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Submitted By :Shivanshu Gupta
Term Paper B.Tech-M.Tech (CSE) RB1902A27
Applications Of Transformer In Industry
ELE 101 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
While making this project I have left no stone unturned to make this project a successful one. It is hoped this both my teacher and classmates will find this project complete in itself.
I express my thanks to all my colleagues for the helpful co-operation, in particular I would like to thank Mr. Princejit Sir, ELE 101, Lovely Professional University, Jalandhar, whose wiling co-operation have been of great help in development of this project.
Submitted to:Princejit Sir
Although I have tried to make this project devoid of any mistakes and logical errors but still if you find any mistakes in it please let me know about it. I will be glad to know it because it is the suggestion of the elders and teachers which will serve as the most effective guidelines in
compactness and lucidity meets the requirement of the teacher.affecting the improvements and making alternations for better. Applications Power transformer y y y y y y y y y y y y My aim will be more than served if hopefully this approaches towards brevity. SHIVANSHU GUPTA Laminated core Toroidal transformer Auto transformer Stray field transformer Polyphase transformer Resonant transformer Constant voltage transformer Ferrite core transformer Planar transformer Oil cooled transformer Cast resin transformer Isolating transformer Pulse transformer RF transformer Brief Content y y y y Introduction To Transformer Position of winding with respect to core y y Air core transformer Ferrite core transformer Transmission line transformer Baluns transformer Audio transformer Loudspeaker transformer Output Transformer Small Signal transformer Interstage and coupling transformer Homemade and obsolete transformers Transformer kit Core type transformer Shell type transformer Transformation ratio y y y y y y Step up transformer Step down transformer y . y y Type of services Distribution transformer Power transformer I dedicate this project to my teachers and my parents for their unstinted encouragement and support which will always inspired me in all my endeavors.
It provides the path to the flow of magnetic flux. it sets up an alternating flux in the magnetic core.Half the turns of the primary and half the secondary turns are placed on each core. . Magnetic Circuit of the transformer consists of cores and yokes. most of the flux links the other winding and induces an alternating emf in that winding. Thus. the induced emf in the winding circulates a current in it.The Primary and Secondary coils are split into A Transformer is a static electromagnetic device that transforms one alternating current system into another of different voltage and current without any change in two parts parts.upper yoke and bottom yoke. If the other winding is connected to load. Transformers play a major part in the transmission and distribution of ac power. Transformers are classified on the three basis :- (a) Position of the windings with respect to core :- Core-Type Transformer Introduction To Transformer A Single phase core type transformer consists of a magnetic rame with two cores. The Frequency of the induced emf in the winding is same as that of the voltage in the first winding.y y Hedgehog variocouplers frequency. Due to the high permeability of the core. Transformer consists of two windings that are electrically isolated from each other. When a time varying voltage is applied to one winding. power is transferred from one winding to the other through the magnetic flux in the core.
high current ac into a high voltage.Hence the number of turns in the primary coil is much larger compared to secondary coil.associated with low current into a low secondary voltage with high current.440V).The Secondary coil consists of a large number of turns of find insulated copper wire and the primary coil contains a few turns of thick insulated wire. Step-down Transformer Applications It transforms high primary voltage. (b) Transformation Ratio :- Power Transformer Step-up Transformer Transformers with ratings above 500 KVA It Transforms a low voltage. A Single Phase Shell Type Transformer consists of a magnetic frame with a central core and two side cores. and used in generating stations and substations for stepping up or stepping down the voltage.low current ac system.Shell-Type Transformer Small step-down transformers up to 500KVA. These Transformers will be in operation during the load periods and can be disconnected during light load periods. There are different types of transformer and each of them are useful in different purposes:- (1) Power Transformer (c) Type Of Services :(a) Laminated Core Distribution Transformer .completing the path of magnetic flux.used to step down the comparatively low transmission voltage to distribution voltage or the distribution voltage (11 KV) to standard service voltage (3 phi. Hence Power transformers should have maximum efficiency at nearly 80 percent full load.
. Small appliance and electronic transformers may use a split bobbin. Mu-metal shields can be fitted to reduce EMI (electromagnetic interference). The higher voltage will be connected to the ends of the winding. which is unwanted in most other cases. and tape for the insulation. Comparison of Toroidal Transformer with EI Core Transformer :--Lower external magnetic field. It acts as a both voltage transformer and magnetic ballast. Rectangular core. and the lower voltage from one end to a tap.5 kV AC working voltage). series connected up to 7. Higher cost in most cases. This is true of isolated winding transformers too. In practice. The difference is usually slight enough to allow reversal where the actual voltage level is not critical.even if the secondary is shortened. The output and input currents are low enough to prevent thermal overload under each load condition . Other shape pairs are sometimes used. and a higher (or lower) voltage is produced across another portion of the same winding. It consists of ring shaped core. it is generally used in the transformation of ac voltage. (d) Stray Field Transformer (b) Toroidal Transformers These have a significant stray field or a magnetic bypass in its core. Core laminate stampings are usually in EI shape pairs. copper windings around that ring. AC or pulsed voltage is applied across a portion of the winding. Smaller for a given power rating. as winding requires more complex and slower equipment. giving a high level of insulation between the windings. one designed for stepping down a voltage will deliver slightly less voltage than required if used to step up. Eddy current losses can be reduced by a lamination of the core.It is the most common type of transformer. Less robust. Stray field transformers are used for arc welding and high voltage discharge lamps (cold cathode fluorescent lamps. It is doughnut shaped like transformer used to save space compared to EI cores and to reduce the external magnetic fields. Laminated core made with silicon steel with high permeability. which is tapped at some point along the winding. transformer losses mean that autotransformers are not perfectly reversible. (c) Auto Transformer These have only a single winding. It¶s characteristics are : ---Available in power ratings ranging from m W to MW. Small appliance and electronics transformers may have a thermal cut out built in. It can act as a transformer with inherent current limitation due to its lower coupling between the primary and the secondary winding. Over-tightening the central fixing bolt may short the windings. A screen winding is occasionally used between the 2 power windings.
If the secondary is a Delta winding. because regulating action depends on core saturation. Delta-Y. A vector group indicates the configuration of the windings and the phase angle difference between them. and is connected in series with a capacitor. DeltaDelta and Y-Y. three separate single-phase transformers can be used. The output waveform is heavily distorted unless careful measures are taken to prevent this. usually the secondary. These devices are used to generate high alternating voltages. The three primary windings are connected together and the three secondary windings are connected together. The most common connections are Y-Delta. (g) Constant Voltage Transformer (f) Resonant Transformer By arranging particular magnetic properties of a transformer core. These operates at the resonant frequency of one or more of its coils and an external capacitor. until it (h) Ferrit Core Power Transformer They are widely used in switched mode power supplies (SMPS). Other applications of resonant transformers are as coupling between stages of a superheterodyne receiver.(e) Polyphase Transformer For three-phase transformer. CVA transformers run hotter than standard power transformers. The powder core enables high frequency operation. Due to resonance. or all three phases can be connected to a single polyphase transformer. and hence much smaller size to power ratio . and the current available can be much larger than that from electrostatic machines such as the Van de Graff generator or Wimshurst machine. A special purpose polyphase transformer is the zigzag transformer. is limited by some process such as electrical breakdown. acts as an inductor. The resonant coil. which reduces efficiency somewhat. There are many possible configurations that may involve more or fewer than six windings and various tap connections. the ground may be connected to a center tap on one winding or one phase may be grounded (corner grounded delta). where the selectivity of the receiver is provided by the tuned transformers of the intermediatefrequency amplifiers. the earth connection point is usually the center point of a Y winding. each pulse of current helps to build up an oscillation in the secondary coil. such as a square or sawtooth wave at the resonant frequency. Saturating transformers provide a simple rugged method to stabilize an AC power supply. a transformer can be arranged to automatically keep the secondary winding voltage relatively constant for varying primary supply without additional circuitry or manual adjustment. a very high voltage can develop across the secondary. When the primary coil is driven by a periodic source of alternating current. If a winding is connected to earth. and installing a ferro-resonant tank circuit.
The oil is cooled by the outside of the tank in small ratings. However the term 'isolating transformer' is normally applied to mains transformers providing isolation rather than voltage transformation. and so require no fire-proof valut for indoor installations. but to earn . (k) Cast Resin Transformer (i) Planar Transformer These encase the windings in epoxy resin. But this isn't true of all transformers. These transformers simplify installation since they are dry. the core and coils of the transformer are immersed in oil which cools and insulates. The epoxy protects the windings from dust and corrosive atomospheres. indoor transformers required to be fire-resistant used PCB liquids. Ferrite transformers are not usable as power transformers at mains frequency. because the molds for casting the coils are only available in fixed sizes. They are simply 1:1 laminated core transformers. substitute fire-resistant liquids such as silicone oils are instead used. is used in a building or underground. (j) Oil Cooled Transformer (l)Isolating Transformer These are used in power distribution or electrical substations. However. for low-profile applications. since these are now banned. -> Almost all use a ferrite planar core. or where the transformer Most transformers isolate. without cooling oil. Manufacturers etch spiral patterns on a printed circuit board to form the windings of a planar transformer. which may make them more costly if customized features are required. moved by convection.than laminated iron transformers. Some are commercially sold as discrete components²the transformer is the only thing on that printed circuit board. Other planar transformers are one of many components on one large printed circuit board. Where a higher rating is required. Oil circulates through ducts in the coil and around the coil and core assembly. meaning the secondary winding is not connected to the primary. Extra voltage tapping is sometimes included. the design of the transformers is less flexible. and in larger ratings an aircooled radiator is used. oil pumps are used to circulate the oil and an oil-to-water heat exchanger may also be used. -> Much thinner than other transformers. Formerly.
X2 and sometimes an X3 tap may be present. often in the presence of high voltages. H2 and X1. as this will produce a dangerously high voltage across the open secondary and may permanently affect the accuracy of the transformer. The terminal identifications are often referred to as polarity. requires Voltage Transformers or Potential Transformers are another type of instrument transformer.the name 'isolating transformer' it is expected that they will usually be used at 1:1 ratio. One type provides a voltage output that is proportional to the measured current. . Correct identification of terminals and wiring is essential for proper operation of metering and protection relays. The CT is typically described by its current ratio from primary to secondary. Sometimes a second isolated winding may also be available on the same voltage transformer. called a Rogowski coil. to measure high frequency waveforms or pulsed currents within pulsed power systems. The low side (secondary) is usually phase to ground. Current transformers are commonly used in metering and protective relaying in the electrical power industry where they facilitate the safe measurement of large currents. Care must be taken that the secondary winding is not disconnected from its load while current flows in the primary. They are often constructed by passing a single primary turn through a wellinsulated toroidal core wrapped with many turns of wire. used for metering and protection in high-voltage circuits. They are designed to present negligible load to the supply being measured and to have a precise voltage ratio to accurately step down high voltages so that metering and protective relay equipment can be operated at a lower potential. another. The high side (primary) may be connected phase to ground or phase to phase. an external integrator in order to provide a proportional output. Specially constructed wideband CTs are also used. usually with an oscilloscope. The secondary winding can be single ratio or have several tap points to provide a range of ratios. At any instant terminals with the same suffix numeral have the same polarity and phase. (2) Instrument Transformer (a) Current Transformer (b) Voltage Transformer It is a measurement device designed to provide a current in its secondary coil proportional to the current flowing in its primary. This applies to current transformers as well. The transformer winding high-voltage connection points are typically labeled as H1. Typically the secondary of a voltage transformer is rated for 69 V or 120 V at rated primary voltage. The current transformer safely isolates measurement and control circuitry from the high voltages typically present on the circuit being measured. to match the input ratings of protection relays.
The lack of a core means very low inductance. Steel laminations are not suitable for RF. They have a duty cycle of less than 1. (a) Air-Core Transformer These are used for high frequency work. modern meters eliminate the need VTs for most secondary service voltages.While VTs were formerly used for all voltages greater than 240 V primary. Larger power versions are used in the electrical power distribution industry to interface low-voltage control circuitry to the highvoltage gates of power semiconductors. A good transient response is necessary to maintain the rectangular pulse shape at the secondary. the larger and more expensive the transformer. The . (b) Ferrite-Core Transformer It is widely used in intermediate frequency stages in superheterodyne radio receivers. To minimise distortion of the pulse shape. high insulation resistance and high breakdown voltage are required. and a high opencircuit inductance. The product of the peak pulse voltage and the duration of the pulse (or more accurately. often for matching logic drivers to transmission lines. or other high energy pulsed power applications. In power-type pulse transformers. Generally speaking. a pulse transformer needs to have low values of leakage inductance and distributed capacitance. (3) Pulse Transformer It is a transformer that is optimised for transmitting rectangular electrical pulses. Medium-sized power versions are used in power-control circuits such as camera flash controllers. Special high voltage pulse transformers are also used to generate high power pulses for radar. particle accelerators. the larger this product. These are mostly tuned transformers. VTs are typically used in circuits where the system voltage level is above 600 V. whatever energy stored in the coil during the pulse must be dumped out before the pulse is fired again. a low coupling capacitance is important to protect the circuitry on the primary side from high-powered transients created by the load. Small versions called signal types are used in digital logic and telecommunications circuits. For the same reason. the voltage-time integral) is often used to characterise pulse transformers. Modern meters eliminate the need of VT's since the voltage remains constant and it is measured in the incoming supply. Such transformers may be nothing more than a few turns of wire soldered onto a printed circuit board. containing a threaded ferrite slug that is screwed in or out to adjust IF tuning. (4) RF Transformer There are several types of transformer used in radio frequency work. because a pulse with slow edges would create switching losses in the power semiconductors.
wound around ferrite or other types of core. Early transistor audio power amplifiers often had output transformers. For good low-frequency response a relatively large iron core is required. but they were eliminated as designers discovered how to design amplifiers without them. All this makes for an expensive component. These transformers are usually the factor which limit sound quality when used. transformers are sometimes made from configurations of transmission line. (c) Transmission-Line Transformer For radio frequency use. (d) Baluns Transformer They are transformers designed specifically to connect between balanced and unbalanced circuits. This style of transformer gives an extremely wide bandwidth but only a limited number of ratios can be achieved with this technique. sometimes bifilar or coaxial cable. electronic circuits with wide frequency response and low distortion are relatively simple to design. Most solid-state power amplifiers need no output transformer at all. thereby raising its Q factor.transformers are usually canned for stability and to reduce interference. Transformers are also used in DI boxes to convert high-impedance instrument signals to low impedance signals to enable them to be connected to a microphone input on the mixing console. A particularly critical component is the output transformer of an audio power amplifier. high power handling increases the required core size. Valve circuits for quality reproduction have long been produced with no other audio transformers. but an output transformer is needed to couple the relatively high impedance of the output valve to the low impedance of a loudspeaker. The cores of such transformers help improve performance at the lower frequency end of the band. The core material increases the inductance dramatically. These are sometimes made from configurations of transmission line and sometimes bifilar or coaxial cable and are similar to transmission line transformers in construction and operation. RF transformers sometimes used a third coil to inject feedback into an earlier stage in antique regenerative radio receivers. Good high-frequency response requires carefully designed and implemented windings without excessive leakage inductance or stray capacitance. (5) Audio Transformer (a) Loudspeaker Transformer .
as transistorized buffers are now cheaper. At the distant loudspeaker location. a large audio transformer may be used to step-up the low impedance. loudspeaker transformers can be used allow many individual loudspeakers to be powered from a single audio circuit operated at higher-than normal loudspeaker voltages. (6) Homemade And Obsolete Transformer (a) Transformer Kit (c) Small Signal Transformer They may be wound at home using commercial transformer kits. although the audio waveform is a changing voltage. Here two secondary windings wired in opposite polarities may be used to drive the output devices. which contain laminations & bobbin. signal-noise ratio. In order for this to be amplified with a reasonable .In the same way that transformers are used to create high voltage power transmission circuits that minimize transmission losses. Such circuits are commonly referred to as constant voltage speaker systems. This application is common in industrial public address applications. a transformer is usually used to convert the voltage to the range of the more common moving-magnet cartridges. At the audio amplifier. These phase splitting transformers are not much used today. which is mumetal shielded to minimise noise pickup. Valve amplifiers almost always use an output transformer to match the high load impedance requirement of the valves to a low impedance speaker. Microphones may also be matched to their load with a small transformer. low-voltage output of the amplifier to the designed line voltage of the loudspeaker circuit. The loudspeaker transformers commonly have multiple primary taps. (d) Interstage And Coupling Transformers (b) Output Transformer A use for interstage transformers is in the case of push-pull amplifiers where an inverted signal is required. allowing the volume at each speaker to be adjusted in discrete steps. a smaller step-down transformer returns the voltage and impedance to ordinary loudspeaker levels. Or readymade transformers may be Moving coil phonograph cartridges produce a very small voltage. These transformers are less widely used today.
but are usually avoided where possible due to the number of hours required to hand wind a transformer. These approaches are occasionally used by home constructors. . and the whole is wrapped with tape or string to hold it together. They are homemade audio interstage coupling transformers. For Example : - Firm clamping of laminations and varnish help to avoid buzz. thus giving wide variation in coupling. and housed one inside the other. No core was used. Pancake coil variocouplers were common in 1920s radios for variable rf coupling. These had higher stray capacitance than the pancake type.JB Gupta ->Basic electrical and engineering-VN Mittal electronics ->Electrical engineering. to make the windings.com ->oxforduniversity. These were mostly used to control reaction.Edward Hughes ->Wikipedia. (b) Hedgehog Transformer These transformers are occasionally encountered in homemade 1920s radios. with provision for rotating the inner coil. In another design of variocoupler. They were standard equipment in 1920s radio sets. The pancake structure was a means to minimize stray capacitance. The ends of the iron wires are then bent around the electrical winding to complete the magnetic circuit. Coupling varies as one coil is rotated between 0 and 90 degrees from the other. References :- ->Basic electrical engineering. Enamelled copper wire is wound round the central half of the length of a bundle of insulated iron wire (eg florists' wire).disassembled and rewound. The 2 planar coils were arranged to swing away from each other and for the angle between them to increase to 90 degrees. 2 coils were wound on a 2 circular bands.com (c) Variocouplers Transformer Variocouplers (sometimes called variometers ) are rf transformers with 2 windings and variable coupling between the windings.
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