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In the curative domain there are various forms of medical practice. They may be thought of generally as forming a pyramidal structure, with three tiers representing increasing degrees of specialization and technical sophistication but catering to diminishing numbers of patients as they are filtered out of the system at a lower level. Only those patients who require special attention either for diagnosis or treatment should reach the second (advisory) or third (specialized treatment) tiers where the cost per item of service becomes increasingly higher. The first level represents primary health care, or first contact care, at which patients have their initial contact with the health-care system. Primary health care is an integral part of a country’s health maintenance system, of which it forms the largest and most important part. As described in the declaration of Alma-Ata, primary health care should be “based on practical, scientifically sound and socially acceptable methods and technology made universally accessible to individuals and families in the community through their full participation and at a cost that the community and country can afford to maintain at every stage of their development.” Primary health care in the developed countries is usually the province of a medically qualified physician; in the developing countries first contact care is often provided by nonmedically qualified personnel. The vast majority of patients can be fully dealt with at the primary level. Those who cannot are referred to the second tier (secondary health care, or the referral services) for the opinion of a consultant with specialized knowledge or for X-ray examinations and special tests. Secondary health care often requires the technology offered by a local or regional hospital. Increasingly, however, the radiological and laboratory services provided by hospitals are available directly to the family doctor, thus improving his service to ... (300 of 16486 words)
Encyclopedia of Public Health: Access To Health Services Top
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Rural environments present unique challenges for health care access. There are often shortages of medical personnel in rural areas, as well as transportation and distance barriers to care and an increasing economic destabilization of rural health care services. Since the mid-twentieth century, physicians have favored urban and suburban practice locations over rural areas. Physicians often need lucrative practices to repay high education debts, and they have been trained to use costly new technologies in diagnosis and treatment. Rural practice locations typically generate lower income for the physician and have fewer and older technology resources than urban and suburban locations. Modern medical school graduates are rarely well
However. Low population density and greater travel times and barriers in rural areas affect service availability. Consequently. Because of the distances between service locations or patient residences. mobile clinics. Advances in medical technology. Specialty physician services (such as psychiatry or dermatology) may also be available through intermittent clinics in local facilities. prenatal care. access public or charitable subsidization in order to remain economically viable. yet the time expended is the same. Prices. such as health departments. and other complex procedures require specialized medical teams. public and private insurers must struggle to control their expenditures. churches. Small rural health care providers. Public health systems and an array of alternative primarycare providers often fill in the gaps. Practice locations include publicly or charitably subsidized comprehensive primary-care centers or categorical service clinics (e. equipment. artery repair. leading to greater shortages of personnel. especially hospitals. immunizations) situated in central locations. Closures leave the very old. the ability of people to get to those services. cannot afford the equipment and personnel necessary to treat the entire array of modern disease and injury. Coronary bypass surgery. the cost per unit of service is often many times greater than in urban locations. Lower population density also means a lower volume of patients and less provider income. and in patient's homes. the area suffers from the significant loss of employment. Home-based services in rural areas must.. and the poor with no access to hospital inpatient care. In addition. Reduced fees and the refusal of insurers to pay for care often destabilize private professional practices in rural areas. Consequently. As costs increase. spending most of the time traveling. advanced trauma care. the fewer the available health services and the longer the travel distances to access these services. family planning. Physician shortages are most visible in primary prevention. and treatment. Many rural hospitals and providers have diversified services to increase revenues. therefore. The lower the population density and the larger the area over which the population is distributed. and the economic viability of the services. Price controls most severely affect rural health systems. or schools. rural residents must often travel great distances to access more costly and complex levels of care. Primary care may be provided by nurse practitioners. physician assistants. while a nurse in a rural setting may visit only one or two patients. or fee scales. The urban nurse will be reimbursed for five visits and the rural nurse for two.g. diagnosis. and the entire community is left with no access to urgent or emergency care. and market forces contribute to the economic destabilization of many rural health care systems. rural communities suffer chronic physician shortages. increasing costs. and facilities. or home-health nurses. Such resources are economically viable only in hospitals and surgical centers with high volumes of patients.prepared to practice in rural environments. Neither of these populations generates reimbursements adequate to cover the costs of services. a home health nurse may visit five patients in a morning within an urban apartment building. especially home-based or mobile services. for services include the minimum estimated cost of providing each service. People with financial resources and the ability to travel tend to use distant urban centers even for less complex needs. this strategy often fails and the hospital must close. For example. Accessing complex care in urban medical centers often generates a patient perception that all rural hospital care is of lower quality. the disabled. The majority of patients admitted to rural hospitals are either too frail to withstand travel to distant hospitals or cannot afford either the travel or the cost of care in urban areas. Emergency medical services in such areas are scattered over great distances and often staffed .
Prenatal Care. and in rural. doctors' offices. reflecting the different cultural values and mores of those societies. Poor roads or geographic barriers. Health care systems. almost all physicians engaged in "general practice"—the provision of medical and surgical care for all diseases and for all patients. may take longer to arrive than in other areas. such as psychiatry and dermatology. in small groups. and Great Britain follow similar medical practices. urban. (SEE ALSO: Immunizations. In part. specialist physicians. are not fixed but are continually evolving. the rise of "minimally invasive" surgery a century later contributed to the movement of many surgical procedures out of hospitals and into doctors' offices and other outpatient locations. physicians in the United States. and delivered. Emergency care for severe trauma or major acute illnesses. Public Health Nursing) — SUSAN W. like medical knowledge and medical practice. Of particular interest to a health care system is how medical care is organized. The organization of care refers to such issues as who gives care (for example. doctors engaged in "solo practice. Politics & Society > US History Encyclopedia The term "health care system" refers to a country's system of delivering services for the prevention and treatment of disease and for the promotion of physical and mental well-being. HEATHER REED US History Encyclopedia: Health Care Top Home > Library > History. such as western Kansas. Typically. are beginning to use telemedicine to improve access for primary care and certain specialty care. or suburban locations). nurses. financed. France. Medicare. the rise of modern surgery in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries helped create the modern hospital in the United States and helped lead to the concentration of so many medical and surgical services in hospital settings. More remote areas with the capacity to pay for the technology. such as stroke and heart attack." whereby they practiced by themselves without . For instance. in hospitals. self-pay. The delivery of care refers to how and where medical services are provided (for example. in large groups. Thus. ISAAC. such as mountains or rivers. A country's health care system also reflects in part the culture and values of that society. regardless of sex and age. Poverty and Health. and alternative practitioners) and whether they are practicing as individuals. but the health care systems of these nations vary considerably. Prevention. or Medicaid) and how much money is spent on medical care. or various types of outpatient clinics. magnify the effects of distance. private insurance. or in massive corporate organizations. Primary Care. primary care physicians. Germany.with volunteers who have other jobs. Traditional Medical Practice in America For the first century of the republic. However. causing increased morbidity and mortality. health care systems reflect the changing scientific and technologic nature of medical practice. Migrant Workers. Canada. The financing of care involves who pays for medical services (for example.
on average. Doctors' offices were typically at their homes or farms.) Most physicians continued in solo. Reflecting the rural makeup of the country. and by 1940 formal certifying boards in the major clinical specialties had been established. Decade by decade. safer childbirth. Residency programs in the clinical specialties had been created. competition to "regular medicine" from alternative healers had markedly slackened. population was still 50 percent rural. By 1930. In many hospitals and clinics. vitamins. In the 1920s. Payment was on the "fee-for-service" basis. Before World War II (1939–1945). specialty medicine was already becoming prominent. and many effective new drugs and operations—the cultural authority of doctors continued to grow. As one manifestation of this phenomenon. the technologic capacity and cultural authority of physicians in the United States began to escalate. a "two-tiered" system of health care officially existed—private rooms in hospitals for paying patients. Many physicians could not be kept busy practicing medicine. Medicine at this time was not an easy way for an individual to earn a living. The location of care moved to doctors' offices for routine illnesses and to hospitals for surgery. fueled by the revolution in medical science (particularly the rise of bacteriology and modern surgery). physician earned 2½ times the income of the average worker." In 1875. and together they contained about one million beds. the hospital came to be considered the "doctor's workshop. (Some medical specialists earned much more. and doctors often received payment in kind—a chicken or box of fruit rather than money. Since most hospitals were concentrated in cities and large towns. By 1940.000. fueled by the growing results of scientific research and the resultant transformation of medical practice—antibiotics. but already 80 percent of physicians resided in cities or large towns. House calls were common. hospital wards were segregated by race. Physician income. However.S. Indeed. hormones. and faith healers. Table 1 Specialization in Medicine American Board of Ophthalmology American Board of Pediatrics 191 6 193 3 . where larger concentrations of patients could be found.partners. homeopaths. most physicians resided in rural settings. doctors were increasingly found in larger metropolises. general store. antiseizure medications. and patients would pay out of pocket. there were 661 hospitals in the United States containing in aggregate about 30. and the average U. and most Americans thought of consulting a doctor if they needed medical services. fee-for-service practice. Doctors also experienced vigorous competition for patients from a variety of alternative or lay healers like Thomsonians. Doctors would give patients a bill. childbirth. and major medical problems. Competition for patients from alternative healers diminished. particularly in the South. and health care was not yet considered a fundamental right.S.000 beds. was not high. In the last quarter of the nineteenth century and first quarter of the twentieth century. the U. or pharmacy. about 75 to 80 percent of doctors continued to engage in general practice. and it was common for doctors to have a second business like a farm. the number of acute care hospitals had increased to around 7. and large wards for indigent patients where as many as thirty or forty "charity" patients would be housed together in one wide open room.
and by the end of the century life expectancy in the United States had increased about 30 years from that of 1900. corticosteroids. 1945–1985 The four decades following World War II witnessed even more extraordinary advances in the ability of medical care to prevent and relieve suffering. computerized tomography. such as automated chemistry analyzers. and the major causes of death each year were various infections. By midcentury. radioimmunoassays. In 1900. Powerful diagnostic tools were developed. mechanical ventilators.Specialization in Medicine American Board of Radiology American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology American Board of Orthopedic Surgery 193 4 193 4 193 4 American Board of Colon and Rectal 193 Surgery 4 American Board of Urology American Board of Pathology American Board of Internal Medicine American Board of Anesthesiology American Board of Plastic Surgery American Board of Surgery American Board of Neurological Surgery 193 5 193 6 193 6 193 7 193 7 193 7 194 0 The Transformation of Health Care. immunosuppressants. such as newer and more powerful antibiotics. New vaccines. kidney dialysis machines. openheart surgery. chronic diseases such as cancer. antihypertensive drugs. Most Americans now faced the . and heart attacks had replaced infections as the major causes of death. Equally impressive therapeutic procedures came into use. hip replacements. stroke. were developed. average life expectancy in the United States was forty-seven years. and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. most notably the polio vaccine. and a variety of organ transplantations.
These exceptional scientific accomplishments. automobile companies were spending more per car on health premiums for workers than for the steel that went into the automobiles. 85 to 90 percent of medical graduates were choosing careers in specialty or subspecialty medicine. this meant unprecedented financial prosperity and minimal interference by payers in medical decision-making. compared with only 10 percent who worried about the quality of care. when and how to turn off an artificial life-support device. the enactment of the landmark Medicare (a federal program for individuals over 65) and Medicaid (joint federal and state programs for the poor) legislation extended health care coverage to millions of additional Americans. the health care system was under increasing stress. Table 2 . hospitals. And the scientific and technological advances of medicine created a host of unprecedented ethical issues: the meaning of life and death. To most observers. and health care costs rose from 6 percent to 9 percent of the country's gross domestic product (GDP). the most critical problem of the health care system was soaring costs. Millions of Americans became unwillingly tied to their employers. that number had climbed to around 48 million.) Many patients and health policy experts complained of the fragmentation of services that resulted from increasing specialization. Despite these accomplishments. together with the development of the civil rights movement after World War II. The increasingly complicated U. these problems seemed even more insurmountable. Fewer and fewer doctors were engaged in solo practice. however. Public opinion polls of the early 1980s revealed that 60 percent of the population worried about health care costs.S. Before the war. (When President Bill Clinton assumed office in 1993. the number of uninsured Americans was estimated at 40 million.problem of helping their parents or grandparents cope with Alzheimer's disease or cancer rather than that of standing by helplessly watching their children suffocate to death from diphtheria. private medical insurance companies like Blue Cross/Blue Shield began providing health care insurance to millions of middle-class citizens. most American physicians were still general practitioners.S." which was estimated to be two to four times as much as in other Western industrialized nations. When he left office in 2001. not merely a privilege. resulted in profound changes in the country's health care delivery system. Tens of millions of Americans still did not have access to health care. In the 1940s. Employers found their competitiveness in the global market to be compromised. how to preserve patient autonomy and to obtain proper informed consent for clinical care or research trials. others argued that there was an overemphasis on disease treatment and a relative neglect of disease prevention and health promotion. Third-party payers of this era continued to reimburse physicians and hospitals on a fee-for-service basis. while president of Chrysler in the late 1970s. Lee Iacocca. For providers of medical care. In the fifteen years following the passage of Medicare and Medicaid. health care system became inundated with paperwork and "red tape. In 1965. unable to switch to a better job because of the loss of health care benefits if they did so. for they were competing with foreign companies that paid far less for employee health insurance than they did. by 1960. physicians increasingly began to practice in groups with other physicians. and 1960s. 1950s. The egalitarian spirit of post–World War II society resulted in the new view that health care was a fundamental right of all citizens.S. This change in attitude was financed by the rise of "third-party payers" that brought more and more Americans into the health care system. instead. stunned many Americans by pointing out that U. however. expenditures on health care in dollars increased nearly sixfold. for institutions with segregated wards were ineligible to receive federal payments. Medicare and Medicaid also brought to an end the era of segregation at U. In the era of the soaring federal budget deficits of the Reagan administration.
when that can be done safely. the twenty-first century has . By the 1980s. there have been serious drawbacks to managed care that in the view of many observers have outweighed its accomplishments. As a result. in contrast to the "hands off" style of traditional feefor-service payment. coupled with the inability of federal regulations and the medical profession on its own to achieve any meaningful cost control. and in the early years of President George Walker Bush's administration. led to the business-imposed approach of "managed care. Unquestionably.7 billion 4. medical schools. and it has stimulated the use of modern information technologies and business practices in the U.S. 1985–present In the mid-1980s. Health Care Costs Dollars 1950 1965 1980 2000 Percentage of GDP $12. and teaching hospitals.U. had been organized in the 1930s to achieve better coordination and continuity of care and to emphasize preventive medical services." Ironically. the country once again faced double-digit health care inflation. however." "Managed care" is a generic term that refers to a large variety of reimbursement plans in which third-party payers attempt to control costs by limiting the utilization of medical services. and the dollar-dominated medical marketplace has been highly injurious to medical education. the managed care movement has brought much good. and the requirement that patients be allowed to see specialists only if referred by a "gatekeeper. it has encouraged greater attention to patients as consumers (for example. In the view of many. Managed care has not kept its promise of controlling health care costs. mandated preauthorizations before hospitalization or surgery. the attempt to control costs had become the dominant force underlying the managed care movement. Managed care has also resulted in a serious loss of trust in doctors and the health care system—creating a widespread fear that doctors might be acting as "double agents. Any cost savings that were achieved were considered a secondary benefit. In addition. the first health maintenance organization." allegedly serving patients but in fact refusing them needed tests and procedures in order to save money for the employing organization or insurance company. severe restrictions on the length of time a patient may remain in the hospital. It has forced the medical profession for the first time to think seriously about costs. However. soaring medical care costs.5 percent $40 billion (est. the managed care movement has encouraged physicians to move many treatments and procedures from hospitals to less costly ambulatory settings.S. the emphasis on cost containment has come at the erosion of the quality of care.2 trillion 14 percent The Managed Care Era. Examples of such cost-savings strategies include the requirement that physicians prescribe drugs only on a plan's approved formulary. Kaiser Permanente. better parking and more palatable hospital food).) 6 percent $230 billion 9 percent $1. health care system.
and the existence of for-profit managed care organizations and hospital chains that each year divert billions of dollars of health care premiums away from medical care and into private wealth. they spend only 80. Only when all these issues are satisfactorily taken into account will the United States have a health care delivery system that matches the promise of what medical science and practice have to offer. Better access to the system must also be provided. and affordable costs. In the twenty-first century. However. doctors. Thus. 70. retaining the rest for the financial benefit of executives and investors. Future Challenges The U. Bibliography . Nonprofit managed care organizations. Medical insurance alone will not solve the health problems of a poor urban community where there are no hospitals. health care system. Clearly. At some point hard decisions will have to be made about what services will and will not be paid for. such as Kaiser Permanente.S.S. the American public must be wise and courageous enough to maintain realistic expectations of medicine. avoiding the "medicalization" of social ills like crime and drug addiction. a more accessible system of highquality care will tend to lead to higher costs. clinics. health care system consider the for-profit motive in the delivery of medical services—rather than managed care per se—the more serious problem. Lastly.opened with a significant public backlash against managed care and a vociferous "patients' rights movement. or even 60 percent of the premiums on health services." a profligate American practice style in which many doctors often perform unnecessary tests and procedures. the inflationary consequences of having a "third party" pay the bill (thereby removing incentives from both doctors and patients to conserve dollars). and recognizing that individuals must assume responsibility for their own health by choosing a healthy lifestyle. This can be done by recognizing the broad determinants of health like good education and meaningful employment opportunities. Certain causes of health care inflation are desirable and inevitable: an aging population and the development of new drugs and technologies. These include the high administrative costs of the U. health care system has three primary goals: the provision of high-quality care. The practical problem in health care policy is that the pursuit of any two of these goals aggravates the third. the country will still face the problem of limited resources and seemingly limitless demand. many of the perceived abuses of managed care have less to do with the principles of managed care than with the presence of the profit motive in investor-owned managed care organizations. a litigious culture that results in the high price of "defensive medicine. there is much room to operate a more efficient. in contrast." Ironically. the for-profit problem is highly significant. or pharmacies.S. other causes of soaring health care costs are clearly less defensible. Some astute observers of the U. For-profit managed care companies. Yet the wiser and more efficient use of resources is only one challenge to our country's health care system. while a low-cost system available to everyone is likely to be achieved at the price of diminishing quality. ready access to the system. since 90 percent of managed care organizations are investor-owned companies. seek to minimize what they call the "medical loss"—the portion of the health care premium that is actually used for health care. retain about 5 percent of the health premiums they receive for administrative and capital expenses and use the remaining 95 percent to provide health care for enrollees. Instead of spending 95 percent of their premiums on health care (a "medical loss" of 95 percent). However. responsible health care delivery system in the United States at a more affordable price. Any efforts at cost containment must continue to be appropriately balanced with efforts to maintain high quality and patient advocacy in medical care.
Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. Rosenberg. Rodwin.: Princeton University Press. New York: Basic Books. The Health Economy. Mass. 2000. see Health care (disambiguation). Medicine. Health Politics: The British and American Experience. and Morals: Physicians' Conflicts of Interest. Paul. Mass. The Profit Motive and Patient Care: The Changing Accountability of Doctors and Hospitals. Severed Trust: Why American Medicine Hasn't Been Fixed. Edited by Charles E. Rosenberg. 1986. New Brunswick.J. Ludmerer. Mechanic. Rosen. 1993. 1875–1941. Stevens. Time to Heal: American Medical Education from the Turn of the Century to the Era of Managed Care. 1999.Fox. 1987. New York: Basic Books. 1982. George. New York: Oxford University Press. Lundberg. Fuchs. 1991. The Social Transformation of American Medicine: The Rise of a Sovereign Profession and the Making of a Vast Industry. David. 1989. Money. 1986. George D. 1987. Howard H. Cambridge. Discussion of this nomination can be found on the talk page. Marc A. Victor R. Rosemary. New York: Basic Books.J. Cambridge. (November 2009) For other uses. America's Health in the Balance: Choice or Chance? New York: Harper and Row. N. Bradford H. 1983. Hiatt. New York: Oxford University Press.: Harvard University Press. 1911– 1965. Painful Choices: Research and Essays on Health Care. Kenneth M. The Care of Strangers: The Rise of America's Hospital System. The Structure of American Medical Practice. Princeton. 1989. Starr.: Rutgers University Press. New York: Basic Books. Daniel M. In Sickness and in Wealth: America's Hospitals in the Twentieth Century.: Harvard University Press. Wikipedia: Health care Top Home > Library > Miscellaneous > Wikipedia This article has been nominated to be checked for its neutrality. N. Health Policies. Gray. . Charles E.
The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is a well-known international relief movement. The definition of to recognize." Albany Times-Union November 12. 2009</ref>. Contents [hide] • • • • • • 1 Health-care industry 2 Research ○ 2. including “preventive. and health insurance is a business which both provides and restricts reimbursement for healthcare itself in the event of disease. The social and political issue of access to healthcare in the US has led to public debate and confusing use of terms such as health care (medical management of illness or disease). The public health is related most to economic development and wealth distribution. health insurance (reimbursement of health care costs). dental. is the treatment and management of illnesses of the elderly. curative and palliative interventions.Surgery one of the most invasive. tough to define. pharmaceutical. or in access to of medical healthcare in individual health-seeking. -promoting or -maintaining behaviours. whether directed to individuals or to populations”. difficult and expensive procedures in medicine. Before the term health care became popular. and the public health (the collective state and range of health in a population). nursing. Health care (often healthcare in British English).1 World Health Organization 3 Economics 4 Systems 5 Politics 6 Health care by country . English-speakers referred to medicine or to the health sector and spoke of the treatment and prevention of illness and disease. and allied health professions. and the preservation of health through services offered by the medical. clinical sciences (in vitro diagnostics). Health care embraces all the goods and services designed to promote health. complementary and alternative medicine.
homeopathy. midwives.50bn compared to €27. List of pharmaceutical sciences journals. According to market classifications of industry such as the Global Industry Classification Standard and the Industry Classification Benchmark the health-care industry includes health care equipment & services and pharmaceuticals. etc. speech therapy.  According to government classifications of Industry. medical massage. diagnostic substances. acupuncture. and the Journal of the American Medical Association are more general journals. and all other research that contributes to the development of new treatments. In terms of pharmaceutical R&D spending. health care generally consists of Hospital activities. and Medical literature Top impact factor academic journals in the health care field include Health Affairs and Milbank Quarterly. nursing home. physiotherapists. ambulance. Biomedical research (or experimental medicine). The latter is termed preclinical research if its goal is specifically to elaborate knowledge for the development of new therapeutic strategies. List of medical journals.  Research See also: List of health care journals. applied research.• • • 7 See also 8 Notes 9 External links Health-care industry Main article: Health care industry The delivery of modern health care depends on an expanding group of trained professionals coming together as an interdisciplinary team. hospitals. which focuses on iterative feedback loops between the basic and clinical research domains to accelerate knowledge translation from the bedside to the bench. or other para-medical practitioners in the field of optometry. chiropody. The particular sectors associated with these groups are: biotechnology. hydrotherapy. or under the supervision of. nurses. pathology clinics. The health-care industry incorporates several sectors that are dedicated to providing services and products dedicated to improving the health of individuals. which are mostly based on the United Nations system.05bn in 2006) and there is less growth in European R&D spending. British Medical Journal. in general simply known as medical research. The New England Journal of Medicine. medical equipment and instruments. drug delivery. drug manufacturers. Europe spends a little less that the United States (€22. and back again. the International Standard Industrial Classification. This involves activities of. providers of health care plans and home health care. or translational research conducted to aid the body of knowledge in the field of medicine. is the basic research. Medical and dental practice activities. List of bioinformatics journals. biotechnology & life sciences. . diagnostic laboratories. and other human health activities. Medical research can be divided into two general categories: the evaluation of new treatments for both safety and efficacy in what are termed clinical trials. nursing homes. music therapy. chiropractice. occupational therapy. scientific or diagnostic laboratiories. A new paradigm to biomedical research is being termed translational research. The last class consists of all activities for human health not performed by hospitals or by medical doctors or dentists.
In 1979 the WHO declared that the disease had been eradicated . . and headquartered in Geneva. The WHO is financed by contributions from member states and from donors. Pharmaceuticals and other medical devices are the leading high technology exports of Europe and the United States. accounting for the three quarters of the world’s biotechnology revenues and 80% of world R&D spending in biotechnology. Voluntary contributions to the WHO from national and local governments. often credited with giving rise to the health economics as a discipline. Examples of its work include years of fighting smallpox. these imbalances lead to market failures resulting from asymmetric information. foundations and NGOs. In recent years the WHO's work has involved more collaboration.  World Health Organization Main article: World Health Organization See also: Global health The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized United Nations agency which acts as a coordinator and researcher for public health around the world. and externalities. Switzerland. making it an international standard. with NGOs and the pharmaceutical industry. A seminal 1963 article by Kenneth Arrow. and to promote the general health of the peoples of the world. intractable uncertainty in several dimensions. as well as with foundations such as the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and the Rockefeller Foundation. the Health Organization. and the private sector (including pharmaceutical companies). the agency inherited the mandate and resources of its predecessor. the United States dominates the biopharmaceutical field. especially key infectious diseases.  However. The organization has already endorsed the world's first official HIV/AIDS Toolkit for Zimbabwe from October 3. The knowledge gap that exists between a physician and a patient can prevent the patient from accurately describing his symptoms or enable the physician to prescribe unnecessary but profitable services. Factors that distinguish health economics from other areas include extensive government intervention. drew conceptual distinctions between health and other goals. 2006. both in patient outcomes and financial concerns. Economics Main article: Health economics Health economics is a branch of economics concerned with issues related to scarcity in the allocation of health and health care. Uncertainty is intrinsic to health. which had been an agency of the League of Nations. Broadly. Externalities arise frequently when considering health and health care.the first disease in history to be completely eliminated by deliberate human design. Established on 7 April 1948. now exceed that of assessed contributions (dues) from its 193 member nations." Its major task is to combat disease. other UN organizations. Governments tend to regulate the health care industry heavily and also tend to be the largest payer within the market. The WHO's constitution states that its mission "is the attainment by all peoples of the highest possible level of health. currently around 80 such partnerships. The WHO is nearing success in developing vaccines against malaria and schistosomiasis and aims to eradicate polio within the next few years. health economists study the functioning of the health care system and the private and social causes of health-affecting behaviors such as smoking. asymmetric information.
or practising safer sex. health care can form an enormous part of a country's economy. Planning. affects people other than the decision maker. and all other nations account for 30%. 9%. and. respectively. and 13%. For example. budgeting and monitoring mechanisms. while Europe. Japan. making an effort to avoid catching a cold. and Germany (10. The scope of health economics is neatly encapsulated by Alan William's "plumbing diagram" dividing the discipline into eight distinct topics: • • • • • • • • What influences health? (other than health care) What is health and what is its value The demand for health care The supply of health care Micro-economic evaluation at treatment level Market equilibrium Evaluation at whole system level.9%).4 per cent of GDP across the OECD countries with the United States (13.9%). Consuming just under 10 percent of gross domestic product of most developed nations. Switzerland (10. Main article: Health care system See also: Preventive medicine and Social medicine . In 2001.7%) being the top three. The United States and Canada account for 48% of world pharmaceutical sales.notably in the context of infectious disease. health care consumed 8. United States accounts for the three quarters of the world’s biotechnology revenues. volunteers on their local hospital. Systems A group of Chilean 'Damas de Rojo'.
 The United States currently operates under a mixed market health care system. Over the past thirty years. In almost every country. health care expenditures. the greater problems with this approach have been the gradual deregulation of HMOs resulting in fewer of the promised choices for consumers. and local) account for 45% of U. system is allowed to operate. a term meant to describe a single agency managing a single system. Current concerns in England. Massachusetts and Connecticut. revolve around the use of private finance initiatives to build hospitals which it is argued costs taxpayers more in the long run. there is consumer-driven health. and usually for-profit. in which systems. concerns are more based on the rising cost of drugs to the governments. state or municipality with a government health care system a parallel private. for instance. affordable health care to state residents. the social model of health places emphasis on changes that can be made in society and in people's own lifestyles to make the population healthier. Critics of consumer-driven health say that it would benefit the healthy but be insufficient for the chronically sick. In contrast. and this coverage and the services provided are regulated. with recent examples being the Massachusetts 2006 Health Reform Statute and Connecticut's SustiNet plan to provide quality. they have less short and mediumterm incentives than private agents to make purchases that can generate revenues and avoid bankruptcy. Second are employer or individual insurance mandates. In Germany and France. an important political issue .Social health insurance is where a nation's entire population is eligible for health care coverage. consumers. most notably Minnesota. In Brazil. and funding of these private systems is variable. Politics Main article: Health policy The politics of health care depends largely on which country one is in. It defines illness from the point of view of the individual's functioning within their society rather than by monitoring for changes in biological or physiological signs.S. A few states have taken serious steps toward universal health care coverage. The medical model of health focuses on the eradication of illness through diagnosis and effective treatment. as found in most modernized countries as well as some states and municipalities within the United States. This is sometimes referred to as two-tier health care. with which the state of Massachusetts has experimented. extent. state. Opponents of government intervention into the market generally believe that such intervention distorts pricing as government agents would be operating outside of the corporate model and the principles of market discipline. The scale. much as the current system operates. Private sources account for the remainder of costs. A traditional view is that improvements in health result from advancements in medical science. with 38% of people receiving health coverage through their employers and 17% arising from other private payment such as private insurance and out-of-pocket co-pays. First is single payer. most of the nation's health care has moved from the second model operating with not-for-profit institutions to the third model operating with for-profit institutions. and patients have more control of how they access care. Finally. Government sources (federal. with proposals currently underway to integrate these systems in various ways to provide a number of health care options. Health system reform in the United States usually focuses around three suggested systems. This is argued[by whom?] to provide a greater incentive to find cost-saving health care approaches. and the steady increase in consumer cost that has marginalized consumers and burdened states with excessive urgent health care costs that are avoided with consumers have adequate access to preventive health care.
) Factcheck. an early candidate who did not get on the ballot. religious. whereas in others planning is made more centrally among governments.is the breach of intellectual property rights. whose population sets the record for HIV infections. the health care system planning is distributed among market participants. Health care by country Health care systems are designed to meet the health care needs of target populations. However. came under pressure for its refusal to admit there is any connection with AIDS because of the cost it would have involved. for the domestic manufacture of antiretroviral drugs used in the treatment of HIV/AIDS. In the United States 12% to 16% of the citizens are still unable to afford health insurance. In some countries. or other co-ordinated bodies to deliver planned health care services targeted to the populations they serve. To tackle the problems of the perpetually increasing number of uninsured. State boards and the Department of Health regulate inpatient care to reduce the national health care deficit. President Barack Obama says he favors the creation of a universal health care system. the state of Oregon and the city of San Francisco are both examples of governments that adopted universal healthcare systems for strictly fiscal reasons. New York Times opinion columnist Paul Krugman said that Obama's plan would not actually provide universal coverage. There are a wide variety of health care systems around the world. and costs associated with the US health care system. The South African government. Dennis Kucinich.  In contrast. trade unions.org alleges that Obama's predicted savings were exaggerated. charities.  However. health care planning has often been evolutionary rather than revolutionary. or patents.  (In contrast. . supported a single-payer system.
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