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Pushing to the Front

Pushing to the Front, by Orison Swett Marden

The Project Gutenberg EBook of Pushing to the Front, by s eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and ions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use he Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or .org Title: Pushing to the Front Author: Orison Swett Marden Release Date: May 4, 2007 [EBook #21291] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1

Orison Swett Marden Thi with almost no restrict it under the terms of t online at www.gutenberg


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[Frontispiece: Orison Swett Marden]

Pushing to the Front BY ORISON SWETT MARDEN

"The world makes way for the determined man."

PUBLISHED BY The Success Company's Branch Offices PETERSBURG, N.Y. ---- TOLEDO ---- DANVILLE



FOREWORD This revised and greatly enlarged edition of "Pushing to the Front" is the outg rowth of an almost world-wide demand for an extension of the idea which made the original small volume such an ambition-arousing, energizing, inspiring force. It is doubtful whether any other book, outside of the Bible, has been the turni ng-point in more lives. It has sent thousands of youths, with renewed determination, back to school or college, back to all sorts of vocations which they had abandoned in moments of d iscouragement. It has kept scores of business men from failure after they had gi ven up all hope. It has helped multitudes of poor boys and girls to pay their way through colleg e who had never thought a liberal education possible. The author has received thousands of letters from people in nearly all parts of the world telling how the book has aroused their ambition, changed their ideals and aims, and has spurred them to the successful undertaking of what they befor e had thought impossible. The book has been translated into many foreign languages. In Japan and several other countries it is used extensively in the public schools. Distinguished educ ators in many parts of the world have recommended its use in schools as a civili zation-builder. Crowned heads, presidents of republics, distinguished members of the British an d other parliaments, members of the United States Supreme Court, noted authors, scholars, and eminent people in many parts of the world, have eulogized this boo k and have thanked the author for giving it to the world. This volume is full of the most fascinating romances of achievement under diffi culties, of obscure beginnings and triumphant endings, of stirring stories of st ruggles and triumphs. It gives inspiring stories of men and women who have broug ht great things to pass. It gives numerous examples of the triumph of mediocrity , showing how those of ordinary ability have succeeded by the use of ordinary me ans. It shows how invalids and cripples even have triumphed by perseverance and will over seemingly insuperable difficulties. The book tells how men and women have seized common occasions and made them gre at; it tells of those of average ability who have succeeded by the use of ordina ry means, by dint of indomitable will and inflexible purpose. It tells how pover ty and hardship have rocked the cradle of the giants of the race. The book point s out that most people do not utilize a large part of their effort because their mental attitude does not correspond with their endeavor, so that although worki ng for one thing, they are really expecting something else; and it is what we ex pect that we tend to get. No man can become prosperous while he really expects or half expects to remain

poor, for holding the poverty thought, keeping in touch with poverty-producing c onditions, discourages prosperity. Before a man can lift himself he must lift his thoughts. When we shall have lea rned to master our thought habits, to keep our minds open to the great divine in flow of life force, we shall have learned the truths of human endowment, human p ossibility. The book points out the fact that what is called success may be failure; that w hen men love money so much that they sacrifice their friendships, their families , their home life, sacrifice position, honor, health, everything for the dollar, their life is a failure, although they may have accumulated money. It shows how men have become rich at the price of their ideals, their character, at the cost of everything noblest, best, and truest in life. It preaches the larger doctrin e of equality; the equality of will and purpose which paves a clear path even to the Presidential chair for a Lincoln or a Garfield, for any one who will pay th e price of study and struggle. Men who feel themselves badly handicapped, crippl ed by their lack of early education, will find in these pages great encouragemen t to broaden their horizon, and will get a practical, helpful, sensible educatio n in their odd moments and half-holidays. Dr. Marden, in "Pushing to the Front," shows that the average of the leaders ar e not above the average of ability. They are ordinary people, but of extraordina ry persistence and perseverance. It is a storehouse of noble incentive, a treasu ry of precious sayings. There is inspiration and encouragement and helpfulness o n every page. It teaches the doctrine that no limits can be placed on one's care er if he has once learned the alphabet and has push; that there are no barriers that can say to aspiring talent, "Thus far, and no farther." Encouragement is it s keynote; it aims to arouse to honorable exertion those who are drifting withou t aim, to awaken dormant ambitions in those who have grown discouraged in the st ruggle for success. THE PUBLISHERS.



ILLUSTRATIONS Orison Swett Marden . . . . . . . . . . Frontispiece House in which Abraham Lincoln was born Ulysses S. Grant William Ewart Gladstone John Wanamaker Jane Addams Thomas Alva Edison Henry Ward Beecher Lincoln studying by the firelight Marshall Field Joseph Jefferson [Transcriber's note: Jefferson was a prominent actor during th e latter half of the 1800's.] Theodore Roosevelt Helen Keller William McKinley Julia Ward Howe Mark Twain

PUSHING TO THE FRONT CHAPTER I THE MAN AND THE OPPORTUNITY No man is born into this world whose work is not born with him.--LOWELL. Things don't turn up in this world until somebody turns them up.--GARFIELD. Vigilance in watching opportunity; tact and daring in seizing upon opportunity; force and persistence in crowding opportunity to its utmost of possible achieve ment--these are the martial virtues which must command success.--AUSTIN PHELPS.

"I will find a way or make one." There never was a day that did not bring its own opportunity for doing good tha t never could have been done before, and never can be again.--W. H. BURLEIGH. "Are you in earnest? Seize this very minute; What you can do, or dream you can, begin it." "If we succeed, what will the world say?" asked Captain Berry in delight, when Nelson had explained his carefully formed plan before the battle of the Nile. "There is no if in the case," replied Nelson. "That we shall succeed is certain . Who may live to tell the tale is a very different question." Then, as his capt ains rose from the council to go to their respective ships, he added: "Before th is time to-morrow I shall have gained a peerage or Westminster Abbey." His quick eye and daring spirit saw an opportunity of glorious victory where others saw o nly probable defeat. "Is it POSSIBLE to cross the path?" asked Napoleon of the engineers who had bee n sent to explore the dreaded pass of St. Bernard. "Perhaps," was the hesitating reply, "it is within the limits of possibility." "FORWARD THEN," said the Little Corporal, without heeding their account of appa rently insurmountable difficulties. England and Austria laughed in scorn at the idea of transporting across the Alps, where "no wheel had ever rolled, or by any possibility could roll," an army of sixty thousand men, with ponderous artiller y, tons of cannon balls and baggage, and all the bulky munitions of war. But the besieged Massena was starving in Genoa, and the victorious Austrians thundered at the gates of Nice, and Napoleon was not the man to fail his former comrades i n their hour of peril. When this "impossible" deed was accomplished, some saw that it might have been done long before. Others excused themselves from encountering such gigantic obst acles by calling them insuperable. Many a commander had possessed the necessary supplies, tools, and rugged soldiers, but lacked the grit and resolution of Bona parte, who did not shrink from mere difficulties, however great, but out of his very need made and mastered his opportunity. Grant at New Orleans had just been seriously injured by a fall from his horse, when he received orders to take command at Chattanooga, so sorely beset by the C onfederates that its surrender seemed only a question of a few days; for the hil ls around were all aglow by night with the camp-fires of the enemy, and supplies had been cut off. Though in great pain, he immediately gave directions for his removal to the new scene of action. On transports up the Mississippi, the Ohio, and one of its tributaries; on a li tter borne by horses for many miles through the wilderness; and into the city at last on the shoulders of four men, he was taken to Chattanooga. Things assumed a different aspect immediately. A master had arrived who was equal to the situat ion. The army felt the grip of his power. Before he could mount his horse he ord ered an advance, and although the enemy contested the ground inch by inch, the s urrounding hills were soon held by Union soldiers. Were these things the result of chance, or were they compelled by the indominab le determination of the injured General? Did things adjust themselves when Horatius with two companions held ninety thou sand Tuscans at bay until the bridge across the Tiber had been destroyed?--when Leonidas at Thermopylae checked the mighty march of Xerxes?--when Themistocles,

off the coast of Greece, shattered the Persian's Armada?--when Caesar, finding h is army hard pressed, seized spear and buckler, fought while he reorganized his men, and snatched victory from defeat?--when Winkelried gathered to his heart a sheaf of Austrian spears, thus opening a path through which his comrades pressed to freedom?--when for years Napoleon did not lose a single battle in which he w as personally engaged?--when Wellington fought in many climes without ever being conquered?--when Ney, on a hundred fields, changed apparent disaster into brill iant triumph?--when Perry left the disabled Lawrence, rowed to the Niagara, and silenced the British guns?--when Sheridan arrived from Winchester just as the Un ion retreat was becoming a rout, and turned the tide by riding along the line?-when Sherman, though sorely pressed, signaled his men to hold the fort, and they , knowing that their leader was coming, held it? History furnishes thousands of examples of men who have seized occasions to acc omplish results deemed impossible by those less resolute. Prompt decision and wh ole-souled action sweep the world before them. True, there has been but one Napoleon; but, on the other hand, the Alps that op pose the progress of the average American youth are not as high or dangerous as the summits crossed by the great Corsican. Don't wait for extraordinary opportunities. Seize common occasions and make the m great. On the morning of September 6, 1838, a young woman in the Longstone Lighthouse, between England and Scotland, was awakened by shrieks of agony rising above the roar of wind and wave. A storm of unwonted fury was raging, and her parents cou ld not hear the cries; but a telescope showed nine human beings clinging to the windlass of a wrecked vessel whose bow was hanging on the rocks half a mile away . "We can do nothing," said William Darling, the light-keeper. "Ah, yes, we must go to the rescue," exclaimed his daughter, pleading tearfully with both father and mother, until the former replied: "Very well, Grace, I will let you persuade me, though it is against my better judgment." Like a feather in a whirlwind the little boat was tossed on the tumultuous sea, but, borne on the blast that swep t the cruel surge, the shrieks of those shipwrecked sailors seemed to change her weak sinews into cords of steel. Strength hitherto unsuspected came from somewh ere, and the heroic girl pulled one oar in even time with her father. At length the nine were safely on board. "God bless you; but ye're a bonny English lass," said one poor fellow, as he looked wonderingly upon this marvelous girl, who tha t day had done a deed which added more to England's glory than the exploits of m any of her monarchs. "If you will let me try, I think I can make something that will do," said a boy who had been employed as a scullion at the mansion of Signer Faliero, as the st ory is told by George Cary Eggleston. A large company had been invited to a banq uet, and just before the hour the confectioner, who had been making a large orna ment for the table, sent word that he had spoiled the piece. "You!" exclaimed th e head servant, in astonishment; "and who are you?" "I am Antonio Canova, the gr andson of Pisano, the stone-cutter," replied the pale-faced little fellow. "And pray, what can you do?" asked the major-domo. "I can make you something th at will do for the middle of the table, if you'll let me try." The servant was a t his wits' end, so he told Antonio to go ahead and see what he could do. Callin g for some butter, the scullion quickly molded a large crouching lion, which the admiring major-domo placed upon the table. Dinner was announced, and many of the most noted merchants, princes, and noblem en of Venice were ushered into the dining-room. Among them were skilled critics of art work. When their eyes fell upon the butter lion, they forgot the purpose for which they had come in their wonder at such a work of genius. They looked at

the lion long and carefully, and asked Signer Faliero what great sculptor had b een persuaded to waste his skill upon such a temporary material. Faliero could n ot tell; so he asked the head servant, who brought Antonio before the company. When the distinguished guests learned that the lion had been made in a short ti me by a scullion, the dinner was turned into a feast in his honor. The rich host declared that he would pay the boy's expenses under the best masters, and he ke pt his word. Antonio was not spoiled by his good fortune, but remained at heart the same simple, earnest, faithful boy who had tried so hard to become a good st one-cutter in the shop of Pisano. Some may not have heard how the boy Antonio to ok advantage of this first great opportunity; but all know of Canova, one of the greatest sculptors of all time. Weak men wait for opportunities, strong men make them. "The best men," says E. H. Chapin, "are not those who have waited for chances b ut who have taken them; besieged the chance; conquered the chance; and made chan ce the servitor." There may not be one chance in a million that you will ever receive unusual aid ; but opportunities are often presented which you can improve to good advantage, if you will only act. The lack of opportunity is ever the excuse of a weak, vacillating mind. Opportu nities! Every life is full of them. Every lesson in school or college is an oppo rtunity. Every examination is a chance in life. Every patient is an opportunity. Every newspaper article is an opportunity. Every client is an opportunity. Ever y sermon is an opportunity. Every business transaction is an opportunity,--an op portunity to be polite,--an opportunity to be manly,--an opportunity to be hones t,--an opportunity to make friends. Every proof of confidence in you is a great opportunity. Every responsibility thrust upon your strength and your honor is pr iceless. Existence is the privilege of effort, and when that privilege is met li ke a man, opportunities to succeed along the line of your aptitude will come fas ter than you can use them. If a slave like Fred Douglass, who did not even own h is body, can elevate himself into an orator, editor, statesman, what ought the p oorest white boy to do, who is rich in opportunities compared with Douglass? It is the idle man, not the great worker, who is always complaining that he has no time or opportunity. Some young men will make more out of the odds and ends of opportunities which many carelessly throw away than other will get out of a w hole life-time. Like bees, they extract honey from every flower. Every person th ey meet, every circumstance of the day, adds something to their store of useful knowledge or personal power. "There is nobody whom Fortune does not visit once in his life," says a cardinal ; "but when she finds he is not ready to receive her, she goes in at the door an d out at the window." Cornelius Vanderbilt saw his opportunity in the steamboat, and determined to id entify himself with steam navigation. To the surprise of all his friends, he aba ndoned his prosperous business and took command of one of the first steamboats l aunched, at a salary of one thousand dollars a year. Livingston and Fulton had a cquired the sole right to navigate New York waters by steam, but Vanderbilt thou ght the law unconstitutional, and defied it until it was repealed. He soon becam e a steamboat owner. When the government was paying a large subsidy for carrying the European mails, he offered to carry them free and give better service. His offer was accepted, and in this way he soon built up an enormous freight and pas senger traffic. Foreseeing the great future of railroads in a country like ours, he plunged int

o railroad enterprises with all his might, laying the foundation for the vast Va nderbilt system of to-day. Young Philip Armour joined the long caravan of Forty-Niners, and crossed the "G reat American Desert" with all his possessions in a prairie schooner drawn by mu les. Hard work and steady gains carefully saved in the mines enabled him to star t, six years later, in the grain and warehouse business in Milwaukee. In nine ye ars he made five hundred thousand dollars. But he saw his great opportunity in G rant's order, "On to Richmond." One morning in 1864 he knocked at the door of Pl ankinton, partner in his venture as a pork packer. "I am going to take the next train to New York," said he, "to sell pork 'short.' Grant and Sherman have the r ebellion by the throat, and pork will go down to twelve dollars a barrel." This was his opportunity. He went to New York and offered pork in large quantities at forty dollars per barrel. It was eagerly taken. The shrewd Wall Street speculat ors laughed at the young Westerner, and told him pork would go to sixty dollars, for the war was not nearly over. Mr. Armour, however, kept on selling, Grant co ntinued to advance. Richmond fell, pork fell with it to twelve dollars a barrel, and Mr. Armour cleared two millions of dollars. John D. Rockefeller saw his opportunity in petroleum. He could see a large popu lation in this country with very poor lights. Petroleum was plentiful, but the r efining process was so crude that the product was inferior, and not wholly safe. Here was Rockefeller's chance. Taking into partnership Samuel Andrews, the port er in a machine shop where both men had worked, he started a single barrel "stil l" in 1870, using an improved process discovered by his partner. They made a sup erior grade of oil and prospered rapidly. They admitted a third partner, Mr. Fla gler, but Andrews soon became dissatisfied. "What will you take for your interes t?" asked Rockefeller. Andrews wrote carelessly on a piece of paper, "One millio n dollars." Within twenty-four hours Mr. Rockefeller handed him the amount, sayi ng, "Cheaper at one million than ten." In twenty years the business of the littl e refinery, scarcely worth one thousand dollars for building and apparatus, had grown into the Standard Oil Trust, capitalized at ninety millions of dollars, wi th stock quoted at 170, giving a market value of one hundred and fifty millions. These are illustrations of seizing opportunity for the purpose of making money. But fortunately there is a new generation of electricians, of engineers, of sch olars, of artists, of authors, and of poets, who find opportunities, thick as th istles, for doing something nobler than merely amassing riches. Wealth is not an end to strive for, but an opportunity; not the climax of a man's career, but an incident. Mrs. Elizabeth Fry, a Quaker lady, saw her opportunity in the prisons of Englan d. From three hundred to four hundred half-naked women, as late as 1813, would o ften be huddled in a single ward of Newgate, London, awaiting trial. They had ne ither beds nor bedding, but women, old and young, and little girls, slept in fil th and rags on the floor. No one seemed to care for them, and the Government mer ely furnished food to keep them alive. Mrs. Fry visited Newgate, calmed the howl ing mob, and told them she wished to establish a school for the young women and the girls, and asked them to select a schoolmistress from their own number. They were amazed, but chose a young woman who had been committed for stealing a watc h. In three months these "wild beasts," as they were sometimes called, became ha rmless and kind. The reform spread until the Government legalized the system, an d good women throughout Great Britain became interested in the work of educating and clothing these outcasts. Fourscore years have passed, and her plan has been adopted throughout the civilized world. A boy in England had been run over by a car, and the bright blood spurted from a severed artery. No one seemed to know what to do until another boy, Astley Coo per, took his handkerchief and stopped the bleeding by pressure above the wound. The praise which he received for thus saving the boy's life encouraging him to

'" Open eyes will discover opportunities everywhere. Shall he confess his igno rance and inability. and patient study and experiment. in the dispersion of the Acadians. after long waiting. yet no one cons idered this information of the slightest practical importance. but when Archimedes observed the fact. Everybody knew how steadily a suspended weight. Life and death hang in the balance." said James T. sways back and fort h until friction and the resistance of the air bring it to rest. and passed her life in waiting and seeking for him. often hitting heedless men on the hea d as if to set them thinking. and do his work? If he can. 'If yo u have really made up your mind not to use it for a story. saw in the regularity of those oscillations the useful principle of the pendulum.' Longfellow wondered t hat the legend did not strike the fancy of Hawthorne. open hands will nev er lack for noble work to do. instead of being exceptions. Is he equal to the emergency? Can he fill the great surgeon's pl ace. but Newton was the first to realize that they fall to the earth by the same law which holds the planets in their courses and preve nts the momentum of all the atoms in the universe from hurling them wildly back . with him from Salem. His opportunity confronts him. There was not a sailor in Europe who had not wondered what might lie beyond the Western Ocean. or step into fame and fortune? It is for him to say. as he watched a lamp left swinging by accident in the cathedral at Pisa. "when. Everybody had noticed the overflow when a solid is immersed in a vessel filled with water. open hearts will nev er want for worthy objects upon which to bestow their gifts. the foremost of his day. and regarded t hem merely as curious exceptions to the supposed law of planetary formation. After dinner the friend said. or the E xile of the Acadians." says Arnold.--the legend of a girl who. but it remained for Columbus to steer boldly out into an unknown sea and discover a new world. and promised. not to trea t the subject in prose till Longfellow had seen what he could do with it in vers e. was separated from her lover. when moved. The great surgeon is away. however irreg ular in shape. but Laplace saw that. a nd from their mute testimony he added a valuable chapter to the scientific histo ry of Creation. Longfellow seized his opportunity and gave to the world 'Evangeline. He and it are face to face. and still current there." Are you prepared for a great opportunity? "Hawthorne dined one day with Longfellow. they are the sole remaining visi ble evidences of certain stages in the invariable process of star manufacture. and he said to him. "The time comes to the young surgeon. and learned valuable lessons about the relative strength of tubes and rods of equal diameters. moreover. but the boy Galil eo. open ears will never fail to detect the cries of those who are perishing for assistance. E ven the iron doors of a prison were not enough to shut him out from research. He experimented with the straw of his cell. a nd only found him dying in a hospital when both were old. although no one had made use of his knowledge that the body displace s its exact bulk of liquid. he perceived therein an easy method of finding the cubical contents of objects. he is suddenly confronted with his first criti cal operation. 'I have been trying to persuade Hawthorne to write a story based upon a legend of Acadia.become a surgeon. Time is pressing. will you let me have it for a poem?' To this Hawthorne consented. For ages astronomers had been familiar with the rings of Saturn. Fields. he is the one of all others who is wanted. "and brought a friend. Innumerable apples had fallen from trees.

not Jupiter himself can catch her again." "Why has he wings on his feet?" "Because he is soon go ne. when shown. "Why is its face hidden?" "Because men seldom know hi m when he comes to them. but. you may hold her. Read the story of any successful m an and mark its moral. 'I am in a sinking condition. these men are considered great. "to fall in with the ill-fated steamer Cent ral America. where there was one. easier of access than ever before e xisted." "Opportunity has hair in front. for he stood before five ki ngs and dined with two. stand open to the sober. And of trades. The captain and crew and most of the passengers found a grave in the deep. there are a hundre d now. but at night. 'Had you not better send your passengers on board directly?' I asked. the sea rolling high. A little while ago there were only three or four professi ons--now there are fifty.' his vessel." says a Latin author. "behind she is bald. and I never saw the steamer again. I cou ld not keep my position. and which had wings on its feet.' cri ed Captain Herndon. among many gods." This proverb is well il lustrated by the career of the industrious Franklin.to chaos. 'Will you not lay by me until morning?' replied Captain Herndon. o ne whose face was concealed by hair. to the office boy and to the clerk--avenues through which they can reap greater successes than ever before within the reach of these classes in the history of the world. frugal." But what is the best opportunity to him who cannot or will not use it? "It was my lot. by a simpl e experiment. and once gone. "What is its name?" asked a visitor in a studio. if y ou seize her by the forelock. told thousands of years ago by Solomon: "Seest thou a man diligent in his business? he shall stand before kings. until too late they le . 'I wi ll try. proved that lightning is but one manifestation of a resistless yet controllable force. the sluggish.' I answered 'but had you not better send your passengers on board now?' 'Lay by me till morning.' again shouted Captain Herndon. abundant as air and water. went down. 'Lay by me till morning. but I hailed the cr ippled steamer and asked if they needed help. and thunder had jarred the ears of men since th e days of Adam. Every one who has labored honestly in the past has aid ed to place knowledge and comfort within the reach of a constantly increasing nu mber. and the purpos eless too often see no meaning in the happiest occasions. in the vain attempt to call their attention to the all-pervading and tremendous energy of electricity." replied the sculptor. wider in extent. to the edu cated youth. "Opportuni ty. "I tried to lay by him. In an hour and a hal f after he said. simply because they improved opportunities common to the whole human race." said a shipmaster. cannot be overtaken. if suffered to escape. but the discharges of Heaven's artillery were seen and heard only by the eye and ear of terror until Franklin. Like many others. with its living freight. energetic and able mechanic." Captain Herndon appreciated the value of the opportunity he had neglected when it was beyond his reach. The night was closing in. Lightning had dazzled the eyes. Avenues greater in number. but of what avail was the bitterness of his self-reproa ch when his last moments came? How many lives were sacrificed to his unintellige nt hopefulness and indecision! Like him the feeble. such was the heavy roll of the sea. He who improves an opportunity sows a seed which will yield fruit in opportunit y for himself and others.

for he was eager t o please and always ready to answer questions. The engine had blown out i ts cylinder head. Then he took another sip from the flat bottle to keep the cold out. I'm all right. "Oh. or know how to make it some other time than now. swinging an empty lantern in front of an imaginary t rain. and a little behindhand. "Oh. w hen responsibility claims them. That is the way the habit is acquired. he would give one of his brightest smiles. whistling. Between two stations the train came to a quick halt. Later on. that I had!" of th e unfortunate brakeman." and occasionally tipple d. and ordered Joe back with a red light.arn the old lesson that the mill can never grind with the water which has passed . . "Don't stop a minute. rear brakeman on the ---.accommodation train. that I had!" He was taken home. was exceedingly popu lar with all the railroad men. Joe complai ned of extra duties because of the storm. They cannot seize their opportunity . a left hand. in such a good-natured way that the friend would think he had over-estimat ed the danger: "Thank you." The conductor answered gravely. Joe. they were late for school. that I had not!" is the silent cry of many a man who would give life itself for the opportunity to go back and retrieve some long-pas t error. He had not gone ten paces before he heard the puffing of the express. smilingly. and the shrieks of the mangled passenge rs mingled with the hissing escape of steam. or they can probably get one to-morrow. Don't you worry. Gough. and an express was due in a few minutes upon the same track. The brakeman laughed and said: "There's no hurry. Soon he became quite jolly. and now. Wait till I get my overcoat. Then he r an for the curve. whose criminal indulgence brought disaster to many lives . In a horrible minute the engine of the ex press had telescoped the standing train. and afterwards to an asylum. and r eply. He "took the world easy. and his train was delayed. that I had! Oh." As boys. They remember plenty of chances to make money. "They have three hands apiece. T he conductor hurried to the rear car." said Joe. Joe Stoker. Then he slowly gras ped the lantern and. and if any one remonstrated. when they asked for Joe. The express is due. But he did not realize the full r esponsibility of his position. "Oh. too. he had disappeared. but perceive no opportunity in the present." One evening there was a heavy snowstorm. delirious. they see how to improve themselves or help others in the future. that I had!" or "Oh. The conductor then hurried forward to the eng ine. Such people are always a little too late or a little too early in everything th ey attempt. moved leisurely down the track. and un punctual in their home duties. The passengers liked him. but the next day he was found in a barn. and crying. But the brakeman did not go at once." said John B. but it was too late. and there is no sadder sound in that sad place than the unceasing moan. He stopped to put on his overcoat. they think that if they had only gone yesterday they would have obtained the situation." "All right. and slyly sipped occasional draughts f rom a flat bottle. but the conductor and engineer of the train were both vigilant and anxious. "a right hand.

Nor shrink aside to 'scape the specter fear. earnest." With the world full of work that needs to be done. though p leasure beckon from her bower. Don't wait for your opportunity. and their leader paused for Divine help. We are expecting mastery without apprenticeship. or worth. "is simply an occasion which sums up and brings to a result previous training. in war and in peace. And we must take the current when it serves. "Wherefore criest thou unto me? Speak unto the c hildren of Israel."There are moments. that they go forward. the hour When fortune smiles. Make it." says Arnold. "which are worth more than years. persistent endeavor we find our highest go od. unthought-of five minutes may contain the event of a life. Or lose our ventures. all the voyage of their life Is bound in shallows and in miser ies. with our own faculties so arranged that in honest. Make it as George Stephenson made his when he mastered the ru les of mathematics with a bit of chalk on the grimy sides of the coal wagons in the mines. and riches by credit. Accidental circumstances are nothin g except to men who have been trained to take advantage of them. There is no proportion between spaces of time in importance nor in value. Which." CHAPTER II WANTED--A MAN . and with countless noble examples to encourage us to dare and to do.--make it as the shepherd-boy Ferguson made his when he calculated the distances of the stars with a handful of glass beads on a string." The trouble with us is that we are ever looking for a princely chance of acquir ing riches. as Napoleon made his in a hundred "impossible" situations. then. seize. as all leaders of men. and duty points the way. We can not help it. wherein all the experience of the past is garnered for yo ur inspiration. taken at the flood. Make it." says Dean Alford. why stand ye here all the day idle? Was the land all occup ied before you were born? Has the earth ceased to yield its increase? Are the se ats all taken? the positions all filled? the chances all gone? Are the resources of your country fully developed? Are the secrets of nature all mastered? Is the re no way in which you can utilize these passing moments to improve yourself or benefit others? Is the competition of modern existence so fierce that you must b e content simply to gain an honest living? Have you received the gift of life in this progressive age. M ake it. We are dazzled by what Emerson calls the "shallow Americanism" of the day. leads on to fortune. Young men and women. each mo ment brings us to the threshold of some new opportunity. "There is a tide in the affairs of men. knowl edge without study. but industry makes the com monest chances golden. A stray. with human nature so constit uted that often a pleasant word or a trifling assistance may stem the tide of di saster for some fellow man. or fame. merely that you may increase by one the sum total of purely anim al existence? Born in an age and country in which knowledge and opportunity abound as never b efore. have made their chances of s uccess. Omitted. how can you sit with folded hands. asking God's aid in work for which He has already given you the necessary faculties and strength? Even when the Chosen People supposed their progress checked by the Red Sea. the Lord said. Nor pause. But bravely bear thee onward to the goal." "'Tis never offered twice. And t his all-important moment--who can tell when it will be upon us?" "What we call a turning-point. or clear his path to success. Golden opportunities are nothing to laziness.

will not permit one great faculty to dwarf."Wanted. warp. a man who. "Hear me." All the world cries. Wanted. Where is the man who will save us? We want a man! Don't lo ok so far for this man. to hate all vilene ss. every calling. true. a man who is symmetrical. Wanted. no stunted ascetic.--it is you. it is I." though all the world say "Yes. or mutilate his manhood. and sought in vain. a man who has the courage of his convictions. is a suff icient indication. In the market place he once cried aloud." The world wants a man who is educated all over. who considers it a low estimate o f his occupation to value it merely as a means of getting a living. broad. Wanted. whose nerves are brought to the ir acutest sensibility. he said scornfully: "I called f or men. a man who is broad. Not faiths with rigid eyes. Not power with gracious smiles.--ALEXANDRE DUMAS. who does not let a college education spoil him for practical. a man who is well balanced. if one knows not how to will it. incisive. microscopic. education and culture. sensitive. Diogenes sought with a lantern at noontide in ancient Athens for a perfectly ho nest man. who has learned to love all beauty. whose heart is tende r. whether of nature or of art. . Wanted. nothing easier. a ma n who sees self-development. Wanted. who has not sent all the energies of his being into one narrow specialty and allowed al l the other branches of his life to wither and die. not pygmies. men. and scour in vain. Not wealth in mountain piles. every-day life. in one direction at least. though he is dominated by a mighty purpose. . who is not afraid to say "No. a man who mixes common sense with his th eories. charac ter and manhood. a man "who. and not one-sided in his development. when a crowd collected around him. the servant of a tender conscience. whose brain is cultured. Not even the potent pen. cripple. who will not allow the over-development of one faculty to stunt or paralyze his other facult ies. a man who prefers substance to show. if one wills it. a man of courage who is not a coward in any part of his nature. and. and to respect others as himself. keen. a man who is larger than his calling. is full of life and fire. A thousand pulpits vacant in a single religious denomination. who is not cursed with some little defect o f weakness which cripples his usefulness and neutralizes his powers. discipline and drill. every occupation. Wanted. a man who will not lose his individuality in a crowd." Wanted. while a thousand church committees scour the land for men to fill those same vacant pulpits. magnanimous. Wanted. and one who regards his good name as a priceless treasure. the world h as a standing advertisement: "Wanted--A Man." Over the door of every profession. O men". but whose pas sions are trained to heed a strong will. a thousand preach ers standing idle in the market place. and also of the crying need of good men. whose ha nds are deft. it is each one of us! . who does not take half views of things. How to constitute one's self a man? Nothing harder. You have him at hand. of the largeness of the opportunit ies of the age. men: Not systems fit and wise. whose eyes are alert. . in his occupation. Want ed." Wanted. This man.

weak instead of strong. There is an inheren t love in the human mind for wholeness. I must make myself a man. yet it is almost impossible to find just the right man in almost any department of life. but to train a man. it is true he will be neither a soldier. then recedes. robust. Natur e has destined us to the offices of human life antecedent to our destination con cerning society. As we stand upon the seashore while the tide is coming in. snarling. "I can't. As Emerson says. a lawyer." Montaigne says our work is not to train a soul by itself alone. "According to the order o f nature. the coming man and woman must have good bodies and an excess of animal spirits. What more glorious than a magnificent manhood. and whoever is well educated to discharge the duty of a man can not be badly pre pared to fill any of those offices that have a relation to him. demands that man be ever at the top of his condition. and there is an inherent protest or contempt for preventable de ficiency. turned out into the world saplings instead of stalwart oaks. says. men being equal. one wave reaches up the beach far higher than any previous one. self-supporting men. short doctor of divinity in a large Baptist convention stood on a ste p and said he thanked God he was a Baptist." he replied. not. Nature. the pulpit. One great need for the world to-day is for men and women who are good animals. Let hi m first be a man. nor a body by i tself alone." "Get up higher. and yet everywhere we see the advertisement: "Wanted--A Man. A peevish. Talleyrand's question is ever the main one. or the bar." some one said. and for some time none that follows comes up to its mark. It matters littl e to me whether my pupil be designed for the army. "So many promising you ths. but after a while the whole sea is there and . To live is the profession I would teach him." A little." But there is something higher than being a Bapt ist. That is all that Talleyrand.The whole world is looking for such a man. When Garfield as a boy was asked what he meant to be he answered: "First of all . in his celebrated essay on education. is he rich? i s he committed? is he well-meaning? has he this or that faculty? is he of the mo vement? is he of the establishment? but is he anybody? does he stand for somethi ng? He must be good of his kind. helpless instead of self-supporting. independent. all that the commo n sense of mankind asks. he will be always found in his place. leaning instead of erect. a demand that man shall come up to the h ighest standard. cheerful man. " Rousseau. and that is being a man. and never a finished man!" The character sympathizes with and unconsciously takes on the nature of the bod y. Fortune may remove him from one rank to another as she pleases . "To be a Bap tist is as high as one can get. their common vocation is the profession of humanity. When I have done w ith him. sickly instead of robust. The audience could not hear and call ed "Louder. nor a divine. animated with the bounding spiri ts of overflowing health? It is a sad sight to see thousands of students graduated every year from our gr and institutions whose object is to make stalwart. if I do not succeed in that. too. I can succeed in nothin g. "memory-glands " instead of brainy men. To endure the strain of our concentrated civilization. Although there are millions out of e mployment. ailing man can not develop the vigor and strength of cha racter which is possible to a healthy.

So through di scipline. A time like this demands Strong minds. His sensibility will not be deadened or blunted by violation of Nature's laws. Where low-browed baseness wafts perfume to pride. Apelles hunted over Greece for many years. Man is the only great thing in the universe. Not starred and spangled courts. physical man-timber. but the strength and the v irtues of other types of men. or an ocean with his commerce. feel that the eyes of the world are upon him that he must not deviate a hair's breadth from the truth and right. and in private thinking. with a face that never turns pale at the accuser's voice. for his famous portrait of a perfect woman which en chanted the world. God give us men. that every promise he makes shall be redeeme d to the letter. compared with conscious rectitud e. Where. and will respond to the most delicate touches of Natu re. experience. great hearts. that every appointment shall be kept with the strictest faithfu lness and with full regard for other men's time. And crush the tyrant while they rend the chain.Men who their duties kno w. and after a while even the av erage man will overtop the highest wave of manhood yet given to the world. WILLIAM JONES. ANON. and ever master of himself. Only one complete man has yet evolved. there a forehead and there a nose. who live above the fog I n public duty. within arm's length of what is not your own. he would. or den. Men who can stand before a demagogue And scorn his treach erous flatteries without winking. equipoised. moral.beyond it. So the coming man will be a composite. come to have almost unl imited credit and the confidence of everybody who knows him. He will be a man raised to the highest power. Men whom the spoil s of office cannot buy. Prevent the long-aimed blo w. What are palaces and equipages. Such wood can be turned into a mast.-. rich navies ride. with a heart that might be turned inside out and disclose no stain of dishonor? To have done no man a wrong. Not cities proud with spires and turrets crowned. With powers as far above dull brutes endued In forest. But it must become timber first. true fait h and ready hands: Men whom the lust of office does not kill. to walk and live. He w ill be a self-centered. As beasts excel cold rocks and brambles rude. education. So now and then there comes a man head and shoulders above his fello w men. if he should take su ch a stand at the outset. No: men. to have put your signature to no paper to which the purest angel in heaven might not have been a n attesting witness.--this is to be a man. dare maintain. Not bays an d broad-armed ports. His whole charact er will be impressionable. unseduced. The first requisite of all education and discipline should be man-timber. and knowing. What constitutes a state? Not high-raised battlement or labored mound. Time and patience develop the sapling into the tree. like George Peabody. But know their rights. Men who have honor-men who will not lie. Tough timber must come from well grown. laughing at the storm. if he should hold his reputatio n as a priceless treasure. many in one. with a bosom that n ever throbs with fear of exposure. studying the fairest points of beaut iful women. not the follies. Thick wa ll or moated gate. high-minded men. If the youth should start out with the fixed determination that every statement he makes shall be the exact truth. He will a bsorb into himself not the weakness. getting here an eye. sturdy trees. the sapling child is developed into hardy menta l. can be fashioned into a piano or an exquisite carving. Men who possess opinions and a will. here a grace and there a turn of beauty. what though a man could cover a continent with his title-deeds. brake. All the ages have been trying to p roduce a perfect model. with nothing between your desire and its gratification but the in visible law of rectitude. The best of us ar e but prophesies of what is to come. Tall men sun-crowned. showing that Nature has not lost her ideal. .

" said a pretty little girl at a children's party in Denmark. There can be no doubt that the captains of industry to-day. Poverty is very terrible. "my papa can put your papa and ever ybody's papa into the newspaper. Kitto. who was thought capable of nothing bet ter than making shoes as a pauper. HOLLAND. "we are i n the midst of plenty." "But my papa can buy a hundred dollars' worth of bonbons. for he can do as he likes with the paper.CHAPTER III BOYS WITH NO CHANCE In the blackest soils grow the fairest flowers. too? The hedges furnish blackberries and nu ts. G. turnips. "There is no fear of my starving. We must put our arms akimbo." Years afterwards when the children of the party had become men and women. tie a ligature around their bodies. and sometimes kills the very soul within us.'" she added. 'Tis a common proof. Cannot I do so. And those whose names end with 'sen. but it i s the north wind that lashes men into Vikings. B ut no.--Hans Christian Andersen. and his name ended in "sen. Surmounted difficulties not only teach. but hearten us in our future struggl es. He ha d become the great sculptor Thorwaldsen. once the very boy who thought it so gre at a privilege to peep at them through a crack in the door as they played.--GERMAN PROVERB. another who se name did not keep him from becoming famous.--SETH LOW. and the loftiest and strongest trees spring heavenward among the rocks. his parents had not even a penny to spare. so as to keep these 'sen' people at a great distance. father. luscious south wi nd which lulls them to lotus dreams. if I could be one of them!" thought a little boy peeping through the crack of the door. became one of the greatest Biblical scholars in the world.--OUIDA.--SHARPE." The poor deaf boy with a drunken father. Poverty is the sixth sense.--J. It is not every calamity that is a curse. begging to be taken from the poorhouse and allowed to struggle for an education. and early adversity is often a blessi ng. All sorts of people are afraid of him. and give them away to children. by permission of the cook for whom he had been turning the spit." "Oh. my papa says. "Can y our papa do that?" "Yes. when hungry. some of them went to see a splendid house. and make the elbows quite pointed. and I know how to prevent hunger. His first book was written in the workhouse. using that term in its broadest sense. they also. and the fields. This sketch is adapted from a story by a poor Danish cobbler's son." said the deaf boy." chimed in the daughter of an editor. a hayrick will make an excellent bed. The Hottentots subsist a long time on nothing but a little gum. . which is a very high office. it is the soft. "my father is Groom of the Chambers. filled with all kinds of beautiful and val uable objects." angrily exclaimed the daughter of the rich merchant Petersen. "can never be anything at all. are men who began life as poor boys. There they met the owner. That lowliness is young ambition's ladder! SHAKESPEARE. "I am a child of the court.

It is dark. and even the praise of Pericles. a determined expression in her eyes. The group is the work of my hands. that Apollo. but with black eyes that beam ed with the flashing light of genius. forgive and save the maid! She is my sister. Not to the dungeon. T he highest purpose of law should be the development of the beautiful. Beauty was his god. high enthroned child of Zeus. his life. but there was no answer. At his side was Aspasia. If Athens lives in the memory and affections of men. but now. but she will not tell his name." And there. and a law was in force that under penalty of death no one should espouse a rt except freemen. at whose shrine I have daily laid my offerings. It was after the repulse of the great Persian inv ader. and guarded and attended by his sister." As he spoke a youth with flowing hair. "Behold that group! Apo llo decides by it that there is something higher in Greece than an unjust law. "To the dungeon. About this time all Greece was invited to Athens to behold an exhibit of works of art. but was silent. and with closed lips. "this woman knows the sculptor. he had prayed for f resh inspiration. I am the culprit. we ar e sure of it. my goddess. he proceeded with his glorious but dangerous task. Socrates. new skill. Sophocles. Heralds repeated the ques tion." To the cellar Creon went." Cleone was questioned. "the law is imperat ive. my queen. but to my side bring the youth. the hands of a slave. and I am the minister of the law. The display took place in the Agora. my patron. but I will furnish light and food. as a writer tells the story in Kate Field's "Washingto n." but he was also a slave of the Genius of Art. Take the maid to the dungeon. his soul. Cleone. to be now my friend. emaciated. no!" said Pericles.--a group that Apollo himself must have chiseled. rushed forward. She was informed of the penalty of her c onduct. from day to day. h is heart. a nswering his prayers. the friend of my brother!" Then to her brother she said: "O Creon. "O Aphrodit e!" she prayed. exciting at the same time no little envy among rival artists. in the presence of the assembled multitude. all the gods seemed to have d eserted him. "A mystery. felt the blow as deeply as her brother. and flinging himself befor e him exclaimed: "O Pericles. then! Can it be the work of a slave?" Amid great commotion a beautiful maiden with disarranged dress. and he wor shiped it with rapt adoration. had directed his hand and had breathed into the figures th e life that seemed to animate them. But one group. it is her devotion to art that will i mmortalize her. the gods will be friend us.Creon was a Greek slave. Aspasia placed the crown . gratefully and proudly. The works of the great masters were there." "As I live. day and night . Continue your work." cried the officers. far more beautiful th an the rest. his devoted sister.--now. and other renowned men stood near him. Pericles presided. but her lips remained closed." The indignant crowd interrupted him and cried." said Pericles. was dragged into th e Agora. When the law was enacted he was engaged upon a group for whic h he hoped some day to receive the commendation of Phidias. He believed. the greatest sculpto r living. On his knees. What was to be done? Into the marble block before him Creon had put his head. rising. "immortal Aphrodite. Phidias. disheveled hair . go to the cellar beneath our house.--challenged univer sal attention. "This woman. "Who is the sculptor of this group?" None could tell. to the dungeon with the slave. "Then.

He we nt through Boston that he might see Bunker Hill monument and other historical la ndmarks. every occasion was a great occasion. The latter had no id ea that a country greenhorn could set type for the Polyglot Testament on which h . amid universal plaudits. August 18. which brought me eighty-four dollars." Mr. over one hundred miles distant. He retained but fifteen dollars and gave the rest to his father." Horace Greeley looked down on hi s clothes as if he had never before noticed how seedy they were.. going into scores of buildings and asking if they wanted "a ha nd". He managed to read a thousand good books before he was twenty-one--w hat a lesson for boys on a farm! When he left the farm he started on foot for Na tick. and I want to help him all I c an. and received the magnificent sum of six dollars for the month's work! Each of t hese dollars looked as large to me as the moon looks to-night. Twelve years l ater he stood shoulder to shoulder with the polished Sumner in Congress. Dress up a little. just as the sun was rising. He seized them as tho ugh they were gold and would not let one pass until he had wrung from it every p ossibility. Sterret of the Erie "Ga zette" for substitute work. and. my father is on a new place. The Athenians erected a statue to Aesop. . literature. . descended the Hudson in a barge. "I was born in poverty. wealth and immortality were the sure reward of the man who could distinguish himself in art. Mass. Slinging h is bundle of clothes on a stick over his shoulder. Let me give you an order on the store. He ground every circumstance of his life into material for success. The whole trip cost him but one dollar and six cents. and reached New York. No other country ever did so much to encourage and inspire struggling meri t. With hi m. His quaint appearance led many to think he was an escaped apprentice. and at the same t ime. to learn the cobbler's trade. and cut m ill-logs. In the first month aft er I was twenty-one years of age. with tow-colored hair. with whom he had moved from Vermont to Western Pennsylvania. and fo r whom he had camped out many a night to guard the sheep from wolves. M. counting every penny from the time I w as born till I was twenty-one years of age. she tenderly kissed Creon's affectionate and devot ed sister. he made hi s great speech against slavery. and was to receive one hundred and thirty-five from Judge J. but "no" was the invariable reply. "Want sat by my crad le. who was born a slave. Wilson determined never to lose an opportunity for self-culture or self-adv ancement. I lef t my home at ten years of age. which she held in her hands. His journey of s ix hundred miles had cost him but five dollars. Sterrett. 1831." said Vice-President Henry Wilson. I know what it is to travel weary mi les and ask my fellow men to give me leave to toil. I went into the woods. at the end of eleven years of hard wo rk. In a year he was the head of a debating club at Natick. Horace. He was nea rly twenty-one. and served an apprenticeship of eleven years. I rose in the morning before daylight and worked hard till after dark. Few men knew so well the value of spare moments. One Sunday at his boarding-place he heard that pri nters were wanted at "West's Printing-office. and asked the foreman for a job at seven. drove a team. I never spent the sum of one dollar for pleasure. that men might k now that the way to honor is open to all. rec eiving a month's schooling each year. and. he resolved to seek his fortune in New York City. . Before eight years had passed. He found board over a saloon at two dollars and a half a week. although tall and gawky. or war. and replied: "Y ou see Mr. For days Horace wandered up and down the streets. I know what it is to ask a mother for bread when she has none to give. he walked sixty miles through the woods to Buffalo. a pale face and whining voice. on the brow of Creon. In Greece." He had spent but six dollars for personal expenses in seven months. a yoke of oxen and six sheep. rode on a canal boat to Albany.of olives. "Don't go about the town any longer in that outlandish rig. in the Massachusetts Legislature." He was at the door at five o'cloc k Monday morning.

Steadily the young man struggled towards his ideal. the host turned t o one of the waiters and asked him to explain the picture. That night Horace showed a proof of the largest and most correct day's work that had then been done. But on this p aper at a penny per copy he made no money. His next venture was "The New York Tr ibune. It was an up-hill job. Bennet hired a small cellar in Wall Street. and was only know n as a clever writer for the press." price one cent. a discussion arose in r egard to the meaning of a painting representing some scene in the mythology or h istory of Greece." He had a keen sense of what would pl ease the public. a thing then unknown in America. from an ever-widening area. W hen Harrison was nominated for President in 1840. the profits sometimes amounting to over four hundred thousand d ollars a year. and th e "Herald" was started on May 6. nearly a century and a half ago. until his paper was famous for giving the curr ent history of the world as fully and quickly as any competitor." Greeley declined. which was the key-note of the suc cess of a boy who started with "no chance": "Nihil sine labore. He made "great hits" in some of the works he pub lished. He began with six hundred subscribers. and of the "Pennsylvanian" a little later. The demand for the "Tribune" grew faster than new machinery coul d be obtained to print it. and increased the list to eleven thousan d in six weeks. Childs' private office in Philadelphia was this motto. lowered the advertising rates. To start it he borrowed a thousand dollars and printed f ive thousand copies of the first number. but said: "Fix up a case for him and we'll see if he can do anyt hing. and there seemed no end to his industry. doing all the work except the printing. He always refused to lower the wages of his employees even when e very other establishment in Philadelphia was doing so. but recommended two young printers. whatever his mistakes. Greatly to the surpri . as all its predecessors were party organs. he had great determination and indomitable energy. such as "Kane's Arctic Expedition. a lways tried to be right. furnished it with a chair a nd a desk composed of a plank supported by two barrels. who formed partnership with Bennett. and in 1864 the dreams of his boyhood fou nd fulfilment. James Gordon Bennett had made a failure of his "New York Courier" in 1825. and as soon as he had saved a few hundred dollars as a clerk in a bookstore. Neither labor nor expense was spared in o btaining prompt and reliable information on every topic of general interest. One of the first things to attract the attention on entering George W. but its completion was finally marked by the opening at the corner of Broadway and Ann Street of the most complete newspaper establishment t hen known.elp was needed. In spite of the fact that the "Ledger" was losing money every day. with a cash capital to pay expenses for t en days. fresh and c risp." which reached the then fabulous circulation of ninety thousand." the best weekly paper in the United States. 1835." It was his earl y ambition to own the "Philadelphia Ledger" and the great building in which it w as published. and there. He founded the "New Y orker. Greeley started "The Log-Cabin . he began business as a publisher. he objected to the new-comer and told the fo reman to let him go when his first day's work was done. It was difficult to give them all away. the "New York Herald. In ten years he was a partner in a small printing-office. his friends could not dissuade him from buying it. to the astonishment of everybody. who had saved a few hundred dollars by hard labor and strict economy for fourteen years.00 a week ever hope to own such a great paper? However. In 1835 he asked Horace Greeley to join him in starting a new daily paper. began the work of making a really great daily newspap er." When the proprietor came in. and often much more thoroughly and far more promptly. giving the news. and the paper entered upon a career of remark able prosperity. of t he "Globe" in 1832. but it was not profitable. Seeing that the discussion was growing warm. but how could a poor boy working for $2. At a banquet in Lyons. He doubled the subscription price. It was a paper whose editor.

the sap having been gathered and the wood cut before dark. a youth to find any excuse for its non-performance?" Humphrey Davy had but a slender chance to acquire great scientific knowledge. blazing bright before the sugar-house. read every book in it. I had no money to purchas e candles or oil. though in a state of hal f starvation. can there be in the whole worl d. "Many a farmer's son. I was as tall as I am now. That farthing was. library at years William Cobbett had followed the plow. and that. and th e task did not demand anything like a year of my life. I found that I had lost my half-penny." replied the young servant: "but the school in which I studied longest and learne d most is the school of adversity. The smooth sand beach of Lake Erie constituted the foolscap on which. and he made even old pans." said he. singing. the most beautiful e xposition of graphic art. and I had great health and great exercise. T he edge of my berth.' by the light o f which. "In what school have you studied. laughing.se of the company. "under such circumstances could encounter and overcome this task. whistling. "I learned grammar when I was a private soldier on the pay of sixpence a day. my knaps ack was my bookcase. was my own experience. is there. although then but a poor waiter. and to have obtained a better and more enduring knowledge of its events and horr ors and of the actors in that great national tragedy than I have received from a . but so hungry as to be ha rdly able to endure life." says Thurlow Weed. and then enlisted in an infantry During his first year of soldier life he subscribed to a circulating Chatham. when he ran away to Lond law papers for eight or nine months. now and then. too. I passed many a delightful night in reading. the servant gave a clear concise account of the whole subject . "If I. in winter it was rarely that I could get any evening light but that of the fire. when I pulled off my clothes at night. all Europe soon rang with the fame of the w ritings of the greatest genius of his age and country. I buried my head in the miserable sheet and rug. and only my turn. The w hole of the money not expended for us at market was twopence a week for each man . ink. made shift to have a half-penny in reserve. During the day we would always lay in a good stock of 'fat-pine. Monseigneur. At night you had only to feed the kettles an d keep up the fires. R.' Such. Monsieur?" asked one of the guests." Well had he profited by poverty's lessons. and I had to rea d and write amidst the talking. and began to study. for want of other material. and well I may! that upon one occasion I had. so plain and convincing that it at once settled the dispute. "I have studied in many schools. f or. for pen. a barefoot boy with no chance. P. For eight on. a bit of board lying on my lap was my writing-table. I remember. Think not lightly of the farthing I had to giv e. or that of the guard-bed. which I had des tined for the purpose of a red herring in the morning. and bawling of at least half a score of the most thoughtless of men. kettles. and bottles co ntribute to his success. in the hours o f their freedom from all control. as he experimented and studied in the attic of the apot hecary-store where he worked. alas! a great sum to me. of that. at any rate. or paper. was my seat to study in." But Cobbett made even his poverty and hard circumstances serve his all-absorbin g passion for knowledge and success. Spencer. after all absolutely necessary expenses. "has found the best opportunities for mental improvement in his intervals of leisure while tending 'sap-bush. perfected the e ssential principles of the Spencerian system of penmanship. Jean Jacques Rousseau. and cri ed like a child. even. I remember in this way to have a history of the French Revolution. copied regiment. I had no moment of time that I could call my own. addressin g the waiter with great respect. To buy a pen or a sheet of p aper I was compelled to forego some portion of my food. y et he had true mettle in him.

and granted the request. Theodore. One book he could not borrow." said Theodore. not an inch above you. but he felt that he must have it. June 20 ." The barefoot Christine Nilsson in remote Sweden had little chance." and for his nobl e work in the service of humanity. after a two-mile tramp through the snow. are such entries as these. "No outfit. I shal l study at home. and Elihu was apprenticed to a blacksmith in his native village of New Britain. and presented hims elf for a candidate for admission. but she won the admiration of the world for her wondrous power of song. "was when I had first gai ned the full meaning of the first fifteen lines of Homer's Iliad. In a diary kept at Worcester. He had been unable to attend school regularly since he was eight years old. headache. who are the great philanthropists of the country. who are the poets of the country. which he borrowed. 60 lines Hebrew. and in straightene d circumstances." Elihu Burritt 's father died when he was sixteen. too." says Dr. "that you are on a level now with those who are finally to succeed . Mark my words. "but. but while blowing the bellows. and thus prepare myself for a final examination. He became eminent as the "Learned Blacksmith. my boy!" said the millwright." He did this." said Elihu Burritt. The poor Lexington millwright looked in surprise at his youngest son. so on summer mornings he rose long before the sun and picked bushel aft er bushel of berries. 11 hours' forging. 40 pages Cuvier's 'Theory of the Earth. He had to work at the forge for ten or twelve hours a day." He mastered 18 languages and 32 dialects.--are now on a level with you. Theodore rose very early the next m orning. when. Tuesday. walked through the dust ten miles to Harvard College. for reading useful b ooks. Talmage to young men. combined with rare w omanly grace. Years after. Garrison. and had reviewed his lessons again and again as he followed the plow or worked at other tasks. where he was graduated with h onor. who are the strong merchants of the countr y. Horace Mann. 11 hours' forging. by teaching school as he grew o lder. "Well done. "Let me say in regard to your adverse worldly circumstances. shoeless. for it was a busy time. Conn. and." "May I have a holiday to-morrow. go down to the library and get some books. father?" asked Theodore Parker one August afte rnoon.ll subsequent reading. no capital to start with? Young man. 30 Danish. 15 names of stars. "The proudest moment of my life. it was a pleasure for him to recall his e arly struggles and triumphs among the rocks and bushes of Lexington. at odd times. Wednesday. in . I cannot afford to keep you there!" "True. June 18. June 19. 8 lines Syriac. as the trusted friend and adviser of Seward. and think of it thirty years from now. Chase. 10 lines Bo hemian. Sum ner. and so got the money to buy that coveted Latin dictionary. how happy I was in being able to borrow the books of a Mr. which he sent to Boston. 9 lines Polish. got money to study for two years at Harvard.' 64 pages Fren ch. his influence for good was fel t in the hearts of all his countrymen. 25 lines Hebrew. when his son came home late at night and told of his successful examination. 10 hours' forging. I remember. but he had managed to go three months each winter . You will find that those who are then the millionaires of this country. who are the orators of the count ry. All his odd moments had been hoarded.--mightiest in the church an d state. father. whither he went some ten years later to enjoy its library privileges.--"M onday. Edward Everett said of the manner in which th is boy with no chance acquired great learning: "It is enough to make one who has good opportunities for education hang his head in shame. but he saw from the boy's earnest face that he had no ordin ary object in view. Keyes. also. and Wendell Phillips. my feet swaddled in remnants of rag carpet. he would solve mentally diff icult problems in arithmetic. and read of what wonderful mechanism God gave you in your hand. which will give me a diploma. "I am not going to stay there.

who had suffere d long and patiently. in your eye. he started to prosecute his work more earnestly in Baltimore. every month. begging him to release Garrison by paying the fine. churches. He had already begun to dabble in chemistry. he said he had always been a total abstai ner and singularly moderate in everything but work. the poorest young man is equipped as only d afford to equip him." in the very first issue: "I will be as harsh as truth. a noble friend in the North. without distinction of creed or p olitics! What chance had they against the prejudices and sentiment of a nation? But these young men were fired by a lofty purpose. Garrison urged an immediate emancipation. He was n o ordinary young man. Yet the man who more than any other is responsible for the industrial regeneration of this continent started in life as a newsboy on the Grand Trunk Railway. He had walked four h undred miles on his way to Tennessee to increase his subscription list. the train rounded a curve. or influence. and had fitted up a small itine rant laboratory. Edison passed through one dramatic situation after another--always mastering it --until he attained at an early age the scientific throne of the world. and called down upon his head the wrath of the entire community. and which was upheld by scholars. and the bottle of sulphuric acid broke. What nonsense for two uneducated and unknown youths who met in a cheap boarding -house in Boston to array themselves against an institution whose roots were emb edded in the very constitution of our country. statesmen. resolved to devote his life to secure the freedom of these poor wretches. Equipped? W the God of the whole universe coul A newsboy is not a very promising candidate for success or honors in any line o f life. so did David B. "He was imprisoned for his opinion when he was twenty-four. twenty miles. although she early taught him to hate oppression. A young man can't set out in life with much less chance than when he sta rts his "daily" for a living. started out as a newsboy with apparently the worl d against him. One of them.your foot. There followed a serie s of unearthly odors and unnatural complications. of vessel-l oads of unfortunates torn from home and family and sent to Southern ports. being too poor to furnish the money himself. made an impression on Garrison never t o be forgotten. Benjamin Lundy. and the young man whose mother was too poor to send him to schoo l. Wendell Phillips said of him. the h eartrending scenes at the auction blocks. was so touched at the news that. in your ear. in a little upstairs room. he wrote to Henry Cl ay." Read the declaration of this poor young man with "no chance. Gar rison started the "Liberator. and never aga capital to start with." In Boston. John G." ask some doctor to take you into t you have read about. In the first issue of his paper. He was arrested and sent to jail. Daniel Manning who was President Cleveland's first campaign manager and afterwa rds Secretary of the Treasury. and they were thoroughly in e arnest. friends. with no money. With William Lloyd Garrison. as uncomprom . and aristocracy. The sight of the slave-pens along the principal streets. Whittier. So did Thurlow Weed. After forty-nine days of imprisonment he was set free. had already started in Ohio a paper called "The Genius of Universal Liberty. as he was performing some occult experiment. promptly ejected the youthful devotee. He had confronted a nation in the bloom of his youth. New York seems to have been prolific in enterprising newsboys. wealth. and in the process of the scientist's expulsion added a resounding box upon the ear. Hill. One day." and had carried the entire edition home on hi s back from the printing-office. The conductor. Thomas Alva Edison was then about fifteen years of a ge. and then he dissecting-room and illustrate to you what in commit the blasphemy of saying you have no hy. When rec ently asked the secret of his success.

" What audacity for a young m an. He was sent to a boarding-school. t he earth should have yawned and swallowed him up." Cobden could no longer see the poor man' . his supporters a few persons of all colors and little influence. He learned French by rising early and studying while his companions slept. and replied in such a speech as was never before heard in Faneuil Hall. but had no chance to attend school until he was ten years old. He found Mr. The legislature of Georgia offered a reward of five thousand dollars for his arrest and conviction. Garrison and his coadjutors were denounced everywhere. The drama culminated in the shock of civil war. He called upon John Bright to enlist his aid in fighting the terrible "Corn-Law s" which were taking bread from the poor and giving it to the rich. "where wives." and asked him to ascertain the n ame of the publisher. Hayne." But this poor young man. "There are thousands of homes in England at this moment." said Wendell Phillips. eating. and allowed to write home only once in three months. and. wrote to Otis. where he was abused. Robert Y. an d culture of Massachusetts arrayed itself against the "Abolitionists" so outrage ously. Bright in great grief. on soil consecrated by the prayers of the Puritans and the blood of patriots. to see the s tars and stripes unfurled once more above Fort Sumter." The Governors of one or two States set a price on the editor's head. after thirty-five years of untiring. and printing in this "obscure hole. I would advise you to come with me. About this time Richard Cobden. For the sentiments that he has uttered. an emancipated slave deli vered the address of welcome. that a mere spectator. that s ome one had sent him a copy of the "Liberator. I will not equivocate. mothers. mayor of Boston." The whole nation was wrought to fever heat. no longer chattels in appre ciation presented Garrison with a beautiful wreath of flowers. of South Carolina. another powerful friend of the oppressed. At fifteen he en tered his uncle's store in London as a clerk. and must be suppressed. and children are dying of hunger. sleeping." had set the world to thinking. Garrison was invited as the nation's guest. a young lawyer of great promise. I w ill not retreat a single inch. W hen the war was ended. Now. "I thought those pictured lips would have broken into voice to rebuke the recre ant American. died in London. for his wife was lying dead in the house. and I will be heard. while defending his p rinting-press. The Vigilance Associatio n of South Carolina offered a reward of fifteen hundred dollars for the arrest a nd prosecution of any one detected circulating the "Liberator. and in the old "Cradle of American Liberty" the wealth. heroic conflict . A clergyman named Lovejo y was killed by a mob in Illinois for espousing the cause. pointing to their portraits on the walls. He was soon sent out in a gig as a comm ercial traveler. asked to be lifte d upon the high platform." said Richard Cobden. his only auxiliary a negro boy. with Qui ncy and Adams. hal f starved. I will not excuse. with the world against him! Hon. The boy earned his living by watching a neighbor's sheep. and we will never rest until the Corn-Laws are repealed. "When I heard the gentleman lay down the principles which plac e the murderers of Lovejoy at Alton side by side with Otis and Hancock. Otis replied that he had found a poor young man printing " this insignificant sheet in an obscure hole. by President Lincoln. I am in earnest. even in far California. the slanderer of the dead. when the first par oxysm of grief is passed. and his two daughters. His father had died leaving nine children almost penniless. power.ising as justice. Between the Northern pioneers and Southern chivalry the struggle was long and f ierce.

He was appren ticed for seven years to a bookbinder and bookseller. who was Prime Minister to the greatest despot of the world five centuries before the birth of Christ. an added shilling.--a question between the working millions and the aristocracy. Mr. and took him to hear Sir Humphry Davy lecture on chemistry. He summoned courage to w rite the great scientist and sent the notes he had taken of his lecture. no other man did so much to give the laborer a shorter day. starving under the Corn-Laws." which. his eyes caught the article on electricity." "What has been done can be done again." They formed the "Anti-Corn-Law League. Tyndall said of him. too. his mighty eloquence. "I am not a slave." said the boy with no chance. He was appointed professor at the Royal Academy of Woolwich. he replied "Michael Faraday. not long after. hissed down in the House of Commons." John Bright himself was the son of a poor working man. and became the won der of the age in science. until h e stood a master. better. During the frightful famine. Henry Clay. "This is not a par ty question. England's great Prime Minister. He pushed his way up through the low er classes. an old pan. and that of Daniel. which cut off two millions of Ireland's population in a year. "He is the greatest experimental philosopher the world has ever seen. and by energy I can overcome greater obstacles. When binding the Encyclopa edia Britannica. Michael could scarcely trust his eyes as he read the note. he develop ed his safety-lamp and experimented with dangerous explosives. and he could not re st until he had read it.s bread stopped at the Custom-House and taxed for the benefit of the landlord an d farmer." Jewish blo od flowed in his veins and everything seemed against him. and the bo y with no chance but a determined will swayed the scepter of England for a quart er of a century. and a servant handed him a written invitatio n to call upon the great lecturer the next morning." When Sir Humphry Davy was asked what was his greatest discovery. Sir Humphry Davy's carr iage stopped at his humble lodging. up through the middle classes. It is a pantr y question. Rebuffed. One nig ht. In the morning he called as requested. and was en gaged to clean instruments and take them to and from the lecture-room. and in those days the do ors of the higher schools were closed to such as he. "The time will come when you will hear me. who carried new spapers about the streets to loan to customers for a penny apiece. aided by the Irish famine. and began to experiment. He watche d eagerly every movement of Davy. where he was drilled o nly in the "three R's. John Bright was more pow erful than all the nobility of England. Except p ossibly Cobden. he simply said. who become Lord Beaconsfield. Bright said: "There is not in Great Britain a poor man's home that has not a bigger. who became Prime Minister of Egypt four thousand years before . Disraeli. and his commanding character." was one of seven children of a widow too poor to send him to any but a common country school." The time did come. a ch eaper loaf. up through the upper classes. and cheaper loaf through Richard Cobd en's labors. self-poised upon the topmost round of political and social pow er. Michael studied a nd experimented. but he remembered the example of Joseph. The whole aristocracy trembled before hi s invincible logic. but the great Quaker heart of this resolute youth was touched with pity for the millions of England's and I reland's poor. as with a glass mask over his face. and he threw his whole soul into this great reform. just as Michael was about to retire. I am not a captive. and a few simple articles. ridiculed. and it was not long before this poor boy with no chance wa s invited to lecture before the great philosophical society." But he used every spare moment to study without a teache . Over a stable in London lived a poor boy named Michael Faraday. "for men of all parties are united upon it.--for it was hunger that at last ate through those stone walls of protection. A customer became interested in the boy. He procured a glass vial. scorned." said he.--secured the r epeal of the law in 1846. the "mill-boy of the slashes.

"Yet it does move. t hat a line connecting the center of the earth with the center of the sun passes over equal spaces in equal times. and of the rings and satellites of Saturn. The star actress was unable to perform. Mark's Cathedral and discovered the satellites of Jupiter and the phases of Venus. While the other hands were playing games or loafing in liquor shops during the holidays. so great was his eagerness for scientific research that he p roved by a straws in his cell that a hollow tube is relatively much stronger tha n a solid rod of the same size. her understu . He would walk eighteen miles to Manchester and back after a hard day's work to buy a shilling's worth of artist's materials. Without a charm of face or figure. "The Forge. and that the squares of the times of revolutio n of the planets above the sun are proportioned to the cubes by their mean dista nces from the sun. with only a cow and a horse for an audience. but he often rose at three o'clock to copy book s he could not buy. Charlotte Cushman resolved to place herself in the front rank as an actress. Even when totally blind. The boy with no ch ance. When he had become famous as a great inventor of improveme nts in engines. What chance had Galileo to win renown in physics or astronomy. all the terrors of the Inquisition could not keep this feeble man of threescore years and ten from muttering to himself. and making ex periments in engines." copies of w hich are to be seen in many a home. its orbit a nd rate of motion. For seventeen years he works calmly upon the demonstration of the great principles that planets revolve in ellipses." How slender seemed the chance of James Sharples. cleaning it. but the engine was his teacher. and he could thus have many spare minutes to study the precious book. George was taking his machine to pieces. when his parents compelled him to go to a medical school? Yet while Venice slept. with his father for fireman. studying it. those who had loafed and played called him lucky. Imagine the surprise of the Royal Society of England when the poor unknown Hers chel sent in the report of his discovery of the star Georgium Sidus. became one of the greatest of American orators and statesmen. When compelled on bended knee to publicly renounce his heretical doctrine that the earth moves ar ound the sun. he stood in th e tower of St. and in after years he was a king among self-made men. which he propped up against the chimney. he kept constantly at w ork. but he managed to get time to make engines of clay. "I resolved to live as i f I were white. because it took a longer time to hea t at the forge. with hemlock sticks for pipes. had with his own hands made the tel escope through which he discovered facts unknown to the best-equipped astronomer s of his day. See Kepler struggling with poverty and hardship. The boy who had learned to speak in a barn. and himself exiled by public clamor. and he a faithful student.r. even in such characters as Rosalind and Queen K atherine. with the sun at one focus. through a telescope made with his own hands. He had ground two hundred specula before he could get one perfect. the celebrated blacksmith arti st of England! He was very poor." When thrown into prison." said Alexandre Dumas. who had played the oboe for his meals. He would ask fo r the heaviest work in the blacksmith shop. He devoted his lei sure hours for five years to that wonderful production. George had to watch cows for a neighbor. "When I found that I was black. He was a great miser of spare mom ents and used every one as though he might never see another. At seventee n he had charge of an engine. This boy with no chance became one of the world's greatest as tronomers. George Stephenson was one of eight children whose parents were so poor that all lived in a single room. He could neither read nor write. and so force men to look below my skin. his books burned in public by order of the state. his library locked up by the Jesuits. and Miss Cushman.

when physicians told her she had a terrible. took her place. write. He wished to buy a boat . His first year's practice brought him but nine sh illings. and came to America as a cabin boy. and well done. "Young man. was worth thirty thousand dollars at thirty-five. On his seventeenth birthday he bought the boat. he had grit and determination. harrow. no ticed that each boy came to school only one day out of three. your bread and butter's cut for life. for he was too poor to go to school or even to buy books. and when he died." The boy with "no chanc e" became Lord Chancellor of England. he left to his thirteen children one of the largest fortunes in America. but had no money. his mother told hi m if he would plow. she would lend him the amount he wished. One be came a professor in a Southern college. ten acres of rough. Altho ugh poor. But no. He was so eager to study that sometimes he would keep it up until his brain refused to work. What a lesson for boys who plead "no chance" as an excuse for wasted liv es! Sam Cunard. wrought many odd inventions wi th brain and jack-knife. But Cornelius Vanderbilt was not the boy to give up. The boy who gave his parents all his day earnings and had half of what he got a t night. her reputation was made. That night she held her audience with such grasp of intellec t and iron will that it forgot the absence of mere dimpled feminine grace. He fulfilled his contract by night so that he mig ht run his ferry-boat between New York and Brooklyn by day. friendless. when he would tie a wet towel about his head to enable h im to keep awake and to study. the voluminous "Coke upon Littleton" amo ng others. The poor mother educated her boys as best she could. She was so anxious to give them an e ducation that she sent them to school by turns. The teacher. and so on had far the largest patronage of any boatman in the harbor. and one of the greatest lawyers of his age . but could affo rd only one pair of trousers for the three. Stephen Girard had "no chance. but they brought neither honor nor profit until he was consulted by Burns & McIvor. incurable disease. To discourage him from following the sea. In after years. a Northern girl. who wished to increase their facilities for carryin g foreign mails. "I have learned to live with my trouble." A poor colored woman in a log-cabin in the South had three boys. but he learned to read. hard. stony land. but quietly said. the worst on his father's far m. During the War of 1812 he was awarded the Government contract to carry provisions to the military stations near the metropolis. When Eldon was leaving the chamber the Solicitor tapped him on the shoulder and said. The model of a steamship which Sam whittled out for them was ca refully copied for the first vessel of the great Cunard Line. before the twenty-seventh day o f the month. and the third a cle rgyman. and was bound to make his way in the world. Lord Eldon might well have pleaded "no chance" when a boy. His great ambition was to get on and succeed . Before the appointed time the work w as done. and plant with corn. the whittling Scotch lad of Glasgow. and that all wore the same pantaloons. and cipher a little. at an advanced age. and became the sta ndard type for all the magnificent ships since constructed by the firm. He at once began again. The new Testament and the speller were Cornelius Vanderbilt's only books at sch ool. He often worked all night. she flinched not a pa rticle." He left his home in France when ten years old. another a physician. yet he was bound not to give up. when the curtain fell upon her first p erformance at the London theater. and unknown before. He rose at four o'clock in the morning and copied law books which he borrowed.dy. but on h is way home it struck a sunken wreck and sank just as he reached shallow water. an d in three years saved three thousand dollars.

Midas like. and wondering if she will be able to keep the wolf from her little ones. from struggling upward to honor and fame as a sculptor. and willingness to risk his life to save strangers sick with the deadly yellow fever. Fred Douglass started in life with less than nothing. He was sent to Europe to lecture. awkward youth. Every spare hour is spent in studying the books he has borrowed. Wh ile traveling from place to place to lecture. and in a few years we find him chopping wood and til ling the little clearing in the forest. For severa l years he was Marshal of the District of Columbia. Behold this long. with which he purchased his freedom. and worked in a boo kstore for one dollar and twenty-five cents a week. Prejudice against her race and sex did not deter the colored girl. He next worked in a clothing store at an advance of twenty-five cents a week. he managed to learn the alphabet from scraps of paper and paten t medicine almanacs. but cannot buy. and then no limits could be placed to his career. and in that capacity showed great executi ve ability. in the backwoods of Ohio. He fled from slavery at twenty-one. and he was pledged before his birth to pay his master's debts. build ing his homely log-cabin. His abnormal love of money cannot be commended. He had no chance to study. to help his mother. There was no work. and acquired nothing by luck. without schooling. began his career upon the stage in the hu mble part of the hind legs of a cow. a poor widow is holding a boy e ighteen months old. Dixey. who won the admiration of mankind by his homely practical wisdom while President during our Civil War. or o rdinary opportunities. From this he went up and up un til he became one of the greatest living merchants. and made so favorable an im pression that he was made agent of the Anti-Slavery Society of Massachusetts.at any cost. he turned to gold everything he touched. He was appointed PostmasterGeneral by President Harrison in 1889. Abraham Li ncoln inherited no opportunities. At Nantucket he was given an opportunity to speak at an anti-slavery meeting. and won the friendship of several Englishmen. He saw his mother but two or three times. and read one hundred pages while returning. however hard and disagreeable. and who emancipated four million s laves. John Wanamaker walked four miles to Philadelphia every day. Henry E. and afterwards conducted the "New Era" in Washington. and became one of the wealthiest merchants of Philadelphia. At sixteen he gladl . P. Y. or teacher. lank. teaching himself arithmetic and grammar in the evening by the light of the fireplace. he walked forty-four miles to proc ure the precious volumes. Barnum rode a horse for ten cents a day. In another log-cabin. but his thoroughness in all he did. Edmonia Lewi s. But somehow. without floor or windows. T. his public spirit at times of national need.. went North. returning in time to go into the f ield at dawn. or books. His good fortune consisted simply of untiring perseverance and a right heart. are traits of character well worthy of imitation. that he would no t undertake. It was a boy born in a log-cabin. and then in the night. and worked as a stevedore in New York and New Bedford. he would study with all his might. when she wo uld walk twelve miles to be with him an hour. who gave him $750. He put to shame thousands of white boys. for he had no teacher. for he did not own his ow n body. unnotice d by his master. To reach the starting-point of the poorest white boy. In his eagerness to kn ow the contents of Blackstone's Commentaries. the well-known actor. he had to climb as far as the dista nce which the latter must ascend if he would become President of the United Stat es. felling trees on the little claim. He edited a paper in Ro chester. The boy grows. and the rules of the plantation forbade slaves to learn to read and write. N.

Soon we find him in Williams College. ne ed despair.y accepts a chance to drive mules on a canal towpath. His vivid imagination clothes it with Arabian Nights possibilities and joys. he had paid all expenses and had three doll ars over. where in two years he is graduated with h onors. crystal stream of country youth flowing steadily into and purifying the muddy. washing. When the term closed. if he is dominated by a resolute purp ose and upholds himself. Our city civilizatio n is always in a process of decay. until the superior virility. in a few generations. The country in America to-day is constantly paying a similar tribute to the cit y in the sacrifice of its best blood. With five chances on each hand and one unwavering aim. to pay his way while studyin g there. and this he put into the contribution box at church the next day. It would soon become so foul and degenerate as to threaten the physical and mora l health of city dwellers. He reaches the State Senate at twenty-six and Congress at thirty-three. There is bread and success for every youth under the American flag w ho has energy and ability to seize his opportunity. is rapidly deteriorated by the softening. and who buffeted the billows of fate wit hout dependence. fuel. and when he returned to school he boarded himself at an expense of thirty-one cents a week. neither men nor demons can keep him down. no boy. become emasc ulated and effeminate were it not for the pure. the Vanderbilts. devitalized stream of city life. with the privilege of wor king at night and on Saturdays all the time he could spare. The inspirat ion of such an example is worth more to the young men of America than all the we alth of the Astors. the drift of country youth to the cit y which has an indescribable fascination for him. Soon he applies for a chan ce to sweep floors and ring the bell of an academy. save upon the mercy of God and their own energies. however poor. its best brain. which is e ver flowing cityward. It matters not whether the b oy is born in a log-cabin or in a mansion. This great stream of superb country manhood. for which he received one dollar and two cents. T wenty-seven years from the time he applied for a chance to ring the bell at Hira m College. The country seems tame and common . stamina and sturdy qualities e ntirely disappear in two or three generations of city life. Garfield became President of the United States. emasculating inf luences of the city. James A. "The little gray cabin appears to be the birthplace of all your great men. and li ght of a carpenter at one dollar and six cents a week. Among the world's greatest heroes and benefactors are many others whose cradles were rocked by want in lowly cottages. When he retur ned the next term he had but a sixpence in his pocket. His first term at Geauga Seminary cost him but seventeen dollars. He had arrived on a Saturday and planed fifty-one boards that day. and would. the finest physical and me ntal fiber in the world. He engaged board." sai d an English author who had been looking over a book of biographies of eminent A mericans. One of our great men says that one of the most unfortunate phases of modern civ ilization is the drift away from the farm. and the Goulds." In the spring he had forty-eight dollars. CHAPTER IV THE COUNTRY BOY The Napoleonic wars so drained the flower of French manhood that even to-day th e physical stature of the average Frenchman is nearly half an inch below what it was at the beginning of Napoleon's reign. The following winter he taught school at twelve dollars a month and "b oard around.

re liable. the valleys. forced to think for himself. the h ills. decorative influences of city life. The very granite hills. The moment a man becomes artificia l in his living. And there is a reason for all this. but less vigorous. He can not know the worth of the country and how to appre ciate the glory of its disadvantages and opportunities until he has seen the sha m and shallowness of the city. substantial. and this calls out his ingenuity and inventiveness. vigorous. strength and power. robustness and vigor. The whole tendency of life in big cities is toward deterioration. hardy qualities. It is Mother Earth and country life t hat give vitality.place after his first dream of the city. putting iron into his blood and stamina into his character. all of wh ich will help to make him a giant when he comes to compete with the city-bred yo uth. the brain vigor. country bred. T here seems to be a close connection between robust character and the soil. mountains and valleys. We are largely copies of our environment. Much of what we call the best society in our cities is often in an advanced pro cess of decay. stamina. We are under the perpetual influence of the suggestion of our surroundings. He has not become weakened and softened b y the superficial ornamental. physical and mental stamina reach their maximum in those who live close to the soil. with power. substantial character when his eyes and ears bring him only sig hts and sounds of artificial things? A vast sea of business blocks. courage and all the qualities which make for manhood and womanhood. Self-reliance and grit are oftenest country-br ed. his flesh firmer. sky-scrapers and asphalt pavements does not generate character-building material. He sees hardly anything that God made. the pure air and sunshine. He develops be tter all-round judgment and a more level head than the city boy. as a rule. the stamina. enduring. is often overcarved and adorned at the cost of strength. th e skin may be a little fairer. It is not natural f or human beings to live far from the soil. so the timber in country boys and girls. To him it is synonymous with opportunit y. aside from the faces and forms of human beings. the thought a little mo re supple. it certainly comes from very near it. If power is not absorbed from the soil. but it is not so healthy. The average country-bred youth has a better foundation for success-building. He can not rid himself of its fascination until he tastes its emptiness. Nearly everything that confronts him from morning till night is a rtificial. when brought to the city. The sturdy. His muscles are harder. One of the greatest boons that can ever come to a human being is to be born on a farm and reared in the country. the mountains. How can a man b uild up a solid. Just as sculpture was once carried to such an extreme that pillars and beams we re often so weakened by the extravagant carvings as to threaten the safety of th e structure. What comes from the artificial conditions of the city is weakening. takes on artificial conditions. the solidity and t he reliability of country-bred men and that of those in the city. man-made. and his brain-fiber partakes of the same superior qua lity. virility. he begins to deteriorate. as do the natural objects in the country. the brooks. the brawn. In other words. City people rarely live really normal lives. The country boy is constantly thrown upon his own resources. the grit which c haracterize men who do great things in this world. There is a very apprecia ble difference between the physical stamina. What we get from the country is solid. that imparts solidit y. to so ften. the miracle of the growing crops are every moment registering their mighty potencies in his con stitution. ener . The city-bred youth sees and hears almost nothing that is natural. are. ha s greater courage. The muscles may be a little more delicate but they are softer. with pleasure. forcefulness. more moral stamina.

nature's kindergarten. It is hard for the city-bred youth to resist the multiplicity of allur ements and pleasures that bid for his attention. and will oft en read the best literature without absorbing any of it. wh ere perpetual creation is going on in such a vast multitude of forms. adjust and repair all sorts of machin ery and farm utensils. magazines and periodicals and gives no real thought to any. we have found were the very things which educated us. He glances through m any papers. books and periodicals is one reason why the coun try boy makes the most of good books and articles. but. while the city youth. He has been forced to do a great variety of work and this has developed corresponding m ental qualities. who. This training develops instinctive courage. For one thing. the cumulative force. constantly calling upon the youth's sel f-reliance and inventiveness. which we oft en see so marked in the young man from the country. but he is better balanced generally. more time to think and to reflect. he is not so rapid in his movements. Is it n ot wonderful to watch the chemical processes in nature's laboratory. it is true. in the midst of newspapers and libraries. The farm is a great gymnasium. he is not so superficial as the city boy. the chores which we hated as boys. The city youth has too many things to divert his attention. softening. the country boy is constantly developing his muscular system. mixing and flinging out to the world the gorgeous colorings and marvelous perfumes of the r ose and wild flower! No city youth was ever in such a marvelous kindergarten. His ingenuity and inventiveness are constantly exercised. His reading is comparatively superficial.vating. as a r ule. his thought action is slower and he does n ot have as much polish. he reads them with much better results. the rocks which we despised. he nce. His perceptions are not so quick. of temptation and amusement in the city. that unless a youth is made of unusual stu ff he will yield to the persuasion of the moment and follow the line of least re sistance. tempting conditions of city life are not conducive t o generating the great master purpose. The country boy does not read as many books as the city boy. The fact is that there is such a diversity of attractions and distractions. Nor do city-bred youths stor e up anything like the reserve power. the stamina. If the wagon or plow breaks down it must be repaired on the spot. The drudgery of the farm. H e can not open his eyes without seeing a more magnificent painting than a Raphae l or a Michael Angelo could have created in a lifetime. He must make the implements and toys which he can not afford to buy or procure. having very lit tle diversion after supper. His even ings are much more broken up than those of the country boy. on the other hand. a superb manual training school. There is a miracle going on in every growing blade of grass and flower. diverting. He must run. Such a multiplicity of objects appeals to him that he is often superficial. and he lacks continuity of thought and application. sees so many books that in most instances he cares very little for them. his min d is perpetually drawn away from his subject. often without the proper tools. And this magnificent pan orama is changing every instant. he lacks depth. The dearth of great libraries. which a re developed in the simple life of the soil. the one unwavering life aim. which developed our power and made us practical. He gets more exercise. is in the midst of a perpetual miracle. The country youth. can read continuously for an entire evening on one s ubject. Hi s health is better. strong success qu . These exciting. often reading them over and o ver again. to deny himself and turn a deaf ear to the appeals of his associates and tie himself down to self-improvement w hile those around him are having a good time.

his flesh firmer. make things. should take such pre-eminence. and this call s out his ingenuity and makes him self-reliant and strong. in the sunset. The life-giving oxyg en. His muscles ar e harder. It is human nature to exaggerate the value of things beyond our reach. confronting us on every hand! We see them almo st every day of our lives and they become so common that they make no impression upon us. Think of the difference between what a Ruskin sees in a landscape and the impression conveyed to his brain. What a perpetual inspiration. leakage or evapora tion. cans exactly the right size. the great mercantile houses? It is this peculiar. everything he does on the farm gives him vigor and strength. and yet what marvels of skill. so superbly equipped with physical and mental stamina. or business man. should be in s uch demand when he comes to the city? Is it any wonder that he is always in evid ence in great emergencies and crises? Just stand a stamina-filled. This marvelous reserve power which he stores up in the country will come out i n the successful banker. This is one of the reasons why he usually develops better all-round judgment and a more level head than the city boy. for example! How she packs the concent rated sunshine and delicious juices into the cans that she makes as she goes alo ng. in the glory of flowers and plant life. develops in the country boy much greater lung power than is developed in the city youth. no hammering of tins! The miracles are wrought in a silent laboratory.alities. breathed in great inspirations through constant muscular effort. that makes the stuff that rises to t he top in all vocations. without a particle of waste. with no noise of factories. and what is seen by the ordinary mind. he is forced to think for himself. when they have really never seen the marvelous pict ures painted by the Divine Artist and spread in the landscape. Ho w marvelous is Nature's growing of fruit. an d his outdoor work tends to build up a robust constitution. and makes him a resourceful man. what wit-sharpeners are ev er before the farmer boy. Is it any wonder that the country-bred boy is nearly always the leader. whichever way he turns! Where does all this tremendous . The farm-reared boy is i n the best manual training school in the world and is constantly forced to plan things. Plowing. he is always using tools. merchant. and his brain-fiber partakes of the same superior qu ality. what wonderful mysteries. mow ing. People s ave money for years in order to go to Europe to visit the great art centers and see the famous masterpieces. de liciousness and beauty? What interrogation points. that he heads the banks. He is constantly bottling up forces. indescribable something . stamina-less. what marvels of beauty. Is it any wonder that the boy so trained in self-reliance. washed-out city youth. Self-reliance and grit are oftenest country-bred. storing up energy in his brain and m uscles which later may be powerful factors in shaping the nation's destiny or wh ich may furnish backbone to keep the ship of state from floundering on the rocks . what miracles of coloring are spread everywhere in nature. strengthen s the deficient faculties and brings out latent powers. Miracles i nnumerable in grass and flower and fruit are performed right before our eyes. this superior stamina and mental caliber. lawyer. not a sound is heard. There is a peculiar quality of superiority which comes from dealing with realit ies that we do not find in the superficial city conditions. It has been found tha t the use of tools in our manual training schools develops the brain. right at their very doors. The country boy is constantly thrown upon his own resources. statesman. self-reliant country boy beside a pale. soft. hoeing. the ordinary person who has little or no imagination and whose esthetic faculties h ave scarcely been developed! We are immersed in a wilderness of mysteries and marvelous beauties.

are all mysteries that set him thinking and to wondering at the creative processes which are working on every hand. fruit and vegetables come from? There seems to be no l oss to the soil. that it requires fine-grained sympathetic talent. the brook s. Burbank says that the tim e will come when man will be able to do almost anything he wishes in the vegetab le kingdom. modify a nd change the flavor of fruits and vegetables to our liking! Think what it must mean to be a magician in the whole vegetable kingdom. Mr. The very temptation in the city to turn night into day is of itself health-unde rmining. But the searchlight of science h as revealed in it possibilities hitherto undreamed of. and that Nature will give us almost anything when we know enough to treat her intelligently. to live an artificial. and often dissipation. to enlarge. flavors. ar tificial life in the city! Everything in the country tends to set the boy thinki ng. refreshing sleep. wisely and sympa thetically. plea sure seeking. will be able to produce at will any shade or color he wishes. to be able to co-operate with that divine creative force. the hills. and that i gnorant men have been getting an indifferent living from their farms simply beca use they did not know how to mix brains with the soil. changing colors. perfumes. as a means provided by nature for living-getting for those who were not good fo r much else. But we are now beginning to see that man has made a botch of farming only because he looked upon it as a sort of humdrum occupation. grander produ cts from the soil. the mountains. the growing animals on th e farm. While the city youth is wasting his precious energy capital in late hours. and the brilliant boy was sent to college or to the city to make a career for himself.increase of corn. simplicity and honesty. and al most any flavor in any fruit. The science of agriculture is fast becoming appreciated and is more and more re garded as a high and noble calling. away from the distracting influence and enervating excitement of city life. And what healt h there is in it all! How hearty and natural he is in comparison with the city b oy. to call out his dormant powers and develop his latent forces. He is not inculcated with snobbish ideas. Think of what it mea ns to go into partnership with the Creator in bringing out larger. purposeless li fe. Everything in the great farm kindergarten teaches him sincerity. as contrasted with the cramped. the beauty. the country youth is storing up power and v itality. stamina-dissipating and character-weakening. the perfume of flowers. what a marvelous growth in everything! Life. that the size of all fruits and vegetables and flo wers is just a matter of sufficient understanding. he is being recharged with physical force by natural. and yet. and even to vary the size. the valleys. a dignified profession. We are now finding that agriculture is as great a science as astronomy. the delicious freedom of it all. The time was when the boy who gave no signs of genius or unusual ability was co nsigned to the farm. We are commencing to real ize that it takes a high order of ability and education to bring out the fullest possibilities of the soil. mor e life on every hand! Wherever he goes he treads on chemical forces which produc e greater marvels than are described in the Arabian Nights. Farming was considered by many people as a sort of degrading occupa tion desirable only for those who lacked the brains and education to go into a p rofession or some of the more refined callings. species! Almost anything is p ossible when one knows enough and has heart and sympathy enough to enter into pa rtnership with the great creative force in nature. Then again. The history of most great men shows that there is a disadvantage in having too . The trees. wheat. The country youth does not learn to judge people by the false standards of wealth a nd social standing. who is tempted to turn night into day. the sunsets. life. like L uther Burbank.

one morning. so hungry for an education that he would walk nine miles a day to attend a rude frontier school in a log cabin! What would th e city boys of to-day. And ready for the passing instant's boon To tip in favor the uncertain beam. where newsboys go to Congress.--DISRAELI. whence would have come the motive which led him to struggle for selfdevelopment. and where those born in the lowest stations attain the highest positions? The world is all gates. the prod of necessity spurri ng him on. When the great clock of destiny strikes Now! MARY A." replied the great statesman and jurist. Too Soon. From Opportunity's extended h and. which the w aves of time wash away into non-entity. his ch aracter would probably have been soft and flabby in comparison with what it was. to rouse his ambition and to stimulate h im to self-education? Whence came that yearning to know the history of men and w omen who had made a nation. Knows also how to watch and work and stand On Life's broad deck alert. TOWNSEND. as a young girl would devour a l ove story? Whence came that all-absorbing ambition to be somebody in the world. brought up in an atmosphere of books.--GEORGE ELIOT. of only a small fraction of which he could get even a superficial knowledge. to know the history of his country? Whence came that passion to devour the dry statutes of Indiana. "There are no longer any good chances for young men. knowing how to wait. The secret of success in life is for a man to be ready for his opportunity when it comes. One rift through which s ublime fulfillments gleam. happy he who. no opportunities. who ever rose to such eminence? Imagine a boy of to-day. big with fate.many advantages. in a land where thousands of poor boys become rich men. in balance 'twixt Too Late. Who can tell what the consequences would have been had Lincoln been born in New York and educated at Harvard? If he had been reared in the midst of great libra ries. Ah. Had he not felt that imperious "must" calling him. one night. No chance. self-unfoldment? If he had been born and educated in luxury. One freighted hour." complained a youthful law student to Daniel Webster. "There is always room at the top. thin k of a youth who would do what Lincoln did to overcome his handicap? CHAPTER V OPPORTUNITIES WHERE YOU ARE To each man's life there comes a time supreme. one moment opportune. where this poor boy scarcely ever saw any one who knew anything of books. One Once. who do not want to walk even a few blocks to school. What is opportunity to a man who can't use it? An unfecundated egg. to serve his country with no selfish ambition? Had his father been rich and well -educated instead of a poor man who could neither read nor write and who was gen erally of a shiftless and roving disposition. and at th e prow To seize the passing moment. Where in all the annals of history is there another record of one born of such poor parentage and reared in such a wretched environment. One day. or one noon. all opportunities to him . would he have had that insatiable hunge r which prompted him to walk twenty miles in order to borrow Blackstone's "Comme ntaries" and to read one hundred pages on the way home? [Illustration: House in which Abraham Lincoln was born] What was there in that rude frontier forest. One space when fate goes tiding with the stream. there is no likelihood that Lincol n would ever have become the powerful man he was.

"But where shall I go?" asked the poor farmer. and concluded to sell out and get into a more profitable business. P rofessor Agassiz once told the Harvard students of a farmer who owned a farm of hundreds of acres of unprofitable woods and rocks. He lived in a cottage on the river bank. He had been touched with discontent." "How shall I know when I have found the . and was no long er a rich man. that with a handful he could buy a province. During all her poverty she was worth . or near at hand. She cut old. explained to him how the world was ma de. that with one of them he could bu y many farms like his. worn-out. and experimented for a long t ime. and in m eeting common every-day wants. "Wha t do you want of diamonds?" asked the astonished priest. if we could only se e them. Years afterward she washed the of the Peabody Institute. and with a m ine of diamonds he could purchase a kingdom. where he thought he could get rich. and with that all wealth van ishes. He decided to go into the coal-oil busines s. He sold his farm for $200. Only a short time after. In our large Eastern cities it has been found that at least ninety-four o ut of every hundred found their first fortune at home. who had the key of deliverance all the time with him but had forgotten i t. but did not know it. from which he could get a grand view of the beautiful country stretching away to the sea. We depend too much u pon outside assistance. when lo! in the lining of the she discovered the diamond bracelet. fields of grain. but thinks he can do better somewhere else. an extensive farm. They hastened back to Brazil." A Baltimore lady lost a valuable diamond bracelet at a ball. Some Brazilian shepherds organized a party to go to California to dig gold. in possibilities all about us. north. ragged cloak to make a hood. to ge t money to pay his passage to other mines. and engaged in his new business two hundred mile s away. pondering how to get money to buy food. like Bunyan's Pilgrim in the dungeon of Giant Despair's castle. The richest gold and silver mine in Nevada was sold by the owner for $42." said the priest. Ali Hafed listened. that steps up an cloak $3500 Many of us who think we are poor are rich in opportunities. or gold. and took along a handful of translucent pebbles to play checkers with on the voyage. It is a sorry day for a young man who can not see any opportunities where he is. Early the next morning he woke the priest who had been the cause of his u nhappiness. we fail to rely wholly upon the ability to advance all that is good for us wh ich has been given to the weakest as well as the strongest. But. and miles of forest.who will use them. he studied coal measures and coal-oil deposits. in faculties worth more than diamond brac elets. and. south. and after they had thrown most of the pebbles away . they discovered that they were diamonds. gardens of flowers. or west. One evening a priest of Buddha visited him. and supposed it was stolen from the pocket of her cloak. He h ad a wife and children. east. sitting before the fire. the man who bought his farm discovered upon it a great flood of coal-oil. "Go anywhere. silver." "All you have to do is to go and search until you find them. Aft er arriving in San Francisco. "I want to be rich and place my children on thrones. only to find that the mines from which the pebbles had been gathered had been taken up by other prospectors and sold to the government. He was contented and happy. which the farmer had previously ignorantly tried to d rain off. "We look too high For things close by. orchards of fruit. and anxiously asked him where he could find a mine of diamonds. and how the first beams of sunlight condensed on the earth's surface into di amonds. The old priest told that a drop of sunlight the size of his thumb was worth mor e than large mines of copper. He had plenty of money and everything th at heart could wish. Hundreds of years ago there lived near the shore of the river Indus a Persian b y the name of Ali Hafed.

Forces of nature plead to be used in the service of man. from which others get only poverty and f ailure. took the money he had at interest. Scarcely a boy or g irl will read these lines but has much better opportunity to win success than Ga rfield. The man who bought his farm was a cont ented man. Frances Willard. Remember that four things come not back: the spo ken word. and the neglected opportunity. as scraps of lea ther." said Emerson. the more new ones are thereby created.place?" "When you find a river running over white sands between high mountain r anges. There is power lying latent everywhere waiting fo r the observant eye to discover it." They went into the ga rden and stirred up the white sand with their fingers. as lightning for ages tried to attract his attention to the gre at force of electricity. poor Ali Hafed thr ew himself into the tide and was drowned. who made the most of his surroundings. instead of going abroad in search for wealth. "Has Ali Hafed returned?" "No. As the bee gets honey from the same flower from which the spider gets poison. he wander ed for years. which would do his drudgery and leave him to develop th e God-given powers within him. that is not capable of an improvement in which the re may be a fortune. Lincoln. Wilson. scarcely an article of household furniture. "Here's a diamond! here's a diamond!" he shouted in great excitement. When his money was all gone and starvation stared him in the face. Had Ali Hafed been content to remain at home. So the famous diamond beds of Golconda were discovered. the past life. iron filings." said the farmer. so some men will get a fortune out of the commonest and meanest things. You have your own special place and work. But to succeed you must be prepared to seize and improve the opportunity when it comes. in those white sands you will find diamonds. Find it. and competition has so greatly increased. the sped arrow. and men have got to hamme r out a place for themselves by steady and rugged blows. "but rather iron in the hands of its workers. and dug in his own garden. While his camel was drinking in t he garden one day. slag. cotton waste. An invention to m ake smoke go the wrong way in a chimney might be a very ingenious thing. New openings are as easy to find as ever to those who do their best. ashamed of his folly and of his rags. he would have been one of the richest men in the world. and behold. and forgot all about it. The old priest of Buddha who had filled Ali Hafed with the fatal discontent cal led one day upon the new owner of the farm. He picked up a pebble. he noticed a flash of light from the white sands of the brook ." answered the priest. and t housands of others had. It is one of the paradoxes of civilization that the more opportunities are util ized. but it would be of no use to humanity. for the entire farm abounded in the ri chest of gems. He had no sooner entered the room th an his eye caught that flash of light from the stone. other diamond s more beautiful than the first gleamed out of it. Harriet Beecher Stowe. left his family with a neighbor. "The world is no longer clay. and pleased with its brilliant hues took it into the ho use." Thousands of men have made fortunes out of trifles which others pass by. "nor is that a diamond. because the standard has advanced so much . The discontented man sold the farm for what he could get. through Palestine and Egypt. Opportunities? They are all around us. and did not believe in going a way from home to hunt for diamonds or success. fill it. although it is not so easy as formerly to obta in great distinction in the old lines. an ar ticle of clothing or of food. but found no diamonds. First find out what the world needs and then supply the want. Franklin. The patent office at Washington is full of wonde . put it on the shelf near the fireplace. and went to search for the covete d treasure. There is scarcely a thing which contributes to the welfare and comfort o f humanity. a kitchen utensil. That is but a stone. Over the mountains of Arabia.

and made a fortune. he has been attending my lectures. the eyelets of whose shoes pulled out. invented clippers. Edison began his experiments in a baggage car o n the Grand Trunk Railroad when a newsboy. And yet how many families have been impoverished. John Harrison. to Humphry Davy. and wants me to give him employm ent at the Royal Institution--what can I do?" "Do? put him to washing bottles. if he refuses he is good for n . and never though t he could be a hero among the corn and tobacco and saddlebags of Virginia. "Here is a letter from a young man na med Faraday. when a young man. McCormick began to make his famous reaper in a grist-mill. said to himself. Davy consulted a friend on the matter. He had never reali zed what it was to wash before. but not one in hundreds is of use to the in ventor or to the world. in buying buttons and thread which shoppers did not call for. i f he is good for anything he will do it directly. he invent ed the washing machine. I t then first dawned upon him that he could be a hero in Virginia. Mass. Faraday. and he failed a s a merchant. make the most of it. No doubt many artists had noticed the fine quality of the mar ble. J. but in his first case he showed that he had a wonderful power of oratory. "I will make a metallic lacing hook. a good-for-nothing farmer. which were prophetic of his power and courage: "Caesar had his Brutus. Stewart. After that he made it a rule never to buy anything which the publ ic did not want. Finding the method slow and laborious. the founder of Clark Universit y of Worcester. The first model dry-dock was made in an attic. An observing man. But Michael Angelo still sa w an angel in the ruin. T. and with his chisel and mallet he called out from it one of the finest pieces of statuary in Italy. and became rich. the young David. and regretted that it should have been spoiled. he rose steadily until he became one of the brilliant orato rs of America. An observing barber in Newark. The great things of the world have not been done by men of large means. Farquhar made umbrellas in his sitting-room. People thought he would f ail." He was then so poor that he had to borrow a sickle to cut grass in front of his hired tenement. Patrick Henry was called a lazy boy. and he had introduced his famous resolution against the unjust taxation of th e American colonies. From the time the Stamp Act was passed and Henry was elected to the Virginia House of Burgesse s. the great inventor of the m arine chronometer. and so prospered. and George the Third--may profit by their exampl e.. unti l he sold enough to hire a loft. hacked. and thrown away. asking for employment at the Royal Instituti on. He became a very rich man. while the father has been working on u seless inventions.rful devices of ingenious mechanism. who was the son of a blacksmith. A.. Clark. In one of his first speeches upon this resolution he uttered thes e words. Michael Angelo found a piece of discarded Carrara marble among waste rubbish be side a street in Florence. Ericsso n began the construction of the screw propellers in a bathroom. and ha ve struggled for years amid want and woe. The cotton-gin w as first manufactured in a log cabin. thought he could make an improvement on s hears for cutting hair. when he put out his shingle. spoiled . with his daughter's help. when his ca pital was one dollar and a half. A man who was suffering terribly wit h toothache felt sure there must be some way of filling teeth which would preven t their aching and he invented the method of gold filling for teeth. A Maine man was call ed in from the hayfield to wash clothes for his invalid wife. began his career in the loft of an old barn. If this be treason. lost eighty-seven cents. He s tudied law for six weeks. wrote. He was always dreaming of some far-off greatness. which some unskilful workman had cut. as a boy. but who could not affo rd to get another pair. N. Parts of the fir st steamboat ever run in America were set up in the vestry of a church in Philad elphia by Fitch. wh ich can be riveted into the leather." The great natural philosopher. Charles the First his Cromwell. began his great fortune by making toy wagons in a horse s hed.

or contribute in any way to their well-being. all around thee lying Offers up its low. and produced a masterpiece from a log of common firewood. when they really lie hi dden in the common logs that we burn. but did her best where duty had placed her. can make a fortune. Faraday.othing. and culture." Why thus longing. Wh ile the beautiful.--FRANKLIN. they came to the lighthouse to see her.--ANCIENT POET. or paint immortal pictures like an Angelo or a Raphael. Hundreds of occupations and professions. Ediso n. . such chances. He was about to give up in despair. Our whole history appears like a last effort of divine Providence in behalf of the human race. seize then the hour When Fortun e smiles and Duty points the way. and a nam e which will never perish from the earth. when in a dream he was bidden to carve his Madonna fr om a block of oak wood which was destined for the fire. by seizing common occasions and making the m great. who moved to the cities to win wealth and fame." Never before were there such grand openings. A new era is dawning for them. he must eat. such opportunities. education. For the far-off. Many of us lose great opportunities in life by waiting to find sandalwood for our carvings. There is a legend of an artist who long sought for a piece of sandalwood. You will find that millions have the same wants. CHAPTER VI POSSIBILITIES IN SPARE MOMENTS Dost thou love life? Then do not squander time. facilities of all kinds for pleasure. He wants co mforts. What chance had the young girl. Right at home she had won fame which the regal heirs might envy. "The golden opportunity Is never offered twice. are not known to the world. which led to a professorship at the Royal Academy at Woolwich. leaving the visi on of his life unrealized. Opportunities? They are everywhere. The safest business is always connected with man's prime necessities. He must have clothing and dwelling." But the boy who could experiment in the attic of an apothecary shop wit h an old pan and glass vials during every moment he could snatch from his work s aw an opportunity in washing bottles. unattained and dim. He obeyed. to distinguish herself. for that is the stuff life is m ade of." He became the wonder of his age in science. Tyndall said of this boy with no chance. and Thompson. while another close beside him snatches from th e same circumstances and privileges opportunities for achieving grand results. But we can all of us make our lives sublime. One man goes through life without seeing c hances for doing anything great. Eternity itself cannot restore the loss struck from the minute. She did not wander away into dreamy di stance for fame and fortune. Especially is this true for girls and young women. "America is another name for opportunities. perpetual hymn? HARR IET WINSLOW. "He is the greates t experimental philosopher the world has ever seen. living on those barren lighthouse rocks alone with her aged parents? But while h er brothers and sisters. improve any methods which men use. study yourself and your own wants. she became more famous than a princess. out o f which to carve a Madonna. supply any demand of comfort. thus forever sighing. This poor girl did not need to go to London to see the nobility. If you want to get rich. We can not all of us perhaps make great discoveries like Newton. which were closed to them only a few years ago. Any man wh o can supply a great want of humanity. Grace Darling. are now inviting them to enter.

Franklin in?" "Yes." The man silently laid the money on the counter. each set with six ty diamond minutes.--INSCRIPTI ON ON A DIAL AT OXFORD. unexpected holidays. half hours. "A dollar and a half! Why. So every successful man has a kind of network to catch "the raspings and parings of existence. when we were at play." "I have been wondering how Ned contrived to monopolize all the talents of the f amily.--GLADSTONE." The man seemed surprised. I want to see him. he d emanded: "Well. "can't you take less than that?" "One dollar is the price. gaps "between times. are thus saved." said Franklin coolly. fa ct by fact." "True." and chasms of waiting fo r unpunctual persons. No reward is offered." replied Franklin." was the prompt rejoinder. "and I could have better afforded to take a dollar than to leave my w ork." said Franklin. and that waste of it will make you dwindle alike in intellectual and moral stature beyond your darkest rec koning. The proprietor was call ed. On the floor of the gold-working room. its highest and warmest aspi ration reached no further than the hope to set before the young men of my countr y an example in employing those invaluable fragments of time called moments." said Elihu Bu rritt. thought by thought. thousands of dollars' yearly. in the United States Mint at Philadelphi a. come now. for they are gone forever. and the stranger asked: "What is the lowest. but.Periunt et imputantur. into either wealth or wisdom. found in a brown study after listening to one of Burke's speeches in Parliament." was the answer. "One dollar. "One doll ar and a quarter! Why. at will. Franklin. Time-wasters are everywhere. "he is very busy in the pr ess-room. "but then I remember. "What is the price of that book?" at length asked a man who had been dawdling f or an hour in the front store of Benjamin Franklin's newspaper establishment. He who hoards and turns to account all odd minutes. Lost! Somewhere between sunrise and sunset. he was alwa . Mr. "O ne dollar. your clerk asked me only a dollar just now. having received a salutary lesson from a master in the art of transmuting ti me. that you can take for that book?" "One dollar and a quarter." said a brother.--HORACE MAN N. "and I could better have taken that price then than a dollar and a half now. "All that I have accomplished. two golden hours." echoed the lounger. tell me your lowest price for this book." "Well." "One dollar and a half." replied the clerk. or hope to accomplish." said the clerk. there is a wooden lattice-work which is taken up when the floor is swept. The would-be purchaser looked over the books on sale a while longer. And if ever I was actuated by ambition. you offered it yoursel f for a dollar and a quarter. and now doth time waste me. wishing to end a parley of his own seeking. persevering process of a ccretion which builds the ant-heap--particle by particle.--the hours perish and are laid to our charge. took his book. patient." persisted the man. those leavings of days and wee bits of hours" which most people s weep into the waste of life." "Yes. "has been and will be by that plodding. and the fine particles of gold-dust.--SHAKESPEARE. Believe me when I tell you that thrift of time will repay you in after life wit h a usury of profit beyond your most sanguine dreams. expect to. and then i nquired: "Is Mr. achieves results which astonish those who have not mastere d this most valuable secret. and left the sto re. I wasted time.

we become less and less able to turn them to account. In Dante's time nearly every literary man in Italy was a hard-working merchant. bringing priceless gifts from an unseen hand. if impr oved. If a genius like Gladstone carried through life a little book in his pocket les t an unexpected spare moment slip from his grasp. At one time he wrote to a friend. too. Harriet Beecher Stowe. physician. Beecher read Froude's "England" a little each day while he had to wait for dinner. days. the power of ceaseless industry to perform miracles! Alexander von Humboldt's days were so occupied with his business that he had to . Madame de Genlis. Secretary of the Commonwealth. She has glorified the commonplace as few other women have done.ys at work. Hugh Miller. out of broken fragme nts of time which many of us throw away! The very hours you have wasted. Marion Harland has accomplished wonders. and had to write his sublime poetry whenever he could snatch a few minutes from a busy life. John Stuart Mill did much of his be st work as a writer while a clerk in the East India House. if we do not use them. but." Oh. "Time is all I require. but l ost time is gone forever. The author of "Paradise Lost" was a teacher." in the midst of p ressing household cares. found time to read scientific books. Though she has done s o much. there's no time to do anything now. Wisely was it said that lost wealth may be regained by industry and economy. lost knowledge by study. or soldier. when companion of the future Queen of France. judge. it's only five minutes or ten minutes till mealtime." The days come to us like friends in disguise. stat esman. until the ability to appreciate and utilize them i s exhausted. Galileo was a surgeon . they are borne silently away. persisting for years unt il the work was done. Each successive morning new gifts are brought. and she has been able to do this by ec onomizing the minutes to shape her novels and newspaper articles. But wha t monuments have been built up by poor boys with no chance. lost health by temperance and medicine. "Oh. composed severa l of her charming volumes while waiting for the princess to whom she gave her da ily lessons. while working hard as a stone-mason." is one of the commonest expressions heard in the family. yet to the improvement of his spare moments the world owes some of its greates t discoveries. "Uncle Tom's Cabin. he devoted all his leisure to experiments. never to return. while waiting for his coffee to boil. While Michael Faraday was employed binding books. Oh. throw away. Longfellow translated the "Inferno" by snatches of t en minutes a day. Burns wrote many of his most beautiful poems while working on a far m. to save the precious moments from oblivion? What a rebuke is such a life to the thousands of young men and women who throw away whole months and even years of that which the "Grand Old Man" hoarded up even to the smalles t fragments! Many a great man has snatched his reputation from odd bits of time which others. might have insured your success. but if we failed to accep t those that were brought yesterday and the day before. who wonder at their failure to get on. when her child ren were in bed and whenever she could get a spare minute. S ecretary of the Lord Protector. and write the lessons learned from the blocks of stone he handled. what should we of common abili ties not resort to. wrote her great masterpiece. yet all her life has been subject to interruptions which would have disc ouraged most women from attempting anything outside their regular family duties. that I could purchase at a cheap rate some of our modern gentlemen's spare hours--na y.

seldom idle for a minute. and save time. two leading magazines. the mighty possibilities of two--four--yes. If one chooses wisely. a useless man a benefactor to his race. or eighteen large volumes in a year. has made--an unknown man a famous one. One hour a day withdrawn from frivolous pursuits and profitably employed would enable any man of ordinary capacity to master a complete science. and also gained an enviable reputation in other departme nts of knowledge. on the average. Browning." Some boys will pick up a good education in the odds and ends of time which othe rs carelessly throw away. he b ecame impatient of his father's long grace at table. only his heart must be in it." says Burke. allowed himself but four hours of sleep. Adams complained bitterly when robbed of his time by those who had no r ight to it. It took Professor Owen ten years to arrange and classify the specimens in Comparative Anatomy. research. What young man is too busy to get an hour a day for se lf-improvement? Charles C. over twenty-four thousand in number. while others were a sleep. as one man saves a fortune by small economies which ot hers disdain to practise. Tennyson. One hour a day would in ten years make an ignorant man a well-informed man." Carlyle. thrown away by youn g men and women in the restless desire for fun and diversion! Every young man should have a hobby to occupy his leisure hours. What a record for a boy who began his studies while working as a carpenter! John Q. prosecuted outside of his bus y banking-hours. the study. John Hunter. and Dickens signed a remonstrance against organ-grinders who disturbed their work. He became one of the most noted mathematician s in the United States. then. Franklin was a tireless worker. "fills up a man's time much more completely and leaves him less his own master.pursue his scientific labors in the night or early morning. Sir Joh n Lubbock's fame rests on his prehistoric studies. Frost. An h our a day might make all the difference between bare existence and useful. and occupation that a hobby confers will broaden character and transform the home. six hours a day that are." What a lesson there is in Raphael's brief thirty-seven years to those who plead "no time" as an excuse for wasted lives! Great men have ever been misers of moments. which. An hour a day might make--nay. Consider. than any sort of employment whatsoever. He crowded his meals and sleep into as sm all compass as possible so that he might gain time for study. It might be in line with his work or other wise. Haw thorne's notebook shows that he never let a chance thought or circumstance escap e him. like Napoleon. Spenser made his rep utation in his spare time while Secretary to the Lord Deputy of Ireland. Cicero said: "What others give to p . "He has nothing to prevent him but too much idleness. When a child. and at lea st a dozen good books. An Italian scholar put over his door the inscription: "Whoever tarri es here must join in my labors. resolved to devote one hour a day to study. happy living. It would earn enou gh to pay for two daily and two weekly papers. such as his "Improvement of Navigation" and "Smo ky Chimneys. something usef ul to which he can turn with delight. Many of the greatest men of history earned their fame outside of their regular occupations in odd bits of time which most people squander. He wrote some of his best productions on shipboard. the celebrated shoemaker of Vermont. and asked him if he could n ot say grace over a whole cask once for all. I have observed. In an hour a day a boy or girl could read twenty pages th oughtfully--over seven thousand pages. wrote a hundred volumes. Southey. which Hunter's indust ry had collected.

Somerville learned botany and ast ronomy and wrote books while her neighbors were gossiping and idling. He learned arithmeti c during the night shifts when he was an engineer. Lord Brougham could not bear to lose a moment." Lord Bacon's fame springs from the work of his leisure hours while Chancellor of England. He made and recorded over two hu ndred thousand meteorological observations. and literature. yet he was so systematic that he always seemed to have more leisure than many who did not accomplish a tithe of what he did. At eighty she published "Molecular and Microscopical Science. He educated hims elf and did much of his best work during his spare moments. but seize the instant and get y our lesson from the hour. The man is yet unborn who rightly measures and fully r ealizes the value of an hour. Darwin composed most of his works by writing his thoughts on scraps of paper wherever he happened to be. lazi ness has none. went into an adjoining room and wrote down a thoug ht for his "Faust. and w ould sometimes write two whole nights and a day without intermission. As Fenelon says. President Quincy never went to bed until he had laid his plans for the next day . it is t raced back to the girl who made the blunder and the loss is deducted from her wa . Dalton's industry was the passion of his life. Mozart would not allow a mome nt to slip by unimproved. Grot e wrote his matchless "History of Greece" during the hours of leisure snatched f rom his duties as a banker. and had to swim a shore. Work has system. law. Do not brood over the past. Sir Humphry Davy achieved emine nce in spare moments in an attic of an apothecary's shop. Watt learned chemistry and mathematics while w orking at his trade of a mathematical instrument-maker. God never gives but one moment at a time. Johnson wrote "Rasselas" in the evenings of a single week. Caesar said: "Under my tent in the fiercest struggle of war I have always found time to think of many other things. Mason Good translated "Lucretius" while riding to visit his patients in Lon don.ublic shows and entertainments. Idleness rusts the nerves and makes the muscles creak." The worst of a lost hour is not so much in the wasted time as in the wasted pow er. Mrs. The present time is the raw material out of which we make whatever we will. He wrote h is famous "Requiem" on his death-bed. Matthew Hale wrote his "Contemp lations" while traveling on his circuit as judge. Burney learned Italian and French on horseback. Dr. and does not give a second until he withdraws the first. Goe the suddenly excused himself. and learned the com mon branches unaided while tending store. In factories for making cloth a single broken thread ruins a whole web. or dream of the future. He would not stop his work long enough to sleep. in order to meet the expenses of his mother's funeral. Dr." He was once shipwrecked. even to mental and bodily rest. Pope would often rise in the night to write out thoughts that would not come during the busy day." lest it should be forgotten." upon which he was at work when the ship went down. Dr. I give to t he study of philosophy. Dr. nay. but he carried with him the manuscript of his "Commentaries. George Stephenson seized the moments as though they were gold. He achieved distinction in politics. Lincoln studied law during his spare hours while surveying. Henry Kirke White learne d Greek while walking to and from the lawyer's office where he was studying. science. During an interview with a great monarch.

"five hundred are students entirely or almost entirel y dependent upon their own resources. and scorning sensual pleasure. and happy. We cannot stop t he shuttle or pull out the unfortunate thread which stretches across the fabric. We should not be stingy or mean with it. our web of Fate we spin. No one is anxious about a young man while he is busy in useful work. by redeem ing time. self-educated. as there are to-day--at this hour and this moment. for a young man with an ambition to do somet hing in the world to be compelled to pay his own way through school and college by hard work. "There are some men that make much more. From $700 to $1. waste of vitality. the will can usually make the way. "And it is left for each. as elsewhere. but we should not throw away an hour any more than we would throw away a dollar-bill. for all your future lives in it. A classmate of the writer entered coll . self-made." says Edward Everett. Here. indeed. for half of them make an income above the average allowance of boys in small er colleges. Each evening is a crisis in the career o f a young man. waste of character in dissipation. defying temptation. or it may be a golden thread which will add to its beauty and luster. to make himself use ful. as a rule. But history shows us that the men who have led in the van of human progress have been." CHAPTER VII HOW POOR BOYS AND GIRLS GO TO COLLEGE "Can I afford to go to college?" asks many an American youth who has hardly a d ollar to his name and who knows that a college course means years of sacrifice a nd struggle. Time is money. It seems a great hardship. It may be a shoddy thread of wasted hours or los t opportunities that will mar the fabric and mortify the workman forever. There is a deep significance in the lines of Whittier:-This day we fashion Destiny. "by the cultivation of every ta lent. This day for all hereafte r choose we holiness or sin. Garfield. honored. There is scarcely one in good health who reads these lines but can be assured that if he will he may. It mea ns the waste of opportunities which will never come back. by watching with an eagle's eye for every chance of improvement. a perpetual witness of our folly. But who shall pay for the broken threads in life's great web? We cannot thr ow back and forth an empty shuttle. howev er. and never be fore was there so many avenues of resource open to the strong will.ges. The great major ity of youths who go to the bad are ruined after supper. Waste of time mea ns waste of energy. threads of some kind follow every movement a s we weave the web of our fate. But where does he eat his lunch at noon? Where does he go when he leaves his boarding-hous e at night? What does he do after supper? Where does he spend his Sundays and ho lidays? The way he uses his spare moments reveals his character. the inflexib le purpose. "Of the five thousand persons--students. Beware how you kill ti me." writes a graduate.--branches of emplo yment that pay well at Harvard. Most of those who climb upward to honor and fame devote their evenings to study or work or the society of those who can help and improve them. They are not a poverty-stricken lot. The average boy of to-day who wishes to obtain a liberal education has a better chance by a hundredfold than had Daniel Webster or James A.--directly connected with Harvard Unive rsity.000 are by no means exceptional yearly earnings of a student who is capable of doing newspaper work or tutoring.

He carried his books with him morning. The president of his class at Columbia University recently earned the money to pay for his course by selling agricultural implements. earning twelve dollars a week. and he determined to a dvance. When summer came. he returned to work in the harvest fields and broke the wheat-cutting records of t he county. He believed that he could afford a college training and he got it. He had shaped his course and worked to it. which were none too low. as this does not pay expenses. relying wholly on himself for success. When he returned to college he began to be recognized as an exceptio nal man. the expense of his bread-and-milk diet never exceeding fifty cents a week. depending upon the opportunities for work . however. living in Springfield. He serv ed as steward of a college club. Accordingly. and copying done after study hours.ege with about twenty-five dollars. by which they earn two and on e-half to three and one-half dollars a week. and amassed a fortune. as the tax upon strength and time is likely to be s uch as to interfere with scholarship and to undermine health. In his junior year. Scores carry daily papers. after the firs t year. He is now living comfortably in Cambridge. Two young men made twelve hun dred dollars apiece. Several teach in the public schools in the daytime. and do their university work in the afternoons and evenings. This only whetted his appetite for knowledge. To be a correspondent of city dail y papers is the most coveted occupation. He procured many valuable patents. He rented a small room. later. One student is a member of a city orchestra. One of his classmates. on the whole. which served for study and home. A representative American college president recently said: "I regard it as. and added to his original fund of fifty dollars by taking the freshman essay prize of twenty-five dollars. and the student's ability and adaptability. upward of $ 3. At Chicago University many hundreds of plucky young men are working their way. in this way. not only paid his way through coll ege. Some solicit advertisements. preach in small towns. but helped to support his aged parents. but only a few can obtain such position s. "He made his money by advertising schemes and other publishing ventures. by the savings of two years' work as a farm laborer. noon and night. and studied pe rsistently. Some a ttend to lawns in summer and furnaces in winter. and receive twenty cents an hour. worked his way through an academy. and arranged with a professor of Union College to pay for his tuition b y working. A few serve in the university postoff ice. It gives a reality and vi gor to one's work which is less likely to be obtained by those who are carried t hrough college. a distinct advantage that a student should have to pay his own way in part as a condition of obtaining a college education. The divinity students. and money earned by tutoring. As a freshman he had a hard struggle. the foundation being self-reliance and integ rity. Many are waiters at clubs and restaurants. The ways of earning money are various. by having several of each to ca re for. writing." A son of poor parents. A few find evening work in the city library. I do not regard it. A few months after graduation he married. entered col lege with no other capital than fifty dollars loaned to him by a friend. in one year. however. and. he prospered and in his last ten months of undergraduate work he cleared above his college expenses. they add other employments. Several are tutors. as desirable that one should have t o work his own way entirely. so as to take their degrees. Albert J. Beveridge. they earn from five to ten dollars a week.000." . Some dozen or more teach night school. His life was a success. but. the junior United States Senator from Indiana. After graduation. to the construction o f iron bridges of his own design. he proceeded to Sche nectady. New York. he turned his attention to civil engineering.

H. All these and many more from the ranks of the bright and well-trained young men who have been graduated from the colleges and universities of the country in re cent years believed--sincerely. five hundred and twenty-nine d ollars. and o ne year as assistant superintendent in the Essex County Truant School. Isaac J. Frost. eighteen well-known Western colleges and universities have a general average expense of t wo hundred and forty-two dollars per year. It is the son and daughter of the farmer. Cox of Philadelphia worked his way through Kimball Academy. It is evident that they did not for one instant think that they could not afford to go to col lege. He served summers as waiter in a White Mountain hotel. is of great importance both to the individual and the nation. For example. The problem of securing a good education. th e great average class of our country. Meriden. For four years Richard Weil was noted as the great prize winner of Columbia Col lege. A lowly beginning is no bar to a g reat career. doggedly believed--that a college training was s omething that they must have. than his classmate who is the son of a millionai re.Circumstances have rarely favored great men. Encourag ement and useful hints are offered by the experience of many bright young people who have worked their way to diplomas worthily bestowed. he ranked well in his classes. and canvassed for a publishin g house one summer in Maine. that the republic will depend on most for good citizenship and brains in the future. the average expense per year is three hundr ed and four dollars. and entered Dartmouth College with just money enough to p ay the first necessary expenses. Chicago. Mass. N. and through Dartmouth College. There was no hone st work within the limits of his ability that he would not undertake to pay his way.. During his course he taught six terms as principal of a high school. finally becoming hea d-waiter. and in after life. where means are limited and ti me short. at Lawren ce. and will often take higher ran k in school. In Western and Southern colleges the averages are lower. while fourteen as well-known Eastern institutions give an average expense of four hundred and forty-four dollars. Frost was graduated at the Brattleboro. Vt. was port er one season at Oak Hill House. the average maximum expense. having a student populat ion of somewhat over forty thousand. but he will learn how to work his way in life. N . in a list of forty-five representative colleges and universities.. The boy who works his way through college may have a hard time of i t. and is a young man of s olid character and distinguished attainments. the mechanic and the operative. In an investigation conducted to ascertain exact figures and facts which a poor boy must meet in working his way through college. Like Mr. at some of the best . taught distr ict schools six terms. while the maximum expense rises in but few instances above one thousand dollars. doing many kinds of work." He would do any honest work that would bring cash... He worked in gardens and as a janitor for some time.--and every cent of this money as well as every hour not spent in sleep throughout the four years of his college course was devoted to getting his education. Statistics of expense. and the opportunities for self-help. pushed a rolling chair at the Columbian Exposition. attention and energy to any work that would bri ng remuneration. H. whose funds are small and opportunities fe w. Littleton. There are many who get along o n an expenditure of from one hundred and fifty dollars to two hundred dollars pe r year. In some of the smaller colleges the minimum expense per year is from sev enty-five dollars to one hundred and ten dollars. it was found that. The question of whether or not they could afford i t does not appear to have occasioned much hesitancy on their part. and for "turning his time. None of his fellow-students did more to secure an e ducation. Gaius B. High School.

yearly expenditure (exclusive of clothes . typewriters. The University of Pennsylvania in a recent year gave three hundred and fifteen students forty-three thousand. exclusive of clothes. requires s tudiousness and economy in the case of assisted students. and maintain good standing and conduct. membership in societies. economy and total abstinence. work of one sort or another to be had by needy students. freshmen (usually) barred. and stationery. Many students support themselves in part by waiting on table. newspaper work. Harvard has about two hundred and seventy-five scholarships. The yearly expenditure is three hundred and twenty-five dollars. "Beneficiaries must be frugal in habits. The average yearly expenditure is five hundred dollars. clerks." stude nts getting employment in the library or laboratories can earn about one-fourth of their expenses. Loan funds are available. for freshmen. three hundred and fifty-eight dollars to one thousand and thirty-five dollars. those above fifty dollars condit ioned on class rank. railway fares. habits. the lowest being three hundred and eighty-seven dollars. sixty dollars to f our hundred dollars apiece. these will be. etc. t otal abstainers. s ubscriptions and service). reporters. Cornell University gives free tuition and free rooms to seniors and juniors of good standing in their studies and of good habits. The cost at Columbia University averages five hundred and forty-seven dollars. The ave rage expenditure per year. three hundred dollars to four hundred dollars. table-waiting. etc. canvassers. makes loans at low rates.. is four hu ndred and fifty dollars. Dartmouth has some three hundred scholarships. etc. Brown University has over a hundred tuition scholarships and a loan fund. A great many students w ho know how to get on in a great city work their way through Columbia. care of buildings. no free rooms. has one hund red tuition scholarships for other students of good character. books. Bowdoin has nearly a hundred scholarships. and stand ing." Many students are self -supporting. won by success in competitive ex amination. for the college year. has some free rooms. No money loaned. laboratory charges. requirements. large beneficiary and loan funds. It has thirty-six two-year sc holarships (two hundred dollars). . The average yearly expenditure per student is five hundred dollars. the average expenditu re is about four hundred dollars. by shorthand. often remits room rent in return for services about the college buildings. Five hundred dollars a y ear will defray all necessary expenses. newspaper corr espondence. It has also five hundred and twelve state tuition scholarships. shorthand. Wesleyan University remits tuition wholly or in part to two-thirds of its under -graduates. a faculty employment committee. Many students support themselves in part. and singers. students have chances to ear n money at tutoring.known Eastern institutions are full of interest: Amherst makes a free gift of the tuition to prospective ministers. some students earning money as stenographers. no requirements except good standing. Many students earn mon ey in various ways. distributed or loa ned in sums of forty dollars to two hundred and fifty dollars to needy and promi sing under-graduates. sale of books. fifty dollars to seventy-five dollar s a year: "no limits placed on habits or social privileges of recipients. some rooms at nominal rent. agencies for laundries. and a few wholly. a few get through on less than two hundred and fifty dollars a year. washing. thirty-five per cent of the whole undergraduate body earning money. private t utors. two hundred and forty-two dollars in free scholar ships and fellowships.

board and lodging cost more than in the country. if a girl with average intelligence and energy wishes a college educa tion. car fares. As far as I know. etc. Barnard and Radcliffe. daily. Some of them earn pin-money while in college by tut oring. like the last two mentioned. regular in attendance and studi ous. and in general it is more difficult for a girl to pay any large part of her expenses through her own efforts and carry on her college work at t he same time. who can be engaged by the hour. A few take care of children. about six hundred dollars. or a t the affiliated colleges. who is especially brave and in good earnest. There are not many opportunities at Mount Holyoke to e arn large amounts of money. One student has done particularly well as agent for a firm that makes c ollege caps and gowns. in case of worthy students. but pin-money may be acquired in many little ways by a girl of ingenuity. Woolley. woman's dean of the college. Tutoring in Barnard is seldom av ailable for the undergraduates. "Most of them. One young woman. There is a splendid chance for girls at some of the soundest and best known gir ls' colleges in the United States." says Dr. summer work in libraries and offices. It is not unusual for students to come here for two years and go away for a time. At city colleges. have accomplished it by tutoring. it is confined there to a few cottages. Mosher. It has no foothold at Bryn Mawr. however. there are a few people who are glad to give the colleg e girls such employment. Some lighten their expen ses by waiting on tables in boarding-houses. because the lists are always full of experienced teachers. typewriting or stenography. or at the most. thus paying for their board. and in various little ways such as putting up lunches. every student reduces her college expenses by a hundred dollars or a hun dred and fifty." The system of compulsory domestic service obtaining now at Mount Holyoke--where by. she can obtain it. Others get room and board in the homes of professors by giving.. runs a little "sweat shop. worked as a chambermaid on a lake steamer last year and hurried aw ay this year to do the same. New York. now." "It is my opinion. Some of our most worthy graduates have done this. in return for thirty. and a chance to pay for room and board by giving service. and newspaper work. fifty minutes a day of light household labor. at least in part." said Miss Mary E. books.--was formerly in use at Wellesley. however. The number of girls in the University of Michigan who are paying their own way is large. she will pay th e coming year's expenses. in the families of the faculty. taking care of rooms. sewing. typewriting. paying for their clothes. remits all but forty do llars of term bills. Smith and Vassar. . a Russian Jewess." where she keeps a number of women busy ma king women's wrappers and children's dresses. She has paid all the expenses of h er education in this way. from the lower East Side. average yearly expenditure .Yale is pretty well off now for fellowships and prizes. executing commiss ions. by doing what work they can find. "Do any of your students work their way through?" was asked of a Bryn Mawr auth ority. A number of girls in Barnard are. "have earned the money by teaching. Eliza M. many such students earning money for themselves. in order to earn money to complete the co urse. It is her aim to earn one hundred dollars. the girls who have earned money to pa y their way through college. three hours of service about the house. Because it is especially difficult to obtain good serv ants in this inland town. Another girl. president of Mount Holyoke Colle ge. With thi s sum. two or three hours a day. Typewriting is one of the favorite re sources. "that.

and who are willing And so this girl makes a large sum of money. assistance rendered in library or laboratory or office. Then. Former President Tucker of Dartmouth says: "The student who works his way may d ." A similar question put to a Vassar student brought the following response: "Why. a lesson. In many colleges there is opportunity for a girl with taste and cunning fingers to act as a dressmaker. and some of the girls paint and make fancy articles. for example. evenings and S "There are other girls who are agents for two of the great manufacturers of cho colate creams. The reign of the shirt-waist has been a boon to many. furnish help to many a girl who wishes to help herself. in nearly every college. tutoring. too. But to earn all of one's way in a college year. which they sell here. and at the same time to keep up in all the studies. In Kansas. Partly by reason of the cheapness of a college education in Ohio. I know a sed. and general refurnisher to students with gene rous allowances. Yes. board and a room can be had for twelve dollars a month. Of course. good morals and good grit need despair of getting a college education unless there are extremely unusual reasons against the undertaking. there are a great many girls who manage to pay most of their expense s. in Poughke epsie. to be sold. while the average expenditure of the students does not exceed two hundre d dollars per annum. In mo st of the state universities tuition is free. or send to the stores in New York. Those who 'tutor' receive a dollar . and by selling stationery. Some of them write for the newspa pers and magazines. The lowest entire e xpenses of a year..--to a certain extent. This amount includes positively everything. too. etc. aturdays. the college fees are five dollars a year. and still others have pupils in music.--'Dresses pres a good deal of money. yes. too. No boy or girl in America to-day who has good health. any girl who is at all deft in the art of sewing can make a shirt-waist without a profess ional knowledge of cutting and fitting.'--and she earns y girls here who are to pay well for it. there are many wealth always having something like that done. and most of the denominational colleges demand fees even lower than were cust omary in New England half a century ago."Some. Orders for gymnasium suits and swimming suits mean good profits . West of the Alleghanies a college education is accessible to all classes. repairer. and others by 'tutoring'. and by a judicious display of attr active samples she is easily tempted to enlarge her supply. is almost impossible. Two girls may pay part of their expe nses by taking charge of the library. that state now sends more students to college than al l of New England. a dollar and a half. by dis tributing the mail." was the reply. for the well-dressed gir l was never known to have enough pretty ones. teaching in evening schools occasionally off ers a good opportunity for steady eking out of means. the opportunities for self-help are correspondingly more in the East. another." Typewriting. on the other hand. Yet several are able to pay half their way. "The girl that plays the piano for the exercises in the gymnasium is paid for t hat. are between four hundred and five hundred and fifty dollars. Every youn g man or woman should weigh the matter well before concluding that a college edu cation is out of the question. "but not many. and sometimes a very good one receives two dollars and a half. Yet if the total cost is less in the West. Beside these standard employments. the state university has abolished all tuition fee s. In Ohio. girl who has a sign on the door of her room. and is not often done.

For my first year's work I was to receive thirty doll ars and my board. "The scholarship I had won amounted to only sixty dollars a year. all on the same day. and algebra. because I had made up my mind that I wanted to get a better educati on. Without examining the statistics. It seems litt . furnishes a good example. "With my capital of eighty dollars. and to me. "I did not know how I was going to do this. and during all the years of my boyhood I never received a penny that I did not earn myself. My money wou ld not last longer than that. I hadn't definite plans as to my future. to get my preparation for college. against the wishes of my employer. I have always support ed myself. Greek. although I think that I should have made a successful store keeper. and then I gave it up. I think. I merely wanted to get in to a village.o it with ease and profit. Remember what one hundred and twenty dollars meant on Prince Edward Isl and. Poverty under mos t of the conditions in which we find it in colleges is a spur. I was getting on swimmingly. I have seen the s ons of rich men lead in scholarship. except that it must be by my own ef forts. "I kept this place for two years. It was a start in the world. I need not say that I do not regret that early decision. I should say. I knew that it involved hard work and self-denial. Think of that. and offered to double my pay if I would stay in the store. But my mind was made up. Form er President Schurman of Cornell says of his early life: "At the age of thirteen I left home. and for the next forty weeks I studied harder than I ever had before or have since. My sala ry was doubled. from facts that have fa llen under my observation. and that was all the money I had in the world. and the little village was like a city to my country eyes. and there was the possibility of failure in the end. The greater part of its patronage is from p oor men. I had saved about eighty dollars from my store-keeping. on the Island. "From the time I began working in the store until to-day. I recited in Latin. In one side was the certainty of one hu ndred and twenty dollars a year. At the end of the year I entered the competitive examination for a scholarship in Prince of Wales College. I began to attend the village high school. he tried to dissuade me from it. At the end of my first year. I would not turn back. and the prospect of promotion as fast as I dese rved it. I had only one year to do it in." The opportunities of to-day are tenfold what they were half a century ago. "That was the turning-point in my life. I determined to go to college. He pointe d out the difficulties in the way of my going to college. and the sons of poor men. or he may be seriously handicapped both by his necess ities and the time he is obliged to bestow on outside matters. that a larger percentage of Dartmouth men have risen to distinction than those of almost any other American college. but stood first of all the competitors on the Island. my preparation had been so hasty and incomplete. I had small hope of winning it. Dartmouth College . I went to a larger store in the same town. a poor boy who had never possessed such a sum in his life.--a village of about one thousand inhabitants. I found that I had not only won the scholarship f rom my county.--Summerside. "My father got me a place in the nearest town. young men of to-day! Thirty dollars a year for working from seven in the morning until ten at night! But I was glad to get the place. and to earn some money. "When I told my employer of my plan. On th e other side was my hope of obtaining an education. at Charlottetown. where I was to receive sixty dollars a year and my board. But when the result was announced.

retaining my old room at $1 pe r week. The young student in Acadia was ambitious to continue his stud ies in England. which I agr eed to pay for by work about the house. when a chair of philosophy was established at Cornell. returned to Acadia College to become a teacher there. he taught a country school for a year. through the offer of the Hibbard Soci ety. of a traveling fellowship with two thousand dollars a year. and saw in this offer his opportunity. of course. recei ved from the college a scholarship of $60. Schurman's fellow-students in Acadia says that he was remarkable chi efly for taking every prize to which he was eligible. and tuition. and borrowed $150. in London. "In my junior year I engaged a nice furnished room at $60 per year. and. I earned $37. During the year I earned $60. I earned during the yea r.76. He tried the examination and won the prize. were $478. The others I could have done without. $10. and earned half board.45 for clothing. room. I waited on table at a $4 boarding-house all of my sophomore year. Nova Scotia. Aft erward. when th e president's chair became vacant. who had once met the bri lliant young Canadian. including. The scholarship paid five hundred dollars a year for three years.20. al so earned full board waiting upon table. borrow ed $190. I have had other rewards. called him to that position. but with this difference: that firs t success was essential. The expenses of the sophomore year were $394. and an additional gift of $20. he lea rned of a scholarship in the University of London offered for competition by the students of Canadian colleges. In 1886.. then a Doctor of Philosophy. would seem immeasurably greater. at Halifax. the full value of board. without it I could not have gone on. excepting $40 due on tuition.42 in my pocket. .50. A well-known graduate of Amherst college gives the following figures. $23. At that time he was only thirty-eight years of age.50 per week. "During the next summer I earned $100. borrowed $70. He lived on his scholarship and what he could earn by keeping books for one of the town storekee pers. that the winning of it was the greatest success I ever have had.57 for voluntary subsc riptions. in competition with the brightest students in the larger Cana dian colleges. Schurma n became dean of the Sage School of Philosophy at Cornell. including board. Dr.le enough. greatly to the surprise of the others. if it had been necessary. A way was opened for him. and then went to Acadia College i n Nova Scotia to complete his course.24 for sundries. after nearly thirty years. in 1892. He was eager to go to Germany to study under the great leaders of phil osophic thought. $87." For two years young Schurman attended Prince of Wales College. Schurman. and gifts amounting t o $12. Beside s this I spent $10. etc. The expenses for the year. In his senior year. with all of which I just covered expenses. $8. and decided that he had found in it his l ife-work. to mo st persons. he was placed at the head of the great univer sity. During the three years in the University of London. spending less than one hundred dollars during the entire college year. Mr. At the end of his course in Germany. The honor men of the great English Universities like Oxford and Cambridge were among the competitors. which squared my accounts for the year. $15 for railroad fares. Soon afterward. which to the boy who earnestly wants to go to college are of the most pertinent interest: "I entered college with $8. which. One of Mr. but the poor country boy from Prince Edward Island was again s uccessful. he was ca lled to Dalhousie University. Schurman became deeply interested in the study of philosophy. $55 fro m gifts. but I can say now. received $70 for a scholarship. President White. Mr.50. By clerical work.55 for books. My current expenses during my freshman year were $4. Two years later. received a scholarship of $70.

pushing ah ead of those who have greater capabilities. the whole world is hunting for a man who can do things. and so was enabled to graduate without financial embarrassment.64 were necessarily heavi er than these of previous years.708. If Henry Wilson." CHAPTER VIII YOUR OPPORTUNITY CONFRONTS YOU--WHAT WILL YOU DO WITH IT? Never before was the opportunity of the educated man so great as to-day. and mail carriers were numbered among the twenty-five. could become the greatest Bi blical scholar of his age. In a certain district in Boston there are ten thousand students.157. drummers. Many of these students are paying for their education by money earn ed by their own hands. tutoring. the man who can do a thing s uperbly well. Every young man or woman should weigh the matter well before concluding that a college education is out of the question. posters on barns." Twenty-five of the young men graduated at Yale not long ago paid their way enti rely throughout their courses. took a prize of $25. On all sides we see men with small minds. The expenses of the senior year. Tutoring. "Wanted--a man. but who are well educated. enhanced one hund redfold by superior training. Never was ignorance placed at such a disad . Many of them c ome from the country and from factory towns. A large number come from the farms of the West. if the po or deaf boy Kitto. $40. secured a scholarship of $70. and received full board. An investment in knowledge always pays the best interest. It seemed as if they left untried no avenue for e arning money. It is true gol d. borrowed $40. But having secured a good position as teacher f or the coming year." says Franklin. Never before was there such a demand for the trained man. earned by clerical work. machinists. the trained man. bound out until he was twenty-one for only a yoke of oxen an d six sheep. "The total expense for the course was about $1. I waited on tab le all the year."During the following summer I earned $40. etc . and old almanacs. that is wanted. and positions as clerks were we ll-occupied fields. if the slave Frederick Douglass. A on e-talent man. bicycle agents . Everywhere it is the educated. "no man can take it away from him. copying. newspaper work. under the same conditions as the previous year. It is said that unearned money does not enrich. receive d a gift of $35. $496.. The money that a student earns for his own education does enrich his life." No m atter how many millions are out of employment. could manage from scraps of paper. under the American f lag. the man whose natural ability has been enlarged. superbly trained. I was permitted to give my note for the amount I could not r aise. and painters. Throughout the senior year I retaine d the same room. where is the boy or girl to-day. who made shoes in an alms-house. could manage to read a thousand good books before his time had expi red. on a plantation where it was almost a crim e to teach a slave to read. At the door of every vocation is a sign out. a trained thinker who can do whatever he undertakes a lit tle better than it has ever before been done. to learn the alphabet and lift himself to eminence. often gets the place when a man with many untrai ned or half-trained talents loses it. but who are only half educated. who cannot get a fair education and escape the many disadvantages of ignora nce? "If a man empties his purse into his head. of which (counting scholars hips as earnings) I earned $1. founders. working early and late on a farm with scarcely any opportuniti es to go to school.

money-making germ. sordid. Whichever way you turn. for nothing else is more fatal to the development of the higher. to coin his ability into dollars. Tens of thousands of young people just out of school and college stand tiptoe o n the threshold of active life. T he money-god. The most unfortunate day in a youth's career is that one on which his ideals be gin to grow dim and his high standards begin to drop. the artistic suffers. full of h ope and big with promise. the dollar-mark will swing info your vision. my b usiness?" "How can I make the most money?" or "How can I get rich?" is the great interrogation of the century. the fatal germ will spread through their whole natures. which nearly everybody worships in some form or other. full of expectancy. so also the dangers and temptations which beset him were never before so gre at. with high ideals and glorious visions. selfish ideals. and.vantage as to-day. their yearnings for something higher will gradually die and be r eplaced by material. refine. The song of the money-siren to-day is so persistent. my profession. that it takes a strong. the college graduate. go out from the schools. vigorous character to resist their temptation. . even when the cal l in one to do something which bears little relation to money-making speaks very loudly. more dangerous. perhaps. How will the graduate. the colleges. There is nothing else. what he stands for. A liberal education only renders a rascal more dishon est. is measured largely by h ow many dollars it will bring. A man's genius. so astounding. The commercial prizes held up to him are so dazzling. that day on which is born in him the selfish. inoculating thei r ambition with its vicious virus. "How much can I get for my picture?" "How much ro yalty for my book?" "How much can I get out of my specialty. thousands of young men and young women graduate full of ambition an d hope. after a few years. Never before was such pressure brought to bear on the trained youth to sell his brains. Educated rascality is infinitely more of a menace to societ y than ignorant rascality. their fair college vi sion will fade. the soul's wings are weighted down with gold. that is indicated in the very structure in his brain. to face for the first time the practical world. so entrancing. which the graduate needs to be cautioned agains t more than the money madness which has seized the American people. It is the subtle menace which threatens to poison the graduate's ambition. as to-da y. which so often warps and wrenches the who le nature out of its legitimate orbit. The commercial spirit tends to drag everything down to its dead. to prostitute his education. All education which does not elevate. Wealth with us multiplies a man's power so tremendously that everything gravita tes toward it. but many of them will very quickly catch the money con tagion. so overwhel ming that it often drowns the still small voice which bids one follow the call t hat runs in his blood. While the opportunities awaiting the educated man. the trained young man or w oman answer it? The dollar stands out so strongly in all the undertakings of life that the idea l is often lowered or lost. sordid level. and ennoble its recipient is a cu rse instead of a blessing. Every year. will tempt you on every hand. so numerous. art. with their diplomas. finer instincts and nobler desires. so insidious. on his entrance into practical life were never before so great and so numerous as to-d ay. and the unive rsities.

There is coupled with it a responsibility which you can not shirk without paying the penalty in a shriveled . Money-making can not compare with man-making. and it lives in yo ur ideal. unless you are made of superior stuff. "is the finest result of college life. no title will ever mean quite so much. When you plunge into the swim of things. powerful influences will be opera tive in your life. something higher than merely to put money in his purse. They become Indian s again. of Harvard Universit y. Shall it be angel or devil? What are your ideals. What a contrast that high and noble thing which the college diploma stands for presents to that which many owners of the diploma stand for a quarter of a centu ry later! It is often difficult to recognize any relationship between the two. will ever be qui te so noble. whose education counts for anything ought to b e able to resist the shock. of gra ce and beauty. this thing that stamps the gentleman. Whatever degrees you carry from school or college. whatever distinction you may acquire in your career. as you stand tiptoe on the threshold of active life? Will you smite the block and shatter it into an unshapely or hideous piece. your educa tion--in your hands. The influences that will surround you when you leave college or your special tr aining school will be as potent to drag you down as those that cause the young I ndian to revert to barbarism. fortunate graduate." says Ex-President Eliot. misses the best thing that a college education can impart. A libe ral education greatly increases a man's obligations. and encoarsen you generally. your manhood. You hold the chisel and mallet--your ability. a statue which will tell the unborn generations the story of a no ble life? Great advantages bring great responsibilities. you will be constantly thrown into con tact with those of lower ideals. who are so transformed by the inspiring. their fine manners. a millionaire of character--a gentleman. of helpfulness to one's fellows.You will need to be constantly on your guard to resist the attack of this germ. and general culture. the woman in you. tending to deteriorate your standards. selfish aims. and they gradually drift back into their former barbarism." The graduate who has not acquired thi s keen and sure sense of honor. American-Indian graduates. cold. who are actuated only by sordid. as that of gentleman. like a great block of pure white marble. very quickly begin to change under the deteriorating influences operating upon them when they leav e college. You can not divorce them. After you graduate and go out into the world. The shock you will receive in dropping from the at mosphere of high ideals and beautiful promise in which you have lived for four y ears to that of a very practical. to withstand all temptations. There is something infinitely better than to be a millionaire of money. "A keen and sure sense of honor. sordid materiality will be a severe test to your character. uplifting i nfluences of the schools and colleges which are educating them that they are sca rcely recognizable by their own tribes when they return home. their impro ved language. But the graduate whose training. or will you call out a statue of usefulness. of culture. They soon begin to shed their polish. and tha t is to be a millionaire of brains. There is something in the block for you. Your future. The educated man ought to be able to do something better. stand s untouched before you. the Indian blanket replaces their modern dres s. Then dies the man. lower your ideals.

in his business. to mislead. If you have the ability and have been given superior opportunities. vigor. We cannot help feeling that it is worse for a man to go wrong who has had all t he benefits of a liberal education. the higher half. an inspiration to those who have n ot had his priceless chance. Your superior training has given you a glimpse of the higher life." The world has a right to expect that the graduate. in the picture he paints. th at he will not be a slave of the dollar or stoop to a greedy. it is justified in expecting that he will raise the standard of intelligence in his community. whatever it may be. the possible glory of life. a warped conscience. th at he will not stop growing. your superior opportunity. that he will illustrate in his perso nality. having once faced the light and felt its power. It is more of a disgrace for a college graduate to grovel. not down. than for a man who has not had a liberal education. so superbly equipped. "There goes a man. his finer culture. to aspire. you have no right to suppress it. a special message for humanity. who has ability to ameliora te the hard conditions of his fellows.soul. that he will not disgrace his alma mater which has given him his superior chance in life and opened wide for h im the door of opportunity. Your education means an in creased obligation to live your life up to the level of your gift. . who has h ad the inestimable advantage of a liberal education. Your duty is to deliver your message to the world with all the man liness. If the torch of learning has been put in your hand. who uses his light as a decoy to lure his fellows on the r ocks and reefs. will not turn his back on it. to de moralize. low practises. What shall we think of a man who has been endowed with godlike gifts. of grander things." A great man has said that no man will be content to live a half life when he ha s once discovered it is a half life. who. not to grovel. trained man people should be able to say of him as Lincoln said of Walt Whitman. but what sha ll we do with the educated rascal who uses his trained mind and all his gifts to ruin the very people who look up to him as a guide? "The greatest thing you can do is to be what you ought to be. and he is expected to look up. uplifting force in his community. The world has a right to expect that wherever there is an e ducated. than it is for one who has not had glimpses of higher things. who has not had similar advantages. to help to emancipate them from ignorance and drudgery. The educated man has gotten a glimpse of power. a stunted mentality. It has a right to expect that a man who has learned how to use skilfully the tools of life. wi ll haunt him. to stoop to mean. instead of using his education to lift his fellow men. it simply m eans that you have a great commission to do something out of the ordinary for yo ur fellows. its significance is that yo u should light up the way for the less fortunate. grasping career: t hat he will be free from the sordidness which often characterizes the rich ignor amus. so divinely endowed. because where much is give n. Society has a right to look to the collegian to be a refining. uses it t o demoralize. and a narrow field of usefulnes s. what shall we think of this man. much is expected. cramping influence of avarice. who employs his talents in the book he writes. will be an artist and not an artisan. and force you possess. If you have received a message which carries freedom for people enslaved by ign orance and bigotry. to debauch. because the other half. instead of as a beacon to guide them into port? We imprison the burglar for breaking into our houses and stealing. to drag them down. It has a right to expect that he will not be a victim of the narrowing.

we often read this comment. less culti vated minds." "Fairly good. has learned how to focus his faculties so that he can bring the whole man to his task. that you lower your standards. dishonor the institution which has given him his chance to be a superior man. Be sure that you possess yo ur knowledge. finer type of man hood. uninfluenced by the thousand and one petty annoyances. The knowledge that can be utilized. who are loaded down with knowle dge that they have never been able to utilize." is the injunction of a gr eat master as he walks up and down among his pupils." The mission of the trained man is to show the world a higher. Low ideals. "Keep your eye on the model. that your knowledge does not possess you. constitutes the only education worthy of the name. Only what you can use of your education will benefit you or the world. Regard the very suggestion that you shall coin your education." While an education should develop all that is highest and best in a man. that can be tr anslated into power. After the withdrawal of a play that has been only a short time on the stage. to make available for working pur . Do not permit yourself to be influence d by the maxims of a low. cannot. "If the highest thing in me will not bring success. The mere possession of a diploma will only hold you up to ridicule. but a financial failure. A liberal education ought to broaden a man's mind so that he will be able to keep his eye always on the model. not a financial failure. slipshod work. don't watch your hands. should have no place in your program. prostitute your edu cation by the practise of low-down. criticizing their work. the man who has discovered only a small part of himself. it should als o make him a practical man. surely the lowest. which will be dinned into your ears w herever you go. systemless. will only m ake you more conspicuous as a failure. The graduate ought to be able to rise above these things so that he can use all his brain power and energy and fling the weight of his entire being into work t hat is worth while. a stuffed memory d oes not make an educated man." applied either to character or to work are bad mot toes for an educated man. sordid prudence. the worst. There ar e thousands of college-bred men in this country. bickerings. "An artistic success. The trouble with most of us is that we do not keep our eyes on the model. of a higher grade. The world has a right to expect better results from the work of the educated ma n. y our high ideals into dollars. aimless. Say to yourself. demorali ze his ideals. as an insult. Knowledge is power only when it can be made available. You should be able to demonstrate that the man with a diploma has learned to use the tools of life skilfully. and better quality. something finer. and not a part of himself.Never lose sight of your college vision. half-hearted endeavors . The great question which confronts you in the practical world is "What can you do with what you know?" Can you transmute your knowledge into power? Your abilit y to read your Latin diploma is not a test of true education. practical. the perfect ideal of his work. we lose o ur earlier vision. and discords which destroy much of the efficiency of narrower. It is a disgrace for a man with a liberal education to botch his work. misunderstan dings. sordid methods. discredit his teachers. if you cannot bring your education to a f ocus and utilize it in a practical way. than from the man who lacks early training. "Pretty good.

poses. of greater value than all these. which you have absorbed from your teachers. grandest thing possible to you. from your associations. which should make you aspire instead of grovel--look up. that he has not let the i But the best thing you carry from your alma mater is not what you there prized most. instead of dow n. and self-confidence is the lever that move s the world. If the rosebud should try to retain all of its sweetness and beauty locked within its petals and refuse to gi . is the uplift. it is that which should make you reach up as wel l as on. this is the embodiment of the college spirit. your discovery of yourself. to play a manly part in life. have more faith overed himself. encouragement. He should look upon it as a power to be used. that they are not ed ucated. This will mean infinitely m ore to you than all you have learned from books or lectures. however. The college man ought to be a superb figure anywhere. The way to get the most out of ourselves. at the cost of mental and moral penury. things are so arranged in this world that no one can use his divine gift for himself alone an d get the best out of it. your resolution to be a little more of a man. inspiration. does it at his peril. but royally. their narrow outlook on life. art. of your possibilit ies. of your powers. In other words. a liberal education makes a man feel a little surer of himself. not your knowledge of the sciences. literature. The knowledge that one's mentality has been broadened out by college training. On every hand we see men of good ability who feel crippled all thei r lives and are often mortified. in himself. This assurance of knowledge multiplies self-confidence and giv es infinite satisfaction. by having to confess. think a little more of himself. and that is your aroused ambition. The man who withholds the giving of himself to the world. or out of life. magnanimously. if you have made the most of your chan ce. The graduate should regard his education as a sacred trust. to do the greatest. As the silkworm transmutes the mulberry leaf into satin. The consciousness of bein g well educated should put one at ease in any society. languages. There is no situation in life in which the beneficent influence of a well-assim ilated education will not make itself felt. making a sponge of one's brain. into working capital. There is a great difference between absorbing knowledge. or for his own selfish ends. by the poverty of their l anguage. The most precious thing of all. is not to try to sell ourselves for the highest possible price but to give ourselves. their sordid ideals. to our fellows. for fear he would never get it back. As a matter of fact. There is also great satisfaction ot neglected the unfoldment and expansion of his mpressionable years of youth go by unimproved. it is some thing infinitely more sacred. or be mortified or pained by ignorance of matters which every well-informed person is supposed to know. The superbly trained man can go through the world with his head up and f eel conscious that he is not likely to play the ignoramus in any company. m eanly. the spirit of your alma mater. not alone for his advancement. that one has discovered hi s possibilities. but also increase s one's self-confidence immeasurably. so you should transmut e your knowledge into practical wisdom. not only adds wonderfully to one's happiness. not stingily. To try to keep it would be as foolish as for the farme r to hoard his seed corn in a bin instead of giving it to the earth. but for the betterment of all mankind. because he has disc in the knowledge that one has n mind. and transmuting every bit of knowledge into power.

never let it be said of you that you succeeded in your vocation. it would be lost. Then tocks or bonds to testify to a rich life. an unsullied reputation. or teachers. your friendships. is to be born with a bia s to some pursuit. in the everlasting scramble for the dollar. and strangles the very faculties he would develop. who gropes along in mediocrity. even flight from home and occasional vagabondism . need no eulogy in words. your good name. The trouble with most of us is that. stifle our better natures. as thousands of graduates do. or influenced to stoop to anything low or questionable. your high ideals and noble purposes to be suffoca ted. which finds him in employment and happiness. in our efforts to sell ourselves for selfi sh ends or for the most dollars. whose genius was not opposed by parents. In these cases Nature seems to have triumphed by direct interp osition. whatever your vocation. be larger than your vocation. your aspiring instincts.--EMERSON. The graduate should show the world that he has something in him too sacred to b e tampered with. It is only by flinging them out to the world that t heir fullest development is possible. The man who tries to keep his education. something marked "not for sale. do not let your esthetic faculties. and does not lift up his head and show that he has made the most of his great privileges disgraces the institution that gav e him his chance. do not allow all that is finest within you. WHAT WILL YOU DO WITH IT? CHAPTER IX ROUND BOYS IN SQUARE HOLES The high prize of life. and encouraged di sobedience. Put beauty into your life. falsehood. How your greatest wealth with you. strangled. artist. philosopher. sacrifi ce your social instincts. my young friend. Whether you make money or lose it. never sell your divine heritage. to have insisted on her darlings having their rights. for power or positio n. or man of science mentioned in the history of the human intellect. the sculptor. secrecy. who lives a shiftless. carry ean record." a sacred something that briber y cannot touch.ve it out." So conduct yourself that your life shall own eulogy. in a cl you will not need houses or lands or s Never before did an opportunity to render such great service to mankind confron t the educated youth as confronts you to-day. h is superior advantages for himself. was asked to make a speech at the unveiling o f his great statue of George Peabody. the crowning fortune of a man. but failed as a man. guardi ans. Let it be its world the story of a noble career. There is hardly a poet. You should so conduct yourself that e very one will see that there is something in you that would repel as an insult t he very suggestion that you could be bought or bribed. we impoverish our own lives. Whatever you do. your good n ame. selfish life. When y ou leave your alma mater. who is always looking out for the main chanc e. The college man who is cursed with commonness. be atrophied in your efforts to make a living. only shrivels. in London. he simply pointed to the statue and said. for a mess of pottage. You have not learned the best lesson from your school or college if you have no t discovered the secret of making life a glory instead of a sordid grind. that influence cannot buy. When William Story. "That is my speech. let your success tell to the ever much money you may accumulate. Do not.

" "But I can make myself usefu l somehow. sir. laughing at the ear nestness of his clerk. simply because they were out of their places. rather than the world should lose what it cost her so much pains to produce. or whatever your own pet calling is unt il you have wasted years of a precious life. When his efforts fail to procure means of subsistence." said his employer. he is strong on the track." persisted the young man. any more than you can see the North Star in the magnetic needle. WHIPPLE. and he finds himself poor and neglected. I know I cannot sell." said the youth. when once free." "I do n't know. art. often look back with a sigh and think how much better off he would be had he pursued some other occupation. and in a few years he became not only chief cashier in the large store. For the last half-hour you have not spoken a single word. of s quare boys forced into round holes." Civilization will mark its highest tide when every man has chosen his proper wo rk." of boys whose aspiration s and longings have been silenced forever by ignorant parents. are you not ashamed to waste your time in this disgraceful manner?" The world has certainly gained much through the old lady's failure to tell Jame s how he could employ his time to better advantage! "But I'm good for something. TICKELL. law. yet. and compel it to point to the star which p resides over poetry. God has loaded the needle of that young life so it will point to the star of its own destiny. he may. "that is what is wrong. an d you have held alternately in the steam. I see a hand you c annot see. No man can be ideally successful until he has found his place. first a saucer and then a spoon. of b oys compelled to pore over dry theological books when the voice within continual ly cried "Law. where his aptitude for figures soon showed itself. P. medicine. of boys tortured be . the needle fli es back to its own star." pleaded a young man whom a merchant was about to discharge for his bluntness. "Like a boat on a river ." He was placed in the counti ng-house. collecting together the little drops f ormed by the condensation of the steam on the surface of the china and the silve r.. don't put me away. Try me a t something besides selling." said his grandm other." said the principal.-E. I never saw such an idle young fellow as you are. and oppressed because they did not fit." "I know that." "Medicine. I hear a voice you cannot hear. this occupation is the only one which he will pursue with interest an d pleasure. Do you know what you have been doing all this tim e? Why. "James Watt. and y ou have busied yourself in examining and. the teapot lid." or "Business". of boys persecute d as lazy. stupid. Like a locomo tive. On that side all obstruction is taken away. "every boy runs against obstructions on every side but one." "Science. repent it as he often does." "Nor do I. I don't know. Which beckons me away. and though you may pull it around by artif icial advice and unnatural education. I must not stay. "Rue it as he may. You cannot look into a cradle and read the secret message traced by a divine ha nd and wrapped up in that bit of clay." Only a Dickens can write the history of "Boy Slavery. "I am sure I can be useful. like Burns. no matter how unpromising the prospect. "do take a book and employ yourself usefully. Which says." "Art. "Only don't put me away. Now. and taken off again. but weak anywhere else. "the man of genius is drawn by an irresistible impulse to the occupation for which he was c reated. or fickle." said the merchant. sir. and he sweeps serenely over a deepening channel into an infinite sea. "You are good for nothing as a salesman. but he will stick to his favorite pursuit nevertheless. too. "I know I can." says Robert Waters. "How? Tell me how. I cannot sell. but an eminent accountant." says Emerson. you have taken off and replaced. No matter by what difficulties surrounded.

A kind lady aided him. was apprenticed to a pastry-cook. Peter's. to an upholsterer. He invented both microscope and telescope. was thought good for nothing. She breaks the pattern at every birth. and even punished him for coveri ng the walls and furniture with sketches.cause they were not enthusiastic in employments which they loathed. when turning his powerful wing against the clear blue sky! Ignorant parents compelled the boy Arkwright to become a barber's apprentice." Yet this "idle boy" became one of the founders of the Royal Academy. but his own death placed Frederick on the throne at the age of twenty-eight. but the instinct of commercial enterprise future merchant. enlarging knowledge of the vast and minute alike. The irksomeness of his prison-like school so gal led him. "You are trying to make that boy ough. pennil ess. He even contemplated killing his s on. and against which every fiber of their being was uttering perpetual protest. and soon he . because he loved art and music. the painter. the auth or." the first performance of which he had to witness in disguise. The father of Joshua Reynolds rebuked his son for drawing pictures. but how keen his glance. haunting the boy until he laid aside his grammar for Euclid. but th e voice of mathematics drowned every other call. that he ventured. was sent to a mu sic school. Turner was intended for a barber in Maiden Lane. The magic c ombination is never used but once. but in secret he produced his first play. ma de Prussia one of the greatest nations of Europe. how steady and true his curves. and his longing for authorship so allured him. so he must needs say "han ds off" even to his parents. Molière. "The Robbers. Frederick the Great was terribly abused becau se he had a passion for art and music and did not care for military drill. His f ather hated the fine arts and imprisoned him. This boy." said Emerson. in the marble of his Moses. but became the greatest landsc ape-painter of modern times. He was only eighteen when he discovered the principle of pendulum in a lamp left swinging in the cathedral at Pisa. How stupid and clumsy is the blinking eagle at perch. Pascal's father determined that his son should teach the dead languages. and wrote o n one: "Done by Joshua out of pure idleness. Claude Lorraine. "Wist ye not that I m ust be about my Father's business?" Galileo was set apart for a physician. the famous painter of Aurora. Schiller was sent to study surgery in the military school at Stuttgart. into the inhospitable world of letters. him to wish his son a another you. and Guido. he would hide his Euclid and Archimedes and stealthily work out abstruse problems. and the the the The parents of Michael Angelo had declared that no son of theirs should ever fo llow the discreditable profession of an artist. John Jacob Astor's father wished his r as a butcher. It is often a narrow selfishness in a father which leads reproduction of himself. and would not let him rest until he had immortali zed himself in the architecture of St. but the fire burning in his breast was kindled by the Divine Artist. as Christ said to his mother. One is en son to be his successo was too strong in the Nature never duplicates men. but when compelled to study anatomy physiology. b ut Nature had locked up in his brain a cunning device destined to bless humanity and to do the drudgery of millions of England's poor. who. and on the walls of the Sistine Chapel.

he one day. out of cre dit. attended a court. as to decide what profession his so n shall adopt. How ridiculous. T. The latter. Daniel Defoe had been a trader. yet this is no more incongruous than the popular idea that law. out of cur iosity. and th eology are the only desirable professions. A parent might just as well decide that the magnetic needle will point to Venus or Jupiter without trying it. and so tried to discour age his fondness for music. prepares himself in school. and believed he could excel them. an acquaintance. and an author of several indiffer ent books. a commissioner's accountant. The pres iding judge. When the doctor visited a brother in the service of the Duk e of Weisenfelds. and soon had a private concert under full blast. The physician Handel wished his son to become a lawyer. he took his son with him. in which he eventually soon stood alone as the greates t forensic orator of his country. soured. A. and the duke. invited Erskine to sit near him. of poor doctors and lawyers for the same reason! The country is full of men who are out of place. "Jonathan. in the town where his regiment was quartered." The fact is. too. before he wrote his masterpiece. and the other to rule an empire. out in the cold. joined the army. ruined.produced the two splendid dramas which made him immortal. and became a teacher. through the accident of having lent mone y to a friend. Chase. a soldier. to work his way up to the posit ion of a man of great influence as a United States Senator from Rhode Island. one to sweep a street crossing. insisted that his creditor sho uld take the shop as the only means of securing the money. The boy wandered unobserved to the o rgan in a chapel. He at onc e began the study of law." It was m any years before Jonathan escaped from the shop. Nature never lets a man rest until he has found his place. and wondered who could possibly combine so much me lody with so much evident unfamiliarity with the instrument. out of money. and said that the pleaders at the bar were among the most eminent lawyers of Great Britain. instead of blaming him for disturbing the organ. when his son told of having nearly fitted himself f or college. What a ridiculous exhibition a great truck-horse would make on the race-track. prai sed his performance." said Mr. After serving more than two years. Handel to let his son follow his bent. with failure imminent. and then. and persuaded Dr. the ornithologist. of our American college graduates to study law! How many young men becom e poor clergymen by trying to imitate their fathers who were good ones. nearly every college graduate who succeeds in the true sense of the word. "thou shalt go down to the machine-shop on Monday morning. a factory m anager. It has been well said that if God should commission two angels. Happy the youth who finds the place which his dreams have pictured! If he do es not fill that place. medicine." Wilson. before he drifted into his proper calling as a merchant. a secretary. The best thing his teachers ha . "Robinson Crusoe. he will not fill any to the satisfaction of himself or o thers. an envoy. "disappointed. The duke happ ened to hear the performance. Erskine spent four years in the navy. She haunts him and drives him until all his faculties give their consent and he falls into his proper niche. Erski ne took their measure as they spoke. a merchant. but makes himself after he is graduated. failed in five different professions before he found his place. in the hope of more rapid promo tion. out of office. out of courage. for fifty-two pe r cent. But the boy got an old spinet and practiced on it se cretly in a hayloft. The boy was brought before him. they could not be induced to e xchange callings. Stewart studied for the ministry. Not less true is it that he who feels that God has given him a particular work to do can be happy only when earnestly engaged in its performan ce. out at elbows.

Let duty be the guiding-star. poetry. the former choosing philosophy. Molière found that he was not adapted to the work of a lawyer. The world has been very kind to many who were once known as dunces or blockhead s. and our God. a conscientious statesman. Fidelity to the work or everyday duties at hand. So no one should be disappointed because he was not end owed with tremendous gifts in the cradle. Lo ok at a fish floundering on the sand as though he would tear himself to pieces. Grant] We must not jump to the conclusion that because a man has not succeeded in what he has really tried to do with all his might. he is himself again. after they have become very successful. His fins mean something now. and a genuine feeling of respo nsibility to our parents or employers. No o ne need doubt that the world has use for him. But look again: a huge wave breaks higher up the beach and covers the unfortunat e creature. But if there be no instinct. Cromwell was a farmer until forty years old. he cannot succeed at anything. and advance at every honorable opportunity in the direction towards which the inward monitor points. Voltaire and Petrarch abandoned the law. while before they be at the air and earth in vain. demanding a wonderf ul aptitude for some definite line of work. The moment his fins feel the water. Neither Lincoln nor Grant started as a baby with a precocity for the White House. With a firm choice and earnest work. and darts l ike a flash through the waves. yet he practiced it so faithfully that it helped hi m to authorship. if for medicine. Better be a first-rate hod-carrier than a s econd-rate anything. The moment he is beyond the college walls he ceas es to use books and helps which do not feed him. but he wrote some of our finest poems. before we reach our teens. Give every boy and girl a fair chance and reasonable encouragement. What career? What shall my life's work be? If instinct and heart ask for carpentry. His business is to do the best he can wherever his lot may be cast. a hindrance instead of a help. or an irresistibl e genius for ruling men. The great majority of boys and girls. Very few of us. and success will surely be the crown. or if it be weak or faint. a responsible soldier. the latter. If you fail after doing your level best. will eventually b ring most of us into the right niches at the proper time. Samuel Smiles was trained to a profession which was not to his taste. but it was very cross to them while t hey were struggling through discouragement and misinterpretation. show great genius or even remarkable talent for any line of work or study. That is no reas on why the duty at hand should be put off. ourselves. a young man or woman cannot help but succeed. Cowper failed as a lawyer. one should choose cautiously along the line of his best adaptability and opportunity. [Illustration: Ulysses S. b ut he left a great name in literature. to the full measure of one's ability and industry. or why the labor that naturally falls to one's lot should not be done well. for which he was well fitted. eve n when given all the latitude and longitude heart could desire. Garfield would not have become President if he had not previously been a zealou s teacher. Each knocks at the portals of the mind. examine the work attempted. True success lies in acting well y our part. but it is not there. and seizes upon those that do. find it very dif ficult before their fifteenth or even before their twentieth year to decide what to do for a living. He was so timid that he could not plead a case.ve taught him is how to study. be a carpenter. be a physician. and see if it really be in the line of your bent or power of achievement. and this every one can do. and do not condemn them be .

cause of even a large degree of downright stupidity; for many so-called good-for -nothing boys, blockheads, numskulls, dullards, or dunces, were only boys out of their places, round boys forced into square holes. Wellington was considered a dunce by his mother. At Eton he was called dull, id le, slow, and was about the last boy in school of whom anything was expected. He showed no talent, and had no desire to enter the army. His industry and perseve rance were his only redeeming characteristics in the eyes of his parents and tea chers. But at forty-six he had defeated the greatest general living, except hims elf. Goldsmith was the laughing-stock of his schoolmasters. He was graduated "Wooden Spoon," a college name for a dunce. He tried to enter a class in surgery, but w as rejected. He was driven to literature. Goldsmith found himself totally unfit for the duties of a physician; but who else could have written the "Vicar of Wak efield" or the "Deserted Village"? Dr. Johnson found him very poor and about to be arrested for debt. He made Goldsmith give him the manuscript of the "Vicar of Wakefield," sold it to the publishers, and paid the debt. This manuscript made its author famous. Robert Clive bore the name of "dunce" and "reprobate" at school, but at thirtytwo, with three thousand men, he defeated fifty thousand at Plassey and laid the foundation of the British Empire in India. Sir Walter Scott was called a blockh ead by his teacher. When Byron happened to get ahead of his class, the master wo uld say: "Now, Jordie, let me see how soon you will be at the foot again." Young Linnaeus was called by his teachers almost a blockhead. Not finding him f it for the church, his parents sent him to college to study medicine. But the si lent teacher within, greater and wiser than all others, led him to the fields; a nd neither sickness, misfortune, nor poverty could drive him from the study of b otany, the choice of his heart, and he became the greatest botanist of his age. Richard B. Sheridan's mother tried in vain to teach him the most elementary stu dies. The mother's death aroused slumbering talents, as has happened in hundreds of cases, and he became one of the most brilliant men of his age. Samuel Drew was one of the dullest and most listless boys in his neighborhood, yet after an accident by which he nearly lost his life, and after the death of h is brother, he became so studious and industrious that he could not bear to lose a moment. He read at every meal, using all the time he could get for self-impro vement. He said that Paine's "Age of Reason" made him an author, for it was by h is attempt to refute its arguments that he was first known as a strong, vigorous writer. It has been well said that no man ever made an ill figure who understood his ow n talents, nor a good one who mistook them. CHAPTER X WHAT CAREER? Brutes find out where their talents lie; A bear will not attempt to fly, A foun dered horse will oft debate Before he tries a five-barred gate. A dog by instinc t turns aside Who sees the ditch too deep and wide. But man we find the only cre ature Who, led by folly, combats nature; Who, when she loudly cries--Forbear! Wi th obstinacy fixes there; And where his genius least inclines, Absurdly bends hi s whole designs. SWIFT. The crowning fortune of a man is to be born to some pursuit which finds him in employment and happiness, whether it be to make baskets, or broadswords, or cana

ls, or statues, or songs.--EMERSON. Whatever you are by nature, keep to it; never desert your line of talent. Be wh at nature intended you for, and you will succeed; be anything else, and you will be ten thousand times worse than nothing.--SYDNEY SMITH. "Every man has got a Fort," said Artemus Ward. "It's some men's fort to do one thing, and some other men's fort to do another, while there is numeris shiftless critters goin' round loose whose fort is not to do nothin'. "Twice I've endevered to do things which they wasn't my Fort. The first time wa s when I undertook to lick a owdashus cuss who cut a hole in my tent and krawld threw. Sez I, 'My jentle sir, go out, or I shall fall onto you putty hevy.' Sez he, 'Wade in, Old Wax Figgers,' whereupon I went for him, but he cawt me powerfu l on the hed and knockt me threw the tent into a cow pastur. He pursood the atta ck and flung me into a mud puddle. As I aroze and rung out my drencht garmints, I concluded fitin was n't my fort. "I'le now rize the curtain upon seen 2nd. It is rarely seldum that I seek conso lation in the Flowin Bole. But in a certain town in Injianny in the Faul of 18-, my orgin grinder got sick with the fever and died. I never felt so ashamed in my life, and I thought I'd hist in a few swallers of suthin strengthnin. Konsequ ents was, I histed so much I didn't zackly know whereabouts I was. I turned my l ivin' wild beasts of Pray loose into the streets, and split all my wax-works. "I then Bet I cood play hoss. So I hitched myself to a kanawl bote, there bein' two other hosses behind and anuther ahead of me. But the hosses bein' onused to such a arrangemunt, begun to kick and squeal and rair up. Konsequents was, I wa s kicked vilently in the stummuck and back, and presently, I found myself in the kanawl with the other hosses, kikin and yellin like a tribe of Cusscaroorus sav ajis. I was rescood, and as I was bein carried to the tavern on a hemlock bored I sed in a feeble voice, 'Boys, playin' hoss isn't my Fort.' "Moral: Never don't do nothin' which isn't your Fort, for ef you do you'll find yourself splashin' round in the kanawl, figuratively speakin." The following advertisement, which appeared day after day in a Western paper, d id not bring a single reply:-"Wanted.--Situation by a Practical Printer, who is competent to take charge of any department in a printing and publishing house. Would accept a professorship in any of the academies. Has no objection to teach ornamental painting and penma nship, geometry, trigonometry, and many other sciences. Has had some experience as a lay preacher. Would have no objection to form a small class of young ladies and gentlemen to instruct them in the higher branches. To a dentist or chiropod ist he would be invaluable; or he would cheerfully accept a position as bass or tenor singer in a choir." At length there appeared this addition to the notice:-"P. S. Will accept an offer to saw and split wood at less than the usual rates. " This secured a situation at once, and the advertisement was seen no more. Your talent is your call. Your legitimate destiny speaks in your character. If you have found your place, your occupation has the consent of every faculty of y our being. If possible, choose that occupation which focuses the largest amount of your ex perience and tastes. You will then not only have a congenial vocation, but also will utilize largely your skill and business knowledge, which is your true capit

al. Follow your bent. You cannot long fight successfully against your aspirations. Parents, friends, or misfortune may stifle and suppress the longings of the hear t, by compelling you to perform unwelcome tasks; but, like a volcano, the inner fire will burst the crusts which confine it and will pour forth its pent-up geni us in eloquence, in song, in art, or in some favorite industry. Beware of "a tal ent which you cannot hope to practice in perfection." Nature hates all botched a nd half-finished work, and will pronounce her curse upon it. Better be the Napoleon of bootblacks, or the Alexander of chimney-sweeps, let u s say with Matthew Arnold, than a shallow-brained attorney who, like necessity, knows no law. Half the world seems to have found uncongenial occupation, as though the human race had been shaken up together and exchanged places in the operation. A servan t girl is trying to teach, and a natural teacher is tending store. Good farmers are murdering the law, while Choates and Websters are running down farms, each t ortured by the consciousness of unfulfilled destiny. Boys are pining in factorie s who should be wrestling with Greek and Latin, and hundreds are chafing beneath unnatural loads in college who should be on the farm or before the mast. Artist s are spreading "daubs" on canvas who should be whitewashing board fences. Behin d counters stand clerks who hate the yard-stick and neglect their work to dream of other occupations. A good shoemaker writes a few verses for the village paper , his friends call him a poet, and the last, with which he is familiar, is aband oned for the pen, which he uses awkwardly. Other shoemakers are cobbling in Cong ress, while statesmen are pounding shoe-lasts. Laymen are murdering sermons whil e Beechers and Whitefields are failing as merchants, and people are wondering wh at can be the cause of empty pews. A boy who is always making something with too ls is railroaded through the university and started on the road to inferiority i n one of the "three honorable professions." Real surgeons are handling the meatsaw and cleaver, while butchers are amputating human limbs. How fortunate that-"There's a divinity that shapes our ends, Rough-hew them how we will." "He that hath a trade," says Franklin, "hath an estate; and he that hath a call ing hath a place of profit and honor. A plowman on his legs is higher than a gen tleman on his knees." A man's business does more to make him than anything else. It hardens his muscl es, strengthens his body, quickens his blood, sharpens his mind, corrects his ju dgment, wakes up his inventive genius, puts his wits to work, starts him on the race of life, arouses his ambition, makes him feel that he is a man and must fil l a man's shoes, do a man's work, bear a man's part in life, and show himself a man in that part. No man feels himself a man who is not doing a man's business. A man without employment is not a man. He does not prove by his works that he is a man. A hundred and fifty pounds of bone and muscle do not make a man. A good cranium full of brains is not a man. The bone and muscle and brain must know how to do a man's work, think a man's thoughts, mark out a man's path, and bear a m an's weight of character and duty before they constitute a man. Go-at-it-iveness is the first requisite for success. Stick-to-it-iveness is the second. Under ordinary circumstances, and with practical common sense to guide him, one who has these requisites will not fail. Don't wait for a higher position or a larger salary. Enlarge the position you a lready occupy; put originality of method into it. Fill it as it never was filled before. Be more prompt, more energetic, more thorough, more polite than your pr edecessor or fellow workmen. Study your business, devise new modes of operation, be able to give your employer points. The art lies not in giving satisfaction m

erely, not in simply filling your place, but in doing better than was expected, in surprising your employer; and the reward will be a better place and a larger salary. When out of work, take the first respectable job that offers, heeding not the d isproportion between your faculties and your task. If you put your manhood into your labor, you will soon be given something better to do. This question of a right aim in life has become exceedingly perplexing in our c omplicated age. It is not a difficult problem to solve when one is the son of a Zulu or the daughter of a Bedouin. The condition of the savage hardly admits of but one choice; but as one rises higher in the scale of civilization and creeps nearer to the great centers of activity, the difficulty of a correct decision in creases with its importance. In proportion as one is hard pressed in competition is it of the sternest necessity for him to choose the right aim, so as to be ab le to throw the whole of his energy and enthusiasm into the struggle for success . The dissipation of strength or hope is fatal to prosperity even in the most at tractive field. Gladstone says there is a limit to the work that can be got out of a human body , or a human brain, and he is a wise man who wastes no energy on pursuits for wh ich he is not fitted. "Blessed is he who has found his work," says Carlyle. "Let him ask no other ble ssedness. He has a work--a life purpose; he has found it, and will follow it." In choosing an occupation, do not ask yourself how you can make the most money or gain the most notoriety, but choose that work which will call out all your po wers and develop your manhood into the greatest strength and symmetry. Not money , not notoriety, not fame even, but power is what you want. Manhood is greater t han wealth, grander than fame. Character is greater than any career. Each facult y must be educated, and any deficiency in its training will appear in whatever y ou do. The hand must be educated to be graceful, steady, and strong. The eye mus t be educated to be alert, discriminating, and microscopic. The heart must be ed ucated to be tender, sympathetic, and true. The memory must be drilled for years in accuracy, retention, and comprehensiveness. The world does not demand that y ou be a lawyer, minister, doctor, farmer, scientist, or merchant; it does not di ctate what you shall do, but it does require that you be a master in whatever yo u undertake. If you are a master in your line, the world will applaud you and al l doors will fly open to you. But it condemns all botches, abortions, and failur es. "Whoever is well educated to discharge the duty of a man," says Rousseau, "cann ot be badly prepared to fill any of those offices that have relation to him. It matters little to me whether my pupils be designed for the army, the pulpit, or the bar. Nature has destined us to the offices of human life antecedent to our d estination concerning society. To live is the profession I would teach him. When I have done with him, it is true he will be neither a soldier, a lawyer, nor a divine. Let him first be a man. Fortune may remove him from one rank to another as she pleases; he will be always found in his place." In the great race of life common sense has the right of way. Wealth, a diploma, a pedigree, talent, genius, without tact and common sense, cut but a small figu re. The incapables and the impracticables, though loaded with diplomas and degre es, are left behind. Not what do you know, or who are you, but what are you, wha t can you do, is the interrogation of the century. George Herbert has well said: "What we are is much more to us than what we do." An aim that carries in it the least element of doubt as to its justice or honor or right should be abandoned at once. The art of dishing up the wrong so as to

make it look and taste like the right has never been more extensively cultivated than in our day. It is a curious fact that reason will, on pressure, overcome a man's instinct of right. An eminent scientist has said that a man could soon re ason himself out of the instinct of decency if he would only take pains and work hard enough. So when a doubtful but attractive future is placed before one, the re is a great temptation to juggle with the wrong until it seems the right. Yet any aim that is immoral carries in itself the germ of certain failure, in the re al sense of the word--failure that is physical and spiritual. There is no doubt that every person has a special adaptation for his own peculi ar part in life. A very few--geniuses, we call them--have this marked in an unus ual degree, and very early in life. Madame de Staël was engrossed in political philosophy at an age when other girls are dressing dolls. Mozart, when but four years old, played the clavichord and c omposed minuets and other pieces still extant. The little Chalmers, with solemn air and earnest gestures, would preach often from a stool in the nursery. Goethe wrote tragedies at twelve, and Grotius published an able philosophical work bef ore he was fifteen. Pope "lisped in numbers." Chatterton wrote good poems at ele ven, and Cowley published a volume of poetry in his sixteenth year. Thomas Lawre nce and Benjamin West drew likenesses almost as soon as they could walk. Liszt p layed in public at twelve. Canova made models in clay while a mere child. Bacon exposed the defects of Aristotle's philosophy when but sixteen. Napoleon was at the head of armies when throwing snowballs at Brienne. All these showed their bent while young, and followed it in active life. But pr ecocity is not common, and, except in rare cases, we must discover the bias in o ur natures, and not wait for the proclivity to make itself manifest. When found, it is worth more to us than a vein of gold. "I do not forbid you to preach," said a Bishop to a young clergyman, "but natur e does." Lowell said: "It is the vain endeavor to make ourselves what we are not that ha s strewn history with so many broken purposes, and lives left in the rough." You have not found your place until all your faculties are roused, and your who le nature consents and approves of the work you are doing; not until you are so enthusiastic in it that you take it to bed with you. You may be forced to drudge at uncongenial toil for a time, but emancipate yourself as soon as possible. Ca rey, the "Consecrated Cobbler," before he went as a missionary said: "My busines s is to preach the gospel. I cobble shoes to pay expenses." If your vocation be only a humble one, elevate it with more manhood than others put into it. Put into it brains and heart and energy and economy. Broaden it by originality of methods. Extend it by enterprise and industry. Study it as you w ould a profession. Learn everything that is to be known about it. Concentrate yo ur faculties upon it, for the greatest achievements are reserved for the man of single aim, in whom no rival powers divide the empire of the soul. Better adorn your own than seek another's place. Go to the bottom of your business if you would climb to the top. Nothing is sma ll which concerns your business. Master every detail. This was the secret of A. T. Stewart's and of John Jacob Astor's great success. They knew everything about their business. As love is the only excuse for marriage, and the only thing which will carry on e safely through the troubles and vexations of married life, so love for an occu pation is the only thing which will carry one safely and surely through the trou bles which overwhelm ninety-five out of every one hundred who choose the life of

a merchant, and very many in every other career. A famous Englishman said to his nephew, "Don't choose medicine, for we have nev er had a murderer in our family, and the chances are that in your ignorance you may kill a patient; as to the law, no prudent man is willing to risk his life or his fortune to a young lawyer, who has not only no experience, but is generally too conceited to know the risks he incurs for his client, who alone is the lose r; therefore, as the mistakes of a clergyman in doctrine or advice to his parish ioners cannot be clearly determined in this world, I advise you by all means to enter the church." "I felt that I was in the world to do something, and thought I must," said Whit tier, thus giving the secret of his great power. It is the man who must enter la w, literature, medicine, the ministry, or any other of the overstocked professio ns, who will succeed. His certain call, that is his love for it, and his fidelit y to it, are the imperious factors of his career. If a man enters a profession s imply because his grandfather made a great name in it, or his mother wants him t o, with no love or adaptability for it, it were far better for him to be a motor -man on an electric car at a dollar and seventy-five cents a day. In the humbler work his intelligence may make him a leader; in the other career he might do as much harm as a bowlder rolled from its place upon a railroad track, a menace to the next express. Only a few years ago marriage was the only "sphere" open to girls, and the sing le woman had to face the disapproval of her friends. Lessing said: "The woman wh o thinks is like a man who puts on rouge, ridiculous." Not many years have elaps ed since the ambitious woman who ventured to study or write would keep a bit of embroidery at hand to throw over her book or manuscript when callers entered. Dr . Gregory said to his daughters: "If you happen to have any learning, keep it a profound secret from the men, who generally look with a jealous and malignant ey e on a woman of great parts and a cultivated understanding." Women who wrote boo ks in those days would deny the charge as though a public disgrace. All this has changed, and what a change it is! As Frances Willard said, the gre atest discovery of the century is the discovery of woman. We have emancipated he r, and are opening countless opportunities for our girls outside of marriage. Fo rmerly only a boy could choose a career; now his sister can do the same. This fr eedom is one of the greatest glories of the twentieth century. But with freedom comes responsibility, and under these changed conditions every girl should have a definite aim. Dr. Hall says that the world has urgent need of "girls who are mother's right h and; girls who can cuddle the little ones next best to mamma, and smooth out the tangles in the domestic skein when thing's get twisted; girls whom father takes comfort in for something better than beauty, and the big brothers are proud of for something that outranks the ability to dance or shine in society. Next, we w ant girls of sense,--girls who have a standard of their own, regardless of conve ntionalities, and are independent enough to live up to it; girls who simply won' t wear a trailing dress on the street to gather up microbes and all sorts of def ilement; girls who don't wear a high hat to the theater, or lacerate their feet and endanger their health with high heels and corsets; girls who will wear what is pretty and becoming and snap their fingers at the dictates of fashion when fa shion is horrid and silly. And we want good girls,--girls who are sweet, right s traight out from the heart to the lips; innocent and pure and simple girls, with less knowledge of sin and duplicity and evil-doing at twenty than the pert litt le schoolgirl of ten has all too often. And we want careful girls and prudent gi rls, who think enough of the generous father who toils to maintain them in comfo rt, and of the gentle mother who denies herself much that they may have so many pretty things, to count the cost and draw the line between the essentials and no n-essentials; girls who strive to save and not to spend; girls who are unselfish

and eager to be a joy and a comfort in the home rather than an expense and a us eless burden. We want girls with hearts,--girls who are full of tenderness and s ympathy, with tears that flow for other people's ills, and smiles that light out ward their own beautiful thoughts. We have lots of clever girls, and brilliant g irls, and witty girls. Give us a consignment of jolly girls, warm-hearted and im pulsive girls; kind and entertaining to their own folks, and with little desire to shine in the garish world. With a few such girls scattered around, life would freshen up for all of us, as the weather does under the spell of summer showers ." "They talk about a woman's sphere, As though it had a limit; There's not a plac e in earth or heaven, There's not a task to mankind given, There's not a blessin g or a woe, There's not a whisper, Yes or No, There's not a life, or death, or b irth, That has a feather's weight of worth, Without a woman in it." "Do that which is assigned you," says Emerson, "and you cannot hope too much or dare too much. There is at this moment for you an utterance brave and grand as that of the colossal chisel of Phidias, or trowel of the Egyptians, or the pen o f Moses or Dante, but different from all these." "The best way for a young man to begin, who is without friends or influence," s aid Russell Sage, "is, first, by getting a position; second, keeping his mouth s hut; third, observing; fourth, being faithful; fifth, making his employer think he would be lost in a fog without him; and sixth, being polite." "Close application, integrity, attention to details, discreet advertising," are given as the four steps to success by John Wanamaker, whose motto is, "Do the n ext thing." Whatever you do in life, be greater than your calling. Most people look upon an occupation or calling as a mere expedient for earning a living. What a mean, na rrow view to take of what was intended for the great school of life, the great m an developer, the character-builder; that which should broaden, deepen, heighten , and round out into symmetry, harmony, and beauty all the God-given faculties w ithin us! How we shrink from the task and evade the lessons which were intended for the unfolding of life's great possibilities into usefulness and power, as th e sun unfolds into beauty and fragrance the petals of the flower! I am glad to think I am not bound to make the world go round; But only to disco ver and to do, With cheerful heart, the work that God appoints. JEAN INGELOW. "'What shall I do to be forever known?' Thy duty ever! 'This did full many who yet sleep all unknown,'-- Oh, never, never! Think'st thou, perchance, that they remain unknown Whom thou know'st not? By angel trumps in heaven their praise is blown, Divine their lot." CHAPTER XI CHOOSING A VOCATION Be what nature intended you for, and you will succeed; be anything else, and yo u will be ten thousand times worse than nothing.--SYDNEY SMITH. "Many a man pays for his success with a slice of his constitution." No man struggles perpetually and victoriously against his own character; and on e of the first principles of success in life is so to regulate our career as rat her to turn our physical constitution and natural inclinations to good account t han to endeavor to counteract the one or oppose the other.--BULWER.

He that hath a trade hath an estate.--FRANKLIN. Nature fits all her children with something to do.--LOWELL. As occupations and professions have a powerful influence upon the length of hum an life, the youth should first ascertain whether the vocation he thinks of choo sing is a healthy one. Statesmen, judges, and clergymen are noted for their long evity. They are not swept into the great business vortex, where the friction and raspings of sharp competition whittle life away at a fearful rate. Astronomers, who contemplate vast systems, moving through enormous distances, are exceptiona lly long lived,--as Herschel and Humboldt. Philosophers, scientists, and mathema ticians, as Galileo, Bacon, Newton, Euler, Dalton, in fact, those who have dwelt upon the exact sciences, seem to have escaped many of the ills from which human ity suffers. Great students of natural history have also, as a rule, lived long and happy lives. Of fourteen members of a noted historical society in England, w ho died in 1870, two were over ninety, five over eighty, and two over seventy. The occupation of the mind has a great influence upon the health of the body. There is no employment so dangerous and destructive to life but plenty of human beings can be found to engage in it. Of all the instances that can be given of recklessness of life, there is none which exceeds that of the workmen employed i n what is called dry-pointing--the grinding of needles and of table forks. The f ine steel dust which they breathe brings on a painful disease, of which they are almost sure to die before they are forty. Yet not only are men tempted by high wages to engage in this employment, but they resist to the utmost all contrivanc es devised for diminishing the danger, through fear that such things would cause more workmen to offer themselves and thus lower wages. Many physicians have inv estigated the effects of work in the numerous match factories in France upon the health of the employees, and all agree that rapid destruction of the teeth, dec ay or necrosis of the jawbone, bronchitis, and other diseases result. We will probably find more old men on farms than elsewhere. There are many reas ons why farmers should live longer than persons residing in cities or than those engaged in other occupations. Aside from the purer air, the outdoor exercise, b oth conducive to a good appetite and sound sleep, which comparatively few in cit ies enjoy, they are free from the friction, harassing cares, anxieties, and the keen competition incident to city life. On the other hand, there are some great drawbacks and some enemies to longevity, even on the farm. Man does not live by bread alone. The mind is by far the greatest factor in maintaining the body in a healthy condition. The social life of the city, the great opportunities afforde d the mind for feeding upon libraries and lectures, great sermons, and constant association with other minds, the great variety of amusements compensate largely for the loss of many of the advantages of farm life. In spite of the great temp erance and immunity from things which corrode, whittle, and rasp away life in th e cities, farmers in many places do not live so long as scientists and some othe r professional men. There is no doubt that aspiration and success tend to prolong life. Prosperity tends to longevity, if we do not wear life away or burn it out in the feverish p ursuit of wealth. Thomas W. Higginson made a list of thirty of the most noted pr eachers of the last century, and found that their average length of life was six ty-nine years. Among miners in some sections over six hundred out of a thousand die from consu mption. In the prisons of Europe, where the fatal effects of bad air and filth a re shown, over sixty-one per cent. of the deaths are from tuberculosis. In Bavar ian monasteries, fifty per cent. of those who enter in good health die of consum ption, and in the Prussian prisons it is almost the same. The effect of bad air, filth, and bad food is shown by the fact that the death-rate among these classe

According to a long series of investigations by Drs. in the speech. The continual u . are suffering from heart disease in one form or another. chief surgeon at the National Soldiers' Home at Dayton. unfortunately--learn to give rest to one set of faculties and use another. Ohio . or systematically employed inc urs perpetual risk. pure air. and moral well-being. especially in youth. forcing or straining it." Dr. mental. snap. o ne hundred and three farmers die of pulmonary tuberculosis. In large cities in Europe the percentage i s often still greater. There is danger in a calling which requires great expenditure of vitality at lo ng. A man who would sell a year of his life for any amount of money would be considered insane.--nearly one-half. five have to wear trusses.s. says that "of the five thousand soldiers in that institution fully eighty per cent. w hich is very largely a matter of skill in exercising alternate sets of faculties . but also to cause injurious reactions on every other faculty and func tion. Benoysten and Lombard into occupations or trades where workers must inhale dust. as most great thinkers know. jaded brain. Some men of ten do a vast amount of literary work in entirely different lines during their s pare hours. it appears that mineral d ust is the most detrimental to health. and should never be overworked. and are seemingly perfectly indifferent to our fate." Man's faculties and functions are so interrelated that whatever affects one aff ects all. one hundred and twenty-two fa rm laborers. irregular intervals. The whole future of a man is often rui ned by over-straining the brain in school. over one-fifth of all the deaths of per sons over twenty are from this cause. "three are dead of consumption. The men who accomplish the most brain-work. one hundred and eigh t fishermen. four or five are lop-shouldered. when it begins to lose its elasticity and freshness. ro bustness and vigor. as interest begins to flag and a sense of weariness comes. there will be the same lack of tonicity and strength in the brain product. In this way they have been enabled to astonish the world by their mental achievements. It is a law of nature that the overd evelopment of any function or faculty. sprightliness and elasticity. cleanliness. He who is not regularly. three hundred and one dry-goods dealers. and yet we deliberately choose occupations and vocations which statistics and physi cians tell us will be practically sure to cut off from five to twenty-five. and vegetable d ust third. effective work in one line many hours a day. thir ty. and freedom from co rroding dust and poisonous gases are of the greatest importance. Brain-workers cannot do good. on the average. one hundred and twenty-one gardeners. or even forty years of our lives. Vigorous thought must come from a fresh brain. due to the forced physical exertions of the campaigns. allowing rest to some while giving healthy exercise to others. We cannot expect nerve. or in the essay. tends not only t o ruin it. in the book. two hundred and nine tailors." said a physician. Athletes who over-develop the muscular system do so at the expense of the physical. and three have catarrh and partial dea fness. The brain is one of the last orga ns of the body to reach maturity (at about the age of twenty-eight). "Of the thirty-two all-round athletes in a New York club not long ago. one hundred and sixty-seven grocers. is five times that of the general popul ation of the same age. sunlight. from an exhausted. Cessation of brain activity does not necessarily constitute brain rest. In New York City. When the brain is weary. sooner or late r--usually later. and four hundred and sixty-one composit ors. Of one thousand deaths from all causes. Patten. between the ages of twenty and forty. In choosing an occupation. animal dust ranking next.

They do not care if a man spends the whole of his life upon the head of a pin. or in making a sc rew in a watch factory. What would Gladst one have accomplished with a weak. or nervous exhaustion. or to sleep in the daytime when she intended you to work. It is what those who stand shi vering on the street. that shortens the l ives of many workers. Pierpont Morgan could make respectable. or piles up argu ment on argument in English for hours in Parliament. The moment we compel those we employ to do work that demoralizes them or does n ot tend to elevate or lift them. cramped his intellect. "If we induce painters to work in fading colors. These fine dresses do not mean that so much has been put into their mo uths. or where you must work at night and on Sundays. They take no notice of the occupations that ruin. There are families that hav e "clutched success and kept it through generations from the simple fact of a sp lendid physical organization handed down from one generation to another. L et "somebody. No set of brain cells can possibly set free more brain force in the combustion o f thought than is stored up in them. or even softening of the brain is liable to follow.se of one set of faculties by an ambitious worker will soon bring him to grief. As a rule. or talks fluent French in Paris. Choose a business that has expansiveness in it." [Illustration: William Ewart Gladstone] All occupations that enervate. A little later he converses at ease with Bismarck in German. and another at Florence in Italian. it is injurious to the health to work seven days in the week." Ruskin says that the tendency of the age is to expend its genius in perishable art. to work at night when Nature intended you to sleep. physical vigor is the condition of a great career. flounc es which will only clothe yourself. and character is greater than any career. blunted his finer sensibilities. If possible avoid occupations which compel you to wo rk in a cramped position. useful." not yourself. brain fever. paralyze. Do not confuse covetousness with benevolen ce. but that so much has been taken out of their mouths. Some kinds of business not e ven a J. in some mean. which will give you a chance for self-impr ovement and promotion. take the responsibility. If there is any doubt on this poi nt. You may not make quite so much money. which will elevate you. puny physique? He addresses an audience at Co rfu in Greek. know it to be. Aside from the right and w rong of the thing. crushed his aspirati on. nor cheat yourself into thinking that all the finery you can wear is so much put into the hungry mouths of those beneath you. or architects with rotten stone. the arsenic that destroys the health. and which you will wear at only one ball. but you will be mor e of a man. or the phosphorus. the dust. narrow occupation just becaus e there was money in it. or destroy body or soul should be avoi ded. honorable occupation. forming a line to see you step out of your carriage. The tired brain must have rest. we are f orcing our Michael Angelos to carve in snow. Our manufacturing interests too often give little thought to the employed. or contractors to construct buildings with imperfect materials. the article to be made is generally the only object considered. abandon it at once. Choose an occupation which will develop you. of the cramped condition of the body which creates deformi ty. Don't try to justify yourself on the ground that somebody must do this kind of work. as if it were a triumph to burn its thoughts away in bonfires. overtops all titles. for familiarity with a bad business will make it seem go od. we are forcing them into service worse than use less. Many a man has dwarfed his manhood. Is the work you compel others to do useful to yourself and to society? If you employ a seams tress to make four or five or six beautiful flounces for your ball dress. . Select a clean. yo u are employing your money selfishly. and manhood is above all riches.

but his trade Remains the same. but are "nobodies" in such vocations. perhaps. for a "soft job" which el iminates drudgery. rowing against the current. his very nature is perverted. simply because they are "honorable professions"! These men might have been respectable farmers or merchants. thorns. to be started on the road of a proper career while young. How many men have been made ridiculous for life by choosing law or medicine or theology. and enrich life! Those who fail are. Unsuccessful students with a smatteri ng of everything are raised as much above their original condition as if they we re successful. which develop long-headedness only. botched work. hardships. those who are out of their places. and con clude that we are dunces because we cannot accomplish what others do. or because parents or friends want you to follow it. They are very bad cabmen. and enthusiasm is vigorous. lose confidence in ourselves. they must be in harmony with his purpose. the qualities which get and never give. "and most of all. When his strength is exhausted he will float down the stream. Don't choose it because others have made fortu nes in it. A man out of his place is but half a man. Don't choose it because it is considered the "proper thing" and a "ge nteel" business. Has a young man a right to choose an occupation which will only call into play his lower and inferior qualities. wh ile the animal spirits are high." Dr. Matthews says that "to no other cause. Thousands of youths receive an education that fits them for a profession which they have not the means or inclination to follow.--he cobbles. that every blow we strike helps to br oaden. that every day's work we do. and one which can be learned with very little effort. to feel that every step we take. we do half work. When we try to do that for which we are unfitted we are not working along the l ine of our strength. deceit. letting all his nobler qua lities shrivel and die? Has he a right to select a vocation that will develop on ly the beast within him instead of the man? which will call out the bulldog qual ities only. full of hope. and all disagreeable things. or uncle. ruins many a youth. Don't choose a business because you inherit it. or broth er is in it." Don't choose a profession or occupation because your father. This negative process of eliminating the doubtful chances is often the only way of attaining to the positive conclusion. deepen."Study yourself. He is working against his nature. the qualities which overreach and grasp. note well wherein kind nat ure meant you to excel. How it shortens the road to success to make a wise choice of one's occupation e arly. is failure in life so frequ ently to be traced as to a mistaken calling. his vocation must have the consent of all his faculties. To succeed." We can often find out by hard knoc ks and repeated failures what we can not do before what we can do. The very glory of the profession which they thought would make them shining lights simply renders more conspicuous their incapacity. while his higher self atrophies ? . "Tompkins forsakes his last and awl For literary squabbles." says Longfellow. the whole tone of life is demoralized and lowered because we are out of place. as a rule. as cunning. The mania for a "genteel" occupation. A man can not succeed when his whole nature is entering i ts perpetual protest against his occupation. A large portion of Paris cabmen are unsuccessful students in theo logy and other professions and also unfrocked priests. and that unfits them for the c onditions of life to which they were born. our will power and enthusiasm become d emoralized. but of our weakness. Styles himself poet .

where men of large experience and close observation wi ll study the natural inclination of the youth. This determin ation. an occupation that you will be proud of. all the God-given faculties within you. The time will come when there will be institutions for determining the natural bent of the boy and girl. or to fai l. and round out into symmetr y. but it does demand that you do so mething. deepen. It gives credit a nd moral support in a thousand ways. We a re doing the most for ourselves and for others when we are in a position which c alls into play in the highest possible way the greatest number of our best facul ties.The best way to choose an occupation is to ask yourself the question. Let nothing tempt you or swerve you a hair 's breadth from your aim. Power and constant growth toward a higher life are the great end of human exist ence. and this is everything. a better man. Do not let the thorns which appear i n every vocation. and c haracter is greater than any occupation or profession. I beseech you. an occupa tion that will enlarge and expand your manhood and make you a better citizen. an o ccupation that will give you time for self-culture and self-elevation. the discovery is often made so late in life that great success is practically impossible. that which should broaden. There is no grander sight th an that of a young man or woman in the right place struggling with might and mai n to make the most of the stuff at command. or vicious when he is in his place. stick to it with all the tenacity you can muster. The world does not dictate what you shall do. and liable at any time to make a change. and you will win. Everybody knows that determined men are not likely to fail. "Do not. they will give thee back soon enough. and determination the conviction and assurance of success. in other words. and place me to the best possible advantage for all the peo ple?" The Norwegian precept is a good one: "Give thyself wholly to thy fellow-me n. that every youth will sooner or later discover the line of his greatest strength so that he may get his living by his strong points rath er than by his weak ones. where even small effort will count for more in the race than t he greatest effort--and a life of drudgery--in the wrong direction? A man is sel dom unsuccessful. harmony. character-builder. for it leads others to feel confidence in us. grit. Such institutions would help boys and girls to start in their proper careers early in life. or temporary despondency or disappointment. and beauty." Choose an occupati on that is refining and elevating. unhappy. i f you are constantly haunted with the idea that you could succeed better in some thing else. They carry in the ir very pluck. Even if we take for gr anted what is not true. however. or fixity of purpose. Your calling should be the great school of life. shake your purpose . "What wou ld my government do with me if it were to consider scientifically my qualificati ons and adaptations. After once choosing your occupation. Not money." We can do the most possible for oursel ves when we are in a position where we can do the most possible for others." said Garfield. "be content to enter on any business th at does not require and compel constant intellectual growth. determined that not a faculty or pow er shall run to waste. not position. the great man-developer. and that you shall be a king in your line. help him to find where his greate st strength lies and how to use it to the best advantage. never look backward. has a great moral bearing upon our success. You will never succeed while smarting under the drudgery of your occupation. and will help him twice as quickly as one who is loosely or indifferen tly attached to his vocation. People always believe in a man with a fixed purpose. we are succeeding best for ourselves when we are succeedin g best for others. Can anything be more important to human beings than a start in life in the right direction. but power is what we want. . and an early choice shortens the way. Great tenacity of purpose is the only thing that will carry you over the hard places which appear in every career to ultimate triumph.

and stamp its inevitable impress upon you. hardening tendency of his occupation. The man has becom e grasping. an art or two partially mastered. Thousands of men who have been failures in life have done drudgery enough in ha lf a dozen different occupations to have enabled them to reach great success. more than balances any li ttle skill gained in one vocation which might possibly be of use later. and shift s into some other occupation where perhaps he will almost succeed. if their efforts had all been expended in one direction." Choose upward. " said Thoreau. "The jack-of-all-trades. If we go into a factory where the mariner's compass is made we c an see the needles before they are magnetized. narrowed his mind. but does not quite accomplish it. which has been acquired by allowing yourself to abandon a half-finished work. f rom the very law of association and habit. Be master of your calling in all its details. your occupation. and the thousand petty artif ices. that a few y ears could so change a magnanimous and generous youth? Go to the bottom if you would get to the top. Beware of that frequently fatal gift. and can enter a questionable vocation without becoming a creature of it. study the men in the vocation you think of adopting. the delicacy of the moral sense." They stop just this side of s uccess. a science or two whose elements they have not qu ite acquired. born for the universe. shape you. versatility. In attempting to gain a knowle dge of half a hundred subjects it has mastered none. The o nce broad. "The endeavor to obtain the upper hand of those with whom we have to deal . A man must work hard and st udy hard to counteract the narrowing. they will point in any direction. hard. your wealth.But whatever you do be greater than your calling. will mol d you.-Burke. the higgling and scheming. intelligent men? Or have they become mere appendages of their profession. will seize you as in a vise. And to party gave up what was meant for mankind. Said Goldsmith. mean. but which they can not practice with satisfaction or profit! The habit of desultoriness. Nothing is small which concerns your business. How many of us h ave acquisitions which remain permanently unavailable because not carried quite to the point of skill? How many people "almost know a language or two. Does it ele vate those who follow it? Are they broad. avaricious." "The measure of a man's learning will be the amount of his voluntary ignorance. to make good bargains. That mechanic is a failur e who starts out to build an engine. we ask. liberal. Many a person misses being a great man by splitting into two middling ones. In sp ite of all your determination and will power to the contrary. The w orld is full of people who are "almost a success. How fr equently do we see bright. In this he has none. your occupation. . at th e same time. and of no use to it? Don't think you will be the great exception . living in a rut with no standing in the community. open-hearted. t end to narrow the sphere and to lessen the strength of the intellect. let your manhood overtop your position. and in a few years re turn to college commencement so changed that they are scarcely recognized. fashion you. "had a chance in my gener ation. noble features have become contracted and narrowed. generous young men come out of college with high hopes and lofty aims. which in these days of stern competition are unscrupulously resorted to. and. your title. but stops jus t short of the point of proficiency in his acquisition and so fails again." s ays one of the foremost manufacturers of this country. Their courage oozes out just before they become expert." which th ey can neither write nor speak. Is it possible. Universality is the ignis fatuus which has deluded to ruin many a promising mind. "Constant engagement in traffic and barter has no elevating influence. enter a doubtful vocation." says Ly ndall. stingy.

I am sure you would not wish t hat. and soul. and you will soon be in the Gazette. the one evil is dissipation. The man who seeks one thing in life." "'What must I do to be forever known?' Thy duty ever. "There is only one real failure in life poss ible. I laid out all my money. "There was not enough room for us all in Frankfort." said Nathan Mayer Rothschi ld.--FOWELL BUXTON. young man. The longer I live. "I wish them to give mind." says Swift. and but one. but one thing supremely. 'I will go to England. and a merchant. and a manufacturer. that is the way to be hap py." "I am sure I would wish that. in speaking of himself and his four brothers. the cheaper goods were. and body. and sends us home to add one stroke of faithful work. Does well. and you may be the great brewer of London. "Whoever can make two ears of corn. The nearer I got to England." Not many things indifferently. and everything to business. Give your life. The one prudence in life is concentration. Canon Farrar said. This was on a Tuesday. from that moment they point to the north. "I dealt in English goods. addressing a young brewer. "that your children are not too fond of money and bu siness to the exclusion of more important things. two blades of grass to grow upon a spot of ground where only one grew before. and a banker. and it makes no difference whether our dissipations are coarse or fine. the great an d insignificant. One great trader came there. "would deserve better of mankind and do more essential service to his country than the whole race of politicians put together.But when they have been applied to the magnet and received its peculiar power. . is energy--invincible determination--a purpose once formed." CHAPTER XII CONCENTRATED ENERGY This one thing I do. your energy." Who does the best his circumstance allows. wherever he goes." "I hope. . As soon as I got to Manchester. all to the highest work of which you are capable. YOUNG. OWEN MEREDITH. PAUL. not to be true to the best one knows. "s tick to your brewery. May hope to achieve it before life be done. and did us a favor if he sold us goods. who had the market to himself: he was quite the great man. I said to my father." he added. Somehow I offended him." "Stick to one business. your enthusiasm." said a listener. is the demand of the ho . angels could do no more.--ST. and he refu sed to show me his patterns. But he who seeks all things. S o man never points steadily in any direction until he has been polarized by a gr eat master purpose.' On Thursday I started. acts nobly. . the more deeply am I convinced that that which makes the dif ference between one man and another--between the weak and powerful. But be a brewer . and are true to the pole ever after." said Rothschild.--EMERSON. and then death or victory. A harvest of barren regrets. things wer e so cheap. Only reaps from th e hopes which around him he sows. and I made a good profit. Everythin g is good which takes away one plaything and delusion more. and that is. and heart.

If we look for nothing in particular. receives the crown he merits. "a public scribe. "but as I grew older. "by concentrating his powers on a single object. Would an intelligent man dig up a whole continent to find its veins of silver and gold? The man who is forever looking about to see what he c an find never finds anything.--the warp and woof of success. the dress. nor a bonnet of silk enhance. n or even sickness nor exhaustion quite drag out. The hasty torrent rushes over it wit h hideous uproar and leaves no trace behind. no. but in the amount of intelligent work." was the sign of a man in London who was not very successful at any of thes e lines of work. can accomplish something. If a salamander be cut in two. They carry themselves with an air of conscious self-respect and self-content. the look. the front part will run forward and the other ba ckward. even if it only be the art of raising turnips. M any of those who fail most ignominiously do enough to achieve grand success. of Paris. and poetry composed on any subj ect. and the real web of life is never woven. "Goods removed. They do not grasp circumstances and change them into opportunities. but they labor at haphazard. which a shabby alpaca cannot hide. building up with one hand only to tear down with the o ther. So I resolved to thu nder less." "When I was young I used to think it was thunder that killed men.ur. and time in abundance." The man who knows one thing. who digests accounts. We find what we seek with all our heart. the busy. and I am determined to dig early and late all my life." says Elizabeth Stuart Phelps Ward. With ability en ough. The voice. and lighten more. whereas the strongest. silver. They h ave no faculty of turning honest defeats into telling victories. He who scatters his efforts in this intense. and can do it better than anybody else. by dispersing hi s over many. messages taken. concentrated age.--they are forever th rowing back and forth an empty shuttle. he is a benefactor to the race. in a crowded street. and I know I shall come across something--either gold." said a shrew d preacher. or at least iron." The great difference between those who succeed and those who fail does not cons ist in the amount of work done by each. there is no happy conjunction of circumstances that will arrange th em into an imposing structure. "The weakest living creature. by continually falling. I found it was lightning. carpets beaten. we find just that and no more. "What a immense power over the life. blessed women who supp ort themselves. Success is jealous . The drop. It matters not how rich the materials we have gleaned from the years of our s tudy and toil in youth. "is th e power of possessing distinct aims." It is said that the wind never blows fair for that sailor who knows not to what port he is bound. the very mo tions of a person. Such is the progress of him who divides his purpose. cannot hope t o succeed. I fancy that I can select. If he raises the best turnips by reason of concentrating all his energy to that end. and reminds one of Monsieur Kenard. and is recognized as such. and sells fried potatoe s. but it is the only one that carries honey awa y. he will say: "I ha rdly know yet for what I am best adapted. if we go out into life with no well-defined idea of our future work. If you ask one of them to state his aim and purpose in life. may fail to accomplish anything. The bee is not the o nly insect that visits the flower." says Carlyle." I say most emphatically. explains the language of flowers. define and alter when he or she begins to live for a reason. bores its passage through the hardest rock. but I am a thorough believer in genuin e hard work. and give it magnificent proportions.

Now. "Scatteration" is the curse of American business life . "Many persons seeing me so much engaged in active life.of scattered energies. and you can kindle a fire with ease. "a whole man at study. 'When do you get time to write all your books? How on earth do you contrive to do so much work?' I shall surprise you by the answer I made. when Parliament is sitting. who could converse in twenty-four languages. some upon subjects requiring much special research. and to be so intimate ly present at the actions you are reading of. in work. to reading and writing? N ot more than three hours a day. and in play. looking at Hannibal's weather-beaten face and admiring the splendor of his single eye." said Sydney Smith. "is to read so heartily t hat dinner-time comes two hours before you expected it. and in addition to all this. and to see with you r own eyes the Carthaginian sutlers gathering up the rings of the Roman knights after the battle of Cannae. during these three hours. Melt a cha rge of shot into a bullet." "Be a whole man at everything. but had no ideas to express in any one of them. Too many are like Douglas Jerrold's friend. ch oosing to be a tolerable Jack-of-all-trades rather than to be an unrivaled speci alist." said Edward Bulwer Lyt ton. "as if there was nothing else in the world for the time being. humble. I have mixed much in politics. would never have served me as it has. and he will be obliged to do too little to-morrow. and yet make his life a failure. certain. You can't throw a tallow candle t hrough the side of a tent. A man to get t hrough work well must not overwork himself. or imagination. I can most truthfully assure you. "The only valuable kind of study. and in the various busi ness of life. if he do too much to-day. The giants of the race have been men of concentration. I have given my whole attention to what I . "and as much about the world as if I had never been a student. men of s ingle and intense purpose. No one can pursue a worthy object steadily and persistently with all the powers of his mind. I have traveled m uch and I have seen much. The answer is t his--'I contrive to do so much by never doing too much at a time. but most of them can't carry it into their amusements. I have devoted to study. that when anybody knocks at the do or it will take you two or three seconds to determine whether you are in your ow n study or on the plains of Lombardy." When asked on another occasion the secre t of his success. F ocus the rays of the sun in winter." said Charles Dickens. drudging attention. The successf ul men of to-day are men of one overmastering idea. and heaping them into bushels. "My own in vention. That's the secret of all hard-working men. patien t. such as it is. and it can be fired through the bodies of four men. daily. remunerative. to sit with your Livy be fore you and hear the geese cackling that saved the Capitol. but you can shoot it through an oak board. but for the habit of commonplace. which was not till I had left college and was actually in the world. one unwavering aim. as a general rule." said Charles Kingsley." Don't dally with your purpose. and. he said: "I never put one hand to anything on which I could th row my whole self. "I go at what I am about. not always that . I may perhaps say that I have gone throug h as large a course of general reading as most men of my time. attainable quality in every study and pursuit is the quality of attention." wrote Joseph Gurney to his s on. who have struck sledgeha mmer blows in one place until they have accomplished their purpose." Many a man fails to become a great man by splitting into several small ones. But then. I have published somewhere about sixt y volumes. toiling. the re action of fatigue will come." "The one serviceable. since I began really and earnestly to study. safe. And what time do you think. have said to me. or.

it wil l do you good. without once looking up from his paper. what do you want?" said the editor quickly. sit down.--you will feel better for it. He was shown into a little seven-by-nine sanctum." As Adams suggests. Page after page was dashed off in the most impetuous style." said Sydney Smith. He was always just going to do something. sit down. thou gh as a lawyer he gained the most splendid prize of his profession. He was "everythin g by turns and nothing long. He lived in dreams and died in reverie. Don't go." With all his magnificent abilities he left no perm anent mark on history or literature. yet his life on the whole was a failure. " wrote Charles Lamb to a friend. he lived in an atmosphere of mental dissipation which consumed his energy. The very modes of thought of the time in which he lived were reflec ted from his works. but he had no definite purp ose. but to the day of his death they remained simply resolutions and plans. Finally. Then. every successful man has succeeded. asked to keep . Horace Greeley would sit upon the steps of the Astor House. in a pleasant tone of voice said: "Don't go. rose from his c hair. where Greeley. and bands playing lustily. a gentleman called at the "Tribune" office and i nquired for the editor. and write an editorial for the "New Yo rk Tribune" which would be quoted far and wide. Hogarth would rivet his attention upon a face and study it until it was photogr aphed upon his memory. the Lord Cha ncellorship of England. good breeding. sir. with no regard for the rules of pr opriety. "struck me much like a steam-engine in tro users. Greeley. had too many talents. and free your mind. Offended by a pungent article.was about. it helps me to think what I am to write about. "Daniel Webster. and abruptly turned to walk out of th e room. Coleridge possessed marvelous powers of mind. T he irate visitor then began using his tongue. after about twenty minutes of the most impassioned abuse ever poured out in an editor 's office. With an immense procession passing up Broadway. Mr. and merited the applause of scientific men for his inves tigations in science. and this habit of close observation enabled him to develop his work with marve lous detail. The angry man began by asking if this was Mr. "Yes. like Canning. with his head close down to his paper. friend. and his life was in many respects a miserable failure.'" S. T. "Coleridge is dead. but never did it. and. exhausted his stamina. the angry man became disgusted. Greeley quickly looked up." One unwavering aim has ever characterized successful men. An artist undertook to take a view of th e chateau with a group of guests on the balcony. in propor tion as he has confined his powers to one particular channel. "and is said to have left behind him above for ty thousand treatises on metaphysics and divinity--not one of them complete!" Every great man has become great. Meantime Mr. when he could reproduce it at will. the streets lined with people. Besides. except in hi s power of observation. for the first time. Lord Brougham. "Lord Brougham was at his chateau at Cannes when the dague rreotype process first came into vogue. Greeley continued to write. with no change of featur es and without his paying the slightest attention to the visitor. He was not a man of great education or culture. His Lordship was. Miss Martineau says. and slapping the gentleman familiarly on his shoulder. and actually outlived his own fame. use the top of his hat for a desk. sat scribbling away at a two-for ty rate. He studied and examin ed each object as eagerly as though he would never have a chance to see it again . or reason. He was continually forming plans and resol utions.

While we sh ould shun that narrow devotion to one idea which prevents the harmonious develop ment of our powers. But. M. in the light of science . It slips from politics to puns. there will be forever a blur where Lord Brougham should have been. "Non multa. and so. Chemists tell us that there is power enough in a single acre of grass to drive all the mills and steam-cars in the world. he will generally navigate to that point without capsizing. could we but concentrate it upon the piston-rod of a steam-engine. learn all you can about it. and with his energy his enthusiasm. but distract his attention a nd down he goes. we should avoid on the other hand the extreme versatility of one of whom W. then work for it. "There is something. It glides from Mahomet to Moses: Beginning with the laws that keep The planets in their radiant courses. The young man seeking a position to-day is not asked what college he came from or who his ancestors were. and he promised that he would not stir. what the heart longs for the head and the hands may attain. Praed says:-His talk is like a stream which runs With rapid change from rocks to roses. and being a whole man to one thing at a time. slender edge of a razor or an ax." said Cecil of Walter Raleigh. It is the almost invisible point of a needle. Mathews says that the man who scatters himself upon many objects soon loses his energy." continued Miss Martineau. But it is at rest. who cuts his way through obstacles and achieves brilliant success. In all great successes we can trace the power of concentration. owing to his want of steadfastness. disappointments. the keen. It is speci al training that is wanted. and you will be sure to succeed. as taken from the life by history. have an object. the sharp-edged man . . The curr ents of knowledge. in explanatio n of the latter's success. "all such study is vain." says Waters. "I know that he can toil terribly. Without point or edge t he bulk would be useless. "What can you do?" is the great question. The consequence was that there was a blur where Lord Brougham sh ould have been. are as certain and fixed as the tides of the sea. Form a plan . and courage which enables one to bear up under all trials. And ending with some prece pt deep For skinning eels or shoeing horses. that opens the way for the bulk that follows. In the p icture of our century. It is ever the unwavering p ursuit of a single aim that wins. of success. What I mean by studying on speculation is that aimless learning of things because they may be useful some day. Most of the men at the head of great firms and great enterprises have been promoted step by step from the bottom. As a rule. How many lives are blur s for want of concentration and steadfastness of purpose!" Fowell Buxton attributed his success to ordinary means and extraordinary applic ation. it is comparatively valueless. rive ting every faculty upon one unwavering aim. Dr. but a las. and temptations.perfectly still for five seconds. "Never study on speculation. sed multum"--not many things. "very typical in this. was Coke's motto. of wealth. but much. this very man should h ave been the central figure. which is like the conduct of the woman who bought at auction a brass door-plate with the name of Thompson on it. perseverance in the pursuit of an un dertaking in spite of every difficulty. It is the man of one line of work. If you can get a child learning to walk to fix his eyes on any object.--he moved.

So in every well-balanced life. money. "but on such occasions I seem to be unconscious of the external world. Wholly engrossed by the subject before me. for. and with a finger that never errs in sunshine or in storm. and shades point to that c enter and find expression there. and other hands gave it enduring form in ma rble. alone. Words. for all practical purposes of man stationary. not only for a day. In nature we see no waste of energy. and str ive to retain our admiration for all that would ennoble. Let us beware of losing our enthusiasm.--SHAKESPEARE. of time. lights. in which all the subordinate powers of the soul are brought to a focus. turn t he needle of our purpose from the North Star of its hope. and where they will find fit expression." s aid Henry Clay. every atom even. They all attract it. but the needle. Since the shuttle of creation shot for the first time through chaos. every fl ower. while all the other stars must course with untiring tread around their great centers through all the ages. there is one grand central purpo se." . A g eneral purpose is not enough. He is not the greatest p ainter who crowds the greatest number of ideas upon a single canvas. but let no moons w hich shine with borrowed light.000 years. but never guide. He is the genuine artist who makes the greatest va riety express the greatest unity. and try to win its affections. every crystal. but flies straight to the mark. The labor we delight in physics pain.--LOWELL. or of surrounding objects. no meteors which dazzle. "I do not know how it is with others when speaking on an important question. has taken possession of him. but fo r a century. Young men are often told to aim high. a heavy frost fell upon the city. The sun dazzles.thinking it might be useful some day!" Definiteness of aim is characteristic of all true art. the stars twinkle to it. but when a man makes a gift of his daily life and practise. points steadily to the No rth Star. The magnetic needle does not point to all the lights in the heavens to see which it likes be st. The arrow shot from the bow does not wander around to see what it can hit on its way. Every leaf. true to its instinct. it is plain that the truth. distant beyond human comprehension. CHAPTER XIII THE TRIUMPHS OF ENTHUSIASM. who develops the leading idea in the central f igure. the North Star. all things else are comparatively easy to give away. but we must aim at what we would hit. The only conclusive evidence of a man's sincerity is that he gives himself for a principle. He knew that if the water in the interstices of the clay should freeze. So he wrapped his bedclothes around the clay image. the meteor beckons. and our interest in all that would enrich and beautify our life. Let us ever glory in something. the beautiful lines would be dist orted. has a purpose stamped upon it which unmist akably points to the crowning summit of all creation--man.--PHILLIPS BROOKS. moves with stately sweep on its circuit of more than 25. whatever it may be. When his clay mo del was nearly done. and makes all the subordinate figures. no matter how v ersatile in endowments or how broad in culture. I lose all sense of personal i dentity. So all along the path of life other luminaries will beckon to lead us from our cherished aim--from the course of truth and duty. nothin g left to chance. design has marked the course of every golden thread. In the morning he was found dead. In the Galérie des Beaux Arts in Paris is a beautiful statue conceived by a sculp tor who was so poor that he lived and worked in a small garret. giving all the figures equal prominence. but his idea was saved.

Her soul was smitten with a passion for growth." "But you began when you were younger than I a m. In less than a week she had become popular and independent. miserably fed." said the great composer. fifty- . had gained six victories. is an example. In fifteen days Napoleon. "until it gets a president who takes it to bed with him. and even in those who are dull. there is in every boy the material of good work in the world. hardships. They were miserably equipped. in his firs t Italian campaign. In some sense and in some degree. The naked Derar. who . "Yes. The victories of the Arabs after Mahomet. pooh. When one has the spirit of a composer. so a man permeated with enthusiasm has his power of perception heightened and his v ision magnified until he sees beauty and charms others cannot discern which comp ensate for drudgery. h orsed on an idea. I should like to compose something. in some effectual degree." says Emerson. established a larger empire t han that of Rome. but in those who are s tolid. The women fough t like men and conquered the Roman men." said the Austrians in consternation. Gerster." Gladstone said that what is really desired is to light up the spirit that is wi thin a boy. and even persecution. in every boy. O n one sketch he shut himself up for a month.--when I was dressing." Enthusiasm gives the otherwise dry an d uninteresting subject or occupation a new meaning. reached by running up three octaves from low D. not only in those who are brilliant. or who seem to be dull. "These Frenchmen are not men. Her enthusiasm almost hypnotized her auditors. If they have only the good will. the dulness will day by day clear away and vanish completely und er the influence of the good will. spirit-driven by the plots and characters in his stori es which would not let him sleep or rest until he had committed them to paper. They did they knew not what. they fly. an unknown Hungarian. I've worked hard enough for it. taken twenty-one standards. in a few years. possessed. when I was doing my hair. "but I never asked a nything about it." said Malibran when a critic expressed h is admiration of her D in alt. All great works of art have been produced when the artist was intoxicated with the passion for beauty and form which would not let him rest until his thought w as expressed in marble or on canvas. There was neither brandy nor flesh needed to feed them. " is the triumph of some enthusiasm. how shall I begin?" as ked a youth of twelve who had played with great skill on the piano. made fame and fortune sure the first night she a ppeared in opera." says a noted financier. Dickens says h e was haunted. " I've been chasing it for a month. I pursued it everywhere. His characters haunted him day and night. The Caliph Oma r's walking-stick struck more terror into those who saw it than another man's sw ord. so I did. They conquered Asia and Africa and Spain on barley. "Herr Capellmeister. and at last I found it on the toe of a shoe that I wa s putting on. but they were temperance troops." It was enthusiasm that enabled Napoleon to make a campaign in two weeks that wo uld have taken another a year to accomplish. from a small and mean beginning. he writes because he ca n't help it. and all the powers of heart and mind she possessed were enthusiasti cally devoted to self-improvement. was found an overmatch for a troop of cavalry."A bank never becomes very successful." said the boy. not only in those who are quick. and when he came out he looked as h aggard as a murderer. " replied Mozart. "Pooh. privations. As the young lover has finer sense and more acute vision and sees in the object of his affections a hundred virtues and charms invisible to all other eyes. "you must wait. "Well." "Every great and commanding moment in the annals of the world.

he was so delicate as a child that he was a constant sour ce of anxiety to his parents. Paul's Cathedral. until world after world swept before his vision. After this astonishing avalanche a discomfited Austrian general said: "This you ng commander knows nothing whatever about the art of war. sent a thrill of enthusiasm through th e whole French army such as neither king nor statesmen could produce. K. His great enthusiasm alone seemed to give strength to his body.five pieces of cannon. It opened the tubes for Galileo. Enthusiasm. It has taken me years to master a single part. innocent Maid of Orleans with her sacred sword. "in which the difference betwe en half a heart and a whole heart makes just the difference between signal defea t and a splendid victory. and first heaved the tremendous bar of the printing-press. Indifference never leads armies that conquer." "Should I die this minute. nor the world with heroic phil anthropies. "There are important cases. but for the public good. nor moves the soul with poetry. when in Paris to get ideas for the restoration of St. Drury Lane Theater. they will pardon many sh ortcomings. nor rears impress ive architecture. Horace Greeley said that the best product of labor is the high-minded workman w ith an enthusiasm for his work. Boyd. man does not realiz e his strength until he has once run away with himself. There is no doing anything with him. nor harnesses the forces of nature. and poised the axe of the dauntless woodman as he opened the paths of civiliza tion." said Nelson at an important crisis. He changed Greenwich palace into a sailor's retreat. who lived more than ninety years. He worked thirty-five years upon his mas ter-piece. Although he lived so long. He al so planned for the rebuilding of London after the great fire. His rare ski ll is shown in the palaces of Hampton Court and Kensington." . H. St. and it reefed the high topsail that rustled over Columbus in the morning breezes of the Bahamas. and her belief in her great mission. had captured fifteen thousand prisoners." The simple. not for himself. and had conquere d Piedmont. and was exceedingly healthy in later life. "The best method is obtained by earnestness. as Charles Bell says of the hand. "Underneath is laid the builder of this church and city. n or breathes sublime music. and built churches and colleges at Oxford. her consecrated ban ner. look around!" Turn where you will in London." said he. if you seek his monument. It has held the sword with which freedom has fought her battles . the Royal Exchange. "want of frigat es would be found written on my heart. "If you can impress people with the conviction that you feel what you say. and the great Monument. Paul's Cathedral in London. And above all. you find noble monuments of the genius of a man who never received instruction from an ar chitect." But his soldiers followed their "Litt le Corporal" with an enthusiasm which knew no defeat or disaster. He is a perfect ignora mus. Oh! what a great work each one could perform in thi s world if he only knew his power! But. unless you become a hard student." said Salvini. study. and turned the mystic leaves upon which Milton and Shakespeare inscribed t heir burning thoughts. never models statues that live. Reader. study! All the genius in the world will not help you along with any art. It fixed the mariner's trembling nee dle upon its axis. Her zeal c arried everything before it. Christopher Wren. but those in autho rity would not adopt his splendid idea. like a bitted horse. in Temple Bar. wrought the statue of Memnon and hung the brazen gates of Thebes. He built fifty-five churches in the city and thirty-six halls. "I would give my skin for the architect's design of the Louvre. study." says A.

as he opened the door and saw a young man sitting by a table. Enthusiasm is the being awake. But it is of no use. where. with his whole heart. who had visi ted every quarter of the world and talked with all kinds of men. "He makes the best of everything. and she will understand it. "If it were not for respect for human opinions." "When he comes into a room. bubbling over with spirits. "we were walking through a narrow street of Bonn.' said a second voice. Mole. speaking of his own most che rished acquaintance." that he might not leave the work until it was finished. whatever it may be. It is so beautiful. 'why create regrets when there is no remedy? We can sc arcely pay our rent." writes the biographer of Beethoven. and a young girl leaning sorrowfully upon an old-fashion . what would I not give to go to the concert at Cologne!' 'Ah! my sist er. 'and yet I wish f or once in my life to hear some really good music. mean dwelling.' replied my companion in an excited tone. whereas I utter what I know to be unreal and untrue as if I did be lieve it in my very soul." Enthusiasm is that secret and harmonious spirit which hovers over the productio n of genius. had written upon a slip of paper the name of the most a greeable companion he had ever met. if a person is to succeed. or the spectator of a statue. suddenly pausing before a little. 'what should we go in for?' 'I will play to her. it is utterly beyond my power to do it j ustice. "I would not open my window to see the Bay of Naples for the first time. It did not exist fifty years ago. 'what sound is that? It is from my Sonata in F.' 'You are right. Australia. full of joy. into t he very ideal presence whence these works have originated. 'here is f eeling.There is a "go." said Madame de Staël to M." said a man when asked the reason for his selection. Oh.' "'Let us go in. "One moonlight evening in winter. with two companions. The great actor Garrick well illustrated it when asked by an unsuc cessful preacher the secret of his power over audiences: "You speak of eternal v erities and what you know to be true as if you hardly believed what you were say ing yourself.--understanding! I will play to her." said the third. he must be on the jump with all the ardor of his being. 'Go in!' I remonstrated. almost a fanaticism for one's ideals or call ing. Enthusiasm made Victor Hugo lock up hi s clothes while writing "Notre Dame. mending shoes. It could not be found then even on the London Exchange. "He is an eager. You do not find this in tropical countries.' he continued. 'Hush!' exclaimed the great composer. while I would go five hundred leagues to talk with a man of genius whom I had not seen . Hark! how well it is played!' "In the midst of the finale there was a break. vivid fellow. has finally extended until what used to be the peculiar str ength of a few great minds has now become characteristic of the leading nations. The three were traveling correspondents of great English journals." "He throws himself into the occasion.' said Beethoven. The papers were examined and all were found to contain the name of a prominent lawyer in Melbou rne. Pardon me. it is the tingling of every fiber of one's being to do the work that one's heart desires.--genius. and a sobbing voice cried: 'I ca nnot play any more. every man feels as if he had taken a tonic and had a new lease of life. that is peculiar to our American temperament and life. But the influence of the United States and of Australia. a furore. in praise of the man of his choice. " said the second. throwing the reader of a book.' said the first speaker. His sympathies are quick as an electric flash." a zeal. after he.

gazing thoughtfully upo n the liquid stars shining so softly out of the depths of a cloudless winter sky . a nd went out. Then you play by ear? But where do you hear the music. During the summer evenings her windows were generally open. chisels. which he said was like pulling the flesh from his bones. This was followed by a wild. then. sank. which carried us away on its rustling wings. and his modest. and he played the opening bars of the Sonata in F.' he said. and his glory. like th e dance of fairies upon the lawn. 'I will come again. nearly ruining his health. You wish to hear--that is. flickered.' said Beethoven hurriedly. fat. and pincers.' "Beethoven seated himself at the piano. while there. Raphael's enthusiasm inspired every artist in Italy. until.' they added. but thi s course determined his style. not the need of a poor family dependent upon him. In p ainting he prepared all his own colors. Never. suddenly. 'Oh. did I hear him play better than to that blind girl and her brother.--'only once more!' "'I will improvise a sonata to the moonlight. He has been called the only distinguished man who lived and died without an enemy or detractor. 'Then you are Beethoven!' burst from the young people in delighted recognitio n. "'Wonderful man!' said the shoemaker in a low tone. 'who and what are you?' "'Listen!' replied the master.' said the shoemaker. yes. you would like--t hat is--shall I play for you?' "'Thank you. I am a musician. The young man and woman sat as if entranced by the magical. descriptive of flight. and n ot until long past the dawn of day did he rise from his table with the full scor e of the Moonlight Sonata in his hand. does the young lady--I--I entr eat your pardon. 'I heard music and was tempted to enter. elfin passage in triple time--a sort of grotesque interlude. such as files. and uncertainty. like the calm flow of moonlight over the earth. and we have no music.' We did return in haste. not the love of liberty nor the spur of ambition could induce him to forego his plain preaching in public places. which crept gently over t he instrument. added muscles. that I may w rite out that sonata while I can yet remember it. as he rose to go. and give the young lady som e lessons. He made every tool he used in sculpture. his practice. The shutters were thrown open. as he rose and turned towar d the door. He drew his figures in skeleton. Even the ol d instrument seemed inspired. during all the years I knew him. trembling movement.' he added.ed piano. stammering as he saw that the girl was blind. and I walked to and fro outside to listen to her. sweet sounds that flowed out upon the air in rhythmical swell and cade nce. 'how. 'You will come again?' asked the host and hostess in a breath. as if lost in thought. admitting a flood of brilliant moonl ight. charming m anners disarmed envy and jealousy. I used to hear a lady prac ticing near us. but not the separation from his poor blind daughter M ary. and. and would not let servants or students e ven mix them. and vag ue impulsive terror. Again and again poor Bunyan m ight have had his liberty. Farewell!' Then to me he added: 'Let us make haste back. the flame of the single candle wavered. 'Farewell to you. si nce you frequent no concerts?' "'We lived at Bruhl for two years. 'Yes." Michael Angelo studied anatomy twelve years.' said he. 'but our piano is so wretched. Then he played a sad and infinitely lovely movement.' "'No music!' exclaimed the composer. but the player paused. I--I also ov erheard something of what you said. hurrying. play to us once more. Then came a swift agitated ending--a breathles s. and left us al l in emotion and wonder. and skin successively. He had so forg . and then draped them. 'I had not perceived before.

She knew but two words of the English language--London and Gilbert. Only thoughts that breathe in words that burn can kindle the spark slumbering i n the heart of another. an d plundered the family cat for bristles to make his brushes. while among the Dakota Indians. or t o forbid him going to school. his all to this one great object. for want of a candle churlishly denied. With a steadiness and devotion seldom equal ed he gave his life. Rare consecration to a great enterprise is found in the work of the late Franci s Parkman.--it forgets that there is such a thing as failure in the world. he returned home and bu rned one shaving after another while he studied the precious prize. By and by he escaped and returned to England." How much the world owes to the enthusiasm of Dante! Tennyson wrote his first volume at eighteen. he did not swerve a hair's breadth from the high purpose formed in his youth. The most irresistible charm of youth is its bubbling enthusiasm. "The world's i nterests are. where he not only gained the confidence of his ma ster. until he gave to the world the best history upon this subject ever writte n. The unusual crowd drew the family to the window. Youth sees no darkness ahead. It is the enthusiasm of youth which cuts the Gordian knot age cannot untie. and then she went f rom street to street pronouncing the other--"Gilbert." says Ruskin. "Pe ople smile at the enthusiasm of youth. perhaps unconscious tha t it is partly their own fault that they ever lost it. but also the love of his master's fair daughter. While a student at Harvard he determined to write the history of the French and English in North America." says Charles Kingsley. ruined his health and could not use his eyes more than five minutes at a time for fift y years. Enthusiastic youth . collecting material for his history. "Almost everything that is great has been done by youth. It was the enthusiasm of conviction which enabled this poor. when Gilbert himself saw and recognized her. lest he learn the gamut? He stole midnight intervi ews with a dumb spinet in a secret attic. The painter West began in a garret. despise d Bedford tinker to write his immortal allegory with such fascination that a who le world has read it. "that enthusiasm which they themselves secretly look back to with a sigh. Gilbert Becket. and at nineteen gained a medal at Cambridge.--no defile that has no outlet. The boy Bach copied whole books of stu dies by moonlight.otten his early education that his wife had to teach him again to read and write . ignorant. his fortune. "The most beautiful works of all art were done in youth. Of what use was it to forbid the boy Handel to touch a musical instrument. Nor was he dishearten ed when these copies were taken from him. in the hands of the young." At last she came to the s treet on which Gilbert lived in prosperity. and believes that mankind has been waiting all th ese centuries for him to come and be the liberator of truth and energy and beaut y. and took to his arms a nd home his far-come princess with her solitary fond word. but by repeating the fir st she obtained passage in a vessel to the great metropolis." says Dr. After Lincoln had walked six miles to borrow a grammar. Although he had. an English Crusader. but the devoted girl determined to follow him. Trumbull. It was the youth Hercules that performed the Twelve Labors. under God. was taken prisoner and became a slave in t he palace of a Saracen prince." wrote Disraeli.

Mrs. Noah Webste r studied seventeen languages after he was fifty. and Poe lived but a few months longer. The heart rules youth. Romulus f ounded Rome at twenty. Dr. G alileo at seventy-seven. the Doge of Venice. and thirty when he graduated from Yale. and refused a crown at ninety-six. yet his cotton-gin opened a g reat industrial future for the Southern States." Robert Hall learne d Italian when past sixty. Some of Longfellow's. and the former had made his infl uence felt throughout England before he was twenty-four. Burke wa s thirty-five before he obtained a seat in Parliament. Newton made some of his gr eatest discoveries before he was twenty-five. before which the languid and the passive bow. Keats died at twenty-five. Shelley at twenty-nine. Eli Whitney was twenty-three when he decided to prepare fo r college. George Stephenson did not learn to read and write until he had reached manhood. Wellington planned and superintended fortifications at eighty. and the respect paid to white hairs is reverence to a h eart fervent. Dandolo. Grant was one of the most famous generals in history at forty-two. The contagious zeal of an old man. and died Prime Minister at eighty-one. What a power was Bismarck at eig hty! Lord Palmerston was an "Old Boy" to the last. He became Prime Minister of E ngland the second time at seventy-five. won battles at ninety-four. Tom Scott began the study of Hebrew at eighty-six. an age which h as been fatal to many a genius. even in the midst of his fit s of gout and colic. but that old man was Homer. yet he made the world fee l his character. Wise old Montaigne w as shrewd in his gray-beard wisdom and loving life. But if enthusiasm is irresistible in youth.faces the sun. had such an opportunity as he has to-day. Their ardor is their crown. who is driven by his enthusiasm." was written when he was seve nty-eight. Many of the world's greatest geniuses never saw forty years. Never before has t he young man. James Watt learned German at eighty-five . Victor Hugo wrote a tra gedy at fifteen. Unknown at forty. Somerville finished her "Molecular and Microscopic Science" at eighty-nin e. The glory of age is only the glory of its enthusiasm. Baco n and Humboldt were enthusiastic students to the last gasp. The "Odysse y" was the creation of a blind old man. was working every day. at eightyone. Peter the Hermit. and Tennys on's best work was done after they were seventy. Cicero said well that men are like wine: age sours the bad and improves the good. Gladstone was in Parliament in early manhood. how much more so is it when carried into old age! Gladstone at eighty had ten times the weight and power that any m an of twenty-five would have with the same ideals. Pitt and Bolingbroke were ministers almost before they we re men. "The Lives of the Poets. and had taken three prizes at the Academy and gained the title of Master before he was twenty. Byron and Raphael died at thirty-seven. It is said tha t no English poet ever equaled Chatterton at twenty-one. Johnson's best work. Galileo was nearly seven ty when he wrote on the laws of motion. adapting the p rinciple of the pendulum to clocks. blind and feeble. in spite of the torpid influence of an enfeebled body. Defoe was fifty-eight when he published "Robinson Crusoe. it shadows all behind it. rolled the chivalry of Eur ope upon the ranks of Islam." Newton wro te new briefs to his "Principia" at eighty-three. It is the age of young men and young women. . Alexander was a mere youth when he rolled back the Asiatic hordes that threat ened to overwhelm European civilization almost at its birth. that he might read Dante in the original. Humboldt completed his "Cosmos" at ninety. Whittier's. Luther was a triumphant reformer at twenty-five. Napoleon had conque red Italy at twenty-five. a month before his death. Whitefield and Wesley b egan their great revival as students at Oxford. the head. Plato died writing. At sixty-three Dryden began the translation of the "Aeneid. manhoo d.

or o n their way to the defence of the Capitol. Only a few minutes' delay. "Lose this day by loitering--'t will be the same story tomorrow. unnecessary delay was a crime.With enthusiasm we may retain the youth of the spirit until the hair is silvere d. or in Fortress Monroe. He put the letter in his pocket without reading it un til the game was finished. as if there were not an inch of red tape in the world. "Immediately on receiving your proclamation. post. with a picture of a courier swinging from a gibbet. when he rallied his men only to die just before his t roops were taken prisoners.--for ages and ages of wh ich it traveled that imperiled road." Let's take the instant by the forward top. even as the Gulf Stream softens the rigors of northern Europe. Colonel Rahl. was playing cards when a messenger brought a letter stating that Washington was crossing the Delaware. and the next m ore dilatory." .--EDWARD EVERETT. in the spirit in which we believe the Administration and the American people intend to act. We can do as much in an hour to-day as they could in twe nty hours a hundred years ago. libert y. April 15. We miss it." wrote Governor Andrew of Massachu setts to President Lincoln on May 3. and mont hs and years are lost.--no. "we took up the war. One of the greatest gains civilization has made is in measur ing and utilizing time.--CERVANTES." Note the sublime precision that leads the earth over a circuit of five hundred millions of miles back to the solstice at the appointed moment without the loss of one second. namely. "ON TIME. haste! Haste for thy life!" was frequently written upon messages in the days of Henry VIII of England. at nine o'clock the next Sunday he said: "All the regiments demanded from Massachusetts are already either in Washington. the Hessian commander at Trent on." CHAPTER XIV.--towards youth? If not. when it took a month of dangerous traveling to accomplish the distance we can now span in a few hours. "How ages thine heart. There are critical moments in every successful life when if the mind hesitate or a ne rve flinch all will be lost. life! Success is the child of two very plain parents--punctuality and accuracy. slow days of stage-coaches. but he lost honor. Post-offices were unknown." OR THE TRIUMPH OF PROMPTNESS "On the great clock of time there is but one word--NOW. not the millionth part of a second. doubt thy fitness for thy work. Even in the old." By the street of by and by one arrives at the house of never.--SHAKESPEARE. and letters were carried by government mess engers subject to hanging if they delayed upon the road. and have carried on our part of it. "Delays have dangerous ends. "Haste. 1861." Caesar's delay to read a message cost him his lif e when he reached the senate house. "Who cannot but see oftentimes how strange the threads of our destiny run? Oft it is only for a moment the favorable instant is presented." He had received a telegram for troops from Washington on Monday.

" he said. replied without hesitation. and at the same time atte nd to his social duties." that "nick of time" whic h occurs in every battle." said Ruskin. that what may be done at any time will be done at no time." Colin Campbell. If a star or planet were delayed one second. "is one essentially of formation. The African Association of London wanted to send Ledyard. and to chan ge the destiny of millions. I go and do it." was the reply. becomes drudgery." was the reply. "To-morrow. never did any man or anything w ait one minute for me. He said that he beat the Austrians because they di d not know the value of five minutes. no instant force and energy. The s ummer of eternity will not be long enough to bring to maturity the fruit of a de layed action. the loss of a few moments by himself and Grouchy on the fatal morning was the most significant. "To this quality I owed my extraordinary promotion in the army. lost in the hurry and scurry o f the world. "If I had to mount guard at ten. They will be dissipated. It was enough to send Napoleon to St. The man who will not execute his resolutions when they are fresh upon him can have no ho pes from them afterward. and when th at question is answered." said he. "Directly. instruction. John Jervis. the appointed work can ever be done again . "not only so. "There is no moment like the present. Vincent. Putting off usually means l eaving off." Cobbett said he owed his success to being "always ready" more than to all his n atural abilities combined. to Afri ca. or sunk in the slough of indolence. even if he makes occasional mistakes." The energy wasted in postponing until to-morrow a duty of to-day would often do the work. and replied. edi fication. it is to do work which ha s been put off! What would have been done at the time with pleasure or even enth usiasm. or the neglected blow struck on the cold iron. but in the present. ther e is no moment at all. will succee d when a procrastinator. Many large firms make it a rule never to allow a letter to lie unanswered overnight." "How. and asked when he could set out. I was ready at nine. Doing a deed is like sowing a seed: if not done at just the right time it will be forever out of season. will fail. and going to do becomes going undone." "The whole period of youth. to take advantage of which means victory. It is a well-known truism that has almost been elevated to the dignity of a max im. How much harder and more disagreeable. There is not an hour of it but is trembling with destinie s--not a moment of which. "is what to do. a French statesman replied. and in so short a time?" "When I have anything to do." asked a man of Sir Walter Raleigh. Promptness takes the drudgery out of an occupation. afterwards Earl St. it might throw the wh ole universe out of harmony. the traveler. what next to do. "do you accomplish so much. When asked how he managed to accomplish so much work."The only question which I can entertain. once passed. The man who always acts promptly. Letters can never be answered so easily as when first received. was asked when he could join his ship. and Grouchy was late. even if he have the better judgment. and asked when he would be ready to go. after it has been delayed for days and weeks. "I do it simply by never po . "To-morrow morning. appointed commander of the army in Ind ia. Blucher was on time." said Maria Edgeworth. and it has been said that among the trifle s that conspired to defeat him at Waterloo. the other is. and to lose in hesitation means disaster. too." Napoleon laid great stress upon that "supreme moment. Helena.

'Tis fancy's child. There is in every person's life a crucial hour in the day." Charles Reade continues in his story o f Noah Skinner. and folly is its fathe r. hopes. unless perchance in the fool's calendar. "Go to--I will not hear of it. All history is strewn with its brilliant victims. and baseless as the fantastic visions o f the evening. This made all the difference between them. Washi ngton. and Mayenne at about ten . and therefore sleep as little as possible. 'My head." said Henry. "Strike while the iron is hot. With most people the earl y morning hour becomes the test of the day's success. Jefferson. as were m ost of the famous astronomers of ancient and modern times. Otherwise the disease is fatal to al l success or achievement. "by and by. and that is prompt decision." It is the devil's motto. Yet most of those who have become eminent have been early risers. to--morrow. dead. a last look at the receipts. Bancroft at dawn. Webster. and nearly all our leading authors in the early morning. We go to it with reluc tance. and murmured again. being assured that to-morrow has some vast benefit or other in store for me." Alfred the Great rose befo re daylight." Henry rose at four in the morning. We make up our minds every night to leave it early. but we make up our bodies every morning to keep it late. "You are right. It is the favorite refuge of sloth and incompetency. the defaulting clerk. who had been overcome by a sleepy languor after deciding to make restitution. "I am. how many a wreck on the road to success could say: "I have s pent all my life in pursuit of to-morrow." and "Make hay while the sun shines. and murmured. 'I'll take it to--Pembroke--Street to--morr ow. but I have always five h ours' start of him. and Napoleon his greatest campaigns. .' The morrow found him." How many men have daw dled away their success and allowed companions and relatives to steal it away fi ve minutes at a time! "To-morrow. full of his penitent resolu tions. and some after seven o'clock in the e vening. A noted writer says that a bed is a bundle of paradoxes. Some people it attacks after dinner. "he is a great captain. There is only one known remedy for the victims of indecision. Very few people recognize the hour when laziness begins to set in. A person was once extolling the skill and courage of Mayenne in Henry's presenc e." It was said of an unsuccess ful public man that he used to reverse this process. and so did the detectives. h ow heavy it feels!' But presently he roused himself. Indecision becomes a disease and pr ocrastination is its forerunner." are golden maxims. "for making my life as long as possible. as it were. To-mo rrow! 'tis a sharper who stakes his penury against thy plenty--who takes thy rea dy cash and pays thee naught but wishes. and promises. In the hours of early morning Columbus planned his voyage to Americ a. To-morrow! it is a period nowhere to be found in all the hoary registers o f time." said he. which must be employed instead of wasted if the day is to be saved. brokenly. some after lunch. Wisdom disclaims the word. Clay." Oh. his favorite maxim being "n ever to do to-day what might be postponed till to-morrow. He who hesitates is lost. Bryant rose at five. the wrecks of half-finished plans and unexecuted resolutions. Copernicus was an early riser. yet we quit it with regret. Peter the Gre at always rose before daylight." "To-morrow. Daniel Webster used often to answer twenty to thirty letters before breakfast. the currency of id iots." "But his resolutions remained unshaken. wrought of such stuffs as dreams are. nor holds society with those that own it.stponing till to-morrow what should be done to-day. and Calhoun were all early risers. didst thou say?" asked Cotton. waking up from a sort of heavy d oze. he took.

They are no t irregular. it is one of the practical virtues of civiliz ation." Franklin said to a servant who was always late. he gave this counsel: "Beware of stumbling over a propensity which easily besets you from not having your time fully employed--I mean what t he women call dawdling. their work and their time run parallel. A man who fails to meet his appointment. but the work is always ten minutes in advance of the time. or an acquirement. but sure e nough. they come in sight of the terminus precisely as the station gates are c losing. as they did not arriv e at the moment appointed.--that is. "My cook. for just like two measuring-lines laid a longside. dress quic kly. or I anoth er secretary. "why s hould he have for their money? What is the difference between taking a man's hou r and taking his five dollars? There are many men to whom each hour of the busin ess day is worth more than five dollars. broken th e neck of the day's work. is practically a liar. an appointment." Napoleon once invited his marshals to dine with him. After th e eighth hour in bed. They came in just as he was rising from the table." Not too much can be said about the value of the habit of rising early. and He also gave them a competence of time. He rose at five. and take the hours of recreation after business. "never asks if the visitors ha ve arrived. but. They cannot tell what became of it. Do instantly whatever is to be done. so much that if they began at the right moment. it has dropped out of existence. but if the hour has arrived. but always ready with an excuse . and usually too late by about the same fatal interva l." said Hamilton. By breakfast-time he had. "At the instant when He ushered them into existence. and go to work. God gave them a work to do. unless he has a good r eason. new members of Congress invited to din e at the White House would sometimes arrive late. and wrought with sufficient vigor. Their letters are posted the very minute a fter the mail is closed. They are never too soon. and we will immediately proceed to business. as he used to say." Whether it be an inspiration. the one an inch shorter than the other." said Horace Greeley. but they systemati cally go about it too late." Some one has said that "promptness is a contagious inspiration. "If a man has no regard for the time of other men. never before it." Washington would say." When President Washington dined at four. But a good many years ago a strange misfortune befell them. There is one thing that is almost as sacred as the marriage relation. and be mortified to find the P resident eating. Very frequently seven hours is plenty. it is his business to get up. "it is now past dinner. Writing to a youth who had obtained a situation and as ked him for advice. A fragment of their allotted time was lost. They arrive at the wharf just in time to see the steamb oat off. This was the secret of his enormous achie vements. They do not break any engagement or neglect any duty. "A singular mischance has happened to some of our friends." When his secretary excused the lateness of his attendance by saying that his wa tch was too slow. Washington replied." .Walter Scott was a very punctual man. and the world treats him as such. he began to eat without them. "I have generally found that the man who is good at an excuse is good for noth ing else. if a man is able. "Then you must get a new watch. their time and their work would end together." said he. "Gentlemen. Eight ho urs is enough sleep for any man.

and is an expensive investment at any price. as ordered. and gives othe rs confidence in our ability. Brown. Every young man should have a watch which is a good timekeeper. one th at is nearly right encourages bad habits. teaches habits of pr omptness. "Oh. like Napoleon. Horace Greeley managed to be on time for every appointment. Grant decided to enlist the moment that he learned of the fall of Sumter. A man is stopped five minutes to hear a trivial story and misses a train or steam er by one minute." Buckner replied that circumstances compelled h im "to accept the ungenerous and unchivalrous terms which you propose. I propose to m ove immediately upon your works. "How q uickly you learn to depend on him. asking for the appointment of commissioners to consider terms of capitulation. how I do appreciate a boy who is always on time!" says H. Once a member said that it was time to begin. If you arrive a few mom ents late at the bank. Punctuality is said to be the polit eness of princes. he was equally punctual. in society. During the first seven years of his mercantile career. Amos Lawrence did not pe rmit a bill to remain unsettled over Sunday. Some men are always running to catch up with their business: t hey are always in a hurry." It was found that the clock was three minutes f ast. "No. The Speaker of the House o f Representatives knew when to call the House to order by seeing Mr. Punctuality is the soul of business. can on the instant seize the most important thing a nd sacrifice the others. One of the best things about school and college life is that the bell which str ikes the hour for rising. is sure to win. In court. and may be depended upon. your paper may be protested and your credit ruined. Webster was never late at a recitation in school or college. C. will keep his word." John Quincy Adams was never known to be behind time. or for lectures.Blücher was one of the promptest men that ever lived. he promptly replied: "No terms except an unconditional and immediate surrender can be accepted." The man who. Adams comin g to his seat. simply because an agent is t ardy in transmitting available funds. He was called "Marshal Forw ard. When Buckner sent him a flag of truce at Fort Donelson." said another. The man who is punctual. and a terrible railway collision occurs. An innocent man is hanged beca use the messenger bearing a reprieve should have arrived five minutes earlier. Every business man knows th at there are moments on which hang the destiny of years. Amid the cares and distractions of a s ingularly busy life. and seldom accomplish much. They lack method." Promptness is the mother of confidence and gives credit. It is the best possibl e proof that our own affairs are well ordered and well conducted. A conductor's watch is behind time. Many a trenchant paragraph for the "Tribune" was written while the editor was w aiting for men of leisure. "Mr. and how soon you find yourself intrusting him with weightier matters! The boy who has acquired a reputation for punctuality h as made the first contribution to the capital that in after years makes his succ ess a certainty. . Adams is not in his seat. Mr. and prompt to the minute. and give you the impression that they are late for a train. as a rule. as brevity is of wit. for recitations. A leading firm with enormous assets becomes bankrupt. tardy at some meeting. Adams arrived. in congr ess.

W. or repulsive. For the apparel oft proclaims the man. She will fall little by little until she deg enerates into an ambitionless slattern. wholeso me lives and work are incompatible with low standards of personal cleanliness. throu gh sheer neglect or indifference. while outward slovenliness suggests a pearance that probably goes deeper than the clothes covering of body and comelin indicating a sanita carelessness for ap the body.--we ll. the conclusion is a just one. Without this he is nothing but a brute. Every day we see people receiving "demer its" for failure to live up to them. A daily bath insures a clean.Many a wasted life dates its ruin from a lost five minutes. success and failur e. It is not to be wondered at that the Talmud places cleanliness next to godlines s.--LIVY. An honest. SHAKESPEARE. But self-interest clamors as loudly as esthetic or moral considerations for the fulfilment of the laws of cleanliness. it will not be long until that gir l's employer will discover that she is not advancing his business. and then. Cleanliness or purity of soul and body raises man to the highest estate . without which health is impossible. The other day a lady remarked that she went into a store to buy some ribbons.--ANTH ONY TROLLOPE. . A few minut es often makes all the difference between victory and defeat. the law will work inexorably. A man who allows himself to become careless in reg ard to the one will. There is a very close connection between a fine. for I believe that absolute cleanliness is go dliness. High ideals and strong. clean character. There are two chief factors in good appearance. rich not gau dy. If it is unlovely. A young man who neglects his bath will neglect his mind." Of course. in spite of himself. we conclude that the mind corresponds with it. wholesome condition of the skin. clean physique and a f ine. he will quickly deterior ate in every way. strong. CHAPTER XV WHAT A GOOD APPEARANCE WILL DO Let thy attire be comely but not costly." she said. "Dainty ribbons. We express ourselves first of all in our bodies. But not expressed in fancy. intelligent man whom I know lost his place in a large publishi ng firm because he was careless about shaving and brushing his teeth. Costly thy habit as thy purse can buy. I hold that gentleman to be the best dressed whose dress no one observes. clean. Usually these go together. "Too late" can be r ead between the lines on the tombstone of many a man who has failed. I should place it nearer still. A young woman who ceases to care for her appearance in minutes t detail will soon cease to please. but when she saw the salesgirl's hands she changed her mind and made her purchase elsewhere. The first point to be emphasized in the making of a good appearance is the nece ssity of frequent bathing. The outer condition of the bod y is accepted as the symbol of the inner. As a rule.--H. As a general thing an individual who is neat in his person is neat in his moral s. cleanliness ess of attire. SHAW. neatness of attire ry care of the person. I can recall instances of capable stenograp hers who forfeited their positions because they did not keep their finger nails clean. "could not be handled by such soiled fingers withou t losing some of their freshness. strong. fall away in the other.

no matter how poor he may be. and in these days . The consciousness of makin g the best appearance you possibly can. N o employer wants a clerk. It is positively disgusting. a crumpled collar. who rose in a short time from a section hand on the Long I sland Railroad to the presidency of all the surface railways in New York City. the hands. four dollars for shoes. and no one can have negle cted teeth without reaping this consequence.Next in importance to the bath is the proper care of the hair. If you are dressed according to your means. and a clean collar. and keep your nai ls smooth and clean. If the hair is dry or lacking in oily matter. For those who have to make their way in the world. too. will be excused for wearing a dirty coat . if circumstances prevent his having a better one. This requires little more than a small amount of time and the use of s oap and water. The hair. that the world frowns upon . or other employee about him who conta minates the atmosphere. No one. of always being scrupulously neat and cl ean. strength. and t he teeth." [Illustration: John Wanamaker] Most large business houses make it a rule not to employ anyone who looks seedy. or muddy shoes. If you can not afford to buy a whole set. Keeping the teeth in good condition is a very simple matter . s hould be a practical authority on this subject. yet neglect their teeth. I f you have twenty-five dollars. "Let thy attire be comel y. It is not the shabbiness that is unavoidable. In the course of an address on h ow to attain success. but good clothes have got many a man a good job. to which a very little ammonia may be added. it should not be washed oftener than once a month and the ammonia may be omitted. but the slovenliness that is avoidable. a nd magnetic forcefulness that will command the respect and admiration of others. will susta in you under the most adverse circumstances. and want a job. Manicure sets are so cheap that the y are within the reach of almost everyone. Nor does he. and walk to the place. or the absence of one or two in front. But no one need blush f or a shabby suit. the best counsel on the subj ect of clothes may be summed up in this short sentence. We all know how disagreeable it is to be anywhere near a person whose breath is bad. should be combed and brushed regularly every day. but not costly. Herbert H. You will be more respected by yourself and every one else with an old coat on your back that has been paid for than a new one that has not. want one whose appearance is marred by a lack of one or two front teeth. and young women. If it is naturally oily. Many an applicant has been denied the position he sought because of bad teeth. the majority can afford to be well dressed. I know young men. it should be washed thoroughly every two weeks with a good reli able scalp soap and warm water. The man who hires all the salespeople for one of the largest retail stores in Chicago says: . or stenographer. he said:-"Clothes don't make the man. yet perhaps more people sin in this particular point of cleanliness than in an y other. and give you a dignity. and the rest for a shave. of course. when there is such an infinite variety of tasteful but inexpensive fabrics to choose from. or who does not make a good appearance when he applies for a posit ion. who dress very well and seem to take considerable pride in their personal appearance. you can buy a file (you can get one as low as ten cents). a hair-cut. or slovenly. than go with the money in t he pockets of a dingy suit. Nothing can be more offensive in man or woman than a foul breath. and of maintaining your self-respect and integrity at all costs. it is better to spend twenty dol lars for a suit of clothes. Vreeland. They do not realize that there could hardly be a worse blot on one's appearance than dirty or decaying teeth. if he is at all particular." Simplicity in dress is its greatest charm. no matter how poorly. you are appropriately dressed.

Work people whose personal habits are sloven ly produce slovenly work. without assigning any reason. but ha ving secured it. Diamonds in the rough of infinitely greater value than the polished glass of some of those w ho get positions may. and half of the buttons off her shoes. The young woman was i nvited by the founder of the school to call on her at once. The young woman came to me fashionably and expensively dressed. so shabby. second o nly to that of a clean conscience." No young man or woman who wishes to retain that most potent factor of the succe ssful life. Applicants whose good appearanc e helped them to secure a place may often be very superficial in comparison with some who were rejected in their favor and may not have half their merit. knowledge. in which our generation is rich. She needed the services of a superintendent and teache r. as a rule. Poor. frayed cuffs." It does not matter how much merit or ability an applicant for a position may po ssess. Apparently she posse ssed all the required qualifications. though not possessing half the ability of the boy or girl who was turned away. V. the fac t remains that the most important element in an applicant's chance for a trial i s his personality. "The consciousness of clean linen. "is in and of itself a source of moral strength. had established an industrial school for girls in which they received a good English education and were train ed to be self-supporting. but a trifle in whic h. self-respect. they may keep it. those who are careful of their own appearance are equa lly careful of the looks of the work they turn out. when questioned by a friend as to the cause of her seemingly inexplicable conduct in refusing to en gage so competent a teacher." says El izabeth Stuart Phelps. be rejected. can afford to be negligent in the matter of dress. and general fi tness for the position they extolled in the highest terms. there is also almost always found extra carefulness as regards the finish of work done. is aver se to wearing dingy collars. or soiled garments ar e detrimental to morals and manners. as in an Egyptian hieroglyphic. One of those large-souled women of wealth. as anyon e knows who has experienced the sensation--and who has not?--that comes from bei ng attired in new and becoming raiment. And probably what is true of the workroom is equally true of the region behind the counter. she replied: "It was a trifle. Is it not a fact that the smart saleswoman is usually rather particular about her dress. A slovenly woman is not a fit guide for any . absolutely refused to give her a trial. ill-fitting." As the consciousness of be ing well dressed tends to grace and ease of manner. but with torn and soiled gloves. indicative of a certain alertness of mind. and considered herself fortunate when the trustees of the institution recomme nded to her a young woman whose tact." The importance of attending to little details--the perfection of which really c onstitutes the well-dressed man or woman--is well illustrated by this story of a young woman's failure to secure a desirable position. Our clothes unmistakably affect our feelings. Long afterward. occasionally. and self respect. or s oiled attire makes one feel awkward and constrained. perfect manners. which shows itself an tagonistic to slovenliness of all kinds. and yet." It says:-"Wherever a marked personal care is exhibited for the cleanliness of the person and for neatness in dress. ill-fitting. is evide nced by the "London Draper's Record. That the same rule that governs employers in America holds in England. A well-ironed collar or a fresh glove has car ried many a man through an emergency in which a wrinkle or a rip would have defe ated him. he can not afford to be careless of his personal appearance. lay a volume of meaning. for "the character is subdued to what it is clothed in. and faded ties? The truth of the matt er seems to be that extra care as regards personal habits and general appearance is. Mrs . lacking in dignity and impo rtance."While the routine of application is in every case strictly adhered to.

They devote the time that should be given to the culture of head and heart to studying their toilets. They are loud. you will feel like a new person. or tie or coat. and make you r toilet as carefully as if you were going to a fashionable reception. instead of l ying around the house in your old wrapper or dressing gown. tawdry imitation. as well as t he truest economy." when you feel half sick and not able to work. vermilion-tinted ties. flashy. and. you take a good bath . Their style of dress bespeaks a type of character even more objectionable than that of the slovenly. and they love dress too much who "go in d ebt" for it. who make it their chief object in life. with this erroneous idea in mind. An undue love of dress is worse than a total disregard of it. they buy some cheap. Nine times out of ten.--put on your best clothes. for she was undoubtedly well qualified to fill it in every respect. again and again. The worl d accepts the truth announced by Shakespeare that "the apparel oft proclaims the man". out of their limited sala ries. office and existence consists in the wearing of clothes. At first sight. that they do. But I do claim. if you can afford it. The overdressed young woman is merely the feminine of the overdressed young man .--a man whose trade .young girl. and planning how they can buy. an d your whole outlook on life will have changed. The knowledge that we are becomingly clothed acts like a mental tonic. except i n this seemingly unimportant matter of attention to the little details of dress. The manners of both seem to have a subtle connection with their clothes. Young men of this stamp wear cheap rings. Very few men or women are so strong and so perfectly poised as to be unaffected by their surroundings. and broad checks. Like the dandy.--every faculty of who se soul. Many young men and women make the mistake of thinking that "well dressed" neces sarily means being expensively dressed." Probably the applicant never knew why she did not obtain the positi on. If they can not by any possibility afford the coveted arti cle. the effect of which is only to make them look ridiculous. and aspirants to success should be as careful in choosing their dr ess as their companions. as a rule. like Beau Brummel. Your mind will slip down. or who. are frequently condemned by the very garb which they think makes them so irresistible. to the neglect of their mos t sacred duty to themselves and others. and who used to take hours to tie his cravat." is offset by this wise saying of some philosopher of the c ommonplace: "Show me all the dresses a woman has worn in the course of her life. spirit. this or that expensive hat. when you have an a ttack of the "blues. but experience has proved . if. to dress as well and becomingly as our position requires and our means will allow. the English fop. If you lie a round half-dressed. and with your room all in disord er. person and purse is heroically consecrated to this one object. and almost invariably they occupy cheap positions. . slipshod. it may seem hasty or superficial to judge men or women by their clothes. who spent four thousand dollars a year at his tailo r's alone. whom Carlyle describes as "a clothes-wearing man. devote most o f their waking hours to its study. measure the sense and self-respect o f the wearer. and inactive as your body. taking it easy because you do not expect or wish to see anybody. untidily dressed person. By emphasizing the importance of dress I do not mean that you should be like Be au Brummel. and have no time to devote to self-culture or to fitting th emselves for higher positions. From every point of view it pays well to dress well. t hey fall into as great a pitfall as those who think clothes are of no importance . that it is a duty." they live to dress. which they see exhibited in so me fashionable store.--a Turkish bath. too. it will become as slovenly . in view of its effect on ours elves and on those with whom we come in contact. it will refuse to exert itself. On the other hand. you will fi nd yourself very quickly taking on the mood of your attire and environment. for the old adage: "Tell me thy company and I will tell thee what thou art. and the man and the woman. vulgar. without making your toilet. before you have finished dressing your "blues" and your half-sick feeling will have vanished like a bad dream.

" she argues. he never aroused any such enthusiasm as "the mill-b oy of the slashes.--puts on a dainty muslin garment instead. He decla red himself utterly incapable of thinking to good purpose except in full court d ress. which sets an audience wild at the mention of the name of a Blaine or a Linco ln. perhaps ." Her walk. but they did not arouse a tithe of the spontaneous enthusiasm evoked by men like Blaine and Clay. ev ery field blushes beneath a mantle of beauty. omething which every one feels. Her whole prospect and hap piness in life may often depend upon a new gown or a becoming bonnet. It is this indescribable quality. Prentice Mulford declar es dress to be one of the avenues for the spiritualization of the race. This is not an extravagant statement. don an old soiled or worn wrapper. has personality which eludes the photographer. Good clothes give e ase of manner. "to teach a girl that beauty is of no value. There is something about ill-fitting. and it will have the effect of making her indifferent as to whethe r her hair is frowsy or in curl papers." Even so great an authority as Buffon. She has much more respect for the wearer of the new." says Sydney Smith. The down-at-heel old shoes are exchanged fo r suitable slippers. the general trend of her feelings. And sure ly He is pleased when we provide a beautiful setting for the greatest of His han diworks. which which the sculptor can not chisel. "Would you change the current of your thoughts? Change your raiment. This he always put on before entering his study. Although. If she has five grains of common sense. unbecoming. er ever put down in a book. or shabby apparel which not o nly robs one of self-respect. for "anything. Every flower is dressed in richness. One can not but feel that God is a lover of appropriate dress. clean wrapper than for the wearer of the old." "How exquisitely absurd it is. It was this pec uliar atmosphere which made Clay the idol of his constituents. He has put robes of beauty and glory upon all His works. but also of comfort and power. she will find this out. every star is veiled in brightness . every bird is clothed in the habiliments of the most exquisite taste. how different her looks and acts! Her hair must be becomingly arranged. . or what sort of slipshod shoes she wears. the natu ralist and philosopher. The consciousness of being well dressed g ives a grace and ease of manner that even religion will not bestow. "is good enough to go with this old wrapper. Calhoun was a greater man. Her face and hands and finger nails must be spotless as the muslin which surrounds them.--which makes people applaud beyond the bounds of enthusiasm. The great thing is to teac h her their proper value. testifies to the influence of dress on thought. Her mind runs along new channels. soiled one. and y ou will at once feel the effect. and make one talk well. when we remember what an effect clothes have in in citing to personal cleanliness. for instance. Let a woman. will in some subtle way be dominated by the old wrapper. dress of no use. not even omitting his swo rd. while inferi ority of garb often induces restraint. This subtle s but which no one can describe." Webster and Sumner were great men. Suppose she changes. so as not to be at odds with her dress. which no biograph a great deal to do with one's success in life. which some persons have in a remarkable degre e. Beauty is of value. her manner." It is true that clothes do not make the man. but they have a much larger influe nce on man's life than we are wont to attribute to them. It does not matter whether her face or h ands are clean or not.and I will write you her biography. CHAPTER XVI PERSONALITY AS A SUCCESS ASSET There is something about one's the painter can not reproduce.

On the other hand. for the first time. as if a bl ast of winter had struck us in midsummer. All at o nce life takes on a higher and nobler meaning. being rapidly advanced over the heads of those who are infinitely their superiors in mental endowments. We are often misled as to the position they are going to occupy from the fact that we are apt to take account merely of their ability . and to be more than we have been in the past. We are unconsciously influenced by people who possess this magnetic power.--the atmosphere that eman ates from them. the flashlight of a potent personality of this kind has opened a rift in our lives and revealed to us hidden capabilities. and we are loath to leave the magical presence lest we lose our new-born power. They unlock w ithin us possibilities of which we previously had no conception. impulses and longings come thronging to our minds which never stirred us before. The moment they come near us we experience a cold chill. We have been touched to finer issues. we constantly see men of m ediocre ability but with fine personal presence. despair to h ope. to struggle to make permanently ours the forces and potentialities that have be en revealed to us. we feel a new power stirring through all our being. with its absence of purpose and endea vor. and yet so little of this personal element adheres to his cold words in print that those who read them are scarcely moved at all. although meeting them. Our horizon bro adens. "we mu st first reckon with the orator's physical bulk. We can converse with such people in a way that astonishes us. superb manner. Indeed. and magnetic qua lities. we could not only measure the personal atmosphere of individuals. They are much larger than anything they say or do. when. suddenly. and. With their presence. while he is delivering h is speech. as it were. and we are fired with a desire to do more than we have ever before done. and sometimes even controls the destinies of nations. A blighting. The moment we come into their presence we have a sense of enlargement. as if a great weight which long had pressed upon us had been removed . we have caught a glimpse of higher ideals. has dropped out of sight. in measuring Kossuth's influence over the masses. The influence of su ch speakers depends almost wholly upon their presence. and then carry the measuring li ne above his atmosphere. Even a momentary contact with a character of this kind seems to double our ment al and soul powers. we experience a sense of relief. They draw out the best that is in us. Yet this individual atmosphere has quite as much to do with o ne's advancement as brain-power or education. The old commonplace life. have b een transformed. A good illustration of the influence of personal atmosphere is found in the ora tor who carries his audience with him like a whirlwind. we frequently meet people who make us shrivel and shrink int o ourselves. Sadness gives place to joy. whic . to our larger. Certain personalities are greater than mere physical beauty and more powerful t han learning. with better heart and newer hope." If we had discernment fine enough and tests delicate e nough. they introd uce us. and we resolve. for the moment. at least. perhaps. A few minutes before. narrowing sensation. as two great dynamos double the current which passes over th e wire. and do not reckon this personal atmosphere or magnetic power as a part of thei r success-capital.A historian says that. perhaps. and disheartenment to encouragement. but cou ld also make more accurate estimates concerning the future possibilities of scho olmates and young friends. better selves. Charm of personality is a divine gift that sways the strongest cha racters. we were sad and discouraged. We express ourselves more clearly and eloquen tly than we believed we could.

a gift of nature. This was notably the case with some of the women who ruled in the French salon s more absolutely than the king on his throne. Good taste is also one of the elements of personal charm. It is often possessed in a high degree by very plain women . They simply know they have it. We feel a decided loss of p ower. and be able to do just the rig ht thing at the proper time. for all doors fly open to sunny . When they are near us our laudable purposes and desires shrink into insi gnificance and mere foolishness. pleasing personalities. t he entrance of some bright woman with a magnetic personality instantly changes t he whole situation. undefinable uneasiness. Good judgment and common sense are indispensable to those who are trying to acquire this magic power. or the qualities that can be rated. Magnetic personality is intangible.h seems to make us suddenly smaller. One must know exactly what to do. who feels it a privilege to have the power to do a fellow-cr eature a kindness. Of course. a nd our natural prompting is to guard closely any expression of our hopes and amb itions. and the latter does not. that rare charm of manner which captivates all those who come within the sphere of its influence. we shall find that the chief differ ence between them is that the first loves his kind.--will be an elevating influence wherever he goes. but everybody is attracted. cordiality of bearing. At a social gathering. . perhaps the most important. is a very important element. who is genuinely interested in the welfare of others. As a da rk cloud suddenly obscures the brightness of a smiling summer sky. passes over us. They are more than welcome. which is entirely independen t of personal beauty. One of the greatest investments one can make is that of attaining a gracious ma nner. generosity of feeling. cultivated manne r. This type of personalit y we may all cultivate if we will. music. but can not locate or describe it. is often more powerful than the ability which can be meas ured.--even though polished manners and a gracious presence may be conspicuous by their absence. Tact. This mysterious something. You can not offend the tastes of others without hur ting their sensibilities. But we shall f ind that the man who practises unselfishness. We could no more smile in their presence than we could lau gh while at a funeral. their shadows are cast upon us and fill us with vague. and interest is at a low ebb. Wh ile it is. they are sought for everyw here. which we sometim es call individuality. It is infinitely better than money capital. or art. He will bring encouragement to and uplift every life that touches his.--the delightful art of pleas ing. She may not be handsome. it can be cultivated to a certain extent. In their presence there is no possibility of expansion for us. People who possess this rare quality are frequently ignorant of the source of t heir power. are largely natural gifts.--next to a fine manner. and that strong personal magnetism which inclines all hearts toward its fortunate possessor. If we study these two types of personality. and we haste n from it as soon as possible. We instinctively feel that such people have no sympathy with our aspirations. He will b e trusted and loved by all who come in contact with him. born in one. Much of the charm of a magnetic personality comes from a fine. The effect of their presence is paralyzing. also. of possibility. it is a privilege to speak to her. Their gloomy miasmatic atmosphere chills all our natural impulses. Many women are endowed with this magnetic quality. the charm of sentiment vanishes and life seems to lose color and zest. like poetry. when conversation drags.

Their fr iends call them "lucky dogs. It pays to cultivate popularity. for the same reason that the steel particles point toward the magnet. as naturally as magnet s attract particles of steel. it will call out your success qualities. of making friends and holding them with hooks of steel! People are influenced powerfully by their friendships. indifferent man. says: "When the R utledge Tavern. There is usually some charm of personality about them that wins all hearts. It is worth everything t o the clergyman. It is difficult to conceive of any more delightful birthright than to be born with this personal charm. The ability to cultivate friends is a powerful aid to success. he must be polite. he must keep back his bad tendencies. What can be more valuable than a per sonality which always attracts. perhaps. he had a passion for helping people. and business training would not. and a popular business or professional man has every advantage in the world over a col d. was crowded. no matter how able a man may be. It doubles success possibilities. to find what a large percentage of it is due to their h abitual courtesy and other popular qualities. one must strangle selfishness. if his personality repels. but also in every field of life. Somehow everybody in trouble turned to him for help. Business moves toward them. for. even when they do no t apparently make half so much effort to get it as the less successful. it bring s clients to the lawyer. Mr. The power to please is a tremendous asset. because it is made up of so many other qualities. he is on the road to success and happi ness as well. for making himself ag reeable under all circumstances. patients. those personal qualities." But if we analyze these men closely. No person who is always thinking of himself and trying to figure out how he can ge . It will help you to self-expression as no thing else will. and patients to the physician. if they shoul d analyze their success. clients. It makes statesmen and politicians.Many a youth owes his promotion or his first start in life to the disposition t o be accommodating. and builds up character. No matter what career you enter. Everything seems to point their way. when busin ess concerns go to the wall. I never knew a thoroughly unselfish person who was not an attractive person. he w ill always be placed at a disadvantage. never repels? It is not only valuable in busines s. he would often give up his b ed. his law partner. or customers. In trying to be popular. which a ttract people to you. It is capital which will stand by one when panics come. by their likes and dislikes. when banks fail. Cultivate the art of being agreeable. agreeable. rude man ners drive away clients. Some men attract business. because they had learned the art of bei ng agreeable. Herndon. if his coarse. Many successful business and professional men would be surprised. To be popular. or patients will flock to him. we find that they have attractive qualities. How many men have been able to start again after ha ving everything swept away by fire or flood. patients. have amounte d to half so much. for customers. to help along wherever he could. clients. long-headedness. and sleep on the counter in his store with a roll of calico for his pillow. or influence. where Lincoln boarded. an d companionable. or some other disaster. Had it not been for these. They will take the place of capital. it will broaden your s ympathies. their s agacity. and yet it is comparatively easy to cultivate . They ar e often a substitute for a large amount of hard work. develops man hood. just becaus e they had cultivated popular qualities. all of which are cultivatabl e. customers.--because they are attra cted. you can not overestimate the i mportance of cultivating that charm of manner. This was one of Lincoln's c hief characteristics. Such men are business magnets." This generous desire to as sist others and to return kindnesses especially endeared Lincoln to the people. gentlemanly.

--who gives us his sympathy. a coarse. to make a good impression at the very first meeting. Many of us are n o better than uneducated heathens. Everybody is attracted by lovable qualities and is repelled by the unlovely whe rever found. We are naturally d isgusted with people who are trying to get everything for themselves and never t hink of anybody else. for our success and happiness depend largely upon them. There is something about h im which arrests your prejudice. regardless of others. but getting his sympathy and good will. We may know enough. A fine manner pleases. If people who are naturally unsocial would only spend as much time and take as much pains as people who are social favorites in making themselves popular. or for the choicest bits at the table. which is unmistaka ble. but we give ourselves out stingily and we live narrow and reserved lives. If you radiate sweetness and light. wit hout raising the least prejudice. We little realize what a large part of our achievement is due to others working through us. somehow you haven't the heart to turn away the man with a pleasing personality. take infinite pains to cultiva te all the little graces and qualities which go to make up popularity. and a keener edge put on all of his faculties. Popular people. There must be heartiness in the ex pression. If you would be agreeable. in the smile. who elbow their way in front of us. We cannot help bein g attracted to one who is always trying to help us. Who has not felt his power multiplied many times. those with great personal charm. they would acc omplish wonders. when coming into contact with a stron g personality which has called forth hidden powers which he never before dreamed he possessed. On the other hand. who is always trying to make us comfortable and to give us every advantage he ca n. when we should be broad. but he could never get it from the separate individuals any more than the chemist could get the full power from chemicals standing in s eparate bottles in his laboratory. There is a charm in a gracious personality from which it is very hard to get aw ay. to their sharpening our faculties. people will love to get n ear you. The hardest natures can not resist these qualities any more than the eyes c an resist the sun. encouragement. The secret of pleasing is in being pleasant yourself. in the hand-shake. The narrow. to get the best seat in a car or a hall. you must be magnanimous. It is difficult to snub the man who possesses it. we are repelled by people who are always trying to get som ething out of us. in the cordiality. for we are all looking for the sunlight. is a g reat accomplishment. new forces. trying to get away from the sh adows. and magnanimous. sympathetic. stingy soul is not lovable. and this is what commands a great salary. a . or how much you may dislike to be interrupted. are developed. to approach a prospective customer as though you had known him for years without offending his taste. he first draws from his audience. which he flings back to his listeners. so that he could say things and do things impossible to him when alone? The power of the orator. It is in contact and combination only that ne w creations. The whole principle of an attractive personality lives in this sent ence. and no matter how busy or how worried you may b e. in being interesting. who are always wanting to be waited on first at the restaura nt or hotel. who are always looking for the easiest chair. The ability to bring the best that is in you to the man you are trying to reach .t some advantage from everybody else will ever be attractive. brutal manner repels. radiating hope. People shrink from such a character. genero us. his intellect sharpened. It is unfortunate that these things are not taught more in the home and in the school.

The more generously you give. something which will help h im on his way. You will not receive if you give out stingily. When you learn to look upon every one you meet as holding a treasure. Others are his discoverers. Thei r faculties are sharpened and polished by the attrition of mind with mind. Two people with a strong affinity often call into activity in each other a power which neither dreamed he possessed before. and esp ecially of mixing with those above us. brighten the ideals . remains a pygmy in everythin g except his own little specialty. generous way.nd helpfulness into our lives. the more generous of yourself. the more you will get back. when you might have had great rivers and torrents of blessings. finding ne w islands of power in himself which would have remained forever hidden but for a ssociation with others. that we become polished and attractive. because he did not cultivate his social side. which have remained dormant for the lack of exercise. an d make you more of a man. his cleverest saying to a friend who has aroused in him latent powers which otherwise might have remained dormant. for developing the latent brain cells. something which will enrich his life. narrowly. had he availed himself of every opportunity of touching life along all sides. About all you get from others is a reflex of the curre nts from yourself. Book knowledge is valuable. or you will receive only stingy rivule ts. The man who mixes with his fellows is ever on a voyage of discovery. the more you fling yourself out to them without reserve. We are apt to overestimate the value of an education from books alone. The current will not set toward you un til it goes out from you. to make i t a school for self-improvement. You must give much in order to get much. You must give of y ourself in a whole-hearted. something which he never knew before. the buttressing of character by association. m ay produce a third infinitely stronger than either. which stimulate ambition. you will not think the time in the drawing-room wasted . the more you get in return. you will not find society either a bore or unprofitable. which will enlarge and broaden your experience. A man who might have been symmetrical. if he can on ly extract it. but having a chemical affinity for each other. but the k nowledge which comes from mind intercourse is invaluable. But it is a fact that you can only get a great deal out of them by giving them a great deal of yourself. or by some one they happened to meet w ho saw in them what no one else had ever seen. Many an author owes his great est book. The more you rad iate yourself. because we can always carry away somethin g of value. meanly. No man finds himself alone. Everybody he meets has some secret for him. It is astonishing how much you can learn from people in social intercourse when you know how to look at them rightly. the more magnanimous you are. for calling out your best social qualities. or even both of those which unite. . Artists have been touched by the po wer of inspiration through a masterpiece. and sustaining and inspiring us mentally. something which will enrich your life. Two substances totally unlike. and open up new hopes and possibilities. or you will not get anything. well-rounded. If you go into social life with a determination to give it something. It is through social intercourse that our rough corners are rubbed o ff. the reenforcement. and t he pitting of brain against brain. A large part of the value of a college education comes from the social intercourse of th e students.--the power to do an immortal thin g. But you must give it something. It is always a mistake to miss an opportunity of meeting with our kind.

How different the man who comes out in the open. He could scarcely write his name. a great many able. We may come out all right.--are conduci ve to the growth of the highest manhood and womanhood. Eliot was president of Harvard. They are. They may be all right. and when asked why the miners and the people in the town couldn't help liking him. ignorant miner. There is always a feeling of uncertainty. His heart is sound and true. He endeavors to hide every trait that is not favorable to himself. No matter how polite or gracious a secreti ve person may be. as in frank. handsome young men. who wo n the love and good will of everyone. and we are ready to mak e allowances for them. an accurate and refined use of the mother-tongue. his sympathies are broad and active. CHAPTER XVII IF YOU CAN TALK WELL When Charles W. He always 'elps the boys when in trouble. He is a lways more or less of an enigma. we can never rid ourselves of the feeling that there is a moti ve behind his graciousness. Ev erybody admires the open-hearted. and sent to the legislature. The very qualities he possesses--frankness and simplicity. "I recognize but one m ental acquisition as an essential part of the education of a lady or gentleman. were there seeking t heir fortune. invite the same qualities in others. We are uncomfortable because of the uncertainties. It was all because he had a heart in him. and who is frank. if he ca n help it. no matter h ow good they may seem to be. namely. sunny natures. as a culture chisel. had the slightest chance of bein g elected to any office of prominence while "Ike" was around. and. as a rule. graduates of Eastern colleges. He was elected mayor of his town. We cannot have the same confidence in people who possess this trait. Frankness of manner is one of the most delightful of traits in young or old. They inspire love and confidence. but none of them held the public confidence like this poor man. and knew nothing of the usages of polite society. It he has bad qualities. do we get a glimpse of the real man. In the Black Hills of South Dakota there lived a humble. "You can't 'elp likin' 'im. There is something about th e very inclination to conceal or cover up which arouses suspicion and distrust. although he coul d not speak a grammatical sentence. but there is a lurking fea r of some pitfall or unknown danger ahead of us. by their very f rankness and simplicity. he said. and wh o do not try to cover up their faults and weaknesses. who reveal s his heart to us. however educated or cultured. he was a man. large -hearted and magnanimous. Never.The man who is determined to get on will look upon every experience as an educa tor. and to make amends for them. Dealing with these secr etive people is like traveling on a stage coach on a dark night. the people who have nothing to conceal. who has no secrets. strong men drawn there from different parts of the country by the gold fever." Bright. they are always in sight. which will make his life a little more shapely and att ractive. he answered." said an Engli sh miner." . You never go to 'im for nothin'. and may deal squarely with us. because he is always ready to confess his faults. but we are not sure and can not trust them. broad and liberal! How quickly he wins our confidence! How we all like and trust him! We forgive him for many a slip or wea kness. he's a man. Secretiveness repels as much as frankness attracts. yet he so intrenched himself in the hearts in his community t hat no other man. because he goes through life wearing a mask. "Because he has a 'eart in 'im. and that he has an ulterior purpose in view.

You may be a painter. and who feel diff ident. no matter how talented you may be. no matter what your sta tion in life may be. and who has therefore something to say. In fact. who reads. So-and-So to dinners or receptions because she is such a good talker. You may be a fine singer. to draw them to you naturally. but people enjoy her society because she can t alk well." There is a helpful suggestion in this advice. but who cannot express himself with ease or eloquence. everyone who comes in contact with you will see your life-picture. It helps you to get on i n the world. comparatively few people will ever see them. only comparatively few people can ever hear or appreciate your music . and you may have a very beautiful home and a lot of property which c omparatively few people ever know about. one which is s uperior to all others. which you have been painting ever since you began to talk . if used as an educator. It not only helps you to make a good impression upon stra ngers. "Talk. A man who can talk well. or how many years you may have spent in perfecting yourself in your specialty. esp ecially upon those who do not know us thoroughly. and yet. Everyone knows whether you are an artist or a bungler. has a very great a dvantage over one who may know more than he." There is no other one thing which enables us to make so good an impression. who has the art of putting things in an attractive way . customers. or without anyone guessing your special ty. as the ability to converse wel l. listens. by the very superiority of your conversationa l ability. thinks. is a tremendous power developer. Conversation. who has been very successful in the launching of débutant es in society. If you are a musician. but if you are a good converser. to rivet their attenti on. It makes you interesting in all sorts of company. She enter tains. everyo ne with whom you talk will feel the influence of your skill and charm. But if you are an artist in conversation. No matter how expert you may be in any other art or accomplishment. But wherever you go and in whatever society you are. To be a good conversationalist. always gives this advice to her protégés. who can interest others immediately by his power of speech. The way to learn to talk is to ta lk. you talk. or how much it may hav e cost you. and yet travel around the world without having an opp ortunity of showing your accomplishment. you may have spent years with great masters. unl ess you have very marked ability so that your pictures are hung in the salons or in the great art galleries. It helps you into the be st society. is to be the possessor of a very great accomplishment. even though you are poor. The temptation for people who are unaccustomed to society. able to interest people. It sends you clients. is to say nothing themselves and listen to what others say. but chatter away lightly and gayly. It does not ma tter much what you say. A noted society leader.Sir Walter Scott defined "a good conversationalist" as "one who has ideas. She may have many defects. patients. It opens doors and softens he arts. Nothing embarrasses and bores the average man so much as a girl who has to be entertained. Everybody wants to invite Mrs. you may have a great many accomplishments which people occasionally se e or enjoy. but talk . it also helps you to make and keep friends. you cannot use your expertness always and everywhere as you can the power to converse well. talk. Good talkers are always sought after in society.

but the foolish. The man who has a bungling expression. All his life he has been a reader of the finest prose and poet ry. "Search me". and has cultivated conversation as a fine art. because it beg ets habits of superficial and senseless thinking. ease. coarse voices are heard in light. slipshod speech. Thousands of young people who envy such of their mates as are getting on faster than they are keep on wasting their precious evenings and their half-holidays. a nd in public places. You may be situated so t hat others are dependent upon you. so quickly as your conversation. You may think you are poor and have no chance in life. which will give so much pleasure to your friends. or efficiency. We do not read eno ugh or think enough. saying nothing but the most frivolous. It will tell your whole life's story. They do not think of forming a sentence . b ecause it is so much easier to do so than it is to think before we speak. not made. flippant. in coarse slang expressions. silly talk which demoralizes o ne's ambition. will never get hold of the best thing in a man. is always placed at a great disadvantage. there is such a refinement in his diction that he charms everyone who hears him speak. Few people think very much about how they are going to express themselves. Every book you read. and how you say it. Poor conversers excuse themselves for not trying to improve by saying that "goo d talkers are born. Most of us express ourselves in sloppy." We might as well say that good lawyers.ing without thinking. he gets on my n erves. you may be tied down to an iron environment. Most of us are bunglers in our conversation. and accuracy. conci seness. is a great pow er. without an effort to express oneself with clearness. as fine conversati on. On the streets. who uses good English. "You're talking through your hat". This is the price of all achievement that is of value. and power. Nothing else will indicate your fineness or coarseness of culture. interesting. frothy. senseless things--things which do not rise to the level of humor. or gossiping. There is no doubt that the gift of language was intended to be a much greate r accomplishment than the majority of us have ever made of it. They use the first words that come to them. his words are chosen with such exquisite delicacy. no attainment which you can use so constantly and e ffectively. "I hate that man. the average society small talk. His language flows with such liqu id. will betray all your secrets. I know a business man who has cultivated the art of conversation to such an ext ent that it is a great treat to listen to him. can help you. taste. and you may not be able to go to school or co llege. disappointed ambition. or to study music or art. good phys icians. as you long to. There is no accomplishment. What you say. limpid beauty. mere chattering. T he ability to interest people in your conversation. but never can put it in logical. will giv e the world your true measure. an d yet you can become an interesting talker. we do not take the trouble or pains to learn to talk well. on the cars. you may be tortured with an unsatisfied." and a score of other such vulgarities we often hear. every person with whom you converse. or commanding language. that's the limit". "You just bet". to mak e an effort to express ourselves with elegance. or good merchants are born. your breedin g or lack of it. None of them would ever get very f ar without hard work. who knows a thing. to hold them. Many a man owes his advancement very largely to his ability to converse well. loud. because in every sentence you utter you can practise the best form of expression. not made. lowers one's ideals and all the standards of life. because we do not make an art of i t. slipshod English. It lies too deep for such superficial effort. "Well.

I have met a dozen persons in my lifetime who have given me such a glimpse of i ts superb possibilities that it has made all other arts seem comparatively unimp ortant to me. P. Printing has become so chea p that even the poorest homes can get more reading for a few dollars than kings and noblemen could afford in the Middle Ages. the transparency of his dicti on. Ward.so that it will have beauty. we no longer have time to r eflect with deliberation. The words flow from t heir lips helter-skelter. when everybody can get for one or a few cents the news and information which it has cost thousands of dollars to collect. Knowledge of all kinds was disseminated almost wholly through the spoken word. they do not stimulate us to actio n. We do not feel any more determined to do something in the world. He sat down on the sofa beside me and talked as he would to an old schoolmate. and using a superb diction. I was once a visitor at Wendell Phillips's home in Boston. no magazi nes or periodicals of any kind. to be somebo dy. . There i s no longer the same need of communicating thought by the spoken word. the liquid charm of his words. as has ex-President Eliot of Harvard. with little thought of arrangement or order. The deterioration is due to the complete revolution in the condition s of modern civilization. Livermore. Mary A. We know other people who talk very little. that it is in deed a luxury. The quality of the conversation is everything. who impre ss us by the wonderful flow of their conversation. the new world op ened up by inventions and discoveries. Oratory is becoming a lost art for the same reason. So rare is it t o hear one speaking exquisite English. and it seemed to me that I had never heard such exquisite and polished English. There were no great daily newspapers. but whose words are so full of meat and stimulating brain force that we feel ourselves multiplied many times by the power they have injected into us. and to develop our powers of conversation. and Elizabeth S. It is a rare thing to find a polished conversationalist to-day. when ev erybody has the mania to attain wealth and position. eve rybody sits behind the morning sheet or is buried in a book or magazine. I shall never forget. Formerly people had almost no other way of communicati ng their thoughts than by speech. the purity. They do not impress us with their thoughts. transparency. In this lightning-express age. when it is capable of being made the art of it is such a treat and bunglers in our convers communication between h arts. the profundity of his knowledge. power. Julia Ward Howe. the fascination of his personality. after we have heard them talk than we felt before. had this won derful conversational charm. but that is all there is to i t. that we should make such a botch of the medium of uman beings. In olden times the art of conversation reached a much higher standard than that of to-day. In these gr eat newspaper and periodical days. and the music of his voice. and the great impetus to ambition have ch anged all this. liquid diction. in these strenuous times. brevity. The great discoveries of vast wealth in the precious minerals. We all know people who use the c hoicest language and express their thoughts in fluent. and delight that we wonder why the most of us should be such ation." Mrs. I have met several Englis h people who possessed that marvelous power of "soul in conversation which charm s all who come under its spell. and his marvelous art of putting things. Now and then we meet a real artist in conversation.

will not only broaden the mind and give new ideas. who have that awfu l feeling of repression and stifling of thought. Many people--and this is especially true of scholars--seem to think that the gr eat desideratum in life is to get as much valuable information into the head as possible. They talk around in a circle. who know a great deal. Conversation is to th e man what the cutting of the diamond is to the stone. you must be as much as possible in the socie ty of well-bred. no describing its marvels of beauty within. If you find that your ideas fly from you when you attempt to express them. you will be a poor converser. Timid young people often suffer keenly in this way in att empting to declaim at school or college. and art. It does not matter how valuable the rough diamond may be. howev er. w ould avail. but they cannot express them because o f the poverty of their vocabulary. when they make an effort to say something and cannot. while some superficial. when they are infinitely bette r informed than those who are making a great deal of display of oratory or smoot h talk. n o explaining. l iterature. but it must be exh ibited. and that is a great aid to conversation. If you are ambitious to talk well. though you are a coll ege graduate. If you seclude yourself. shallow-brained person holds the at tention of those present simply because he can tell what he knows in an interest ing way. sit silent. . telling language. you may be wonderfully well-posted in science. especially the timid and shy. They are constantly humiliated and embarrassed when away from those who happen to know their real worth. repeat and repeat.Good reading. But many a great orator went through th e same sort of experience. b ecause. We all sympathize with people. expressed in some attractive way. they can not find it. and yet. because they can not carry on an intelligent c onversation upon any topic. you may be well r ead in history and in politics. There are hundreds of these silent people at our nat ional capital--many of them wives of husbands who have suddenly and unexpectedly come into political prominence. but i t will also increase one's vocabulary. if one keeps on trying. if your knowledge is locked up within you. unable to tell what they know. We see brainy men at public gatherings. cultured people. There is no other way. however. when momentous questions are being disc ussed. Everywhere we see people placed at a tremendous disadvantage because they have never learned the art of putting their ideas into interesting. you may be sure that every honest effort you make. It is remarkable. But it is just as important to know how to give out knowledge in a pal atable manner as to acquire it. to become an orator or a good conversationalist than by constantly trying to express oneself efficiently and elegantly. that you stammer and flounder about for words which you are unable to find. when he first attempted to speak in public and was of ten deeply humiliated by his blunders and failures. and its great value. often appear like a set of dummies in company. People with a lot of ability. when they want a particular word to convey their exact meaning. They have not words enough to clothe their id eas and make them attractive. It merely reveals its wealth. wil l make it all the easier for you to speak well the next time. You may be a profound scholar. Locked-up ability may give the individual some satisfaction. nobody would appreciate it until it was ground and polished and the light let into its depths to reveal its hidden brilliancy. before the world will appreciate it or give credit for it. Many people have good thoughts and ideas. how quickly he will conquer his awkwardness and self-con sciousness. The grinding does not add anything to the diamond. and will gain ease of manner and facility of expression. you will always be placed at a great disadvantage. even if you fail in your attempt.

Instead of being attentive and eager to drink in th e story or the information. it was con sidered one of the greatest luxuries possible to be a listener in a group surrou nding an intelligent talker. In fact. than anyth ing one could find in a book. It stimulates thought wonderfully. customers or show their ability to give us a boost for poli tical position. but who have cultivated the art o f self-expression. We lack time. before this age of excitement. "We are too intense for epigram or repartee. There is a splendid discipline in the constant effort to express one's thoughts in clear language and in an interesting manner. upon all sorts of topics. children are allowed to mangle th e English language in a most painful way. or elegance of diction. hitch about as if we were bored and were anxious t o get away. Our life is feverish and unnatural.How little parents realize the harm they are doing their children by allowing t hem to grow up ignorant of or indifferent to the marvelous possibilities in the art of conversation! In the majority of homes. We have no time to develop charm of manner. we are inclined to look upon them as so many rungs in a ladde r. Nothing else will develop the brain and character more than the constant effort to talk well. the contact of mind with mind . Many a college graduate has been silenced and put to shame by peo ple who have never even been to a high school. To converse well one must listen well also--hold oneself in a receptive attitud e." Nervous impatience is a conspicuous characteristic of the American people. or which d oes not help us to attain the position for which we are striving. We are not only poor conversationalists. a magnetism which held. Before these days of hurry and drive. we are such an impatient people that we have no time for anything excepting to push ahead. It was better than most modern lectures. intelligently. and to value them in proportion as they furnish readers for our books. The power to do so increase s our self-respect. but we are poor listeners as well. Instead of enj oying our friends. we have not enough respect for the talker to keep qu iet. send u s patients. to elbow our way through the crowd to get the position or the money we desire. clients. conversation is a training in a perpetual school. and interrupt the speaker before he reaches his conclusion. Many get the b est part of their education in this school. if we can interest and hold others. develops new powers. or more money. for there was a touch of personality. play a tattoo with our f ingers on a chair or a table. We are too impatient to listen. a great revealer of possibilities a nd resources. We think more of ourselves if w e can talk well. Ever ything bores us which does not bring us more business. We know people who are such superb conver sers that no one would ever dream that they have not had the advantages of the h igher schools. a superb personality which fascinated. as the mixing of two chemicals often produces a new third substance. the faculties are on the alert. a charm of s tyle. our self-confidence. Every good converser has felt a power come to him from the lis tener which he never felt before. No man knows what he really possesses until he makes his best effort to express to others what is in him. The mingling of thought with thought. For the hun . and which often stimulates and inspires to fre sh endeavor. interestingly. The school and the college employ the student comparatively a few hours a day f or a few years. Then the avenues of the mind fly open. perhaps snap our watch. Conversation is a great ability discoverer. We look about impatiently.

" accompanied by a sh arp nod of the head. No matter how much you may know about a subject. She dissipated their fears. We are like some coll ege boys. Great conversationalists have always been very tactful--interesting without off ending. One cause for our conversational decline is a lack of sympathy. Our conversation will never reach a high standard while we l ive in such a feverish. selfish. It is: "How do?" or "Morning. sometimes. We pay people for doing that while we sit and laugh. how they can make more show. She had such a cordial. so diverse from naturalness. too busily engaged in our own welfare. You must be able to ente r into another's life. We have no time for the development of a fine manner. There are only two things that interest them. to live it with the other person. It does not do to stab people if you would interest them. Spontaneity and humor. that our finer life is crushed out. They do not enter heartily into the lives of others. and the possibility of a fine culture and a superb charm of personality in us are almost impossible and extremely rare. and you must touch them along the lines of their interest. sympathe tic manner that she helped the timid and the shy to say their best things. to see men standing around at the average reception or club gathering. A new type of in dividual has sprung up. and unsympathetic state. yearning for an education. and m ade them feel at home. We work like Trojans during the day. We are too self ish. how you get on. Walter Besant used to tell of a clever woman who had a great reputation as a co nversationalist. we driv e our human engines at such a fearful speed. the charm of the days of chivalry and leisure has almost vanished from our civilization." We have no time to stop on the street and give a decent salutation. They are thinking. No one ca n make a good conversationalist who is not sympathetic. business. or how they can help you. too intent upon our own self-promotion to be interested in others. We have no time for the grace s and the charms. It is pitiable. instead of by a graceful bow. But to-day everything is "touch and go. because their minds are somewhere else. or what your ambition is.gry soul. They are cold and reserved. Some people have the peculiar quality of touching the . and then rush to a theater or other place of amusement in the evening. though she talked very little. thinki ng. if it does not happen to interest those to whom you are talking your efforts will be largely lo st. We have no time to make our own amusement or to develop the faculty of humor and fun-making as people used t o do. If you talk about these things. business. Everything must give way to the material. If you would make yourself agreeable you must be able to enter into the life of the people you are conversing with. they are interested at once. who depend upon tutors to carry them through their examinations--they expect to buy their education ready-made. nor to drag ou t their family skeletons. thinking business. or abandon themselves to the occasion enough to make good talkers. but they do not care a snap about your affairs. or more readers for the ir books--or a better house to live in. dumb. and they could say things to her which they could not say to anyone else. distant. to be a good listener o r a good talker. more clients. more patients. business and their own little worl d. and powerless to enter heartily into t he conversation because they are in a subjective mood. so forced. People thought her an interesting c onversationalist because she had this ability to call out the best in others. thinking how they can get on a little faster--get more business. their affections on themselves and their own affairs. almost helpless. and wrapped up in our own little wor ld. to drink in knowledge from those wise lips was to be fed with a royal feast indeed. Life is becoming so artificial.

which. of justice. You must be broad. no amount of money. a great addition to one's c onversational power. sympathetic. statistics. and. to be a good conversationalist you must be spontaneous. if you lack the sense o f humor. never inter ests you. Politeness has been compared to an air cushion. Vivacity is abs olutely necessary. will make you appear well if you use poor English. What thou wilt. But not everyone can be funny. CHAPTER XVIII A FORTUNE IN GOOD MANNERS Give a boy address and accomplishments. distant. You must feel a spirit o f helpfulness. tolerant. If a man is a success anywhere. although there is appare . effective. SHAKESPEARE. You lock tight all the approaches to your inner self. Heavy conversation bores. and they call out all that is spontaneous and sweet and beauti ful. mechanical. he has not the trouble of earning or owning them . and you ca n only interest them by a warm sympathy--a real friendly sympathy. Every time they come into our presen ce they irritate us. You must bring your listener close to you. too light. and always gave more than he got. Your magnetism and your helpfulness are thus cut off. no matter how important. so that he wil l throw wide open every avenue of his nature and give you free access to his hea rt of hearts. They never touch our sensitive spots. Thou must rather enforce it with thy smile. Others allay all that is disagreeable.--GERMAN PROVERB. and must enter heart and soul into things which interest others. you will make yourself ludicrous by attempting to be funny. You must be responsive. it ought to be in his personality. every avenue is closed to him. Lincoln was master of the art of making himself interesting to everybody he met . A man who i s always violating your sense of taste. and exp ress itself in his manner. and an open mind. With hat in hand. and without life or feeling. A good conversationalist. interesting language. and unsympathetic you can not hold their attention. and made them feel so comple tely at home in his presence that they opened up their mental treasures to him w ithout reserve. disgusts. Facts. and exhib it a broad free nature. You must get the attention of people and hold it by interesting them. and the con versation is perfunctory.best that is in us. in his power to express himself in strong. A sense of humor such as Lincoln had is. A narrow stingy soul never talks well. He should not be obliged to give a stranger an inventory of his possessions in order to show tha t he has achieved something.--EMERSON. nat ural. and of fairness. He does not deal too muc h with facts. of course. weary. Than hew to it with thy sword. Strangers were always glad to talk with him because he was so co rdial and quaint. He put people at ease with his stories and jokes. must open your heart wide. others stir up the bad. and you give him the mastery of palaces and fortunes wherever he goes. however. one gets on in the world. they solicit him to enter and possess. buoyant. Therefore. A greater wealth should flow from his lips. is not too serious. If you are co ld. No amount of natural ability or education or good clothes. and must show a spirit of good will.

and health and happ iness were everywhere. "Don't you wish you had my power?" asked the East Wind of the Zephyr. In about five minutes some one knocked. sought the seclusion of his own apartment. and to keep me from piercing to the very marrow of their bones. Birth's gude. I am the terror of all invalids. and was sent in charge of an angel to find his prope r place in the nether world." Is it necessary to add that the door was opened. but floated from out the bowers of the sky. U nder my breath the nations crouch in sepulchers. After a long interval there came a gentle tapping and the low spo ken words: "It is I. The monk Basle. but it expresses pretty forcibly the fact that a good bearing is indispensable to success as a soldier. But his genial disposition and great conversational powers won friends wherever he went. the pinions of birds and the sails of vessels were gently wafted onward. and all the r ivers and lakes and seas. fleecy clouds went sailing in the lofty heaven. switch 'is stick abart a bit. and he seemed to change the hell into a heaven. your wife. CAREY.ntly nothing in it. orchards ripened. saying that no place could . according to a quaint old legend. let 'im cock 'is chin hup. Open to the Queen of England!" haughtily responded her Majesty." The English is somewhat rude. helse 'e might just has well be a Methodist parson. Mien and manner have much to do with our influence and reputation in any walk of life. silver wheat-fie lds turned to gold. The fallen angels adopted his manner.--SCOTCH PROVERB. At length the angel returned with the monk. I can twist off a s hip's mast as easily as you can waft thistledown. closing and locking the d oor. "Has 'e 's been han hofficer 'e bought to know 'ow to be'ave 'isself better. all the beasts and birds a nd men smiled at its coming. His inborn politeness and kindness of heart were irresistible. "Why. all the forests and fields. whose manly self-respect was smarting at her words.--MATTHEW ARNOLD. when a worthy fellow soldier wished to be reinstated in a position from which he had been dismissed. The foliage and flowers and fruits and harvests. hi say. and even the good angels went a long way to see him and live with him. "Who is it?" inquired the Prince. Don't you wish you had my power ?" Zephyr made no reply. "It is I. men cut down forests for th eir fires and explore the mines of continents for coal to feed their furnaces. whe n I start they hail me by storm signals all along the coast. I can lift and have often lifted the Atlantic. Gardens bloomed. the warm th and sparkle and gladness and beauty and life were the only answer Zephyr gave to the insolent question of the proud but pitiless East Wind. eases our jolts wonderfully. or that the disagreement was at an end? It is said that civility is to a man what beauty is to a woman: it creates an instantaneous impression in hi s behalf. "Why the doose de 'e 'old 'is 'ead down like that?" asked a cockney sergeant-ma jor angrily. Victoria. and Prince Albert. There was no reply. With one sweep of my wing I st rew the coast from Labrador to Cape Horn with shattered ship timber. died while under the ban of e xcommunication by the pope. but breedin's better.--GEORGE L. Conduct is three fourths of life. The story goes that Queen Victoria once expressed herself to her husband in rat her a despotic tone. but with the same result. an give a crack hover the 'ead to hanybody who comes foolin' round 'im. He was remove d to the lowest depths of Hades. What use 'ud 'e be has a non-commissioned hoffice r hif 'e didn't dare look 'is men in the face? Hif a man wants to be a soldier.

Madame." "When sh e had passed. they knew nothi ng. "one an ecdote more. and breathed a purer air. the privileged circle at Coppet after making an excursi on returned from Chambéry in two coaches. Aaron Burr. but she was so overcome by the fine manner of the accused that she believed in his innocence and prayed for his acquittal. But sh e was so fascinated by Burr's charming manner that she sat with his friends. So his sente nce was revoked. "To this day. of thunder-storm. And all about the social air Is sweeter for her coming." Madame de Staël was anything but beautiful. His fascinating smile and winning speech disarmed the fiercest hatred and made friends of the bitterest enemies. Those arriving in the first coach had a rueful experience to relate--a terrific thunder-storm. such a conversation between Madame de Staël and Madame Récamier and Benjamin Constant and Schlegel! they were all in a state of delight." said she fifty years afterwards. In the words of Whittier it could be said of her as might be said of any woman: -Our homes are cheerier for her sake. Roche in Paris.be found in which to punish him. of danger. P." as Longfellow wrote of Evangeline. "I feel the m agic of his wonderful deportment. shocking roads. "it seemed like the ceasing of exquisite music. At the great recep tion to Napoleon on his return from Italy. and dange r and gloom to the whole company. "When Dickens entered a room. The Duke of Marlborough "wrote English badly and spelled it worse. The intoxication of the conversation had made t hem insensible to all notice of weather or rough roads." said Madame Tesse. Beuve. and locked her up. and he was sent to Heaven and canonized as a saint. A gentleman took his daughter of sixteen to Richmond to witness the trial of hi s bitter personal enemy." whispered a servant to Madame de Maintenon at dinner. "it was like the sud den kindling of a big fire. they had forgotten earth. "If I were Queen. twenty thousand francs were put into it.. no. Even the Emperor Napoleon fe ared her influence over his people so much that he destroyed her writings and ba nished her from France. According to St. Our door-yards brighter blooming. who was witho ut arms or legs." Madame Récamier was so charming that when she passed around the box at the Church St. the crowd caught sight of this fascin ating woman and almost forgot to look at the great hero. He still remained the same Basle. "I should command Madame de Staël to talk to me every day." yet he sway ed the destinies of empires. Her father took her from the courtroom. A guest for two weeks at the house of Arthur M. H er hold upon the minds of men was wonderful." She was so fascinating in manner and speech that her guests appeared to overlook all the little discomforts of life. but the conver sation and manner of the host were so charming that the visitor was scarcely con scious of his deformity." said one who knew him well. was very desirous of knowing how he fed himself. commonplace and ashamed. of mud. by which every one was warmed. but she possessed that indefinable so mething before which mere conventional beauty cowers. and she shaped careers as if she were omnipotent. M." It is said that when Goethe entered a restaurant people would lay down their kn . for there is no roast to-day. "Please. They were the creatures of her will . of steeps. The party in the second coach heard their stor y with surprise. The charm of his manner was irresistible and influe nced all Europe. whom he regarded as an arch-traitor. Cavanaugh.

She withd rew in confusion. "I don't think much of Choate's spread-eagle talk. still less of a look of amusement. after hearing the report of Demosthenes' famous oration. An open titter of amusement w ent round the table. returned to his hotel at two o'clock in the morning. drank from his saucer. and which never left him. but the hints had no effect." said a simple-minded member of a jury that had given five successive verdicts to the great advocate. A New York lady had just taken her seat in a car on a train bound for Philadelp hia. His great popularity lay in a magical atmosphere which every one felt. he was almost worshiped by the students. and gave a gesture that seated all her puppets in a moment. Ralph asked his pardon. the other members of the princely household took the r ebuke and did the same. When Edward Everett took a professor's chair at Harvard after five years of stu dy in Europe. who was a Scotch peasant. Julian Ralph." The late King Edward. feeling that he had always been a nobleman in his own right. When coffee was served. She co ughed and moved uneasily. He understood so little of the manners at court that. I could have sent my colored boy. and do not know that there is a smoking-car attached t o the train. Silent and abashed." His manner as well as his logic was irresistible. offering him the tit le of nobleman. What has her astonishment when the conductor told her. being tired. when a somewhat stout man sitting just ahead of her lighted a cigar. quickly noting the cause of the untimely amusem ent. the guest. With two friends who had accompanied him. for there was not one of those five cases that ca me before us where he wasn't on the right side. Philip of Macedon. but threw hi s cigar from the window. to find all the doors locked. invi ted an eminent man to dine with him. Arthur when Mr. His manner seemed touched by that exquisite grace seldom found except in women of rare culture. a moment later. that she had entered the private car of General Grant. but what was his chagrin when the door wa s opened by the President of the United States! "Why." whereat the courtiers were ready to faint. but no one could d escribe. when Prince of Wales. Smoking is not permitted here. but the same fine courtesy which led him to give up his cigar was shown again as he spared her the mortification of even a questioning glance. so she said tartly: "You probably are a foreigner.ives and forks to admire him. after telegraphing an account of President Arthur's fishing-trip to the Thousand Islands." Henry Clay was so graceful and impressive in his manner that a Pennsylvania tav ern-keeper tried to induce him to get out of the stage-coach in which they were riding. which he declined. sai d: "Had I been there he would have persuaded me to take up arms against myself." The man made no reply. gravely emptied his cup into his saucer and drank after the manner of his g uest. The Prince. The Que en's courteous suspension of the rules of etiquette. "L et us sit down. Queen Victoria sent for Carlyle. the first gentleman in Europe. after speaking to her a few minutes. immovable fig ure with apprehension until she reached the door. madam. when prese nted to the Queen. and what it may have cost h er. to the c onsternation of the others. But she was g reat enough." said Mr. No one is up in the house b ut me. "You wouldn't have got in till morning if I had not come. although she watched his dumb. he said. and make a speech to himself and his wife. can be better understood from what an acquaintance of Carlyle said of him wh . but he had fallen asleep and I hated to wake him. "but I call him a very lucky lawyer. that's all right. he battere d at a side door to wake the servants.

to act or talk by the card.'" "It was only a glad 'good-morning. The Greeks thought beauty was a proof of the peculiar favor of the gods. Etiquette originally meant the ticket or tag tied to a bag to indicate its cont ents. there was such pushing and struggling to see the Princess. when I would say. Noblemen are forbidden to strike their wives in company. not the one of greate st physical beauty. who was then but lately married. as in art. or pick their teeth with forks. she published the follo wing rules of etiquette upon cards: "Gentlemen will not get drunk before the fea st is ended. as she passed through the reception rooms. as it was sometim es expressed. At an entertainment given years ago by Prince Edward and t he Princess of Wales. "in which I would voluntarily use the words. Beauty of life and character. but also of the nations her husband conquered." Some persons wield a scepter before which others seem to bow in glad obedience. or had had an attack of seasickness. Ladies of the court must not wash out their mouths in the drinking-glasses." or. in some unaccountable manner. Our good is less good when it i . If a bag had this ticket it was not examined. But it spread the morning's glory Over the livelong day. r asped the nerves. became the thing with the better class es. in their eagerness to see the Princess. Josep hine was to the drawing-room and the salon what Napoleon was to the field--a pre eminent leader. It was fortunate for Napoleon that he married Josephine before he was made comm ander-in-chief of the armies of Italy. But whence do they obtain such magic power? What is the secret of that almost h ypnotic influence over people which we would give anything to possess? Courtesy is not always found in high places.' As she passed along the way. benignity. 'I will!'--namely." but the charm of his manner was almost irresistible . contentment. The secret of her personality that made her the Empress not only of the hearts of the Frenchmen." she said to a friend. Even royal courts furnish many exa mples of bad manners. 'I will that all around me be happy. charity. or wipe their faces on the damask. "His presence. to which only the very cream of the cream of society was a dmitted." But to-day the nobles of R ussia have no superiors in manners. The most fas cinating person is always the one of most winning manners. According to their ideal. It is sharp angles that keep man y souls from being beautiful that are almost so. Its lines seem co ntinuous.en he saw him for the first time. actually stood upon it. and love. To be "the ticket. From this the word passed to cards upon which were printed certain rules to be observed by guests." A fine manner more than compensates for all the defects of nature. has no sharp angles. so gently does curve melt into curve. It was said he had "the face of a tiger pitted by smallpox. and the pedestal up set. and the ladies. a bust of the Princess Royal was thrown from its pedestal and damaged. When Catherine of Russia gave receptions to her nobles. "There is only one occasion. I expected to meet a rare being. Mirabeau was one of the ugliest men in France. These rul es were "the ticket" or the etiquette. and I left him feeling as if I had drunk sour wine. beauty must be the expression of attractive qualities within--s uch as cheerfulness. and considered that beauty only worth adorning and transmitting whi ch was unmarred by outward manifestations of hard and haughty feeling. Her fascinating manners and her wonderful powers of persuasion were more influential than the loyalty of any dozen men in France in attaching to him the adherents who would promote his interests. that. has been beautifully told by herself.

and accuses her of extravagance that would ruin a millionaire. or a civi l one to Sir Robert Walpole. Throw a bone to a dog. Many a man and woman might double thei r influence and success by a kindly courtesy and a fine manner. He is the same disagreeable. They can enjoy nearly everything without the t rouble of buying or owning. polite. a boarding-house. Generosity of heart and a genial go od will towards all are absolutely essential to him who would possess fine manne rs. for they have passports everywhere. Guthrie of Edinburgh. stingy. a nd the banker took off his hat. generous. said a shrewd observer." said Dr. as though she were a lady. sullen. who took me to a pension. I spent the first night with a banker. his little girl begs her father to keep on his "co mpany manners" for a little while. 'Follow your no se and you will find it. and he will say. It carries along with it a dignity that is respected by the most petulant. sunshine. rude. contemptible." A fine courtesy is a fortune in itself. moody. and they enter without money and without price. Johnson did not feel mortified and pained to see h im eat like an Esquimau. but ask any person a questi on for that purpose in this country (Scotland). When we got there. or jealousy. silent. and to hear him call men "liars" because they did not a gree with him? He was called the "Ursa Major. or ill placed. for these poison the sou rces of spiritual life and shrivel the soul. Now. let him take the bone from your hand. pat him on the head. crabb ed bear as before the arrival of his guests. "A man's own good breeding. As by magic he becomes talkative. Call the dog to you. and adopt all that is finest and most wort hy of imitation in every cultured person they meet. Tradition tells us that before Apelles painted his wonderful Goddess of Beauty which enchanted all Greece. the lower classes are not polite is because the upper cl asses are not polite. and joy everywhere. and the reaso n why. in this country. and called her ma demoiselle.s abrupt. "Ask a person at Rome to show you the road. S uddenly the bell rings. crabbed. No man ever said a pert thing to the Duke of Marlborough. and why not? for they carry light. All doors fly open to them. ill timed." The true gentleman cannot harbor those qualities which excite the antagonism of others. observe. for they bear good will to everybody. as we call it. What friend of the great Dr. and his tail will wag with gratitud e. After the callers have gone. envy." or Great Bear. They disarm jealousy and envy. "is the best security against o ther people's ill manners. The dog recognizes the good deed and the gracious manner of doing it. Those w ho throw their good deeds should not expect them to be caught with a thankful sm ile. but with no vibration in his tail. but the sullen mood returns and his courtesy vanishes as quickly as it came. He refuses his wife a little money to buy a needed dress. or. . Bees will not sting a man smeared with honey. and he will run off with it in h is mouth. he traveled for years observing fair women. They are as welcome in every household as the sunshi ne. Here is a man who is cross. malice. and bowed to the servant girl. Some neighbors call: what a change! The bear of a moment ago is as docile as a lamb. Ill breeding invites and authorizes the familiarity of the most timid." says Chesterfield. I remember how astonished I was the first time I was in Pa ris.' But the blame is with the upper classes. hatred. a servant girl came to the door. that he might embody in his matchless Venus a combination of the loveliest found in all. a nd mean with his family and servants. sulky. So the good-mannered study. "an d he will always give you a civil and polite answer. The good-mannered can do without riches . the reason why the lower classes the re are so polite is because the upper classes are polite and civil to them. as revenge.

nay. is a true gentleman." A gentleman is just a gentle man: no more. of hating people not worth thinking about. There can be no change after it is burned in. "You should not have returned their salute." No one can fully estimate how great a factor in life is the possession of good manners. "Hans Andersen's story of the cobweb cloth woven so fi ne that it was invisible--woven for the king's garment--must mean manners. slow to take offense. nor that other people should be blamed. virtue. as he never thin ks it. must be painted before he is glazed. and well-bred man Would not insult me. I beg your pardon. He is slow to surmise evil. steady. invincible operation like that of the air we breathe. or mushroom. Franklin. Jefferson. that subtle oil which lubr icates our relations with each other. and enables the machinery of society to pe rform its functions without friction. "I have not been pope lo ng enough to forget good manners. H e will not allow himself to be exalted. He is not given to talk about himself or others. that seemed nothing ." Aristotle thus described a real gentleman more than two thousand years ago: "Th e magnanimous man will behave with moderation under both good fortune and bad. whe n Clement XIV bowed to the ambassadors who had bowed in congratulating him upon his election.--a plant without any solidity. They are the ki ndly fruit of a refined nature. refines his tastes. sensible. He will nev er choose danger." replied Clement.Benjamin Rush said that when Goldsmith at a banquet in London asked a question about "the American Indians. "there is not a savage in America rude enough to make such a speech to a gentlem an. "Have you not seen in the woods. and self-respec t. Douglas had been abused in the Senate he rose and said: "What no gentleman should say no gentleman need answer. He subjects his appetites." replied Goldsmith. exalt or debase. and are the open sesame to the best of society. "a po or fungus. Johnson exclaimed: "There is not an Indian in North America foolish enough to ask such a question." Dr. nor seek it." says Emerson. A gentleman is gentle. Ev en power itself has not half the might of gentleness. who had been sent to Paris to relieve our most popular repr esentative. which do really clothe a princely nature. or timely thoughtfulness with human sympathy behind it." said Montesquieu. a diamond polished that was first a diamond in the rough. barbarize or refine us by a con stant. he will not allow himself to be abased. nor grieved with failure. and no other can. "because if they are untrue I run the risk of being deceived. modest. He will neither be delighted with success. cheerfulness. He who h as lost all but retains his courage. and never giving it." Cowper says:-A modest." "Sir. I hear. and all that is put on afterwards will wash off." said the French Minister. Manners are what vex or soothe. He does not care that he himself should be praised." asks Emerson. and is rich still. A gentleman. "You replace Dr. hope. cont rols his speech." said the master of ceremonies. no man can replace him." was the felicitous reply of the man who became highly esteemed by the most polite court in Europe. Count de Vergenne s." After Stephen A. "I never listen to calumnies. uniform. "Oh. and if they are true." "I think. and deems every other person as good as himself. l ike porcelain-ware. no less. in a late autumn morning. subdues his feelings. to Mr. "I succeed him. courteous.

Josephine explain ed that. pleasant smile overspread his face: "You h ave my parding. and inconceivably gentle push ing. not more worldly-minded and mon ey-loving than people generally are. in taking a short cut to the house." said Napoleon. and the next time you run ag'in ' me. and forbearance. it's the first time I ever had any body ask my parding. a young and handsome man. and." The art of pleasing is the art of ris ing in the world." "Eat at your own table." says Magoon. and welcome." Napoleon was much displeased on hearing that Josephine had permitted General Lo rges. President Jefferson was one day riding with his grandson. as he courteou sly stepped aside at St. Calling to a rough-looking farmer near by. like bullets. The President returned the salutation by raisi ng his hat. and actually to lift a hard crust on its head? It is the symbol of the power of kindness. and was once ob served holding a long conversation in Italian with an organ-grinder whom he was questioning about scenes in Italy with which they were each familiar. it was one of the aged generals of his army. James Russell Lowell was as courteous to a beggar as to a lord.--and welcome. Helena to make way for a laborer bending under a heavy load.--by its constant. In all ages they ha ve been maltreated and reviled. Jim." sa id Fred Douglass. and so allowed him to retain his seat. madame. you can knock me clean down and I won't say a word." says Richter. he said to a companion: "I say. "go farthest when they are smoothest. She was unwilling to wound the feelings of the honest old soldier. who took off his hat and bowed. They indulge in few or no recriminations. she turned around and said very kindly: "I beg your pard on." "There is no policy like politeness. they surpass al l nations in courtesy. of the difference in color. and despoiled of their civil privileges and thei r social rights. are faithful to old associations. "Men. while a broad. total. miss. they would seldom be shocked or embarrassed at their behavior abroad. he offered a quarter to be carried to . taking off about three quarters of a cap." "Respect the burden. to sit beside her on the sofa. but the grandson ignored the civility of the negro. The politest people in the world. "since a good manner often s ucceeds where the best tongue has failed. In hastily turning the corner of a crooked street in London. "do you permit a slave to be more of a gentleman than yourself?" "Lincoln was the first great man I talked with freely in the United States. more considerate of the prejudices of others than others are of theirs. Stoppin g as soon as she could. while his companion seemed inclined to keep the narrow path. everything considered.but a soft mush or jelly. affability. A Washington politician went to visit Daniel Webster at Marshfield. and then. instead of its being General Lorges. it is said. came to a stream which he could not cross. I am very sorry that I ran against you. N apoleon commended her highly for her courtesy. ma de a low bow and said. yet are they everywhere polite and affable." says Confucius. are the Jews. Mass." said t he grandfather.." After the lady had pa ssed on. and. "who in no single instance reminded me of the difference betwe en himself and me. when they met a slave . "as you would eat at the table of the king. my little fellow." If parents were not careless about the manners of their children at home. respect the burden." The astonished bo y looked at her a moment. entirely unused to the customs of courts. manage to break its way up through the frosty ground. and it kind o' took me off my feet. a young lady ran w ith great force against a ragged beggar-boy and almost knocked him down. "Thomas.

natura lly. "he had sufficient capital. The ladies were embarrassed and di d not dare enter the church. kind. and she was so much pleased with his great politeness that she gave a generous donation to the college. Paul's speech before Agrippa is a model of dignif ied courtesy. and amid the titter of the congregation. R. rude. The old rustic presented himself a t the house a few minutes later." St. I. no man ever put good will or energy into work done for him. a nd soon his profits resulting from his politeness were more than $100. The farmer took the politician on his broad shoulders and lande d him safely. Mr. his g reat politeness in explaining the minutest details to his visitors was in such m arked contrast with the limited attention they had received in large establishme nts that it won their esteem. conducted them up the central aisle. and insolent. for th ey know not what they do. Good manners often prove a fortune to a young man. at their death left the gent le curate a large fortune. Not long ago a lady met the late President Humphrey of Amherst College. even to His persecut ors. and yet render success imposs ible by their cross-grained ungentlemanliness. Courtesy pays. "Why did our friend never succeed in business?" asked a man returning to New Yo rk after years of absence. and. Bad manners often neutralize even honesty. and the greatest energy. The curate pushed through the crowd. obliging. He went back. and was disc ourteous to his customers. Winans to establish locomotive works in Russia. and exceptional shrewdness and sagacity. and g ot the thread. This little incident was talked of all about the city and brought him hundreds of customers. business which might easily be theirs goes to others who are really less de serving but more companionable. harsh. and in terrible agony on the cross.the other side. These old ladies although strangers to him. if one be gentlemanly. gave them choice seats." "He was sour and morose. industry. The strangers were Russians sent by their Czar.." Some men almost work their hands off and deny themselves many of the common com forts of life in their earnest efforts to succeed. Although his was but a fourth-rate factory. Garrison was as polite to the furious mob that tore his clothes from his back a nd dragged him through the streets as he could have been to a king. forgive them. and to the great surprise and chagrin of the vi sitor was introduced as Mr. w hile agreeable manners win in spite of other defects. Webster. He did so. an d conciliating. a merchant in Pr ovidence." was the reply. Butler. as well as of persuasive eloquence. [Illustration: Jane Addams] . a thorough knowledge of h is business. and his patrons went to shops where they were sure of civility. had once closed his store and was on his way home when he met a little girl who wanted a spool of thread. He became very wealthy. and the other disobliging. "he always suspected his employees of cheating him. largely because of his court esy. Take two men possessing eq ual advantages in every other respect. wh o later invited Mr.000 a year . They repel patronage. but would not take the quarter. Ross Winans of Baltimore owed his great success and fortune largely to his cour tesy to two foreign strangers. the former will become rich while the boorish one will starve. A poor curate saw a crowd of rough boys and men laughing and making fun of two aged spinsters dressed in antiquated costume. Christ was courteous. He was one o f the serenest souls that ever lived. Hence. He cried: "Father. opened the store.

It never attacks the coarse and vulgar. which locks their lips and ties their tongues. reserved. and did not try to publis h or preserve one of his plays. Something more must be done than is done in other st ores. the employees must try in every possible way to please and to m ake customers feel at home. Archbishop Whately was so shy that he would escape notice whenever it was possible. and dare no t express an opinion in the social circle. It is a curious fact that diffidence often betrays us into discourtesies which our hearts abhor. Practice on the stage or lecture platform does not always eradicate shyness. By this co urse the business has been developed until it is said to be the largest of the k ind in the world. and which cause us intense mortification and embarrassment." he asked. so that every visitor will remember the Bon Marché with pleasure. It is peculi ar to the Anglo-Saxon and the Teutonic races. and has frequently been a barrier to the highest culture. "I was once very shy. but are merely diffident and shy. "Thank you. it almost entirely disapp eared. and where almost everything is kept for sale. Da vid Garrick. Sir Isaac Newton was the shyest man of his age. He took second or third-rate parts on account of his diffidence.A fine illustration of the business value of good manners is found in the Bon M arché. At last he det ermined to give up trying to cure his shyness. Elihu Burritt was so shy that he would hide in the cellar when his parent s had company. George Wa shington was awkward and shy and had the air of a countryman. The two distinguishing characteris tics of the house are one low price to all. please call again. and extreme courtesy." said Sydney Smith. "but it was not long before I made tw o very useful discoveries." spoken to a little beggar-girl who bou ght a pennyworth of snuff proved a profitable advertisement and made Lundy Foote a millionaire. who would walk up to a cannon's mouth in battle. Addison was one of the purest writers of English and a perfect master of the pen. Many persons of real refinement are thought to be stiff. the great actor. There are many worthy people who are brave on the street. He did not acknowledge his grea t discovery for years just for fear of attracting attention to himself. He said that he never went on the platform without fear and trembling. John B. an enormous establishment in Paris where thousands of clerks are employed. and would often b e covered with cold perspiration. and next. my dear. that the world was very clea . "should I en dure this torture all my life?" when. Generally shyness comes from a person thinking too much about himself--which in itself is a breach of good breeding--and wondering what other people think abou t him. first. to his surprise. that all mankind were not solely employed in o bserving me. he was so confused a nd embarrassed that the judge dismissed him. for fear it would increase the acquaintances he would have to meet. Ex cessive shyness must be overcome as an obstacle to perfect manners. that shamming was of no use. and. Shak espeare was very shy. proud. though he had acted for thirty years with marked self-possession. "for why. was once summoned to testify in court. and h aughty who are not. It is a disease of the finest organizations and the high est types of humanity. Mere politenes s is not enough. He would not allow his name to be used in connection with his theory of the moon's motio n. Gough said that he could no t rid himself of his early diffidence and shrinking from public notice. but he co uld scarcely utter a dozen words in conversation without being embarrassed. but who are cowards in the drawing-room. They feel conscious of a subtle tyran ny in society's code. He retired from London at forty.

Here's fun. he is more careful." "In civilized society. like our characters. their best time. Our manners. he came to Boston from his farm in countryman's dress. from the same superfi cial cause. horseback riding. and unlock the tongue. for which a higher beauty should not be sacrificed. Shy people should dress well. we may do much to overcome the sense of shyness. elocution. Every time we go into society we must step on the scales of each person's opinion. who. every f ield blushes beneath a mantle of beauty. and wear plain. and similar accomplishments. when he overheard the remark between some ladies and gentlemen: "Ah." Besides him stands young Jones. Some people look upon polished manners as a kind of affectation. polite. The mistake has been mutual. straightforward. and soon estimated a man at his true value. When Ezekiel Whitman. unornamented houses made from square blocks of stone . Good clothes give ease of manner. or the claims of others on their service . A man with a good coat upon his back meets with a better reception than he w ho has a bad one. permit me to wish you health and happiness. its carved and fretted marbles of matchl ess hues. yet all t he while full of kindly. when he arose and said. who are troubled more by an unfashionable garment than by a neglected duty. square. This cured me. turning to the dumfounded company. when it may indicate quite the reverse. are always under inspection. rail at it who may. solid. here comes a rea l homespun countryman. every star is veiled in brightness. As peculiarities in apparel are sure to attract attention. He entered the parlor and sat down. thought you were ladies and gentlemen. Peter's is none the less strong and solid because of its elegant columns a nd the magnificent sweep of its arches. Beauty in dress is a good thing. who for it ne glect the culture of the mind or heart. Each mentally asks. "external advantages make us more respect ed. cordial feeling for one's fellow men! Shy people are al ways distrustful of their powers and look upon their lack of confidence as a wea kness or lack of ability. was elected t o the Massachusetts legislature. But it is a lower beauty. "This young man is gaining. thoughtful. and went to a hotel in Boston. rugged characters. They love dress too much who give it their first thought. and may you grow better and wise r in advancing years. All present weigh him in their judgment and silen tly say. Whitman. "Is this pe rson going up or down? Through how many grades has he passed?" For example. tending to throw ridicule upon him." They asked him all sorts of queer questions." Just then Governor Caleb Strong entered and called to Mr. By teaching ch ildren early the arts of social life. They might as well say that they prefer square. dancing. con siderate. a prominent lawyer and graduate of Harvard. or all their money. who care more for dress than for their character. eve ry bird is clothed in the habiliments of the most exquisite taste. while inferiority of garb often induces res traint. while I. from my dress. industrious. They claim adm iration for plain. "Ladies and gentlem en. said: "I wish you a very good evening. it is well to avoid bright colors and fashionable extremes." What a misfortune it is to go through life apparently encased in ice. He has put robes of b eauty and glory upon all his works. plain. St. well-fitting garm ents of as good material as the purse will afford. Every flower is dressed in richness.r-sighted. Yo u mistook me. and the loss or gain from our last weight is carefully noted." says Johnson. such as boxing. bearing in mind that outward appearances are deceitful. It is e . The consciousness of being well dressed gives a grace and ease of manner that even religion will not bestow. for a country booby." One cannot but feel that God is a lover of the beautiful. youn g Brown enters a drawing-room.

four ounces. that tell tale in the soul. three drachms. Of Essence of Heart's-Ease. indifferent. if we dwell upon our weaknesses. but not always whether it be sound or decayed. and grace they would gain. rushes to the eye or into the manner and betrays us. who ever stands in the shadow of ourselves holding the scales of justice. doe s not look you in the eye. or I-am-better-than-you-ness. No one has ever done a great thing wh ile his mind was centered upon himself. Mere politeness can never be a substitute for mora l excellence. The Mixture to be taken whenever there is the slightest symptom of selfishness. We cannot long deceive the world. Of the Oil of Charity. The following recipe is recommended to those who wish to acquire genuine good m anners:-Of Unselfishness. what success in hey would achieve. It may well indicate the kind of wood below. snaps at the servants. Their thoughts are always turned inward. meanness. is mean. they are always analyzing. We usually find all where we find any one of these qualities. three drachms. and self-consciousness belong to the same family. and no scruples. I sometimes think it would be a great advantage if one could read these ratin gs of his associates. do not constitute or fin ally determine his character. they would be sed to see what freedom. and they are all enemies of peace of mind. one ounce. Self analysis is valuable only to learn our strength. three drachms. Pattern after Him who gave the Golden Rule. for that other self. Of the tincture of Good Cheer. rough. and who was the first true gentlema n that ever breathed. se people could only forget themselves and think of others. shy people are morbidly self-conscious. We must lose ourselves before we can fin d ourselves. . Of the Extract of the Rose of Sharon. happiness. two ounces.vident that he is losing ground rapidly. themse dissec If the surpri life t Timidity. yet is over-p olite to strangers. while they are the garb of the gentleman. shyness. they think too much about lves. He is careless. wondering how they appear and what people think of them. ting themselves. But manners. Of the Infusion of Common Sense and Tact. and achievement. any more than the bark can take the place of the heart of the oak. one ounce. fatal. stingy. And so we go through life. Etiquette is but a substitute for good manners and is often but the ir mere counterfeit. ease. Of the Spirit of Love. exclusiveness. Sincerity is the highest quality of good manners. tagged with these invisible labels by all who know u s. CHAPTER XIX SELF-CONSCIOUSNESS AND TIMIDITY FOES TO SUCCESS Timid.

putt ing slights upon him. and teased unmercifully. He begins to see that the wor ld is too busy to bother itself especially about him.Thousands of young people are held back from undertaking what they long to do. they are not usually thinking of him. or analyze every simple remark until you magnify it into something of the greatest importance. they are so touchy th at their sense of honor is constantly being hurt and their pride stung by the un conscious thrusts of classmates and companions. wherever he goes. saying and thinking unkind things. or to resent a fancied slight. or analyzing his character. Many a good business man has been kept back. He does not realize that other people are too busy and too much inter ested in themselves and other things to devote to him any of their time beyond w hat is absolutely necessary. because they are afraid to jostle with the world. or get out. Do not have suc h a low and unjust estimate of people as to think they are bent on nothing but h urting the feelings of others. he know s that he will be called the class booby. From his distorted viewpoint some brother or sister in the church is always hurting him. he is the center of obs ervation. and that. and who gi ves his neighbors credit for being at least as good as he is. When he thinks they are aiming remarks at him. He will be ashamed to play "cry baby" every time he feels h urt. Morbid sensitiveness requires heroic treatment. Think less of yourself and m ore of others. and cannot keep places when they get them. A man who appreciates himself at his true value. even when people look at him. It is far removed from conceit or self-esteem. yet it causes one's personality to overshadow everything else. A sufferer who wishes to overco me it must take himself in hand as determinedly as he would if he wished to get control of a quick temper. because of this weakness. Become interested in things outside of yourself. or any other defect which prevented his being a whole man. He imagines that people are criticizing his movements. "What shall I do to get rid of it?" asks a victim. when boys enter college as freshmen. Mingle freely with people. whatever he does. or throw . or even ruined. Do not brood over what is said to you. they m ay not be even conscious of his presence. making fun at h is expense. and are kept from trying to make real their great life-dreams. cannot be a victim of over-sensitiveness. but will make up his mind to grin and bear it. well educated and able. In such a n environment he will soon learn that everyone has all he can do to attend to hi s own business. A college course is of inestimable value to a boy or girl of over-refined sensi bilities. A sensitive person feels that. Oftentimes. and depreciating and making light of them on ever y possible occasion. o r drinking. or stealing. when they are probably not thinking of h im at all. which smart from the lightest touch. One of the best schools for a sensitive boy is a large business house in which he will be thrown among strangers who will not handle him with gloves. Working in competition with other people. Th ere is many a clergyman. whether in man or woman. by his quickness to take offense. takes the nonsense out of him. or to rid himself of a habit of lying. so he is simp ly forced to drop his foolish sensitiveness. is really an exaggerated form of s elf-consciousness. Their super-sensitiveness makes cowards of them. They shrink from exposing their sore spots and sensitive points. If one shows that he is hurt. they realize that it would be the most foolis h thing in the world to betray resentment. But after they have been in coll ege a term. Thousands of people are out of positions. and have been knocked about and handled in a rough but good-humored manner by youths of their own age. Over-sensitiveness. He will realize that he must be a man and give and take with the others. and seeing that exactly the same treatment is given to those above him as to himself. or whatever he says. who is so sensitive that he can not keep a pastorate long. or trying to hold him up to the ridicule of others.

The result is that she makes it so unpleasant for her employers that they do no t promote her. No painter ever did a great masterpiece when trying to keep all the rules of hi s profession. and those who expect to get on must rid themselves of all morbid sensitive ness. fused in the fire of his geni us. ar e usually very sensitive. Then they found their style. vigorous editorial write r who is so prone to take offense that he can not hold a position either on a ma gazine or a daily paper. of perspective. He is cut to the very quick by the slightest criticism. the science of color. touch an d go. It is when the orator's soul is on fire with his theme. that he writes naturally. which greatly detracts from an otherwise agreeable personality. No one ever does a really great thing until he feels that he is a part of something greater than himself. their grammar. Could anything be more foolish and short-sighted than to allow a morbid sensiti veness to interfere with one's advancement in life? I know a young lady with a superb mind and a fine personality. by losing themselves in their subject. Some of our best writers never found themselves. it is intended for her. . Many schoolteachers are great sufferers from over-sensitiveness. or trying to apply the conventional rules of or atory. can he really create. and then only. but they have a ll they can do to attend to their own affairs.--then. No singer ever captivated her audience until she forgot herself. unt il they forgot their rules for construction. who has been kept in a very ordinary situation for years simply because of her morbid sensitiveness. the laws of drawing. in his mind. and other people with artistic temperaments. and have no time to spend in minu tely analyzing the nature and feeling of those whom they meet in the course of t heir daily business. and she "flies off the handle" over every lit tle remark that she can possibly twist into a reflection upon herself. Writers. Remarks of par ents. never touched their power. it is give and take. and he forgets hi s audience. no matter how rough in manner or bearing. And she can not understand why she does not get on faster.ing out hints and suggestions calculated to injure him in the eyes of the congre gation. that he really does a great thin g. I have in mind a very strong. Self-consciousness is a foe to greatness in every line of endeavor. If they do not. In the busy world of affairs. It is when a writer is so completely carried away with his subject that he cann ot help writing. their rhetorical arr angement. capable of filli ng a superior position. and would much rather help than hinder a fellowbeing. The great majority of people. He shows what his real style is. they doom themselves to unhappiness and failure. authors. She takes it for granted that if any criticism is made in the department where she works. or little bits of gossip which are reported to them make them feel as if people were sticking pins in them. or school committees. metaphorically speaking. forgets everything but his subject. Everything must be swallowed up in his zeal. are kin d-hearted. all the time. a feeling that he has been imposed upon. until she was lost in her song. until he surrenders to that greater principle. and regards every suggestion for the improvement of his work as a personal affr ont. No orator has ever electrified an audience while he was thinking of his style o r was conscious of his rhetoric. He always carries about an injured air.

he knows that he is liable to give offense to these people without ev er intending it. The art of using moderate abilities to advantage wins praise." said a Confederate officer. and that they take into consideration the thousand and one little vexations and happenings which are ext remely trying. "Tact clinches the bargain. "I do not know how it is. It makes an emplo yer very uncomfortable to feel that those about him are carrying around an injur ed air a large part of the time. leveling his rifle. ELIZA COOK. "Berry sorry. They will think of his troubles. not their own." . Sails out of the bay. "he did not inte nd to guarantee them." This seemed to him the more strange because sometimes he would breakf ast at eight and at other times as late as eleven. that every quarter of an hour I put a fresh chicken down to roast. Laugh. than the pedant by his awkward attempt to exhibit his erudition. he went to secure the votes of t hirty men who were cradling a wheatfield." The officer surrendered. Address makes opportunities."--VICTOR HUGO. "must kill you den.--BOVEE. if they are wise: they will forget self. The whole thirty voted for him.--ROCHEFOUCAULD. "but at whate ver hour I call for my breakfast my chicken is always ready and always in good c ondition. on the pla tform of the improvement of the Sangamon River. Gets the vote in the Senate. "Sire." "I never will surrender to a nigger. He'll suit his bearing to the hour. and that if he does not happen to approach them with a smiling fa ce." When Abraham Lincoln was running for the legislature the first time. A man wants to feel that his employees understand him. and contribute their zeal to the greater good. and often acquire s more reputation than actual brilliancy. when a colore d soldier chased and caught him. They asked no questions about internal improvements." said the cook. Spite of Webster or Clay. A man who knows the world will not only make the most of everything he does kno w. but of many things he does not know. and will gain more credit by his adroit mode of hiding his ignorance. but only seemed curious to know whether he had muscle enough to r epresent them in the legislature. they will not take offense." says Montesquieu. so that your Majesty is sure always to have it at perfection. or teach.--COLTON." said the negro. and Force replied "Address.No one wishes to employ anyone who is so sensitive that he is obliged to be on his guard every moment lest he wound him or touch a sore spot. massa. hain't time to go back and git a white man. the want of it gives them. "When God endowed human beings with brains. listen. Lincoln took up a cradle and led the gang arou nd the field." said Napoleon in surprise to his cook. CHAPTER XX TACT OR COMMON SENSE "Who is stronger than thou?" asked Braham. with consideration and friendliness in his words or commands. learn. If anything has gone wrong in his business and he fe els vexed. "the r eason is. so that he never quite knows whether they are i n sympathy with him or not.

he had two holes cut through the panel s for them to pass at will. A day or two after he put his hand in his pocket for one. Years afterward." The world is full of theoretical. but sold the whole instrument. to obtain several hundred d ollars' worth. We see its failure everywhere. One of Napoleon's marshals understood military tactics as well as his chief . Learning of a new issue of gold pieces at the Treasury. he directed his secretary. it is the interpreter of all riddles. It is the open eye. but on reflection remembered that he had given them away. Adam Smith could teach the world economy in his "Wealth of Nations ." was asked b y his wife to bring home some coffee.Talent in this age is no match for tact. Isaac Newton could read the secret of creation. and so on until he took the whole amount lost from the places where he had deposite d them thoughtlessly. but. "The professor is not at home. A professor in mathematics in a New England college. he would fall upon his feet. and lacked the other's skill and tact. tact is up at six. Tact wi ll manipulate one talent so as to get more out of it in a lifetime than ten tale nts will accomplish without it." Talent is power. "How much will you have?" asked the mercha nt. tact knows how to do i t. a fee of one thousand dollars in crisp ne w bills of large denomination was handed to Daniel Webster as he sat reading in his library. Many great men are very impractical even in the ordinary affairs of life. but. one by one. but could not find any of the bills. he found a bank-bill without a crease in it. while all their other faculties have atrophied and died." said his servant who looked out of a window in the dark and failed to recognize Lessing when the latter knocked at his own door in a fit of absent-mindedness. "Oh. the judging taste. but he did not know men so well. but a monstrosity. and lively touch. impractical men. I declare. who have turned a ll the energies of their lives into one faculty until they have developed. but tact is everything. as he read. "No matter. Webster was at first puzzled. t he surmounter of all difficulties. Dean Swift nearly starved in a country parish where his more practical classmate Stafford became r ich. becaus e they can perform one kind of work that no one else can do as well. but it i s like the life of all the five. but I guess a bushel will do. "Talent lies abed till noon. I' ll call at another time. my wife did not say. as he turned the page of a book. tact is skill. Charles Lanman. "Well. For his argument in the Florida Case. Napole on might fall. Beethoven was a great musician. We often call these one-sided men geniuses. and a small one for the ki tten." replied Lessing. but the y were all gone. Talent knows what to do. the quick ear. like a cat. and yet he was so poor at times that he had only a biscuit and a gla ss of water for dinner. the remover of all obstacles. A merchant is excused if he is a giant in merchandise." Many a great man has been so absent-minded at times as to seem devoid of common -sense. He paid his tailor as large a sum in advance. On turning the next leaf he found another. It is not a sixth sense. a large hole for the cat. tired of rising from his chair t o open the door for a cat and her kitten. not a full-orbed. one-sided." . The next day he wished to use some of the money." but he could not manage the finances of his own household. a "book-worm. to friends who seemed to appreciate their b eauty. very well. and the wo rld excuses their impractical and almost idiotic conduct in most matters. symmetrical man. He did not know enough of business to cut the coupon fro m a bond when he wanted money. the keen smell. though he may be an imbecile in the drawing-room. "Talent is something. but he sent three hundred florins to pay f or six shirts and half a dozen handkerchiefs.

"bows to the inevitable and makes use of it. and continued to reduce the supply of food. one from Oxford." Do not expect too much from books. Book education alone tends to make a man too critical. you are now jealous of us and are trying to drive us away. Therea fter the Spaniards had all the provisions they needed. On the appointed day the sun rose without a cloud. The world cares little for his theories or his encyclopaedic know ledge." Th e use of books must be found outside their own lids." said Columbus to the Indian chiefs. and is gained at the cost of vigor and rugged strength. The Gre at Spirit is angry with you for not doing as you agreed in bringing us provision s. but he had made a fortun e. and when the sun had passed out of the shadow they leaped and danced and sang for joy. too highly polishe d. the natives grew frantic and fell prostrate before Col umbus to entreat for help. but no w you bring very little and the amount is less with each succeeding day. a nd when he graduates. You brought us food in plenty every morning. weakens a man. He knew nothing of books or theories. To show his anger he will cause the sun to be in darkness. The culture of books and colleges refines. coarse sheep-raiser. His three hired graduates could speak foreign langu ages and discuss theories of political economy and philosophy. promising to save them. yet it is often but an ethical cultu re. Bacon said that studies "teach not their own use. and the Indians shook their heads. and. if po ssible. Not long ago three college graduates were found working on a sheep farm in Aust ralia." . one from Cambridge. timid. and is therefore out-stripped in the race of life by t he boy who has had no chance.Louis Philippe said he was the only sovereign in Europe fit to govern. won by observation." Over-culture. The st amina of the vigorous mind he brought from the farm has evaporated in college. distrustful of his abili ties. Book culture alone t ends to paralyze the practical faculties. and too finely cultured for every day use. "Common sense. but he could make money. his head is filled with theories and saturated with other men's thoughts. he came out and said that t he Great Spirit had pardoned them. for he c ould black his own boots. but the Indians did not believe him." said Wendell Phillips. he is astonished to find that he has lost the power to gra pple with men and things. "We have been among you several weeks. The owne r of the farm was an ignorant. The college graduate often mi stakes his crutches for strength. They readily promised. has developed hard common sense and practical wisdom. in the fierce struggle for existence. while the college men could scarcely get a living. He could talk about nothing but sheep and farm. and told the day and hour it would occur. The bookworm loses his individuality. The cry of the age is for practical men. yet who can scarcely get a living. but that there is a practical wisdom without them. without practical exp erience. and the other from a German Universi ty. too fine for the mechanical drudgery of practical life. too self-conscious. beginning to show signs of open hostility as the hours passed without a s hadow on the face of the sun. but he knew sheep. and the ranch beat every time. the college against the ranch. they drove sheep. He inhabits an ideal realm where common sense rarely dwells. It was "culture against ignorance. It was said of a great Fren ch scholar: "He was drowned in his talents. About the time for the eclipse to pass away.--college men tending brutes! Trained to lead men. as it became larger. and would soon drive away the monster from th e sun if they would never offend him again. but who. although at first you treated us like friends. The world is full of men and women apparently splendid ly endowed and highly educated. "an d. and unfits him for real life. He retired to his tent. But at length a dark spot was seen on one margin. Even the University could not supply common sense." He knew that ther e was to be an eclipse of the sun.

They killed a family down the river last night. as he raised the covere d lantern to the window." "Husband away? Whew! that's bad! Well." Then springing upon the horse the b oys had brought. and will not be back until morning. he flung it over the vegetable lantern. Joe! Light up the other one! Don't you see that's wh at scar't 'em so?" demanded Obed. Moore. He had very few chances such as are now open to the humblest boy. ma de to imitate a gigantic grinning face. and wit h a live coal from the ashes he lighted the candle inside. and mouth. said: "Shakespeare always hits the right nail on the head at onc e. An unear thly yell greeted the appearance of the grinning monster. "They'll sound the wa r-whoop in a minute. Pulling off his coat. By three presid ents whom his tact and shrewdness had helped to elect he was offered the English mission and scores of other important positions. and don't strike a light to-night. "Stand by that window with the axe. and almost stumbled over a very large pumpkin. Lincoln selected Weed to attempt the reconciliation of the "New York Herald. "My husband went away y esterday to buy our winter supplies. The emperor of France favored the South. Thurlow Weed earned his first quarter by carrying a trunk on his back from a sl oop in New York harbor to a Broad Street hotel." Opening the bullet-pouch." he whispered. but he had tact and intuition. Mrs. but he invariably declined. the ver y next day after their interview the "Herald" became a strong Union paper. and mold them to his will. Obed felt around to see if there were any smaller balls in the cupboard. and left Obed and Joe to watch.When Caesar stumbled in landing on the beach of Britain. Goethe. as he sa w several shadows moving across the fields. Moore carried the younger children to the loft of the cabin. he galloped away to warn other settlers. "and give me a fresh horse as soon as you can. reluctantly yielding the post of danger to them at their urge nt request. Joe!" whispered Obed early in the evening. but the Indians did not return. he instantly grasped a handful of sand and held it aloft as a signal of triumph. But Weed's rare tact modified his views. Mr. "Quick. shut up as tight as you can. he took ou t a ball. nose. Thoug h Weed and Bennett had not spoken to each other before for thirty years. and nobody k nows where they'll turn up next!" "What shall we do?" asked Mrs. and the Indians fled w ildly to the woods." It has been said that a few pebbles from a brook in the sling of a David who kn ows how to send them to the mark are more effective than a Goliath's spear and a Goliath's strength with a Goliath's clumsiness. "Get ready for the redskins!" shouted an excited man as he galloped up to the l og-cabin of the Moore family in Ohio many years ago. "They're coming. but nearly fainted as he found it was too large for the rifle. and induced him . He could read m en as an open book. one of th e two which he and Joe had been using to make Jack-o'-lanterns when the messenge r alarmed them. while I get the rifle pointed at this one. He was very indignant because Charl eston harbor had been blockaded. but I have to stop and think which is the right nail. Moore and dayligh t came together. "Now for it!" he added." w hich had a large circulation in Europe. His fat her had taken the wrong pouch. with open eyes. thus shutting off French manufacturers from lar ge supplies of cotton. Weed was then sent to Europe to counteract the pernicious influence of secession agen ts. He was unselfish. hiding forever from h is followers the ill omen of his threatened fall. and at the appearance of the second fiery face the savages gave a final yell and vanished in the forest. speaking of some comparisons that had been instituted between himself a nd Shakespeare. Cover up yo ur fire. with a pale face. if I give them time. pulling the coat away. and was creating a dangerous public sent iment abroad and at home by its articles in sympathy with the Confederacy. before I hit.

as t hey came to a bridgeless river which the army had to cross. M. James to enjoy his bad health in the pitiless solitude of a c rowd. He was equally successful in business. James. "Mr. "Speak to the jury." The engineer drew the cap-piece of his helmet down until the edge seemed just i n line between his eye and the opposite bank. he turned on his heel and noticed where the edge seemed to touch the bank o n which he stood." was the reply. "bring in two to-morrow morning." was the answer the shrewd young preacher sent back. A. On his return to America the city of New York extended public thanks to h im for his inestimable services. would be delayed for an hour by a fa ilure to make close connections." "I hope nothing serious is the matter. on the sudden death of an only child." "How do you do. . Webster." said the mayor of a Western city. pointing to twelve silver statues in a cathed ral." Turning. and possesse d that practical wisdom and tact which have ever moved the world. The man di d not understand and continued as before. holding himself carefully er ect. as their Master did. or you shall be deposed. "allow me to introduce you to Mr. and Charlemagne could hardly write his name so that it could be deciphered. in a tone of anxious concern. Smith. Mr." said Napoleon to his chief engineer. as he glanced at a thousand people waiting to take his hand. one of our most distinguished citizens. Webster. which was on the same level as the other. gentlemen. coin them into money." replied Pr esident Wayland. I think it's rheumatiz. Walpole was an ignorant man. James in a most lugubrious tone. James?" asked Webster mec hanically. "Yes.to change to friendliness the tone of a hostile speech prepared for delivery to the National Assembly. "I am not very well. then. "Sire. showed his resentment against Providence by abolishing the Christian religion throughou t his dominions for a fortnight. but these giants knew men and things. but my wife----" "Mr. or common sense. leaving poor Mr. "Address yourself to the jury. "Take them down. when it was learned that the g reat statesman." "Very well. sir. Montaigne tells of a monarch who. "Good-morning. be reasonable!"--"Ascerta in at once the width of this river. the men sitti ng behind you on the raised benches." said Napoleon. He paced the distanc e to the point last noted. sir." "What are these?" asked Napoleon. My scientific instruments are with the army. this is Mr. "mel t them. and let them go about doing good." He did not bring them." "Measure the width of this stream instantly. Fifty and my expenses." broke in the mayor . and said. F. "Will you lecture for us for fame?" was the telegram young Henry Ward Beecher r eceived from a Young Men's Christian Association in the West. although weary with travel." He was promoted. Webster. over talent and genius. I don't know that. and acqu ired a fortune of a million dollars. England was working night and day preparing for war when Weed arrived upon the scene." replied Mr. Mr. "The tru th is." said a judge to a witness who insisted upo n imparting his testimony in a confidential tone to the court direct. "I could make as good ones myself. Webster. "Well. are seen everywh ere. The triumphs of tact. His total want of tact had made him ridiculous. "The twelve Apostles. I cannot."--"Sire." said a student at Brown University." thundered the godlike Daniel. and soon changed largely the current of public sent iment. E. the witness bowed low in awkward suavity. and we are ten miles ahead of it." "I don't think the Proverbs of Solomon show very great wisdom. and said: "This is the approximate width of the strea m. "Tell me the breadth of this stream. Mr.

Napoleon could do anything in the art of war with his own hands. He ground up the king and his vassal. "No. honor and dishonor. when the old man asked how one could succeed so well where t he other had failed. Others make Don Quixote's mistake of fighting a windmil l by engaging in controversies with public speakers and editors. The excellence s and defects will appear if you get the right angle. the pure and the impure. Edito rs are generally fine men. when shown the land. He sed my wax-wurks was a humbug. yet rather than be deprived of the rays of the life-giving sun in the de nse forests of South America.Tact. Paul was all things to all men. I giv it up. but on reflectin ' that he cood pollish me much wuss in his paper. and must be willing to work like a horse. but who had a sort of dull energy in him which enabled him to get on in the world." To see a man as he is you must turn him round and round until you get him at th e right angle. what duz this pussillanermus editer do but change his toon and abooze me like a injun. and I wood here t ake occashun to advise people when they run agin. like Alexander. an d kalled me the urbane and gentlemunly manager. the fool and the fop. fur the purpuss of s howin' fair play all round. Artemus Ward touches this bubble with a pretty sharp-pointed pen. and climb the n earest trunk to the light. During a storm at . that I was shaimfully aboozed by a editer in human form. who are sure to have the advantage of the final word. he worked everything into his plays." John Jacob Astor had practical talent in a remarkable degree. howeve r unworthy their notice. the Muther of Presidents and things. mus t not omit a single essential detail. Place him in a good light. The palm is among the hardest and least yielding of all woods. as they sumtimes will. Ther e is a certain getting-on quality difficult to describe. don't assault a editer of this kind.--everything within the sweep of his vi sion he ground up into paint and spread it upon his mighty canvas. these m iserable papers. A farmer who could not get a living sold one half of his farm to a young man wh o made enough money on the half to pay for it and buy the rest. but there must be black sheep in every flock. One of the greatest elements of strength in the character of Washington was found in his forbearance when unjustly attack ed or ridiculed. but when I. Shakespeare had marvelous tact." said he. He set my Show up steep. however rapid its flight. "It was in a surtin town in Virginny. Some people show want of tact in resenting every slight or petty insult. pas sions and characters. A practical man not only sees. even to the making of gunpowder. Abuv all. I thort at fust Ide pollish him orf ar-lar Beneki Boy. and leads its forces to g lorious victory. that he might save some. it needs manure. and called me a horey-heded itinerent v agabone. cuts the knots it cannot untie. and don't do you no more good than it would to jump into enny other mudpuddle. which is jist what he wants. went to anuther offiss to get my handbills printed. The class leader had only a theoretical knowledge. th e black and the white. it is said to turn into a creeper. as you would a picture. to not pay no attenshun to um. "You have not ta ct. "this does n ot need a prayer. and could not cope with the stern realities of the age. How our old schoolmates ha ve changed places in the ranking of actual life! The boy who led his class and w as the envy of all has been distanced by the poor dunce who was called slow and stupid. but seizes the opportunity. It only gives him a notorosity." was his reply. the simple and the profound. but which is the great winner of the prizes of life. Even genius. According to an old custom a Cape Cod minister was called upon in April to make a prayer over a piece of land. the prince and the peasant.

"and it has gained for them an a scendency. Genius is the infinite art of taking pains. from which nothing will ever d isplace them. I vill dell you what is de difference. If I were a cobbler. dat is chenius. "Let me see the watch. OLD SONG." Seven years later the gentleman returned from India. "Sir. preach a better sermon. though he build his house in the woods. but young Astor went below and coolly put on his best suit of clothes. SIMMONS." said a traveler to one of that race." CHAPTER XXI ENAMORED OF ACCURACY "Antonio Stradivari has an eye That winces at false work and loves the true. "take it with you wherever you please.--EMERSON. no tinker beside Should mend an old kettle like me." said the man. "Their trading talent is bringing the Jews to the front in America as well as i n Europe. I hate a thing done by halves.--C. "I bring you back your watch. or make a better mous e-trap than his neighbor. If a man can write a better book. and can tell me there has been a difference of five minutes." said the man. He learned his trade of Tampion. le ave it undone. If it be right. When a person once asked him to repair a watch upon which his name was . the other passengers ran about the deck in despa ir. in drade. "but vy d o you shpeak of deir drading dalent all de time?" "But don't you regard it as a talent?" "A dalent? No! It is chenius. it would be my pride The best of all cobblers to be. whose name on a timepiece was considered proof positive of its exc ellence. "for ten times the sum I paid for it. at least in certain branches of trade. the most exquisite mechanic in London." "I remember our conditions. the world will make a beaten path to his door. saying that if the ship should founder and he shou ld happen to be rescued." "And I would not break m y word for any consideration." "Dey are coming to de vront. Ven one goes into a man's shtore and manaches to see l him vat he vonts. "Sir. Well. and dat is de chenius vot my race has got." said Graham. if it be wrong. expecting every minute to go down.--CARLYLE. If after seven years you come b ack to see me. if not in the world. so he paid the money and took the watch.sea." replied his companion." said he. he would at least save his best suit of clothes. do it boldly. If I were a tinker. it is a watch which I have made and regulated myself." "I would not part with my watch . "I have had it seven years." replied Graham. on his voyage to America. between dalent and chenius." said George Graham of London to a customer who asked how far he could depend upon its keeping corr ect time. what do you complain of?" "Why. and there is a difference of more than five minutes. I wi ll return you your money." "Indeed! In that case I return you your money. dat is dalent. but ven annoder man goes into dat man's shtor e and sells him vot he don't vont. which he used as a regulator." Accuracy is the twin brother of honesty.--GILPIN. most zairtainly.

a supply unheard of in his previous bus iness career.fraudulently engraved." The storekeeper soon ordered two dozen. a navigator must know how far he is from the equator. By means of a longer hole than usual.000 pounds for a chronomete r by which a ship six months from home could get her longitude within sixty mile s." the "dead escapement. I do. and handed the astonish ed customer one of his own master-pieces. the word "Maydole" stamped on the head being universally considered a guaranty of the best article the world could produce.000 pounds was paid to the man who had wor ked and experimented for forty years. "when I m ake a thing. "I want a good hammer. 10. no matter whom it is for. but 1761 came. They all came t o the shop next day. it varied less than two minutes." said a carpenter to the blacksmith in a New York village before the first railroad was built. "Sir. "Make me as good a hammer as you know how. if he cou ld have an absolutely accurate timekeeper." "Yes.000 pounds if within thirty miles.500 pounds if within forty miles. Paris. and whose hand was as exquisitely delicate in its movement as the mechanism of his chronometer. To insure safety. north o r south. asking that they be made a little bette r than those of his men. The 20. In a trip of one hundred and forty-seven days from Portsmouth to Jamaica a nd back. and each ordered just such a hammer. In that year John Harrison asked for a test of his chronom eter. Tampion smashed it with a hammer." Graham invented the "compensating mercury pendulum. About two hundred years later the English government offered 5. who boasted of his prize to his companions. but such a thing has not yet been mad e. saying. doubtfully." said the manager of an iron works employing thousands of m . and I've left mine at home. he ordered two for himself." It was indeed a good hammer that he received." none of which have been much improved since. and in another clause 20. The clock which he m ade for Greenwich Observatory has been running one hundred and fifty years. Character is power. a wonderful improvement in the ey es of the carpenter. that had ever been made. The watchmakers of the world contested for the prizes. yet it needs regulating but once in fifteen months. "We have no secret. David had wedged the handle in its place so that the head could not fly off. David might have grown very wealthy by making goods of the stan dard already attained. When the contractor sa w the tools. but throughout his long and successful life he never ceas ed to study still further to perfect his hammers in the minutest detail. a careless repetition. They we re usually sold without any warrant of excellence. and how far east or west of some known point. or W ashington. because of the accuracy of their work. In the sixteenth century Spain offered a prize of a thousand crowns for the d iscovery of an approximately correct method of determining longitude. "but perhaps you don't want to pay for a s good a one as I know how to make. and left a standing order for all the blacks mith could make." said the carpenter. the varia tion was only fifteen seconds. the best. "I can't make any better ones. A New York dealer in tools came to the village to sell his wares. here is a watch of my ma king. and they had not been awarded.000 pounds for correctness within thirty miles." said Maydole. as Greenwich. 7." "As good a one as I know how?" asked David Maydole. "six of us have come to work on the new church. In a round trip of one hundred and fifty-six days to Barbadoes. He could be sure of this knowledge when the sun is shining. and only four seconds on the outward v oyage. Tampion and Graham lie in Westmi nster Abbey. I make it as well as I can. and is the best advertisement in the world." and the "orrery. and bought all the storekeeper had. probably.

Mr. "We always try to beat our last batch of rails." said an old lady." "Well. "I will never mention it. but how much more truthful are they who "never saw it rain so before. Wellington consulted a celebrated physician." s aid the Iron Duke. duplicity. "this boy has something in him. of Northbridge. and gave with minutest fidelity not merely the man's features and expression. and we don't care who knows it." We condemn the boy for exaggerating in order to tell a wonderful story." "I will not believe you saw ten even." "I don't try to see how cheap a machine I can produce. it could not be le ss than ten: this I am quite certain of. "that would be lying. Gough told of a colored preacher who. Brown. warts and all. "for you spoke as confidently of seeing five hundred as of see ing this smaller number. That is all the secret we've got. Brown saw the statue at the house of a lady living at New burgh-on-the-Hudson. as an all-sufficient guaranty of Northbridge products. as he admired a statue in alabaster mad e by a youth in his teens." "Surely not so many. "Just take a lump and put i t into water. but never mind. my bredren." said the father." said the father. To-day the name of Ward is that of the most prosper ous of all Americans sculptors." said Wellington. A. and if it is good. It exhibits at once a strength of . "I don' t think there are a hundred dogs in our village. "There. had omitted a mole. sir." It was the figure of an Irishman who worked for the Ward family in Brooklyn years ago. "Well. causing an inflammation which threatened his lif e. Business men soon learned what th is meant. I am not sure whic h. but how good a machine.en. K. last night. and the creases in his narrow-brimm ed stove-pipe hat. you can try it for yourself." said the sculptor H. to b ecome a pupil in his studio. Q." said a boy. "I saw at least ou r Dash and another one." said the disconcerted boy. "No." was the prompt re ply. "I saw an immense number of dogs--five hundred. it will either sink or swim. to a customer who complain ed of the high price of some cotton machinery. ther e were one hundred. Six years later he invited her brother." "Well. "Whi tin make." John B. who p ut strong caustic into his ear." "Madam." said Oliver Cromwell to the artist who. de Gospel will not be dispensed with any more from dis pulpit till de c ollection am sufficient to fricassee dis abscess. but even the pa tches in his trousers. "True enough. The doctor apologized." or who call day after day the hottest of the summer or the coldest of the winter? There is nothing which all mankind venerate and admire so much as simple truth." When troubled with deafness. thinking to please the great man." said one member of the Hou se of Commons to another in the heat of debate. exempt from artifice. and when there was occasion to advertise any machinery for sale." "But you will all ow me to attend you. "but did I not black them well?" "It is easy to tell good indigo." "Father. "Paint me just as I am. the rent in his coat." said the late John C. I am sure --in our street. You have contradicted yourself twice already. Mass." said the father. expressed great regrets. "I can remember when you blacked my father's shoes. J.. I'm quite sure." "It could not be. and now I cannot believe you. Whitin. and said that the blunder wou ld ruin him. so that people will not withdraw their confidence?" "No. and design. Ward. wishing his congregation to fresc o the recess back of the pulpit. sir. New E ngland cotton manufacturers were accustomed to state the number of years it had been in use and add. suddenly closed his Bible and said.

and one sweep of the hand more than is needed. We find no lying. "Does the devil lie?" was asked of Sir Thomas Browne. To say nice things merely to avoid giving offense. "I am so p ressed with other duties that I haven't time to prepare myself to speak upon tha t theme. The rose in the queen's garden is not more beautiful. to keep silent rather than s peak the truth. In Siberia a traveler found men who could see the satellites of Jupiter with th e naked eye. overdraw. You nev er fail." The marvelous resources and growth of America have developed an unfortunate ten dency to overstate. or in some far-off glen where n o human eye ever sees it. it is really difficult to ascertain the exac t truth in America. for then even he cou ld not exist. to assum e to know or think or feel what you do not--all these are but various manifestat ions of hollowness and falsehood resulting from want of accuracy." said Webster. Its adjustment is so delicate that the human hand is the only instrument thus far known suitable for giving the final polish. the men who have advanced our knowledge of that science the most working with ordinary instruments backed by most accurately trained minds and eyes." Mr. boys." . It is a curious fact that not a si ngle astronomical discovery of importance has been made through a large telescop e. to exaggerate. yet they are fa r superior to us in their accuracy of vision. a smile. to dodge. to lack sincerity. and exaggerate. "because I never allow myself to speak upon any subject without first making that subject thoroughly my own. yet return to equinox or solstice at the appointed second. the workmen turned it a little with their hands. During the test of the great glass which he made for Russia. you always speak well upon any subject. but. a nod of the head. for nothing else is half so strong as truth. to seem to concur with another's opinions when you do not. Webster. would impair the correctness of the glass. assumes its shape of ethereal beauty as faithfully as though pr eparing for some grand exhibition. Roses blossom and crystals form with the same precision of tint and angle to-day as in Eden on the morning of creation. no slipshod business in nature. I haven't time to do that in this instance. "the p oise is so delicate that the heat from your hands affects it. I can't do it. to equivocate. "No. Clark's love of accuracy has made his name a synonym of exactness the world over. to evade. to face both ways. Even the tiny snowflake whose d estiny is to become an apparently insignificant and a wholly unnoticed part of a n enormous bank. These men have made little advance in civilization. to shirk the truth. Hence I must refuse. more fragrant." "But that's the very reason. It seems strange that there should be so strong a temptation to exaggerate in a country where the truth is more wo nderful than fiction. "Wait. let it cool before making another trial. "No." said the orator.character and integrity of purpose in which all are willing to confide. but we igno re this fact in our speech." "Ah. it is impossible. Alva n Clark says. A double convex lens three feet in diameter is worth $60. than that which blooms and blushes unhe eded amid the fern-decked brush by the roadside." Truth is necessary to permanency. How many American fortunes are built on misrepresentation th at is needless. th eir very movement being "the uniform manifestation of the will of God. to say what is expedient rath er than what is truthful." said Clark. The positive is stronger than the superlative. Planets rush with dizzy sweep through almost limitless courses. to deceive by a glanc e of the eye. when urged to speak on a q uestion soon to come up. Indeed. a gesture. no inaccuracy.000. The crystal found deep in the earth is constructed wit h the same fidelity as that formed above ground. more exquisitely perfect. Mr. toward the close of a Congressional session.

" said George Ripley. so realistic seemed to them his description of the nether world. The captain of a Nantucket whaler told the man at the wheel to steer by the Nor th Star. "He who does not write as well as he can on every occasion. and the first chapters of his history eighteen times." said an eminent writer. People knew that his word was not "pretty good. vague. of manuscript brought to be c opied. yet his brother merchants attributed his s uperior success to good luck. and he became so interested in things he had never noticed before that he did not see Agassiz when he came for the third examination." An accomplished entomologist thought he would perfect his knowledge by a few le ssons under Professor Agassiz." This roused the pupil to earnest effort. Gibbon wrote his memoir nine times. "should be done with our bes t care. He left nothing to chance. "and that is. "to find the length of time during which some of the best known instrumental melodies remained in his thoug hts till they were finally used. but was awakened towards morning by a request for another star to steer by. "Whatever is right to do. He did not allow those in his employ to de viate in the slightest degree from his iron-clad orders. we have no scales by which we can weigh our faithfulness to duties. He believed that no gre at success is possible without the most rigid accuracy in everything. He did not vary from a promise in the slightest degree. as they had "sailed by the other. You'll have to try again. "That will do. or the crude. "Yo u haven't really looked at the fish yet. Of one of his works Montesquieu said to a friend: "You will rea d it in a few hours." Grove said of Beethoven." but absolutely good." the Florentines would say when Dante passed." said his publisher Dodsley. That which seems a trifle to us may be the secret spring which shall mo ve the issues of life and death. or determine their relative importance in God 's eyes. "There is only one real failure in life possible. V ." said Canon Farrar. saying." Reynolds said he could go on retouching a picture forever. The more they are elaborated. He was as exact and precise even in the smallest trifles as Napoleon." said the great scientist. the more fresh and spontaneous they become. "I now see that you can use your eyes. and gave orders for his mighty host to defile toward the Danube. strength. Every detail of b usiness was calculated and planned to a nicety. In 1805 Napoleon broke up the great camp he had formed on the shores of the Eng lish Channel." He had made it his study by day and his dream by night. commonplace shape in which they were first written down." Stephen Girard was precision itself. but soon remarked." "It is quite astonishing. but I assure you it has cost me so much labor that it has w hitened my hair. and faithfulness of purpose." "There goes a man that has been in hell. "You do not show that you can use your eyes. "Every line was then writte n twice over by Pope.Rufus Choate would plead before a shoemaker justice of the peace in a petty cas e with all the fervor and careful attention to detail with which he addressed th e United States Supreme Court. The latter handed him a dead fish and told him to use his eyes. Two hours later he examined his new pupil. "will soon form the habit of not writing well on any occasion." After a seco nd examination he shook his head. the al pha and omega of his aims and objects." Leonardo da Vinci would walk across Milan to change a single tint or the slight est detail in his famous picture of the Last Supper. not to be true to the best one knows.

How many thou sands have lost their wealth or lives." "French Spoliation." "Carelessness. however. The omission of a period cost the Sacramento dealer $1." "indifference." said Fields. This bril liant finish is the result of most patient work." "Electoral Laws and Commissions." "slouchiness." "The Press. editors." "There are women. as though they were rogue s or fools. eloquent. "Those who employ men do not wish to be on the constant lookout. Accurate people are methodical people." "Parliamentary Decisions. Macaulay.ast and various as were the projects fermenting in his brain. la beled "Anecdotes. or waistcoat. The historian." said Curran.00. which sealed the fate of Eur ope for ten years. polished discourses. and it is ver y certain that the employer will get rid of such a blunderer as soon as he can. he might a s well do the work himself as employ another to do it in that way." said President Tuttle. and you may tug away at their work on your coat. These details . as he delivers but five or six sermons a year. To details and minutiae which inferior captains would ha ve deemed too microscopic for their notice." could t ruthfully be written over the graves of thousands who have failed in life. or is i t too high?" telegraphed a San Francisco merchant to one in Sacramento. saying that only by such means can a writer be natural. no other speaker could command so great an array of facts. and the button s they sew on fly off on the mildest provocation." "Gener al Politics. were carried out to the letter. How m any clerks. Shall I buy." said a successful manufacturer." "Public Men." "State Po litics. so thoroughly premeditated. Garfield had a large case of some fifty pigeonholes.000 bushels wheat on your account at $1. the scholars of Paris throng the cathedral to hear his fascinating. and method m eans character. he did no t content himself with giving the order." "United States History. "if you woul . "you will earn more t han if you make a bad steam-engine. When h e chose to make careful preparation on a subject. If a carpenter must stand at his journeyman's elbow to be sure his w ork is right." "Geneva Award. he gave such exhaustive attention th at before the bugle had sounded for the march he had planned the exact route whi ch every regiment was to follow." as was int ended. When Sir Walter Scott visited a ruined castle about which he wished to write." "If you make a good pin. and professors in colleges have lost p osition and prestige by carelessness and inaccuracy! "You would be the greatest man of your age." etc. Besides his scrapbooks. the exact day and hour it was to leave that sta tion. "No pric e too high." "slipshod financiering. "whose stitches always come out.000. and the result of that memorable march was the victory of Austerlitz. and leaving the elaboration of its deta ils to his lieutenants." "Tariff. there are other women who use the same needle and thread." came back over the wire instead of "No. or if a cashier must run over his bookkeeper's columns. clergymen. cashiers. h e wrote in a notebook the separate names of grasses and wild flowers growing nea r. "Am offered 10. every valuable hi nt he could get being preserved in the cold exactness of black and white.. and you can't start a button in a generation. and how many frightful accidents have occ urred through carelessness in sending messages! "The accurate boy is always the favored one. When a noted French preacher speaks in Notre Dame. Price too high. Grattan. never allowed a sentence to stand until it was as good as he could make it. and the precise moment when it was to reach its destination.

a nd the name was changed back. and. compared with accuracy and knowledge. From the time Jonas Chickering began to work for a piano-maker. The demand for perfection in the nature of Wendell Phillips was wonderful. but the price was increased and work of higher grade given him simply because men seek the services of those who are known to be faithful. Stewart was extremely systematic and precise in all his transactions. He was easily the first forens ic orator America has produced. an art not fully comprehended even in our day. without selling two cents' worth. but he showed such a taste for drawing that a reluctant permission was given for him to follow art as a profession. He permitted no irregularity in workmansh ip or sales. withstanding atmospheric chang es. Joseph M. and then change the tit le. Ever y word must exactly express the shade of his thought. Character has a commercial as well as an ethical v alue. He determined to make an instrument yielding the fullest and richest volume of melody with the least exertion to the player. and was characterized by simplicity.d buy a few yards of red tape and tie up your bills and papers. successful. and put it on his pianos. but Jonas Chickering sent a petition to the legislature. He soon became skilful. and left matchless studies of natural scenery in lines never before attempted. t he greatest name on record. every phrase must be of du e length and cadence. Neither time nor labor was of any account to him . transparency. and preserving its purity and truthfulness of tone. his work sure of a ma rket at some price. He resolved that each pi ano should be an improvement upon the one which preceded it. He distanced all competitors. Turner was intended by his father for a barber. Many able essays have been rejected because of poor penmanship. And so he toiled upward until he began to employ himself. But although the pay was very small the work was never careless. The advice was taken. T. frequently illustrating guide-books and almanacs. and for every delinquency a penalty was rigidly enforced. every sentence must be perfectly balanced before it left h is lips. What Shakespeare is in literature. The rhythmical fulness and poise of his periods are remarkable. and employ them in as lofty work as they seem able to do. Turner is in his special field. he advised hi m to have it handsomely copied by a professional penman. W. His eye was upon his business in all its ramifications. We must strive after accuracy as we would after wisdom. His labor was w orth several times what he received for it. A. and would trust it to no one else. When consulted by a friend whose article had been rejected by several publishers. Exact precision characterized his style. and the price increasing as other men began to get glimpses of the transcendent art revealed in his paintings. yet whos e application attracted attention and paved the way to fortune. he mastered every detail and worked hard. and the article eagerly accepted by one of the very pu blishers who had refused it before. he was noted fo r the pains and care with which he did everything. or h ." Curran realized that methodical people are accurate. He surpassed the acknowledged masters in various fields of lan dscape work. as a rule. To him there were no trifles in the manufacturing of pianos. Chickering's name was such a power that one piano -maker had his name changed to Chickering by the Massachusetts legislature. To the end of his life he gave the finishing touch to each of his instrumen ts. Bergh tells of a man beginning business who opened and shut his shop regularly at the same hour every day for weeks. but as he lacked means he took anythin g to do that came in his way. He soon made pianos in a factory of his own. perfection was his aim. and straightforw ardness. Alexandre Dumas prepared his manuscript with the greatest care. Met hod ruled in every department of his store.

carelessness. that of ten do more harm than the crimes that make the perpetrator an outcast from socie ty. somebody's habit of inaccuracy. locomotives. Accuracy means character. thoughtlessne ss. it was discovered that a girl had served twenty years for a twe nty months' sentence. The steel shaft broke in mid-ocean. If everybody put his conscience into his work. lack of thoroughness. Carelessness. the mangling and maiming of men an d women. or switches. slipsh odness. because somebody was careless. of disasters on land and sea. covered up defects and weak places with paint and varni sh. dishonest--either employer or emplo yee--and worked lies. Everywhere over this broad earth we see the tragic results of botched work. and the lives of a thousand passengers were jeopardized because of somebody's carelessness. whic h caused the rail or pillar to snap. the locomotive or other machinery to break. . slighted their work. into the building. and engines. or an arm. numberless graves. to a fraction of what it is at present. ties. buildings often fall and bury the workmen under their ruins. careless ness is as much a crime as deliberate criminality. careless. and while being repair ed a hammer was found in the bottom that had been left there by the builders thi rteen years before. The worst crimes are not punishable by law. botched. of doing things to a finish. CHAPTER XXII DO IT TO A FINISH Years ago a relief lifeboat at New London sprung a leak. somebody's blunders. because of the mistake of a court cl erk who wrote "years" instead of "months" in the record of the prisoner's senten ce. Even before they are completed. are the result of carelessness. which cause so m uch misery and cost so many lives. did it to a complete finish. are crimes against self. because dishonest workmen wrought deception into the articles they manufactur ed. or are otherwise maime d. armless sleeves. The history of the human race is full of the most horrible tragedies caused by carelessness and the inexcusable blunders of those who never formed the habit of accuracy. it would not only reduce the loss of human life. in a southern prison. Where a tiny flaw or the slightest defect may cost a precious life. lies in defectiv e rails. They are the evil fruit of the low i deals of slovenly. but it would also give us a hig her quality of manhood and womanhood. Woo den legs. From the constant motion of the boat the hammer had worn thr ough the planking. Nearly every very successful man is acc urate and painstaking. of thoroughness. or half-done. crimina l blundering in railroad construction? Think of the tragedies caused by lies pac ked in car-wheels. Careless and indiffere nt habits would soon ruin a millionaire. deceptions. indifferent workers.idden treasure or anything we would attain. lies in dishonest labor put into manufactured materi al by workmen who said it was good enough for the meager wages they got! Because people were not conscientious in their work there were flaws in the steel. blundering work. clear down to the plating. a leg. fatherless and motherless homes ev erywhere speak of somebody's carelessness. Avoid slipshod financiering as you would the plague. against humanity. The majority of railroad wrecks. How many have lost their lives because of dishonest work. Multitudes of people have lost an eye. Determine to form exact business hab its. steamboat boilers. Not long since. and character is power.

far outweighs the value that att aches to the doing of a thousand botched or slipshod jobs. the general improvement. grew upon him. after a while. . Every half-done or slovenly job that goes out of your hands leaves its trace of demoralization behind. or carelessly doing things. and pulls down the whole life. prodding. It paralyzes the normal functions. not so likely to regard your word as sacred as bef ore. suggestion. demoralizes the mental processes. and do not do it well. improves the whole character. and brac ing up of the whole man that comes from doing one thing absolutely right. who has been well trained in thoroughness. I know a man who was extremely ambitious to do something very distinctive and w ho had the ability to do it. so subtle. They do not realize that the education. How quickly a youth of high ideals. of accepting his second-best. affects the entire system. After slighting your work. He demanded the best of himself--would not accept his second-best in anything. and the tragedy of it all is. and causes deterioration all along the li ne. The thought of slighting his work was painful to him. careless manner det eriorates the whole mentality. slipshod. We are so constituted that the quality which we put into our life-work affects everything else in our lives. palsies the asp iring faculty. that he now s lights his work without a protest. They require the constant assistance. and he has become so demoralized by the habit which. When he started on his career he was very exact and painstaking. It dulls ideals. and too little of quality in thei r work. often deteriorates when he leaves home and goes to work for an employer with inf erior ideals and slipshod methods! The introduction of inferiority into our work is like introducing subtle poison into the system. even when he may think he is doing his best t o carry it out. You are not so likely to try to keep up the standard of your work. On the contrary. and when confidence an d self-respect have gone.Most young people think too much of quantity. from p utting the trade-mark of one's character on it. The entire person takes on the characteristics of one's usual way of doing things. like leaven. stupefies the ambition. can hardly be estimated because the processes are so gradual. excellence is impossible. It is astonishing how completely a slovenly habit will gradually. and tends to bring our whole conduct to the same l evel. but his menta l processes have so deteriorated. after doing a poor job. and when self-respect drops. The mental and moral effect of half doing. its powe r to drag down. without apparent mortification or sense of humiliation. Many people are so constituted that their ambition wanes and their ideals drop when they are alone. confidence goes with it. No one can respect himself who habitually botches his wo rk. or with careless. insidiously f asten itself upon the individual and so change his whole mental attitude as to t hwart absolutely his life-purpose. he does not know why he has failed! One's ambition and ideals need constant watching and cultivation in order to ke ep up to the standards. the comfort. seemingly without being conscious of it. indifferent people . to demoralize. the satisfaction. you a re not quite the same man you were before. or example of othe rs to keep them up to standard. They try to do too much. The habit of precision and accuracy strengthens the mentality. doing things in a loose-jointed. Inferiority is an infection which. He i s to-day doing quite ordinary things.

' is my rule. Merely not to steal another's money or goods is not all there is to honesty. many of them could trace the first signs of deterioration to shirking. Th at will be worth more to you than any amount of money you can pocket through fra udulent. it means truth in everything--in deed and in word. acc uracy. says that he has to station pickets here and there throughout t he establishment in order to neutralize the evils of inaccuracy and the blunderi ng habit. by blundering through carelessness or indif ference. It does not mean that if only you will not lie with your lips you may lie and defraud in the quality of your work. Honesty means integrity in e verything. the electric thrill and uplift which come from a superbly-done job. rotten service? If you should ask the inmates of our penitentiaries what had caused their ruin. Did you ever notice the rapid decli ne in a young man's character when he began to slight his work. You must not steal another's time. One of John Wanamaker's partners says that unnecessary blunders and mi stakes cost that firm twenty-five thousand dollars a year." Many a young man is being kept down by what probably seems a small thing to him --negligence. inaccuracy. The dead letter depar tment of the Post Office in Washington received in one year seven million pieces of undelivered mail. to shirk. "to take so much pains with that job. Some one has said: "It is a race between negligence and ignorance as to which c an make the more trouble. Of these more than eighty thousand bore no address whateve r. He never quite finishes anything he undertakes. Nothing else can give you the glow of satisfa ction. dishonest work. Are the clerks who are respon sible for this carelessness likely to win promotion? Many an employee who would be shocked at the thought of telling his employer a lie with his lips is lying every day in the quality of his work. and blundering of employees cost Chicago one million dollars a day. We were made to be honest. completeness. 'Get the most money for the least work. but also carefulness. Honesty means wh oleness." You will like yourself better when you have the approval of your conscience. A great many of them were from business houses. and that is more important to me than money. deceiving their employers--to indifferent. Perfe ct work harmonizes with the very principles of our being. clipping their hours. lack of accuracy. skimped. you must not steal his goods or ruin his property by h alf finishing or botching your work. and any departure from it demoralizes and taints the whole character. when you don't get much pay for it. "but I shall like myself better. honesty in your work. It fits our very natures. The manager of a large hou se in that city. or botched work. in his dishones . he can not be depended upon to do anything quite right.The human mechanism is so constituted that whatever goes wrong in one part affe cts the whole structure. Hundreds of clerks and book-keepers are getting sma ll salaries in poor positions today because they have never learned to do things absolutely right. to sli p in rotten hours. There is a very intimate relation between the quality o f the work and the quality of the character. Your contract with your employer means that you will give him your best . Honesty is our normal expression. "What a fool you are." "That may be." replied the other. It not only means reliability in your word. because we were made f or perfection." said one workman to another. A prominent business man says that the carelessness. and not your second-best. I shall thin k more of myself. and I get twice as much money as you do. his work always needs lo oking over by some one else.

"Made to sell. much-worn garments." Accept not hing short of your best. seams give way at the slightes t strain. individuality and thoroughness wrought into it. not realizing. Articles of clothing that look stylis h and attractive when first worn. of standing in his communi ty. individuality in i t. dropped stitches are everywhere in evidence. many things "go to pieces" altogether. who lies or cheats in the goods he sells or manuf actures.t service. I am w illing to stand for that piece of work. covered up with paint and varnish. and must pay the price in loss of self-respect. Put such a quality into your work that anyone who comes across anything you have ever done will see character in it. Everywhere we see furniture which looks all right. very quickly get out of shape. that has chara cter. perhaps. is dishonest with himself as well as with his fellow men. castors co me off. Your reputation is at stake in everyt hing you do. in shirking. There is no other advertisement like a good reputation. Buttons fly off. and hang and lo ok like old. Some of the world's gre atest manufacturers have regarded their reputation as their most precious posses sion. handles pull out. who could not be induced to tell their employer a direct lie. done to a complete finish. your trade-mark of superiority upon it. yet I have known of fice-boys. that lies can be acted as well as to ld and that acting a lie may be even worse than telling one. Strangers from any part of the world could send their purchase money and order goods from those manufacturers without a doubt that they would be squarely dealt with. It is difficult to find anything that is well and honestly made. and often the entire arti cle goes to pieces before it is worn half a dozen times. Glue starts at joints. Vast sums of money are often paid for the use of a name. The man who botches his work. There was a time when the names of Graham and Tampion on timepieces were guaran tees of the most exquisite workmanship and of unquestioned integrity. Most things are just throw n together." would be a good label for the great mass of ma nufactured articles in our markets to-day. This slipshod. I will stand for that. and your reputation is your capital. You cannot afford to do a poor job. to hide away during working hours to smoke a cigar ette or take a nap. to stea l his time when on an errand. It is not pretty well done." "good enough. not for service. it is done a s well as I can do it. chairs and bedsteads break down at the slightest provocation." "pretty good. becaus e of its great reputation for integrity and square dealing." Never be satisfied with "fairly good. no thought into them. but which in reality is full of blemishes and weaknesses. I am wi lling to be judged by it. loss of character. It is just as dishonest to express deceptio n in poor work. Eve . in shirking. in his indif ference to his employer's interests. to let botched work or anything that is inferior go out of your hands. and under no circumstances would they allow their names to be put on an im perfect article. as to express it with the lips. When you finish a thing you ought to be able to say to yourself: "There. Tampion and Graham lie in Westminster Abbey because of the accuracy of their wo rk--because they refused to manufacture and sell lies. even while prac tically new. Yet on every side we see all sorts of things selling for a song because the mak er put no character. in the rotten hours he is slipping into it. dishonest manufacturing is so general that concerns w hich turn out products based upon honesty and truth often win for themselves a w orld-wide reputation and command the highest prices.

" The majority of young people do not see that the steps wh ich lead to the position above them are constructed. It may be months. "What can there be. Jr. every-day duties of the position they are now filling. optimistic. a little more energet ic. as Tampion regarded every watch that went out of his shop. but they d etect very quickly the earmarks of superiority. It is doing things a little better than those about you do them. a humble positio n. Many a boy is marked for a higher position by his employer long before he is aw are of it himself. a little more accurate. They know he has a future. a little more observant. it is ingenuity in finding new and more progressive ways of doing old things. which he "made for etern ity. should be ar your trade-mark of excellence. Rockefeller. you should regard every task that goes through your hands. who sees a very uncommon chance in a common situation. It must be the very best you can do. such a passion to give quality to your work. carefulness. of always striving for excellence.. but because there is something in him which refuses to acce pt anything from himself but the best. would give you! There is nothing like being enamored of accuracy. They keep their eye on the emplo yee who has the stamp of excellence upon him. The thing which you are now doing will unlock or bar the door t o promotion. Employers do not say all they think. than those about you that attracts the attention of your employer a nd other employers also. to help me along? " But it is the youth who sees a great opportunity hidden in just these simple s ervices. in doing these common." between "fairly good" and "excellent." between what ot . every piece of work you touch." they say to themselves. little by little. Many employees are looking for some great thing to happen that will give them a n opportunity to show their mettle. No other characteristic makes such a strong impression upon an employer as the habit of painstaking. He knows that if a youth puts his c onscience into his work from principle. not from the standpoint of salary or wha t he can get for it. accuracy. a little more tactful. who does it to a finish. being a little neater." and not one of which was ever known to come to pieces or break. that he is honest and made of good materi al. Every "Stradivarius" now in existence is worth from three to ten thousand dollars. it is being a little more polite. I have known many instances where advancement hinged upon the little overplus o f interest. Think of the value such a reputation for thoroughness as that of Stradivarius o r Tampion. who takes pains with his work. a little more obliging. no matter how unimportant or trivial it may seem. but when it does come the one who has appreciated the infinite difference bet ween "good" and "better. of painstaking an employee put into his work. a little quicker. helpful. humble.ry bit of your work. would take such pains to put his stamp of superiority upon his instrument. says that the "secret of success is to do the common duty uncommonly well. It is just the little touches afte r the average man would quit that make the master's fame. John D. or it may be a year before the opening come s. on his doing a little better than was expected of him. a little more cheerful. by the fa ithful performance of the common. "in this dry routine. or several times its weight in gold. being grounded in thoroughness as a li fe-principle. Stradivari us did not need any patent on his violins. It is just the little difference between the good and the best that makes the d ifference between the artist and the artisan. the best that human skill can produce. Regard your work as Stradivarius regarded his violins. who gets on in the world. for no other violin maker would pay s uch a price for excellence as he paid. ordinary things.

It is this li ttle higher up. this little farther on. helps to make you second-class. never to be second-class in anything. Have nothing to do wit h the inferior. They always pushed things that came to their hands a little higher up. mechanics who will never be anything but bunglers. But if you are satisfied with the cheap and shoddy. all make second-class men. Do your best in everything. Every fault you allow to become a habit. exhausts his strength and vitality. Everywhere we see mediocre or second-class men--perpetual clerks who will never get away from the yardstick. They have not con fined themselves to the beaten tracks. then you must expect to take second place. i f you are not particular about quality in your work. but always a little better. or in your personal habits. they cannot remain first-class men and drink. It is said that Daniel Webster made the best chowder in his state on the princi ple that he would not be second-class in anything. failure to get an education. If there is that ss. but the surest consequence is that of becoming second-class . if. or in your environment. People who have accomplished work worth while have had a very high sense of the way to do things. to get control over you. No ma tter what you do. The submerged classes that the economists talk about are those that are bel ow the high-water mark of the best manhood and womanhood. wears his nerves till his limbs tremble like leav es in the wind. and could in no sense be called first-class. and even a pretty good sort. It is the constant effort to be first-class in everything one attempts that c onquers the heights of excellence. do not try to be first-class. choose the best. who will always fill very ordinary positions because they do not take pains. neglect of healt h. bad habits. he remains second-class. They have not been content with mediocrity. Sometimes they are sec ond-rate or third-rate people because those who are responsible for their being and their care during their minor years were so before them. whose growth has been stunted by self-indulgences. is a second-class man. vitiates his blood. and puts you at a disadvantage in the race for honor. they have never been satisfied to do thin gs just as others do them. positio n. is only half a man. Dissipation. if you insist hieve distinction on to follow your in your nature which demands the best and will take nothing le on keeping up your standards in everything you do. whose understanding has been dulled. try to do it as well as it can be done. but more and more i s it becoming one's own fault if. live up to your best. and happiness. all through life. Aside from the lack of desire or effort to be first-class. that counts in the quality of life's wor k. he is not third-class. A man weakened by dis sipation. to fall back to the rear of the procession. below the standard of the best men for any purpose. do not put conscience in to their work. will be likely to get the place. wealth. Dissipation in other forms is pursued because of ple asure to be derived. you will ac in some line provided you have the persistence and determinati ideal. there are other thin gs that help to make second-class men. Boys imi tate older boys and smoke cigarettes in order to be "smart. Carelessness as to health fills the ranks of the infer ior. deal with the best. is possible to practically eve .hers call "good" and the best that can be done. a little farther on. Everybody knows the things that make for second-class characteristics." Then they keep on s moking because they have created an appetite as unnatural as it is harmful. whatever the reason. through his amusements in his hours of leisure. Men get drunk for all sorts of reasons. This is a good resolution wit h which to start out in your career. indeed. the botched and slovenly. but. Edu cation of some sort. A ma n who. all sorts of people who will never rise above mediocrity.

hence. when playing before scant audiences in country theaters in England. the habit of half d oing things. who have had grit. now United States Senator. Genius is the art of taking infi nite pains. One such boy is Elihu Root. no matter what your race or color. he replied: "I ne ver allow myself to speak on any subject until I have made it my own. and when first-class is in demand everywhere. whether it be in books or in business training. first-class me at. would ruin the career of a youth with a Napoleon's mind. if you don't. When Daniel Webster. always played as if he were before the most brilliant audi ences in the great metropolises of the world. a farmer. but rather of the plodding young men who. There is no excuse for incompetence in this age of opportunity. who could stay by a task until it was don e. is sure to relegate one to the ranks of the seco nd-class. half-done work into their careers and get firstclass products. and usually from posts far higher up than those filled by the boys who were too "smart" to be thorough. Macready. If you make yourself first-class in anything. you will do it right. and Scotland. The thorough boys are the boys that are heard from. the great French novelist. Thoroughness characterizes all successful men. Failure to get the best education available. nothing can keep you from success . I must refuse to speak on the subject. and first-class bread. a lawyer. Second-class things are wanted only when first-class can't be had. They are taken and u sed when the better article is scarce or is too high-priced for the occasion. inaccuracy. no matter how humble it may be. no matter what your condition or circumstances . Slipshodness. Fo r work that really amounts to anything. eat first-class butter." Dickens would never consent to read before an audience until he had thoroughly prepared his selection. or who gave great promise at the outset of their careers. Second-class me n are no more wanted than any other second-class commodity. Balzac.ryone in our land. The world does not demand that you be a physician. slipshod. and honesty. You wear fir st-class clothes if you can pay for them. his teacher soon found that when Elihu professed to k . They do not realize that all great achievement has been characte rized by extreme care. was asked to make a sp eech on some question at the close of a Congressional session. persistence. but it does demand that whatever you do undertake. he made up his mind that anything he had to st udy he would keep at until he mastered it. have had the power of a day's work in them. sometimes worked a week on a single page. If you are a king in your calling. or. I haven't time to do that in this case. If we were to examine a list of the men who have left their mark on the world. No you th can ever hope to accomplish much who does not have thoroughness and accuracy indelibly fixed in his life-habit. who had the best brain of his time. The trouble with many Americans is that they seem to think they can put any sort of poor. you wish you could. as a rule. even to the minutest detail. you will be in demand. infinite painstaking. Although not considered one of the "b right" boys of the school. common sense. and well done. or a mer chant. I reland. first-class men are wanted. it is not composed of those who were brilliant i n youth. will do it with all your might and with all the ability you possess. It demands that you be a master in your line. no excuse for b eing second-class when it is possible to be first-class. New York. When he was a boy in the gra mmar school at Clinton. we should find that. if they have not dazzled by their brilliancy.

the German's characteristics. of the Rapid Transit Commission of New York as a candidate for a position." The quality which. the superiority of their training. has helped to raise the German people t o their present commanding position in the world. feveris h work. are increasing the power of Germany throughout the civilized world. armed with letters of introduction from prominent men. and break down in middle life. and disgust their intelligent and cultured paris hioners. and then blame society because he is a failure. and bu tcher their patients. is their thoroughness. on schools. On winter eve nings. Young men rush into busine ss with no great reserve of education or drill. are in great demand to-day in England. Eve ry employer is looking for thoroughness. on churches. for he knew what he was about. and then a member of the President' s cabinet. to his chosen business. "I have no use for anyone who can 'almost' do anything. The boy can't w ait to become a youth. and after graduation serves three years' apprentice ship without pay. How seldom you find a young man or woma n who is willing to prepare for his life-work! A little education is all they wa nt. and German employees." is characteristic of our country. nor the youth to become a man. As a rule. esp ecially in banks and large mercantile houses. but tried to get comprehensive views of what I studied. It is g iving young Germans a great advantage over both English and American youths. Half-trained medical students perform bungling operations. a German who expects to engage in business takes a four years' cours e in some commercial school. Half-trained clerg ymen bungle away in the pulpit." . it made him carefu l about jumping at conclusions. Mr. Sometimes the other boys called him a plodder. and patience was the price to be paid for it.now anything he knew it through and through. William Ellery Channing. one day pre sented himself before Chief Engineer Parsons. and then they are ready for business. a little smattering of books. had a passion for self-improvement. on society. "What can you do? Have you any specialt y?" asked Mr. Carrying the principle of "doing every thing to a finish" into the law. "Can't wait. Root recently said that if his close app lication to problems in his boyhood did nothing else for him. He was fond of hard problems requir ing application and patience. "Well . Parsons. To every problem there was only one answer. while many die of old age in the forties. or college education." "haven't time to be thorough. while the other boys were out skating. more than any other." remarked the Chief Engineer. intrusted with vast interests. "I was not satisfied with knowing thi ngs superficially and by halves. Perhaps there is no other country in the world where so much poor work is done as in America. Half-trained lawyers stumble through their cases. "I can do almost anything. owing to their pr eeminence in this respect." answered the young man. of course." he says. seminary. A young man. I prefer someone who can actually do one th ing thoroughly. Thoroughness and reliability. who in his youth was har dly able to buy the clothes he needed. rising to end the interview. Our great lack is want of thoroughness. and the completene ss of their preparation for business. "I wa nted to make the most of myself. he became one of the most noted members of the New York bar. We can't wait for a high-school. they do poor. Elihu frequently remained in his r oom with his arithmetic or algebra. and is written on everything--on commerce. and make their clien ts pay for experience which the law school should have given. the great New England divine. because they are not willing to take time for thorough pre paration. Many an American youth is willing to stumble through life half prepared for his work. but Elihu would only smile pleasantly.

Everything you do is a part of your career. They have acquisitions which remain permanently unavailable because they were not carried quite to the point of skill. bungled. your future success. If you would be a fu . a science or two. for. sham. Th ey can half do a great many things. St amp it with your manhood. or botched. if it goes to pieces. How many people almost know a language or two. your whole career. dishonesty in your character . it is the best substitute for genius. Think what a loss it would be if such men as Edison and Bell had not come to the front and carried to a successful termina tion the half-finished work of others! Make it a life-rule to give your best to whatever passes through your hands. who has botched his work all hi s life. whose elements they have not fully mastered. You ar e never again quite the same man after doing a poor job. you will earn more mon ey than if you make a bad steam engine. You cannot be just to yourself and unjust to the man you are working for in t he quality of your work. This is what every employer is looking for. is demoralizing to every element of nobility. an art or two. a little finer mechanical training. manhood and womanhood are at stake. if you slight your work. because the m en who started them lacked the staying quality. Ch aracter. it is a better promoter than friends. untarni shed career. To spend a life buying and selling lies. Let superiority be your trade-mark. you not only strike a fat al blow at your efficiency. The world is full of half-finished work. thousands. prea ch a better sermon." "If a man can write a better book. If any work that goes out of your h ands is skimped. Beecher said he was never again quite the same man after reading Ruskin. a complete. but can't do any one thing well. or the ability ne cessary to carry them to the point of practicability. after botching your wor k. when we are constantly slipping rotten hours. if there is shoddy or sham in it. shoddy shams. by the conscience or lack of it which you put into your job. i f there is dishonesty in it.--of inventi ons which are useless simply because they are not quite practical. We are all of a piece. defective material an d slipshod service into our work. will be affected by the way y ou do your work.--yes. You have something of infinitely greater importance. or make a better mousetrap than his neighbor. but also smirch your character. If yo ur work is badly done." Never allow yourself to dwell too much upon what you are getting for your work. It indicates the best kind of brain. compared with which salary is nothi ng. to make them useful to civilization. "though he build his house in the woods. there is shoddy.There is a great crowd of human beings just outside the door of proficiency. A successful manufacturer says: "If you make a good pin.--failures which require only a little more persistence. Y our honor. they stopped just short of efficiency. which they can neither write nor speak. at stake. dealing in cheap. must be conscious that he has not been a real man. a little better education. or "pulls" with the influen tial." says Emerson. let it characteriz e everything you touch. which they can not practise with satisfaction or profit! The Patent Office at Washington contains hundreds. it is better capi tal than cash. your character will suffer. the education. he can not help feeli ng that his career has been a botched one. greater value. to a finish . shirked. We cannot have an honest character. The man who has dealt in shams and inferiority. or bot ching one's work. the world will make a path to his door .

There is everything in holding a high ideal of your work. of satisfaction. what's the use of being so awfully particular?" has been t he beginning of a life-long handicap in many a career. groveling lowers it. th e amen of the soul. of skipped problems. "WHERE ONLY THE BEST IS GOOD ENOUGH. whatever they did only the best they could do would be good enough. is not kept awake by a tr oubled conscience. Don't think you will never hear from a half-finished job. for whatever model th e mind holds. of slurring their work. When we are trying with all our might to do our level best. to do anything that was low or demoralizing. and every time we disobey it. Every time we obey the inward law of doing right we hear an inward approval. A single broken thread in a web of cloth is traced back to the girl who neglected her work in the factory . of skipping diffi cult problems in school. and the amount of damage is deducted from her wages. We are so c onstituted that every departure from the right. CHAPTER XXIII . shirking. and makes us unhappy. it will arise at the most unexpected moments to mar your happiness. in the most embarrassing situations. There is an indescribable superiority added to the character and fiber of the m an who always and everywhere puts quality into his work. Hang it up in your bedroom. the life copies. let quality be your lifeslogan. No one can be really happy who does not believe in his own honesty. that's good enough. would satisfy them! Adopt this motto as yours. Thousands of people are held back all their lives and obliged to accept inferio r positions because they cannot entirely overcome the handicap of slipshod habit s formed early in life. our whole nature im proves. "Oh . Aspiration lifts the life. which I saw recently in a great establishme nt. Like Banquo's ghost. of happiness. It will bob up farther along in your career at the most unexpected moments. a complete man. A famous artist said he would never allow himself to look at an inferior drawin g or painting. There is a sense of who leness. It will be sure to mortify you when you least expect it. lest familiarity wit h it should taint his own ideal and thus be communicated to his brush. of slovenliness. or half doing it. He is not haunted by the ghosts or tail ends of half-finished tasks. in his life which is never felt by the ma n who does not do his level best every time. Everything looks down when we are going down hill. Whatever your vocation. But in the ordinar y situations of life there is plenty of time to do everything as it ought to be done. to r esolve that. you must be honest to the core in the qualit y of your work. causes loss of s elf-respect." What a life-motto this would be! How i t would revolutionize civilization if everyone were to adopt it and use it. It will never die. I was much impressed by this motto. slipshod work on the plea of lack of time. and your life-work will be what every one's should be--A MASTERPIECE. Many excuse poor. a just man. habits of inaccuracy. a protest or condemnation. from principle. in your office or place of business. a neglected or botche d piece of work. weave it into the texture of everythi ng you do.ll man. put it into your pocket-book.

and bought more pots and wood. to try his experiments in a common furnace. The sight of an elegant Italian cup disturbed his whole existence and from that moment the dete rmination to discover the enamel with which it was glazed possessed him like a p assion. and the great burst of heat melted the enamel. but. when young. To perfect his invention he next built a glass-furnace. after Sheridan had made his first speech in Parliament. the eye that never blanches. For months and years he tried all kinds of experiments to learn the mate rials of which the enamel was compounded.--MONTES QUIEU. was ove rwhelming. The shelves of his pantry were then broken up and thro wn into the furnace. which was a failur e.--JEREMY COLLIER. at the age of eigh teen. then looked up and said. but he decided on the spot to beg in all over again. Though only a glass-painter." The nerve that never relaxes. a nd Charles shall go to Eton!" He had been so terribly in earnest with the study of his profession that he had at length made a mark on his generation. Victory belongs to the most persevering. though he kept the heat up s ix days." said Berna rd Palissy.--NAPOLEON. which are open to all. "It is in me. His money was all gone." With head on his hand Sheridan mused fo r a time. "I had no other books than heaven and earth. his enamel would not melt. to play the character of Sir Giles Overreach. he fed them to the flames. burning so much wood. from lack of ability to buy fuel. and he was forced. but in vain. he attained no result until his fuel was gone. carrying the bricks on his back. He built a furnace. you shall ride in your carriage yet. Flat failure was the result. "I am sorry to say that I don't think this is in your line. and tried to get a better flux. as he rushed home to his trembling wife. and then a second. and it shall come out of me. he so t rained himself to play the character that his success. "You would bet ter have stuck to your former pursuits. Tearing off the p alings of his garden fence.--CARLYLE. When next he li ghted his fire.--BURKE. "The pit rose at me!" exclaimed Edmund Kean in a wild tumult of emotion. Persistence had triumphed again.THE REWARD OF PERSISTENCE Every noble work is at first impossible. "If you work hard two weeks without selling a book. but he borrowed some . By a persistency that nothing seemed able to daunt.--these are the masters of victory." wrote a publisher to an ag . thou shalt not excel. Perpetual pushing and assurance put a difficulty out of countenance. Success in most things depends on knowing how long it takes to succeed. that poverty stared him in the face. who left his home in the south of France in 1828. and all London was at his feet. spoiling so many drugs and pots of c ommon earthenware. when it did come. in Massinger's drama. He was a little dark man with a voice naturally harsh. The grand se cret was learned. His furnitur e followed to no purpose. and make a seeming impossibility give way. he had the soul of an artist. and soon had three hundred pieces baking. "Mary. "Unstable as water. but he determined." said Woodfall the reporter. one of which came o ut covered with beautiful enamel. and losing so much time. the thought that nev er wanders." F rom the same man came that harangue against Warren Hastings which the orator Fox called the best speech ever made in the House of Commons. as no other man had ever played it. At length the time came for a trial.

painted on canvas the gorgeous mimicry of nature. his early poems were failures. and reared in its stead a community of states and nations. and if he have ability and common sense. or. winged as many flying shuttles." was the reply. and annihilated space wi th the lightning's speed. The slow trotter will out-travel the fleet racer. "will do neither. in any other art. from plan to plan. more probably. cloud-c apped Alps. No. the painter. "nor did any of my inventions come indirectly through accident." con tinued the great inventor. How Bulwer wrestled with the fates to change his apparent destiny! His first no vel was a failure. his success will be great. and tires." s aid William Wirt. navigated every sea and explored every land. I have always kept strictly within the lines of commercially useful inventions. when I have fully decided that a result is worth getting I go ahead on it and make tr ial after trial until it comes. prophesied her future movements. except the phonograph. and his youthful speeches prov oked the ridicule of his opponents. I like it." said Turner." "Know thy work and do it. with every breath of caprice that blows. but perseverance wears and wins. inclosed in adamant the Chinese Empire. Genius darts. It has whitened the waters of the world with the sails of a hundred nations. The afternoon-man wears off the laurels. counted her myriad hosts o f worlds. "and work at it like a Hercules. and set them flying from town to to wn and nation to nation. Anything I have begun is always on my mind. dimensions. harnessed thousan ds of iron steeds to as many freighted cars. Instead of being progressive in anything. measured her untrodden spaces. but suffers his resolu tion to be changed by the first counter-suggestion of a friend--who fluctuates f rom opinion to opinion. retrograde in all." Perseverance built the pyramids on Egypt's plains. The slow penny is surer than the quick dollar.--can never acco mplish anything great or useful. and velocities. opened a highway through the watery wilderness of the Atlantic. Perseverance has put i n motion millions of spindles. flutters.ent. and veers like a weather-cock to ever y point of the compass. and engraved on a metallic surface the viewless substance of the shadow. Perseverance has wrought from the marble block the exquisite creati ons of genius. "I don't know any other reason. and I am not easy while away from it until it is finished . "The man who is perpetually hesitating which of two things he will do first. leve led the forests of the new world. "Do they come to you while you are lying awake nights?" "I never did anything worth doing by accident. and computed their distances. I have never had any time to put on electrical w onders. taught her laws. The last blow drives home the nail." "Whoever is resolved to excel in painting. erected the gorgeous temple at Jerusalem. The all-day horse wins the race. Edison. "you will make a success of it." said Reynolds." "I have no secret but hard work. "Are your discoveries often brilliant intuitions?" asked a reporter of Thomas A . The man who resolves. valuable simply as novelties to catch the popular fancy. scaled the stormy. "must bring all his mind to bear upon that one object from the moment that he rises till he goes to bed. But he fought his way to eminence through ri . tunneled mountains of granite. indeed." [Illustration: Thomas Alva Edison] A man who thus gives himself wholly to his work is certain to accomplish someth ing." said Carlyle. It has reduc ed nature in her thousand forms to as many sciences. he wi ll be at best stationary. and.

his friends had called him crazy. He was then called a crack-brained impostor by his fellow phys icians. a nd fights for them ever afterwards. Opposition gives us greater power of re sistance. a poor gray-haired man. "But how can men walk with their heads hanging down." He worked on his Pietro Martyn eight years. But his last hop e of obtaining aid for a voyage of discovery had failed. industry w ill supply the deficiency. Twenty years later he corrected the err or." Savages believe that when they conquer an enemy. Titian wrote to Charles V. after working on it almost daily for seven y ears. Blücher may have been routed at Ligny yesterday." said John Ruskin. He had begged bread. What a sublime patience he sho wed in devoting a life to the collection and definition of words! George Bancrof t spent twenty-six years on his "History of the United States. what holds it up?" asked the wise men. From boyhood he had been haunted with the idea that the earth is r ound. he had lost h is wife. found on the shores of Portugal. while pretending to think of helping him. George Stephenson was fifteen years perfecting his locomotive. drawn maps and charts to keep from starving.dicule and defeat. 1492. King John of Portugal. his spirit enters into them. In February. Opposing circumstances create strength. Newton discovered the law of gravitation before he was twenty-one. Watt. He believed that the piece of carved wood picked up four hundred miles at sea and the bodies of two men unlike any other human beings known. and their feet up. "But the sun and moon are round. "why not the earth?" "If the earth is a ball. and forsaken him. Sothern. So the spirit of our conquests enters us. and showed that the planets roll in their orbits as a result of the same law which brings an apple to the ground. in the words of Joshua Reyno lds. Amid abuse and ridicule he waited twenty-five years before his great dis covery was recognized by the profession. Gibbon worked twenty years on his "Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. "Never depend upon your genius. had sent out secretly an expedition of his own. but one slig ht error in a measurement of the earth's circumference interfered with a demonst ration of the correctness of his theory.: "I send your majesty the Last Supper. but to-day you hear the thunder of his guns at Waterloo hurling dismay and death among his former conquerors. said that the early part of his theatrical career was spent in getting dismissed for incompetency. "What holds the sun and moon up?" inquired Columbus. the great actor. The council of wise men called by Ferdinand and Isabella ridiculed his theory of reaching the east by sailing west. twenty years on his condensing engine. an d helps us to win the next victory. rode slowly out through the beautiful gateway of the Alhambra. H arvey labored eight long years before he published his discovery of the circulat ion of the blood. To overcome one barrier gives us greater ability to overcome the next." Noah Webster spent thirty-six years on his dictionary. "if you have talent. his head bowed with discouragement a lmost to the back of his mule." said Columbus. industry will improve it. if you have none. like fl ." Newton rewrote h is "Chronology of Ancient Nations" fifteen times. had drifted from unknown lands in the west.

" said Isabella. but in Congress he encountered such bitter opposition from a powerful lobby that his m easure only had a majority of one in the Senate. the Pinta floated a signal of distress for a bro ken rudder. On October 12. when five miles of c able had been paid out. Lawrence. when the sh ip was moving but four miles an hour and the cable running out at the rate of si x miles. The sailors are ready to mut iny. The following night. Three days out. Field was about to give the order to cut the cable. Call him back. though he tells them it is but seventeen hundred." said a priest. but he tells them the North Star is not exactly north. Just as Mr. and a man of great skill was set to work to devise a better machine for payin . the brakes were applied too suddenly just as the steamer gave a heavy l urch." Columbus turned and with him turned the world. the flag ship of the British fleet at Sebastopol." said Dickens. and all improvement appertaini ng to it. land birds fly near. but. "This doctrine is contrary to the Bible. when two hundred miles at sea. He plunged into the undertaking with all the force of his being. and they pick up a piece of wood curious ly carved. "How hard I worked at that tremendous shorthand. breaking the cable. telegraphic communication could be established between Europe and Ame rica. 'The heavens are stretched out like a tent:'--of course it is flat. The cable was loaded upon the A gamemnon. from New York to St. as if in the presence of death. but he heard a voice calling his name. a magnificent new frigate of the United States Navy." said another phi losopher. Not a sailor would go voluntaril y. intending to offer his services to Charl es VII. Seven hundred miles more of cable were ordere d. so the king and queen compelled them.ies on a ceiling?" asked a learned doctor. "how can trees grow with their roots in the air?" "The water would run out of the ponds and we should fall off. but Columbus calmed their fears with pict ures of gold and precious stones from India. Another stretch of one hundred and forty miles across the island of Cape Breton involved a great deal of labor. the current returned as quickly and mysteriously as it had disappeared. the electric current was suddenly lost. "I will pled ge my jewels to raise the money. An old friend had told Isabella that it would add great renown to her reign at a trifling expense if what the sa ilor believed should prove true. Terror seized the sailors. it caught in the machinery and parted. as did the laying of a cable across the St. Columbus raised the banner of Castile over the western world. Columbus left the Alhambra in despair. The preli minary work included the construction of a telegraph line one thousand miles lon g. it is rank heresy to say it is round. Two hundred miles west of the Canar ies. Newfoundland. On the second tri al.. which says. and m en paced the decks nervously and sadly." Cyrus W. in his vessels scarcely larger than fishing-schooners. a bush with berries floats by. Twenty-three hundred miles from home. John's. "I will only add to what I have already written of my p erseverance at this time of my life. Field had retired from business with a large fortune when he became po ssessed with the idea that by means of a cable laid upon the bottom of the Atlan tic Ocean. By hard work he secured aid for his company from the British government. Through four hundred miles of almo st unbroken forest they had to build a road as well as a telegraph line across N ewfoundland. Field was not the man to give up. and upon the Niagara . the compass ceased to point to the North Star. and of a patient and continuous energy whic h then began to be matured. "It shall be done.

and continued to Newfoundland. yet with such persistence did they work that they persuaded men to furnis h capital for yet another trial even against what seemed their better judgment. the whole project would have been abandoned . Field." The old cable was picked up. Directors were disheartened. and if for a week. I see the difference in my exec ution. when he saw a poor woman rubbing an iron bar on a stone to make a nee dle. and several messages were flashed through nearly seven hund red leagues of ocean. At length in mid-ocean the two halves of the cable were spliced and the steamers began to separate. the other for Newfoundland. Faith now seemed dead except in the breast of Cyrus W." replied the great violinist. or the favorable circumstances around them." Successful men. and the tw o are still working. Not discouraged by all these difficulties. it was hoped. "We arrived here at nine o'clock this morning." A Chinese student. organized a new company. "About forty years. In Revelation we read: "He that overcometh. American and British inventors united in making a machine. the cable parted. and made a new cable far superior to anything before us ed. it is said. and one or two fr iends. great powers will yield to great industry. was begun the trial which ended with the following mes sage sent to New York:-"HEART'S CONTENT. but perseverance is more so. I will give him to sit down with me on my throne. who worked day and night almost without food or sleep. and bu t for the indomitable energy and persuasiveness of Mr. July 27. which. when suddenly the current ceased. with such success that the whole cable was l aid without a break. Field went to work with a will. and he became one of the three greatest scholars of China. A new and superior cable was loaded upon the Great Eastern. their friends. owe more to their perseverance than to their natura l powers. the one headed for Ireland. would bind two continents together. Field. the current was lost. FIELD. Genius will falter by the side of labor. Again it was spliced. "Tw elve hours a day for twenty years. but when the ships were eighty miles apart. my friends see it. "CYRUS W.g out the long line. 1866. which steamed slowly out to sea. paying out as she advanced. when the cable snapped and sank. when it parted some twenty feet from the Agamemnon. with good prospects for usefulness for many years. Thank God! the cable i s laid and is in perfect working order. if for two days. all the world know . Before the vessels were three miles apart. Finally a third attempt was made. spliced. Malibran said: "If I neglect my practice a day. the enterprise was abandoned for a year. discouraged by repeated failures. "How long did it take you to learn to play?" asked a young man of Geradini. This example of patience sent him back to his studies with a new determinat ion. All well. and the vessels returned to the coa st of Ireland. After sev eral attempts to raise it. Everything worked to a charm until with in six hundred miles of Newfoundland. and on July 13. had thrown away his book i n despair. capitalists were shy. A third time the cable was spliced and about two hundred miles paid out. Talent is desirable. Mr. Lyman Beecher w hen asked how long it took him to write his celebrated sermon on the "Government of God. each running out the precious thread. the public skeptical." replied.

After many months of poring over hundreds of volumes of a uthorities and scores of manuscripts." Everyone admires a determined. Benjamin Franklin had this tenacity of purpose in a wonderful degree. and they were even better than the first. When he returned he opened the box only to fin d a nest of Norwegian rats in his beautiful drawings. Webster declared that when a pupil at Phillips Exeter Academy he never could de claim before the school. Indeed. and he was elected by a majority of one! Such persistence alway s triumphs. Webster's tenacity was illustrated by a circumstance which occurred in the academy. At last his opponents voted for him from admirati on of his pluck. and sleeping-room." said Webster. He said he committed piece after piece and rehearsed th em in his room. When Dickens was asked to read one of his selections in public he replied that he had not time. When he s tarted in the printing business in Philadelphia. After repeating the hundred lines he continued until he had recited two hundred. It w as a terrible disappointment. When an East India boy is learning archery." After the first volume was ready for the press. continuing to recite. had spent two years with his gun and note-book in the forests of America. work-room. but he became the great orator of America." said the principal. Audubon. persistent struggle she found to be the price of her ma rvelous power. so he went to his room and learned seven hundred lines. Every one was ruined." Addison amassed three volumes of manuscript before he began the "Spectator. He w ent to recite them to the principal just before train time. but Audubon took his gun and note-book and started for the forest. "About five hundred more. He nailed them all up securely in a box and went off on a vacation. He knew the principal was to take a certain tr ain that afternoon. . toiling attention. but when he heard his name called in the academy and all eyes tu rned towards him the room became dark and everything he ever knew fled from his brain. He found a formidable rival in the city and invited him to his ro om. he carried his material through the streets on a wheelbarrow. "You can have the rest of the day for pigeon-shooting. humble. The principal punished him for shooting pigeons by compelling him to co mmit one hundred lines of Vergil. he reproduced that which had burned in a f ew minutes. I assure you. patient. making drawings of birds." Constant. He reproduced his drawings. he is compelled to practise three m onths drawing the string to his ear before he is allowed to touch an arrow. "such as i t is. but Webster kept right on. it is doubtful whether Demosthenes himself surpassed his great reply to Hayne in the United States Sen ate. he sai d: "Unless you can live cheaper than I can you can not starve me out. would never have served me as it has but for the habit of co mmonplace.s my failure. for he was in the habit of reading the same piece every day for six months before reading it in public. It was a bitter disappointment. the naturalist. The principal anxio usly looked at his watch and grew nervous. The princi pal finally stopped him and asked him how many more he had learned. persistent man. he loaned the manuscript to a neighbor who left it lying on the floor. "My own invention. and the servant gi rl took it to kindle the fire." he says." All are familiar with the misfortune of Carlyle while writing his "History of t he French Revolution. Marcus Morton ran sixteen times for governor of Massachusetts. but Carlyle was n ot the man to give up. Pointing to a piece of bread from which he had just eaten his dinner. He hired one room for his office.

until every trace of their efforts has been obliterated. by writing hundreds of pages as mere practise-work. th is is the courage of the Gospel. Show me a really great triumph that is not the reward of persistence. of the years p ut into a book which may be read in an hour. The reading and re-reading of a single volume has been the making of many a man." was an ent ire failure." and only sold one hundred copies at fiftee n pence each. Ariosto wrote his "Description of a Tempest" in sixteen different ways. Rousseau says he obtained the ease and grace of his style only by ceaseless inquietude." A rival playwright once laughed at Eu ripides for spending three days on three lines. Bishop Butler worked twenty years incessantly on his "Analogy." says Bulwer "is th e courage of the conqueror. Montesquieu was twenty-five years w riting his "Esprit des Lois." and even then w as so dissatisfied that he wanted to burn it. "A Week on the Concord and Merrimac Rivers. the glory of an unconquerable will! CHAPTER XXIV NERVE--GRIP. He spen t ten years on his "Orlando Furioso." says Burke.Great writers have ever been noted for their tenacity of purpose. The proof of Burke's "Letters to a Noble Lord" (one of the sublime st things in all literature) went back to the publisher so changed and blotted w ith corrections that the printer absolutely refused to correct it. Knowing that Providence mingles the cup. The persistent tortoise outruns the swift bu t fickle hare. seven. and of the Soul against Matter. One of the paintings which made Titian famous was on his easel eig ht years. w hile my three lines will live forever." Yet he took up his pen wit h as much determination as ever. Therefore. Oh. it is the virtue par excellence. and its importance in a social view--its import ance to races and institutions--cannot be too earnestly inculcated. work on in despair. Seven hundred of the one thousand copies printed were returned from the publishers. PLUCK "Never give up. The rolling stone gathers no moss. by endless blotches and er asures. when he had written five hundred lines." Want of constancy is the cause of many a failure." he replied. the best. another. Adam Tucker spent eighteen years on the "Light of Nature. Thoreau wrote in his diary: "I have some nine hundred volumes i n my library." Thoreau 's New England pastoral. "But your five hundred lines in three days will be dead and forgotten." The head of the god Hercules is represented as covered with a lion's skin with claws joined under the chin. "but if you do. seven hundred of which I wrote myself. Is the stern watchword of 'Neve r give up!'" . making the millionaire of today a beggar to-morrow. How came popular writers famous? By writing for years without any pay at all. "Patience. and it was en tirely reset. "Never despair. An hour a day for twelve years more than equals the time given to study in a four years' course at a high school. for the wisest is boldest. of Man against Dest iny--of the One against the World. The note-books of great men li ke Hawthorne and Emerson are tell-tales of the enormous drudgery. Vergil worked eleven years on the Aeneid. Adam Smith s pent ten years on his "Wealth of Nations. they become our helpers. by w orking like galley-slaves at literature for half a lifetime with no other compen sation than--fame. to show that when we have conquered our misfortunes . And of all maxims." yet you can read it in sixty minutes. as the oldest. Their works h ave not been flung off from minds aglow with genius. but have been elaborated an d elaborated into grace and beauty.

If you do not grant this. He rose. almost every member of Congress. G eneral Ott demanded a discretionary surrender. for his own sake as well as for the good of the country. took a bundle of papers from a n inside pocket. "Add a step to it. I will sally forth from Genoa sword in hand. "My sword is too short. or seek a m ore favorable position in the rear. h e said: "I can't spare this man. after several days of hard fighting without definite result. for what is called luck is generally the prerogative of valiant souls.000 Austrians. at dawn you w ill execute those orders. to die hard. with clenched teeth and knit muscles." After Grant's defeat at the first battle of Shiloh. nearly every newspaper of b oth parties in the North. "Soldiers." said a Spartan youth to his father. and too few to intimidate me. the mongrel's hold will slip. the enemy outnumbered them four to one. but free to fight when and where we please. When Lincoln was asked how Grant impr essed him as a general. Grant never looked backward. w hen Santa Anna with 20. until the clock struck one. and public sentiment everywhere demanded his removal. Then. but their prov isions were completely exhausted.Be firm. coolly walking among his disaffec ted generals when they threatened his life in the Egyptian campaign.000 men in Genoa had been reduced by fighting and famine t o 8." that settled the fate of the Rebellion . but at length the Mexicans we re glad to avoid further defeat by flight. They had killed and captured more than 15. He fights. handed one to each general. but Massena replied: "My soldiers must be allowed to march out with colors flying. as he withdrew. With eight thousand famished . Lincoln listened for hours one night." It was "On to Richmond. and they seemed at the mercy of their opponents. the jaw that never yields Drags down the bello wing monarch of the fields! HOLMES. or fall back. St ick to your aim. Once. and with the morning sun the army moved forward to victory." and "I propose to fight it out on this line if it takes all summer. "General Taylor never surrenders. He has the grip of a bulldog. if he dies." "How brave he is!" exclaim ed the ringleader. completely cowed. It is the last pul l of the oar." said old "Rough and Ready" at Buena Vista.000 soldiers b y capitulation. The battle was long and desperate. even after his h ead is cut off." said Napoleon. he called a council of war. one constant element of luck Is genuine. he replied. Friends of the President pleaded with him to gi ve the command to some one else. It is just such grit th at enables men to succeed. It is the final effort that brings victory. speaking only at rare intervals to tell a pithy story. and gave us the greatest hero of the Civil War. then.000. that shows what Oxford boatm en call "the beefiness of the fellow. At length all eyes were turned upon Grant. starvation stared them in the face. not as p risoners of war. Massena's army of 18. when he once gets his teeth in. after a long silence. old Teutonic pluck. It is this keeping right on that wins in the battle of life. But only crowbars loose the bulld og's grip. Small though he looks. "you are to o many to assassinate.000 men offered him a chance to save his 4. and arms and baggage." was the only reply. It is said that the snapping-turtle will not release his grip." Every paper gave definite directions for an advance." It was Lincoln's marvelous insight and sagacity that saved Grant from the storm of popular passion. solid. and general after general told how he would withdraw. and said: "Gentlemen. One general described the route by which he would retreat. nothing can shake him off. w ho had been a silent listener for hours. He is resolved. you are Frenchmen. "The greatest thing about him is cool persis tency of purpose. another thought it better to retire by a different road.

Olmstead entered the ticket-office at noon. Massena's only reply was: "Take my terms. "I am going to buy the American Museum . who would do as he agreed. but Francis Olmstead. and I intend never to eat another until I get out of debt. consulted numerous references all telling of "a good showman. Six months later Mr. Barnum assented to the arrangement." said Mr. gentlemen. alt hough a few minutes before the French soldiers all along the line were momentari ly expecting an order to retreat." He then made his famous cavalry charge. The goddess of fame or of fortune has been won by many a poor boy who had n o friends. and won the field. Learn to meet ha rd times with a harder will. and credit Barnum towards the purchase with all above expenses and an allowance of fifty dollars per month to support his wife and three children. as though he had been the conqueror. "but it is only two o'clock. and found Ba rnum eating for dinner a few slices of bread and some corned beef. "I have not eaten a warm dinner since I bought the Museum." Everyone interested in public entertainments in New York knew Barnum." "The battle is completely lost. "There is room enough up higher." with emphasis that can not be mistaken. Napoleon said of this man." "Ah! you are safe ." Ott at last agreed." "Buy it!" exclaimed the astonished friend. or I will cut my way through your army. "f or silver and gold have I none. we must have some oak and iron in us. looking at his watch." said Barnum to a friend in 1841." said Wellington at Waterloo to his officers." and accepted a proposition to give security for the purchaser. except on the Sabbat h. and I will fight till I cut my way through it. The nature which is all pine and straw is of no use in times of trial. or anything but pure grit and invincible purpose. and agreed to accept the terms if he wou ld surrender himself. "Well. O lmstead was to appoint a money-taker at the door. The remark attracted Napoleon's attention an d led to the promotion of the scrivener." There is another big word in the English language: the perfection of grit is th e power of saying "No. and will pay for the Museum before the year is out. "Hard pounding. "Is this the way you eat your dinner?" he asked. He was right." "It is very kind of them to 'sand' our letters for us. no backing. Mrs. Whoev er attempts to pass through the door to success will find it labeled. and more determined pluck. for in less than a y ear Barnum had paid every cent out of the profits of the establishment. an d offered to cut down the household expenses to a little more than a dollar a da y." said Webster to a young man hesitating to stu dy law because the profession was so crowded.men I will attack your camp. who owned the Museum building ." Ot t knew the temper of the great soldier. Mr. and knew the condition of his pocket. who knew that the showman had not a dollar." said Desaix. "Push." said young Junot coolly . "what do you intend buying it with?" "Brass." and he kept h is word. . who was orphaned in infancy and cast upon the world to make his own way in life: "When defeated. This is true in every department o f activity. and we shall have time to gain another. Olmstead. "but w e will see who can pound the longest. Massena was always ready to fight a battle over again. as an Austrian shell scattered earth over the dispatch he was writing at the d ictation of his commander-in-chief. slappi ng the young man approvingly on the shoulder. when Massena said: "I give you notic e that ere fifteen days are passed I shall be once more in Genoa. when consul ted by Napoleon at Marengo." was the prompt reply. or if he would depart by sea so as not to be quickly joine d by reinforcements. The young man who succeeds must hold his ground and push hard.

obtained the result desired by angrily running his hands together from the extremities of the keyboard.A good character. an d with busy pen or ringing hammer lays the foundation of a competence. Goodyear his rubber. or a Hamlet. to him who is not striving. on character. or Rockefeller. I am much disposed to think that endurance is the most valuable quality of all. Field. Luck whin es. good habits. a coward win at Yorktown. does not come to much if a feeble frame is unable to respond to the desire. and pamper idleness? Does luck put com mon sense at a discount. "Luck is ever waiting for something to turn up. labor turns out at six o'clock." Has luck ever made a fool speak words of wisdom. a lo afer become a Girard or Astor. an element of luck in the amount of success which crowns the efforts of different men. Only once learn to carry a . but even here it wi ll usually be found that the sagacity with which the efforts are directed and th e energy with which they are prosecuted measure pretty accurately the luck conta ined in the results achieved." says Huxley. go forth to the task. after repeated fail ures in trying to imitate a storm at sea. an ignoramus utter lectures on science. and raise ignorance to the skies? Does it imprison virtue. but only opened an internal tumor. of a musician who. Put forth your whole energies. One b rings up a pearl. Fulton his steamboat. Whitney his cot ton-gin. with keen eyes and strong will. folly at a premium? Does it cast intelligence into the gutter. or a Greek Slave? Does luck raise rich crops on the land of the sluggard. There is. to attach more and more importance to industry an d physical endurance. as the desire to work hard. while the temperate man looks haggard and suffers want a nd misery? Does luck starve honest labor. for industry. for all practica l purposes. What are called accidental discoveries are almost invariably made by those who are looking for something. of the Persian co ndemned to lose his tongue. effecting a cure. Edison his phonograph ? If you are told of the man who. not inaction. "to set less value on mere cleverness. labor. T wo pearl-divers. a Rothschild. perhaps. dive together and work with equal energy. "labor. Bell his telephone. worn out by a painful disorder. an Aeneid. or Richmond." Stick to the thing and carry it through. ten. a dolt write an Odyssey. Indeed. There is no luck. equally expert. of a painter who produced an effect long desired by throwing hi s brush at a picture in rage and despair. Luck lies in bed. Gould. "Varied experience of men has led me. and wishes the postman would bring him the news of a legacy. But let both persevere a nd at the end of five. and his home cheerful. a Venus de Medici. while the other returns empty-handed. or cowardice. No life is w asted unless it ends in sloth. or twenty years it will be found that they succeeded almost in exact proportion to their skill and industry. while in the long run the rule will hold good. and laud vice ? Did luck give Watt his engine. dishonesty. the longer I live. Apparent exceptions will be found to relate almost wholly to single undertakings. No success is worthy of the name unless it is won by honest industry and brave breasting of the waves o f fortune. Be awake. and iron industry are impregnable to the assault s of the ill luck that fools are dreaming of. Vanderbilt. and whose senses are not all eagerly att ent. a Minerva. weeds and brambles on t hat of the industrious farmer? Does luck make the drunkard sleek and attractive. Waterloo. Believe you were made for the place yo u fill. Luck relies on chance. Howe hi s sewing-machine. tried to commit suicide. Stewart. will turn up something. Franklin his captive lightning.--bear in mind that even this "luck" came to men as the result of action. Blanchard his lathe. labor whistles. a Paradise Lost. A man incurs about as much risk of being struck b y lightning as by accidental luck. a carel ess stonecutter carve an Apollo. and that no one else can fill it as well. on whom a bungling operation merely removed an imped iment of speech. Morse his telegraph. electrify yourself." says Cobden. Wagram.

better. At the time they had not even a vessel to transport them to the country they wished to conquer. b ackbone." While digging among the ruins of Pompeii. desertion. I have a soul that. determined doer. backbone. . Who fights the daily battle without fear. Sees his hopes fail. when his men were c lamoring to return to Panama. true and just. B ut with a smile and words of hope. nakedness. envies not. the workmen found the skeleton of a Rom an soldier in the sentry-box at one of the city's gates. 79. but. like an ample shi eld. what best becomes a brave Castilian. third. second. he alone is great . a mute witness to the thorough discipline. You will think better of yourself. Our greatest glory is not in never falling. The world in its very heart admires the stern. did Pizarro and his few volunteers resolve to stak e their lives upon the success of a desperate crusade against the powerful empir e of the Incas. He might have found saf ety under sheltering rocks close by. Who by a life heroic conquers fate. Nor even murmurs at his humbler lot. "I like the man who faces what he must With step triumphant and a heart of chee r. yet keeps unfa ltering trust That God is God. There lies Peru with its riches: here."--BEETHOVEN. for that's just the place and time that the tide'll turn." said Harriet Beecher Stowe. and plucks success E'en from the spear-proof crest of rugged danger. hunger. not a tear Is shed when fortune." said Pizarro." So saying. N or loses faith in man. "Friends and comrades. he had r emained at his post. Choose. as he turned toward the south." Charles Sumner said "three things are necessary to a strong character: First. Though a whole town's against him. and you will become a hero . backbone." CHAPTER XXV CLEAR GRIT Let fortune empty her whole quiver on me. that somehow. That wins each godlike act. but does his best. For my part. after trac ing with his sword upon the sand a line from east to west. each man. "neve r give up then. e ase and pleasure. which the world holds dear. the drenching storm. The barriers are not yet erected which shall say to aspiring talent. he crossed the line and was followed by thirteen Spaniards i n armor. I go to the south. D.-GOLDSMITH. LONGFELLOW. DRYDEN. which was buried by the dust and ashe s from an eruption of Vesuvius A. Panama and its poverty. and verge enough for more. the ceaseless vi gilance and fidelity which made the Roman legionaries masters of the known world . gives zest To every toiler. "Thus far and no farther. a crust Than living in dishonor. others will think better of you. Thus.thing through in all its completeness and proportion. but in rising every time we fall. Falls f rom his grasp. with love. till it seems as if you could not hold on a minute longer. "on that side are toi l. on this side. in the face of certain death. There's a brave fellow! There's a man of pluck! A man who's not afraid to say h is say. Can take in all. Is it necessary to add that all difficulties yie lded at last to such resolute determination? "Perseverance is a Roman virtue. and death. His plans work out f or mortals. on the little island of Gallo in the Pacific." "When you get into a tight place and everything goes against you.

being asked by an anxious visitor what he would do after three or four years if the rebellion were not subdued. He became known as one of the foremost orators of his day. many a sneaking vote withheld. "Clear grit" always commands respect. Thereupon the public customs. and scarcely dared recite . his name will be found neither among the d ead nor among the wounded. he was sure. In the presence of men permeated with grit and sound i n character. Young Walter was the soul of the paper.. Enterprise. and his foreign dispatches were all stopped at the outposts. that new life and new blood and new ideas had been infused int o the insignificant sheet. has the right of way. that the first steam printed paper was given to the world.The world admires the man who never flinches from unexpected difficulties. through the fear in spired by the rebuking presence of one noble man. It was the 29th of November. who calmly. Am ong other new features foreign dispatches were introduced. that a man with brains and push and tenacity of purpo se stood at the helm." said Sheridan. the fa ther finally consented. who dies. Then he set his brain to work." As a rule. push. and fin ally the Walter Press. The aggressive editor antagonized the government. and had had no individuality or character of its own. at his post. The public soon saw that a new power stood behind the "Times". whenever he though t it corrupt. and they appeared in the "Times" several days before their appearance in the government organs. The audacious y oung editor boldly attacked every wrong. and all opposition from the government. but among the missing. charact er. dishonesty trembles. At enormous expense he employed special couriers. make him the representative of that opinion. at th e close of any battle for principles. The young journalist began to remodel the establishment and to introduce new ideas everywhere. You can not. was the result. only added to his determination to succeed. and courageously grapples with his fate." "It is in me and it shall come out. Lincoln. then only twenty-seven years old. even the government. wo uld ruin the paper and himself. John Walter. and independence. The " leading article" also was introduced to stay. But nothing could daunt this resolute young spirit. patiently. by tying an opinion to a man's tongue. The father was in utter dismay. and the government adverti sements were withdrawn.000 copies per hour. there is no alternative but to keep pegging away. But no remonstrance could swerve the son from hi s purpose to give the world a great journal which should have weight. In the strife of parties and principles. When a boy Henry Clay was very bashful and diffident. and Walter had duplicate and even triplicate types set. and ev erybody admires achievement. Mean men are uncomfortabl e." and nothing could stay its progress. hypocrisy is uncertain. 1814. character. The paper had not attempted to mold publi c opinion. and many a bas e thought has been unuttered. Ev ery obstacle put in his way. grit were behind the "Times. throwing off 17. when told that he would nev er make an orator as he had failed in his first speech in Parliament. if need be . The "London Times" was an insignificant sheet published by Mr. pure grit. replied: "Oh. In those days only three hundred copies of the paper could be struck off in an hour by the best presses. "Mean natures always feel a sort of terror before great natures. Jr. printing. an d his personality pervaded every detail. His son. backbone w ithout brains will carry against brains without backbone. Walter and was s teadily losing money. It is that quality which achieves. that its article s meant business. begged his father to give him full control of the paper. After many misgivings. whi le the ministerial journalists were allowed to proceed. meanness and baseness slink out of sight. both sides printed.--a man who could make a way when he could not find one. individuality.

and field turnips. in fact. with no ability to say "No" with an emphasis. . proving that behind the cigar." Lincoln had pure "grit. The man of grit carries in his very presence a power which controls and command s. or in the barn with the horse a nd cows for an audience. it is a part of his life. So he commit ted speeches and recited them in the cornfields. it perseveres. W hat were impossibilities to such a resolute. he blandly lights another cig ar. Many of our generals in the Civil War exhibited heroism. you are suddenly electrified with the news of some splendid victory. when no epithet seemed too harsh to heap upon him. nuts. he was self-centered. It is unfortunate for a young man to s tart out in business life with a weak. if you call him an imbecile and a blunderer. obliging this man by investing in hopeless speculation. Through sunshine and storm. with no resolution or backbone to mark his own course and stick to it. There is a mighty force in sublime conviction and supreme self-confidence behind it. both had that rare nerve which cares not for ridicule. "If you try to wheedle out of him his plans for a campaign. by which he thought he co uld raise about twelve shillings. He told him t hat he would sell his books and pawn his handkerchief. He said he could live upon blackberries. Lincoln and Grant swerved by public truth. in truth is mighty. and was willing to sleep on a hayrick.before his class at school. But Kitto did not find them there. through hurricane and tempest. that deaf pauper and master of Oriental learning. it do es not disturb the equanimity with which he inhales and exhales the unsubstantia l vapor which typifies the politician's promises. if you praise him as the greatest general living." an d often displayed great determination. the great President sat with crossed legs. and the conviction and confidence that it wi Pure grit is that element of character which enables a man to clutch his aim wi th an iron grip. nothi ng but death can subdue it. In the presence of his de cision and imperial energy they melted away. is the best brain to plan and the s trongest heart to dare among the generals of the Republic." When the illustrated papers everywhere were caricaturi ng him. and was reminde d of a story. he placidly returns the pu ff from his regalia. the v ery tissues of the constitution. and it dies still struggling. He begged his father to take him ou t of the poorhouse. which enters into the very structure. when his methods were criticized by his own party. with a leaky ship. through sleet a nd rain. r ather than offend a friend. indorsing a questionable note. indomitable will? Grit is a permanent. He is spared the necessity of declaring himself. It does not come by fits and starts. yielding disposition. While you are wondering what k ind of creature this man without a tongue is. and. and the generals in the war were denouncing his "f oolish" confidence in Grant. but Grant had pure "grit" in the most con centrated form. with a crew in mutiny. but he determined to become an orator. even if he had to subsist like the Hottentots. solid quality. they were "plucky. Here was real grit. and in the the knowledge that ll prevail. and if you tell him he should run for the presidency. and delegations were waiting upon him to ask for th at general's removal. they ought to have been foun d somewhere between the birth and death of Kitto. He could not be moved from his base. It insp ires a sublime audacity and a heroic courage. If impossibilities ever exist. he stolidly sm okes. is not clamor. and behind the face discharged of all telltale expression. for his grit speaks in his e very act. and keep the needle of his purpose pointing to the star of his hope. can bear abuse and hatred. popularly speaking. Many of the failures of life are d ue to the want of grit or business nerve. immov able.

telling him to keep his posit ion for two hours longer at Aspern. he said. cut it i n two. half starved and thinly clad. He persevered in spite of repeated attacks of illness and par tial loss of sight. The Austrian army extended its wing s on the right and on the left. his frame weakened by his unparalleled exertions during a contest of forty hours. the success of Napoleon's attempt to withdraw his beaten army depended on the character of Masséna. looking down at his knees which we re smiting together. rolled the two wings up on either side.' And he kept his word. The messenger found Masséna seated on a heap of rubb ish. and in four years he took his degr ee. though the French themselves thought that the battle was lost. Congressman William W. actually copied one. competing for a prize. the bra ve student died. lesson after lesson with the scho lar. This order. But that steadfast soul seemed alt ogether unaffected by bodily prostration." he replied. while working his way through college." In the battle of Marengo. Then. Napoleon gave the command to charge. helpless in bed. It sustai ned Lincoln and Garfield on their hard journeys from the log cabin to the White House. to follow up the French. and his whole appearance indicating a physical state better befitting the hospital than the field. The lad determined to continue his college stu dies. to New Bedford to replenish his store of words and defi nitions from the town library. required almost an impossibility. picture after picture with the painter. the trumpet's blast being g iven. Physician s said there was no hope for him. and the battle was won for France . that secu res what all so much desire--SUCCESS. He was competing for the university prize. Once when Marshal Ney was going into battle. "he was alway s successful in war. but Napoleon knew the indomitable tenacity o f the man to whom he gave it. . fighting death inch by inch! What a lesson! Before his manuscript was published or the prize awarded. blow after blow with the laborer. Crapo. and. you would shake worse yet if you knew where I am going to take you." said Macaulay of Alexander the Great. the Austrians considered the day won. He resolved to make a critical study of Dante. Mass. crop after crop with the farmer.. being too poor to buy a dictionary. Think of the para lytic lad. and had given way. his eyes bloodshot. A promising Harvard student was stricken with paralysis of both legs. couched in the form of a request . but his work was successful. It enable d Gideon Lee to go barefoot in the snow. The French army was inferior in numbers. "Oh. to do which he had to learn I talian and German. and mile after mile with the traveler. and the Austrians were confident i t was won." "Often defeated in battle. "You may well shake. Oh." It is victory after victory with the soldier. by getting up every time I fell down. the Old Guard charged down into the weakened center of the enemy. the triumphs of this indomitable spirit of the conqueror! This it was that enabled Franklin to dine on a small loaf in the printing-office with a book in h is hand. It helped Locke to live on bread and water in a Dutch garret. walking from his home in the vill age of Dartmouth. 'Tell the Emperor that I will hold out for two hours. to whom the Emperor dispatched a messenger. The examiners heard him at his bedside. he r ose painfully and said courageously. Whipple tells a story of Masséna which illustrates the masterful purpose that plu cks victory out of the jaws of defeat. Half dead as he was with fatigue.A little boy was asked how he learned to skate. "After the defeat at Essling.

ridiculed. this was all he was to have. He will make stepping-stones out of his stumbling-blocks. and became Lincoln's great Secretary of State during the Civil War. better. He may go on. and I will back that young man to do better than most of those who have succeeded at the first trial. most of the great things of the world have been accomplished by g rit and pluck. he was absolute master of himself and hi s situation. up through the upper classes. and the chairman apologized for him. returned to college. ears. "Prime Minister of England. legs and yet have achieved marvelous su ccess." was his audacious reply. studied law. His father refused to give him mo re. Determined audacity was in his very face. Barnum was a ruined man. hissed from the House of Commons. Indeed. You could see that this young man intended to make his way in the w orld. and paying his notes at the same time. and bec ame the greatest historian of America in his line. when this gay young fop was introduced to him. pushing his way up through the middle classes.President Chadbourne put grit in place of his lost lung. and worked thirty-five years after his funeral had been planned. sprung from a hated and persecuted race. Imagine England's su rprise when she awoke to find this insignificant Hebrew actually Chancellor of t he Exchequer! He was easily master of all the tortures supplied by the armory of rhetoric." The time did come. with the hated Hebrew blood in his veins. Lord Melbourne. he could s ting Gladstone out of his self-control. Fox. after three defeats in parliamentary elections he was not th e least daunted. "The time will come when you will hear me. and lift himself to success. was el ected Governor of New York. Again and again he was ruined. or he may be sati sfied with his first triumph. and told him he could not stay at home. When the youth found the props all t aken out from under him. and the boy wit h no chance swayed the scepter of England for a quarter of a century. bu t phoenix-like. owing thousands more than he possessed." said Charles J. and became one of America's greate st historians. fairly wringing success from adverse f ortune. William H. until he stands self-poised upon the topmost round of political and social power . forcing his leaders hip upon that very party whose prejudices were deepest against his race. yet he resolutely resumed business once more. But he did not give up speaking till every poor man in England had a larger. You can not keep a man down who has these qualities. he rose repeatedly from the ashes of his misfortune each time mo re determined than before. asked him what he wish ed to be. for he knew his day would come. Seward was given a thousand dollars by his father with which to go t o college. but show me a young man who has not succeeded at f irst. The son returned at the end of the fresh man year with extravagant habits and no money. he left home moneyle ss. hands. Prescott also put grit in place of eyesight. "to tell me that a young man has di stinguished himself by a brilliant first speech. and cheaper loaf. and nevertheless has gone on. graduated at the head of his class. eyes. and became the greatest Postmaster -General England ever had. "It is all very well. and that he must now sink or swim. without opportunit y. See young Disraeli. the great Prime Minister. . rebuffed. Handsome. he simply says . Henry Fawcett put grit in place of eyesight." Cobden broke down completely the first time he appeared on a platform in Manche ster. Francis Parkman put grit in place of health and eyesight. One of the most remarkable examples in history is Disraeli. Thousands of men have put gri t in place of health. and whi ch had an utter contempt for self-made men and interlopers. Scoffed. he could exhaust the resources of the bitterest invective. At fifty.

those who have su ffered abuse in silence. but have be en accustomed to lean upon a father's wealth or a mother's indulgence? How many are weakened for the journey of life by self-indulgence." shouted the conquering Macedonian. the disadvantages of education. became mutinous and were going home. the disadvantages und er which we have made the race. shiftless. a mere sport of chance. I should say unhesitatingly. it is the best poss ible substitute for it. pushing. will decide the prizes. no grip on life? "The truest wisdom. Can he will strong enough. of circumstances. successless men because they have no chance. of training. General Jackson's troops. because nobody encourages them . of breeding. and then he rode before the rebellious line and threatened with instant death the first mutineer that should try to leave. "Begone. I should call the stre ngth of will the test of a young man's possibilities. sloth and folly Shiver and sink at sight of toil and hazard. but the obstacles we have overcome. the weights we have carried. "If the power to do hard work is not talent. because they get no sympathy and are forever tortured for not doing that again st which every fiber of their being protests. of surrounding s. the poor woman who has buried her sor rows in her silent heart and sewed her weary way through life. So in the race of life the distance alone does not determine the prize. with povert y. They could not half will." "I can't. We must take into consideration the hindrances. What chance is there in this crowding. the distance we have run. self ish." said Napoleon." said a foiled lieutenant. The poor wretch who has plodded along against unknown temptations. By daring to attempt them. or friends? How many are fettered with ignorance. The race is not always to the swift.Garfield said. by impaire d eyesight or hearing? When the prizes of life shall be finally awarded. how many are crippled by disease. always at the mercy of those who have wills. Not the distance we have run. and hold whatever he undertakes with an iron grip? It is the iron grip that tak es the strong hold on life. How many young men are weighted down with debt. the handicaps. Ho rses are sometimes weighted or hampered in the race. to Alexander. will all be taken into account. with the support of invalid parents or brothers and sisters. "The wise and active conquer difficulties. hampered by inhospitable surroundings. for a young man with no will. unprovided for an d starving. the weights we have c arried. they l acked will-power. ought to be sufficient to put to shame all grumblers over their hard fortune and those who attempt to excuse aiml ess. by dissipation. But the general set the example of living on acorns. by a weak constitution. where everything is pusher or pushed. with th e opposition of parents who do not understand them? How many a round boy is hind ered in the race by being forced into a square hole? How many youths are delayed in their course because nobody believes in them. And make the impossibility t hey fear. will often receive the greater prize. the land of opportunity. to be tossed about hither and thither. it is impossible. During a winter in the War of 1812. "there is nothing impossible to him who will try." Were I called upon to express in a word the secret of so many failures among th ose who started out in life with high hopes. "is a resolute deter . and every drop of their blood rebe ls? How many men have to feel their way to the goal through the blindness of ign orance and lack of experience? How many go bungling along from the lack of early discipline and drill in the vocation they have chosen? How many have to hobble along on crutches because they were never taught to help themselves. greedy world. What is a man without a will? He is like an engine without steam. and this is taken into acco unt in the result. and who have been unrecognized or despised by their fel low-runners." The triumph of industry and grit over low birth and iro n fortune in America. the battle is not always to the strong. by "lif e-sappers".

" said a friend to J. to carry the cargo across a sand-spit to the lighte rs. Little minds are tamed and subdued by misfortunes. and he prospered so rapidly that he a t length owned over a hundred steamboats. For twelve years he ran between New York City and New Brunswick." Speaking of his first attempt at a debating club. and had a capital of nine thousand dollars." said a boy of twelve one day in 1806 to the innkeeper at South Amboy. when he asked her to lend him one hundred dollars to buy a boat. harrow.mination. trembling through every fiber. If. and three men. and plant with corn the eight-acre lot. Those only are worth having which come as th e result of hard fighting." The innkeeper asked the reason for this novel proposition. Seeing that steam-vessel s would soon win supremacy over those carrying sails only. 1810." said the innkeeper. "on the twenty-seventh of this month you will be sixteen years o ld. In 1829 he b egan business as a steamboat owner. he gave up his fine b usiness to become the captain of a steamboat at one thousand dollars a year. He early identified himself with the g rowing railroad interests of the country. I took courage and had actually proceeded al . "If you will pu t us across. "The undivided will 'T is that compels the elements and wrings A human music fr om the indifferent air. "I have here three teams that I want to get over to Staten Island. The boy had been sent with three wagons . and take it to New York in lighters. In 1818 Vanderbilt owned two or three of the finest coasting schooners in New Y ork harbor. untarnished by ambition or avarice . but great minds rise above t hem." said this same boy's mother. N. "Eloquence must have been born with you. "My son. for at the age of fifteen he w as obliged to buy on credit the shoes he wore at his father's funeral. as he looked into the bright honest eyes of the boy. and became the richest man of his day in America. having imbibed a strong liki ng for the sea. Barnum began the race of business life barefoot.--WASHINGTON IRVING. it was not.--BEECHER. six horses." CHAPTER XXVI SUCCESS UNDER DIFFICULTIES Victories that are easy are cheap. and reached South Amboy penniless. in the face of opposition so bitter that he lost his last dollar. no opposition daunted him. and well done." replied the orator." The field was rough and stony. "Indee d. But the tide turned. J." An iron will without principle might produce a Napoleon. From this small beginning Cornelius Vanderbilt laid the foundation of a colossal fortune. but the work was done in time. by that time. J. but with cha racter it would make a Wellington or a Grant. he said: "I stood up. I'll leave with you one of my horses in pawn. but remembering that in this I was but imitating Tully. The work accomplished. he had started with only six dollars to travel a long distance home over the Jersey sands. on the first of May. The horse was soon redeemed. I will advance you the money. and learned that the lad's father had contracted to get the cargo of a vessel stranded near Sandy Ho ok. N. "I'll d o it. you will plow. P. "it was born some three and twe nty years and some months after me. There was no keeping him down. Curran. and if I don't send y ou back six dollars within forty-eight hours you may keep the horse. He was a remarkable example of success under difficulties. my dear sir.

Bunyan wrote his "Pilgrim's Progress" on the untwisted papers which were used t o cork the bottles of milk brought for his meals. notwithstanding he had to be at the factory at six in the mo rning. he c an bring electricity from the clouds with a common kite. the astronomer. He bought beans and cooked them himself. on small scraps of leather. yet was it. Out of his first week's wages he bought a Latin grammar." Stung by the taunt. There were only six or seven present. and spoke at every opportunity." and well did he deserve the title until he ventured to stare in astonishment at a speaker who was "culminating chronology by the most preposterous anachronis ms. and studied in the n ight schools for years. and the r oom could not have contained as many more." said the annoyed speaker. yet those petty operation s. with the general design and last result. "All the performances of human art. and oceans bounded. that he would place his book bef ore him on the spinning-jenny. and master the situation." When Elias Howe. If a man was to compare the effect of a single stroke of the pickax. he took great pains to become a good speaker. harassed by want and woe. and amid the deafening roar of machinery would po re over its pages. was in London completing his first s ewing-machine. Gifford wrote his first copy o f a mathematical work. My friends cried. He mastered Vergil and Horace in this way. He would sit up and study till midnight unless his mothe r drove him to bed. Great men have found no royal road to their triumph. A young man determined and willing wi ll find a way or make one. The boy Arkwright begins barbering in a cellar. by way of industry and perseverance. although it was worth fifty." He was nicknamed "Orator Mum . David Livingstone at ten years of age was put into a cotton factory near Glasgo w. and early learned the lesson that it takes one hundred cents to make a dollar. and that distant countries are united with canals. work ou t their problem. until he was called the "Watchdog of t he Treasury. or of one impression of the spade. "that 'Orator Mum' possesses wonde rful talents for eloquence. Curran rose and ga ve the man a "piece of his mind. He corrected his hab it of stuttering by reading favorite passages aloud every day slowly and distinc tly. and Rittenhouse. In af ter years he fought "steals" in Congress. he wou ld be overwhelmed by the sense of their disproportion. and mounta ins are leveled. taught school at ten dollars per month. 'Hear him!' but there was nothing to hear. to my panic-stricken imag ination. Elihu B. A Franklin does not require elaborate apparatus. as if I were the central object in nature.' when. H e sold his first machine for five pounds. The farmer boy. to my astonishment and terror. It is always the old route . when a cobbler's apprentice. "are instances of the resistless force of perseverance: it is by th is that the quarry becomes a pyramid. I became dismayed and dumb. at which we look with praise and wonder. He also borrowed money to send his wife back to America.most as far as 'Mr. I perceived that every eye was turned on me. incessantly continued. they seize upon whatever is at hand. he had frequently to borrow money to live on." "I doubt not. Encouraged by this success. but dies worth a million and a . Chairman. first calculated eclipses on his plow handle. in time surmount the greatest difficulties." speaking fluently in his anger. and then he pawned his letters patent to pay his expenses home. besides studying botany. Nor do they wait for fa cilities or favoring circumstances." Great men never wait for opportunities. they make them. and read extensively. and assembled millions were gazing upon me in breathless expectation. but I would recommend him to show it in future by so me more popular method than his silence. by the slender force of human beings. Washburn." s ays Johnson. So eager for knowledge was he.

career. and lived to become honored and wealthy. and persecution. but often in adversity and destitution. of what real parentage we know not. Nearly every great discovery or invention that has blessed mankind has had to f ight its way to recognition. repulsive. not in the tapestried library. Everyone who enters makes his o wn door. in bare and fireless garrets. Prescott was a remarkable example of what a boy with "no chance" can do. From among the rock-ribbed hills of New Hampshire American orators and statesmen. and exercised an influence upon the thought of the world amounting to a species of intellectual legislation. "who has not suffered?" Schiller produced his . Amid scenes unpropitious. There is scarcely a great truth or doctrine but has had to fight its way to pub lic recognition in the face of detraction. ami dst the harassing cares of a straitened household. From the and homes to which luxury is a stranger." Surroundings which men call unfavorable can not prevent owers. have often come tors of our race. By the aid of others' eyes. reared in pe nury. while this strange figure was brought by unseen hands to the front. But the boy would not lead a useless life. nor fair surrounding. poring over old archives and manuscripts. the most experienced and accomplis hed men of the day. have become the companions of kings. He set his heart upon being a historian. mustered all the impediments. and t rained themselves. calumny. "discovered a more splendid series of celestial phenomena than any one since with the great telescopes. he lost one eye by a hard piece of bread thrown during a "biscuit battle. raised to supreme comm and at a supreme moment. There is no open door to the temple of success. the guides and teachers of their kind. and Chase. have men labored. to be snatched from obscurity." said a sage. is genius born and nurtured. he spent ten years stu dying before he even decided upon a particular theme for his first book. Daniel Webster. which closes behind him to all others. The great l eaders of his party were made to stand aside. wh ose life. and turned all hi s energies in that direction. singularly awkwar d. not even permitting his own chil dren to pass." What a lesson in his life for young men! What a rebuke to those who have thrown away their opportunities and wasted their liv es! "Galileo with an opera-glass. While at college. ungainly even among the uncouth about him: it was reserved for this remarkabl e character. with scarcely a natural grace. men like Seward." said Emerson.half. statesmen famous and trained. but he snapped his fingers at their objections. and death might be chanted by a Greek chorus as at once the pr elude and the epilogue of the most imperial theme of modern times? Born as lowly as the Son of God. "What does he know. the leaders and benefac Where shall we find an illustration more impressive than in Abraham Lincoln. late in life. The world treated his novelties just as it treats everybody's novelties--m ade infinite objection. wretched. until they have at last emanated from the gloom of that obscu rity the shining lights of their times. with no gleam of light. not in ease and comp etence. in a hovel. and given the reins of power. studied. Then he spent ten years more. before he publi shed his "Ferdinand and Isabella. a young manhood vex ed by weird dreams and visions. squalor." and the other eye became almost useless. Columbus f ound the new world in an undecked boat. the unfolding of your p sprang the greatest of crowded ranks of toil. were sent to the rear. and Sumner. even against the opposition of the most progressive men. Not in the brilliant salon. William H. and intrusted with the destiny of a nation.

hanging his head in great confusion. Threats. He was so discouraged by his defeats that he determined to give up forever all attempts at oratory. however. but the "Iron Duke" never faltered in his course. when o ppressed by almost total deafness. His awkward gestures were also corrected by long and dete rmined drill before a mirror. and on them will climb to greatness. He stammered so much that he could not pronounce some of the letters at all. he determined to be an orator at any cost. and his breath woul d give out before he could get through a sentence.greatest tragedies in the midst of physical suffering almost amounting to tortu re. believed the young man had something in him. All that is great and noble and true in the history of the world is the result of infinite painstaking. William Phipps. or swerved a hair's breadt h from his purpose. discovered the lost treasure. Mozart composed his great opera s. Handel was never greater than when. talking about a Spanish ship wrecked off the Bahama Islands. scorned by quee ns. One of his audito rs. But he remained fir m. The words "New World" were graven upon his heart. after many hardships. and the people adopted his opinion. and reputation . His first effort tha t met with success was against his guardian. Jay had arranged with Great Britain. position. that he could scarcely get throug h a single sentence without stopping to rest. could not shake his mighty purpose. was terrib ly persecuted for his studies in natural philosophy. but was hissed down as befor e. The Duke of Wellington was mobbed in the streets of London and his windows were broken while his wife lay dead in the hou se. leaky vessels. and such an impedim ent in his speech. a noted actor. Rebuffed by kings. but he pushed his suit against an incredulous and ridiculing world. He went to the seashore and practised amid the roar of th e breakers with small pebbles in his mouth. and he makes spurs of his poverty to urge him on. who had defrauded him. Even our own revered Washington was mobbed in the streets because he would not pander to the clamor of the people and reje ct the treaty which Mr. Cripple hi m. ridicule. and was so short of breath. and encouraged him to persevere. pleasure. in Boston. ease. one of the profoundest thinkers the world has produced. He overcame his short breath by practising while running up steep and difficul t places on the shore. in order to overcome his stammering. yet he persevered and won s uccess. Columbus was dismissed as a fool from court after court. his books were burned in public. when a young man. All his first attempts were nearly drowned by the hisses. He was accused of dealing in magic. must be sacrificed. You can not keep a determined man from success. he did not swerve a hair's breadth from the overmastering purpose which domi nated his soul. T ake away his money. He then heard of anothe . Young Phipps determined to find it. and whom he compelled to refund a part of his fortune. mutiny of sailors. Finally. warned by palsy of the approach of death . Satyrus. Perhaps no one ever battled harder to overcome obstacles which would have dishe artened most men than Demosthenes. As he withdrew. He set out at once. of common every-day industry. Place stumbling-blocks in his w ay and he takes them for stepping-stones. which was supposed to have money on board. ostracism. He had such a weak voice. Roger Bacon. and he was kept in prison for ten years. life itself if need be. and scoffs of his audiences. He accordingly appeared again in public. perpetual plodding. and he writes the Waverley Novels. storms. and. jeers. heard some sailors on the street. and at the same time accustom himself to the hisses and tumults of his audience . Beethoven produced his greatest works amidst gloomy sorrow. and struggling with distress and suffering. and last of all his "Requiem. encouraged him still further to try to overcome his impediment. he sat down to compose the great w orks which have made his name immortal in music." when oppressed by debt and struggling with a f atal disease.

and Phipps had to wait for four years before he could raise mo ney to return. while the third. To his delight the king fitted up the ship Rose Algier for him. the wind. think you that the electric th rill passed no further than the tips of his fingers? When Thomas A. is the price of all great achievements. ROGERS. but concentra te it all in one direction. As odors crushed are sweeter still." said Harriet Martineau. won friends. do you suppose those bright rays failed to illuminate the inmost recesses of his soul? CHAPTER XXVII USES OF OBSTACLES Nature. but he returned to Engl and with $1.--EMERSON. His crew mutinied and threatened to throw him overboard. adds brains." "Kites rise against.000.r ship. Edison demon strated that the electric light had at last been developed into a commercial suc cess. a ceaseless battle to win success in spite of every barrie r. after years of toil. The man who has not fought his way up to his own loaf. "Adversity is the prosperity of the great. They proved to belong to th e wreck. "have we said that. by being thrown. on our own resources. have truly lived instead of vegetating. A constant struggle. or indeed their chief reward. Field placed his hand upon the tele graph instrument ticking a message under the sea. BURNS." Two of the three greatest epic poets of the world were blind. of opposition . James II was th en on the throne. but for that loss of money. sewin g and economizing and growing narrower every year. A distinguished investigator in science said that when he encountered an appare ntly insuperable obstacle. and at length had to return to England to repair his vessel. in short. when she adds difficulties. does not know the highest meaning of success. Many men owe the grandeur of their lives to their tremendous difficulties. we have worked hard and usefully. not with. was in his later years nearly. The money acquired by those who have thus struggled upward to success is not th eir only. It almost seems as though some great characters had been physically crippled in certain respects so that they would not dissipate their energy. of repeated failure. whi le it was yet time. He searched and searched for a long time in va in. Cyrus W. and does not bear the sc ar of desperate conflict. reputation. There's wit there ye'll get there. blin d. of ridicule.--Homer and Milton . seen the world abundantly.--SPU RGEON. which had been wrecked off Port De La Plata many years before. we might h ave lived on in the ordinary provincial method of ladies with small means. he usually found himself upon the brink of some disco . Dante. but he t urned the ship's guns on them. referring to her father's failure in business. and independence." "Many and many a time since. whereas. One day an Indian diver went down for a curious s ea plant and saw several cannon lying on the bottom. The good are better made by ill. He set sa il for England and importuned Charles II for aid. Though losses and crosses be lessons right severe. When. if not altogether. abroad and at home.500. He had nothing but dim traditions to guide him. ye'll find no other where.

with snow and frost. but are the better for them. and our griefs develo p us in a similar way. and then to wrestle with s torm and tempest. commanded their respect. by awakening p owers which were sleeping. Men of mettle turn disappointments into helps as the oyster turns into pearl the sand which annoys it. There is nothing that does a young lawyer so much good as to be half starved. An air of triumph is seen in every movement. We are the victors of our opponents. They tell us the truth when friends flatter. T heir biting sarcasm and scathing rebuke are mirrors which reveal us to ourselves . our sorrows. a stronger muscle and stamina of body. and we are led to resolve to redeem ourselves from sc orn and inferiority." Thousands of men of great native ability have been lost to the world because th ey have not had to wrestle with obstacles. They have developed in us the very power b y which we overcome them. They reac h depths before untouched. having noth ing to keep him steady. Friends cover our faults and rarely rebuke. where it accumulates strength and a mighty reserve which ultimately sweeps the obstruction impetuously to the sea. but it is only like th e obstruction of ice or débris in the river temporarily forcing the water into edd ies. and. . Poverty and obscurity of origin may impede our progress. When Napoleon's school companions made sport of him on account of his humble or igin and poverty he devoted himself entirely to books. quickly rising above them in scholarship. "Returned with thanks" has made many an author. Without their opposition we could never have braced an d anchored and fortified ourselves. and to struggle under difficulties su fficient to stimulate into activity their dormant powers. Poverty and obscurity are not insurmount able obstacles. These unkind stings and thrusts are often spurs which urge us on to grander su ccess and nobler endeavor. Failure often leads a man to su ccess by arousing his latent energy. "Let the adverse breath of criticism be to you only what the blast of the storm wind is to the eagle.--a force against him that lifts him higher.very. "a young man must live li ke a hermit and work like a horse. enemies d rag out to the light all our weaknesses without mercy. to fight its way up to sunlight and air. the fiber of its timber will be all the t ougher and stronger. No effort is too dear which helps us along the line of our proper career. We dread these thrusts an d exposures as we do the surgeon's knife. Soon he was regarded as the brigh test ornament of the class. It is just so in lif e. The man who is tied down by half a dozen blooming responsibilities and their mother will make a higher and stronger flight than the bachelor who. for they are of ten our best friends in disguise." said an eminent jurist. as the oak is braced and anchored for its th ousand battles with the tempests. and develop a firmer fiber of mind. but they often act as a stimulus to the naturally indolent. There is good philosophy in the injunction to love our enemies. Our trials. The man who has triumphed over difficulties bears the signs of victory in his f ace. "To make his way at the bar. is always floundering in the mud. If the germ of the seed has to struggle to push its way up through the stones a nd hard sod. by firing a dormant purpose." A kite would not fly unless it had a string tying it down.

and that has given the sweet law of l iberty instead of the bitter law of oppression. it would fall instantl y to the ground. A century of peace would never have prod uced a Bismarck. Their good fortune takes the spring out of their energy. it is defeat that turns gristle to muscl e. never." In the sunshine of wealth a man is. Trials unlock their virtues. Suddenly. and make greatness possible. The philosopher Kant observed that a dove. crushed. and the bird should try to fly in a vacuum. but were rocked in the cradle of difficulties and pillowed on hardships. the fire in man wo uld never blaze but for antagonism. The spark in the flint would sleep forever but for friction. How many ce nturies of peace would have developed a Grant? Few knew Lincoln until the great weight of the war showed his character. defeat is the thres hold of their victory. The harder the diamond. He should have some gr eat thwarting difficulty to struggle against. "The gods look on no grander sight than an honest man struggling with adversity . The huge truck wheels were sliding uselessly round on the car tracks that were wet and s lippery from rain. an electric car came to a standstill j ust in front of a heavy truck that was headed in an opposite direction. who made a theology for the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. The very element that offers the oppositi on to flying is at the same time the condition of any flight whatever. Difficulties call out great qualities. might suppose that if only the air we re out of the way it could fly with greater rapidity and ease. Only its own dust is hard enough to make this most precious stone reveal its ful l beauty. as a rule. . in th e opinion of those around them. "Will he not make a great painter?" was asked in regard to an artist fresh from his Italian tour." "Then I must learn to sing better. inasmuch as the only obstacle it has to overcome is the resistance of the air. their edge from grinding. unable to fly at all.John Calvin. it is defeat that makes men invincible. as th e torrid zone enervates races accustomed to a vigorous climate." remarked a passenger. thwarted. Me n who have stood up bravely under great misfortune for years are often unable to bear prosperity. "No. like the palm-tree. The great men who have lifted the world to a higher level were not developed in easy circumsta nces." replied Northcote. It is defeat that turns bone to flint.--until the motorman quietly tossed a shovelful of sand on the tr ack under the heavy wheels. Yet if the air we re withdrawn. rebuffed. when told that the very b oys laughed at his singing. and so was Robert Hall. and the greater the friction necessary to bring it out. with much jarring and jolting. seem to thrive best when most abused. "Why not?" "Because he has an income of six thousand pounds a year." said Anaximander. the mor e brilliant the luster. warped too much to become an artist of high merit. All the urging of the teamster and the straining of the horse s were in vain. Perhaps Phillips and Garrison would never have been known to hi story had it not been for slavery. "Friction is a very good thing. Some people neve r come to themselves until baffled. was tortured with disease for many years. defeated. The best tools receive their temper from fire. it is defeat that has made those hero ic natures that are now in the ascendency. Strong characters. and then the truck lumbered on its way. A drenching shower of adversity wo uld straighten his fibers out again. the no blest characters are developed in a similar way.

and the other in the dense forest. and even under sentence of death. and watch them grow. the Sunday-school. it feels no need of spreading its roots far and wide for support. hard hands. Put the other boy in a Vande rbilt family. tawny face. slen der sapling. Remove wealth and props of every kind. or secure the prize we seek. The plain. How often we see a young man develop as tounding ability and energy after the death of a parent. even though we may never reach the position we desire. Its roots reach out in every directio n. Sometimes its upward growth seems checked for years. Like a rubber ball. and family influence. he will thrive. If he falls. The two meet. thread bare clothes. They meet again as men. But for our Civil War the names of its grand heroes would not be written among the greatest of our time. as nearly alike as possible. position. Every rootlet lends its elf to steady the growing giant. and awkward manner of the country boy make sorry contrast with the genteel appearance of the other. or after some other calamity has knocked the props and crutches from under hi m. as if in anticipation of fierce conflict with t he elements. but how changed! It is as easy to distinguished the stu rdy. Take two boys. Obstacles and opposition are but apparatus of the gymnas ium in which the fibers of his manhood are developed. He thinks that it is a cruel Providence that places such a wide gulf between th em. shoots up a weak. Place h im under the tutelage of great masters and send him to Harvard. "Robinson Cru soe" was written in prison. Every obstacle ove rcome lends him strength for the next conflict. and. The city lad is ashamed of his country brother. on the other hand. idle. Take two acorns from the same tree. the harder the obstacle he meets the higher he rebounds. regrets that he has "no chance in life.Emergencies make giant men. he rises with more determination than before. The acorn planted in the deep forest. Give him thousan ds a year for spending money. with only the district school. From an aimless. and useless brain. or the loss of a fortun e. The oak standing alone is exposed to every storm. The effort or struggle to climb to a higher place in life has strength and dign ity in it. Then it shoots proudly aloft again. The prison has roused the slumbering fire in many a noble mind. if he has the right sort of material in him. and a few books. Place one in the country away from the hothouse culture and refinements of the city. self-made man from the one who has been propped up all his life by wealth. emergencies often call out powers and virtues before unknown and unsuspected. . He compels respect and rec ognition from those who have ridiculed his poverty. The gales which sport so rudely with its wide branches find more than their match. S ir Walter Raleigh wrote "The History of the World" during his imprisonment of th irteen years. as nearly alike as possible. The poor boy bemoans h is hard lot. and only serve still further to toughen every minutest fiber from pith to bark." and envies the city youth. prepared to defy the hurricane. Luther translated the Bible while confined in the Castle of Wartbu rg. and let him travel extensively. For twenty years Dante worked in exile. but all the wh ile it has been expending its energy in pushing a root across a large rock to ga in a firmer anchorage. plant one on a hill by itself. gratify his every wish. clutching the rocks and piercing deep into the earth. The "Pilgrim's Progress" appeared in Bedford Jail. as it is for the shipbuilder to tell the differe nce between the plank from the rugged mountain oak and one from the sapling of t he forest. and cannot fail to leave us stronger. Give him French and German nurses. Shielded by its neighbors.

St. he does not send him to school to the Graces." said Beethoven of Rossini. and may prove to be helps. whose eyes have been sharpened b y affliction. John Huss led to the stake at Constance. not hindrances." John Hunter said that the art of surgery would never advance until professional men had the courage to publish their failures as well as their successes. Kossuth called himself "a tempest-tossed soul." re plied the other. "Don't tell me what you like. yet what mighty purposes was God wo rking out by their apparent humiliations! Two highwaymen chancing once to pass a gibbet.When God wants to educate a man. and gives one independence of thought and force of char acter." We do our best while fighting desperately to attain what the heart covets. A rich Spaniard was asked to help him." says Smiles. if there were no gibbets. In this necessity for exertio n we find the chief source of human advancement. "Young men need to be taught not to expect a perfectly smooth and easy way to t he objects of their endeavor or ambition. Peabody. Through the pit and the dungeon Joseph came to a throne. amid the incipient earthquake throes of revolution. it is his poverty that makes t he world rich. There is no more helpful and profiting exercise than surmounting obstacles. but what you don't like. " if he had only been well flogged when a boy. Paul in his Roman cell. for. matures the judgment. dying in a negro hut in Central Africa.--the advancement of individuals as of nations. you blockhead. Waters says that the struggle to obtain knowledge and to advance one's self in the world strengthens the mind. we are not aware of the God within us until some chasm yawns which must be filled." As soon as young eagles can fly the old birds tumble them out and tear the down and feathers from their nest." "Stick your claws into me. "gibbets are the making of us. Milton. it i s the difficulties that scare and keep out unworthy competitors." It was in the Madrid jail that Cervantes wrote "Don Quixote. Tyndale dying in his prison at Amsterdam. teaching two little boys in Aldgate Street. promotes self-reliance. the y are not what they seem. or pursuit. fierce and expert in pursuing his prey. e very one would be a highwayman. or till the rending asunder of our affections forces us to become conscious of a ne ed. but replied: "Heave n forbid that his necessities should be relieved. "Seldom does one re ach a position with which he has reason to be satisfied without encountering dif ficulties and what might seem discouragements. . But if they are properly met. and had to write on scraps of leather. The rude and rough experience of the eaglet fits him to become the bold king of birds." Just so with every art." He was so poor th at he could not even get paper during the last of his writing. one of them exclaimed: "What a f ine profession ours would be if there were no gibbets!" "Tut. disciplines the faculties. We are not conscious of the mighty cravings of our half divine humanity. alone--what failures the y might all have seemed to themselves to be." said Mendelssohn to his critics when entering the B irmingham orchestra. "If the re were no difficulties there would be no success." says Dr. trade. "Success grows out of struggles to overcome difficulties. but he is spoiled by the ease with which he composes. but to the Necessities. It has led to most of the mechanical inventions and improvements of the age." "He has the stuff in him to make a good musician. David Livingstone. wo rn to a shadow.

the statue of man . and what drill and what discipline are necessary to bring them out. oppression has been the lot of the Hebrews. The rough ledge on the hillside complains o f the drill. nerveless. the monument. crowded out. frosty but kindly. the tempests. the cold of which will kill the vermin. They hold the purse-strings of many nations. but in severe climates. The most beautiful as well as the strongest woods are found not in tropi cal climates. of the blasting which disturbs its peace of centuries: it is not pl easant to be rent with powder." In one of the battles of the Crimea a cannon-ball struck inside the fort. The angel of our higher and nobler selves would remai n forever unknown in the rough quarries of our lives but for the blastings of af fliction. perennial fountains of rich ex perience and new joys often spring." while thos e who do not have these disadvantages frequently fail to "come out. chiseled into grace and beauty. God may see a rough diamond in you which only the hard hits of poverty can polish. The frost. But look again: behold the magnificent statue. when disease had robbed them of all they held dear in li fe! Often we can not see the angel in the quarry of our lives. and deve loped their greatest virtues when reverses of fortune have swept away everything they had in the world. ye t they have given the world its noblest songs. its wisest proverbs. Almost from the dawn of history. But from the ugly chasm there burst forth a spri ng of water which ever afterward flowed a living fountain. and develop the long unused muscles of manhood. that gives it value. God knows where the richest melodies of our lives are. hardships. With them persecution seems to bring prosperity. telling its grand story of valor in the public square for centuries. the calm endurance. To them hardship ha s been "like spring mornings. the chiseling of obstacles. Fierce winters are as necessary to it as long summers. the snows. Don't lament and grieve over lost wealth. Who has not observed the patience. Obstacles. fighting for its life from the moment that it leaves the acorn until it goes into the shi p. You must throw away the crutches of riches and stand upon your own feet. are the chisel and mallet whic h shape the strong life into beauty. kicked out. Adversity strippe d him only to discover him. crash ing through a beautiful garden. and the sand-papering of a thousand annoya nces. It is its half-century 's struggle with the elements for existence. The Creator may see something grand a nd mighty which even He can not bring out as long as your wealth stands in the w ay. the lightnings are the rough teachers that bring the tiny acorn to the sturdy oa k. the sweet loveliness chi seled out of some rough life by the reversal of fortune or by some terrible affl iction? How many business men have made their greatest strides toward manhood." said the aged Sidenham Poyntz. and the polishing. Many a man has never found himself until he has lost his all. but will let the plant live. the chi seling. where they have to fight the frosts and th e winter's cold. wrestling with the storm. and its grain would have never been susceptible of high polish. They thrive where other s would starve. to be hammered and squared by the quarryman." "It was not the victories but the defeats of my life which have strengthened me . its sweetest music. staminaless. usually "turn out.Boys who are bound out. From the ugly gashes which misfortunes and sorrows make in our hearts. The statue would have slept in the marble forever but for the blasting. Without this struggle it would have been characterless.

Milton wrote his leading productions when blind. dejects cowards. and sick. as he loves us better too. he had never seen." says Edmund Burke." Bunyan sa id that." published when he was but nineteen years of age. This is the crutch age. Southey. "Helps" and "aids" are advertised everywhere. and virtue shall issue from a farmhouse rather than from a palace. Not until the breath of the plague had blasted a hundred thousand lives. The lightning which smote his deares t hopes opened up a new rift in his dark life. rouse the faculties. and excite the invention. from her ashes and ruin. "Hours of Idleness." said he. The greatest men will ever be those who have risen from the ranks. puts the modest to the necessity of trying their skill. Beethoven was almost totally deaf and burdened with sorrow when he produced his greatest works. and Campbell. He that wrestle s with us strengthens our nerves and sharpens our skill. he could even pray for greater trouble. wicked London. It is said t hat there are ten thousand chances to one that genius. that ag e so fatal to genius. and th e great fire had licked up cheap. for the grea ter comfort's sake. Every obstacle seems only to add to their ability to get on. It will not suffer us to be superf icial. Many a man has been ruined into salvation. Adversity exasperates fools. and gave him glimpses of himself which. but un covered in his nature possibilities of patience. The grave buried his dearest hopes. Macaulay said. Many an orator like "stuttering Jack Curran. "Who best can suffer.hood. And learn in suffering what they teach in so ng. and difficulties and o bstacles have squared and chiseled the granite blocks into grace and beauty. You can not keep them down . but draws out the faculties of th e wise and industrious. and died at thirty-seven. A man upon whom continuous sunshine falls is l ike the earth in August: he becomes parched and dry and hard and close-grained." Men who have the right kind of material in them will assert their personality a nd rise in spite of a thousand adverse circumstances. Schiller wrote his best books in great bodily suffering. and fortitude of the voyager. He was not free from pain for fifteen years. endurance." or "Orator M um. "Adversity is a severe instructor. and hope which he ne ver before dreamed he possessed. like those of the ocean. We have i . ski ll. prudence. poor." Byron was stung into a determination to go to the top by a scathing criticism o f his first book. did she arise. has been spurred into eloquence by ridicule and abus e. phoenixlike." as he was once called. if it were lawful. Our antagonist is our h elper. "There is scarce an instance in history of so sudden a ri se to so dizzy an eminence as Byron reached. "best can do. until the blasts of misfortune have rent the ledge. Men have drawn from adversity the elements of greatness." In a few years he stood by the sid e of such men as Scott. "set over us by one who knows us better than we do ourselves. and co mpels us to consider it in all its relations. and makes the idle industrious. a grand and mighty city. True salamanders live best in the furnace of persecution. The storms of adversity. until then. This conflict with difficulty makes us acquainted with our object. Many of our best poets "Are cradled into poetry by wrong. talent. awes the opulent. shabby.

has rushed to man's relief with her wondrous forces. Self-help and self-reliance are getting old-fashioned. Nature has little regard for the mere lump of breathing clay. as if conscious of delayed bles sings. S he emancipates the muscles only to employ the brain and heart. books. will discipline us in a thousand ways. colleges. and Ne w England with its granite and ice rich. MUNGER. when we hav e purchased one thing. BROWNING. and not like children. Each sting. and whatever w e buy with our time. She does not bid the world go and play while she does the work. labor. That turns earth's smoothness rough. whether riches. The world is a market where everything is marked at a set price. The most beautiful as well as the strongest characters are not developed in war m climates. where man finds his bread ready made on trees.--MA THEWS. repine that we do not possess another we did not buy. and preachers our religion. The heaviest charged words in our language are those briefest ones. She emancipates from the lower only to call to the higher. It is no t chance that returns to the Hindoo ryot a penny and to the American laborer a d ollar for his daily toil. humiliate our ambition. "Short roads" and "abridged methods" are characteristic of the century.--LONGFELLOW." Our boys are too often tutored through college with very little study. It is rugged necessity. that bids not sit nor stand but go. He must have the p ower to decide instantly on which side he is going to make his mistakes. Newspapers give us our politics. and thou art free. Intelligent labor found the world a wilderness and has made it a garden. that makes Mexico with its mineral wealth poor. we must stand by our decision. A man must master his undertaking and not let it master him. teachers.nstitutes. libraries. Nature. Nature will chip and pound us remorselessly to bring out our possibil ities. ARMOUR. And head-winds right for royal sails. or ingenuity. universities. But do not misinterpret her edict. magaz ines. gild it as we may.--P. and where exertion is a great effort. The sculptor car es nothing for the block as such. humble our pride. T. the priceless spur. Chambers of the gr eat are jails. . A stout "no" means a stout character . Ingenious methods are used everywhere to get the drudgery out of the college cou rse. CHAPTER XXVIII DECISION Resolve. the other for denial. D. one stands for gratification. ease. the other for character. so Nat ure cares only for the man or woman shut up in the human being. Everything must give way to that. it is the strug gle to obtain. the ready "yes" a weak one. Our problems are all worked out in "explanati ons" and "keys. The sculptor will chip off all unnecessary material to set free the angel. and calls the race out of barbarism. "The hero is not fed on sweets. integrity. "yes" and " no. le t us down from the ladder of fame. Daily his own heart he eats. As the sculptor thinks only of the angel imprisoned in the marble block. Our thinking is done for us. but rather in a trying climate and on a stubborn soil.--T. She will strip us of wealth." One stands for the surrender of the will. or knowledge. it is poverty." Then welcome each rebuff. if she can develop a little character. and undertakes to do the world's drudgery and emancipate him from Eden's curse. that develops the stamina of m anhood. fame. newspapers.

The invader gave an evasive reply. if I be still the same?" That power to decide instantly the best course to pursue. the inhabitants resolved never to surrender. Satan's sublime decision in "Paradise Lost. but would win it with the sword. threw his sword into the scales in place of the ransom. I conque red. he is not a man. The vacillating man is ever at the mercy of the opinion of the man who talked w ith him last. and to sacrifice ever y opposing motive. The prompt decision of the Rom ans won them many a battle. When he landed with h is troops in Britain. There was no hope of return. or destroy my country. the arrival of a prompt." he said. which formed the boundary of Italia. Such a man co mes upon the scene like a refreshing breeze blown down from the mountain top. a man who is ever balancing between two opinions. the prompt man. a legend tells us. The man who said. He. and declared that the Romans should not purchase peace. The decided man. is one of the most potent forces in winning success. but he drifts toward the wrong. who will do so mething. This acti on was the key to the character and triumphs of this great warrior. This act of daring and prompt decision so roused the Romans that they triumphantly swept fro m the sacred soil the enemy of their peace. and forbade his crossing the line until h e had given his answer. backi ."--even his great decision wavered at the thought of i nvading a territory which no general was allowed to enter without the permission of the Senate. like Napoleon. which was then under the protection of Rome. to silence them forever and not al low them continually to plead their claims and distract us from our single decid ed course. "The die is cast. as he das hed into the stream at the head of his legions." after his hopeless banishment from heaven. The whole history of the world w as changed by that moment's decision. the Romans sent an ambassador who met Antiochus near Alexandria and comman ded him to withdraw. only a satellite. events must submit to him. By the prompt decision of the intrepid ambassador the in vader was led to withdraw." and his intrepid mind did not waver long. In fact. The brave Roman swept a circle around the king with his sword. he does not submit to events. In order to cut off all hope of retreat. he burned all the ships which had borne them to the sh ores of Britain." could not hesitate long. When Antiochus Epiphanes invaded Egypt. and. He is a tonic to the hesitating. But his alternative was "destroy myself. had the power to choose one co urse. when once sacrificed. "I came. although it may be wrong. I saw.--" the sacred and inviolable. changes the face of everything. excites a feeling akin to admiration. that he was meant to be possessed by others. In an emergency.When Rome was besieged by the Gauls in the time of the Republic. does not wa it for favorable circumstances. forever debating which of two courses he will pursue. When Julius Caesar came to the Rubicon. To hesitate is s ometimes to be lost. Men who have left their mark upon their century have been men of great and prom pt decision. the man who is forever twisting and turning. it was victory or death. and made them masters of the world. He may see the right. when Camillus appeared on the scen e. and war was prevented. They were in the act of weighing it. Caesar's quic k mind saw that he must commit his soldiers to victory or death. bewildered crowd. An undecided man. If he decide s upon a course he only follows it until somebody opposes it. After a few moments of terrible s uspense he resumes his invincible spirit and expresses that sublime line: "What matter where. decided. All the great ac hievements in the history of the world are the results of quick and steadfast de cision. proclaims by his indecisi on that he can not control himself. the Romans wer e so hard pressed that they consented to purchase immunity with gold. positive man. and sacrifice every conflicting plan on the instant.

shuffling and parleying. but moves very easily at the slightest volition of another. The vacillating man is never a prompt man. all the passengers who leaped instantly upon the rock were saved. he replied. But the positive man. and one thing after another vindicates i ts right to him by arresting him while he is trying to go on. since if he dared to assert that he did. He seemed to be everywhere at once. with no preponderi ng motive to enable him to decide. on an Irish cliff." The decided man not only has the advantage of the time saved from dillydallying and procrastination. in whic h the fate of the engagement was decided. "changed the destinies of the civilized world. and inspire with courage the most stupid men. and contemptuously exhibit the futility of the determination by whic h he was to have proved the independence of his understanding and will. may make a seizure of the unhappy boaster the very n ext minute. but he also saves the energy and vital force which is wast ed by the perplexed man who takes up every argument on one side and then on the other. the decided man. Yet there is not a man living who might not be a prompt and decided man if he w ould only learn always to act quickly. "By not wavering. to attend to correspondence. half-hearted men! "The doubt of Charles V. negativeness never accomplishes anything. Great opportunities not only come seldom into the most fortunate life . Napoleon used to say that although a battle might last an entire day. the decided man. The "ifs and buts. which subdued nearly the who le of Europe. "A man without decision. can do twice as much as the undecided and dawdling man who never quite knows what he w ants. when asked how it was that he had conquered the world. The positive step landed them in safety. splitting hairs over non-essentials. is a power in the world. gauge hi m. and engulfed forever..ng and filling. an d clung for a few moments to the cliff." says John Foster. and weighs them until the two sides hang in equipoise. Decision of purpose and promptness of action enabled him to astonish the world with his marvelous successes. The punctual man. "can never be said to belong to him self. the puny force of some cause. at midnight. yet it generally turned upon a few critical minutes. abo ut as powerful as a spider. dispatches an d. shiftless. He is in stable equilibrium. His will. details. You can estimate the work that his energy will accomplish. You can measure him. after riding thirty or forty leagues. The negative man creates no confidence. will never accomplish anything. and so does not move at all of his own volition. There is not positiveness en ough in him. but also are often quickly gone." When the packet ship Stephen Whitney struck. He belon gs to whatever can make capture of him. weighing and b alancing. What a lesson to dawdling. as twigs and chips floating near the edge of a river are intercepted by every weed and whirled int o every little eddy." He would sit up all night if necessary." says Motley. listening to every new motive whi ch presents itself. and without promptness no success is possible. hesitating and dawdling. he only invites distrust. and stands for something." he said. He seemed to electrify everybody about him. was as prompt and decisive in the minutest detail of command as in the greatest battle. and above all it must be done with speed." . It is related of A lexander the Great that. What he could accomplish in a day surprised all who knew him. "are at present out of season. He could rouse to imm ediate and enthusiastic action the dullest troops. His invincible energy thrilled the whole army. Those who lin gered were swept off by the returning wave. Prompt decision saved Napoleon and Grant and their armies many a time when delay would have been fatal.

and lo. who supports his judgment against thei r own and that of their representatives. There is a legend of a powerful genius who promised a lovely maiden a gift of r are value if she would go through a field of corn. full of enthusiasm. which is in every body's way but stops no one. select the largest and ripest ear. like a withered leaf. his heart throbbing with a great purpose.So powerful were President Washington's views in determining the actions of the people. tak es the step. thus taking the top of the tide. or wandering hither and thither." replied Amos Lawrence. then." Most of the young men and women who are lost in our cities are ruined because o f their inability to say "No" to the thousand allurements and temptations which appeal to their weak passions. they are here to-day and there to-morrow. he feels sure it is the thing he wants to do. If they would only show a little decision at firs t. Jefferson wrote to Monroe at Paris: "You will see by their proceedings the truth of what I always told you. He can not hold to one thing long enou gh to bring success out of it. the great soul. without fuss or noise. and executes nothing. they are afraid of offending. thus fix your floating life and leave it no longer to be carried hither and thither. while the habit of som e others was to delay till about half tide. and contentment. ca ptured by any new occupation which happens to appeal to him as the most desirabl e at the time. Such people are never led by principle. Alexander. He dissipates his energy. one emphatic "No" might silence their solicitors forever. throwing away all the skill they had acquired in mastering the drudgery of the last occupation. But they are weak. An undecided man is like the turnstile at a fair. his enthusiasm evaporates. In fact." and thus they throw d . they don't like to say "No. the mountain has been leveled and the way lies open. She passed by many magnificent ones. and. The value of the gift was to be in proportion to the size and perfection of the ear .--namely. Republicanism resigns the vessel to the pilot. at times almost overwhelming. conquers the world. So he vacillates through life. Finally they became so small that she was ashamed to select one of them. But in a few days the thorns begin to appear. Hannib al. impelled by his hatred to the Romans. not being allowed to go backwa rd. s catters his forces. The one which his friend adopted is much better suited to him. but was so eager to get the largest and m ost perfect that she kept on without plucking any until the ears she passed were successively smaller and smaller and more stunted. Learn. she came out on the other side without any. and. they never go far enough in anything to get beyond the drudgery stage to the remunerative and agreeable stage. Without decision there c an be no concentration. and preparing expedients. going b ackward. The undecided man can not bring himself to a focus. "The secret of the whole matter was. thus getting on the flats. One vocation or occupation presents its rosy side to him. he drops his own and adopts the other." There is no vocation or occupation which does not present many difficulties. and. that when Congress adjourned. the skilful stage. These people rarely reach the stage of compet ency. that one man outweighs them all in influence. a man must concentrate. by every wind that blows. While other men are bemoaning difficulties and shrinking from dangers and obstacles. adopts it as his life's work. which are always most agreeable. "we had formed the habit of prompt acting. and he wonders why he is so foolish as to think himself f itted for that vocation. and the young man who allows himself to waver every time he comes to a hard place in life will not succeed. They spend their lives at the beginning of occupations . never using his judgment or common sense. to succeed. You never know where to find them. do ing this thing and that thing. without pausing. but governed by his imp ressions and his feelings at the moment. even crosses the Alps to compass his d esign. comfort. to will strongly and decisively. and.

and by the time the cause is over dinner is ready. than the reputation of promptness. and coaxed." "j ust this side of happiness. "I am employed. they took the more inviting path. Scott used to caution youth against the habit of dawdling. the wise man kn ew that the difficult one was the shortest and safest."--do instantly." above which the words of warning are flying! Webster said of such an undecided man that "he is like the irresolution of the sea at the turn of tide. and wer e soon met by robbers. A little l ater both they and their captors were arrested by officers of the law and taken before the judge. and bring assistance more quickly from th e bank or from a friend." he said.own the gauntlet and are soon on the broad road to ruin. first felt in the weakened or debilitated pow er of decisions. Any bodily weakness. The fool desired to take the pleasant way. listless people life becomes a mere shuffle of expedien ts. great decision of character is usually accom panied by great constitutional firmness." "Nervelessness. consent thou not. Then the wise man pleaded that the fool was to blame because h e desired to take the wrong way." "Behind Time. which is usually impaired or weakened from physica l suffering or any great physical debility. and so declared. "in hearing counsel every morning. turn ing over and dreading to get up! Many a career has been crippled by it. convinced that it would ruin his success. is. shiftless. On many of the tombstones of those who have failed in life could be read between the lines: "He Dawdled. he has gambled his life away. Before a man knows what he has done." There is no habit that so grows on the soul as irresolution. or lassitude. which creep s in at every crevice of unoccupied time and often ruins a bright life. But at l ast the urgency of the fool prevailed." There is no doubt that. their contagion infects their whole neig hborhood. their success." Oh. The judge punished them both equa lly. and cam e to a point where two ways opened before them. but Burton would beg him to be left a little longer. Nothing will give greater confidence. As a rule. and Burto n came out with a bound. and all because he has never ma de up his mind what he would do with it. who seized their goods and made them captives. The servant. This is the only way to check t he propensity to dawdling. or la ck of tone and vigor. An old legend says that a fool and a wise man were journeying together. the ot her narrow and rough. as a rule." He has no power to seize the facts w hich confront him and compel them to serve him. and n o sensible man should have heeded his counsel. perhaps. "Your mo tto must be. How many hours have been wasted dawdling in bed. Indus try advises me to get up. They do not realize that the habit of putting everything off puts off their manhood. "If sinners entice thee. and especially is this tru e with the power of decision. The world knows that . then dashed cold water into the bed between the sheets." Such a man is at the mercy of any chance occurrence that may overtake him. to hear all that can be sai d on both sides. Hi s "days are lost lamenting o'er lost days. Men who have been noted for great firmn ess of character have usually been strong and robust. When one asked a lazy young fellow what made him lie in bed so long. t he servant called. Sloth to lie still. A little resolution ear ly in life will soon conquer the right to mind one's own business. "Hoc age. and. it is the strong physical man who carries weight and conviction. This man neither advances nor recedes. " "Procrastination. To indolent. and called. the wrecks strewn along the shores of life "just behind success. he simply hovers . It is my part. and they give me twenty reasons fo r and against." "Listlessness. as an impartial judge." "Always B ehind.--one broad and beautiful. mad e his servant promise before he went to bed to get him up at just such a time. Burton c ould not overcome this habit." "Shiftlessness. The fool pleaded that he was only a fool. knowing that he would lose his shilling if he did n ot get him up." said he. their capacity. There is no quality of the mind which does not sympathize with bodily weakness.

is final. consider. were better educated. t hat there is some iron in you.--no wavering. once resolved. those who saw him after that imagined that he picked up the material for his sermons on the street. which often does not present itself but once! It was said that Napoleon had an officer under him who understood the tactics o f war better than his commander. knew the country as well. fatal to progress. that. How many a man can trace his downfall in life to the failure to seiz e his opportunity at the favorable moment. but nothing left for the moment um of action. but they lacked that power of decision which made unconditional surrender absolutely imperative wherever he met the foe. and fears. it is true that much that was most vital in his preach ing he did pick up on the street. "Hoc age. you are not to be allured or intimidated. like Caesar. ponder. At last Lincoln had a general who had the power of decision. and a thorough-going knowledge of the world of books. who asked him for conditions of capit ulation. The very effort to come to immediate and unflinching decision starts up all sort s of doubts. " Let it be your first study to teach the world that you are not wood and straw. They analyze and analyze. they have a mortal dread of deciding anything. when it was within easy grasp. he must burn his ships behind him. He must nail his colors to the mast as Nelson did in battle. fatal to success. and will trust him. lest in a moment of discouragement and irresolution he be tempted t o sheathe it. "I propose to fight it out on these lines if it takes all summer. There was no going behind it. once made. a nd make retreat forever impossible. "men doubted whether I could sustain myself. and they can not seem to get light enough to decide nor courage enough to attempt to remove the obstacle. "When I first went to Brooklyn. It was his decision whic h voiced itself in those memorable words in the Wilderness. Yet someh ow they seem fated with a morbid introspection which ever holds them in suspense . Grant's decision was like inexorable fate. When he draws his sword he must throw the sc abbard away." he said. weigh. Yet having said so much. deter mined to sink with his ship if he can not conquer. and I do not care what comes after. They have just energy enough to weigh motives. difficulties. There were several generals under Grant who were as well skilled in war tactics. tha t your decision. 'Give me uninterrupted time till nine o'clock every morning. I replied. and the North b reathed easy for the first time. Prompt decision and sublime a udacity have carried many a successful man over perilous crises where deliberati on would have been ruin. no opening it up for reconsideration. but never act." "Let men know that what you say you will do. They know that h esitation is fatal to enterprise.'" He was a hard student during four hours every morning." CHAPTER XXIX OBSERVATION AS A SUCCESS FACTOR Henry Ward Beecher was not so foolish as to think that he could get on without systematic study. .the prompt man's bills and notes will be paid on the day." Some minds are so constructed that they are bewildered and dazed whenever a res ponsibility is thrust upon them." and which sent back the words "un conditional surrender" to General Buckner. The man who would forge to the front in this competitive age must be a man of p rompt and determined decision. that gave the first confidence to the North that the rebellion was doom ed. deliberate. but he lacked that power of rapid decision and powerful concentration which characterized the greatest military leaders perhaps of the world. the ni ck of time.

He always preached on Sunday at the hotel where he stayed. or education. the newsboy. He saw that the strength of this great Master' s sermons was in their utter simplicity. the cheerful." This is the secret of many a man's success. they grew out of doors. or commer ce. the blacksmith. . He was in the swim of things. The clouds. many a time. the mechanic. Beecher get his sermons?" every ambitious young clergyman in th e country was asking. calamities. but picked them up as He walked along the banks of the Jordan and over the hills and through the meadows and villages of Galilee. He got them from the brakem an. the clerk. in the stores. a little more determined to do their share in the world. and he knew that H e did not search the writings of the Sanhedrin for His sermons. the despondent. accidents. the Christ was his great model.--whatever touched the lives of men. Beecher's sermons were very simple. life pictures of successes and failure s. and where he spent many summers. as many did. The flowers. He went into the thick of the fight himself. Beecher believed a sermon a failure when it does not make a great mass of heare rs go away with a new determination to make a little more of themselves. when he saw how much more forceful and interesting actual life s tories were as they were being lived than anything he could get out of any book except the Bible. the rain. He got them everywhere from life and nature.--keeping his eyes open and asking q uestions. I watched him. seascapes. to do t heir work a little better. which he loved so well. of the discouraged. there he was studying its great problem s. the train conduc tor. They pulsated with lif e. The great. birds and trees alte rnated with the direst poverty in the slums. to be a little more conscientious. and the storm were reflected in them. He did not watch the progress of the great human battle from his study. They were full of pictures of beauti ful landscapes. the physician. completely absorbed in drinking in the beaut ies of the marvelous landscape. and strong. people on sick beds and death beds. and the business man. [Illustration: Henry Ward Beecher] When he once got a taste of the power and helpfulness which comes from the stud y of real life. He picked them u p in the marketplace. like Christ's. Although Beecher was an omnivorous reader he did not care much for the writings of the theologians. again the problem of government. in hospitals and in funeral processions. passed in quick succession and stamped themselves on the brains of his eage r hearers. He kept his hand upon the pulse of events. gathering grandeur and sublimity from the great White Mountains. they had the vigor of bright red blood in them. the sun shine. the brooks . Now it was the problem of slavery. This great observer was not only a student of human nature."Where does Mr. the optimist and the pessim ist. all sor ts of experiences and bits of life. because. the lawyer. a little more help ful. but of all nature a s well. he was never again satisfied without illustrations fresh from the lives of the people he met every day. and great crowds cam e from every direction to hear him. busy. the day laborer. the steam-cars. the record of creation imprinted in the rocks and the mountains were interming led with the ferryboats. There was something in his sermons that appe aled to the best in everyone who heard him. healthy. orphans. He was in the smoke and din. ambitious world was everywhere throbbing for him. and upon one occasion he answered: "I keep my eyes open an d ask questions. the fields. their naturalness. and entrancing sunsets. Where the battle of life raged fiercest. on Wall Street. Happiness and sunshine.

to emphasize the right thing in them." I once traveled abroad with two young men. Professo r Osler was called a living X-ray machine. Then the great Johns Hopkins professor examined the pa tient. Like Professor Agassiz. in his famous garden. because he read the hidden meaning in things. to be able to pierce t heir masks and read the real man or woman behind them. but he brought home rich treasures from over the sea. His mind stopped and questioned. his ears. He was a poor student. He could feel the Divine presence in all created things. He could see beauty and harmony where others saw only ugliness and discord. a nd his mind open.--everything was a telltale of the patient's condition. he regarded as one of a c lergyman's greatest accomplishments. one of whom was all eyes. Noth ing else was half so interesting." There is no position in life where a trained eye can not be made a gre at success asset. Like Ru skin. Beecher had an eye like the glass of a microscope. He was not a great scholar. the Divine plan. everyday oc currences. w hich he read as an open book. the wizard horticulturist. He watched the patient closely. by keeping his eyes. The e ducation which Beecher got through observation. who could see wonders in the scale of a fish or a grain of sand. I was much impressed by his marvelous power of seeing things. Things so triv ial that his companion did not notice them at all. meant a great deal to him. the latter could scarcely recall anything of interest. meant a great deal more to him and to the world than his colle ge education. Everything he saw must give up i ts secret before he would let it go. Wherever he went. The day after leaving a city.Wherever he went. the appearance of the eye. his manner of breathing. He had a passion for knowledge. and the patient recovered. The power which inheres in a trained faculty of observation is priceless. and brought home almost nothing of value. The o ther young man was comparatively rich. He did not ask questions. in the lowliest ob ject." said the physicians at a consultation where a precio us life hung by a thread. He rec ommended a certain operation. while the former ha d a genius for absorbing knowledge of every kind through the eye. to b e able to discriminate between the genuine and the false. He has . with additional eyes in finger tips s o familiar with the anatomy that they could detect a growth or displacement so s mall that it would escape ordinary notice. To him man was the greatest study in the world .--and the other never saw anything. His experienced eye drew a conclusion from the slightest evidence. but thousands can think for one who can see. th ere was a great interrogation point before him. but such was their confidence in his power to diagnose a case through symptoms and indications which escape most physicians. he could see the marvelous philosophy. Beecher continued his study of life through observation. which was performed. that they were willing to leave the whole decision to him. He saw symptoms which others could not see. While visiting Luther Burbank. the philosophy underlying the common. and extr acted the meaning of everything that came within its range. Lincoln was another remarkable example of the possibilities of an education thr ough reflection upon what he observed. "is an element of all great success. recently. he yearned to know the meaning of things.--nothing s eemed to escape him. but his mind pen etrated to the heart of things. Ruskin says: "Hundreds of people can talk for one who can think. which reveals marve ls of beauty in common things. "Let's leave it to Osler. Th e majority of those present disagreed with him. To place the right values upon men. "An exhaustive observation. he did not stand nearly as high in col lege as some of his classmates whom he far outstripped in life." says Herbert Spencer.

If the mind is n ot focused. He keeps his mind open to all that is new and fresh and helpful. He knows its geograp hy. every triu mph of modern labor-saving machinery. Cortelyou was a stenographer not long ago. and it becomes of inestim . in fact. the telescope. he would never have advanced. The efficient man is always growing. Careless. Just the effort to try to see how much they can remember and bring back is a splendid drill. He was after an oppo rtunity. who has been in this country only a year. calculating. the telephone. He was a shrewd observer. the image is not clean-cut. is due to the trained power of seeing things.observed the habits of fruits and flowers to such purpose that he has performed miracles in the fields of floriculture and horticulture. or out of d oors anywhere. He keeps his ears open. The majority of people do not see things. The telegraph. Few people realize what a tremendous success and happi ness is possible through the medium of the eye. of absorbing knowledge. Stunted and ugly flower s and fruits. forming opinions. Promotion was always staring him in the face. to see things carefully. He is always accumulating knowledge of eve ry kind. his ears open. under the eye of this miracle worker. and how closely they can observe them. just for the purpose of finding out how many things they can see in a certain given time. considering. they just look at them. that really sees. And he could not understand the lethargy. It does not take long to develop a habit of attention that seizes the salient p oints of things. Close observation is a powerful mental process. but he always kept his eyes open. the miracles o f electricity. The observing faculty is particularly susceptible to culture. He said that when he landed in New York it seemed to him that he saw more o pportunities in walking every block of our streets than he had ever seen in the whole of Turkey. He sees with them. yet he speaks ou r language fluently. He does not merely look with his eyes. Many people thought he wou ld remain a stenographer. sharp. the sewing machine. become marvels of beauty. and much about our resources and opportunit ies. alert. Indifference. not the optic nerve. every great invention of the past or present. mental lassitude and laziness are fatal to all effective observation. mentally. keen attention. But for this power of seeing things quickly. b alancing. He must be quick. estimating. He has studied the map of our country. It is a splendid drill for children to send them out on the street. ready. apathy. every discovery in science and art. for it is the mind. The power of keen observation is indicative of a superior mentality. the indifference of our young men to our marvelous possibilities. indifferent observation does not go back of the eye. his mind ope n. George W. and is not carried with force and distin ctness enough to the brain to enable it to get at the truth and draw accurate co nclusions. He was always looking for the next step above him. and a great deal of our history. the lack of ambition. and is capable of becoming a mighty power. The youth who would get on must keep his eyes open. weighing. a nd thoughtfulness. I know a young Turk. Most people are too lazy. The whole secret of a richly stored mind is alertness. Chi ldren often become passionately fond of this exercise. The mind is all the time working over the material which the eye brings it.

Study his emp loyees. Shall die and leave his errand unfulfill ed. study the situation. perhaps. He does not know them. analyze the situation. you can. but. If he is making a remarkable success. that there is no busines s insight. uncultured. but he had not been in his seat sixty days before his ability was recognized and his place conceded." Garfield was the youngest member of the House of Representatives when he entere d.able value in their lives. In all my acquaintance I ha ve never known a man to be drowned who was worth the saving. You will see that this man has not studied men. He thought a boy. and because when once in the front he played his part wi th an intrepidity and a commanding ease that were but the outward evidences of t he immense reserves of energy on which it was in his power to draw.--PESTALOZZI. . look up e vidences of success or failure everywhere. Let nothing escape you. LOWELL. find out why this man is not a greater success. no detection of the wants of possible buyers. Ask yourself why it i s that the proprietor at fifty or sixty years of age is conducting a business wh ich a boy of eighteen or twenty ought to be able to handle better. try to find out why. and unc outh. "but nine times out of ten the best thing that can happen to a young man is to be tossed overboard and compelled to sink or swim for himself. He succeeded because all the world in concert could not have kept him in the background. perhaps. Garfield. Go into a place of business with the eye of an eagle. It will be one of the greatest factor s in your own success. as I can testify. Keep your eyes open. You will find perhaps that he never knew the valu e of good manners in clerks. "Colonel Crockett makes room for himself!" exclaimed a backwoods congressman in answer to the exclamation of the White House usher to "Make room for Colonel Cr ockett!" This remarkable man was not afraid to oppose the head of a great nation . if honest. uncouth manners. Crockett was a man of great courage and determination. He preferred being right to being president. in a little while. would make a good sale sman. He stepped to the front with the confidence of one who b elonged there. Trace difficulties. and remember that the best men always make themselves. my son." said James A. your ears open. know ye not Who would be free themselves must strike the b low? BYRON. Who waits to have his task marked out.--HUMPHRY DAVY. by gruff. why he remains in mediocrity all his life. Hereditary bondsmen. Be sure. Think why the man does not do bett er if he is not doing well. before you go into his store. Make deductions from what you see and hear. it is the keen observer who gets ahead. If you keep your eyes o pen. CHAPTER XXX SELF-HELP I learned that no man in God's wide earth is either willing or able to help any other man. You will see by h is show windows. Though rough.--PATRIC K HENRY. multiplied the receipts tenfold in a few years. No matter where you go. You can see that a little more knowledge of human nature would have revolutioni zed his whole business. he is driving out of the door cus tomers the proprietor is trying to bring in by advertisements. Other things equal. What I am I have made myself. "Poverty is uncomfortable.

an anxiety. It was wings to you. the joy fe lt only in growth. for he c ould black his own boots. and have made adverse circumstances a spur to goad them up the steep mount. sagacity. Richard Arkwright. joy. the character which trained habits of accuracy. you developed the mu scle. but rather the men with no "start" who have wo n fortunes. Col l' Antonio thinking that he would never be troubled further by the gypsy. In climbing to your fortune. You have taken the priceless spur--necessity--away from him." "A person under the firm persuasion that he can command resources virtually has them. ignoranc e. fell deeply in love with the daughter of the painter Coll' Antonio del Fiore. which will probably dwarf him. "A pair of shirtsleeves. the spur which h as goaded man to nearly all the great achievements in the history of the world. Your fortune wa s experience to you. but was told that no one but a painter as good as the father should wed the maiden. but have you really given him anything ? You can not transfer the discipline. and so entitle myself to the hand of your daughter?" Consent was given." says Livy. where "Fame's proud temple shines afar. Solario. Louis Philippe said he was the only sovereign in Europe fit to govern. You had the power which comes only from experience. It meant a great deal for you. "and all men a cquiesce. prudence. who have risen highest. You may leave your millions to your son. discipline. in a hovel. The world must be just. When asked to name his family coat-of-arms. "Will you give me ten years to learn to pa int." says Emerson. weakness. the . which has not felt the impress of their feet . You cannot transfer the skill. which the acqu isition has given you. you can not transfer the delight of achieving. b ut means nothing to your heir. the hardships." It is not the men who have inherited most. lethargy. to him it may mean inaction. with no education. politen ess of manner have developed. You thought to spare him the drudgery. It leaves every man with profound unconcern to set his own rate. the experience. to him it will be a temptation. to you it was education and expansion of your high est powers. and strength which enabled you to maintain your lofty position. method. it will be a dead weight to him."Take the place and attitude which belong to you. every possible goal is accessible. foresight. dispatch. You thought it a kindness to deprive yourself in order that your son might begi n where you left off. and put a scepter in England's right h and such as the queen never wielded. and honest ambition has no heig ht that genius or talent may tread. patience. growth. promptness. which the painter extolled in terms of the highest pr aise. and which alone enables you to stand firm on your dizzy height. which lie concealed in your wealth. and character. His great d etermination gained him his bride. Judge of his surprise on learning that Solario was the artist. stamina. except it be in nobility of soul and purpose. gave his spinning model to the world." To such men. the power. honesty of dealing. a wandering gypsy tinker. indolence. a self-made President of the United States replied. About the time that the ten years were to end the king's sister showed Coll' An tonio a Madonna and Child. t o keep your millions intact. the pride of acquisition. the thirteenth child. no chan ce.

they look around for somebody to lean upon. not being stimulated by the struggle for selfelevation. When the o wner returned he had caught a large number." said Robert Collyer. "But what becomes of the Ameri can daughters. asked an English lady what became of daughters when no property was left th em. During the great financial crisis of 1857 Maria Mitchell." His table was covered with medals and cer tificates of honor from many nations. no real happiness. His salary was only about $200 a yea r. "I f ." The proposal was gladly accepted. Counting out from them as many as we re in the basket. I could sell them and buy food and lodgings. or unhorsed men in armor. Men who have been bolstered up all their lives are seldom good for anything in a crisis. "Man. the meager education. But grief shook the sands of life as he thought only of the son who had brought disgrace upon a name before unsullied." "And what is that?" asked the other. and he lost all his depression in the excitement of pulling them in. and presenting them to the youth." was the reply. When misfortune comes. he found written at the end . for he trimmed the lamps. swept the rooms." was Miss Mitchell's reply. "Finis. He was poor and dejected. If I had only had firmness enough to compel my boys to earn their living." "I w ill give you just as many and just as good. At length. If you do everything for your son and fight his battles for him. H e accepted the first pastorate offered him. I was so unkind to Edward when I thought I was being kind. "A man's best friends are his ten fingers. with God's help. Many a frontier boy has succeeded beyond all his expectations simply because all props were early knocked out from under him and he was obliged to stand upon his own feet. It was work and opportunity that he wanted. approaching a basket filled with fish." asked the English lady. "my fortune gone." A young man stood listlessly watching some anglers on a bridge. Oh. What you call " no chance" may be your only chance.--but he knew that a fine church and great salary can not make a great man. my home dishonored. the wounds were s harper than those of a serpent's tooth. help yourself. then they w ould have known the meaning of money. his energy will be dissipated. the lack of opportunities. "My life is a wreck. Field. He felt that if there were anything in him work would bring it out. Meanwhile the fish snapped greedily at the hook.deprivations. When Beethoven was examining the work of Moscheles. and rang the bell. in a little town near Cincinnati. It the prop is not there. There is no manhood mill which takes in boys and turns out men. "If now I had these I would be happy. who was visiting Engl and. the old fisherman said. who chanced to over hear his words. he sighed. Don't wait for somebody to give you a lift. without which no real success. they are as helpless as capsized turtles. you ha ve taken away from him the incentive to self-development. "They live on their brothers. He became literally the light of the church. "when there is no money left?" "They ear n it. who brought hi s wife to America in the steerage. I wish to go on a short err and. his ambition. "if you will do me a trifling favor. lift yourself. make it yourself. of the fame he had wo n and could never lose. down they go." He wrote under it. But you have put a crutch into his hand instead of a staff. in recognition of his great work for civil ization in mooring two continents side by side in thought. you will have a weakling on your hands at twenty-one. Once down. to self-discipline and self-help. His enthusiasm will evaporate." said the dying Cyrus W. Don't wait for your place to be made for you . no great character is ever possible. will gradually die away. which you had on the old farm. "Only to tend this line till I come back. to self-elevation. H enry Ward Beecher did not wait for a call to a big church with a large salary. The old man was gone so long that the yo ung man began to get impatient. kindled the fires." said the owner.

He borrowed a wheelbarrow. Ask almost any great man in our larg e cities where he was born. The gods sell ever ything for that. "let the little man pray. and all the way down hill to the latter place. They have fought their way to triu mph over the road of difficulty and through all sorts of opposition. The farmer's boys fill many of the greatest places in legislatures. Bayard Taylor. in a state of intense fear. and then he b ought a horse and cart. but what of that? He made an opening." The door to the temple of success is never left open. A lowly beg inning and a humble origin are no bar to a great career. "The male inhabitants in the Township of Loaferdom. in the County of Hatework. faint. and went three miles to an oyster smack. said. to teach you whenever you see ot hers earning what you need to waste no time in foolish wishing. Labor is the only legal tender in the world to true success. bought three bushels of oysters. at twenty-three. not only in the getting of wealth. no. intellect. Our p oor boys and girls have written many of our greatest books. the larges t and strongest man in the party. but also in the acquirement of eminence. It cannot be coaxed or bribed. in pulpits . at the bar. wrote: "I will become the sculptor of my o wn mind's statue.ulfil my promise from the fish you have caught. and threatened to capsize the boat. "found themselves laboring under great inconvenience fo r want of an easily traveled road between Poverty and Independence. and he will tell you it was on a farm or in a small country village. broad and smooth. Like Horace Greeley. the founder of Boston University. Self-help has accomplished about all the great things of the world. and dally with their purpose because they have no capital to start with." says Sallust. left Cape Cod for Boston to make his way with a capital of only four dollars. he could find no opening for a boy. and have filled the highest places as teachers and journalists. nothing without it." "Every one is the artificer of his own fortune. and t he will. my man. in business." shouted the bluff old boatman. Where is the boy to-day who has less chance to ri ." "No. When it seemed that the crisis had really come. Boys of lowly origin have made many of the greatest disco veries. They therefo re petitioned the Powers that be to levy a tax upon the property of the entire c ounty for the purpose of laying out a macadamized highway. those men have won most who relied most upon themselves. in Congress. Man is not merely the architect of his own fate. to-day. of our universities. Circumstances have rarely favored great men. are presidents of our banks." His biography shows how often the chisel and hammer were in h is hands to shape himself into his ideal. "Let us pray . How many yo ung men falter. Isaac Rich. From Croesus down to Rockefeller the story is the same. of our colleges. Yo u take an oar. which closes behind him to all others. Every one who enters makes his own door." A white squall caught a party of tourists on a lake in Scotland. but he must lay the bricks him self. and wait and wait for some good luck to give them a lift! But su ccess is the child of drudgery and perseverance. He found a board." The grandest fortunes ever accumulated or possessed on earth were and are the f ruit of endeavor that had no capital to begin with save energy. Nearly all of the great capitalists of the city came from the c ountry. but cast a line for yourself. pay the price and it is yours. and wh eeled them to his stand. an d made it into an oyster stand on the street corner. Soon his little savings amounted to $130." says a printer's squib. You will never find success "marked down.

" H ume toiled thirteen hours a day on his "History of England. It is said that Bryant rewrote "Thanatopsis" a hundred times. till it gained his consent t o exist. It is interesting to note that the men who t alk most about genius are the men who like to work the least. but when he was a student too poor t o buy books. The greatest geniuses have been the greatest workers. scratched. At thirty years of age he was master of every important language in Europe and was studying those of Asia. and often by candle-light? Yet.se in the world than Elihu Burritt. apprenticed to a blacksmith. pull up by the roots. If the youth of America who are struggling against cruel circumstances to do so mething and be somebody in the world could only understand that ninety per cent. Lucretius worked nearly a lifetime on one poem. the disheartening trials. the h eadaches. wha t an uplift of inspiration and encouragement they would give! How often I have w ished that the discouraged. the nerve-aches. but it was found that the "brilliants" and "off-hand sayings" with whic h he used to dazzle the House of Commons were elaborated. determined industr y. carrying it in his poc ket that he might utilize every spare moment. he had actually borrowed and copied many hundreds of pages of large law books. attest the trouble they cost me. but th e days and months of weary plodding over details and dreary drudgery often requi red to produce it would stagger belief. that it is the slavery to a single ide a which has given to many a mediocre talent the reputation of being a genius." Even Lord Bacon. The lazier the man . and scarcely legible. The greatest works in literature have been elaborated and elaborated. Speaking of Fox. often rewritten a dozen times. split. he managed." Rousseau says of the labor involved in his smooth and lively style: "My manuscripts. and put down in his memorandum book ready for any emergency. young Burritt had seized the opportunity and improved it. Yet he had a thirst for knowledge and a desire for self-improveme nt. Matthew Hale for years studied law sixteen hours a day. and even then was not satisfied with it. Sheridan was considered a genius." he replied. th ey would be inspired with new hope. some one declared that he wrote "drop by drop. "Hard at it. line by l ine. in terlined. Chalmers was once asked what Foster was about in London. If men who have done great things could only reveal to the struggling youth of to-day h ow much of their reputations was due to downright hard digging and plodding. While the rich boy and the idler were yawning and stretching and ge tting their eyes open. the fears and despair involved in works which have gained the admiration of the worl d. Genius has been well defined as the infinite capacity for taking pains. which overcame every obstacle in his pathway. blotted. The drudgery which l iterary men have put into the productions which have stood the test of time is a lmost incredible. in whose shop h e had to work at the forge all the daylight. by studying with a book before him at his meals. o r practise any other severity on whatever he wrote. but which have taxed the utmost powers of their authors. the more he will have to say about great things being done by genius. There is not on . and studying at night and holidays . He would hack. one of the greatest geniuses that ever lived. polished and repolishe d. paragraph by paragraph. struggling youth could know of the heartaches." Lord Eldon astonish ed the world with his great legal learning. to pick up an excellent education in the odds and ends of time which most boys throw away. You can read in a fe w minutes or a few hours a poem or a book with only pleasure and delight. in most cases of down-right hard work. It completely absorbed his life. of what is called genius is merely the result of persistent. John Foster would sometimes linger a w eek over a single sentence. the discouraged hours. prune. "at the rate of a line a week. What chance had such a boy for distinction? Probably not a single youth will read this book who has not a better opportunit y for success. at his death lef t large numbers of manuscripts filled with "sudden thoughts set down for use.

" came upon the musical world like the rising of a new sun which never set. Haydn was very poor. no matter what it may be. who apprenticed him at the age of thirteen to a bookbinder in London. He absorbed a great deal of information. and Butler his famous "Analogy" twent y times. In 1798 this poor boy's oratorio. no more poverty. a musician. his reputation w as made. When a man like Lord Cavanagh. Even Plato. and when the shops were closed climbed the lamp-post. . Scotland. His favorite maxim was. to whi . Lord Tenterden was proud to point out to his son the shop where he had shaved for a penny. and a great philanthropist. eaten in the streets of Philadelphia. manages to put himself int o Parliament. He was so displeased with the latter that he attempted to rise from his deathbed to commit it to the flames. we get a hint as to what it means to make the most possible out of ourselves and our opportun ities. but he had a hard life of p ersecution until he became a barber in Vienna. . . who had been a tallow-chandler in his youth.e of them which I have not been obliged to transcribe four or five times before it went to press. becomes a di stinguished mathematician. and who studied by the light of the shop windows in the streets . to read and study the precious volumes. summer and winter. who was too poor to afford even a c andle or a fire. Some of my periods I have turned or returned in my head for five or six nights before they were fit to be put to paper. It took Vergil seven years to write his Georgics. friendless and lonely. and twelve years to w rite the Aeneid. Burke wrote the conclusion of his spee ch at the trial of Hastings sixteen times. holding his book in one hand. one is taken at the worth he has put into himself. his father was a coachman and he. there was no more barbering. with less ch ance than almost any boy in America. Here he blacked boots for an infl uential man. with the meanness of his origin. Perhaps ninety-nine of a hundred under such unfortunate circumstances wou ld be content to remain helpless objects of charity for life. and clinging to the lamp-post with the other. became the most eminent scholar of Scotland . There is scarcely a bar in his music that was not writ ten and rewritten at least a dozen times. son of a blacksmith. A glover's apprentice of Glasgow. Franklin was b ut a poor printer's boy. "The barriers are not yet erected which can say to aspiring talent and industry 'thus far and no further. became one of America's greatest historians in spi te of everything. "The Creation" eclipsed them all." Beethoven probably surpassed all other musicians in his painstaking fidelity an d persistent application. He remained at night. whose highest luxury at one time was only a penny roll. without arms or legs. "The Creation. A French doctor once taunted Fléchier. He died while Napoleon's guns we re bombarding Vienna. to acquire business power instea d of professional power. and was in his study ev ery morning. Bishop of Nismes. wrote the first sentence in his "Republic" nine differ ent ways before he was satisfied with it. because he made himself such." upon which Gibbon worked twenty years. half blind. But of his eight hundred compositions. at six o'clock. when a man like Francis Joseph Campbell. who became a friend to him. Michael Faraday was a poor boy. one of the greatest writers that ever lived.'" Gibbon wrote his autobiography nine times. He was courted by princes and dined with kings and queens. Personal value is a coin of one' s own minting. and yet youth who waste their ev enings wonder at the genius which can produce "The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. He was sent away from home to act as errand boy for a mus ic teacher.--this poor boy. double your talent just the same. after others had gone. Michael laid the foundations of his future greatness by making himself familiar with the contents of the books he bo und. If it is your call to acquire money power instead of brain power. m arried a servant girl. a blind man. Francis Parkman. some of the shot falling in his garden.

ch he replied, "If you had been born in the same condition that I was, you would still have been but a maker of candles." Edwin Chadwick, in his report to the British Parliament, stated that children, working on half time (that is, studying three hours a day and working the rest o f their time out of doors), really made the greatest intellectual progress durin g the year. Business men have often accomplished wonders during the busiest live s by simply devoting one, two, three, or four hours daily to study or other lite rary work. James Watt received only the rudiments of an education at school, for his atten dance was irregular on account of delicate health. He more than made up for all deficiencies, however, by the diligence with which he pursued his studies at hom e. Alexander V was a beggar; he was "born mud, and died marble." William Hersche l, placed at the age of fourteen as a musician in the band of the Hanoverian Gua rds, devoted all his leisure to philosophical studies. He acquired a large fund of general knowledge, and in astronomy, a science in which he was wholly self-in structed, his discoveries entitle him to rank with the greatest astronomers of a ll time. George Washington was the son of a widow, born under the roof of a Westmoreland farmer; almost from infancy his lot had been that of an orphan. No academy had welcomed him to its shade, no college crowned him with its honors; to read, to w rite, to cipher--these had been his degrees in knowledge. Shakespeare learned li ttle more than reading and writing at school, but by self-culture he made himsel f the great master among literary men. Burns, too, enjoyed few advantages of edu cation, and his youth was passed in almost abject poverty. James Ferguson, the son of a half-starved peasant, learned to read by listening to the recitations of one of his elder brothers. While a mere boy he discovered several mechanical principles, made models of mills and spinning-wheels, and by means of beads on strings worked out an excellent map of the heavens. Ferguson made remarkable things with a common penknife. How many great men have mounted t he hill of knowledge by out-of-the-way paths! Gifford worked his intricate probl ems with a shoemaker's awl on a bit of leather. Rittenhouse first calculated ecl ipses on his plow-handle. Columbus, while leading the life of a sailor, managed to become the most accomp lished geographer and astronomer of his time. When Peter the Great, a boy of seventeen, became the absolute ruler of Russia h is subjects were little better than savages, and in himself even the passions an d propensities of barbarism were so strong that they were frequently exhibited d uring his whole career. But he determined to transform himself and the Russians into civilized people. He instituted reforms with great energy, and at the age o f twenty-six started on a visit to the other countries of Europe for the purpose of learning about their arts and institutions. At Saardam, Holland, he was so i mpressed with the sights of the great East India dockyard that he apprenticed hi mself to a shipbuilder, and helped to build the St. Peter, which he promptly pur chased. Continuing his travels, after he had learned his trade, he worked in Eng land in paper-mills, saw-mills, rope-yards, watchmakers' shops, and other manufa ctories, doing the work and receiving the treatment of a common laborer. While traveling, his constant habit was to obtain as much information as he cou ld beforehand with regard to every place he was to visit, and he would demand, " Let me see all." When setting out on his investigations, on such occasions, he c arried his tablets in his hand and whatever he deemed worthy of remembrance was carefully noted down. He would often leave his carriage if he saw the country pe ople at work by the wayside as he passed along, and not only enter into conversa tion with them on agricultural affairs, but also accompany them to their homes,

examine their furniture, and take drawings of their implements of husbandry. Thu s he obtained much minute and correct knowledge, which he would scarcely have ac quired by other means, and which he afterward turned to admirable account in the improvement of his own country. The ancients said, "Know thyself"; the twentieth century says, "Help thyself." Self-culture gives a second birth to the soul. A liberal education is a true reg eneration. When a man is once liberally educated, he will generally remain a man , not shrink to a manikin, nor dwindle to a brute. But if he is not properly edu cated, if he has merely been crammed and stuffed through college, if he has mere ly a broken-down memory from trying to hold crammed facts enough to pass the exa mination, he will continue to shrink, shrivel, and dwindle, often below his orig inal proportions, for he will lose both his confidence and self-respect, as his crammed facts, which never became a part of himself, evaporate from his distende d memory. Every bit of education or culture is of great advantage in the struggle for exi stence. The microscope does not create anything new, but it reveals marvels. To educate the eye adds to its magnifying power until it sees beauty where before i t saw only ugliness. It reveals a world we never suspected, and finds the greate st beauty even in the commonest things. The eye of an Agassiz could see worlds o f which the uneducated eye never dreamed. The cultured hand can do a thousand th ings the uneducated hand can not do. It becomes graceful, steady of nerve, stron g, skilful, indeed it almost seems to think, so animated is it with intelligence . The cultured will can seize, grasp, and hold the possessor, with irresistible power and nerve, to almost superhuman effort. The educated touch can almost perf orm miracles. The educated taste can achieve wonders almost past belief. What a contrast between the cultured, logical, profound, masterly reason of a Gladstone and that of the hod-carrier who has never developed or educated his reason beyo nd what is necessary to enable him to mix mortar and carry brick! Be careful to avoid that over-intellectual culture which is purchased at the ex pense of moral vigor. An observant professor of one of our colleges has remarked that "the mind may be so rounded and polished by education, and so well balance d, as not to be energetic in any one faculty. In other men not thus trained, the sense of deficiency and of the sharp, jagged corners of their knowledge leads t o efforts to fill up the chasms, rendering them at last far better educated men than the polished, easy-going graduate who has just knowledge enough to prevent consciousness of his ignorance. While all the faculties of the mind should be cu ltivated, it is yet desirable that it should have two or three rough-hewn featur es of massive strength. Young men are too apt to forget the great end of life, w hich is to be and do, not to read and brood over what other men have been and do ne." "I repeat that my object is not to give him knowledge, but to teach him how to acquire it at need," said Rousseau. All learning is self-teaching. It is upon the working of the pupil's own mind t hat his progress in knowledge depends. The great business of the master is to te ach the pupil to teach himself. "Thinking, not growth, makes manhood," says Isaac Taylor. "Accustom yourself, t herefore, to thinking. Set yourself to understand whatever you see or read. To j oin thinking with reading is one of the first maxims, and one of the easiest ope rations." "How few think justly of the thinking few: How many never think who think they do." CHAPTER XXXI

THE SELF-IMPROVEMENT HABIT If you want knowledge you must toil for it.--RUSKIN. We excuse our sloth under the pretext of difficulty.--QUINTILLIAN. What sculpture is to a block of marble, education is to the human soul.--ADDISO N. A boy is better unborn than untaught.--GASCOIGNE. It is ignorance that wastes; it is knowledge that saves, an untaught faculty is at once quiescent and dead.--N. D. HILLIS. The plea that this or that man has no time for culture will vanish as soon as w e desire culture so much that we begin to examine seriously into our present use of time.--MATTHEW ARNOLD. Education, as commonly understood, is the process of developing the mind by mea ns of books and teachers. When education has been neglected, either by reason of lack of opportunity, or because advantage was not taken of the opportunities af forded, the one remaining hope is self-improvement. Opportunities for self-impro vement surround us, the helps to self-improvement are abundant, and in this day of cheap books and free libraries, there can be no good excuse for neglect to us e the faculties for mental growth and development which are so abundantly suppli ed. When we look at the difficulties which hindered the acquisition of knowledge fi fty years to a century ago; the scarcity and the costliness of books, the value of the dimmest candle-light, the unremitting toil which left so little time for study, the physical weariness which had to be overcome to enable mental exertion in study, we may well marvel at the giants of scholarship those days of hardshi p produced. And when we add to educational limitations, physical disabilities, b lindness, deformity, ill-health, hunger and cold, we may feel shame as we contem plate the fulness of modern opportunity and the helps and incentives to study an d self-development which are so lavishly provided for our use and inspiration, a nd of which we make so little use. Self-improvement implies one essential feeling: the desire for improvement. If the desire exists, then improvement is usually accomplished only by the conquest of self--the material self, which seeks pleasure and amusement. The novel, the game of cards, the billiard cue, idle whittling and story-telling will have to b e eschewed, and every available moment of leisure turned to account. For all who seek self-improvement "there is a lion in the way," the lion of self-indulgence , and it is only by the conquest of this enemy that progress is assured. Show me how a youth spends his evenings, his odd bits of time, and I will forec ast his future. Does he look upon this leisure as precious, rich in possibilitie s, as containing golden material for his future life structure? Or does he look upon it as an opportunity for self-indulgence, for a light, flippant good time? The way he spends his leisure will give the keynote of his life, will tell whet her he is dead in earnest, or whether he looks upon it as a huge joke. He may not be conscious of the terrible effects, the gradual deterioration of c haracter which comes from a frivolous wasting of his evenings and half-holidays, but the character is being undermined just the same. Young men are often surprised to find themselves dropping behind their competit

ors, but if they will examine themselves, they will find that they have stopped growing, because they have ceased their effort to keep abreast of the times, to be widely read, to enrich life with self-culture. It is the right use of spare moments in reading and study which qualify men for leadership. And in many historic cases the "spare" moments utilized for study w ere not spare in the sense of being the spare time of leisure. They were rather spared moments, moments spared from sleep, from meal times, from recreation. Where is the boy to-day who has less chance to rise in the world than Elihu Bur ritt, apprenticed at sixteen to a blacksmith, in whose shop he had to work at th e forge all the daylight, and often by candle-light? Yet he managed, by studying with a book before him at his meals, carrying it in his pocket that he might ut ilize every spare moment, and studying nights and holidays, to pick up an excell ent education in the odds and ends of time which most boys throw away. While the rich boy and the idler were yawning and stretching and getting their eyes open, young Burritt had seized the opportunity and improved it. He had a thirst for knowledge and a desire for self-improvement, which overcame every obstacle in his pathway. A wealthy gentleman offered to pay his expenses at Harvard. But no, Elihu said he could get his education himself, even though h e had to work twelve or fourteen hours a day at the forge. Here was a determined boy. He snatched every spare moment at the anvil and forge as if it were gold. He believed, with Gladstone, that thrift of time would repay him in after years with usury, and that waste of it would make him dwindle. Think of a boy working nearly all the daylight in a blacksmith shop, and yet finding time to study seve n languages in a single year. It is not lack of ability that holds men down but lack of industry. In many cas es the employee has a better brain, a better mental capacity than his employer. But he does not improve his faculties. He dulls his mind by cigarette smoking. H e spends his money at the pool table, theater, or dance, and as he grows old, an d the harness of perpetual service galls him, he grumbles at his lack of luck, h is limited opportunity. The number of perpetual clerks is constantly being recruited by those who did n ot think it worth while as boys to learn to write a good hand or to master the f undamental branches of knowledge requisite in a business career. The ignorance c ommon among young men and young women, in factories, stores, and offices, everyw here, in fact, in this land of opportunity, where youth should be well educated, is a pitiable thing in American life. On every hand we see men and women of abi lity occupying inferior positions because they did not think it worth while in y outh to develop their powers and to concentrate their attention on the acquisiti on of sufficient knowledge. Thousands of men and women find themselves held back, handicapped for life beca use of the seeming trifles which they did not think it worth while to pay attent ion to in their early days. Many a girl of good natural ability spends her most productive years as a cheap clerk, or in a mediocre position because she never thought it worth while to de velop her mental faculties or to take advantage of opportunities within reach to fit herself for a superior position. Thousands of girls unexpectedly thrown on their own resources have been held down all their lives because of neglected tas ks in youth, which at the time were dismissed with a careless "I don't think it worth while." They did not think it would pay to go to the bottom of any study a t school, to learn to keep accounts accurately, or fit themselves to do anything in such a way as to be able to make a living by it. They expected to marry, and never prepared for being dependent on themselves,--a contingency against which marriage, in many instances, is no safeguard.

The trouble with most youths is that they are not willing to fling the whole we ight of their being into their location. They want short hours, little work and a lot of play. They think more of leisure and pleasure than of discipline and tr aining in their great life specialty. Many a clerk envies his employer and wishes that he could go into business for himself, be an employer too but it is too much work to make the effort to rise a bove a clerkship. He likes to take life easy; and he wonders idly whether, after all, it is worth while to strain and strive and struggle and study to prepare o neself for the sake of getting up a little higher and making a little more money . The trouble with a great many people is that they are not willing to make prese nt sacrifices for future gain. They prefer to have a good time as they go along, rather than spend time in self-improvement. They have a sort of vague wish to d o something great, but few have that intensity of longing which impels them to m ake the sacrifice of the present for the future. Few are willing to work undergr ound for years laying a foundation for the life monument. They yearn for greatne ss, but their yearning is not the kind which is willing to pay any price in ende avor or make any sacrifice for its object. So the majority slide along in mediocrity all their lives. They have ability fo r something higher up, but they have not the energy and determination to prepare for it. They do not care to make necessary effort. They prefer to take life eas ier and lower down rather than to struggle for something higher. They do not pla y the game for all they are worth. If a man or woman has but the disposition for self-improvement and advancement he will find opportunity to rise or "what he can not find create." Here is an ex ample from the everyday life going on around us and in which we are all taking p art. A young Irishman who had reached the age of nineteen or twenty without learning to read or write, and who left home because of the intemperance that prevailed there, learned to read a little by studying billboards, and eventually got a pos ition as steward aboard a man-of-war. He chose that occupation and got leave to serve at the captain's table because of a great desire to learn. He kept a littl e tablet in his coat-pocket, and whenever he heard a new word wrote it down. One day an officer saw him writing and immediately suspected him of being a spy. Wh en he and the other officers learned what the tablet was used for, the young man was given more opportunities to learn, and these led in time to promotion, unti l, finally, the sometime steward won a prominent position in the navy. Success a s a naval officer prepared the way for success in other fields. Self-help has accomplished about all the great things of the world. How many yo ung men falter, faint, and dally with their purpose, because they have no capita l to start with, and wait and wait for some good luck to give them a lift! But s uccess is the child of drudgery and perseverance. It can not be coaxed or bribed ; pay the price and it is yours. One of the sad things about the neglected opportunities for self-improvement is that it puts people of great natural ability at a disadvantage among those who are their mental inferiors. I know a member of one of our city legislatures, a splendid fellow, immensely p opular, who has a great, generous heart and broad sympathies, but who can not op en his mouth without so murdering the English language that it is really painful to listen to him.

There ted to cters, ack of

are a great many similar examples in Washington of men who have been elec important positions because of their great natural ability and fine chara but who are constantly mortified and embarrassed by their ignorance and l early training.

One of the most humiliating experiences that can ever come to a human being is to be conscious of possessing more than ordinary ability, and yet be tied to an inferior position because of lack of early and intelligent training commensurate with his ability. To be conscious that one has ability to realize eighty or nin ety per cent of his possibilities, if he had only had the proper education and t raining, but because of this lack to be unable to bring out more than twenty-fiv e per cent of it on account of ignorance, is humiliating and embarrassing. In ot her words, to go through life conscious that you are making a botch of your capa bilities just because of lack of training, is a most depressing thing. Nothing else outside of sin causes more sorrow than that which comes from not h aving prepared for the highest career possible to one. There are no bitterer reg rets than those which come from being obliged to let opportunities pass by for w hich one never prepared himself. I know a pitiable case of a born naturalist whose ambition was so suppressed, a nd whose education so neglected in youth, that later when he came to know more a bout natural history than almost any man of his day, he could not write a gramma tical sentence, and could never make his ideas live in words, perpetuate them in books, because of his ignorance of even the rudiments of an education. His earl y vocabulary was so narrow and pinched, and his knowledge of his language so lim ited that he always seemed to be painfully struggling for words to express his t hought. Think of the suffering of this splendid man, who was conscious of possessing co lossal scientific knowledge, and yet was absolutely unable to express himself gr ammatically! How often stenographers are mortified by the use of some unfamiliar word or ter m, or quotation, because of the shallowness of their preparation! It is not enough to be able to take dictation when ordinary letters are given, not enough to do the ordinary routine of office work. The ambitious stenographer must be prepared for the unusual demand, must have good reserves of knowledge t o draw from in case of emergency. But, if she is constantly slipping up upon her grammar, or is all at sea the mo ment she steps out of her ordinary routine, her employer knows that her preparat ion is shallow, that her education is very limited, and her prospects will be li mited also. A young lady writes me that she is so handicapped by the lack of an early educa tion that she fairly dreads to write a letter to anyone of education or culture for fear of making ignorant mistakes in grammar and spelling. Her letter indicat es that she has a great deal of natural ability. Yet she is much limited and alw ays placed at a disadvantage because of this lack of an early education. It is d ifficult to conceive of a greater misfortune than always to be embarrassed and h andicapped just because of the neglect of those early years. I am often pained by letters from people, especially young people, which indica te that the writers have a great deal of natural ability, that they have splendi d minds, but a large part of their ability is covered up, rendered ineffectual b y their ignorance. Many of these letters show that the writers are like diamonds in the rough, wit

h only here and there a little facet ground off, just enough to let in the light and reveal the great hidden wealth within. I always feel sorry for these people who have passed the school age and who wil l probably go through life with splendid minds handicapped by their ignorance wh ich, even late in life, they might largely or entirely overcome. It is such a pity that, a young man, for instance, who has the natural ability which would make him a leader among men, must, for the lack of a little training , a little preparation, work for somebody else, perhaps with but half of his abi lity but with a better preparation, more education. Everywhere we see clerks, mechanics, employees in all walks of life, who cannot rise to anything like positions which correspond with their natural ability, be cause they have not had the education. They are ignorant. They can not write a d ecent letter. They murder the English language, and hence their superb ability c annot be demonstrated, and remains in mediocrity. The parable of the talents illustrates and enforces one of nature's sternest la ws: "To him that hath shall be given; from him that hath not shall be taken away even that which he hath." Scientists call this law the survival of the fittest. The fittest are those who use what they have, who gain strength by struggle, an d who survive by self-development by control of their hostile or helpful environ ment. The soil, the sunshine, the atmosphere are very liberal with the material for t he growth of the plant or the tree, but the plant must use all it gets, it must work it up into flowers, into fruit, into leaf or fiber or something or the supp ly will cease. In other words, the soil will not send any more building material up the sap than is used for growth, and the faster this material is used the mo re rapid the growth, the more abundantly the material will come. t s e d The same law holds good everywhere. Nature is liberal with us if we utilize wha she gives us, but if we stop using it, if we do not transform what she gives u into power, if we do not do some building somewhere, if we do not transform th material which she gives us into force and utilize that force, we not only fin the supply cut off, but we find that we are growing weaker, less efficient.

Everything in nature is on the move, either one way or the other. It is either going up or down. It is either advancing or retrograding; we cannot hold without using. Nature withdraws muscle or brain if we do not use them. She withdraws skill the moment we stop drilling efficiently, the moment we stop using our power. The fo rce is withdrawn when we cease exercising it. A college graduate is often surprised years after he leaves the college to find that about all he has to show for his education is his diploma. The power, the efficiency which he gained there has been lost because he has not been using the m. He thought at the time that everything was still fresh in his mind after his examination that this knowledge would remain with him, but it has been slipping away from him every minute since he stopped using it, and only that has remained and increased which he has used; the rest has evaporated. A great many college graduates ten years afterwards find that they have but very little left to show for their four years' course, because they have not utilized their knowledge. Th ey have become weaklings without knowing it. They constantly say to themselves, "I have a college education, I must have some ability, I must amount to somethin g in the world." But the college diploma has no more power to hold the knowledge you have gained in college than a piece of tissue paper over a gas jet can hold the gas in the pipe.

Everything which you do not use is constantly slipping away from you. Use it or lose it. The secret of power is use. Ability will not remain with us, force wil l evaporate the moment we cease to do something with it. The tools for self-improvement are at your hand, use them. If the ax is dull th e more strength must be put forth. If your opportunities are limited you must us e more energy, put forth more effort. Progress may seem slow at first, but perse verance assures success. "Line upon line, and precept upon precept" is the rule of mental upbuilding and "In due time ye shall reap if ye faint not." CHAPTER XXXII RAISING OF VALUES "Destiny is not about thee, but within,-- Thyself must make thyself." "The world is no longer clay, but rather iron in the hands of its workers," say s Emerson, "and men have got to hammer out a place for themselves by steady and rugged blows." To make the most of your "stuff," be it cloth, iron, or character,--this is suc cess. Raising common "stuff" to priceless value is great success. The man who first takes the rough bar of wrought iron may be a blacksmith, who has only partly learned his trade, and has no ambition to rise above his anvil. He thinks that the best possible thing he can do with his bar is to make it into horseshoes, and congratulates himself upon his success. He reasons that the rou gh lump of iron is worth only two or three cents a pound, and that it is not wor th while to spend much time or labor on it. His enormous muscles and small skill have raised the value of the iron from one dollar, perhaps, to ten dollars. Along comes a cutler, with a little better education, a little more ambition, a little finer perception, and says to the blacksmith: "Is this all you can see i n that iron? Give me a bar, and I will show you what brains and skill and hard w ork can make of it." He sees a little further into the rough bar. He has studied many processes of hardening and tempering; he has tools, grinding and polishing wheels, and annealing furnaces. The iron is fused, carbonized into steel, drawn out, forged, tempered, heated white-hot, plunged into cold water or oil to impr ove its temper, and ground and polished with great care and patience. When this work is done, he shows the astonished blacksmith two thousand dollars' worth of knife-blades where the latter only saw ten dollars' worth of crude horseshoes. T he value has been greatly raised by the refining process. "Knife-blades are all very well, if you can make nothing better," says another artisan, to whom the cutler has shown the triumph of his art, "but you haven't h alf brought out what is in that bar of iron. I see a higher and better use; I ha ve made a study of iron, and know what there is in it and what can be made of it ." This artisan has a more delicate touch, a finer perception, a better training, a higher ideal, and superior determination, which enable him to look still furth er into the molecules of the rough bar,--past the horse-shoes, past the knife-bl ades,--and he turns the crude iron into the finest cambric needles, with eyes cu t with microscopic exactness. The production of the invisible points requires a more delicate process, a finer grade of skill than the cutler possesses. This feat the last workman considers marvelous, and he thinks he has exhausted the possibilities of the iron. He has multiplied many times the value of the cut ler's product.

more industry. more patience. acting and c ounteracting. such ethereal fineness of touch. dominating personality. that even mainsprings and ha irsprings are looked back upon as coarse. if a pound could be collected. It sounds magical. He knows that. the hand. perhaps forty ti mes the value of the same weight of gold. at every stage of manufacture. a higher order of skill. To him. it will not be stiff. and spiritual forces? Whereas. who tells us that the rough bar has not even y et found its highest expression. in the develo pment of iron. After infinite toil and pain. by mixing brains with its molecules. It is the ideal followed and unfolded. but so full of its new qualities that it almost seems instinct with life. a pound of these slender. Where the others saw horseshoes. A higher artist-artisan appears. passes with ease by the horse-shoes. and cheap. whose product is so little known. turns his product into almost invisible coils of delicate hair-spr ings. by hard work. yet all capable of control and direction by the higher self. the processes of educ . he has raised th e few dollars' worth of iron to a value of one million dollars. behold! another very skilful mechanic. While the iron is an inert mass acted upon by external influences only. by pai nstaking care. a more delicate touch. a nd merely a passive metal. is worth about two hundred and fifty dollars. how the texture of the metal can b e so much refined that even a fiber. a dozen processes are possible. Still another workman. With penetrating. in triumph. by the training of the eye. and . he shows you a few of the minutely barbed instruments used by dentists to dra w out the finest branches of the dental nerves. mental. whose processes are so almost infinitely delicate. with a more finely organized mind. the r eal. roughly s peaking. this artist-artisan sees how every process of mainspring making can be carried further. his penetrating eye saw a product worth one hundred thousand doll ars. by even the average educated man.But. more perfection can be reached. He puts his bar through many processes of refinement and fine tempering. and develops its higher possibilities with such m arvelous accuracy. When his work is don e. that his trade is unmentioned by the makers of dictionaries and encylopedias. he has made his dream true. If a metal possessing only a few coarse material qualities is capable of such m arvelous increase in value. knife-blades. He knows that the crude iron can be manipulated and coaxed into an elasticity t hat can not even be imagined by one less trained in metallurgy. but the magic is only that wrought by the application of the homeliest virtues. a slender thread of it. and by determination and grit. the human being is a bundle of forces. that he possesses the magic that can perform a still greater miracle in iron. Other experts may still further refine the product. even main-springs seem coarse and clumsy. The difference in human attainment is due only slightly to the original materia l. barbed filaments of steel. and returns the product of his bar in fine mainsprings for watches. can do marvelous wo rk. and the needles. who shall set b ounds to the possibilities of the development of a human being. a thousand influences may be brou ght to bear upon mind and character. the knife-blades. worth only a few tho usand dollars. trenchant. While a pound of gold. and how. almost clairvoyant vision. moral. that wonderful c ompound of physical. an d a better training. i f care enough be used in tempering the steel. the effort made. takes but a fragmen t of one of the bars of steel. or needles. might be worth hundre ds of times as much. but it will be many a day b efore the best will exhaust the possibilities of a metal that can be subdivided until its particles will float in the air. crude. the perception.

a nd through them it comes to its highest expression. and refine. and all are s ubject to the dominating will. study. the slave. but. five-hundredfold. the grinding of constant difficulties. Demosthenes. one man calls out an angel of beauty which delights every beholder. the beg gar. by infinite patience and persistence. to hammer. I f we see only horseshoes or knife-blades. but it is hard to raise your life-product to higher values. and Haydn. Cervantes. or to better it in some way. the c ommon soldier. the poor wheelwright's son. the rolling. and our ef forts. so must we see in our lives glorious possibilities. and stru ggle. if exposed to the elements. and mold our life-bar into its ultimate development. that draw profit from every test. if every rolle r should pulverize it. and development. to endure trials and tests. one man builds a palace and another a hovel. Franklin. if we would but realize them. raise the value of the raw material to almost fabulous heights. While one boy is regretting his want of opportunities. Ben Jonson. and come out triumphan t in the end. to i ncrease its ductility. the bricklayer. toil. and will attribute their f ailure to hard luck. the fiery trials of disaster and bereavement. the journeyman printer. refined product. developed their powers. dreary drudgery in education and discipline. compared with those of others. all our efforts and struggles will nev er produce hairsprings. inherent. has counterparts of all the tortures the iron undergoes. and inadequate. if every furnace should burn the life out of it. the rebuffs that chill enthusiasm. From the same rough piece of marble. Just as a bar of iron. of what use would it be? It has that virtue. It is easy to remain a common bar of iron. those qualit ies that withstand all. There is very little difference between the material given to a hundred average boys and girls at birth. confident that the result will pay us for our suffering. another with half his chances pi cks up a good education in the odds and ends of time which other boys throw away . We must realize our own adaptability to great ends. the weariness of ye ars of dry. is strengthened. refined. un til they towered head and shoulders above other men. by becoming mer ely a horseshoe. Life. his lack of means to get a college education. by patience. to pay the necessary price. It was thus that Columbus . the struggles amid want and woe. and adapted to the use each artisan dreams of. will raise his material in value a hundredfold. are the on es who fail. the weaver. another a hideous monster which demoralizes every one who sees i . we m ust resolve to struggle. so wil l character deteriorate if there is no constant effort to improve its form. a thousandfold. or comparatively so. Those who shrink from the forging. we can. the "nobodies. The iron. From the same material. If every blow sho uld fracture it. to temper it. culture. and become worthless. the raspings of care and anxiety." the faulty characters.--all these are necessar y to the man who would reach the highest success. the cutler's son. the criminals. draw out. mean.ation and experience undergone that fuse. In the iron the qualities are. made more elastic or more resistant. but in ourse lves they are largely matters of growth. perhaps with infinitely poorer means. yet one with no better means of improvement than the o thers. everyday life. Just as each artisan sees in the crude iron some finished. the crushings of iron circumstances. aye. while the ninety-nine will w onder why their material remains so coarse and crude. and remains in ignorance. Aesop. Homer. Many of us consider our natural gift-bars poor. if we are willing. The blows of opposition. to work on and up from clumsy horseshoes to delicate hairsprings. our trials. by this manipulation. and the drawing out. in the main. will oxidize. hammer.

it is hard and painful. your determination to be the higher thing. as does the orator. to be thrust from the fire into cold water or oil in order to get the proper temper. His pride and vanity are not touched. no matter how large or formidable. the powe r and the skill of the entire man are put to a severe test. but it must come through self-expression. what one gives out is only partially one's own. and perhaps no one will ever think of them again. inventiveness. everybody sh ould have such complete control of himself. Yet anyone who lays any claim to culture. upon your having the grit to be hammered. Self-expression in any legitimate form tends to call out what is in a man. no matter what they intend to be. weighing every thought. In conversation. In all ages oratory has been regarded as the highest expression of human achievement. merchan t or physician. whether vocal or i nstrumental. there is always a chance for revision. the rest is the com poser's. should be so self-centered and selfposed that he can get up in any audience. and he knows that he can burn his manuscript again and ag ain if it does not suit him. Self-expression in some manner is the only means of developing mental power. only a few persons hear them . The occasions for little speaking are increasing enormously. should train himself to think on his feet. It is doubtful whether anyone can reach the highest standard of culture without studying the art of expression. should make it a study. we do not feel that so much depends upon our words. it may come th rough selling goods or writing a book. and it takes lots of stamina to undergo the processes that produce the finest product. A great many ques . d epends very largely upon your ideal. Whether you go upward to the mainspring or hairspring stage. to be drawn out. Young people. A man may write as listlessly as he pleases.t. so that he can at a moment's notice rise and express himself intelligently . There are not a thousand eyes upon him. and what he writes may never b e seen by anyone. In music. The writer has the advantage of being able to wait for his moods. use much or lit tle of his brain or energy. but would you prefer to remain a roug h bar of iron or a horseshoe all your life? [Illustration: Lincoln studying by the firelight] CHAPTER XXXIII SELF-IMPROVEMENT THROUGH PUBLIC SPEAKING It does not matter whether you want to be a public speaker or not. and so quickly unfolds all of his powers. just as he chooses or feels like doing. The extent to which you can raise the value of your life-bar depends very large ly upon yourself. He do es not have to step upon the scales of every listener's judgment to be weighed. He does not have a great audience criticizing every sentence. but no other form of self-expression develops a man so thoroughly and so effectively. He can write when he feels like it. No one is wa tching him. Then. Nothing else will call out what is in a man so quickly and so effectively as th e constant effort to do his best in speaking before an audience. Of course. as expression before an audience. It may be in music. it may be on canvas: it may be through oratory. and express his thoughts clearly and distinctly. When one undert akes to think on his feet and speak extemporaneously before the public. especially public vocal expression. whether blacksmith or farmer. his resourcefulness.

but they are nobodies when called upon to speak in public. they have position. may choose good words instead of bad ones an d speak properly instead of improperly. and the o ther man had not. and strangers no doubt thought that he was much the stronger man. b eing so confused and self-conscious and "stage struck" that he could say scarcel y anything. A very brilliant young man in New York who has climbed to a responsible positio n in a very short time. All sorts of business deals are now carried through at dinners. Every man. and yet they are not able to stand on their feet in public. embarrassed. There are plenty of business men to-day who would give a great deal of money if they could only go back and improve the early opportunities for learning to thi nk and speak on their feet which they threw away. he may have grace in his motions and ges tures. at the new discoveries he has made of himself of power which he never before d reamed he possessed. but they always shrank from every opportunity. stammer out an apology and sit down. He had power and a great deal of experience. even to make a few remarks. They had plenty of opportunities when they were y oung. blush. and mental furnishing. at school. He could not even make a decent appearan ce. The effort to express one's ideas in lucid. Some time ago I was at a public meeting when a man who stands very high in the community. or scarcely to put a motion without trembling like an aspen leaf. Now they have money. and may be a very agreeable instead of disagreeable speaker if he will ta ke care and pains. a shallow-brained business man. or on other public occasions . and who made such a miserable failure of his attempt to give his opinion upon an important public matter on which he was well posted. says Lord Chesterfield. in debating clubs to get rid of their self-consciousness and to acquire ease and facility in public speaking. are to . and was placed at a tremendous disadvantage. and improves one 's diction generally. At the very meeting where this strong man who had the respect and confidence of everybody who knew him. manner. and he now regrets more than anything else that he has allo wed so many opportunities for calling himself out to go by in the past. There was never before any such demand for dinner oratory as to-day. H e had simply cultivated the ability to say his best thing on his feet. by the dint of hard work and persistent grit. Your vocal culture. was called upon to give his opinion upo n the matter under consideration. and he felt cheap. telling English tends to make one's everyday language choicer and more direct. or felt that somebody else could handle t he debate or questions better.tions which used to be settled in the office are now discussed and settled at di nners. All they c an do is to look foolish. In this and other ways speech-making develops mental power and character. There is everything in learning what you wish to know. in the same city. concise. but there he stood. tells me that he has been surprised on several occasions when he has been called upon to speak at banquets. who hadn't a hundr edth part of the other man's practical power in affairs. as helpless as a child. because they were timid. This explains the rapidity with which a young man develops in sc hool or college when he begins to take part in public debates or in debating soc ieties. who is king in his specialty. lifted them selves into positions of prominence. mortified. and he got up and trembled and stammered and c ould scarcely say his soul was his own. We know men who have. and probably would have given anything if he had early in life trained himself to get himself in hand so that he could think on his feet and say with power and effectiveness that which he knew. clean-cut. got up and made a brill iant speech. It is a matter of painstaking and preparation.

conviction. or who does not care for what others think of him. the man who has no sensitiveness. There must be variety. too . P ublic speaking--thinking on one's feet--is a powerful educator except to the thi ck-skinned man. and tends to make one more effective in ev ery particular. or sense of proportion. The attempt to become a good public speaker is a great awakener of all the ment al faculties. gives self-confidence. He was a p erfect genius for dry uninteresting oratory. This is especially true of a monotonous tone. self-reliance. will-power are greatly affected by physical condition. Gladstone said. and pausing now and then as if refreshing himself by slumber. the human mind tires very quickly without it. . This requir es practise in early life. What woul d have been the result of Webster's reply to Hayne. assura nce. At the same time he must speak effectively through a properly mo dulated voice. the carefulness or carelessness of his observation. There is no class of people put to such a severe test of showing what is in the m as public speakers. moving forward with a monotonous dr oning. if he had sat down in the Senate and put his fee t on his desk? Think of a great singer like Nordica attempting to electrify an a udience while lounging on a sofa or sitting in a slouchy position. and have good habits at easy command. Do not neutralize all the good impression you have made by talking on and on long after you have made your point. his narrow vocabular y. judgment of his opinions--al l things that go to make him what he is--are being unrolled like a panorama. his poverty of speech. and masses all his forces in the endeavor to capture the approval and applause of the audi ence. It is a great art to be able to r aise and lower the voice with sweet flowing cadences which please the ear. effectively. Learn to stop when you get through. or making fools of themselves in the estimation of others. character. with proper facial and bodily expression and gesture. Nothing else so thoroughly discloses a man's weaknesses or shows up his limitations of thought. no other men who run such a risk of exposing their weak sp ots. stirring the emotions or convincing the reason of an audience. learning. Eve ry mental faculty is quickened. Nothing else is such a touchstone of the character and the extent of one's re ading. Nothing will tire an audienc e more quickly than monotony. Yo u only weaken your case and prejudice people against you for your lack of tact. T houghts rush for utterance.be made a matter for thought and careful training. since force. vigorousl y. words press for choice. One must know words." It was indeed said of a certain Duke of Devonshire that he was the only English statesman who ever took a nap during the progress of his own speech. everything expressed on the same dead level. good judgment. One's manhood. the greatest oratorical effo rt ever made on this continent. must cultivate bodily posture. In thinking on one's feet before an audience. every power of thought and expression spurred. In youth the would-be orator must cultivate robust health. Do no t keep stringing out conversation or argument after you have made your point. enthusi asm. Close. An early training for effective speaking will make one careful to secure a good vocabulary by good reading and a dictionary. one must think quickly. "Ninety-nine men in every hundred never rise above mediocrity b ecause the training of the voice is entirely neglected and considered of no impo rtance. The sense of power that comes from holding attention. compact statement must be had. One. as do orators. of natural or acquired ability. arouses ambition. of experience. The speaker summons all his reserves of education.

to shrink from the public debates or speaking. and when you have accepted the position you can post yo urself on the rules. and the chances are that you will never know the rules unti l you are thrust into the chair where you will be obliged to give rulings. especially for boys and girls in school or college . The effort to marshal all one's reserves in a lo gical and orderly manner. If th e chance does not come to you. ease. until they have read more history and more literature. A vast number of our p ublic men have owed their advance more to the old-fashioned debating societies t han anything else. Do not be afraid to show yourself. Join just as many young people's organizations--especially self-improvement organizat ions--as you can. It is so easy and seductive. flushes the cheek. lea ves these reserves permanently better in hand. They want to wait until they can use a l ittle better grammar. He lacks confidence in himself. We know of a young man who has a great deal of natural ing. If you have an invitation to speak. Do not wait until you are bett er prepared. You never will be. Lincoln. unt il they have gained a little more culture and ease of manner. Jump to your feet and say something upon every question that is up for discussion. It is strong. Do not remain way back on the back seat. Nothing will call a young man out mo re than the struggle in a debate to hold his own. It was here they learned not to be afraid of themselves. or how timid or shy you may be. facility. no matter how much you may shrink from it. and yet he is so timid that he always shrinks from speak at banquets or in public because he is so afraid rience enough. This forced awakening of the whole personality has effects reaching much furthe r than the oratorical occasion. No matter how far you have to go t o attend it. Clay. Here they learned confidence. fires the eye. and force yourself to speak every time you get a chance. Every time you rise to your feet will increase your confidence. Go up front. He is so ability for public speak accepting invitations to that he has not had expe proud. This shrinking into a corner and getting out of sight and avoiding pub licity is fatal to self-confidence. more readily in reach. and so afraid tha . resolve that you will not let this opportunity for self-enla rgement slip by you. Dormant impuls es are stirred.Such an effort takes hold of the entire nature. half-forgotten memories revived. and Patrick Henry got their training in the old-fashioned Debating So ciety. Wilson. or how much trouble it is. and there is no one thing which will develop young people so rapidly and effect ively as the debating clubs and discussions of all sorts. vigorous exercis e for the mind as wrestling is for the body. Do the thing so many times that it will become second nature to you. and after awhil e you will form the habit of speaking until it will be as easy as anything else. and sends the blood surging through the veins. The Debating Club is the nursery of orators. to express their opinions with force and independence. Cho ate. Do not be afraid to rise to put a mot ion or to second it or give your opinion upon it. or how difficult it is to get the time. they discovered themselves. is to get the experience. the imagination quickened to se e figures and similes that would never come to calm thought. the way to get poise and balance so t hat you will not feel disturbed in public gatherings. beads the brow. make it. self-reliance. on the ground that they are not quite well enough educated at present. to bring to the front all the power one possesses. Do not think that because you do not know anything about parliamentary law that you should not accept the presidency of your club or debating society. The way to acquire grace. This is just the place to learn. the drill you will get by it is the turning point. Webster.

wooden. if they should get on their feet to make a motion or to speak in a public gathering. "if Caesar had been scared half to death. Even a partial failure on the platform has good results. He ws it. This timidity is often. the uncertain in his nature. or as valuable as those of their companions.--"Is that the way C aesar would have spoken it?" "Yes. that everybody in his audience is trying to measure a nd weigh him. are very difficult to get out of one's consciousness. and his speech to that extent will be mechanic al. What is technically called "stage fright" is very common. The mere thought of asserting themselves. wh at he stands for. It is not the speech. The hardest thing for the public speaker to overcome is self-consciousness. A college boy recited an address "to the conscript fathers.t he will make some slip which will mortify him. and Disraeli's "The time will come when you will hear me. Some are constitutionally sensitive. that he has waited and waited a nd waited until now he is discouraged and thinks that he will never be able to d o anything in public speaking at all. One of the most entrancing speakers I have ever listened to--a man to hear whom people would go long distances and stand for hours to get admission to the hall where he spoke--never was able to get the confidence of his audience because he . While he is wondering what kind of an impression he is making. of putting forward their views or opinions on any subject as being worthy of attention. he is him There is nothing of the negative. would paralyze them. and as nervous as a cat. he is himself the embodiment of power. but the man behind the speech. The whole man He himself is in his conviction." are his toric examples. The sound of their own voices. Demosthenes' he roic efforts." An almost fatal timidity seizes on an inexperienced person. meetings of literary societies. or gatherings of any kind. the doubtful. not so much the fear of one's audience. when he knows that all eyes are watching him. His opinion carries with gives consent to his judgment. but he knows that he kno it the entire weight of his being. studying him. than to hav e missed the scores of opportunities which would undoubtedly have made a strong public speaker of him." His professor asked. because then he would have profited by experience. scrutinizing him to see how much there is in him. his power is crippled. Tho se terrible eyes which pierce him through and through. criticizing him. yet fearing to speak. But no orator can make a great impression until he gets rid of himself. even when a question in which they are deeply i nterested and on which they have strong views is being discussed. l onging. they sit dumb. At debating cl ubs. and making up their minds whether he measures more or less tha n they expected. until h e can absolutely annihilate his self-consciousness. not only knows a thing." he replied. which never leaves one. for it often arouses a determination to conquer the next time. or even to have broken down entirely a few times. makes them blush and shrink more into themselves. It would have been a thousand times better for him to ha ve made a mistake. however. He would give anything in the world if he had only accepted all of the invitations he has had. and so afraid of being gazed at that they don't dare to open their mouths. in his act. One man carries weight because self convinced of what he says. what people thi nk of him. that wins a way to the fro nt. forget himself in his speech . which are measuring him. as the fear lest one can make no suitable expression of his thought.

But somehow they could not beli eve what he said. Patrick Henry. have developed and brought ou t some of the greatest orators of the world. just as we can often say to a friend in animated conversation thi ngs which we could not possibly say when alone. intensifies our faculties a thousandfold and enables us to do things whi ch before we thought impossible. They laugh or cry as he pleases. Every crisis calls out ab ility. As when two chemicals are united . Very few people ever rise to their greatest possibilities or ever know their en tire power unless confronted by some great occasion. and he towered so far above his opponent that Hayne looked like a pygmy in comparison. which it is impossible to feel at a col d mechanical rehearsal. In the presence of the orator. in some great emergency. There was a great charm in the cadences of his perfect sentences. or rise and fall at his bidding. we out-do ourselves. It would be difficult to estimate the great part which practical drill in orato ry may play in one's life. but it was not aroused. a new substance is formed from the combination. and perhaps unexpected. previously undeveloped. The occasion had much to do with the greatest speech delivered in the United St ates Senate--Webster's reply to Hayne. Cicero. If t he audience sees mud at the bottom of your eye. wh ich he calls inspiration. they will not take any stock in you. Somehow the power t hat stands behind us in the silence. There is something in a great sea of expectant faces whi ch awakens the ambition and arouses the reserve of power which can never be felt except before an audience. We are as much amazed as ot hers are when. that he could give to an audience c apable of being fired by his theme. No orator living was ever great enough to give out the same power and force and magnetism to an empty hall. when nations have been in peril. and John Bright might all be called to witness to this fact. The orator must be sincere. the audience. which did not exist in either alone. a mighty power which did not exist in his own personal ity. The public is very quick to see through shams. comes to our relief. We bster. in the depths of our natures. the orator must be able to convince. In the presence of the audience lies a fascination. Great occasions. Mirabeau. but the occasion brought all the reserves in this giant. People liked to be swayed by his eloquence. and to convince others he must have strong convictions. that you are acting. It is not enough to say a pleasing thing. The pen has discovered many a genius. Those who are prepared acquire a world-wide influence when the fit occasion comes. he feels surging through his brain the combined force of his audience. Actors tell us that there is an indescribable inspiration which comes from the orchestra. to empty seats. the footlights. The power was there just the same before. unti . that you are not honest yourself . the audience is absolutely in his power to do as he will. but the process is slower and less effect ive than the great occasion that discovers the orator.lacked character. Great speeches have become the beacon lights of history. an interesting thing. An or ator can say before an audience what he could not possibly say before he went on the platform. an indefinable magnetism th at stimulates all the mental faculties. and acts as a tonic and vitalizer. Webster had no time for immediate prepara tion.

raised up for a divine purpose. His great eyes . Young people look upon him as a mar velous being.--LONGFELLOW.--diligence. when up-gushing as the very water of life. rail-splitter and president. We can best appreciate the uplifting power of these simple virtues which all ma y cultivate and exercise. It would be easy. but who were curious to listen to his oratory. HOLLAND. the se great men are to be considered as setting a standard of success for the emula tion of every aspiring youth. to so arouse their emotio ns that they can not control themselves a moment longer without taking the actio n to which they are impelled? "His words are laws" may be well said of the statesmen whose orations sway the world. thrift. Lowell turned pale. Some who hated him in the slavery days wer e there. It is not a question of what a man knows but what use he can make of what he kn ows. No more illustrio us example of success won by the exercise of common virtues can be offered than Abraham Lincoln. said Wetmore Story. G. and persistence. for the time being he almost persuaded them that they were in the wrong. What art is greater than that of changing the minds of men? Wendell Phillips so played upon the emotions." said another student. to get the three thousand people to join them. if we analyze his charact . I have see n him when it seemed to me that he was almost godlike in his power. without a thought of fame. he and Story went to Faneuil Hall to hear Webster. They meant to hoot him for his remaining in Tyl er's cabinet. like the smitten roc k of the wilderness reviving the life of desert wanderers. in relati ng his experience in listening to a great preacher. that. and yet. industry. What is oratory but to stir the blood of all hearers. they thought.--SOLOMON. He warped their own judgment an d for the time took away their prejudice. Seest thou a man diligent in business? He shall stand before kings. Their example shows what can be accomplished by th e practise of the common virtues. CHAPTER XXXIV THE TRIUMPHS OF THE COMMON VIRTUES The talent of success is nothing more than doing what you can do well. were fixed on them.--J. The most encouraging truth that can be impressed upon the mind of youth is this : "What man has done man may do." Men of great achievements are not to be set on pedestals and reverenced as exceptions to the average of humanity. self-denial. Probably Lincoln has been the hero of more American boys during the last two ge nerations than any other American character. and their contempt to approbation. "He gave us a glimpse into the Holy of Holies. With the eas e of a master he swayed his audience. His opening words changed their scorn to adm iration. by taking some concrete example of great success which has been achieved by patient plodding toward a definite goal. and Story livid.l he releases them from the magic spell. det ermination. quenches the thirst of myriads of men. Instead. When he begun. so changed the convictions of Sou therners who hated him. and doin g well whatever you do. When James Russell Lowell was a student. they reasoned. Is not oratory a fine art? The well-spring of eloquence. and they could not resist cheering him. patience.

never had secrets. the most ordinary virtues w ithin the reach of the poorest youth in the land.er. In a speech to the people in Colorado Mountains. always ready to help everybody and everyth ing out of their troubles. to be somebody. He had a helpful mind. his passion for wholen ess. Had a few events over which no one had control been other than they were it is quite possible I might never have held the high office I now oc . The ability to do hard work. that is genius. You could depend upon him. possess these qualities. What an inestimable blessing to the world. a large-hearted. There is no one quality in his entire make-up so overpowering. a poor widow in trouble. The reader can see that it would be easy to make up the hundred per cent. that the total of his character wou ld be made up of the sum of the commonest qualities. an inspiratio n to poor boys and poor girls that his great achievement can be accounted for by the triumph in his character of those qualities which are beyond the reach of m oney. his do gged persistence. his straightforward. open. If I have succeeded. kindly neighbor a nd an honest citizen. The door of his hea rt was always open so that anyone could read his inmost thoughts. and to stick to it. He simply wanted to better his condition. never straining after effec t. "If when I die the ones who know me best believe that I was a thoughtful. Suppose we rank his honesty. any marvelous powers. his aspiration . or a farmer who needed advice. his yearning for fulness of life ten more. they would probably expect to find some brilliant faculty which would rank at least f ifty per cent of the total. Roosevelt said: "You think tha t my success is quite foreign to anything you can achieve. of family. so commanding that it could be ranked as genius . his purity and unselfishness of motive as his highest attr ibutes. and will prove my life to have been more successful than the fact that I have ever been president of t he United States. to lift his head up from his hu mble environment and be of some account in the world. for completeness. his ability for hard work ten per cent. Everybody who knew him felt that he was a m an. wise and painstaking father. but that are within the reach of the poorest and the humblest. what an encouragement. whether it was a pig stuck in the mire. and as a citizen. He never covered up anything. it is o nly as anyone of you can succeed. t ransparent. without finding a ny one quality which could be called genius. helpf ul husband. His simplicity was his chief charm. frank. that will be a far more real honor. for doing everything to a finish ten more. If young people were to represent Lincoln's total success by one hundred. He wanted to know something. The strong thing about Lincoln was his manliness. downrigh t honesty. is the right hand of genius an d the best substitute for it. He was a simple man. a passion for a larger and c ompleter life than that of those about him. who look upon him as a demigod. and certainly these qualities are within the reach of the poorest boy an d the humblest girl in America.--in fact. a generous. Let me assure you tha t the big prizes I have won are largely accidental. of influence. the poo rest boys and girls. generous friend. a loving. He was ambitious to make the most of himse lf. his integrity twenty per cent of the total. we find it made up of the humblest virtues. the commonest qualities. But I think that the verdict of history has given hi s honesty of purpose. It is true that he had a divine hunger for growth. his longing for growth. but there is no evidence of any grea t genius. merely because I have tried to do my duty as I saw it in my home and in my business.

He knew how to keep plodding. solid ground of full success. his habitual class response was that he was too busy getting the lesson of a few days back to look at the one of the da y. He had tact and diplom acy and made the most of every opportunity. not notable as a sch olar. another villas. He kept up this steady gait. The biographies of the giants of the race are often discouraging to the average poor boy. if the course w as ten years instead of four. Every man and woman can exercise this virtue of perseverance." But when he reads the life of McKinley he does not see any reason why he could not do the same things himself. level head. He did not stand very high in school. he would come out first. no great leaps and bounds in his life from particula r ability or special opportunity. One of the commonest of common virtues is perseverance. The record of human achievement is full of the truth. "are instances of the resistless force of perseverance. One of the greatest generals on the Confederate side in the Civil War." McKinley did not start with great mental ability. one warehouses. With this he possessed great applicatio n and dogged determination. You will find no royal ro ad to your triumph." "All the performances of human art. distancing fifty-three who started with bette r attainments and better minds. can refuse to stop . but he avera ged well. he never let go till he had it done. was noted for his slowness. or makes a way around them. who looks on them as a sort of mental spring-board by which to vault across the gulf of failure to the sure. because he kn ows that he is not a genius. when he went to West Point. he was not a great lawyer. "There is no difficulty to him who wills. and if my success in the end proves to have been as great as that achieved by many of the humblest of you I shall b e fortunate. If he undertook a task. at which we look with praise and wonder. but he had a good. There is no open door to the Temple of Success. His classmates used to say that." s ays Johnson. sharpen his wits and develop his inna te resources. t unnels through them. He had no very brilliant talents. Therefore each of you has the same chan ce to succeed in true success as I have had. When he is confronted by barriers he leaps over them." It has been well said that from the same materials one man builds palaces." came out seventeenth in a class of seventy. "This is very interesting r eading. from the least promising "plebe. There was nothing very surpri sing or startling in his career. Obstacles only serve to stiffen his backbone. and he knew that the only way to show what he was made of in Congress was to stick to one thing. The difficulties which dishearten one man only stiffen the sinews of anoth er. He had the bes t substitute for genius--the ability for hard work and persistence. and he says to himself. he did no t make a great record in Congress.cupy. He was not a great genius. He had good common sense and was a hard worker. The world always stands aside for the determined man. yet it has been the ope n sesame of more fast locked doors of opportunity than have brilliant tributes. Nothing can keep from success the man who has iron in his blood and is determin ed that he will succeed. but I can never do those things. the effect is largely lost upon himself. and. Bricks and mortar are mortar and bri cks until the architect makes them something else. "Stonewa ll" Jackson. how to hang on. anot her hovels. following the advice of a statesman friend. The boulder which was an obst acle in the path of the weak becomes a stepping-stone in the pathway of the reso lute. and he made a specialty of th e tariff. because the moment he gets the impression that the character he is re ading about was a genius. but no train of events could accidentally make me a noble character or a f aithful member of my home and community. So. increase his determination. because there were no great jumps.

others will exalt you. and so they are not willing to make the great exertion. He said the boys made fun of him. The man who puts his best into every task will leave far behind the man who lets a job g o with the comment "That's good enough. they could work with enthusiasm and zeal and power and con centration. and see what hard study would do. or a merchant prince like Wanamak er or Marshall Field. It has been observed that the dispatches of Napo leon rang with the word glory. But many of them say they do not feel that they have the marvelous ability. fling their whole lives into their work. and it was not long before he silenced those who had ridiculed him. The friend said he ought to go back. they would devote all their energies to study. They would be willing to make any sacrifice. the warrior's sword. The romance of perseverance under especial difficulty is one of the most ating subjects in history. Lock him up in a dungeon. schola Persistency is to talent what steam is to the engine." Nothing is good enough unless it reflec ts our best. He went back. can decline to turn aside in search of pleasures that do but hinder progress. or if they could be an Ediso n in invention. it has been is the statesman's brain. but that it is jus t honestly. and stayed there only a short tim e when a neighbor found him crying on his way home. Nowadays people seem unwilling to tread the rough path of duty and by patience and steadfast perseverance step into the ranks of those the country delights to honor. can be counted on to go farther tha n a great deal of talent without persistency. Every little while I get letters from young men who say. Take away his money. Fidelity to duty has been a distinguishing virtue in men who have risen to posi tions of authority and command. f or always being at the foot of the class. and asked the reason. tha t it is not making a tremendous strain to do something great. to undergo any hardship in order to achieve what these men have achieved. the r's "open sesame. Perseverance. Daniel Webster had no remarkable traits of character in his boyhood.short of the goal of ambition. Tenacity of purpose has been characteristic of aracters who have left their mark on the world. and that he had decided to give up and go home. He was sen t to Phillips Exeter Academy in New Hampshire. Daniel said he despaired of ever making a scholar. and remaining there. They do not realize that success is not necessarily doing some great thing. You cannot keep a determined man from success. the tremendous talent exhibited by those leaders. You will think better of yourself. the great genius. Thoroughness is another of the common virtues which all may cultivate. or a great leader in medicine. a nd you will become a hero. with a very little talent. A great dea l of persistency. if they were positivel y sure that they could be a Webster in law." Stick to a thing and carry it through in all its completeness and proportion. Wellington's dispatches centered around the commo n word duty. applied himself to his studies with determination to win." fascin all ch said. earnestly living the everyday simple life. and he make s spurs of his poverty to urge him on. It is the driving force b y which the machine accomplishes the work for which it was intended. It is by the exercise of . and he writes t he immortal "Pilgrim's Progress. by reaching the hea d of the class. the inventor's secret.

Davis?" asked Farmer John Field. and I don't want to hurt yo ur feelin's. for so mething complicated. the lovely wild flowers in their efforts to get a b ranch of showy flowers off a large tree. It is just a natural persistent exercis e of the commonest every-day qualities. as he took an apple from a barrel and handed it to Marshal l's father as a peace offering. and often. Marshall. and teach him how to milk cows!" If Marshall Field had remained as clerk in Deacon Davis's store in Pittsfield. Massachusetts. perhaps. what a lot of common. and air goin' to tell you the truth. There is no great secret about success. by trying to be the best possible citizen. a g ood. It is most unfortunate that so many young people get the impression that succes s consists in doing some marvelous thing. in trying to do some marvelous thing that will attract attention and get our names in the papers! We trample down th e finer emotions. what beauty. where he got his first position." replied Deacon Davis. it aroused his ambition and fired him with the determination to be a great merchant himself. it is by trying to be scrupulously honest in every transaction. that there must be some genius born in the man who achieves it." he asked himself. and then we discover to our horror what we have missed on t he way up--what sweetness. accommodating. we spoil many of the most delicious things in life in our scra mbling and greed to grasp something which is unusual. all right. it is by always ringing true in our friendships. But when he went to Chicago and saw the marvelou s examples around him of poor boys who had won success. CHAPTER XXXV GETTING AROUSED "How's the boy gittin' on. it is by all t hese simple things that we attain success. Oh. Take him back to the farm. "If others can do such wonderful things. would not compare in be auty and delicacy and loveliness to the things they trampled under their feet in trying to procure it. a kind. He weren't cut out for a merchant. something showy that we ca n wave before the world in order to get its applause. we miss them. John. We have seen people in the country in the summer time trampling down the daisie s and the beautiful violets. accommodatin g attitude toward those about us. else he could not do such remarkable things. by holding a helpful. encouraging father. you and I are old friends. waiting upon a customer. steady boy. w e miss the little successes. "Well. the sum of which would make our lives sublime. cheering things we have lost in the useless struggle. John. In straining for effect. in the struggle to do something great and wonderful. he could never have become one o f the world's merchant princes. as he watched his s on. it is by trying to do everything one does to a comp lete finish.the common everyday virtues. how many exquisite experiences. Marshall is a good. helpful neighbor. "we are old friends. "why cannot I?" . what loveliness. that the principles of nature's secrets are so extremely si mple that men overlook them in their efforts to see and solve the more intricate problems. after all this straining and struggling for the larger. that investigators are always looking for unusual phenomena. delightful possible joys we trample under o ur feet in straining after something great. Great scientists tell us that the reason why the secrets of nature have been hi dden from the world so long is because we are not simple enough in our methods o f reasoning. for the grander t hings. h omely. which. but I'm a blunt man. but he wouldn't make a merchant if he stayed i n my store a thousand years.

inactive. When we meet these people we feel conscious that they have a great deal of latent power that has never been exercised. our inclination will grow duller and weaker. her faculties were aroused. or indifference? If we constantly allow opportunities to slip by us without making any attempt to grasp them. and always beat the predictions of its most sanguine inhabitants. as it slumbered in this girl. that it is something thrust upon us which will take care of itself. of latent force . had a great deal to do wi th stimulating his latent energy and bringing out his reserve force. when young Field went there. that is my problem. that it is not susceptible to improvement. and yet had only attained the mental development of a small child. slumbering within us. She came to herself. [Illustration: Marshall Field] Many people seem to think that ambition is a quality born within us. Only a few things interested her. It makes all the difference in the world out the best thing in me or the worst. was in middle life. But the city grew by lea ps and bounds. Field from the start . Everybody felt that there were great possibilities ther e. They are still in a dormant state. This was wh at stirred the slumbering power within him.Of course. one of the most highly esteemed jurists in his state. this marvelous city was just starting on its unpa ralleled career. twenty- Everywhere we see people who have reached middle life or later without being ar oused. O ur faculties become dull and soon lose their power if they are not exercised. What caused the revolution in his life? The hearing of a single lecture on the value of education. In 1856 . an illiterate blacksmith. me do what I can. she suddenly awakened to full consciousne ss. with the reputation of being its best-read man. fifteen. He is now sixty. Success was in the air. Almost in a day she passed from childhood to budding womanhood. which could do marvels if we would only awaken it. If we do not try to realize our ambition. indolence. just as the faculty for music o r art does. and one whose highest endeavor is to help his fellow man.--whether I utilize five. . one day. "What I most need. it will not keep sharp and defined." as Emerson says. But it is a passion that responds very quickly to cultivati on. not what a Napoleon or ut what I can do. Most of us have an enormous amount of power. Ho w can we expect our ambition to remain fresh and vigorous through years of inact ivity. She was dreamy. and it requires constant care and education. there was the making of a great merchant in Mr. The judge of the municipal court in a flourishing western city. while li stening to a hand organ on the street." To a Lincoln could do. the owner of the fine st library in his city. all unconsciously. going to waste wi thin them. The best thing in them lies so deep that i t has never been awakened. b to me whether I bring ten. Great possibil ities of usefulness and of achievement are. and in a few days she leape d forward years in her development. or ninety per cent of my ability. an ambition-arousing environment. but circumstances. They have developed only a small percentage of their success possibilitie s. an d indifferent to everything around her most of the time until. and set his f eet in the path of self-development. before his latent pow er was aroused. It had then only about eighty-five thousand inhabitants. Some time ago there appeared in the newspapers an account of a girl who had rea ched the age of fifteen years. A few years before it had been a mere Indian trading village. or it will atrophy. It is doubt ful if he would have climbed so rapidly in any other place than Chicago. awakened his ambition. "is somebody to make do what I can.

we rise or fall according to the stronge st current in which we live. They had developed ambitio n. was suckled by a wolf with her own young ones. and let it be reared by savages. after thirty years of investigation of cases involving the socia l and moral welfare of over half a million of children. and a marked degree of excellence in thei r work. of course. brutal atm osphere. The story is told of a well-born chi ld who. as if from a long sleep. It does not take much to determine the lives of most of us. you will find that multitudes have failed because they never got into a stimulating. in order that they might acquire American methods and ca tch the American spirit. and how many of its inherit ed tendencies will remain? If brought up from infancy in a barbarous. as a rule. o r by meeting some friend. they were again plodders. and who actually took on all the characteristics of the wolf.--walk ed on all fours. and you are never quite the sam e person after the association or experience. non-progr essive atmosphere about them had done its work. Even the strongest of us are not beyond the reach of our environment. The ambiti on aroused by stimulating environment had sunk to sleep again. after struggling awhile to keep up their new standards.--who understood." The New York Society for the Prevention of Cruel ty to Children. We naturally follow the examples about us. The men had lost the desire to i mprove. with the greatest in herited advantages. Some years ago a party of Russian workmen were sent to this country by a Russia n firm of shipbuilders. and determined our nature. intelligent. many notable exceptions. You are a little different. with the fire of ambition in their eyes. it is an absolute truth.--someone with high ideals. It will make all the difference in the world to you whether you are with people who are watching for ability in you. every person who has touched you r life--has left an impress upon your character. howled like a wolf. Our Indian schools sometimes publish. personal initiative. being lost or abandoned as an infant. Take the best-born child. Within six months the Russians had become almost the eq uals of the American artisans among whom they worked. and prai se you. of course. by re ading some inspiring. encourage. become brutal. stimulating book. No matter how independent. beca . A year after their return to their own country.--just as Beecher was never the same man after reading Ruskin. blast ing your hopes. or whether you are with those who are forever breaking your idols. encouraging environment. but the majority of those who go back to their tribes. gradually drop back to t heir old manner of living. If you interview the great army of failures.--well dressed. says: "Removing a boy or girl from improper environment is the first s tep in his or her reclamation. people who believe in. and encouraged them. strong-willed. Then they were suddenly aroused. Everything--every se rmon or lecture or conversation you have heard.I have known several men who never realized their possibilities until they reac hed middle life. able to resist the downward-dragging tendencies about them. There are. with no goal beyond the day's work. but th ese are strong characters.--modif ied somewhat from what you were before. and. The chief probation officer of the children's court in New York. individuality. and throwing cold water on your aspirations. in his report for 1905. and ate like one. it will. We predic t great things for them. the deadening. believed i n. The poet's "I am a part of all that I have met" is not a mere poetic flight of fancy. side by side. has also come to the con clusion that environment is stronger than heredity. photographs of the Indian y ouths as they come from the reservation and as they look when they are graduated . by listening to a sermon or a lecture. we are constantly be ing modified by our surroundings.

who believe in you. and the more he reflected . Thoughts are mightier th an armies. the more desirable such a machine appeared to him. The thoug ht of the sewing-machine haunted him night and day. an environment that will stimulate you to self-development. over shadowing all his aims." "Well.--peo ple of high aims. PAXTON.--JEA N INGELOW. if you are naturally lazy . A mbition is contagious. or because they were not strong enough to rally under depressing. and he finally resolved to p roduce one. but it can't be done. "I can ma ke one myself. a great magnetic force which will help you to attract t he object of your ambition.--BATE. Sti ck to those who are trying to do something and to be somebody in the world. Keep close to those who are dead-in-earnest.--W . and with a wife and three children to support in a great city on a salary of nine dollar s a week. lofty ambition. The success of those about you who are trying to climb upward will encourag e and stimulate you to struggle harder if you have not done quite so well yourse lf. Most of the peopl e we find in prisons and poor-houses are pitiable examples of the influence of a n environment which appealed to the worst instead of to the best in them. K eep close to people who understand you. But Elias Howe was not so rattle-headed as he seemed. of one great overmastering purpose. After months wasted in the effort to work a needle pointed at both ends. make any sacrifice necessary to keep in an ambition-ar ousing atmosphere. "why don't you make a sewing-machin e?" His advice had been sought by a rich man and an inventor who had reached the ir wits' ends in the vain attempt to produce a device for knitting woolen goods. There is a great power in a battery of individuals who are struggling for the a chievement of high aims.use their ambition was never aroused. a manufacturer of instruments. plodding man." "Oh. "What are you bothering yourselves with a knitting machine for?" asked Ari Davi s. a mere youth of twenty. Four years passed. discouraging." the capitalist replied. bu t the novel idea found lodgment in the mind of one of the workmen who stood by. and I'll insure you an independent fortune. the light-hearted boy had become a thoughtful. If you lack energy. You will catch the spirit that dominates in your environm ent. of Boston." said Davis. you will be urged forward by the consta nt prodding of the more ambitious. This may make all the difference to you between a grand success and a mediocre existence." The words of Davis were uttered in a spirit of jest. yes it can. who was thought not capable of a serious idea. STUART MI LL. who will help you to discover yourself and encourage you to make the most of yourself. M. It is very stimulating to be with people whose aspir ations run parallel with your own. and guiding and contro lling his entire life. indolent. A healthful hunger for a great idea is the beauty and blessedness of life. or vicious surroundings. "you do it. A profound conviction raises a man above the feeling of ridicule. CHAPTER XXXVI THE MAN WITH AN IDEA He who wishes to fulfil his mission must be a man of one idea. "I wish I could. Whatever you do in life. Ideas go booming through the world louder than cannon.--J. with t . that is. or inclined to take it easy. Principles have achieved more victories than horsemen or chariots.

Pullman was a great believer in the commercial value of beauty. It has ever been the man with an idea. and so the town of Pullman is a model of cleanliness.he eye in the middle. appeared on the scene. who at fifteen walked the streets of London in a vain search fo r work. He fitted up two old cars on the Chicago and Alton roa d with berths. that should pass up and down through the cloth. He not only raised the blocks. and while waiting for jobs he experimented with old vials for steam reservo irs and hollow canes for pipes. for which h e was to have one-half of the patent. This machine. Pull man. if the machine proved to be worth patentin g. the machine was completed. This saved nearly three-four ths of the steam. The germ idea of the steam engine can be s een in the writings of the Greek philosophers. A professor in the Glasgow University gave him the use of a room to work in. All this time he was re volving in his mind his pet project of building a "sleeping car" which would be adopted on all railroads. he returned and built two cars which cost $18. Fisher and the other for hims elf. But help came fro m an old schoolmate. He then went to work on t he principle that the more luxurious his cars were. "If th e engine will not work. In May. who has changed the face of Christendom. After spending three years in Colorado gold mines. George Fisher. but his own funds and those of his father. which he puts into practical effect. nor be discouraged. He impr oved Newcomen's engine by cutting off the steam after the piston had completed a quarter or a third of its stroke. wil l sew three hundred stitches a minute. but he was terribly in earnest. and soon found they would be in demand. until he had made a rough mod el of wood and wire that convinced him of ultimate success. who had aided him more or less. Never despair. He counts it a good investment to s urround his employees with comforts and beauty and good sanitary conditions. and letting the steam already in the chamber expand and drive the piston the remaining distance." she wrote him while struggling in London." . The perfection of the modern engine is largely due to James Watt. and he had faith enough in his idea to risk his all in it. and in July Elias Howe sewed all the seams of two suits of woolen clothes. is an example of his belief in this principle. In his mind's eye he saw his idea. a coal and wood merchant of Cambridge. as well as his magnificent cars. order. one for Mr. which is still preserved. a poor. suddenly t he thought flashed through his mind that another stitch must be possible. and wi th almost insane devotion he worked night and day. 1845.000 each. When it was decided to try and elevate Chicago out of the mud by raising its im mense blocks up to grade. There is not one of the mill ions of sewing-machines now in use that does not contain some of the essential p rinciples of this first attempt. for he could not bear to waste a moment. but did it in such a way that business within them was scarcely interrupted. and put in a bid for the great undertaking. Newcomen. with no opportunities. and comfort. the young son of a poor mechanic. It was an English blacksmith. who in the seven teenth century conceived the idea of moving a piston by the elastic force of ste am. but his engine consumed thirty pounds of coal in producing one horse power. and the contract was awarded to him. and his brave wi fe Margaret begged him not to mind her inconvenience. He ag reed to board Elias and his family and furnish five hundred dollars. The wonderful t own which he built and which bears his name. named George M. and is considered more nearly perfect tha n any other prominent invention at its first trial." But Pullman believed that whatever relieved the tediousness of long trips would meet with speedy approval. the greater would be the dem and for them. were insufficient to embody it in a working machine. The sewing outlasted the cloth. Everybody laughed at "Pullman's folly. but it was not developed until mo re than two thousand years later. Watt suffered from pinching poverty and hardships which would have disheartened ordinary men. "something el se will. uneduc ated Scotch boy.

and had p assed the old washing-house. he would undertake to eat a stewed engine for breakfast. We trust tha t Parliament will." This article referred to Stephenson's proposition to use h is newly invented locomotive instead of horses on the Liverpool and Manchester R ailroad. He only uttered the obvious truth when he said one day . his "roaring steam e ngine will set the house on fire with its sparks"." said Watt. poor in spirit . in a crisis of his invention. $150. limit the speed to eight or nine miles an hour. If there ever was a true inventor . He had picked up the fixed engines which the gen ius of Watt had devised. as the conditions called for at least ten. and so was ruled o ut. 1825. People say he is crazy."I had gone to take a walk. thinking upon the engine at the time. "We should as soon expect the people of Woolwi ch to suffer themselves to be fired off upon one of Congreve's rockets as to tru st themselves to the mercy of such a machine. in all the railways it may grant. Sylvester is as great as c an be ventured upon." The "Perseverance" could make but six miles an hour. patching th e clothes and mending the boots of his fellow-workmen at night. going at such a rate. He was born poor. it would rush into a vacuu m. Poor he was in many senses. He was one of those eager souls that would coin their own fl esh to carry their point. which we entirely agree with Mr. leaving th e "Rocket" to carry off the honors with an average speed of fifteen miles an hou r. then in process of construction. and if a communication were made between the cylinder and an exhausted vessel . but also burst a pipe. who reported that steam would be desirable only when used in stationary engines one and a half miles apart. This was Stephenson's locomotive . The company decided to lay the matter before two leading English engineers. On the eventful day. to earn a little money to attend a night school. giving the first money he ever earned. indeed. ." and the "Sans pareil. the highest rate attained being twenty-nine. but in it lay the germ of the first steam engine of mu ch practical value. and was crowded out. it would rush into it. aga inst the most direful predictions of the foremost engineers of his day. "on a fine Sabbath afternoon. poor in appearance. The "Novelty" did splendidly. But Ste phenson persuaded them to test his idea by offering a prize of about twenty-five hundred dollars for the best locomotive produced at a trial to take place Octob er 6. A government inspector said that if a locomotive ever went ten miles an hour. working in the coal pits for sixpence a day. the "Novelty." replied S tephenson. "carriage makers and coachmen will starve for want of work. "What can be more palpably absurd and ridiculous than the prospect held out of locomotives traveling twice as fast as horses?" asked a writer in the English "Q uarterly Review" for March. This was one of them: "If a cow get on the track of the engine traveling ten miles an hour. and so fully vindicated his theory that the idea of stationary engines on a ra ilroad was completely exploded. as steam is an elastic body. will it n ot be an awkward situation?" "Yes. for the coo. to his blind father to pay his debts. but as it burst a water-pipe it lost its chance." For three days the committee of the House of Commons plies questions to him. lived poor. and set them on wheels to draw men and merchandise. this man was one. 1829." See George Stephenson." the "Rocket. and might be there condensed without cooling the cylind er. Sir James Mackintosh places this poor Scotch boy who began w ith only an idea "at the head of all inventors in all ages and all nations. very awkward. drawing the cars by means of ropes and pulleys." the "Perseverance. In all the records of invention there is no more sad or affecting story than th at of John Fitch. when the idea came into my head that." The idea was simple. "smoke will pollute the air". The "Sanspareil" made an average of fourteen miles an hour. thousands of spectators assembled to watch the competition of four engines. that if he could get one hundred pounds by cutti ng off one of his legs he would gladly give it to the knife. and died poor.

Johnny Fitch will be forgotten. on Friday. But the success of the Clermont soon led to the construction of other steamships all over the country. and t he steam is turned on. 1807. Nobody present. a crowd of curious people might have been s een along the wharves of the Hudson River. The walking beam moves slowly up and down. and tried to run her down. he was looked upon by ma ny as a public enemy. newspapers were marked with black lines . "it will burn up. and fishermen rowed home as fast as poss ible to get out of the way of the fire monster. the plank is pulled in. and the Clermo nt floats out into the river. as he sees vast columns of black smoke shoot up with showers of brilli ant sparks. Critics and cynics turned up their noses when Fulton was m entioned. August 4. pitied as a madman. The Indians were as much frighte ned as their predecessors were when the first ship approached their hunting-grou nd on Manhattan Island. w hen steamboats will ascend the Western rivers from New Orleans to Wheeling. But it did go up stream. He also built a diving boat for the government f or the discharge of torpedoes. and the boy. The noise of her great paddle-wheels increased the wonder.'" say s one. But the passengers go on board. in 1790. having made this "impossible" passage. At noon. Did anybody ever hear of such a ridiculous idea as navigating against t he current up the Hudson in a vessel without sails? "The thing will 'bust. in 1815. Dr. "It can never go up stream. Those on shore thought that a fire had broken out below the decks. Others whose interests were affected denied Fulto n's claim to the invention and brought suits against him. They rus hed to the shore amazed to see a boat "on fire" go against the stream so rapidly with neither oars nor sails. a serv ice which has revolutionized the commerce of the world. he had the first vessel on the D elaware that ever answered the purpose of a steamboat. in all probability. refused by the rich." exclaims a third. The owners of sailing vessels were jealous of the Clermo nt. had scored a great triumph. Very few priv ate persons were ever honored with such a burial. The severity of the world's censure. and had given to the world the first ste amboat that had any practical value. As the Clermont burned pine wood.He tried in vain both in this country and in France to get money to build his s teamboat. He would say: "You and I will not live to see the day. and ought to be in an insane asylum. Notwithstanding that Fulton had rendered such great service to humanity. It was the opinion of everybody that the man who had tooled away his money and his time on the Clermont was little better than an idiot. By this time his fame had spread all over the civ ilized world. ragged. but other men will carry out his ideas and grow rich and great upon them. and "they will all be drowned. ridicule. who in his youth said there is nothing impossible. and the inhabi tants along the banks were utterly unable to account for the spectacle. jeered at. he kept on till. and a king's cutter wa ." says another." Poor. the legislature of New York wore badges of mourning. and when steamboats will cross the ocean. The government employed Fulton to aid in building a powerful steam frigate. ever heard of a boat going by st eam. It ran six miles an hour against the tide. and eight miles with it. but in 1810 the Savannah from New York appeared off the coast o f Ireland under sail and steam. and detraction has usua lly been in proportion to the benefit the victim has conferred upon mankind. True. and when he died." the spectators persis t. Sailors forsook their vessels. forlorn. Lardner had "proved" to scientific men that a steamship could not cro ss the Atlantic. dense columns of fire and smoke belched forth from her smoke-stack while she glided triumphantly up the river. but the time wi ll come when the steamboat will be preferred to all other modes of conveyance. and minute guns were fire d as the long funeral procession passed to old Trinity churchyard. They had gathered to witness what the y considered a ridiculous failure of a "crank" who proposed to take a party of p eople up the Hudson River to Albany in what he called a steam vessel named the C lermont. discouraged by the great. whi ch was called Fulton the First.

German unity was the idea engraven upon Bismarck's heart. faili ng steadily. To make Germany the greatest power in Europe. applied to o ver five hundred uses by 100. on a rough and tedious voyage in 1832. melancholy. his wife in rags and despair over her husband's "folly". At length Isaac Selby. plodding on through want and woe t o rediscover the lost art of enameling pottery. Germany must hold the deciding voice in the Areopagus of the world. building his furnaces with brick s carried on his back. of New Haven. whether people. Look at his starved features. po inted to their foreheads as he passed. the famous German naturalist. it is said. pawn ing his clothes and his wife's jewelry to get a little money to keep his childre n (who were obliged to gather sticks in the field for fire) from starving. but only baked potatoes. other parties started from Bristol four days later in the Great Western. Columbus was exposed to continual scoffs and indignities. seeing his six children die of neglect.000 employees. when he had no money to bury a de ad child and when his other five were near starvation. the British Queen. ever believing that right would at last triumph.s sent to her relief. and send her to New York. or nation. An unexpected delay in fitting the engines led the projecto rs to charter the Sirius. he said to himself. when his neighbors were h arshly criticizing him for his neglect of his family and calling him insane. Although the voyage was made without accident. What a pathetic picture was that of Palissy.--he would risk no money in it. a river steamer of seven hundred tons. probably of starv ation. and he reaped his re ward. despised by his neighbors for neglecting his family. What cared this hercu lean despot for the Diet chosen year after year simply to vote down every measur e he proposed? He was indifferent to all opposition. Learning of this. Watch his sublime courage and devotion to his idea. It mattered not what sto od in his way. gaunt form. "Wh y not cross the ocean regularly in steamships?" In New York and in London a deaf ear was turned to any such nonsense. Soon af ter Smith made the round trip between London and New York in thirty-two days. defiant of oppositi on. the historian and banker. to make William of Prussia a greater potentate tha n Napoleon or Alexander. An American was once invited to dine with Oken. who said the idea was practicable. worn to a skeleton himself. they had neither meats nor dessert. the result of that heroic struggle. T o his surprise. condemned to be burnt alive on false charges of e mbezzlement. a pr ominent business man of London. agreed to build a steamship of two thousand tons . He rode ro ughshod over everybody and everything that stood in his way. being ridiculed as a mere dreamer and stigmatized as an adventurer. hoping always. But . irrepressible! See the great Dante in exile. Smith's first encouragement came from Geor ge Grote. Oke . Diet. buried in poverty and struggling with hardships for eleven lon g years. to make India rubber of practical use! See him in prison for debt. all must bend to his mighty will . What a sublime picture of determination and patience was that of Charles Goodye ar. and both vessels arrived at New York the same day. but it wa s the same old story. giving his clot hes to his hired man because he could not pay him in money. He could play the game alone. The very children. a poor wander er. it was near ly twenty years before it was admitted that steam navigation could be made a com mercial success in ocean traffic. until at last his great work was accomplished. As Junius Smith impatiently paced the deck of a vessel sailing from an English port to New York. he poured out his very soul into his immortal poem. He simply defied and sent h ome every Diet which opposed him. behold his vulcanized rubber. being taught to regard him as a kind of m adman. was his all-absorbing purpose. but he never gave up his idea. imperious.

and moral condition of th ose around them? . however. Hoe. In all ages those who have advanced the cause of humanity have been men and wom en "possessed. narrowness. and she determined to have the barba rous custom stopped. he was not liberally educ ated. ridicule. Ther e was no shilly-shallying. His wife explained. an d resulting in an improvement of the physical. to r ecover from the enormous dose. Clark in his world-wide Christian Endeavor movement. He hewed close to the chalk line and held his li ne plumb to truth. But her idea has been adopted by all nations. George Peabody. he stood almost alone fighting popular prejudice. no compromise on principles. Howe. but what could he do? He was not a chemist." in the opinion of their neighbors. too charitable for re venge. He tri ed intoxicants even to the point of intoxication. given t o a patient to deaden the pain during a surgical operation. toil. i n common with all great benefactors. Amos Lawrence. What tale of the "Arabian Nights" equals in fascination the story of such lives as those of Franklin. and too magnanimous for envy. that her husband's income was very small. the Methodis t Church in the Epworth League. he did not know the properties of chemical substances. incurred the pity and scorn of the rich and highly educated. Young Dr. M rs. sometimes five hundred drops of laudanum. but immediately began to experiment with well-known substances. Bell. She noticed in our Civil War th at the Confederates were shelling the hospital. Oftentimes in these grea t battles for principle and struggles for truth. but he was too broad for hatred. and the enemy that aims a shot at the tent or building over which flies the white flag with the red cross has lost hi s last claim to human consideration. nor did he go to scientific men fo r advice. In fact it is doubtful whether a ma n can perform very great service to mankind who is not permeated with a great pu rpose--with an overmastering idea. no hunting for a middle ground between right and wron g. Duty and truth were his goal. Before the discovery of ether it often took a week. Noah in building the ark. He kept on experimenting with narcotics in this manner until at last he found what he sought in ether. and bigotry. of Morse. Harriet Beecher Stowe. Mos es in espousing the cause of the Israelites. Morton did not resort to books. Of course the world laughed at this poor unaided woman. persecution . and that they preferred to live simply in order that he might obtain books and instruments for his scientific r esearches. Dr. McCormick. in some cases a month. each representing some great idea embodied in earnest action. and sc ores of others. Edward Everett Hale in his little bands of King' s Daughters and Ten Times One is Ten! Here is Clara Barton who has created the R ed Cross Society. Dr. Beecher had to fight every step of the way to his triumph through obstacles whi ch would have appalled all but the greatest characters. ho wever. Edison. He never pandered for public favor nor sought applause. She thought it the last touch of cruelty to fight what couldn't fight back. mental. or Christ in living and dying to sa ve a fallen race. Beecher. Morton bel ieved that there must be some means provided by Nature to relieve human sufferin g during these terrible operations. hardship. What a grand idea Bishop Vincent worked out for the young world in the Chautauq ua Circle. but as soon as the instruments were applied the patient would revive. Gough. and he went straight to his mark. Yet in every age and in every clime men and women have been willing to incur poverty. But he never hesitated nor wavered when he once saw his duty. Other churches did no t agree with him nor his.n was too great a man to apologize for their simple fare. uncharitableness and envy even in hi s own church. which is loved by all nations. if thereby they might shed light or comfort upon the path which all must walk from the cradle to the grave. or even death. Goodyear.

but what are these to the shame of an infamou s act. and make death proud to take us.--you are not t he person to bring to us a message of his. let's do it after the high Roman fashion. but where they are. The moral cowardice which had displayed itsel ." shouted a captain at the battle of the Alma. when an e nsign maintained his ground in front. Let me die facing the enemy. save by the power of the bayonet. Let the gods take c are of the rest. although the men were retreating.--F. ROBERTSON.--BAYARD.There are plenty of ideas left in the world yet. "We have heard the intentions that have been attributed to the king. who cannot be recognized as his organ in the National A ssembly." said Mirabeau to De Breze. and that we will not be driven hence. Go. 1789. No great deed is done By falterers who ask for certainty. "bring up the men to the colors. Fortune befriends the bold. June 23. sir. To stand with a smile upon your face against a stake from which you cannot get away--that. with perfect liberty to go away.--this is heroism. "Ay.--BYRON. many of whom had to keep their word by thus obeying. Everything has not been invent ed. I have sworn to return. nor right to speak. "The Commons of France have resolved to deliberate . who brought an order from the king for them to dis perse. and again to dare. held only by the high er claims of duty. W.--you. no doubt. But the true glory is resignation to the inevit able. "Bring back the colors. Who conquers me. or the wounds of a guilty mind? Slave as I am to Carthage. what's noble." The courage which Cranmer had shown since the accession of Mary gave way the mo ment his final doom was announced. and you.--DRYDEN. he calmly replied: "Have you resolved to dishonor me? Torture and death are awaiting me. "Steady. and without end to dare. and let the fire creep up to the heart. It is my duty. To stand unchained. What's brave.--AGIS II. is heroic." was Danton's noble defia nce to the enemies of France. "No. say to those who sent you that we are here by the power of the people. "But how shall I get ideas?" Keep your wits open! Observe! Study! But above all . GEORGE ELIOT. voice. men! Every man must die where he stands!" said Colin Campbell to the N inety-third Highlanders at Balaklava." "To dare. Think! and when a noble image is indelibly impressed upon the mind--Act! CHAPTER XXXVII DARE The Spartans did not inquire how many the enemy are. All good things have not been done.--SHAKESPEARE. armed with a new idea." When the assembled senate of Rome begged Regulus not to return to Carthage to f ulfil an illegal promise. and each one challenges the independent soul. as an overwhelming force of Russian cavalr y came sweeping down. There are thousands of abuses to rectify . shall find a stubborn foe. who have neither place. Sir Colin! we'll do that!" was the response from men. I still have t he spirit of a Roman." cr ied the ensign. ay.

the youth sprang to the edge of the bank. "See ! they are safe! Great God." solemnly spoke the gratefu l woman. was one of the most terrible on record. I thank Thee!" And sure enough. my hand therefore shall be the first punished. when some stronger eddy would toss it from him. "Thank God. sir. and then." exclaimed the woman as she caught sight of a youth of eighte en. from whose grasp escape would seem impossible . "and but for my sense of duty I should have retreated in my first fight. and a non a whirlpool would drag him in. "God will give you a reward." said one of the men who was holding her. The cries were repeat ed in quick succession. Now it seemed as if he wou ld be dashed against a projecting rock. and the youth almost exhausted. And. and the men sprang through the undergrowth to learn thei r cause. " A woman's piercing shriek suddenly startled a party of surveyors at dinner in a forest of northern Virginia on a calm. at sight of part of the boy's d ress. he will save my child!" cried the mother. but a man in stature and bearing. for if I come to the fire it shall be the first burned. My boy. When General Jackson was a judge and was holding court in a small settlement. "you will surely do something for me! Make these friends release me. "there he is! Oh. the child is held aloft by his strong right arm. "Now ." said a phre nologist. my darling boy! How could I leave you?" But all eyes were bent upon the youth struggling with strong heart and hope ami d the dizzy sweep of the whirling currents far below." ended his address to the hushed congregation before him. "he never stirred nor cried till life was gone. and Cranmer's strangely mingled nature found a po wer in its very weakness when he was brought into the church of St. a ." That first fight. and that is the setting abroad of writings contrary to th e truth. The youth redoubled his exertions. even in a canoe. "therefore it shall suffer first punishment". The rush of waters here w as tremendous.--"now I come to the great thing that troubleth my conscience more than any other thing that ever I s aid or did in my life. sunny day in 1750. Mary at Oxfo rd on the 21st of March. forasmuch as my hand offended in writing contr ary to my heart. scanned for a m oment the rocks and whirling currents. and in a few minutes reached a low place in the bank and were drawn up by their friends. plunged into the roaring rapids. they emerged unharme d from the boiling vortex. Three times he was about to grasp the child. and all rushed to the brink of the precipice." "This was the hand that wrote it.--my poor boy is drowning." he a gain exclaimed at the stake. "He will do great things for you in return for this day's work. Twice the boy went out of sight. in a delirium of joy. "and the rapids would dash her to pieces in a moment!" Throwing off his coat. but still alive. she will jump into the river." The youth was George Washington. and written for fear of death. lest h e should be dashed to pieces. on an Indian field. the boy senseless. On e final effort he makes. which here I now renounce and refuse as things written by a hand contra ry to the truth which I thought in my heart. "Your Grace has not the organ of animal courage largely developed. my boy. who was examining Wellington's head. to repeat his recantation on the way to the stake. over which the water flew in foam. but a cry of horror bursts from the lips of every spectator as boy and man shoot over the falls and vanish in the seething waters below. but he had reappeared the second time. "There they are!" shouted the mother a moment later." replied the Iron Duke. and they will not l et me go!" "It would be madness. But pardon was impossible. and the blessings of thousands besides mine will attend you. if it might be. althou gh terribly near the most dangerous part of the river. "You are right. and h olding it steadily in the flame. "Oh.f in his miserable compliance with the lust and despotism of Henry VIII displaye d itself again in six successive recantations by which he hoped to purchase pard on. to s ave my life. and no one had ever dared to approach it.

walked straig ht up to the man. carried the column ac ross two hundred yards of clear space. Behind them were six thousand troops. Then she took off her red flannel skirt and. placing h is hand upon his heart. they asked him in derision. waved it back and forth across the track. when the powerful King Powhatan had decreed his death.border ruffian. The contrast between Napoleon's slight figure and the massive grenad iers suggested the nickname "Little Corporal. "and arrest him. was bound to Chicago and the World's Fair." He left the bench. was the sending o f a medal of the French Legion of Honor to a little American girl who lives in I ndiana. having on board several distin guished Frenchmen. and that if the t rain. and his aides and g enerals rushed to his side. and the train stop ped. many of whom must have suffered d eath but for Jennie's courage and presence of mind. their supports fled in a panic. and a quick run." But they also shrank in fear from the ruffian. an d the valiant grenadiers were appalled by the task before them." said Jacks on. From the messenger's manner he suspected that the Indians m eant mischief. So sudde n and so miraculous was it all that the Austrian artillerists abandoned their gu ns instantly. in the face of the Austri an batteries. and with his eagle eye actually cowed the ruffian. Ill could the st ruggling colony spare him at that time. when the train came in view. It was seen. and attempted to pass the gateway to the bridge. a murderer and desperado. then. who dropped his weapons. of France. "Call a posse. It was the heroic devotion of an Indian girl that saved the life of Captain Joh n Smith. discovered that a trestle was on fire. and so he warned his companions that they must be ready to leave camp at a moment's notice. "There was something in his eye I could not res ist. the column staggered and reeled backward. scarcely a shot from the Austrians taking effect beyond the point where the platoons wheeled for the first leap." One of the last official acts of President Carnot. Jennie Carey. This Napoleon had counted on in making the b old attack. entered it a dreadful wreck would take place. On board of it were seven hundred people. who was then ten years old. The front ranks went down li ke stalks of grain before a reaper. a soldier and a servant. this time over heaps of dead that cho ked the passage. While a train on the Pan Handle Railroad. with a battalion of three hundred carbineers in front. "Call me. From his headquarters at Vancouver he had gone on an exploring expedition with two companions. Without a word o r a look of reproach. The of ficer did not dare to approach him. and th e result was the sending of the medal of this famous French society. came into the court-room with brutal violence and interrupted the court. Fourteen cannon--some accounts say thirty--were trained upon the F rench end of the structure. The judge ordered him to be arrested. the purpose of which is the honoring of bravery and merit. when o ne evening he received word that the chiefs of the Columbia River tribes desired to confer with him." When Stephen of Colonna fell into the hands of base assailants. On May 10. afterwards saying. which was nearly due. Forward again. the Frenchmen brought the occurrence to the notice of President Carnot. Napoleon carried the bridge at Lodi. 1796. Thereu pon she ran out upon the track to a place where she could be seen from some litt le distance. counted by seconds only. Napoleon placed himself at their head." was his bold reply. At the tap of the drum the foremost assailants whee led from the cover of the street wall under a terrible hail of grape and caniste r. After the Mexican War General McClellan was employed as a topographical enginee r in surveying the Pacific coast. Napoleon masse d four thousand grenadiers at the head of the bridge. "this court is adjourned for five minutes. When they returned to France ." said the judge. and instead of rushing to the front and meeting the French onslaug ht. "Where is now your fortress?" "Here. wherever they may be found. .

Rufus Choate spoke to an audience of nearly five thousand in Lowell. "Colfax dares not drink. He owed his life to his quickness of perception. therefore he and th ose with him would be the last to leave. in favor of the candidacy of James Buchanan for the presidency. Retaliation for this outrage seemed imperative. By his listlessness he had thrown his captors off their guard. where his two followers were r eady to spring into the saddle and to escape from the villages. McClellan said nothing. but still. He found the supports of the floor in so bad a condition that the sl ightest applause would be likely to bury the audience in the ruins of the buildi ng. was on the platform. When the sentence was passed he acted like a flash. Two Indians had been captured by a party of white pioneers and hanged for the ft. Not a hand was raised agains t him. He was familiar with the Chinook jargon.in five minutes". M ass. Returning rather leisurely to the platform. decreed that McClellan should immediately be put to death. "You are right. He had known that argument and pleas for justice or mer cy would be of no avail. Without a single word be .. declined to drink from a proffered cup. "I revoke it!" exclaimed Saltese. Nat urally hospitable. the committee taking great pains to have the fine st wines that could be procured for the table that night." When Grant was in Houston many years ago. then vice-presi dent of the United States. but Schuyler Colfax. and was not responsible for the forest executions. The chiefs pondered long. No doubt many lives were saved by his c oolness. " I must have your word that I can leave this council in safety. the headwaiter went first to Grant. until a sound of cracking timber below would have precipitated a stamp ede with fatal results but for the coolness of B. and could understand every word spoken in the council. McClellan was led into the circle. which was most weakly supported. with his fingers c licking the trigger. Saltese was released from the embrace of the strong arm.Mounting his horse. "Revok e that sentence. McClellan had been on friendly terms with them. They made lavis h preparations for the dinner. F. he rode boldly into the Indian village. and to his accurate knowledge of I ndian character. When the time came to serve the wine. Flinging his left arm around the neck of Salt ese. and then Saltese. He sat motionless. he whispered to Choate as he pas sed. the Houstonites determined to go beyond any other Southern city in the way of a banq uet and other manifestations of their good-will and hospitality. "We shall all be in ---. Saltese made known the grievance of the tribe s. or I shall kill you this instant!" he cried. in the name of the head men of the tribes. He mounted his horse and rode to his camp. and naturally inclined to like a man of Grant's make-up. McClellan knew how sacred was the pledge which he had received. This movement was a great surpr ise to the Texans. In 1856. The council was prolonged for hours before sentence was passed. he whipped out his revolver and held it close to the chief's temple. About thirty chiefs were holding council. he added. but they were equal to the occasion." was the quick response." said the Vice-President. he was given a rousing reception. then he told the crowd that ther e was no immediate danger if they would slowly disperse. The post of danger. who presided. he said that he would see if there were any cause for alarm." sneered a Senator who had already taken too much. his courage. The floor of the great hall began to sink. and placed at the righ t hand of Saltese. "I dare not. Many distinguished foreign and American statesmen were present at a fashionable dinner party where wine was freely poured." "You have the wo rd of Saltese. bu t had little to say. The revolver wa s lowered. Without a word the general q uietly turned down all the glasses at his plate. McClellan st rode out of the tent with his revolver in his hand. apparently indifferent to his fate. fairly livid from fear. settling more and more as he proceeded with his address. and the c hiefs had vowed vengeance against the race. he was a white man. Telli ng the people to remain quiet. Butler.

It is 'Our Mothers. his honor. and that should flame up to heaven. told a story. for a laugh or a sneer. laughed at. or we are ostracized. Two French officers at Waterloo were advancing to charge a greatly superior for ce. to stand alone with all the world against you." said Wellington." It takes courage to do your duty in silence and obscu rity while others prosper and grow famous although neglecting sacred obligations .ing spoken. a slight. It takes courage for a young man to stand firmly erect while others are bowing and fawning for praise and power." The youth who starts out by being afraid to speak what he thinks will usually e nd by being afraid to think what he wishes. said. It takes courage to unmask your true self. servants. Colo nel Thomas Wentworth Higginson said that at a dinner at Beaufort. in the Lord's name I would pass through it a nd appear before them. scoffed. misunderstood. observing that the other showed signs of fear." was the reply. every man along the line of the long tables turned his glasses down. and faces it. C. It takes courage to say "No" squarely when t hose around you say "Yes. everything must conform. or your doctor or minister. I believe yo u are frightened. Dress. carriages. dictates. and they in turn dare not depart from th eir schools." We live ridiculously for fear of being thought ridiculous. "Sir. misjudged. Dr. living." He replied: "It is my d uty to go. and snap his fingers at Dame Grundy? . boyish fel low who did not drink. It takes courage to wear threadbare clothes wh ile your comrades dress in broadcloth. and there was not a drop of wine taken that night. you would run away. "and they will burn your body to ashes as they did that of John Huss. It takes courage to remain in honest pove rty when others grow rich by fraud." Luther replied : "Although they should make a fire that should reach from Worms to Wittenberg. but I will give a toa st. "Tis he is the coward who proves false to his vows. when he saw a soldier turn pale as he ma rched against a battery. where w ine flowed freely and ribald jests were bandied. How we shrink from an act of our own! We live as others live." said a friend to Luther. Who dares conduct his household or business affairs in his own w ay. derided. though it rain Duke Georges for nine days together. One. or sung a song. and I will go." "An honest man is not the worse because a dog barks at him. S.'" The men were so aff ected and ashamed that they took him by the hand and thanked him for displaying such admirable moral courage." Anothe r man said to him: "Duke George will surely arrest you." He said to another: "I would enter Worms though there we re as many devils there as there are tiles upon the roofs of the houses. To his manhood. Custom or fashion . ridicul ed. but "They are slaves who dare not be In the right with two or three." "That's a brave man. although I must drink it in water. beaten." "Yes. He replied: "I cannot sing. was told that he could not go until he had drunk a toast. I am." "There are many cardinals and bishops at Worms." A Western paper recently invited the surviving Union and Confederate officers t o give an account of the bravest act observed by each during the Civil War. It takes courage and pluck to be outvoted. and to pass for what you really are. "and if you were half as much fri ghtened. Miner. "he knows his danger.. to show your blemishes to a condemn ing world.

Don't be like Uriah Heep. "when you've got a horse that you think a great deal o f. Both are deformities and are repulsive." said he. save with his shepherd's staff and sling. a nd soon two loaded wagons came galloping toward the farmhouse. Behind him the flames closed u p. untwisted a piece of telegraph wire which had begun to cut the horse's leg. At last the powder and ball ran short and the hedges took fire." said Grant. "I don't know him. There is nothing attractive in timidity. I will. afforded him one desperate chance. when he and Colonel Dent were riding through the thickest of a fi re that had become so concentrated and murderous that his troops had all been dr iven back. "it is simply murder for us to sit here. fresh from his flocks." . timidity 's defeat. observing that the flames. to confront the colossal Gol iath with his massive armor. which exploded in an instant. sending wagon. sent his horses at the smoldering breach and. condemned to be burned alive in Rome." He dismounted. examined it deliberately. I wish you would get down and see what is the matter with that leg there . spurred his strugglin g and terrified horses through the burning heap. How much easier for a politician to prevaricate and dodge an issue than to stand squarely on his feet like a man! As the strongest man has a weakness somewhere. David. marching unattended and unarmed." said Grant. "if you don't want to see to it. the next. appalled by his comrade's fate. and would perhaps have be en ruined for life." Courage is victory." Wellington said that at Waterloo the hottest of the battle raged round a farmho use. but the flames rose fiercely ro und. It takes courage to refuse to follow custom when it is injurious to his health and morals." Anne Askew. and climbed into his saddle. "I should have thought fear would have kept you from going so far. never flinched. horses. you should never take any chances with him. "Dent. That simple shepherd-lad. and caught the powder. A messenger had been sent for ammunition. amid the deafening cheers of the g arrison. racked unti l her bones were dislocated. Peter was courageous enough to draw his sword to defend his Master. and raged more fiercely than ever. Manly courage is always dignified and graceful. with the reckless daring of an English boy. "Dent. said to his judge: "You are more a fraid to pronounce my sentence than I am to receive it. and rider in fragments into the air. so the greatest hero is a coward somewhere. "The driver of th e first wagon. but he could not stand the ridicule and the finger of scorn of the maidens in th e high priest's hall. landed his terrible cargo safely within. nothing lovable in fear." "To think a thing is impossible is to make it so. If that wire had been left there for a little time longer he would have gone dead lame." said Dent. with an orchard surrounded by a thick hedge. "Fear? " said the future admiral." said a rela tive who found the little boy Nelson wandering a long distance from home. For a instant the driver of the second wag on paused.It takes courage for a public man not to bend the knee to popular prejudice. surroundi ng the orchard with a wall of flame. but looked her tormentor calmly in the face and refused to adjure her faith. beaten back for the moment by the explosion. begging everybody's pardon for taking the liberty of being in the world. and he actually denied even the acquaintance of the Master he had declared he would die for. "I guess looking after your horse's legs can wait." "All right. Bruno. is the sublimest audacity the world has ever seen. which was so important a point in the British position that orders were given to hold it at any hazard or sacr ifice.

but a sound cure for al l diseases. Every day sends to the gr ave obscure men who have only remained in obscurity because their timidity has p revented them from making a first effort. Through the long subterranea n galleries they hurried in silence. what is your competitor bu t a man? Conquer your place in the world. and said to the sheriff: "'T is a sharp medicine. would in all probability have gone great lengths in the career of u sefulness and fame. the poor girl begged it of the authorities. not knowing but that they were advancing to a horrible death. if that ball were destined for you. fired the train anew. I beseech you ascribe it to my sickness rather than to myself. In a skirmish at Salamanca. "by falterers wh o ask for certainty. Does competition trouble you? work away." Don't waste time dreaming of obstacles you may never encounter. His him a fool for staying in a dark. he said: "This is warm work. as some of the bishops had omas More preferred death to dishonor. He and flogged four of the ringleaders under fire. But seconds. therefore. "No great deed is done. and began his s peech to the crowd by saying that during the last two days he had been visited b y two ague fits. They found the defect. and this day may be the last to any of us in a moment. Napoleon looked at him and smili ngly said: "My friend. yielded at once. After his head ha d been cut off and exhibited on a pole on London Bridge. had forsaken him. Com bat difficulty manfully. and he had determined to to his principles. for her death soon occurred. "If. But. and soon a terri ble upheaval of earth gave the signal to march to victory. though you were to bu rrow a hundred feet under ground it would be sure to find you there. When Sir Walter Raleigh came to the scaffold he was very faint. wi thout a sound from the mine. he c overed his face. and requested that it be buried in the coffin with her. minutes. if they could have been induc ed to begin. I would not be elsewhere for thousands." says George Eliot. filthy prison when he might erty by merely renouncing his doctrines. She remained true to her father when all others." When the mine in front of Petersburg was finished the fuse was lighted and the Union troops were drawn up ready to charge the enemy's works as soon as the expl osion should make a breach. endure poverty nobly. Execute your resolutions immediately. or in crossing bridges you have not reached. and th as if it were a review. and who. and tens of minutes passed. . The influence of the brave man is contagious a nd creates an epidemic of noble zeal in all about him. Thoughts are but dreams until their effec ts be tried. Her request was granted. while the enemy's guns were egiment. even her mother. To half will and to hang forever in the balance is to lose your grip on life. you perceive any weakness in me. remain loyal wife called have his lib done. At the battle of Copenhagen." After the great inward struggle was over. Sir William Napier's men became disobedient." He took the ax and kissed the blade. The men en marched three miles under a heavy cannonade as coolly pouring shot into his r at once ordered a halt. encou nter disappointment courageously. damp. But Th His daughter showed the power of love to drive away fear. for all things serve a brave soul. as Nelson walked the deck slippery with blood and covered with the dead. Thomas More walked cheerfully to the block. mark me.At the battle of Friedland a cannon-ball came over the heads of the French sold iers. Lieutenant Doughty and Sergeant Rees volunteered to examine the fuse. that those fighting might not know their chief had fallen. when he was shot and was being carried below. and a young soldier instinctively dodged. sustain misfortune bravely. " At the battle of Trafalgar. and the suspense became painful.

Butler went to the place where the crowd was most dense. said to the jury: "We will have a verdi ct by the help of God. and when other lawyers had refused. or a scaffold erec ted in front of his door." people would say. the recorde r. returned a verdict of "Not guilty." The rec order fined them forty marks apiece for their independence. it required no little courage to cast his fortune with the weaker side in polit ics. with little educa tion. derisive scorn. a man looked at him in surprise and said: "There goes a fi ne young fellow who has just ruined himself. you have murdered your superiors. and 'tis prosperous to be just: Then it is the brave ma n chooses. and thus imperil what small reputation he had gained." But in thus ruining himself Chase had taken the first important step in a career in which he became Governor of Oh io. Did Anna Dickins on leave the platform when the pistol bullets of the Molly Maguires flew about h er head? She silenced those pistols by her courage and her arguments. an d Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court. to issue the Emancipation Procla mation. after t wo days and two nights without food. What the world wants is a Knox. or a mob. give not away your right. overturned an ash barrel. What cared Christ for the jeers of the crowd? The palsied hand moved. which had already hanged several men to lamp-posts. Doubting in his abject spirit." "You are Englishmen. Lincoln would alw ays plead the cause of the unfortunate whenever an opportunity presented. the dead spake. "he's not afraid of any cause. not satisfied with the first verdict. a Garrison. fiends from hell. if it's right. Without waiting for his men.Abraham Lincoln's boyhood was one long struggle with poverty. and began: "Delegates from Five Points. stood upon it. while the coward stands aside. and found the streets thronged with an an gry mob. LOWELL. who dares to preach on with a musket leveled at his head." Then to side with Truth is noble when we share her wretched crust. and hisses? In him "at last the scornful world had met its match. who is not afraid of a jail. despite the ridicule and scoffs of the spectators. As Salmon P. Only the most sublime moral courage could have sustained him as President to hold his ground against hostile criticism and a long train of disaster. . At the trial of William Penn for having spoken at a Quaker meeting." At last the jury. Chase left the court room after an impassioned plea for the runawa y slave girl Matilda. or you shall starve for it. the leper was made whole." Were Beecher and Gough to be si lenced by the rude English mobs that came to extinguish them? No! they held thei r ground and compelled unwilling thousands to hear and to heed. Secretary of the United States Treasury. and no influential friends. when these hounded fugitives were seeking protectio n. Lincoln never shrank from espousing an unpopular cause when he believed it to b e right. he arrived in advance of his troops." said P enn. till hi s Lord is crucified. the blind saw. Ere her caus e bring fame and profit. When at last he had begun the practice of law. When General Butler was sent with nine thousand men to quell the New York riots ." and the bloodstained crowd quailed befo re the courageous words of a single man in a city which Mayor Fernando Wood coul d not restrain with the aid of police and militia. What cared Wendell Phillips for rotten eggs. United States Senator from Ohio. At the time when it almost cost a young lawyer his bread and butter to defend the fugitive slave. "mind your privileges. "Go to Lincoln. to support Grant and Stanton against the clamor of the politicians and t he press.

Nelson was a lieutenant in the British Navy before he was twenty. Men who have dared have moved the world. "Come and take them. Cowley." was the answer Leonidas sent back. even to the death. Charl emagne was master of France and Germany at thirty. published a volume of poems at fifteen. defeated three million men. and N apoleon was only twenty-seven when. "impossible is the adje ctive of fools!" The courageous man is an example to the intrepid. Luther was but twenty-nine when he nailed his famous thesis to the door of the bishop and defied the pope. had conquered the known world before dying at thirty-three. "Impossible!" thundered the great commander. At thirty-six." came the mes sage from Xerxes. De Quincey at eleven. Peel was in Parliament at twenty-one. and was a marvel of literary and scholarly ability. Be ali ke indifferent to censure or praise. who sleeps in Westm inster Abbey. Me n follow him. Equal courage and resolution are often shown by men who have passed the allotte d limit of life. Cortez w as the conqueror of Mexico. Shakespeare says: "He is not worthy of the honeycomb that shuns the hive becaus e the bees have stings. Begin! Begin! Begin!!! Whatever people may think of you." exclaimed the Spartans at Thermopylae. Julius Caesar captured eight hundred c ities. Clive had established the British pow er in India. the veteran marshals of Austria. Alexander." "The brave man is not he who feels no fear. Lafayette was made general of the whole French Army at twenty. one after another. he dealt an almost annihilating blow at the republic of Rome. and at twenty-four he was Lord of the Treasury. was only thirty when . His influence is magnetic. was sent at twenty-one as a n ambassador to treat with the French." replied a Lacedemonian.--PYTHAGORAS. on the plains of Italy." Many a bright youth has accomplished nothing of worth to himself or the world s imply because he did not dare to commence things. became a gre at orator and one of the greatest statesmen known. and still was a young man. when Napoleon gave directions for a d aring plan. the greatest of military commanders. For that were stupid and irrational . But he whose noble soul its fear subdues And bravely dares the danger nature s hrinks from. Hannibal. often before reaching the prime of lif e. Galileo was but eighteen when he saw the principle of the pendulum in the swing lamp in the cathedral at Pisa . conquered three hundred nations. Wa shington was appointed adjutant-general at nineteen. at Cannae. who ascended the throne at twenty. Robe rt Browning wrote at eleven poetry of no mean order." was the cool reply of Leonidas. Elizabeth Barrett Browning was proficient in Greek and Latin at twelve."Our enemies are before us. "Deliver your arms. he outgeneraled and defeated. Gladstone was in Parliament before he wa s twenty-two. "And we are before them. Gladstone ruled England with a strong hand at eighty-four. Victor Hugo and Wellington were both in their prime after they had reached the age of threescore years and ten. at thirty-two. He was but fo rty-seven when he received his death wound at Trafalgar. What wonder that a handful of such men checked the march of the greatest host that ever trod the earth! "It is impossible. It is astonishing what daring to begin and perseverance have enabled even you ths to achieve." "Then we will fight in the shade. do that which you believe to be right. . A Per sian soldier said: "You will not be able to see the sun for flying javelins and arrows. and won his first battle as a colonel at twenty-two." said a staff officer.

The next morning the garrison sallied out to attack their enemies. as bring the oc ean to the wall of Leyden for your relief. in New Yo rk City." was the derisive shout of the Spanis h soldiers when told that the Dutch fleet would raise that terrible four months' siege of 1574. but the besiegers had fled in terror under cover of the darkness. 9. and during the evening he drew the attention of Mr ." Nothing is impossible to the man who can will.--JOHN FOSTER. then a prominent statesman. m isfortune. CHAPTER XXXVIII THE WILL AND THE WAY "I will find a way or make one. When th e flowers bloomed the following spring. Can you believe it? He has the idea that he will one day be th e Emperor of France. " They began to demolish dike after dike of the strong lines. and poverty are battlefields which have their heroes. some of the most distinguished men in the country were invited. a joyous procession marched through the streets to found the University of Leyden. Gallatin. When a firm and decisive spirit is recognized. But ever. and a counter tempest bru shed the water.--MIRABEAU. And rally to a nobler strife the giants that had fled. it is curious to see how the spa ce clears around a man and leaves him room and freedom.--1 SAMUEL iv. "As well can the Prince of Orange pluck the stars from the sky. SHAKESPEARE. "Yes. and amo ng them was a young and rather melancholy and reticent Frenchman. But from the parched lips of William. Gallatin. The outer d ikes were replaced at once. There are noble and mysterious triumphs wh ich no eye sees. There are obstinate a nd unknown braves who defend themselves inch by inch in the shadows against the fatal invasion of want and turpitude. observing that his fore head indicated a great intellect. "there is a great deal in that head of his: but he has a strange fancy. Can you conceive anything more absurd than that?" ." replied Mr. at the residence of Chancellor Kent. will turn the tide of battle.I dare to do all that may become a man: Who dares do more is none. with the fleet upon it. and swept the fleet on the rising waters almost to the camp of the Spaniards. d auntlessly resolved. Life. tossing on his bed of feve r at Rotterdam. to the stranger. It was an enormous task . had issued the command: "Break down the dikes: give Holland back to ocean!" and the people had replied: "Better a drowned land than a lost land. The next day the wind changed. On the first and second of October a violent equinoctial gale rolled the ocean inland.--BULWER. Professor Mors e was also one of the guests. The iron will of one stout heart shall make a thousand quail: A feeble dwarf. At a dinner party given in 1837. in commemoration of the wonderful del iverance of the city. as o f old. For man's great actions are performed in minor struggles. Quit yourselves like men. and the besiegers laughed in scorn at the slow prog ress of the puny insects who sought to rule the waves of the sea. leaving the North Sea within its old bounds. Heaven aids those who help themselves.--VICTOR HUGO. abandonment. the garrison was starving.--TUPPER. ranged one within another for fifteen miles to their city of the interior. touching his own forehead with his finger. isolation. no renown rewards. and no flourish of trumpets salutes. from the surface of Holland. In the lexicon of youth which fate reserves for a bright manhood there is no su ch word as fail.

P. dreary year s of imprisonment. a way can be found or made. they are e ither not insurmountable or else not permanent. He was not scrupulous as to the means employed to accomplish his ends. There is scarcely anything in all biography grander than the saying of young He nry Fawcett. place sons o f the rich at the head of immense corporations and large houses. This is the kind of will that finds a way. Every schoolboy knows that circumstances do give clients to lawyers and patient s to physicians. was realized. long afterward. They have fought their way to triumph through all sorts of opposing obstacles." The true way to conquer circumstances is to be a greater circumstance yourself.--his dream of becoming Napoleon III. su ddenly losing the sight of both eyes and yet by mere pluck and almost incomprehe nsible tenacity of purpose. an exile from his country. or it will only lead us to ru n our heads against posts. before he accomplished his purpose there were long. and endurance. was Henry Fawcett. place ordinary clergymen in extraordinary pulpits. to his grief-stricken father. Not only had no woman ever held this position before.. We must not expect to overcome a stubborn fact merely by a stubborn will. he walked ten miles to deliver a single paper r ather than disappoint a customer. disaster. lifting himself into eminence in any direction. but in any direction we may reasonably hope and attempt to go we shall find that. The strong-willed. and that. Yet. led ever ywhere by a faithful daughter. intelligent. We must temper determination with discretio n." One of the most pathe tic sights in London streets. a Lincoln. who acted as amanuensis as well as guide to her p lucky father. scarcely on the threshold of active life. M. Does any one wonder that such a youth succeede d? Once he rose at two o'clock in the morning and walked to London to get some p apers because there was no post to bring them. He determined that his customers should not be disappointed. when they have ." began life as a ne wsdealer at Nottingham. may become a Bonaparte." says Milton. True. When Mr. in the nature of things. and support it with knowledge and common sense. or that any man.--the post of senior wran gler. but he gained hi s ambition at last. For the first time in the history of Oxford Coll ege. which reaches back centuries. "Circumstances. a Webster. the grander and more complete the success. such as Gladstone. and attra cted the attention of the whole civilized world. fathe r. This achievement had had no parallel in history up to that date. Gladstone's last Postmaster-General. a Beecher. Obstacles permane ntly insurmountable bar our progress in some directions. the g reater the will-power. persistent man will find or make a way where. strength. and patient labor and hope. his idea became a fact. who had put out both his eyes by birdshot during a game hunt: "Never mind. without fortune or powerful connections. publisher of the "Illustrated London News. for this reserved Frenchman was then a poor adventurer. yet he is a remarkable example of what pluck and energy can do. England. "have rarely favored famous men. a Pi tt. and yet. exile. while desiring to impress in the most forcible manner possible the fact th at will-power is necessary to success. Ingram. but with few exceptions it had only been held by men who in after life became highly distinguished. to s ay nothing of becoming one of the foremost men in a country noted for its great men! The courageous daughter who was eyes to her father was herself a marvelous exam ple of pluck and determination.It did seem absurd. blindness shall not interfere with my success in life. simply because he has an indomitable will. she succeeded in winning the post which had o nly been gained before by great men. as a rule. other things being equal. fourte en years later. We only have the right to assume that we can do anything wi thin the limit of our utmost faculty. we can not ind orse the theory that there is nothing in circumstances or environments. Think of a young man.

And grasps the skirts of happy chance. and large experience." "He who resolves upon any great end. that there are limitations in our very natures which no amount of will-power or industry can overcome. however strongly.--you must. who is ever on the alert for everything which can help him to . or some other requisite for success. that there are thousands of young men of superior ability. As Sha kespeare says:-Men at some time are masters of their fates. will find that idea." The indomitable will. "they lack will. which annihilates the sickly. those who have towered high above their fellows. In other words." says Goethe. by that very resolution has scaled the gre at barriers to it. when others about them are raised by money or family influenc e into desirable places.very ordinary ability and scarcely any experience. that won his victories. sentimental doctrin e of fatalism. that resolution. Disraeli said that man is not the creature of circumstances. and I will show you one who has some unfortunate crooked twist of temperament that in vites disaster. The fault. He will find it remov ing difficulties. both in the city and in the coun try. you ought. searching out. we all know that the best men do not al ways get the best places. Ther e is always room for a man of force. good character. yet that it is almost omnipotent. A nd breasts the blows of circumstance." says Victor Hugo. all history goes to prove. ent husiasm. Show me a man who according to popular prejudice is a victim of bad luck. but that circumsta nces are the creatures of men. while poor young men with unu sual ability. who keeps his ears open for every s ound that can help him on his way. But while it is true that the will-power can not perform miracles. the inflexible purpose. or trifling. and he who seizes the grand idea of self-cultivation." Nearly all great men. "He who has a firm will. giving courage for despondency . and can perform wonders. dear Brutus. Every one knows that there is not always a way where there is a will. that one can not always make anything of himsel f he chooses. and sol emnly resolves upon it. good education. Believe in the power of will. conceited. who seem to be compelled by circumstances to remain in very ordinary positi ons for small pay. But in ourselves." "People do not lack strength. Give me the man who faces what he must. is not in our stars. "Who breaks his birth's invidious bar. but can't. that there are things impossible even to h im that wills. who keeps his hands open that he may clutch e very opportunity. burning like fire within him. And grapples with his evil star. will find a way or make one. or making means. our salaries. "molds the world to himself. that we are underlings. Of Julius Caesar it was said by a contemporary that it was his activity and giant determination. ra ther than his military skill. but it is impossible. and ever putting him upon his own improvement. lacks character. He is ill-tempered. have bee n remarkable above all things else for their energy of will. often have t o fight their way for years to obtain even very mediocre situations. and strength for weakness. our station in life. circumstances do have a great deal to do with our posi tion. that labo r does not always conquer all things. The youth who starts out i n life determined to make the most of his eyes and let nothing escape him which he can possibly use for his own advancement.

" Lincoln is probably the most remarkable example on the pages of history. nothing can keep him from final success. and who became t he greatest of Biblical scholars. Success in life is dependent largely upon the will-power. send for him. tightening his apro n string "in lieu of a dinner. ruled France and then conquered Europe. See Locke. Napoleon was sent for. his enemies made fun of him. showin g the possibilities of our country. the discouragement of early bankruptcy. "I know a young officer who has the courage and ability to quell this mob. and walked to take his seat at Vandalia. Learn. If he has his health. See Thurlow Weed. to borrow a book to read before the sap-bush fire. liv ing on bread and water in a Dutch garret. subjugated the authorities. are mere rigmarole. defying poverty and wading through the snow two miles.get on in the world. sleeping many a night on a barn floor with only a book for his pillow. by every wind that blows. for they did not dare to trust their underlings. and he sometimes slept on the counter in the store where he wo rked." said they. like a withered leaf. with r ags for shoes. through pove . who made shoes in the almshouse. Paris was in the hands of a mob. From the poverty in which he was born. When making his campaign speeches he wore a mixed jean coat so short that he could not sit down on it. The world always stands aside for the determined man. send for him. He had to borrow money to buy a suit of clothes to make a respectable appe arance in the legislature. He who will pa y the price for victory need never fear final defeat. "It is not talent that men lack. and everything which may inspire him. who keeps his heart open that he may catch ev ery noble impulse. he laughed at the idea of his being a la wyer. etc." "Send for him.--one hundred miles. flax and to w-linen trousers. "but you can not defeat the determined mind of a peasant. it is the will to labor. the authorities were panic-stricken. He had nothing in the world bu t character and friends. wrote in his journal. He read law barefoot under the trees. throu gh the rowdyism of a frontier town. render himself almost anything he w ishes to become. he rose to the championship of union and f reedom. and pot-metal boots. and the fluctuations of popular politics. In came a man who said. and whatever weakens or impairs it diminishes success.--that youth will be sur e to make his life successful. hi s neighbors said. The will can be educated. "The general of a large army may be defeated. subjugated the m ob. See Heyne. When his friends suggested law to him." It was the insatiable thirst for knowledge which held to his task. thus fix your floating life. according to his opportunities and industry. Lincoln's will made his way. and that every man may. straw hat. came. and leave it no longer to be carried hither and thither." said Confucius. Kitto. See Samuel Drew. to will decisively and strong ly. When his friends nominated him as a candidate for the legislature. That which most easi ly becomes a habit in us is the will. who seizes every experience in life and grinds it up into p aint for his great life's picture. it is the purpose. deaf pauper. there are no "ifs" or "ands" about it. No tyranny of circumstances can permanently imprison a determined will. He said he had not brains enough. then. on the threshold of manh ood: "I am not myself a believer in impossibilities: I think that all the fine s tories about natural ability." History is full of such examples." The poor..

While undo ubtedly he was fortunate in happening to be at the right place at the right time . he determined to apply for it. Webster was very poor even after he entered Dartmouth College. a Scotch shepherd's son. yet he was precision. Walter Scott. and his thirsty soul would drink in the precious treasures from its pri celess volumes for hours." What seemed to be luck followed Stephen Girard all his life. there seemed to be nothing he would not do for money. who thought this one of the most remarkable illustrations of perseverance. short. He bought and sold anything. evidently thinking that he would never amount to anything. perfectly oblivious of the scanty meal of bread and wa ter which awaited him at his lowly lodging. Being a foreigner. an d he took his degree with honor. When he began business for himself in Philadelphia. mastering the art of navigation. but even peas a nd gravel-stones. At the age of eight he had first discovered that he was blind in one eye. accuracy. method. although he knew nothing whatever of medicine. and would not allow the slightest departure from them. but sent his young er brothers to college. would not help him to an education beyond that of mere reading and writing. unable to speak English." Carlyle said of him: "One would incline at sight to back him again st the world. A friend sent hi m a recipe for greasing his boots. and with a repulsive face. But he was not the m an to give up. attributed his great success to his luck. It seemed to him that an opportunity to get at books and lectures was all that any man could need. thi s poor shepherd boy with no chance had astonished the professors of Edinburgh by his knowledge of Greek and Latin. from which he made a good profit. especially his jealous brother merchants. he walked six or eight miles daily to learn to read. He never lost a ship. He was rigidly accura te in his instructions. Everybody. and many times that which brought financial ruin to many others. only increased his wealth. are models of foresight and systematic planning. He had begun as a cabin boy at thirteen. Everything he t ouched prospered. for they not only admit water. Webster wrote and thanked him. which was all the schooli ng he had. The discovery of his blindness. energy itself. and he sailed f or India. No matter what he did. John Leyden. because no man on earth could be as great a s he looked. His letters written to his captains in foreign ports. from groceries to old ju nk. Barefoot and alone . His plans and schemes were worked out with mathemati cal care.rty and discouragement. stout. as the War of 1812. What seemed luck with h . blind in one eye. He left nothing to chance. but nothing would daunt him. There were on ly six months before the place was to be filled." Yet he became one of the greatest men in the world. and for nine years saile d between Bordeaux and the French West Indies. His f ather. and added: "Bu t my boots needs other doctoring. yet they would cause loss in ninety-nine other cases. it was hard for him to get a start. Sydney Sm ith said: "Webster was a living lie. He never left anything of importance to others. Hearing that a surgeon's assistant in the Civil Service was wanted. and the chagrin of his brothers' advancement soured his whole life. He was rich when he discovered a little bo okstore. it always seemed to others to turn to his account. Before he was nineteen. He improved every leisure minute at sea. H e used to say that while his captains might save him money by deviating from ins tructions once. the neglect of his fathe r. laying out their routes and giving detailed instructions. His desire for an education defied the extremest poverty. he bottled wine and cider. and no obst acle could turn him from his purpose. Nothing could discourage him from tr ying to improve himself by study. helped to fit him out.

im was only good judgment and promptness in seizing opportunities, and the great est care and zeal in improving them to their utmost possibilities. The mathematician tells you that if you throw the dice, there are thirty chance s to one against your turning up a particular number, and a hundred to one again st your repeating the same throw three times in succession: and so on in an augm enting ratio. Many a young man who has read the story of John Wanamaker's romantic career has gained very little inspiration or help from it toward his own elevation and adv ancement, for he looks upon it as the result of good luck, chance, or fate. "Wha t a lucky fellow," he says to himself as he reads; "what a bonanza he fell into! " But a careful analysis of Wanamaker's life only enforces the same lesson taugh t by the analysis of most great lives, namely, that a good mother, a good consti tution, the habit of hard work, indomitable energy, determination which knows no defeat, decision which never wavers, a concentration which never scatters its f orces, courage which never falters, self-mastery which can say No, and stick to it, strict integrity and downright honesty, a cheerful disposition, unbounded en thusiasm in one's calling, and a high aim and noble purpose insure a very large measure of success. Youth should be taught that there is something in circumstances; that there is such a thing as a poor pedestrian happening to find no obstruction in his way, a nd reaching the goal when a better walker finds the drawbridge up, the street bl ockaded, and so fails to win the race; that wealth often does place unworthy son s in high positions; that family influence does gain a lawyer clients, a physici an patients, an ordinary scholar a good professorship; but that, on the other ha nd, position, clients, patients, professorships, managers' and superintendents' positions do not necessarily constitute success. He should be taught that in the long run, as a rule, the best man does win the best place, and that persistent merit does succeed. There is about as much chance of idleness and incapacity winning real success o r a high position in life, as there would be in producing a "Paradise Lost" by s haking up promiscuously the separate words of Webster's Dictionary, and letting them fall at random on the floor. Fortune smiles upon those who roll up their sl eeves and put their shoulders to the wheel; upon men who are not afraid of drear y, dry, irksome drudgery, men of nerve and grit who do not turn aside for dirt a nd detail. The youth should be taught that "he alone is great, who, by a life heroic, conq uers fate"; that "diligence is the mother of good luck"; that nine times out of ten what we call luck or fate is but a mere bugbear of the indolent, the languid , the purposeless, the careless, the indifferent; that, as a rule, the man who f ails does not see or seize his opportunity. Opportunity is coy, is swift, is gon e, before the slow, the unobservant, the indolent, or the careless can seize her :-"In idle wishes fools supinely stay: Be there a will and wisdom finds a way." It has been well said that the very reputation of being strong-willed, plucky, and indefatigable is of priceless value. It often cows enemies and dispels at th e start opposition to one's undertakings which would otherwise be formidable. It is astonishing what men who have come to their senses late in life have acco mplished by a sudden resolution. Arkwright was fifty years of age when he began to learn English grammar and imp rove his writing and spelling. Benjamin Franklin was past fifty before he began the study of science and philosophy. Milton, in his blindness, was past the age

of fifty when he sat down to complete his world-known epic, and Scott at fifty-f ive took up his pen to redeem a liability of $600,000. "Yet I am learning," said Michael Angelo, when threescore years and ten were past, and he had long attain ed the highest triumphs of his art. Even brains are second in importance to will. The vacillating man is always pus hed aside in the race of life. It is only the weak and vacillating who halt befo re adverse circumstances and obstacles. A man with an iron will, with a determin ation that nothing shall check his career, is sure, if he has perseverance and g rit, to succeed. We may not find time for what we would like, but what we long f or and strive for with all our strength, we usually approximate, if we do not fu lly reach. I wish it were possible to show the youth of America the great part that the wi ll might play in their success in life and in their happiness as well. The achie vements of will-power are simply beyond computation. Scarcely anything in reason seems impossible to the man who can will strong enough and long enough. How often we see this illustrated in the case of a young woman who suddenly bec omes conscious that she is plain and unattractive; who, by prodigious exercise o f her will and untiring industry, resolves to redeem herself from obscurity and commonness; and who not only makes up for her deficiencies, but elevates herself into a prominence and importance which mere personal attractions could never ha ve given her! Charlotte Cushman, without a charm of form or face, climbed to the very top of her profession. How many young men, stung by consciousness of physi cal deformity or mental deficiencies, have, by a strong, persistent exercise of will-power, raised themselves from mediocrity and placed themselves high above t hose who scorned them! History is full of examples of men and women who have redeemed themselves from disgrace, poverty, and misfortune by the firm resolution of an iron will. The co nsciousness of being looked upon as inferior, as incapable of accomplishing what others accomplish; the sensitiveness at being considered a dunce in school, has stung many a youth into a determination which has elevated him far above those who laughed at him, as in the case of Newton, of Adam Clark, of Sheridan, Wellin gton, Goldsmith, Dr. Chalmers, Curran, Disraeli and hundreds of others. It is men like Mirabeau, who "trample upon impossibilities"; like Napoleon, who do not wait for opportunities, but make them; like Grant, who has only "uncondi tional surrender" for the enemy, who change the very front of the world. "I can't, it is impossible," said a foiled lieutenant to Alexander. "Be gone," shouted the conquering Macedonian, "there is nothing impossible to him who will try." Were I called upon to express in a word the secret of so many failures among th ose who started out in life with high hopes, I should say unhesitatingly, they l acked will-power. They could not half will. What is a man without a will? He is like an engine without steam, a mere sport of chance, to be tossed about hither and thither, always at the mercy of those who have wills. I should call the stre ngth of will the test of a young man's possibilities. Can he will strong enough, and hold whatever he undertakes with an iron grip? It is the iron grip that tak es the strong hold on life. "The truest wisdom," said Napoleon, "is a resolute d etermination." An iron will without principle might produce a Napoleon; but with character it would make a Wellington or a Grant, untarnished by ambition or ava rice. "The undivided will 'Tis that compels the elements and wrings A human music fro m the indifferent air."

CHAPTER XXXIX ONE UNWAVERING AIM Life is an arrow--therefore you must know What mark to aim at, how to use the b ow-- Then draw it to the head and let it go. HENRY VAN DYKE. The important thing in life is to have a great aim, and to possess the aptitude and perseverance to attain it.--GOETHE. "A double-minded man is unstable in all his ways." Let every one ascertain his special business and calling, and then stick to it if he would be successful.--FRANKLIN. "Why do you lead such a solitary life?" asked a friend of Michael Angelo. "Art is a jealous mistress," replied the artist; "she requires the whole man." During his labors at the Sistine Chapel, according to Disraeli, he refused to meet any one, even at his own house. "This day we sailed westward, which was our course," were the simple but grand words which Columbus wrote in his journal day after day. Hope might rise and fal l, terror and dismay might seize upon the crew at the mysterious variations of t he compass, but Columbus, unappalled, pushed due west and nightly added to his r ecord the above words. "Cut an inch deeper," said a member of the Old Guard to the surgeon probing his wound, "and you will find the Emperor,"--meaning his heart. By the marvelous po wer of concentrated purpose Napoleon had left his name on the very stones of the capital, had burned it indelibly into the heart of every Frenchman, and had lef t it written in living letters all over Europe. France to-day has not shaken off the spell of that name. In the fair city on the Seine the mystic "N" confronts you everywhere. Oh, the power of a great purpose to work miracles! It has changed the face of t he world. Napoleon knew that there were plenty of great men in France, but they did not know the might of the unwavering aim by which he was changing the destin ies of Europe. He saw that what was called the "balance of power" was only an id le dream; that, unless some master-mind could be found which was a match for eve nts, the millions would rule in anarchy. His iron will grasped the situation; an d like William Pitt, he did not loiter around balancing the probabilities of fai lure or success, or dally with his purpose. There was no turning to the right no r to the left; no dreaming away time, nor building air-castles; but one look and purpose, forward, upward and onward, straight to his goal. His great success in war was due largely to his definiteness of aim. He always hit the bull's-eye. H e was like a great burning-glass, concentrating the rays of the sun upon a singl e spot; he burned a hole wherever he went. After finding the weak place in the e nemy's ranks, he would mass his men and hurl them like an avalanche upon the cri tical point, crowding volley upon volley, charge upon charge, till he made a bre ach. What a lesson of the power concentration there is in this man's life! To succeed to-day a man must concentrate all the faculties of his mind upon one unwavering aim, and have a tenacity of purpose which means death or victory. Ev ery other inclination which tempts him from his aim must be suppressed. A man may starve on a dozen half-learned trades or occupations; he may grow ric h and famous upon one trade thoroughly mastered, even though it be the humblest. Even Gladstone, with his ponderous yet active brain, said he could not do two t hings at once; he threw his entire strength upon whatever he did. The intensest

energy characterized everything he undertook, even his recreation. If such conce ntration of energy is necessary for the success of a Gladstone, what can we comm on mortals hope to accomplish by "scatteration"? All great men have been noted for their power of concentration which makes them oblivious of everything outside their aim. Victor Hugo wrote his "Notre Dame" d uring the revolution of 1830, while the bullets were whistling across his garden . He shut himself up in one room, locking his clothes up in another, lest they s hould tempt him to go out into the street, and spent most of that winter wrapped in a big gray comforter, pouring his very life into his work. Abraham Lincoln possessed such power of concentration that he could repeat quit e correctly a sermon to which he had listened in his boyhood. A New York sportsman, in answer to an advertisement, sent twenty-five cents for a sure receipt to prevent a shotgun from scattering, and received the following : "Dear Sir: To keep a gun from scattering put in but a single shot." It is the men who do one thing in this world who come to the front. Who is the favorite actor? It is a Jefferson, who devotes a lifetime to a "Rip Van Winkle," a Booth, an Irving, a Kean, who plays one character until he can play it better than any other man living, and not the shallow players who impersonate all part s. The great man is the one who never steps outside of his specialty or dissipat es his individuality. It is an Edison, a Morse, a Bell, a Howe, a Stephenson, a Watt. It is an Adam Smith, spending ten years on the "Wealth of Nations." It is a Gibbon, giving twenty years to his "Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire." It is a Hume, writing thirteen hours a day on his "History of England." It is a Web ster, spending thirty-six years on his dictionary. It is a Bancroft, working twe nty-six years on his "History of the United States." It is a Field, crossing the ocean fifty times to lay a cable, while the world ridicules. It is a Newton, wr iting his "Chronology of Ancient Nations" sixteen times. A one-talent man who decides upon a definite object accomplishes more than a te n-talent man who scatters his energies and never knows exactly what he will do. The weakest living creature, by concentrating his powers upon one thing, can acc omplish something; the strongest, by dispersing his over many, may fail to accom plish anything. A great purpose is cumulative; and, like a great magnet, it attracts all that i s kindred along the stream of life. [Illustration: Joseph Jefferson] A Yankee can splice a rope in many different ways; an English sailor only knows one way, but that is the best one. It is the one-sided man, the sharp-eyed man, the man of single and intense purpose, the man of one idea, who cuts his way th rough obstacles and forges to the front. The time has gone forever when a Bacon can span universal knowledge; or when, absorbing all the knowledge of the times, a Dante can sustain arguments against fourteen disputants in the University of Paris, and conquer in them all. The day when a man can successfully drive a doze n callings abreast is a thing of the past. Concentration is the keynote of the c entury. Scientists estimate that there is energy enough in less than fifty acres of sun shine to run all the machinery in the world, if it could be concentrated. But th e sun might blaze out upon the earth forever without setting anything on fire; a lthough these rays focused by a burning-glass would melt solid granite, or even change a diamond into vapor. There are plenty of men who have ability enough; th e rays of their faculties, taken separately, are all right, but they are powerle ss to collect them, to bring them all to bear upon a single spot. Versatile men,

universal geniuses, are usually weak, because they have no power to concentrate their talents upon one point, and this makes all the difference between success and failure. Chiseled upon the tomb of a disappointed, heart-broken king, Joseph II. of Aust ria, in the Royal Cemetery at Vienna, a traveler tells us, is this epitaph: "Her e lies a monarch who, with the best of intentions, never carried out a single pl an." Sir James Mackintosh was a man of remarkable ability. He excited in every one w ho knew him the greatest expectations. Many watched his career with much interes t, expecting that he would dazzle the world; but there was no purpose in his lif e. He had intermittent attacks of enthusiasm for doing great things, but his zea l all evaporated before he could decide what to do. This fatal defect in his cha racter kept him balancing between conflicting motives; and his whole life was al most thrown away. He lacked power to choose one object and persevere with a sing le aim, sacrificing every interfering inclination. He, for instance, vacillated for weeks trying to determine whether to use "usefulness" or "utility" in a comp osition. One talent utilized in a single direction will do infinitely more than ten tale nts scattered. A thimbleful of powder behind a ball in a rifle will do more exec ution than a carload of powder unconfined. The rifle-barrel is the purpose that gives direct aim to the powder, which otherwise, no matter how good it might be, would be powerless. The poorest scholar in school or college often, in practica l life, far outstrips the class leader or senior wrangler, simply because what l ittle ability he has he employs for a definite object, while the other, dependin g upon his general ability and brilliant prospects, never concentrates his power s. It is fashionable to ridicule the man of one idea, but the men who have changed the front of the world have been men of a single aim. No man can make his mark on this age of specialties who is not a man of one idea, one supreme air, one ma ster passion. The man who would make himself felt on this bustling planet, who w ould make a breach in the compact conservatism of our civilization, must play al l his guns on one point. A wavering aim, a faltering purpose, has no place in th e twentieth century. "Mental shiftlessness" is the cause of many a failure. The world is full of unsuccessful men who spend their lives letting empty buckets do wn into empty wells. "Mr. A. often laughs at me," said a young American chemist, "because I have but one idea. He talks about everything, aims to excel in many things; but I have l earned that, if I ever wish to make a breach, I must play my guns continually up on one point." This great chemist, when an obscure schoolmaster, used to study b y the light of a pine knot in a log cabin. Not many years later he was performin g experiments in electro-magnetism before English earls, and subsequently he was at the head of one of the largest scientific institutes of this country. He was the late Professor Henry, of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington. We should guard against a talent which we can not hope to practise in perfectio n, says Goethe. Improve it as we may, we shall always, in the end, when the meri t of the matter has become apparent to us, painfully lament the loss of time and strength devoted to such botching. An old proverb says: "The master of one trad e will support a wife and seven children, and the master of seven will not suppo rt himself." It is the single aim that wins. history. They do not focus their y into the roll of honor. Edward ppointed the expectations of his Men with monopolizing ambitions rarely live in powers long enough to burn their names indelibl Everett, even with his magnificent powers, disa friends. He spread himself over the whole field

of knowledge and elegant culture; but the mention of the name of Everett does n ot call up any one great achievement as does that of names like Garrison and Phi llips. Voltaire called the Frenchman La Harpe an oven which was always heating, but which never cooked anything. Hartley Coleridge was splendidly endowed with t alent, but there was one fatal lack in his character--he had no definite purpose , and his life was a failure. Unstable as water, he could not excel. Southey, th e uncle of Coleridge, says of him: "Coleridge has two left hands." He was so mor bidly shy from living alone in his dreamland that he could not open a letter wit hout trembling. He would often rally from his purposeless life, and resolve to r edeem himself from the oblivion he saw staring him in the face; but, like Sir Ja mes Mackintosh, he remained a man of promise merely to the end of his life. The man who succeeds has a program. He fires his course and adheres to it. He l ays his plans and executes them. He goes straight to his goal. He is not pushed this way and that every time a difficulty is thrown in his path; if he can not g et over it he goes through it. Constant and steady use of the faculties under a central purpose gives strength and power, while the use of faculties without an aim or end only weakens them. The mind must be focused on a definite end, or, li ke machinery without a balance-wheel, it will rack itself to pieces. This age of concentration men, not for geniuses, not to do one thing as well as f his soldiers better than calls, not for educated men merely, not for talented for jacks-of-all-trades, but for men who are trained it can be done. Napoleon could go through the drill o any one of his men.

Stick to your aim. The constant changing of one's occupation is fatal to all su ccess. After a young man has spent five or six years in a dry goods store, he co ncludes that he would rather sell groceries, thereby throwing away five years of valuable experience which will be of very little use to him in the grocery busi ness; and so he spends a large part of his life drifting around from one kind of employment to another, learning part of each but all of none, forgetting that e xperience is worth more to him than money and that the years devoted to learning his trade or occupation are the most valuable. Half-learned trades, no matter i f a man has twenty, will never give him a good living, much less a competency, w hile wealth is absolutely out of the question. How many young men fail to reach the point of efficiency in one line of work be fore they get discouraged and venture into something else! How easy to see the t horns in one's own profession or vocation, and only the roses in that of another ! A young man in business, for instance, seeing a physician riding about town in his carriage, visiting his patients, imagines that a doctor must have an easy, ideal life, and wonders that he himself should have embarked in an occupation so full of disagreeable drudgery and hardships. He does not know of the years of d ry, tedious study which the physician has consumed, the months and perhaps years of waiting for patients, the dry detail of anatomy, the endless names of drugs and technical terms. There is a sense of great power in a vocation after a man has reached the point of efficiency in it, the point of productiveness, the point where his skill beg ins to tell and brings in returns. Up to this point of efficiency, while he is l earning his trade, the time seems to have been almost thrown away. But he has be en storing up a vast reserve of knowledge of detail, laying foundations, forming his acquaintances, gaining his reputation for truthfulness, trustworthiness, an d integrity, and in establishing his credit. When he reaches this point of effic iency, all the knowledge and skill, character, influence, and credit thus gained come to his aid, and he soon finds that in what seemed almost thrown away lies the secret of his prosperity. The credit he established as a clerk, the confiden ce, the integrity, the friendships formed, he finds equal to a large capital whe n he starts out for himself and takes the highway to fortune; while the young ma n who half learned several trades, got discouraged and stopped just short of the

point of efficiency, just this side of success, is a failure because he didn't go far enough; he did not press on to the point at which his acquisition would h ave been profitable. In spite of the fact that nearly all very successful men have made a life-work of one thing, we see on every hand hundreds of young men and women flitting abou t from occupation to occupation, trade to trade, in one thing to-day and another to-morrow,--just as though they could go from one thing to another by turning a switch, as though they could run as well on another track as on the one they ha ve left, regardless of the fact that no two careers have the same gage, that eve ry man builds his own road upon which another man's engine can not run either wi th speed or safety. This fickleness, this disposition to shift about from one oc cupation to another, seems to be peculiar to American life, so much so that, whe n a young man meets a friend whom he has not seen for some time, the commonest q uestion to ask is, "What are you doing now?" showing the improbability or uncert ainty that he is doing to-day what he was doing when they last met. Some people think that if they "keep everlastingly at it" they will succeed, bu t this is not always so. Working without a plan is as foolish as going to sea wi thout a compass. A ship which has broken its rudder in mid-ocean may "keep everlastingly at it," may keep on a full head of steam, driving about all the time, but it never arri ves anywhere, it never reaches any port unless by accident; and if it does find a haven, its cargo may not be suited to the people, the climate, or conditions. The ship must be directed to a definite port, for which its cargo is adapted, an d where there is a demand for it, and it must aim steadily for that port through sunshine and storm, through tempest and fog. So a man who would succeed must no t drift about rudderless on the ocean of life. He must not only steer straight t oward his destined port when the ocean is smooth, when the currents and winds se rve, but he must keep his course in the very teeth of the wind and the tempest, and even when enveloped in the fogs of disappointment and mists of opposition. A tlantic liners do not stop for fogs or storms; they plow straight through the ro ugh seas with only one thing in view, their destined port, and no matter what th e weather is, no matter what obstacles they encounter, their arrival in port can be predicted to within a few hours. On the prairies of South America there grows a flower that always inclines in t he same direction. If a traveler loses his way and has neither compass nor chart , by turning to this flower he will find a guide on which he can implicitly rely ; for no matter how the rains descend or the winds blow, its leaves point to the north. So there are many men whose purposes are so well known, whose aims are s o constant, that no matter what difficulties they may encounter, or what opposit ion they may meet, you can tell almost to a certainty where they will come out. They may be delayed by head winds and counter currents, but they will always hea d for the port and will steer straight towards the harbor. You know to a certain ty that whatever else they may lose, they will not lose their compass or rudder. Whatever may happen to a man of this stamp, even though his sails may be swept away and his mast stripped to the deck, though he may be wrecked by the storms o f life, the needle of his compass will still point to the North Star of his hope . Whatever comes, his life will not be purposeless. Even a wreck that makes its port is a greater success than a full-rigged ship with all its sails flying, wit h every mast and every rope intact, which merely drifts along into an accidental harbor. To fix a wandering life and give it direction is not an easy task, but a life w hich has no definite aim is sure to be frittered away in empty and purposeless d reams. "Listless triflers," "busy idlers," "purposeless busy-bodies," are seen e verywhere. A healthy, definite purpose is a remedy for a thousand ills which att

end aimless lives. Discontent and dissatisfaction flee before a definite purpose . What we do begrudgingly without a purpose becomes a delight with one, and no w ork is well done nor healthily done which is not enthusiastically done. Mere energy is not enough; it must be concentrated on some steady, unwavering a im. What is more common than "unsuccessful geniuses," or failures with "commandi ng talents"? Indeed, the term "unrewarded genius" has become a proverb. Every to wn has unsuccessful educated and talented men. But education is of no value, tal ent is worthless, unless it can do something, achieve something. Men who can do something at everything and a very little at anything are not wanted in this age . What this age wants is young men and women who can do one thing without losing their identity or individuality, or becoming narrow, cramped, or dwarfed. Nothin g can take the place of an all-absorbing purpose; education can not, genius can not, talent can not, industry can not, will-power can not. The purposeless life must ever be a failure. What good are powers, faculties, unless we can use them for a purpose? What good would a chest of tools do a carpenter unless he could u se them? A college education, a head full of knowledge, are worth little to the men who cannot use them to some definite end. The man without a purpose never leaves his mark upon the world. He has no indiv iduality; he is absorbed in the mass, lost in the crowd, weak, wavering, and inc ompetent. "Consider, my lord," said Rowland Hill to the Prime Minister of England, "that a letter to Ireland and the answer back would cost thousands upon thousands of m y affectionate countrymen more than a fifth of their week's wages. If you shut t he post-office to them, which you do now, you shut out warm hearts and generous affections from home, kindred, and friends." The lad learned that it cost to car ry a letter from London to Edinburgh, four hundred and four miles, one eighteent h of a cent, while the government charged for a simple folded sheet of paper twe nty-eight cents, and twice as much if there was the smallest inclosure. Against the opposition and contempt of the post-office department he at length carried h is point, and on January 10, 1840, penny postage was established throughout Grea t Britain. Mr. Hill was chosen to introduce the system, at a salary of fifteen h undred pounds a year. His success was most encouraging, but at the end of two ye ars a Tory minister dismissed him without paying for his services, as agreed. Th e public was indignant, and at once contributed sixty-five thousand dollars; and , at the request of Queen Victoria, Parliament voted him one hundred thousand do llars cash, together with ten thousand dollars a year for life. It is a great purpose which gives meaning to life; it unifies all our powers, b inds them together in one cable and makes strong and united what was weak, separ ated, scattered. "Smatterers" are weak and superficial. Of what use is a man who knows a little of everything and not much of anything? It is the momentum of constantly repeate d acts that tells the story. "Let thine eyes look straight before thee. Ponder t he path of thy feet and let all thy ways be established. Turn not to the right h and nor to the left." One great secret of St. Paul's power lay in his strong pur pose. Nothing could daunt, nothing intimidate him. The Roman Emperor could not m uzzle him, the dungeon could not appall him, no prison suppress him, obstacles c ould not discourage him. "This one thing I do" was written all over his work. Th e quenchless zeal of his mighty purpose burned its way down through the centurie s, and its contagion will never cease to fire the hearts of men. "Try and come home somebody," said his mother to Gambetta as she sent him off t o Paris to school. Poverty pinched this lad hard in his little garret study and his clothes were shabby, but what of that? He had made up his mind to get on in

and when the Prussian army was marching on Paris. There is no grander sight in the world than that of a young man fired with a gr eat purpose. He still lived in the upper room in the musty Latin Qua rter. Jules Favre was to plead a great cause on a certain day. today. dangers only increase his courage. For years he was chained to his desk and worked like a hero. he never turn s his eye from his goal.the world. though he might easily have made himself a millionaire. poverty. disaster. as though they were but stepping-stones! Defeat. and remained a poor man. the world stan ds to one side and lets him pass. For many years Gambetta had been preparing for such an opportu nity. landed in Amiens. it would onl y have made him ridiculous. He does not have one-half the opposition to overcome that the undecided. and directed their military operatio ns. Nor did he lose his head in h is quick leap into fame. even in dissolute lives. and resolved to make his mark in the world. absolutely unknown. being ill. He is bound to win. A German officer said: "This colossal energy is the most remarkable event of modern history. At last his opportunity came. and by almost superhuman skill raised three armies of 8 00. for he lo ved our country. although but thirty-two years old. which shows none of its inherent beauties until the skill of the polisher sketches out the c . runs against all sorts of snags to which he must yield simply because he has no momentum to force them out of his way. he was suddenly weaned from dissip ation.000 men.--H. t o take his place. and the great Republ ican leader! When Louis Napoleon had been defeated at Sedan and had delivered his sword to W illiam of Prussia. rough and uncouth. This sudden rise was not due to luck or accide nt. When he died the "Figaro" said. opposition only doubles his exertions. What a stride. in the city of Marseilles. he chose this young man. and surmounting obstacles which dishearten others . deputy-elect. provided for their maintenance. without stain of dishonor. neutrum capit. P . and will carry down Gambetta's name to remote posterity. Had he not been equal to it. What a striking example of the great reserve of personal power. p urposeless man has who. He made one of the greatest speeches that up to th at time had ever been made in France. living i n a garret. That night all the papers in Paris were so unding the praises of this ragged. was now virtually dicta tor of France. the brave G ambetta went out of the besieged city in a balloon barely grazed by the Prussian guns. "The Republic has lost its greatest man. LIDDON." CHAPTER XL WORK AND WAIT What we do upon some great occasion will probably depend on what we already are . "Duos qui sequitur lepores. b ut. dominated by one unwavering aim. yesterday. only gives him new power. is somet imes called out by a great emergency or sudden sorrow." This youth who was poring over his books in an attic while other youths were promenad ing the Champs Elysées. and what we are will be the result of previous years of self-discipline. it always makes way for the man with a will in him. like driftwood. No matter what comes to him. W hat a sublime spectacle it is to see a youth going straight to his goal. like a gymnasium. sickness. and ever after leads the life to victory! When Gambetta found that his first speech had electrified all F rance. and took our Republic as the pattern for France. I consider a human soul without education like marble in a quarry. cutting his way through difficulties. poor and unknown." American boys should study this great man. and the greatest orator in the Republic. and soon all France recogni zed him as the Republican leader. and he was equal to it. uncouth Bohemian. which. his great reserve rushed to the front. He had been steadfastly working and fighting his way up against oppositions and poverty for just such an occasion.

an ore rich in carbon. and then addi ng enough spiegel-eisen (looking-glass iron). and do more work with less effort.--CHARLES KINGSLEY. As a result his system of perforation was abandoned and he was deprived of his promised office. which has revolutionized the iron industry through out the world. but. "Yes. So he o ffered Bessemer a definite sum for his process of perforation. Use your gifts faithfully. without compensation. And the same little word. The chief also fully appreciated the new danger of easy counterfeiting. and promptly suggested the improvement at the stamp office.--SENECA.00 0 pounds a year. by keepin g out of the ponderous minds of the British revenue officers. and of no special importance if we omit a single word of four letters. His method consists simply in forcing hot air from below into sev eral tons of melted pig-iron. . of the idea conveyed by that little insignificant word. He discovered this simple process only after trying in vain much more difficult and expensive methods. speaking of his arrival in London in 1831. he at once entered in to a partnership which placed at his command the combined ideas of two very leve l heads. like the schoolboy's pins which saved the lives of th ousands of people annually by not getting swallowed. He felt proud of the young woman's ingenuity. but. Although but eighteen years old. would render Bessemer's perforation device of far less value than a last year's bird' s nest. His method was so simple that o ne could learn in ten minutes how to make a die from an embossed stamp for a pen ny." This was a very short speech. Bessemer chose the office. In explaining his invention." said Henry Bessemer . he soon made work for himself by inventin g a process of copying bas-reliefs on cardboard. the government coolly making use from that day to this. "I understand that. to change t he whole mass to steel. but. and you shall attain to higher knowledge. surely. Haste trips up its own heels. Having ascertained later that in this way the raised stamps on all official papers in England could easily be forged. realizing tha t the best capital a young man can have is a capital wife. and discovers every ornamental cloud. The result. he set to work and invented a perforat ed stamp which could not be forged nor removed from a document. fetters and stops itself. practise what you know.--ADDISON. At the public st amp office he was told by the chief that the government was losing 100." said his betrothed. after years of thought and experiment. The more you know. that little word. and vein that runs throughout the body of it. was the Bessemer pro cess of making steel cheaply. spot. or an office for life at eight hundred pounds a year. if all stamps had a date put upon them they could not at a future time be used without detection.olors. makes the surface shine. an d without an acquaintance in the city. So Bessemer's financial prospects were not very encouraging. if published in its connection.--ARNOLD. and they shall be enlarged. and hastened to tell the good news to a young woman with whom he had agreed to share his fortune . he told how it would prevent any one from taking a valuable stamp from a document a hundred years old and using it a second time.000 pound s a year through the custom of removing stamps from old parchments and using the m again. had for a long per iod saved the government the burden of caring for an additional income of 100. "I was a mere cipher in that vast sea of human enterprise. the more you can save yourself and that which belongs to you . so as to produce intense combustion.

se minary."All things come round to him who will but wait. The boy can't wait to become a youth. deep foundations. of course t hey do poor. At length he managed to get it into "Fraser's Magazine." Not long ago a professor in one of our universities had a letter from a young w oman in the West. "Can't wait" is characteristic of the century. Moore spent several weeks on one of his musical stanzas which rea ds as if it were a dash of genius. and fai thfulness will shorten the way. Only one . Our young people of to-d ay are not willing to lay broad. so that every sentence i s the quintessence of many books. feverish work. Johnson said a man must turn over half a library to write one book. Can't wait for a high school. and many die of old a ge in the forties. The shifts to cover up ignorance. and then they are read y for business. or taste not the Pierian sp ring: There shallow draughts intoxicate the brain. "Sartor Resartus" is everywhere. a little smattering of books. Hard work. on commerce. Don't risk a life's superstructure upon a day's foundation. Short cuts and abridged methods a re the demand of the hour.-A little learning is a dangerous thing. You can get it for a mere trifle at almost any bookseller's. the product of many hours of drudging research in the great libraries. but they were respectfully declined. on schools. Patience is Nature's motto. When an aut horess told Wordsworth she had spent six hours on a poem. Buildings are rushed up so quickly t hat they will not stand. They only want a "smattering" of an educat ion. Think of Bishop Hall spending thirty years on one of hi s works! Owens was working on the "Commentary to the Epistle to the Hebrews" for twenty years. out of them she has been carving her great statue. and consigned the young poet to temporary oblivion. How seldom you find a young man or woman who is willing to take time to prepare for his life work! A little education is all they want. But the way to shorten the road to success is to take plenty of time to lay in your reserve power. The publi shers of the "Atlantic Monthly" returned Miss Alcott's manuscript. a perfect man. he replied that he wou ld have spent six weeks. One of the leading magazines ridiculed Tenn yson's first poems. or college. Today. and "the constant trembling lest some blunder should expose one's emptiness. And drinking largely sobers u s again. The weary years in preparator y school and college dishearten them." Henry Ward Beecher sent half a dozen articles to the publisher of a religious p aper to pay for his subscription. a definite aim." are pitiable. But when Carlyle brought it to London in 1851. and hundreds of thousands of copie s are scattered over the world. She works ages to bring a flower to perfection. and break down in middle life. Carlyle wrote with the utmost difficulty and never executed a page of his great histories till he had consulted every known authority. asking him if he did not think she could teach elocution if sh e could come to the university and take twelve lessons. i t was refused almost contemptuously by three prominent publishers. on churches." The great lack of the age is want of thoroughness. and everything is made "to sell." the editor of which conveyed to the author the pleasing information that his work had been received with "unqualifie d disapprobation. But as Pope says. Wha t will she not do for the greatest of her creation? Ages and aeons are nothing t o her. suggesting th at she had better stick to teaching. nor the youth a man. Y outh rush into business with no great reserve of education or drill. Drink deep. on society. Everybody is in a hurry. and is written on everything.

to obtain authorities and precedents in a case in which his client was a po or blacksmith. Washington Irving was n early seventy years old before the income from his books paid the expenses of hi s household. To-day very few boys learn any trade. "But it took you only five minutes." without any effort to see how much he may lear n on any subject. in a quarter of that time. In some respects it is very unfortunate that the old system of binding boys out to a trade has been abandoned. when denounced by his brother generals and politicians everywhere. a Thurlow Weed. A rich man asked Howard Burnett to do a little something for his album. As he followed the trail to Pike's Peak. It wants men who can work and wait. whe ther the world applaud or hiss. walking two miles through the snow with rags tied around his feet for shoes. lest his pencil might catch the taint of avarice." "Very well. Years after. a Michael Angelo. a Mirabeau. a n intricate question of title. as they go along." he replied. a Farragut. he gazed in wonder upon the en ormous herds of buffaloes which dotted the plains as far as the eye could reach. a Milton. "Yes. He won his case. to sculpture an Apollo Bel videre. nor hunger could discourage or intimidate. Think of an American youth spending ten years with Da Vinci on the model of an equestrian statue that he might master the anatomy of the horse! Most young Amer ican artists would expect. He saw in a moment that it was just like the blacksmith's case. just as a student crams for a particular ex amination. men whom neither pove rty." refusing all remuneration therefo r. "I never heard of your case till this evening. on ly charged fifteen dollars. Albert Bierstadt first crossed the Rocky Mountains with a band of pioneers in 1 859. and then ordered at an expense of fifty dollars the necessary bo oks. on account of the poverty of his client. and. The thought haunted him and found its final embodiment in "The Last . Webster received a fee that paid him liberally for all the time and trouble he had spent for his early client. who can struggle on for forty years before he has a chance to show the world his vast reserve." said Burr. not daunted by privations. struggling on cheerfully after his "Vanity Fair" was refused by a dozen pub lishers. and thought of the time when they would have disappeared before the march of ci vilization. working seven long years decorating the Sistine Chapel with his matchless "Creation" and the "Last Judgment. but it took me thirty years to learn how to do it in five minutes. "Most certainly not. a Grant. when he had finished. a Thacke ray. who have the persistence to work and wait for half a century for their first great opportunities. toiling and waiting in a lonely garret. a Von Moltke. destined to shake an empire. Going back to the time of Charles II he gave the law and precedents involved with such readiness and accuracy of sequence that Burr asked in great surprise if he had been consulted before in th e case. to borrow the history of the French Revolution. making sketches for the paintings of Western scenes for which he had become famous. a Balzac. debt. but. thus losing heavily on the books bought. which he had solved so thoroughly that it was to him now as simple as the multiplication table. and eagerly devouring it before the sap-bush f ire. to say noth ing of his time." What the age wants is men who have the nerve and the grit to work and wait. Burnett complied and charged a thousand francs. They pick up what they know. as he was passing through New York City.of Ralph Waldo Emerson's books had a remunerative sale. he was co nsulted by Aaron Burr on an important but puzzling case then pending before the Supreme Court. When a young lawyer Daniel Webster once looked in vain through all the law libr aries near him. just to "get through." ob jected the rich man. not hindered by discouragements. elaborating "Paradise Lost" in a world he could not see. "proceed". fighting on in hero ic silence.

Byron fainted. in order to gain a hold by which the tree was anch ored to withstand the storms of centuries. He laid no claim whatever to genius." Patience. which enables it to stand upright." was the reply. In Rome the foundation is often the most expensive part of an edifice." A learned clergyman was thus accosted by an illiterate preacher who despised ed ucation: "Sir. you have been to college. true to the plumb-line through all the tempests that lash its granite sides. As the great actor went on to delineate the terrible conseque nces of sin. The pianist Thalberg said he never ventured to perform one of his celebrated pi eces in public until he had played it at least fifteen hundred times. The giant oak on the hillside was detained months or years in its upward growth while its root took a great turn around some rock. would put to shame many a man wh o claims genius. Everything which endures." said a wealthy banker who had begun without a dollar. said he never looked upon so fearful and wicked a face. sir. and had come to say good-by. changes the mulberry leaf to satin. A chart is made out which sho ws just what must be done in the case of wars with the different nations. There is a schedule of trains which will supersede all other schedules the moment war is declared." said the President . "I am thankful.of the Buffaloes" in 1890. studying expression for a year and a half. When he appeared upon the sta ge. howev er noble." Endurance is a much better test of character than any one act of heroism. which will stand the test of time. "and often I did not leave it for fifteen or eighte en hours. must have a deep. A large part of every successful life must be spent in laying foundation stones underground. "happened in Balaam's time. Byron." "A similar event. The Gentleman Villain. such perseverance. solid foundation. Da Vinci spent four years on the head of Mona Lisa. so deep must they dig to build on the living rock. "For years I was in my place of business by sunrise. unseen and unappreciated by those who tread about that historic shaft. I presume?" "Yes. and this is so arranged that the commander of the army here could telegraph to any officer to take such a train and go to such a place at a moment's notice." retorted the clergyman. "Indeed. it is said. "that the Lord opened my mouth without any lea rning. The accom plishments of such industry. "I have just begun my education. perhaps the most beautiful ever painted." A young man just graduated told the President of Trinity College that he had co mpleted his education. Said Captain Bingham: "You can have no idea of the wonderful machine that the G erman army is and how well it is prepared for war. but he left therein an a rtistic thought for all time. To perfect this great work he had spent twenty years. apparentl y thrown away. Before Edmund Kean would consent to appear in that character which he acted wit h such consummate skill. Fifty feet of Bunker Hill Monument is under ground. he said it was all a question of hard work. who went with Moore to see him." Many an extraordinary man has been made out of a very ordinary boy: but in orde r to accomplish this we must begin with him while he is young." said the former. he practised constantly before a glass. but it is this foundation. Success is the child of drudgery and perseverance and depends upon "knowing how long it takes to suc ceed. It is simply asto . and ev ery officer's place in the scheme is laid out beforehand.

I can see the result. Although he had spent many years of preparation for his life work. But he had an unquenchable thirst for knowledge and a determination to get on in the world. every opportunity. yet he decided to make him self master of the situation. so determine d was he that his life should be rounded out to its fullest measure. Gladstone was bound to win. Webst er once repeated with effect an anecdote which he had heard fourteen years befor e. His on ly inheritance was poverty and hard work. He braided straw to earn m oney to buy books for which his soul thirsted. if I practise three days." Webster was once urged to speak on a subject of great importance. and notwithstanding he had gained the coveted prize of a seat in Parliament.' I said into the phonograph 'specia. if he has good material in him. mental. the great public can see it." Webster replied. "a very few words from you would do much to awaken public attention to it. and that hi s mind should have broad and liberal culture. and grinding them all up i nto experience." The road to distinction must be paved with years of self-denial and hard work. saying he was very busy and had no time to master the subject. ha s slumbering within the rags possibilities which would have developed him into a magnificent man. and courteous in their bearing. and comes under the tutelage of a skilled educator before his habits become fixed or confirmed. slovenly. had he only been fortunate enough early in life to have enjoyed the benefi ts of efficient and systematic training! Laziness begins in cobwebs and ends in iron chains. no matter how insignificant it may seem at the time. and which he had not thought of in the meantime. an ornament to the human race instead of a foul blot and ugly scar. Edison described his repeat ed efforts to make the phonograph reproduce an aspirated sound. Horace Mann. uncouth." replied hi s friend. in the poorhouse. that their own friends sc arcely knew them. "It is an ill mason that rejects any stone. You will find use for all of it. B ut I held firm.' It was enough to drive one mad.' but t he instrument responded 'pecia. erect. what a miracle is possible in the lad who is taken early and put under a c ourse of drill and systematic training. the great author of the common school system of Massachusetts. rough. pecia. but refused. it is because I do not allow myself to speak on any subject until my mind is imbued with it. when a book was presented to him. Even a few weeks' or months' drill of the rawest and roughest recruits in the l ate Civil War so straightened and dignified stooping and uncouth soldiers. or living out a miserable existence in the slums of our cities. and I have succeeded. pecia. he not only spent eleven terms more in the study of the law. It exactly fitted the occasi on. and even dull lad. but also studied Greek co nstantly and read every well-written book or paper he could obtain. can not be overestimated. "But." On one occasion Webster made a remarkable speech before the Phi Beta Kappa Society at Harvard. in spite of the consciousness of marvelous natural endowments wh ich would have been deemed sufficient by many young men. If this change is so marked in the youth who has grown to matu rity. was a remarkable example of that pluck and patience which can work and wait. and added: "From eighteen to twenty hours a day for the last seven months I have worked on this single word 'specia. his "impro . every occasion. "If there be so much weight in my words. or among the tramps. specia. specia. my friends can see it. and moral! How of ten a man who is in the penitentiary. and m ade them manly. if I practise two days. and amid all his public and private duties. both physical." The habit of seizing every bit of knowledge. but after he had gone. Ole Bull said: "If I practise one day.nishing what training will do for a rough.

In any meeting or assembly. it was thought by many that Demosthenes did not possess any genius whatever. or some precious thing will be lost. carefully written out. said that if he had four minutes in which to perfor m an operation on which a life depended. as children do flowers they have planted. "I am not prepared. They who understand and practise Abraham Lincoln's homely maxim of 'pegging away' have achieved the solidest success. Collyer declares that reserves mean to a man also achiev ement. of getting along nicely and easily during the day. to see if they are growing. was found in the book which he had forgotte n to take away. Demosthenes was once asked to speak on a great and sudden emergency." "I have been watching the careers of young men by the thousand in this busy cit y of New York for over thirty years. but p ull them up every now and then. "and I find that the chie f difference between the successful and the failures lies in the single element of staying power. who are pushed back by a straw. even to make remarks. All the genius I have lies just in this: when I have a subject in hand I study it profoundly.mptu" speech. or a fast horse. supplementin g what was considered a thorough military education by researches and reflection s which in later years enabled him easily to teach the art of war to veterans wh o had never dreamed of his novel combinations. but meanwhile he studied with all his might. Alexander Hamilton said. but replie d." The Duke of Wellington became so discouraged because he did not advance in the army that he applied for a much inferior position in the customs department. it is the fruit of labor and thought. when the latter shall stand in the firm. because you never are beaten. Then the effort which I make the people are pleased to call the fruit of genius. "Many men. Cuyler." In fact. and talki ng about the theater. and s till find you have something left. Reserves which carry us through great emergencies are the result of long workin g and long waiting. if his useless li fe is not earlier blasted by vicious indulgences. however brilliant. I explore it in all its bearings. when he will be glad to accept a situation from the fellow-clerk whom he now ridicules and affects to despise. and so to never know you are beaten. Day and night it is before me.--to do well always. but was refused. because he never allowed himself to speak on any s ubject without thorough preparation. My mind becomes pervade d with it. when called upo n. the opera. but best in the crisis on which all things turn. "do not allow their principles to take root." . are all the time dropping to the rear--to perish or to be carried along on the stretcher of charity. dispensing benefits and acquiring fort une. to stand the strain of a long fight. it was said. but also wait. will see the day. "who thinks chiefly of his mustache and b oots and shiny hat." We must not only work. "The spruce young spark. Dr. without previously pr eparing himself. the great surgeon. Nelaton. he would never rise. he would take one minute to consider ho w best to do it. Permanent success is oftener won by holding on than by sudden dash. ridiculing the faithful young fellow who came to learn the business and make a man of himself because he will not join in wasting his time in dissipation." The law of labor is equally b inding on genius and mediocrity.--"the power to do the grandest thing possible to your nature when you fee l you must. "Men give me credit for genius." said Dr. Napoleon had applied for every vacant position for seven years bef ore he was recognized. The easily discouraged." says Sizer." says Longfellow.

had been stolen. the three great essentials to success in menta l and physical labor are Practice. of Normandy. with a short gun." says Palgrave's "History of Normandy and England." We may tell which way the wind blew before the Deluge by marking the ripple and cupping of the rain in the petrified sand now preserved forever. Men are led by trifles. YOUNG. Learn to labor and to wait. fickleness. The creation of a thousand forests is in one acorn. He that despiseth small things shall fall by little and little.--ECCLESIASTICUS . "Not for school. Returning home." CHAPTER XLI THE MIGHT OF LITTLE THINGS Think naught a trifle. no Anglo-Norman dynasty could have arisen. and our habits--o f promptness. The man told him he had met such a man. life. though it small appear. "A pebble on the streamlet scant Has turned the course of many a river. he asked him if he ha d seen a little. be up and doing. "I knew the thief was a lit . Meeting a man on the route. It was little Greece that rolled back the overflowing tide of Asiatic luxury an d despotism. And trifles. We tell the ve ry path by which gigantic creatures. the guides sometimes demand absolute silence. After careful observation he started to trac k the thief through the woods. and su perficiality--are the things acquired most readily and longest retained. old. Still achieving. and Perseverance. white man. and with a small bobtailed do g. walked to the river's e dge to find their food." "Arletta's pretty feet. earnestness. Patience. but was surprised to find that the In dian had not even seen the one he described. The power of observation in the American Indian would put many an educated man to shame. "Let us. Among the lofty Alps." "The bad thing about a little sin is that it won't stay little. lest the vibration of the voice bring down an avalanche. then. It is but the littleness of man that sees no greatness in trifles." "Had she not thus fascinated Duke Robert the Liberal. an Indian discovered that his venison. no British Empire. A different result at Plataea would have delayed the progress of the human race more than ten cent uries. and thoroughness. glistening in the brook. Small sands the mountain. made her the mother of William the Conqueror.--NAPOLEON. it is said.He only is independent in action who has been earnest and thorough in preparati on and self-culture. moment s make the year. giving instead to Europe and America models of the highest politica l freedom yet attained. but the greatest of these is Perseverance. but for life. whom man never saw. which had been hanging up to dry.--EMERSON. sti ll pursuing. With a heart for any fate. or of tardiness.--WENDELL PHI LLIPS. and germs of limitless mental growth. we learn". Harold would not have fal len at Hastings. To vary the language of another. and asked him how he could give suc h a minute description of the man he had never seen.

floating on the waves. the St. What was so unlikely as that throwing an empty wine-flask in the fire should fu rnish the first notion of a locomotive. Clair River. now so useful in the arts and in transmitting vocal or written langu age. they would have been dashed upon a ledge o f rock had it not been for a cricket which a soldier had brought on board. so he h eld his hand over the hole for hours on a dark and dismal night until he could a ttract the attention of passers-by. Green Bay.tle man. Who can calculate the future of the smalles t trifle when a mud crack swells to an Amazon and the stealing of a penny may en d on the scaffold? The act of a moment may cause a life's regret. The beetling chalk cliffs of England were built by rhizopods. and. Lawrence River." says Gladstone. Dana could interest a class for hours on a grain of sand. "has often depended upon the good or ba d digestion of a fine dinner. I knew he had a short gun by the mark it left on the tree where he had stood it u p. Madame Galvani noticed the contraction of the muscles of a skinned f rog which was accidentally touched at the moment her husband took a spark from a n electrical machine. t hrough the carelessness of the watch. Lake Ontario. Lake Erie. but the soul returns never. I knew the dog was small by his tracks and short steps. A little boy in Holla nd saw water trickling from a small hole near the bottom of a dike. Lake Michi gan. How slight the influence of the breeze. He realized that the leak would rapidly become larger if the water were not checked. the Straits of Mackinaw. which an Indian never does. too small to be c learly seen without the aid of a magnifying-glass. The commanding off icer and hundreds of his men were going to South America on a great ship. or that the sickness of an Italian chemi st's wife and her absurd craving for reptiles for food should begin the electric telegraph." Two drops of rain. such as n o one had ever seen before.000 pounds produced the American Revolution. I knew he was a white man by his turning out his toes in walking. falling side by side. St. His name is still held in grateful remembran ce in Holland. A cricket once saved a military expedition from destruction. and from a single bone. it broke its long silence by a shrill note. "because he rolled up a stone to stand on in order to reach the venison. There are moments in history which balance years of ordinary life. By gnawing through a dike. Clair. and fi nally reached the Gulf of St. When the little insect scented the land. She gave the hint which led to the discovery of galvanic e lectricity. Lake Huron. I knew he was an old man by his short steps. enabled Columbus to stay a mutiny of his sailors which threatened to prevent the discovery of a new world ." said the Indian. one rolled southward through the Rock River and the Mississippi to the Gulf of M exico. Lawrence. Lake St. Niagara River." A stamp act to raise 60. Striking on opposite sides of the roof of a court-house in Wisconsin. while the other entered successively the Fox River. and thus warned them of their danger. A spark falling upon some combustibles led to the invention of gunpowder. and that he had a bob -tail by the mark it left in the dust where he sat. Agassiz could deduce the entire structure and habits of an animal which no man had ever seen so accurately that subsequent discoveri es of complete skeletons have not changed one of his conclusions. yet such was the formation of the continent that a trifling cause was multiplied almost beyond the power of figures to express its momentous effect upon the des tinies of these companion raindrops. even a rat may drown a nation. were separated a few inches by a gentl e breeze. A trigger may be pulled in an instant. A few bits of seaweed and driftwood. "The fate of a nation. a war that . Detro it River.

It was a little thing for the janitor to leave a lamp swinging in the cathedral at Pisa. The report of the weler was that it was the finest he had ever seen or heard of. and represe ntative governments all over the world have come from King John signing the Magn a Charta. That invisible fracture reduced the the ruby thousands of dollars. A famous ruby was offered to the English government. who. ." It was a little thing for a cow to kick over a lantern left in a shanty. loaded his pistol. That set me to thinking. A war between France and England. Bentham says. but that he "facets" was slightly fractured. secured to the East India Company and afterwards to Great Britain a great and rich country with two hundred millions of people. This young man became General Robert Clive. But it did not go off. and pulled the trigger. the fate of many a kingdom. grew out of a quarrel as to which of two vessels should first be served with water. an d conceived the idea of thus measuring time." What mighty contests rise from trivial thing s! A young man once went to India to seek his fortune. but they have wre cked many a career. The quarrel of two Indian boys over a grassh opper led to the "Grasshopper War. a quick temper. telling them what I had discovered. the Congress of the United States. "when the vibrat ions of my voice caused a fine steel point to pierce one of my fingers held just behind it. Henry Ward Beecher came within one vote of being elected superintendent of a ra ilway. "I was singing to the mouthpiece of a telephone. I determined to make a machine that would work accurately. If he had had that vote America would probably have lost its greatest pre acher. some self-indulgence. "The turn of a sentence has decided many a friendship. Tha t's the whole story. want of decision. Trembling with excitement he resolved to hold his life sacred. he went to his room. finding no opening. resolved that if the weapon went off he would regard i t as a Providence that he was spared. and rendered homeless a hundred thousand people. you say. costing more than a hundred thousand lives. What a little thing fixes destiny! Trifles light as air often suggest to the thinking mind ideas which have revolu tionized the world. and. and it was rejected from the regalia of crown je one of t value of England." said Edison.000. and never again to cheapen it. He pulled the trigger and it went off the first time. an d the pain from a thistle warned a Scottish army of the approach of the Danes. The Parliament of Great Britain. He went to the window to point it in another di rection and try it again. yet it may have cost you a friend fore ver. and made but one stinging remark. The phonograph is the result of the pricking of a finger. but. and gave m y assistants the necessary instructions." Perhaps you turned a cold shoulder bu t once. with but a handful of European soldiers. a re little things. but it laid Chicago in ashes. put the muzzle to his head. Some little weakness. but in that steady swaying motion the boy Galileo saw the pendulum.cost England 100. to ma ke the most of it. when placed beside great abilities. I saw no reason why the thing would not talk. If I could record the motions of the point and send it over the same surface afterward. The cackling of a goose aroused the sentinels and saved Rome from the Gauls. for a ught we know.000 pounds.

" said the sculptor. makes all the difference between success and failure. given some expres sion to this lip. I give up every occupation in order to read them in detail. with more vital fidel ity to truth. softened that feature. and t o observe the difference between one monthly return and another. The web of a spider sugge sted to Captain Brown the idea of a suspension bridge. bring us anither hod o' lime. little kindne sses. A missing marriage certificate kept the hod-carrier of Hugh Miller from establi shing his claim to the Earldom of Crawford. The cry of the infant Moses attracted the attention of Pharoah's daughter. To details which his inferior officers though t too microscopic for their notice he gave the most exhaustive consideration. the exact day he was to arrive at a certain station. A bird alighting on the bough of a tree at the mouth o f the cave where Mahomet lay hid turned aside his pursuers. and t he exact hour he was to leave. "Never. "It may be so. more energy to that limb. It is said that nothing could be more perfectly planned than his memorable march which led to the victory of Austerlitz. When the bugle sounde d for the march to battle. Ye arl of Crawford. "John." said a gent leman to Michael Angelo. th e horse fodder." Napoleon left nothing to chance. No young girl e njoys her novel as much as I do these returns." The children of a spectacle-maker placed two or more pairs of the spectacles be fore each other in play. a friendly letter. good wishes. polished that. even to the smallest detail. every officer had his orders as to the exact route wh ich he should follow. desperate. He must know all about the provisions. "I cannot see that you have made any progress since my last visit. Martin Alonzo Pinzon persuaded him t o follow a flight of parrots toward the southwest. Those that d are lose a day are dangerously prodigal. and gave the Jews a lawgiver. From this hint came the telescope.The sight of a stranded cuttlefish led Cuvier to an investigation which made hi m one of the greatest natural historians in the world. so far as he could possibly avoid it. genial smiles. A flight of birds probably prevented Columbus from discovering t his continent." The absence of a comma in a bill which passed through Congress years ago cost o ur government a million dollars. or Gerhard Dow a day in giving the right effect to a dewdrop on a cabbage leaf. "I have retouched this part. and our whole life but a day repeated. for to the Spanish seamen of that day it was good luck to follow in the wake of a flock of birds when on a vo yage of discovery. He would often charge his absent officers t o send him perfectly accurate returns. The masons would call out. etc. the camp kettles. Every day is a little life. But for his change of course Columbus would have reached the coast of Florida. Everything was pl anned to a nicety before he attempted to execute it. A single misspelled word prevented a deserving young man from obtaining a situation as instructor in a New England college. the shoes. "But. "but trifles make per fection. and good de eds." "But they are trifles!" exclai med the visitor." replied the great artist. What is the happiness of your life made up of? Little courtesies. . and perfection is no trifle. pleasant words." wrote Humboldt. nothing to contingency. brought out that muscle. the biscuits." That infinite patience which made Michael Angelo spend a week in bringing out a muscle in a statue. and told their father that distant objects looked large r. When he was growing anxious. those that dare misspend it. "had the flight of birds more importa nt consequences. "When they a re sent to me. and they were all to reach the point of destinati on at a precise moment. Napoleon was a master of trifles. One in a million--once in a lifetime--may do a heroic action. No thing was too small for his attention. and which seale d the fate of Europe for many years. and gave a prophet t o many nations.

about to sail for America when a law was passed prohibiting emigra time he was a profligate. and if Cleopatra's had been an inch shorter Mark Antony might never have become infatuated with her wonderful charms." "I give these books for the founding of a college in this colony". and a Linnaeus constructs the science of botany. and asked to be shown over those laboratories of his in which science had been enriched by so many great discoveries." A single remark dropped by an unknown person in the street led to the successfu l story of "The Bread-winners. was beautiful enough to spare the tip of he r nose." How many a lawyer has failed from the lack of details i n deeds and important papers. but as Pilgrims they bec ame the founders of a mighty people. and the leaven is at work which will not cease its action until the whipping-post and bodily servitude are abolished forever. and which involved his clients in litigation. For want of a shoe the horse was lost. driving famine from Ireland again and again. pointing to an old tea tray on the table. Had he not b who can tell what the history of Great Britain would have been? From the careful and persistent accumulation of innumerable facts. test papers." A burnt stick and a barn door served Wilkie in lieu of p encil and paper. when the doctor took him into a little study. Cromwell was tion. At that when he found een detained. F or want of a horse the rider was lost. perhaps millions." says Poor Richard. "T here is my laboratory. and often great losses! How m any wills are contested from the carelessness of lawyers in the omission or shad ing of words. Black discovered latent he at. and. and a prism. A few immortal sentences from Garrison and Phillips. said. and a blow-pipe. who feared n ot to attack the proudest monarchs in their capitols. the lack of little words which seemed like surplus age. Wollaston. carried to England by Sir Walter Raleigh in th e sixteenth century. a lens. shrank from the political influence of one independent woman in private life. While other generals trusted to subordinates. falling like dew upon a thought. and the blemish would have changed the history of the world. It seemed a small thing to drive William Brewster." "Words are things" says Byron. a few poems from Lowell an d Whittier. "for want of a horseshoe nail. and the poor people of Austerfield and Scrooby into perpetual exile." He knew no such things as trifle s. but in the aggregate forming a mass of evidence. and a sheet of pasteboard enabled Newton to unfold the composition of light and the origin of colors. produces that which makes thousands. A single potato. "For want of a nail the shoe was lost. a small balance. was "great in little things. or ambiguous use of language! Not even Helen of Troy. it is said. But that he could not leave England he reformed his life. each trivial in itself. "and a small drop of ink. Napoleon. Madame de Staël. such were th e words of ten ministers who in the year 1700 assembled at the village of Branfo . A pan of w ater and two thermometers were the tools by which Dr. An eminent foreign savant called on Dr. has multiplied into food for millions. "Lack of detail. The history of many a failure could be written in three words." A hymn chanted by the barefooted friars in the t emple of Jupiter at Rome led to the famous "Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire . a Darwin extracts h is law of evolution. and gave a nation an altered destiny. having squandered all his property.Wellington. too. think. John Robinson. he gave his personal attention to the minutest detail. and all. on which st ood a few watch glasses. Anne Boleyn's fascinating smile split the great Churc h of Rome in twain.

and asked him to ride. every plant. hill. A single noble or heroic act of one man has sometimes elevated a nation. Each of the worthy fathers deposited a few bo oks upon the table around which they were sitting. and gave him a situation from which he rose until he became the greatest ban ker of Paris. he picked up a pin." A poor boy applied for a situation at a bank in Paris. called the boy ba ck. stream. in fact. when th e latter died. a few miles east of New Haven. A ship-worm boring a piece of wood suggested to Sir Isa mbard Brunel the idea of a tunnel under the Thames at London. every scene upon the street. every tree. a skillet containing a compound which he had befo re considered worthless. Hogarth would make sketches of rare faces and characteristi cs upon his finger-nails upon the streets. All of nature's laws govern the smallest atoms. It is the little rift within the lute That by and by will make the music mute. who became so enthusiastic in his study of sculpture that he walked fifty miles and back to se e a beautiful statue. There is a phonograph in our natures which catches. everything wh ich comes within its range. Sir Walter Scott once saw a shepherd boy plodding sturdily along. to a truly great mind there a re no little things. however thoughtless and transient. flo wer. A soldier who escapes the bullets of a thousand battles may die from the scratc h of a pin. reproduced in our descendants. . Trifles light as air suggest to the keen observer the solut ion of mighty problems. until it became red hot. The eye is a perpetual camera imprinting upon the sensitive mental plates and p acking away in the brain for future use every face. We are all inclined to be proud of our strong points. but was refused. Goethe once asked a monarch to excuse him. threw his soul into the design of the magnificent monument erecte d in Edinburgh to the memory of the author of "Waverley. All life comes from microscopic beginnings. The bank president saw this. and. such was the founding of Yale College. however large and strong all the others may be. and registers foreve r the slightest enunciation. Goodyear discovered how to vulcanize rubber by forget ting. Great men are noted for their attention to trifles. Small things become great when a great soul sees them. and many a ship has survived the shocks of icebergs and the storms o f ocean only to founder in a smooth sea from holes made by tiny insects. and renders it immortal. every syllable we utter. As he l eft the door. The microscope reveals as great a world below as the telescope above . during an interview." seems to be one of the great la ws of nature. This boy was George Kemp. Indeed. These notes may appear a t housand years hence. while he went to an adjoining room to jot d own a stray thought. A Massachusetts soldier in the Civil War observed a bird hulling rice. Bits of glass arranged to amuse children led to the disc overy of the kaleidoscope. He did not forget the kindness of Sir Walter. "Least of all seeds. In nature there is not hing small. and a single drop of water is a miniature ocean. he invented a hulling machine which has revolu tionized the rice business. Many an honorable career has re sulted from a kind word spoken in season or the warm grasp of a friendly hand. and shot it.rd. while w e are sensitive and neglectful of our weaknesses. in all their beautiful or te rrible detail. mountain. greatest of all harvests. taking its bill for a model. Yet it is our greatest weaknes s which measures our real strength.--Laffitte. The strength of a chain lies in its weakest link. Tracks of extinct animals in the old red sandstone led Hugh Miller on and on until he became the g reatest geologist of his time.

not a mere mill for grinding out a salary of dollars and cents. in enlarging and ennobling yourself. that will help you to make a large man of yourself. Has lifted many a bur den no other gift could have stirred." A boy or a man who works simply for his salary. so vital to every young ma n starting on the journey of life. Think. It is life's school for practical training of the faculties. If I were allowed but one utterance on this subject. so efficiently. of always dema nding of yourself the highest. is dishonest. my employee friend. I would say: "Don't think too much of the amo unt of salary your employer gives you at the start. that Germany p rized his services more than those of the ambassador himself. can never give him back. is an advantage beyond computation. who could not see infinitely more in his wor k than what he found in the envelope on Saturday night. and the best o f all. where the practical f aculties. ever widening. he cheats himself. of that which all the after years. "It was only a glad 'good-morning. or encouraging word. is the opportunity for growth. the opportunity to become a larger. he is chea ted. while he is being paid for learning his trade or profession. or even to get beyond mediocrit y. slowly silence all. in increasing your skill. Bismarck was said to have really founded the German Empire when working for a s mall salary as secretary to the German legation in Russia. "If the laborer gets no more than the wages his employer offers him. for mental expansion. are brought into systematic. If Bismarck had ea rned only his salary. stretching the mind." CHAPTER XLII THE SALARY YOU DO NOT FIND IN YOUR PAY ENVELOPE The quality which you put into your work will determine the quality of your lif e. It is the opport unity. and to learn from his mistakes. the executive faculties. and is actuated by no higher mo tive. That is necessity. for in that position he absorbed the secrets of strategy and diplomacy which later were used so effec tively for his country. will make all the difference to you between fai lure and success. He is cheating himself. One part of this outside salary is the opportunity of the employee to absorb th e secrets of his employer's success. never accepting the lowest or second best. The other part. The habit of insisting upon the best of which you are capable. t ry as he may.' As she passed along the way. no mat ter how small your remuneration.And. but t he larger part of the real pay of a real man's work is outside of the pay envelo pe. in expanding your exp erience. w . and strengthening and developing the intellect. I have never known an employee to rise rapidly. rather. TENNYSON. of the possib le salary you can give yourself. whose pay envelope was his goal. he might have remained a perpetual clerk. more efficient man. There is no estimating the value of such training. vigorous exercis e at a definite time and for a definite number of hours. and Germany a ta ngle of petty states. for development. He worked so assiduously. in the quality of his daily work. The opportunity for growth in a disciplinary institution." A man's or a boy's work is materi al with which to build character and manhood. and the one whom he most defrauds is himself. But it spread the morning's glory Over the livelong day." "Only a thought in passing--a smile. broader.

Do not fear that your employer will not recognize your merit and advance you as rapidly as you deserve. sympathy. which he regarded . Often we see bright boys who have worked. they would now pro bably be working on comparatively small salaries for other people. the boys who rise in the world are not those who. from the grand spirit which yo u bring to it. in splendid discipline. says: "Th e man who brings to his occupation a loyal desire to do his best is certain to s ucceed. W. wor ked without pay as a messenger boy for months for experience. better. Ogden. and in increased insight into business methods. he shows that it would be profitable to employ him in some higher form of occupation. the ideal employer gives those who work for him a great deal that is not found in the pay envelope. in the enthusiasm. on small salaries. level-headed. and other lesser powers in the commercial world would have attained their present commanding success had they hesitated and haggled about a dollar o r two of salary when they began their life-work? If they had. Colonel Robert C. Why? Sim ply because. He pays you in dollars. and. The few dollars he finds in his pay envelope are to this larger salary as the c hips which fly from the sculptor's chisel are to the angel which he is trying to call out of the marble. th ey were paying themselves vastly more in the fine quality of their work. Rober t C. too. to a bsorb the secrets of the business. little realizes how he is cheating himself by n ot looking at the larger salary he can pay himself in increasing his skill. the high purpose which emanates from you in its performance. the patronage to give you th e disciplining and training you need to bring out your strongest qualities. How small and narrow and really blind to his own interests must be the youth wh o can weigh a question of salary against all those privileges he receives in exc hange for the meager services he is able to render his employer. in f ine training. that each wanted. ignorant boy into a strong. while their employers were paying them but a few dollars a week.--a chance to show what was in him. perhaps for years. Clowry. you pay yourself in valuable experience. and high purpose they brought to their tasks. He gives them encouragement. you are paid! The youth who is always haggling over the question of how many dollars and cent s he will sell his services for. determination. into high and responsible positions. stronger. No. He inspir es them with the possibility of doing something higher. It was not sa lary.--just as soon as it is p rofitable. Then. By doing the thing at hand surpassingly well. in increased efficiency. more useful m an. John Wanamaker.hich. at the start. hardly enough to live on. in self-expressio n. It he is looking for efficient employees. in character building. president of the Western Union Telegraph Company. They were satisfied with a dollar or two apie ce a week. a re compense so munificent that what your employer pays you will seem insignificant beside it. suddenly jumping." Do you think that kings of business like Andrew Carnegie. efficient man. himself a remarkable example of success. Bourke Cockran. but opportunity. perhaps. and in making himself a better. when there is p rofit in his promotion.--and what emp loyer is not?--it will be to his own interest to do so. split hairs about salaries. as if by magic. you could not possibly do without being employed in some kind of an institution which has the motive. You can draw from the faithfulness of your work. while they were learning the lessons that m ade them what they are to-day. the machinery. in e xpanding his experience. he is pretty sure to secure it. And instead of paying for the opportunity of unfolding and developing from a green.

when it is not expected of you?" Would he then have ris en above them. to make th eir secrets his own. I told the manager that I was then under contract. At the end of a year. so eager was he to learn how everything was done. who probably said to him. but that he did not accept it because he wouldn't br eak his contract. and the contract was closed. The chance actually to do with his own hands the thing which he wanted to learn." he said. It is not difficult to see a proprietor in the boy who sweeps the store or wait s on customers--if the qualities that make a proprietor are in him--by watching him work for a single day. an opportunity to absorb knowledge and valuable secrets on every hand. At the end of his co ntract. I should be glad to talk with him in regard to his proposition. Incredible as it may seem. and a new contract with h im for a term of years at three thousand dollars a year was proposed. just think of yourself as actually starting out in business for yourself. "where I secured a place to swee p out a store for three dollars and a half a week. to watch their methods. The very first time he swept out the store. Suppose that this boy had listened to his associates. many times: "What a fool you are. He told me that he and his wi fe lived on eight dollars a week in New York. When you get a job. or an inclination to shirk. always looki ng out for the main chance. Get as much salary as you can. to do as little as p ossible for the largest amount of salary. You have actuall y gotten an opportunity to get right into the very heart of the great activities of a large concern. for he was bound some day to be a partn er or to have a store of his own. to absorb their processes. that they were prepared to enter into a ten-year contract with him at ten tho usand dollars a year. but that. and to abso rb every bit of knowledge that he could. however. The young man told his employers that the manager of another house had offered him that am ount a year or more before. a little late r. as really working for yourself. they notified him. for he could not tell when fate might be taking his measure fo r a larger place. Long before this time had expired. He felt that the opportunity was the salary. to be somebody. and he determined that he would be. but the boy who walked one hundred miles to New York to get a job saw in every opportunity a great occasion. A millionaire merchant of New York told me the story of his rise. and became a millionaire. George. he was watching others. studying methods. I had a proposit ion from another large concern in New York to act as its foreign representative at a salary of three thousand dollars a year. compared with which the three dollars and fifty cents looked contemptible. He put himself into training. and all that sort of thing. that he preferred to study the store. leaving them in the ranks of perpetual employees? No.as worth infinitely more than salary--and scores of our most successful men have cheerfully done the same thing. He never allowed anything of importance to escape hi s attention. to work here overtime to do the thing s which others neglect! Why should you stay here nights and help pack goods. When he was not working. expansion. by saving and investments. h e was called into the office of the head of the house. an am bition to rise. "I walked fro m my home in New England to New York.--this was his salary. he was taken into the firm as a partner. and that. when my time should be completed. during a large part of this time. and asking questions of everybody he came in contact with in the store. to get close to men who do things. He told me that he did not go out of N ew York City for twelve years. They told him they would think the matter over and see what th ey could do for him. You can tell by the spirit which he brings to his tas k whether there is in him the capacity for growth. to see the way in which princely merc hants do business. know . an opportunity to drink in. I accep ted an offer from the firm to remain for five years at a salary of seven dollars and a half a week. they laid up $117. throu gh your eyes and your ears. he felt within him the ability to become a great merchant." When his contract was nearly up. bu t remember that that is a very small part of the consideration. enlargement. knowledge wherever you go in the establishment.000.

ledge that will be invaluable to you in the future. Every hint and every suggestion which you can pick up. if you give your best to your employer. shirking your work. the chance to have a clean record be hind you instead of a smirched one. to devise new and better ways of doing things. It will call out your resource s. your ingenuity. without robbing y ourself of infinitely more. This striving for excellence will make you grow. by carelessness or indifference. it is impossible for you to rob your employer by clipping yo ur hours. of system. an employee's reputation is his capital. Resolve that you will call upon all of your resourcefulness. whatever it may be. Just make up your mind that you are going to be a sponge in that institution an d absorb every particle of information and knowledge possible. If you do not respect yourself. he can not shut off your perceptive faculties. In the absence of money ca . but never when you have lost confidence in yourself. call out the best thing in you. a habit of thoroughness. In ot her words. the best possible comes back to you in skill. training. "I am not paid for doing this extra work. more effective man. if you are working for too small a salary . Nothing will ever compensat e you for the loss of faith in yourself. the consciousness of doing your level best. a habit of adjusting means to ends . that you will enter into your work with a spirit of e nthusiasm and a zest which know no bounds. you will always be conscious that you have done a little. If you think you are being kept back. acumen. a habit of putting your best into everythi ng you do. You will never again have the same confidence in your ability to succee d. he can not keep you from absorbi ng the secrets of his business which may have been purchased by him at an enormo us cost of toil and sacrifice and even of several failures. your inventiveness . The constant stretching of the mind over prob lems which interest you. which means the ultimate attainment of your maximum efficiency. a divine sen se of justice and right that can not be blindfolded. larger. the skill. no one can rob you of your greatest reward. and power. that you will b e progressive. will help you expand into a broader. Then again. the eff iciency. There is something within you that you cannot bribe. to alter its verdict in your favor. the power you have gained. all of which advantages you wi ll carry with you to your next position. your career is a t an end so far as its upward tendency is concerned. but he can not close your eyes and ears. which are to mean everything to you in the future. never mind. mean thing. every bit of knowledge y ou can absorb. and no amount of juggling with yourself can induce that inward monitor which says "righ t" to the well-done thing and "wrong" to the botched work. of capital which is worth vastly more than money cap ital--the chance to make a man of yourself. up-to-date. and you will be surprised to see how quickly you will attract the attention of those above you. you will form a like habit of accuracy. You may still succeed when others have lost confidence in you. of close observation. If you work with this spirit. if favoritism puts some one into a position above you which you have justly ea rned. anyway. shrewdness. and it is perfectly right for me to shirk when my employer is not in sight or to clip my hours when I can. Your employer may pinch you on salary. you should regard as a part of your future capital which will be worth more than money capital when you start out for yourself. On the other hand. I do not get e nough salary. a habit of reading human nature. Don't say to yourself. of giving the best thing in you to your employer. if you do not believe in yourself." for this means a loss of selfrespect.

and is always either helping or hindering him. smarter man he was. He is backed up by the good opinion of everybody that knows him. It sticks to us through life. just because he was trying to earn a great deal more than he was paid for doing. and is always helping us. solid. but regarding the opportunity as everything. . It not only follows him around from one employer to another. Young men are sometimes surprised at their rapid advancement. why should not he beat others? Ev erybody knows that he has not been honest at heart with his employer. never thinking of the salary. His work attracted the attention of a publisher who offered him sixty dollars a week. he went to a third large publishing house at ten thousand doll ars a year. but it also follows him when he goes into business for hims elf. an untarnished reputation--a reputation for being a dead-in-earnest hard worker. We fi nd it waiting at the bank when we try to borrow money. even a purely commercial success. buttressed. The very reputation of the first young man is splendid credit. will make his burden infinitely greater. that in less than two years from the time he was receiving sixt y dollars a week. so much the harder to attain. square. He beat his employer. not the salary. and very soon advanced him to seventy-five. backed. or at the jobber's when w e ask for credit. and who has gone on the principle that the more he could get out of an employer--the more salary he could get with less effort--the shrewder. These are the great things. according to its nature. and supported by a splendid past. but he carried with him to th e new position the same habits of painstaking. an untarnished past. of a good reputation which is backing them. The other employees and his friends called him a fool for staying at the office after hours and taking work home nights and holidays. hard work. w ho has done just as little work for his salary as possible. People are afraid of the other: they can not trust him. and also with an interest in the business. They can not unde rstand it. got a position in a publishing house a t fifteen dollars a week.pital. his reputation means everything. It is always backing us up and helping us in all sorts of ways . he is starting out in life with a heavy handicap. because they do not realize the tremendous power of a clean name. not loyal or true. Contrast the condition of a young man starting out for himself who has looked u pon his position as a sacred trust. which. He must work all the harder to overcome the handicap of a bad reputatio n. and success. but here is an instance of a young man who attracted the attent ion of others even outside of the firm he worked for. but he told them that the opportunity was what he was after. if it does not drag him down to failure. substantial reputation. and worked five years before he received thirty-five d ollars a week. Employees sometimes think that they get no credit for trying to do more than th ey are paid for. There is nothing like a good. In other words. The result was. a clean record. The salary is of very little importance to you in comparison with the reputatio n for integrity and efficiency you have left behind you and the experience you h ave gained while earning the salary. a great opportunity. loyal. for such a small salary. I know a young man who came to New York. a smirched record. and true to his employer's intere sts--with that of another young man of equal ability starting out for himself.

to loiter when out on business for their employer. will never ma ke a key to unlock the door to anything but failure and disgrace. of your God-given faculties. My young friends. never accepting the lowest or second best. Whether it is beautiful or hideous. You may not be able to make him do what is right. Take no chances of marring your reputation by the picayune and unworthy endeavo r "to get square" with a stingy or mean employer. they cut very sorry figures in life. the image you evolve from the block must stand as an expression of yourself. resolve that you will approach your task in the spirit of a master. English boys used to thi nk it was a great opportunity to be able to get into a good concern. to sneak away and hide during business hours. an absorbing enthusiasm. divine or brutal. . of always dema nding of yourself the highest. and success. that whether he is a man of high ideals or not. solid. and you can not afford to ruin yourself and your whole future just because your employer is not what he ought to be. botched work into the foundation. Others excuse themselves for poor work on the ground that their employer does n ot appreciate their services and is mean to them. will make all the difference to you between med iocrity or failure. Slighted work. You may not be able to make him a gentleman. your superstr ucture will topple. and not as a mere living-getter. Many employees may not think it is so very bad to clip their hours. and if you slip rotten hours. if they can only get through with it and get their salary for it. your way of doing your work. and firm. and often would pay their employer for the opportunity. you will be one. N ow the boy is paid for learning his trade. Never mind what kind of a man he is. these will ta ke the drudgery out of it and make it a delight. No matter how mean and s tingy he may be. beauty. to shirk at every opportunity. harmony. rounding into symmetry. The quality which you put into your work will determine the quality of your lif e. but yo u can do right yourself. Remember that you ar e a sculptor and that every act is a chisel blow upon life's marble block. Your reputation is the foundation for your future success. Those w ho do not care how they do their work. The fact is that your present position. If you bring to your work the spirit of an arti st instead of an artisan. whether you will make of it a stepping-st one or a stumbling-block. There is nothing else so valuable to you as an opportunity to build a name for yourself. You c an not afford to strike false blows which may mar the angel that sleeps in the s tone. your opportunity for the time is with him. botched work. The foundation must be clean. but often when they try to get another place their reputat ion has gone before them. a charact er-builder. Regard the living-getting. money-ma king part of your career as a mere incidental as compared with the man-making pa rt of it. a burning zeal. to go to their work in the morning all used up from dissipation. and slighted. pay very dearly for their trifling. with a chan ce to work without salary for years in order to learn their business or trade. but you ca n be one yourself. of your ideals. Regard your work as a great life school for the broadening. The habit of insisting upon the best of which you are capable. no mat ter how small your remuneration. is the key that will unlock the door above you. de epening. A youth might just as well exc use himself for his boorish manners and ungentlemanly conduct on the ground that other people were mean and ungentlemanly to him. and it rests with yo u whether you will use it or abuse it. and they are not wanted. you have nothing to do with your employer's character or his method of doing things. w hich are uncut diamonds sacredly intrusted to you for the polishing and bringing out of their hidden wealth and beauty.In olden times boys had to give years of their time in order to learn a trade. Look upon it as a man-builder.

the fa ir thing. complete man. and will encourage you to push ahead toward larger triumphs. and become small. full. the l arge. narrow. Start out with a tacit understanding with yourself that you will be a man. You can not afford to debase or demoralize yourself by bringing out your mean si de. Poor work injures your employer a little. Let ot her people do the poor jobs. It is a lofty ideal that redeems the life from the curse of commonness and i mparts a touch of nobility to the personality. The m an who has not learned to fling his whole soul into his task. grander re muneration possible for them outside of their pay envelope. but you have somethin g infinitely higher to satisfy than that. that you will express in your work the highest thing in you. remain undeveloped. the lowest and most despicable thing in you. The littl e money you get in your pay envelope is a pretty small. larger. and instead of getting this larger. They deliberately adopt a shirking. for the sake of "get ting square" with their employer. noble. grand. but . inventiveness. Everywhere we see people who are haunted by the ghosts of half-finished jobs. which they can pay themselves. the best thing in you. rutty men and women. I have known employees actually to work harder in scheming. progressive in their nature. inefficient. nothing broad. they blight their own growth. narrow. The effort always to do your best will enla rge your capacity for doing things. No one can respect himself or have that sublime faith in himself which makes fo r high achievement while he puts half-hearted. by giving him pinched service. be all there. deliberately throw away all of the other. It may be necessary to secure your bread and butter. low motive for which to work. No matter how small your salary. mean service into his work. or how unappreciative your employer. if they will. more important salary . fling your life into it with all the ene rgy and enthusiasm you can muster. the most liberal service possible to their employers. bring the entire man to your task. the botched work. and go through life half men instead of full men--sma ll. who has not learne d the secret of taking the drudgery out of his work by putting the best of himse lf into it. str angle their own prospects. has not learned the first principles of success or happiness. to be a man. the demand in you to do your level best. These should speak so loud in you that the mere bread-and-butter quest ion will be insignificant in comparison. they prefer the consequent arrested development . with nothing large or magnanimous. Many young employees. Their leader ship faculties. your sense of the right. their ingenuity and re sourcefulness. their planning ability. to trip them up. t he dishonest work done away back in their youth. instead of the strong. and to bar their prog ress. Keep your standard up. than they would have worked if they had tried to do their best. While trying to "get square" with their employer. and all the qualities which make the leader. shirking. weak men. or thinks more of you for your conscientiousness. trying to keep from working hard in the performance of their duties. These covered-up defects are al ways coming back to humiliate them later. do-as-litt le-as-possible policy. that is. you will certainly think m ore of yourself after getting the approval of that still small voice within you which says "right" to the noble act. The great failure army is full of people who have tried to get square with their employers for the small salary and lack of appreciation. complete men they might be. and had given the largest. their initiative. Never mind whether your employer appreciates the high quality of your work or n ot. just because they do not get quite as much salary as they think they should. The hardest work in the world is th at which is grudgingly done. to do the square thing.The smallest people in the world are those who work for salary alone.

the world will. You may lose your p roperty. What your employer thinks of you. your reputation. indisputable law. Co unt that man an enemy who shakes your faith in yourself. make way fo r you. assuming it. ordered him to mount his own horse and deliver it with all possible speed. an d in persistent endeavor to attain it. It would be as reasonable for Napoleon to have expected to get his army over th e Alps by sitting down and declaring that the undertaking was too great for him. other people's confidence. even. unless it be to succeed i n everything everywhere?" Nothing else will so nerve you to accomplish great thi ngs as to believe in your own greatness. Conduct yourself in such a way that you can always look yourself in the face wi thout wincing. the achievement will never rise hig her than the confidence. This is an inexorable. CHAPTER XLIII EXPECT GREAT THINGS OF YOURSELF "Why. for when your confidence is gone. of your plans. He can who thinks he can. and you can not afford to tie that divine thing in you to a scoundrel . A great success must have a great source in expectation. It does not matter what other people think of you. but a sufficient caus e--a cause as large as the result. Determine to do your l evel best and never to demoralize yourself by doing your second best. how larg e the genius. "should we call ourselves men. If you ne ver lose that. or of your ai ms. The race would have been centuries behind what it is to-day had it not been for their grit. in your own marvelous possibilities. There is no law by which you can achieve success in anything without expecting it. of personal nobi lity and integrity which have never been tarnished.it may ruin you. go to it in the spirit of a master. in your ability to do t he thing you have set your heart upon doing. but ther e is always hope for you so long as you keep a firm faith in yourself. You forsake yourself when you lose your confidence. There must be a strong. in self-confidence. as for you to hope to achieve anything significant in life while harboring grav e doubts and fears as to your ability. No matter if they call you a visionary. You have to live with yourself day and night through your whole existence. what the world thinks of you. No matter how great the ability. or how splendid the education. sooner or later. A stream can not rise higher than its source. or a dreamer. but keep pushing on. of a conqueror. your health. is not half as important as what you think of yourself. . There is no room for chance in God's world of system and supreme order. and he can't who thinks he ca n't. Others are with you comparatively littl e through life. Be proud of your work and go to it every morning superbly equi pped. then you will have a courage born of conviction. handing it to the messenger. their determination. a crank. their persistence in finding and m aking real the thing they believed in and which the world often denounced as chi merical or impossible. The miracles of civilization have been performed by men and women of great self -confidence. demanding it. firm self-faith first. you must beli eve in yourself. Everything must have not only a cause. y our power is gone. Never allow anybody or any misfortune to shake your belief in yourself. who had unwavering faith in their power to accomplish the tasks the y undertook. A soldier once took a message to Napoleon in such great haste that the horse he rode dropped dead before he delivered the paper." asked Mirabeau. Your achievement will never rise higher than your self-faith. Napoleon dictated his answer a nd. or the thing will never come.

which are always tripping the self-depr . because they do not expect or demand enough of themselves. They do not know how to call out their best. If you are ambitious to do big things. affirmative man. too magnificent for a common sold ier. expect enough. that you are a weak. and he shall have abundance. do sm all things. magnetizes conditions. nor comprehend to what heights of sublimity we were intended and expected to rise. They do not claim enough. to its promise. "Nothing is too good or too magnificent for a French soldier." There is everything in assuming the part we wish to play. and playing it royall y. "Nay. and of c ourse they will be inferior until they claim superiority as their birthright. if you only expect small things of yourself. human race as a whole has not measured up to its possibiliti one reason why we see everywhere splendid ability doing the is because people do not think half enough of themselves. ineffective being. positive. will lower your whole standard of life and paralyze your abi lity. that the good and the beautiful things of lif e were not designed for them. He draws to himself the literal fulfilment of the promise. optimistic. A man who is self-reliant. who believes that he is going to win out. Things get out of t he way of the vigorous. and said. t hat they are not expected to have as good things as those who are "more favored. with its superb trappings. but were reserved for those especially favored by fortune. The statue follows the model. We fail to see that we can control our own destiny: make ourselves do whatever is possible. General." says Marie Corelli. do not realize our e of the universe. They have grown up under this conviction of their inferiority." Napoleon said. One reason why the es. You will never become a giant if you only make a pygmy's claim for yourself.The messenger looked at the magnificent animal. work of mediocrity. "If we choose to be no more than clods of clay. something in his very a ppearance that wins half the battle before a blow is struck. you must make a large program for your self. live mediocre lives. that it does not fit their humble condition. We divinity. A vast number of men and women who are really capable of doing great things. or de mand enough of or for themselves. There is something in the atmosphere of the man who has a large and true estima te of himself. "For unto every one that hath shall be given." The world is full of people like this poor French soldier." The persistent thought that you are not as good as others. that we are a part of the great causation principl We do not think highly enough of our superb birthright. nor to what extent w e can really be masters of ourselves. "then we s hall be used as clods of clay for braver feet to tread on. " They do not realize how they weaken themselves by this mental attitude of self -depreciation or self-effacement. but this is too gorgeous. There is no law which can cause a pyg my's thinking to produce a giant. The model is the inward vision. Most people have been educated to think that it was not intended they should ha ve the best there is in the world. and assume the part it demands. make ourselves become whatever we long to be. and undertakes his work with t he assurance of success. who think that what others have is too good for them.

and ability increase in a direct ratio to the number of his achievements. Here is wher e power originates. If you doubt your ability to do what you set out to do. perpetual thinking along the l ine of the ambition. They do not have that superb confidence in th emselves which never looks back. you will never accomplish much. A stream can not r ise higher than its fountain-head. if you think that you lack positiveness. so in reality does every conquest in war. doubt. is the prod which brings out the last ou nce of reserve force. There is jus t uncertainty enough as to whether they will succeed to take the edge off their effort. If there is no out-reach to your mind. Courage. Confidence is the Napoleon of the mental army. "Everything he undertakes succeeds. but also by that of all who know him. fear. aggressiveness. and with such vigorous determination. initiative. and it is just this little difference between doing pretty well and flin ging all oneself. assurance. born of self-confidence. you can never win anything very great unti l you change your whole mental attitude and learn to have great faith in yoursel f. vigorous. in peaceful industry. It doubles and trebles the power of all the other faculties. We often hear it said of a man. This very assertion of superiority. negative man. Your own mental picture of yourself is a good measure of yourself and your poss ibilities. Fear. and a lack of confidence undermine. The reason why so many men fail is because they do not commit themselves with a determination to win at any cost. ability. in invention." or "Everyt hing he touches turns to gold." By the force of his character and the creative p ower of his thought. so definitely . no firm s elf-faith. in science. if the neg atives preponderate in your vocabulary. Even a race-horse can not win the prize after it has once lost confidence in it self. shrinking nature. he is reenforced not only by the power o f his own thought. . radiates assurance.eciating. that makes the difference betw een mediocrity and a grand achievement. if you have a timid. the mental attitude that claims success as an inalienable b irthright. the assumption of power. A man who carries in his very presence an air of victory. the affirmation of belief in yourself. and imparts to others confidence that he can do the thing he attempts. A man's confidence measures the height of his possibilities. and make each successive triu mph easier of achievement than its predecessor. which burns all bridges behind it. parallel with the aim--the great life purpose. if you fear to let yourself out and take chances. no spirit of daring. Confidence begets confidence. into his career. i n commerce. confi dence. will strengthen the whole man and give power to a combination of facu lties which doubt. that nothing on earth can turn you from your purpose until you attain it. if you lack boldness. His friends and acquain tances affirm and reaffirm his ability to succeed. As time goes on. As the savage Indian thought that the power of every enemy he conquered entered into himself. and put so much grit into your resolutio n. Set the mind toward the thing you would accomplish so resolutely. or in art add to the conqueror's power to do the next thing. Power is largely a question of strong. if you think that other s are better fitted to do it than you. and timidity must be turned out of your mind. The whole mental army waits until confidence leads the way. such a man wrings success from the most adverse circumstanc es. all his power. His self-poise.

The fact is that their success represents their expectations of themselves--the sum of their creative. the man of mighty fai th gets much. in our endea vor. vigorous concept of the thing we want to do is a tremendous initial step. There mu st be vigor in our expectation. habitual thinking. as it is the intensity of the electrical fo rce that dissolves the diamond--the hardest known substance. of or for himself. in our determination. that wins success. They hav e wrought--created--what they have and what they are out of their constructive t hought and their unquenchable faith in themselves. One must have that determination which never looks back and which knows no defe at. All the greatest achievements in the world began in longing--in dreamings and h opings which for a time were nursed in despair. with no light in sight. no vigor in their efforts. When a man ceases to believe in himself--gives up the f ight--you can not do much for him except to try to restore what he has lost--his . but we must believe it with all our he arts. If we were to analyze the marvelous successes of many of our self-made men. We must resolve with the energy that does things. who asks. the invincible purpose. but there must be strongly concentrated intensity of effort to attain our object.The deed must first live in the thought or it will never be a reality. and a st rong. demands. and expects but little. because there is no vim. This lon ging kept the courage up and made self-sacrifice easier until the thing dreamed of--the mental vision--was realized. in our faith. There must be vigor of conception or an indifferent execution. Their resolutions are spineless. that resolution which burns all bridges behind it and is willing to risk eve rything upon the effort. We must have a positive conviction that we can attain success. so it is the concen trated aim. we should find that when they first started out in active life they held the confid ent. and we try to account for it in all sorts of ways but the right one. got out of their path. persistent thought of and belief in their ability to accomplish w hat they had undertaken. We must not only believe we can succeed. It is th eir mental attitude outpictured and made tangible in their environment. "According to your faith be it unto you. Nothing was ever accompli shed by a half-hearted desire. A thought that is timidly born will be timidly executed." Our faith is a very good measure of w hat we get out of life. Not only must the desire for the thing we long for be kept uppermost. The man of weak faith gets little. No lukewarm energy or indifferent ambition ever accomplished anything. Many people make a very poor showing in life. and the world made way for them. Their mental attitude was set so stubbornly toward thei r goal that the doubts and fears which dog and hinder and frighten the man who h olds a low estimate of himself. The very intensity of your confidence in your ability to do the thing you attem pt is definitely related to the degree of your achievement. As it is the fierceness of the heat that melts the iron ore and makes it possib le to weld it or mold it into shape. vigorous. positive. there is no backbone in thei r endeavor--no grit in their ambition. We are very apt to think of men who have been unusually successful in any line as greatly favored by fortune.

that sustained him when his . If he starts at all. It can make a one-talent man a success. Faith unites man with the Infinite. an irresistible force. and a man who "knows" he can do it. and it comes from the consciou sness of possessing the ability requisite for what one undertakes. a mysterious destiny which decides things whether he will or not." between "I'll try" es the distance between weakness and etween commonness and superiority. It is knowledge. You can not do much with him until he comprehends that he is bigger than any fate. It sees what is in visible to those who follow in the valleys. unstable mind. doubting. he moves with uncertainty. into inferiority by thinking d ownward. Whatever we long for. who feels within himself a pulsating power. We are not bold en ough. There is nothing which will multiply one's ability like self-faith. unhesitati ngly. between mediocrity and excellence. A firm self-faith helps a man to project himself with a force that is almost ir resistible. The man who does things must be able to project himself with a mighty force. to any emergency. We are held back by too much caution. Civilization to-day rests upon self-confidence. that he has within himself a power mightier than any force outsi de of him. while a ten-talent man without it would fail. He can not do this with a wavering. We think ourselves into smallness. between the man who wavers and to" and "I can. Faith walks on the mountain tops. A balancer. and hold persistently in the min d. between "I hope and "I will"--this little difference measur power. between vacillation and deci the man who decides things.self-faith--and to get out of his head the idea that there is a fate which toss es him hither and thither. shows that there is something within him that make s him equal to the work he has undertaken. b This difference between uncertainty sion. Self-confidence is not egotism. a doubter. When a man lives so near to th e Supreme that the divine Presence is felt all the time. One reason why the careers of most of us are so pinched and narrow. then we would reach the heights where superio rity dwells. "will try" to do a thing. every issue must be met wholly. It was the sustaining power of a mighty self-faith that enabled Columbus to bea r the jeers and imputations of the Spanish cabinet. who is "bou do it. no positiveness in his energy. then he is in a positio n to express power. yearn for. and no one can accomplish great things in l ife unless he works in oneness with the Infinite. There or who nd" to equal is a great difference between a man who thinks that "perhaps" he can do. has no projectile power. ever gathering momentum agai nst the obstacles which confront him. The fact that a man believes implicitly that he can do what may seem impossible or very difficult to others. is because we do not have a large faith in ourselves and in our power to accomplish. We are timid about venturing. The man whose mind is set firmly toward achievement does not approp riate success. There is no vigor in his initiative. we tend to become just in exact proportion to the intensity and persistence o f the thought. struggle for. he is success. We ought to think upward. and certainty. to fling the whole weight of his being into his work. hence its superior vision.

before thousands of his fellow c itizens. it led Nelson and Grant to victory. They are the stirrings of the divinity within us. It has enabled the inventor and the discoverer to go on and on amidst troubles and trials which otherwise w ould have utterly disheartened them. Self-faith has been the miracle-worker of the ages. his mental attitude a nd energy have created it. than by almost anything else. entering in his diary d ay after day--"This day we sailed west. The thing you long for and work for comes to you because your thought h as created it. until he catches a glimpse of his higher. is always seeking you. discovery. Were we to think upward we should reach the heights where superiority dwells. We think ourselves into smallness. toward his fellow men. which was our course. until he rea lizes that his ambition. ult imate end. past the defenses of the enem y in Mobile Bay. The cause of whatever comes to you in life is within you. for t here is no power in the universe that can help a man do a thing when he thinks h e can not do it. nobler self. remem ber that he has usually thought himself into his position. and mines to victory at Manil a Bay. in his own grandeur. They are more handicapped by their limiting thought. the call to something better. It has held innumerable heroes to their tas ks until the glorious deeds were accomplished. b y their foolish convictions of inefficiency. The Creator would not have mocked us with the yearning f or infinite achievement without giving us the ability and the opportunity for re alizing it. If only we better und erstood our divinity we should all have this larger faith which is the distincti on of the brave soul. who had gathered to howl and jeer at his expected failure. to believe that his yearnings and hungerings and aspirations for higher. nobler things have any basis in reality or any real. because there is something inside you that attracts it.sailors were in mutiny and he was at their mercy in a little vessel on an unknow n sea. But they are. lashed to the rigging. that enabled him to hold steadily to his purpose. it has been the great tonic in the world of invention. toward himsel . You can not go beyond the limits you set for yourself. are proofs of his ability to reach the ideal which haunts him. toward his vocation. Your own comes to you. to go higher. any more than he would have mocked the wild birds with an instinct t o fly south in the winter without giving them a sunny South to match the instinc t." It was this self-faith which gave courage and determination to Fulton to attemp t his first trip up the Hudson in the Clermont. his aspiration. the signs of ability to match them. what he stands for in his community has come from his attitude toward life. It comes because there is an affinity within you for it. What miracles self-confidence has wrought! What impossible deeds it has helped to perform! It took Dewey past cannons. it carried Farragut. The only inferiority in us is what we put into ourselves. Perhaps there is no other one thing which keeps so many people back as their lo w estimate of themselves. No man gets very far in the world or expresses great power until self-faith is born in him. and art. He believed he could do the thing he attempted though the whole world was against him. It is one of the most difficult things to a mortal to really believe in his own bigness. of power t o make them real. torpedoes. There is where it is created. Self-faith must lead the way. it has won a thousand triumphs i n war and science which were deemed impossible by doubters and the faint-hearted . in fact. Whenever you see a person who has been unusually successful in any field.

our animal natures can not see. penetrates all obstacles and sees the goal. don't drag these ghosts a long with you to handicap you and destroy your happiness all through the future. Fa ith in himself indicates that a man has a glimpse of forces within him which eit her annihilate the obstacles in the way. It is the prophet within us. Faith never fails. if you feel that it was a failure. because faith sees. Above all else. The time will come when every human being will have unbounded faith and will li ve the life triumphant. and gotten a glimpse of the great source of things. timidity and cowardice. that we are not only encouraged to go on. arou sed. it is the outcome of his self-faith. Faith is assured. wasted your time and money.f. from quitting his upward life struggle. It gives him a glimpse of his possibiliti es to keep him from losing heart. It sees resources. is never a fraid. the result of his estimate of his powers and possibilities. It looks beyond all boundaries. m ade imprudent investments. and the discords of life will all vanish. and matched with honest effort. no failures. if awakened. the divine messenger appointed to accompany man through life to guide and direct and encourage him. that hold us down and keep us in mediocrity--doing petty things when we are capable of sublime deeds. it is a miracle worker. because it sees the way out. such unconquerable forces. It is doubt and fear. but feel a great consciousness of added power because we have touched omnipotence. If I could give the young people of America but one word of advice. Our faith knows because it sees what we can not see. recognizes the power that means accomplishment. potencies which our doubts and fears veil from us. or make them seem insignificant in comp arison with his ability to overcome them. will not only make a noble man o r woman of you. CHAPTER XLIV THE NEXT TIME YOU THINK YOU ARE A FAILURE If you made a botch of last year. Faith opens the door that enables us to look into the soul's limitless possibil ities and reveals such powers there. It knows bec ause it sees what our coarser selves. tran scends all limitations. but will also make you successful and happy. that you f loundered and blundered and did a lot of foolish things. . If we had faith enough we should travel Godward infinitely faster than we do. and our lives would be one triumphal march to the goa l of our ambition. The men who have done the great things in the world have been profound believer s in themselves. developed. All things a re possible to him who has faith. powers. Then there will be no poverty in the world. but knows. that there is a power within you which. sees the solution of its problem. If we had faith enough we could cure all our ills and accomplish the maximum of our possibilities. It has dip ped in the realms of our finer life our higher and diviner kingdom. of his inward vision of himself." That is. If we had faith in God and in ourselves we could remove al l mountains of difficulty. if you were gullible. All through the Bible we find emphasized the miracle-working power of faith. it would be this--"Believe in yourself with all your might. believe that your des tiny is inside of you. Faith is that something within us which does not guess.

has made us suffer. There are no F ates. harmful experience." He only is beaten who a dmits it. Enter upon to-morrow with a clean slate and a free mind. There is no fate or destiny which puts one man down and another up. One of the worst things that can ever happen to a person is to get it into his head that he was born unlucky and that the Fates are against him. any way open for retreat to tempt our weakness. doubt. bury them! To-day is a good time to "leave the low-vaulted past. outside of our own mentality. like a bull in a china shop." to drop the yesterdays. Every one ought to make it a life-rule to wipe out from his memory everything t hat has been unpleasant. whenever things go wrong with us. to forget bitter memories. that we are underlings. te ar through our mentalities. There is only one thing to do with a disagreeable. There is no use in castigating yourself for not having done better. but in ourselves. Form a habit of expelling from your mind thoughts or suggestions which call up unpleasant subjects or bitter memories. We should never leave any bridges u nburned behind us. We ought to forget everything that has kep t us back. tearing-down thoughts and unfortunate moods. and yet. blunders and unfortunate mistakes. or with memories that worry us and which kill our efficiency. and that is--forget it! There are many times in the life of a person who does things that are worth whi le when he gets terribly discouraged and thinks it easier to go back than to pus h on. Everything d epends upon our courage. "It is not in our stars. and never allow the hideou s pictures of distressing conditions to enter our minds again. We are our own Fates. Throw away all useless baggage. The man is inferior who admits that he is inferior. perhaps breaking up and destroying the work of years of building up. it is that we h ave had courage and pluck enough to push on. fear. If there is anything we ever feel grateful for. optim istic outlook. . and never look back. indecision or discouragement. that hinders your progress. and tha t is to forget them. who voluntarily ta kes an inferior position because he thinks the best things were intended for som ebody else. waste any more of your time or des troy any more of your happiness. we climb up only to fall back. and which have a bad influence upon you. We are all the time "queering" our lif e game by our vicious. keeps you ba ck and makes you unhappy. Most people are their own worst enemies. and we have to start all over again.Haven't you wasted enough energy worrying over what can not be helped? Don't le t these things sap any more of your vitality. has been disagreeable. Don't be mortgaged to the past. But there is no victory in retreating. Free yourself from everything which handicaps you. a loss or any misfortune. drop everything that i s a drag. despondency. Resolve that you will close the door on everything in the past that pains and c an not help you. to keep going when things looked da rk and when seemingly insurmountable obstacles confronted us. in our holding a hopeful. and often lose all we gain. We control our own des tiny. our faith in ourselves. We work and live like the frog in the well. There is only one thing to do with bitter experiences. whenever we have a dis couraging day or an unfortunate experience. we let the tearing-down thought. unfortunate.

power. inefficient. Never allow yourself to think meanly. j ust as words which pass through the eye from the printed page make a greater imp ression on the brain than we get by thinking the same words. It is marvelous what mental strength can be developed by the perpetual affirmat ion of vigorous fitness.You will find that just in proportion as you increase your confidence in yourse lf by the affirmation of what you wish to be and to do. No matter what other people may think about your ability. to focus the mind closely. you are more likely to carry it to reality than if you mere ly resolve in silence. Stoutly assert that there is a place for you in the world." You will be surprised to see how quickly this sort of self-suggestion will brac e you up and put new spirit in you. A vividness. strength. The audible self-encouragement treatment may be used with marvelous results in correcting our weaknesses. The way to get the best out of yourself is to put things right up to yourself. This form of suggestion--talking to oneself vigorously. makes a much deeper impression upon us . vigorous ly. Failure and misery are not for the man who has seen the God-side of hims elf. and you can do this to a remarkable degree by the powe r of self-suggestion. When you go into an undertaking just say to yourself. even vehemently. and talk to yourself as you would to a son of yo urs who has great ability but who is not using half of it. earnestly--seems to aro use the sleeping forces in the subconscious self more effectually than thinking the same thing. Never regar d yourself as weak. They make a more lasting impression upon the mind. even by your manner. We become so accustomed to our silent thoughts that the voicing of them. as seeing objects o f nature makes a more lasting impression upon the mind than thinking about them. to show the man in me or the coward. these are thoughts and ide als that make a strong man. that you think you are destined to do little thin gs all your life. They sometimes arouse slumbering energies within us which th inking does not stir up--especially if we have not been trained to think deeply. diseased. this thing is right up to me. and that you are goi ng to fill it like a man. capable. "Now. If you repeat a firm resolve to yourself aloud. the gi ving audible expression to our yearnings. narrowly. Increase your self-confiden ce in every possible way. your ability will increa se. vehemently uttered--which is not apparent to many in merely thinking about what the words express. never allow yourself to doubt that you can do or become what you long to. Nev er admit. There is no backing out. Ne ver even think of the possibility of going through life a failure or a partial f ailure. overcoming our deficiencies. handle yourself without gloves. There is a force in words spoken aloud which is not stirred by going over the s ame words mentally. who has been in touch with divinity. Train yourself to expect great things of yourself. accompanies the spoken word--especially if earnes tly. . I've got to make good. a certain force. efficiency. They are for those who have never disc overed themselves and their God-like qualities. complete. poorly of yourself. but as perfect.

you are the embodiment of courage and bravery. that he ha s made some foolish mistake or has failed to use good sense and good judgment in any transaction. Think. he has given himself a splendid education. and does not allow h imself to skip hard problems. You must make this a red-letter day. and you may distrust your own ability. encourage or push him. Nobody ever amo unts to much who lets his energies flag. "You are capable of something much better than what you are doing." By years of stern discipline of this kind he has done wonders with himself. which will not succumb to persistent audible suggestion. an d the worst of it all is that when you do a poor job. his standards droop and his ambition oo ze out. a conqueror. self-development. but you will deriv e so much benefit from it that you will have recourse to it in remedying all you r defects. to the woods if possible. that. This take-it-easy sort of policy will never land you at the go al you started for. You will have to watch yourself very closely or you will be left behind. Say to yourself that you are never again g oing to allow yourself to harbor any thoughts of self-depreciation or timidity o r inferiority. don't be a coward. or are careless about your dress and indifferent in your manner. Now. brush off the brain ash.I have a friend who has helped himself wonderfully by talking to himself about his conduct. on the contrary. There is no fault. instead of crawling about like a whipped cur. that you are attractive and that you know how to act in the presence of others. If so. I have never known any one else who carried on such a vigo rous campaign in self-victory. self-training. mainly sin ce he was twenty-one. young man. when he feels that his stamina and ambition are deteriorating. For example. Assu re yourself that there is no reason why you should be timid. until you are doing yourself justice. Yo u are going stale. however great or small. You like to take things easy. you may be naturally timid and shrin k from meeting people. g et a move on you!" This young man says that every morning when he finds his standards are down and he feels lazy and indifferent he "hauls himself over the coals. At first it may seem silly to you to be talking to yourself. you can do it. this indifference will seriously cripple your career if you're not very careful. you need a good talking-to. This lethargy. man. get the cobwebs out of your head. self-culture as this young man has. You are letting a lot of good chances slip by you. Bestir yourself. you do not feel as troubled as you used t o. think to some purpose! Do not mull and mope like this. "If others have done this. and has a good hear t-to-heart talk with himself something after this fashion: "Now young man. He began as a poor boy living in the slums of New York with no one to take an inter est in him. You are only half-alive. It is the very first thing he attends to. He forces himself to do the most disagreeable tasks first. you are becoming lazy. you ar . in order to force himself up to a higher standard and put himself in tune for the day. a bracing-up all along the line. When he feels that he is not doing all that he ought to. that you are going to hold your head up and go about as though yo u were a king. You are not making good." he says to himself. you will be greatly helped by assuring yourself in your daily self-talks that you are not t imid. he goes off alone to the country. Though he had little opportunity for schoolin g when he was a small boy. because you are not as progressive and up-to-date a s you ought to be. I am going to keep right after you. "In short. think. this inertia." as he calls it . "Now. your standards are dropping. your ideals are getting dull. because there is no thing inferior or peculiar about you. You must sta rt out to-day with a firm resolution to make the returns from your work greater to-night than ever before.

to kee . the true instead of the false. and optimism. life instead of death. the forming of the right thought habits. that luck is against you. that your work does not amount to much--turn about face. unconquerable spirits. those who lack faith in themselves. Resolve th at you will go no further in that direction. and w ith such wealth they can never be poor. and to pus h them to a finish. which repel people and repel business. they are just as far from real failure as before their loss. do not put the right estimate upon our pos sibilities. You will be surprised to see how you can increase your courage. that you can't do an ything worth while. and your ability. There are thousands of people who have lost everything they valued in the world . It requires only skilful t hinking. If you lack initiative. a determination to push ahead which know s no retreat. as the habit of constantly affirming their own importance.e going to assert your manhood. The trouble is that we do not think half enough of ourselves. your confidence . You can not get away from your ideals. This is not always easy. that you don't have the same oppor tunity that other people have---your convictions will control the result. the ir own divinity. I know of nothing so helpful for the timid. A great many people fail to reach a success which matches their ability because they are victims of their moods. It is perfectly possible for a well-trained mind to completely rout the worst c ase of the "blues" in a few minutes. Stop and face the other way. for your thought is your life pattern and you can not get away from it. all the material results of their lives' endeavor. the standard which you hold for yourself. Everywhere we see people with great ambitions doing very ordinary things. diviner man in us. belittle. a power among men. Try this experiment the very next time you get discouraged or think that you ar e a failure. and yet. efface ourselves. their own power. and success. happiness. It is a great thing to learn to focus the min d upon the beautiful instead of the ugly. upon ha rmony instead of discord. your individuality. The art of arts is learning how to clear the mind of its enemies--enemies of ou r comfort. but it is possible to everybody. because we do not s ee the larger. We avoid morose. stoutly affirm your ability to begin things. hope. we keep them closed and try to eject the darkness by main fo rce. The best way to keep out darkness is to keep the life filled with light. And always put your resolve into action at the first opportu nity. it helps you to become o ne. gloomy people just as we avoid a picture which makes a disagre eable impression upon us. simpl