asseruon of its ii nterests, More ofte n ccnslderarton of soclal facto rs will stretch to the exre nt is orqanlzed and prepared to abide by irs pcsttion despite.

the deal or d 1.111 local reststance.

The value component

of identity co nstructron is shaped by .socletal age.ndes,

that enter the life of the i ndlvld ual from chi ldhood all the way through t:he rest of the persons life. The lnsntuttcns which Influence the V<1.hJ~S of cltlaensh i p and democracy are the fami'I y; ch urch, school', media,goverfl me Fit and, I t"Kf@d.Sdng,liy, non "government and people's cHganiz.1Holls.

The research shows that FiI lplnos do net usually acqu i re a-sense of tratienal love" discipl lne and respect 'for elders.Lut notions qf comrnu nity ate conf ned to the fa.mily and th~ concept of public go.ad te nds to be left out of ran-lily values, However, certain family practices do support democratic values, Fanl'ily rules and detision~ are tempered by bargaining (bigayanj, tt1 us giving rOO m fa r t]egol~a:tiOrl, R.ules.als.o tle,lp the young learn to'respectand Iive. with others. The role of women
in urban and ~ura.1 farnl I lesls also changing- for the b@UN. B,ut g-ellerall.y,sodalizatlcn wlthln
~t Is

Identity from the bmily.

Children are tauqht: the basic human values;


he nestv,

the famllv does riot include the notion of cornmun ft.y or narron.


mot definiu~ whether and to what extent authoritarian


i I'i the

'family relnforceor run counterto democratic Is a necessary element of I!living in community

values. On the one hand, dtsctpline with others and social responstbtl-




ify, a fou ndatron of comrnun ity I ife. On the other hand, the assoclarton of goodcness with obedience (ang mabaft ria bst« ay mesunurin; may become a factor that I mpedes independent thought, which chndren normally express by til i Irlking out arid even differirng with 'the opinions of elders. The case in Bukidncn tends tosugg-est., tho-ugh somewhat tentatively, that authorltarlan practices in 'the fam~ly have not heloed meld demorratk values ..N .
loud, asking questions study of rural families What is clear, though, is that pa,.rI; of-the reason why Fil:U"pinoshave difficulty In deve I (I pi 09 as ense of com rn un 'ity and the p ub lie goo dis the p ri mo rd ia,l n,E\W re of kinship affillatlon tn the PI1iHppines. Put in another way, the. Filipino ramily i5 so strong a social u nit that all other soctetal entities. and obligations pale in cornparison, The fa,mij.~yis .also tile most basfc, and in far tOO many cases, the only welfare agoen.,.ythatcares for Its sick, sends itschl1dr@;n to school, and so on. It should then be M surprise· that the family.

more rhan thestate,




lovaltv and afflliatron of its members. Why be loy~.I to an entity that does

nut help you,

comes to you ontvwhen

it needs you

r Vote?

On the other hand, extreme faml IV 'ti'e~are un ~leahhy for democra:t:y, The studv refers not just to the oft-repeated example of farnily dvnastles in politics and business (and some trade unions), but to ·the more fundamental quesuon .of build ing a ·sense of communltv outside of ~he family. For ons. there is the seem11'1gin-abi I.Ity of the FlIi pino to care fa r the "anonvrno us stranqer,' l~ 1n marked contrast to the ease with wh~d1 support isextended 'to those QI1e per~olla~lv knows =, From file potntof view of citizenship arnd democracy, the dflnger 1$ dear. Injustlce comes to be measured in terms of 0 FI'e's' relation tel the vlctl m, lf'the vlctim is publ idy known, as in the case of Ninoy..Aq ulno, or cernes to be ""OWIl, as in the case of Flor Contamplaclo n, public empathy and solidaritY can be expected. But not ijf the victim ls unknown. Also in the family, arenas of fa:rriily (pri,vare)' interest and public (national) good are h,lgh'ly demarcated, as the study of some u rban middle. class farnl lies In Quezon (tty SUgge.sts.~! Since hardly any ccnnectlon ts. made between Hie two, the tendency Is to advance the family interest and iQll'lore th~ public good. or \'Veigtr the public good i n terms of how it will benefit the fa~~~y wijfno1ufregard for the effect om 1Q1;hers In the COLI ntrv or the cornmu nity. The '994 su rvey on val ues confirms this flndlnq. Close: to 80 percent of the respondents a9 n~@dthat "[tjhe

needs ofthe family and not tile larger majority are the most irnpottant atlon In our .decisions III lIife."~r.


While. families are prepared to le.a.en their chlldren basic hu man values and instill discipl i ne, they look tethe schootsto te·ach nationhood and its associated values. A comparison of Social Studies textbooks: durlnqandafrer' the Marcos dlctatorshl p 5 haws Jha;t both promoted UM! val ues of nattonal pride and identity, national uri ity and loyalty to the nation, Z7 One welcome development is that th.e textbooks today include human rig hts whereas the: marual law te-xtbooks did not. However, present day textbooks bear traces of the vast. For example, tnev still tend to streSS citizenship (largely defined as duties) more than democracy (perceived as rights and freedotrl's).· Textbook d lscusslc ns of rights <I.r~. usually followM by longer discussions ofobli9~uions which portr'ay gov€!mmem as !h~ source and dispenser of rights. Aliso, more: ti rrr~ and coverage are allotted to concepts o·f Citizenship than to "democracy. As 'the student moves on to high school .• greater

emphasis, is placed on govemm.ents


of the people.




ing in the elections.
A!i '[he case 5Uldy on thle Sodal Studies textbocks


~tIs arguabll! If all the va:luJ!s a-sso(wted with demouacy are also 5.Wp· pontlvl! !:If dll':l:emh~p Onlhe other haJi'id, ,cUlzlln5hi p which is emb-odled in the UOItil! can uprQot the Ilillmocr{ltit 'ortg~n!r of :~li1anyvalues 5UPP'Ql"tivc of darnocracy. For ~xOlmpll!:, the v.)lu<e IJf ·l1i,i1Uon.iiI \lr1!l'ty" whe.n subsumed under th~ l:.of1cepl of demon3';:Y Is diffrem VII e-n lit h. ~he r,alIVHlQ pomt under the aegis n of n state:-denned dtize.l1s,hlp Impjy, were a narrow set 01 (SHlul·orienu'!d) and demouacv. an @,quaJly narrow body of entitlements (peopl!!·orieot dl, one could rglue tha~ 'training ~o.rcltlzenshllp would n01

If ci'tl~ensh'ip. as rhe S'oc,!a.i Swdies textbceks



ICrull to tlemoci a.cy, iu, clrizensl1'iIl c(l'~nistsof both durls and fngh I.~. each In the service of U1e ol!le'r, ilnd Uail'lIflQ foll" o ne Qug,h[ to lead to the other.
AI!>o,teachers do f10t l~alJernucn room for flexibility

h'i the chotce of their tOPQc$ plans ill1d tla!.~ {lllme. workshop Or! education poirn d tM that all lessen phl.l"!~must campily ."Iltl'l Ihe state-prescribed currie ulurn andthere Is h,ardly time to lncorpcrate social ISiue.~. Hencethe tendency or reachers to be te l(tboo k-o rle nted. An eq YaHy I m po rtarn UHlI s ide'mtl 0'11 IS the ga IJ b at we en Feall ty In th~ world outside the school and the dVlcs ~I!S5'OnSiaugtu in the classrocrn,

in terms of both


The Catholk Church IS another Ili'llsUUlI10n[ha.t he.lps shape Ideas of citizenship amj democracy ln a country where: more rhan e.ighty per.c@n( of the populatllo., a.re CflItnolh: _Through the inflLlen~.Ial Catholit B,i§Ju~p:5Conferenc.e. me rl'l urrf perlodh:al~y issues pastoral letters which d'u~ with soctal realities, <ISdtsce rned in tl1e context of the gospel. The..s~ st,ate:m,e,nU. which are read durlnqthe .sI.Jndar. mass. form part of what. one cardil1a~ calls LI'U~ ,c.hurch's "seclal Justice ministry." •
Throu91'1 the letters lhe c.hurch expresses its pas! fan onsuch topics astbe environment. hu man I'ight:s. overseas mlqrarn workers and most rece 11th', oppos ltion

to dial"lg@s in th~ COl1'stltlJti'on.
Just haw effectively

the pastoral


mold public opinion

is dlffrcul'r 'to

judge. A study of their impact on aselected parish in Davao tndlcates that the bishops' rnessaqes are not IJJ1Itorm ly accepted. Some OF the- factors that IImit thelreffectlveness are the use of 'En.~insh" 1tne lack nf specrfk fo llow-up actions and re Iaterl an ivi ti f'! 5 th e pe rceived inee i'II 9 ru U:y b@tw'Een the sra te men t 0 f rh e. bishops and the lifesty'lt'! of the. cJ!!I"9Y. r~'ervaHon:s of partshtc ners about [he church's inu:rrereOCE! in polmcs, ~!1d thli! fan 'ttl.1t the statements are not dtstrtbuted after they are read in rhurch. The nudy also s.uggests that the fear 'Of God sometl rnes workS asa more powerful driving force in iu:ceptfng [he pasta ral letten, 'than it serious appre,ciii!Jtion of 'the moral hil.~erativu of 'the gospel, I"

A sl mllar s'fudy. th Is tlrneof in Quezon City, also polnts to

sermOllU given by a Pr()(t~tan't pastor in a eli urch

or a good public servant as a steward rather ~han a pro,pr,e~or of ccrnmnn rescurces. or the use ,olf t.lf! bib~i,alexhortation to spread the "good i:'H~WS" to Free people from blindne·ss- and despiir is analo'90us to 'the task of at good (ilriz,eln..
5Uib,e the (,OI'U:;"lPt:s of citll,erl5h II]); fOil 'examph!., th'l! rdea

dum:h'5- mvolvement

the reservarlons 'of some churchgoers about the In pD111ks.11 Thl,s des,pite the use of blbllcal terms 'to de-

The influence of media on public perceptlons oh:itizenship iiS less defined, in part because of the variety of shows aired on television and over the. radio! and aliso because it ls dtfficu It to isolate the effect of media from other value-forrnlnq social lnstltutions, In gen@:ra,I, POll ltlve portrayals of cltlzenshtp in tele.v~si·ni1shows high 119M a ctrlze n~sI'o)'alty '(0 and defen SI:! of the country • .;I. d@sire for peace and social harmony, and increasingly. ecoloqlca] consrleusnass. In con trast, the most frequent negative i mages are violence, betrayal of one's cou ntrv, weakenforcarnent of the law, corrupt polltlclans, and sexism, on media observed thai Philippine television's pen" models of citizenship, The primary reason for this preference is. the show's rating with the pub! lc: hig.her ratings mean more money. f3ut ~thicill be;liefs that good alwaystriumphs over evil or that-the ~lood are. rewarde,d and the b~ICI"punished" apparently also it1fl uence the choice of story endlnqs .. Sometimes these conslderatio FlS prevail becau 5e of pressu re from the Movie and T.::levisia n Review and Cl·assinC,a.~jon 'Board, 2L gove rnmerit watchdog whose role teeters. betwee n that of a rncnitorl ng .agent and outriqhtcensor; But the pull of ratings is harder to resist; hence the preference for 5 hews that entertain rather than teach values, The conference workshop

chant for happy endings

affects how it portrays

However; recent findings suggest it 91(owlog market fer Itntelligennelevision programs. For example, a 51.J rv.ey (If 1 2. baranqavs in the second d lstrtct of Quezon City, a. predorntnanttv urban poor area, shows a hig h pa.tronagE of news and public affairs shows ,contrary to the stereotype image of the urban poor as preferri ng majn~y so.ap operas. ~. ~n1tell~i,g@n't progra.IT):S and g'ood r@.~ing$,'!nen, are not mutuallvexclusive, and it Is possible for media both to Inform arid make money.

At the same time the worksho p asserted that ··t11ed can .and sumetlmss ill! does. p:Iij.Y a fiscallzing role in society' by provid i rig venues fa r the d is'ClJSS ion of issues and @xPQsing anornalles in the conduC.t of public atfalrs. Also, letters 'from dtize ns have at times caused chances in the formal or presentatio n of medta programs, To ensure that the concept of cit'izemhip Is not drowned out by the commercial interests of mediaowners, the workshop sl.Jg~Jestedthat cltlzens regularly feed back thei:r reactions 'W rned la outfits.
Govern rnent Infr@:qu@n~!y appears as a-rote model of-positive values. In .speaking of the need for OJ.. "new cltlzenship,' for instance, the president of a lea.ding bank called for "a renewal of popular government led by public servartts who see themselves as cltlzens f rst: represerrtanve <l.gents of [he people, rather than the pu rvevors of qoods to a po pulattcn of cli~ nts.' T1 The fact is that gQvern me nt does. playa role: i n the transrnlsslon of values. Not o.nly does it mirror these values by the behavior of its offlcials and bureaucrats and ths law~ and pcllcles it executes: governmellt can hel p form natlo r:I~.1 identity in a nu rnber of ways. First, It prescribes offlctal programs such as; the currlculu m i 11 state-run elementary and ~)igh schools, Second~it provides the. framework and the environmerit for 'the exercise of rights and t.~,e fulfillment of social obi igatiorlS, The -,second point is especially Important to a culturally diverse society <IS the Philippines .. "Parr o.f the. craft of govefl1anCe," ae'Lon:ling. 'W MARUI and OLSEN, "is developing lnstltutlo ns th~t. slmultaneously accommodate the. ideal s of po Ilttcal co mmu nltv, equalitYi and reason and the Ide:!.l:; of pi ural ism a,nd diversity, institutic nsthat are capable of mal ntalnlnq trustand mutual affection within a polity whil~ srmulta-

neouslv accomrnodaunq end Lw~gly mcnnstsrent subqrou p demands based f~mHy ties, rei.igiorJ. ethni!;Hy" laogll,lilg:f'" or parse 11 CI II..trinity_"·'
levels suggest


unfonunatelv, case studiles of gov~ nrnen offlrlals at the central and 10 0,1 a rather 1101 now percept IDill of curz nsh Ip as deJi ned by the i r tnte rem as pol lrlelans. ~'n t Me case effouneen c'r.Jngres5 mefl In rervtewed For one 5Wdy" for tnstance, el,eclions emerged as ~'he most frequent resucnse to t11~ questlon regarding the nracuces relating to dernccracv and citizenship that they deern most lmpcn ant, I i1de~d, among those line rvlewed who' belong to the ru 11119 (I.aka.'il party, electrcns ranked equal In lrnportance WIEh frudort1 of e·xpre~~iorl tlrlC:I tlt~· zell pilJtlClPiil te n, " In the study of tl,e Ilocal g~v~rnm fI t I n Vale 11 ta, il ru nIl rnu ndcipallty I n Negro!; OrlerHa'. 0 rfi ialls pfacerll al'Hgb pr~ml UI'f\on ~I' - ciljz~ rl s dutv m p~y 11lXeS_

Momover, illl 'the Philippine xp ri n( • glOv rl'1nUH'It(lffit.1 Is and Irl"!lwrlons have urov d til l'~ unrellabl OJ uns abl'c a.gem!. ror promOting re pam lble c III· z:ens~11 ilrld democracy, A~ l1I'LI WA 110h;:!t. [h~IiI"OC riley wnl fh;JIJ rist, <L~ rue Fe .u~d P more canters f power emerg and pOI T) ~o • h, growlh ,0r no n -govern mcut amJ people's, orgJi'iizatfol1s as II pos,lrlve develcprn ruin support of d mocranr valves 1AmJdli.zenllhip, r FI r~l. 'lhroug h ,u:ivoca"Y.il.waretles~ ca:n1Pil~grJ s and of~Jdrllz 1!l9 i:l.ctj\l,ltie~, I hese orgal11ziLHofll5 hel p ccmmurnnes work out common gOJls an tl carry out s~lf·help nn 9r~rns. rhe ulumate cbjectrve be:U19 the mpcwerrnent nr the people. By taKII191 these Inl:Uillwes, COmmUl1rH 's are than able to lm prement their OWIl rdeas of democracy and the common 90od- S@~Or'l~, these attJvilies also tester a sense communl1 /01'1 whic 1 the. practice of citizenship ls qrounded.


Many NCO s and peop,le's ongan zauens


to lin k their prog rams wlt h the

larger questions thal affeu tne nati[il:il'l as ill whole, so thoU even as ccrnmurmv .lIId sectoral amillations are :5trengtil~n!lHi. {hi!: notion of nanc n hood is also promoted. I-Itnc.i:! affinity with a larger community whic 511<111;:'5 a slrnnar vlslon and faces slmllar problems becomes mereand me re possible. Conference ,panlciparu.s

mar th~ Pii.n:!cl'P.ation

orgiliniza.tion, tile existence of functional leadEf5 .ma members. and the presence of a llvellhood or Fe' source base which can enable th.e community W 5 us'ta.in its efforts; in sno n, thel r capabilities . .Non-government and people's org;aniz.Hions. are pa,rricul:arly efFective in utlllzlnq non-formal ver:i!J~5 o expresslon and decision-maki nqth at inftu-

is. de.t@.'f'l11ined In large part by the lE:vE:1 fthe community's o

or people

ill governance

.ence poltcv makers in both the govel'nmecJ:'lt and the pdva:te sector; Leg1s lators rely on media, for example, to gauge public reacnons tn soclal issues .. ~ Jus-t as capabllitles help form ldenritles, sa de ldentules he Ip enhance capablllties, j~TI1Js Is ~vldef'll ill efforts by NGO.s.'to engage In value fo rmatlon In thelr leadership tralnlnq, 5.emmaJS on qe det ielilsitfvlty and other human resource development programs. The C<1I.se study ,of I e leaders.tHp traLning program by an NCO slDeal<s well ,or the Im,pact q;J"f T:h~ training! 01'11the rec q:lUll n c Ieaders dna i 11directlv on 'the H!st of th-e commurl'ity, Not onl'y did rile gr.l5srQots leaders acquire persona! skills that beneflled them direnliy fm example, communication am] Interacncn skllls) and axpanded their area Ql'F'@spor'l5ibIHW;they, too, gained kncwlr @dgeand a'bili'ty that b~nl!11ted lhe# constnuents. !, wen as. enhanced skill s in nagotitHjn'g and resolving (onmcn. Indeed, he le.lders attributed the- In re rise In

[he me.mbersl1lp of helr organ.iz;nions


more eHe( Ive liMder5hip.




But some workshops nl)iu~dthe u!nd~ncy of certain NGOs to impose. wliat they thin k is best for the c(j'mmunily even thougtl the cornmu nltv th inks dtfferentlv, This has, been the experleru;e ofcertaln indigenous ccmnrunltlas, for example, Several workshop PlUl'idp'i!.IIlU .also observed that. so me NGOs Yrew their projects in the f([l'n1mlJnHles as lilf1i(ome-earning activitie5 and the ccmmunltles themselves as sources of lfvellheod. mhtt NCOs, overstay in the cornrnu mnes. SQmet~mes, 1IS a re~u~t. cemmurnttes become cepe ndent on NGOs, I't. therefc re appears that is in the case of r.tam:h Hid gO'Yernmenf leaders whose moral credloWly (or lack of It) aff.eus their in'fl,uet1ce Of! val u~ fa rmancn, the Same apphes lD NGO workers..
M.Qc:ro~·f,a,cton:, 'at the Societ'al Lev,ef

At 'the macro level, the r~Ctors that come 'Irue play in creatl ng so I ida.rily and democratic values vary ecordlng' ro [he de "Ifl[tlon of society. At least lWO sublevels CO·EX I,$!; the immediate (om!imlJl1iW wi'[1l whl(h one rl2·ad~lyider1t.I'fle~ OIW's self; ~nd 'the larger, less intimate grQup~n9 of wlli(h one 'I:!. a member, no,w(lver inacUve or detached ~u(h membership might be. The pmJ-ect Findings .s11011\' that t·hf! deg r~e: (or lack) of idel'ltifu:.amm w.t·h the l1at~on depends, ~unolig Otl112JS. on the: type o,r CClmmun ltv ttl w1ruch ene be longs am:;!'[he extent '[0 which il Is ~ervl!d by, CH benef-ils from, Instruments of the stare. .

Ce rlai n ccmmunhtes who 1~1,fe: 01'31 rr;a,ditioll, fo r lnstance, and who prac· by tice communal lifestvles do, nOI id,e:nWy at all wiEh tn@ Hllpmc natron." Instead they see thems~2.lvesoli ill whoh~ community, w~{h their own set of val ues and shared qoals, struggling to meet [1t~lir Dwn needs and respond to their own prcblems, They may or' may net vote, and live a life' totally tht;!ir own, Government declsrcns hardly affeCt them and 'bill~llc. serv~cesare eut of "[heir reach. Rather than crtllenshlp as commonly identiHe:d wilt! tn@ stare. commui'1harian values preval' tn <1.11 matters of coll~ail v e concern: lh,e enoree of leaders. snaring of resources and the resolutlcn of confucr. The.y are, In a cemrnunlty sense, true cJlti2el1S In a way Indi.vldualis,tic urbanltes (olilid never be. Bu~they are notf kely 'to cons lder themselves Filipino,_
Then there is,

dentes in



seemed alien to

a.ffiliation. Musllm responfeu nd h..dinlcLJ [t to define cltlzensh ip as the co ncept them ... Wfnrnl asked rncrs genera.l. questions about how they view

the pracnce of multl-Iaversd

their membership iin the co,mI'l1u'nitv, several layers of affiliation surfaced. The first and closest to thecore ·of idemiloy was afftllatlo n by clan or krnsf i p; th~ second. by elhniC: 9 roup (e.g., Ma.gunnda.nao, M;;l.f,anaO, Tausug); the. lh'ird, by reltgious beliefs, (,1111 which such distinctions as Mus1Iim-by·nam@ and MU5Iim·by~pra.c· Ike are be9innlng to emerge); the fourth. by political <Initiation (with of strong all ustcn to 'the Mom slwggle - past iAmi present - fo r self-ceterrnlnatlon): (lnrl last and appiHernly teast, iby idi:mU{y wnh the nannn, Furthermore. mhe ques.tion the respondents fou nd most dU~fltultt{l an swer was: What Is il like 'to be a FlIlp~no ciHzenl This I~ because "Filipl no" to nnctes "Chrlstl~n.~ whileI'! al:so C'Orrnotes dom,lna.tiol1" Some of tbcse mterviewed I eplled thill they are (lhera.lly) FiU,pinoi on paper" rhat Is, Filip,jl'1o is I:he citizenship thl.{Y indIcate on alilegaJlll dOlcumll!f'IIH (r,esidience ceruncares. passport appllcanons, etc,'), But beyond that, the lr formal tdentlfltatlc'lf'I t5, flm dind fOlremost, rvru~11n ami r Moro.

The rnultl-lavered concept of cltlzenshlp is probably true of other communities.as well, For tnstance, in lsabela in northern luzon, the fa Ik concept of umtl! (roughly. citizen) derives from one's relation to the ancestry of the. land {the "rnborn"}, as distinct from mernbersh i p acqul red by rniqrants (the "nut-born"), There, "bef,ng~ a citizen (umiW is mo re hi~~ 1'1'" prized 'than "be co ming'! a rltlzen (~hrOllg h, sa~ i'@:gistratiof! I n the barangay). The first assumes a shared pa.st and cu lture wh tch the latter has 00 clatm to.
AJ.s:o. ldentiflcatiun With the state

that the people have access

1s llkelv 1:0 vary according to t~I(~: xte nt e bask services and enjOy other beneflit5 of citlze.n-

ship, It would not be inaccurate to ~ayrhCll.t 'the: more limited the cornmunltvs access to mese ssrvlces, the greatN the number of lavers that come between the cmnmUnfty and 'the state. F·Q i nd~vid uals and co mrnunlties 'to wam to belong to r the natlon, therefo re, tr Is impe-r<1.tivethat govem msnt attend to thefr needs. The dlchotcmv of cornrnu nity and nation also ratses problems i n the eXNelse ef rights whiCh are gutlfanteed by the state but wh ien may not be re[og ni~ed by customary practice or trad ltlon and vice-versa. For ex.ample, another case study of the legal system cited the dirficul,ty ofsorne Muslim wom~n in exerclstnq their right to choose thetr husbands p'r:a~tiCf: OJ. professlo fl, prerogatives whtch. by custom. are reserved for "the men. More recently, the public execution of two alleg_ed criminals. by the Mom lslamic liberation From exposed the dtsparltv in the nighn svsrem, As MILFleader GHADlALljMFAR. explal ned, "We abic.!@ the Shari'ah by laws whrch (mete out) death to those who ccmmltted heinous crimes .." He added: "Pliilipptne laws are man-made while tstamk laws are: made by Go~- This (e1<e.cU'· tlcn) is l.ega~ because th [5 is in accordance with the Ho Iy Koran."·.5 On the other hand, theqovernrnerrt has g,ivern no life., to the cansmutiiOnal provlslcn at] respect 'for the indigenous concept of ancestral domai~~


Lai'lguage, like ethn il;~ty,plays a role in the promotlcnof basic soclal concepts. The. project fil'idfllgsdearly demonstrate that the use (If English as, the privileged medium of official and private thlf'!'s,actiol1s has worked agai:nst the development of cltlzensh i p and dernocratk values. The conference worksho p on ·the wor~pr8"'ce,far lnsrance, cited i·t as an obstac leto dialogue bE':twesll ~abor, rnanaqement and Iab 0 r efftclals. B~ca.u$eco<lleclive bargain rng ag reements, l.lbor laws and pollcles do' not have popular verslons, they are.apt tobe misunderstood, Busjness executives interviewed p05~S such a htnd ranee. 'Il in one case study agreed that

the. use QfEng Iish

From a laJg.er perspective, not enough discourse on democracy takes place in .ou r languages",~1 Concepts of citizensh i p and democracy then tend to be ahen

Inoti'ons superimposed onthe people father than concepts thev themselves evolved. By using Philippine languages, however ..these tceas become indigentud and accesslblato a.II, and not merely to those who read and write .English. The approprtatiol'il of these concepts by the peopie is the first and necessary step tn th@.process of tnternallzation, But as long as the tdeas are expressed in a forelgo iangu,age, ·tl1epractice of cltlzenshtpand democracy will continue to be dornl rutted by eHte ,pe' rs 0 noll iti ~s, Hlsto ri ,ally. Fil:jph1.o political discourse has been written in the language of the colonlzer <Spanish and later, English). It has. also tend@·d to deal with abstract~ons rather than reality" Thu.s, on two levels the discourse suffe:rs~ in the matter of
content, which appears far removed from the concerns of the

,avenlge. Hllplno:





and In its medium, wh lch i!) alien and open to on Iy a few, Writ'lngs. on den1qcwacy, for 'i nstance.xend to emphasize poltrkal rig hts and freadorrts, whil,e_ Filipi FlQ peasants and workers measure their freedoms in terms land, employment, and ba.S tc

need s,


But posi[i\l~ sngIlS are emerging. More.and more comrnunttles are propoundTng on 'their own Ideas of cittzenshj,p,. different as these might be fro m formal, We5;lern co nstrucrs: and they do, so in their own la~g uaqes, The potentia! of language to. alter power relation'S is tremendous, as shown in a study of the poor aqrlcultural town of IITi po FI, Qtilezon. i~ The town has a co mrnunity-based broadcasting program which deals with a wide array of concerns: news, h i'storical and wltural programs, lncludlnqa "radio school-cn-the-alr" seqmerrt, Th~ study shows th,a't by using FflJpino <is the rned i urn in all the radio programs, t~aditional and lit~rat~ knlJwl~dge achrl! v c equa.l 'Status and become available for comment, comparlson, cntlctstn and cIQse;r;analysis by everyone .... Powe.r and pre:st~ge rGJ,atiollls are thus altered: b'i;!.tw~~nthe I,iterate and the non-Iitarate: be.tw~en those artlculate in Filipino ,and those arUcul.ate in English ... (the latter beih9l \ljewed as more presti9h::ms~ between.tn~ status of


and of lite.rate krtowledge. ~~
therefore, process is power and local



can do so effectively

Dilly If their articulations

who intervene In the are' their

fi nru~y, the absence or presence of the so[itl)i req uisites for the exercise of citizenship and democracy detsrmme the. nature and, extent of their practice. Poverty or wealth, power or dependence, and th~ structure of sOcial relations h-eig.hte·n or reduce de rnocracv and pro-active cltlzensh lp, ln, the matter of the workers' passivi;ty, for instance, it Is easy to see how sub-h uman wages. can effec.threiv
neutralize workers' participation'

job security can well subvert democratic
hood restrlcta

in dernccranc

exerclses, Silence ln exchange for practices. Too, the demands of 1ilJeli-

clttaens ability Wi ntervene in politic;a'i processes, In valencia the re'gularly conducts the pul,urlg-pu!(mg (popul,ar assembly) as a venue for consulling the people. The: expertsnce has been successfu I LA part becau se it lnvolves face-to-face contact and the e~pectat16n of some male rial benefit for the people, Bur its effsctlveness has, been ll rnlted because it: takes. the farmers away from thelr livelihood. ~

local gove.mment




(or "hlerarxhjzed"


prefers; to call 'lh¢n,) do

not generalliy suppo rt dernocrarlc val LIes, whether in the' workplace or in the co u n'try. On the contrarvrhev breed: pa.w:mage and dependence. The 1994 ~urvey on val ues noted that in ge-neral, Filipinos tend to depend on their leaders to solve
problems, rather than on themselves. Asked whoss respcnsiblhtv it Is ro sofve the country's problems, 64.2 percent of the respon~ent~ said it was the leaders' task wh i le 3 S.8 percent replied it was the cmzens'." One. of the country's lead~F1g busrness-me.n lntervtewed ~n a case. study complained about this attitude. "Effecfive cltlzenship," he said. "depertds on people thinking cf themsalves as produetive people who can bulld thing;,; and do things,; people who come IJ p with idea~ arid resources; people who are bold; people who are accou ntable. The problem ts that today there are few places where people can develop these capacltles, lnstead, people have learned eo expect to ,get things from the government and to demand thatthe governme.nt fix tl1ings.,,'i,i

Be~mhlg a Filipino Citizen;


C;ti:£i!JII~h'p iltJdtJemocracy

• 31

$.oc.ial inequ ity give..s nse to the. perceptio n 'that courts and laws generally
favor the rich and that democracy is only for a few FWpin05, from powerlessness

~prings the vulnenlbmty


autho dlY 0 no forces 0 utslde one's control. wh lch, in

(Urn, weakens the practice of citizensh i p. FDr IInstance, the: case studv of media's deplcrlo n of citizensh i P as ked selected viewers about their reaction to a televl·:$ion drama in which a witness to a. murder refused !-Q t~,s-tify in court, nhe witness eventually did because she 'was bothered by her consclence). Tile respondents said that while they believe it is, a citizen's duty to testtfv toa crime he or she has witnessed, they understand the witness' reluctance to testify and wOldd net blame her jf she did not" because in real Iif~ the witness has no protectio-n

agarnn retaliation by the .actus.~d'. ~~
~OUfag@_itizens c

On the 'other hand, 'the eff-ective dellverv of ·g{)v~mmerH se rvlces does ento carry out their respo nslbllltres '~o ttle natlo n. ~n valencla, for ·~xati1plej the p~ople willi i flgiy p.a,y their taxes (if'i'!! cotlection ratestands at 60 percent) because the rnu nlclpal gove rnrne nt subsldlzes electrical consum prlon from 'taxes. ~~ This I:s. prerlselv the added value of providing for the people's basic needs, It is much more than an obligation on the part of g,overnment,. Or expectaHans of benefits on the part of citizens. It also has to do with develo ping a sense of community and the underplnn i:tlg values of care and compass lon, AS. the stlldy sug'gests, when govern rnent fu Ifi II sits obligatiq n to the pe-ople, cltlzens wi II i n91y rewa nd in kind.

Potential Areas of Conflict
While creatl ng identity and a network of sci fda,my are necessary Ingred ients of a dernocratk pollW; two problems. arise QwitlQ to the nature of ,Identity formarlon, One ls that tdentlty construction go~s by ru les of exclusion that define who

belong and do not bela rig to the gro i:IIp-or cornmu n itY. Na'lio rial Ide ntiw, as M,~R':II and OLSUl correctly polnr out. has borh "inh'~g~.ltiveand divis~ve effects.,';" encouragliflQl a sens-e of community which at the same time is. grO~l1ded on the notion of d iffe;rE;! ntlatlon from others. Qri@ eff~(t,therefore. could b(!i ntolerance of outsiders. In tl'i~ Philippi


nes, Muslim and Ch i nssa Filipi nbs have been tarqsts of i meter-

The second problem 1~that ilj~ntifh;:at~on with a gn::wp competes wlt h ather types of memberships, The 1994 5,U riley, for example. asked how the F'iHplno auachment to the family could be used to, develop a commitment to the larger ~Qciety. S~ As th [$ study shows, apart fro rn farn i Iy afflllatlon, ethn Idty, relig ion


and social class or sector also compete with identity with the state. The "ivai ry fo r membership and commitment could lead to conflict, whether openly as tn the former Mora' rebelllon ,. or passively a..si n indifference· to issues of natlo rial conMoreover; in the practice of democracy the debate has long been the balance

lletwe£!'n ind lvldual autonomy
1:il!Jblicgood (the individ~als

(th~ freedom to' make pe rsonal choices)

and the

r,esponsibihty to sod-ely). That enes freedom becomes another's bondag.e is the extreme ·QlUCOme of the failu re to strlke a balance betwe~n individual, and social go,od. Whi,le tr is easy \0 say a good citizen is a

990,d democrat,

in pracnce the values that support

dt~7.en5hip and democracy





might not always complement each other. It is these potentia.l areas of conftlct thrat CQ nstantl y ehall eng e de rna cratlc exercise s,

Practh:oE Dilemmas
une of the questions ratsed in the confarence was howte f I1d the. m~ddi~ ground! between the. right of workers to be consulted arid the prerogative of management to make decisions. In the family and the school, parents and teachers '~xercise their authority even 'though their practices mighr be poor ixamples of de m ocratlc value s, The Iegal S)lS te m ca n b otlr be a m,ea ns of e: m po we rme nt arid ill tool of oppression. There are other gray areas: prirvate profit \IS. public good; citizens obedlence and respect for author,tv vs, th.€ assertion of his or her ri9ht~; wo rkers, passivity 'lis. their d utv to an collectively: communal objec~jve::; VS. lnd lvldual asplrattons fa r private: ownership: community vs. nano n, freedom vs, dlscl pllne, and S-Q

The. ccnftkt betwe@'I1 ind iVldual rights and social obi iga,tlotl$ ls Hlu strafed In this excerpt from an interview with a (on~r€ssman (a retired military officer),
The ~onc~pts of' freespeech and 90 fre:e: press are very import;.:i.nl hecause they say [these are] the bash for the: security of the citizen a9aiils~ abuse by the powel'fullnstituU.ons inclu.dlng the gov~·rnm nt. SLit the exercise of these freedoms must b~ tarn pere.d by fesporniblll: cittzenship, Fre.edom must be canallzcd along public interest, Dlsdpl~l"I€ has bHq,me an errdarnlc problem b~(:au$e we tend to stretch Um :!imlts of freedom to tile detrilm~l1t of public welfare, of safety. That is perhaps why we take carefr.e:eacts llke Jaywalk;lflIg" rackless driving, or littering for grali't,ed. We ~lnll:lstbeg~n to i;;n<li11QQ our baste arritude towarda fraadom and responslbllltv e.vel1 In those. small tnlng.!>; before we, can go for the bigge:;r things Ilk~ national stability or ~7 progress, The obvlo LIS, appeal of the congressman is for discipline. withe LJt wh lch freedom can easily be abused. The danger, however lies in splitting the. two, in di.· dotom~zi.ng rights and responslbllltles. One sol utlo n is to strnplv view 'the exetelse of rig-lilts as a citizen's obllqatlon and the l1'ulfillment of obligation· as an enabling factor in the exercise of the citizen's rights. AS Mi\RCH and OLSEN emphasize,



"an identity that imposes o,bligations In the service of liberty ._" A claim to tUizenship i-s ill tacit agreement to confirm and elaborate an ethos of civic virtue, dlltyand obllg,atiion. S.incethe ri-ghts of clittz.emhip adher'e!to the Ide.ntiWof citizen, the,y areccndltlcnal on being n;lcogniZe.d.;l$ a proper citizen. In parUcul.ar, they depend on acce:plh"l9 the r~pon~iplllti!ls of citlzenshln.' ,0 The cttlaen must therefore be. not just 'free 'Or not j U5t. responsible: zen must be free arJ'd responsible. 'the cltt-

That duttesare integra.l toe) cnizinship is nothing new. Voting, paying taxes and obeying ~aws are all normally u nderstocd as being part of citizenship. But the addition of rights enlarges the perspective from a passive to an active one. Tne knowledge and assertinn of rlgtHs are intrinsic to the practice of citl2:enslhlp, f{lr 'they broade.r! the idea ef r~spOflsibility to lnclude what the busl ness sector, for example, calls social responsibility, and others, call social justice. Looked at in

another way~ respect for the others ri~tn and welfare is a cltlzen's resacnsibl IiW. Om! [h@.refore cannot ,abUts€! another, drfve w~id!y~ot th row garbage anywhere:! in ttl~ name of freedom, for the orher is dearly entitled to be safe, haalthv and reo

sp@c:tf1das aperson.
lin truth, the public good is best served by cfrt'izens who fu lf II their ob~~gOl' tions and exercise their fig hts, di'clatorship tested thts very notion of c ltlzen$hhJ' by driving a we~gie bet~eel1 cttlzens' dll,JiHes and U'1eM ri',ght£, 'th,e fir~l and f9rget fi1~ second, was the me$s,cag.cr.of authoritartan rule. In the process the pubrk good was' severelv Inju red.



This ls why the term Inatlon of the' dlctatorshlp

by popular power

viewed as .such is a testament to the resilience ohhe"O\Jtdat'ed vi'~w ~l1at g'(}od chizem;. 'ohev and never Question authQrity. The experience ofthe Ph1lippITl@,s ,shows the tontrary, The, only true funrtion of citiitm sh lp is tel serve democracy, to sav€ tt when it is under til reat , f.o broaden the. scope of d.em()~ratiz,atiQn to ns Iifniits,giv.1 ng free rein ro varTb.us eultural and mtre'F ex,pre~siOFL£.1"t'll; thre,lt must dea'riy'be directed at the broader soCiety fo r de~m,ocrEli(y~inte,nf shouldnet' be the: se:l,r-s'€:f'.iir'rg interest of Ure few in power. I n r he p roces s CI;f exerc iSi1119 cit i z ensh icp, p'Owe r ~5 nidlstri b uted an d marg ~ aI n cu ltu res an d social :'i! ecto rs,li be rated. Dem Qc'tacy f 11<111\( be (:orne S" real,

lne act of" dtlzenship.,

That it might still not be commonly

was a ge nu-


v. Nation

Dffferencoe:s in FilipinQ perceptions are rooted ~n the culture and history of the community, the sectoral Ilatlon (paasant, worker, buslness. gov~rF1 rnent), and accessto the benefits of clnzensh lp, aut a combtnanon of facto rs. rather than a sing~e factor alone,heig hterrsor wea_keTI$, the sense of cii1t~Zef'lshp. M us lim Fi~lipi· i nos feel detached from th'ei r FlliipiflO identity not on Iy because of re~!gJ(:)in. but also because of a I.ong 11lis,tmy of domlnatlon and r'lt1g lett by foreign colonial rLJI· en and ~ S,IJ(c,ess.Lofl f Filipi;no gov!'!'m rnents. The combmatie nof factors here' is. O ,sign lflcant lest the 1rnpressrqn ~evelQIP that cultu re by itself ts the sole deterrmna:nt of a.sense of loelong.fng" othe~ .segments of .sO'(;ietY who have been victlms of officfal fH:iglecx or outrli'gnt exploltatlon ,such as'tenant farm€ rs, have cause to f~~1 the -sam~ way even if the.y are not CLUturally' beu nd iin Tbe way [~d igenol.ds

As for the die hotomy betw~@ comrnunrtv-and nation! ltts eVide n~ that the gray areas arlse from a lad of identTfica.Uon with the nauon Of ~ narrow, exclu~tonary sense cof communltv, And it Is here where 'tl1e gre~Je:.s~challenqe to citiaenshl p fo rn~ailon lies, Can the practice of diiz.ensh tp and dernocracv ba CNIstralnsd by a rnultt-cultaral society sue has. o<u Yes, il can but It need not beso. ~&?




The po int I:;;til at so m e of th~ socla lid entiti e ~ Co u ld aJ So be sup po rt lve of one another rather than competitiv€1 w,ith each other. A hu ndred years ago i fa r exam'ph=i ANl)ftE'; BONI~ACIO and later AroUNi'~"..tO MAB!INL used the co ncept of family to describe the Fillpl no nanon, Treat your cou rnrvmen as yOl.! r kin. they urge\! the pscpie, in o rder'tc buHd a brotherhood (k.apafiran) of FililJ'ino,s. Concepts such as these are !J!!dul from the viewpoii:n.t of both the moral dna transforrnatlve <I~ P'~Cl5 of identity construction. The mstrumental aspect, on the other hand, calts fOJ a mode cf gfNerhance 'thai olUlilds on id~nUties arising from a range oj[ notions a community and creates institutions that fostersolldarttv within acornmu rlily and across commu nltles comprising the larger whole of ~9ciety. This task is nOI ~m'Y


90vernmellt's but belonqs CISwell to citizens. As a respondent in one study stated, the work of citizens i5 to reclal m politics from poltuctans and make it the p~JbH'
wo rk of cit,iz@Fl5.'~

Democ:racy AgendQ
The fundamental question! {hen, is two-fold: mu nitv and pub] lc good. and how to empower bow to develop a se nse of co rnthe people. Partidpants· tn the

conference gav@ many recommendations in the area of norms, processes, policies and structures. Some of thei r .suggestions are. alrea.dy beil'lg done. tilou9 h evldantlv not enouqhand not qu ickly enough. Hencethev bear repeat: i'l!9,

To organ lze the democracy .agenda aris:ing from the. conference papers and discussions. MARetl and OlSl;l'is framework Qf democratic .pclitical development and PR1F.\J,lOII:SKI'S, concept of effecuve cltizerrshlp are ~J$efu I 9 uides. The first ;nvolves ,creating "a sense of solidarir,Y that connects the individual citizen to a broac pclltical cornmu nity or CI'lhers and 0 rganizes other hekmg i rigs' rill a \Ndy that enriches that co mrnu nnv": fonning "specmc idemities (character. 'habits of thought senses of real itv, and codes of conduct) that 'fnt Iinto and support a democratic polnlca] order": arid blJildrng "insfiturion5 ..._ [that] clviltze expressions of soltdarity and confro ntatlon of conflict amol"l,g rd!1!F'Itil,eS_ "'I,,
The second framework focuses on the politica.l and social requtrernerns of eftecttve cltlzensb i p, narnelvi offlcial (and ucr, Inaccordance with the. law" £II. _judi·

cial system applied equatlv ro all, and [he s.ocial condtnons r itize 115' rig hts,

for the exercrse of

In line with

these 'frameworks.

the Drolect' proposes

the foliowi ng acucn

ag€nda. (1) 'mprove th@poliliod and soc;ial environment and redIH:@ poverty througl, stru~ural reform!l ln order to fO'§Iii!f a .sl!.nse oftommLinhy and enabh! ,.:iti:ze:ns to e:r:ercise the'ili' rights and rum ••their obUg-ations., U njust hlerarchlcal structures
people and cause therr allenarlcn belonging can hard IV 'take shape,


un $oc.iety Irrrpede t11o~ pcwerrnent of the em In such a situation: a sense of

tnequ ltable structures: can be cone'CUed in several ways. One ls thro uqh remechanlsms in such areas as larld ownership! taxation w~tem; and

aU,ocation of benefits and services. The orovlslo rI of servlces will nor oll'1~Y reducE': the pea pte's poverty but also encourage them to reciprocate in terms of 'tax pay' rnentsand other obligaHons [0 the state and societv, Other means are the d,~.liv'I!TY of jusuce and th~' eq ual app] lcatlcn of the law. L@'gal and po Iltlcal i neq ual ltles erect barriers and uphold exclusicnarv rather than inc! usionary principles. A eh,jrd is to restructure. hi erarc 11 leal systems .even in the private secto r, 5W: h as flattenl rig out rhe corporate structure so as to e n'CtlUfa,ge. greater partlctpauo n. In the 101119 ru n, a reformed strurtu re will boost" prod uctivltv because we rkers and low level employees are made to fe:e~they are part of a procucuve community. Fi na,lly, 10 further enhance the power of Citizens, the electoral svste rn n~~ds to be. reformed:

(2) Contii nlJlaJ~y


ne 5'0 d e~;iJl ~Ins

'I:~t~1 ti'D IiliS

r,e:s p oh 5'i b I,e fo r V,",I He

so,thal theyinl:tdcilI.1 lll, ra,ther 'libatlill in.dcct:riIMa~iel d'emOClratic

fo nnati 0 n and .;:;i:tizenship va]-

re-~:xamifla.Uor'! s!1ou,lldsUH'II; with tlie farnl Iy 50 that it, lOO, lncl udes i p (ll11on'9 the famUy values it bolds dear, one $ugge:stio FI Is,to UHI.c:h these values-at home r'a(her t'lfi,an ~eav@ this Job entlrefy to the school. Am:!1her is [·0 SI re 11g11,en demerrauc prarrtces in the f.amlly. 'sLId, asexpand Ing the role of womell SCIthat g il!l1d&!w'llqii.!a.HW be:(of'l'u~'S Il1ternali:u:d 51ill <lf1otlu'r I s va er~courag@ more dialog ue s.o' 1ht!i:~ ,hlldF'tlF'! (and lllaN!l1Itsd learnro live w itl1 and

democracy andclttrensb

1"1, is

respect d lfferent opi nlens,
I:Q~its part, the schoaJ mU~1,strlve [1;1 balance [he content of ~B ril!)(rbQ'ok~ by allowmgl 9n~~ter fi(lx iil:lliity In t hie d'lscu'Sslcn ,or socla~ ~SSUe5 Both corHem ill nd p~di.Lgogyneed to be reviewed fO'F democ riU~' co fiH:epu are b(;l~.Ht'llig ht in dernccn",tic wilY'S. Chu rches can broilldl!n '[hCII;r fOI~'C (lI:S moral g uard lans of SO[I~ty by IJr!l!~~n~1ng their messages ;15 moral illIlue$ rather (han exclu Shll'lly ChimH!i!li1 0 I1~S. Ol11ef religions ilnd cuIUH,IlJ group's p'wbabry have {h~ SiU'I"IG values .11 ugh thrill( rho .~n:i(;u~<lre them d I!fer~1"!t IV. lhe: eV[l.l1igelic.al ~(hlll rcn of t It !!': nee r", Fe~ ta)(i71rnnJr. ts <l more lncl 1..1510narv concept t"'01111 one l h,;u InSISU on ngu:1 I nrerpretatlons H"1l ex (iude 01 he I fclilh,>.

Mea IZI OWIHH!. I11U!iil see that Ir!.telligenl ,~mgrams are potcnrtal tncerne earne:n, A ccnsctous etfo n co uld d~S.O be made eo presen r news fro m C1the,r regions of the f,OUt1try (and ran justthe major c]tiu) 501 thiltt!h@ ClJn[~rns of local cnrnmunltirtl! are welded ~11tO the publlc ccnsc rousness. On the part of gav,emmem, pubhc QiccmJlrltilbihty would take on added meanJng H rulers were to teach by ~x[lm'~I~, 1J~¥ond ehe rhetoric:. no serlcus assessmerit hits YElL been made ofqovernment's ·'lliorauTrecover)''' pillgram, for example.
By focus il1lg on the values of papular palfil:lcip<uiCi nand scctat respons,ibi'lty', Ul'!l!training and acvccacv pmgr.:lms, M NGOs aflld POs enhLnye the notion of public good and pr'O"at::t:.ive citizEnstiilp, These (tniv~Ne5 should ccnrtnue as NGOs take ul.r~ not to 1rlfril!'lge o.n autonomous .[ledsioll-maJd ng pn:Jc~ss~.~of local cornmu ni-

The idea behind

ti~u~ or reth Ink exis.tl n~gconcepts :.uthey are ~j3.ugh~ cornmunicated and pr actked, such self-reflection be:J.ng pan of the traasfarmative aspen of rdentitv COfl.SUUCI

tn~~ effcnsrs

to c!evekap a mode ofth Inklnq that w~11en-


(3) Incor,orale nQi~s.-i!:uFtl!.r~ii!l.d~\i'iU@,s pl:llb~i,cand ~n

pifivabil~ sector



including thQs@ of !"('hIH:lls,, dliulrc'hes, •.f'II:~IOS. and PIClI:S~ Sill ,!Jo$ to reco!JfliZie eUmolil'![llJiSl~J( and cultural d,i\ielisitr in ~heC'o'~jlil ~rr ~nd encourage th<i1 5iharingof

e.xperi en ee s,
into conflict, the nation -

DuaJor m uIf Ipie affiliations can b~ jmmry mairlcalrn'ld bu ~ wher~ thev come the afflltatton f'Hlhes[ a~t!iy from the core - Ll50ud,rly tciennty wlrh S lJffe.r'S,. The value svstern t"iilt props. up dn.z~nshllp and demcc racv must therefore be buttressed by ICOI1(l:1ete a.1[nV~n,~~,lh 1l~ will bring pe:up.il: (ICnJ!J~ t ClJ lrures (og:~Lher. A d lstorted dCPK1 ~Of1l of LHhnl"~'I:y and eLilture needs to be corrscted wherever l't .~pp~i!lrs, on u~le'\ljslo!'l,i III schoolbocks. h"ilin~ng programs 0 r official tlCIC:.UFrl~M5


,of cross-cultural


are the inclusion

cepts and val ues in the school curricula and media coveraqe, lnter-falth dialogue, support. for Indlqenous learn.llng systems, i nterface of custo mary law and the legal system, and even baste awareness programs on the lidemj'ty and culture of indigenown::ommuni!ies. By le.arnil19 the histories of the whole and of its pans, the shared elements of 'consdousness and the concept .of pubuc g.ood will eventuall y s u rface ..
(4) Furthe~r promote the use. o·fFilipino and Pih,tippinil!.languages in ,aJlltrilnsa,.clions .so as. 10 ~ na,ble th@ aniculilli on qf citi zen ship an d dam Deratic views and V,I) laes,
The project shows that ~angud:g@. an be a tool of ~mpowermant, c Official' plans, laws and pol ides must therefore betranslated into FiI i pino and Philippi ne la,nguage~. The eOUID should provide for a system of stenographic: translation. Statements from diu rches, labor bargainhlg .aqreements.and company dl recnves should be bW ngual, and more publk aHal rs pl-o.grams, conducted in Fiill i pine and I Deal lang Utl9 e s, ' able In itself) but to en "'ann In issues of qovernanceand

of ind Igenous


The purpose here is not So justto advance 'the cause of nationalism (laudthe: ca.pability of clrlzens and cornrnu tliti@:$ to engage'
plann i ngat various levels.

(5) Continue 10 harne:ui IPstilutional as well OlliS' i.nformal m@.c::hanisms that open up spac-e for the exercise of c::itizens.hip' and democ,acy.

The best way to advance democracy

is to combine

i nstjtutlenal

and i nforrnal

means as in tile case of the trade 011 ion ~r1r Ma:la.bcln that went both to co urt and the streets to press its case. Some of the informal me.c;!1Rlllsllls are inherent in the
community • such as Indigenous modes of conflict

resolution and face-to-face dia-

logue. Others evolve as a result of dealing with unresponsive gov@rnmen'r agenrles and sti II others are a product of successfu I,partnerships betwe~n a group or sector and g:ove rn me nt, NorlE! of til es e mechan isnts be Ia n'9 to any 0 ne 9 ro u P an d
the c halilen ge is not (:)flly to harne 5'$ these. mean iii b ut ~Iso to co nt in U 0 U 501'1create

new ones in pursu it of thecollectlve



a Filipino


Pel'$pectitle£ on Citizens-Ilip and


• 37

ENDNOTES ~ fames March and Joha:n Po OI~£'!.ll, Democnrtic [Joverilirnce ("New Wlrk: The Fr~e PI'!a~~, I ~NS:). p. 2. 2· Adam Prz~~'.or:>'kl, et al., SUH~ll'1ablli1 [..lem(.1u~rv (C~mbridge, c.ambrldg·p' Llnlwr~llY rr~$~, I ~~9<;},t"1.





~ INa~ion~1 ~tati~tlc:~ Office. pi"M ·Val.lle~". 19911.

(NSCi) and i\teheo


M<li!'lila Llriiinrsity,


en Conternporarv


4' Mar-ch and DI~'02n, pp, 2-3. 5 J ean l. Cohen and Andrew Ara:w·, Civil :'i\')("l'et.y ,111 d Politic .ll 1 h e_ory 1M 1\~ ~ at h 1.1 ~ ett ~: M tT flf~ s ~, I.!::Ifl2),


S M(lrch anti Ol~f!'n, pp,

7 M<JJt'cn

and Olsen,

243-244. p, 2<1 ~.
of Cahi net Mcmbers :(md L~t;J151turs a [In Di'iIi1oa"cy and CitizE!I1sliip

8 Ellen IDrrlesilla~. ·rer(~ptl(lii~

anr:lllill R(JI~ of Gov""nun~l~t". 9 M~rcl1 and Oi~(!l'1, p, 56. 1 o.A Ilre d I) Pan InllOl ~, q u o.t:ed ~n Re.IlJ.to LL'!'e, .,Perc e nIl 0 n S af Corp 0 (at(;! l~ ad e rs on De !'ilOU<lCY
CI'tii@nship·. I" EdWin dQ~a·cruz, ;;l'erce,pt1ol'lls of LituganB on Coull Derisiuh$".



12 IM~~ Cruz,
I .~.Przewofs Id. p, 39. 1,4 March and Olsen. p, 74. I ~ Ma'reo aM alsen. p, 55. that U"lcimmine
Of Promote


Fe'rna.neJoZial rita, "Factors, Forces and values Civic Q'uty in Filipino Polit!~<ll Clcllture.", ~SO'At!!:MO ArtlJ ro Nuen, survev,


VaILi~~ and

• Percept len S (J f Workers rI n 1)81n [:)Cr<lCY a.1.1d Citl zerrs hlp". 1,<] M<l.rl Lui sa Do ro·t'I~1, ;'Overvi ev,' of r-i Iipmo Pers pe,(,t i II es on 0 Q m 0 cracv and Ci tJ zen sh i p', a a 2.0



WQl:kQf in -Sln·g·apme a.rc\!.t.~d or mLirdedl'lg another Fj"[lplno iJ,ous.emajd, W~5fOlln~ g~lrty hy th~ .$Irl!g~.pore court and meted OU~the d~th penalty_ Ir1 <I ~pMt:;meou~ outuourIng ofsolldartrv, vigH~ uh the eVE'.!: f1er ~)(f!(u~ion W..@I'i;!· held in ManifOl; aml other parts or the country; of P'ub-lic anger was ·ventli!cI on both the Singaptw" and tht! Phlllpp·lllc g(lvcrnmenls, C<1.lpJng <l strain In 're~{\.tlons betwe~(1tM two countnas and the f~~lgn;rll~n IJf 'Ih~ l abor S~netary and trip Phil ippine e-mbass"y offtcials lnSirrqapore, Ba)a.ba,ga.n W<lS luckier. (lleFc<l~e carne aft~t COl1templad()tI's.) /.\cc.m.ed .c]' killing her emplo¥f!!"s husband i n ~he course of ill! a1t~rrIP~~d (Bp~, ~IH~ was punished with s:ilveral lashes and returned to thl'! .phill.ppini"!~_ .

c;omeml)·1aCIQt'1, ·a domestic

,2 I Andre$

'Pe.rceptitmf,; on and Practice of [J.emo·f.iIlry and r.lti7.flllSf1ip II~ <In llrbau, Middle CI a~s FamilY'. . . '203Mln-a CmttOl.do.. ·P12.rt!lp·~iom (In OlIncJ Pr·~·~tjr.e of D[!n"'lOcR~Y and CHt!en ship In ;1 Il,lJriil!. LDwer CI~.~s F'amll'(,

"!.l. AM"'. M~rl(;t t\ar.aos,

59 rl ano

III, q uoted

in lee.

ZIlaie IHi..
NSO-Atene(l survey, on Demu~rill(~' and Cltllenshlp

2.5 KaraOs·.


27 LQma $~govia., "Parspuctives K8 Segovia. £9 RiCa,rdo Cardimd vlda.l, In the p.<lstoral Letters

ill Textbooks",


~Ited in Rf!Rato the: CatilolJr.


Mabunga, "values RefleCI~d In and a C:ommuniTy'~ Ctlnrf1r~nce o,llhe Philippines". He~pons~s lr) rhe SenThJn~ of



3 I Reb.Q.ccaTorres,




In· and a Community's.


S', I"lamI:lJs{i'lg S0f-R@:~j,mi InWa'Llves <fml KnowlE!d~~ (HASII(~, lnc., Anm •• .w; Allg mg'" M"r:illlf(jJ1ri lilg ...· ~jJfi9$Gd nt) QLI@ZOti OW {Q!.lezon City: Hasik, 19-97), fr· ~4. . 33 Qli(Hed I r. ReF1 ato lee, • p£!rt'ept'i [J ns 0 f IJetn ocracv .a nd Ci tl z~n ship in' the Phi IipJ) Irlol;! UU~!ne ss .s~C\or.'·


Mardi aniOl Ots en,

1'. -ss.

"35 Tordeslllas,

~s ~ MAi!:I.ASEkE.NA.
3 G AdrlOl.n (:mHo.b".,iI; Jr•• "N:n:epJH'lO~ ,of l.ocal G(Jverhmt~ht Cifizllll~hlp and the Role: or (iovernrnern",

I. D 10K NQ


ar:vd Ovll $~,tva.tlt~ on


:3 7 Llakira.
3~ Tord~~111 as,

39 M<ift:h 'Ina o lsen , pp, 103 107, 4 tl M.arl a An 9 el es G, L ~p~n and H-o.be'rt.J~\;'i.ar, J r" "T he ~tlf:1UE!i'I(" e. n f a~ NCO c n ~hIi PI)Ht,i[81 CUllU reof a <I. CrJmmtJ!'llty: An Il'1ltr~1 Ansly:;j~ of the E;';penenct'.! of the Educ;;;\ion tor Lih! FOHllcl:at;[:)Tl".



4-2 W'<thah tbrahtm -Ouilll<~,I, ·Perr.ePlions. and Va'lI,JH~cit Democ,il-'::;Y and Citlzf!tl~-hip 1[\ Mu"slim Mlnd,ana'.]"_ 4 3 l.a pe rl<1. ail d J.fIvi ar; 4.4 lsahellta S. Antcniu, "lmilge of till!! Legal System among Oftli,~MY Fllipll"ll'ls, In- Mind;mao". "l s: Pil Wpplne D;;tifr- inQ Iliref, '.,)('X:tfl b ar -19~7.

46 I ~"',


Zi,al c i t'<l,

'~,8 Dvroni"l<\, 4~ DQronri;i, OS(i c: rI ~_t.[)'b al ,

S 1 NSO'At~rtQa survey.
S2_Alf(}nsQ Yudleng_co, dled In tf!i!!_ 53' Yolan::b F"uecrte5; "r~r~p-el:tlve's on Q.emo'~racY and Citi.zen:shfr
Prcigrll.rn~". ~~. R~rle:cte:-d ifl 5!llec:·teu T~lev~sl~)1'I




5S March an d

m~.et, r


52. In To'rdesidl«.s.


:;UtVQy •

• -5 7 Rap,
58 59 6061

Edli<\rq(l Ermita. qlloted March and olsen, pro 56-57_ Lee. M~r(h arid Ol'sen, p .. ~ I. IPfbWlbrski. pp, 34-3 OJ.








Barrie rs and 8 ridges to a Democratic
Sino ,b:vi :drJ:f) p~(i!Tilh';'j$ n<J m~kak.;rpag~abing [ligiL ,:my ka.l1lf,ang pagbtao ;'It ti.1ngJ Sa paglt<JJ<J.D Jl9' k.al1ya.'lg' mga- k<lf)wii' (Who can claim, \vlthrn.Jt res~rlali{jf!. tf1af hg, is superior to or dl 5tincl; from his frillowmel1'?}- EMlllDJAt':Hlro

CuItu re

Demo.cracy has become one of' the f\~w unq uesttc ned ideas of the, late 20nl tentu ry. Even regi rnes that SlJ ppress dissent proclal m themselves, to b-e dernocrane republics. In til Is pap~.~, I shall 10.0K. t the culture associated wtth demeca racy and point out facto rs thaI htnde rartd promote ns 9 rowth i;r~the Phlllpplnes. By culture: I mean Iii <i standard anth rcpcloqlcal sense, a system of lntormatio n Involving bellefs and values that areacq uir~d th ro u:g h learn ing rather than bio~ogical Inhe rltance, by an InQivid ual as a member of a. soc lew

first, we should pose 'the question: What IS democracy? How does it, as a form of gov~rn m-e nt, differ from other .fo,rrns of govern me nt? Seco nod; we s hou Id ask what kind oJ c'uhu roeis compatible With the 'V@ry idea of democracy? On Iy the n should we. ass.ess the obstacles and 'th~. cpcorturnnes tha~ tnfl uence its growth ,in cur cou ntry, Mly bac kgn:11Jlnd is that of an anth roJJolQgi~t who. has done fieldwork alllO-ng fali'mltlg cornmu nltles in 'C@ntral Luzon ;;l,no ths llocos arnl i nterested ln the e mergelllf.:e of NGOs and POs. Hlstorv, both of thf!: colo I'll raI and pre-colo nlal pe rind. has also been of deep interest to me. IMy paper reflects. nw varied concerns .. It uses qualitative dina derived from my own fitddWork and those. of others .. 4. caveat to 'tihe reader: being a synoptic paper; this paper presents an overvlew 'of several facets of {he to pic It can not pretend to go in depth,

Demonat.y,·as 'W~ know it today, Is a form of govern rl"nent whose Ideal Is that all the. adult members of a, State should enjoy the right to participate in de(id~ng on public matters (res pubUctl), that ts, matters affect.in9 all of them 'RS EI cornmun:ity.

Gr'owth of u Democratic Culture
Demotr.acy,and the culture

created by It are Ideas I n motion.

HH~ are the

stage's I n the unfoldinq of- democracy:
{11 The Affir.mation of Clvff and Po.lifir:.al Rights n 776- }, Both the American and Frent.!l R~vo~ru'tions asserted the rig tu of the' ~fld lvid ~<;I;I o participate In the t affairs 'of the state throuq h the right to choose key leader's. in govern ment who

PHiliPPINE DEMOCR.ACV De:moclracy and! Citizenlship ill Filipino

A.GEN.DA P91,itic;a1 Culture


• F~!l.NIlt.ilno N. ZIAt.CITA

were to represent the interests of their constltuaras.
the Fig hrs 'to freedom

Coupled with this rigfH were

of speecn, freedom of assembtv, freedom of worship and freedo m fro m arbitrary arrest and detention, But these rigl-n~ were; <It rh i 5 5~age, reserved on IV formen and fa r pro pertv-ho lders. 11"1 Unlted States: th Is autothe

maHcally excluded the blacks who were mostly slaves.
(1!848· ). The Fi rstFrsnch R@v(Jt .., the c::1NgVand replaced them whh the bourqeolsie. He nceforth privileges were to be gai ned on the basis not of i nherited ri,ghts but I ndivid ual r acuutred merit. BLit workers w-er:~ excluded, for they did not have the vote. The Second Fn.'~ri(h Revoluuon {1848) removed the clause on prupertv ownership as a prerequlslte and gave the workers [he right tQ vote. However, the workers were almost completelv controlled by the caprtallsts. They worked 10119 hours, w~re paid low wages, and could be disrnl ssed for pett~i infractions, Social tsm was bo rn 'i n Xe5PQI1$'e to widespread rnls@!rybro l1-ght about.
(2) Economic Rights R:es'pomibHit.y

lutsen (1789) overthrew the dominant nobllltvand

and socte!

by an u nrepentant.captrallsm. It arqusd that all members a society had the right to gainful emplovms nt, €d ueatton, housl ng, decent food and doth Ing. Sodr?ty had tile. respcnsibt Iity of taking care of all Its members.' The struggle between these. two vlslons, capltaltsm


and soc ialrsm, is well

and need not detain us here.
for Self"D,eterminarion

(3) The Struggle

(1,776· ). The. American

was a s_truggle against 'the dcrntnance of a people, the srtrons, over the Arnerlcans wno ~j,ad(orne to regard thernsel ..... as different. Its success set in morton other es
wars of Iiberatlon ijn latin America, Asia and Africq. Andres Bonffacio and Apollnario Mabin i W~ re ins pired by both the Fre'fKh and the Amerlcan Revol utto ns. trcnlcallv e-r'lOugh, the enemy of the Fmp~n() people after 1 898 turned put to be none other than the i ovading. Ameslcans. The !\.trug.gl~ aga,i'li:st both color lalism and nee-coIon ialisrnts premised on the notion that a people have the rig ht to run rhelr own affal rs, free from external co ntro l. The advent of nationalism, a concept developed by the French Revolution, strenqthe ned '(he. claim to self-deterrninancn. N,abonaHsm is more than patrlotlsrn, Patrlotlsm Is merely the love: tor the land o·f ones birth. Nationalism, thf! other hand, cla'i rns that all members of a hvporhes lzed "natlo rt" form a brotherhoed (fraremfrEl) because they share Q common trad ttlorr. a common past on the basis of a shared culture and hlstorv, The brotherhood transcends social class, Jarnllv backqrourrd and' education and is strenqthened by the \.1St of common svmbols: one language, one nag r one national costum.e.),


t0gether w· work with and tare for each oth@r, given the fact that in a de,mocracy, sovereignty resides not in a ruler but in the people. The suppcstucn Is that it ts mot the rule r who sets directions but the citl.l.enry ttl rOlUgl1their representatives. Thus, the communautv of their tnterests. has 1'0 be str~ngtheti~d and deepened. Right~ to self-determlnatlon are today prernlsed on the. groundi that a natkm has the right to ru:I'ettself became its interests ulti rnatelv differ from those of others,
To sum up, democracv righu today means .advocatlnq not 0 nly po I lttcal and c~vi'l

Nationalism arose in France as a way of mobiliZing


of cltizens

but also econornlr riqhts. It means advoc<i.til1g not. on Iy thei mportarrce of thelndivldual but also of the entlre community to which he/she belongs. RnaUy, it means recogrnz] ng the prl nclple of self-determlnatlon. .

cseem to r~q!JJire:the

~On the basts of the-See ccncepttens, fol~bWirlg values,

an authentic


culture WOIJ!ld

(1) Re5ipect fw and aff'lrmJxiofJ Qfth~. l'ndivfduaf. The strugg h!'!.or civil righls f w~s wag,~cI b~calls·e pqwt!rful peop.ifl. ignOr'@d til@: individual <Inc! used hi rn/her as. a' m'ea.!1is r their own ends. In .1. democratic cultu re ,UYe~e:f6re, the i ndivid ual Is fa a:rfi!'lm~cI as possesslnq ill herent vatue and has the dglT~ to deckle 0 n matters aff~cUn9 him/herself. The ri.ght can be: deleqated toe. representative but the in rtlal choke is. the fndlvid ual's



(2.) Recognition

of tbe inherent dignity



beings. Althoug h it is

ebviou:s that dlstlncttons of class, E:ltnnl(Jty and poltucal office separate hu man b{!~flglil from each other; the demQcra~a.ss"ltnes that be:n'eath all these is a' commen h uman rty that Iinks one·to the other and 9 lves each h.js/her dig rllty,.

(3) Conc,em to« the publ" gQod .. In creative tension with the affirmatlonot t:he inq ividual 1-.5 the ;;J,mrm<ttiQn of the. pub'l it goo:d. D~fi nin91 tn:e. "public" is no doubt one cf the most hazardous ente-rpri:s,e:.$,The. publtc is tha't ccrnm un~t'y which ~h'a 9 iv~n pclrtlcal a rganizatior! subsumes aiH'other com mun ittes unde r it. Th us in a,yi!l:a9@, fit 'is tile village a~ C! whole ratherthan Ind lvldual farnl Ires; wltli~e at the city Of 0"1 the lev@1ofthe democranc state. The pub'lkgood on thelevelof and the· state tsharder to def ne than on the. level of the vWagi1:!,
(4) WiWngne55 (0 Ji51en ro the orher. A tru Iy communal same time i"clud~ng them. The ~a.me can be $aid of th@ "public' on the level of the

the city.


lend arl ear to o:n:ean,otll~r. The: assumptio tl is that FlO. one person, despite that p.erson'~ @xpe:rti:S,Lll" has a monel paJy (lin i Me rmatleri: tbe. expert'5 decis Ion may have cons:e,quences 011 another person's life that the. ~Xp~11: may not be aware Of. Because each person' is valuable by him/her-self, persons


the wi'I,I.ingnes:s



concerns, either as an lnd lvidual orasa

member of a group;

ought' Hr be heeded.

An impli;e,d pre:mise of de mocracv, therefore, ls the need to care for the ancnvmous £tranger. The democrat regards the anorryrnous 5tra.nge:r - the person to whom he/~heis not related by blood, m<lrriag~. frlends hip Or rH~'ig;hborshi p and whom tH~!she.will never meet in life' as. a co-equalas a. reality whose concerns 'and r.fghts m us t be pro ttl cted, A tthe h eart ofth e de roo c rattc v is i em isrh is absrracuon withQU~ which' democracy woutdceaseto b~, TI1is premise fs i mporrant, for tH'eeverwhelmlnp m~Jor~ty of democracies an; states wath [u rlsdlcttnn over thousantds- and even milli.ohs 'of D'Ewple. livinq in d ifferentsett!lements aM prat.tidng cliv!':!rs'~occupations. TinV states like: the Vatlcan .and same in the Pacific and the:

GarHibe('ul are the ex ce.pti 0 n $','


rO:5iti.ng ttl'!; ri'f:J.ht'5 'Of the nameless, facsless .stra.nger snould make us cautious about applyi rig 'the terrn "democratic" to Just any society where dtsnncuons ~mong the members tn polittcalpowerand ecenomle wealth are not tool rnpo rtanto ~referto simple, .aborig inal sacleties, Iike those i nthe uplands of the. Cordillera. in the ea:r~y' 1900s and onthe foothills of thee :Siena Madre fill the 1970s.,~ {Abof~gi.r1cal here is used w~th an -eve on its tatfn root: a.b + origfne, meaninQl "from the beg!n 11~liIg"or slrnplv the "odginal"}, Such societies have since chang@da.nd becom e nrore peac eab le, But oem re, a,s de sen bed in ,eth n og ra iJ~he 5 by ant h roI pologiSB: who lived among them, th~' anonymous stranger, eve.rI of the same langUlage group but. iiving several ·kilQlneter,S· away, was often a victim (rnan, woman
or Child) to b12siai n when a man came. of age or to' end


F~tual for ill!

relanve who had diMfro:m ,;J:rllY [aJlls!@:.The case. anne. HanunoQ"Mangyafl of Mind'o,fO who are a pl1':a(~fUJI p~c',~I,~victfmlzed 'by nOIl-Marlgyaf1 peopjeccrnl ng from tl1~.' lowlands IS different_ While tl'iLey f~e~ Ufl~asy I n 'Front or rlon-Marlgyam thev tt~~h

relax lnfmnt of any MtJr1gva-n, ~ Stili they look down 011 other Mangyan 9 ro I.i~n for allf!gedly seldom bat:tuf1g 0 r fOor havmg 5kin d:1seas~.' Pres umably UJ() rJ~riltivJ! \If:! rnures with oth-er ManQ¥<IIf11'5 outside rherraccusromed be undarles must be nit
Perhap-s proro·de'moailw: mAgill bea mar@ accueare re rm.
One major problem hllhe Pi'lilip~lnes. Is.tihat in varying degre.es, rh~ rlg.ll'rS Of fhe ancnvme us' s'tr"nlfJ'er 'COntinue H) b~ ,,"ilisreg;,rded. A~thQU9h we. are extrerlle!y


Iowa rds these whom we have mel r~l[re-to·r13.ceiilnd whQ m we ~rust, w~
will never meet,

tend '[0 h; no~~ Ihe rightS of ~bo5e whom w~ do net know arid

On the other fv~nd, bl1!C:i!I'U.U~ a aemoc:r.1tic culru re req ulres that the huJlv1du(l1 be able '10 thin k and cjec.;Jderaw hlm/her~tlf. I would also be cautious abrHJlI !Js'll'~g the term "dernocrauc" fo/" The un~vtmal religion!. like tradltlcnal Chri$thullty or Islam. True, they regard 1he ana-l1r'rnO'lJI~ ~m'J.ngcr as ,ll fellow 1'11.lnWn being .und h,nJI!' Ii3J)Qr~d on hrs b~hil.U, '~I'DW,tVl!f, O'II(l,uyh~gh~y organized rellgl(;)115 have, In ~h~ past, mq u ired that the! if'l,dlvudu(Ji IF.orr,'!gohts CIwn perso 1"1<111udgme nt .on m am~r$ J <lffe:ctin9 I, i 5 Ufe rEl tude. w ~se'nl [0 a doctrine. R@1a:~IOIH of power 11aV~ b(!en, hig ~lly ~llerilr{hized and 'used rc oppr,us dlss~flt~rs.
Emilio Jjjlc,into's ~i~iOfi! of pagk<lkaparu.ilY (equ<lU[y) and pag·,.bfg (1Iav~~ ancompasses the faceiElSS SHollngN and denles 11erarchlzatlon , He ~aw both ;:IS tl1~ I b;a!il~ of all ~o('ia~ relaucn s in lli bJy.m (people/I"!~HiQfI) ..

TI,e h~nd ranees to the grOW"fh of demor;r.i;lCY inthe lir'led as fa llows: Philippines can

be oW

1_ Pove.rty cre-ales de.peru!ency: e"onom~f; ~Cin~~mS djstract
ci vI,cO'J1ID!:rr1s.



2. • Hie.rarchr~d pyra:m lei
~. Edl'e,l1'JE

1"I'!!/1il"r:i'~ns ",'eH dec t$ iOI'l·ma.kll1 g. in thos e at t heto p of the
,'lIWflrm~ famma.r concerns
Ii'! S ~ nd~vidUaLl


col h~ cOve :k nl res Jl onsi b iiily dem

<It thaaxpensc rig hts,
I'll g

of public


Wea k s el15 e .a" ,pqb'J~c gtllgQ iti;Jnm~s rru:,~r!:!s, s Ilffect~ aut I,ori tarlan '~olUUOJ"li&U~'f1I'II'p\i n!l.

all: may make


:U~if;ed dr~t'·i:I'u,"~I!!! ,0'" ,d'I!,nl'O':II"OI'C)'IiII'iI.d ,fu ,m,Mning in the verna.cular results In cI~m()naLY not 1:l'~ln9til'ld~rstood by most: categofie.s of the v~rn!ll{UI'H mill\" ronh"ilid~u thl!! dll'mou<!'tic vlslcn ..



building a democratlc

Pov@rty ls widesprea;d i nths Philippines. This has serlous consaqvences for culture. Daily misery inhibits many of the poor from careflJHy ~tudY'rng pu'blic issues and participating ill pubLic debates, Many Ftrrph'1oSdo not ewnthelr dwellings a.nd neither 'the' land em whkh thetr ho use stands nor [he land they ,·ill. In addition, many have difficulty providing rnlnirnal caloric intake for tMeir famtrv and sufflclent educatron for their ch lldren.
culture would seem to be obvious but

The consequences for democratic they have to be re-artlculated,

first, a situatlnn of dependencv makes it dlfftcu It for the individua,1 toact .as a free aqent who can decide and act responsibly on publlc issues on the basis of the.evldence. Becaus~ ef his 5i'twltion, he: Is 0P~11 to mantpulanen by those: who can respo rtd 10 his lmrnedrate ftnancral needs, He develops an fJtang na loob, The Tagalog meanlng is graph ic: the salf becomes, indebted to anotber for a Iifelime. Thus, even if a fellow pref@rs a particular candidate, he may decide on election ¢.ay to VQH~ for his patron's elloree or sell hls vote to a bidder. A J:)olirkidil1 frlend, 'the former govemor of a province in the llocos, tells of h:o,wshe got nornl nated as her party's candidate du r~ng {he provtnclal co n,gress 1!nd how she was voted as 90vernor: During the: p.rovlncial connres s, I btm.ighr sandwiches for the delegates, The other did not. 50 wnlOlni the voting t.oo,," place, I easily WOIl over him", Whe.J1my 11 ban d ami I' wer~. act ive us po IUfu'; the fI oor of ou rho LIS e was always dar:k and dirty evan 01'1 5.ll!'lday~ ber;:au!'til $0 many people wou.ld come ;;I~kingfor help o.rexpe.::ting to be fed..


The method was expensive,

but it achleved resurrs.

Second, a sltuatlnn is created where a floor persons eIle rgie:'j, an~ Co nsumed by the constant st:ruggh; to survive. The poor man or W(jrtlan theretore finds It djff~Lul't to' reflect 01'1 Wider issues a.ff,e.ctdng the (Om mun Ity 0 r <to partie i pate ill

lnltlatlves to address

these issues

Third, poverty endanqe rs. publlcservlce. Covernrnent cfflctals, whethere leellve.or aepolntlvs, ere expected to serve the general public by promoting the good of aUt regatd!ess of whether 'they are strangers orfam Illars. This ideal istk 90al i'5 tltfficull to realize when a publlc servant has, on the one hand, trernendo LIS power, and en the other, a salarv that' i:;; f~H' berow the government's own definitton of what (0 n St,itu tes pove ny. ln

summit on law and order convoked

by the. government

in 1994, It was

,str<lt~gy of redress that such .3.('1 emplovee will take is to make use of public funds for private ends, Another, in the case of the police and the military. is to make use Qftl'leir arms to engage in robbery, kidnapping for ransomand other illegal actfvities With pecuniary returns. Both stratsptes are taking place rig ln now, as is w@ I~ known. Members of the police. and the: mililaf'y' have been recently accused of various crimes', notably kidnapping and killing targeted victims.

p'o'ihted out that a pol iceman earned only P 1,500 a month and had a. quota of 50 bullets, Any extra bullet was, his to pay for, Ordinarily, the policeman lived 11'1 the slum area, dght dose to the drug traffltke,rs he was suppcsedtc apprehend, one





is meant the divi.siol1 of society into roles with high

By ;'hierarchization"

expected to defer to th@ opinions of those above them. No doubt, large complex socletlescanrret be org:anizBd wltheut some hierarchy, [)ec,ision-makil11g has to, be delegated! to a group or to an lndivldual who has an overview from his pcshton

lew status attached W' them, where those in roles w~th law status are


top of both the entire organization

and the ~oci?!1envtrcnment,

Stilll, there are differences in the degree of hlerarcnv, In some cnntampcrarv socleties, an employee can question or disa~ ree with his b-oss.at an op~n forum wlthout berliig censured for it. In others, such behavior will be.taken aga'inst him,

Differences j n h ierarchy are also reflected Ilingu~s,tically through honorifics and chang~s in vocabulary. for Instance, In bothjapan and Java, the wo rds used by a speaker ch;;ln'ige according to' the status of the person ~peken to'. De'pending Otll whether the person spoken 'to is an tnfenor, 'equal or a superior, the. speaker is expected to change the s.enteQce;'s, vecabularv
To distinguish soc~eH@swhere differ@nc.es in status are .accemuated MId transgressions of thes-e pun tshed. it mig ht be better to speak Of "hierarchization" rather than rhlerarchv," The latter us an organ izlng prl nclple CQ'mOlOn to all socletles with .a large population. On' a scale of 1 to 6, where 1 would dencte minimal hlerarchlaatlonand 6 extreme hlerarchtzution, the. Philippines would probablv rank 4. Honorifics a.flo! used in Tagalog to emphasize the hi9.h status of t~'e speaker w~tnmn, nawev:erj, introducing radlca] chJl.nges In the sentences vocabulary, as would be the case in both Javanese and japanese, Que,&tio l1ing by a sectalinferlor 1:5 ind-eed 'rrowtled upon in the ..phillppine5, e.sp@:cially if ,it exposes theqJ~ficiencies in knowledge (if the hig h status, person, However, q u.esUorii ng bvsabalterrrs seems more tolerated in rhe Ph i lippine-s than in Java and Thailand, ~ccording ·to my Javanese and Thai students in anthropology and sociology who have hart thecpportunnv W ebsssve family life <I.ndpolitica: relations in 'the rural area, '111 their socreites, according to

them, orlC'!!! fa supertor;

then the subordtnatesare

l!:ike the teacher; tho€! illaqe head 01' the mayor; has spoken, v expected to avoid any public display of dlsaqreement,

Nonetheless, hien.n::hb:ation is tI problem In the Philippines and a serious to further d~emocrati2;ati.ot1. It rteqates the very notion that all pe rsons should have the right to 'express their thoughts and feellnqs wiithout fear of duress and that the.y should be consulted on matters affecting them. Hlerarchtzaden Is a problem not on~y in the country as;a whole but also in cffh:.es. schools and homesthreat Oscar Lag man " a management expert formerly connected wIth the Aslan Institute of Management. told me in lntervlewsthat consensus build Lng is ge:netally not the norm in Hllplno companies. Should the top executive l1,eed to decide on an important. issue; he w ll II most likely consult rnanaqers orily, but not those below them. Hie cites the. case.of a company that had to decide on where its s howroom was to be. in .a blJ~llding: the. 9rolUld floor or the upper story. A round of dlscussions was mtttated which il nvolved the manaqers but not ordinary emp~oyees like those in sales or 111 the stockroom. But this consultanon with the managers m~y its@lf be exceptional, notes La9'man. tn most other compan ies he has dealt wlth, 'the top executive decides unilaterally. This, too, has also been observed by Wilfreda Arce, an anthropologist speCializing lin the study of business

organizations. matters,

11'1 the banks, the ch lef executive. makes decrslcns


almost all

Ho·w prevalent are. 'censultattons in schools, whether

private or publlc, be-

tween admlntstratton, faculty and students? How much lnltlative is p@rm'itn~d? .Con:siderthe case of th~s convent school ..The presldent, a nun, ls also the college dean and the flnance officer. The. smallest dectslo ns need her sj.gnatu reo for i nstance, field trips for students, the chalice of speakers to be Invlted to a. forum, the hi ri rig of fac uIW,. and s<kl,ary increases. F.:acurty are not co nsulted either on the

matter of teaching

loads and subjects to teach. These are assignad. in Filipino classrooms, it has bsen observed by

In the classroom, partkularlv

both students

and fellO'w teachers

that teachers


not 9 Iv~ students

eno ugh

opportun ity to 'ask qUEstions· Of engage [he teacher ln debate: Teacherspet irri'ta,ted w~th students who ask many questlons for se·ll!mi'ngto question tl1~ir :3.1..las..a. result, have bean known to Q'lve them low 9 rades. Tfa.ditiofl~lIy,. in Filipino homes, child ref'! i even adult Q nes, are expected not 10 questlon the opinions of their parents,and not to argue with them. To question and toarque are' taken as lnd lcatton of lack of respect, But some parents seem to want more: th~y demand obed IE!nce even in matters CO ncernDrig choice 'of spouse

and career,

One da:'i'. while in a rural village in llocos Norte, I heard a ,IClUd wail fro m the m:!~9JhbQr'5 hO;I.I'~n~_ hostess explained to me why. A yo unq woman was being IMy pressured by her mother to marry her father's brother who was a retired worker from' Hawalt, He had returned and, given his penslon and savlnqs, Would lead a comfortable. life and could bU·Y much ne.ed:ed far the family. The yelLIng woman vehemently refused to rnarrv such an 0101 man l.and her 1I nels at that. A, week later


I was told that she had give:n in.

In the genealogies II gathened as w'eJI as ln rny tntervrews, I fou rid out that marriages between father's brother and daughter,. wh ile not ord,i Frary. are not IUncommon, and are accepted, lin ttl IS particular relationship and In others, parents make their preferences dear and thev expect to· be followed. Actordlng to tnformarns, one response. til til is, given the ildeaJilation of romantic lave ill the media, Is elopement. But even i·n the city, mothers bear down heavily on thelr daughters in marriage matters. Cilda.Co rdero Fern;]ndo, the well-known writer tlimJ pu biisher, fcrld rne of seve ra IIsases she. knew wheretne mother would eavesdrop 011 conversatlons err rhe daughter with her suitors, or read letters to and from the daughter. I Then there is the case of this acqualntante whose mother d rove away two serious suitors of her d21ug hter; The daug hter is an o'd mald rlOW. and a 5C hlzophren lc.

tlve. It is eaher that the: child continues the parent's career or takes Me that has the patent's b·l~ssingl. This happens not only in the countryS-ide bur. evan lnrhe city. Just thls january, a gra.duating At(erie·an told me of hrs plans nl work wid ..an anthropological team before finally decldinqon a career After graduatiOn, the.

The choice of the cnild's. career ts felt by many parents


be their preroqa-

student; who came from Oil wealthy family, told !'rIE~J1:e was gOing to law schoc I. His heart was not In lt, but h~ said he wall Id try it <l!nyw<\y.

Hierarchy extends to sibling relations as well. Th@ elder sibling expects; to be. t"@:9.ardediy younger siblings. asa second parent. These dlffsrences ln status b are: indicated by the henonfrc tides used by sjblings. Ellder brcther/stster is called:

l(uva/Ate in Tagalog and Manol1g/Manang in ttocano. whlle vounqer ter is called 5angko/Sa.nse in Tagalo,g and Adfng/~dfng in 110(,(1,1'10.


crane ideals. A favorlte

in the family has consequences fo r the spread of demofor 'the 'Phil i ppine nation-state and its Iocal units Is the fam~~y: all Fu!ipirJOS are su pposed to be brothers and sisters, and the, ex,e;cu, ttve, the father. The Marco'se:$ pl"Wed on this metaphor; Ferdinarrd M<liJCOs was supposedly the Ama (father), and Imelda the In'a (mother), Though these meta' phors were not used by President.s Cory AQuino and Ftdel Ramos, they tcntmue to be Used <It the lower levels of gq.verJ1l merit: b"l' the go:v~mor, the m;;lym,;:Ul~ the baranqav Captain. The problem i5 that giv~n tli@ dynamics wlthlnths Filipino tam Uy. this can be: ali eff.ective excuse for sHffing dlssent, Neither are allusions t6 "fraternity" and! brutherhond" more egal.itarian. If the chie'fexeclJItive ts re:921rded a'S Me, then she expects to be treated as one, and refuses to entertain quesucns,

This hterarchtaatlon

In a case study of participation by <I developmental non-povernment orga,J1i' zatlon In governan,ce 1!1a tnwn iii Aurora, the ri:9ufe of the leader was proml nent, Indeen shs had accornpltshed much for the fanner assoctano ns the NCO W<l;5 helping in terms 0'1' improvl'ng their li,velihood a,nd gaining access to Ilegal servlces, However, both members oJ her staff and some of the farmer-members resented how sine, would u hila'terally make tmportant decisions, for all wi,tnout consultation. Although she wanted to, be called Me" some rerused on the grounds that by so dolnq, they would be unable to quesnon ,her actions. Instead lhev preferred the more eg:aiitari'an Kal mea,nil'lg ccmparncn,"
(3) Eklreme Familism
A source of strength fo r the FHipi 110 is, the, closeness of fami Iy ties. Filipino can expect the close of kin to fund a child's sdlOo!in,g, find a job for him or her, suu rce funds du ring an ~mergencYr offer consolation durll1g a ens Is, e~tend a warm embrace in happy moments, ButfamiljS,01 has its underside. too. The rights of OUtsiders are violated In order to assart famtllal'lnterests. Patrtmanlaltarn is a common pattern in the Phmppin~s. Politi,cally influentiall fammes 'feel that other members hav@~ right to a public offic;e just because one ' the member assumed offi,ce...If the father is governor, then the Wife. warm to bec'cimE. the mayor of the prcvlneial raprral, and the SOil a, (ong ress man, Worse, ~hey will use force to make surethev stay ln office and that nerr-kl nsrne n a,re excluded, Thus the phenomenon of dynasties mcnopoltzlnq public office ln many pam of


the country. For instance: the Josons of Nueva Edja or the osmenas of Cebu. The most mfamous ex;;tmph~: was, of cou rse, .the Marcos 'famHy' who gave the d il)~.a£~~ a national dtmensron byg rabblnq the presidency, the qovernorsh i p of Metro M3: nlla, and the: g:overnars'hip of Ilccos None for themselves. This patri mcnlallsm ts manifest even outside the po Ii:tica I 5 pheta. Pcslticns in some Jaber unions, like the Trad@ Unio-n or the Ph i Ilpplnes and AlllliI~:dServices

are Inherited frnrn father



one Ocato the other:



responsibility. If kin of A become original and sole hu nted and killed

of extreme famWsm :is 'the nouo 11 of collectlve Idl1 a member shou I'd commit viole:nc€ Llg'ail1St 'a non-kin, then the responsible before the. kin of B. Thus ,although Matalas was tih@ culprlt, any of his siblings, h,is first cousl ns, and 11 children are is by the kin of B, the vieti til. Thi's msntalltv 5ti II reigns in parts oT

the Sierra Madre,!lnd to the 11 lntertands of M~nddmlo. cam i ng a cycle of vendettatnat Ed.n ,t<!l~l f(l'1I"generadons. ' UljU5~n ng Ian!, as the Tagalog Erxpres$loFI PUt5~'t F,euding cycles occur even III fh@ cl1 risEian Ic,wland,~,ff.J r I nS'~m:e, in the llerns, acco rdingto inrtormaln's I have met d l.Irfng my fieldwork. Howf!:V!!r, thel r pattern seems to be dmel1l'1rit from what has been d lscv ssed above, ~t ~J!!ll!m~ rhar only dl ~€lct accessones to OJ crtrne are punished by rhe aggr~eved party, f10\ neces ~.:lnly mere re~iilb/e~.
An assumpnon of democr;u:.y is that lPub~jc office she uId b~ open to all who are quaHfi.edl and have. the appro,volil o~ ~'Ill~pl!:ople. Dl!mocracy was born pr.eci"S-ely In the 5truggl~ against the patrimoniarJ~m or nerednary mo FI<\fC hies. Mo!'~over, an Impllcl'~ assumption C}~I emar,racy ls '~hat ~he ~ndlv~d~J<lI.arid no t hI:!. 1.:1 ~~,ou~tJ d Fl. be!ha~(Jacecunrable fo~ hts acttons. file rigl1t ~o vorets given no! [0 the fanlUy 01' even haus~hold bUT '1':1 each me'FIltJe,~;motreQ,ver, ~he penal cedes of the demccracles punish only Ihe: ImmeditUe wroflgdo,~II'.
(4) A Weak Se,ns.e of P'1iiI1Ib~f, tGood'

the ·'Cordiliera,

seems to cover .~US,t their circle of family ,onhrthelf own pe rsons and pi ope rnes. A co neerntor the broader c.ommunUy's hu~re~u. rs norablv we~k. J.Uy .. (.511ame) is D pcwarful value ~halin"!bUs many FWpinos fr,om doIng anything that does 110\ seem right. UnfoJtLl.lli;nely, be(_au.u~ of th,~s:tweng1h ~J the ctatrns hy ~i,p. family and ~IU~ rcle ef Iriands and t hE!corresponding w,ukness of the c~aim.!i of !h~ faceless c:1 publk, rnanv Filip.! !'I 0:5 do not seem to fee,1 h"VI1i,i!:bout upholding [he i nreresrs of ~heJr family and frle:nd.s over tho·s!?: of ~Iilol!: p,ubHc, They simplv fgl"lore the public.

and fnerrds: their concern often erebraces

~CommLJnity" for many

Thus, common

b age -stre wn, $ in cet h eybe lenqto ,ev£!ryo ne and til e re fo re l a no 0 n e i11 pa rHCIJII r, a they ,[Ire not takan care of. fi'e.D pi 11' seerntc ha;ve a hard lime abstractl ng a "common good''' or reahzmg that all are OW.rH:'!W'S efa common pro pertv
Til Is inability worsens the mere abstsact the- ownetr is. Thus. many villages dump~he!r garti~.ge in between v~rltage boundaries or fig.ht 01'1 ~hi national 1'119 hwa.y,. "Th e n <tUnn ." 'Ttl lI:FUiprno peeopi e" <IS, ow mers See nnw 0 abs trac ra cone e ct For

areas ~n low·rncom·e ,ccncicmfniu rns are often

d rrty and gar·

many. tndeedeven for the educated ,and for ,government offk:ia~:s,thE:m·selvt;:~L The latterdo not seem tn r~a~ize that a dirty city reflects ,on rhel r values as persons {pagbuo} a.nd on their .styie of man<li~Jt~me.nt. Ir ~!'SQ eXPQ5eS the Ph~~IDpir'le$'to rtdicu Ie by outstders,

In 'I992.. i pa.leIa vis it to the Senali~. I \'lI'@11t tnt h eo St ro 0 man d saw 9 Q rb age roe heaped in one corner, There was no water; faucets werE! broken, and tha walls were dirty. Thill same 'fea.'1I" v~'5ited ~he Presldentlal Management Staff bu I ldinq, I On th~ sldewal k r~gh! by the ernr01i:l,['e W;;I.5 a prle I;!tf uncoltected g~fb.1ge. It was appalll'1g' to nnd lh is beside an msmuuen ~ha[ was asscciared wr~h the (11 ief E>::f'!CLltiveof HH~ RepLJb~lid In 1996,. ~,ont;:e passed by tn<e Senate bUlllld~og, 0., the northern side 0 r the lot was a tall enctcsure made of hollow blocks w.tH~~e the 9aJibage was k~ pt. Tile ga t.e was QI pen, a.nd ~,h,eyal'b a:g"e had ! pill!! d 0 n ~01' he r sidewal k. TI'Ip.l'e was no sign of anyon-I'!' (leaning up arness that refleued 0 n rhe S.cn;uteland indeed on th!!! Republ1k I cltfl: slupplness and pcor 'Q'arbag"@ CO~'@(UO'1'1 1n common areas (15 Que h,dr· cator of a prevo mng'w,eak. sense 'a'! ,h,e pLilblic good because rh'il'!st are Irnrnedl-

4:8 • F£.IlNA!oIOO N. llAUCIliA

ately vislble and


rhetr persons and homes. U then~ h [aIC·kof (o'ncem sven in tI s·een,ingly simple matter nile cleaning .lmmediAte SI.!HodLlnd'ng.s. w@ can understand wily ~here are problems "Cll only in the garbag1e collection or Metro Manila as a whore, but even

be contrasted

with [he neatness. most Filipinos ext! iblt


lin othE!:r matters involving all iil.bsU'£\ct but real public good like clean ing the alr1 un ra.veldlng the 1raffle. man:lagl~lI'igWOlI~ reso urces or protecting ·rhe forest,

manv to concelve

the rlghu or [h@ unknown,



are dUHcullt for

A weak sense of the publl~c good weakens the Ioundauons of democracy. An made by democrats 'IS th.u whel'll, people act <is freli!gem!i,. they can discern the cornmo n good and rake the a.pprQPrH!.te str.ateg les for attainil1g It. 111 contrast, a.CCQ,rdfl1g them,l'he common good tn iI d lctatershrp or In a traditional to monarchy Is. I.hal. which the: ruler deJlne~. It Ith~refore docs not refle t tile basic
~uumpllon interests of rnOSt sectors of the poputatton.
TI, I~ assurnptlon is cllaUenged bV thecase shown above: the r,aill.l re of bo·tll Ihe ordinal)' chlzens and 'lhe officials irn a fum::tiOlnlng democracv like the Phlltppi nes to dis.ce'l n tnt common good. is alse chi1!~enged by the (!xamp,le of au, thcrltarlan governmenn llke S~n~apof'e' whkh are .ab~e Ul provide- bas tc publlc services In alii intel'llge'lflt manner. lnd eed Marcos [ust] ~ed his. prcclamanon of martial law on The grolJnd!i thin the democratic process had broken down and rtul"t only martial jaw c;.a,uldprovidi!' ba~h: 5'Ii!NiCf:s, tClge:~I'HH w~th needed structural reforms, Within' hal: same month. the many pcthcles rtddUl'lg the streets of Manilll W~fe fi~.ed, the naffic. knot'~ ILlntangled. and tlhElstreets swept of garbage. However, a'll


these problems reappeared in 11IS last years hi office. In mockery of his clalms, But people have shert meenorles, u]lfim1Ul'IIa.tely.Toda.y·, l"IIl'any say that Ln order to resolve problems ccncerrunq basi.£: servtces, ill strong 11iUld it ta Singapore, ~ la Malaysia, ~ 1[1Indonesia is needed. Liberal democracv ~5,aulted for th'~ breakf down in seNilc.e!s.
(5) limited Discourse ,on ID'@fflOo:acy and irs Meaning

~n I hi e Vema.(Ju ~a.1i

Emi Iio jaclnro, And res SQ"lfacio. and Apoliflario Mabl nil nuiared a discourse. on democracv: the fi:r'lit tWlO in Taglal'llQI. t·he~htrd in Spanish. Two things can be. noted: thus discourse has not been ·developed <15 e-xpHcltly since and furtber expansion of this dlsceurse is i1:dkillifig place large·II'yin English rather than in the many


or the PhilippH"IE:'S.

Bonifado do~s the same, he does somethingl mere, He opens a Flew dlmenslcn b,y re-ortentl ng wang Ila 'ooCr (dehE of gratitude:) U] make as I t5 ultimate object the MOfner COLlntry. She ~s.a trliie Imo~.h@.r·for we i111~ breathe the fi rst al r of life whhii'l her.'"IOlpliCltly he rs say·lng that thts subsumes all II ether ur.ang (debU.

As pointed

out above, jac:into speaks of pagk.ak.apan ray (eQualltv). While

Activist f1~.tionaIl5[S and highl:y ronsderHizedi NCOs and POs are, 'throu.gh then cornmitmem, witnl!s~in9 ~he ITHNUlIllng ~hrs.discourse. Stili. U sums to me ,ov rhar an ,explicit body ~r reflectlon on the mil3.nllng· of democracy needs· further arncula 'jon. The pvery.day Iliffiplu:a liorlS or democracy need 0 be worked Q~~t for all W understand n, Moreove'r. thesoe rm.pjn,at~ons need 10 be communicated in the vernacu lar, W@ cannot JUSl3is$iu:me rhat the C<'I[@gor!,tsof ~he vernac ular do reflect

Fori nstarree, Virgl~!iQ Almarto points out that kaJay.a-arr (freedom) ·asnow used in fin .pmo -polWcal dtscou r~e was 9 lvenits mean i,ng by MMC"eilo 11 ~~I Pilar ~n the late 19~H century.', . ThESquesno nthat comes to mind is this; does this sense of freedom carry w~th it the notion of respcn slbllltv not on Iy for one's self but also re5PQns,~bility -te tl1e larger .socrHy? This double meaning of freedom underl lnes c urrent demonatit dlsceurse, A~dgra11ting that n~ll Pi lars- Us-e hasthls double m.edrlli ng, does the ~ 'Qiv:erage.US@iF MTaga:log intend it Hke:wise?· II rai se t~, se q ue.sfi 0 ns peca.u,s~. in my' key t nfo rmant in te rv~ew S 'i n tl1 e uoco S e 'ill 1987 andaqatn, ~11 1996, I round OU't that the people ~ spoke to f'r-l th.E: ru ra.ilareas had .,a diffuent understand i ng of demotracv ,inOi freedcrn. When asked what :' ~ . ."d~mOkril s va me arn fo r 1hem. quite' a f1!.1 mbe r de s.~-rlbed tras a £H ua)tlion "w nere there are jobs" m "prosperltv'tor ~there: ts peace and quiet.' Some did rrH~!nJthm freedom (waV<lwava). But thetr mu:Jerstal1ding of wayaway.a was.stmolv to b!i- able to. do whatever they pleased. For i:nsta~ce"to go to tile field at 9;ny time I please.' or "to raise my cr.o.ps without riaving to dkvidejt with anvone.t'cr "to bu i ld a house wrthout h.avingto worry about gove-rnment regulal'iofls," or "to take theafternoon
. ,

Ch!r'TIo_craticoncerrrs. c



a [ob arid come back: the next morning

w~thout f.ear of losing th-e jOb""li'

This ind~gerloLlS: discourse co ntradlcts th@ way 'Chl:rYlOcr'acy .shoLild work, a~ anvt'signed by Ilbsral democrats. In 'fact ~tendangers it ,,'

contend~l'!g parties, TI1is means debd~'@ 'and argu ment. At the' same. tim~ tfr~' pol ltlc~~order can not 'function wlthout reg.ul:D,tior1S over halls! rig jobs, and other matter;s, A s('it~allv oriented demsnacy envisiQ~r,vsshprifhg one's bounty w~th Glthe.P's .ejther dri r·ecUy or through a redlstributlvestate. Whiille there are obstacles to the -d,eveJopmen~of democracy in Hw: Ph~.Ippine~r;,there ,an~also factors that facilitate. i Its expan s ion.

i$ net a.tl peace and 'q'iJi~t: tnterests


b~' artie ulated by

~t!:n be summanzed

On thr~ other hand, there'.ani epportuntttes
as: follows: '

for fos::I!ering

de moe racy ..These



1, Self..help'ar 2:, Mulriplicity ~(irr good_


level enceuraqes illiH~tiv~ and group declslons,

of.NGOs and POs encourages people to pcslt al1ab~tract trans-

3:. Hegemony of .libe.ral derilDcra (it:' idea Is give s demo(;ratic fre ~doms ~eQ itl"

4- ,. Many Ci;!nt~u of po WiI!!t pr~vent power from gmup_ to the, exc~uMol1! of~be majority.
I::U~hi S

co ri( l2:ntra,I@.d


.as m;;lll




(1) activity

Self-help at the Ba.1"'3.ngay' Level

"Sed'f-help~1~'H!!re refers to

in response to a problem

grQup of l.ndividua.ls or families who undertake in affening all, with Ilttle or 110 tnrerventlon by the

Th ere are: activ i ti@5 that a.re spo ntan e 0 U sand i nV01:v~ I ittl e !J Ian n in g. Exam pJHS I have noticed in the rlccos would be. coollnq toqether friends, neighbors. and relatives to help ill transplantlnq 0 r harvesting crops, bulldl tUga ho use or transferrl ng

house. Co ntrarv to the

democracy. They are merely translto ry actlvules that respond to the needs err a particular lndlvldual.Jn ~xchange for which he. toe. must nel p the others in thsfr hour of need. The relatto ns hip ln such activities is lJIt.imat-eJy purely dyadic: I will help you ,as, long as YQU hel p me wile n my turn comes11'is. activities that i nvolve seve raj households: especially these not related, by ktnshlp, and are. i t1~ttutiolf!al lzed tn vLlrylng deg Fees that strengthen the notio~' that al r CI,f us are. I!Jltima'te:ly eq ual to each otheras human oeing 5 and shu uld therefore work tcqether for a common goal. In some baranqavs In the Ilocos, there are Irrigation societies that bring toge-thilrfarmer.s from differeillt baranqavs to act as o n~ Iin c rest in 9 and mal n ta.i 11 11 a VIla te rwe rks sys te m t hal d envers. w at~r i9 to the fields. Such socletles are old; many, as shown by theil' charters, date back to tile 1790s and 18005. They have well-defined riglhts and ob~igations towards each other and towards their diems: farmers needing' water.
Th e re are also neighborhood assoclattons where household s of iii pumk (small nelqhborhcod) gov~.m themselves 'by means nf ~ set of by-laws. The latter def ne penalties for ~Hlitying ,the road and c'ffer i ncsntlves for Join~,ng S uch as the privilege: of ava.iling of co rnmunal Iy .st6red coo king utensils. These become sought after during funerals 0'1" wedding~ tn a. famfl.v and are rhus 'highly palpable bene:fft s. Thf! re a re ~I so rota t Ing ere d j t assoc iati on S:., c redlt C oopera tlves In 0 w th rlvl n~, ln some baranpavs, I do not know how widespread they are th rouqhout the Philip· pines. Even in the tlocos theyare net, .


oplalo n, I do nor see how these


(,2:) The M u Iii pUca Ii on ,of IN GOs an d POs
Private developmental organ tzanons have mu Iti plied since th,e return of lib@ICI,I democracy under Corazon Aquino ..'~ Their concerns are vario LIS: prov~d,ing !egal aid. tralninq in ctttzens' righu, a.ssisting street chtld ren atH::i so on, The :;;ig" nlflcance o.fthis phenomenon is rnanl'fold. Such organ!2a;tlons are either national i 11 SLOP~. or. elssare pan of a federation of other such organ lzatlcns. Thev thus, liberate people from thinking orA'ly of their family or eif lhei r own parttctrlar locality. Often th@.NGOs are run by people who come from midd le-lncome. and sometimes" high-income families. The tamllles of some centre I substantial capital,

Through NGO& lndlvlduals break loose trct-n'l the co nstralnts Imposed by their status and class arid learn to identify wlth a. bread seem r of Philip pine socie~y.

The emphasis of NGOs 01'1 consensus-bulldlnq through prosest: Is praiseworthy. But their weaknes.'S is that they may be. ,(lJfficu It fa susta: 11, for many NCO~ relv on fo,r~lgn grants.

("3). The: Hegemony of lib·grid Democratic


TIMe PhHippTrI€s has &ol1g steed out in ths tregio.ri for it~ adherence to the fo;rmai FIP'Itlcal freedoms of liberal democracy, except during the Marcos: dicu,to-ri sJlip.Thusthe Phmppine press takes pride in being able to openlv crltlclze key publh: ff,gure5 without fear of punlshrnent, Rallies pppo~ itl'g posltlcns taken by the govertH'l'Ient and SUi kes on behalf of workers' rights take place. The freedom to vote is a. dearly held right ,and wa.s defended beroically lJ1 Fe;brlJ)aty 1 986.
Of course, there are seve re constral nB om these freedoms. Even after the.
return of Liberal democracy in 1986. many newspaper w.rite.rsin the prcvlnces have been assasstnated. IIn latel 995, Teddy Benig no (press secretary during th,E!

Muino government) and hh fam~~y were tied and threatened with a gUll bva my~teriovs band _'Ool en whQ barged lrno rl,eJr he use at Flight. The pr'e5id~nl m premlsed a quick scluttcn Within a month, "fo d~t~ the i~entity of the i ntruders remarhs I.! nkrlowtl. ConfidenOal sources say the attack. came as retallatlc n for
Belil,jgf'ilO'~ freq!,lj~nt critiici ~rns of the inan ltles of a werr-}::.nown pottttcal th~m, Strfk:@sand r'a.ll~i€shave fordbly been broken 1994 was marred by charges of massive vore-buvinq
Taken purelv a:5the advocacy of civll liberties,

fig urs, fn

There hi also the disturbing news thatnewspapers arH:J'- newspaper writers are be~ng bought by po w-erfu II fig.u res ~nthe current admtn tstrancn in 0 rder to sHence

The senatcrtal eleetto


a wealthy senator-elect.

and cheatfrrg perpetrated bV democracy in

seems -hollow. One consclatlon
Ii~,caha farmers.

is that ~n compartson

S.QUthea,st ASLol, democra.cy sO'mehow S urvives is extolled ill medi~ and in the SdlOQ~Sas an ide:al to aspire. 0.., rhe ru FaJ level.

r11-e Phi Iippines r r1eigi1bors in altho,ugh contin.wally contested. It to rnanv of


and students wel~~..vf intervi€!w¢d t<lJ:e pri.de in

their hol.ving voted (]'\Jring ~lediQrJ5. They seem-r,;ij:!convinced lhar their voting mattered. 'T.apno mafbotos,U ktlyatko" (~n order to vot~. for the pesson I I'rke) was it ril,vorite and 51 mple explanatlcn for stat~ng why lhey voted. The censlstentlv

hrgh percentaqe of v.oters- over two-rh i rds nationwide - who do vote $ug,ge'sts, that th is ccnsclnusness is wrdesprea_d.
(4) Many Cen tel's of Power

For demorrarv to exi.S:!as a .system, eC:Qno.m~c and politre'll power shou Id be. dfspersed, so' that no. one ind~vidual or group of ~fildlvid uals can e);l3rci~se undue lnfluence over the decisions ,o"t'ethers, This ts the ratRmJle llInderlyi n·g unlversal ~LJffrargie;he classic separanon of the three powers (le9is.laUv~, executive ,and t judlc~a.l);and decentrallzatlon and devolution of power•. Or! the fo-rmal g.overrl~ menr level, thsse tnsutunens are In place. ~I"I fact, som~ sugges.t, they have been s"o taker) to heart: that an impasse sometimes resu lts, g;enerally b~tween the Senate, 011 the one hand ,and the House of R::epresentmives and the President, 0111 the other;

andcap ttal-ow ni n 9 fam m~s. Th Ls ha s been s u fficlen t Iy' d ocu men ted. He wtve r, wh at ne ads sues sin ~I are two tih v ng s, . .

the economic 5lPher~1I wealth is concentrated


th~. hands



oth err too, an dI th is

the-se families do not present a. united front. They compere wrthea<.;h creates space fei r de IT! onatic in iti at lves.


N .Z~A LeiTh.

Second, the sou tees; :of wea~tn have become ..fncre:asingly d,iv@;r~itied. la,ndas a factor of w@a.lth is 1'1'0 lcrrqer as Important as before. Fa r hi.stance, over the p,[lst
two decades. e:stabl lshments


and Iolllbee have grown from beIng .$ mall si ng le-shcp to ,g~ant chains that e:sse.nti,al'ly sellservices, l.ess spectacularly~ a

number of overseas contract workers have. graduated 1nto a more bourqeois consumertst wayof life. Th is last! 8!J least, is evidentin the ru ral villa:ge~; I know i FI the
llccos, The return in.g mig:rar''It workers 'from the

East and Europ€l, 'are able to build 5..o~~dtwe-storv and hies. These are local if1ldica.tors. ef wealth.


and lat:e:ly frorn the. Middle pai nted houses with 9 rfllwork


In the :syrnbofi.c sphere, the' state does not monopolize the managerrl@.nt oJ ieQ[1$ and rttuals that morlvare people to act, Or9~nrl.ed reli'QiQn, partlcularly tn@
Cmho~ic: ctiurch, has the ~oc'k cnrhesesvmaols. Being.it highly zaflon with its pow.er (@ nter cutslde the 'country, the. churchcan

the sure. As is well iknQwn.th~s, created problems other c 0 1.111trl es because churchmen rnlsurrdersrcod nationalism ilLnd preferred all ranees wf,th authoritarian 9oV'~rn,merltS,

orgOl:l1iblock move&' ,by In the past, both i1er@' and in the ldeals of democracy and


But there has bt2:@11 pal pabl~. chang.e over HI@ past three decades a pan, .ro th~. Second Va:ric::anCOll neil wh heh e>q~m~ssed its appreriatlcn democracv, Be~a.use of thts, EDSA l 986 became a, reality,.

thanks, In for ~iberaj

Thes€! s~v€r6!1 centers of ~'iOwer free. the lndtvldual or groups of I ntjjvidual~ hom dependiii,g on) uS't orre source of power ~nd rhus los i ng .HH:l:i r freMom, Converse Iy, they compel those in pow'er to listen to 0 rditnw/ people if they want to win them over. ' On the 'On~ hand hindrances ~J€ better u nderstocd If we briefly
reachinqfrem prehistory

to democracy, on the other opportun lues: these

r@vlew Ph~illppine hlstof'~" for there aJe patterns.

down to the present, These help. explaln the opportunlHe~ and 11 hldratiite:s distuss.e.d above,

Running Them.es
Some of the petterns in hhwryare


( 1) The Heg'Cll.m ony of Plriva Ie OWn ersh ip
~t h often said that the Filipft'lo has been "natu rally cernmunal" and has lost lh.i:s.beeauss of 'Wes--tern irid ivrd Ual~SIR~ A~~eged in order to crea:hHI..st-rong demoIV crattc foundatlon, we must go back 10 our ~ndig·ellous culture. We:. shoutd deftnitely !J 0 bac k to 0 u rd rig inal c u ltu re. 'and seek. to un d erstan d il fu ~ But th Is ~y. mean s u nderstand_.in9: it as it was. Also, the! solution Inay be nqt just go i ng bac~ 'to ou r ~iTo igeno UL5 cu lture, but hkewtse re-in~~rpretrng transformlnq, broaden iflg

rt In terms ofthe ~ontern:s. of a C!o.l1te'tnp.oraI'Y20THc:entu rv natlen-state.


The major source o] weaJth in 16TH cenrurv Luzon acrid the VrStl!Y.1S was rn. deed not land, tor the POP'LI:I:atkm density was low. Bather it was manpower which cou ld be bought and sold, ilrl other words, slaverv In the strict: sense of the terrn,.ll There were, it is true, diffe.rentgrade5, in the con,s,ltion of be Ing a slave. One, (au ld, by sav~ng money, buy' one's self out of slavery. But the treatment ofthe . .lowest grade of slave shows that .absolute ownershlp @xi~ted; thee slave, prefer-

ably one caught in a.rald, was killed when 'the master died in order to se rve hlrn in the next world. It was belleved that if an lndivld ual dred.rlch, then he or she wo uId enter theafterworld as. a person wlth hig h status, and rh us, be hone red - I' Concerning land: il1 both ~e:olo9i.cal and Marxist approaches, there is 'apprecraucn for 'the fact that property relations are i nfluencad by the nature of the means of production. There have been two ways (lfClllltl[vati~lg rice in 'S~nutheast Asia: sWldden or stash-and-burn cultivation,al1d wet !flce cul.tivatiorl. The latter can be undertaken either with non-mechanlzed too ls {the hoeor the plow with a beast of bu rden) or with a tracror. Three forms of tech l'IOilogy th us. emerged, each of which, has implications for property relations. !FARM TECHNOLOGY AND PROPERTY R,ELAnONS

I, S'Widde.n cultivation

Usufruc! rather' than ownershlp

of land.

2., Nal.-mechanized wet rice cllIf'lIatian Private owtilefshi~,of cases 0 wn e rshl p by related kin or by vi IIag.e..

rlceland. ln.sorne

3, Mec:haniz'ed We" rice r:rllfivafion Private: ewnershlp of ritela.mL But mayfavor cooparatlve ventures ,leading to commLJll'ill ewnershlp.

,In a situation of 'Iow popu ratio 11 density, ~vldddelfl does riot breed an auac hment to a ptece of land, for it is more rational. to shift c urtiivatiorl to another part of the forest that is leafy and molst 'after two :or three yeaf$~ rather than Co ntl nue ti IHng the same spot." It is wet rice cu hivatlon that breeds an attach merit tca plot, axpressed astownerstup", that ls, as the desire to exclude others frnrnthe us'€:of a plot. ln this system, 'the farmer tnvests to n s lderable energy in clean n'i;J llie Ilarrd, in b,ullding dllikes., and in pllowil1g'" The ~expei1diture of labor on land much less In the case' ofswtdden, for ttconststs prl marl Iy in bu rn i ng and slashJng


down the for·est.
The regim~ that

was swldden .•" Wet rice cultlvatlo n was practiced prj marl Iy i rJ places where fresh wat~f, Iike rivers or lakes, overflowed and thu 5 made .lt easy to nou rtsh the shoots. Both the 16T,H centurv Visayans and the eady 20n-J century Hanunoo and Tlrurav were swldden cultivators:" They are all descnbed ",:S not regard i ng land 'as a private go'oct On the other hand, 16TH! centu ty lakeside-dwemng Tagalogs w~re wetrice cultivators," just like. the Ifugao's and Borrtocs at the turn of the 19TH century.



much of

pre-17TH century Philippines

sold and. even rented.

are described as cO.l1ttiving of land as a pnvate good that could be bought .;;U1d
'" .

Unfortu nately. Blalr and Robe rtson have mlstran S lated a pas saoe from Plasencla's account as "communal ownarshtp." This hi. not how the Spanish original rea,tts. In the case of OIU r Cordillera brethren, the eth rlogr:aphh~s state clearly th.at the rice. terr03JC€S were owned by parttcu lar, i ndividual fami Iles. On the other hand, portions or the: forest dose to the village were owned by groups of families related bv klnsh ilP. The forest bsvond was sb-mpJyre·garded as the u ncwned. ,.
j "

Note that for Ma.rx, the communal' ownership of the means o·f producttc 11 could not exist In the "tribal" or "kin-centered" (Stamme) mode of prod ucrion, for the tools are too simple. It is when cities appear that cernmu nal ownership' IIiI<ewise appears." He probably is thinking here of the Greek and Roman citi·~s. whe.re

rheagora and the butts were publicly o~'I1ne:d <lind open fa al I. lndusrriallzation, for Marx, lntrcducesa siruatten M!,hiere the rnmmon owne rs hip of fa:cilities becomes rna re. logical than pr'vva't~ own13:irslup! h@.menucns gas and waterworks. Mew wh lie, In counrerpolnr to this, there is din increasing ."ffi rmatton of private owners h !:p rulrnl natin~ in I gTH centl!J1f\t capitalism. I n Ihe

case of thePh~lipp,~ne!i,. Spiln~s~l Influence accelerated

[he trend


wards prJ\JOlI.le ownershtp Spantsh feuda.11 S:fn t hen

of IlanCJ. hyl Fim. b~ci:lus.'e that [0 r'ltept WaS api liar of W In l.raJ'lsil\ion to (ap~i~<lUSm, Second. becausethe rnlsslcnA new pracrlce 01150

t1rh;~s popularized' t11~ p~cw U) ~~mta~c we:l rice etl mV.l[iO n, came in: absentee J~fHll~otdism,

Absentee li!fH:l'Iordis rn heca me PG~S lbla be(all~1: a !loU,reowas fQrIlwd span!'lIng hundreds of c:omrlHmUi'l!-s. m;J.lking ir pcsslble fer an ind!vldual fa own land I rI another lsland withouT fear of havinQ I,t take n frorn I, I rn, Th ~~has spawnsd well-known soclal conflicrs that pelsist to lhi~ day.
tlu llocos

011 the other hand, fCHms of CGi'1iHl~wF'laj properly did appear, Some ~anf!ers in todav preter not to d~vl(j,eplots of land ~oherlled fr'omil lou ndi ng ccu pie

either because 111e plot rs lOCI small, or [hey wa:m to COnS£! rve the Ir SIUlse of toiJethl!rnft!i's.~n one cast, h:l'ur 1'1otJ.!lEhcrds, re[atento Each other as nl's'! cousins, take tu rns ~ve'ry year p,towJru~afld pli!H1tirlig a one h@HaFe piece of land, Theharvest is shared. But no~ a~~ are hapiPV about the arraJrtgemerH. fer it i1lay happen that the fa rrner for the season is lazy. Mal'l,y prefer subdtvlslen !'IO matter howsmall, I have not feu nd an y indi,(a:tH':l'r1 that 1J.i'e~ ri(efuelds. we.r~ ~garcled ,as 0 wi1ed by the Hllpinc vii Lag~a.\' ;;I ,[.OIII.Hti\!'@. In ,i=l''}lru a,r java ,and Mt€!:x.ieO,thiS prartlce reigns 111 response to trnposttlcns by t"he Dutch and the: Spanlal'ds inearhe r tl meso ~r

new notions (If land Dwr;ter$hlp, with pctenrial commpllcatlons, ap~'el1lred 'In till€'! Phihpplnes, OJ1~was "ernment domal n" which gives, the state ownershi p over any land that ts not privalecty clai med, Tho ugh thls can and has been used bV prwdi;te in!ere-s:ts W usurp land. it can also be us-eo to render l.and col1hmlJ nal, AnOlh1l:f In'Hcdw::ed notion was that land, like pasture land, ccu ld pertain to a mu.ni(~pa.lity .1IlI1d e open (0 common use. Another vi:sibl~ b example was the plaza, which lately has begun to d,isappear from many of our Under Wes~em jnfiuenc'e


mun Icrpar~ties because of p'rJvatec!]f'lces~ions. ro d i.. appea r beta use of thE .. same mental il;'o;. S


gardens and parks also tend

MdiOl Wi3.5 a 19m centu ry urbanite l,'II'hoknew that In CIJrope, communal owners hip was man ifest in urbaUi for instance, in parks and plazas. H~ SOUgllT to ex pandthe doma~o ofccmmunal ownerstup to other basic economic I nsrttutlons, like bank: ng and trilnSp'Q,ri:. Rather than dutE. j:H!aS.<Lnts. the urban prolerarlar were


'to act as the agents of traosforma:tion.
A q uesrlon: (ollh, ,if be tha;t in ilI.ddition tothe c:ravll'ltIJs.of the a l.igar-clhy, 'another reason wt;y r()mm~n,]~~srn beyond lhe kin gmup falt~rs in tt'1·ePhilippines ts U~at u rban dwellers

ate not 5uffir.i'El1Itly
to i:l

plli2dgfd~o their klfll group r.nltltl~rl~3ilrl

YtUllilrf·E!.l'Iou~tljl b Thel r i3.liegl~r!i;:~s are wlder com munUy. The \::~tyCo I'I1r'i'1LHlit/'

as a r~i'l.rlW with in own daMns h,u '1I10t $lJftfidern~y take.n hold of rnanv of us. PtJblVc facmlle~ and pwblh; space, Were pi! ~[(5a:nd sjdew~lks, .are elrher var~d~liz~d 0 r ;J.ppr0" prlated,

The prsoc has long roots.

upatlon withrh,e



the detrl merit of a wlder pubic gOQ,1

Three Tvpes of Polities 1.. Non-StateIi In simple form: headman chosen .on the basis of sldlls, LIttle power. Mav not differ in eC~)homli; status from the rest, S'copc cf authority: a camp 01' a villag~. • In- compile)! form: leader may inherit posltlon. Has power over both free fol·lowers and slaves, May differ ill economic status from the. rest. Swpe oJ authority; <J, vlH~ge; posslbly a cluster of villagEs

2. IPrB.bemonatic ,State
Generally heredftary wier. Has power over .aHthe subjects, Differs in economlc ~taHl;5.Scopeof authorltv; clusters ofvmages forming dlstrtrts, rities and coun-

3. De mo uali,( S·tale

Elected n€ctl'tive: s-e·rving a fixed term, Legi~iativ('! '~nd jlJdi.d~ pewees senarate. Mayor may not differ ill ercnomk status from the rest, S'copeof authoritv: dusters of villaoas forming dis-Wets, cities and c{ll,mtrys.rd@_

(2) The Kin Group as th,e Universe

lin a NOd-Stale

Sixteenth century Philippine socteries, outside Sulu and poss.tbly Manila, Me what call be callsd pre-state (If non-state societies.'·' The same may be. said of societies in the uplands of the Cordillera,

hinterland of Mil1danao today. That is, tlley are socjeties wherethere is ncauthority that claims to have dornln ton over several curnmun ltles, ZlS manifested by the re(Qgnized rigi1t to levy taxes, conscrl pt labor for warfare or public wo rks, or Impo-se laws for all to fotlow. '
The contra I of the. headman overho useholds amo.t'llg the Tinquian of the i 900s. the llonqots and the Tlrurav up to the 1970·s was min i mal evan with 111 the confin~$ of the village.~! He was chosen 011 the 'basts o.f his exnartence and skilts in rnedlatton, lUke ether household heads he, too, farmed, He did not differ from t)1.emin wealth, He cou Icl not compel the m to follow his dictates and t11 us had no taxi;ng powers. '


foothills of the. Sierra Madre. or the

The. sltuatlon maV s~em to us Ideal, partlcularlv in the case of the peaceful Hanunoo of Mindoro. However; in the case of other ethno-llnqu 15fh:.9 roups, problems would arise In the event of conflict with other villaqes. There Was. no ~l.Jperordinat@ autho rity that could co mpel both parties to come together to a
peaceful reselution in cast': negotiati(:ms broke down.
Causes ,of ccnflicr in the early pan ofthts century were several: the desire to prove o-tie's mascu I i nitY by killing! a s;traQ~er whether man or woman, ad ul·t or chfld: Of the de:s,ire'lo end mOilJrning rituals.' lin the. case of the Tlrurav and Han Ut1iDO, peaceflu I negotiations were normatrve ,. In these cases, the individual hcu sehold necessartlv had to rely exclusively on fellow kill for support in periods of crisis

related by to a crime

arid to regard people who we.re not kinsperscns and who we Fe 0 utstders as s uspect, Ofl:~n these wea the same. for the \lillage conslsted prlrnarl Iy [if persnns

blood and marriage. Even kir1.$p@rsons who were riot In any way partv were: attacked and killed d lJ~inga confl let with nutslders.

village or. au the most, l'~c:nt ner adj'Gjnf~g vrllaqes as well. The coastal daws (ch~(;+
ta i' n50 of Luzo nand } the Vi saya:s d@:scribed by the I 61'H- 17TH ce n W ry f uro fJea,'n ch renlclers often h~diluthor:IW onlhr over thetr oWln barllnga:V wh~ch had 3(1 to Hm families, a,[con:l.ingl to Plaselilcia-." ('his lsthe Si2)e a f II1'1~U1Y rural baraf1gays to" day). The bara.nga.y ccnsisted of immediate relatlves and followers who were bound '10 them by l!.I'ary~ng'dl!,g'rees of d1ependency.'· Thus baramgays Ilx~s't.:ld side by sid~.I

Among non-state sQdeU!e"S,~h~ ~~.a.deif"s authority

is ge neraHy confined to 11~S

ifldt\lDendent~y of the


~n both typi'!''S of non-state pOI"Lty_ the wOr Ie! of the vmager con ~I sted I;)rima.' rUy o:r klnspersons, ~nd secondarUv of f.ollowi.lrs who sometimes W~He related to them M wil:!ll. The liB:u,IUmay tLblve cOflmu::ted a s.tJbsumtial debt and were ttH!I'i:lfore bo und to ~eNe th(!ir (f~dil(Mr~ for a specified amount of tlme, W~ she uld ~~ep thts In mind when Hy~ng ro ex'pla[n why ffi'i!lny r-mptnCl:!l elo not feel loyal' to orga.· fllut Ions beyoncJ HH! .k.ln glrCl up" PiHlh::ul.ar~y to tile n1QS[ absrrect of all; the na lfon~5tar~. Untr~ lodi!Y thereare

FlllpI,inlos In the l!pf.!tl':lds who live cutslde lh~

scope of thenau.

lhetr IJfIIVl!n,e ls ~heir kln grot.!p~ those outstde Ir are S!~~ p'E!n,

Slowly the mni!'" universal r,~ijgh:m5 like Islam and Cf'lr~nianity, and nationwide orga.!1ii1ia.tJon~ lake NC05 and IP()s arE gaiinirlg new member:; IIn the uplands, lGut m~fltmllitl~s do riot chf.l~ge overnight
(3) The IUn Gr(HII,IP as; 'RiElflill.g11i!: hi a.Weak Sl'at'@

State ferrnation In the P:hillp.pjne~, li(mk pl.i!lo~UULlLlgh [WQ organ ilahons: the Smm· Ish em p Ir!!! andthe vado u s su litan au:~:s olf til ~ South. ~ tea vetoo t hers ~he task of exam i ning the system in [he 1<!J~ur; II prtfl@f to d@1L1 lfl1 the fo rmer wfi;n wh'icll I w am more familiar. Here a (ef'lu.iil~ gavernmel'1't eme rgedl c:hilmil"1l9to have the authorltv to impose taxes, to f,otbidthe use ot vhJ,~ence between ho useholds rn CMe of confifu,a1'ld to ~~,$S ~aw5 on an area e"u~ruHng 'from saranes to Mindanao, from Pallaw,,_n tot he Maria nas.Tog e;lh~.f w~~h[he $Pread of a co rnrn 0 n re Ii9 i Q 111 t me: and development of u.rba.n centers, thrsccmmon politlca'i mgal1jzatroll led to the ernergen.ce of a broader sense of (omnH,JIfll~ty that would crystaJ Itze into a S.ehS·@ of nation in the lau~ 19TH cernu!)I. C()'II'onizat~on bV another power, the U"S., led to the e xe I U stcn of the Mart an as, But the slren~nh of this, ob1ig~a.!jon to a. broader cemmunttv has been problematk. III the COUI'I1rysfde:, Spantsh efforts; ·at promoEing urbanism were onlly p<lr· -tidiUy rea:Jized .Wf1'ile many d]d live in p.~.bfa.cfoneso rtcwn centers, jt!S[ as many continued 'to. Ilive in their r.e.~ds in small rural viUages wt'u:~retherr neig hb 0 T:S and fr le 11d S \!'Ii ere rno st Uke loy t It\ie:i O~filI rn.lati V'~S. ,~ This in f.au has pe rs ls t~ d to t h fS r day In the: llocos and in other HbpinM:z:ed rl2g[ofils. Many will dis.l.g ree wirh me: but I b~1 leve, based on "ompililF'.ui\l'~ data f1rom Alldem Greece and Rome, western Europe. lslam, Ch rna, and Jap,,2Hl, that I.i,Mbamsm ~::;,an important factor tllud cornpelsthe individual to expand his horizens beyond the famIly. 1'i1(! urban COru(!:N( dllllllll~enQe~; Irlu:::livfdiJal~ In devl(!~op a new value svstem that ravc.rs. working wi'lh n{.l,n-kin ,fll'ild hUlu: rto 'Uiral'lg<l!rs, and wnce~vi ngC!f an abstract, common gDO~ ilsev<erybo,rny's gl{)ocL OF COY rse. people m~y fail to rise up

to the cha: rf.!I'IQL! of dlevelo,pirng th'~s.c.lvlil;: IIHIil~c, Nonetl1'eie:li~ co I'Id~~ons 1111 the city are mere conduclve [0 fh'll! enrler'gefllce or such an ethh: [han lnsrnalt scattered villages whare most are kin if'! lhel1r~t Ipla,ce'.

NQtefha.t the terms "civtc." "civil," "citizen" allcome from the laUrl dvltas munlng "dty." Or] Iy in th ~s:second half of the. twentieth century has u rb.·ar)~s rn spr~ad rapld Iy thruughflLJt the arch ipel!lgo; al most half of all PiI fpi1l1osno·w Iive in

urban centers, Ma.ny Filipinos have·gor,')e :Stfaig ht from a rural village' to a fl1.~'g,alopolls ~ike Man i la, B~Gu5>e of the ilicapadty of dHt state to deliv,er bas tc services: rh·eycontinue to reJy on thel r network of relatlves. And shcndd t~~V atta~n publ ie o,fBce,theyth~nk of how 'to' hel prhe: rrelatlves g~t d.job or of how to repay favors ..
A cycle ~sthus pI2rpetuoate{l.lt may be, howeverthat tflis situation is transltto nal, P'€:rh~p~ conditio f"IS within the. (]ty are .s.i(Jwly- ~Jititr!1g a more' umversalisuc erh Ie

a,m'do9 us, 'fh:e untversal r.eligjcHls, such as til rlstlan iW and lslarn, have also helped 'sh.ape an et1 tc 'that -n.ckl1owiedge-s the rig hts of the aJlonymQUS strange r; ~ shall

talk only of thri~li·(rn·ijty. A major and u nacknowledqed contrihutlon of Christian" lty has been to stop headhu ntinq and stranger·s.layil1gJ as an expresstcn eithe F 0'(
manhccd or of rnou rnl rig for de dead Iki n. In additinn, :LtenCOIJ raged mrnlstry to the poo," One or the ifi rst tnstitutioos opened by the. mtssionarles was the I.·~o:sp'italde 'Sail.Juan: de Dies thar gavefr·E:tl care to the poer peoples i 11 Mainilia. and ltsenvi,fon s, Ths m is£io i1arf~s too k t4re of til el ~pers' who were $h unne d by 16TH ce nB'! rv


T.i~~IQgs.~~. rlst Ch


in the strafllg.er.·



However;, as 1 896 showed, the. diffusi.·o 11 of ttl is e~hic Was hampered by the ~~,ampl~ of: Christians themselves, priests :t\.nd. w~Jlr'~hV' citlz~ns w'frlQ hav~ uMn 'advaot<lge of othef~, There has also been trrsufficient l n strucno n in the b;;l,sic tenets of tn~' GQs~H31.
The famous Lenten flilgel'[ailt~ of Pa,mparlga ,and the TagaJog reg Ion are g,en" emily adult males with low Incomes and Illnit~tl educatlcn, who IlJ ndertake the r.~UJal because Of sin! as:is erroneo l15lythoug t1t:, but because ef a' vow m{lde: to not

COQI when a majG r cris~$, likg sickness Q'cc!JIrred tnthe f::a:mj~y.The \{f)W ran also be lnhertted by' male ·adults when-a pare nt IDf an uncle passes away and is unable 10 <:Q'ntlifnJ.e: {he v.ow. l3ut LeMen rituals 'ef'seif-pun fShment can also be undertaken In rel~ti9tJ to a parncutar typ'eof Qff€:ns~. In L~'9!J',na; severe p~llam:e~ lIke' wrapping the body ~n dried banana leaves anti mlnrrgOI1 the hot grew nd to churcfr, are 'irrapo·~ed on m~.Ie adolescents when 'tb~y disobey their parerrts '0 r are prone te ,[.lll$we:ring back." B.ut this is. not i mpcsed on male ad ults,

for me, ~hjs practice underlines the, po i nt that the moral universe of many' Flllplncs is defined. by their obligations to their kit! ,especially their parents, What they do outslde this circle to: non-kin 'seems UJl'WO nhy of ate nernerrt, fo r ~Imost

giv~r1, however, Ls an d.ff~ns:e com:rrrrned··ag;3!in$t one's parents. ht'.':caL.ls€it ~s~eell
as .a threat to the kin g~ou p wh lch is regarded



be negotiated

with the mgg rieved partv, Wh~.t is not F('1al;:Hlly for-

a.s the moral IJ nlverse. Thus" the ChriSti.an norton that a. serious O'fffns~t:bmmiued toward 5 anvene. k'in Of non, km, rs an {iffensetnat should be atoned for does not $eem to have taken held even in some co rnmunlttes close to' .~he capital cfW.

The ta.padt\" of the ,state to lmoose order .and to ,da] rn mll~g iant:El was probh?lm<1.titttl roUghCHlt. the Spanish period. R~veln ues.··were 11 mlted even ln the 19TH centtl.ty, CO rru pUo n wayia:ld some of the reven ues that should have ..gone to the public funds. Thus soldi~r5, pol ice and c lvll guard~ were unde rpatd in the provinces. They tended to ~lve off the civ~lian po pulaticn /~ Alleg.iance wa5 won on the ~~re!i1gth of loyalty to tbe Catholic church, But this .flUegfance. .srartad 10 break




M. llA.LCI1}\

down with the, spread of a more. secularand more questioning attitude in the 19T~ century. Moreov:er, the. discr: mmanon against Jocal prlesrs' effectiv,ely 5pht rh[

The Arnertcanstate appears 'to have been more. effective 111 mail1ta.ining.orcl.er both by d isarming ctvlllans of qu nOs and in properly com pellsatrng ·the· police ,lIld the military, than ks to. heavy substdles by Wash lnaton D.t. In popular llnqo, t,~g period was. "peacetime."
Th€ rtewly tndependent repubhc in 1946 fac.ed problems that wo uld he:de:~jl it up till ·today and wou ld worsen. It f.aced .a crtsts because the revenues w,er:e., insufflclent to pay the military and civil servants. 3; Cen. DOLlgJas McAtlhur, whQ had d i strtbuted firearms to (ivi Ilans in the. war a.gainst the. japanese, failed 'W retrieve the m at the end of the war. This was ernphas tzedto me recently by ~ jesu it Ihlstorlan r sernarc l.ahlff, who arrived 1IT newly liberated 'and war-devastates' Manlla, The prcrnotlonef 0 rder throuu h the contra I of weapons and the pmvi5i'onmt servlces to 'ordinary citizens are functions of the bureaucracy that ours has di'fW c ulty in dtscharq I 119. One res ult is that many, in desperatlcn, relv Insread ontheit r'\,etwod< of kin and frlends to work for an L'1x~mption from laws appl lcahle tnall, and seek protection in also owning guns. A visible reallzatlo n of thls i~ Ihal many large Philippine citi!oeshave wired enclaves that armed guards protect. This par·

celed-uut landscape

weakens all notion of a. public interest. democracies.

It 15 true that even in the established

ideal is-far from

bel,ng realized, However if! the Phll!ippines the difficulties are compounded Q')' these problems. Ths usual c:ornment is that the FiJiplno is "i nd lvid uallstk" b~h cause of Westeminfl uence. In fact, hit is' more "famlllstlc'' than "lnd lvrd uallstk." An.d this. has been brought about first, by the. long experience of many of livin'g ii non-state socteties, and second, by the weakness of the Ph iii ppi ne state,
The: relatlonsh i p between munity to which the individual po-lity,

rel igiows affiltatlon,

and the klndof

f~eJs obtlgated could be. summed

c.am: up as fallows:


Poi itical


Re Bgioll S Factors


1. Non-state wl!th aboriglnal religion 2. Weak state wHh nigh religion. e,g, Chrlstlanltvorlslarn .~, Strong!eJfectivesi;oltEi high religion with

I . Tendency

to regan:J kin group

"2 •

as the 'tillor<l! unlvers e M 0 r al 1III"Ikag wit1h wi d arsoc i ety es

may be weak: teildency to ~eek. refuge: In kin. group 3. M.oral linkage.li with wider .sotlety may be $trollgc;.r

The. prohferatlon of NGOs and POs has, for me, an ambivalent sig n lficance. On th~ positive side, it lndlcates 'two thiflgs: one, a widen i I"Ig of consctcusrress by' the cltizen ry and a. profound concern for public iss ues: and two, a relative openness by the state. to private initiativ~. In some of our neighbors" like In.don@sia, the state is de~ply suspktous of people's orga.n lzatlons and seeks to control them.

On the negativ~

slde, .it points to afail1tj r~, by the state, which calls ltse If demo·

-eratk, to deliver basic services.
(4) A Tradition of Hierarc:hizat~on Uk:~.the: issue, of "co mm u nul ism" in property relations, this cal ls fo r a"( loser took It i's ofb311'1 clal med that social relatro ns inthe pre-hlspantc vUlag,e were ~.galj.tarlan, and became Hratifi'ed under .spaJlisfi rule" Both for the ~6TH as wp.:111 early as 20Tln:f!:n:tu ry, Q rte has-to point out which Phllipplne sOciety it ~~. that 'One r'i;'!fer~ to, A~ was shown earl i@J, Phill pp~n~ sociertes have differed re:gardi ng tl'le.i, n~.Id!t.ionship to .the means of prcductlon. ~n so me early·2 OTH centu tY upland sectetlesaod In 16nu;:ermny Vi:sayas, private ownersh ip of land did not exist because swlddsn was the prevailing ferm cffood cultivation. But whereas the fa rm:er did not employ amy sfaves a'Sa token ofwl3alth, the lane r did and developed an etiq uetre that



In inland vmages, partie U li,arly those whiclhdep~nde-d ~:xdJ:Siv,e.~y ons widdEli1 :tu!tivation and where pnvate QWIl.ershi p of la.nd was rrot present, as ~mOl'Jg early zOrH Cell'l:l1ry Timray; Hanunoo and Iionggl" one can presume that egcl.lilarra!l relatROrJ'S. mc·ng me rnbers.extsted. However, the fit betwe-en swldden and ey?JitaJi<\rIa Ism does rrnt a.lwa.y~ hold true. Severneenth century ViiS.·~Y:tl.1"i coa$l9..1 vmag.~$ pracUced'-s\viidder'l yet had marked scclal d ifferences, Vi lIagtt:) or, more preeJsely, the datu, acted as mlddlernan in the exchange of goods between uplands arid fore i9 n traders, B@C<l;USCS': tblilY CQI!.I~d thus rnonopol lze the flow of hig h.iy prized items like. poreelam, ike:y members ~ike the dau;! became; wealthy and powerful. ll.O'r1":IiH':chanfz:e.d regime, prlvare ownThis ,in turn has led to a dlvlslon in' who 6'w n land and tho!):€! wilt) do not, "Pr~vlilet~esend to accrue to those who own much land and ,I n additron, enji:Jy a t rel.1ltiveh; hfghi ncorne. The situation in the tlccos is sig ntftcant, fer thts is a reg ion
Among wet rkii:! cu Itivators practiclnqa ersl1ip of land is a. micessary C.QriS~qUIi!:I"IL@, sOJ:':teW- according- to soctal classes: these

where owne r-

:s,hip of land is beU~ r distributed th<li~ ~111 "Ce.ntral Luzon andthe We~,t~rr1Vlsavas. MOSthouseholds own 'at least a parcel of land even if this is Imay be only half a hectare er less. Often, of' CQtI rse, they have to 5 U pplement their work as ownercultivators by act] ng <:IS tenants ora other plots 0 r wo rlti n:9 as hked hands. tiveJy more land thilln othen; and more furn rsh lings in theiir houses tended to be e!et~ed to ·the bo1l'<ll'lgay councl I. tcthe ml.mici-pal cou neil, Or to 'the position of

In the bar'ang.ay~ I have stayed at in 'the: I ~QCOS, me:rI and women

with re la-

f:)..lrangay·captaln. They also tended to dcm'iirfa:re positions in volu r!ltary organ lzarlons such as 'the WO~I1'S (I uti. the FarMers' A$50ciation,. th~ COI1~.IJme rs' Co6peratlvs .. They were not rich by city standards but by r~Jr<}1tandard$ rhe'lwere. I s someumes he'il;ra fellow villa.gers refer to '[hem as ..babakn.ang, mean fng "we<1!~thy," The chances of a land!ess farmer, that is, one who nelther owned land no r worked as a tenant, get'ti rig elected as. bfJ,ra,ngay. capt:<'l~nseem to me law. Qrqe-' rease n is because of U:},eprestige connected with ow~~ng land, Farmers who seem poo r to <In u rbanlte, because of rhel r s.habby clothes' and unpainted hollow block ho uses, n6netheJe:5-slook down. On the pO'C2r fll their vlnage fOir beirM;! "lazy," Another reastm is thata poor lalldless. farmer might find ~t·o iHfcult to fulflll ritual obi igatio ns e·xp.ected of him, like. ttl r.owi ng a feiaM to gamer support for hfs cand idacy. ArnQng




city dwellers
pronounced elaboration

living in a capltallst regIme, hlerarchtzatton is, of ceurse, just as because dtvtstons based On capital have appeared, This needs no as it us, obvlous,

Another source ot strarfflcatlon derives directly from the colonial order: o.ne based on 5 kin colon Though the misslonarles mirristered to the. poor, 'the 5 irk, rhe leprous, the orphaned, a stratification took hold within 'the church herself; thepeninsu lars became the: parish prtesrs, the island-born (creole, mestizo or indio) mere co-ad] uro rs . Since The S pan lards were wh lte lind dominant, fairness became svncnvrnous wtda power, Today many Fi I i pinos r rich or poor. tend to be apologetk

about thelr ski rI color.
Thus far, I have dealt wnh hlerarchlzation explaln

side the home. But what about hlerarchtaartcn

ln dH~ public. sphere, that is" outwithin rile horne? How does Oll@ its contlnu i ng presence and, convarselv. jt~ dedi FI(! in Western ELLmp@?

The questlc n IS <Ii complex one. but one should attempl an answer for the reason stated earlier: often the implicit metaphor for g'ov'erhrnent and citizerll)' relations in the' Ph i IIppl nes is that of parents and their ch I Idn!JI. FQr involved here are two relatlonsf ips, of subordination: that of ch lldran to thelr parents, that of w~ves to h usbands. As those fam.ltia.J with fernl nist llteratu re can attest, interpre' lations of patriarchy are varied and sometimes confHcrifl9- One approach would be. to look at how lrtforrnatlo n is stored and disseminated amo n'g traditional we·t nee farming. families, fa r It is they who have: co nstitutad the majority in the Phil· In S uch a family, the father is the chief ecn nomtc 5U PPOI1 of the.

ipplnes. he: wt10 plows ami prepares

cultivation hunters and g,attJ~rers; where women gather wild v~ge'raUon and CO rurlbute more to the food budget 'than 'the men who hunt en occasron). Ml;lreov~r, tradit:iolTalJ~1 the father was expected to defend the fi:\mily, by fcrce if necessarv, vis-a-vls eutstders, Thus these relationships by their very nature foster a dependency by [he wife on t,he husband, the chlldren on thelr parents. The sons must ltsten to [he father, for 'infcrmatlon vital to their dal Iy existence comes fro m him rather than

family. It i~ ·the- field for rite CIUIUva.t ron . It is he. who knows ·the of 'the chief source of sustenance of the family. (This is: ill rontrasttc

fro m rhe schools.


This two-fold dependencv is currently being subverted ill a.capitalist, indus:· trial context. WOn1~nwe rk cutslde the home and C<In earn rnore than their Illn' bands, Th~y can have access to information about business .. nd econorntc mat· rers as easl hI' as their h Llsbands by Ilstenir~9 to the radio Of readmq t~'e p.apN!, Evel'il though Flllplno children are totally fi'nafltially dependent 011 their panMt~ w@ll into their college years. th~y, too, have eaw access to inforrnation vra the telsvlsion. They may even be better informed about certain matters, like- the _envl· ronment, than their parents. This is thanks to th.e publicity giv~1l by media to deforestation or to the pOfsoning of the seas. The question thm. IS; as the rigid hierarchy of the. rradulo nal Fill plno family loosens up In the urban centers. will

thiS- mean that FilIpinos will be better disp{)~ed to questioning and dlscus5in'g thing.s? Thr5 may 110t necessarllv follow" for other factors need to be taken into consideration.
To sum up: I have tried to show that the hind'rances that block 'the develepment of a democratic culture in the. phmppine.s are various in nature and in ·calJse.

Some stem from the colonial experience; for instance, the color bar that contln-

BiI-fl.ters-liInd Sri dg1es to Ol Dem DCr'at ic Cu Ito Fe! • fi 1

--------------------------------come from 'other


to tinge relatiorrships

be:tw(!E!:n FitipiU'los. Other hindrances

th-e experlenea of llvlnq ~n cornmumttes [hat were often isolated from eachother and 50 ce.nte.red around the kin group. Often within ,,",m:! ithout the kin ,group. re Iatlo f11 5 hips have been nig hly hierarch i zed and auw thoritarian. Coupled with a weak 'stare, Hif,s; has relnfcrcedthe tendency to con~e!v~of th@ kfn grew p as, the alpha and the omega,
aspects of filfpino

At the S<l.ril€l tlrne, r have shown that there are I!) coortu nitie 5 fa r develo ping a demacratlc C 11IWrE;:democracy enjovs,le:gitim<lcy even if til i 5 means Ii p-servlce in
many respects. The flcwerl ng of many developmental NGOs and POs i mplies a

Spit't that wlshes to go beyond the usual preoccupation
The marly obstacles tha.t black the

with kin and locality.

may seem daunting. In this regard, It may be worthwh iIe. r@airzing that evert COLIi'Itries UUH were never colo nlzed and had a headstart 11"1 king ~ihe dernocratk see path have had problems clearing the way. The example that co mss to mind rs F-ra,f1ce. br~~f compartso n w~th France before: golln9 to recornmendatlons A fer ·the
PhHlppines helps situate co ndltlons
he reo


n of a 'truly democratic


Modern de moe racy was born via lently, in I 789 France. Yet its. rrl urnph was neV@f really 'secure until after theascent to power of Charles de Gaulle ill the 191)Os,following the crls is in Algeria wh Ich thraataned to beco me a civil war in france between U,€' l.eft, wh lch favored letting Alg'eria. glj, and the Right, which wam ed to re ta r n ,it as an in t~g ral pa rt of Met ro'po Iitan Fran C(;!. Since 1789. France passed thrnuqh sever.,,] violent chanqes in government b~fore betomi1ng the stable nauo n-state it 15, now u nder the Fifth Republic. Th ree rlmes it became a monarchy, four ti rnes a ~@publlc, and once a d lctato rshlp. It experienced vlole nt revolutlons i n l848, 1871 , and 1968. There was a recurrlnp confllct between the monarch lsts on the one hand r and the republicans on the

<Other;between the conservattve

church, tile bourqeoiste,

and the army


the one

hand, and the workers, the liberals, and the socialists 011 the, other: betweenthe capitalist bosses and the proletariat. It took do Charles de Gaulle, a war hero, a pmcW:ing, Catholic, and a. generQ,f whom the Rig hl thQug ht wou Id impo~e a dictatorship, give democracy legiti macy in the eyes of us enemies.


Meanwh i le at the turn of the 1 91~1centurv, a centu ry after 1789. co ndlil:iOonsc in rural Franc@ w~rc=still not favorable to democracy. MLlch of the peasantry es peciallv 111 the Sa uth I lved in mis~ry. Bread wasa luxury for many; though less .ca1,0 ric, 9rue I was c heaper, Durl n9 th e col d wi mer m 0 nrhs I peasa.n ts shar ked up together with the 'animals In {heir barns to Warm thei r bod ies, and tried

h lber-

nate so as not to consume foo(Ji and fuel. Wolter was muddy and caused intestinal disorders. Though public schools became: mandatory in 1833. books and writing matart ttl s we re ofte n a rarity 1n many rural are as. MallY tea" hers co u~ not speak d French er were t.n'e:'i'llse.I'Ii"es half-llterare. lin some cas@s,fronnerCCif1vlcts: were hired to teach. Peasants knew little atiOiJt what went'·on in the cities and in the 'g'ovem~ ment or, for that matter, j'n nei,ghboring towns. Fairs, where p~ ..sants from different towns went. were apt to end in a. bloody brawl because peasants looked at
str.angers wrthsuspicion, Besides, they did enjoy getting into physical fjght~~




to evewnness accounts. Many peasants dird not know Napoleon and the other~ heroes. ofth~ R@.publie, nor did rh,ey care, By the end of the 19TH c~nturVj universal suffrage 'Was it)" place all over France. But the votersoften did not kflOW why they shoutd vote fer a particular candidate.

:1 contrast, F1J

the bcu rge()i5ie


who H'\le-d in the cltles, elljoyed re.iarive comfort"

'i n the i r apartments that now enjoyed heating, 'than ks to qas, They we.re well·fed,
had del kate tastes, dre-ssed fashio nablv, and co u~d dl$[us,s. fla.5:ily the poll!i~.~ of. the day. Belle EpoQIJ€ Paris. after ail" was far-nous' for its CU i!Sine, it~ fa.shion r its.' art, and Us lntellectual brilliance. It was the spi rtrual capital of th~

West" And yeuherewas

(he ru ral peasants, On IV arou nd the ] 900s did the peasants' situation begl!'! to improve, thanks in part to' the marly roads be i FIg con structed that et:la.bled lh~, peasants to. sell the.ir products in 'the market', and to improvernents ill the educa

a wide gulf

between the urban-dwelllnq bourgeoisie


tional system. <.l However; the- minirrnization of poverty tn ru ral france has reallv taken off Or! Iy in our ce.ntury, after World War II. than ks to careful plan ni ng .a!'lg gov¢rn mant lnterventlcns.
That France, which was never at colony, should have' had problems cr~atirng'a, democratic "Spirit a full century sirl!C€ 1789. is lnsrructlve for Ul; Filipinos. It SlJg· gests that some of the hind ranees listed above may be due to certain structural

factors that bedevil traditional
For lnstance,

states with a 1,[1rgemass of marglnallzed peasants, susplclousness toward 110 n-vill.ager:s and non-kin can be nndarstoea as responses by a person who has been raised ina narrow untverse cOrlsisnng of ktl1 and I'leighbo rj or take. for mstance, the tndtfferertce toWi1I ,rho national polic~'

and nattonal heroes.
ln the, Philippines

'th~s to colpnialls rn. But, In fa(t the.f'€: may be another factorto consider. The notton ofa "publtc goa!:!" that transcends local' interest is, understandabtv, an abstract concept that cannot be readily 9 raspM by someone whose universe: ends' witli the bou ndarles of hts or her kin 9 mop. "Publ ie good" beco mas real when the qovernrnent, co rnpcsed of non-vl Ilagers-, proceeds to render se rvlces eq uitablv to all. "Democracv" is a utoplc concept tha't· rnotlvates men and women in contemporary socletv to give of themselves U) the faceless, nameless stranqer; But precisely because it lsutopk, it has taken Io<ngto mature even in nations where h was pl.antel:! earl ier. oftenattribute




The canvas painted here has been a large. one, for a synoptlc paper W.1~, asked of me. The recommendations I mak€ are thus varied, Mpst have to do with ch-a.n-gj g lnstttutto n,ali:zed relaticns hips between ceo pie. Twa, have to do with n
develop: ng an alte rnatlve


(1) Stru,ggte A.gainst poverty.
It is dime LIlt to actual lze a democrauccultu errv, for' the reasons stated above. So how is In a co untrv with to fig ht poverty? not only be,c.<lus~.it Is a big one, but also because
0 ne




I dare not

answer' this question,



tralnl 1119 acu lrurel anuhfO':~(Jlogist. as

How'I';!v,er, I h!'lve[wo

spe,c:rfii!" s IJ9-

ge~tiorl5 about appn),aches ltiU{lk,e.
One ls that we sho uld b~ .cilIJefuI1ilbou1i lde'i3Jizillg "communal' so lutions. Bec.auseof the I rH:!quities am:J s~lfi.sJrH'H:l:SS, ioe:g'one:n by capitalism, sympathy for Jcommunal" sohJtions has rnereasee, Commun!il~ ownersh Lp is regarded <15 super~Oftn irlclividillJal ownershlp .. $Yn'l~alhi.ze with (hh po,'Sltiotl. A. vis I t to a kibbutz In northern s'ra,y in aE!,~J'Hl·dJ(tJl1lI!: monastery i n Manila. have co nvh'lce:d me ofthe vtrtues of poo~ing assets. Ho'wever, I am ncr Hire that rh~ average. pe,asant farmer wm appreciate: th is. His afl1blti'i:ulI ls to have Iand CJ f 111 own. s Some' farmer 'rriMd.s are ambrvatent about f.a(tmlrlSi p~rm~~14n 'they ow n I!'I co rnmen wHh thelr ~'e.lil,th,rle~; "AlvhtCiughwe take turns plawfng IE - one r~~dotvve FQr'rhe ph:n every yur - the bi!!nefit Js net equal, Some are lazrer than others.' On the ether hand. fo~ the te nant farmer,salvtii)lI~d:] conSISU in oWn I rig lii.rld arid dol ng wHh It as h~ pl:eil,;')~$. For hi m to~n ..(e Ill' wl!~h anorher g roue 0 J pll!ople may, fOI him, be rantamoum to 'nor (l'wmng U at oti.L The n~gatlv~ res po I'lSIi! of (11i nese peasants to coll~Clivlz.inlDn land under Mao IS ~nstruc.nv@,

be. honest.I

lsrael and several



Swan: Scll!eg~1 !.<l.y5 that when .1It lIrura.y who has !'hH~lO r()r"@ pracnced ~widden culUvatla!1 swlrches fa P~O"'\!ag,~h:'lJI!tvt~, hi!: takes. 0 ut t~H~pte w@d Ian,] From pubHe cia matn: hE! re:gards it as exclll,!s~velv hl~. No d'OlJb[ rhts I~ because 'of 111'li dded a E:)Cpc.ndUure of Iab 0 r 011 It. This relatlonsnip ben ...ee-n tech no1logv and pro perrv r,e:!:'ltioFH ha!. u lI'Ifortlll rlia[~~y nor b@@irIgiv@n e'flQlJIgh aUlHI~ior1 tin [h~ P~1111ppi nes, even bey Milrxi:Us, It may be th.n~'I,Ihrere,;ls Ii!! p~owfil.rmer may think in terms of priv it t~ ow n ers hip. a tractor fa rmer may be mo ~ 0 p en to s h ared 0 'IN n ers hip. "1"11 e
tractor 150 110\ owned IncHvlc:juaHV;~i rniil,!!bE l'iI'Iar~ I!::,"Q nornlcal to rent it f!~pe,c,ally if the farmer has no mlgr~nt rehu~\!'e to help hirn or Of her (I)led and h igh"yiel'ding sources of lncorne, Be.side').>mil~ntainl~lI'lg it iinvQI\I">e~if! ~Ut5 from other pea pie witl11 the reeuistte ski ris, Thus we should

same. time, however,
ewnershlp ofassets



10 kwk for 'commullar shartnq of assetsiat the be aware that people.'sanachmern to indlvldual has roo'!:S th.:;lt go far bEyond !hE supposed ~ff~ns of We!itew

we shculd


Sue n glhen

tn e s,a1e.1b ut !Ii!IiifIP li1I~ell"tjIlHil: peop



has tne <I,uthorrw to n~dil'~u~bm.eesources .h~tW~.~r1' r regiom and between classes. ~tcreates "public" po]icy affe.cungaJ~ sectors ijll'! sodet'{ It has the power to prevent or pUI1tsh direct vtoience leveled against IF1d~).Iidualsandqrou ps. I iil.gree wi\h d:evelopm@:Fllal NCO~j,\lrJld PO~ abc ut tne need to sue Flgthe n "clvi I wrm:h IS ~IO'\I(!rll'ledrather ~h<l,1I1 govern~.;;and cares enough to velcatts ag1enda Tl1ro,~gh o.rg,afllizaUons. However, tt'lcJ\Elai"€ Itimira.tions in theircap.a.city to push thelJr agent!a,simp1y because they de not 1'"]fIVE' it mal1da,u~for ,acting on bellalf of o'li~~ 'of s~cile:t)'. nor 'th@resources, for thar matter. Even ~11 a democracy. it 15 SlUJ the' state Hla.t has botl1 t he resources and the man
&oclety", that ls, that sector of ~ociety

soclenes allover

slate, coh)J]i.atl or i n.dlre de nt, has been din oppressor pen in many the VIN;;ldd.itcil,1i] abo b~ a liberatcr; ~t LS the state, after a:ll that




But how does one suen91then the nate? How does one make it 11.1'1 orgal'liz_a· uon that represents the ~mb~ and acts on behalf of [he pubhc? I propose the tc
("') B",8d,m Lh'1!!$'IUJf'\m 0" relolenues (orrulllt~on Wa!.


;,u t:l'ea!Ul' the sal'aries

of ol'd/qaf)'

the: Spal1r~11pl!' rtad, despite a flood of royal d~ne.es ~d 5;H1CtlcIH. one r~asol'~was beCO'IDm
buwIIQcra'tS. ~ll1Id~mlc: dHe<\!Oe throllghout the ~l1larl~!> WI!.[e not entilLig'h To, H",~ oil CQi'TIlPensatlon w a~ 11Ct prClpotUcmatee

the pow,~r available to offlrlalo;. Tl:i15 problem continues

to b.e.devll'Ll1e Phili,l~pltt~

Ri:l.publh: I dl; not bI1H~\le' ['l'i~ sltu;;lUOIl can be ruclvl!d i.1f111!5:S tha Is,sl.l'~I)f u.lilrics b ra[~d !>qu<lJ",C!hr. This 111 turn c:.irll'1ot be resolved unless the $t,He ean ('OInP<!! ll1e rtrh 1:0 paV their dues It is untertunate dwt N'GQ$ and P'05 seem 'lot to r~gard lhe q~u~~llan of '[.D!allol1 and COJl'1p(lfl~atfon for ,govemmllnt cmplov~cS: ru; ene of Hl'~ most sertous probl'l!m~ r:H:inq Ith~ Philippines, It IS dlffic.ult FOI an Il1dh/ldLJd~ to, think of 'the ·publlc gMd- wh, n hls tlWI1 priV,HQ fJood, tlilC! basic ruH:d~ a'r hl'!i ramlly. an.! ~gl1ofl!d bV the nate

(b) Fig'u aD"insr

~tti,"al1~a~'~sm. The vl,ght 10 n()old I.mblir otflc(l, ,~UbJt!'L~ publl( to ,pproval.l:; a ba~llc rJghf of IIItilJz n Ifi.1 democracy. P.ltrimonlalilolil d~lllroys dilmtll:racy and weakens 'lhe 'nate !by cOUollflig doub~ on ~r~moral i~IJthorlry, Cencernad dU:r;cn~ ~ Illcu~d Pf~S5 fQf 0'1 ban on dywm~rle~. rl!g<lrdlt!~:li of how wmpc'

tent members of

pom,lcal family

may be.

e.:) F,,,hr 8igl';nsr e~(l"'e,me PCII'"511l1J'J'a'Usrn. There 15oil tl!ndcncy on 'the part 0" mru1Y to ignc·re ili'lstltu'ti(l~UJ!:c'd formal rules in order '[0 fi;lvor the Interests. of pa.rU,ur· 1M IndlvidllJals_ On the pr[vaul level. U,IS may be m'erely irritatillg; but on ~hoil [uval of the gove'rl'lmcn't, 1:1ilI1s, scandalevs and unjlJS~ because the interests (If rs




Vm Ol-li

miiljor W~ aJl'l= 19nored. At


5 am E'! tirtHl


<19"I n

W e:ake ns


moral autherit

of the state.

£nn'urage dIe growlh Df !IIuUe rde",e"opmenlilll NGOs and POs. GoV(!r!'!' ment oflki:als wlH liCIt: .l'H!,eessarHy act with publlc [tlterest in mind just be:.r:: ..use rhelr salaries have been increased to cernfnrtahle levels Organiled pressura on them Is still nl1:l!d~d. Thu is here developm.ental NCOs and POs shQtJ:ld e.ntelFin order 1'0~ounl~ract ~hi! pressure exerrad by poW'erfu~ monied irUe:r~!.u·. P«a.doxJc:ally. pressure bv NGDs and POsa.nd POj~tiYI! responses by the sta,~ srt:rengtnen the state by making its &l.uthofi,ty more credible These also stranqthen
d ern ocracv,

(3.) En\l'igo'fiUE!. NGOs ,and ,POs.

Developme:r'ltal NCOs af1d PQs; lik.E! ttl) think of themselves as COns.Utl1Ung civil so,c:ie.ty. ThoYlgh I agre~ ilJi'[h tms, the faa remalns, however, thai man,yof

ln tu rn, arethe resul:~ of the gerlerosiry IJf O'[hN peoples. It seems to me that a. relatlonsh i p of deliH~:ndency on foreig'n sources conttn ues to be perpetrated even in the NGO world. To flJlI1here~vigor,a~e develolpmerual NGOs and. With th,e_m, POs, sorne measures are needed. ~ndeQd ql..i rte a number are III 'fact undert1l1klilIT
wh len, measures for self-sustenance. (a} Build up. stalbl,!!!! linlilaci•• b· 'se, WRhout 'lhl~ base. thii. ofgn.nlzaUofl Is not able to slJU.lJn us i1cU~Ue$ over .1,qIV!!Jl perlod. MoreO\lcr. Its <Igllnda can b~ d~Cl<itl!d by oruulde hn'tHIQst.l.. whcth~r dome~tlc: nr fOfl!illn,

them are. financially

LUlstablle.A substanttal

nu mher depend

on foreig n grafJ'tS

(b) Develop an id80lDgy rhat accepts data from the 50cia,1 sciences. BeCRu~e of the 'Vwy nature of .ldVQCOlCY, there is a t~nd@rH':Y to readl Iy adopt certain p"Oslt.i.IJIH t.hat saam to bl',lng ultimate re.H~f to the poor, and to uxcjude others without benefit of close: scrutlnv As hinted above, Olla lnstance of UI,jS']5 the frequent recoursE! to "cornmurraftsm" or "communal ow,,~rship" as the \.J[timah'! selutron wltnolU ccnstderl 1lQ..available: data Gl.refLilly or even without reexaml 11Ing ~~'hat MaL';; did Intend,

(4) Give value to discussion and dialogue .•
Discussion and dialoqueare the opposite of h lerarchlzatlon on the one hand, and violence 011 tf'H~. other, Hi.erarcl1ization ass limes a relationship of 5uper,iority and 5 ubordtnaucn. When 1l1e SI.Jperter speaks, the sou bOH~Ji nate mere Iy llsre 11s. Violence assumes that oniy one party, the attacker, has to rig ht to ire. Oi sc U ssio n

~nddlaJog ue assume that all have equal rig hts [0 life and to !HM-€}I pression. The lnforrnatlon explos Ion tends '~Q rei nfo Ice the fegllimac:y of 0 i SCJjS-~ iQI"I and' dialogue, forthe growing access,lbility of inforrnarion enables even the uneducated
to .Llcqu~n~ tech nical knowledge. Bescides., experience Jsanother parspecttve on a phe ncmenon, does s how (hat there: ~Iways

(5) Deve.up a discourse on democracy in the


Thouqh th-e Phil i PIJ'ifH~-S. may have developed democratic instltut ions earller than most of, its neighbors, i n exchanne it l!ag5 behind them 1n dave lop] ng il pohucal dlscourse I n the vernacu tar, The use of English in publlc affairs effectively excludes, the majo ri1:Ywho can nelther speak no r irlte:rnaiize it even if th.ey have. studied It. At the same' ti me tho ugh the local vernacu Jar conti n uas to be widely

used, it fails to grow apace wi'ttl new polltlcalconcepts devetbping In the ceuntrv as a who le. There seems to be a contradrctton be rw~en the as piratlcn S b'frdemocrats and the denotations of local languages. Thls contradlcrkm may thus hinder t.he necessary indigel1ijzation of these concepts ..Chrtsttan . mlsslonarfes ace ulturated the Cospel by using the: vernacu lar, The same should be: done fo r the. Vel unfarnlllar Gospel of Democracy.




Fer \\1e ,d1~ellS~iQh5 on the developrnem ~F Yf!tT)QCrapl arrd natlonallsm In the West, 1 u$p,d Ala~ifd~ iocql.levlhle. Democracy III AmQl'rca (NeW York: Vi I'll<lge ·BOi~h., 1945), G_ de B,l!:rtiC!rde 5auvign't' and David H, Pinknev, Hls~(}r:'1 or Fr~m:e (I" lnois; Forum rr~ss, lnc, 197':):): Francois Fut"ef and DCTii~ Rl~h'e"t, I,~ R~'ValllliDJJ rriim:ili-Slf! (P~ris~ FaY;[llrcl. 1973); l~ei1edif;l Anderson. Im~~/Fl~d Ct'Ymrrnlr.illes: Rf2'flecUons till tll~' Ol'iG'irl ~ml 5pr:e-ad N.i(Uon~fl..xm (n.o[Jdon~ Verso ~rJitions, I S'~3}; i'l,m~' G~ltman (Eld_~, The. Weffare 5~<lHl (N8W J~r~ey~ Princuton U!llVerslty ~res~rl rJS8). Anthonv D, Smuth, fhe fdi'fl/r ClrlglW; of Nathms (D;.:FDrd~ 1:1<1511 Bh1.lkw~ll), Pfj, 21·22. t<l¥ Cooper Co~~, The T/nglll,OIrJ; Songl, R~1I9)()i.J,~ and [ccJ:flomic.ure a Philippine Tr'liJ~ (Chj(~gc Fi~ld MU5-ellmo:f Natul"oI,l Hisiol"Y PLJblicl.tuon 20"9. Anthrtlj:JOhi9Y S~rle". 1922): Michllll'o z._ Ro.sald(,i, KIl()wJ~Jge <!Dd POl~sioH: lhmgoi N{>!/on,<; of Self snd Soci1l1 uf(]. (Cllmb ridge: C3mb rid.-;le. Ut\hl~I"Sity Press, 19'80); Rel'i3to- RO$.;Jl.clo. liongot I-I'e.adlwlltUlg J 88 ·1974. A Swdv 10 Soc,iNY a..n:d 1~IIM{}rf (Snmford: s.t!tnflJrd !Jnlverslt~r' llrP.sS", I.9BO).. Mla~",ru MiyamOto, The h'.lII'HinOO M,q!1fWOl/1~ Socte.tv. ReligioTl .;mel Un'" Among ill MpLiIl!31-n f!(!:e~p,l(f '01 MlmJo.r"rJ isiend, Philipp,;nes (O~<lka; Nation".1 MI.J$~tJtT\ of EthllologV, 1-9-88), p. 39. Ernllko jacmto. ''Liw<l,llag <IJ. Elillm< it! JOSf! P; S:;!'ntd~, ilLIiJ.ay a~ Mga SflwItH nr Emifio j'~LJ'()W (Mavnija, 1935}, Wilfr~d(l F, Ar~e and Nm;~to S. I'Q.blad[)r, "~oni'lal O.rg"h~.,atron~. in the PhiIL.ppine~: Mollv",Win, H~ha'l'· i~r, 5 tru c III re, 1'In.d C h ~.~gf!," 'l no Mal")" R, Ho IIt:lm~i' n er {eJ,), SOCJ'~tK eL11 run:! and lH i£' Fill pi I')(} (QlIc.zon t.1[y: lnstituta i)~ Philippine culture, 1979), pp_ 167·177_ s.,~~ <.1.1 Lourdes s~, V, Lapuz, "nw Mother, "ln G11da Cordero F-ern,flndo (ed,), B&.ir-)g Fifi/Jir)Q (QU~£OI1 CiW~ CCF· Boob, 19"a1 j, pp .. 9-13; "he ·ob:;etVat~(lM by -Cor.dero rernal1dc were woven mto the body of


;;: 3


5 {;


Lapuz' text

MfalrS. /'eQple~ I-'.{r'adp.at/()IJ 111{,deal Covem<lt1(c,' F{Jilr ferr Social Policy and r>ubl!t: ... VF".lrs. 199 S), p. 89. 9 Grant Carter BenU~y" 'Dl~put~, .A.mhority, and M,<\I'Olnao Sodal Order" In, H%U I!.. MI~Ja:I'ef.fE'ld_}, m.sI1~'re Pro.n~HitJ9 in rhe Philippines (({l,Hlznli City: Buraau of Locnl Covefmn~nt SLJp'elVi~.i{)fl, Mi~i~try LQ(.,I C9 ..... rnrne nt, T·9.85), pp, 51-72": SHmrl $chli'lgel, TiriJr;lv.Jusric~'~ 8 T"_<~Jitioh;J.i Tim!";]y LJW :rnd MQfi.lllly(B0.I'k'E'<I.!y: l!niversity of Californ.in Pres:>, I 9l(ll; 1{~li~1 0 r.:.(J~aldo: Mk:h~,IJe Z, Ro~ald('). I u Andr~s BO.hif<lciu, "IJ'OIg.ibig S~ Tinubuang ll8oyan" in Tcodoro (JI, Ag;Cll1rillo. The- wrlU!1(~" arid Tria! ~f . An dres Hi) nitB("i D" (M an i Ia: So rrl f ati 0 C~ nie Ml al Cnm mrs ~j O·J":j fn C ooP'.erat Ion with th e Un lve r5. t)' or the rhIJlpplnE:~, 1%3-), pp, 72-74, II Virgilio Almarto, "Ai'1{l h~upllng 1'")9Wik~flg Kontrl'l-KotrJnY<1I·," /-,lfm~Y, A.'J,o~to 12. 19%, I-J, 17, Il. SN!_ Fernando N- ZI<l'lclta,. "l'etsp~rtJve5 OF! Le9fl;[l'I"Jac:yIn tlncos Nnrte,' in Geneditt Ke:rkvl i~l ~ntl 1l.%1 M(:Ij<lffS (~dll.). From /L-fal'C(1S .Aqufno~ LDc;r1 f7'lfSpeCCI'ives (JI"! 'p{lljri(.',~1 Ttamition /fl tI1~ PM,I,'p{Jinl!} (QuezorJ City~ Ateneo de Manila. Unlv~,r~ity Pr~s~, l'9SI), pp. 266-8'5, In my recent fieldwork ivl' lhl~ E~Sd.)" CHI damccracv, I 1I5ea similar que'Sotwti-:! b lit a~k~tI HH=!il"'l Itt another rurul vill<lge ill another rnunf I p'<Illty, Iw~lva pe:.apl;e were' asi<Nl, both men and worrll~n, ~(.ftne tlau had collego!! del1mC!s, others, onlv <I fl!!i~V y'~ars of ';trade schoo 1·_ 1 3 N~li·1s M u IGler, a D I.iItch anrhrtl FHJkJ g I H. I s c-urre I1l:1y ~vjewi 119 eli ~cuss for, S 0 r dem o~~~ cy III I e x ~'Il oks o usad bv schools in l'halland, ~ndl'~r'I~~ia and the' Phi 1i'p'pf ne;s. IIQ nores the mCl1gth5 and Ilmit<llicr,~ 01" e<1irh, He' tdd'iy!1;!: that 'tfm Thai texts ernphasrze 'equa:H1y :fSc th'~ basis of damocracv, lInfCi'rll1n81t81~', tM~ do es not e :o;::p1(J.11l the -l)'bvi·(j U S i Ht;!qU arit1l in T h<li'.S ocietv, Th e fi Iipi no le-xt.~, I;) n th e t1lh~ r h at1dI ~;'(J ton If,!g8JL~tic i"n' their approach. They ernphasiz e prQc~dtJr~s but do rrot discu 5 S tho phllcsnphv bchi nd' LJE:mtl(;rl¥~y. 14 There I~ growln~ Iltetat.1.Jre Oil NGO~'in till! rltilippili~S. for f.:,x~l11rle:rem~lhl9 A.ld~ih." "The Ro!~ Lif NGOs in Pl1illpp:i ne SoCial Trans lorman 00," PhilippinE!' Politics and Society {Quezon Citv: N_cne() Gen1p,r for Soc:lal Policy and Public. Affairs, 1993"): Alex Brlll<'-hl.. ~i "G<H~'l.-O C!lll"bnrall)fl: e A Ne'"'' (and E.n~ouraglrrg.) D~velormi!H ..t 11'1 Lflr.;'d Gov~rnanc(!," GO-NCO Watth (Qu~z.on Ci!V; 15I}S, 1(j9i): Val1"trf8 Miller, NCO and Gr;t5Smms f'of/(''f If)rte,jjim'{,]~ Wfut I.~ SLIf.Cess? (Boston: lnstitutc for D(l\'~lllr. rnent R~~lUI.rcll. 199.4); PhIHpp'ii1~ BllSlh~5.s. For Social I~ro~re%, A P(!O(:1I~$ Jour/1ey tel:'i?/f Q(;'rt!m-dr]a" [f,;ln,' A C.~$"bl;}(.tk of OJ·NCO/ P.O PaFW~fsMps-; Expe.riencf,·5 in U)~·il.r Gnv.emlln(~ (Milml:J; L(~(:~I Dl2veIQpm~[1jt A5-slstOl.n·cd,l Pr(l~ram, 19~3); S·~p.'V~ Rood, "State .1I~d Non-Goveenmcrrt Org.ani'~~icnt: pape, pre 5ented at the Fourth In'l P. rn a:tll;!n.,11 P'hH II'P,I ne- ~t u.cl-~,~ f..o Men:i tK(!, ernb nrra, Au strulla, I ~9 2, ~ I S Antonio ,de Morg<l, 5~jre5e)s de' 1i;A,\ l:rr~s ~IUp!n<i$, e"CIite:d by Wenceslao L Ret<j.n3 (Madriq: Libre·rfa f.ierleraI de. Vicfarl~hp SlJl<JJm.z,(1609, 1910j, I O. BOj(~f Codex, "The- m.annen. r.1U~Hnn~ and bi;!lii!ts o.F the PhrliPPI ne Allhabitarit's of Io-ny iilg(.)," heln(j
S Areneo CeM'tl1r fm"" 51)(".1;]1 PO"C~I publrc


Ca.s,e swdj-€s (Qw'~i.OM C,ltv: A~!!n!'!n Cente;r



~hapt~j's. 'A b.at.e 16th cQnwry' Manila manu3chpt; {I'.HlO), transcrlb,ed, translat€!d and afln.otJ.t~d b'l ["rios QlIirlno <I.fld MauN Carcla, riw P'/t/JiPPilldoumal of 5del1cf. B 7 (195S): 347·.!l8, .:1[,4: MI(ju;i








CulHU'1I;! • 67

"R,elaciofl de la~ yo;l;H ~iUrltlasj 10 iE:mmOl!!Iilif ",nG jaml!s Rot:it~rrscm CedsJ, rh~ PIiII'IPf'l1l!;' ISiOlfldll1"l93·1.5905. vel, S (Cleveland Ohi.o: AJ·t_ Clark), fiP- n"'l 39 17 H&rold C, <:Oflklifl, f-faflrmoo AgnruIlIHf!! A .R'e(lntr Orr all IlI(egr.r1 SyJrt?r11 oj' 5l1tfim~ C:1.i1IJV~lIOfi 111rile f1Mlppinal (lto'm<!; Foe d d'J1d A,IjI I r y IIImd Org iI JIlIZOlliofl 0 I ilu, U !'lite d N;}ttOI1 S, 195 71: ~ an Seh I@g'~r , Ilmr~y Sub Ilt'.fnce: FrlJm .511lfl'jllg CuJIII,I;JWm rl" PIn!.!, A!j!rfrulhJn' (Quillan City AWFl~1) d'! Milnlj~ U"lv~r~i1 'II' ProS!. I 9 79). I 8; Stll~11 S(l1llJg'~I. "Tlruf<I.Y r.~rd~ns: 'F~om U5~ Ii!lgl1l lo PTivallE! t)wMr~hIPPlJlflppin~ Qu"rt~rlv 1.1/ Cul!uro rmriS(ldeW 9 t 1,91l1}: ~ g, H~ nr:lt,p'~ Iha~ <I~ WoOi'I n .;1, TIrl.lrlIV pj[Jw~ rne land, 11r.:t~ke!i It out lrem pLlbh(. i1(lm~ln ~Ild FI~gind~ It ;H h,~ DW'l'l In ~O~U''iiI~' land d!!vot tI 10 ~wjdd~n I ~ nor ri~gard~d n ~ (JI('1llOd Ii'r" MVQr'i(:


19 Rob~rr it(!od, CoiOlJIJ1 M;;n;II.1 !1l'rl<lllov: LJlllvenlty 1."11.!IIoml;! (

19751 Reed milke! l"IIS Ji.S£>'i\milrlf bd\l'ci nn hi S r~acUu9 ul ptlnl ry iI~"O<LInI~l'iy 'ilif[. h!t'Pf1~i!11 Ir,:! f~II·i"n .ilnd ml~lotDn"fl(', fof' Irll'ir"nci", FI'"i!nn~(CI !Gr•• ~I(j IIlcln,'j '1IIwiN •• Uti I.J~ lslas t Indio de l.u O'ISd""ii~ 01168', 10 r III LhHl (N.J.). MUllo .. Te I {II AI' In;l'~ W,U1lr~ r,r III~ ,BI~OIYil'1'I tsbruJ~, \/'0' J Il hIC.lgl;l~ f'hlUPllili 'Studl!!'s PraQr.lm. 0,,11,' rSlly (If cluc;HIL~. 1'1'1 ~~.



>II 01 HI~P;lll!


,Irid Prace»



i'1,ci,~, (S.

30 Altln~: CClflklln; !jehle-('1If'l. ~IN~nd Plas!!ncla moM, ·l~). Cfl~h.lmlm~~ tl~ ID"

Xl fh~ ~p~I'II~11tltl~W1~1 of

V~I, ~.ill'.

1 n'~16.


lOlg:lIm d~' rltlnlnil~.'

In Iit~lr .md I~olwrr~tm,

PI~~l1rlfl.:)j\ arcou.nl j~ reprnduced jn I",' notQ~ oj rH'lfdn,)\ nllnl)fl or ~1Ir'i',m d~11;1$I$J.~.~nIUJJrhl~. tiP, <171 75, II t-.lks or ~ datu puu'l'Iil5~n{1 1.1I1~1wlli'! QUid, d.vldll'ltl lh~ I.lml ~ll1rm~,hh rtJIJI)WN'~ whe 111t"f1 lUI" hlrn rr-nt £'e ill 0 Ro)' B.uton. Iftl,j.lrJ L.lW (I'~lIrk~·1 ~JrlIVf!:r~Hy 01 'V: 6; MId ~.lIntln. rhO' iK'J/iIlQdS f'r(!"Ss. 19· 9). pp .!I4 85. 91·92

~.moll1la PrQB, I 91S9~, pp, H (ChlcJ!1n: UnlVN51ry [)f llil~;i[l"

rtt .."

1I1~ruLitlllrll .Im} L'm~llm I ,liN

l.S Pla~,,n L In R'I.!nfJ el I 5-, InglJh.he5 berw!.'en lilnd5 'W'I:a Ilowlill d~ .mtl In tnn Llpla,nus. Iii [11 l,ttl~latl:,d ... 1(l,wIMld nl'lds: "mrmC'iif ('adOl uno d" r. dOl lIal:;l.n",w j,Jf ,litfliU' Pilch mi!mb~r of the baran lay kll~w Whul 'li'a~ hh). 111 till! uplandr. wheH~ presumablv ~ ,lcldell WOl~ priltH(l!d "1101.1\ [J,'rlrn p<1rIlJ.J5, lill(l SCI/(l Pr)f I3.mrlgiW;~· (Ihe-V Llo not divid(! them bur onl~ bv b".r'lJltj V1.L




Engels, 'Tn!! German Id;e,D!OqV (15<16), In lO1\'.'rllnEt:! ~L Simon (NU. 1(.1(1 J\II,lf)l" H;:I;I::kfl~ Publl~hl·IlQ Comp.my, !9-94). I al ~(] cons I;JU!1:drhe G'~rm~,n ~r1~'lnul te know whil! Ma~l( meanl bV "Inb"'· and! round !Jut he 'us~, the ~~rm ~t~mm~ wJllcl1 r<l11~I~I] mean "kin,' SE!e"08I.1l~(h~ IdEologie (l Mtir 111 ,.u~ M<1~"I.md frli:dm::h [n~;f!ll~ ~rk~. VI=l!. ] iBerlin W DJelz VerlJg 1'0, tha lnstltut uer MBOMmU$ lelllOlsmu~ belm ZK dt!r Sf!d, 1~'H) 28' Antonio Mcr,Z[i OSA, III 1753. ~pl'a.\l:~ Ilf [he relIgiOUS bem9 015 "du'! hrs.l to ;)Icw and sow, di~(tlncJ them (his parJSf1lofi,E!tS) In ltoiS manner, 50 tluL th!!'r' mighl I~O!m: SI:'C nls l'lJotic{a hl$ttir/C'u-rMHlf<.iJ de los gJor/o'$(}$ ltitJmpno'S V'de los ildl!/anrami~I"o5 (t:JfJ5egl.llfjf;}S en El prlI!.sente ~Igf{j fJQf IDS f,e1igio50j del wden de N,P;5. AgU5Eln M I;J~ mrS~II'.1fle5 qUf" ue-nel'l.d .ru cargo~" l<l~ I ja$ FilipinJs. II' ell f!T r;mmdt I/'IJP~ricJ de la C/tlrNI (Mag','h:l: Andn:" Ortega. I 76:n. p_ 59. 2-? ~ldlOI;J$ Cushn~'f, l~ndtd fSl;;rres in the CWIJr;jal P/u-';ppill.~i ~ ew Haven- Yale l!r1i\.'~Fiify Sn1JLh~a~t Asl a .stU dies, 'I97.G). p, 26.
M<ll'~llnd Frlednch

S*fjlor[e~1WrWngs (Indl <l.n;lpo.ils;


p. 85.

2;8 EI'i~ Wolf, "[Iosed [orpa:ra,'ePea~am CommuflHi.~s In M@soamprt(a and Central J;;wa: in Jack M, ~'Otter, May N. Dla1. and Geo~e M_ F05.t~ {ad.s_L PN1i·iilII11~Ol(de!rr.: A Rf!;!c/er (,E!!)stoo: Lit[fe and 8mwfl, 1%7), IJp. 230-46_
2~ ,~,gEl~Ulne (.JrEi<l1l ceJfl~l!!rI~ 1"101 !o be ~Dl'lrLl5ed wah jus •• my i:e-ttl~mel'll. II rural vWaglJ..15 not an urban C@rH~rilnt(;! mos't (If th~ hOU5ilh(lld~ dE!Tjvl! thl!Jr PrdC.tIU! ECllm a iimtl.r s cccupatlnn; f;;lFmmg, Typical, !OP, such v IH,lg~5 is that mosl or the iamlhh are 11il~FreJa:t~d by bleed <Inc:!marriar;re. H l~ differ-en. In tfle cllV and 1\110!is when! tl1e cit II IiIge ltes In (11-1r1g lei d!!.l1.!.rmlnl: ·publl~ lnterest" or the ".j')lJbllC {lood." !l'H1d (p. I) not~s tl,,,t whereaS. coastal citV','ilaT~S ~nd fnl.md ,>a e(llei ciTies w~re >ilte<lrJ ... anclenf In 51lul he'lst A~i'ii! by the dawn o' Ii~ Ian. r:emUr • "an indig~nous urh all traditi on wa ~ W !'Iring I;lnly In the PhlllppinB_'


~O1 hi! elas Ie work on
,~Ity Ijte5~, 1~94)'

1'1115,r~glDn by rp.\1tm~, Ji1i1!4;lllg' use pr prrm~ry HlurtB I~ WllJlilm H~rHl'" ~~[llt, ~~r.1n.fJ;!y.' 'iiJdQ!;!l1ri, t:'!!mury Philippine Cu'rum dIId 5ot'UH~' lQlluon Oty AlIlMO. ue M,lnll;) llnlver.

Rp~tI'dl;l; S~hl~!go:l; Tlrurav Jtmlc~: Core 3Z CQI~, I~. 9 n. ~~~. i\lben trncn l(!J1ks~J11l' a.~50 171 r'!i. H PI~M·l1d~.
~.., PI~~cnrl;i, I~ 471: MClFQil., D, ~ " Alrln~,

IiOfU(l( ~Qr.mH tM~nll;L,


r~1 ~rII1ilHlg, 1905'). pp,

II, p.



• fEtl:W\NDO N. ,ZIAlCIT~:

l1ew, ;'Al'1g R~bolll.s.Y'ong "Pillploo: Mgil PagsU5IJri Mul~, Sa MikrD-Kd:~",'f~ilyan," in lP'erdln~n~ (ed.), f<rybabali-k sa B;ryi3N; Mgi3 Le-kwr<l sa K'oiIsaysaVOir-J ri9 H'SW~i'f¢grapiva. a~ Pagkab3.ftsaM Pillpfnl) (Manil<l: Rex Book SlQr~, 1995), p, 11 1·12. 3 ff Pedro c:hirlno, RtI!ia,t;l{Jn de filS Islas Filipims (1504) tra!tlSlated by Ramon [ch€lv;Jrrl~ {M,mila: Historital (Ol'lsl!!rv<ltion society,; 1969-). :. '( Thl! chaeacterl srlcs arid p~rp(j~e~ of voluntary fiagell."'Uon <l,fldl crucifixion In Pampanqn :3.1'1'0 ag~ci~ T a:re9i~<lr~ di ~c~ssed In ~ernando N. II aldt a, "Perp 1 ar lntarpretattons' u of t he 1).15 ~on 0 r Chrlst," ?/'imp; S ~rine Soria/ogle!}) R'!?v/ew (I.muary-P:ef."emb(lf 1g66): 60_ See: "11$0Alfredo Evang~ll:;ta, "F'enptencl~: RltlJ<l.1and Mot.lvatlon ln Flag~llati{ln," 5,lmday Tim~S M.lgazinll, April 15, 1962" pp, 1Q·l1. Nl[hDI~~ Barker, a British ilntluopo!oght w~Jrklt'Q Ol'l f1ag@llarion in P.:ampanga for hi:; docteral {I;esi;>, told me' he has reached conclusions sjmi,lar to mine. li!Greg. Il,ank.off, Crime, 50dew ~nd lhe Slate Ul the Nln~r~emh CMtury PMlfppines (Qu'DZQ·n Ci'lr. Ate tleo daM antla LJ nivers ity Pre S~,I .996), .,_ 146 ff; 3 9 A recent nl\l~(,W of tha weaknesses of the Ifh~llpDlne ~t~Ue ';In h~ found iti Paul D. l'lut(:hmfl. 'OllgaJ[hs and Cronies In (hE! Phlilpplne Stat!!!!:The, Politics of Patrrmontal Pltmdia," WorltJ Pamlr.s 43 (April 199 r): 414-.s0_ Sec also Frank Golay, The Pili/ll'plllr!'S: Public Policy and National fconomll DevelQpmerH {If ha.,~;a, Ne.w York: Cam ell Un ive 1'$1 Pre ss, ~9!'} 1), p p: i II.72; WII j am Wol (H, Polifi(f ty' P.;i,trDl'l"ge and C;l;i~$ Cm'rm,~in L€!ntral LlIztm {Quezon City: New [)il.Y I':'Ulbll~hers,. 1984), p. 3; ~nrf o nofra [), Corp uz, Til e BumduC'ri,l In ~h~PI'1IUf)pinlll (~a,I'!IHa; Un iV(lI"~iv{ of th e Ph i II ppi 11 Instll~[';: es of PL.ll:ilj~ AdrtHnistration. 1957). 40 Alcina (pop. 52-53) ~<Wsthat th€ datu's tellewers we.ra raqulred to s'qu,i1t and cover tl'1€ir mouths With ;I fan when il.!,'Idre~sillg 111m. 41 Eugcl'll WeDel', Peasants fnto Frelj.chrmm, rile MQder"lz.~Uun of Rm,al FraflCil I ,If! 7(J·19-1 4 (_~Unford_
35 R~'r'nMdc

C. tlanes



Stanford w,~ber,

U niVl!r5Hy'

rms 5,

19 7~).



~ __

, _ -_

M A R;'I"'A











..-~~...::. ""'-~_.,JT-


- ..- ~

~ "" .-

0 'R~O N I L"A




Ove rview of Fi I ipi no Perspectives on De mocracy a nd Citizens hip

The. poH(lcal cu lru re.,.defined by Sidney Verbal as the "ordereds ubjective realm ·of politics," m.ay be charactertzed in part by th ree broad cateqortes of orlentatlon defl ning the: political sp.if. These are (l) pclttlcal anac hments and loyalties dlrected toward s the natlono r its 5 Igl11 lflcant political svmbols, (2) various, fotms of speclftc knowle.dge, fe~ll ngsMd beliefs about pollttcal tnstltutlons, and (3) more transient views about speclftc political pollttes, issues, prog rams" per-sonalttles and events.' These orientatlons would include values, cog nltlons, percepnons, attitudes and behavioral predispositions by which member individuals order arid interpret political institutions and processes and thelr own retanonshtps
with such mstituticn sand processes.

Of the three: ortentatlo ns, the mast basic. is the ftrst, here reJerr~d to as natlonal idemity. it is the ftrstset of ortentarlons learned in the process of the development of the ~qlrHc611 seMI thereby·fun.(tioning as the. rnamx 'for lhe Interpretatlon of political situauo ns and events, and the..~~:merat]Cli1 of actions or behavior withln a po Ilncal context.
This particular political context Is ldentifted as, democratic, in which power resides in the citizenry, and those designated as holders of power ill a representative democratic system gOV€!fn in the name of the people and are accountable to them, The formal co ntent of dernoc racy wh lch includes the separauoncf powers, freeelecttcns, rule of law <lindguarantees of various .Ind lvldual freedoms is elishrlned ill the Con5Ututl.on and taught in schoo Is. The actual practice of the sub-

stance of democracv,

lnsofar as It prnrnotes

g.r~a.ler freedom,

soclal justice


citizen partiripatlon il'! local and narlcnal dectston-mak: ng is a matter of dav-today exercise, hegoti<iJiionor even political strvgg le, Ii is, I believe, in th [.5 se.nse that pol ltlcal cultu re becomes an important 03S is forthe understandlng of the dynamics in the. exerclse of cltizansh Ip towards 9 reater
democratization. ~ijonalld~rUifqcation

demo c rat inti o n ,

'I will therefore understand political culture to include values related to naand rbose related to the exercise of citlzens hip towards greater
National ident:ity may be

defini,ng one's attachment


sense of be lon'grng to a. narional ccmrnu riily. Such

vlew~d as the set of mean i rigs and pred tsposittcns

Democracy andl Cit.izelllship in Filipino Politial





a system of classification which permits an individual to hi rnself and others like. him as beiong'ing to a defln lte 9 roup whose characterlsttcs, historical development, cultu ral systems, natio nal problems, interests, and asplrancns are ldenttflably different-from those. of others- As such; the system of meanings functions as a basts atonce for the' lnclu slon andexdu slcrr of partlcu lar .gro UPS of people by means or a se"t of soclallv and h Fstoric<lllv constructed boundaries whtch def ne who bel.ongs and who does not belong to' the national community and why"') Citizen shill' values will mclude notonly those related to the observance of civic duties but aha partlclpatlon 1n 'Ongoing pro~ cesses of democratization. I:r1this paper I propose to locate these aspects of political culture withlfl the much broader framework of becomi ng a nation for the foillowi ng reaso ns:
(1 ) The de:flnltion of



fCi:rmai COITt~nt 0.1 dcmocracv




the Western

tracHtl em, an d a:rti cu late.d by the hlg h lye d u cate d F iIipinc el ite i~not iHlr.C 5~arilV an.alog9lL1~ those: held by the great rrtass of peer and 1e,s5~,:Juca.te.d Fi.llpina:~; to' Tllis observatlen has bean floii1t~do!..lt by 'many scholars, notably Comt<tntino~ 5 . .. and IIetc,

Nonatheless whether or net precess "of development f~ within this tradition, what we have been dolnq as a national ccmmonltv a.t least s.incel896 j~' b.uildiilg a Filipino nation, (2), In thls process of nation·building. it is necessary to u!1d(m;tal1d that there is -gre.a.t varlaliofi among Philippine ccrnmunlnes not ,only ill tile. 'e'ti1:llic: and rur-al .. Ll,r an dime ns i on s bu t OIl inc ult i.JU! or life stvl e - from trad i nonal and oral b so cultures, to o,rgani.zed ccrrrrnunities pra~tlc.iI19 a rella:tJve:ly modern versrcn of f)<i,rt lc I,patary de::r:n rra,L\f- Itis, Im por!i.mt ro note 1 h1i!.se diffe ren ces 011'1 d co ntrilPO$~" o til ern with the seem i"gl y- hom o.ge 11 @cos cu ltu re a$,.d efl ned by th eel lt ~ 9rcups, u Thus, with in m,ts broad framework, the analvsl s will be at twO levels: ('I }the process of becoming Fi I i pino, here conceptual lzed in terms 'Of values of the microorder; and (2) the process of buildlnqa Filipino nanon, in terms of values of the: macro-order. We have conceptualized values development in this way for two main' reasons: (]) the process of growrng up OCCU rs tn the context of micro-order scclsl msutunorrs -the family, the paer group, the school, the local chu rch, the massmedia.as mediated through available techno logy and family prefe rences, thE!(om· nlLHlity; and ~2) [he precess of buliliiding a nation is mediaU:~d- by its macro-oraer socra! tnstlturlcn s, that is, the Way the social order 1s ccnstituted th rOllgih its. e~i:r:, nomic, polttleal and cultural systems (such as the e.ducatlo rial system in the l.arg~L
Wfllle i[ is posslble to locateall thesi! lnstjtutio t'IS on some. kl nd of continuum (from familv all the way to 'the economic system), dependinq on the nature and &CoP~ of soctal interaction and relations. It is rreftheraccurate nor precise to, dl· rectlv extrapolate values of people from the character of the macro-order institu-


tions. The same weakness is generally observed in studies of "national character' where the data are based precisely Sf'! these exrrapo larlons, and g~ne.ralizaUo ns are always i 1'1 dange-r of being negated by r;:ont~afYexamples from specific tndividua] For examDle. FiliphlOS. are g~ne£ally des(r~bed as ~azy, fun-loving and undlsclplined, but how-ran thts apply to a iMang Pandov and an AI trig Ro~i FIg whe w()or~

less than decent dailly wag'e?

from dawn to sundown

at backbreaking

tasks six or seven d<:iYsa week to sarn]


For this reason, W~ have chose n to d~sti ng uis h two levels J rr which val U~.S are nnpflcated: the micro-level (using the community as the context or ~nalysis). INhere we refer to value formatton in th~ process of growhlg up or becornlnq; and the macro-level, whe re we refer to 'the process of nation-build i FIg in wh ich the .general characteristics of the social order are determi ned thfoug ~~policy dlrec'Uons, often ln 0 ur COl.!ntrv without the partlcl patina of the hHljority of 0 ur people, particularly those from marg Inal cornmu nlties outside the us ua.l channels of pubHc oplnlon a.nd debate.

When we s psak of individuals <IS be i nrg lnvo lved in tile process of nationbu ildi 119,. we do $0 on I'll tn the most gen@ral, even rneraphorical Se.i1S~, becaw;'e there is no way by which a sing.le individual can 'change the course of history or the social order unless he/she were a monarch or a head Of state, or meleader of ,arevolll{ional)' 0, similarly l<1rge:-scale orgfill ized and Sl,Istail1ed movement. Th I!JSl the' disttnctio n between the process of becominq Filipl rro at the rntcro-level. and 'he .process of butld Ing a, FiIlplno nation 1~ crucial to the present analvs is. 'lahul:: formatlc n un il1di.\iiduaJs is 0 n the one hand, 'the ourco me of a process
9f *,()cial tnteractlon, an aspect of persc nal h Istory In a soc lal context: and on the other, a prod uct of the nature of power distribution and the refo re of rrational decision-making involving value-laden priorities with i n d. sotiety. Whih~ ,ir is co rrsct to .say that ~nge neral, the (Jaw re of the macro-order i nstitu'l,iOI1S helps to determine the character of th.e rn lcro-order insututions, ls usefu I to ramember tharvalues.are always formed within an Interactive process at the. mk.rolevel - where llvl tTg, breathing. human bel hgs with rrE!¢d:s,desires, asptrauons and idi.osym:ra.cies, stro t'Ig in some ways; wea,k i n others by$~irYie' random genetic or~eriU1g, must act "in a. spectftc world with pract~c.'JJ cpportu rtil!eS and lim its .... {b~-


.cerm·i co mplex products of secla! expectations, personal adaptations" ng} cus responses and calculated strateqles." ,

spa nrane9 L/ude.s an

illdivtd ual, a 9 rcu P or a co.ileniv~ty ill th@ cholce of il;vaH~lle modes, means and ends of ':lCtio,h.',TThree major i nteractlve elements are i mplicated ,i tl thrs defln ition:

Thus a val LJeis defined as "a

(0 nceptlon




(T) the concept.ion of the. desirable, which Is a cognitive an based on knowledge and experience: (2) the choice of modes, means' and ends of action. which ls a behavioral man tfestaucn or the ccnceptlon of the desirable: and (3) the constraints lrnpesed by the avaiia.bfNry· of optiOflJas objet::'ively defined by the soci'a~ .SH'UC-


From these. three consutu live elements of values, we can see the c lose relation between (U ltu r@ and social structure .. It ls in the value system (i.e., the co nfiguration and organ lzatlcn of values) whe reowe are abie to see the con] unctlons and disjunctions of thase two elements, the fit and contradrcuons berwf:!e n what people hold In their minds and hearts regcarding what is good, J 1J'5t and r~ght abo utthemselves and their world (conceptions o'Fthe desirable), and the wa,ys in which thev choose [0 act 1n conformity With, creative partlcl patton i n rebelllo n against or escape from (throug h rndgra;tiorl or Itlvi:sibillty) a we rid made real by the constramts a:nd the opncns aV(i~lab~~ to them.as determined 'by 'the soclal structu re, I'~is f1'Ot pcsslble to speak of values 0 Ul of 'the context of the options available for people to manifest th@lr values in behavior, as well as of the knowledqe involved fn the cakulatlon of the costs and gains of a particular action, Tt1is is to say that we

CarH1Q\ have. a simple listing of values .oun,jdi:i the ·.dynam~c intohplay of ~lllmoln a.gem:y and the elements of the :socfal context; . B~C1l.use; f my own djs:dplinal biases, the ernphasts of the present a,!1IaIY:'1js o be on the ways Iin which educatio n pol icy and provtston, tang lJag.eOf iostW(;' lion, literacy and k,r,rowledge. have he I pea to shaipe our r'l.1tion"bu ilding process arid: with it, natu re of our pol ltlcal culture,



A, Brief Historical


A brief sketch of the past wl~ I remind us of the roots ·of cur ed ucatto n WSt~Tif a.nd:how literacy. which is th~ prlncipal requisite to formal and non-formaleducatiOfl, became trnpllcatedwlth property, literate ki'fowledge lir the Western tradltloe, ed ucaitonal provision and Western lallguages. .

Pre:vlQ us. an a~y5es have d eta rrn i ned th at thi e h i:$ tory, cfo u re d ucatio n sym,em' b~gan with the passage.of the Moret [lec:ree in ~863, subseque.r'ltly expan.ded 11'It0f mass education set up d I.Ir~ the American colon ial period. ~ propose to stan I1g
farther back -to,the i nrrcductlon



new, literate tradition

us~ng the Romafll.z,ed

script. fuW;ions, the ~hiftfimm oral to literate tradition would not navB) onl'y new elemem mtroduced was [he n'ew s,ripl til at WO u lei jh e n been me acces slb Ie to evervo n e. Th UJI·, rhes eparaticn b~twe:@"ntra..,. dltional oral know~tldgea.F1Ei tlterate kn·bwledge WOLI Id not have occurred bfcau!~' the pa$-5age to a liiU'!fate tradttlon wou ld on IV hav~ entailed the r~fle!ititon ·o'f oTat


been so probie:m<l~ic becausethe

kJi1owledg.e lnto


wr~h~11 mode.


We shan argu-e that tne forcilole tntroductlcn d lJrhlg cclontzancn of 11new literate trad it:ion u nder the above described condmons has developed a. form of ~lteracy as well as-literate and educational practice whic:.h'~legate5 and alienates us from our trad ltlcnal Ikrr('Jw~eGigei· with value CO nse q uences on our conceptinnS"q.~ ourselves, of the wor:ld, our place ill it. and the kinds of skills arid clJmp'~W~tld~'f developed lin the po pularton. This. is parth-:M~arly true of the poor an-d less educated
who have never really mastered the newlarigu.~g.e(S) andthe knowledge. 'it ,ew cedes. Thus, uhe high reported baslc literacy rate of ·89 ,2% has no deep' roots. In

terms of tile ca,pacity ·for reflective, creative and abstract thought as ~O'ngas·ir ~gnor~s the well s prlnq of our own knoWledge: and is carried O!..lt ln a foreign 101m" gua:ge. Thls ls the root cause of our bei ng "a nation (ff fifth 9 raden;" whose tnowledge s,prings .onlly from the ltterata knowl~dg~ tntroduced in school, 1111 tn@ absend. 'of knowledge rooted in our hIslory and oral tradltlcn, it becomes. necessarv 1Q. acquire ever hi,gl1er levels of formal educatlon to ma.k~ up i n "heiqht" far wh.<lt W~ lack in depth, However, '~he:unevenness tneducatlonal provision (or ~ductltio~~1 quality), as well as i 11 cultu rOllpractice <;lind competence in English {and Spaln.Bh)i corrtln U'eSto exacerbate th€! d lfference and d lstlnctton betwE!.e;n the. (!Iite and thl

masses in the Philippine.s.

We shall also demonstrate th;;!t the developmenr of Ph~~ipp:1 COlrrirlll:lrlitiff ne as we II 3,5 th el r passag e to a literate trad itl Q n has nat be.e n a un ifo rrn proce ss.,

the dMf·el"tl!l1c@smay b~ understood in terms of soctalorqanlzatlenat the cammu" nity level and iUi nt.ernalcapac.lty to generate change or main'talncol1tlll1lJttY.


ordered the I~eachlng of the Span is h language but the pow-erfu~ Sparrls h re~jgfblJS .otders who were. in ci1a!'geo·f the Indoctrlnatjcn of the FWpi F10S into Chr~s·ti'a:f'!~ty '1.l'nd what little. educatlcn was pffered, ccnttnuouslv .de-fiul these decreesand lnstead taught the Ch rlstlan doctrl t1~ in the local l·aflgU<l9@:.ssing a. Rornan lzed u

folal~111 the pr.o[e~s, lntrodueed the Roman script" and rendered whOle vi Ilage':s, illifer~te. In the new S.crfpt. vartouscorearal decrees ~o the I GrH and l71H eenturies

Be:f~rethe Spanishcolonial reriod in dn~ 15TH century, Fi Ii&linGS alreadv had their own native Stl'~ptanti a phonettcalphabet called anbat.<J (.tdphabe:t). altho L1gh it must be; remembered that writing was not widespread at the time. SPi1li'ls h friars i branded this aNbara as the "handiwork of the devil,"burned a I'd( of wtiuen- mare-


.scrlpt, I It may be arg.ued that the deep rOOtS· ,of Catha ltcl smln


5 pring

:fmnrthe. fact that Fi npif1Qs learned ,ci~lk"Cat!101ic:ism tn [he process.
Those who fled


~tl~he:i r own laFlQtJa.ge, iI1r(Hg€rIzing if into i

the hl I~s, r@'fUi~i colon lzatlon ng


ill ti:1e

n~w script although ft must be p6~nted out that many amonq thcse who remained dla: nOI become literate eithe:~, owl ng to the ~a.ck of sc 110-0 Is and th~ preval lil1g peda~~~elJtaJ!r:e wha.teve r know1Ie.dg@was being iransrrntted. Mils Ilrn FiHpl nos -,~n the 'Of '50uth,.earH.::r lslarnlaed ttl UH~ 1'4lll centurv, learned Arable 'fa read the Qu;ran and resJ~!edSparilish colonization. To ttl b. day, the- wri'Ung of thelr local ~ang!)ages i 11 the RQmanized'scrlpt Is not encoursqed. Tribes ln the vlrtuallvlnaccess lble Cord illera mountalns or the north also resisted Span istl' W~Dl1 lzatio n but were much later ,IntrOduced ttl the. Roman script ustnq !EngI ish, Itlr.gely taught by Amerka.rn Protes.~nl:.mls:s.i.,t1arie~. "

g:o:gy of

the friars which


rote r@ami11'91 rnemorizatton

and u ncrrttcal

When th€ Sparllards introduced the co ncept of I::! rivatecwne rship of tarrd (fram ·i.ll.argely communal type of ownership), iYI~mber!ii of the. prin.cfpaii<l (native Ilobility who had earlier been toopt(~d to become. collectors: o·t trlbute for 1:he Spanish c.rQwn~ we're tITlefirst to recog rlile irs \11\1 e,' iBe.lng.I'iterate in beth Spar'! lsh' andthe nativeu Ro.mafllz.edscrlpt wa~ i rnportant for the land titli rig precess, for electro n to office,
and for exemptlcn from obliga1ory servke orlevles for free lebor;"
~t may be ar-

9:u.edthat the: dtstoruons

in the dlsrrtbutten

of reso W roes, the pursuit

of public:

;GlffiCefQf private gain, and the "averslon"

by the specific histerlcal condltlons
'to accumulate

to manual labor have all bes n compounded of eu r passag~ 'to a I iterate naditloFL

th~ princip.alfa ,Sfaned or grab large tracts of land <It tih~ e.xp~r1se of tile -actu<lltille.rs, ma,n\t of whom were reduced to- b~i.ng landless and de:bN~ddef'l share cropoers." Th~ chlldren of th~ native elite had a chance to swdy In schools originally established for the children of rile ~pan 1511cclonlal adrnl nlstrators (penin:;uJare--s), ~earn· Ing Spanf.sh and Western (Euro pea~) kllow~edge I n the process.

Thge:ther with [1'Ie friMs and .5pani.sh ad min lsrratcrs,

The arrival of the American CQ~{)1(llzers tn the hate II9TH centurv Of'! the eve of the Phillippine revolutlon .agajnst Spain, ;;Indtheirswbse:quent occu patlon of the
Pbilip'pi'nes after the 1"r~aty of Paris did not: substantlallv change the countrvs a9ra'l'ian.structure, The elite who jorned the masses in the revoiutron agai nst Spai n ~" the late 19TH cen t'U ry re n eg ~d 0 fl thel r <lgreeme Itt to p u rs ue. ag rarian r~Jo.rfl'l;~~instead,

rl1(!JY were coopted by the American admtntstratton whic.h decided {Q respect' pro p. erty rt..ghrs,and Were thus able toretatn their landholdings. The agrarian structure ~ontinues to be Ehe $ingle most fmportant isslje ~n Phil ippi M socIety and tine. pri n.c fp:al mo rlvato r of LI n rest.


The Amerteans established' a nrc re widespread mass, education svstern ',to for 'the 'duties of citizenship and for the ordinary activities of if clvl Iized co m rnu n iW'·" in wh~( hi El1gi:i.sh was lntrodu ced asthe med i um O'F fn· structlon, usil1g textboo ks essentially derived from those- In the, United States Btit 'the child rsn of the eltte, alreadv proficient ln Spanish, contl nue to 5n.Dd~,·m this day ill private sectartan schools of better qual itv. ""/heret'l1~y ar~ {!xpo,sechO' better quantv Engllish instruction and the knowledge: content that goes with it, Thls is the reaso n why the el it@ ln the Ph i.I:ilppi nes are mud more W~sterllized tna~ the cornmun ity folk, much better educated, and generally proficient it') English (iI;nd to a lesser extent, Span IS~l). When poll lev-makers and ed ucatlon rsrs SiW thar. [ll it~rilcy is equated with povertv, the relatlo rI' ls e.5serlllia~:lycorrect but it is imjXiJ·
fit 'the people rant 10 understand how people became both poor and rlliterate in the first plJGt.

WhD are These

fili:pinos and Where ore They to be. Found?

Morg;'nal Community Types 111 the Philippines
0 r slx mi Ilion of the Philifj· bask or: rudimentary literacy, and 26.S~ Of who are described as, without functionililih eracy ,Sktlls, In all, these two fig'u rl':!$ aCCOlJ rn for 18 ml IILon or fl]i~y 37% of o,~r pnpul anon, "a natlcn of fifth qraders," as Profes5o r Cortes sharply puts it. As Far as poverrvIs concerned, W([!_ refer to 8.98 milill iorl families; or n.1 % I,ivingl below the poverty threshold set at P5,49i5 . .70, OUt' of a total of] 0.7 million families In the Phillppirres;' S i nee we pro pose fa study the relatton of V(3,IUe:5, kt]Owr~d~e, literacy" educauon and po Ilttcal development at the hN~,li of tile comml.!!'fity, 'o'i'~, need to understand the varlous marqinalcomrnu n i,tv types (he. cou ntry,and how peopfu@9 raw up iln these cornmun ltles,

Based on available statl sties,";' there are I 0.2%
described as without years ol,d and above

pine popalatlcn 1.3 million ten


A brief ~kett'h will suffice to sU~:l9'est the. hetero9,ene'iw of Ph i lippine [1ft even ill the marg rnalized commu:n~t:~·eslncl uded In thts analysts keepinqln mind that regard less of other ccnstderattorrs, [he common charactsri stlc of these: corrmu nlties is the fact of their ma.rg i nalitv with average incomes he low the poverty. th res ho ld,

by varlatlcns in major Iivel il100d economic activltv; ethnoll h;guist1c: 9 IibU.P~~g5, ma' jcrltv-mtnorttv relatioliS, and ge!1erallifestyle or rhythm of life In 'the I;:ommunity.
The three Philippine communttv tYp-e5 according 'to. major economic <!'c:rlvilv (fist'1in9, farming, urban poor) correspond to the most marginalizM and di~aov~Il'

On the other hand, trnpcrtantd

iffe(ef1ce~ among' them could heaccounted fa

taqed secto rs i tl the

ntrv • as the

C'Urre I1t

statlstlcs above show,

A f01.,Jrth and new category of marginalized communities is the refugee/rt· s ettl e rnern type, S LJ C h as rho s€ rno re 0 r Ies S per man en tl y affe.ned by 1 h e Mt Pinatubu eruption. Less permanent are evacuatlon center's for vlrtlms off other nata ral sns man-made ca.lamities such as minor volcanic eruotlons, floods" typhoons, harnleuin~
of populatlona due





The Phi I rpplne popu latlo n of 65 m I" io n is divided into mo ra than 80 ethnoltrtqu lstlc grcH.lps ofwhrcf rheeig ht, major groups 11a.ve, pepulancns r..t:1ging frurn J 59,0000 to 2.6 million households." Urban poor groLlps. on the oilier hand, are generaJly rnultl-ethn ie. The prtnci pal charactertsucs of these e{11 nalinguistl~

g'fOIiJ~S are: (T) iii d t,$tJ net l.1ng u,aQ'@ (i1m/.~eyef. ail belong to the Mal~yo-Po~ynes~,i"Jl Unguislk fal'1nily); a.nd (2) occupancy of .. drsnncr terrltnrv, regioll or provl nCI:!. In the e:a$~ of the Muslim Filipinos In the seuthern PhSJrpplne.s. ;I further dislim:tlol1 Is between the Christian majority and tile Mt.!'slim rmncrltv. Tile arch IpelagH;: naHH"1i! the country cumpus ed of 7,100 Ij.lamh accentuates these distmctlons of accountlna, ln part" for HI(! n:!'5iIDniill'~~w:DdentaUcn a f the pcpu lauon.

However, on acco urn or the mass me.dia. rile ecnsrl r utle nally mandated nauonallan9uage, Hllpmo, geru~r.lllv ll!)ll'd 0,j1 Tagalog, has also become \Iw linglli:!. franca. The U5~ ot .EligllsJh ill lh'~ fen-milll ed'uciltlOl'l svsrern sinr.e 1903 [Amert, an ro!ol11al period) ha s rll1'l.lideIt lhe lallg~J age botlh 0 F stiHlU, and privih::g'c, ililld u~m~ 111 ~ lhl!: rn..jcr ~an9~Jage:of govemmern. the ccures, hrgner educ:arl,oll1, business and l'rlO~t of mass med la, 111I he: MIJ~lim arus. I he toea I l.angu Llges are WII nl! n (I n ,~om.l!lfled 5 rip~) ilnd widel1y IJsed [n oral communiCation; but AMbie: js ltH~ wrluen language of the m .... Jri/i> [uadltlona.l: Mus,ftlill community schools). The prer+lr e of d writi6g I he lccal Ia ngua-ge 11'1 o manl zed :SUTIPt fS gl'T1er.;tlly nct encouraned because R of Its SprUllS h colonial rooU. fIlipino trlbal grQ IJP~have their own languOlge s (SOIlH1 not vet written), and 1 he se \'I/I'rh access [0 mass media and the market need tel IJnd~T£tandand spe ..k at least one other l:.aogiJage(the doml nan l reginnall.:l nguayl!) as well as Fllrpmo and tl Smatl@'lf'Ing 01 English.
A ltinrd source (:rf V1Iri~nIon among 1',.,1IJgjnal Philippin.e comrnun ltles wOIJ~d be diFfel'iUjres tn "lih!s'[1de(, o~rwhkl1 sllt types are idi!lH~n.ed - from rrad I tlnnal 0 r ~whot~li c UItLJrei [0 organil! ed cernmunitles ,practicing 01r~I<lttvely rncdern version of partlcfpatorv democracy. Thls w~lriminary
typ.otogV was originally


fer i'I very recent studv on 11tera.cy ant! has been .5 hewn (Q be q ulte adequate as a f~n1ework for the S'Iudy and classlficancn of margrnetJ Ph1 IllPpJne co rnrn u nifie.'l.

The first type refers 10 coramurnnes whose tradlrlcnal cultures are: relanvelv "whole" cultures characterlzed bv the !intEgration of aJI or most of the patterns of CU.llUra.1 In this community type. life is communal and governed by tradition life.
whose mean Ings remain accessible to all. Th e s e co n d ,r. 0 m m u n j ry ty p,e. by ·11{eo;tyi,e ~ is termec "tran sit ion a rio f w h ich two types are represented. The triball community 0 f thts rvpe has some re lanons with the ma.rket and w1th the lowta.nd ma.jority as well <llS limited exposure to mass f trad Itlonal tul tu re are observed ~ Or an xh~ty about these practlces. The other l y~e (refugee and re5ettl.ement) is the uprooted cornrnu nltv 'for whom, 11'1 case of the! vlctfms ohfu:!' Pina.tubo eruption, there rs no POS1'olblJhy of the turning back ax least In te lmrnedlate future. media and educanon,
Ye~ s,ignific:ant aspects

I?:v~nas the YQlInge r gene rannn exhrblt some doubt'S

The third type l'5. he MlJshm filipino n"nnoriw cornmurutv which IS distinqu lshed t 0 fits rilhmdtv, both In status (m terms of popu latlon, access to MOO nal resources, etc.) and rell~gjon (the PhHippine1. is. '65% Chrtstlan). The Tong nandnng Mora separaust rebellion u ndN rhe Mom ilJlona'1 liberation Front, which eFIdeL! a Illy rec.ently. was a manifestauon of t11ied(lmands of this 9 rou p. In r u Irurs and orlentatlon, these communnles have a prnnounced lslarnlc character, ~v~r1 a& disunctions al"nol1g the three Mu ~Ji rn me groups ~Maran~,o, Mag I! indanao and

bvthe fact

Tau5ug) remain.


The fourth type rs the lowland ChnS~llal1 rural majcritv which has h J the IOrl9'Q.!l1expo ~u we to Spai'\i$h and A.meric;m Influences 0'I.:'i well as to govern ment, m<u~ rnedla and urban II,re. The" have tvolV'CrJ a I tfestYlle Inco rpor an nglhe:ie ele

menrs into 'their cu'ture. The fad of being part oJ the majority
'the same: time be.ing rnarqlnal discussed lanu, 'to it



pre-scents its. own set of problems, as will be,

Th~ fffth type is 'the urban POOf" a multi-ethnic cornmu niity gmuprn'9 of hKi\(ily margfRalf2ed. people ("squatters,.'')_lliivi n'9 Oil the edge of the. m:ote. ani uent lir~f~ communltfes where they work as service workers (laiwndry WO.rri'~H'! pllmnb~r5);(lJ smallvenders •. iin the Natlc t1;;1,1 apital Region (NCR), urban pOD r ·0 ro"! ps compli~~ C 33% of the total NGR,populatialfl.ofabout @:igJrtmillton, under constant ttill~:at:cif the dernolltlonof thelr hOUSM which q.re the defio~ng charactertsucs oftheir live-~, some groups uy verv hard to become "lnvlslbla" 01' t1iternatlv~lV'; organ ill;! th!l!m:
selves in erder to own the

tots on which die·if s.hanhe& stand.

The sixth type b, the "developmerttartvpe in wh lch surne form of partlcipawry doemoc:racy, however ~~mitedha.s been devel~ope:d arnonq members of a-comr munity as an organized. group, usually throuq h and

mel'it 6rgani~a:lt,jon (NCOS) and other development-orlented gWll P~L SOmth15pe:W~ of the I,~festyie.of these groups have chanqed, f1otably;as, shown in our pF~vigut1 studv, in new forms .of social pa,rtidpatiol1l',mobil1:zationalld c:(;rmrrHJhic~ti~r~

with the help of nOrJ-gOlferlr-


S.ince OIU classlftcancn is of ~ VNy preUml;nar:v rnature,Wft. ~fe as ye·.t unabl~ tospecnv with any precis.ion· us essential QluarrtLiaUve I nd lcators as: wel~ a'1; nI.J mber of comm~mitie~ lnthecountry whlch faJI]u f"Id~r thls t.ias~ifi(aUori. M. ~.ijJ as our quantitatlve.data lndlcate, however. we-are able to.sav w'ith some certar'f!f~


that community

WJ]e Is the best inclkator

of differences in respondent


i.stic;;"! for wflich reason we beg in with cnmrnunlty . .I eating cu~turalvalue$ at the rnkro-level.

as tn'f2 majercontext

i 11 delirl-

As far as ou r ,qu~1itatlve data (which is much huger):i ndicate, the ~ix m~r· ginaJ co:mOlurlily types rnay be tllara-cuerized and. dj'fe~rH;iated al6~g three g:ell· eraldl menstons: ('I) 'the separation or integr.1tiol1 of mm~ ni'ty kr'lowlle'rjge into" tradltiorral and literate knowledge (where tradtnonal Ikriowfedge n~fers to tnatp(Y rived from 'the of9i1 nadiHsfl, and Iiteraiw K.llo\lVledge reterste th8i.t~raosmit~~i:l through the s.cl1ool.s or ttl ro ughQtf'r~r agench~s using tile m~rat('! mode); (2) d'le basts of social organlzat.iof'l In the communltv: and (3) the internal capac ity oj t~e community to gen~:r:a.te change. ln th~interpla.y ofthese dlmenslons; we shall understand the nature of value fcrrnatlon, cQmmLmity re!i.a,tlror1sandsoclal dlang,~


at the commun~ty lsvel.


Becoming Filipino: Vd.lueS ,of the Mic,ro-Order
Growing Upit1

Tl'aai.tionul OrQI Commur!lity

The first cornrnunttv type: here represented by the. sama cornmun ity of B'ohe~ Umcs, a cornmt, rlity of SEa.nomads, is a.mad ltienal, main Iy oral cemmumty characterized by the. who~eness and ime'gnltion of trad ltlonal knowledge whtchs accessible to all ,di:nd a form of 5bdaforgcan~zatlion characterlzed by e{1u'ity, wm' munaasm, and p>Etople'spartirtpatioh in communitY life" The rnetapho rs fortqn,· -rn un i ty nfe' all '(any the same me 1t l1i n g': the oe hiJ k 0 r fis h go ndid, @995 tig tl;~ly packed together and covered with' a r:m:'Y!e.l;tf!ve membrane: rhe komk.omar'l OJ

handgrlp, a metaphor also ptW.sic<\lIy expressed in th@ cluster housing pattern an ~h@' strand and called by the same name; the Inju nella n "what I eat is what yo u ~\at'," Th@:Sa,heh Umos metaphors are static, and these, 100, ex plal n in pan the to-r''1tinu of the (0 mmunitv socral or9al1 lzatlcn from a n.tiq Urty to the present. A iW wn'Qle vlllaqe of sea nomads can disappear i I'M the face of an external threat but [h'e<e,ornmunity survives because th-e membe-rs remain together.: the sea ill their 'pam is still bountiful; and the komkoman or- the community cluster on thee.s<lf'ld lsreaduv trans-fa rmed into the-social organ lz at ion of the. rrwnda'an, a sea-gorng communltv orqan lzsd for escape: or a 'fisih rng expedition, its ru les known 'to all.
Growing up in such, a (6mmt~·n.~ty has its ~hafe of d ifficu~ries born out of a. m:arginal existence, but with little contradictlon between knowladqe and practice.

As··'t(xpressed by some of our Sarna respondents ~ ''What we know is how we ,hive," K'tjl!lwrecig'e arid practice are one: ~r1d the same, Where kncwledqe i~ accessible to. al,t d~p_endil1g0 n one's age: and roles In the family and co mm unitv, the lnculcatlon of values and the Jearnlnq of ski:~ls:are simply by precept, example: and p·mticipa-

tlon, a natural part of ,growing ~,ay.Loya~w to immediate fami

up. an informal ed ucatlon as educanonlsts wou ld Iy is ass umed but the komkomJI1 and the metapho r of the p'eha-kordaJ n that th i s lovaltvqoes beyond s-eWa,nd famUy to the to mFlHJ !lily

at large .. In due course, the young Sarna takes up adult roles under condlttens of ~om!peten(e: acq ulred throug h practlce, personal abn,gOltion, equity and partie I pa-

tlon. ex~:rerie:F1~e, kln(iwledg,e and meditation the leader of the fish fng expedltlon is ~r~cted consensu s based on phvslcal prowess, knowledqe of navlqatlon and clirnatolq9"Y, gtJod Ieadersh ip abllltles, re putattcn and conduct ..Shw.!. evervene.knows the requirements of the voyage and the tmpllcattons of a, successful fi&hin9 expediti'on' to co mmunttv S urvlval, the leader [5 chosen w',fseIy by everyone- The re. i5 no place In the leadership for buffoons 0 r we.;l~-wWed, 9re~dy and Incompetent lnd I· vlduals. .

earned hlrn the right" [0' be consulted;

The wise man is OA~ whose previous


When the catch comes in, €very()n'E' gets the same s hare, and vel untary deductions, are decided on again by consens us, with additional amou nts gOir1g to the leader and to those who contrtbuted the use of a s'aJI,g-as tamp 0 r boat for the ~XpeditiO(1. Tl1e. whole process of distribution is transparent toall and is precise in romputation, with recou rseto arr objectlve 'third party., the Ch: nese sukit: (pMtn~rcapltailst Qf the expedition) and his abacus, regarded as the nnal judge of mathemaucal computations which have the potential to create divisiveness and tenslon witMn the 'Ught~y kn it cornmun ity. literacy {in tile sense of reading and writing) and lire! rate practice are abse nt, but it is .not correct to consider ~he Sarna as III lterate s i rice. their lore and t~-Ie i r kltowledge sufftce for tile Ilfe rhev Hve where the nrtncipal val ues are lovaltv to rommunltv, wlse choice of leaders, <l, sense of personal o.bHg3lion and responslbll-

ity for thecommon


and parttctpation,


Are these pea pie Hlipi nos? Yes; if we cons lder pol itt.cal terrltorv and pOPlJ 1<1'Hem count. No, i(by this we mean p~ rtep'[Hms.,of me rnbershlp in an .mag ined comm,unity "conceived as a. deep, horizontal ccmradeshlp" with invlsible and unknown slmllar IOVieF$ ......Mrer ~111. £lavern me 111 services de not touch their lives and voting, the only exercise wfth some national meaning to them, is off-ltmtrs by virtue of their ill iteracv in readinq and writi ng ,except ps rhaps when 50-me unscrupulo u s

I lterate lndlvid ual fills

have reported. Growing

ill their baltots fot them, as our respondents


Up in Two Tr-a.l1slHonal Communities

Assu ming Boheh Umas 'to be scrne kind of centemporarv basel i n~ for mar· ginal Ph iii ppi n~ CQ rnmunlties r we shall be able to place our prl1'!s@l'ltsample of Pnl~Ipplne communities in a connnuum, where Boheh Umos represents the oJi:gin'illt perhaps pre-colontalstate of our ccmmunnles which beqan in the strictly oral ang communal tradrtio 11. In effect, wl'~at we are trying to do ls descrlbs ?Ui e~5~rIlia_~I~' d iracll'lmni,c precess of social chanqe usl ng a svnchronlc analysts.
'We.characterlze the second margin",1 community tvpe



some: relations with the market and lowland majo,rity, as W@!~ as Ii mlted eXPG)'~ure~o

of tile traditional culture remain, particularlv Intne system of productten, even a:.s.,'the. yo unger gen~r<rW}t\:1 exposed tofnrmal educancn, exhibits some doubt or anxietY about these prilc· tlces. Thecommunltv type is her~ represented by 'tWd tribal communities: thE!' Ifllgrl1(l
mass media and formal educarle n, Y<et ig tlifiCOIri:f aspects s

of Kala and the Bukjdnon of Alaga in Iloilo. Ifugao of Kala
The Ifugao 'of 1{<I.irelhave been practitloners of .extensive and sophistic.aleo ag riculture i twoh,dn9 €rIC)ineeri ng and i rrigath:;ln t~ch nol-Dgy since p&colonial timas. O~\lnership ofthe ()Jyew (rite terraces) is. with families but in ol'o:er to construct and maintain these terraces wl~ich-form an i nr eg, rated svstem, commanal work is required. Those who do not wlsh to join lEhe communal work are leh alene, but this does not ystJaUy happen precis-elv because of the i nteg rated sys.tem. The cornmo nallty of their soclal organization .is dictated b-y thi;s req utrarnsnt and Is relatlvelv wei l-s nsureo by reference to co mmon ancestry, ritual 5, beliefs, and rules on property relations (e.gI. tl1~ sale of pay~wtQ 110 n-comm ~ c'lity mernbe rs. Is 'Sall'r.i 0 1'1 ed),


Grow'ing up in this cornmunttv type means go,ing to an incomplete pUQljc school (up to Grade IV} a few kitorneters away from one's 'house and l-earniJ1'g;t~ read <lindwrite, either in English or Ftl.ipino, but not in their home tarrg.u,age, i1Sh19 content that has generally II,tt~e or nothing, to do with their real lives. Much of th'e content will be abo u't Mi,l,nila or the lowlands or lands abroad. ""Iath and scienc€: wou~d betauqht in E.-,gr'llsh'l furth.er iritensJfyil'19 thal r separatlon from If'ugao reality, Withe ut reference to rhe science and technology behind thei r rice terracing agricu.h tu re or to the al,g.ebrak COFl1 p~~)(,iW'of their music arid weaving patterns, tndeed, very little, If at all. of thelr traditional knowledge has been encoded in the wrlnerr mode, wh i Ie ttlee)(t.en$~ve eHu10'g raphk accounts of their .cultu reo and soc.ial lire (which are censlderable but written in English) may have found their lntc the great llbrarres of the world since most nave he~n done by foreign authors, but n;9~ into the local school Ilnrarv, if there is ons.


It is tepa Fled that the lfuqao have a. low functlo nal Ilteracv rare, ~I one' lowest in the. CDUJ1try, bU1 surely this' takes no account of their own c~pacity to rnalntaln, thro ugh cornmun Ity disdpll~ne and particl patton, an elaborate ~ystettrM rlce-terraclnq 'agriculture, celebrated in our tourist brochures by be<liJtiful photo graphs of thelr svrnrnetrv.and rechn ical preclsio n but almost never tal ked ab(Ml~:


or discussed In JfugaQ or other schools. Our recent study has shown Ifugllo of Kala have one of the h igh~:St levels of capacity fo r abstract
atI'IO 1'19 ou r

that the.


res po nede nts,

When rritics

nf-th~ "natlo nal character" .say that Filipi nos do slipshod work

and·are averse to th~ d'l:sci plifle of fo,llown'lg strict prccedu res, the~ecanno'l pes~Ibiy tipply to 'he Ifugao o-f KJJa who, according toa recent study fo Ilow at least 2~ s.feps 1" rice terrace constructlon, wlth ccrrespc ndlnq aqrlcultu ral calendar, ~ilbjir rqanlzatio n r tools, rituals and ex planatlons ofthe practices .~1 But pr~cisely, o fit is the cummonalitvof interest, participation, and complete understand i 119 of thetechnQ'logy transmltted in the hornelanquaqe which requlate discipline. and co.op1erative work.

o~y. So t. Informauon 0 n til ese Is Cln~v in fl1gHsh, This d~velopm~m 'ra~itIQJrI<11nd literate knowledqe, a has'polnted cur:

However, it is also true that population growth has sevs rely Ii mlted the C<\pacity of this Cl!grncu ltural production system to feed ilts tiller's, and therefo re some t;lf our respondents have expressed 'i rnE!reSt· in n~w I mprovements in nee tech nol~

9 e 1'1 NIlilly ava Hab 1e a t1 d ifso, are ac cessi ble presents all opportun ltv fo r the int@,gr.uion of but the problem OT "flt'" remains. A:> sorufacto



lf the: interest is real,ly to find the "fit" between mnovauon and farmers' p'r~nice,the conceptual 'fram.ework will have to be dlfharent. Ba~ical'ly. a program of tecllnolo'9Y nansJer must departfrom the premise that.the technolOgiy to be tra1)sferred 15 neces sarllv suoerler to the old method and that the tradlrtion of farm ers wi I~ hava to be transform ed. '1 nsta ad, til Iii approac h m u s t deliberately and Judndou51y map out all: the te'hnologles being used in the productton s.ystQI:'I:"1i:5_ once this is done, the qU€lst;iOtl to be addressed is how the t~c:hf1i(a~ resources "Of the productlon :S:Y5:1lems be improved. w~th can M' emphasl S Oil imp rnvarn if'! tit and nat 0 nchanqe. '

beliefs pr,ecisely because of the non-lnteeratlcn of traditional and literate. knowledgle, 'the consistent undervaluation or non-inclusion of the former parncularlv in srhocltexts, and contact with people from the u rbanlzad and more affl ue nt areas. 'Stlll, it seems 'tnat th€ Ifugao are able to hold on to the.i r traditional knQ.wledge
parncu larly because it encompasses a signlifltt'liJI't portloncfthelr prod udlve lif~

Some young psople growing

up in Kp,la '~xp@rien(e a



values and

and acnv i tl es. Some chanqe elements have been introduced in Ka~Oli, na it WGIIbe noted that a the direuionofth€ acccmrnodatlon such as In the establishment of cooperatives us towards the rradhlcnat val uss of commonality, partlclpatlcn and organ lzatton,
Are these people Fm~ino? Yes, by territory,. population count. and in a-llmlted way, understanding or knowledqeabout Iloc.i119ovemment and the regional CordllIlera administrntkm whose sign incant mean ing, among others. is relatlve autonomy for the regiotl.

In Alagaj the 13u non practice kid

of Alaga., IIQilo
5hliifting ka:fngin (swtdde n) agriculture in a the prod uctlon of rice, cern, coffee

very marginal subsistence economy involving

and banana! t he latter two being raised as cash crops,

Apitn hom some !:ommOIl refarences to local heroes and rradtttcns. [her( illP pears to be n 0 s~ng'lII (lJ baSI s f,CI'ir(,om mun [~y. Activ rtJe.s. are not corn m IJ nal pr-i" marl lv because houses and swfddefi! f~trms are dlspersed and cultlvated by sin~le households.

The loss of ldeillr'l:iW dluetci ihe chaliiQreof names sornetl me i~196~. to,
tl<i!l~ of 'lh~~own), proba'bly exacerbaresthe absence !h1 !l'"COJ'TH1Iil11,m Uy. Co 11 t i nulty cann 0 ~ be~ nsu((! d

from archaic (Ngboi<, which '~arry therr own 'commonly understood me~lJljf!gsU:p ChrTstlanind (followlll1g the Spa:l1ish colernal practlce of havl FIg surnames wh(we

ftrst Ietter corresponds

co rn 1'1'10 Il.~y un d tl: rstood bas j S



the precartcusness of ~h'eir Ilvesa~ SWidd@JII farmers, whilerhe absence efa slron~ basts for (Ollllmu nhy explains the l.1c,k of upaclw to I nrernallv gener:He a proces) of change. lhus,.€ll~ the chinge ele rne 1'1 t:5. ,app~ar [0 be: exulrnal ~y ,g(;ln€'rIu~d: ,dtvel·
cprnent proJecu,

5.omeOr which ~.!Jer@ abolm:iJoned In tlrH! Marcos·A~LI !!I1Q tf.lli1sltlofi presence ,of the mflUary <lind the rebels both or Wnc.hrll U1e cornnw n iw fe(lrs., th~ recent e5tab~ishmef'!tr:J·:r .{l s,ch@ol. Devel'opmernt !J,roJects In Ehe area have not had si'!;!l1ifictlint lrnpact Or! ~~t~mte kmJwl'edge because p~t:lpl€ have llttle or no pitr~icl. patton If'! pjlJlnning. hnph~mel1l~hlgarlidQvah!JlumgthlQSe projects,
Thus, {!,sh:l,~ froml the dilmCuhle~ (II~a m,ar'ghllal ~Ife. gf(lw~ng up ln Ala"ga

fr~wght with probterns. parW::ulla.r~\I the ~,ossof Ide I'ItTty OI~ n'H!n~iornedearlie r, ~~~'i(')u~
doubts abo ut their traditio" a 1 knQ'wl~dge.al!'ld a. s.[r'ong SlI1!rI,$.@ of drepMdenclit @n exiernal heip. The ,absenc~ of a, weJH:lrgal'l ~zed aod stable production ~ynem nO doubt @xm:l:rb<lileS fae~~ng:!i, ~ ,~n,ce',rt;al'!rny in A~aga. whe'r"e trao ltlonal and literat~ o kl10wlecigeare separa:l.e .s't'i;u3'fflI!;na'Fd~y ~l1lu"!r.aC'rl'ng or rehlting with one ,;;mot~l~r.


If ls ~Jsua~ .a.rglcle.dti,a~the m!~:SS educattcn svstern ~n.1lb~e5otherwise dlver~e, Iy Philippine et!lnolinguisti.c gro'up.s tr.l dlewlo'p ,iI: "nation~~ culture," but an ~xanlli~~· tlon of the ei~m~ntarv 's;ch:oo~ 'textbooks wHI reveal the cultural and irHE:I:letMI povertv of the contenr. S:rn(1il!25.% oJ our SWCh:fUS drop out at Grade IV,j~it J~ d lffkult to 'be enth lJ.slastic: atml:lt the nature of this "f(lati"l na~ cultu re" being transmtrted '[I'If,(;ll.lgh thetextbook$.~;5P~d<!l~'ly wn,~n it makes people llks the sukldncn feel fnferio~ about their Dwn ~~r;a:I1M](:ulla.! knowledg@:, wJth only trivial poems lik~
'jack,. and






ThE. si mple-m~ndednless ·o,fte)!tbot):k content


from the unexam~ne.d

th,~y know nothIng;, {2} that !mo'~'lIl'e.dgels ~ha.t. tlH'feyed Ql1lly by [he fo rrnal s!;:no-iii; p (3} that tradit.ional .knaw~edge inthe oral mede not knowlredg.!;! sImiJ1y bec~ll.s~.rl has not been transtatec into p:mn~.and (4) cenverselv that whatever comes 1.f1l print is know~ed§N~, .'-7ln~Y be Ire.ceivedi. without the need for critical ar1<1I:ysis. lndesd, all to aver the country. w~i!n w:ea:sk ,P'lilrnms why they send their ch lldren to school, ~he answer is "to gCli~n knDw~edge;~ whii~e those. WhD have not gone to sc heel iilrB ca.llerj man g mang Ug no ran t),a de fio U::l ,]!'I rh!1!po 0 r an d mite rate t bern se lves IHIve un fonti' Q nat~ly accepted.

assuraptlons {a tnrowbackto the 101/\,' opinio!il (If FmplFlOS held by American c:o:loilr1'1 pollcv- r;nalkersj:l~ M most (urr~f:Uhilfllll \'ii,!'riu:rs: (],) tha.t when students enter sCho:ol


In the Bu kldnon of Aiaga. ~l,Iecan


breg~~ [lings OhH.Jr loss

of iden·

tity In cclenlal th'l1E!s;a less oh,O'nfildel!i'lce In our OWIl tradltlnnal kr'IDwlecige. anda 9 rowl'~g dependem:'e Ofi extemal '~anor\s[0 'gen!1'.Ir.i[.1! chanqe, Are these Bukiclnon FWpinos? Yies. Iby u~rr~tory, pcpulatton count, margjn~1 paltldpjuion in a (ash ec:oJ'lorriY~ vof~ng dur: ng e~lilc:ticrls for the f.ew who .l,rt! IIl~i· ate. and being IJnwimngl iIInd fil!:iil.liu~vwl[,ltI'geIll5 caJught in the crossftre of the lins:ur·
g(3ncy il.ndc:o;IJf1ter-insulrge't'iI(V c,{I,lmp3!i.gfll wh~ch.ror mow,

has abated.

Growing Up



MU!lHm Fmp'~nlO,C@,m'm~nity

In the MI:J.~limFilipino community 'o~Ta,b ~rI L'U1[10 del Sur; HH~ basis of COr11O'!litlfWrs ~sJtlmand Its pra.ctice;s,wb:ich def1ln~:s the way ~hremembers, a'S:iii, group, vJ,[l,W lneJr reLations withlhe dQm~:niil.n'l: ChriM~di.n ma:jority whose presence i n ma~S' mttll~, edllJJcation,and 'the ve,ry diefinWom of U~er:acy irmpif1g'~s irsel r Or! CG rnrrtu ni'ty lifi,' ahhQugi1 the Ch,.,istiaFu an no't~hysh:;;ally dO'lminaru jnthe community. The l\ITlblvale:I'H.::e Mus'l ltn Hllptneatrltudes of tOli1!i'i!.fdls educatlc 1'1 Is very apparent. defined' nQ oouln by these re~atIOFls,.

'9nstrued not on Iv as, at~~lig ion bu~ also a W(I,\I Qf lif,e.

The par:ametersof

ccrnmu nit'y kno,wliedg'il!' ~n Til.kil. are also dll'lfim~d by lslarn

Crowi'ng up m a MU51im 'I::Ommuni,~y 1lI1:e~n'.i fhsu of a~~the acce prance th<u the prlnclpal source of knowledge ls the Qu"ran and thll! HadHh; and ~!loil ail babies are 'DrJn Mu:,dlm. The proh~biOol1l oiIgall'ls'l pr~·I:shlm~c lrftk~als .lrlld practlces Is we II known to re.spo!'ldclilts and In 'Jolc::tthey COIl1I~Ul.nt!y merH.icl'ri n~'WM as ~hey !'~PQrt rtruals ,S,1fI d: p.ract~ce s of r>~·1 s IamU'o (Ii g 1111. ~.~. It t ~eai!' f re mt h e d at a, Iww~ve: r, rh at bo ~h

li.l1lom~c precepts and pnHs:~a.mic pfi1lcth:~:s e:d$ta:s part of cornrnunlty


lnthe pubHc schools. m,~ili!'Iwhl~I@.,HI'~N~iSo1!mbl'Jalel1ce about the llterate knowledg,~ encoded lin Ef'lgli~I'I or F~ U.p~no. 0111 the: orne hand, both are pen::ehl!~cl ~LS the ~an9lJage·of the Chrlsti~n mlajorlw;o,n the 'o~her, these language's" especially En· gNsh, are perce[v~d 'to be good Ipa.ssiP0ril~ to ~inda job, partklpate In politics and work sbmad. NowherE! lnthelrtextbcoks ;I~:sIII V me Jrnion made Qf thel r brasswork, .a their weaves Of other traditional cra;n 03ifldknQwh::!d~e I!n whlch they excel. Taka thej[efor~ pUF'SJ;J~S '~t'ssep,ar2l~e hbw~ because of it5 special s~hlatlon involving pre-!slam1c.ls lamic and Wesrern nteratl'f: krmwl,edge IJ nder rend ltlons of beo.lnga mi rlorl'l:yilr1i a pr@dO!'rliinaln~v CtnriS,t~dn H)t1nny. arid hOftving 'two sets of for· mat education systems wIth dflf'rereilil!t Ii'~'li':ra!'l'! tradtuons (\\te:ste:rn and lslarnic), However, l-slamic prafti[e'(bolnfeUgjO:i!:I.~ and:.il!s l8! way ofnf,e) provides a focus for meaning:H'lnd ~ntegratron as weill .illS mectranisms :~prbm.1'ndary maintenance.

Are Maratlao'S filipuV"los711es.• by ~err'r~Qry. populatton tount, partlclpartortl n !o(a~ glovern rnent {if led byfeJ ~ Musl ims} and voting' ln nauo nal eIll!ct~on s, Maybe; ow ~y('ld ucat io n i'n til e P LI bl ks,rhoo,l syste m VIi hkhtrH~~Y ~5is[ but neve rt h e~ So arte rH:i es wrth some kind of ambfvalieru:e:, iim:ot host~nt;y. No;. ifwf: mean loyally to a national gOVEiinmlilrit "ofthe others" which dlIS,c.r]minste.s dg<lil'l~nhem, does not offer equal beneflts and dlsrrtbutlon pal1jC:L.I~ar~y)f whaJt they constder to be thei r homeland, c and wants to assimllate them 'lhrou~'h an educa.Uol1cJ svstem 'th~r confltcts w~th thetr recligiaus. prinClpl~sand(lJltulfalidientil:f,H The mostextreme expresslon of the absence of 'loyalty to the ria:rion.l~ 901ve:mmentDo<Ftih:e. mht'rs~' of the. 0 PP05i[io.f1 and to Int.egra.!iof1 into the culu .. ~~f:eoHh~. mainWear!f11 is the. n~(ent but still prcelemnaJ auc !ntegraUoll ef the More, N"U~ona}1Ubera:Hcm IFm~u limn tlnl@ Autenerncus Region of Muslim Miindana;OI. ilro,win'9 U~pi'n four MCIllI"gli!1l~i~[P'ihmIUIPp,il'il,;e Df the Ch ris,tia n Ma jodty
'CrQmm'l . u,it~·e;5 .

The lowland rural groups bl!~Ci''fI,gii'llg to the Ilo~iand Chri:nian majority an~ re-presen~ed by four c:ommuni'Un whos'e fnaJor acthdtiesitrEl rncnccrop agrB:ul·


ture (sugar in MagdaJen.;l, Ne'gros Occidental) and fa.nrling~n:.hi!1g (MagaYQr1, Sorscgo n; Calarnans l-Lapulapu, Mindoro Orie'ntal; and Paliha.n, Bu lacan),
In the process of social chanqeand segmentation, the main bases of comrrrunitv life have evolved into three: the famHy, the practice of C~lristianity and slecnons, Thus most com rnun ~wactivities are of a rel19 [ow; (e.9, fiestas observed 10 honor local patron salnts, Holy Week) 0 r political nature (i.e. ,.elections), while< ·the fami,!y, both' nuclear and extended, remains the main econo mic unit ,and 'a, soltd and principal bas i s or self-identification and ,Ioy;:tlty"

The Prqctice of Christianity
in the modalltv of Fiestas is the prlndpractlce in Catholicism, dIS well as rote learning' Of Chrtstlan doctrine and prayers with a heavy undertav of fa Ik beliefs and practic@sfrom an earller anl mist traditlon, Bible studies and reading of the i'itlU.rgy r'of SUllday mass are of relatively recent origin started by prog resslve chu rch elements after vattcan III. How.eve.r, the people's piety and re.ligiosity are very apparent, as well as a general submtssrcn to wllat is perceived as the wtlll of Cod and an optimism bonn of Ch rlstlan hope.

in f@l:igio.llS. celebrartons

pa.il mode cf tradltlonal

The shift in church a rrenratlon i n the mid·'60s, aris ing fro m vatican II as med iat€ dI by the mo reo rad leal co n strill cnon 0 f litre fa ti on th eo! 0 gy fro rn L'lt i ri A merlca has lnfl uenced the practice of Chrlstlanltv from hnt~rest in rr11U~1 s to a more theo]oqv-based practice wifh politicall undertones On the pn?motiol1 (If peace and justlC@. 111the world, and in a r1'ew understanding of "the will pf God." But thus far, this f~ limited to pmg resslve chu rch members uno 0 rganized hw sectors such as tM Basic Chrtstlan Co mnHJI1 tty; ,

Two Venues for Political Practice

Except in tha more highly educated and the emergent l)oHtically progressive sectors, electro ns 1n t'ne. P~'lilippif"1e~ contl nue ,tOP getlerally be defined by fleeM~ relauc rrsh1p5 between pol ltktans and voters dun hg the election pariod arid t)y fam~ ltv-based IOYdJltie.s,not by iss ues or puHtic. II platforms. Nonathales S, there is lar9.e 1nterest in electro ns because. in the absence of sustalnad interest ln authentic politI· cal tssues as deflnsd by party platfo rms, ei'L!ctionsare major co rnrn unity actlvltioet in which everybody who is literate can partlcl pare. Their major mean i ng to vote~ is the sense of momentary power to decide 'Iocal Or natlo Fla.1 outcomes. In all these co mmunitles, electlcns <Ire the major and sometimes on Iy V~ nue for the

exert lse of participative.

politlcal practice.

501'ne: critics of the "11 atl a nal character" belabor the nouo n that Fi Iipinos are teo "po I lncal", W!hatever th is means it 15 apparent that 'the great i nterest Jn t:le,[· tlo 1'115 amo rig the common fo I k is: d Ute to the factthai this is the. on Iy venue forthelr voices 'to be hl!'.ard periodically. This explalns, in p< rr, the.lwge popular ~upport'fc;f the ell urch-based movement to saf~!ll:.lard the vote in the 198 {) electlons 'o'.'flose meanings. as conceptual lzed by the chu rch, became both re~pglous and pollltiraL SInceEDSA a seco nd ve nue 'for parti,cl pative pol itical practice has beer('peopl.e power'; which has been used for such d lsparats issues as.the 304 movernent aqainst

Pe psi -Co la, the increase iii '0 i I prrces, VAT (va Iue-add ed t ax), and the Flor Conternplacton case (a Filipino migrant worker In Singapore tried and executed

AllOvel'\llJew iA Fnlpiiho Persped.ive;s in Demo(tacy and Citiz12nship • til

~rjr ml,:lrd~r). The. oftenUmes emotional nature of people's parttrl patlon in these "inteil~gelltsra" as shallow, can not be explained adequately ,bt... . 'a(ius:lons.l0 our inherently "emotional" character or t:emperamem as. a people, bur pewhaps by the cornolnatlo ill of-two co ndttlons: P) Ii mlted vel1 !J€S for pol ltlcal ~'aJtitlp,ation so that when an cpportu l1Iity presenrsltselfin which people can find a GommOl1ttlity of interest, the response ls spontaneous; and (2} a deeper or less 5uperftcial understand ing of the' issues owing to the weakness of schools 0 r tTIilSS media whkh are malntv in English, and the tack or absence of svsternatlc popul"ar If{hu::ation of the public on issues of common mrerest. (M;ost serious talk show) ,e:xtept one are in Eng'lis h.) In the' absence of such understand i ng of tssuesand a g'~nera.l olltical framewo rk, sue h as a. common visi'on of where \IIfEl are going as a p ~,t!opje.parsonallstk crtterta are used whith soon degenerate into u nreaso nable and emotlo nal reactlons withe ut a dear eonceptlo n Of 'he co I lttcal is 5 LH~ that l'I~e{f5 to b e res 0 I'Ve d ,

evce-nts, described by the

Fa m ilistic-! hJivid

uaHstic Ori,entotions

Intensified family-based activities as well as fncre.asing,ly high levels of forrnal educatlon at least for the children are the principal modality !lOW obtaining in rmmy commu n [ties i:n the country, Th i S plJirtly explains not on Iy the gr~d.t desire fer educatlon of whatever type at all. level'S but also 'the sornstlrnas extreme family-oriellt~dnes·s of Ph.ill ppli FIe society. Many soclal analyses focus, 0(1 th [5 fam i Iv· oTientedne~sand sornetl mas mistake il for hig·h (;0 mmon.aHw but rhts is not -ex,tH.:tly accurate. For one thing', the lmportance ofccnfllct mediators belies ccrnmonalltv, ~ig_hlightli1g i nstead the C'lCis~dfamily cornlnq ill co nfllct with other families of the same orlentatlcn. Stud ie$ On natlcnai l~et1tific.atiort suggest that the problem of 'de~e~oping nauo 11.a1 unity ts acco unred fo r; i n pan\, by the ir'i<'tbii Iity to transcend' ~tlmily and self interest in favor of the local and national cornrn unity. The emerqence of the family as the most Important basis for self-ide ntlfka-

don. the focus of loyalty and the core of economic actlvlties is dearly seen in the pa~sdg,efmm <I ~afgel'y communal typ'@: of social orqanlzetlon in soheh lIm'os, to the
rami,IY-Dwned but cornm« nar:ly CLll[iva,te:d rice terra<:irlg agricu ltura of Kala, to the dj)pe~ed, household-operated swldden farms of Ala-ga. and fin:al;iy to the lowland Lhri"sti.lin C9rrHlHJn ltles. Contrary to some researchers' contentlon about the collective natura of Ph llipptns cornmu r1'ity Ilfe/~ QU r quantltanve data show the fa.mti~stic-individtialis'l:k orientation of respondents, with the exceptio n of the lfugao of Kala. (:Boheh Urno.s respondents did not participate because of non-literacv.) Our data from a previous studv an national id~J:'Ili.ficatjo n" show that eV~11 before self, the rami Iy comes first. 'in the absence of social services, it fu nctlcn s as a safety net, explal hin~g the capac" i.ty for survival of the family unit but at the same ti me pl;aci Fig a severe hmtJel1 vf dependence ontts hold members ." worklng members who are farfe.wenhan the



Processes of Continuity and Change

Across these rural Chrlstlan ~ ro !.lipS, 'differences i n the: processes of contin uitV .or change can be observed, with res Lilting effects o-n knowledge, values and

literate practice. E.xproit~tive worker-landlord workinq conditions lnthe 5 ugar plan5. of Magdale na have developed 011 the one hand a parer IH.I lstic feudal 0 rren-

tatlon, and Of'! the other, reason for II:he support of rebel groups. In Calamansl and ILapu~lgpu. commlJnity lif'l! rematns :uagnt!t!lt (no development projects, little ca'. p,adty for generating change) and llterate practice lis nor active and wid,espr~ad, even as Iiterac:y leve,ls a:r,@ adrequat@. ln Magayon. with the plans for dev~loptrJe!r. projects as well as 'the organiz,jJ,tion of secte raj group,) requ i ril1g more p~oplleJ participation, IU'er,Oltt~ practice becomes mere e:<tens~ve even as t11e. cor1tln~~ dominance of a few famihe~ ln b(uh bus~'ness and pcltttcs may be ccmmalnll1JlJ elements, In Pallhan" ram~I'y-bill5ed il.grtbusiness develcprnen t as well as dete'f< 111fled efforts 10 educate [he~hirdren well beyond bil~k elementary levels Ila\'c i res ulred in more extsns !ve ltteracv Ilrac' lee, In these communities. ~here seems to be ill. 'lack of conflict In tl1tl adcptlon DI medes of 11e, pdma1r Iy because the rransltlon has been taldflg place O~!~l a rnue h long~lr pEiriod, fr,om Sp3ilni~h (oku;'lal times to the prase nt, B'lU a closer analvsis suggest!i that this tr(lI'l~UNOdl as ~.aboredand fl'':lI.Jght with (0 ruradkrlnns, On tile one hand lherc' ,I" a marked adhel'erlC.e to u~b<lni:Z!l!dvalues arid ir'ls~i'Mlor'lS:orr

Tile consequence: is the .IT1argil1aJl'[~a~lQn t.he knowledgE! otthe marg Inal commu· of nnles, and the lflon-jntf!lJratlOn ohhe,rr O~ n radttlenal and tlterate knowledge Into n~:laliv~ly fractured and df'ffus.ed forms. f'f:5ul[ing in a. toss of cenftdsnce over orle knowledge and reliance on tll-understocd WesternJ:t:edfom1s, Of k.nowlL'!dge;TIle result i~ what is m,ore popu:larly called a colomal mentality, and an emphiUiis Il!l form, rheterics ind e'mCiI~h::maJ.'I,m.'in1..ol.'J~ng Hl' dlff1c:ulue-s in sel '-anaiysis and rrdl~~ tlon wh~re thin king js, 'carried QU~ In the local taf!9'ua~e but kno'wledge en.wdl!~ In Eng llsh whtcn is lnadequaielv ucderstcod, Tnus, traditional knowledqe and lim· ate knewledqe which are .of r,ell,a:rivelyequtvalem "5"I2:~m are two different but'<:.Q}>

the other, there are belief5 and :Il'racnces harking bac lot ~Q the oral trad 1~'I0F1, In l situation where' the sma~1 el,~"eglrol.lp~, '!i!.~iththe~r We'stemized practices, lan9u~gt and wo rid views. are dumlnam lin all aspects ,or llfe, {heir ktnd 0 f knowleil~~ it prlvtleqed over \h~ cemmunuv knowledge whe(11e'r mthe oral or llterate tl'adltl~;I1"s,



unint~9fa:t@d knowledqe


GrowIng LIP' in these ccmmunlnes means that one grows up With at llf~~~ four types c,f traditional krilotNI~~d'ge: practlcal advice based on experience (I) received kno'Wl,~dge; (,2),bel'h:fs andrttuals from a pre-rolonial tradition; some o-f which i1l!~ not r~aUy adhe'red to and/or [In,lv crcastcnallv practtced: wise sayings. rules and mottos of the 'tlf,~e. .NJ&"',llJ~V grven in srhoo: or ln health bj'()chui'e~~ and (4) folk Christli03i.n practices. There appeil:r~ to' be no integra.'ting prmclple [liD' ning. th rough all this. kl1C1wle:dge.,



Development projects wh dh are Quite numerous in these areas, (onsimJm·I'r Ignore the community fo1k's.traditional ~ulowledge. wis'hing. to chaFlQ@ it with ~~W system. 3;5 poimed out by Bonifacio T, earl ier, resulting In the failure of the de:vellop rnent proj,e.ct and the ecmtnued inaccessibility to new Icnowl~dge. and H~(hIIIOIi)g~~.
Meanwhile, the IlnequHy ill the dl.HritiLnuOrii of resources and social serv4ce:l develops increa)ing t'eliancE! O''Ii'I family as rhe prjf1clpall source ofsecur~'y, Ir,esLllt{~~ ill a kanya:-kany,f!' (to 'each his/her 'own) 3;1ttju.lde which Is no~ selr-c:emerd but farntlv-centered, without e)(patHr~ng TO"{iilhl~s to lnrlude the nauenal "omnlu'I~I,w~ As, one: resuenderu put u ~o us. "lt h~ I1IO't ~asy to sav 'Th Is ls our land' when~n~ has no land, ~ Tine cap,atl,!v to dll'!lM!mb~'I!, (0 pretend compliance 1!1 form but not i'~ iubsunc~, perhaps prings FrOlm 'he "otherness" of governmem and~epar.u.loB from ahe elll . No dOUbt it I~ e)(acef'bau~d by dle abse nee or se rvrces and ~neqlll·

or modem knowledge

- hichhen

becomes dtffictJ lr to integrate into IheexlmJl~

I~ble distribution Corpuz notes:

which we: also saw earBer amQ"I'I'gthe Muslims o:f Taka. As O. D.

OUf contel'llfpCUarv political beha'>li'or oWes ru.tle to ~he culture of the preronquesr era, and rnlu:h te the culture thilL. '1Ml.$ fashl,oncd by 'the natives out ,of' their e)(periElilcl! in ~QIl'on1j;'11 Us consph:::uDU:;, 'I!!i!'ment VIta,:> overt obeJ:IF~_ cUenca afui ;)t:commod,nlol'l til the aMen rQ'gim~. Accommodation. espr:dally bV the prln"pJtiJa. rhe ,leading pueblo famine'5. enabled them to attain nigh sta:tu~111 nlltlve~od2ty .. [8j LIt th e rllore beslc '(.II mi:int or the Iib.'\Hve:ru Itu re was .a. covert, ~e cn:!:t e sldc, Thls was ~l1dlff\eJ,(lonc~, had~nglIn~,o enr<WIg~m!:ln~, ~ OlJf1(j reststancs. seme f.1ucbl'Q ~;}milics would mo ..." rh ilr hOlLlScI!5 F~"h!'!r and f,utl1er, eacl1 year, fn:lm thri! ~imli;HcftO\iW~, from thl!' dnucll'l ~nd Irlle<l!l'111lr the uneenver] 'd natives In to ~h(! hlll!i. or woods. I-I00fe 'tn(!'V eeuld ~clfQtly 11l11dulg in 'pre-Christi II prnc-

tir,th Ar'ld so tl11:!friar WIlIIJI!dJocl up ~ it'1S,U or dl3.pel OImon9 rhern, ..
keep watch. This Is he or~g~n of duo bi1ili1rIQ~ rnedern In

ln order to

provlncelal rnunlclpall-

Til(\! nailves werll' fOil~lll;ol1l~ng' cul'lulh! ~hl1t f1ct Orl~V lnrluded acccrnm Q. a dallon to wh.t ~ould 110f bl: I~SC ped In cohmlllJ, Ilfeo, they made It tha v~hlde
pam of 'l'I"Ie old Cl.dtlJ~e Most Im,r,Jonam. tlley created their 0\1;'11 secn~1 WGtld. whiNe they Icouid be lhl!,m:s.~II,1'C5.their havan from thn burdens of the puebl'O ~l1Id tire Im,po$'ldorts of the church, both alit!1'l worlds. Becaus I! the l'Iatll\re Wi) dd was part of the weg tm e b u ~ c ~:m, a Ied and e for preserving

~.5tri!.l'lgedfrom I.:. I'l promote.d art {ke, shire:w.dne~s. agllitv and eppcrtunIsm, ftl'a ~ of tlli.s way of ml!~m'v~\I"e~ Uti! !l:'clUiuJ b,ehaV'ior of t he mod em ~o Filipino, who will accommOdate i!lbLl~I",eOlndC:QrrlJpt ceotr<ll refllme:$; whife feClhflg an ess~ntJaJ Indifference <iirld Ii!stifangcme:nt frem them. ., uncerstandlnq thi~ cLilture thus help,s eXj:dain


as a people

al1d natlen.

Growing' Up in
two cnmmunlnes





The central rE<llity of life in the urban peer communtnes (represented here by In NCR, LilIbasalrl and M;anilre~) Is lrs pracariousness and thee dallv

,.struggl,e for survival under thrsar of demolitiol'l cf houses. loss of emplovment usually on a d.any wil,ge basis, ,and gefieQ~ urban bl tgln in thE form or drU'9 addletlon, prostlrution, overrrowdtnq, and' absence' 0 f the most bask sanitation facilities; These. conditions are heigfillened by juxtaposition with the affluence cl'f th@

urban life seen at dose


and rnlddle class sectors for whom 'the: urban poor work, l,nd amenmes of

but onen inaccessible to them,

Growing up in an urban peer community means b in.g exposed to of en contradictory values and antrudes, wht~e sChools do little [0 help reso lve these contra" dictions, While literate knowledge is QI.II~~e xtensive because of the presence of e mo re sc h 00 ~5 and more lit e rat! rnatarta Is. lhes'i! til 0 In O~ a ",p,ein to be In e9 rate d, as are their odd Jobs and shiftlr:1g lives. The fra.gmenu of rradl tonal knowledge are :expected to dwind le 'furrher while l'll~eran! kno~'lledge willi be replaced by o'chers as I'll ew typ U 0 f Q dd jobs bee c,.me 21vailab le ~mh n ew U~'Cnn 0109 V. Inth J s situ ano n ,

L"IIh the Iiteratt kl'owledge and fts nracuce will continue to lack [,Ion remaining IIImlted but dlverse, ffiilJgil1al, ilI"H:! precarrous,


and inug ra-






The absence or weakness of a basis of comm UlI1I'lY Ilfe is. occas toned by their shlft: ng eM istenc'e characterized by odd jobs, 'impermanern add resse>. very s~b; standard Iliv! ["19condlttons and the eV@f present threat of demolition of their w:iy community" One ccmmunitv (labasan) organized itself in an effort to establish con): munlty life among the dwellers and ebtal n a modicum of amenlnes. 'They ha;ve been able to secu re the ope ning PI a service road in order to aval I of mun icipal se-rvices (electricity. gafbag~ disposal), They have also obtained titles to their hornelots 'throug h organiled representations with the Nationall Hcu sing Authority, The other GHnm,lJnity (Manires), lackl 1'19in organization. has chosen to remain "in, vis ible" bshmd the walls constructed duri ng the Marcos vears to h ide their un.: .sig htly .cornmu rrlty, The reason '[hey give for this "i I1vi.~ibiI ity" is to atloid clemoll tlorr. Thus processes of chan9·e, always an the fast track in a metro polltan s~ni~g, remain 'externallv gener·ated evenas urban folk attempt to accommodate to 'the~ changes through various si1IftinQ, diffused and unfocused ways.
Growing Up in a DevelopmCilntcll Community

Th,e. two developmental communlues here re presented by In ipon in Quezon and Core na in Rizal. whil~ still poe r and margind;~Lted.!afe' marked Iy different from the othergroups. Here:, the processes of change are mor-e lnternallv generated (witn the initiid hel p. or catalvsrs), and pee ple oarnd pate more fu 11.y co rnmu rntv lik In rn Illipon, throug h the community radto stauo n wJiicl1 has done much W gener~~e literate practice as well as lssue-orte nted mass actions: and in Cora na, through th~' politiclza·tioll of community members towards the soluuon Of common probferr\i In these two co mmunmes, the capac ltv of peopte tel take control of their I ive's dna partlclpate In concerted action has ~ngen~er.ed apracttce of I it-e.r:QIcy and ~dtlcat;l\1l1 that appears to be sustainable, and in title end .. developmental,

liow did thls come about?

Im'pon a 1'1 'the northerntip of the the. Padfic Oce a rt, It has.o ne of thf' l.i'J.r9f'~1' .:lind least developed land.,areas among the Philippine mUl1idpaitlies, Inipon lies s(wamli' 011 the. typhoon belt and has more than the usual share of destructlon, The funt' tlcnal lneracv rate of" Ql.Iezo n (Aurora) ls 65 .6%.
Li.!zor'! mal

Inil pen, a fifth class agr~c ultural town, is sltuatec
the! coast of

human ri'ghts via Iancns and mil ita.IV 0 peratlons occasioned by the presence of rebe1~ tn 'the Sierra M.adre.. For locaJ lasues, the ccmmunuv has a church-owned r.:aaio() statio n wh tch has become a catalyst for soctal moblllzation dna community dev~l-

In this town the local Catholtc church headed by a progr,essive-mlnded bisHoij' remains one of the most powerful Instltutlons. There are a n umber of NGOi tIi~ federated sectoral organ lzanons in the cornmu nity {e.g. flsherfol k, women, \.~n· dors, fanners), that deal with 5 uch problems as dynamite fisl'l i ng, illegallogg"itlg

opment by pioneeri'ng in participatory or community-based brcadcasttng. The sn... non has introduced in ncvative prog ramminQl schemes. The station ~5 commitr~d tel the propagation of th€ bayanilfan (helpi 119 each other and workl n'g {og~rhe~ spirit a_mong the people of Inipon.lts stated mission i,s to contrlbutetc n'atiQI'Ibu iIdirng through comrnurrlty-hulldlnq.



the needs of thec:o,mmunity.

the' radio station

serves to link

dellel@pmel"lt services. l"he. !>td!riO-rii is Mke.w~se ctlrloe'med with cOl"IsdentizaUo!'l rlod people ell1powerment by mak:ung (h~ peo.prn@ more knowledgeahle abo LJ~ rertahl lssues, It encou rages vc~unU~@f~sm D!'!Ithe. part: ef Ute I!:ommunlry and strEngthe:nsdemccratlc prlnclples and Iiiii St ru,ni 0 ns ~hlroli!g,h ~tj, pan1cipatory process In prbgmm pl,al1ning and produ<cth~'f'I.By sr!IVII'!'1'g as a comrnunlcatlen ce mer, Il links 'Ehe far-flu fig:bara_ngays tetne [Own center of Iiniporl and to fhe rest of the ceuntrv As a meblllzer of peoplle fcrr m;:!:ss action, It hills, helped toorg.1lnlz'~ flsherfol k to Itl,bby against iIIegaJ n5h~~'HJ iUeglal ~ogglldl1gand hUnlilf1 rlqhts vi claneru. The pe4lpl'e's suppcrt fur this f.uHo :nattoni~ but ilh.istrined by the filet that despl(~ tnlQir pOv'~rly.th~~r c.olltrllcut Ions he:~ped fllnolrM~c the reparr of [he stano ['l'1I faclhtles which were damaged by typhoo.rn 0111 several cccasrons ..

The prog ram scbed l.I~eor 'the radle srauen snows ~tx type.s of broadcasts all done In F~llpl no: (1 ) new~ ilIi.nd vnformi!!'!ion (.0r11 ~arm:~@chnology, we<i!lber fore'rdi~g, sports, legal maUH~! t:Cll11mo,dily prh:es" homla Up~1 10(.111 O1nd fo reig n news}~ (2) ccmmentartes, dtscusslons and people's ftledbac.k O'!'! news and IS:5IHls, radlc (·0rums and caJ~sfor mobill~,~lifUl: t3), (UlhuraMhli<uodc,ai prCigr<!LmS on Philip~in(> h 11· tClI"Yi rnustc, rtddlesand srorles fr)( c.hlldl~n, r:ad~o dr<lI'lFl<lon a spedflc theme Of 'fo~u') performed by the ioeall ~I!Dpl'I;:, \allent !1;h'C,VIS feallJffl"lg poems, and :sanys com'Dosed bey local pe:,op~e: (4) post off,lc·e"o,,,-[he'iIIl!r (to announce le tters love notes and rl:5!iaY5, requested son,g5 fO'f and by 1nrdhJ1dual~~;(5) n~llgiQuS programs. {3ible reading and dl'Sil;U5Si0I1, prayers, M!,u:s. on the a[r~': a.nd (6) r.adh:. S.d100 l-cn-the-alr

which has been in exrstance

sm ce 11 '977.

Asld@ from U'if: decIdedly ~onl ~OlmOlJunllyOlnemauQfI of mOM of the progrants

b~ made


thstr att.€ mpt to cater to all ages and seetors, several observatlons
the nature of 1h~ ,prog~ramming_ IF~rst ~:Sth@. uS~ of Filipino




fore: ace es si b ~e (0'

programs. wh 1:(11 rnPhilrppj!"l@

notes. music, lecal dramas, fiddles, and Q1em ~"'ows Iby local people! themselves is

radio, Omadi(Mtlil'1!:ji i:5 unUSLHl.L AU pmqramsare thereeverve ne in (heco.m.m:l\I'mty. S,t!co rid til e po p u ~a rity of I,E!! ne rs

recogfli:(:edil!nd encourage.d. TMrd,for:Llms on tlhe ;dr :5oHdt~ng foc~l feed bac kare not nndy venues 'for shaJing people's vh:!<",s. V.d:I[U~$ and beliefs. but "'.n2. :alSOrnechanlsms for aeve!opingconrsemi!l,l5 and c'o':rre(:t~ngmis.il'l:fo,rmatlon or rnlscenceptlo ns, Fourth. proqrarns reJlateduo the implTOye.ITiI.@:nt ofecono-mc and horne actlvlties. prices and legal matter's rLl!.cognize. t~;a{ m.ost 'p,e:op!e have no access to newspapers al1ldother prtnred sources of Ti1fcH1~win~oli'l. nd ~hese aretherefore a provlded on the tllr.
In [his cOinext,th~posslibililles of lntegratJht9 tra.dirion,al and I iterate knowle,dge could be atseveral levels. First. by arFin'g ",III prng.ram5: in Fmpino, tradluonal and ljte rate kno w ~edge ilod i~V@!1:q I status and b<E'!C 0 me -a.va.!1bl e fa r co ITl m ~11t ua a eempartson, crttlclsrnand closer ana.l,ysis Iby 'f'\le.ryone [ncludlnq those not Ilterare In elther or both language).- Powe'r ilfld pres,f:rg.~InelaUnru; are thus alt~reJ;i: be.twl2en the Iite rate :a nd the no n - n[f1 ra:u!~ b L![WeeJil t hose artt c.ulat e In Fiii p] n I) ~ nd ttl 0 S{! arueulare io .English; b,U'INe,~nFllip]nJo and IEngnsti whjch hi<vJewed as more prestlgious: betw~en the status of uiditllorilar iHld ef lnerare kn<O~'ld'edg'e,
I ~I


Second, by e:m:olulragingl Ili~enne J)r1l(b(le ~E.g. thn;u.J:ghletters on lhe. al w rl rten feedb~c::1k from liste'rm'lg grli)'~~!i ~OII1,j'(II~Hnmgl rn the school-crt-rhe-eir progrdrn, writing of po,e:m!;" dramas, rid'dles. folk songs, etc.), tradltic mlJ knowledge has the. pon,jbUUyof entering I.he w(inel1l rradtuon, and :[hf1J@'fon~ I1l.sfOry, skepuclsrn and l~e rnteHe«:tuOl!~ lradirion,lJ A,{ ~he SaLmI! ~II ne, 'Wh~Ul peopll,e write theTr hil.hll:rlo o ral r

kno w led ge, the pas sibility of" h·c'ding
to use, modify, transmtt, expand

0 n to to t heir

own kno wled ge beco me s greilter

or even d lscard as they see 'fit.

Corona, in the province of RJ:zal:, ls near Laguna lake, the larg@s.t fre~hwa:t& lake in Southeast Asia. Once noted for its natural beauty !\pd bounty, Lag!Jna La today is an ecoloqlcal d lsaster because of unsustal nable fish i ng practices ani:![Oxk wane from the n urnerous industr~al fa.Ctories around 'the 'lake, Among the

towns, it is Corona that is most heavl Iy dependent orrthe lake. for lts rnatn sOurce"of income. An estimated 60% of its populatlon of 33,967 are iHrectiv involv~d!U
fishing .. ln this town, is the center of-operations Bafang'ay Lagda, located


of the.. ~· b

ge:St people's o-rganization h. the reg'iol1. Originalilly, it was just a ccnfederatlon ~ small flshermen which an NGO helped to orqanlze and deveJop. To respond ~o·t~~ ma]o r pro b le til 0 f lake d eg rad at ~<i , the 10 c·aJO,l"gan aza1 ion ex pan de d its me mb.d' n

ship to rnulu-sectoral groups - fisherfolk, women, youth,trkycl.e drivers .• ~ve~ child ren, The leadersh i p saw the necessity of enlist.ing. the hel p of all se"ttorHo achieve the common goal of improving the situation oft"he iake:, which is 'theini1~iI1 source of llvellhood. From tackling the issue of lake destructlon.the or€J,anizafiQn~, concerns now lnclude current national issues such as.the requlaticn of the fi,shitig ~nd~stry in the Phi Ii.~pi ne's and protests againsnhe transformarlcn ,oh.griq.llituir~ areas into lndustrtal zones. socletv" is the vision, mission and goal of t~15 peopi:e's organ lzation, tn b.e achieved 'through a process which empowers people ro tak~ greate'r 'control of the,j r lives. determine prtortttes and take the necessarv af' tlon by worktnq together; Ac.c.ording to the leaders, .att their organized lean'ijng experlencas are lin ked to this vlston, mission and goal, fccuShl£l on t{;lla~ hum~n development to achieve equitable social dieveloprr;lI~n,t. They believe that re·ai'.~atnclpatlon can onlv occur when people are in a 'pos'iti.onto develop their o.~;'1iI "towards a just 'and humane


and make: declslons.

Llrnlted formal education amo'ng the members has not posed a hi'ndranL':@, to il,cti,ve participatlon in the various unde.nakinQls of the organJzation. The presenl head of the' ,organization's remrnun lcatlo n program ls 8_" eler'f1l~nt<lry school dro~
CHJt ar C rade . .2 who taught himself to read and write ln the course of hls partidpa· tton In the orgalliZi,ltionrs. activities. Continuing education inciudingfuI'ICtiQn'aIIJt, e.racy I's.in,te.gralw the orgdinization's actlvltles a.l'though there is no separate edueaLion prQgr.am. In their expertence, the funcuon of education is real, lts fndispen' abi I i ty co rif ro n tJ rrg the m ida ng t he road to devel opme 11 t, .

from which an IndMdual cao deriv, which help him/her deal better with h ts/her own [i:fe. A[tiv1ti~s O1ft~e orqanlzatlon provide learning experlsncss to cornmun i,ry ~ead~rs and ffiembe'r~ 1m' community organizin9. problem-solvtng, advocacy, and soclal mobilization, As-,i~e from these, there is also a scholarship program for deserving students who would like: 'to pursue further studies. The orqanlzatlcn has been able to establish linkag~~ with some schools and unlverslttes in Metro Manila for this purpose, Linka.geshave.' also been set. lip with other orqantzarlons In otherfi~hirng cornmunltlas,

Organi2ed grQUps are venues fortraii1iog

T~e organization lhegula.dv conducts seminars and training for lrs members on leadership, Ol'galfUza'IO'Irli, 'ecologY/@lIvirofilme.nt, an classes for the ~oUth, live IIhood .il.C(O un ti 1'1 9 ~md be o'kk~.ep irii g'. learn ing rna d ules h 3.ve ,allread V bil~1ldeveloped by leaders and members,_ .Asjde from these. the use of group media off4ilrsample npportunltles for I@arning .15 \.

and offi('ers


[lata from Corona that Wi!'n~ used fOlr this analvsrs may be sequenced by level of eomplex[ty of cement and prasen 'a lain as fOII""IOWSi: (I} photograplu and expla~1~tloFu f symboHc (o"~posi'Uol1s of flsh'l!rl"clk USdfl9 available marerlals (e ,g. Ileaves, o StOnes,stlcks) dont'! ,I,[ a workshop~ 12' 1,lI!an es annolirlclli"I'9 calls for mass moblllzaUQnano partlel patlcn: (3) 'flu S:(fipt fou s.lid@presentatlon on L~g Lin iii Lake; {4) ~Ievr,a;1 tssues of '(h~jr eammumtv newsletter: (5) samole gliJldes for running semin rl emvarious, toplcs: and (6) i;i VI i er (with slides en the fishIng mel usrrv of tha pnHlpplnn. All the rneiertats are: In Fllipuf!lo.and e>l:c,ep~for the poems Jl"ld short Storl~5,[Iii are wllho~t authors as a sign of rhe rnllecttve and evolved nature of th Wj lttan product, just as all matertal In the ora! tr di~1on ga~s WUtl0lJ .WtI1Qrs.

m~tters. Tradition a I kl'lowledg,tl Is put into y ten form flrst thrc ug h drawl n'gs Md illustrations; then thm'lLIgh Folk rnetap' .ors and shan: riddles. then through

Several gel"lcra,1 observattons (ould b m d,e on [he nature of the:s@' In true' 11ona,!materials. First, [he a.t empt to tn egrate !radlrllol1al and II erate knowlcdige ls v.ory apparnrH, Trad Itronal] kl1owledg~ j~ found il'll the thoie"! of symbo'$" Folk metaph,,,,'S, locClllflrorrnatiOI1, r1ddles/saying!.., IOlca.lly pll'Oduced poems and stories, while liter~~e knowledge ls 'foUJ'ld h~1the ~echnli(311and hHw rlcal ~ nfcrmatton and legal wrfting as in poems <lind stones,

The nen-llterate organrza~ior1 members have an oppcrtun Ity ro be gradually 1T1'£roducedto Hte.rate practice throuQlh this 5equenUal presentanon, aided by 51[des aj~dorat narratlon m the more comp~e)( :presentaUons- This is [he (on ext in which it is reported that UeV'en limired fnrmaleducarlon among some members seems (lever to have dran1lar,]cally

leaders do nor consider illiteracy or ~ow le.dIUCa{ion;;l,~uarnmenr a
GOr'fl{i'rg~Iterate perhaps only happened to be a requtrement 'dofle.l!~ (Th@functlonal Hteracv r.ate 'For IHz'id Is 12.1%.)

hindellTe,d ;ilny ulild~rtakfn'9 of the organization. In fact, as ,(I. problem. BeIn order to get things

words with new mea1'ling:s is noted, For example,

Second, ·th@extensive useof fol'k metaphor'S ,and

worn combinations

for the relatively


to form

-concept of subsistence, the usua.l me!'thod of translatton would be again to use the EngJi5h term (uslJally written in iu.lh:s'), anile Filiprno Iie·spelling (subststens), both of which do not ccnvev the meaning, of 'he concept to those not familiar wtththe definition of the term su.bs~s,tem:e in the' first pldce. Th,e,~'r ew word, lawid·or.Jhav. n conveys lhe exact and essenuat me,aningl of ~I'le cencent, while preservinq the
Ufe," which is embedded in the concept of subslss,~e.ak.iu~ because there exlsts a stmtlar and 'g'enerally used woltl. pama·..vid-gwom (II emily] cross-hunger. to referto &MalJ a rna 'UFlU 0 f foo d to take t Ifle p'la:ce' olf a large'r 0[] r re'g u lar rn e'(I1 w herl tM ls iSo

metaphor, "a bridge


Ul!I'1Ctl. This rnetaphe r is 1101 new !o Ta,galog

not avail ab It1;). In fac:t, what seems to be o~uatliilgl in these e)!amples IS,a kmd of do uble ~transllalion" in which the characte StioCii of the Qrall larl9U1d91! are preserved in hs written form by not losing the meraphcnc III mode of 'oral expression. and bV combining W'OI'CIS, into ne-w nnes to exeress Irh,@ pf'€!.clse me~rfting of the new concept, In th 5.@ f w e;l(Ml'lpllle~ whlch naed te be su ~lllC! d 0 mote rigorous seman-

tic analysis), we can see a more subtle. form of hnegrating tr,adiHonal' literate knowledge ifn 'the 'pmc.ess of tlransforming tradlnerral and Ilteratek.tlOWlr ed g:e lnto th e VIi' ri nen mcce. A thrlird general observauon is [he rI!XpliclEly political nature of fhe m[J{~'
rials whose 'obJectl'lle~ of wriI'Si,cie:nticizfl1g, ~"formin9; edi.a:atin9_ and call1~~ the: people to mass .lCt!M are geaJlr(!'d towards the pr'l nclpal social proJ(iltts, qf makl 119 the lake thetr own again and fi i1d11'l9 co mrnon cause with other r.sh~rfolk in 'he (ounuy who face pl'onl,ems in (he fishing i nd uUry, A quance) rth general observation is thar 'the whd1e set of rnarerialstln ~e' 11iI~a pedagog,i'cal olbje,c.tive 101 til.IS(! [hI!' l(!v~15 of lite.racy skills alld I nfo,rmallo n; 10 I!'xpand the world views of the membership [I, rough histtHy: and geog raphy ~e.'g the ill fOf,marloll1 tltiil'[ tagu na lake lin ks provlncas p~m.1lWf nor evan \l1~i\ed b1' some members: Philippine seas, rivers and lakes are 1m' portent [0 revtry Pi.U,piflOesperlallv rtshcrfolk): and eo develc i1 a co rnprahlm' s~ve and multrldimenslan<1ll Ulf'I,delFSurmdng of Ehe orgn.niz,atlon!i social proJ~CII i without losing rnetr HlOt5 ln the personal I~ve!l and rl:Jll.m~ of [~U mem~~i! themse I,ves.


The examples

of Impofll and parncu lar~y



anemp[mg (0 enrerthe

of Core nil provlde us cl~ar In: l.cerate tradition wRh,

out losing the trrad'itiona' Kl'llowledge, firrnlv hOllding tlleir knowledge HI threl own haiH:I'i fa r theill'" own 1!.I~e.s eurpeses, and for flxplicatrly common 5()chlt and and politicl:!I~prclects: t.o bulld a cnrnrnunltv in I nlpon: to take control flf ~he~r lake agaIn in Cernna: an.d to find common cause with other small flsherfol~ n~
'{he COklmry.

The ~ntegrrating P~~n1cuph.~:~, wfilkh I"ufllhroug h all t~esi'i! actlvltles are: ('I ),pa~ uctpanon of all ln the whole P!",I!]C@!5S. ,(iV(!Ir1 as the varlous materials folloW a pe dag 0 51ca.11 'Sf q IJ E nee w h leh enab les 110 n -Ute rates to inttl all Y pa itl c ipate b!jt rn J which they are: encouraqed te ilufiil 'I,Cl read and wrlte; (2) 'thus, passage Iruqn I,hu~ra.te- tradition which rnciudi@.s, e:veli)fbod~ and (3) ortentatton of all these,¥· tivitil~'S towan:ls the e::xpll:dt purpose of realizing th~ir social and political pfOJei!t~ The two deve],rlpmeriltal (o':mm~.mfti,e5. white stili poorand rnargiflalilHd"aFl! mi'!"kedly different from [he omer groups in thetr attemp't to recover some wn' trol of the change precesses. In at manner of speaking, both are building iJ~1 communilies: in t:h~ case o~ Inlpan. stilill On rough the auspices of the local Ctllfit1i whkhltself has moved iuts OWIl orientattcn from soclo-cultural rOil1cll,llde."the po litkal as we II. In the case of Co'!"ona..the Iisherfol k orl1 ms elves have COllscio e 1J!lv made a change in rhetr cl!)I'mmu!l'ili,ty tim by 'enlarglng ·the basts of thfrir stiial org an nza:tio n 'from an ocrupanon-based 'EO a m 0 ra com pri! hsnslve poll desI ~Ml lssue-basedorpanlzatlon. In uti,s process 'of bUilding new communlties,as, ~ were, literate pracUce and geneJil'1education play ve.ry slgnifkarn roles, lnipoaand Corona. 'the developmental communities in this typolo~\j, Sif€: to gain sovereigntY ovar their knowledge in the context of a I1IH\' social organ'lcolljorl, rharac::terized In 8one:h umos by equity, solidarity alfl~ CQmmonaU!y. and o"'~el1l~ed HlWilirns .1tI e:>lpUdt jl,nd ccrnmnrt goal.

It wJ11be nOled thai tlilles@ moores of Integration are not Intended to mak~ a return La the ariglhl,311 nU'1! ,of (he' "p!"irnltlve 'SiiI.vage" as qS uS'I.I.:d~y~hl!~hhlk. In'9 of ti'iO'5,e who mrman~~dze Indlige ncus knowledge. Under~yii'lg thii!s~~\.

riroP.l:s to integrate tradttto niland ~~u~rat.eknowledge are the' aosen ce or this l~1Jsion and the-u'nderstand:ing l.hOinhe'se new forms of Inte!;lTatron created by 'the
siq pIe t~h mselve sare e

:S'tfv"eSi. orderto [n

enter the mainstre,am which th~y hope

fa r the ex; p Heil po Htk~.IJ pu rpese of trans TOrmi rig the mto also transfo rrn in the


'The valuesembedded if! the Inte9r,ation of Had~tional and llterate knowledge abu n,dall1 tly cle a r: the j m po rtan ce Q f ,k,now le dig e and rati o.oa lily, pa nit ipatio n I'I'H;:overy control over the ir 9W n kno w t:e 6g€! ~the value of 3! r.ea I ed ucatl 0 nI, a de ar ·of lli1oa::rsrll.ndiing of issues, a commonal1ilty of trrterest and comrnun iW 'Of effo rts towardS" acommon goal or a scclal p.rQject.


To be sure, rhrs pro-ject has not. been without cost ~nch..l,dinghu man ltves, for *f:ha soc~al projecte!1~aihi ~halilges in structural arranqements Jtwolviln~l powerfu I ,£!p61!j'JS: the U:llltroJ of~$h ing operattons ~n tne. lake, envlro nrnental de9rac;l~t~Dnof 1h~lake:hrou9h tndusrrlal pollution, reguI1ati(l'n of rnuntclpal ftshl rig in the co,untry t tht~Ugh legislatiolll Up~'H:l,lding.the fig hts ofsmall fis:herfolk. At the same tlme, we ~~~tnt! cha,nges in the bases of community life., Wh~yeas befor.e' family, the practice of,''(hrist,fanlly and electlens were separate elements, we now s.e€ 'a mere ir'lt~c~ratel'h;:ommEJniW when; loyalty to f.amUy risa$~umed but also where loyalties life mQV:~ beyond family to lncl ude R II .I'Q!H scclal organ [.zuron ~spou:;ilillga common a social purpose in wh ich both religion and authermc polltieal practice are also ~rfIpli'dt~d.

111 ese twc ex am pI es ,. we see verv clearl y two !p rln Co i pa~2;DcJaJ e I~ me In! s reth l:a,(ed to value change. The first element istlJe internal capacity 'of a.~Qmmufllw to ~,e:riI@rat~ and 5usta,i:n a deve~opm~nt process (in which education is stror19 e I~' mefl_tJby (1) mtitintain~ng the ccmmunltvs focus while !!'i:xpandi ng i'ts objectlves and ~~Nvities" (2), pro tectit!1l9 hself from cooptattcnand represstc n, (3) contir1!u~ng to b€! J~@ tjlJthe nne voice of HIe- pe:oph~ 'it represents, arid {41 maintaining thG.demo-cratic mQda~ityof its declsion-makinp process,


-change and development among' the marginalized -~a.~efs and domlnam elite groups.

Th e secon d e:1 me nt is exte I'lI1ally 9 ~ nerate G1 and it has. to do wit h t he I i min of e group:s, as envisioned by po'lkyand how th·ey have

To these we now turn as we examtneed ueattenpoltcles J1~~p'edto rj·efine: the shape of OllJF nation.

In the pr~v~Qus. seqion, we attempted to detmeate the interrelations among ~ducatia n~kn owted 9·e,v~1ue 5 an d deveJo pme nt by s flo w lnqthat at the. corn m u nHy

I~ve.lr the formation 111 tndlvldualsofvalues, ski 111li cernpstencles, all co nstrued ana rn,1_Y be. u nd ers toad by refer-E! n ce to three lnte rr:e Ia ted CO!He'Xl5: the, passage -of com m L.I n iti es fro m the mal to the Iit~ rate trad itl Q n rhro ugh eow::;.ati'o.n brQadl.y <conceived; {2j'the basis of so(jal'organizat~on lin a ccmmu riiW; and (3) 'the capacitv of a comrl'1iunity to geneJ'ate dtalll9e! and in what direction,


as kn 0 w~edg e,

This characterlzarlon of rhe six corrtmunltv typ,es in the previous s~ctlo n hlg:nlighh the 'fact that il!m,r~t 500 years since celonlzatlen, the folk culture, i n

b. D. Corpuz'~ words, the "covert, secretstde"

of Flllpino culture, remains Wirth us




parttcularlv among the lowland mdi.jor~'ty. It survives because it is a culture we have deslqned for ourselves as a way of copi1ng with-the contradictions thatlla~e, been imposed on us both by the colonizers and our own policies, which in manv ways have simply been a <continuation of cclnntal policles.


of Philippine



Spanish Colonial Period
Ifl this section, We. analyze edlJcaHon po~k:y slnce the Spanish colonlal ~e" riod. IIt1 our view, the: tccus on educatio n policy is appropriate because it is, tire prlncipal institution for the fa rrnattcn of i ndivid uais and assuch, r@:"flects onllv nor the directions for their educatton and traintnq but also the directions for SgCifW asa whole, as determlned by its policv-rnakers.
Continuing hom tfie l ntrod 11,c:tial1 of the- ROman ized script, as d-~lir'feLl!te:d ~tl·i previous section, 'the consolldatton 'of the Spanish conquest fell into the f\ands,9! the re'ligious orders who assumed respnnslblllrv fo,t the education of the nativ~. The ai m of friar ed ucatlon was. "to make their native wards devotee! to Go.d ~nij obedient to the frlars,''" With the lntroductlon of eccnornlc measures for UliE! p,o' ductlo n of cash crcps for- export in the: late 18TH centurv, land became irnp()r~tlN, the concept of private property was introduced i find a srnal I Fili plno 1:.3!_ndhQldlJig


was created. scrt pt as well as knoWiedg'l! of Spanish were ReV this arlstocrarv In add~t~ipn the.~r imponall~dn to

lit@'racy in the Rcmanlzed

elements in the dev.e!opmEmtof

the land tid~ n.g process, 'these were alsolrnportant for electlon to public .offi[:fl".t0F exemption from obHg.atory service or levtes for free'. labonand later on for ~rtt . into l1i'ghelr education lnstttutions which were orlgil'laHy setup for the childf.e.ii"of Spanlsh eo Ion lal offida!s.~~ The aversion to manual work origina.ting from rhinx'l emptio n from obHgatory service Is thereto re not :tCi be. con strued as an rt1!heren .distaste for labor but as a mark of status, wealth and education. Despite the promu lqatlon of the relatlvelv liberal Moret Decree of 1863 whicb esrabnsned a IImlred system of primary in::.U·1.:1{.. rlon , tIle aducatton system to'\'IjlirdJ.' the end efthe 19TI~centurv had acqu i red an ellttst, mtsed ucated character, Those farthest from the town tend ing their swldden farms could net attend school whk~

was in the town. Those in the: town had access to atlaast an elementary e:dw;;atiMi
those 1n the capita'l towns co uld get a secondary education: those in Manila and th~ rich prcvlncial farniltes could get a ni'gl1er education it parents eQuid afford fD.G

expense, AS, O. D. Corpuz

obse rve


The Whole system reinfor~lild the s.tratUlication [hat W<:I.S at work, In Phil· to produce a. small, educated and Wli!ll-to·do fractlioh dlstinct from 'tile masses of untutored. ignor<)nl and depressed common rao (people), It has been cakulated that this d[,te· minorltvlncluded 110 more than ten to a . . . .. .. 37 dozen fal"fiiHes' in towns ·of. l~p to 20,000 people. School! knowl·edge: at the. primary revel was limited to Christian dotti'Ir'iI!.aod the pedagogy of rote laam i ri'g and memorization developed ob~d;le.n(@.and un· crtncal minds; wh lie in the hi-gl'ler ethrcatlon instituticns, the nispan lzatton of tl:\t:

~hWjrelnof the elite b'e:came'tile order of the day. The major dfn;ctiol'1 of education IJ:9licyat the time was to "change" fHipinos who, according to the friars. w~re by riatlJr~ and culture gu llible simpletons as welill as· igrw.rarn and ernotlonal ind lvid uali Their ed ucatlcn so uqht to develop two prlnclpal val ues: uncrtucal obedience ·forthe masses, and hlapanlzatlon of the. elite. Ac;cordi"ng to rite Spanish War Fray cQ:martl, fer Instance, the: unlettered indio was I fke a ch iId incapable of qras pirlg ev,e_nth·e· most basic sciences. If such a capacity did eXISt, it was because of the. lnfuslon of foreign blood, wh lch also improved the i nd tos physical feat u res, re.s.li~tjng ln fal ref skln color, lower cheek bones and a ch lseled nose, tor example. ,.

To be sure" the people's respc nse to their forcible Intrcductlcn to the hterate ~(.aditi<)nwas marked byattampts to hold on to thel r tradltlonal knowledge arid ~p,ractice.For one, the peas.ant upris.ings du ring the early Span ish colon lal pe riod were not only occaslo ned hvthe collertion of Hi bure .and by forced labor but also b.€"tause these dislocated the peasants from thel r requ tar agrkultu ral cycle, For another; uprlslnqs ofthe narlvtsuc 'type S uch as those led by Tarnblot and Da:go hoy ~~cluded "demands for d: return to an lndlpenous religion and cultu re wLthtin peas.. . .. m ·ant control and comprehenslcn.
But ~tlsalsc correct 'to say that some of the thildrel"! of 'the. elite I,....ho tJa'~ a higher education were: more able 10 Qlfasp the s.jgi'lifiCan~e of the liberrtl ideas and reforms ~11 Spain and Eumpe at the ttme, as well as of the profound changes hrouqht about by theopenlnqofrne country to' internatlonal trade and Ind ustrtal development, The idea and poss ibility of reform were illiti<l,IIV espoused by the rn, ushe.ring ttll the Pr'op.aganda mevernentthar preceded the 1iKe-V.b lutlon ofl 8:96. As Lopez Iaena sald in 1884:
We are the children of tbe CE!~ltt.H"V of E!1lighte nment; "__ We!! are the . I children of thl! century of pmgre$$; ,,' we are the chlldren of the eeruurv of freedom .... freedom and prcpres s are the chlildren of r-elvoh.JtICitL~O

Re vo/u-tionary Pe.riod
The Ph iii ppi fie Revelution, fue led by ideas. from the En Hghten ment and the rea:fiw ef colonial repression and brutal ltv, eventuallv trtu rnched, IU5 fair to say "that fer the masses which formed the backborre of the Revolution. only the latter sufficed. One of the firSt acts of the revoturtonarv govern rnent was to set IJ p the U'fiv"ersidad Weraria de Rlipt"na.s. The reorientation of @ducatlQn lJ rider the revo IuUOl'llry governm.ent Wa'S cleady stated in Leon Ma. Guerrero!s speech at the first gJ~dtjatio_n ceremony of this u nive.rsity on September 2:9, 189-9 in Tarlac. He ado,f the nation for freedom as part of thetr Each profess ion would havs its own co nt ri hutlon to 'EIl,e'stmggt~e,he sald: sold lers to Oght t:he enemy; doctors to heal the wounded; e.nglnee..rsto build defenses; prlesrs 'to tend to the dying,:'

vised the ·graduates

to heed the call

as 'FiIlplnos,

However, aside fro m the decidedly s@CL..II.ar orientatio n 6f the ClJ rricu Iurn at system was very sitnHali to till,!;! establlshsd by the Span~sh colo nlal .admmtstratlon, with "@mphaSiSQI1 ctasslcal (Emopean) knowledqe using Spanlshas "lhe medium of lnstruction. Th is latter decls lon effectively excluded those not Iiterate In this lan'9uage and ensu red that the trad Itlcnal knowledge. of the fHipinos. could again not be incl udedi n the CU rrlcu Iurn.
alii levels, the education

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