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Submitted By :Shivanshu Gupta
Term Paper B.Tech-M.Tech (CSE) RB1902A27
Applications Of Transformer In Industry
ELE 101 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
While making this project I have left no stone unturned to make this project a successful one. It is hoped this both my teacher and classmates will find this project complete in itself.
I express my thanks to all my colleagues for the helpful co-operation, in particular I would like to thank Mr. Princejit Sir, ELE 101, Lovely Professional University, Jalandhar, whose wiling co-operation have been of great help in development of this project.
Submitted to:Princejit Sir
Although I have tried to make this project devoid of any mistakes and logical errors but still if you find any mistakes in it please let me know about it. I will be glad to know it because it is the suggestion of the elders and teachers which will serve as the most effective guidelines in
affecting the improvements and making alternations for better. compactness and lucidity meets the requirement of the teacher. SHIVANSHU GUPTA Laminated core Toroidal transformer Auto transformer Stray field transformer Polyphase transformer Resonant transformer Constant voltage transformer Ferrite core transformer Planar transformer Oil cooled transformer Cast resin transformer Isolating transformer Pulse transformer RF transformer Brief Content y y y y Introduction To Transformer Position of winding with respect to core y y Air core transformer Ferrite core transformer Transmission line transformer Baluns transformer Audio transformer Loudspeaker transformer Output Transformer Small Signal transformer Interstage and coupling transformer Homemade and obsolete transformers Transformer kit Core type transformer Shell type transformer Transformation ratio y y y y y y Step up transformer Step down transformer y . y y Type of services Distribution transformer Power transformer I dedicate this project to my teachers and my parents for their unstinted encouragement and support which will always inspired me in all my endeavors. Applications Power transformer y y y y y y y y y y y y My aim will be more than served if hopefully this approaches towards brevity.
. The Frequency of the induced emf in the winding is same as that of the voltage in the first winding.y y Hedgehog variocouplers frequency.upper yoke and bottom yoke. Thus. it sets up an alternating flux in the magnetic core.The Primary and Secondary coils are split into A Transformer is a static electromagnetic device that transforms one alternating current system into another of different voltage and current without any change in two parts parts. When a time varying voltage is applied to one winding. If the other winding is connected to load. Magnetic Circuit of the transformer consists of cores and yokes. Transformers are classified on the three basis :- (a) Position of the windings with respect to core :- Core-Type Transformer Introduction To Transformer A Single phase core type transformer consists of a magnetic rame with two cores. It provides the path to the flow of magnetic flux. the induced emf in the winding circulates a current in it. Transformer consists of two windings that are electrically isolated from each other.Half the turns of the primary and half the secondary turns are placed on each core. Due to the high permeability of the core. most of the flux links the other winding and induces an alternating emf in that winding. Transformers play a major part in the transmission and distribution of ac power. power is transferred from one winding to the other through the magnetic flux in the core.
Step-down Transformer Applications It transforms high primary voltage.associated with low current into a low secondary voltage with high current.Hence the number of turns in the primary coil is much larger compared to secondary coil. Hence Power transformers should have maximum efficiency at nearly 80 percent full load.The Secondary coil consists of a large number of turns of find insulated copper wire and the primary coil contains a few turns of thick insulated wire. and used in generating stations and substations for stepping up or stepping down the voltage. (b) Transformation Ratio :- Power Transformer Step-up Transformer Transformers with ratings above 500 KVA It Transforms a low voltage.used to step down the comparatively low transmission voltage to distribution voltage or the distribution voltage (11 KV) to standard service voltage (3 phi. These Transformers will be in operation during the load periods and can be disconnected during light load periods.Shell-Type Transformer Small step-down transformers up to 500KVA.low current ac system.completing the path of magnetic flux. There are different types of transformer and each of them are useful in different purposes:- (1) Power Transformer (c) Type Of Services :(a) Laminated Core Distribution Transformer .440V).high current ac into a high voltage. A Single Phase Shell Type Transformer consists of a magnetic frame with a central core and two side cores.
copper windings around that ring. it is generally used in the transformation of ac voltage. and a higher (or lower) voltage is produced across another portion of the same winding. It can act as a transformer with inherent current limitation due to its lower coupling between the primary and the secondary winding.It is the most common type of transformer. . Small appliance and electronics transformers may have a thermal cut out built in. Comparison of Toroidal Transformer with EI Core Transformer :--Lower external magnetic field. transformer losses mean that autotransformers are not perfectly reversible. Smaller for a given power rating. series connected up to 7. Less robust. (d) Stray Field Transformer (b) Toroidal Transformers These have a significant stray field or a magnetic bypass in its core. Other shape pairs are sometimes used. This is true of isolated winding transformers too. It acts as a both voltage transformer and magnetic ballast. and tape for the insulation.5 kV AC working voltage). Laminated core made with silicon steel with high permeability. The output and input currents are low enough to prevent thermal overload under each load condition . and the lower voltage from one end to a tap. giving a high level of insulation between the windings. Core laminate stampings are usually in EI shape pairs. Over-tightening the central fixing bolt may short the windings. A screen winding is occasionally used between the 2 power windings. It consists of ring shaped core. The difference is usually slight enough to allow reversal where the actual voltage level is not critical. The higher voltage will be connected to the ends of the winding. which is tapped at some point along the winding. Mu-metal shields can be fitted to reduce EMI (electromagnetic interference). (c) Auto Transformer These have only a single winding. Stray field transformers are used for arc welding and high voltage discharge lamps (cold cathode fluorescent lamps. Rectangular core. AC or pulsed voltage is applied across a portion of the winding. Small appliance and electronic transformers may use a split bobbin. It is doughnut shaped like transformer used to save space compared to EI cores and to reduce the external magnetic fields. It¶s characteristics are : ---Available in power ratings ranging from m W to MW. as winding requires more complex and slower equipment. Eddy current losses can be reduced by a lamination of the core. which is unwanted in most other cases.even if the secondary is shortened. Higher cost in most cases. In practice. one designed for stepping down a voltage will deliver slightly less voltage than required if used to step up.
The powder core enables high frequency operation. There are many possible configurations that may involve more or fewer than six windings and various tap connections. The resonant coil. such as a square or sawtooth wave at the resonant frequency. the earth connection point is usually the center point of a Y winding. acts as an inductor. A vector group indicates the configuration of the windings and the phase angle difference between them. These devices are used to generate high alternating voltages. The output waveform is heavily distorted unless careful measures are taken to prevent this. until it (h) Ferrit Core Power Transformer They are widely used in switched mode power supplies (SMPS). Saturating transformers provide a simple rugged method to stabilize an AC power supply. The three primary windings are connected together and the three secondary windings are connected together. a transformer can be arranged to automatically keep the secondary winding voltage relatively constant for varying primary supply without additional circuitry or manual adjustment. each pulse of current helps to build up an oscillation in the secondary coil. If a winding is connected to earth. Other applications of resonant transformers are as coupling between stages of a superheterodyne receiver. three separate single-phase transformers can be used. and installing a ferro-resonant tank circuit. or all three phases can be connected to a single polyphase transformer. Due to resonance. and is connected in series with a capacitor. the ground may be connected to a center tap on one winding or one phase may be grounded (corner grounded delta). If the secondary is a Delta winding. The most common connections are Y-Delta. When the primary coil is driven by a periodic source of alternating current. and the current available can be much larger than that from electrostatic machines such as the Van de Graff generator or Wimshurst machine.(e) Polyphase Transformer For three-phase transformer. A special purpose polyphase transformer is the zigzag transformer. because regulating action depends on core saturation. is limited by some process such as electrical breakdown. Delta-Y. which reduces efficiency somewhat. a very high voltage can develop across the secondary. DeltaDelta and Y-Y. usually the secondary. and hence much smaller size to power ratio . where the selectivity of the receiver is provided by the tuned transformers of the intermediatefrequency amplifiers. These operates at the resonant frequency of one or more of its coils and an external capacitor. CVA transformers run hotter than standard power transformers. (g) Constant Voltage Transformer (f) Resonant Transformer By arranging particular magnetic properties of a transformer core.
Manufacturers etch spiral patterns on a printed circuit board to form the windings of a planar transformer. These transformers simplify installation since they are dry. Where a higher rating is required. Extra voltage tapping is sometimes included. They are simply 1:1 laminated core transformers. But this isn't true of all transformers. Oil circulates through ducts in the coil and around the coil and core assembly. the design of the transformers is less flexible. or where the transformer Most transformers isolate. -> Much thinner than other transformers. Ferrite transformers are not usable as power transformers at mains frequency. The oil is cooled by the outside of the tank in small ratings. and in larger ratings an aircooled radiator is used. -> Almost all use a ferrite planar core. but to earn . However. and so require no fire-proof valut for indoor installations. because the molds for casting the coils are only available in fixed sizes. substitute fire-resistant liquids such as silicone oils are instead used.than laminated iron transformers. The epoxy protects the windings from dust and corrosive atomospheres. Formerly. for low-profile applications. without cooling oil. which may make them more costly if customized features are required. Other planar transformers are one of many components on one large printed circuit board. Some are commercially sold as discrete components²the transformer is the only thing on that printed circuit board. is used in a building or underground. However the term 'isolating transformer' is normally applied to mains transformers providing isolation rather than voltage transformation. moved by convection. since these are now banned. oil pumps are used to circulate the oil and an oil-to-water heat exchanger may also be used. meaning the secondary winding is not connected to the primary. (k) Cast Resin Transformer (i) Planar Transformer These encase the windings in epoxy resin. the core and coils of the transformer are immersed in oil which cools and insulates. (j) Oil Cooled Transformer (l)Isolating Transformer These are used in power distribution or electrical substations. indoor transformers required to be fire-resistant used PCB liquids.
Typically the secondary of a voltage transformer is rated for 69 V or 120 V at rated primary voltage. The transformer winding high-voltage connection points are typically labeled as H1. H2 and X1. another. called a Rogowski coil. (2) Instrument Transformer (a) Current Transformer (b) Voltage Transformer It is a measurement device designed to provide a current in its secondary coil proportional to the current flowing in its primary. They are often constructed by passing a single primary turn through a wellinsulated toroidal core wrapped with many turns of wire. X2 and sometimes an X3 tap may be present. The current transformer safely isolates measurement and control circuitry from the high voltages typically present on the circuit being measured. . The secondary winding can be single ratio or have several tap points to provide a range of ratios. used for metering and protection in high-voltage circuits. The CT is typically described by its current ratio from primary to secondary. as this will produce a dangerously high voltage across the open secondary and may permanently affect the accuracy of the transformer. The low side (secondary) is usually phase to ground. They are designed to present negligible load to the supply being measured and to have a precise voltage ratio to accurately step down high voltages so that metering and protective relay equipment can be operated at a lower potential. an external integrator in order to provide a proportional output. Specially constructed wideband CTs are also used. Current transformers are commonly used in metering and protective relaying in the electrical power industry where they facilitate the safe measurement of large currents. Correct identification of terminals and wiring is essential for proper operation of metering and protection relays. Sometimes a second isolated winding may also be available on the same voltage transformer. The terminal identifications are often referred to as polarity.the name 'isolating transformer' it is expected that they will usually be used at 1:1 ratio. This applies to current transformers as well. often in the presence of high voltages. The high side (primary) may be connected phase to ground or phase to phase. At any instant terminals with the same suffix numeral have the same polarity and phase. One type provides a voltage output that is proportional to the measured current. usually with an oscilloscope. to measure high frequency waveforms or pulsed currents within pulsed power systems. Care must be taken that the secondary winding is not disconnected from its load while current flows in the primary. to match the input ratings of protection relays. requires Voltage Transformers or Potential Transformers are another type of instrument transformer.
The . (4) RF Transformer There are several types of transformer used in radio frequency work. They have a duty cycle of less than 1. a pulse transformer needs to have low values of leakage inductance and distributed capacitance. In power-type pulse transformers. (b) Ferrite-Core Transformer It is widely used in intermediate frequency stages in superheterodyne radio receivers. the larger this product. Modern meters eliminate the need of VT's since the voltage remains constant and it is measured in the incoming supply. VTs are typically used in circuits where the system voltage level is above 600 V. Larger power versions are used in the electrical power distribution industry to interface low-voltage control circuitry to the highvoltage gates of power semiconductors. often for matching logic drivers to transmission lines. Small versions called signal types are used in digital logic and telecommunications circuits. A good transient response is necessary to maintain the rectangular pulse shape at the secondary. the larger and more expensive the transformer. and a high opencircuit inductance. particle accelerators. (3) Pulse Transformer It is a transformer that is optimised for transmitting rectangular electrical pulses. Steel laminations are not suitable for RF. For the same reason. To minimise distortion of the pulse shape. modern meters eliminate the need VTs for most secondary service voltages. containing a threaded ferrite slug that is screwed in or out to adjust IF tuning. Generally speaking.While VTs were formerly used for all voltages greater than 240 V primary. or other high energy pulsed power applications. high insulation resistance and high breakdown voltage are required. The lack of a core means very low inductance. (a) Air-Core Transformer These are used for high frequency work. a low coupling capacitance is important to protect the circuitry on the primary side from high-powered transients created by the load. Medium-sized power versions are used in power-control circuits such as camera flash controllers. The product of the peak pulse voltage and the duration of the pulse (or more accurately. Special high voltage pulse transformers are also used to generate high power pulses for radar. Such transformers may be nothing more than a few turns of wire soldered onto a printed circuit board. because a pulse with slow edges would create switching losses in the power semiconductors. whatever energy stored in the coil during the pulse must be dumped out before the pulse is fired again. These are mostly tuned transformers. the voltage-time integral) is often used to characterise pulse transformers.
but they were eliminated as designers discovered how to design amplifiers without them. All this makes for an expensive component. Most solid-state power amplifiers need no output transformer at all. The core material increases the inductance dramatically. For good low-frequency response a relatively large iron core is required. A particularly critical component is the output transformer of an audio power amplifier. Transformers are also used in DI boxes to convert high-impedance instrument signals to low impedance signals to enable them to be connected to a microphone input on the mixing console. This style of transformer gives an extremely wide bandwidth but only a limited number of ratios can be achieved with this technique. thereby raising its Q factor. Valve circuits for quality reproduction have long been produced with no other audio transformers. Early transistor audio power amplifiers often had output transformers. electronic circuits with wide frequency response and low distortion are relatively simple to design. The cores of such transformers help improve performance at the lower frequency end of the band. (5) Audio Transformer (a) Loudspeaker Transformer . Good high-frequency response requires carefully designed and implemented windings without excessive leakage inductance or stray capacitance. transformers are sometimes made from configurations of transmission line. These transformers are usually the factor which limit sound quality when used. wound around ferrite or other types of core. These are sometimes made from configurations of transmission line and sometimes bifilar or coaxial cable and are similar to transmission line transformers in construction and operation. RF transformers sometimes used a third coil to inject feedback into an earlier stage in antique regenerative radio receivers. high power handling increases the required core size. sometimes bifilar or coaxial cable. but an output transformer is needed to couple the relatively high impedance of the output valve to the low impedance of a loudspeaker.transformers are usually canned for stability and to reduce interference. (d) Baluns Transformer They are transformers designed specifically to connect between balanced and unbalanced circuits. (c) Transmission-Line Transformer For radio frequency use.
a large audio transformer may be used to step-up the low impedance. signal-noise ratio. Here two secondary windings wired in opposite polarities may be used to drive the output devices. Microphones may also be matched to their load with a small transformer. allowing the volume at each speaker to be adjusted in discrete steps. At the distant loudspeaker location. which contain laminations & bobbin. a transformer is usually used to convert the voltage to the range of the more common moving-magnet cartridges. In order for this to be amplified with a reasonable . as transistorized buffers are now cheaper. These transformers are less widely used today. Such circuits are commonly referred to as constant voltage speaker systems. The loudspeaker transformers commonly have multiple primary taps. This application is common in industrial public address applications. low-voltage output of the amplifier to the designed line voltage of the loudspeaker circuit. (6) Homemade And Obsolete Transformer (a) Transformer Kit (c) Small Signal Transformer They may be wound at home using commercial transformer kits. At the audio amplifier. loudspeaker transformers can be used allow many individual loudspeakers to be powered from a single audio circuit operated at higher-than normal loudspeaker voltages. a smaller step-down transformer returns the voltage and impedance to ordinary loudspeaker levels.In the same way that transformers are used to create high voltage power transmission circuits that minimize transmission losses. Or readymade transformers may be Moving coil phonograph cartridges produce a very small voltage. These phase splitting transformers are not much used today. (d) Interstage And Coupling Transformers (b) Output Transformer A use for interstage transformers is in the case of push-pull amplifiers where an inverted signal is required. which is mumetal shielded to minimise noise pickup. although the audio waveform is a changing voltage. Valve amplifiers almost always use an output transformer to match the high load impedance requirement of the valves to a low impedance speaker.
They are homemade audio interstage coupling transformers. These had higher stray capacitance than the pancake type.JB Gupta ->Basic electrical and engineering-VN Mittal electronics ->Electrical engineering. but are usually avoided where possible due to the number of hours required to hand wind a transformer. Enamelled copper wire is wound round the central half of the length of a bundle of insulated iron wire (eg florists' wire). The 2 planar coils were arranged to swing away from each other and for the angle between them to increase to 90 degrees. For Example : - Firm clamping of laminations and varnish help to avoid buzz. and housed one inside the other. to make the windings. and the whole is wrapped with tape or string to hold it together. Pancake coil variocouplers were common in 1920s radios for variable rf coupling. 2 coils were wound on a 2 circular bands.com ->oxforduniversity. with provision for rotating the inner coil. They were standard equipment in 1920s radio sets. No core was used.com (c) Variocouplers Transformer Variocouplers (sometimes called variometers ) are rf transformers with 2 windings and variable coupling between the windings. References :- ->Basic electrical engineering. Coupling varies as one coil is rotated between 0 and 90 degrees from the other. thus giving wide variation in coupling. (b) Hedgehog Transformer These transformers are occasionally encountered in homemade 1920s radios. These approaches are occasionally used by home constructors. The pancake structure was a means to minimize stray capacitance. These were mostly used to control reaction. In another design of variocoupler. .Edward Hughes ->Wikipedia.disassembled and rewound. The ends of the iron wires are then bent around the electrical winding to complete the magnetic circuit.
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