Levels of health care

In the curative domain there are various forms of medical practice. They may be thought of generally as forming a pyramidal structure, with three tiers representing increasing degrees of specialization and technical sophistication but catering to diminishing numbers of patients as they are filtered out of the system at a lower level. Only those patients who require special attention either for diagnosis or treatment should reach the second (advisory) or third (specialized treatment) tiers where the cost per item of service becomes increasingly higher. The first level represents primary health care, or first contact care, at which patients have their initial contact with the health-care system. Primary health care is an integral part of a country’s health maintenance system, of which it forms the largest and most important part. As described in the declaration of Alma-Ata, primary health care should be “based on practical, scientifically sound and socially acceptable methods and technology made universally accessible to individuals and families in the community through their full participation and at a cost that the community and country can afford to maintain at every stage of their development.” Primary health care in the developed countries is usually the province of a medically qualified physician; in the developing countries first contact care is often provided by nonmedically qualified personnel. The vast majority of patients can be fully dealt with at the primary level. Those who cannot are referred to the second tier (secondary health care, or the referral services) for the opinion of a consultant with specialized knowledge or for X-ray examinations and special tests. Secondary health care often requires the technology offered by a local or regional hospital. Increasingly, however, the radiological and laboratory services provided by hospitals are available directly to the family doctor, thus improving his service to ... (300 of 16486 words)

Encyclopedia of Public Health: Access To Health Services Top

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Rural environments present unique challenges for health care access. There are often shortages of medical personnel in rural areas, as well as transportation and distance barriers to care and an increasing economic destabilization of rural health care services. Since the mid-twentieth century, physicians have favored urban and suburban practice locations over rural areas. Physicians often need lucrative practices to repay high education debts, and they have been trained to use costly new technologies in diagnosis and treatment. Rural practice locations typically generate lower income for the physician and have fewer and older technology resources than urban and suburban locations. Modern medical school graduates are rarely well

advanced trauma care. a home health nurse may visit five patients in a morning within an urban apartment building. and treatment. In addition. Prices. and other complex procedures require specialized medical teams. Closures leave the very old. especially home-based or mobile services. rural communities suffer chronic physician shortages. Consequently. Coronary bypass surgery. Primary care may be provided by nurse practitioners. Accessing complex care in urban medical centers often generates a patient perception that all rural hospital care is of lower quality. and the entire community is left with no access to urgent or emergency care. Many rural hospitals and providers have diversified services to increase revenues. and the economic viability of the services. Advances in medical technology. Price controls most severely affect rural health systems. artery repair. or fee scales. cannot afford the equipment and personnel necessary to treat the entire array of modern disease and injury. Public health systems and an array of alternative primarycare providers often fill in the gaps. spending most of the time traveling.prepared to practice in rural environments. or schools. Neither of these populations generates reimbursements adequate to cover the costs of services. For example. churches. Reduced fees and the refusal of insurers to pay for care often destabilize private professional practices in rural areas. this strategy often fails and the hospital must close. the cost per unit of service is often many times greater than in urban locations. diagnosis. public and private insurers must struggle to control their expenditures. Practice locations include publicly or charitably subsidized comprehensive primary-care centers or categorical service clinics (e. such as health departments. and the poor with no access to hospital inpatient care. the area suffers from the significant loss of employment. People with financial resources and the ability to travel tend to use distant urban centers even for less complex needs. Such resources are economically viable only in hospitals and surgical centers with high volumes of patients. The majority of patients admitted to rural hospitals are either too frail to withstand travel to distant hospitals or cannot afford either the travel or the cost of care in urban areas. equipment. or home-health nurses. yet the time expended is the same. physician assistants. increasing costs. immunizations) situated in central locations. Lower population density also means a lower volume of patients and less provider income. the ability of people to get to those services. However. Low population density and greater travel times and barriers in rural areas affect service availability. Specialty physician services (such as psychiatry or dermatology) may also be available through intermittent clinics in local facilities. the fewer the available health services and the longer the travel distances to access these services. rural residents must often travel great distances to access more costly and complex levels of care. Physician shortages are most visible in primary prevention. leading to greater shortages of personnel. therefore. especially hospitals. Because of the distances between service locations or patient residences. while a nurse in a rural setting may visit only one or two patients. As costs increase. The lower the population density and the larger the area over which the population is distributed. Consequently. Emergency medical services in such areas are scattered over great distances and often staffed . mobile clinics. access public or charitable subsidization in order to remain economically viable. The urban nurse will be reimbursed for five visits and the rural nurse for two. prenatal care. for services include the minimum estimated cost of providing each service. and market forces contribute to the economic destabilization of many rural health care systems. and facilities. Home-based services in rural areas must. and in patient's homes. family planning.g.. the disabled. Small rural health care providers.

HEATHER REED US History Encyclopedia: Health Care Top Home > Library > History. The delivery of care refers to how and where medical services are provided (for example. almost all physicians engaged in "general practice"—the provision of medical and surgical care for all diseases and for all patients. In part. and in rural. specialist physicians. magnify the effects of distance. or various types of outpatient clinics. More remote areas with the capacity to pay for the technology. in small groups. The financing of care involves who pays for medical services (for example. Primary Care. A country's health care system also reflects in part the culture and values of that society. causing increased morbidity and mortality. Public Health Nursing) — SUSAN W. Typically. ISAAC. Prevention. Health care systems. like medical knowledge and medical practice. such as mountains or rivers. Emergency care for severe trauma or major acute illnesses. Germany. the rise of modern surgery in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries helped create the modern hospital in the United States and helped lead to the concentration of so many medical and surgical services in hospital settings. Prenatal Care. nurses. such as psychiatry and dermatology. physicians in the United States. may take longer to arrive than in other areas. and delivered. or in massive corporate organizations. urban. doctors' offices. Migrant Workers. are beginning to use telemedicine to improve access for primary care and certain specialty care. (SEE ALSO: Immunizations. such as stroke and heart attack. Poor roads or geographic barriers. Thus. For instance. regardless of sex and age. such as western Kansas. but the health care systems of these nations vary considerably. the rise of "minimally invasive" surgery a century later contributed to the movement of many surgical procedures out of hospitals and into doctors' offices and other outpatient locations. health care systems reflect the changing scientific and technologic nature of medical practice. Of particular interest to a health care system is how medical care is organized. The organization of care refers to such issues as who gives care (for example. doctors engaged in "solo practice. or suburban locations). Medicare. and Great Britain follow similar medical practices. financed." whereby they practiced by themselves without . Politics & Society > US History Encyclopedia The term "health care system" refers to a country's system of delivering services for the prevention and treatment of disease and for the promotion of physical and mental well-being. self-pay.with volunteers who have other jobs. and alternative practitioners) and whether they are practicing as individuals. private insurance. Traditional Medical Practice in America For the first century of the republic. Poverty and Health. are not fixed but are continually evolving. France. in large groups. primary care physicians. or Medicaid) and how much money is spent on medical care. Canada. reflecting the different cultural values and mores of those societies. However. in hospitals.

and faith healers. Many physicians could not be kept busy practicing medicine. fueled by the growing results of scientific research and the resultant transformation of medical practice—antibiotics. Doctors also experienced vigorous competition for patients from a variety of alternative or lay healers like Thomsonians. As one manifestation of this phenomenon. Residency programs in the clinical specialties had been created. Payment was on the "fee-for-service" basis. hospital wards were segregated by race. where larger concentrations of patients could be found. Decade by decade. Reflecting the rural makeup of the country. but already 80 percent of physicians resided in cities or large towns. The location of care moved to doctors' offices for routine illnesses and to hospitals for surgery. (Some medical specialists earned much more. In the last quarter of the nineteenth century and first quarter of the twentieth century. homeopaths. the U. general store. competition to "regular medicine" from alternative healers had markedly slackened. and major medical problems. and together they contained about one million beds. Doctors' offices were typically at their homes or farms.S. a "two-tiered" system of health care officially existed—private rooms in hospitals for paying patients. physician earned 2½ times the income of the average worker. Since most hospitals were concentrated in cities and large towns. Physician income. most physicians resided in rural settings. the number of acute care hospitals had increased to around 7. By 1940. In the 1920s.S. about 75 to 80 percent of doctors continued to engage in general practice. Table 1 Specialization in Medicine American Board of Ophthalmology American Board of Pediatrics 191 6 193 3 . House calls were common. specialty medicine was already becoming prominent. vitamins. Doctors would give patients a bill.000 beds. and health care was not yet considered a fundamental right. Competition for patients from alternative healers diminished. antiseizure medications. safer childbirth. hormones. By 1930. the technologic capacity and cultural authority of physicians in the United States began to escalate. particularly in the South. on average. and by 1940 formal certifying boards in the major clinical specialties had been established.partners.) Most physicians continued in solo. childbirth. and large wards for indigent patients where as many as thirty or forty "charity" patients would be housed together in one wide open room. and doctors often received payment in kind—a chicken or box of fruit rather than money. was not high. and the average U. population was still 50 percent rural. fueled by the revolution in medical science (particularly the rise of bacteriology and modern surgery). However." In 1875. and patients would pay out of pocket. and it was common for doctors to have a second business like a farm. or pharmacy. fee-for-service practice. and most Americans thought of consulting a doctor if they needed medical services. Medicine at this time was not an easy way for an individual to earn a living. Indeed. there were 661 hospitals in the United States containing in aggregate about 30.000. Before World War II (1939–1945). In many hospitals and clinics. doctors were increasingly found in larger metropolises. the hospital came to be considered the "doctor's workshop. and many effective new drugs and operations—the cultural authority of doctors continued to grow.

Equally impressive therapeutic procedures came into use. Most Americans now faced the . immunosuppressants. and the major causes of death each year were various infections. stroke. most notably the polio vaccine. 1945–1985 The four decades following World War II witnessed even more extraordinary advances in the ability of medical care to prevent and relieve suffering. radioimmunoassays. openheart surgery. computerized tomography. hip replacements. such as newer and more powerful antibiotics. average life expectancy in the United States was forty-seven years. such as automated chemistry analyzers. antihypertensive drugs. New vaccines. Powerful diagnostic tools were developed. were developed. By midcentury. In 1900. and by the end of the century life expectancy in the United States had increased about 30 years from that of 1900. mechanical ventilators. chronic diseases such as cancer.Specialization in Medicine American Board of Radiology American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology American Board of Orthopedic Surgery 193 4 193 4 193 4 American Board of Colon and Rectal 193 Surgery 4 American Board of Urology American Board of Pathology American Board of Internal Medicine American Board of Anesthesiology American Board of Plastic Surgery American Board of Surgery American Board of Neurological Surgery 193 5 193 6 193 6 193 7 193 7 193 7 194 0 The Transformation of Health Care. kidney dialysis machines. and heart attacks had replaced infections as the major causes of death. corticosteroids. and a variety of organ transplantations. and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging.

others argued that there was an overemphasis on disease treatment and a relative neglect of disease prevention and health promotion. In the 1940s. In the fifteen years following the passage of Medicare and Medicaid. Millions of Americans became unwillingly tied to their employers. These exceptional scientific accomplishments. And the scientific and technological advances of medicine created a host of unprecedented ethical issues: the meaning of life and death. (When President Bill Clinton assumed office in 1993. This change in attitude was financed by the rise of "third-party payers" that brought more and more Americans into the health care system. 1950s. most American physicians were still general practitioners. physicians increasingly began to practice in groups with other physicians. for they were competing with foreign companies that paid far less for employee health insurance than they did. the number of uninsured Americans was estimated at 40 million. for institutions with segregated wards were ineligible to receive federal payments. For providers of medical care. The increasingly complicated U. unable to switch to a better job because of the loss of health care benefits if they did so. these problems seemed even more insurmountable. Lee Iacocca. by 1960.problem of helping their parents or grandparents cope with Alzheimer's disease or cancer rather than that of standing by helplessly watching their children suffocate to death from diphtheria. and health care costs rose from 6 percent to 9 percent of the country's gross domestic product (GDP). not merely a privilege. Public opinion polls of the early 1980s revealed that 60 percent of the population worried about health care costs.S. The egalitarian spirit of post–World War II society resulted in the new view that health care was a fundamental right of all citizens.) Many patients and health policy experts complained of the fragmentation of services that resulted from increasing specialization. automobile companies were spending more per car on health premiums for workers than for the steel that went into the automobiles. stunned many Americans by pointing out that U. when and how to turn off an artificial life-support device. Before the war. compared with only 10 percent who worried about the quality of care. and 1960s. the enactment of the landmark Medicare (a federal program for individuals over 65) and Medicaid (joint federal and state programs for the poor) legislation extended health care coverage to millions of additional Americans. however. Despite these accomplishments. the most critical problem of the health care system was soaring costs. Table 2 . the health care system was under increasing stress. while president of Chrysler in the late 1970s. expenditures on health care in dollars increased nearly sixfold. When he left office in 2001. Medicare and Medicaid also brought to an end the era of segregation at U. Employers found their competitiveness in the global market to be compromised. instead. Fewer and fewer doctors were engaged in solo practice. private medical insurance companies like Blue Cross/Blue Shield began providing health care insurance to millions of middle-class citizens.S. that number had climbed to around 48 million. 85 to 90 percent of medical graduates were choosing careers in specialty or subspecialty medicine. Third-party payers of this era continued to reimburse physicians and hospitals on a fee-for-service basis. however. how to preserve patient autonomy and to obtain proper informed consent for clinical care or research trials. together with the development of the civil rights movement after World War II.S. hospitals. resulted in profound changes in the country's health care delivery system. Tens of millions of Americans still did not have access to health care. this meant unprecedented financial prosperity and minimal interference by payers in medical decision-making." which was estimated to be two to four times as much as in other Western industrialized nations. To most observers. In the era of the soaring federal budget deficits of the Reagan administration. health care system became inundated with paperwork and "red tape. In 1965.

and the requirement that patients be allowed to see specialists only if referred by a "gatekeeper." Ironically. however. the twenty-first century has . medical schools. the managed care movement has encouraged physicians to move many treatments and procedures from hospitals to less costly ambulatory settings. health care system. coupled with the inability of federal regulations and the medical profession on its own to achieve any meaningful cost control.5 percent $40 billion (est." "Managed care" is a generic term that refers to a large variety of reimbursement plans in which third-party payers attempt to control costs by limiting the utilization of medical services. mandated preauthorizations before hospitalization or surgery. and the dollar-dominated medical marketplace has been highly injurious to medical education.) 6 percent $230 billion 9 percent $1. had been organized in the 1930s to achieve better coordination and continuity of care and to emphasize preventive medical services. the emphasis on cost containment has come at the erosion of the quality of care. when that can be done safely. better parking and more palatable hospital food). As a result." allegedly serving patients but in fact refusing them needed tests and procedures in order to save money for the employing organization or insurance company. the first health maintenance organization. Kaiser Permanente.7 billion 4. and it has stimulated the use of modern information technologies and business practices in the U. Managed care has not kept its promise of controlling health care costs.2 trillion 14 percent The Managed Care Era. 1985–present In the mid-1980s. Any cost savings that were achieved were considered a secondary benefit. led to the business-imposed approach of "managed care. the attempt to control costs had become the dominant force underlying the managed care movement. In the view of many.S. there have been serious drawbacks to managed care that in the view of many observers have outweighed its accomplishments. it has encouraged greater attention to patients as consumers (for example. and in the early years of President George Walker Bush's administration. Examples of such cost-savings strategies include the requirement that physicians prescribe drugs only on a plan's approved formulary. By the 1980s. Managed care has also resulted in a serious loss of trust in doctors and the health care system—creating a widespread fear that doctors might be acting as "double agents. severe restrictions on the length of time a patient may remain in the hospital. the country once again faced double-digit health care inflation. However. In addition. soaring medical care costs. the managed care movement has brought much good.U. in contrast to the "hands off" style of traditional feefor-service payment. Unquestionably.S. and teaching hospitals. It has forced the medical profession for the first time to think seriously about costs. Health Care Costs Dollars 1950 1965 1980 2000 Percentage of GDP $12.

a more accessible system of highquality care will tend to lead to higher costs." a profligate American practice style in which many doctors often perform unnecessary tests and procedures. Clearly. health care system. avoiding the "medicalization" of social ills like crime and drug addiction. Any efforts at cost containment must continue to be appropriately balanced with efforts to maintain high quality and patient advocacy in medical care. the country will still face the problem of limited resources and seemingly limitless demand. such as Kaiser Permanente. many of the perceived abuses of managed care have less to do with the principles of managed care than with the presence of the profit motive in investor-owned managed care organizations. other causes of soaring health care costs are clearly less defensible. in contrast. the American public must be wise and courageous enough to maintain realistic expectations of medicine. there is much room to operate a more efficient. In the twenty-first century. clinics. For-profit managed care companies.S.S. retaining the rest for the financial benefit of executives and investors. Nonprofit managed care organizations. ready access to the system. Instead of spending 95 percent of their premiums on health care (a "medical loss" of 95 percent). Some astute observers of the U.S. health care system has three primary goals: the provision of high-quality care.opened with a significant public backlash against managed care and a vociferous "patients' rights movement. they spend only 80. a litigious culture that results in the high price of "defensive medicine. The practical problem in health care policy is that the pursuit of any two of these goals aggravates the third. Thus. and affordable costs. and recognizing that individuals must assume responsibility for their own health by choosing a healthy lifestyle. seek to minimize what they call the "medical loss"—the portion of the health care premium that is actually used for health care. Future Challenges The U. However. Medical insurance alone will not solve the health problems of a poor urban community where there are no hospitals. or even 60 percent of the premiums on health services. doctors. At some point hard decisions will have to be made about what services will and will not be paid for. responsible health care delivery system in the United States at a more affordable price. the for-profit problem is highly significant." Ironically. However. Lastly. Only when all these issues are satisfactorily taken into account will the United States have a health care delivery system that matches the promise of what medical science and practice have to offer. These include the high administrative costs of the U. 70. Better access to the system must also be provided. health care system consider the for-profit motive in the delivery of medical services—rather than managed care per se—the more serious problem. the inflationary consequences of having a "third party" pay the bill (thereby removing incentives from both doctors and patients to conserve dollars). Bibliography . or pharmacies. while a low-cost system available to everyone is likely to be achieved at the price of diminishing quality. retain about 5 percent of the health premiums they receive for administrative and capital expenses and use the remaining 95 percent to provide health care for enrollees. This can be done by recognizing the broad determinants of health like good education and meaningful employment opportunities. since 90 percent of managed care organizations are investor-owned companies. and the existence of for-profit managed care organizations and hospital chains that each year divert billions of dollars of health care premiums away from medical care and into private wealth. Certain causes of health care inflation are desirable and inevitable: an aging population and the development of new drugs and technologies. Yet the wiser and more efficient use of resources is only one challenge to our country's health care system.

1993. Marc A. 1989.J.: Princeton University Press. New York: Basic Books. New York: Oxford University Press. Hiatt. George. Wikipedia: Health care Top Home > Library > Miscellaneous > Wikipedia This article has been nominated to be checked for its neutrality. David. Mechanic. Ludmerer. 1991. Rosenberg. (November 2009) For other uses. New York: Oxford University Press. Paul. Time to Heal: American Medical Education from the Turn of the Century to the Era of Managed Care. New York: Basic Books. Health Politics: The British and American Experience. Cambridge. and Morals: Physicians' Conflicts of Interest. Lundberg.: Harvard University Press. Victor R.J. Mass. Gray. New York: Basic Books. Stevens. Rosenberg. 1911– 1965. Kenneth M. Howard H. . Princeton. George D. The Structure of American Medical Practice. Rosen. In Sickness and in Wealth: America's Hospitals in the Twentieth Century. Money. Discussion of this nomination can be found on the talk page. Edited by Charles E. see Health care (disambiguation). The Profit Motive and Patient Care: The Changing Accountability of Doctors and Hospitals. N. The Care of Strangers: The Rise of America's Hospital System. Medicine. Rodwin. 1986. The Health Economy. 1986. Starr. Fuchs. 1875–1941. Daniel M. 1989. 1987. N. Painful Choices: Research and Essays on Health Care. New York: Basic Books. 1999. Bradford H. Rosemary.: Rutgers University Press. Severed Trust: Why American Medicine Hasn't Been Fixed. 1983.Fox. Charles E. Cambridge. 1987. America's Health in the Balance: Choice or Chance? New York: Harper and Row. Mass. 2000. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. Health Policies. The Social Transformation of American Medicine: The Rise of a Sovereign Profession and the Making of a Vast Industry.: Harvard University Press. New Brunswick. 1982.

complementary and alternative medicine. Before the term health care became popular. health insurance (reimbursement of health care costs). dental. and the preservation of health through services offered by the medical. and allied health professions. difficult and expensive procedures in medicine. tough to define. -promoting or -maintaining behaviours.Surgery one of the most invasive. English-speakers referred to medicine or to the health sector and spoke of the treatment and prevention of illness and disease." Albany Times-Union November 12. 2009</ref>. Health care (often healthcare in British English). The social and political issue of access to healthcare in the US has led to public debate and confusing use of terms such as health care (medical management of illness or disease). Health care embraces all the goods and services designed to promote health. nursing. clinical sciences (in vitro diagnostics). pharmaceutical. or in access to of medical healthcare in individual health-seeking. curative and palliative interventions. and health insurance is a business which both provides and restricts reimbursement for healthcare itself in the event of disease. The public health is related most to economic development and wealth distribution.1 World Health Organization 3 Economics 4 Systems 5 Politics 6 Health care by country . is the treatment and management of illnesses of the elderly. The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is a well-known international relief movement. and the public health (the collective state and range of health in a population). including “preventive. whether directed to individuals or to populations”.[1] The definition of to recognize. Contents [hide] • • • • • • 1 Health-care industry 2 Research ○ 2.

drug delivery. etc. diagnostic substances. or translational research conducted to aid the body of knowledge in the field of medicine. chiropody.[6] . List of bioinformatics journals. health care generally consists of Hospital activities. The New England Journal of Medicine. Medical research can be divided into two general categories: the evaluation of new treatments for both safety and efficacy in what are termed clinical trials. medical massage. scientific or diagnostic laboratiories.05bn in 2006) and there is less growth in European R&D spending. According to market classifications of industry such as the Global Industry Classification Standard and the Industry Classification Benchmark the health-care industry includes health care equipment & services and pharmaceuticals. and back again. List of pharmaceutical sciences journals. the International Standard Industrial Classification. The particular sectors associated with these groups are: biotechnology. pathology clinics.• • • 7 See also 8 Notes 9 External links Health-care industry Main article: Health care industry The delivery of modern health care depends on an expanding group of trained professionals coming together as an interdisciplinary team. This involves activities of. List of medical journals. is the basic research. or under the supervision of. which are mostly based on the United Nations system. drug manufacturers. medical equipment and instruments. speech therapy. In terms of pharmaceutical R&D spending. midwives. Europe spends a little less that the United States (€22. nursing home. and other human health activities. hospitals. which focuses on iterative feedback loops between the basic and clinical research domains to accelerate knowledge translation from the bedside to the bench. homeopathy. Medical and dental practice activities. nurses. applied research. music therapy. or other para-medical practitioners in the field of optometry. [4] According to government classifications of Industry. hydrotherapy. Biomedical research (or experimental medicine). occupational therapy. chiropractice. ambulance. biotechnology & life sciences. diagnostic laboratories. A new paradigm to biomedical research is being termed translational research.50bn compared to €27.[2][3] The health-care industry incorporates several sectors that are dedicated to providing services and products dedicated to improving the health of individuals. The latter is termed preclinical research if its goal is specifically to elaborate knowledge for the development of new therapeutic strategies. providers of health care plans and home health care. and the Journal of the American Medical Association are more general journals. and all other research that contributes to the development of new treatments. acupuncture. [5] Research See also: List of health care journals. British Medical Journal. and Medical literature Top impact factor academic journals in the health care field include Health Affairs and Milbank Quarterly. nursing homes. physiotherapists. in general simply known as medical research. The last class consists of all activities for human health not performed by hospitals or by medical doctors or dentists.

the Health Organization. Broadly. and to promote the general health of the peoples of the world. both in patient outcomes and financial concerns. and externalities. drew conceptual distinctions between health and other goals. Externalities arise frequently when considering health and health care. 2006. health economists study the functioning of the health care system and the private and social causes of health-affecting behaviors such as smoking. as well as with foundations such as the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and the Rockefeller Foundation. The WHO is nearing success in developing vaccines against malaria and schistosomiasis and aims to eradicate polio within the next few years. Voluntary contributions to the WHO from national and local governments.[10] Economics Main article: Health economics Health economics is a branch of economics concerned with issues related to scarcity in the allocation of health and health care.the first disease in history to be completely eliminated by deliberate human design. with NGOs and the pharmaceutical industry. especially key infectious diseases.[9] The WHO is financed by contributions from member states and from donors. and the private sector (including pharmaceutical companies).[11] Factors that distinguish health economics from other areas include extensive government intervention. intractable uncertainty in several dimensions. the United States dominates the biopharmaceutical field. asymmetric information. which had been an agency of the League of Nations. In 1979 the WHO declared that the disease had been eradicated . foundations and NGOs. other UN organizations. often credited with giving rise to the health economics as a discipline. making it an international standard.[7] Pharmaceuticals and other medical devices are the leading high technology exports of Europe and the United States. [7][8] However.[12] Governments tend to regulate the health care industry heavily and also tend to be the largest payer within the market." Its major task is to combat disease. Switzerland. accounting for the three quarters of the world’s biotechnology revenues and 80% of world R&D spending in biotechnology. Uncertainty is intrinsic to health. The organization has already endorsed the world's first official HIV/AIDS Toolkit for Zimbabwe from October 3. . the agency inherited the mandate and resources of its predecessor. The knowledge gap that exists between a physician and a patient can prevent the patient from accurately describing his symptoms or enable the physician to prescribe unnecessary but profitable services. and headquartered in Geneva. [6][7] World Health Organization Main article: World Health Organization See also: Global health The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized United Nations agency which acts as a coordinator and researcher for public health around the world. Examples of its work include years of fighting smallpox. these imbalances lead to market failures resulting from asymmetric information. currently around 80 such partnerships. The WHO's constitution states that its mission "is the attainment by all peoples of the highest possible level of health. Established on 7 April 1948. In recent years the WHO's work has involved more collaboration. now exceed that of assessed contributions (dues) from its 193 member nations. A seminal 1963 article by Kenneth Arrow.

health care consumed 8. Japan. health care can form an enormous part of a country's economy. affects people other than the decision maker. or practising safer sex. The United States and Canada account for 48% of world pharmaceutical sales. For example. volunteers on their local hospital. Planning. Systems A group of Chilean 'Damas de Rojo'. 9%. making an effort to avoid catching a cold. and all other nations account for 30%. and Germany (10. while Europe.9%). and 13%.notably in the context of infectious disease. Switzerland (10. Consuming just under 10 percent of gross domestic product of most developed nations.4 per cent of GDP across the OECD countries[14] with the United States (13.9%). Main article: Health care system See also: Preventive medicine and Social medicine .7%) being the top three. In 2001. respectively. and. budgeting and monitoring mechanisms.[7] United States accounts for the three quarters of the world’s biotechnology revenues. The scope of health economics is neatly encapsulated by Alan William's "plumbing diagram"[13] dividing the discipline into eight distinct topics: • • • • • • • • What influences health? (other than health care) What is health and what is its value The demand for health care The supply of health care Micro-economic evaluation at treatment level Market equilibrium Evaluation at whole system level.

Critics of consumer-driven health say that it would benefit the healthy but be insufficient for the chronically sick. for instance. A traditional view is that improvements in health result from advancements in medical science. an important political issue . The medical model of health focuses on the eradication of illness through diagnosis and effective treatment. as found in most modernized countries as well as some states and municipalities within the United States. health care expenditures.S. state. The scale.Social health insurance is where a nation's entire population is eligible for health care coverage. In Brazil. much as the current system operates. system is allowed to operate.[19] In Germany and France. with proposals currently underway to integrate these systems in various ways to provide a number of health care options. and funding of these private systems is variable. affordable health care to state residents. the social model of health places emphasis on changes that can be made in society and in people's own lifestyles to make the population healthier. A few states have taken serious steps toward universal health care coverage. Opponents of government intervention into the market generally believe that such intervention distorts pricing as government agents would be operating outside of the corporate model and the principles of market discipline. Health system reform in the United States usually focuses around three suggested systems. in which systems. Finally.[18] Politics Main article: Health policy The politics of health care depends largely on which country one is in. and local) account for 45% of U. Massachusetts and Connecticut. This is argued[by whom?] to provide a greater incentive to find cost-saving health care approaches. they have less short and mediumterm incentives than private agents to make purchases that can generate revenues and avoid bankruptcy. the greater problems with this approach have been the gradual deregulation of HMOs resulting in fewer of the promised choices for consumers. state or municipality with a government health care system a parallel private. revolve around the use of private finance initiatives to build hospitals which it is argued costs taxpayers more in the long run. with which the state of Massachusetts has experimented. consumers. concerns are more based on the rising cost of drugs to the governments. First is single payer. a term meant to describe a single agency managing a single system. with recent examples being the Massachusetts 2006 Health Reform Statute[17] and Connecticut's SustiNet plan to provide quality. with 38% of people receiving health coverage through their employers and 17% arising from other private payment such as private insurance and out-of-pocket co-pays. and usually for-profit. most notably Minnesota. Government sources (federal. most of the nation's health care has moved from the second model operating with not-for-profit institutions to the third model operating with for-profit institutions. extent. Over the past thirty years. Second are employer or individual insurance mandates. Current concerns in England.[16] Private sources account for the remainder of costs. It defines illness from the point of view of the individual's functioning within their society rather than by monitoring for changes in biological or physiological signs. and this coverage and the services provided are regulated. and patients have more control of how they access care.[15] The United States currently operates under a mixed market health care system. This is sometimes referred to as two-tier health care. there is consumer-driven health. and the steady increase in consumer cost that has marginalized consumers and burdened states with excessive urgent health care costs that are avoided with consumers have adequate access to preventive health care. In almost every country. In contrast.

The South African government. . and costs associated with the US health care system. President Barack Obama says he favors the creation of a universal health care system. the health care system planning is distributed among market participants. [23] In contrast. In some countries. or other co-ordinated bodies to deliver planned health care services targeted to the populations they serve. Health care by country Health care systems are designed to meet the health care needs of target populations.org alleges that Obama's predicted savings were exaggerated. In the United States 12% to 16% of the citizens are still unable to afford health insurance. There are a wide variety of health care systems around the world. trade unions. whose population sets the record for HIV infections. the state of Oregon and the city of San Francisco are both examples of governments that adopted universal healthcare systems for strictly fiscal reasons. whereas in others planning is made more centrally among governments. charities. However. health care planning has often been evolutionary rather than revolutionary.is the breach of intellectual property rights. an early candidate who did not get on the ballot. New York Times opinion columnist Paul Krugman said that Obama's plan would not actually provide universal coverage. Dennis Kucinich.) Factcheck. or patents. for the domestic manufacture of antiretroviral drugs used in the treatment of HIV/AIDS. [21] However. [22] (In contrast. State boards and the Department of Health regulate inpatient care to reduce the national health care deficit. To tackle the problems of the perpetually increasing number of uninsured. religious. came under pressure for its refusal to admit there is any connection with AIDS[20] because of the cost it would have involved. supported a single-payer system.

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