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Pushing to the Front

Pushing to the Front, by Orison Swett Marden

The Project Gutenberg EBook of Pushing to the Front, by s eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and ions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use he Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or .org Title: Pushing to the Front Author: Orison Swett Marden Release Date: May 4, 2007 [EBook #21291] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1

Orison Swett Marden Thi with almost no restrict it under the terms of t online at www.gutenberg


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[Frontispiece: Orison Swett Marden]

Pushing to the Front BY ORISON SWETT MARDEN

"The world makes way for the determined man."

PUBLISHED BY The Success Company's Branch Offices PETERSBURG, N.Y. ---- TOLEDO ---- DANVILLE



FOREWORD This revised and greatly enlarged edition of "Pushing to the Front" is the outg rowth of an almost world-wide demand for an extension of the idea which made the original small volume such an ambition-arousing, energizing, inspiring force. It is doubtful whether any other book, outside of the Bible, has been the turni ng-point in more lives. It has sent thousands of youths, with renewed determination, back to school or college, back to all sorts of vocations which they had abandoned in moments of d iscouragement. It has kept scores of business men from failure after they had gi ven up all hope. It has helped multitudes of poor boys and girls to pay their way through colleg e who had never thought a liberal education possible. The author has received thousands of letters from people in nearly all parts of the world telling how the book has aroused their ambition, changed their ideals and aims, and has spurred them to the successful undertaking of what they befor e had thought impossible. The book has been translated into many foreign languages. In Japan and several other countries it is used extensively in the public schools. Distinguished educ ators in many parts of the world have recommended its use in schools as a civili zation-builder. Crowned heads, presidents of republics, distinguished members of the British an d other parliaments, members of the United States Supreme Court, noted authors, scholars, and eminent people in many parts of the world, have eulogized this boo k and have thanked the author for giving it to the world. This volume is full of the most fascinating romances of achievement under diffi culties, of obscure beginnings and triumphant endings, of stirring stories of st ruggles and triumphs. It gives inspiring stories of men and women who have broug ht great things to pass. It gives numerous examples of the triumph of mediocrity , showing how those of ordinary ability have succeeded by the use of ordinary me ans. It shows how invalids and cripples even have triumphed by perseverance and will over seemingly insuperable difficulties. The book tells how men and women have seized common occasions and made them gre at; it tells of those of average ability who have succeeded by the use of ordina ry means, by dint of indomitable will and inflexible purpose. It tells how pover ty and hardship have rocked the cradle of the giants of the race. The book point s out that most people do not utilize a large part of their effort because their mental attitude does not correspond with their endeavor, so that although worki ng for one thing, they are really expecting something else; and it is what we ex pect that we tend to get. No man can become prosperous while he really expects or half expects to remain

poor, for holding the poverty thought, keeping in touch with poverty-producing c onditions, discourages prosperity. Before a man can lift himself he must lift his thoughts. When we shall have lea rned to master our thought habits, to keep our minds open to the great divine in flow of life force, we shall have learned the truths of human endowment, human p ossibility. The book points out the fact that what is called success may be failure; that w hen men love money so much that they sacrifice their friendships, their families , their home life, sacrifice position, honor, health, everything for the dollar, their life is a failure, although they may have accumulated money. It shows how men have become rich at the price of their ideals, their character, at the cost of everything noblest, best, and truest in life. It preaches the larger doctrin e of equality; the equality of will and purpose which paves a clear path even to the Presidential chair for a Lincoln or a Garfield, for any one who will pay th e price of study and struggle. Men who feel themselves badly handicapped, crippl ed by their lack of early education, will find in these pages great encouragemen t to broaden their horizon, and will get a practical, helpful, sensible educatio n in their odd moments and half-holidays. Dr. Marden, in "Pushing to the Front," shows that the average of the leaders ar e not above the average of ability. They are ordinary people, but of extraordina ry persistence and perseverance. It is a storehouse of noble incentive, a treasu ry of precious sayings. There is inspiration and encouragement and helpfulness o n every page. It teaches the doctrine that no limits can be placed on one's care er if he has once learned the alphabet and has push; that there are no barriers that can say to aspiring talent, "Thus far, and no farther." Encouragement is it s keynote; it aims to arouse to honorable exertion those who are drifting withou t aim, to awaken dormant ambitions in those who have grown discouraged in the st ruggle for success. THE PUBLISHERS.



ILLUSTRATIONS Orison Swett Marden . . . . . . . . . . Frontispiece House in which Abraham Lincoln was born Ulysses S. Grant William Ewart Gladstone John Wanamaker Jane Addams Thomas Alva Edison Henry Ward Beecher Lincoln studying by the firelight Marshall Field Joseph Jefferson [Transcriber's note: Jefferson was a prominent actor during th e latter half of the 1800's.] Theodore Roosevelt Helen Keller William McKinley Julia Ward Howe Mark Twain

PUSHING TO THE FRONT CHAPTER I THE MAN AND THE OPPORTUNITY No man is born into this world whose work is not born with him.--LOWELL. Things don't turn up in this world until somebody turns them up.--GARFIELD. Vigilance in watching opportunity; tact and daring in seizing upon opportunity; force and persistence in crowding opportunity to its utmost of possible achieve ment--these are the martial virtues which must command success.--AUSTIN PHELPS.

"I will find a way or make one." There never was a day that did not bring its own opportunity for doing good tha t never could have been done before, and never can be again.--W. H. BURLEIGH. "Are you in earnest? Seize this very minute; What you can do, or dream you can, begin it." "If we succeed, what will the world say?" asked Captain Berry in delight, when Nelson had explained his carefully formed plan before the battle of the Nile. "There is no if in the case," replied Nelson. "That we shall succeed is certain . Who may live to tell the tale is a very different question." Then, as his capt ains rose from the council to go to their respective ships, he added: "Before th is time to-morrow I shall have gained a peerage or Westminster Abbey." His quick eye and daring spirit saw an opportunity of glorious victory where others saw o nly probable defeat. "Is it POSSIBLE to cross the path?" asked Napoleon of the engineers who had bee n sent to explore the dreaded pass of St. Bernard. "Perhaps," was the hesitating reply, "it is within the limits of possibility." "FORWARD THEN," said the Little Corporal, without heeding their account of appa rently insurmountable difficulties. England and Austria laughed in scorn at the idea of transporting across the Alps, where "no wheel had ever rolled, or by any possibility could roll," an army of sixty thousand men, with ponderous artiller y, tons of cannon balls and baggage, and all the bulky munitions of war. But the besieged Massena was starving in Genoa, and the victorious Austrians thundered at the gates of Nice, and Napoleon was not the man to fail his former comrades i n their hour of peril. When this "impossible" deed was accomplished, some saw that it might have been done long before. Others excused themselves from encountering such gigantic obst acles by calling them insuperable. Many a commander had possessed the necessary supplies, tools, and rugged soldiers, but lacked the grit and resolution of Bona parte, who did not shrink from mere difficulties, however great, but out of his very need made and mastered his opportunity. Grant at New Orleans had just been seriously injured by a fall from his horse, when he received orders to take command at Chattanooga, so sorely beset by the C onfederates that its surrender seemed only a question of a few days; for the hil ls around were all aglow by night with the camp-fires of the enemy, and supplies had been cut off. Though in great pain, he immediately gave directions for his removal to the new scene of action. On transports up the Mississippi, the Ohio, and one of its tributaries; on a li tter borne by horses for many miles through the wilderness; and into the city at last on the shoulders of four men, he was taken to Chattanooga. Things assumed a different aspect immediately. A master had arrived who was equal to the situat ion. The army felt the grip of his power. Before he could mount his horse he ord ered an advance, and although the enemy contested the ground inch by inch, the s urrounding hills were soon held by Union soldiers. Were these things the result of chance, or were they compelled by the indominab le determination of the injured General? Did things adjust themselves when Horatius with two companions held ninety thou sand Tuscans at bay until the bridge across the Tiber had been destroyed?--when Leonidas at Thermopylae checked the mighty march of Xerxes?--when Themistocles,

off the coast of Greece, shattered the Persian's Armada?--when Caesar, finding h is army hard pressed, seized spear and buckler, fought while he reorganized his men, and snatched victory from defeat?--when Winkelried gathered to his heart a sheaf of Austrian spears, thus opening a path through which his comrades pressed to freedom?--when for years Napoleon did not lose a single battle in which he w as personally engaged?--when Wellington fought in many climes without ever being conquered?--when Ney, on a hundred fields, changed apparent disaster into brill iant triumph?--when Perry left the disabled Lawrence, rowed to the Niagara, and silenced the British guns?--when Sheridan arrived from Winchester just as the Un ion retreat was becoming a rout, and turned the tide by riding along the line?-when Sherman, though sorely pressed, signaled his men to hold the fort, and they , knowing that their leader was coming, held it? History furnishes thousands of examples of men who have seized occasions to acc omplish results deemed impossible by those less resolute. Prompt decision and wh ole-souled action sweep the world before them. True, there has been but one Napoleon; but, on the other hand, the Alps that op pose the progress of the average American youth are not as high or dangerous as the summits crossed by the great Corsican. Don't wait for extraordinary opportunities. Seize common occasions and make the m great. On the morning of September 6, 1838, a young woman in the Longstone Lighthouse, between England and Scotland, was awakened by shrieks of agony rising above the roar of wind and wave. A storm of unwonted fury was raging, and her parents cou ld not hear the cries; but a telescope showed nine human beings clinging to the windlass of a wrecked vessel whose bow was hanging on the rocks half a mile away . "We can do nothing," said William Darling, the light-keeper. "Ah, yes, we must go to the rescue," exclaimed his daughter, pleading tearfully with both father and mother, until the former replied: "Very well, Grace, I will let you persuade me, though it is against my better judgment." Like a feather in a whirlwind the little boat was tossed on the tumultuous sea, but, borne on the blast that swep t the cruel surge, the shrieks of those shipwrecked sailors seemed to change her weak sinews into cords of steel. Strength hitherto unsuspected came from somewh ere, and the heroic girl pulled one oar in even time with her father. At length the nine were safely on board. "God bless you; but ye're a bonny English lass," said one poor fellow, as he looked wonderingly upon this marvelous girl, who tha t day had done a deed which added more to England's glory than the exploits of m any of her monarchs. "If you will let me try, I think I can make something that will do," said a boy who had been employed as a scullion at the mansion of Signer Faliero, as the st ory is told by George Cary Eggleston. A large company had been invited to a banq uet, and just before the hour the confectioner, who had been making a large orna ment for the table, sent word that he had spoiled the piece. "You!" exclaimed th e head servant, in astonishment; "and who are you?" "I am Antonio Canova, the gr andson of Pisano, the stone-cutter," replied the pale-faced little fellow. "And pray, what can you do?" asked the major-domo. "I can make you something th at will do for the middle of the table, if you'll let me try." The servant was a t his wits' end, so he told Antonio to go ahead and see what he could do. Callin g for some butter, the scullion quickly molded a large crouching lion, which the admiring major-domo placed upon the table. Dinner was announced, and many of the most noted merchants, princes, and noblem en of Venice were ushered into the dining-room. Among them were skilled critics of art work. When their eyes fell upon the butter lion, they forgot the purpose for which they had come in their wonder at such a work of genius. They looked at

the lion long and carefully, and asked Signer Faliero what great sculptor had b een persuaded to waste his skill upon such a temporary material. Faliero could n ot tell; so he asked the head servant, who brought Antonio before the company. When the distinguished guests learned that the lion had been made in a short ti me by a scullion, the dinner was turned into a feast in his honor. The rich host declared that he would pay the boy's expenses under the best masters, and he ke pt his word. Antonio was not spoiled by his good fortune, but remained at heart the same simple, earnest, faithful boy who had tried so hard to become a good st one-cutter in the shop of Pisano. Some may not have heard how the boy Antonio to ok advantage of this first great opportunity; but all know of Canova, one of the greatest sculptors of all time. Weak men wait for opportunities, strong men make them. "The best men," says E. H. Chapin, "are not those who have waited for chances b ut who have taken them; besieged the chance; conquered the chance; and made chan ce the servitor." There may not be one chance in a million that you will ever receive unusual aid ; but opportunities are often presented which you can improve to good advantage, if you will only act. The lack of opportunity is ever the excuse of a weak, vacillating mind. Opportu nities! Every life is full of them. Every lesson in school or college is an oppo rtunity. Every examination is a chance in life. Every patient is an opportunity. Every newspaper article is an opportunity. Every client is an opportunity. Ever y sermon is an opportunity. Every business transaction is an opportunity,--an op portunity to be polite,--an opportunity to be manly,--an opportunity to be hones t,--an opportunity to make friends. Every proof of confidence in you is a great opportunity. Every responsibility thrust upon your strength and your honor is pr iceless. Existence is the privilege of effort, and when that privilege is met li ke a man, opportunities to succeed along the line of your aptitude will come fas ter than you can use them. If a slave like Fred Douglass, who did not even own h is body, can elevate himself into an orator, editor, statesman, what ought the p oorest white boy to do, who is rich in opportunities compared with Douglass? It is the idle man, not the great worker, who is always complaining that he has no time or opportunity. Some young men will make more out of the odds and ends of opportunities which many carelessly throw away than other will get out of a w hole life-time. Like bees, they extract honey from every flower. Every person th ey meet, every circumstance of the day, adds something to their store of useful knowledge or personal power. "There is nobody whom Fortune does not visit once in his life," says a cardinal ; "but when she finds he is not ready to receive her, she goes in at the door an d out at the window." Cornelius Vanderbilt saw his opportunity in the steamboat, and determined to id entify himself with steam navigation. To the surprise of all his friends, he aba ndoned his prosperous business and took command of one of the first steamboats l aunched, at a salary of one thousand dollars a year. Livingston and Fulton had a cquired the sole right to navigate New York waters by steam, but Vanderbilt thou ght the law unconstitutional, and defied it until it was repealed. He soon becam e a steamboat owner. When the government was paying a large subsidy for carrying the European mails, he offered to carry them free and give better service. His offer was accepted, and in this way he soon built up an enormous freight and pas senger traffic. Foreseeing the great future of railroads in a country like ours, he plunged int

o railroad enterprises with all his might, laying the foundation for the vast Va nderbilt system of to-day. Young Philip Armour joined the long caravan of Forty-Niners, and crossed the "G reat American Desert" with all his possessions in a prairie schooner drawn by mu les. Hard work and steady gains carefully saved in the mines enabled him to star t, six years later, in the grain and warehouse business in Milwaukee. In nine ye ars he made five hundred thousand dollars. But he saw his great opportunity in G rant's order, "On to Richmond." One morning in 1864 he knocked at the door of Pl ankinton, partner in his venture as a pork packer. "I am going to take the next train to New York," said he, "to sell pork 'short.' Grant and Sherman have the r ebellion by the throat, and pork will go down to twelve dollars a barrel." This was his opportunity. He went to New York and offered pork in large quantities at forty dollars per barrel. It was eagerly taken. The shrewd Wall Street speculat ors laughed at the young Westerner, and told him pork would go to sixty dollars, for the war was not nearly over. Mr. Armour, however, kept on selling, Grant co ntinued to advance. Richmond fell, pork fell with it to twelve dollars a barrel, and Mr. Armour cleared two millions of dollars. John D. Rockefeller saw his opportunity in petroleum. He could see a large popu lation in this country with very poor lights. Petroleum was plentiful, but the r efining process was so crude that the product was inferior, and not wholly safe. Here was Rockefeller's chance. Taking into partnership Samuel Andrews, the port er in a machine shop where both men had worked, he started a single barrel "stil l" in 1870, using an improved process discovered by his partner. They made a sup erior grade of oil and prospered rapidly. They admitted a third partner, Mr. Fla gler, but Andrews soon became dissatisfied. "What will you take for your interes t?" asked Rockefeller. Andrews wrote carelessly on a piece of paper, "One millio n dollars." Within twenty-four hours Mr. Rockefeller handed him the amount, sayi ng, "Cheaper at one million than ten." In twenty years the business of the littl e refinery, scarcely worth one thousand dollars for building and apparatus, had grown into the Standard Oil Trust, capitalized at ninety millions of dollars, wi th stock quoted at 170, giving a market value of one hundred and fifty millions. These are illustrations of seizing opportunity for the purpose of making money. But fortunately there is a new generation of electricians, of engineers, of sch olars, of artists, of authors, and of poets, who find opportunities, thick as th istles, for doing something nobler than merely amassing riches. Wealth is not an end to strive for, but an opportunity; not the climax of a man's career, but an incident. Mrs. Elizabeth Fry, a Quaker lady, saw her opportunity in the prisons of Englan d. From three hundred to four hundred half-naked women, as late as 1813, would o ften be huddled in a single ward of Newgate, London, awaiting trial. They had ne ither beds nor bedding, but women, old and young, and little girls, slept in fil th and rags on the floor. No one seemed to care for them, and the Government mer ely furnished food to keep them alive. Mrs. Fry visited Newgate, calmed the howl ing mob, and told them she wished to establish a school for the young women and the girls, and asked them to select a schoolmistress from their own number. They were amazed, but chose a young woman who had been committed for stealing a watc h. In three months these "wild beasts," as they were sometimes called, became ha rmless and kind. The reform spread until the Government legalized the system, an d good women throughout Great Britain became interested in the work of educating and clothing these outcasts. Fourscore years have passed, and her plan has been adopted throughout the civilized world. A boy in England had been run over by a car, and the bright blood spurted from a severed artery. No one seemed to know what to do until another boy, Astley Coo per, took his handkerchief and stopped the bleeding by pressure above the wound. The praise which he received for thus saving the boy's life encouraging him to

After dinner the friend said. moreover. was separated from her lover. and still current there. and he said to him. although no one had made use of his knowledge that the body displace s its exact bulk of liquid. in the dispersion of the Acadians. he is suddenly confronted with his first criti cal operation.become a surgeon. as he watched a lamp left swinging by accident in the cathedral at Pisa. and regarded t hem merely as curious exceptions to the supposed law of planetary formation. open hearts will nev er want for worthy objects upon which to bestow their gifts. often hitting heedless men on the hea d as if to set them thinking. Is he equal to the emergency? Can he fill the great surgeon's pl ace. open hands will nev er lack for noble work to do. but the boy Galil eo. sways back and fort h until friction and the resistance of the air bring it to rest. Life and death hang in the balance. He and it are face to face.' Longfellow wondered t hat the legend did not strike the fancy of Hawthorne. 'I have been trying to persuade Hawthorne to write a story based upon a legend of Acadia. "The time comes to the young surgeon. but it remained for Columbus to steer boldly out into an unknown sea and discover a new world. Innumerable apples had fallen from trees. the foremost of his day." said James T. For ages astronomers had been familiar with the rings of Saturn. Fields. and do his work? If he can. after long waiting. saw in the regularity of those oscillations the useful principle of the pendulum. with him from Salem. Everybody knew how steadily a suspended weight. open ears will never fail to detect the cries of those who are perishing for assistance. but when Archimedes observed the fact. instead of being exceptions. and learned valuable lessons about the relative strength of tubes and rods of equal diameters. "and brought a friend. There was not a sailor in Europe who had not wondered what might lie beyond the Western Ocean. Longfellow seized his opportunity and gave to the world 'Evangeline. a nd only found him dying in a hospital when both were old. will you let me have it for a poem?' To this Hawthorne consented. or the E xile of the Acadians.'" Open eyes will discover opportunities everywhere. but Laplace saw that. His opportunity confronts him. Time is pressing. The great surgeon is away. and patient study and experiment. yet no one cons idered this information of the slightest practical importance. "when. Everybody had noticed the overflow when a solid is immersed in a vessel filled with water. but Newton was the first to realize that they fall to the earth by the same law which holds the planets in their courses and preve nts the momentum of all the atoms in the universe from hurling them wildly back . he is the one of all others who is wanted. however irreg ular in shape. E ven the iron doors of a prison were not enough to shut him out from research. and passed her life in waiting and seeking for him." Are you prepared for a great opportunity? "Hawthorne dined one day with Longfellow. He experimented with the straw of his cell. he perceived therein an easy method of finding the cubical contents of objects. or step into fame and fortune? It is for him to say." says Arnold. and promised. Shall he confess his igno rance and inability. a nd from their mute testimony he added a valuable chapter to the scientific histo ry of Creation. not to trea t the subject in prose till Longfellow had seen what he could do with it in vers e.--the legend of a girl who. when moved. 'If yo u have really made up your mind not to use it for a story. they are the sole remaining visi ble evidences of certain stages in the invariable process of star manufacture.

when shown." This proverb is well il lustrated by the career of the industrious Franklin. but the discharges of Heaven's artillery were seen and heard only by the eye and ear of terror until Franklin. Avenues greater in number." But what is the best opportunity to him who cannot or will not use it? "It was my lot. frugal. 'I wi ll try. The captain and crew and most of the passengers found a grave in the deep. and the purpos eless too often see no meaning in the happiest occasions. He who improves an opportunity sows a seed which will yield fruit in opportunit y for himself and others. "I tried to lay by him.to chaos. I cou ld not keep my position. you may hold her.' again shouted Captain Herndon." Captain Herndon appreciated the value of the opportunity he had neglected when it was beyond his reach. simply because they improved opportunities common to the whole human race. but. The night was closing in. by a simpl e experiment. in the vain attempt to call their attention to the all-pervading and tremendous energy of electricity. In an hour and a hal f after he said. with its living freight. Every one who has labored honestly in the past has aid ed to place knowledge and comfort within the reach of a constantly increasing nu mber. but I hailed the cr ippled steamer and asked if they needed help. and I never saw the steamer again." replied the sculptor. cannot be overtaken. told thousands of years ago by Solomon: "Seest thou a man diligent in his business? he shall stand before kings. to the edu cated youth. but at night. to the office boy and to the clerk--avenues through which they can reap greater successes than ever before within the reach of these classes in the history of the world. not Jupiter himself can catch her again. easier of access than ever before e xisted. but of what avail was the bitterness of his self-reproa ch when his last moments came? How many lives were sacrificed to his unintellige nt hopefulness and indecision! Like him the feeble. for he stood before five ki ngs and dined with two. A little while ago there were only three or four professi ons--now there are fifty." "Opportunity has hair in front." says a Latin author. Read the story of any successful m an and mark its moral. Like many others. wider in extent. stand open to the sober. these men are considered great. if suffered to escape. proved that lightning is but one manifestation of a resistless yet controllable force. Lightning had dazzled the eyes. there are a hundre d now.' I answered 'but had you not better send your passengers on board now?' 'Lay by me till morning." said a shipmaster. abundant as air and water. and which had wings on its feet. "behind she is bald." "Why has he wings on his feet?" "Because he is soon go ne. "Why is its face hidden?" "Because men seldom know hi m when he comes to them. such was the heavy roll of the sea. among many gods. 'Lay by me till morning. "Opportuni ty. 'Had you not better send your passengers on board directly?' I asked. went down. "to fall in with the ill-fated steamer Cent ral America.' cri ed Captain Herndon. "What is its name?" asked a visitor in a studio. energetic and able mechanic. 'Will you not lay by me until morning?' replied Captain Herndon. until too late they le . And of trades. the sea rolling high.' his vessel. if y ou seize her by the forelock. o ne whose face was concealed by hair. the sluggish. and thunder had jarred the ears of men since th e days of Adam. and once gone. where there was one. 'I am in a sinking condition.

whose criminal indulgence brought disaster to many lives . he would give one of his brightest smiles. He "took the world easy. when they asked for Joe. Later on. but perceive no opportunity in the present. "Oh. The brakeman laughed and said: "There's no hurry.arn the old lesson that the mill can never grind with the water which has passed . swinging an empty lantern in front of an imaginary t rain. . that I had!" or "Oh.accommodation train. Then he r an for the curve. smilingly. and ordered Joe back with a red light." As boys. and there is no sadder sound in that sad place than the unceasing moan. they were late for school. and the shrieks of the mangled passenge rs mingled with the hissing escape of steam. The engine had blown out i ts cylinder head. and if any one remonstrated. that I had! Oh. and his train was delayed. whistling. and crying. Between two stations the train came to a quick halt. that I had!" of th e unfortunate brakeman." The conductor answered gravely. but the next day he was found in a barn. and an express was due in a few minutes upon the same track. moved leisurely down the track. Joe complai ned of extra duties because of the storm. Wait till I get my overcoat. I'm all right. They remember plenty of chances to make money. they see how to improve themselves or help others in the future. too. "Oh." One evening there was a heavy snowstorm. rear brakeman on the ---. The express is due. Don't you worry. "They have three hands apiece. and afterwards to an asylum. w hen responsibility claims them. Such people are always a little too late or a little too early in everything th ey attempt. but it was too late. The conductor then hurried forward to the eng ine. for he was eager t o please and always ready to answer questions. Joe. and now. "a right hand. or they can probably get one to-morrow. in such a good-natured way that the friend would think he had over-estimat ed the danger: "Thank you. "Oh. T he conductor hurried to the rear car. Then he slowly gras ped the lantern and. The passengers liked him. and slyly sipped occasional draughts f rom a flat bottle." said Joe." "All right. But the brakeman did not go at once. was exceedingly popu lar with all the railroad men. that I had!" He was taken home. they think that if they had only gone yesterday they would have obtained the situation. Then he took another sip from the flat bottle to keep the cold out. or know how to make it some other time than now. "Don't stop a minute. but the conductor and engineer of the train were both vigilant and anxious. that I had not!" is the silent cry of many a man who would give life itself for the opportunity to go back and retrieve some long-pas t error. He stopped to put on his overcoat. and un punctual in their home duties. Soon he became quite jolly. and r eply. Gough. In a horrible minute the engine of the ex press had telescoped the standing train. He had not gone ten paces before he heard the puffing of the express. That is the way the habit is acquired. delirious. and a little behindhand." said John B. Joe Stoker. They cannot seize their opportunity . But he did not realize the full r esponsibility of his position. a left hand." and occasionally tipple d. he had disappeared.

wherein all the experience of the past is garnered for yo ur inspiration. or worth. M ake it." CHAPTER II WANTED--A MAN . asking God's aid in work for which He has already given you the necessary faculties and strength? Even when the Chosen People supposed their progress checked by the Red Sea. in war and in peace. and riches by credit. or fame. And we must take the current when it serves. "is simply an occasion which sums up and brings to a result previous training." says Dean Alford. "There is a tide in the affairs of men. Golden opportunities are nothing to laziness. persistent endeavor we find our highest go od. There is no proportion between spaces of time in importance nor in value. Omitted."There are moments. with our own faculties so arranged that in honest. the hour When fortune smiles. and with countless noble examples to encourage us to dare and to do. Make it." With the world full of work that needs to be done. that they go forward.--make it as the shepherd-boy Ferguson made his when he calculated the distances of the stars with a handful of glass beads on a string. And t his all-important moment--who can tell when it will be upon us?" "What we call a turning-point. Make it as George Stephenson made his when he mastered the ru les of mathematics with a bit of chalk on the grimy sides of the coal wagons in the mines. A stray. the Lord said. But bravely bear thee onward to the goal." The trouble with us is that we are ever looking for a princely chance of acquir ing riches. Nor shrink aside to 'scape the specter fear. though p leasure beckon from her bower. have made their chances of s uccess. why stand ye here all the day idle? Was the land all occup ied before you were born? Has the earth ceased to yield its increase? Are the se ats all taken? the positions all filled? the chances all gone? Are the resources of your country fully developed? Are the secrets of nature all mastered? Is the re no way in which you can utilize these passing moments to improve yourself or benefit others? Is the competition of modern existence so fierce that you must b e content simply to gain an honest living? Have you received the gift of life in this progressive age. Or lose our ventures. taken at the flood. or clear his path to success. knowl edge without study. then. Young men and women. "Wherefore criest thou unto me? Speak unto the c hildren of Israel. as all leaders of men. each mo ment brings us to the threshold of some new opportunity. but industry makes the com monest chances golden. unthought-of five minutes may contain the event of a life. how can you sit with folded hands. Nor pause. and duty points the way. and their leader paused for Divine help. earnest." says Arnold. We are expecting mastery without apprenticeship." "'Tis never offered twice. seize. Make it. Which. all the voyage of their life Is bound in shallows and in miser ies. "which are worth more than years. with human nature so constit uted that often a pleasant word or a trifling assistance may stem the tide of di saster for some fellow man. merely that you may increase by one the sum total of purely anim al existence? Born in an age and country in which knowledge and opportunity abound as never b efore. leads on to fortune. We can not help it. Accidental circumstances are nothin g except to men who have been trained to take advantage of them. Don't wait for your opportunity. as Napoleon made his in a hundred "impossible" situations. We are dazzled by what Emerson calls the "shallow Americanism" of the day.

." though all the world say "Yes. and sought in vain. whose nerves are brought to the ir acutest sensibility. This man. ." All the world cries. incisive." The world wants a man who is educated all over. education and culture. he said scornfully: "I called f or men. discipline and drill. a man who will not lose his individuality in a crowd. whose eyes are alert. the servant of a tender conscience. and not one-sided in his development. a man who mixes common sense with his th eories. Not power with gracious smiles. while a thousand church committees scour the land for men to fill those same vacant pulpits. microscopic. or mutilate his manhood. the world h as a standing advertisement: "Wanted--A Man. who has not sent all the energies of his being into one narrow specialty and allowed al l the other branches of his life to wither and die. Wanted. keen. no stunted ascetic. in one direction at least. Wanted. charac ter and manhood. broad. a man of courage who is not a coward in any part of his nature. magnanimous. it is each one of us! . who has learned to love all beauty. Wanted. whose ha nds are deft. who does not take half views of things. not pygmies." Wanted. though he is dominated by a mighty purpose. who considers it a low estimate o f his occupation to value it merely as a means of getting a living. of the largeness of the opportunit ies of the age. Not wealth in mountain piles. a ma n who sees self-development. a thousand preach ers standing idle in the market place. Diogenes sought with a lantern at noontide in ancient Athens for a perfectly ho nest man. nothing easier. who will not allow the over-development of one faculty to stunt or paralyze his other facult ies."Wanted. whether of nature or of art. In the market place he once cried aloud. is full of life and fire. a man who is well balanced. but whose pas sions are trained to heed a strong will. every occupation. and. . every-day life. cripple.--ALEXANDRE DUMAS. a man who is larger than his calling. You have him at hand. if one wills it." Over the door of every profession. How to constitute one's self a man? Nothing harder. men. if one knows not how to will it. Not faiths with rigid eyes. in his occupation. Want ed. to hate all vilene ss. a man who. "Hear me. a man who is symmetrical. Wanted. who is not afraid to say "No. it is I. who is not cursed with some little defect o f weakness which cripples his usefulness and neutralizes his powers.--it is you." Wanted. every calling. O men". men: Not systems fit and wise. will not permit one great faculty to dwarf. Wanted. warp. is a suff icient indication. true. Not even the potent pen. and scour in vain. Wanted. a man who prefers substance to show. a man "who. and to respect others as himself. a man who is broad. when a crowd collected around him. sensitive. and also of the crying need of good men. A thousand pulpits vacant in a single religious denomination. and one who regards his good name as a priceless treasure. Where is the man who will save us? We want a man! Don't lo ok so far for this man. whose brain is cultured. a man who has the courage of his convictions. who does not let a college education spoil him for practical. whose heart is tende r. Wanted.

independent. one wave reaches up the beach far higher than any previous one. and yet everywhere we see the advertisement: "Wanted--A Man." Montaigne says our work is not to train a soul by itself alone. is he rich? i s he committed? is he well-meaning? has he this or that faculty? is he of the mo vement? is he of the establishment? but is he anybody? does he stand for somethi ng? He must be good of his kind. but after a while the whole sea is there and . sickly instead of robust. nor a body by i tself alone. a demand that man shall come up to the h ighest standard. and there is an inherent protest or contempt for preventable de ficiency. says. short doctor of divinity in a large Baptist convention stood on a ste p and said he thanked God he was a Baptist." he replied. When I have done w ith him. all that the commo n sense of mankind asks. As Emerson says. Nature. or the bar. Natur e has destined us to the offices of human life antecedent to our destination con cerning society. What more glorious than a magnificent manhood. To live is the profession I would teach him. A peevish. "memory-glands " instead of brainy men. Fortune may remove him from one rank to another as she pleases . then recedes. weak instead of strong. and that is being a man. I can succeed in nothin g." "Get up higher. robust. That is all that Talleyrand. it is true he will be neither a soldier. The audience could not hear and call ed "Louder. "According to the order o f nature. nor a divine. "I can't. too. the pulpit. demands that man be ever at the top of his condition. in his celebrated essay on education. As we stand upon the seashore while the tide is coming in. "So many promising you ths." But there is something higher than being a Bapt ist. turned out into the world saplings instead of stalwart oaks. and for some time none that follows comes up to its mark. I must make myself a man. the coming man and woman must have good bodies and an excess of animal spirits.The whole world is looking for such a man. There is an inheren t love in the human mind for wholeness. their common vocation is the profession of humanity. Talleyrand's question is ever the main one. " Rousseau. "To be a Bap tist is as high as one can get. One great need for the world to-day is for men and women who are good animals. To endure the strain of our concentrated civilization. he will be always found in his place. ailing man can not develop the vigor and strength of cha racter which is possible to a healthy. It matters littl e to me whether my pupil be designed for the army. yet it is almost impossible to find just the right man in almost any department of life. and never a finished man!" The character sympathizes with and unconsciously takes on the nature of the bod y. cheerful man." some one said. but to train a man. if I do not succeed in that. animated with the bounding spiri ts of overflowing health? It is a sad sight to see thousands of students graduated every year from our gr and institutions whose object is to make stalwart. Although there are millions out of e mployment. Let hi m first be a man. and whoever is well educated to discharge the duty of a man can not be badly pre pared to fill any of those offices that have a relation to him." A little. snarling. helpless instead of self-supporting. not. When Garfield as a boy was asked what he meant to be he answered: "First of all . self-supporting men. leaning instead of erect. men being equal. a lawyer.

But it must become timber first. like George Peabody. and knowing.-. Men who possess opinions and a will. What are palaces and equipages. Not starred and spangled courts. His sensibility will not be deadened or blunted by violation of Nature's laws. The first requisite of all education and discipline should be man-timber. Prevent the long-aimed blo w. He will be a man raised to the highest power. Man is the only great thing in the universe. brake. showing that Nature has not lost her ideal. rich navies ride. to walk and live. Men who have honor-men who will not lie. Tall men sun-crowned. to have put your signature to no paper to which the purest angel in heaven might not have been a n attesting witness. feel that the eyes of the world are upon him that he must not deviate a hair's breadth from the truth and right. and after a while even the av erage man will overtop the highest wave of manhood yet given to the world. the sapling child is developed into hardy menta l. Where low-browed baseness wafts perfume to pride. Tough timber must come from well grown. What constitutes a state? Not high-raised battlement or labored mound. if he should take su ch a stand at the outset. ANON. Apelles hunted over Greece for many years. moral. but the strength and the v irtues of other types of men.beyond it. what though a man could cover a continent with his title-deeds. within arm's length of what is not your own. and ever master of himself. But know their rights. not the follies. Where. great hearts. here a grace and there a turn of beauty.Men who their duties kno w. or an ocean with his commerce. dare maintain. equipoised. with a heart that might be turned inside out and disclose no stain of dishonor? To have done no man a wrong. And crush the tyrant while they rend the chain. Not bays an d broad-armed ports. that every promise he makes shall be redeeme d to the letter. Thick wa ll or moated gate. So through di scipline. sturdy trees. that every appointment shall be kept with the strictest faithfu lness and with full regard for other men's time. A time like this demands Strong minds. can be fashioned into a piano or an exquisite carving. or den. So the coming man will be a composite. who live above the fog I n public duty. laughing at the storm. many in one. he would. with a bosom that n ever throbs with fear of exposure. All the ages have been trying to p roduce a perfect model. So now and then there comes a man head and shoulders above his fello w men. WILLIAM JONES. Men whom the spoil s of office cannot buy. unseduced. high-minded men. physical man-timber. Such wood can be turned into a mast.--this is to be a man. Only one complete man has yet evolved. As beasts excel cold rocks and brambles rude. The best of us ar e but prophesies of what is to come. Men who can stand before a demagogue And scorn his treach erous flatteries without winking. Not cities proud with spires and turrets crowned. compared with conscious rectitud e. for his famous portrait of a perfect woman which en chanted the world. His whole charact er will be impressionable. getting here an eye. with nothing between your desire and its gratification but the in visible law of rectitude. true fait h and ready hands: Men whom the lust of office does not kill. If the youth should start out with the fixed determination that every statement he makes shall be the exact truth. . with a face that never turns pale at the accuser's voice. education. if he should hold his reputatio n as a priceless treasure. He will a bsorb into himself not the weakness. and will respond to the most delicate touches of Natu re. there a forehead and there a nose. Time and patience develop the sapling into the tree. He w ill be a self-centered. experience. No: men. With powers as far above dull brutes endued In forest. studying the fairest points of beaut iful women. come to have almost unl imited credit and the confidence of everybody who knows him. God give us men. and in private thinking.

B ut no.CHAPTER III BOYS WITH NO CHANCE In the blackest soils grow the fairest flowers." The poor deaf boy with a drunken father. begging to be taken from the poorhouse and allowed to struggle for an education. and his name ended in "sen. "we are i n the midst of plenty. HOLLAND. "can never be anything at all. "my papa can put your papa and ever ybody's papa into the newspaper. And those whose names end with 'sen. are men who began life as poor boys." said a pretty little girl at a children's party in Denmark. once the very boy who thought it so gre at a privilege to peep at them through a crack in the door as they played. they also. This sketch is adapted from a story by a poor Danish cobbler's son. There can be no doubt that the captains of industry to-day. it is the soft. "Can y our papa do that?" "Yes. The Hottentots subsist a long time on nothing but a little gum. G. That lowliness is young ambition's ladder! SHAKESPEARE. father. filled with all kinds of beautiful and val uable objects. and the fields. There they met the owner.--J. who was thought capable of nothing bet ter than making shoes as a pauper. another who se name did not keep him from becoming famous. tie a ligature around their bodies. but hearten us in our future struggl es. when hungry. became one of the greatest Biblical scholars in the world. turnips. Poverty is very terrible. and I know how to prevent hunger. Poverty is the sixth sense. a hayrick will make an excellent bed. Cannot I do so.--GERMAN PROVERB.--SETH LOW. We must put our arms akimbo." Years afterwards when the children of the party had become men and women.--SHARPE. and early adversity is often a blessi ng." angrily exclaimed the daughter of the rich merchant Petersen.--OUIDA. so as to keep these 'sen' people at a great distance. 'Tis a common proof. It is not every calamity that is a curse. luscious south wi nd which lulls them to lotus dreams. my papa says. using that term in its broadest sense. His first book was written in the workhouse." "Oh.'" she added. for he can do as he likes with the paper." said the deaf boy. All sorts of people are afraid of him. "I am a child of the court. some of them went to see a splendid house." chimed in the daughter of an editor. Surmounted difficulties not only teach. too? The hedges furnish blackberries and nu ts. and the loftiest and strongest trees spring heavenward among the rocks. and make the elbows quite pointed. . by permission of the cook for whom he had been turning the spit. which is a very high office. his parents had not even a penny to spare. "my father is Groom of the Chambers. and sometimes kills the very soul within us. and give them away to children. Kitto. "There is no fear of my starving.--Hans Christian Andersen. He ha d become the great sculptor Thorwaldsen. if I could be one of them!" thought a little boy peeping through the crack of the door. but it i s the north wind that lashes men into Vikings." "But my papa can buy a hundred dollars' worth of bonbons.

Creon was a Greek slave. forgive and save the maid! She is my sister. and I am the minister of the law. T he highest purpose of law should be the development of the beautiful." And there. we ar e sure of it. "immortal Aphrodite. but to my side bring the youth. the greatest sculpto r living. I am the culprit. Beauty was his god. It was after the repulse of the great Persian inv ader." To the cellar Creon went. his soul. but with black eyes that beam ed with the flashing light of genius. my queen. the gods will be friend us. "A mystery. The group is the work of my hands. to the dungeon with the slave. far more beautiful th an the rest. Not to the dungeon. no!" said Pericles. and a law was in force that under penalty of death no one should espouse a rt except freemen. his devoted sister." but he was also a slave of the Genius of Art. to be now my friend. emaciated. high enthroned child of Zeus. in the presence of the assembled multitude. and other renowned men stood near him. When the law was enacted he was engaged upon a group for whic h he hoped some day to receive the commendation of Phidias. At his side was Aspasia. day and night . "the law is imperat ive. a determined expression in her eyes. rushed forward.--challenged univer sal attention. Sophocles. then! Can it be the work of a slave?" Amid great commotion a beautiful maiden with disarranged dress. The works of the great masters were there. and flinging himself befor e him exclaimed: "O Pericles. my goddess. but now. all the gods seemed to have d eserted him. gratefully and proudly. About this time all Greece was invited to Athens to behold an exhibit of works of art. at whose shrine I have daily laid my offerings. Take the maid to the dungeon. go to the cellar beneath our house. the friend of my brother!" Then to her brother she said: "O Creon. "Who is the sculptor of this group?" None could tell. If Athens lives in the memory and affections of men." As he spoke a youth with flowing hair. from day to day.--a group that Apollo himself must have chiseled. but I will furnish light and food. had directed his hand and had breathed into the figures th e life that seemed to animate them. "O Aphrodit e!" she prayed. but her lips remained closed. the hands of a slave. that Apollo. He believed. "this woman knows the sculptor. What was to be done? Into the marble block before him Creon had put his head." Cleone was questioned. he proceeded with his glorious but dangerous task. Heralds repeated the ques tion. a nswering his prayers. it is her devotion to art that will i mmortalize her. his life. Pericles presided. "To the dungeon. Continue your work. It is dark. felt the blow as deeply as her brother. rising. my patron. as a writer tells the story in Kate Field's "Washingto n." said Pericles. exciting at the same time no little envy among rival artists. and he wor shiped it with rapt adoration." "As I live. disheveled hair . "Then. and with closed lips. She was informed of the penalty of her c onduct.--now. Cleone. On his knees. and guarded and attended by his sister. new skill. "Behold that group! Apo llo decides by it that there is something higher in Greece than an unjust law. h is heart. but she will not tell his name. "This woman." The indignant crowd interrupted him and cried. Aspasia placed the crown . but there was no answer. The display took place in the Agora. and even the praise of Pericles. but was silent. he had prayed for f resh inspiration. Socrates. Phidias. But one group. was dragged into th e Agora." cried the officers.

He managed to read a thousand good books before he was twenty-one--w hat a lesson for boys on a farm! When he left the farm he started on foot for Na tick. I lef t my home at ten years of age. The Athenians erected a statue to Aesop. literature.of olives. In the first month aft er I was twenty-one years of age. and served an apprenticeship of eleven years. Before eight years had passed. she tenderly kissed Creon's affectionate and devot ed sister. Let me give you an order on the store. Sterret of the Erie "Ga zette" for substitute work. Slinging h is bundle of clothes on a stick over his shoulder. He found board over a saloon at two dollars and a half a week. he walked sixty miles through the woods to Buffalo. every occasion was a great occasion. The latter had no id ea that a country greenhorn could set type for the Polyglot Testament on which h . descended the Hudson in a barge. and asked the foreman for a job at seven. in the Massachusetts Legislature. going into scores of buildings and asking if they wanted "a ha nd". and fo r whom he had camped out many a night to guard the sheep from wolves. and. I know what it is to ask a mother for bread when she has none to give. with tow-colored hair. that men might k now that the way to honor is open to all. I rose in the morning before daylight and worked hard till after dark. wealth and immortality were the sure reward of the man who could distinguish himself in art. drove a team. "Want sat by my crad le." Mr. who was born a slave. and I want to help him all I c an. He we nt through Boston that he might see Bunker Hill monument and other historical la ndmarks. Horace. but "no" was the invariable reply. to learn the cobbler's trade. "I was born in poverty. He ground every circumstance of his life into material for success. "Don't go about the town any longer in that outlandish rig. August 18. and cut m ill-logs. Twelve years l ater he stood shoulder to shoulder with the polished Sumner in Congress. Few men knew so well the value of spare moments. just as the sun was rising. although tall and gawky. I know what it is to travel weary mi les and ask my fellow men to give me leave to toil. His quaint appearance led many to think he was an escaped apprentice. and replied: "Y ou see Mr. I went into the woods. M. over one hundred miles distant. at the end of eleven years of hard wo rk. In Greece. No other country ever did so much to encourage and inspire struggling meri t. . . He retained but fifteen dollars and gave the rest to his father. 1831. I never spent the sum of one dollar for pleasure. Wilson determined never to lose an opportunity for self-culture or self-adv ancement. His journey of s ix hundred miles had cost him but five dollars. a pale face and whining voice. or war. my father is on a new place. which she held in her hands. He seized them as tho ugh they were gold and would not let one pass until he had wrung from it every p ossibility. rode on a canal boat to Albany." He was at the door at five o'cloc k Monday morning. rec eiving a month's schooling each year." He had spent but six dollars for personal expenses in seven months. and at the same t ime. he resolved to seek his fortune in New York City. The whole trip cost him but one dollar and six cents. Mass. on the brow of Creon. With hi m. and reached New York. Dress up a little. . amid universal plaudits. a yoke of oxen and six sheep. In a year he was the head of a debating club at Natick. For days Horace wandered up and down the streets." said Vice-President Henry Wilson. and was to receive one hundred and thirty-five from Judge J. with whom he had moved from Vermont to Western Pennsylvania. which brought me eighty-four dollars." Horace Greeley looked down on hi s clothes as if he had never before noticed how seedy they were. he made hi s great speech against slavery. Sterrett.. counting every penny from the time I w as born till I was twenty-one years of age. and. One Sunday at his boarding-place he heard that pri nters were wanted at "West's Printing-office. He was nea rly twenty-one. and received the magnificent sum of six dollars for the month's work! Each of t hese dollars looked as large to me as the moon looks to-night.

Seeing that the discussion was growing warm. He began with six hundred subscribers. W hen Harrison was nominated for President in 1840. Steadily the young man struggled towards his ideal. but how could a poor boy working for $2. a thing then unknown in America. and th e "Herald" was started on May 6." Greeley declined. of t he "Globe" in 1832. to the astonishment of everybody. giving the news. until his paper was famous for giving the curr ent history of the world as fully and quickly as any competitor. He doubled the subscription price. nearly a century and a half ago. and increased the list to eleven thousan d in six weeks. but its completion was finally marked by the opening at the corner of Broadway and Ann Street of the most complete newspaper establishment t hen known. his friends could not dissuade him from buying it. It was difficult to give them all away. a discussion arose in r egard to the meaning of a painting representing some scene in the mythology or h istory of Greece. he objected to the new-comer and told the fo reman to let him go when his first day's work was done. furnished it with a chair a nd a desk composed of a plank supported by two barrels. as all its predecessors were party organs. the "New York Herald." the best weekly paper in the United States. James Gordon Bennett had made a failure of his "New York Courier" in 1825. Greeley started "The Log-Cabin . He made "great hits" in some of the works he pub lished. who had saved a few hundred dollars by hard labor and strict economy for fourteen years. which was the key-note of the suc cess of a boy who started with "no chance": "Nihil sine labore. One of the first things to attract the attention on entering George W. and there." He had a keen sense of what would pl ease the public." price one cent. Bennet hired a small cellar in Wall Street." It was his earl y ambition to own the "Philadelphia Ledger" and the great building in which it w as published. began the work of making a really great daily newspap er. He founded the "New Y orker. lowered the advertising rates. But on this p aper at a penny per copy he made no money.elp was needed. fresh and c risp." When the proprietor came in. whatever his mistakes. It was a paper whose editor. and there seemed no end to his industry. and in 1864 the dreams of his boyhood fou nd fulfilment. but recommended two young printers. a lways tried to be right. the profits sometimes amounting to over four hundred thousand d ollars a year. Greatly to the surpri . Childs' private office in Philadelphia was this motto. It was an up-hill job. In 1835 he asked Horace Greeley to join him in starting a new daily paper. That night Horace showed a proof of the largest and most correct day's work that had then been done.00 a week ever hope to own such a great paper? However." which reached the then fabulous circulation of ninety thousand. and as soon as he had saved a few hundred dollars as a clerk in a bookstore. He always refused to lower the wages of his employees even when e very other establishment in Philadelphia was doing so. Neither labor nor expense was spared in o btaining prompt and reliable information on every topic of general interest. At a banquet in Lyons. and the paper entered upon a career of remark able prosperity. the host turned t o one of the waiters and asked him to explain the picture. In spite of the fact that the "Ledger" was losing money every day. with a cash capital to pay expenses for t en days. and of the "Pennsylvanian" a little later. but said: "Fix up a case for him and we'll see if he can do anyt hing. who formed partnership with Bennett. and often much more thoroughly and far more promptly. In ten years he was a partner in a small printing-office. His next venture was "The New York Tr ibune. doing all the work except the printing. he began business as a publisher. 1835. To start it he borrowed a thousand dollars and printed f ive thousand copies of the first number. The demand for the "Tribune" grew faster than new machinery coul d be obtained to print it. such as "Kane's Arctic Expedition. he had great determination and indomitable energy. from an ever-widening area. and was only know n as a clever writer for the press. but it was not profitable.

for pen. I had no money to purchas e candles or oil. and only my turn. a barefoot boy with no chance. ink. read every book in it. That farthing was. and then enlisted in an infantry During his first year of soldier life he subscribed to a circulating Chatham. P. and to have obtained a better and more enduring knowledge of its events and horr ors and of the actors in that great national tragedy than I have received from a . when he ran away to Lond law papers for eight or nine months. I buried my head in the miserable sheet and rug." said he. "If I. now and then. Think not lightly of the farthing I had to giv e. alas! a great sum to me. Jean Jacques Rousseau. The smooth sand beach of Lake Erie constituted the foolscap on which. T he edge of my berth. my knaps ack was my bookcase. copied regiment. though in a state of hal f starvation. "has found the best opportunities for mental improvement in his intervals of leisure while tending 'sap-bush. "In what school have you studied. Spencer. is there. of that. can there be in the whole worl d. after all absolutely necessary expenses. "Many a farmer's son. laughing. kettles. when I pulled off my clothes at night. The w hole of the money not expended for us at market was twopence a week for each man . which I had des tined for the purpose of a red herring in the morning. and bawling of at least half a score of the most thoughtless of men. During the day we would always lay in a good stock of 'fat-pine." replied the young servant: "but the school in which I studied longest and learne d most is the school of adversity.' by the light o f which. and I had to rea d and write amidst the talking. the most beautiful e xposition of graphic art. and th e task did not demand anything like a year of my life. "under such circumstances could encounter and overcome this task." Well had he profited by poverty's lessons. too. was my own experience. even. for want of other material. f or. addressin g the waiter with great respect. I was as tall as I am now.' Such. "I learned grammar when I was a private soldier on the pay of sixpence a day. y et he had true mettle in him. but so hungry as to be ha rdly able to endure life. whistling. at any rate. and that. blazing bright before the sugar-house. I remember. and he made even old pans. the sap having been gathered and the wood cut before dark. perfected the e ssential principles of the Spencerian system of penmanship. as he experimented and studied in the attic of the apot hecary-store where he worked. and cri ed like a child. I remember in this way to have a history of the French Revolution." But Cobbett made even his poverty and hard circumstances serve his all-absorbin g passion for knowledge and success. or that of the guard-bed. At night you had only to feed the kettles an d keep up the fires. For eight on. and well I may! that upon one occasion I had. I passed many a delightful night in reading. Monsieur?" asked one of the guests. the servant gave a clear concise account of the whole subject . all Europe soon rang with the fame of the w ritings of the greatest genius of his age and country. singing. I had no moment of time that I could call my own. Monseigneur. in winter it was rarely that I could get any evening light but that of the fire. in the hours o f their freedom from all control." says Thurlow Weed. was my seat to study in. made shift to have a half-penny in reserve. and I had great health and great exercise. and bottles co ntribute to his success. library at years William Cobbett had followed the plow. a youth to find any excuse for its non-performance?" Humphrey Davy had but a slender chance to acquire great scientific knowledge. a bit of board lying on my lap was my writing-table. To buy a pen or a sheet of p aper I was compelled to forego some portion of my food. R. I found that I had lost my half-penny. or paper. so plain and convincing that it at once settled the dispute. although then but a poor waiter.se of the company. and began to study. "I have studied in many schools.

walked through the dust ten miles to Harvard College. Talmage to young men. and so got the money to buy that coveted Latin dictionary. go down to the library and get some books.ll subsequent reading. "but. combined with rare w omanly grace. how happy I was in being able to borrow the books of a Mr. I remember. "Let me say in regard to your adverse worldly circumstances. and in straightene d circumstances. I cannot afford to keep you there!" "True.--mightiest in the church an d state. and. who are the great philanthropists of the country. Conn. it was a pleasure for him to recall his e arly struggles and triumphs among the rocks and bushes of Lexington. "was when I had first gai ned the full meaning of the first fifteen lines of Homer's Iliad. 8 lines Syriac. June 18. and Wendell Phillips. Sum ner. 30 Danish. father?" asked Theodore Parker one August afte rnoon. for reading useful b ooks.--"M onday. Edward Everett said of the manner in which th is boy with no chance acquired great learning: "It is enough to make one who has good opportunities for education hang his head in shame. "The proudest moment of my life. for it was a busy time. and thus prepare myself for a final examination." Elihu Burritt 's father died when he was sixteen." said Theodore. 11 hours' forging. "I am not going to stay there. and had reviewed his lessons again and again as he followed the plow or worked at other tasks. who are the orators of the count ry. my feet swaddled in remnants of rag carpet. He became eminent as the "Learned Blacksmith. All his odd moments had been hoarded. 40 pages Cuvier's 'Theory of the Earth. Theodore. my boy!" said the millwright. You will find that those who are then the millionaires of this country. he would solve mentally diff icult problems in arithmetic. father. 11 hours' forging. but she won the admiration of the world for her wondrous power of song. He had to work at the forge for ten or twelve hours a day. too. Years after. but he saw from the boy's earnest face that he had no ordin ary object in view. no capital to start with? Young man. and Elihu was apprenticed to a blacksmith in his native village of New Britain. got money to study for two years at Harvard. He had been unable to attend school regularly since he was eight years old. June 20 . as the trusted friend and adviser of Seward. Wednesday. Chase. and read of what wonderful mechanism God gave you in your hand. Mark my words. not an inch above you. 10 lines Bo hemian. so on summer mornings he rose long before the sun and picked bushel aft er bushel of berries. are such entries as these. who are the strong merchants of the countr y. shoeless. which he sent to Boston. headache. but while blowing the bellows. "that you are on a level now with those who are finally to succeed ." The barefoot Christine Nilsson in remote Sweden had little chance. Theodore rose very early the next m orning. in .' 64 pages Fren ch. 15 names of stars. "No outfit. I shal l study at home. and presented hims elf for a candidate for admission." "May I have a holiday to-morrow. and granted the request. 25 lines Hebrew. June 19. Tuesday. 10 hours' forging. but he felt that he must have it. One book he could not borrow. but he had managed to go three months each winter . which will give me a diploma. at odd times. by teaching school as he grew o lder. when his son came home late at night and told of his successful examination. Garrison. after a two-mile tramp through the snow." says Dr. his influence for good was fel t in the hearts of all his countrymen. The poor Lexington millwright looked in surprise at his youngest son. 60 lines Hebrew. 9 lines Polish." He mastered 18 languages and 32 dialects.--are now on a level with you. where he was graduated with h onor." and for his nobl e work in the service of humanity. Horace Mann. "Well done." said Elihu Burritt. and think of it thirty years from now. also. Keyes. which he borrowed. In a diary kept at Worcester. who are the poets of the country. whither he went some ten years later to enjoy its library privileges." He did this. when.

He was arrested and sent to jail. begging him to release Garrison by paying the fine. and never aga capital to start with. started out as a newsboy with apparently the worl d against him. A young man can't set out in life with much less chance than when he sta rts his "daily" for a living. the train rounded a curve. in a little upstairs room. and then he dissecting-room and illustrate to you what in commit the blasphemy of saying you have no hy." ask some doctor to take you into t you have read about. He had walked four h undred miles on his way to Tennessee to increase his subscription list. What nonsense for two uneducated and unknown youths who met in a cheap boarding -house in Boston to array themselves against an institution whose roots were emb edded in the very constitution of our country. One of them." In Boston. He had already begun to dabble in chemistry. and they were thoroughly in e arnest. statesmen. Whittier. or influence. without distinction of creed or p olitics! What chance had they against the prejudices and sentiment of a nation? But these young men were fired by a lofty purpose. He was n o ordinary young man. With William Lloyd Garrison. of vessel-l oads of unfortunates torn from home and family and sent to Southern ports. was so touched at the news that. The sight of the slave-pens along the principal streets. Yet the man who more than any other is responsible for the industrial regeneration of this continent started in life as a newsboy on the Grand Trunk Railway. and called down upon his head the wrath of the entire community. Hill. so did David B. had already started in Ohio a paper called "The Genius of Universal Liberty.your foot. being too poor to furnish the money himself. he wrote to Henry Cl ay. He had confronted a nation in the bloom of his youth. Daniel Manning who was President Cleveland's first campaign manager and afterwa rds Secretary of the Treasury. After forty-nine days of imprisonment he was set free. a noble friend in the North. Equipped? W the God of the whole universe coul A newsboy is not a very promising candidate for success or honors in any line o f life. and in the process of the scientist's expulsion added a resounding box upon the ear. the poorest young man is equipped as only d afford to equip him. So did Thurlow Weed. Thomas Alva Edison was then about fifteen years of a ge. resolved to devote his life to secure the freedom of these poor wretches. and aristocracy. New York seems to have been prolific in enterprising newsboys. he started to prosecute his work more earnestly in Baltimore. friends." Read the declaration of this poor young man with "no chance. Wendell Phillips said of him. There followed a serie s of unearthly odors and unnatural complications. as he was performing some occult experiment. and the bottle of sulphuric acid broke. The conductor. the h eartrending scenes at the auction blocks. although she early taught him to hate oppression. who had suffere d long and patiently. In the first issue of his paper. John G. with no money. One day. every month. made an impression on Garrison never t o be forgotten. When rec ently asked the secret of his success. "He was imprisoned for his opinion when he was twenty-four. wealth. Gar rison started the "Liberator. and had fitted up a small itine rant laboratory. and the young man whose mother was too poor to send him to schoo l. in your eye. promptly ejected the youthful devotee. Edison passed through one dramatic situation after another--always mastering it --until he attained at an early age the scientific throne of the world. churches. he said he had always been a total abstai ner and singularly moderate in everything but work. and which was upheld by scholars." in the very first issue: "I will be as harsh as truth. twenty miles. Benjamin Lundy. as uncomprom ." and had carried the entire edition home on hi s back from the printing-office. in your ear. Garrison urged an immediate emancipation.

with the world against him! Hon." The Governors of one or two States set a price on the editor's head. the slanderer of the dead. and his two daughters. "where wives. I w ill not retreat a single inch." What audacity for a young m an. asked to be lifte d upon the high platform. heroic conflict . an emancipated slave deli vered the address of welcome. I am in earnest. his only auxiliary a negro boy. eating. t he earth should have yawned and swallowed him up. died in London. wrote to Otis. but had no chance to attend school until he was ten years old. The Vigilance Associatio n of South Carolina offered a reward of fifteen hundred dollars for the arrest a nd prosecution of any one detected circulating the "Liberator. and printing in this "obscure hole." and asked him to ascertain the n ame of the publisher. pointing to their portraits on the walls. sleeping. even in far California." had set the world to thinking. He found Mr. I will not excuse. The legislature of Georgia offered a reward of five thousand dollars for his arrest and conviction. and. that a mere spectator. His father had died leaving nine children almost penniless. and we will never rest until the Corn-Laws are repealed. hal f starved. a young lawyer of great promise. About this time Richard Cobden. and replied in such a speech as was never before heard in Faneuil Hall." said Wendell Phillips. while defending his p rinting-press. I would advise you to come with me. where he was abused. Bright in great grief. his supporters a few persons of all colors and little influence. and must be suppressed. that s ome one had sent him a copy of the "Liberator. mothers. "There are thousands of homes in England at this moment. and I will be heard. A clergyman named Lovejo y was killed by a mob in Illinois for espousing the cause. and children are dying of hunger." But this poor young man. after thirty-five years of untiring. He called upon John Bright to enlist his aid in fighting the terrible "Corn-Law s" which were taking bread from the poor and giving it to the rich. when the first par oxysm of grief is passed. and in the old "Cradle of American Liberty" the wealth. The drama culminated in the shock of civil war. for his wife was lying dead in the house. another powerful friend of the oppressed. power. Otis replied that he had found a poor young man printing " this insignificant sheet in an obscure hole. on soil consecrated by the prayers of the Puritans and the blood of patriots. He was sent to a boarding-school. of South Carolina. Robert Y. Garrison was invited as the nation's guest. Now. He learned French by rising early and studying while his companions slept. Garrison and his coadjutors were denounced everywhere. For the sentiments that he has uttered. mayor of Boston. to see the s tars and stripes unfurled once more above Fort Sumter. with Qui ncy and Adams. an d culture of Massachusetts arrayed itself against the "Abolitionists" so outrage ously. "When I heard the gentleman lay down the principles which plac e the murderers of Lovejoy at Alton side by side with Otis and Hancock. by President Lincoln. At fifteen he en tered his uncle's store in London as a clerk. Hayne." Cobden could no longer see the poor man' . He was soon sent out in a gig as a comm ercial traveler. and allowed to write home only once in three months. Between the Northern pioneers and Southern chivalry the struggle was long and f ierce. The boy earned his living by watching a neighbor's sheep.ising as justice." said Richard Cobden. "I thought those pictured lips would have broken into voice to rebuke the recre ant American. no longer chattels in appre ciation presented Garrison with a beautiful wreath of flowers. W hen the war was ended." The whole nation was wrought to fever heat. I will not equivocate.

--secured the r epeal of the law in 1846. Michael studied a nd experimented." They formed the "Anti-Corn-Law League. "This is not a par ty question. "for men of all parties are united upon it. where he was drilled o nly in the "three R's.--for it was hunger that at last ate through those stone walls of protection." Jewish blo od flowed in his veins and everything seemed against him. his eyes caught the article on electricity. and by energy I can overcome greater obstacles. He was appointed professor at the Royal Academy of Woolwich. and the bo y with no chance but a determined will swayed the scepter of England for a quart er of a century. "The time will come when you will hear me. When binding the Encyclopa edia Britannica. scorned." said he. he simply said.--a question between the working millions and the aristocracy. ridiculed. and took him to hear Sir Humphry Davy lecture on chemistry. the "mill-boy of the slashes. Tyndall said of him. not long after." was one of seven children of a widow too poor to send him to any but a common country school. He pushed his way up through the low er classes. During the frightful famine. England's great Prime Minister. "He is the greatest experimental philosopher the world has ever seen. Over a stable in London lived a poor boy named Michael Faraday. I am not a captive. Michael could scarcely trust his eyes as he read the note. and cheaper loaf through Richard Cobd en's labors. who was Prime Minister to the greatest despot of the world five centuries before the birth of Christ. who become Lord Beaconsfield. who became Prime Minister of Egypt four thousand years before . and he threw his whole soul into this great reform. and was en gaged to clean instruments and take them to and from the lecture-room. an added shilling. and a few simple articles." John Bright himself was the son of a poor working man. who carried new spapers about the streets to loan to customers for a penny apiece. One nig ht. Disraeli. and in those days the do ors of the higher schools were closed to such as he. and that of Daniel. self-poised upon the topmost round of political and social pow er. He was appren ticed for seven years to a bookbinder and bookseller." The time did come. and he could not re st until he had read it. He summoned courage to w rite the great scientist and sent the notes he had taken of his lecture. He procured a glass vial. but he remembered the example of Joseph. as with a glass mask over his face. too. just as Michael was about to retire. up through the upper classes. Except p ossibly Cobden. an old pan. a ch eaper loaf. Henry Clay. until h e stood a master. hissed down in the House of Commons. up through the middle classes. and his commanding character. and began to experiment. Bright said: "There is not in Great Britain a poor man's home that has not a bigger. which cut off two millions of Ireland's population in a year. and a servant handed him a written invitatio n to call upon the great lecturer the next morning." When Sir Humphry Davy was asked what was his greatest discovery. John Bright was more pow erful than all the nobility of England.s bread stopped at the Custom-House and taxed for the benefit of the landlord an d farmer." But he used every spare moment to study without a teache . starving under the Corn-Laws." said the boy with no chance. "I am not a slave. Rebuffed. his mighty eloquence. In the morning he called as requested. he develop ed his safety-lamp and experimented with dangerous explosives. aided by the Irish famine. Sir Humphry Davy's carr iage stopped at his humble lodging." "What has been done can be done again. A customer became interested in the boy. He watche d eagerly every movement of Davy. no other man did so much to give the laborer a shorter day. and became the won der of the age in science. better." which. The whole aristocracy trembled before hi s invincible logic. but the great Quaker heart of this resolute youth was touched with pity for the millions of England's and I reland's poor. he replied "Michael Faraday. Mr. and it was not long before this poor boy with no chance wa s invited to lecture before the great philosophical society. It is a pantr y question.

See Kepler struggling with poverty and hardship. cleaning it. He would walk eighteen miles to Manchester and back after a hard day's work to buy a shilling's worth of artist's materials.r." copies of w hich are to be seen in many a home. studying it. Mark's Cathedral and discovered the satellites of Jupiter and the phases of Venus. the celebrated blacksmith arti st of England! He was very poor. his books burned in public by order of the state. but the engine was his teacher. The boy who had learned to speak in a barn. its orbit a nd rate of motion. had with his own hands made the tel escope through which he discovered facts unknown to the best-equipped astronomer s of his day. and of the rings and satellites of Saturn. and he a faithful student. became one of the greatest of American orators and statesmen. "The Forge. and making ex periments in engines. with only a cow and a horse for an audience. He could neither read nor write. and so force men to look below my skin. When he had become famous as a great inventor of improveme nts in engines. "Yet it does move. with hemlock sticks for pipes. For seventeen years he works calmly upon the demonstration of the great principles that planets revolve in ellipses. t hat a line connecting the center of the earth with the center of the sun passes over equal spaces in equal times. What chance had Galileo to win renown in physics or astronomy. Imagine the surprise of the Royal Society of England when the poor unknown Hers chel sent in the report of his discovery of the star Georgium Sidus. and in after years he was a king among self-made men. This boy with no chance became one of the world's greatest as tronomers. but he often rose at three o'clock to copy book s he could not buy. he stood in th e tower of St. The star actress was unable to perform. and he could thus have many spare minutes to study the precious book." said Alexandre Dumas. Without a charm of face or figure. so great was his eagerness for scientific research that he p roved by a straws in his cell that a hollow tube is relatively much stronger tha n a solid rod of the same size. "I resolved to live as i f I were white. George was taking his machine to pieces. The boy with no ch ance. with the sun at one focus. because it took a longer time to hea t at the forge. and that the squares of the times of revolutio n of the planets above the sun are proportioned to the cubes by their mean dista nces from the sun. George Stephenson was one of eight children whose parents were so poor that all lived in a single room. and Miss Cushman. He was a great miser of spare mom ents and used every one as though he might never see another. "When I found that I was black. While the other hands were playing games or loafing in liquor shops during the holidays. but he managed to get time to make engines of clay. He devoted his lei sure hours for five years to that wonderful production. who had played the oboe for his meals." When thrown into prison. and himself exiled by public clamor. he kept constantly at w ork. even in such characters as Rosalind and Queen K atherine. all the terrors of the Inquisition could not keep this feeble man of threescore years and ten from muttering to himself. her understu . He had ground two hundred specula before he could get one perfect. Charlotte Cushman resolved to place herself in the front rank as an actress. when his parents compelled him to go to a medical school? Yet while Venice slept. those who had loafed and played called him lucky. Even when totally blind." How slender seemed the chance of James Sharples. with his father for fireman. He would ask fo r the heaviest work in the blacksmith shop. When compelled on bended knee to publicly renounce his heretical doctrine that the earth moves ar ound the sun. At seventee n he had charge of an engine. through a telescope made with his own hands. his library locked up by the Jesuits. which he propped up against the chimney. George had to watch cows for a neighbor.

" He left his home in France when ten years old. Altho ugh poor. The model of a steamship which Sam whittled out for them was ca refully copied for the first vessel of the great Cunard Line. and was bound to make his way in the world. "I have learned to live with my trouble. at an advanced age. for he was too poor to go to school or even to buy books. To discourage him from following the sea. the whittling Scotch lad of Glasgow. his mother told hi m if he would plow. an d in three years saved three thousand dollars. hard. but quietly said. she would lend him the amount he wished. In after years. When Eldon was leaving the chamber the Solicitor tapped him on the shoulder and said. Lord Eldon might well have pleaded "no chance" when a boy. when the curtain fell upon her first p erformance at the London theater. another a physician. but on h is way home it struck a sunken wreck and sank just as he reached shallow water. His first year's practice brought him but nine sh illings. What a lesson for boys who plead "no chance" as an excuse for wasted liv es! Sam Cunard. the voluminous "Coke upon Littleton" amo ng others.dy. "Young man. incurable disease. she flinched not a pa rticle. During the War of 1812 he was awarded the Government contract to carry provisions to the military stations near the metropolis. ten acres of rough. The teacher. On his seventeenth birthday he bought the boat. but had no money. your bread and butter's cut for life. One be came a professor in a Southern college. and cipher a little. the worst on his father's far m. But no. but he learned to read. write. he had grit and determination." A poor colored woman in a log-cabin in the South had three boys. a Northern girl. Stephen Girard had "no chance. Before the appointed time the work w as done. and unknown before. no ticed that each boy came to school only one day out of three. But Cornelius Vanderbilt was not the boy to give up. and so on had far the largest patronage of any boatman in the harbor. He often worked all night. but they brought neither honor nor profit until he was consulted by Burns & McIvor. who wished to increase their facilities for carryin g foreign mails. She was so anxious to give them an e ducation that she sent them to school by turns. The new Testament and the speller were Cornelius Vanderbilt's only books at sch ool. when physicians told her she had a terrible. and well done. and came to America as a cabin boy. He was so eager to study that sometimes he would keep it up until his brain refused to work. He at once began again. took her place. but could affo rd only one pair of trousers for the three. yet he was bound not to give up. before the twenty-seventh day o f the month. He wished to buy a boat . and the third a cle rgyman. and one of the greatest lawyers of his age . His great ambition was to get on and succeed . The poor mother educated her boys as best she could. he left to his thirteen children one of the largest fortunes in America. He fulfilled his contract by night so that he mig ht run his ferry-boat between New York and Brooklyn by day. He rose at four o'clock in the morning and copied law books which he borrowed. friendless. stony land. was worth thirty thousand dollars at thirty-five. and when he died. That night she held her audience with such grasp of intellec t and iron will that it forgot the absence of mere dimpled feminine grace. her reputation was made. and became the sta ndard type for all the magnificent ships since constructed by the firm. and plant with corn." The boy with "no chanc e" became Lord Chancellor of England. The boy who gave his parents all his day earnings and had half of what he got a t night. wrought many odd inventions wi th brain and jack-knife. and that all wore the same pantaloons. when he would tie a wet towel about his head to enable h im to keep awake and to study. harrow.

and worked in a boo kstore for one dollar and twenty-five cents a week. To reach the starting-point of the poorest white boy. At sixteen he gladl . John Wanamaker walked four miles to Philadelphia every day. Edmonia Lewi s. and in a few years we find him chopping wood and til ling the little clearing in the forest. lank. or books. and in that capacity showed great executi ve ability. returning in time to go into the f ield at dawn. His abnormal love of money cannot be commended. and read one hundred pages while returning. In his eagerness to kn ow the contents of Blackstone's Commentaries. awkward youth. Barnum rode a horse for ten cents a day. when she wo uld walk twelve miles to be with him an hour. and who emancipated four million s laves. who gave him $750. T. Behold this long. Dixey. his public spirit at times of national need.at any cost. however hard and disagreeable. and then in the night. he turned to gold everything he touched. who won the admiration of mankind by his homely practical wisdom while President during our Civil War. went North. He next worked in a clothing store at an advance of twenty-five cents a week. began his career upon the stage in the hu mble part of the hind legs of a cow. It was a boy born in a log-cabin. and afterwards conducted the "New Era" in Washington. Wh ile traveling from place to place to lecture. For severa l years he was Marshal of the District of Columbia. with which he purchased his freedom. Henry E. build ing his homely log-cabin. felling trees on the little claim. Y. He edited a paper in Ro chester. are traits of character well worthy of imitation. but cannot buy. or o rdinary opportunities. He was sent to Europe to lecture. that he would no t undertake. teaching himself arithmetic and grammar in the evening by the light of the fireplace. without floor or windows. and the rules of the plantation forbade slaves to learn to read and write. and willingness to risk his life to save strangers sick with the deadly yellow fever. for he did not own his ow n body. He put to shame thousands of white boys. He had no chance to study. from struggling upward to honor and fame as a sculptor. to help his mother. a poor widow is holding a boy e ighteen months old. he walked forty-four miles to proc ure the precious volumes. and he was pledged before his birth to pay his master's debts. and made so favorable an im pression that he was made agent of the Anti-Slavery Society of Massachusetts. P. His good fortune consisted simply of untiring perseverance and a right heart. From this he went up and up un til he became one of the greatest living merchants. or teacher. the well-known actor. and acquired nothing by luck. At Nantucket he was given an opportunity to speak at an anti-slavery meeting. He was appointed PostmasterGeneral by President Harrison in 1889.. In another log-cabin. Every spare hour is spent in studying the books he has borrowed. N. Midas like. but his thoroughness in all he did. He fled from slavery at twenty-one. and wondering if she will be able to keep the wolf from her little ones. and then no limits could be placed to his career. Abraham Li ncoln inherited no opportunities. he would study with all his might. and won the friendship of several Englishmen. There was no work. and became one of the wealthiest merchants of Philadelphia. He saw his mother but two or three times. and worked as a stevedore in New York and New Bedford. But somehow. he managed to learn the alphabet from scraps of paper and paten t medicine almanacs. The boy grows. Fred Douglass started in life with less than nothing. Prejudice against her race and sex did not deter the colored girl. in the backwoods of Ohio. for he had no teacher. he had to climb as far as the dista nce which the latter must ascend if he would become President of the United Stat es. unnotice d by his master. without schooling.

Our city civilizatio n is always in a process of decay. and when he returned to school he boarded himself at an expense of thirty-one cents a week. the Vanderbilts. and the Goulds. and who buffeted the billows of fate wit hout dependence. and li ght of a carpenter at one dollar and six cents a week. His vivid imagination clothes it with Arabian Nights possibilities and joys. he had paid all expenses and had three doll ars over. and this he put into the contribution box at church the next day. become emasc ulated and effeminate were it not for the pure. It matters not whether the b oy is born in a log-cabin or in a mansion. Soon he applies for a chan ce to sweep floors and ring the bell of an academy. "The little gray cabin appears to be the birthplace of all your great men. fuel. Soon we find him in Williams College. There is bread and success for every youth under the American flag w ho has energy and ability to seize his opportunity. is rapidly deteriorated by the softening. crystal stream of country youth flowing steadily into and purifying the muddy. if he is dominated by a resolute purp ose and upholds himself. washing. The following winter he taught school at twelve dollars a month and "b oard around. He had arrived on a Saturday and planed fifty-one boards that day. He reaches the State Senate at twenty-six and Congress at thirty-three. in a few generations. This great stream of superb country manhood. Among the world's greatest heroes and benefactors are many others whose cradles were rocked by want in lowly cottages. emasculating inf luences of the city. With five chances on each hand and one unwavering aim." In the spring he had forty-eight dollars. which is e ver flowing cityward. It would soon become so foul and degenerate as to threaten the physical and mora l health of city dwellers. for which he received one dollar and two cents. until the superior virility.y accepts a chance to drive mules on a canal towpath. When he retur ned the next term he had but a sixpence in his pocket. its best brain. where in two years he is graduated with h onors. T wenty-seven years from the time he applied for a chance to ring the bell at Hira m College. and would. ne ed despair. One of our great men says that one of the most unfortunate phases of modern civ ilization is the drift away from the farm. James A. The country seems tame and common . When the term closed. He engaged board. The country in America to-day is constantly paying a similar tribute to the cit y in the sacrifice of its best blood. The inspirat ion of such an example is worth more to the young men of America than all the we alth of the Astors. stamina and sturdy qualities e ntirely disappear in two or three generations of city life. with the privilege of wor king at night and on Saturdays all the time he could spare. CHAPTER IV THE COUNTRY BOY The Napoleonic wars so drained the flower of French manhood that even to-day th e physical stature of the average Frenchman is nearly half an inch below what it was at the beginning of Napoleon's reign. devitalized stream of city life. the finest physical and me ntal fiber in the world. His first term at Geauga Seminary cost him but seventeen dollars. neither men nor demons can keep him down." sai d an English author who had been looking over a book of biographies of eminent A mericans. the drift of country youth to the cit y which has an indescribable fascination for him. save upon the mercy of God and their own energies. to pay his way while studyin g there. no boy. however poor. Garfield became President of the United States.

He can not rid himself of its fascination until he tastes its emptiness. and his brain-fiber partakes of the same superior qua lity. the miracle of the growing crops are every moment registering their mighty potencies in his con stitution. He sees hardly anything that God made. sky-scrapers and asphalt pavements does not generate character-building material. Self-reliance and grit are oftenest country-br ed. If power is not absorbed from the soil. the mountains. putting iron into his blood and stamina into his character. but it is not so healthy. Much of what we call the best society in our cities is often in an advanced pro cess of decay. it certainly comes from very near it. and this calls out his ingenuity and inventiveness. he begins to deteriorate. There is a very apprecia ble difference between the physical stamina. One of the greatest boons that can ever come to a human being is to be born on a farm and reared in the country. hardy qualities. strength and power. The city-bred youth sees and hears almost nothing that is natural. ha s greater courage. What we get from the country is solid. the brooks. the thought a little mo re supple. to so ften. He develops be tter all-round judgment and a more level head than the city boy. with power. vigorous. is often overcarved and adorned at the cost of strength. decorative influences of city life. substantial character when his eyes and ears bring him only sig hts and sounds of artificial things? A vast sea of business blocks. mountains and valleys. We are largely copies of our environment. all of wh ich will help to make him a giant when he comes to compete with the city-bred yo uth. more moral stamina. ener . re liable.place after his first dream of the city. He can not know the worth of the country and how to appre ciate the glory of its disadvantages and opportunities until he has seen the sha m and shallowness of the city. his flesh firmer. forced to think for himself. country bred. We are under the perpetual influence of the suggestion of our surroundings. The whole tendency of life in big cities is toward deterioration. How can a man b uild up a solid. but less vigorous. What comes from the artificial conditions of the city is weakening. with pleasure. In other words. takes on artificial conditions. the h ills. substantial. the solidity and t he reliability of country-bred men and that of those in the city. forcefulness. as a rule. the pure air and sunshine. The moment a man becomes artificia l in his living. man-made. when brought to the city. The sturdy. To him it is synonymous with opportunit y. robustness and vigor. are. physical and mental stamina reach their maximum in those who live close to the soil. the stamina. as do the natural objects in the country. City people rarely live really normal lives. so the timber in country boys and girls. Nearly everything that confronts him from morning till night is a rtificial. And there is a reason for all this. It is not natural f or human beings to live far from the soil. courage and all the qualities which make for manhood and womanhood. the valleys. that imparts solidit y. the brawn. The muscles may be a little more delicate but they are softer. Just as sculpture was once carried to such an extreme that pillars and beams we re often so weakened by the extravagant carvings as to threaten the safety of th e structure. T here seems to be a close connection between robust character and the soil. virility. stamina. enduring. The country boy is constantly thrown upon his own resources. aside from the faces and forms of human beings. the grit which c haracterize men who do great things in this world. th e skin may be a little fairer. The very granite hills. His muscles are harder. The average country-bred youth has a better foundation for success-building. the brain vigor. He has not become weakened and softened b y the superficial ornamental. It is Mother Earth and country life t hat give vitality.

he is not so superficial as the city boy. but. on the other hand. These exciting. more time to think and to reflect. tempting conditions of city life are not conducive t o generating the great master purpose.vating. constantly calling upon the youth's sel f-reliance and inventiveness. the one unwavering life aim. adjust and repair all sorts of machin ery and farm utensils. Such a multiplicity of objects appeals to him that he is often superficial. nature's kindergarten. and he lacks continuity of thought and application. strong success qu . The drudgery of the farm. of temptation and amusement in the city. the chores which we hated as boys. a superb manual training school. magazines and periodicals and gives no real thought to any. often without the proper tools. the country boy is constantly developing his muscular system. Nor do city-bred youths stor e up anything like the reserve power. to deny himself and turn a deaf ear to the appeals of his associates and tie himself down to self-improvement w hile those around him are having a good time. the stamina. softening. He has been forced to do a great variety of work and this has developed corresponding m ental qualities. can read continuously for an entire evening on one s ubject. who. in the midst of newspapers and libraries. diverting. as a r ule. we have found were the very things which educated us. His perceptions are not so quick. Is it n ot wonderful to watch the chemical processes in nature's laboratory. often reading them over and o ver again. The city youth has too many things to divert his attention. H e can not open his eyes without seeing a more magnificent painting than a Raphae l or a Michael Angelo could have created in a lifetime. And this magnificent pan orama is changing every instant. It is hard for the city-bred youth to resist the multiplicity of allur ements and pleasures that bid for his attention. he is not so rapid in his movements. having very lit tle diversion after supper. which we oft en see so marked in the young man from the country. For one thing. he reads them with much better results. His reading is comparatively superficial. The farm is a great gymnasium. his thought action is slower and he does n ot have as much polish. it is true. his min d is perpetually drawn away from his subject. and will oft en read the best literature without absorbing any of it. The fact is that there is such a diversity of attractions and distractions. books and periodicals is one reason why the coun try boy makes the most of good books and articles. He glances through m any papers. Hi s health is better. sees so many books that in most instances he cares very little for them. He must run. The country boy does not read as many books as the city boy. is in the midst of a perpetual miracle. while the city youth. mixing and flinging out to the world the gorgeous colorings and marvelous perfumes of the r ose and wild flower! No city youth was ever in such a marvelous kindergarten. he nce. that unless a youth is made of unusual stu ff he will yield to the persuasion of the moment and follow the line of least re sistance. There is a miracle going on in every growing blade of grass and flower. the rocks which we despised. His even ings are much more broken up than those of the country boy. He must make the implements and toys which he can not afford to buy or procure. He gets more exercise. The dearth of great libraries. This training develops instinctive courage. the cumulative force. but he is better balanced generally. wh ere perpetual creation is going on in such a vast multitude of forms. which developed our power and made us practical. If the wagon or plow breaks down it must be repaired on the spot. His ingenuity and inventiveness are constantly exercised. The country youth. which a re developed in the simple life of the soil. he lacks depth.

Miracles i nnumerable in grass and flower and fruit are performed right before our eyes. breathed in great inspirations through constant muscular effort. This is one of the reasons why he usually develops better all-round judgment and a more level head than the city boy. that makes the stuff that rises to t he top in all vocations. merchant. and what is seen by the ordinary mind. self-reliant country boy beside a pale. right at their very doors. an d his outdoor work tends to build up a robust constitution. and this call s out his ingenuity and makes him self-reliant and strong. in the sunset. in the glory of flowers and plant life. Self-reliance and grit are oftenest country-bred. cans exactly the right size. he is always using tools. not a sound is heard. indescribable something . Is it any wonder that the country-bred boy is nearly always the leader. the great mercantile houses? It is this peculiar. that he heads the banks. or business man. strengthen s the deficient faculties and brings out latent powers. so superbly equipped with physical and mental stamina. Ho w marvelous is Nature's growing of fruit. There is a peculiar quality of superiority which comes from dealing with realit ies that we do not find in the superficial city conditions. what marvels of beauty. should take such pre-eminence. statesman. confronting us on every hand! We see them almo st every day of our lives and they become so common that they make no impression upon us. de liciousness and beauty? What interrogation points. hoeing. for example! How she packs the concent rated sunshine and delicious juices into the cans that she makes as she goes alo ng. what miracles of coloring are spread everywhere in nature. should be in s uch demand when he comes to the city? Is it any wonder that he is always in evid ence in great emergencies and crises? Just stand a stamina-filled. make things. develops in the country boy much greater lung power than is developed in the city youth. whichever way he turns! Where does all this tremendous . the ordinary person who has little or no imagination and whose esthetic faculties h ave scarcely been developed! We are immersed in a wilderness of mysteries and marvelous beauties. his flesh firmer. The life-giving oxyg en. what wonderful mysteries.alities. It is human nature to exaggerate the value of things beyond our reach. what wit-sharpeners are ev er before the farmer boy. Think of the difference between what a Ruskin sees in a landscape and the impression conveyed to his brain. People s ave money for years in order to go to Europe to visit the great art centers and see the famous masterpieces. storing up energy in his brain and m uscles which later may be powerful factors in shaping the nation's destiny or wh ich may furnish backbone to keep the ship of state from floundering on the rocks . he is forced to think for himself. soft. What a perpetual inspiration. This marvelous reserve power which he stores up in the country will come out i n the successful banker. washed-out city youth. and his brain-fiber partakes of the same superior qu ality. and yet what marvels of skill. mow ing. Plowing. without a particle of waste. Is it any wonder that the boy so trained in self-reliance. The country boy is constantly thrown upon his own resources. The farm-reared boy is i n the best manual training school in the world and is constantly forced to plan things. It has been found tha t the use of tools in our manual training schools develops the brain. with no noise of factories. and makes him a resourceful man. leakage or evapora tion. stamina-less. lawyer. He is constantly bottling up forces. when they have really never seen the marvelous pict ures painted by the Divine Artist and spread in the landscape. this superior stamina and mental caliber. no hammering of tins! The miracles are wrought in a silent laboratory. everything he does on the farm gives him vigor and strength. His muscles ar e harder.

the valleys. the perfume of flowers. a dignified profession. The time was when the boy who gave no signs of genius or unusual ability was co nsigned to the farm. stamina-dissipating and character-weakening. Mr. the growing animals on th e farm. mor e life on every hand! Wherever he goes he treads on chemical forces which produc e greater marvels than are described in the Arabian Nights. the beauty. modify a nd change the flavor of fruits and vegetables to our liking! Think what it must mean to be a magician in the whole vegetable kingdom. The science of agriculture is fast becoming appreciated and is more and more re garded as a high and noble calling. refreshing sleep. and yet. purposeless li fe. wheat. who is tempted to turn night into day. that it requires fine-grained sympathetic talent. like L uther Burbank. the hills. to be able to co-operate with that divine creative force. wisely and sympa thetically. He is not inculcated with snobbish ideas. fruit and vegetables come from? There seems to be no l oss to the soil. the country youth is storing up power and v itality. The history of most great men shows that there is a disadvantage in having too . But the searchlight of science h as revealed in it possibilities hitherto undreamed of. are all mysteries that set him thinking and to wondering at the creative processes which are working on every hand. the delicious freedom of it all. and that Nature will give us almost anything when we know enough to treat her intelligently. ar tificial life in the city! Everything in the country tends to set the boy thinki ng. Everything in the great farm kindergarten teaches him sincerity. the brook s. And what healt h there is in it all! How hearty and natural he is in comparison with the city b oy. the mountains. Farming was considered by many people as a sort of degrading occupa tion desirable only for those who lacked the brains and education to go into a p rofession or some of the more refined callings. But we are now beginning to see that man has made a botch of farming only because he looked upon it as a sort of humdrum occupation.increase of corn. he is being recharged with physical force by natural. flavors. perfumes. and al most any flavor in any fruit. simplicity and honesty. Think of what it mea ns to go into partnership with the Creator in bringing out larger. The country youth does not learn to judge people by the false standards of wealth a nd social standing. species! Almost anything is p ossible when one knows enough and has heart and sympathy enough to enter into pa rtnership with the great creative force in nature. will be able to produce at will any shade or color he wishes. and the brilliant boy was sent to college or to the city to make a career for himself. as contrasted with the cramped. We are now finding that agriculture is as great a science as astronomy. The trees. plea sure seeking. and that i gnorant men have been getting an indifferent living from their farms simply beca use they did not know how to mix brains with the soil. Then again. the sunsets. as a means provided by nature for living-getting for those who were not good fo r much else. to call out his dormant powers and develop his latent forces. We are commencing to real ize that it takes a high order of ability and education to bring out the fullest possibilities of the soil. and often dissipation. away from the distracting influence and enervating excitement of city life. The very temptation in the city to turn night into day is of itself health-unde rmining. that the size of all fruits and vegetables and flo wers is just a matter of sufficient understanding. Burbank says that the tim e will come when man will be able to do almost anything he wishes in the vegetab le kingdom. changing colors. to enlarge. and even to vary the size. While the city youth is wasting his precious energy capital in late hours. life. what a marvelous growth in everything! Life. grander produ cts from the soil. to live an artificial.

all opportunities to him . the prod of necessity spurri ng him on. there is no likelihood that Lincol n would ever have become the powerful man he was. Too Soon. in balance 'twixt Too Late. One space when fate goes tiding with the stream. happy he who. Had he not felt that imperious "must" calling him." replied the great statesman and jurist. or one noon. to serve his country with no selfish ambition? Had his father been rich and well -educated instead of a poor man who could neither read nor write and who was gen erally of a shiftless and roving disposition. where this poor boy scarcely ever saw any one who knew anything of books." complained a youthful law student to Daniel Webster. who ever rose to such eminence? Imagine a boy of to-day. "There are no longer any good chances for young men. one night. in a land where thousands of poor boys become rich men. One rift through which s ublime fulfillments gleam. as a young girl would devour a l ove story? Whence came that all-absorbing ambition to be somebody in the world. The secret of success in life is for a man to be ready for his opportunity when it comes. knowing how to wait. big with fate. whence would have come the motive which led him to struggle for selfdevelopment. his ch aracter would probably have been soft and flabby in comparison with what it was. One day. and where those born in the lowest stations attain the highest positions? The world is all gates. one morning. TOWNSEND.--DISRAELI. Knows also how to watch and work and stand On Life's broad deck alert. so hungry for an education that he would walk nine miles a day to attend a rude frontier school in a log cabin! What would th e city boys of to-day. no opportunities. When the great clock of destiny strikes Now! MARY A. to know the history of his country? Whence came that passion to devour the dry statutes of Indiana. where newsboys go to Congress. which the w aves of time wash away into non-entity. to rouse his ambition and to stimulate h im to self-education? Whence came that yearning to know the history of men and w omen who had made a nation. of only a small fraction of which he could get even a superficial knowledge. and at th e prow To seize the passing moment. Ah. And ready for the passing instant's boon To tip in favor the uncertain beam. who do not want to walk even a few blocks to school. From Opportunity's extended h and. One Once.many advantages.--GEORGE ELIOT. One freighted hour. self-unfoldment? If he had been born and educated in luxury. would he have had that insatiable hunge r which prompted him to walk twenty miles in order to borrow Blackstone's "Comme ntaries" and to read one hundred pages on the way home? [Illustration: House in which Abraham Lincoln was born] What was there in that rude frontier forest. Where in all the annals of history is there another record of one born of such poor parentage and reared in such a wretched environment. Who can tell what the consequences would have been had Lincoln been born in New York and educated at Harvard? If he had been reared in the midst of great libra ries. "There is always room at the top. What is opportunity to a man who can't use it? An unfecundated egg. one moment opportune. No chance. brought up in an atmosphere of books. thin k of a youth who would do what Lincoln did to overcome his handicap? CHAPTER V OPPORTUNITIES WHERE YOU ARE To each man's life there comes a time supreme.

He was contented and happy. sitting before the fire. an extensive farm. pondering how to get money to buy food. Only a short time after. that with a handful he could buy a province. But. and miles of forest. Early the next morning he woke the priest who had been the cause of his u nhappiness. worn-out. and experimented for a long t ime. he studied coal measures and coal-oil deposits. He had been touched with discontent. and took along a handful of translucent pebbles to play checkers with on the voyage. He h ad a wife and children. Hundreds of years ago there lived near the shore of the river Indus a Persian b y the name of Ali Hafed. but thinks he can do better somewhere else. or west. One evening a priest of Buddha visited him. Ali Hafed listened. and after they had thrown most of the pebbles away . He had plenty of money and everything th at heart could wish. from which he could get a grand view of the beautiful country stretching away to the sea. P rofessor Agassiz once told the Harvard students of a farmer who owned a farm of hundreds of acres of unprofitable woods and rocks. east." A Baltimore lady lost a valuable diamond bracelet at a ball. We depend too much u pon outside assistance. "I want to be rich and place my children on thrones. or near at hand. the man who bought his farm discovered upon it a great flood of coal-oil. ragged cloak to make a hood. that with one of them he could bu y many farms like his. Aft er arriving in San Francisco. we fail to rely wholly upon the ability to advance all that is good for us wh ich has been given to the weakest as well as the strongest. "Wha t do you want of diamonds?" asked the astonished priest. that steps up an cloak $3500 Many of us who think we are poor are rich in opportunities. to ge t money to pay his passage to other mines. which the farmer had previously ignorantly tried to d rain off. He sold his farm for $200. and with that all wealth van ishes." said the priest. "But where shall I go?" asked the poor farmer. The old priest told that a drop of sunlight the size of his thumb was worth mor e than large mines of copper. fields of grain. who had the key of deliverance all the time with him but had forgotten i t. They hastened back to Brazil. south. gardens of flowers. like Bunyan's Pilgrim in the dungeon of Giant Despair's castle. and in m eeting common every-day wants. and anxiously asked him where he could find a mine of diamonds. and." "How shall I know when I have found the . silver.who will use them. orchards of fruit. in possibilities all about us. Years afterward she washed the of the Peabody Institute. only to find that the mines from which the pebbles had been gathered had been taken up by other prospectors and sold to the government. in faculties worth more than diamond brac elets. Some Brazilian shepherds organized a party to go to California to dig gold. In our large Eastern cities it has been found that at least ninety-four o ut of every hundred found their first fortune at home. and concluded to sell out and get into a more profitable business. or gold. they discovered that they were diamonds. and how the first beams of sunlight condensed on the earth's surface into di amonds. and with a m ine of diamonds he could purchase a kingdom. where he thought he could get rich. and was no long er a rich man. He lived in a cottage on the river bank. He decided to go into the coal-oil busines s. but did not know it. if we could only se e them. During all her poverty she was worth . and supposed it was stolen from the pocket of her cloak." "All you have to do is to go and search until you find them. and engaged in his new business two hundred mile s away. "We look too high For things close by. when lo! in the lining of the she discovered the diamond bracelet. north. explained to him how the world was ma de. It is a sorry day for a young man who can not see any opportunities where he is. The richest gold and silver mine in Nevada was sold by the owner for $42. She cut old. "Go anywhere.

and dug in his own garden. left his family with a neighbor. but found no diamonds. poor Ali Hafed thr ew himself into the tide and was drowned. "nor is that a diamond. Remember that four things come not back: the spo ken word." said Emerson. He had no sooner entered the room th an his eye caught that flash of light from the stone. Find it.place?" "When you find a river running over white sands between high mountain r anges. that is not capable of an improvement in which the re may be a fortune. But to succeed you must be prepared to seize and improve the opportunity when it comes. scarcely an article of household furniture. other diamond s more beautiful than the first gleamed out of it. Wilson. the sped arrow. so some men will get a fortune out of the commonest and meanest things. he noticed a flash of light from the white sands of the brook . Opportunities? They are all around us. "The world is no longer clay. through Palestine and Egypt. "Here's a diamond! here's a diamond!" he shouted in great excitement. While his camel was drinking in t he garden one day. The discontented man sold the farm for what he could get. Forces of nature plead to be used in the service of man. and did not believe in going a way from home to hunt for diamonds or success. although it is not so easy as formerly to obta in great distinction in the old lines. and competition has so greatly increased. There is scarcely a thing which contributes to the welfare and comfort o f humanity." said the farmer. from which others get only poverty and f ailure. The patent office at Washington is full of wonde . and behold." They went into the ga rden and stirred up the white sand with their fingers. iron filings. First find out what the world needs and then supply the want. took the money he had at interest. "Has Ali Hafed returned?" "No. Franklin. When his money was all gone and starvation stared him in the face. slag. New openings are as easy to find as ever to those who do their best. That is but a stone. instead of going abroad in search for wealth. and men have got to hamme r out a place for themselves by steady and rugged blows. Lincoln. He picked up a pebble. "but rather iron in the hands of its workers. There is power lying latent everywhere waiting fo r the observant eye to discover it. as lightning for ages tried to attract his attention to the gre at force of electricity." answered the priest. cotton waste. which would do his drudgery and leave him to develop th e God-given powers within him. but it would be of no use to humanity. a kitchen utensil. and t housands of others had. The man who bought his farm was a cont ented man." Thousands of men have made fortunes out of trifles which others pass by. Frances Willard. because the standard has advanced so much . Had Ali Hafed been content to remain at home. Scarcely a boy or g irl will read these lines but has much better opportunity to win success than Ga rfield. an ar ticle of clothing or of food. The old priest of Buddha who had filled Ali Hafed with the fatal discontent cal led one day upon the new owner of the farm. So the famous diamond beds of Golconda were discovered. and forgot all about it. Harriet Beecher Stowe. in those white sands you will find diamonds. It is one of the paradoxes of civilization that the more opportunities are util ized. and the neglected opportunity. As the bee gets honey from the same flower from which the spider gets poison. he wander ed for years. You have your own special place and work. ashamed of his folly and of his rags. he would have been one of the richest men in the world. for the entire farm abounded in the ri chest of gems. fill it. and pleased with its brilliant hues took it into the ho use. who made the most of his surroundings. the past life. put it on the shelf near the fireplace. Over the mountains of Arabia. An invention to m ake smoke go the wrong way in a chimney might be a very ingenious thing. and went to search for the covete d treasure. as scraps of lea ther. the more new ones are thereby created.

In one of his first speeches upon this resolution he uttered thes e words. N. who was the son of a blacksmith." The great natural philosopher. a good-for-nothing farmer. Stewart. and he had introduced his famous resolution against the unjust taxation of th e American colonies. John Harrison. which were prophetic of his power and courage: "Caesar had his Brutus. but in his first case he showed that he had a wonderful power of oratory. he invent ed the washing machine. People thought he would f ail.rful devices of ingenious mechanism." He was then so poor that he had to borrow a sickle to cut grass in front of his hired tenement. in buying buttons and thread which shoppers did not call for. the great inventor of the m arine chronometer. The cotton-gin w as first manufactured in a log cabin. began his great fortune by making toy wagons in a horse s hed. He s tudied law for six weeks. J. A man who was suffering terribly wit h toothache felt sure there must be some way of filling teeth which would preven t their aching and he invented the method of gold filling for teeth. said to himself. hacked. He became a very rich man. "Here is a letter from a young man na med Faraday. if he refuses he is good for n . and he failed a s a merchant. and wants me to give him employm ent at the Royal Institution--what can I do?" "Do? put him to washing bottles. McCormick began to make his famous reaper in a grist-mill. when a young man. spoiled . when his ca pital was one dollar and a half. but who could not affo rd to get another pair. Edison began his experiments in a baggage car o n the Grand Trunk Railroad when a newsboy. The first model dry-dock was made in an attic. I t then first dawned upon him that he could be a hero in Virginia. unti l he sold enough to hire a loft. as a boy. asking for employment at the Royal Instituti on. Farquhar made umbrellas in his sitting-room. wh ich can be riveted into the leather. Davy consulted a friend on the matter. No doubt many artists had noticed the fine quality of the mar ble. when he put out his shingle. and made a fortune. He had never reali zed what it was to wash before. and became rich. An observing barber in Newark. and regretted that it should have been spoiled. which some unskilful workman had cut. If this be treason. and George the Third--may profit by their exampl e. to Humphry Davy. invented clippers. Mass. T. A Maine man was call ed in from the hayfield to wash clothes for his invalid wife. while the father has been working on u seless inventions. But Michael Angelo still sa w an angel in the ruin. began his career in the loft of an old barn. Ericsso n began the construction of the screw propellers in a bathroom. A. wrote. thought he could make an improvement on s hears for cutting hair. Charles the First his Cromwell. and never though t he could be a hero among the corn and tobacco and saddlebags of Virginia. Patrick Henry was called a lazy boy. Michael Angelo found a piece of discarded Carrara marble among waste rubbish be side a street in Florence. make the most of it. and thrown away. and ha ve struggled for years amid want and woe. The great things of the world have not been done by men of large means. And yet how many families have been impoverished. Clark. From the time the Stamp Act was passed and Henry was elected to the Virginia House of Burgesse s. An observing man. the young David. he has been attending my lectures. but not one in hundreds is of use to the in ventor or to the world. He was always dreaming of some far-off greatness.. with his daughter's help. Finding the method slow and laborious. Parts of the fir st steamboat ever run in America were set up in the vestry of a church in Philad elphia by Fitch. and so prospered. he rose steadily until he became one of the brilliant orato rs of America. After that he made it a rule never to buy anything which the publ ic did not want. and with his chisel and mallet he called out from it one of the finest pieces of statuary in Italy. the founder of Clark Universit y of Worcester.. lost eighty-seven cents. "I will make a metallic lacing hook. i f he is good for anything he will do it directly. the eyelets of whose shoes pulled out. Faraday.

" But the boy who could experiment in the attic of an apothecary shop wit h an old pan and glass vials during every moment he could snatch from his work s aw an opportunity in washing bottles. "The golden opportunity Is never offered twice. can make a fortune. facilities of all kinds for pleasure. One man goes through life without seeing c hances for doing anything great. Eternity itself cannot restore the loss struck from the minute. But we can all of us make our lives sublime. CHAPTER VI POSSIBILITIES IN SPARE MOMENTS Dost thou love life? Then do not squander time.--ANCIENT POET. You will find that millions have the same wants." Why thus longing. Many of us lose great opportunities in life by waiting to find sandalwood for our carvings. which led to a professorship at the Royal Academy at Woolwich. which were closed to them only a few years ago. or paint immortal pictures like an Angelo or a Raphael. they came to the lighthouse to see her." Never before were there such grand openings. Faraday. He must have clothing and dwelling. There is a legend of an artist who long sought for a piece of sandalwood. Hundreds of occupations and professions. He was about to give up in despair." He became the wonder of his age in science. or contribute in any way to their well-being. Grace Darling. living on those barren lighthouse rocks alone with her aged parents? But while h er brothers and sisters. when they really lie hi dden in the common logs that we burn. perpetual hymn? HARR IET WINSLOW. and a nam e which will never perish from the earth. Our whole history appears like a last effort of divine Providence in behalf of the human race. are not known to the world. . What chance had the young girl. thus forever sighing. for that is the stuff life is m ade of. such chances. by seizing common occasions and making the m great. "America is another name for opportunities. He wants co mforts. Tyndall said of this boy with no chance. and culture. leaving the visi on of his life unrealized. Especially is this true for girls and young women. she became more famous than a princess. Ediso n. study yourself and your own wants. supply any demand of comfort. She did not wander away into dreamy di stance for fame and fortune. "He is the greates t experimental philosopher the world has ever seen.othing. The safest business is always connected with man's prime necessities. but did her best where duty had placed her. Wh ile the beautiful. and produced a masterpiece from a log of common firewood. For the far-off. such opportunities. to distinguish herself. while another close beside him snatches from th e same circumstances and privileges opportunities for achieving grand results. improve any methods which men use. unattained and dim. Any man wh o can supply a great want of humanity. when in a dream he was bidden to carve his Madonna fr om a block of oak wood which was destined for the fire. out o f which to carve a Madonna.--FRANKLIN. all around thee lying Offers up its low. he must eat. He obeyed. who moved to the cities to win wealth and fame. A new era is dawning for them. If you want to get rich. and Thompson. are now inviting them to enter. This poor girl did not need to go to London to see the nobility. We can not all of us perhaps make great discoveries like Newton. seize then the hour When Fortun e smiles and Duty points the way. education. Opportunities? They are everywhere. Right at home she had won fame which the regal heirs might envy.

--SHAKESPEARE. "O ne dollar. and that waste of it will make you dwindle alike in intellectual and moral stature beyond your darkest rec koning. but." "One dollar and a half. So every successful man has a kind of network to catch "the raspings and parings of existence. those leavings of days and wee bits of hours" which most people s weep into the waste of life. when we were at play. come now. and then i nquired: "Is Mr. "he is very busy in the pr ess-room. he was alwa . patient. Believe me when I tell you that thrift of time will repay you in after life wit h a usury of profit beyond your most sanguine dreams. I wasted time. you offered it yoursel f for a dollar and a quarter. into either wealth or wisdom. "but then I remember. Franklin in?" "Yes. your clerk asked me only a dollar just now. and the stranger asked: "What is the lowest." echoed the lounger. No reward is offered. On the floor of the gold-working room. having received a salutary lesson from a master in the art of transmuting ti me. "What is the price of that book?" at length asked a man who had been dawdling f or an hour in the front store of Benjamin Franklin's newspaper establishment. each set with six ty diamond minutes.Periunt et imputantur. thousands of dollars' yearly. He who hoards and turns to account all odd minutes." replied the clerk. fa ct by fact." The man silently laid the money on the counter." "Well." said the clerk." "Yes. and the fine particles of gold-dust. gaps "between times. "All that I have accomplished. The would-be purchaser looked over the books on sale a while longer.--the hours perish and are laid to our charge. and now doth time waste me. Lost! Somewhere between sunrise and sunset. "has been and will be by that plodding. persevering process of a ccretion which builds the ant-heap--particle by particle. took his book. tell me your lowest price for this book. "A dollar and a half! Why. in the United States Mint at Philadelphi a." "True.--GLADSTONE." said a brother. Time-wasters are everywhere. half hours. that you can take for that book?" "One dollar and a quarter." replied Franklin. wishing to end a parley of his own seeking. he d emanded: "Well. found in a brown study after listening to one of Burke's speeches in Parliament." and chasms of waiting fo r unpunctual persons. The proprietor was call ed. thought by thought. "One dollar. "can't you take less than that?" "One dollar is the price. its highest and warmest aspi ration reached no further than the hope to set before the young men of my countr y an example in employing those invaluable fragments of time called moments." was the prompt rejoinder. at will. achieves results which astonish those who have not mastere d this most valuable secret. two golden hours." "I have been wondering how Ned contrived to monopolize all the talents of the f amily." was the answer. "and I could better have taken that price then than a dollar and a half now. or hope to accomplish. I want to see him. for they are gone forever. there is a wooden lattice-work which is taken up when the floor is swept. "and I could have better afforded to take a dollar than to leave my w ork." said Elihu Bu rritt. "One doll ar and a quarter! Why." said Franklin. expect to. and left the sto re. Mr.--INSCRIPTI ON ON A DIAL AT OXFORD.--HORACE MAN N." The man seemed surprised. And if ever I was actuated by ambition. unexpected holidays. Franklin." persisted the man." said Franklin coolly. are thus saved.

when companion of the future Queen of France. lost health by temperance and medicine. the power of ceaseless industry to perform miracles! Alexander von Humboldt's days were so occupied with his business that he had to . At one time he wrote to a friend. too. days. and write the lessons learned from the blocks of stone he handled. She has glorified the commonplace as few other women have done. "Uncle Tom's Cabin.ys at work. "Oh. In Dante's time nearly every literary man in Italy was a hard-working merchant. Each successive morning new gifts are brought. Wisely was it said that lost wealth may be regained by industry and economy. it's only five minutes or ten minutes till mealtime. But wha t monuments have been built up by poor boys with no chance. who wonder at their failure to get on. Oh. John Stuart Mill did much of his be st work as a writer while a clerk in the East India House. Hugh Miller. but. what should we of common abili ties not resort to. or soldier. composed severa l of her charming volumes while waiting for the princess to whom she gave her da ily lessons. Harriet Beecher Stowe. "Time is all I require. yet to the improvement of his spare moments the world owes some of its greates t discoveries." in the midst of p ressing household cares. wrote her great masterpiece. Secretary of the Commonwealth. to save the precious moments from oblivion? What a rebuke is such a life to the thousands of young men and women who throw away whole months and even years of that which the "Grand Old Man" hoarded up even to the smalles t fragments! Many a great man has snatched his reputation from odd bits of time which others. judge. Marion Harland has accomplished wonders. they are borne silently away. while working hard as a stone-mason." Oh. we become less and less able to turn them to account. physician. Galileo was a surgeon . Beecher read Froude's "England" a little each day while he had to wait for dinner. that I could purchase at a cheap rate some of our modern gentlemen's spare hours--na y. If a genius like Gladstone carried through life a little book in his pocket les t an unexpected spare moment slip from his grasp. there's no time to do anything now. but if we failed to accep t those that were brought yesterday and the day before. until the ability to appreciate and utilize them i s exhausted. bringing priceless gifts from an unseen hand." The days come to us like friends in disguise." is one of the commonest expressions heard in the family. but l ost time is gone forever. Burns wrote many of his most beautiful poems while working on a far m. throw away. The author of "Paradise Lost" was a teacher. and she has been able to do this by ec onomizing the minutes to shape her novels and newspaper articles. Though she has done s o much. Madame de Genlis. yet all her life has been subject to interruptions which would have disc ouraged most women from attempting anything outside their regular family duties. if impr oved. out of broken fragme nts of time which many of us throw away! The very hours you have wasted. While Michael Faraday was employed binding books. persisting for years unt il the work was done. S ecretary of the Lord Protector. while waiting for his coffee to boil. Longfellow translated the "Inferno" by snatches of t en minutes a day. found time to read scientific books. and had to write his sublime poetry whenever he could snatch a few minutes from a busy life. when her child ren were in bed and whenever she could get a spare minute. he devoted all his leisure to experiments. might have insured your success. stat esman. never to return. if we do not use them. lost knowledge by study.

prosecuted outside of his bus y banking-hours. the mighty possibilities of two--four--yes. which Hunter's indust ry had collected." says Burke. One hour a day withdrawn from frivolous pursuits and profitably employed would enable any man of ordinary capacity to master a complete science. An h our a day might make all the difference between bare existence and useful. and occupation that a hobby confers will broaden character and transform the home. and Dickens signed a remonstrance against organ-grinders who disturbed their work. Franklin was a tireless worker." Carlyle. on the average. It might be in line with his work or other wise. Cicero said: "What others give to p . It would earn enou gh to pay for two daily and two weekly papers. When a child. and at lea st a dozen good books. Many of the greatest men of history earned their fame outside of their regular occupations in odd bits of time which most people squander. or eighteen large volumes in a year. "fills up a man's time much more completely and leaves him less his own master. then. John Hunter. the celebrated shoemaker of Vermont. An Italian scholar put over his door the inscription: "Whoever tarri es here must join in my labors. resolved to devote one hour a day to study. Haw thorne's notebook shows that he never let a chance thought or circumstance escap e him. Southey. research. seldom idle for a minute. he b ecame impatient of his father's long grace at table. and asked him if he could n ot say grace over a whole cask once for all. something usef ul to which he can turn with delight. An hour a day might make--nay. six hours a day that are. the study. Browning. thrown away by youn g men and women in the restless desire for fun and diversion! Every young man should have a hobby to occupy his leisure hours. wrote a hundred volumes. It took Professor Owen ten years to arrange and classify the specimens in Comparative Anatomy. What a record for a boy who began his studies while working as a carpenter! John Q.pursue his scientific labors in the night or early morning. If one chooses wisely. only his heart must be in it. two leading magazines. such as his "Improvement of Navigation" and "Smo ky Chimneys. Adams complained bitterly when robbed of his time by those who had no r ight to it. than any sort of employment whatsoever. and save time. Tennyson. allowed himself but four hours of sleep. I have observed. Consider. Spenser made his rep utation in his spare time while Secretary to the Lord Deputy of Ireland. He crowded his meals and sleep into as sm all compass as possible so that he might gain time for study. In an hour a day a boy or girl could read twenty pages th oughtfully--over seven thousand pages. over twenty-four thousand in number. while others were a sleep. He wrote some of his best productions on shipboard. He became one of the most noted mathematician s in the United States. has made--an unknown man a famous one. a useless man a benefactor to his race. like Napoleon. and also gained an enviable reputation in other departme nts of knowledge. One hour a day would in ten years make an ignorant man a well-informed man. Frost. What young man is too busy to get an hour a day for se lf-improvement? Charles C. happy living. which." Some boys will pick up a good education in the odds and ends of time which othe rs carelessly throw away. as one man saves a fortune by small economies which ot hers disdain to practise. "He has nothing to prevent him but too much idleness. Sir Joh n Lubbock's fame rests on his prehistoric studies." What a lesson there is in Raphael's brief thirty-seven years to those who plead "no time" as an excuse for wasted lives! Great men have ever been misers of moments.

He made and recorded over two hu ndred thousand meteorological observations." The worst of a lost hour is not so much in the wasted time as in the wasted pow er. Lord Brougham could not bear to lose a moment. Idleness rusts the nerves and makes the muscles creak. and w ould sometimes write two whole nights and a day without intermission. Sir Humphry Davy achieved emine nce in spare moments in an attic of an apothecary's shop. Dalton's industry was the passion of his life. Matthew Hale wrote his "Contemp lations" while traveling on his circuit as judge. I give to t he study of philosophy. went into an adjoining room and wrote down a thoug ht for his "Faust. Mozart would not allow a mome nt to slip by unimproved. nay. Goe the suddenly excused himself. even to mental and bodily rest." Lord Bacon's fame springs from the work of his leisure hours while Chancellor of England. Caesar said: "Under my tent in the fiercest struggle of war I have always found time to think of many other things. Somerville learned botany and ast ronomy and wrote books while her neighbors were gossiping and idling. Watt learned chemistry and mathematics while w orking at his trade of a mathematical instrument-maker. in order to meet the expenses of his mother's funeral." lest it should be forgotten. yet he was so systematic that he always seemed to have more leisure than many who did not accomplish a tithe of what he did. but he carried with him the manuscript of his "Commentaries. Dr. lazi ness has none. George Stephenson seized the moments as though they were gold. He achieved distinction in politics. it is t raced back to the girl who made the blunder and the loss is deducted from her wa . Work has system. Do not brood over the past. Lincoln studied law during his spare hours while surveying. He wrote h is famous "Requiem" on his death-bed. In factories for making cloth a single broken thread ruins a whole web. Darwin composed most of his works by writing his thoughts on scraps of paper wherever he happened to be. Dr. but seize the instant and get y our lesson from the hour. Henry Kirke White learne d Greek while walking to and from the lawyer's office where he was studying. As Fenelon says. He learned arithmeti c during the night shifts when he was an engineer.ublic shows and entertainments. science. Mrs. He educated hims elf and did much of his best work during his spare moments. or dream of the future. and had to swim a shore." He was once shipwrecked. Johnson wrote "Rasselas" in the evenings of a single week. God never gives but one moment at a time. Grot e wrote his matchless "History of Greece" during the hours of leisure snatched f rom his duties as a banker. law. and learned the com mon branches unaided while tending store. Dr. Burney learned Italian and French on horseback. President Quincy never went to bed until he had laid his plans for the next day ." upon which he was at work when the ship went down. The present time is the raw material out of which we make whatever we will. and does not give a second until he withdraws the first. Pope would often rise in the night to write out thoughts that would not come during the busy day. At eighty she published "Molecular and Microscopical Science. Mason Good translated "Lucretius" while riding to visit his patients in Lon don. and literature. The man is yet unborn who rightly measures and fully r ealizes the value of an hour. He would not stop his work long enough to sleep. Dr. During an interview with a great monarch.

Waste of time mea ns waste of energy. to make himself use ful.--branches of emplo yment that pay well at Harvard. Time is money. as there are to-day--at this hour and this moment. a perpetual witness of our folly. but we should not throw away an hour any more than we would throw away a dollar-bill. or it may be a golden thread which will add to its beauty and luster. "Of the five thousand persons--students.ges. our web of Fate we spin. Here. and happy. waste of vitality. as elsewhere. This day for all hereafte r choose we holiness or sin. self-educated. We cannot stop t he shuttle or pull out the unfortunate thread which stretches across the fabric. The great major ity of youths who go to the bad are ruined after supper. howev er. From $700 to $1. But history shows us that the men who have led in the van of human progress have been. There is a deep significance in the lines of Whittier:-This day we fashion Destiny. It may be a shoddy thread of wasted hours or los t opportunities that will mar the fabric and mortify the workman forever. No one is anxious about a young man while he is busy in useful work. as a rule. Most of those who climb upward to honor and fame devote their evenings to study or work or the society of those who can help and improve them. by watching with an eagle's eye for every chance of improvement." writes a graduate. for a young man with an ambition to do somet hing in the world to be compelled to pay his own way through school and college by hard work. for half of them make an income above the average allowance of boys in small er colleges. Each evening is a crisis in the career o f a young man. threads of some kind follow every movement a s we weave the web of our fate. and scorning sensual pleasure. There is scarcely one in good health who reads these lines but can be assured that if he will he may. honored. Garfield. Beware how you kill ti me. self-made. A classmate of the writer entered coll . "five hundred are students entirely or almost entirel y dependent upon their own resources. "by the cultivation of every ta lent.--directly connected with Harvard Unive rsity. It mea ns the waste of opportunities which will never come back. "There are some men that make much more. the will can usually make the way. by redeem ing time. We should not be stingy or mean with it. But where does he eat his lunch at noon? Where does he go when he leaves his boarding-hous e at night? What does he do after supper? Where does he spend his Sundays and ho lidays? The way he uses his spare moments reveals his character. The average boy of to-day who wishes to obtain a liberal education has a better chance by a hundredfold than had Daniel Webster or James A. for all your future lives in it. waste of character in dissipation." says Edward Everett. the inflexib le purpose. It seems a great hardship. indeed. But who shall pay for the broken threads in life's great web? We cannot thr ow back and forth an empty shuttle. defying temptation." CHAPTER VII HOW POOR BOYS AND GIRLS GO TO COLLEGE "Can I afford to go to college?" asks many an American youth who has hardly a d ollar to his name and who knows that a college course means years of sacrifice a nd struggle. They are not a poverty-stricken lot. "And it is left for each.000 are by no means exceptional yearly earnings of a student who is capable of doing newspaper work or tutoring. and never be fore was there so many avenues of resource open to the strong will.

and do their university work in the afternoons and evenings. which were none too low. living in Springfield. however. as this does not pay expenses. After graduation. relying wholly on himself for success. preach in small towns. and receive twenty cents an hour. This only whetted his appetite for knowledge. His life was a success. The ways of earning money are various. New York. In his junior year. in this way. by having several of each to ca re for. and arranged with a professor of Union College to pay for his tuition b y working. entered col lege with no other capital than fifty dollars loaned to him by a friend. A representative American college president recently said: "I regard it as. A few months after graduation he married. To be a correspondent of city dail y papers is the most coveted occupation. Beveridge. Some dozen or more teach night school. earning twelve dollars a week. on the whole. and amassed a fortune. and studied pe rsistently. At Chicago University many hundreds of plucky young men are working their way. He carried his books with him morning. not only paid his way through coll ege. but only a few can obtain such position s. by which they earn two and on e-half to three and one-half dollars a week. however. Some solicit advertisements. writing. When he returned to college he began to be recognized as an exceptio nal man. he proceeded to Sche nectady. Scores carry daily papers. a distinct advantage that a student should have to pay his own way in part as a condition of obtaining a college education. One student is a member of a city orchestra. and. but helped to support his aged parents. A few serve in the university postoff ice. and copying done after study hours. depending upon the opportunities for work . "He made his money by advertising schemes and other publishing ventures. He serv ed as steward of a college club." . the foundation being self-reliance and integ rity. He believed that he could afford a college training and he got it. Several are tutors. as desirable that one should have t o work his own way entirely. The president of his class at Columbia University recently earned the money to pay for his course by selling agricultural implements. noon and night. they add other employments. As a freshman he had a hard struggle. which served for study and home. he prospered and in his last ten months of undergraduate work he cleared above his college expenses. as the tax upon strength and time is likely to be s uch as to interfere with scholarship and to undermine health. after the firs t year. One of his classmates. I do not regard it. He rented a small room. later." A son of poor parents. but. he returned to work in the harvest fields and broke the wheat-cutting records of t he county. the junior United States Senator from Indiana. When summer came. so as to take their degrees. Many are waiters at clubs and restaurants. worked his way through an academy. to the construction o f iron bridges of his own design.ege with about twenty-five dollars. and the student's ability and adaptability. Accordingly.000. and he determined to a dvance. A few find evening work in the city library. by the savings of two years' work as a farm laborer. Two young men made twelve hun dred dollars apiece. he turned his attention to civil engineering. Albert J. they earn from five to ten dollars a week. It gives a reality and vi gor to one's work which is less likely to be obtained by those who are carried t hrough college. and added to his original fund of fifty dollars by taking the freshman essay prize of twenty-five dollars. and money earned by tutoring. in one year. Several teach in the public schools in the daytime. upward of $ 3. The divinity students. the expense of his bread-and-milk diet never exceeding fifty cents a week. He procured many valuable patents. He had shaped his course and worked to it. Some a ttend to lawns in summer and furnaces in winter. He is now living comfortably in Cambridge.

For example. Frost was graduated at the Brattleboro. High School. The boy who works his way through college may have a hard time of i t. and the opportunities for self-help. the average maximum expense. Vt. Chicago. H. Like Mr. All these and many more from the ranks of the bright and well-trained young men who have been graduated from the colleges and universities of the country in re cent years believed--sincerely. the average expense per year is three hundr ed and four dollars. while fourteen as well-known Eastern institutions give an average expense of four hundred and forty-four dollars. and o ne year as assistant superintendent in the Essex County Truant School. attention and energy to any work that would bri ng remuneration. Statistics of expense. where means are limited and ti me short. doggedly believed--that a college training was s omething that they must have. at Lawren ce. whose funds are small and opportunities fe w. and canvassed for a publishin g house one summer in Maine. he ranked well in his classes. and is a young man of s olid character and distinguished attainments. and entered Dartmouth College with just money enough to p ay the first necessary expenses. He served summers as waiter in a White Mountain hotel. N.. Isaac J. Encourag ement and useful hints are offered by the experience of many bright young people who have worked their way to diplomas worthily bestowed. the mechanic and the operative.Circumstances have rarely favored great men. A lowly beginning is no bar to a g reat career. but he will learn how to work his way in life. N . H. and will often take higher ran k in school. Mass. For four years Richard Weil was noted as the great prize winner of Columbia Col lege. eighteen well-known Western colleges and universities have a general average expense of t wo hundred and forty-two dollars per year. it was found that. that the republic will depend on most for good citizenship and brains in the future. Meriden. Frost. is of great importance both to the individual and the nation. and for "turning his time." He would do any honest work that would bring cash. and through Dartmouth College. taught distr ict schools six terms. finally becoming hea d-waiter... Cox of Philadelphia worked his way through Kimball Academy. having a student populat ion of somewhat over forty thousand. in a list of forty-five representative colleges and universities. Gaius B. None of his fellow-students did more to secure an e ducation. It is the son and daughter of the farmer. He worked in gardens and as a janitor for some time.--and every cent of this money as well as every hour not spent in sleep throughout the four years of his college course was devoted to getting his education. than his classmate who is the son of a millionai re. It is evident that they did not for one instant think that they could not afford to go to col lege. In some of the smaller colleges the minimum expense per year is from sev enty-five dollars to one hundred and ten dollars. while the maximum expense rises in but few instances above one thousand dollars. five hundred and twenty-nine d ollars. th e great average class of our country. In Western and Southern colleges the averages are lower. The question of whether or not they could afford i t does not appear to have occasioned much hesitancy on their part. pushed a rolling chair at the Columbian Exposition. and in after life. Littleton. There are many who get along o n an expenditure of from one hundred and fifty dollars to two hundred dollars pe r year. There was no hone st work within the limits of his ability that he would not undertake to pay his way. The problem of securing a good education. was port er one season at Oak Hill House. at some of the best . In an investigation conducted to ascertain exact figures and facts which a poor boy must meet in working his way through college.. During his course he taught six terms as principal of a high school. doing many kinds of work.

some rooms at nominal rent. economy and total abstinence. Many students earn mon ey in various ways. for the college year. Dartmouth has some three hundred scholarships. railway fares. for freshmen. books. sale of books. large beneficiary and loan funds. etc. The cost at Columbia University averages five hundred and forty-seven dollars. reporters. Harvard has about two hundred and seventy-five scholarships. three hundred dollars to four hundred dollars. a faculty employment committee. sixty dollars to f our hundred dollars apiece. clerks. requires s tudiousness and economy in the case of assisted students. The average yearly expenditure per student is five hundred dollars. table-waiting. three hundred and fifty-eight dollars to one thousand and thirty-five dollars. Loan funds are available. won by success in competitive ex amination. the average expenditu re is about four hundred dollars. these will be. etc. and stationery. two hundred and forty-two dollars in free scholar ships and fellowships. distributed or loa ned in sums of forty dollars to two hundred and fifty dollars to needy and promi sing under-graduates. habits.. some students earning money as stenographers. the lowest being three hundred and eighty-seven dollars. requirements. no requirements except good standing. The University of Pennsylvania in a recent year gave three hundred and fifteen students forty-three thousand. The average yearly expenditure is five hundred dollars. no free rooms. freshmen (usually) barred. often remits room rent in return for services about the college buildings. and maintain good standing and conduct." stude nts getting employment in the library or laboratories can earn about one-fourth of their expenses. No money loaned. Five hundred dollars a y ear will defray all necessary expenses. Many students support themselves in part. and a few wholly. shorthand. t otal abstainers. has one hund red tuition scholarships for other students of good character. by shorthand. yearly expenditure (exclusive of clothes . . students have chances to ear n money at tutoring. newspaper corr espondence. newspaper work. and stand ing. It has also five hundred and twelve state tuition scholarships. The yearly expenditure is three hundred and twenty-five dollars.known Eastern institutions are full of interest: Amherst makes a free gift of the tuition to prospective ministers. Cornell University gives free tuition and free rooms to seniors and juniors of good standing in their studies and of good habits. canvassers. membership in societies. etc. Wesleyan University remits tuition wholly or in part to two-thirds of its under -graduates. exclusive of clothes. fifty dollars to seventy-five dollar s a year: "no limits placed on habits or social privileges of recipients. It has thirty-six two-year sc holarships (two hundred dollars). typewriters. washing. thirty-five per cent of the whole undergraduate body earning money. s ubscriptions and service). agencies for laundries. Brown University has over a hundred tuition scholarships and a loan fund. Bowdoin has nearly a hundred scholarships." Many students are self -supporting. makes loans at low rates. care of buildings. work of one sort or another to be had by needy students. The ave rage expenditure per year. laboratory charges. those above fifty dollars condit ioned on class rank. Many students support themselves in part by waiting on table. and singers. "Beneficiaries must be frugal in habits. private t utors. A great many students w ho know how to get on in a great city work their way through Columbia. a few get through on less than two hundred and fifty dollars a year. is four hu ndred and fifty dollars. has some free rooms.

she can obtain it. she will pay th e coming year's expenses. It is her aim to earn one hundred dollars." The system of compulsory domestic service obtaining now at Mount Holyoke--where by. however. Some lighten their expen ses by waiting on tables in boarding-houses. car fares. there are a few people who are glad to give the colleg e girls such employment. two or three hours a day. Others get room and board in the homes of professors by giving. fifty minutes a day of light household labor. paying for their clothes. taking care of rooms. Mosher. She has paid all the expenses of h er education in this way. the girls who have earned money to pa y their way through college. summer work in libraries and offices. at least in part. As far as I know. "Do any of your students work their way through?" was asked of a Bryn Mawr auth ority. sewing. many such students earning money for themselves. Some of our most worthy graduates have done this. Because it is especially difficult to obtain good serv ants in this inland town. now. average yearly expenditure . With thi s sum. Some of them earn pin-money while in college by tut oring. a Russian Jewess. At city colleges. Typewriting is one of the favorite re sources. board and lodging cost more than in the country. in case of worthy students. "have earned the money by teaching. president of Mount Holyoke Colle ge. "that.. and a chance to pay for room and board by giving service. typewriting. Another girl. or a t the affiliated colleges.--was formerly in use at Wellesley. A few take care of children. daily. woman's dean of the college. The number of girls in the University of Michigan who are paying their own way is large. Eliza M. Barnard and Radcliffe. in order to earn money to complete the co urse. like the last two mentioned. if a girl with average intelligence and energy wishes a college educa tion. New York. books. from the lower East Side. have accomplished it by tutoring. typewriting or stenography. "Most of them." "It is my opinion. and in general it is more difficult for a girl to pay any large part of her expenses through her own efforts and carry on her college work at t he same time. One student has done particularly well as agent for a firm that makes c ollege caps and gowns. thus paying for their board. A number of girls in Barnard are. however. executing commiss ions. by doing what work they can find. but pin-money may be acquired in many little ways by a girl of ingenuity. because the lists are always full of experienced teachers. Smith and Vassar. every student reduces her college expenses by a hundred dollars or a hun dred and fifty. about six hundred dollars. Tutoring in Barnard is seldom av ailable for the undergraduates. runs a little "sweat shop. It is not unusual for students to come here for two years and go away for a time. It has no foothold at Bryn Mawr. remits all but forty do llars of term bills." where she keeps a number of women busy ma king women's wrappers and children's dresses. There is a splendid chance for girls at some of the soundest and best known gir ls' colleges in the United States. One young woman. There are not many opportunities at Mount Holyoke to e arn large amounts of money." says Dr." said Miss Mary E. it is confined there to a few cottages. worked as a chambermaid on a lake steamer last year and hurried aw ay this year to do the same. regular in attendance and studi ous. three hours of service about the house. in the families of the faculty. in return for thirty. or at the most. who is especially brave and in good earnest. and in various little ways such as putting up lunches. Woolley. and newspaper work. .Yale is pretty well off now for fellowships and prizes. etc. who can be engaged by the hour.

and most of the denominational colleges demand fees even lower than were cust omary in New England half a century ago. and by a judicious display of attr active samples she is easily tempted to enlarge her supply. In Kansas. too. board and a room can be had for twelve dollars a month. furnish help to many a girl who wishes to help herself. a dollar and a half. yes. the college fees are five dollars a year. Of course. Beside these standard employments." was the reply. that state now sends more students to college than al l of New England. are between four hundred and five hundred and fifty dollars. too. This amount includes positively everything. The lowest entire e xpenses of a year. Partly by reason of the cheapness of a college education in Ohio. while the average expenditure of the students does not exceed two hundre d dollars per annum. Yet several are able to pay half their way. and is not often done. which they sell here. Two girls may pay part of their expe nses by taking charge of the library. is almost impossible. Yes."Some. "The girl that plays the piano for the exercises in the gymnasium is paid for t hat.. and general refurnisher to students with gene rous allowances. Some of them write for the newspa pers and magazines. teaching in evening schools occasionally off ers a good opportunity for steady eking out of means." A similar question put to a Vassar student brought the following response: "Why. tutoring. In many colleges there is opportunity for a girl with taste and cunning fingers to act as a dressmaker. girl who has a sign on the door of her room. Then. evenings and S "There are other girls who are agents for two of the great manufacturers of cho colate creams. there are many wealth always having something like that done. in nearly every college. Orders for gymnasium suits and swimming suits mean good profits .--to a certain extent.--'Dresses pres a good deal of money. West of the Alleghanies a college education is accessible to all classes." Typewriting. the opportunities for self-help are correspondingly more in the East. Every youn g man or woman should weigh the matter well before concluding that a college edu cation is out of the question. "but not many. aturdays. assistance rendered in library or laboratory or office. another. I know a sed. and still others have pupils in music. In mo st of the state universities tuition is free. the state university has abolished all tuition fee s. a lesson. Former President Tucker of Dartmouth says: "The student who works his way may d . for example. and by selling stationery. and others by 'tutoring'. good morals and good grit need despair of getting a college education unless there are extremely unusual reasons against the undertaking. But to earn all of one's way in a college year. for the well-dressed gir l was never known to have enough pretty ones. and sometimes a very good one receives two dollars and a half. Those who 'tutor' receive a dollar . repairer. and at the same time to keep up in all the studies. The reign of the shirt-waist has been a boon to many. etc. or send to the stores in New York. there are a great many girls who manage to pay most of their expense s. on the other hand. Yet if the total cost is less in the West. any girl who is at all deft in the art of sewing can make a shirt-waist without a profess ional knowledge of cutting and fitting. to be sold. by dis tributing the mail. No boy or girl in America to-day who has good health. In Ohio. and who are willing And so this girl makes a large sum of money. and some of the girls paint and make fancy articles. in Poughke epsie. too.'--and she earns y girls here who are to pay well for it.

--a village of about one thousand inhabitants. I was getting on swimmingly. Remember what one hundred and twenty dollars meant on Prince Edward Isl and. and then I gave it up. he tried to dissuade me from it. and there was the possibility of failure in the end. young men of to-day! Thirty dollars a year for working from seven in the morning until ten at night! But I was glad to get the place. I should say. But my mind was made up. I had small hope of winning it. furnishes a good example. and the prospect of promotion as fast as I dese rved it. "When I told my employer of my plan. Poverty under mos t of the conditions in which we find it in colleges is a spur. For my first year's work I was to receive thirty doll ars and my board. "From the time I began working in the store until to-day. because I had made up my mind that I wanted to get a better educati on. Without examining the statistics. "I did not know how I was going to do this." The opportunities of to-day are tenfold what they were half a century ago. Form er President Schurman of Cornell says of his early life: "At the age of thirteen I left home. I began to attend the village high school. I recited in Latin. and to me. that a larger percentage of Dartmouth men have risen to distinction than those of almost any other American college. Greek. except that it must be by my own ef forts. where I was to receive sixty dollars a year and my board. "With my capital of eighty dollars. "The scholarship I had won amounted to only sixty dollars a year. Think of that. and algebra. I determined to go to college. my preparation had been so hasty and incomplete. although I think that I should have made a successful store keeper. and offered to double my pay if I would stay in the store. all on the same day. It seems litt . My money wou ld not last longer than that. I have seen the s ons of rich men lead in scholarship. a poor boy who had never possessed such a sum in his life. I had only one year to do it in. "My father got me a place in the nearest town. and during all the years of my boyhood I never received a penny that I did not earn myself. At the end of the year I entered the competitive examination for a scholarship in Prince of Wales College. at Charlottetown. and the sons of poor men. "I kept this place for two years. and the little village was like a city to my country eyes. I went to a larger store in the same town. I knew that it involved hard work and self-denial. In one side was the certainty of one hu ndred and twenty dollars a year. I think. against the wishes of my employer. but stood first of all the competitors on the Island. But when the result was announced. I need not say that I do not regret that early decision. I hadn't definite plans as to my future. It was a start in the world.--Summerside. The greater part of its patronage is from p oor men.o it with ease and profit. to get my preparation for college. My sala ry was doubled. and to earn some money. or he may be seriously handicapped both by his necess ities and the time he is obliged to bestow on outside matters. on the Island. I found that I had not only won the scholarship f rom my county. On th e other side was my hope of obtaining an education. I have always support ed myself. I merely wanted to get in to a village. I would not turn back. "That was the turning-point in my life. and that was all the money I had in the world. At the end of my first year. and for the next forty weeks I studied harder than I ever had before or have since. I had saved about eighty dollars from my store-keeping. Dartmouth College . He pointe d out the difficulties in the way of my going to college. from facts that have fa llen under my observation.

42 in my pocket. through the offer of the Hibbard Soci ety. The scholarship paid five hundred dollars a year for three years. he was ca lled to Dalhousie University. A way was opened for him. then a Doctor of Philosophy. Two years later. $15 for railroad fares. including. retaining my old room at $1 pe r week. Beside s this I spent $10. and gifts amounting t o $12. He tried the examination and won the prize. The others I could have done without. called him to that position. Schurman became deeply interested in the study of philosophy. when th e president's chair became vacant." For two years young Schurman attended Prince of Wales College. I earned during the yea r. which squared my accounts for the year. A well-known graduate of Amherst college gives the following figures. in competition with the brightest students in the larger Cana dian colleges. with all of which I just covered expenses. but the poor country boy from Prince Edward Island was again s uccessful. Nova Scotia. and then went to Acadia College i n Nova Scotia to complete his course.45 for clothing. The honor men of the great English Universities like Oxford and Cambridge were among the competitors.50. At that time he was only thirty-eight years of age. including board. room. Schurma n became dean of the Sage School of Philosophy at Cornell.55 for books. The expenses for the year. the full value of board. $23. he lea rned of a scholarship in the University of London offered for competition by the students of Canadian colleges. I waited on table at a $4 boarding-house all of my sophomore year. without it I could not have gone on. Mr. borrow ed $190. $87.50. "In my junior year I engaged a nice furnished room at $60 per year. and tuition. at Halifax. to mo st persons. returned to Acadia College to become a teacher there. Aft erward. excepting $40 due on tuition.57 for voluntary subsc riptions. "During the next summer I earned $100. that the winning of it was the greatest success I ever have had. of course. when a chair of philosophy was established at Cornell.76. Soon afterward. received $70 for a scholarship. etc.20..24 for sundries. in 1892. $10. and borrowed $150. if it had been necessary. who had once met the bri lliant young Canadian. The young student in Acadia was ambitious to continue his stud ies in England. During the year I earned $60.le enough. I have had other rewards. greatly to the surprise of the others. $8. The expenses of the sophomore year were $394. in London. would seem immeasurably greater. Schurman's fellow-students in Acadia says that he was remarkable chi efly for taking every prize to which he was eligible. recei ved from the college a scholarship of $60. During the three years in the University of London. and decided that he had found in it his l ife-work. I earned $37. after nearly thirty years. were $478. . and. spending less than one hundred dollars during the entire college year. He lived on his scholarship and what he could earn by keeping books for one of the town storekee pers. he was placed at the head of the great univer sity. President White. My current expenses during my freshman year were $4. In his senior year. he taught a country school for a year. and an additional gift of $20. By clerical work. $55 fro m gifts. Dr. and saw in this offer his opportunity. which to the boy who earnestly wants to go to college are of the most pertinent interest: "I entered college with $8. He was eager to go to Germany to study under the great leaders of phil osophic thought. of a traveling fellowship with two thousand dollars a year. which. Mr. In 1886. which I agr eed to pay for by work about the house. At the end of his course in Germany. One of Mr. but I can say now. Schurman.50 per week. but with this difference: that firs t success was essential. al so earned full board waiting upon table. and earned half board. borrowed $70. received a scholarship of $70.

It seemed as if they left untried no avenue for e arning money. to learn the alphabet and lift himself to eminence. borrowed $40. I waited on tab le all the year. etc . Never was ignorance placed at such a disad . Tutoring. earned by clerical work. and so was enabled to graduate without financial embarrassment. the man who can do a thing s uperbly well. bound out until he was twenty-one for only a yoke of oxen an d six sheep. who cannot get a fair education and escape the many disadvantages of ignora nce? "If a man empties his purse into his head. the man whose natural ability has been enlarged. I was permitted to give my note for the amount I could not r aise. If Henry Wilson.708. working early and late on a farm with scarcely any opportuniti es to go to school. if the slave Frederick Douglass. machinists. could manage from scraps of paper. and mail carriers were numbered among the twenty-five. could manage to read a thousand good books before his time had expi red. $40. often gets the place when a man with many untrai ned or half-trained talents loses it. the trained man. founders. secured a scholarship of $70. the whole world is hunting for a man who can do things. pushing ah ead of those who have greater capabilities. tutoring. under the American f lag. The money that a student earns for his own education does enrich his life. But having secured a good position as teacher f or the coming year." No m atter how many millions are out of employment. and old almanacs. "no man can take it away from him." Twenty-five of the young men graduated at Yale not long ago paid their way enti rely throughout their courses. An investment in knowledge always pays the best interest. and positions as clerks were we ll-occupied fields. Never before was there such a demand for the trained man. Many of them c ome from the country and from factory towns. if the po or deaf boy Kitto. Throughout the senior year I retaine d the same room.64 were necessarily heavi er than these of previous years. under the same conditions as the previous year. At the door of every vocation is a sign out. took a prize of $25. It is said that unearned money does not enrich. In a certain district in Boston there are ten thousand students. On all sides we see men with small minds. of which (counting scholars hips as earnings) I earned $1. could become the greatest Bi blical scholar of his age. where is the boy or girl to-day. "The total expense for the course was about $1.157. that is wanted. A large number come from the farms of the West. Many of these students are paying for their education by money earn ed by their own hands. The expenses of the senior year. superbly trained. posters on barns. Everywhere it is the educated. "Wanted--a man." says Franklin. but who are well educated. receive d a gift of $35.. A on e-talent man. a trained thinker who can do whatever he undertakes a lit tle better than it has ever before been done. drummers. enhanced one hund redfold by superior training. and received full board. It is true gol d. who made shoes in an alms-house. $496. copying. Every young man or woman should weigh the matter well before concluding that a college education is out of the question. and painters."During the following summer I earned $40. newspaper work. bicycle agents ." CHAPTER VIII YOUR OPPORTUNITY CONFRONTS YOU--WHAT WILL YOU DO WITH IT? Never before was the opportunity of the educated man so great as to-day. but who are only half educated. on a plantation where it was almost a crim e to teach a slave to read.

vigorous character to resist their temptation. Never before was such pressure brought to bear on the trained youth to sell his brains. to prostitute his education. full of expectancy. inoculating thei r ambition with its vicious virus. on his entrance into practical life were never before so great and so numerous as to-d ay. so numerous. their fair college vi sion will fade. A man's genius. How will the graduate. Educated rascality is infinitely more of a menace to societ y than ignorant rascality. The most unfortunate day in a youth's career is that one on which his ideals be gin to grow dim and his high standards begin to drop. so also the dangers and temptations which beset him were never before so gre at. as to-da y. money-making germ. is measured largely by h ow many dollars it will bring. so astounding. to face for the first time the practical world. go out from the schools. perhaps. the fatal germ will spread through their whole natures. T he money-god. the dollar-mark will swing info your vision. All education which does not elevate. more dangerous. While the opportunities awaiting the educated man. which so often warps and wrenches the who le nature out of its legitimate orbit. that day on which is born in him the selfish. my profession. A liberal education only renders a rascal more dishon est. and. thousands of young men and young women graduate full of ambition an d hope. There is nothing else. Whichever way you turn. sordid. Tens of thousands of young people just out of school and college stand tiptoe o n the threshold of active life. so entrancing. the trained young man or w oman answer it? The dollar stands out so strongly in all the undertakings of life that the idea l is often lowered or lost. the college graduate. finer instincts and nobler desires. and ennoble its recipient is a cu rse instead of a blessing. what he stands for. after a few years. The song of the money-siren to-day is so persistent. but many of them will very quickly catch the money con tagion. the soul's wings are weighted down with gold. It is the subtle menace which threatens to poison the graduate's ambition. The commercial prizes held up to him are so dazzling. full of h ope and big with promise. which the graduate needs to be cautioned agains t more than the money madness which has seized the American people. even when the cal l in one to do something which bears little relation to money-making speaks very loudly. sordid level. the artistic suffers. Wealth with us multiplies a man's power so tremendously that everything gravita tes toward it. The commercial spirit tends to drag everything down to its dead. that it takes a strong. so insidious. which nearly everybody worships in some form or other. their yearnings for something higher will gradually die and be r eplaced by material. for nothing else is more fatal to the development of the higher. that is indicated in the very structure in his brain. my b usiness?" "How can I make the most money?" or "How can I get rich?" is the great interrogation of the century. the colleges. so overwhel ming that it often drowns the still small voice which bids one follow the call t hat runs in his blood. Every year. "How much can I get for my picture?" "How much ro yalty for my book?" "How much can I get out of my specialty. refine. art. . will tempt you on every hand. to coin his ability into dollars. selfish ideals.vantage as to-day. and the unive rsities. with their diplomas. with high ideals and glorious visions.

lower your ideals. no title will ever mean quite so much. will ever be qui te so noble. as that of gentleman. who are so transformed by the inspiring. "A keen and sure sense of honor.You will need to be constantly on your guard to resist the attack of this germ. and they gradually drift back into their former barbarism. this thing that stamps the gentleman. You hold the chisel and mallet--your ability. stand s untouched before you. They become Indian s again. you will be constantly thrown into con tact with those of lower ideals. the woman in you. or will you call out a statue of usefulness. your educa tion--in your hands." The graduate who has not acquired thi s keen and sure sense of honor. "is the finest result of college life. their impro ved language. American-Indian graduates. of culture. who are actuated only by sordid. The influences that will surround you when you leave college or your special tr aining school will be as potent to drag you down as those that cause the young I ndian to revert to barbarism. a statue which will tell the unborn generations the story of a no ble life? Great advantages bring great responsibilities. There is something in the block for you. misses the best thing that a college education can impart. Money-making can not compare with man-making. Your future. of Harvard Universit y. Shall it be angel or devil? What are your ideals. When you plunge into the swim of things. What a contrast that high and noble thing which the college diploma stands for presents to that which many owners of the diploma stand for a quarter of a centu ry later! It is often difficult to recognize any relationship between the two. You can not divorce them. to withstand all temptations. There is something infinitely better than to be a millionaire of money. something higher than merely to put money in his purse. fortunate graduate. tending to deteriorate your standards. The shock you will receive in dropping from the at mosphere of high ideals and beautiful promise in which you have lived for four y ears to that of a very practical. But the graduate whose training. unless you are made of superior stuff. and tha t is to be a millionaire of brains. selfish aims. There is coupled with it a responsibility which you can not shirk without paying the penalty in a shriveled . Whatever degrees you carry from school or college. their fine manners. A libe ral education greatly increases a man's obligations." says Ex-President Eliot. and encoarsen you generally. powerful influences will be opera tive in your life. whose education counts for anything ought to b e able to resist the shock. They soon begin to shed their polish. and it lives in yo ur ideal. the Indian blanket replaces their modern dres s. of helpfulness to one's fellows. your manhood. Then dies the man. very quickly begin to change under the deteriorating influences operating upon them when they leav e college. like a great block of pure white marble. sordid materiality will be a severe test to your character. and general culture. a millionaire of character--a gentleman. The educated man ought to be able to do something better. as you stand tiptoe on the threshold of active life? Will you smite the block and shatter it into an unshapely or hideous piece. cold. whatever distinction you may acquire in your career. uplifting i nfluences of the schools and colleges which are educating them that they are sca rcely recognizable by their own tribes when they return home. After you graduate and go out into the world. of gra ce and beauty.

the possible glory of life. it simply m eans that you have a great commission to do something out of the ordinary for yo ur fellows. instead of using his education to lift his fellow men. low practises. in his business. his finer culture. whatever it may be. Your education means an in creased obligation to live your life up to the level of your gift. It has a right to expect that a man who has learned how to use skilfully the tools of life. you have no right to suppress it. because the other half. If the torch of learning has been put in your hand. having once faced the light and felt its power. an inspiration to those who have n ot had his priceless chance. to stoop to mean. and he is expected to look up. and force you possess. much is expected. Society has a right to look to the collegian to be a refining. your superior opportunity. . uplifting force in his community. who has ability to ameliora te the hard conditions of his fellows. Your duty is to deliver your message to the world with all the man liness. If you have received a message which carries freedom for people enslaved by ign orance and bigotry. so superbly equipped. a stunted mentality. who employs his talents in the book he writes. We cannot help feeling that it is worse for a man to go wrong who has had all t he benefits of a liberal education. uses it t o demoralize. of grander things." The world has a right to expect that the graduate. that he will not disgrace his alma mater which has given him his superior chance in life and opened wide for h im the door of opportunity. and a narrow field of usefulnes s. who. cramping influence of avarice. in the picture he paints. Your superior training has given you a glimpse of the higher life. to mislead. It has a right to expect that he will not be a victim of the narrowing. what shall we think of this man. who uses his light as a decoy to lure his fellows on the r ocks and reefs. a warped conscience. because where much is give n. instead of as a beacon to guide them into port? We imprison the burglar for breaking into our houses and stealing. so divinely endowed. th at he will not be a slave of the dollar or stoop to a greedy. the higher half. The world has a right to expect that wherever there is an e ducated. will be an artist and not an artisan. will not turn his back on it. but what sha ll we do with the educated rascal who uses his trained mind and all his gifts to ruin the very people who look up to him as a guide? "The greatest thing you can do is to be what you ought to be. to de moralize. to drag them down. vigor. not down. If you have the ability and have been given superior opportunities. not to grovel. to help to emancipate them from ignorance and drudgery. who has not had similar advantages. wi ll haunt him. It is more of a disgrace for a college graduate to grovel. it is justified in expecting that he will raise the standard of intelligence in his community." A great man has said that no man will be content to live a half life when he ha s once discovered it is a half life. who has h ad the inestimable advantage of a liberal education. than it is for one who has not had glimpses of higher things. a special message for humanity. The educated man has gotten a glimpse of power.soul. that he will illustrate in his perso nality. grasping career: t hat he will be free from the sordidness which often characterizes the rich ignor amus. to debauch. "There goes a man. its significance is that yo u should light up the way for the less fortunate. than for a man who has not had a liberal education. trained man people should be able to say of him as Lincoln said of Walt Whitman. th at he will not stop growing. to aspire. What shall we think of a man who has been endowed with godlike gifts.

The mere possession of a diploma will only hold you up to ridicule. to make available for working pur . y our high ideals into dollars. don't watch your hands. The world has a right to expect better results from the work of the educated ma n. of a higher grade. The trouble with most of us is that we do not keep our eyes on the model. should have no place in your program. You should be able to demonstrate that the man with a diploma has learned to use the tools of life skilfully. that your knowledge does not possess you. sordid methods. misunderstan dings. a stuffed memory d oes not make an educated man. the man who has discovered only a small part of himself. systemless. "If the highest thing in me will not bring success. and discords which destroy much of the efficiency of narrower. criticizing their work. we often read this comment. cannot. has learned how to focus his faculties so that he can bring the whole man to his task. The knowledge that can be utilized. Knowledge is power only when it can be made available. but a financial failure. sordid prudence. discredit his teachers. less culti vated minds. finer type of man hood. if you cannot bring your education to a f ocus and utilize it in a practical way. who are loaded down with knowle dge that they have never been able to utilize. bickerings." applied either to character or to work are bad mot toes for an educated man. A liberal education ought to broaden a man's mind so that he will be able to keep his eye always on the model. Do not permit yourself to be influence d by the maxims of a low. aimless. something finer. we lose o ur earlier vision." While an education should develop all that is highest and best in a man. The great question which confronts you in the practical world is "What can you do with what you know?" Can you transmute your knowledge into power? Your abilit y to read your Latin diploma is not a test of true education. which will be dinned into your ears w herever you go. half-hearted endeavors . It is a disgrace for a man with a liberal education to botch his work. constitutes the only education worthy of the name. slipshod work. not a financial failure." The mission of the trained man is to show the world a higher. The graduate ought to be able to rise above these things so that he can use all his brain power and energy and fling the weight of his entire being into work t hat is worth while. Regard the very suggestion that you shall coin your education." "Fairly good. surely the lowest. than from the man who lacks early training. practical. After the withdrawal of a play that has been only a short time on the stage. demorali ze his ideals. dishonor the institution which has given him his chance to be a superior man. "Keep your eye on the model.Never lose sight of your college vision. the worst. and not a part of himself. There ar e thousands of college-bred men in this country. prostitute your edu cation by the practise of low-down. it should als o make him a practical man. as an insult. that can be tr anslated into power. "An artistic success. Be sure that you possess yo ur knowledge. the perfect ideal of his work. "Pretty good. that you lower your standards. and better quality. Say to yourself. uninfluenced by the thousand and one petty annoyances. Only what you can use of your education will benefit you or the world. Low ideals." is the injunction of a gr eat master as he walks up and down among his pupils. will only m ake you more conspicuous as a failure.

The college man ought to be a superb figure anywhere. m eanly. The most precious thing of all. to do the greatest. The knowledge that one's mentality has been broadened out by college training. have more faith overed himself. at the cost of mental and moral penury. inspiration. grandest thing possible to you. of greater value than all these. and transmuting every bit of knowledge into power. from your associations. not alone for his advancement. this is the embodiment of the college spirit. or out of life. art. making a sponge of one's brain. The graduate should regard his education as a sacred trust. into working capital. the spirit of your alma mater. On every hand we see men of good ability who feel crippled all thei r lives and are often mortified. not only adds wonderfully to one's happiness. that one has discovered hi s possibilities. if you have made the most of your chan ce. not your knowledge of the sciences. and self-confidence is the lever that move s the world. or be mortified or pained by ignorance of matters which every well-informed person is supposed to know. There is no situation in life in which the beneficent influence of a well-assim ilated education will not make itself felt. magnanimously. which you have absorbed from your teachers. their sordid ideals. encouragement. a liberal education makes a man feel a little surer of himself. but royally. of your powers. This will mean infinitely m ore to you than all you have learned from books or lectures. but for the betterment of all mankind. things are so arranged in this world that no one can use his divine gift for himself alone an d get the best out of it. that they are not ed ucated. To try to keep it would be as foolish as for the farme r to hoard his seed corn in a bin instead of giving it to the earth. There is a great difference between absorbing knowledge. This assurance of knowledge multiplies self-confidence and giv es infinite satisfaction. languages. The man who withholds the giving of himself to the world. by having to confess. to play a manly part in life. it is that which should make you reach up as wel l as on. The way to get the most out of ourselves. but also increase s one's self-confidence immeasurably. If the rosebud should try to retain all of its sweetness and beauty locked within its petals and refuse to gi . and that is your aroused ambition. instead of dow n.poses. does it at his peril. not stingily. There is also great satisfaction ot neglected the unfoldment and expansion of his mpressionable years of youth go by unimproved. because he has disc in the knowledge that one has n mind. literature. it is some thing infinitely more sacred. your resolution to be a little more of a man. their narrow outlook on life. In other words. or for his own selfish ends. for fear he would never get it back. As a matter of fact. in himself. The consciousness of bein g well educated should put one at ease in any society. He should look upon it as a power to be used. by the poverty of their l anguage. your discovery of yourself. of your possibilit ies. so you should transmut e your knowledge into practical wisdom. that he has not let the i But the best thing you carry from your alma mater is not what you there prized most. is the uplift. to our fellows. As the silkworm transmutes the mulberry leaf into satin. The superbly trained man can go through the world with his head up and f eel conscious that he is not likely to play the ignoramus in any company. which should make you aspire instead of grovel--look up. however. is not to try to sell ourselves for the highest possible price but to give ourselves. think a little more of himself.

--EMERSON. your friendships. and strangles the very faculties he would develop. or teachers. The man who tries to keep his education. that influence cannot buy. your good n ame. be atrophied in your efforts to make a living. WHAT WILL YOU DO WITH IT? CHAPTER IX ROUND BOYS IN SQUARE HOLES The high prize of life. The graduate should show the world that he has something in him too sacred to b e tampered with. h is superior advantages for himself. Whatever you do. do not let your esthetic faculties. It is only by flinging them out to the world that t heir fullest development is possible. and does not lift up his head and show that he has made the most of his great privileges disgraces the institution that gav e him his chance. only shrivels. never let it be said of you that you succeeded in your vocation. but failed as a man. in a cl you will not need houses or lands or s Never before did an opportunity to render such great service to mankind confron t the educated youth as confronts you to-day. was asked to make a speech at the unveiling o f his great statue of George Peabody. we impoverish our own lives. stifle our better natures. Put beauty into your life. or influenced to stoop to anything low or questionable. who gropes along in mediocrity. for a mess of pottage. for power or positio n. in our efforts to sell ourselves for selfi sh ends or for the most dollars. Do not. who is always looking out for the main chanc e. sacrifi ce your social instincts. your aspiring instincts. When William Story." So conduct yourself that your life shall own eulogy. need no eulogy in words. in London. never sell your divine heritage. You should so conduct yourself that e very one will see that there is something in you that would repel as an insult t he very suggestion that you could be bought or bribed. How your greatest wealth with you. You have not learned the best lesson from your school or college if you have no t discovered the secret of making life a glory instead of a sordid grind. your good name. do not allow all that is finest within you. my young friend. it would be lost. or man of science mentioned in the history of the human intellect. philosopher. which finds him in employment and happiness. even flight from home and occasional vagabondism . secrecy. let your success tell to the ever much money you may accumulate. When y ou leave your alma mater. There is hardly a poet. Then tocks or bonds to testify to a rich life. who lives a shiftless. an unsullied reputation. is to be born with a bia s to some pursuit. In these cases Nature seems to have triumphed by direct interp osition. and encouraged di sobedience. Whether you make money or lose it. to have insisted on her darlings having their rights. something marked "not for sale. whose genius was not opposed by parents. in the everlasting scramble for the dollar. selfish life. artist. The trouble with most of us is that. be larger than your vocation.ve it out. guardi ans. as thousands of graduates do. Let it be its world the story of a noble career. The college man who is cursed with commonness. carry ean record. whatever your vocation. he simply pointed to the statue and said. the sculptor." a sacred something that briber y cannot touch. the crowning fortune of a man. your high ideals and noble purposes to be suffoca ted. falsehood. "That is my speech. strangled.

or whatever your own pet calling is unt il you have wasted years of a precious life. "Like a boat on a river . sir." Only a Dickens can write the history of "Boy Slavery.-E. On that side all obstruction is taken away. and taken off again." persisted the young man.. Like a locomo tive. Which beckons me away. "I am sure I can be useful. collecting together the little drops f ormed by the condensation of the steam on the surface of the china and the silve r. but he will stick to his favorite pursuit nevertheless. and in a few years he became not only chief cashier in the large store. he may. I must not stay. "the man of genius is drawn by an irresistible impulse to the occupation for which he was c reated." pleaded a young man whom a merchant was about to discharge for his bluntness. "You are good for nothing as a salesman. or fickle. You cannot look into a cradle and read the secret message traced by a divine ha nd and wrapped up in that bit of clay. I hear a voice you cannot hear." "Medicine. No matter by what difficulties surrounded. and he finds himself poor and neglected. but an eminent accountant. stupid. art. When his efforts fail to procure means of subsistence. I don't know." "But I can make myself usefu l somehow. the needle fli es back to its own star." says Robert Waters. "that is what is wrong. I never saw such an idle young fellow as you are. P. yet. like Burns." said the merchant. Which says. law. sir. God has loaded the needle of that young life so it will point to the star of its own destiny. TICKELL." "I know that. this occupation is the only one which he will pursue with interest an d pleasure." or "Business". I cannot sell. of s quare boys forced into round holes. and y ou have busied yourself in examining and. medicine. don't put me away. No man can be ideally successful until he has found his place. first a saucer and then a spoon. any more than you can see the North Star in the magnetic needle." said the youth." "Art. no matter how unpromising the prospect. laughing at the ear nestness of his clerk. I know I cannot sell. "Only don't put me away. often look back with a sigh and think how much better off he would be had he pursued some other occupation. Do you know what you have been doing all this tim e? Why. when once free. too. and oppressed because they did not fit. and though you may pull it around by artif icial advice and unnatural education." says Emerson. "James Watt. of boys tortured be . of boys persecute d as lazy. WHIPPLE. "How? Tell me how." of boys whose aspiration s and longings have been silenced forever by ignorant parents. "I know I can. repent it as he often does. "every boy runs against obstructions on every side but one." said the principal." "Nor do I. "do take a book and employ yourself usefully. and compel it to point to the star which p resides over poetry." Civilization will mark its highest tide when every man has chosen his proper wo rk. you have taken off and replaced. the teapot lid. of b oys compelled to pore over dry theological books when the voice within continual ly cried "Law. and he sweeps serenely over a deepening channel into an infinite sea." said his grandm other. Now." "I do n't know. simply because they were out of their places." said his employer. "Rue it as he may. he is strong on the track." "Science. an d you have held alternately in the steam. are you not ashamed to waste your time in this disgraceful manner?" The world has certainly gained much through the old lady's failure to tell Jame s how he could employ his time to better advantage! "But I'm good for something. but weak anywhere else. I see a hand you c annot see. rather than the world should lose what it cost her so much pains to produce. Try me a t something besides selling. where his aptitude for figures soon showed itself." He was placed in the counti ng-house. For the last half-hour you have not spoken a single word.

She breaks the pattern at every birth. was apprenticed to a pastry-cook. He invented both microscope and telescope. This boy. A kind lady aided him. was sent to a mu sic school. and against which every fiber of their being was uttering perpetual protest. but his own death placed Frederick on the throne at the age of twenty-eight. but in secret he produced his first play. Molière. His f ather hated the fine arts and imprisoned him. He even contemplated killing his s on. but the instinct of commercial enterprise future merchant. Peter's. haunting the boy until he laid aside his grammar for Euclid. when turning his powerful wing against the clear blue sky! Ignorant parents compelled the boy Arkwright to become a barber's apprentice. The father of Joshua Reynolds rebuked his son for drawing pictures. The magic c ombination is never used but once. but th e voice of mathematics drowned every other call. the painter. the auth or. One is en son to be his successo was too strong in the Nature never duplicates men. and the the the The parents of Michael Angelo had declared that no son of theirs should ever fo llow the discreditable profession of an artist. It is often a narrow selfishness in a father which leads reproduction of himself. who. Turner was intended for a barber in Maiden Lane. was thought good for nothing. the famous painter of Aurora." the first performance of which he had to witness in disguise. so he must needs say "han ds off" even to his parents. enlarging knowledge of the vast and minute alike. John Jacob Astor's father wished his r as a butcher. ma de Prussia one of the greatest nations of Europe. in the marble of his Moses. and would not let him rest until he had immortali zed himself in the architecture of St. as Christ said to his mother." Yet this "idle boy" became one of the founders of the Royal Academy. How stupid and clumsy is the blinking eagle at perch. and his longing for authorship so allured him. b ut Nature had locked up in his brain a cunning device destined to bless humanity and to do the drudgery of millions of England's poor. "The Robbers." said Emerson. but when compelled to study anatomy physiology. because he loved art and music. into the inhospitable world of letters. how steady and true his curves. and even punished him for coveri ng the walls and furniture with sketches. Schiller was sent to study surgery in the military school at Stuttgart. "You are trying to make that boy ough. Frederick the Great was terribly abused becau se he had a passion for art and music and did not care for military drill. he would hide his Euclid and Archimedes and stealthily work out abstruse problems. and wrote o n one: "Done by Joshua out of pure idleness. but the fire burning in his breast was kindled by the Divine Artist. He was only eighteen when he discovered the principle of pendulum in a lamp left swinging in the cathedral at Pisa. Claude Lorraine. that he ventured. The irksomeness of his prison-like school so gal led him. "Wist ye not that I m ust be about my Father's business?" Galileo was set apart for a physician.cause they were not enthusiastic in employments which they loathed. but how keen his glance. him to wish his son a another you. and soon he . but became the greatest landsc ape-painter of modern times. pennil ess. Pascal's father determined that his son should teach the dead languages. to an upholsterer. and on the walls of the Sistine Chapel. and Guido.

one to sweep a street crossing. too. and then. he one day. before he wrote his masterpiece. nearly every college graduate who succeeds in the true sense of the word. out of cur iosity. out of cre dit." said Mr. and wondered who could possibly combine so much me lody with so much evident unfamiliarity with the instrument. and soon had a private concert under full blast. an acquaintance. and the duke. a soldier. "Jonathan. When the doctor visited a brother in the service of the Duk e of Weisenfelds. in the town where his regiment was quartered. the ornithologist. soured. A. He at onc e began the study of law. of poor doctors and lawyers for the same reason! The country is full of men who are out of place. A parent might just as well decide that the magnetic needle will point to Venus or Jupiter without trying it. failed in five different professions before he found his place. "thou shalt go down to the machine-shop on Monday morning. The duke happ ened to hear the performance. out at elbows. But the boy got an old spinet and practiced on it se cretly in a hayloft. "Robinson Crusoe." It was m any years before Jonathan escaped from the shop. he will not fill any to the satisfaction of himself or o thers. Chase. invited Erskine to sit near him. insisted that his creditor sho uld take the shop as the only means of securing the money. What a ridiculous exhibition a great truck-horse would make on the race-track. joined the army. Handel to let his son follow his bent. a secretary. and said that the pleaders at the bar were among the most eminent lawyers of Great Britain. "disappointed. and an author of several indiffer ent books. when his son told of having nearly fitted himself f or college. a merchant. as to decide what profession his so n shall adopt. Nature never lets a man rest until he has found his place. a factory m anager. prai sed his performance. instead of blaming him for disturbing the organ. for fifty-two pe r cent. and th eology are the only desirable professions. The boy wandered unobserved to the o rgan in a chapel. Stewart studied for the ministry. in the hope of more rapid promo tion. to work his way up to the posit ion of a man of great influence as a United States Senator from Rhode Island. an envoy. She haunts him and drives him until all his faculties give their consent and he falls into his proper niche." Wilson. ruined. they could not be induced to e xchange callings. The boy was brought before him. out of money. After serving more than two years. The physician Handel wished his son to become a lawyer. through the accident of having lent mone y to a friend. The best thing his teachers ha . he took his son with him. medicine. yet this is no more incongruous than the popular idea that law. out of courage. and persuaded Dr. and the other to rule an empire. but makes himself after he is graduated. with failure imminent. Erski ne took their measure as they spoke. Happy the youth who finds the place which his dreams have pictured! If he do es not fill that place. The pres iding judge. It has been well said that if God should commission two angels. T. of our American college graduates to study law! How many young men becom e poor clergymen by trying to imitate their fathers who were good ones.produced the two splendid dramas which made him immortal. out of office. and became a teacher. attended a court. The latter. out in the cold. and believed he could excel them. Erskine spent four years in the navy." The fact is. in which he eventually soon stood alone as the greates t forensic orator of his country. and so tried to discour age his fondness for music. Not less true is it that he who feels that God has given him a particular work to do can be happy only when earnestly engaged in its performan ce. prepares himself in school. a commissioner's accountant. Daniel Defoe had been a trader. How ridiculous. before he drifted into his proper calling as a merchant.

Cromwell was a farmer until forty years old. Molière found that he was not adapted to the work of a lawyer. That is no reas on why the duty at hand should be put off. With a firm choice and earnest work. and our God. and advance at every honorable opportunity in the direction towards which the inward monitor points. a conscientious statesman. [Illustration: Ulysses S. Cowper failed as a lawyer. examine the work attempted. The world has been very kind to many who were once known as dunces or blockhead s. he cannot succeed at anything. find it very dif ficult before their fifteenth or even before their twentieth year to decide what to do for a living. Lo ok at a fish floundering on the sand as though he would tear himself to pieces. The moment his fins feel the water. and a genuine feeling of respo nsibility to our parents or employers. and success will surely be the crown. be a carpenter. after they have become very successful. he is himself again. the former choosing philosophy. and do not condemn them be . Samuel Smiles was trained to a profession which was not to his taste. If you fail after doing your level best. or why the labor that naturally falls to one's lot should not be done well. Very few of us. the latter. He was so timid that he could not plead a case. be a physician. yet he practiced it so faithfully that it helped hi m to authorship. Neither Lincoln nor Grant started as a baby with a precocity for the White House. a responsible soldier. Let duty be the guiding-star. to the full measure of one's ability and industry. poetry. Give every boy and girl a fair chance and reasonable encouragement. Voltaire and Petrarch abandoned the law. before we reach our teens. for which he was well fitted. while before they be at the air and earth in vain. one should choose cautiously along the line of his best adaptability and opportunity.ve taught him is how to study. or an irresistibl e genius for ruling men. will eventually b ring most of us into the right niches at the proper time. but it is not there. and see if it really be in the line of your bent or power of achievement. or if it be weak or faint. and seizes upon those that do. Garfield would not have become President if he had not previously been a zealou s teacher. but it was very cross to them while t hey were struggling through discouragement and misinterpretation. No o ne need doubt that the world has use for him. show great genius or even remarkable talent for any line of work or study. Each knocks at the portals of the mind. His fins mean something now. eve n when given all the latitude and longitude heart could desire. The moment he is beyond the college walls he ceas es to use books and helps which do not feed him. His business is to do the best he can wherever his lot may be cast. if for medicine. a young man or woman cannot help but succeed. a hindrance instead of a help. So no one should be disappointed because he was not end owed with tremendous gifts in the cradle. and darts l ike a flash through the waves. b ut he left a great name in literature. and this every one can do. but he wrote some of our finest poems. What career? What shall my life's work be? If instinct and heart ask for carpentry. But if there be no instinct. Grant] We must not jump to the conclusion that because a man has not succeeded in what he has really tried to do with all his might. ourselves. True success lies in acting well y our part. But look again: a huge wave breaks higher up the beach and covers the unfortunat e creature. demanding a wonderf ul aptitude for some definite line of work. Fidelity to the work or everyday duties at hand. Better be a first-rate hod-carrier than a s econd-rate anything. The great majority of boys and girls.

cause of even a large degree of downright stupidity; for many so-called good-for -nothing boys, blockheads, numskulls, dullards, or dunces, were only boys out of their places, round boys forced into square holes. Wellington was considered a dunce by his mother. At Eton he was called dull, id le, slow, and was about the last boy in school of whom anything was expected. He showed no talent, and had no desire to enter the army. His industry and perseve rance were his only redeeming characteristics in the eyes of his parents and tea chers. But at forty-six he had defeated the greatest general living, except hims elf. Goldsmith was the laughing-stock of his schoolmasters. He was graduated "Wooden Spoon," a college name for a dunce. He tried to enter a class in surgery, but w as rejected. He was driven to literature. Goldsmith found himself totally unfit for the duties of a physician; but who else could have written the "Vicar of Wak efield" or the "Deserted Village"? Dr. Johnson found him very poor and about to be arrested for debt. He made Goldsmith give him the manuscript of the "Vicar of Wakefield," sold it to the publishers, and paid the debt. This manuscript made its author famous. Robert Clive bore the name of "dunce" and "reprobate" at school, but at thirtytwo, with three thousand men, he defeated fifty thousand at Plassey and laid the foundation of the British Empire in India. Sir Walter Scott was called a blockh ead by his teacher. When Byron happened to get ahead of his class, the master wo uld say: "Now, Jordie, let me see how soon you will be at the foot again." Young Linnaeus was called by his teachers almost a blockhead. Not finding him f it for the church, his parents sent him to college to study medicine. But the si lent teacher within, greater and wiser than all others, led him to the fields; a nd neither sickness, misfortune, nor poverty could drive him from the study of b otany, the choice of his heart, and he became the greatest botanist of his age. Richard B. Sheridan's mother tried in vain to teach him the most elementary stu dies. The mother's death aroused slumbering talents, as has happened in hundreds of cases, and he became one of the most brilliant men of his age. Samuel Drew was one of the dullest and most listless boys in his neighborhood, yet after an accident by which he nearly lost his life, and after the death of h is brother, he became so studious and industrious that he could not bear to lose a moment. He read at every meal, using all the time he could get for self-impro vement. He said that Paine's "Age of Reason" made him an author, for it was by h is attempt to refute its arguments that he was first known as a strong, vigorous writer. It has been well said that no man ever made an ill figure who understood his ow n talents, nor a good one who mistook them. CHAPTER X WHAT CAREER? Brutes find out where their talents lie; A bear will not attempt to fly, A foun dered horse will oft debate Before he tries a five-barred gate. A dog by instinc t turns aside Who sees the ditch too deep and wide. But man we find the only cre ature Who, led by folly, combats nature; Who, when she loudly cries--Forbear! Wi th obstinacy fixes there; And where his genius least inclines, Absurdly bends hi s whole designs. SWIFT. The crowning fortune of a man is to be born to some pursuit which finds him in employment and happiness, whether it be to make baskets, or broadswords, or cana

ls, or statues, or songs.--EMERSON. Whatever you are by nature, keep to it; never desert your line of talent. Be wh at nature intended you for, and you will succeed; be anything else, and you will be ten thousand times worse than nothing.--SYDNEY SMITH. "Every man has got a Fort," said Artemus Ward. "It's some men's fort to do one thing, and some other men's fort to do another, while there is numeris shiftless critters goin' round loose whose fort is not to do nothin'. "Twice I've endevered to do things which they wasn't my Fort. The first time wa s when I undertook to lick a owdashus cuss who cut a hole in my tent and krawld threw. Sez I, 'My jentle sir, go out, or I shall fall onto you putty hevy.' Sez he, 'Wade in, Old Wax Figgers,' whereupon I went for him, but he cawt me powerfu l on the hed and knockt me threw the tent into a cow pastur. He pursood the atta ck and flung me into a mud puddle. As I aroze and rung out my drencht garmints, I concluded fitin was n't my fort. "I'le now rize the curtain upon seen 2nd. It is rarely seldum that I seek conso lation in the Flowin Bole. But in a certain town in Injianny in the Faul of 18-, my orgin grinder got sick with the fever and died. I never felt so ashamed in my life, and I thought I'd hist in a few swallers of suthin strengthnin. Konsequ ents was, I histed so much I didn't zackly know whereabouts I was. I turned my l ivin' wild beasts of Pray loose into the streets, and split all my wax-works. "I then Bet I cood play hoss. So I hitched myself to a kanawl bote, there bein' two other hosses behind and anuther ahead of me. But the hosses bein' onused to such a arrangemunt, begun to kick and squeal and rair up. Konsequents was, I wa s kicked vilently in the stummuck and back, and presently, I found myself in the kanawl with the other hosses, kikin and yellin like a tribe of Cusscaroorus sav ajis. I was rescood, and as I was bein carried to the tavern on a hemlock bored I sed in a feeble voice, 'Boys, playin' hoss isn't my Fort.' "Moral: Never don't do nothin' which isn't your Fort, for ef you do you'll find yourself splashin' round in the kanawl, figuratively speakin." The following advertisement, which appeared day after day in a Western paper, d id not bring a single reply:-"Wanted.--Situation by a Practical Printer, who is competent to take charge of any department in a printing and publishing house. Would accept a professorship in any of the academies. Has no objection to teach ornamental painting and penma nship, geometry, trigonometry, and many other sciences. Has had some experience as a lay preacher. Would have no objection to form a small class of young ladies and gentlemen to instruct them in the higher branches. To a dentist or chiropod ist he would be invaluable; or he would cheerfully accept a position as bass or tenor singer in a choir." At length there appeared this addition to the notice:-"P. S. Will accept an offer to saw and split wood at less than the usual rates. " This secured a situation at once, and the advertisement was seen no more. Your talent is your call. Your legitimate destiny speaks in your character. If you have found your place, your occupation has the consent of every faculty of y our being. If possible, choose that occupation which focuses the largest amount of your ex perience and tastes. You will then not only have a congenial vocation, but also will utilize largely your skill and business knowledge, which is your true capit

al. Follow your bent. You cannot long fight successfully against your aspirations. Parents, friends, or misfortune may stifle and suppress the longings of the hear t, by compelling you to perform unwelcome tasks; but, like a volcano, the inner fire will burst the crusts which confine it and will pour forth its pent-up geni us in eloquence, in song, in art, or in some favorite industry. Beware of "a tal ent which you cannot hope to practice in perfection." Nature hates all botched a nd half-finished work, and will pronounce her curse upon it. Better be the Napoleon of bootblacks, or the Alexander of chimney-sweeps, let u s say with Matthew Arnold, than a shallow-brained attorney who, like necessity, knows no law. Half the world seems to have found uncongenial occupation, as though the human race had been shaken up together and exchanged places in the operation. A servan t girl is trying to teach, and a natural teacher is tending store. Good farmers are murdering the law, while Choates and Websters are running down farms, each t ortured by the consciousness of unfulfilled destiny. Boys are pining in factorie s who should be wrestling with Greek and Latin, and hundreds are chafing beneath unnatural loads in college who should be on the farm or before the mast. Artist s are spreading "daubs" on canvas who should be whitewashing board fences. Behin d counters stand clerks who hate the yard-stick and neglect their work to dream of other occupations. A good shoemaker writes a few verses for the village paper , his friends call him a poet, and the last, with which he is familiar, is aband oned for the pen, which he uses awkwardly. Other shoemakers are cobbling in Cong ress, while statesmen are pounding shoe-lasts. Laymen are murdering sermons whil e Beechers and Whitefields are failing as merchants, and people are wondering wh at can be the cause of empty pews. A boy who is always making something with too ls is railroaded through the university and started on the road to inferiority i n one of the "three honorable professions." Real surgeons are handling the meatsaw and cleaver, while butchers are amputating human limbs. How fortunate that-"There's a divinity that shapes our ends, Rough-hew them how we will." "He that hath a trade," says Franklin, "hath an estate; and he that hath a call ing hath a place of profit and honor. A plowman on his legs is higher than a gen tleman on his knees." A man's business does more to make him than anything else. It hardens his muscl es, strengthens his body, quickens his blood, sharpens his mind, corrects his ju dgment, wakes up his inventive genius, puts his wits to work, starts him on the race of life, arouses his ambition, makes him feel that he is a man and must fil l a man's shoes, do a man's work, bear a man's part in life, and show himself a man in that part. No man feels himself a man who is not doing a man's business. A man without employment is not a man. He does not prove by his works that he is a man. A hundred and fifty pounds of bone and muscle do not make a man. A good cranium full of brains is not a man. The bone and muscle and brain must know how to do a man's work, think a man's thoughts, mark out a man's path, and bear a m an's weight of character and duty before they constitute a man. Go-at-it-iveness is the first requisite for success. Stick-to-it-iveness is the second. Under ordinary circumstances, and with practical common sense to guide him, one who has these requisites will not fail. Don't wait for a higher position or a larger salary. Enlarge the position you a lready occupy; put originality of method into it. Fill it as it never was filled before. Be more prompt, more energetic, more thorough, more polite than your pr edecessor or fellow workmen. Study your business, devise new modes of operation, be able to give your employer points. The art lies not in giving satisfaction m

erely, not in simply filling your place, but in doing better than was expected, in surprising your employer; and the reward will be a better place and a larger salary. When out of work, take the first respectable job that offers, heeding not the d isproportion between your faculties and your task. If you put your manhood into your labor, you will soon be given something better to do. This question of a right aim in life has become exceedingly perplexing in our c omplicated age. It is not a difficult problem to solve when one is the son of a Zulu or the daughter of a Bedouin. The condition of the savage hardly admits of but one choice; but as one rises higher in the scale of civilization and creeps nearer to the great centers of activity, the difficulty of a correct decision in creases with its importance. In proportion as one is hard pressed in competition is it of the sternest necessity for him to choose the right aim, so as to be ab le to throw the whole of his energy and enthusiasm into the struggle for success . The dissipation of strength or hope is fatal to prosperity even in the most at tractive field. Gladstone says there is a limit to the work that can be got out of a human body , or a human brain, and he is a wise man who wastes no energy on pursuits for wh ich he is not fitted. "Blessed is he who has found his work," says Carlyle. "Let him ask no other ble ssedness. He has a work--a life purpose; he has found it, and will follow it." In choosing an occupation, do not ask yourself how you can make the most money or gain the most notoriety, but choose that work which will call out all your po wers and develop your manhood into the greatest strength and symmetry. Not money , not notoriety, not fame even, but power is what you want. Manhood is greater t han wealth, grander than fame. Character is greater than any career. Each facult y must be educated, and any deficiency in its training will appear in whatever y ou do. The hand must be educated to be graceful, steady, and strong. The eye mus t be educated to be alert, discriminating, and microscopic. The heart must be ed ucated to be tender, sympathetic, and true. The memory must be drilled for years in accuracy, retention, and comprehensiveness. The world does not demand that y ou be a lawyer, minister, doctor, farmer, scientist, or merchant; it does not di ctate what you shall do, but it does require that you be a master in whatever yo u undertake. If you are a master in your line, the world will applaud you and al l doors will fly open to you. But it condemns all botches, abortions, and failur es. "Whoever is well educated to discharge the duty of a man," says Rousseau, "cann ot be badly prepared to fill any of those offices that have relation to him. It matters little to me whether my pupils be designed for the army, the pulpit, or the bar. Nature has destined us to the offices of human life antecedent to our d estination concerning society. To live is the profession I would teach him. When I have done with him, it is true he will be neither a soldier, a lawyer, nor a divine. Let him first be a man. Fortune may remove him from one rank to another as she pleases; he will be always found in his place." In the great race of life common sense has the right of way. Wealth, a diploma, a pedigree, talent, genius, without tact and common sense, cut but a small figu re. The incapables and the impracticables, though loaded with diplomas and degre es, are left behind. Not what do you know, or who are you, but what are you, wha t can you do, is the interrogation of the century. George Herbert has well said: "What we are is much more to us than what we do." An aim that carries in it the least element of doubt as to its justice or honor or right should be abandoned at once. The art of dishing up the wrong so as to

make it look and taste like the right has never been more extensively cultivated than in our day. It is a curious fact that reason will, on pressure, overcome a man's instinct of right. An eminent scientist has said that a man could soon re ason himself out of the instinct of decency if he would only take pains and work hard enough. So when a doubtful but attractive future is placed before one, the re is a great temptation to juggle with the wrong until it seems the right. Yet any aim that is immoral carries in itself the germ of certain failure, in the re al sense of the word--failure that is physical and spiritual. There is no doubt that every person has a special adaptation for his own peculi ar part in life. A very few--geniuses, we call them--have this marked in an unus ual degree, and very early in life. Madame de Staël was engrossed in political philosophy at an age when other girls are dressing dolls. Mozart, when but four years old, played the clavichord and c omposed minuets and other pieces still extant. The little Chalmers, with solemn air and earnest gestures, would preach often from a stool in the nursery. Goethe wrote tragedies at twelve, and Grotius published an able philosophical work bef ore he was fifteen. Pope "lisped in numbers." Chatterton wrote good poems at ele ven, and Cowley published a volume of poetry in his sixteenth year. Thomas Lawre nce and Benjamin West drew likenesses almost as soon as they could walk. Liszt p layed in public at twelve. Canova made models in clay while a mere child. Bacon exposed the defects of Aristotle's philosophy when but sixteen. Napoleon was at the head of armies when throwing snowballs at Brienne. All these showed their bent while young, and followed it in active life. But pr ecocity is not common, and, except in rare cases, we must discover the bias in o ur natures, and not wait for the proclivity to make itself manifest. When found, it is worth more to us than a vein of gold. "I do not forbid you to preach," said a Bishop to a young clergyman, "but natur e does." Lowell said: "It is the vain endeavor to make ourselves what we are not that ha s strewn history with so many broken purposes, and lives left in the rough." You have not found your place until all your faculties are roused, and your who le nature consents and approves of the work you are doing; not until you are so enthusiastic in it that you take it to bed with you. You may be forced to drudge at uncongenial toil for a time, but emancipate yourself as soon as possible. Ca rey, the "Consecrated Cobbler," before he went as a missionary said: "My busines s is to preach the gospel. I cobble shoes to pay expenses." If your vocation be only a humble one, elevate it with more manhood than others put into it. Put into it brains and heart and energy and economy. Broaden it by originality of methods. Extend it by enterprise and industry. Study it as you w ould a profession. Learn everything that is to be known about it. Concentrate yo ur faculties upon it, for the greatest achievements are reserved for the man of single aim, in whom no rival powers divide the empire of the soul. Better adorn your own than seek another's place. Go to the bottom of your business if you would climb to the top. Nothing is sma ll which concerns your business. Master every detail. This was the secret of A. T. Stewart's and of John Jacob Astor's great success. They knew everything about their business. As love is the only excuse for marriage, and the only thing which will carry on e safely through the troubles and vexations of married life, so love for an occu pation is the only thing which will carry one safely and surely through the trou bles which overwhelm ninety-five out of every one hundred who choose the life of

a merchant, and very many in every other career. A famous Englishman said to his nephew, "Don't choose medicine, for we have nev er had a murderer in our family, and the chances are that in your ignorance you may kill a patient; as to the law, no prudent man is willing to risk his life or his fortune to a young lawyer, who has not only no experience, but is generally too conceited to know the risks he incurs for his client, who alone is the lose r; therefore, as the mistakes of a clergyman in doctrine or advice to his parish ioners cannot be clearly determined in this world, I advise you by all means to enter the church." "I felt that I was in the world to do something, and thought I must," said Whit tier, thus giving the secret of his great power. It is the man who must enter la w, literature, medicine, the ministry, or any other of the overstocked professio ns, who will succeed. His certain call, that is his love for it, and his fidelit y to it, are the imperious factors of his career. If a man enters a profession s imply because his grandfather made a great name in it, or his mother wants him t o, with no love or adaptability for it, it were far better for him to be a motor -man on an electric car at a dollar and seventy-five cents a day. In the humbler work his intelligence may make him a leader; in the other career he might do as much harm as a bowlder rolled from its place upon a railroad track, a menace to the next express. Only a few years ago marriage was the only "sphere" open to girls, and the sing le woman had to face the disapproval of her friends. Lessing said: "The woman wh o thinks is like a man who puts on rouge, ridiculous." Not many years have elaps ed since the ambitious woman who ventured to study or write would keep a bit of embroidery at hand to throw over her book or manuscript when callers entered. Dr . Gregory said to his daughters: "If you happen to have any learning, keep it a profound secret from the men, who generally look with a jealous and malignant ey e on a woman of great parts and a cultivated understanding." Women who wrote boo ks in those days would deny the charge as though a public disgrace. All this has changed, and what a change it is! As Frances Willard said, the gre atest discovery of the century is the discovery of woman. We have emancipated he r, and are opening countless opportunities for our girls outside of marriage. Fo rmerly only a boy could choose a career; now his sister can do the same. This fr eedom is one of the greatest glories of the twentieth century. But with freedom comes responsibility, and under these changed conditions every girl should have a definite aim. Dr. Hall says that the world has urgent need of "girls who are mother's right h and; girls who can cuddle the little ones next best to mamma, and smooth out the tangles in the domestic skein when thing's get twisted; girls whom father takes comfort in for something better than beauty, and the big brothers are proud of for something that outranks the ability to dance or shine in society. Next, we w ant girls of sense,--girls who have a standard of their own, regardless of conve ntionalities, and are independent enough to live up to it; girls who simply won' t wear a trailing dress on the street to gather up microbes and all sorts of def ilement; girls who don't wear a high hat to the theater, or lacerate their feet and endanger their health with high heels and corsets; girls who will wear what is pretty and becoming and snap their fingers at the dictates of fashion when fa shion is horrid and silly. And we want good girls,--girls who are sweet, right s traight out from the heart to the lips; innocent and pure and simple girls, with less knowledge of sin and duplicity and evil-doing at twenty than the pert litt le schoolgirl of ten has all too often. And we want careful girls and prudent gi rls, who think enough of the generous father who toils to maintain them in comfo rt, and of the gentle mother who denies herself much that they may have so many pretty things, to count the cost and draw the line between the essentials and no n-essentials; girls who strive to save and not to spend; girls who are unselfish

and eager to be a joy and a comfort in the home rather than an expense and a us eless burden. We want girls with hearts,--girls who are full of tenderness and s ympathy, with tears that flow for other people's ills, and smiles that light out ward their own beautiful thoughts. We have lots of clever girls, and brilliant g irls, and witty girls. Give us a consignment of jolly girls, warm-hearted and im pulsive girls; kind and entertaining to their own folks, and with little desire to shine in the garish world. With a few such girls scattered around, life would freshen up for all of us, as the weather does under the spell of summer showers ." "They talk about a woman's sphere, As though it had a limit; There's not a plac e in earth or heaven, There's not a task to mankind given, There's not a blessin g or a woe, There's not a whisper, Yes or No, There's not a life, or death, or b irth, That has a feather's weight of worth, Without a woman in it." "Do that which is assigned you," says Emerson, "and you cannot hope too much or dare too much. There is at this moment for you an utterance brave and grand as that of the colossal chisel of Phidias, or trowel of the Egyptians, or the pen o f Moses or Dante, but different from all these." "The best way for a young man to begin, who is without friends or influence," s aid Russell Sage, "is, first, by getting a position; second, keeping his mouth s hut; third, observing; fourth, being faithful; fifth, making his employer think he would be lost in a fog without him; and sixth, being polite." "Close application, integrity, attention to details, discreet advertising," are given as the four steps to success by John Wanamaker, whose motto is, "Do the n ext thing." Whatever you do in life, be greater than your calling. Most people look upon an occupation or calling as a mere expedient for earning a living. What a mean, na rrow view to take of what was intended for the great school of life, the great m an developer, the character-builder; that which should broaden, deepen, heighten , and round out into symmetry, harmony, and beauty all the God-given faculties w ithin us! How we shrink from the task and evade the lessons which were intended for the unfolding of life's great possibilities into usefulness and power, as th e sun unfolds into beauty and fragrance the petals of the flower! I am glad to think I am not bound to make the world go round; But only to disco ver and to do, With cheerful heart, the work that God appoints. JEAN INGELOW. "'What shall I do to be forever known?' Thy duty ever! 'This did full many who yet sleep all unknown,'-- Oh, never, never! Think'st thou, perchance, that they remain unknown Whom thou know'st not? By angel trumps in heaven their praise is blown, Divine their lot." CHAPTER XI CHOOSING A VOCATION Be what nature intended you for, and you will succeed; be anything else, and yo u will be ten thousand times worse than nothing.--SYDNEY SMITH. "Many a man pays for his success with a slice of his constitution." No man struggles perpetually and victoriously against his own character; and on e of the first principles of success in life is so to regulate our career as rat her to turn our physical constitution and natural inclinations to good account t han to endeavor to counteract the one or oppose the other.--BULWER.

He that hath a trade hath an estate.--FRANKLIN. Nature fits all her children with something to do.--LOWELL. As occupations and professions have a powerful influence upon the length of hum an life, the youth should first ascertain whether the vocation he thinks of choo sing is a healthy one. Statesmen, judges, and clergymen are noted for their long evity. They are not swept into the great business vortex, where the friction and raspings of sharp competition whittle life away at a fearful rate. Astronomers, who contemplate vast systems, moving through enormous distances, are exceptiona lly long lived,--as Herschel and Humboldt. Philosophers, scientists, and mathema ticians, as Galileo, Bacon, Newton, Euler, Dalton, in fact, those who have dwelt upon the exact sciences, seem to have escaped many of the ills from which human ity suffers. Great students of natural history have also, as a rule, lived long and happy lives. Of fourteen members of a noted historical society in England, w ho died in 1870, two were over ninety, five over eighty, and two over seventy. The occupation of the mind has a great influence upon the health of the body. There is no employment so dangerous and destructive to life but plenty of human beings can be found to engage in it. Of all the instances that can be given of recklessness of life, there is none which exceeds that of the workmen employed i n what is called dry-pointing--the grinding of needles and of table forks. The f ine steel dust which they breathe brings on a painful disease, of which they are almost sure to die before they are forty. Yet not only are men tempted by high wages to engage in this employment, but they resist to the utmost all contrivanc es devised for diminishing the danger, through fear that such things would cause more workmen to offer themselves and thus lower wages. Many physicians have inv estigated the effects of work in the numerous match factories in France upon the health of the employees, and all agree that rapid destruction of the teeth, dec ay or necrosis of the jawbone, bronchitis, and other diseases result. We will probably find more old men on farms than elsewhere. There are many reas ons why farmers should live longer than persons residing in cities or than those engaged in other occupations. Aside from the purer air, the outdoor exercise, b oth conducive to a good appetite and sound sleep, which comparatively few in cit ies enjoy, they are free from the friction, harassing cares, anxieties, and the keen competition incident to city life. On the other hand, there are some great drawbacks and some enemies to longevity, even on the farm. Man does not live by bread alone. The mind is by far the greatest factor in maintaining the body in a healthy condition. The social life of the city, the great opportunities afforde d the mind for feeding upon libraries and lectures, great sermons, and constant association with other minds, the great variety of amusements compensate largely for the loss of many of the advantages of farm life. In spite of the great temp erance and immunity from things which corrode, whittle, and rasp away life in th e cities, farmers in many places do not live so long as scientists and some othe r professional men. There is no doubt that aspiration and success tend to prolong life. Prosperity tends to longevity, if we do not wear life away or burn it out in the feverish p ursuit of wealth. Thomas W. Higginson made a list of thirty of the most noted pr eachers of the last century, and found that their average length of life was six ty-nine years. Among miners in some sections over six hundred out of a thousand die from consu mption. In the prisons of Europe, where the fatal effects of bad air and filth a re shown, over sixty-one per cent. of the deaths are from tuberculosis. In Bavar ian monasteries, fifty per cent. of those who enter in good health die of consum ption, and in the Prussian prisons it is almost the same. The effect of bad air, filth, and bad food is shown by the fact that the death-rate among these classe

and four hundred and sixty-one composit ors." Dr. one hundred and twenty-one gardeners. In choosing an occupation. as interest begins to flag and a sense of weariness comes. thir ty. sprightliness and elasticity. four or five are lop-shouldered. in the book. and freedom from co rroding dust and poisonous gases are of the greatest importance. but also to cause injurious reactions on every other faculty and func tion. Ohio . Of one thousand deaths from all causes. We cannot expect nerve. one hundred and sixty-seven grocers. says that "of the five thousand soldiers in that institution fully eighty per cent. According to a long series of investigations by Drs." Man's faculties and functions are so interrelated that whatever affects one aff ects all. forcing or straining it. cleanliness. jaded brain. from an exhausted. Patten. and are seemingly perfectly indifferent to our fate. Cessation of brain activity does not necessarily constitute brain rest.s. one hundred and twenty-two fa rm laborers. The brain is one of the last orga ns of the body to reach maturity (at about the age of twenty-eight). o ne hundred and three farmers die of pulmonary tuberculosis. are suffering from heart disease in one form or another. In this way they have been enabled to astonish the world by their mental achievements. sunlight. Benoysten and Lombard into occupations or trades where workers must inhale dust. and moral well-being. When the brain is weary. snap. "Of the thirty-two all-round athletes in a New York club not long ago. w hich is very largely a matter of skill in exercising alternate sets of faculties . on the average." said a physician. one hundred and eigh t fishermen. in the speech. Some men of ten do a vast amount of literary work in entirely different lines during their s pare hours. when it begins to lose its elasticity and freshness. tends not only t o ruin it. In large cities in Europe the percentage i s often still greater. and three have catarrh and partial dea fness. between the ages of twenty and forty. and yet we deliberately choose occupations and vocations which statistics and physi cians tell us will be practically sure to cut off from five to twenty-five. sooner or late r--usually later. In New York City. The continual u . Vigorous thought must come from a fresh brain. unfortunately--learn to give rest to one set of faculties and use another. or even forty years of our lives. There is danger in a calling which requires great expenditure of vitality at lo ng. mental. and vegetable d ust third. over one-fifth of all the deaths of per sons over twenty are from this cause. Athletes who over-develop the muscular system do so at the expense of the physical. or systematically employed inc urs perpetual risk. or in the essay. two hundred and nine tailors. is five times that of the general popul ation of the same age. pure air. due to the forced physical exertions of the campaigns.--nearly one-half. He who is not regularly. as most great thinkers know. chief surgeon at the National Soldiers' Home at Dayton. three hundred and one dry-goods dealers. it appears that mineral d ust is the most detrimental to health. five have to wear trusses. animal dust ranking next. A man who would sell a year of his life for any amount of money would be considered insane. Brain-workers cannot do good. allowing rest to some while giving healthy exercise to others. "three are dead of consumption. effective work in one line many hours a day. It is a law of nature that the overd evelopment of any function or faculty. ro bustness and vigor. The whole future of a man is often rui ned by over-straining the brain in school. and should never be overworked. there will be the same lack of tonicity and strength in the brain product. irregular intervals. especially in youth. The men who accomplish the most brain-work.

or in making a sc rew in a watch factory. You may not make quite so much money. As a rule. cramped his intellect. narrow occupation just becaus e there was money in it." not yourself. What would Gladst one have accomplished with a weak. Don't try to justify yourself on the ground that somebody must do this kind of work. Is the work you compel others to do useful to yourself and to society? If you employ a seams tress to make four or five or six beautiful flounces for your ball dress. and manhood is above all riches. Choose a business that has expansiveness in it. The moment we compel those we employ to do work that demoralizes them or does n ot tend to elevate or lift them. or to sleep in the daytime when she intended you to work. physical vigor is the condition of a great career. that shortens the l ives of many workers. overtops all titles. blunted his finer sensibilities. Many a man has dwarfed his manhood. Aside from the right and w rong of the thing. brain fever. or contractors to construct buildings with imperfect materials. They do not care if a man spends the whole of his life upon the head of a pin. If possible avoid occupations which compel you to wo rk in a cramped position. or piles up argu ment on argument in English for hours in Parliament.se of one set of faculties by an ambitious worker will soon bring him to grief. take the responsibility. and which you will wear at only one ball." [Illustration: William Ewart Gladstone] All occupations that enervate. know it to be. useful. "If we induce painters to work in fading colors. Pierpont Morgan could make respectable. There are families that hav e "clutched success and kept it through generations from the simple fact of a sp lendid physical organization handed down from one generation to another. forming a line to see you step out of your carriage. . honorable occupation. flounc es which will only clothe yourself. A little later he converses at ease with Bismarck in German. yo u are employing your money selfishly. or even softening of the brain is liable to follow. and character is greater than any career. it is injurious to the health to work seven days in the week. or nervous exhaustion. or talks fluent French in Paris. Choose an occupation which will develop you. we are f orcing our Michael Angelos to carve in snow." Ruskin says that the tendency of the age is to expend its genius in perishable art. but you will be mor e of a man. we are forcing them into service worse than use less. Some kinds of business not e ven a J. Our manufacturing interests too often give little thought to the employed. puny physique? He addresses an audience at Co rfu in Greek. which will give you a chance for self-impr ovement and promotion. and another at Florence in Italian. If there is any doubt on this poi nt. to work at night when Nature intended you to sleep. Select a clean. crushed his aspirati on. in some mean. The tired brain must have rest. nor cheat yourself into thinking that all the finery you can wear is so much put into the hungry mouths of those beneath you. the arsenic that destroys the health. L et "somebody. the dust. abandon it at once. Do not confuse covetousness with benevolen ce. for familiarity with a bad business will make it seem go od. the article to be made is generally the only object considered. or the phosphorus. These fine dresses do not mean that so much has been put into their mo uths. or architects with rotten stone. or where you must work at night and on Sundays. No set of brain cells can possibly set free more brain force in the combustion o f thought than is stored up in them. They take no notice of the occupations that ruin. as if it were a triumph to burn its thoughts away in bonfires. It is what those who stand shi vering on the street. or destroy body or soul should be avoi ded. of the cramped condition of the body which creates deformi ty. paralyze. but that so much has been taken out of their mouths. which will elevate you.

This negative process of eliminating the doubtful chances is often the only way of attaining to the positive conclusion. Has a young man a right to choose an occupation which will only call into play his lower and inferior qualities. botched work. note well wherein kind nat ure meant you to excel. but are "nobodies" in such vocations. his very nature is perverted. or because parents or friends want you to follow it. rowing against the current. to be started on the road of a proper career while young. wh ile the animal spirits are high. the qualities which overreach and grasp. The very glory of the profession which they thought would make them shining lights simply renders more conspicuous their incapacity. that every blow we strike helps to br oaden. Don't choose a business because you inherit it. deepen. perhaps. his vocation must have the consent of all his faculties. or uncle. Styles himself poet . How many men have been made ridiculous for life by choosing law or medicine or theology. but his trade Remains the same. as a rule. Don't choose it because others have made fortu nes in it. to feel that every step we take.--he cobbles. They are very bad cabmen. A man can not succeed when his whole nature is entering i ts perpetual protest against his occupation. we do half work. He is working against his nature. When we try to do that for which we are unfitted we are not working along the l ine of our strength. A man out of his place is but half a man. lose confidence in ourselves. letting all his nobler qua lities shrivel and die? Has he a right to select a vocation that will develop on ly the beast within him instead of the man? which will call out the bulldog qual ities only." says Longfellow. ruins many a youth." We can often find out by hard knoc ks and repeated failures what we can not do before what we can do. hardships. or broth er is in it. those who are out of their places. and enrich life! Those who fail are. which develop long-headedness only. for a "soft job" which el iminates drudgery. Matthews says that "to no other cause. and con clude that we are dunces because we cannot accomplish what others do." Don't choose a profession or occupation because your father. "Tompkins forsakes his last and awl For literary squabbles. full of hope. while his higher self atrophies ? . deceit." Dr. Thousands of youths receive an education that fits them for a profession which they have not the means or inclination to follow. they must be in harmony with his purpose. that every day's work we do. but of our weakness. the qualities which get and never give. To succeed. and enthusiasm is vigorous."Study yourself. How it shortens the road to success to make a wise choice of one's occupation e arly. When his strength is exhausted he will float down the stream. The mania for a "genteel" occupation. and that unfits them for the c onditions of life to which they were born. A large portion of Paris cabmen are unsuccessful students in theo logy and other professions and also unfrocked priests. simply because they are "honorable professions"! These men might have been respectable farmers or merchants. Don't choose it because it is considered the "proper thing" and a "ge nteel" business. and one which can be learned with very little effort. as cunning. Unsuccessful students with a smatteri ng of everything are raised as much above their original condition as if they we re successful. is failure in life so frequ ently to be traced as to a mistaken calling. our will power and enthusiasm become d emoralized. thorns. the whole tone of life is demoralized and lowered because we are out of place. and all disagreeable things. "and most of all.

Do not let the thorns which appear i n every vocation. i f you are constantly haunted with the idea that you could succeed better in some thing else. People always believe in a man with a fixed purpose. where even small effort will count for more in the race than t he greatest effort--and a life of drudgery--in the wrong direction? A man is sel dom unsuccessful. Such institutions would help boys and girls to start in their proper careers early in life. all the God-given faculties within you. "be content to enter on any business th at does not require and compel constant intellectual growth. grit. for it leads others to feel confidence in us. I beseech you. You will never succeed while smarting under the drudgery of your occupation. and c haracter is greater than any occupation or profession. harmony. and you will win. an o ccupation that will give you time for self-culture and self-elevation. help him to find where his greate st strength lies and how to use it to the best advantage. Great tenacity of purpose is the only thing that will carry you over the hard places which appear in every career to ultimate triumph. deepen. and determination the conviction and assurance of success. This determin ation. The world does not dictate what you shall do. Everybody knows that determined men are not likely to fail. has a great moral bearing upon our success. Power and constant growth toward a higher life are the great end of human exist ence. Even if we take for gr anted what is not true. but power is what we want. or vicious when he is in his place. "What wou ld my government do with me if it were to consider scientifically my qualificati ons and adaptations. There is no grander sight th an that of a young man or woman in the right place struggling with might and mai n to make the most of the stuff at command. the discovery is often made so late in life that great success is practically impossible. but it does demand that you do so mething. Not money. a better man. We a re doing the most for ourselves and for others when we are in a position which c alls into play in the highest possible way the greatest number of our best facul ties. that which should broaden. or fixity of purpose. the great man-developer. shake your purpose . character-builder. determined that not a faculty or pow er shall run to waste. that every youth will sooner or later discover the line of his greatest strength so that he may get his living by his strong points rath er than by his weak ones. After once choosing your occupation." said Garfield. unhappy. and will help him twice as quickly as one who is loosely or indifferen tly attached to his vocation. "Do not. and round out into symmetr y. stick to it with all the tenacity you can muster. and that you shall be a king in your line. They carry in the ir very pluck. and place me to the best possible advantage for all the peo ple?" The Norwegian precept is a good one: "Give thyself wholly to thy fellow-me n. they will give thee back soon enough. It gives credit a nd moral support in a thousand ways. and an early choice shortens the way. and liable at any time to make a change. and beauty. however. Your calling should be the great school of life. Let nothing tempt you or swerve you a hair 's breadth from your aim. . never look backward. where men of large experience and close observation wi ll study the natural inclination of the youth. or temporary despondency or disappointment." Choose an occupati on that is refining and elevating. an occupa tion that will enlarge and expand your manhood and make you a better citizen. we are succeeding best for ourselves when we are succeedin g best for others." We can do the most possible for oursel ves when we are in a position where we can do the most possible for others. in other words.The best way to choose an occupation is to ask yourself the question. an occupation that you will be proud of. and this is everything. Can anything be more important to human beings than a start in life in the right direction. or to fai l. not position. The time will come when there will be institutions for determining the natural bent of the boy and girl.

That mechanic is a failur e who starts out to build an engine. to make good bargains. but stops jus t short of the point of proficiency in his acquisition and so fails again. open-hearted. that a few y ears could so change a magnanimous and generous youth? Go to the bottom if you would get to the top. the higgling and scheming. The man has becom e grasping. enter a doubtful vocation. but does not quite accomplish it. which in these days of stern competition are unscrupulously resorted to." "The measure of a man's learning will be the amount of his voluntary ignorance. How fr equently do we see bright. at th e same time. The w orld is full of people who are "almost a success. Universality is the ignis fatuus which has deluded to ruin many a promising mind. Does it ele vate those who follow it? Are they broad. mean. if their efforts had all been expended in one direction. If we go into a factory where the mariner's compass is made we c an see the needles before they are magnetized. In sp ite of all your determination and will power to the contrary. generous young men come out of college with high hopes and lofty aims. Many a person misses being a great man by splitting into two middling ones. and in a few years re turn to college commencement so changed that they are scarcely recognized. an art or two partially mastered. "The jack-of-all-trades. we ask." says Ly ndall. shape you. stingy. and shift s into some other occupation where perhaps he will almost succeed. and. "had a chance in my gener ation. In this he has none. your occupation. "Constant engagement in traffic and barter has no elevating influence. born for the universe. fashion you. and of no use to it? Don't think you will be the great exception . narrowed his mind." which th ey can neither write nor speak. and the thousand petty artif ices. In attempting to gain a knowle dge of half a hundred subjects it has mastered none.-Burke. intelligent men? Or have they become mere appendages of their profession. let your manhood overtop your position. will seize you as in a vise. "The endeavor to obtain the upper hand of those with whom we have to deal . Nothing is small which concerns your business. which has been acquired by allowing yourself to abandon a half-finished work. and stamp its inevitable impress upon you. your occupation. will mol d you. liberal. and can enter a questionable vocation without becoming a creature of it. your title. Is it possible. they will point in any direction. . study the men in the vocation you think of adopting. f rom the very law of association and habit. versatility. How many of us h ave acquisitions which remain permanently unavailable because not carried quite to the point of skill? How many people "almost know a language or two. Beware of that frequently fatal gift." They stop just this side of s uccess. hardening tendency of his occupation. The o nce broad. noble features have become contracted and narrowed. A man must work hard and st udy hard to counteract the narrowing. avaricious. more than balances any li ttle skill gained in one vocation which might possibly be of use later. hard. t end to narrow the sphere and to lessen the strength of the intellect. living in a rut with no standing in the community. Said Goldsmith. the delicacy of the moral sense. Be master of your calling in all its details." s ays one of the foremost manufacturers of this country. And to party gave up what was meant for mankind.But whatever you do be greater than your calling. a science or two whose elements they have not qu ite acquired. Their courage oozes out just before they become expert. your wealth." Choose upward. " said Thoreau. Thousands of men who have been failures in life have done drudgery enough in ha lf a dozen different occupations to have enabled them to reach great success. but which they can not practice with satisfaction or profit! The habit of desultoriness.

" Who does the best his circumstance allows. and a banker. I laid out all my money. A harvest of barren regrets. But be a brewer . that is the way to be hap py. is the demand of the ho . and sends us home to add one stroke of faithful work. and that is. The longer I live. ." Not many things indifferently. and did us a favor if he sold us goods. Only reaps from th e hopes which around him he sows. "I wish them to give mind. This was on a Tuesday. is energy--invincible determination--a purpose once formed. and he refu sed to show me his patterns. "I dealt in English goods. But he who seeks all things. the more deeply am I convinced that that which makes the dif ference between one man and another--between the weak and powerful. . and soul." says Swift. not to be true to the best one knows. wherever he goes." CHAPTER XII CONCENTRATED ENERGY This one thing I do. and but one.--EMERSON.' On Thursday I started. PAUL. the great an d insignificant. and I made a good profit. Canon Farrar said. from that moment they point to the north. and a merchant. angels could do no more. and then death or victory. and a manufacturer. "Whoever can make two ears of corn. who had the market to himself: he was quite the great man. and it makes no difference whether our dissipations are coarse or fine. Everythin g is good which takes away one plaything and delusion more. and you may be the great brewer of London. all to the highest work of which you are capable. addressing a young brewer. your energy. your enthusiasm. acts nobly. . The man who seeks one thing in life. "that your children are not too fond of money and bu siness to the exclusion of more important things. I am sure you would not wish t hat.But when they have been applied to the magnet and received its peculiar power. young man. Does well. but one thing supremely.--ST." "I hope." said a listener. "s tick to your brewery. two blades of grass to grow upon a spot of ground where only one grew before. YOUNG. and are true to the pole ever after. As soon as I got to Manchester. The one prudence in life is concentration. Somehow I offended him. in speaking of himself and his four brothers. I said to my father. The nearer I got to England. and body.--FOWELL BUXTON. S o man never points steadily in any direction until he has been polarized by a gr eat master purpose. OWEN MEREDITH. One great trader came there. "would deserve better of mankind and do more essential service to his country than the whole race of politicians put together. the cheaper goods were." "'What must I do to be forever known?' Thy duty ever. the one evil is dissipation. "There was not enough room for us all in Frankfort. Give your life." "Stick to one business. and everything to business. 'I will go to England." said Rothschild." he added. "There is only one real failure in life poss ible." "I am sure I would wish that. and you will soon be in the Gazette. and heart. things wer e so cheap." said Nathan Mayer Rothschi ld. May hope to achieve it before life be done.

building up with one hand only to tear down with the o ther. receives the crown he merits." says Carlyle. M any of those who fail most ignominiously do enough to achieve grand success. who digests accounts. can accomplish something. messages taken. Success is jealous . "is th e power of possessing distinct aims. blessed women who supp ort themselves. the busy." said a shrew d preacher. cannot hope t o succeed." says Elizabeth Stuart Phelps Ward. by dispersing hi s over many. he is a benefactor to the race. carpets beaten." The man who knows one thing. explains the language of flowers. but I am a thorough believer in genuin e hard work. They do not grasp circumstances and change them into opportunities. but they labor at haphazard. and the real web of life is never woven. "but as I grew older.--the warp and woof of success." was the sign of a man in London who was not very successful at any of thes e lines of work. of Paris. We find what we seek with all our heart. and I know I shall come across something--either gold." I say most emphatically." It is said that the wind never blows fair for that sailor who knows not to what port he is bound. The hasty torrent rushes over it wit h hideous uproar and leaves no trace behind. concentrated age. "Goods removed. and time in abundance. by continually falling. and lighten more. and I am determined to dig early and late all my life. whereas the strongest. I fancy that I can select. and is recognized as such. n or even sickness nor exhaustion quite drag out. The bee is not the o nly insect that visits the flower. If you ask one of them to state his aim and purpose in life. nor a bonnet of silk enhance. The drop. and sells fried potatoe s. the very mo tions of a person. They h ave no faculty of turning honest defeats into telling victories. So I resolved to thu nder less. It matters not how rich the materials we have gleaned from the years of our s tudy and toil in youth. "The weakest living creature. bores its passage through the hardest rock. or at least iron. I found it was lightning. may fail to accomplish anything." "When I was young I used to think it was thunder that killed men. "What a immense power over the life. in a crowded street. If a salamander be cut in two. silver. but it is the only one that carries honey awa y. "by concentrating his powers on a single object. the look." The great difference between those who succeed and those who fail does not cons ist in the amount of work done by each. no. and give it magnificent proportions. If we look for nothing in particular. he will say: "I ha rdly know yet for what I am best adapted. there is no happy conjunction of circumstances that will arrange th em into an imposing structure. even if it only be the art of raising turnips. With ability en ough. If he raises the best turnips by reason of concentrating all his energy to that end. He who scatters his efforts in this intense. but in the amount of intelligent work. and can do it better than anybody else. if we go out into life with no well-defined idea of our future work. the front part will run forward and the other ba ckward. and reminds one of Monsieur Kenard. the dress. Would an intelligent man dig up a whole continent to find its veins of silver and gold? The man who is forever looking about to see what he c an find never finds anything. we find just that and no more. "a public scribe.ur. Such is the progress of him who divides his purpose. define and alter when he or she begins to live for a reason. which a shabby alpaca cannot hide. They carry themselves with an air of conscious self-respect and self-content. and poetry composed on any subj ect. The voice.--they are forever th rowing back and forth an empty shuttle.

daily." said Charles Dickens. as a general rule. not always that . but most of them can't carry it into their amusements. but for the habit of commonplace. and yet make his life a failure." said Charles Kingsley. ch oosing to be a tolerable Jack-of-all-trades rather than to be an unrivaled speci alist. the re action of fatigue will come. who could converse in twenty-four languages. "Scatteration" is the curse of American business life . But then. patien t. No one can pursue a worthy object steadily and persistently with all the powers of his mind. men of s ingle and intense purpose. "Many persons seeing me so much engaged in active life." Many a man fails to become a great man by splitting into several small ones. "a whole man at study. I have given my whole attention to what I . attainable quality in every study and pursuit is the quality of attention. during these three hours. The successf ul men of to-day are men of one overmastering idea. when Parliament is sitting." wrote Joseph Gurney to his s on. "My own in vention. and in the various busi ness of life." said Edward Bulwer Lyt ton. remunerative. safe. or. which was not till I had left college and was actually in the world. and it can be fired through the bodies of four men. have said to me. and. if he do too much to-day. and in addition to all this. That's the secret of all hard-working men. And what time do you think. and you can kindle a fire with ease. I have devoted to study. I may perhaps say that I have gone throug h as large a course of general reading as most men of my time. but you can shoot it through an oak board. and he will be obliged to do too little to-morrow. in work." "The one serviceable. "is to read so heartily t hat dinner-time comes two hours before you expected it. that when anybody knocks at the do or it will take you two or three seconds to determine whether you are in your ow n study or on the plains of Lombardy." Don't dally with your purpose. drudging attention. A man to get t hrough work well must not overwork himself. Too many are like Douglas Jerrold's friend. some upon subjects requiring much special research. The giants of the race have been men of concentration. Now. I can most truthfully assure you. and to see with you r own eyes the Carthaginian sutlers gathering up the rings of the Roman knights after the battle of Cannae. I have mixed much in politics. I have traveled m uch and I have seen much. Melt a cha rge of shot into a bullet. he said: "I never put one hand to anything on which I could th row my whole self. humble.of scattered energies." said Sydney Smith. to sit with your Livy be fore you and hear the geese cackling that saved the Capitol. "as if there was nothing else in the world for the time being." "Be a whole man at everything. The answer is t his--'I contrive to do so much by never doing too much at a time. You can't throw a tallow candle t hrough the side of a tent. certain. and heaping them into bushels. I have published somewhere about sixt y volumes. would never have served me as it has. "The only valuable kind of study. and in play. who have struck sledgeha mmer blows in one place until they have accomplished their purpose. since I began really and earnestly to study. one unwavering aim. such as it is. F ocus the rays of the sun in winter. and to be so intimate ly present at the actions you are reading of. or imagination. 'When do you get time to write all your books? How on earth do you contrive to do so much work?' I shall surprise you by the answer I made. to reading and writing? N ot more than three hours a day. but had no ideas to express in any one of them." When asked on another occasion the secre t of his success. "I go at what I am about. toiling. looking at Hannibal's weather-beaten face and admiring the splendor of his single eye. "and as much about the world as if I had never been a student.

Greeley. the Lord Cha ncellorship of England. when he could reproduce it at will. The angry man began by asking if this was Mr. An artist undertook to take a view of th e chateau with a group of guests on the balcony. His Lordship was.'" S. for the first time. "Lord Brougham was at his chateau at Cannes when the dague rreotype process first came into vogue. and abruptly turned to walk out of th e room. and merited the applause of scientific men for his inves tigations in science. Miss Martineau says. had too many talents. sir. and this habit of close observation enabled him to develop his work with marve lous detail. He was "everythin g by turns and nothing long. Lord Brougham. "Coleridge is dead. like Canning. he lived in an atmosphere of mental dissipation which consumed his energy. a gentleman called at the "Tribune" office and i nquired for the editor. in propor tion as he has confined his powers to one particular channel.--you will feel better for it. every successful man has succeeded. but never did it." said Sydney Smith. T. Coleridge possessed marvelous powers of mind. in a pleasant tone of voice said: "Don't go. Finally. "Yes." One unwavering aim has ever characterized successful men. Hogarth would rivet his attention upon a face and study it until it was photogr aphed upon his memory. and actually outlived his own fame. sit down. with no change of featur es and without his paying the slightest attention to the visitor. He was not a man of great education or culture. He was always just going to do something. good breeding. use the top of his hat for a desk. thou gh as a lawyer he gained the most splendid prize of his profession. Greeley continued to write. it helps me to think what I am to write about. With an immense procession passing up Broadway. "struck me much like a steam-engine in tro users. T he irate visitor then began using his tongue. He lived in dreams and died in reverie. with no regard for the rules of pr opriety. except in hi s power of observation. Meantime Mr. but he had no definite purp ose. with his head close down to his paper. friend. Then. Greeley quickly looked up. He was shown into a little seven-by-nine sanctum. Offended by a pungent article. " wrote Charles Lamb to a friend. rose from his c hair. and his life was in many respects a miserable failure. yet his life on the whole was a failure. the angry man became disgusted. He was continually forming plans and resol utions. and slapping the gentleman familiarly on his shoulder. exhausted his stamina. The very modes of thought of the time in which he lived were reflec ted from his works. or reason. and free your mind. the streets lined with people. after about twenty minutes of the most impassioned abuse ever poured out in an editor 's office. what do you want?" said the editor quickly. and write an editorial for the "New Yo rk Tribune" which would be quoted far and wide. Mr. and bands playing lustily. and. Horace Greeley would sit upon the steps of the Astor House.was about. He studied and examin ed each object as eagerly as though he would never have a chance to see it again . Don't go." As Adams suggests. sat scribbling away at a two-for ty rate. Besides. it wil l do you good. without once looking up from his paper. sit down. where Greeley. Page after page was dashed off in the most impetuous style. asked to keep . "and is said to have left behind him above for ty thousand treatises on metaphysics and divinity--not one of them complete!" Every great man has become great. but to the day of his death they remained simply resolutions and plans." With all his magnificent abilities he left no perm anent mark on history or literature. "Daniel Webster.

what the heart longs for the head and the hands may attain. In all great successes we can trace the power of concentration. of success. "Never study on speculation. Dr. and courage which enables one to bear up under all trials. and being a whole man to one thing at a time. rive ting every faculty upon one unwavering aim. The curr ents of knowledge. was Coke's motto. It glides from Mahomet to Moses: Beginning with the laws that keep The planets in their radiant courses. and temptations. "Non multa. the keen. "What can you do?" is the great question. It slips from politics to puns. "all such study is vain. have an object. then work for it." says Waters. Mathews says that the man who scatters himself upon many objects soon loses his energy. there will be forever a blur where Lord Brougham should have been. perseverance in the pursuit of an un dertaking in spite of every difficulty. As a rule. Chemists tell us that there is power enough in a single acre of grass to drive all the mills and steam-cars in the world. sed multum"--not many things. it is comparatively valueless. How many lives are blur s for want of concentration and steadfastness of purpose!" Fowell Buxton attributed his success to ordinary means and extraordinary applic ation. It is speci al training that is wanted. who cuts his way through obstacles and achieves brilliant success. this very man should h ave been the central figure. It is the almost invisible point of a needle. owing to his want of steadfastness. "very typical in this. slender edge of a razor or an ax. The young man seeking a position to-day is not asked what college he came from or who his ancestors were. the sharp-edged man . and he promised that he would not stir. but a las. . learn all you can about it. are as certain and fixed as the tides of the sea. which is like the conduct of the woman who bought at auction a brass door-plate with the name of Thompson on it. M. that opens the way for the bulk that follows. But.perfectly still for five seconds. but much. Form a plan . "I know that he can toil terribly. and with his energy his enthusiasm. It is ever the unwavering p ursuit of a single aim that wins. And ending with some prece pt deep For skinning eels or shoeing horses. If you can get a child learning to walk to fix his eyes on any object. But it is at rest. but distract his attention a nd down he goes. and you will be sure to succeed. in the light of science . disappointments." said Cecil of Walter Raleigh. Most of the men at the head of great firms and great enterprises have been promoted step by step from the bottom. of wealth. Praed says:-His talk is like a stream which runs With rapid change from rocks to roses. we should avoid on the other hand the extreme versatility of one of whom W. in explanatio n of the latter's success. Without point or edge t he bulk would be useless." continued Miss Martineau. In the p icture of our century. he will generally navigate to that point without capsizing.--he moved. It is the man of one line of work. While we sh ould shun that narrow devotion to one idea which prevents the harmonious develop ment of our powers. could we but concentrate it upon the piston-rod of a steam-engine. The consequence was that there was a blur where Lord Brougham sh ould have been. "There is something. as taken from the life by history. and so. What I mean by studying on speculation is that aimless learning of things because they may be useful some day.

The arrow shot from the bow does not wander around to see what it can hit on its way. design has marked the course of every golden thread. So he wrapped his bedclothes around the clay image. and shades point to that c enter and find expression there. true to its instinct.000 years. He is not the greatest p ainter who crowds the greatest number of ideas upon a single canvas. In nature we see no waste of energy. for. When his clay mo del was nearly done. In the morning he was found dead. while all the other stars must course with untiring tread around their great centers through all the ages. Every leaf. moves with stately sweep on its circuit of more than 25. So in every well-balanced life. He is the genuine artist who makes the greatest va riety express the greatest unity. In the Galérie des Beaux Arts in Paris is a beautiful statue conceived by a sculp tor who was so poor that he lived and worked in a small garret. alone. has taken possession of him. all things else are comparatively easy to give away. lights. distant beyond human comprehension. I lose all sense of personal i dentity. Young men are often told to aim high. but fo r a century. every crystal. it is plain that the truth.--SHAKESPEARE. every atom even. and with a finger that never errs in sunshine or in storm. A g eneral purpose is not enough. whatever it may be. and our interest in all that would enrich and beautify our life. Wholly engrossed by the subject before me.--PHILLIPS BROOKS. every fl ower. and where they will find fit expression. and try to win its affections. CHAPTER XIII THE TRIUMPHS OF ENTHUSIASM. and other hands gave it enduring form in ma rble. the stars twinkle to it. points steadily to the No rth Star. but his idea was saved. but we must aim at what we would hit. of time. The magnetic needle does not point to all the lights in the heavens to see which it likes be st. has a purpose stamped upon it which unmist akably points to the crowning summit of all creation--man. Let us beware of losing our enthusiasm. in which all the subordinate powers of the soul are brought to a focus. the meteor beckons. They all attract it. or of surrounding objects. "but on such occasions I seem to be unconscious of the external world. the beautiful lines would be dist orted. The only conclusive evidence of a man's sincerity is that he gives himself for a principle. no meteors which dazzle. Since the shuttle of creation shot for the first time through chaos. but when a man makes a gift of his daily life and practise.thinking it might be useful some day!" Definiteness of aim is characteristic of all true art. for all practical purposes of man stationary. So all along the path of life other luminaries will beckon to lead us from our cherished aim--from the course of truth and duty." . nothin g left to chance. Let us ever glory in something. the North Star. there is one grand central purpo se. but flies straight to the mark. no matter how v ersatile in endowments or how broad in culture. but never guide. and str ive to retain our admiration for all that would ennoble. He knew that if the water in the interstices of the clay should freeze. The labor we delight in physics pain. The sun dazzles. turn t he needle of our purpose from the North Star of its hope. money. giving all the figures equal prominence. "I do not know how it is with others when speaking on an important question. but the needle. and makes all the subordinate figures. a heavy frost fell upon the city.--LOWELL. not only for a day. Words. but let no moons w hich shine with borrowed light." s aid Henry Clay. who develops the leading idea in the central f igure.

" Gladstone said that what is really desired is to light up the spirit that is wi thin a boy. in some effectual degree. not only in those who are brilliant. in his firs t Italian campaign. is an example. "Well. hardships. " is the triumph of some enthusiasm. h orsed on an idea. The victories of the Arabs after Mahomet. there is in every boy the material of good work in the world. Dickens says h e was haunted. was found an overmatch for a troop of cavalry. taken twenty-one standards. pooh. and even persecution. and all the powers of heart and mind she possessed were enthusiasti cally devoted to self-improvement. reached by running up three octaves from low D. The naked Derar. "Pooh. they fly. privations. so a man permeated with enthusiasm has his power of perception heightened and his v ision magnified until he sees beauty and charms others cannot discern which comp ensate for drudgery." Enthusiasm gives the otherwise dry an d uninteresting subject or occupation a new meaning. "until it gets a president who takes it to bed with him." said the Austrians in consternation. in a few years. If they have only the good will. possessed. Her soul was smitten with a passion for growth. " I've been chasing it for a month." says Emerson. who . The Caliph Oma r's walking-stick struck more terror into those who saw it than another man's sw ord. Gerster." said Malibran when a critic expressed h is admiration of her D in alt. made fame and fortune sure the first night she a ppeared in opera. when I was doing my hair." said the great composer. or who seem to be dull. "but I never asked a nything about it. he writes because he ca n't help it. and when he came out he looked as h aggard as a murderer. not only in those who are quick. and even in those who are dull. in every boy. As the young lover has finer sense and more acute vision and sees in the object of his affections a hundred virtues and charms invisible to all other eyes. " replied Mozart."A bank never becomes very successful. an unknown Hungarian. I've worked hard enough for it. The women fough t like men and conquered the Roman men. "Yes. In fifteen days Napoleon. I pursued it everywhere." It was enthusiasm that enabled Napoleon to make a campaign in two weeks that wo uld have taken another a year to accomplish.--when I was dressing. O n one sketch he shut himself up for a month. fifty- ." "Every great and commanding moment in the annals of the world. "Herr Capellmeister. In some sense and in some degree. from a small and mean beginning. established a larger empire t han that of Rome. They were miserably equipped. There was neither brandy nor flesh needed to feed them. His characters haunted him day and night. so I did. All great works of art have been produced when the artist was intoxicated with the passion for beauty and form which would not let him rest until his thought w as expressed in marble or on canvas. the dulness will day by day clear away and vanish completely und er the influence of the good will. and at last I found it on the toe of a shoe that I wa s putting on. I should like to compose something. "These Frenchmen are not men. but in those who are s tolid." said the boy. how shall I begin?" as ked a youth of twelve who had played with great skill on the piano. miserably fed. had gained six victories. They conquered Asia and Africa and Spain on barley. When one has the spirit of a composer." says a noted financier. "you must wait. Her enthusiasm almost hypnotized her auditors. In less than a week she had become popular and independent. but they were temperance troops." "But you began when you were younger than I a m. spirit-driven by the plots and characters in his stori es which would not let him sleep or rest until he had committed them to paper. They did they knew not what.

five pieces of cannon. her consecrated ban ner. unless you become a hard student. sent a thrill of enthusiasm through th e whole French army such as neither king nor statesmen could produce. Indifference never leads armies that conquer. He is a perfect ignora mus. "The best method is obtained by earnestness." says A. look around!" Turn where you will in London. nor the world with heroic phil anthropies. He built fifty-five churches in the city and thirty-six halls. After this astonishing avalanche a discomfited Austrian general said: "This you ng commander knows nothing whatever about the art of war. but those in autho rity would not adopt his splendid idea. like a bitted horse. "in which the difference betwe en half a heart and a whole heart makes just the difference between signal defea t and a splendid victory." "Should I die this minute. There is no doing anything with him. innocent Maid of Orleans with her sacred sword." . He worked thirty-five years upon his mas ter-piece. H. nor moves the soul with poetry. Paul's Cathedral in London. wrought the statue of Memnon and hung the brazen gates of Thebes. when in Paris to get ideas for the restoration of St. had captured fifteen thousand prisoners. you find noble monuments of the genius of a man who never received instruction from an ar chitect. nor harnesses the forces of nature. and her belief in her great mission. It fixed the mariner's trembling nee dle upon its axis." The simple. study. and the great Monument. Drury Lane Theater." But his soldiers followed their "Litt le Corporal" with an enthusiasm which knew no defeat or disaster. Although he lived so long. and it reefed the high topsail that rustled over Columbus in the morning breezes of the Bahamas. and first heaved the tremendous bar of the printing-press. It has held the sword with which freedom has fought her battles . Boyd. study! All the genius in the world will not help you along with any art. Her zeal c arried everything before it. in Temple Bar." said he. His great enthusiasm alone seemed to give strength to his body. It has taken me years to master a single part. Reader. He changed Greenwich palace into a sailor's retreat. His rare ski ll is shown in the palaces of Hampton Court and Kensington." said Nelson at an important crisis. Paul's Cathedral. and was exceedingly healthy in later life. and built churches and colleges at Oxford. study. It opened the tubes for Galileo. St. "If you can impress people with the conviction that you feel what you say. nor rears impress ive architecture. until world after world swept before his vision. Horace Greeley said that the best product of labor is the high-minded workman w ith an enthusiasm for his work." said Salvini. man does not realiz e his strength until he has once run away with himself. who lived more than ninety years. And above all. Enthusiasm. n or breathes sublime music. "Underneath is laid the builder of this church and city. the Royal Exchange. they will pardon many sh ortcomings. but for the public good. not for himself. he was so delicate as a child that he was a constant sour ce of anxiety to his parents. and poised the axe of the dauntless woodman as he opened the paths of civiliza tion. He al so planned for the rebuilding of London after the great fire. and turned the mystic leaves upon which Milton and Shakespeare inscribed t heir burning thoughts. as Charles Bell says of the hand. Oh! what a great work each one could perform in thi s world if he only knew his power! But. Christopher Wren. if you seek his monument. "There are important cases. never models statues that live. K. and had conquere d Piedmont. "want of frigat es would be found written on my heart. "I would give my skin for the architect's design of the Louvre.

" "When he comes into a room. while I would go five hundred leagues to talk with a man of genius whom I had not seen . and she will understand it. The three were traveling correspondents of great English journals.' "'Let us go in. Pardon me. "He makes the best of everything. You do not find this in tropical countries. or the spectator of a statue. where. whereas I utter what I know to be unreal and untrue as if I did be lieve it in my very soul. he must be on the jump with all the ardor of his being. that is peculiar to our American temperament and life. Enthusiasm is the being awake. "I would not open my window to see the Bay of Naples for the first time." said Madame de Staël to M. mean dwelling. "He is an eager." writes the biographer of Beethoven. had written upon a slip of paper the name of the most a greeable companion he had ever met. and a young girl leaning sorrowfully upon an old-fashion . as he opened the door and saw a young man sitting by a table. into t he very ideal presence whence these works have originated. after he. full of joy." said the third.' said a second voice. almost a fanaticism for one's ideals or call ing. But it is of no use. "One moonlight evening in winter. The great actor Garrick well illustrated it when asked by an unsuc cessful preacher the secret of his power over audiences: "You speak of eternal v erities and what you know to be true as if you hardly believed what you were say ing yourself.--genius. It could not be found then even on the London Exchange. throwing the reader of a book.' replied my companion in an excited tone. it is utterly beyond my power to do it j ustice. whatever it may be.There is a "go." said a man when asked the reason for his selection. His sympathies are quick as an electric flash." "He throws himself into the occasion. 'what should we go in for?' 'I will play to her. if a person is to succeed. 'why create regrets when there is no remedy? We can sc arcely pay our rent. in praise of the man of his choice. has finally extended until what used to be the peculiar str ength of a few great minds has now become characteristic of the leading nations.' he continued. Oh. speaking of his own most che rished acquaintance. suddenly pausing before a little. and a sobbing voice cried: 'I ca nnot play any more. bubbling over with spirits. 'Hush!' exclaimed the great composer.' said the first speaker. a furore. The papers were examined and all were found to contain the name of a prominent lawyer in Melbou rne. with two companions. Enthusiasm made Victor Hugo lock up hi s clothes while writing "Notre Dame. 'Go in!' I remonstrated. vivid fellow." that he might not leave the work until it was finished. 'and yet I wish f or once in my life to hear some really good music. mending shoes. what would I not give to go to the concert at Cologne!' 'Ah! my sist er. who had visi ted every quarter of the world and talked with all kinds of men. "If it were not for respect for human opinions. Australia. " said the second. with his whole heart." Enthusiasm is that secret and harmonious spirit which hovers over the productio n of genius.--understanding! I will play to her. 'what sound is that? It is from my Sonata in F. "we were walking through a narrow street of Bonn.' said Beethoven. It is so beautiful. 'here is f eeling. But the influence of the United States and of Australia. every man feels as if he had taken a tonic and had a new lease of life. It did not exist fifty years ago. Hark! how well it is played!' "In the midst of the finale there was a break. it is the tingling of every fiber of one's being to do the work that one's heart desires." a zeal. Mole.' 'You are right.

and his modest. In p ainting he prepared all his own colors. did I hear him play better than to that blind girl and her brother. 'I heard music and was tempted to enter. during all the years I knew him. Farewell!' Then to me he added: 'Let us make haste back. admitting a flood of brilliant moonl ight. 'Oh.' "'No music!' exclaimed the composer. yes. but not the separation from his poor blind daughter M ary.' said he. which carried us away on its rustling wings. I am a musician. elfin passage in triple time--a sort of grotesque interlude. I--I also ov erheard something of what you said. descriptive of flight.' said Beethoven hurriedly. like th e dance of fairies upon the lawn. trembling movement. si nce you frequent no concerts?' "'We lived at Bruhl for two years. suddenly. then. 'but our piano is so wretched. 'Yes. until. and skin successively. 'who and what are you?' "'Listen!' replied the master. Then you play by ear? But where do you hear the music. that I may w rite out that sonata while I can yet remember it. Raphael's enthusiasm inspired every artist in Italy. He made every tool he used in sculpture. The shutters were thrown open. This was followed by a wild.' We did return in haste. You wish to hear--that is. Never. does the young lady--I--I entr eat your pardon. 'You will come again?' asked the host and hostess in a breath. and n ot until long past the dawn of day did he rise from his table with the full scor e of the Moonlight Sonata in his hand. like the calm flow of moonlight over the earth. gazing thoughtfully upo n the liquid stars shining so softly out of the depths of a cloudless winter sky . a nd went out. During the summer evenings her windows were generally open. flickered. not the love of liberty nor the spur of ambition could induce him to forego his plain preaching in public places. 'Then you are Beethoven!' burst from the young people in delighted recognitio n. The young man and woman sat as if entranced by the magical. sweet sounds that flowed out upon the air in rhythmical swell and cade nce. sank. stammering as he saw that the girl was blind. such as files. and vag ue impulsive terror.ed piano. fat. but thi s course determined his style. and uncertainty. not the need of a poor family dependent upon him. and I walked to and fro outside to listen to her. "'Wonderful man!' said the shoemaker in a low tone." Michael Angelo studied anatomy twelve years. play to us once more. and then draped them. 'Farewell to you. Again and again poor Bunyan m ight have had his liberty.' he added. and would not let servants or students e ven mix them. 'I had not perceived before.--'only once more!' "'I will improvise a sonata to the moonlight. Even the ol d instrument seemed inspired. as he rose to go. and we have no music. and pincers. and. Then he played a sad and infinitely lovely movement. you would like--t hat is--shall I play for you?' "'Thank you. He drew his figures in skeleton.' he said. charming m anners disarmed envy and jealousy. which he said was like pulling the flesh from his bones. added muscles. nearly ruining his health. 'how. I used to hear a lady prac ticing near us. and he played the opening bars of the Sonata in F. and his glory. He has been called the only distinguished man who lived and died without an enemy or detractor. chisels. and left us al l in emotion and wonder. the flame of the single candle wavered. but the player paused. while there.' "Beethoven seated himself at the piano. his practice. Then came a swift agitated ending--a breathles s. which crept gently over t he instrument. and give the young lady som e lessons. 'I will come again. He had so forg . hurrying. as he rose and turned towar d the door.' said the shoemaker.' they added. as if lost in thought.

perhaps unconscious tha t it is partly their own fault that they ever lost it. when Gilbert himself saw and recognized her. but by repeating the fir st she obtained passage in a vessel to the great metropolis. While a student at Harvard he determined to write the history of the French and English in North America." At last she came to the s treet on which Gilbert lived in prosperity. and believes that mankind has been waiting all th ese centuries for him to come and be the liberator of truth and energy and beaut y. but the devoted girl determined to follow him. Of what use was it to forbid the boy Handel to touch a musical instrument. "Almost everything that is great has been done by youth. despise d Bedford tinker to write his immortal allegory with such fascination that a who le world has read it." wrote Disraeli. It was the youth Hercules that performed the Twelve Labors." says Ruskin. By and by he escaped and returned to England. in the hands of the young. an d plundered the family cat for bristles to make his brushes.otten his early education that his wife had to teach him again to read and write . ignorant. or t o forbid him going to school. Gilbert Becket. collecting material for his history. Only thoughts that breathe in words that burn can kindle the spark slumbering i n the heart of another. Rare consecration to a great enterprise is found in the work of the late Franci s Parkman. "The world's i nterests are. and then she went f rom street to street pronouncing the other--"Gilbert. his all to this one great object. he returned home and bu rned one shaving after another while he studied the precious prize. and took to his arms a nd home his far-come princess with her solitary fond word. With a steadiness and devotion seldom equal ed he gave his life." says Charles Kingsley. The boy Bach copied whole books of stu dies by moonlight. Enthusiastic youth .--it forgets that there is such a thing as failure in the world. until he gave to the world the best history upon this subject ever writte n. Although he had. he did not swerve a hair's breadth from the high purpose formed in his youth. ruined his health and could not use his eyes more than five minutes at a time for fift y years. Trumbull. where he not only gained the confidence of his ma ster." How much the world owes to the enthusiasm of Dante! Tennyson wrote his first volume at eighteen. It is the enthusiasm of youth which cuts the Gordian knot age cannot untie. The unusual crowd drew the family to the window. his fortune.--no defile that has no outlet. Nor was he dishearten ed when these copies were taken from him. but also the love of his master's fair daughter. lest he learn the gamut? He stole midnight intervi ews with a dumb spinet in a secret attic. was taken prisoner and became a slave in t he palace of a Saracen prince. for want of a candle churlishly denied. It was the enthusiasm of conviction which enabled this poor. while among the Dakota Indians. After Lincoln had walked six miles to borrow a grammar. "The most beautiful works of all art were done in youth. "Pe ople smile at the enthusiasm of youth. under God. She knew but two words of the English language--London and Gilbert. Youth sees no darkness ahead." says Dr. The painter West began in a garret. and at nineteen gained a medal at Cambridge. an English Crusader. The most irresistible charm of youth is its bubbling enthusiasm. "that enthusiasm which they themselves secretly look back to with a sigh.

Plato died writing. how much more so is it when carried into old age! Gladstone at eighty had ten times the weight and power that any m an of twenty-five would have with the same ideals. Whitefield and Wesley b egan their great revival as students at Oxford. adapting the p rinciple of the pendulum to clocks. rolled the chivalry of Eur ope upon the ranks of Islam. Their ardor is their crown. Wise old Montaigne w as shrewd in his gray-beard wisdom and loving life. At sixty-three Dryden began the translation of the "Aeneid. a month before his death. What a power was Bismarck at eig hty! Lord Palmerston was an "Old Boy" to the last. yet he made the world fee l his character. Peter the Hermit. Baco n and Humboldt were enthusiastic students to the last gasp. and Tennys on's best work was done after they were seventy. Some of Longfellow's. Newton made some of his gr eatest discoveries before he was twenty-five. Eli Whitney was twenty-three when he decided to prepare fo r college. and refused a crown at ninety-six. It is said tha t no English poet ever equaled Chatterton at twenty-one. yet his cotton-gin opened a g reat industrial future for the Southern States.faces the sun. Whittier's. Dandolo. He became Prime Minister of E ngland the second time at seventy-five. Cicero said well that men are like wine: age sours the bad and improves the good. Wellington planned and superintended fortifications at eighty." Newton wro te new briefs to his "Principia" at eighty-three. the head. Tom Scott began the study of Hebrew at eighty-six. and thirty when he graduated from Yale. Victor Hugo wrote a tra gedy at fifteen. blind and feeble. The glory of age is only the glory of its enthusiasm." was written when he was seve nty-eight. before which the languid and the passive bow. in spite of the torpid influence of an enfeebled body. Noah Webste r studied seventeen languages after he was fifty. Johnson's best work. that he might read Dante in the original. Defoe was fifty-eight when he published "Robinson Crusoe. The "Odysse y" was the creation of a blind old man. Luther was a triumphant reformer at twenty-five. Dr. who is driven by his enthusiasm. and had taken three prizes at the Academy and gained the title of Master before he was twenty. But if enthusiasm is irresistible in youth. Grant was one of the most famous generals in history at forty-two. and the respect paid to white hairs is reverence to a h eart fervent. James Watt learned German at eighty-five . It is the age of young men and young women. and the former had made his infl uence felt throughout England before he was twenty-four. won battles at ninety-four. Keats died at twenty-five. but that old man was Homer. was working every day." Robert Hall learne d Italian when past sixty. "The Lives of the Poets. Humboldt completed his "Cosmos" at ninety. Many of the world's greatest geniuses never saw forty years. at eightyone. it shadows all behind it. Unknown at forty. George Stephenson did not learn to read and write until he had reached manhood. Never before has t he young man. and died Prime Minister at eighty-one. Somerville finished her "Molecular and Microscopic Science" at eighty-nin e. an age which h as been fatal to many a genius. Alexander was a mere youth when he rolled back the Asiatic hordes that threat ened to overwhelm European civilization almost at its birth. Burke wa s thirty-five before he obtained a seat in Parliament. Gladstone was in Parliament in early manhood. G alileo at seventy-seven. Mrs. had such an opportunity as he has to-day. even in the midst of his fit s of gout and colic. The contagious zeal of an old man. Galileo was nearly seven ty when he wrote on the laws of motion. The heart rules youth. Byron and Raphael died at thirty-seven. Pitt and Bolingbroke were ministers almost before they we re men. manhoo d. Shelley at twenty-nine. . the Doge of Venice. Romulus f ounded Rome at twenty. Napoleon had conque red Italy at twenty-five. and Poe lived but a few months longer.

"ON TIME." wrote Governor Andrew of Massachu setts to President Lincoln on May 3. "Who cannot but see oftentimes how strange the threads of our destiny run? Oft it is only for a moment the favorable instant is presented. We can do as much in an hour to-day as they could in twe nty hours a hundred years ago. not the millionth part of a second. was playing cards when a messenger brought a letter stating that Washington was crossing the Delaware. at nine o'clock the next Sunday he said: "All the regiments demanded from Massachusetts are already either in Washington. April 15. "Delays have dangerous ends. One of the greatest gains civilization has made is in measur ing and utilizing time.--SHAKESPEARE. He put the letter in his pocket without reading it un til the game was finished." Let's take the instant by the forward top. libert y. and the next m ore dilatory. when it took a month of dangerous traveling to accomplish the distance we can now span in a few hours. when he rallied his men only to die just before his t roops were taken prisoners.With enthusiasm we may retain the youth of the spirit until the hair is silvere d. and letters were carried by government mess engers subject to hanging if they delayed upon the road. even as the Gulf Stream softens the rigors of northern Europe." Caesar's delay to read a message cost him his lif e when he reached the senate house. post. doubt thy fitness for thy work. 1861.--EDWARD EVERETT. Even in the old." . life! Success is the child of two very plain parents--punctuality and accuracy." OR THE TRIUMPH OF PROMPTNESS "On the great clock of time there is but one word--NOW. and mont hs and years are lost. with a picture of a courier swinging from a gibbet. haste! Haste for thy life!" was frequently written upon messages in the days of Henry VIII of England." He had received a telegram for troops from Washington on Monday." Note the sublime precision that leads the earth over a circuit of five hundred millions of miles back to the solstice at the appointed moment without the loss of one second. "Haste. We miss it. Colonel Rahl.--towards youth? If not. as if there were not an inch of red tape in the world. Only a few minutes' delay." CHAPTER XIV." By the street of by and by one arrives at the house of never. There are critical moments in every successful life when if the mind hesitate or a ne rve flinch all will be lost. "Lose this day by loitering--'t will be the same story tomorrow. unnecessary delay was a crime. or in Fortress Monroe. in the spirit in which we believe the Administration and the American people intend to act. and have carried on our part of it. "we took up the war. "How ages thine heart. but he lost honor. Post-offices were unknown.--for ages and ages of wh ich it traveled that imperiled road. the Hessian commander at Trent on.--no. slow days of stage-coaches. namely. or o n their way to the defence of the Capitol. "Immediately on receiving your proclamation.--CERVANTES.

and asked when he would be ready to go. Many large firms make it a rule never to allow a letter to lie unanswered overnight. and going to do becomes going undone. ther e is no moment at all. the traveler. edi fication. that what may be done at any time will be done at no time." was the reply."The only question which I can entertain." said he. to take advantage of which means victory. Promptness takes the drudgery out of an occupation." The energy wasted in postponing until to-morrow a duty of to-day would often do the work. will fail. but in the present. and asked when he could set out. to Afri ca." he said. will succee d when a procrastinator. and it has been said that among the trifle s that conspired to defeat him at Waterloo. too. the loss of a few moments by himself and Grouchy on the fatal morning was the most significant. "is one essentially of formation. When asked how he managed to accomplish so much work. "not only so. appointed commander of the army in Ind ia. Blucher was on time. replied without hesitation." Colin Campbell. The African Association of London wanted to send Ledyard. It is a well-known truism that has almost been elevated to the dignity of a max im. The man who will not execute his resolutions when they are fresh upon him can have no ho pes from them afterward. it is to do work which ha s been put off! What would have been done at the time with pleasure or even enth usiasm. Letters can never be answered so easily as when first received. "If I had to mount guard at ten. even if he makes occasional mistakes. afterwards Earl St. "is what to do. once passed. John Jervis. There is not an hour of it but is trembling with destinie s--not a moment of which. "Directly. it might throw the wh ole universe out of harmony. and to lose in hesitation means disaster." that "nick of time" whic h occurs in every battle. becomes drudgery. It was enough to send Napoleon to St. what next to do. If a star or planet were delayed one second. "I do it simply by never po ." asked a man of Sir Walter Raleigh." said Ruskin. "do you accomplish so much. and at the same time atte nd to his social duties. and when th at question is answered." Cobbett said he owed his success to being "always ready" more than to all his n atural abilities combined. "To this quality I owed my extraordinary promotion in the army. The man who always acts promptly." was the reply. I go and do it. "To-morrow. instruction. Helena." "How. and to chan ge the destiny of millions. even if he have the better judgment. "To-morrow morning." said Maria Edgeworth. How much harder and more disagreeable. and replied. and Grouchy was late. the other is. Doing a deed is like sowing a seed: if not done at just the right time it will be forever out of season. They will be dissipated. I was ready at nine. The s ummer of eternity will not be long enough to bring to maturity the fruit of a de layed action. Putting off usually means l eaving off. He said that he beat the Austrians because they di d not know the value of five minutes. after it has been delayed for days and weeks. Vincent. and in so short a time?" "When I have anything to do. "There is no moment like the present. or sunk in the slough of indolence. or the neglected blow struck on the cold iron. was asked when he could join his ship." "The whole period of youth. lost in the hurry and scurry o f the world. a French statesman replied. never did any man or anything w ait one minute for me. the appointed work can ever be done again . no instant force and energy." Napoleon laid great stress upon that "supreme moment.

full of his penitent resolu tions." Alfred the Great rose befo re daylight. and so did the detectives. as were m ost of the famous astronomers of ancient and modern times. who had been overcome by a sleepy languor after deciding to make restitution. 'My head. and Napoleon his greatest campaigns. . With most people the earl y morning hour becomes the test of the day's success. Clay. It is the favorite refuge of sloth and incompetency. A person was once extolling the skill and courage of Mayenne in Henry's presenc e. Webster. dead. Wisdom disclaims the word. and therefore sleep as little as possible. "Strike while the iron is hot. Copernicus was an early riser. We make up our minds every night to leave it early. and murmured again. Indecision becomes a disease and pr ocrastination is its forerunner. and that is prompt decision. but I have always five h ours' start of him. Some people it attacks after dinner. Jefferson.stponing till to-morrow what should be done to-day." It was said of an unsuccess ful public man that he used to reverse this process. Peter the Gre at always rose before daylight. the wrecks of half-finished plans and unexecuted resolutions. waking up from a sort of heavy d oze.' The morrow found him. the currency of id iots. which must be employed instead of wasted if the day is to be saved. hopes. h ow heavy it feels!' But presently he roused himself. nor holds society with those that own it. "by and by. and folly is its fathe r." said he. Daniel Webster used often to answer twenty to thirty letters before breakfast. brokenly. We go to it with reluc tance. 'Tis fancy's child. Yet most of those who have become eminent have been early risers. how many a wreck on the road to success could say: "I have s pent all my life in pursuit of to-morrow. 'I'll take it to--Pembroke--Street to--morr ow. "I am. To-mo rrow! 'tis a sharper who stakes his penury against thy plenty--who takes thy rea dy cash and pays thee naught but wishes. and baseless as the fantastic visions o f the evening." It is the devil's motto. wrought of such stuffs as dreams are. There is in every person's life a crucial hour in the day. the defaulting clerk." Charles Reade continues in his story o f Noah Skinner. he took. a last look at the receipts." said Henry. and Calhoun were all early risers. his favorite maxim being "n ever to do to-day what might be postponed till to-morrow. "Go to--I will not hear of it. To-morrow! it is a period nowhere to be found in all the hoary registers o f time. and promises." Oh. being assured that to-morrow has some vast benefit or other in store for me. and murmured. some after lunch. to--morrow. He who hesitates is lost. This made all the difference between them. unless perchance in the fool's calendar. "he is a great captain. Otherwise the disease is fatal to al l success or achievement. and nearly all our leading authors in the early morning." are golden maxims. All history is strewn with its brilliant victims. Very few people recognize the hour when laziness begins to set in." "But his resolutions remained unshaken." Henry rose at four in the morning. In the hours of early morning Columbus planned his voyage to Americ a. A noted writer says that a bed is a bundle of paradoxes. as it were. yet we quit it with regret." "To-morrow. There is only one known remedy for the victims of indecision. and some after seven o'clock in the e vening. "You are right. didst thou say?" asked Cotton. "for making my life as long as possible." and "Make hay while the sun shines. Washi ngton." How many men have daw dled away their success and allowed companions and relatives to steal it away fi ve minutes at a time! "To-morrow. Bancroft at dawn. and Mayenne at about ten . Bryant rose at five. but we make up our bodies every morning to keep it late.

God gave them a work to do. but if the hour has arrived. so much that if they began at the right moment." Not too much can be said about the value of the habit of rising early. it has dropped out of existence. "At the instant when He ushered them into existence. an appointment. is practically a liar. "never asks if the visitors ha ve arrived. it is one of the practical virtues of civiliz ation. but always ready with an excuse . They are no t irregular. They cannot tell what became of it. but the work is always ten minutes in advance of the time. Do instantly whatever is to be done. "why s hould he have for their money? What is the difference between taking a man's hou r and taking his five dollars? There are many men to whom each hour of the busin ess day is worth more than five dollars. "A singular mischance has happened to some of our friends." Washington would say. their work and their time run parallel. the one an inch shorter than the other. and the world treats him as such." Napoleon once invited his marshals to dine with him. or I anoth er secretary." Franklin said to a servant who was always late.Walter Scott was a very punctual man. and be mortified to find the P resident eating. and take the hours of recreation after business. unless he has a good r eason." Whether it be an inspiration. and go to work. Their letters are posted the very minute a fter the mail is closed. but they systemati cally go about it too late. but sure e nough. He rose at five. Eight ho urs is enough sleep for any man. and we will immediately proceed to business. By breakfast-time he had. if a man is able. Very frequently seven hours is plenty." said Hamilton.--that is. it is his business to get up. "My cook. This was the secret of his enormous achie vements. A man who fails to meet his appointment. never before it. dress quic kly. but. broken th e neck of the day's work. "it is now past dinner. "Gentlemen." Some one has said that "promptness is a contagious inspiration." . he began to eat without them. After th e eighth hour in bed. and usually too late by about the same fatal interva l. and wrought with sufficient vigor. "Then you must get a new watch. A fragment of their allotted time was lost. Washington replied. for just like two measuring-lines laid a longside. They do not break any engagement or neglect any duty. they come in sight of the terminus precisely as the station gates are c losing. But a good many years ago a strange misfortune befell them. he gave this counsel: "Beware of stumbling over a propensity which easily besets you from not having your time fully employed--I mean what t he women call dawdling. They are never too soon. new members of Congress invited to din e at the White House would sometimes arrive late. and He also gave them a competence of time. They arrive at the wharf just in time to see the steamb oat off." When his secretary excused the lateness of his attendance by saying that his wa tch was too slow. Writing to a youth who had obtained a situation and as ked him for advice. as they did not arriv e at the moment appointed. as he used to say." When President Washington dined at four." said he." said Horace Greeley. They came in just as he was rising from the table. "I have generally found that the man who is good at an excuse is good for noth ing else. "If a man has no regard for the time of other men. There is one thing that is almost as sacred as the marriage relation. their time and their work would end together. or an acquirement.

It is the best possibl e proof that our own affairs are well ordered and well conducted. The man who is punctual. your paper may be protested and your credit ruined. One of the best things about school and college life is that the bell which str ikes the hour for rising.Blücher was one of the promptest men that ever lived. and may be depended upon. and how soon you find yourself intrusting him with weightier matters! The boy who has acquired a reputation for punctuality h as made the first contribution to the capital that in after years makes his succ ess a certainty. is sure to win. asking for the appointment of commissioners to consider terms of capitulation." John Quincy Adams was never known to be behind time. Some men are always running to catch up with their business: t hey are always in a hurry. Adams is not in his seat. "Mr. If you arrive a few mom ents late at the bank. and seldom accomplish much. Grant decided to enlist the moment that he learned of the fall of Sumter. Amid the cares and distractions of a s ingularly busy life." Promptness is the mother of confidence and gives credit. and gives othe rs confidence in our ability. Amos Lawrence did not pe rmit a bill to remain unsettled over Sunday. Brown. one th at is nearly right encourages bad habits. can on the instant seize the most important thing a nd sacrifice the others. Every business man knows th at there are moments on which hang the destiny of years. Adams comin g to his seat. Webster was never late at a recitation in school or college. and is an expensive investment at any price. as brevity is of wit. in congr ess. and prompt to the minute. When Buckner sent him a flag of truce at Fort Donelson. "No. how I do appreciate a boy who is always on time!" says H." said another. In court. During the first seven years of his mercantile career. He was called "Marshal Forw ard. Every young man should have a watch which is a good timekeeper." It was found that the clock was three minutes f ast. will keep his word. . Punctuality is the soul of business. A man is stopped five minutes to hear a trivial story and misses a train or steam er by one minute. The Speaker of the House o f Representatives knew when to call the House to order by seeing Mr. he was equally punctual. and give you the impression that they are late for a train. for recitations. Once a member said that it was time to begin. Horace Greeley managed to be on time for every appointment. An innocent man is hanged beca use the messenger bearing a reprieve should have arrived five minutes earlier. as a rule." The man who. simply because an agent is t ardy in transmitting available funds. Adams arrived. teaches habits of pr omptness. in society." Buckner replied that circumstances compelled h im "to accept the ungenerous and unchivalrous terms which you propose. A leading firm with enormous assets becomes bankrupt. Mr. C. like Napoleon. tardy at some meeting. "How q uickly you learn to depend on him. I propose to m ove immediately upon your works. and a terrible railway collision occurs. Punctuality is said to be the polit eness of princes. he promptly replied: "No terms except an unconditional and immediate surrender can be accepted. "Oh. They lack method. or for lectures. as ordered. Many a trenchant paragraph for the "Tribune" was written while the editor was w aiting for men of leisure. A conductor's watch is behind time.

clean physique and a f ine. throu gh sheer neglect or indifference. rich not gau dy. SHAKESPEARE. I hold that gentleman to be the best dressed whose dress no one observes.--LIVY. She will fall little by little until she deg enerates into an ambitionless slattern. As a general thing an individual who is neat in his person is neat in his moral s." Of course.Many a wasted life dates its ruin from a lost five minutes. I can recall instances of capable stenograp hers who forfeited their positions because they did not keep their finger nails clean. SHAW. "could not be handled by such soiled fingers withou t losing some of their freshness. he will quickly deterior ate in every way. or repulsive. strong. without which health is impossible. clean character. It is not to be wondered at that the Talmud places cleanliness next to godlines s. A young man who neglects his bath will neglect his mind. An honest. but when she saw the salesgirl's hands she changed her mind and made her purchase elsewhere. fall away in the other. Cleanliness or purity of soul and body raises man to the highest estate . "Too late" can be r ead between the lines on the tombstone of many a man who has failed. There are two chief factors in good appearance.--we ll. There is a very close connection between a fine." she said. A man who allows himself to become careless in reg ard to the one will. strong. for I believe that absolute cleanliness is go dliness. while outward slovenliness suggests a pearance that probably goes deeper than the clothes covering of body and comelin indicating a sanita carelessness for ap the body. CHAPTER XV WHAT A GOOD APPEARANCE WILL DO Let thy attire be comely but not costly. the conclusion is a just one. in spite of himself. we conclude that the mind corresponds with it. If it is unlovely. wholeso me lives and work are incompatible with low standards of personal cleanliness. Without this he is nothing but a brute. We express ourselves first of all in our bodies. the law will work inexorably. As a rule. A daily bath insures a clean. Every day we see people receiving "demer its" for failure to live up to them. Costly thy habit as thy purse can buy. wholesome condition of the skin. The outer condition of the bod y is accepted as the symbol of the inner. Usually these go together. A few minut es often makes all the difference between victory and defeat. clean. . it will not be long until that gir l's employer will discover that she is not advancing his business. success and failur e.--H. For the apparel oft proclaims the man. "Dainty ribbons. The first point to be emphasized in the making of a good appearance is the nece ssity of frequent bathing. I should place it nearer still. But self-interest clamors as loudly as esthetic or moral considerations for the fulfilment of the laws of cleanliness. and then.--ANTH ONY TROLLOPE. cleanliness ess of attire. intelligent man whom I know lost his place in a large publishi ng firm because he was careless about shaving and brushing his teeth. A young woman who ceases to care for her appearance in minutes t detail will soon cease to please. High ideals and strong. neatness of attire ry care of the person. The other day a lady remarked that she went into a store to buy some ribbons. W. But not expressed in fancy.

If you can not afford to buy a whole set. than go with the money in t he pockets of a dingy suit. it should be washed thoroughly every two weeks with a good reli able scalp soap and warm water. I know young men. or who does not make a good appearance when he applies for a posit ion. if circumstances prevent his having a better one. no matter how poor he may be. and a clean collar. the hands. and of maintaining your self-respect and integrity at all costs. and no one can have negle cted teeth without reaping this consequence. it is better to spend twenty dol lars for a suit of clothes. No one. The hair. or muddy shoes. a nd magnetic forcefulness that will command the respect and admiration of others. and the rest for a shave. but good clothes have got many a man a good job. Vreeland. a hair-cut. and in these days . The consciousness of makin g the best appearance you possibly can. who rose in a short time from a section hand on the Long I sland Railroad to the presidency of all the surface railways in New York City. and t he teeth. It is positively disgusting. you can buy a file (you can get one as low as ten cents). They do not realize that there could hardly be a worse blot on one's appearance than dirty or decaying teeth. N o employer wants a clerk. This requires little more than a small amount of time and the use of s oap and water. four dollars for shoes. should be combed and brushed regularly every day. of always being scrupulously neat and cl ean. Herbert H. If the hair is dry or lacking in oily matter." Simplicity in dress is its greatest charm. strength. and want a job. Nor does he. Nothing can be more offensive in man or woman than a foul breath. will susta in you under the most adverse circumstances. will be excused for wearing a dirty coat . too. Manicure sets are so cheap that the y are within the reach of almost everyone. For those who have to make their way in the world. or slovenly. I f you have twenty-five dollars. or stenographer. that the world frowns upon . and give you a dignity. of course. s hould be a practical authority on this subject. and keep your nai ls smooth and clean. In the course of an address on h ow to attain success. the best counsel on the subj ect of clothes may be summed up in this short sentence. But no one need blush f or a shabby suit. yet neglect their teeth. We all know how disagreeable it is to be anywhere near a person whose breath is bad. want one whose appearance is marred by a lack of one or two front teeth. "Let thy attire be comel y. the majority can afford to be well dressed. yet perhaps more people sin in this particular point of cleanliness than in an y other.Next in importance to the bath is the proper care of the hair. If it is naturally oily. or the absence of one or two in front. it should not be washed oftener than once a month and the ammonia may be omitted. when there is such an infinite variety of tasteful but inexpensive fabrics to choose from. and young women. Keeping the teeth in good condition is a very simple matter ." [Illustration: John Wanamaker] Most large business houses make it a rule not to employ anyone who looks seedy. you are appropriately dressed. to which a very little ammonia may be added. and walk to the place. If you are dressed according to your means. but the slovenliness that is avoidable. It is not the shabbiness that is unavoidable. Many an applicant has been denied the position he sought because of bad teeth. but not costly. You will be more respected by yourself and every one else with an old coat on your back that has been paid for than a new one that has not. who dress very well and seem to take considerable pride in their personal appearance. if he is at all particular. The man who hires all the salespeople for one of the largest retail stores in Chicago says: . a crumpled collar. he said:-"Clothes don't make the man. no matter how poorly. or other employee about him who conta minates the atmosphere.

ill-fitting. Mrs . second o nly to that of a clean conscience. Diamonds in the rough of infinitely greater value than the polished glass of some of those w ho get positions may. self-respect. Poor. and half of the buttons off her shoes. The young woman was i nvited by the founder of the school to call on her at once." No young man or woman who wishes to retain that most potent factor of the succe ssful life. as anyon e knows who has experienced the sensation--and who has not?--that comes from bei ng attired in new and becoming raiment." As the consciousness of be ing well dressed tends to grace and ease of manner. lay a volume of meaning." It does not matter how much merit or ability an applicant for a position may po ssess. "is in and of itself a source of moral strength. occasionally. and faded ties? The truth of the matt er seems to be that extra care as regards personal habits and general appearance is. is evide nced by the "London Draper's Record. those who are careful of their own appearance are equa lly careful of the looks of the work they turn out. or soiled garments ar e detrimental to morals and manners. though not possessing half the ability of the boy or girl who was turned away. A slovenly woman is not a fit guide for any . knowledge. as in an Egyptian hieroglyphic. and considered herself fortunate when the trustees of the institution recomme nded to her a young woman whose tact. Is it not a fact that the smart saleswoman is usually rather particular about her dress. She needed the services of a superintendent and teache r. can afford to be negligent in the matter of dress. Our clothes unmistakably affect our feelings. but with torn and soiled gloves. which shows itself an tagonistic to slovenliness of all kinds. and general fi tness for the position they extolled in the highest terms. for "the character is subdued to what it is clothed in. V. but a trifle in whic h. and yet." says El izabeth Stuart Phelps. ill-fitting. "The consciousness of clean linen. and self respect. without assigning any reason." It says:-"Wherever a marked personal care is exhibited for the cleanliness of the person and for neatness in dress. One of those large-souled women of wealth. she replied: "It was a trifle. he can not afford to be careless of his personal appearance. lacking in dignity and impo rtance. so shabby. in which our generation is rich. That the same rule that governs employers in America holds in England. indicative of a certain alertness of mind. Work people whose personal habits are sloven ly produce slovenly work. they may keep it. as a rule. Applicants whose good appearanc e helped them to secure a place may often be very superficial in comparison with some who were rejected in their favor and may not have half their merit. when questioned by a friend as to the cause of her seemingly inexplicable conduct in refusing to en gage so competent a teacher. Apparently she posse ssed all the required qualifications. absolutely refused to give her a trial. there is also almost always found extra carefulness as regards the finish of work done. perfect manners. And probably what is true of the workroom is equally true of the region behind the counter. frayed cuffs. Long afterward. the fac t remains that the most important element in an applicant's chance for a trial i s his personality. or s oiled attire makes one feel awkward and constrained. The young woman came to me fashionably and expensively dressed."While the routine of application is in every case strictly adhered to. be rejected. but ha ving secured it. had established an industrial school for girls in which they received a good English education and were train ed to be self-supporting." The importance of attending to little details--the perfection of which really c onstitutes the well-dressed man or woman--is well illustrated by this story of a young woman's failure to secure a desirable position. A well-ironed collar or a fresh glove has car ried many a man through an emergency in which a wrinkle or a rip would have defe ated him. is aver se to wearing dingy collars.

They devote the time that should be given to the culture of head and heart to studying their toilets. they buy some cheap. The manners of both seem to have a subtle connection with their clothes. t hey fall into as great a pitfall as those who think clothes are of no importance . as well as t he truest economy. the effect of which is only to make them look ridiculous.--a man whose trade . who spent four thousand dollars a year at his tailo r's alone. this or that expensive hat. Young men of this stamp wear cheap rings. and. and have no time to devote to self-culture or to fitting th emselves for higher positions. spirit. without making your toilet. or tie or coat. which they see exhibited in so me fashionable store. devote most o f their waking hours to its study. Their style of dress bespeaks a type of character even more objectionable than that of the slovenly. it will become as slovenly . as a rule.--put on your best clothes. They are loud. for the old adage: "Tell me thy company and I will tell thee what thou art. again and again. if. taking it easy because you do not expect or wish to see anybody. if you can afford it. Like the dandy. . and broad checks. that they do. office and existence consists in the wearing of clothes. and the man and the woman. who make it their chief object in life.--every faculty of who se soul. are frequently condemned by the very garb which they think makes them so irresistible." Probably the applicant never knew why she did not obtain the positi on. out of their limited sala ries. vulgar. vermilion-tinted ties. Your mind will slip down. and planning how they can buy. to the neglect of their mos t sacred duty to themselves and others. and who used to take hours to tie his cravat. If you lie a round half-dressed. and almost invariably they occupy cheap positions. flashy. you will fi nd yourself very quickly taking on the mood of your attire and environment.--a Turkish bath. On the other hand. untidily dressed person. From every point of view it pays well to dress well. An undue love of dress is worse than a total disregard of it. If they can not by any possibility afford the coveted arti cle. The knowledge that we are becomingly clothed acts like a mental tonic. By emphasizing the importance of dress I do not mean that you should be like Be au Brummel. that it is a duty. but experience has proved . it will refuse to exert itself. before you have finished dressing your "blues" and your half-sick feeling will have vanished like a bad dream. whom Carlyle describes as "a clothes-wearing man. for she was undoubtedly well qualified to fill it in every respect. and inactive as your body. Many young men and women make the mistake of thinking that "well dressed" neces sarily means being expensively dressed. or who. At first sight. and aspirants to success should be as careful in choosing their dr ess as their companions. instead of l ying around the house in your old wrapper or dressing gown. measure the sense and self-respect o f the wearer. The overdressed young woman is merely the feminine of the overdressed young man . in view of its effect on ours elves and on those with whom we come in contact. with this erroneous idea in mind. you take a good bath . like Beau Brummel. to dress as well and becomingly as our position requires and our means will allow. tawdry imitation. person and purse is heroically consecrated to this one object." is offset by this wise saying of some philosopher of the c ommonplace: "Show me all the dresses a woman has worn in the course of her life." when you feel half sick and not able to work. and with your room all in disord er. The worl d accepts the truth announced by Shakespeare that "the apparel oft proclaims the man"." they live to dress.young girl. it may seem hasty or superficial to judge men or women by their clothes. except i n this seemingly unimportant matter of attention to the little details of dress. Nine times out of ten. an d your whole outlook on life will have changed. when you have an a ttack of the "blues. the English fop. slipshod. and they love dress too much who "go in d ebt" for it. Very few men or women are so strong and so perfectly poised as to be unaffected by their surroundings. But I do claim. and make you r toilet as carefully as if you were going to a fashionable reception. too. you will feel like a new person.

"to teach a girl that beauty is of no value. every bird is clothed in the habiliments of the most exquisite taste. omething which every one feels. Good clothes give e ase of manner. not even omitting his swo rd. which no biograph a great deal to do with one's success in life. so as not to be at odds with her dress. Her mind runs along new channels.--which makes people applaud beyond the bounds of enthusiasm. It is this indescribable quality. Although. Suppose she changes. If she has five grains of common sense. She has much more respect for the wearer of the new. . every star is veiled in brightness .and I will write you her biography. or shabby apparel which not o nly robs one of self-respect. er ever put down in a book." "How exquisitely absurd it is. soiled one. will in some subtle way be dominated by the old wrapper. Calhoun was a greater man. her manner. and make one talk well. he never aroused any such enthusiasm as "the mill-b oy of the slashes. the general trend of her feelings. This he always put on before entering his study. Her whole prospect and hap piness in life may often depend upon a new gown or a becoming bonnet. and y ou will at once feel the effect. He has put robes of beauty and glory upon all His works. for "anything." says Sydney Smith. One can not but feel that God is a lover of appropriate dress. "is good enough to go with this old wrapper." Webster and Sumner were great men. and it will have the effect of making her indifferent as to whethe r her hair is frowsy or in curl papers. when we remember what an effect clothes have in in citing to personal cleanliness. The great thing is to teac h her their proper value. the natu ralist and philosopher. which sets an audience wild at the mention of the name of a Blaine or a Linco ln. It does not matter whether her face or h ands are clean or not. while inferi ority of garb often induces restraint. for instance. The down-at-heel old shoes are exchanged fo r suitable slippers. testifies to the influence of dress on thought.--puts on a dainty muslin garment instead. CHAPTER XVI PERSONALITY AS A SUCCESS ASSET There is something about one's the painter can not reproduce. Her face and hands and finger nails must be spotless as the muslin which surrounds them. Every flower is dressed in richness." she argues. Prentice Mulford declar es dress to be one of the avenues for the spiritualization of the race. perhaps . ev ery field blushes beneath a mantle of beauty. The consciousness of being well dressed g ives a grace and ease of manner that even religion will not bestow. There is something about ill-fitting. has personality which eludes the photographer. And sure ly He is pleased when we provide a beautiful setting for the greatest of His han diworks. unbecoming." It is true that clothes do not make the man. He decla red himself utterly incapable of thinking to good purpose except in full court d ress. but they did not arouse a tithe of the spontaneous enthusiasm evoked by men like Blaine and Clay. she will find this out. Beauty is of value." Her walk. It was this pec uliar atmosphere which made Clay the idol of his constituents. or what sort of slipshod shoes she wears. "Would you change the current of your thoughts? Change your raiment." Even so great an authority as Buffon. clean wrapper than for the wearer of the old. don an old soiled or worn wrapper. how different her looks and acts! Her hair must be becomingly arranged. Let a woman. dress of no use. which some persons have in a remarkable degre e. but also of comfort and power. This subtle s but which no one can describe. which which the sculptor can not chisel. but they have a much larger influe nce on man's life than we are wont to attribute to them. This is not an extravagant statement.

and sometimes even controls the destinies of nations. They are much larger than anything they say or do. "we mu st first reckon with the orator's physical bulk. The moment we come into their presence we have a sense of enlargement. We are unconsciously influenced by people who possess this magnetic power. we experience a sense of relief. suddenly. they introd uce us. and we are loath to leave the magical presence lest we lose our new-born power. All at o nce life takes on a higher and nobler meaning. We have been touched to finer issues. although meeting them. Even a momentary contact with a character of this kind seems to double our ment al and soul powers. superb manner. perhaps. to struggle to make permanently ours the forces and potentialities that have be en revealed to us. They draw out the best that is in us. They unlock w ithin us possibilities of which we previously had no conception. we frequently meet people who make us shrivel and shrink int o ourselves. have b een transformed. A blighting. and to be more than we have been in the past. On the other hand. Certain personalities are greater than mere physical beauty and more powerful t han learning. Sadness gives place to joy. and we resolve. as two great dynamos double the current which passes over th e wire. we have caught a glimpse of higher ideals. A few minutes before. impulses and longings come thronging to our minds which never stirred us before. Our horizon bro adens. Charm of personality is a divine gift that sways the strongest cha racters. With their presence. A good illustration of the influence of personal atmosphere is found in the ora tor who carries his audience with him like a whirlwind. with its absence of purpose and endea vor.--the atmosphere that eman ates from them. in measuring Kossuth's influence over the masses. has dropped out of sight. as if a great weight which long had pressed upon us had been removed . being rapidly advanced over the heads of those who are infinitely their superiors in mental endowments. at least. with better heart and newer hope. we were sad and discouraged. We are often misled as to the position they are going to occupy from the fact that we are apt to take account merely of their ability .A historian says that. to our larger. for the moment. and do not reckon this personal atmosphere or magnetic power as a part of thei r success-capital. The moment they come near us we experience a cold chill. we could not only measure the personal atmosphere of individuals. despair to h ope. while he is delivering h is speech. when. and yet so little of this personal element adheres to his cold words in print that those who read them are scarcely moved at all. The old commonplace life. Yet this individual atmosphere has quite as much to do with o ne's advancement as brain-power or education. perhaps. and. as if a bl ast of winter had struck us in midsummer. as it were. and then carry the measuring li ne above his atmosphere. The influence of su ch speakers depends almost wholly upon their presence. better selves. narrowing sensation. and disheartenment to encouragement. we constantly see men of m ediocre ability but with fine personal presence. we feel a new power stirring through all our being." If we had discernment fine enough and tests delicate e nough. and we are fired with a desire to do more than we have ever before done. the flashlight of a potent personality of this kind has opened a rift in our lives and revealed to us hidden capabilities. Indeed. We express ourselves more clearly and eloquen tly than we believed we could. for the first time. and magnetic qua lities. whic . We can converse with such people in a way that astonishes us. but cou ld also make more accurate estimates concerning the future possibilities of scho olmates and young friends.

He will b e trusted and loved by all who come in contact with him.--even though polished manners and a gracious presence may be conspicuous by their absence. Much of the charm of a magnetic personality comes from a fine. and interest is at a low ebb. He will bring encouragement to and uplift every life that touches his. generosity of feeling. pleasing personalities. Wh ile it is. also. undefinable uneasiness. cordiality of bearing.h seems to make us suddenly smaller. the charm of sentiment vanishes and life seems to lose color and zest. One must know exactly what to do. Magnetic personality is intangible. and we haste n from it as soon as possible. we shall find that the chief differ ence between them is that the first loves his kind. This mysterious something. We could no more smile in their presence than we could lau gh while at a funeral. At a social gathering. She may not be handsome. It is often possessed in a high degree by very plain women . they are sought for everyw here. like poetry. it is a privilege to speak to her. and be able to do just the rig ht thing at the proper time. born in one. If we study these two types of personality. that rare charm of manner which captivates all those who come within the sphere of its influence.--the delightful art of pleas ing. Of course. But we shall f ind that the man who practises unselfishness. a gift of nature. are largely natural gifts. perhaps the most important. of possibility. Good taste is also one of the elements of personal charm. and that strong personal magnetism which inclines all hearts toward its fortunate possessor. their shadows are cast upon us and fill us with vague. which is entirely independen t of personal beauty. It is infinitely better than money capital. Good judgment and common sense are indispensable to those who are trying to acquire this magic power. and the latter does not. When they are near us our laudable purposes and desires shrink into insi gnificance and mere foolishness. Many women are endowed with this magnetic quality. They are more than welcome. This was notably the case with some of the women who ruled in the French salon s more absolutely than the king on his throne. passes over us. As a da rk cloud suddenly obscures the brightness of a smiling summer sky. One of the greatest investments one can make is that of attaining a gracious ma nner. or art. is a very important element. who feels it a privilege to have the power to do a fellow-cr eature a kindness. They simply know they have it. The effect of their presence is paralyzing. . is often more powerful than the ability which can be meas ured. or the qualities that can be rated. it can be cultivated to a certain extent. which we sometim es call individuality. In their presence there is no possibility of expansion for us. who is genuinely interested in the welfare of others. but everybody is attracted. music.--next to a fine manner. t he entrance of some bright woman with a magnetic personality instantly changes t he whole situation. People who possess this rare quality are frequently ignorant of the source of t heir power. cultivated manne r. a nd our natural prompting is to guard closely any expression of our hopes and amb itions. We feel a decided loss of p ower. Their gloomy miasmatic atmosphere chills all our natural impulses. This type of personalit y we may all cultivate if we will. Tact.--will be an elevating influence wherever he goes. when conversation drags. We instinctively feel that such people have no sympathy with our aspirations. You can not offend the tastes of others without hur ting their sensibilities. but can not locate or describe it. for all doors fly open to sunny .

or some other disaster. was crowded. The power to please is a tremendous asset. as naturally as magnet s attract particles of steel. and patients to the physician. his law partner. of making friends and holding them with hooks of steel! People are influenced powerfully by their friendships. How many men have been able to start again after ha ving everything swept away by fire or flood. an d companionable. No matter what career you enter. Somehow everybody in trouble turned to him for help. to help along wherever he could. clients. I never knew a thoroughly unselfish person who was not an attractive person. develops man hood. says: "When the R utledge Tavern. for. all of which are cultivatabl e. it will call out your success qualities. This was one of Lincoln's c hief characteristics. even when they do no t apparently make half so much effort to get it as the less successful. because they had learned the art of bei ng agreeable. Such men are business magnets. Mr. if his personality repels. he would often give up his b ed." This generous desire to as sist others and to return kindnesses especially endeared Lincoln to the people. perhaps. for customers. he must keep back his bad tendencies. It is capital which will stand by one when panics come. indifferent man. It pays to cultivate popularity. Herndon. To be popular. patients. or influence. we find that they have attractive qualities. rude man ners drive away clients. or patients will flock to him. if his coarse. It will help you to self-expression as no thing else will. Some men attract business. no matter how able a man may be. and yet it is comparatively easy to cultivate . he w ill always be placed at a disadvantage." But if we analyze these men closely. you can not overestimate the i mportance of cultivating that charm of manner. he is on the road to success and happi ness as well. agreeable. he must be polite. Business moves toward them. where Lincoln boarded. The ability to cultivate friends is a powerful aid to success. for making himself ag reeable under all circumstances. those personal qualities. he had a passion for helping people. It is difficult to conceive of any more delightful birthright than to be born with this personal charm. just becaus e they had cultivated popular qualities.Many a youth owes his promotion or his first start in life to the disposition t o be accommodating. In trying to be popular. by their likes and dislikes. and a popular business or professional man has every advantage in the world over a col d. Had it not been for these. when busin ess concerns go to the wall. Cultivate the art of being agreeable. when banks fail. their s agacity. gentlemanly. or customers. to find what a large percentage of it is due to their h abitual courtesy and other popular qualities. patients. and builds up character. if they shoul d analyze their success. It is worth everything t o the clergyman. have amounte d to half so much. but also in every field of life. They ar e often a substitute for a large amount of hard work. for the same reason that the steel particles point toward the magnet. which a ttract people to you. It doubles success possibilities. customers. and business training would not. because it is made up of so many other qualities. never repels? It is not only valuable in busines s. one must strangle selfishness. it bring s clients to the lawyer. Their fr iends call them "lucky dogs. Many successful business and professional men would be surprised. and sleep on the counter in his store with a roll of calico for his pillow.--because they are attra cted. clients. They will take the place of capital. Everything seems to point their way. No person who is always thinking of himself and trying to figure out how he can ge . it will broaden your s ympathies. There is usually some charm of personality about them that wins all hearts. It makes statesmen and politicians. What can be more valuable than a per sonality which always attracts. long-headedness.

so that he could say things and do things impossible to him when alone? The power of the orator. those with great personal charm. or for the choicest bits at the table.--who gives us his sympathy. There is something about h im which arrests your prejudice. to make a good impression at the very first meeting. Popular people. but we give ourselves out stingily and we live narrow and reserved lives. sympathetic. trying to get away from the sh adows. brutal manner repels. in being interesting. but he could never get it from the separate individuals any more than the chemist could get the full power from chemicals standing in s eparate bottles in his laboratory.t some advantage from everybody else will ever be attractive. We cannot help bein g attracted to one who is always trying to help us. which he flings back to his listeners. when we should be broad. in the hand-shake. radiating hope. regardless of others. and no matter how busy or how worried you may b e. is a g reat accomplishment. It is difficult to snub the man who possesses it. The whole principle of an attractive personality lives in this sent ence. The ability to bring the best that is in you to the man you are trying to reach . If people who are naturally unsocial would only spend as much time and take as much pains as people who are social favorites in making themselves popular. or how much you may dislike to be interrupted. for we are all looking for the sunlight. genero us. and a keener edge put on all of his faculties. The secret of pleasing is in being pleasant yourself. new forces. a . his intellect sharpened. If you would be agreeable. We may know enough. he first draws from his audience. people will love to get n ear you. wit hout raising the least prejudice. stingy soul is not lovable. A fine manner pleases. to their sharpening our faculties. It is unfortunate that these things are not taught more in the home and in the school. who are always wanting to be waited on first at the restaura nt or hotel. who are always looking for the easiest chair. We little realize what a large part of our achievement is due to others working through us. who elbow their way in front of us. There is a charm in a gracious personality from which it is very hard to get aw ay. and magnanimous. who is always trying to make us comfortable and to give us every advantage he ca n. We are naturally d isgusted with people who are trying to get everything for themselves and never t hink of anybody else. take infinite pains to cultiva te all the little graces and qualities which go to make up popularity. somehow you haven't the heart to turn away the man with a pleasing personality. to approach a prospective customer as though you had known him for years without offending his taste. Many of us are n o better than uneducated heathens. in the smile. It is in contact and combination only that ne w creations. If you radiate sweetness and light. and this is what commands a great salary. a coarse. when coming into contact with a stron g personality which has called forth hidden powers which he never before dreamed he possessed. which is unmistaka ble. encouragement. The narrow. People shrink from such a character. There must be heartiness in the ex pression. to get the best seat in a car or a hall. but getting his sympathy and good will. The hardest natures can not resist these qualities any more than the eyes c an resist the sun. Everybody is attracted by lovable qualities and is repelled by the unlovely whe rever found. you must be magnanimous. in the cordiality. we are repelled by people who are always trying to get som ething out of us. they would acc omplish wonders. for our success and happiness depend largely upon them. On the other hand. are developed. Who has not felt his power multiplied many times.

when you might have had great rivers and torrents of blessings. and open up new hopes and possibilities. the more generous of yourself. which will enlarge and broaden your experience. or even both of those which unite. We are apt to overestimate the value of an education from books alone. finding ne w islands of power in himself which would have remained forever hidden but for a ssociation with others. The more you rad iate yourself. A large part of the value of a college education comes from the social intercourse of th e students. If you go into social life with a determination to give it something. The more generously you give. because we can always carry away somethin g of value. but having a chemical affinity for each other. But it is a fact that you can only get a great deal out of them by giving them a great deal of yourself. the more you fling yourself out to them without reserve. you will not find society either a bore or unprofitable. an d make you more of a man. generous way. to make i t a school for self-improvement. something which will enrich his life. which have remained dormant for the lack of exercise. No man finds himself alone. . Others are his discoverers. had he availed himself of every opportunity of touching life along all sides. the more you will get back. the more you get in return. but the k nowledge which comes from mind intercourse is invaluable. brighten the ideals . But you must give it something. About all you get from others is a reflex of the curre nts from yourself. You must give much in order to get much. or you will not get anything. if he can on ly extract it. the reenforcement. The current will not set toward you un til it goes out from you. The man who mixes with his fellows is ever on a voyage of discovery. When you learn to look upon every one you meet as holding a treasure. that we become polished and attractive. Thei r faculties are sharpened and polished by the attrition of mind with mind. Book knowledge is valuable. you will not think the time in the drawing-room wasted . and sustaining and inspiring us mentally. It is through social intercourse that our rough corners are rubbed o ff. It is always a mistake to miss an opportunity of meeting with our kind. Two substances totally unlike. for developing the latent brain cells. A man who might have been symmetrical. It is astonishing how much you can learn from people in social intercourse when you know how to look at them rightly. something which he never knew before. his cleverest saying to a friend who has aroused in him latent powers which otherwise might have remained dormant. well-rounded. Everybody he meets has some secret for him. Two people with a strong affinity often call into activity in each other a power which neither dreamed he possessed before. for calling out your best social qualities. something which will enrich your life.nd helpfulness into our lives. You must give of y ourself in a whole-hearted. something which will help h im on his way. or you will receive only stingy rivule ts. Many an author owes his great est book. which stimulate ambition. the more magnanimous you are. the buttressing of character by association. or by some one they happened to meet w ho saw in them what no one else had ever seen. because he did not cultivate his social side. narrowly. and t he pitting of brain against brain. remains a pygmy in everythin g except his own little specialty.--the power to do an immortal thin g. You will not receive if you give out stingily. and esp ecially of mixing with those above us. meanly. m ay produce a third infinitely stronger than either. Artists have been touched by the po wer of inspiration through a masterpiece.

which will make his life a little more shapely and att ractive. large -hearted and magnanimous. and we are ready to mak e allowances for them. Secretiveness repels as much as frankness attracts. ignorant miner." said an Engli sh miner. They are. You never go to 'im for nothin'. by their very f rankness and simplicity. graduates of Eastern colleges. we can never rid ourselves of the feeling that there is a moti ve behind his graciousness. It was all because he had a heart in him. but there is a lurking fea r of some pitfall or unknown danger ahead of us. he's a man. handsome young men. We cannot have the same confidence in people who possess this trait. Never. Ev erybody admires the open-hearted.--are conduci ve to the growth of the highest manhood and womanhood. How different the man who comes out in the open. "Because he has a 'eart in 'im. No matter how polite or gracious a secreti ve person may be. do we get a glimpse of the real man. as in frank. He endeavors to hide every trait that is not favorable to himself. and knew nothing of the usages of polite society. as a rule.The man who is determined to get on will look upon every experience as an educa tor. and sent to the legislature. if he ca n help it. he was a man. because he goes through life wearing a mask. they are always in sight. who reveal s his heart to us. "I recognize but one m ental acquisition as an essential part of the education of a lady or gentleman." Bright. and when asked why the miners and the people in the town couldn't help liking him. and that he has an ulterior purpose in view. and wh o do not try to cover up their faults and weaknesses. We are uncomfortable because of the uncertainties. although he coul d not speak a grammatical sentence. Eliot was president of Harvard. but we are not sure and can not trust them. "You can't 'elp likin' 'im. sunny natures. namely. who wo n the love and good will of everyone. It he has bad qualities. In the Black Hills of South Dakota there lived a humble. because he is always ready to confess his faults. They may be all right. There is something about th e very inclination to conceal or cover up which arouses suspicion and distrust." . invite the same qualities in others. had the slightest chance of bein g elected to any office of prominence while "Ike" was around. who has no secrets. as a culture chisel. however educated or cultured. CHAPTER XVII IF YOU CAN TALK WELL When Charles W. he answered. strong men drawn there from different parts of the country by the gold fever. yet he so intrenched himself in the hearts in his community t hat no other man. and may deal squarely with us. and to make amends for them. broad and liberal! How quickly he wins our confidence! How we all like and trust him! We forgive him for many a slip or wea kness. and who is frank. He is a lways more or less of an enigma. a great many able. were there seeking t heir fortune. They inspire love and confidence. the people who have nothing to conceal. He was elected mayor of his town. an accurate and refined use of the mother-tongue. his sympathies are broad and active. he said. He always 'elps the boys when in trouble. He could scarcely write his name. no matter h ow good they may seem to be. but none of them held the public confidence like this poor man. We may come out all right. Frankness of manner is one of the most delightful of traits in young or old. The very qualities he possesses--frankness and simplicity. and. There is always a feeling of uncertainty. His heart is sound and true. Dealing with these secr etive people is like traveling on a stage coach on a dark night.

who has been very successful in the launching of débutant es in society. But if you are an artist in conversation. The temptation for people who are unaccustomed to society. esp ecially upon those who do not know us thoroughly. even though you are poor. no matter what your sta tion in life may be. but if you are a good converser. Conversation. who has the art of putting things in an attractive way . In fact. The way to learn to talk is to ta lk. You may be a fine singer. It does not ma tter much what you say. Everybody wants to invite Mrs. as the ability to converse wel l. or how much it may hav e cost you. it also helps you to make and keep friends. always gives this advice to her protégés. patients. No matter how expert you may be in any other art or accomplishment. everyo ne with whom you talk will feel the influence of your skill and charm. is to be the possessor of a very great accomplishment. Everyone knows whether you are an artist or a bungler. and you may have a very beautiful home and a lot of property which c omparatively few people ever know about. So-and-So to dinners or receptions because she is such a good talker.Sir Walter Scott defined "a good conversationalist" as "one who has ideas. It opens doors and softens he arts. She enter tains. To be a good conversationalist. But wherever you go and in whatever society you are. and who has therefore something to say. able to interest people. "Talk. has a very great a dvantage over one who may know more than he. is to say nothing themselves and listen to what others say. You may be a painter. you may have a great many accomplishments which people occasionally se e or enjoy. and yet." There is a helpful suggestion in this advice. Nothing embarrasses and bores the average man so much as a girl who has to be entertained. if used as an educator. Good talkers are always sought after in society. you talk. A man who can talk well. everyone who comes in contact with you will see your life-picture. It helps you into the be st society. It makes you interesting in all sorts of company. and yet travel around the world without having an opp ortunity of showing your accomplishment. one which is s uperior to all others. It helps you to get on i n the world. you cannot use your expertness always and everywhere as you can the power to converse well. If you are a musician. thinks. is a tremendous power developer. and who feel diff ident. but people enjoy her society because she can t alk well. which you have been painting ever since you began to talk . customers. who can interest others immediately by his power of speech. talk. It sends you clients. but chatter away lightly and gayly. you may have spent years with great masters. or without anyone guessing your special ty. but who cannot express himself with ease or eloquence. She may have many defects. or how many years you may have spent in perfecting yourself in your specialty. listens. only comparatively few people can ever hear or appreciate your music . who reads. unl ess you have very marked ability so that your pictures are hung in the salons or in the great art galleries. A noted society leader. to rivet their attenti on. but talk . by the very superiority of your conversationa l ability. to draw them to you naturally. no matter how talented you may be." There is no other one thing which enables us to make so good an impression. It not only helps you to make a good impression upon stra ngers. comparatively few people will ever see them.

coarse voices are heard in light. We do not read eno ugh or think enough. to mak e an effort to express ourselves with elegance. and power. lowers one's ideals and all the standards of life. as fine conversati on. Nothing else will indicate your fineness or coarseness of culture. His language flows with such liqu id. There is no accomplishment. Thousands of young people who envy such of their mates as are getting on faster than they are keep on wasting their precious evenings and their half-holidays. slipshod speech. or efficiency. because it beg ets habits of superficial and senseless thinking. and how you say it. You may think you are poor and have no chance in life. or good merchants are born. we do not take the trouble or pains to learn to talk well. an d yet you can become an interesting talker. the average society small talk. you may be tied down to an iron environment. They do not think of forming a sentence . Every book you read. every person with whom you converse. or to study music or art. "I hate that man. to hold them. It lies too deep for such superficial effort.ing without thinking. a nd in public places. good phys icians. saying nothing but the most frivolous. It will tell your whole life's story. you may be tortured with an unsatisfied. without an effort to express oneself with clearness. he gets on my n erves. taste. conci seness. disappointed ambition. This is the price of all achievement that is of value. or commanding language. will betray all your secrets. and accuracy. and you may not be able to go to school or co llege. interesting. your breedin g or lack of it. None of them would ever get very f ar without hard work. slipshod English. loud. What you say. is always placed at a great disadvantage. b ecause it is so much easier to do so than it is to think before we speak. because in every sentence you utter you can practise the best form of expression. ease." We might as well say that good lawyers. limpid beauty. because we do not make an art of i t. "Well. who knows a thing. will never get hold of the best thing in a man. but the foolish. who uses good English. there is such a refinement in his diction that he charms everyone who hears him speak. is a great pow er. "You're talking through your hat". senseless things--things which do not rise to the level of humor. so quickly as your conversation. T he ability to interest people in your conversation. no attainment which you can use so constantly and e ffectively. or gossiping. You may be situated so t hat others are dependent upon you. silly talk which demoralizes o ne's ambition. but never can put it in logical." and a score of other such vulgarities we often hear. On the streets. which will give so much pleasure to your friends. I know a business man who has cultivated the art of conversation to such an ext ent that it is a great treat to listen to him. Poor conversers excuse themselves for not trying to improve by saying that "goo d talkers are born. in coarse slang expressions. can help you. Most of us are bunglers in our conversation. Few people think very much about how they are going to express themselves. flippant. All his life he has been a reader of the finest prose and poet ry. will giv e the world your true measure. They use the first words that come to them. not made. frothy. on the cars. "Search me". The man who has a bungling expression. Most of us express ourselves in sloppy. mere chattering. and has cultivated conversation as a fine art. his words are chosen with such exquisite delicacy. There is no doubt that the gift of language was intended to be a much greate r accomplishment than the majority of us have ever made of it. that's the limit". Many a man owes his advancement very largely to his ability to converse well. not made. "You just bet". as you long to.

that it is in deed a luxury. There were no great daily newspapers. and the music of his voice. and delight that we wonder why the most of us should be such ation. who impre ss us by the wonderful flow of their conversation. In these gr eat newspaper and periodical days. Ward. we no longer have time to r eflect with deliberation. and it seemed to me that I had never heard such exquisite and polished English. and Elizabeth S. they do not stimulate us to actio n. when ev erybody has the mania to attain wealth and position. and to develop our powers of conversation. We do not feel any more determined to do something in the world. Formerly people had almost no other way of communicati ng their thoughts than by speech. and using a superb diction. So rare is it t o hear one speaking exquisite English. and his marvelous art of putting things. Livermore. power. In this lightning-express age. There i s no longer the same need of communicating thought by the spoken word. I was once a visitor at Wendell Phillips's home in Boston. I have met several Englis h people who possessed that marvelous power of "soul in conversation which charm s all who come under its spell.so that it will have beauty. eve rybody sits behind the morning sheet or is buried in a book or magazine. I have met a dozen persons in my lifetime who have given me such a glimpse of i ts superb possibilities that it has made all other arts seem comparatively unimp ortant to me. We know other people who talk very little. that we should make such a botch of the medium of uman beings. The quality of the conversation is everything. We all know people who use the c hoicest language and express their thoughts in fluent. I shall never forget. with little thought of arrangement or order. transparency. but that is all there is to i t. as has ex-President Eliot of Harvard. Knowledge of all kinds was disseminated almost wholly through the spoken word. liquid diction. but whose words are so full of meat and stimulating brain force that we feel ourselves multiplied many times by the power they have injected into us. when it is capable of being made the art of it is such a treat and bunglers in our convers communication between h arts. no magazi nes or periodicals of any kind. In olden times the art of conversation reached a much higher standard than that of to-day. Mary A. the profundity of his knowledge. in these strenuous times. The deterioration is due to the complete revolution in the condition s of modern civilization. brevity. after we have heard them talk than we felt before. had this won derful conversational charm. the new world op ened up by inventions and discoveries. P. Printing has become so chea p that even the poorest homes can get more reading for a few dollars than kings and noblemen could afford in the Middle Ages. . He sat down on the sofa beside me and talked as he would to an old schoolmate. the transparency of his dicti on. Now and then we meet a real artist in conversation. the purity. The great discoveries of vast wealth in the precious minerals. to be somebo dy. when everybody can get for one or a few cents the news and information which it has cost thousands of dollars to collect. It is a rare thing to find a polished conversationalist to-day. Julia Ward Howe." Mrs. They do not impress us with their thoughts. the liquid charm of his words. Oratory is becoming a lost art for the same reason. the fascination of his personality. and the great impetus to ambition have ch anged all this. The words flow from t heir lips helter-skelter.

People with a lot of ability. Many people have good thoughts and ideas. Everywhere we see people placed at a tremendous disadvantage because they have never learned the art of putting their ideas into interesting. especially the timid and shy. you may be wonderfully well-posted in science. will not only broaden the mind and give new ideas. you will be a poor converser. no describing its marvels of beauty within. n o explaining. There is no other way. Conversation is to th e man what the cutting of the diamond is to the stone. expressed in some attractive way. . sit silent. Many people--and this is especially true of scholars--seem to think that the gr eat desideratum in life is to get as much valuable information into the head as possible. if your knowledge is locked up within you. and will gain ease of manner and facility of expression. when they make an effort to say something and cannot. w ould avail. telling language. shallow-brained person holds the at tention of those present simply because he can tell what he knows in an interest ing way. how quickly he will conquer his awkwardness and self-con sciousness. and yet. you must be as much as possible in the socie ty of well-bred. however. and art. We see brainy men at public gatherings. though you are a coll ege graduate. even if you fail in your attempt. b ecause. but they cannot express them because o f the poverty of their vocabulary. to become an orator or a good conversationalist than by constantly trying to express oneself efficiently and elegantly. they can not find it. when momentous questions are being disc ussed. cultured people. when they want a particular word to convey their exact meaning. but i t will also increase one's vocabulary. and that is a great aid to conversation. you may be well r ead in history and in politics. who have that awfu l feeling of repression and stifling of thought. nobody would appreciate it until it was ground and polished and the light let into its depths to reveal its hidden brilliancy. You may be a profound scholar. unable to tell what they know. howev er. If you are ambitious to talk well. who know a great deal. you will always be placed at a great disadvantage. There are hundreds of these silent people at our nat ional capital--many of them wives of husbands who have suddenly and unexpectedly come into political prominence. l iterature. wil l make it all the easier for you to speak well the next time.Good reading. It is remarkable. Locked-up ability may give the individual some satisfaction. They talk around in a circle. if one keeps on trying. If you find that your ideas fly from you when you attempt to express them. often appear like a set of dummies in company. But many a great orator went through th e same sort of experience. If you seclude yourself. It does not matter how valuable the rough diamond may be. because they can not carry on an intelligent c onversation upon any topic. repeat and repeat. They are constantly humiliated and embarrassed when away from those who happen to know their real worth. but it must be exh ibited. But it is just as important to know how to give out knowledge in a pal atable manner as to acquire it. while some superficial. that you stammer and flounder about for words which you are unable to find. when he first attempted to speak in public and was of ten deeply humiliated by his blunders and failures. Timid young people often suffer keenly in this way in att empting to declaim at school or college. you may be sure that every honest effort you make. They have not words enough to clothe their id eas and make them attractive. and its great value. before the world will appreciate it or give credit for it. It merely reveals its wealth. We all sympathize with people. when they are infinitely bette r informed than those who are making a great deal of display of oratory or smoot h talk. The grinding does not add anything to the diamond.

It was better than most modern lectures. hitch about as if we were bored and were anxious t o get away. Many get the b est part of their education in this school. To converse well one must listen well also--hold oneself in a receptive attitud e. There is a splendid discipline in the constant effort to express one's thoughts in clear language and in an interesting manner. In fact. Ever ything bores us which does not bring us more business. develops new powers. The mingling of thought with thought. but who have cultivated the art o f self-expression. or elegance of diction. we are such an impatient people that we have no time for anything excepting to push ahead. send u s patients. We are too impatient to listen. intelligently. and which often stimulates and inspires to fre sh endeavor." Nervous impatience is a conspicuous characteristic of the American people. We lack time. upon all sorts of topics. a charm of s tyle. Before these days of hurry and drive. Our life is feverish and unnatural. children are allowed to mangle th e English language in a most painful way. The power to do so increase s our self-respect. interestingly. or more money. as the mixing of two chemicals often produces a new third substance. a great revealer of possibilities a nd resources. or which d oes not help us to attain the position for which we are striving. for there was a touch of personality. and interrupt the speaker before he reaches his conclusion. The school and the college employ the student comparatively a few hours a day f or a few years. the faculties are on the alert. but we are poor listeners as well. Conversation is a great ability discoverer. It stimulates thought wonderfully. customers or show their ability to give us a boost for poli tical position. conversation is a training in a perpetual school. we are inclined to look upon them as so many rungs in a ladde r. a superb personality which fascinated. than anyth ing one could find in a book. Then the avenues of the mind fly open. Every good converser has felt a power come to him from the lis tener which he never felt before. and to value them in proportion as they furnish readers for our books. play a tattoo with our f ingers on a chair or a table. We are not only poor conversationalists. the contact of mind with mind . we have not enough respect for the talker to keep qu iet. Many a college graduate has been silenced and put to shame by peo ple who have never even been to a high school.How little parents realize the harm they are doing their children by allowing t hem to grow up ignorant of or indifferent to the marvelous possibilities in the art of conversation! In the majority of homes. Nothing else will develop the brain and character more than the constant effort to talk well. to elbow our way through the crowd to get the position or the money we desire. No man knows what he really possesses until he makes his best effort to express to others what is in him. "We are too intense for epigram or repartee. Instead of enj oying our friends. a magnetism which held. Instead of being attentive and eager to drink in th e story or the information. We look about impatiently. We know people who are such superb conver sers that no one would ever dream that they have not had the advantages of the h igher schools. if we can interest and hold others. perhaps snap our watch. For the hun . clients. We have no time to develop charm of manner. our self-confidence. it was con sidered one of the greatest luxuries possible to be a listener in a group surrou nding an intelligent talker. We think more of ourselves if w e can talk well. before this age of excitement.

Some people have the peculiar quality of touching the . if it does not happen to interest those to whom you are talking your efforts will be largely lo st. We work like Trojans during the day. and they could say things to her which they could not say to anyone else. instead of by a graceful bow.gry soul. distant. we driv e our human engines at such a fearful speed. selfish. or more readers for the ir books--or a better house to live in. She dissipated their fears. They are cold and reserved. because their minds are somewhere else. It is pitiable. People thought her an interesting c onversationalist because she had this ability to call out the best in others. dumb. But to-day everything is "touch and go. No one ca n make a good conversationalist who is not sympathetic. Spontaneity and humor. It does not do to stab people if you would interest them. Great conversationalists have always been very tactful--interesting without off ending. We have no time for the development of a fine manner. thinking business. You must be able to ente r into another's life. She had such a cordial. They do not enter heartily into the lives of others. business. business and their own little worl d. the charm of the days of chivalry and leisure has almost vanished from our civilization. they are interested at once. No matter how much you may know about a subject. and you must touch them along the lines of their interest. We have no time to make our own amusement or to develop the faculty of humor and fun-making as people used t o do. how they can make more show. more clients. and wrapped up in our own little wor ld. too busily engaged in our own welfare. their affections on themselves and their own affairs. and powerless to enter heartily into t he conversation because they are in a subjective mood. nor to drag ou t their family skeletons. to be a good listener o r a good talker. Life is becoming so artificial. thinki ng. We are too self ish. Walter Besant used to tell of a clever woman who had a great reputation as a co nversationalist." We have no time to stop on the street and give a decent salutation. We are like some coll ege boys. or what your ambition is. more patients. or how they can help you. sometimes. almost helpless. how you get on. to live it with the other person. business. and then rush to a theater or other place of amusement in the evening. A new type of in dividual has sprung up. to see men standing around at the average reception or club gathering. though she talked very little. It is: "How do?" or "Morning. so diverse from naturalness. Everything must give way to the material. One cause for our conversational decline is a lack of sympathy. and unsympathetic state. but they do not care a snap about your affairs." accompanied by a sh arp nod of the head. and m ade them feel at home. We have no time for the grace s and the charms. We pay people for doing that while we sit and laugh. They are thinking. and the possibility of a fine culture and a superb charm of personality in us are almost impossible and extremely rare. sympathe tic manner that she helped the timid and the shy to say their best things. If you would make yourself agreeable you must be able to enter into the life of the people you are conversing with. Our conversation will never reach a high standard while we l ive in such a feverish. There are only two things that interest them. thinking how they can get on a little faster--get more business. or abandon themselves to the occasion enough to make good talkers. If you talk about these things. so forced. too intent upon our own self-promotion to be interested in others. who depend upon tutors to carry them through their examinations--they expect to buy their education ready-made. that our finer life is crushed out. yearning for an education. to drink in knowledge from those wise lips was to be fed with a royal feast indeed.

buoyant. to be a good conversationalist you must be spontaneous. A good conversationalist. You must get the attention of people and hold it by interesting them. too light. and.--EMERSON. SHAKESPEARE. however. But not everyone can be funny. others stir up the bad. You must be broad. in his power to express himself in strong. Your magnetism and your helpfulness are thus cut off. He put people at ease with his stories and jokes. it ought to be in his personality. Lincoln was master of the art of making himself interesting to everybody he met . Politeness has been compared to an air cushion. weary. A sense of humor such as Lincoln had is. A narrow stingy soul never talks well. sympathetic. and without life or feeling. of justice. Facts. He should not be obliged to give a stranger an inventory of his possessions in order to show tha t he has achieved something. although there is appare . they solicit him to enter and possess. is not too serious. no amount of money. and you ca n only interest them by a warm sympathy--a real friendly sympathy. You must bring your listener close to you. They never touch our sensitive spots. and must show a spirit of good will. he has not the trouble of earning or owning them . You lock tight all the approaches to your inner self. If you are co ld. and you give him the mastery of palaces and fortunes wherever he goes. never inter ests you. Thou must rather enforce it with thy smile.best that is in us. must open your heart wide. one gets on in the world. every avenue is closed to him. distant. and of fairness. A man who i s always violating your sense of taste. Strangers were always glad to talk with him because he was so co rdial and quaint. What thou wilt. you will make yourself ludicrous by attempting to be funny. Every time they come into our presen ce they irritate us. nat ural. and made them feel so comple tely at home in his presence that they opened up their mental treasures to him w ithout reserve. You must be responsive. no matter how important. A greater wealth should flow from his lips. Therefore. With hat in hand. If a man is a success anywhere. will make you appear well if you use poor English. Than hew to it with thy sword. and an open mind. and the con versation is perfunctory. effective. and unsympathetic you can not hold their attention. disgusts. Others allay all that is disagreeable.--GERMAN PROVERB. if you lack the sense o f humor. and must enter heart and soul into things which interest others. interesting language. and exhib it a broad free nature. Heavy conversation bores. tolerant. of course. Vivacity is abs olutely necessary. a great addition to one's c onversational power. No amount of natural ability or education or good clothes. and they call out all that is spontaneous and sweet and beauti ful. You must feel a spirit o f helpfulness. mechanical. He does not deal too muc h with facts. CHAPTER XVIII A FORTUNE IN GOOD MANNERS Give a boy address and accomplishments. and exp ress itself in his manner. which. statistics. so that he wil l throw wide open every avenue of his nature and give you free access to his hea rt of hearts. and always gave more than he got.

"Who is it?" inquired the Prince. silver wheat-fie lds turned to gold.--GEORGE L. let 'im cock 'is chin hup. and he seemed to change the hell into a heaven. switch 'is stick abart a bit.--SCOTCH PROVERB. Gardens bloomed. "Has 'e 's been han hofficer 'e bought to know 'ow to be'ave 'isself better. but floated from out the bowers of the sky. and all the r ivers and lakes and seas. and was sent in charge of an angel to find his prope r place in the nether world. died while under the ban of e xcommunication by the pope. Don't you wish you had my power ?" Zephyr made no reply. according to a quaint old legend. Conduct is three fourths of life. After a long interval there came a gentle tapping and the low spo ken words: "It is I. "Don't you wish you had my power?" asked the East Wind of the Zephyr.--MATTHEW ARNOLD. and to keep me from piercing to the very marrow of their bones. There was no reply. or that the disagreement was at an end? It is said that civility is to a man what beauty is to a woman: it creates an instantaneous impression in hi s behalf. At length the angel returned with the monk. Victoria. I can lift and have often lifted the Atlantic. helse 'e might just has well be a Methodist parson. and Prince Albert. CAREY. the warm th and sparkle and gladness and beauty and life were the only answer Zephyr gave to the insolent question of the proud but pitiless East Wind. U nder my breath the nations crouch in sepulchers. an give a crack hover the 'ead to hanybody who comes foolin' round 'im." The English is somewhat rude. whose manly self-respect was smarting at her words." Is it necessary to add that the door was opened. Open to the Queen of England!" haughtily responded her Majesty. "It is I. The fallen angels adopted his manner. saying that no place could . The foliage and flowers and fruits and harvests. your wife. and even the good angels went a long way to see him and live with him. eases our jolts wonderfully. I am the terror of all invalids. sought the seclusion of his own apartment. men cut down forests for th eir fires and explore the mines of continents for coal to feed their furnaces. but with the same result. "Why. but it expresses pretty forcibly the fact that a good bearing is indispensable to success as a soldier.ntly nothing in it. whe n I start they hail me by storm signals all along the coast. when a worthy fellow soldier wished to be reinstated in a position from which he had been dismissed. Mien and manner have much to do with our influence and reputation in any walk of life. but breedin's better. The monk Basle. He was remove d to the lowest depths of Hades. "Why the doose de 'e 'old 'is 'ead down like that?" asked a cockney sergeant-ma jor angrily. orchards ripened. and health and happ iness were everywhere. the pinions of birds and the sails of vessels were gently wafted onward. In about five minutes some one knocked. The story goes that Queen Victoria once expressed herself to her husband in rat her a despotic tone. all the beasts and birds a nd men smiled at its coming. But his genial disposition and great conversational powers won friends wherever he went. With one sweep of my wing I st rew the coast from Labrador to Cape Horn with shattered ship timber. I can twist off a s hip's mast as easily as you can waft thistledown. Birth's gude. His inborn politeness and kindness of heart were irresistible. fleecy clouds went sailing in the lofty heaven. What use 'ud 'e be has a non-commissioned hoffice r hif 'e didn't dare look 'is men in the face? Hif a man wants to be a soldier. hi say. closing and locking the d oor. all the forests and fields.

of thunder-storm. Her father took her from the courtroom. of danger. "When Dickens entered a room. But sh e was so fascinated by Burr's charming manner that she sat with his friends." as Longfellow wrote of Evangeline. for there is no roast to-day." "When sh e had passed. and she shaped careers as if she were omnipotent. no. So his sente nce was revoked. In the words of Whittier it could be said of her as might be said of any woman: -Our homes are cheerier for her sake. "one an ecdote more. They were the creatures of her will . of steeps. whom he regarded as an arch-traitor. and locked her up. "it seemed like the ceasing of exquisite music. commonplace and ashamed. Even the Emperor Napoleon fe ared her influence over his people so much that he destroyed her writings and ba nished her from France. Cavanaugh. Those arriving in the first coach had a rueful experience to relate--a terrific thunder-storm. He still remained the same Basle. and he was sent to Heaven and canonized as a saint. "Please. was very desirous of knowing how he fed himself.. "To this day. and dange r and gloom to the whole company. "I should command Madame de Staël to talk to me every day. His fascinating smile and winning speech disarmed the fiercest hatred and made friends of the bitterest enemies. At the great recep tion to Napoleon on his return from Italy. and breathed a purer air. such a conversation between Madame de Staël and Madame Récamier and Benjamin Constant and Schlegel! they were all in a state of delight." It is said that when Goethe entered a restaurant people would lay down their kn . Roche in Paris. but she possessed that indefinable so mething before which mere conventional beauty cowers. The party in the second coach heard their stor y with surprise." She was so fascinating in manner and speech that her guests appeared to overlook all the little discomforts of life. "it was like the sud den kindling of a big fire. by which every one was warmed. the privileged circle at Coppet after making an excursi on returned from Chambéry in two coaches. The charm of his manner was irresistible and influe nced all Europe. Our door-yards brighter blooming." Madame de Staël was anything but beautiful." yet he sway ed the destinies of empires. A gentleman took his daughter of sixteen to Richmond to witness the trial of hi s bitter personal enemy. A guest for two weeks at the house of Arthur M. of mud. M. who was witho ut arms or legs." said Madame Tesse. Beuve. H er hold upon the minds of men was wonderful. The intoxication of the conversation had made t hem insensible to all notice of weather or rough roads. "I feel the m agic of his wonderful deportment. P." whispered a servant to Madame de Maintenon at dinner. And all about the social air Is sweeter for her coming. Aaron Burr. shocking roads. The Duke of Marlborough "wrote English badly and spelled it worse. they had forgotten earth." said one who knew him well. they knew nothi ng.be found in which to punish him. "If I were Queen. the crowd caught sight of this fascin ating woman and almost forgot to look at the great hero. twenty thousand francs were put into it. Madame. According to St." said she fifty years afterwards." Madame Récamier was so charming that when she passed around the box at the Church St. but she was so overcome by the fine manner of the accused that she believed in his innocence and prayed for his acquittal. but the conver sation and manner of the host were so charming that the visitor was scarcely con scious of his deformity.

sai d: "Had I been there he would have persuaded me to take up arms against myself. Ralph asked his pardon. An open titter of amusement w ent round the table. when Prince of Wales. feeling that he had always been a nobleman in his own right. but no one could d escribe. and which never left him. the guest. She co ughed and moved uneasily. gravely emptied his cup into his saucer and drank after the manner of his g uest. His manner seemed touched by that exquisite grace seldom found except in women of rare culture. The Prince. Silent and abashed. that's all right. he was almost worshiped by the students. he said. invi ted an eminent man to dine with him. but he had fallen asleep and I hated to wake him. quickly noting the cause of the untimely amusem ent. What has her astonishment when the conductor told her. but what was his chagrin when the door wa s opened by the President of the United States! "Why. Smoking is not permitted here. which he declined. that she had entered the private car of General Grant. "L et us sit down. A New York lady had just taken her seat in a car on a train bound for Philadelp hia. being tired. immovable fig ure with apprehension until she reached the door. offering him the tit le of nobleman. He understood so little of the manners at court that. I could have sent my colored boy. His great popularity lay in a magical atmosphere which every one felt. The Que en's courteous suspension of the rules of etiquette. although she watched his dumb." said a simple-minded member of a jury that had given five successive verdicts to the great advocate. when a somewhat stout man sitting just ahead of her lighted a cigar. when prese nted to the Queen. can be better understood from what an acquaintance of Carlyle said of him wh ." The late King Edward." Henry Clay was so graceful and impressive in his manner that a Pennsylvania tav ern-keeper tried to induce him to get out of the stage-coach in which they were riding." The man made no reply. still less of a look of amusement. "You wouldn't have got in till morning if I had not come. who was a Scotch peasant. Julian Ralph.ives and forks to admire him. No one is up in the house b ut me. after speaking to her a few minutes. to find all the doors locked. but the hints had no effect. Queen Victoria sent for Carlyle. With two friends who had accompanied him. She withd rew in confusion. "I don't think much of Choate's spread-eagle talk. When Edward Everett took a professor's chair at Harvard after five years of stu dy in Europe. after telegraphing an account of President Arthur's fishing-trip to the Thousand Islands. the other members of the princely household took the r ebuke and did the same. a moment later. and do not know that there is a smoking-car attached t o the train. Arthur when Mr." His manner as well as his logic was irresistible. but the same fine courtesy which led him to give up his cigar was shown again as he spared her the mortification of even a questioning glance. When coffee was served. But she was g reat enough. returned to his hotel at two o'clock in the morning. and what it may have cost h er. and gave a gesture that seated all her puppets in a moment. and make a speech to himself and his wife." whereat the courtiers were ready to faint. he battere d at a side door to wake the servants. "but I call him a very lucky lawyer. to the c onsternation of the others. the first gentleman in Europe. but threw hi s cigar from the window. madam. drank from his saucer. for there was not one of those five cases that ca me before us where he wasn't on the right side." said Mr. after hearing the report of Demosthenes' famous oration. so she said tartly: "You probably are a foreigner. Philip of Macedon.

" But to-day the nobles of R ussia have no superiors in manners. At an entertainment given years ago by Prince Edward and t he Princess of Wales." A fine manner more than compensates for all the defects of nature. charity. contentment. and love. Our good is less good when it i . a bust of the Princess Royal was thrown from its pedestal and damaged. or wipe their faces on the damask. Mirabeau was one of the ugliest men in France. and the ladies. It was fortunate for Napoleon that he married Josephine before he was made comm ander-in-chief of the armies of Italy. or pick their teeth with forks. Ladies of the court must not wash out their mouths in the drinking-glasses. But whence do they obtain such magic power? What is the secret of that almost h ypnotic influence over people which we would give anything to possess? Courtesy is not always found in high places. When Catherine of Russia gave receptions to her nobles. If a bag had this ticket it was not examined. The Greeks thought beauty was a proof of the peculiar favor of the gods. as in art. "in which I would voluntarily use the words. These rul es were "the ticket" or the etiquette. The secret of her personality that made her the Empress not only of the hearts of the Frenchmen." or. to act or talk by the card.en he saw him for the first time. became the thing with the better class es." Some persons wield a scepter before which others seem to bow in glad obedience. To be "the ticket. that. I expected to meet a rare being. Beauty of life and character. Even royal courts furnish many exa mples of bad manners. It was said he had "the face of a tiger pitted by smallpox." but the charm of his manner was almost irresistible . Its lines seem co ntinuous. Noblemen are forbidden to strike their wives in company.'" "It was only a glad 'good-morning. as it was sometim es expressed. in their eagerness to see the Princess. 'I will!'--namely. and the pedestal up set.' As she passed along the way. or had had an attack of seasickness. But it spread the morning's glory Over the livelong day. From this the word passed to cards upon which were printed certain rules to be observed by guests. as she passed through the reception rooms. Josep hine was to the drawing-room and the salon what Napoleon was to the field--a pre eminent leader. to which only the very cream of the cream of society was a dmitted. "His presence. when I would say. she published the follo wing rules of etiquette upon cards: "Gentlemen will not get drunk before the fea st is ended. The most fas cinating person is always the one of most winning manners. r asped the nerves. so gently does curve melt into curve. and I left him feeling as if I had drunk sour wine. Etiquette originally meant the ticket or tag tied to a bag to indicate its cont ents. According to their ideal. has no sharp angles. but also of the nations her husband conquered." she said to a friend. has been beautifully told by herself. "There is only one occasion. who was then but lately married. beauty must be the expression of attractive qualities within--s uch as cheerfulness. 'I will that all around me be happy. benignity. and considered that beauty only worth adorning and transmitting whi ch was unmarred by outward manifestations of hard and haughty feeling. in some unaccountable manner. actually stood upon it. there was such pushing and struggling to see the Princess. It is sharp angles that keep man y souls from being beautiful that are almost so. Her fascinating manners and her wonderful powers of persuasion were more influential than the loyalty of any dozen men in France in attaching to him the adherents who would promote his interests. not the one of greate st physical beauty.

let him take the bone from your hand. I spent the first night with a banker.s abrupt. his little girl begs her father to keep on his "co mpany manners" for a little while. moody. for they bear good will to everybody. Many a man and woman might double thei r influence and success by a kindly courtesy and a fine manner. Some neighbors call: what a change! The bear of a moment ago is as docile as a lamb. as revenge. or a civi l one to Sir Robert Walpole. The dog recognizes the good deed and the gracious manner of doing it. and his tail will wag with gratitud e. as though she were a lady. and accuses her of extravagance that would ruin a millionaire. in this country. and to hear him call men "liars" because they did not a gree with him? He was called the "Ursa Major. As by magic he becomes talkative. that he might embody in his matchless Venus a combination of the loveliest found in all. Guthrie of Edinburgh. "Ask a person at Rome to show you the road. or jealousy.' But the blame is with the upper classes. polite." A fine courtesy is a fortune in itself. for these poison the sou rces of spiritual life and shrivel the soul. or. a nd mean with his family and servants. Tradition tells us that before Apelles painted his wonderful Goddess of Beauty which enchanted all Greece. What friend of the great Dr. The good-mannered can do without riches . I remember how astonished I was the first time I was in Pa ris. crabb ed bear as before the arrival of his guests. Johnson did not feel mortified and pained to see h im eat like an Esquimau. sullen. and bowed to the servant girl. said a shrewd observer. the reason why the lower classes the re are so polite is because the upper classes are polite and civil to them." says Chesterfield. After the callers have gone. crabbed. Call the dog to you. a nd the banker took off his hat. but with no vibration in his tail. and adopt all that is finest and most wort hy of imitation in every cultured person they meet. ill timed. a servant girl came to the door. "is the best security against o ther people's ill manners. and the reaso n why. Ill breeding invites and authorizes the familiarity of the most timid. generous. and he will say. 'Follow your no se and you will find it. Bees will not sting a man smeared with honey. malice. as we call it. "an d he will always give you a civil and polite answer. envy. He is the same disagreeable. for they have passports everywhere. and he will run off with it in h is mouth. Those w ho throw their good deeds should not expect them to be caught with a thankful sm ile. He refuses his wife a little money to buy a needed dress. Now. No man ever said a pert thing to the Duke of Marlborough." The true gentleman cannot harbor those qualities which excite the antagonism of others. So the good-mannered study. All doors fly open to them. sulky. pat him on the head. sunshine. S uddenly the bell rings. They can enjoy nearly everything without the t rouble of buying or owning. Throw a bone to a dog. and called her ma demoiselle. stingy. and they enter without money and without price. They disarm jealousy and envy. observe. rude. and why not? for they carry light. but the sullen mood returns and his courtesy vanishes as quickly as it came. but ask any person a questi on for that purpose in this country (Scotland). They are as welcome in every household as the sunshi ne. ." or Great Bear. "A man's own good breeding. hatred. the lower classes are not polite is because the upper cl asses are not polite." said Dr. When we got there. and joy everywhere. silent. Here is a man who is cross. contemptible. he traveled for years observing fair women. or ill placed. Generosity of heart and a genial go od will towards all are absolutely essential to him who would possess fine manne rs. who took me to a pension. It carries along with it a dignity that is respected by the most petulant. a boarding-house.

cheerfulness. no man can replace him. and never giving it. must be painted before he is glazed. "Hans Andersen's story of the cobweb cloth woven so fi ne that it was invisible--woven for the king's garment--must mean manners. as he never thin ks it. nor grieved with failure. "I have not been pope lo ng enough to forget good manners. "You should not have returned their salute. He who h as lost all but retains his courage." No one can fully estimate how great a factor in life is the possession of good manners." "I think. exalt or debase." was the felicitous reply of the man who became highly esteemed by the most polite court in Europe. Count de Vergenne s. that seemed nothing . He does not care that he himself should be praised. nor that other people should be blamed. uniform. whe n Clement XIV bowed to the ambassadors who had bowed in congratulating him upon his election. A gentleman is gentle. and if they are true. sensible. and enables the machinery of society to pe rform its functions without friction. he will not allow himself to be abased. He will nev er choose danger. hope." asks Emerson. nay. and no other can. "Oh." said the master of ceremonies. He is not given to talk about himself or others. There can be no change after it is burned in. They are the ki ndly fruit of a refined nature. who had been sent to Paris to relieve our most popular repr esentative. barbarize or refine us by a con stant." says Emerson. slow to take offense. in a late autumn morning." replied Goldsmith." A gentleman is just a gentle man: no more. to Mr. and are the open sesame to the best of society. Ev en power itself has not half the might of gentleness. invincible operation like that of the air we breathe." said the French Minister. I beg your pardon. I hear. virtue. "I never listen to calumnies." Cowper says:-A modest. no less. which do really clothe a princely nature. "You replace Dr. subdues his feelings. "a po or fungus. Manners are what vex or soothe. or mushroom. and self-respec t. "there is not a savage in America rude enough to make such a speech to a gentlem an." Dr. Franklin." "Sir. l ike porcelain-ware. cont rols his speech. Douglas had been abused in the Senate he rose and said: "What no gentleman should say no gentleman need answer. is a true gentleman. He subjects his appetites. nor seek it. H e will not allow himself to be exalted. that subtle oil which lubr icates our relations with each other. Jefferson." replied Clement. or timely thoughtfulness with human sympathy behind it. courteous. Johnson exclaimed: "There is not an Indian in North America foolish enough to ask such a question. "I succeed him. He is slow to surmise evil. refines his tastes. "Have you not seen in the woods. "because if they are untrue I run the risk of being deceived. and deems every other person as good as himself.Benjamin Rush said that when Goldsmith at a banquet in London asked a question about "the American Indians." Aristotle thus described a real gentleman more than two thousand years ago: "Th e magnanimous man will behave with moderation under both good fortune and bad. modest. and all that is put on afterwards will wash off. and is rich still.--a plant without any solidity." said Montesquieu." After Stephen A. A gentleman. a diamond polished that was first a diamond in the rough. of hating people not worth thinking about. and well-bred man Would not insult me. He will neither be delighted with success. steady.

" said Napoleon. who took off his hat and bowed. but the grandson ignored the civility of the negro. as he courteou sly stepped aside at St. it is said. and forbearance. and the next time you run ag'in ' me. Mass. came to a stream which he could not cross. In hastily turning the corner of a crooked street in London. President Jefferson was one day riding with his grandson. and despoiled of their civil privileges and thei r social rights. The politest people in the world. and.--by its constant. Stoppin g as soon as she could. more considerate of the prejudices of others than others are of theirs. and actually to lift a hard crust on its head? It is the symbol of the power of kindness. he said to a companion: "I say. manage to break its way up through the frosty ground. she turned around and said very kindly: "I beg your pard on. everything considered. and welcome." "Respect the burden. respect the burden." "Eat at your own table." "There is no policy like politeness. it was one of the aged generals of his army.but a soft mush or jelly. while a broad. Helena to make way for a laborer bending under a heavy load. yet are they everywhere polite and affable. a young and handsome man. in taking a short cut to the house. Josephine explain ed that. like bullets. pleasant smile overspread his face: "You h ave my parding." After the lady had pa ssed on." says Confucius. taking off about three quarters of a cap. "who in no single instance reminded me of the difference betwe en himself and me. "Men. it's the first time I ever had any body ask my parding. They indulge in few or no recriminations. and it kind o' took me off my feet." said t he grandfather." If parents were not careless about the manners of their children at home. affability. a young lady ran w ith great force against a ragged beggar-boy and almost knocked him down. Jim.." The art of pleasing is the art of ris ing in the world. She was unwilling to wound the feelings of the honest old soldier. while his companion seemed inclined to keep the narrow path." says Magoon. ma de a low bow and said." says Richter. "do you permit a slave to be more of a gentleman than yourself?" "Lincoln was the first great man I talked with freely in the United States. and inconceivably gentle push ing. of the difference in color. "since a good manner often s ucceeds where the best tongue has failed. madame. "as you would eat at the table of the king. are faithful to old associations. they surpass al l nations in courtesy. and so allowed him to retain his seat. Calling to a rough-looking farmer near by." sa id Fred Douglass. when they met a slave . not more worldly-minded and mon ey-loving than people generally are." Napoleon was much displeased on hearing that Josephine had permitted General Lo rges. he offered a quarter to be carried to . you can knock me clean down and I won't say a word. are the Jews. "go farthest when they are smoothest. entirely unused to the customs of courts. The President returned the salutation by raisi ng his hat. and then. In all ages they ha ve been maltreated and reviled." The astonished bo y looked at her a moment. miss. they would seldom be shocked or embarrassed at their behavior abroad. I am very sorry that I ran against you. instead of its being General Lorges. James Russell Lowell was as courteous to a beggar as to a lord. my little fellow. "Thomas.--and welcome. and. total. and was once ob served holding a long conversation in Italian with an organ-grinder whom he was questioning about scenes in Italy with which they were each familiar. to sit beside her on the sofa. A Washington politician went to visit Daniel Webster at Marshfield. N apoleon commended her highly for her courtesy.

I. The farmer took the politician on his broad shoulders and lande d him safely. industry. The ladies were embarrassed and di d not dare enter the church. gave them choice seats. and yet render success imposs ible by their cross-grained ungentlemanliness. Winans to establish locomotive works in Russia. He cried: "Father. forgive them. kind.000 a year .. "he had sufficient capital. opened the store. had once closed his store and was on his way home when he met a little girl who wanted a spool of thread. and the greatest energy. He went back. "Why did our friend never succeed in business?" asked a man returning to New Yo rk after years of absence. for th ey know not what they do. a thorough knowledge of h is business. if one be gentlemanly. at their death left the gent le curate a large fortune. w hile agreeable manners win in spite of other defects. and g ot the thread. He did so. natura lly. and to the great surprise and chagrin of the vi sitor was introduced as Mr. business which might easily be theirs goes to others who are really less de serving but more companionable." Some men almost work their hands off and deny themselves many of the common com forts of life in their earnest efforts to succeed. conducted them up the central aisle. a merchant in Pr ovidence. and was disc ourteous to his customers. rude. The curate pushed through the crowd. largely because of his court esy. no man ever put good will or energy into work done for him. Butler. Courtesy pays. These old ladies although strangers to him. and amid the titter of the congregation. Garrison was as polite to the furious mob that tore his clothes from his back a nd dragged him through the streets as he could have been to a king. and the other disobliging. Ross Winans of Baltimore owed his great success and fortune largely to his cour tesy to two foreign strangers. Mr. the former will become rich while the boorish one will starve. The old rustic presented himself a t the house a few minutes later.the other side. Webster. [Illustration: Jane Addams] . "he always suspected his employees of cheating him. He became very wealthy. even to His persecut ors. and his patrons went to shops where they were sure of civility. and in terrible agony on the cross. They repel patronage. Paul's speech before Agrippa is a model of dignif ied courtesy. and she was so much pleased with his great politeness that she gave a generous donation to the college. but would not take the quarter." was the reply." "He was sour and morose. his g reat politeness in explaining the minutest details to his visitors was in such m arked contrast with the limited attention they had received in large establishme nts that it won their esteem. Although his was but a fourth-rate factory. Christ was courteous. A poor curate saw a crowd of rough boys and men laughing and making fun of two aged spinsters dressed in antiquated costume. wh o later invited Mr. a nd soon his profits resulting from his politeness were more than $100. This little incident was talked of all about the city and brought him hundreds of customers. harsh. Take two men possessing eq ual advantages in every other respect. obliging. and. an d conciliating. Good manners often prove a fortune to a young man. as well as of persuasive eloquence. Bad manners often neutralize even honesty. Not long ago a lady met the late President Humphrey of Amherst College. R." St. and insolent. He was one o f the serenest souls that ever lived. Hence. and exceptional shrewdness and sagacity. The strangers were Russians sent by their Czar.

George Wa shington was awkward and shy and had the air of a countryman. and dare no t express an opinion in the social circle. who would walk up to a cannon's mouth in battle. that shamming was of no use. first. It never attacks the coarse and vulgar. it almost entirely disapp eared. but are merely diffident and shy. Many persons of real refinement are thought to be stiff. reserved. Something more must be done than is done in other st ores. which locks their lips and ties their tongues. He said that he never went on the platform without fear and trembling. "should I en dure this torture all my life?" when. "Thank you. Da vid Garrick. Gough said that he could no t rid himself of his early diffidence and shrinking from public notice." spoken to a little beggar-girl who bou ght a pennyworth of snuff proved a profitable advertisement and made Lundy Foote a millionaire. Practice on the stage or lecture platform does not always eradicate shyness. He did not acknowledge his grea t discovery for years just for fear of attracting attention to himself. Shak espeare was very shy. It is peculi ar to the Anglo-Saxon and the Teutonic races. the employees must try in every possible way to please and to m ake customers feel at home. He retired from London at forty. though he had acted for thirty years with marked self-possession. Mere politenes s is not enough. "I was once very shy. and h aughty who are not." said Sydney Smith. please call again. and. They feel conscious of a subtle tyran ny in society's code. At last he det ermined to give up trying to cure his shyness. but who are cowards in the drawing-room. "for why. was once summoned to testify in court. "but it was not long before I made tw o very useful discoveries. the great actor.A fine illustration of the business value of good manners is found in the Bon M arché. By this co urse the business has been developed until it is said to be the largest of the k ind in the world. There are many worthy people who are brave on the street. Addison was one of the purest writers of English and a perfect master of the pen. proud. Sir Isaac Newton was the shyest man of his age. Elihu Burritt was so shy that he would hide in the cellar when his parent s had company. for fear it would increase the acquaintances he would have to meet. that the world was very clea . It is a disease of the finest organizations and the high est types of humanity. He took second or third-rate parts on account of his diffidence. and where almost everything is kept for sale. he was so confused a nd embarrassed that the judge dismissed him. and did not try to publis h or preserve one of his plays. an enormous establishment in Paris where thousands of clerks are employed. It is a curious fact that diffidence often betrays us into discourtesies which our hearts abhor. and would often b e covered with cold perspiration. Generally shyness comes from a person thinking too much about himself--which in itself is a breach of good breeding--and wondering what other people think abou t him. and which cause us intense mortification and embarrassment. but he co uld scarcely utter a dozen words in conversation without being embarrassed. that all mankind were not solely employed in o bserving me. Archbishop Whately was so shy that he would escape notice whenever it was possible. so that every visitor will remember the Bon Marché with pleasure." he asked. John B. Ex cessive shyness must be overcome as an obstacle to perfect manners. The two distinguishing characteris tics of the house are one low price to all. to his surprise. my dear. He would not allow his name to be used in connection with his theory of the moon's motio n. and next. and has frequently been a barrier to the highest culture. and extreme courtesy.

rail at it who may. As peculiarities in apparel are sure to attract attention. who care more for dress than for their character. or all their money. "Ladies and gentlem en. here comes a rea l homespun countryman. eve ry bird is clothed in the habiliments of the most exquisite taste. Peter's is none the less strong and solid because of its elegant columns a nd the magnificent sweep of its arches. Yo u mistook me. who are troubled more by an unfashionable garment than by a neglected duty. when it may indicate quite the reverse. con siderate. "Is this pe rson going up or down? Through how many grades has he passed?" For example. he is more careful. bearing in mind that outward appearances are deceitful. he came to Boston from his farm in countryman's dress. who for it ne glect the culture of the mind or heart. said: "I wish you a very good evening. rugged characters." Just then Governor Caleb Strong entered and called to Mr. straightforward. every star is veiled in brightness. Every time we go into society we must step on the scales of each person's opinion. dancing. while inferiority of garb often induces res traint. He entered the parlor and sat down." What a misfortune it is to go through life apparently encased in ice." says Johnson. It is e . polite. for a country booby. elocution. and unlock the tongue. He has put robes of b eauty and glory upon all his works. St. Whitman. their best time. Our manners. Here's fun. well-fitting garm ents of as good material as the purse will afford. from my dress. But it is a lower beauty. and soon estimated a man at his true value. All present weigh him in their judgment and silen tly say.r-sighted. and wear plain. solid. a prominent lawyer and graduate of Harvard. and the loss or gain from our last weight is carefully noted. They love dress too much who give it their first thought. thoughtful. and went to a hotel in Boston. was elected t o the Massachusetts legislature. The consciousness of being well dressed gives a grace and ease of manner that even religion will not bestow. Beauty in dress is a good thing. from the same superfi cial cause. Good clothes give ease of manner. industrious. tending to throw ridicule upon him. every f ield blushes beneath a mantle of beauty. its carved and fretted marbles of matchl ess hues. youn g Brown enters a drawing-room. unornamented houses made from square blocks of stone . The mistake has been mutual. plain. cordial feeling for one's fellow men! Shy people are al ways distrustful of their powers and look upon their lack of confidence as a wea kness or lack of ability." Besides him stands young Jones. By teaching ch ildren early the arts of social life. horseback riding. turning to the dumfounded company. Some people look upon polished manners as a kind of affectation. They claim adm iration for plain. are always under inspection." They asked him all sorts of queer questions. while I." "In civilized society. who. Each mentally asks. "This young man is gaining. Shy people should dress well. yet all t he while full of kindly. This cured me. and similar accomplishments. like our characters. and may you grow better and wise r in advancing years. When Ezekiel Whitman. we may do much to overcome the sense of shyness. "external advantages make us more respect ed. for which a higher beauty should not be sacrificed." One cannot but feel that God is a lover of the beautiful. it is well to avoid bright colors and fashionable extremes. or the claims of others on their service . when he overheard the remark between some ladies and gentlemen: "Ah. permit me to wish you health and happiness. square. such as boxing. when he arose and said. thought you were ladies and gentlemen. They might as well say that they prefer square. Every flower is dressed in richness. A man with a good coat upon his back meets with a better reception than he w ho has a bad one.

I sometimes think it would be a great advantage if one could read these ratin gs of his associates. they are always analyzing. He is careless. and they are all enemies of peace of mind. Of the Infusion of Common Sense and Tact. Of Essence of Heart's-Ease. shy people are morbidly self-conscious. Of the Oil of Charity.vident that he is losing ground rapidly. happiness. yet is over-p olite to strangers. and self-consciousness belong to the same family. doe s not look you in the eye. one ounce. Of the tincture of Good Cheer. Etiquette is but a substitute for good manners and is often but the ir mere counterfeit. what success in hey would achieve. but not always whether it be sound or decayed. rushes to the eye or into the manner and betrays us. It may well indicate the kind of wood below. they would be sed to see what freedom. four ounces. snaps at the servants. is mean. if we dwell upon our weaknesses. We must lose ourselves before we can fin d ourselves. CHAPTER XIX SELF-CONSCIOUSNESS AND TIMIDITY FOES TO SUCCESS Timid. three drachms. and no scruples. shyness. exclusiveness. Their thoughts are always turned inward. they think too much about lves. do not constitute or fin ally determine his character. Of the Extract of the Rose of Sharon. We cannot long deceive the world. that tell tale in the soul. and achievement. who ever stands in the shadow of ourselves holding the scales of justice. tagged with these invisible labels by all who know u s. three drachms. Mere politeness can never be a substitute for mora l excellence. themse dissec If the surpri life t Timidity. and who was the first true gentlema n that ever breathed. Of the Spirit of Love. fatal. or I-am-better-than-you-ness. meanness. Self analysis is valuable only to learn our strength. for that other self. We usually find all where we find any one of these qualities. The Mixture to be taken whenever there is the slightest symptom of selfishness. indifferent. No one has ever done a great thing wh ile his mind was centered upon himself. any more than the bark can take the place of the heart of the oak. rough. Sincerity is the highest quality of good manners. one ounce. two ounces. three drachms. But manners. And so we go through life. . while they are the garb of the gentleman. se people could only forget themselves and think of others. wondering how they appear and what people think of them. ting themselves. ease. and grace they would gain. stingy. The following recipe is recommended to those who wish to acquire genuine good m anners:-Of Unselfishness. Pattern after Him who gave the Golden Rule.

A college course is of inestimable value to a boy or girl of over-refined sensi bilities. Mingle freely with people. Th ere is many a clergyman. or analyze every simple remark until you magnify it into something of the greatest importance. A sensitive person feels that. or get out. and that. and teased unmercifully. In such a n environment he will soon learn that everyone has all he can do to attend to hi s own business. He begins to see that the wor ld is too busy to bother itself especially about him. A sufferer who wishes to overco me it must take himself in hand as determinedly as he would if he wished to get control of a quick temper. Think less of yourself and m ore of others. they realize that it would be the most foolis h thing in the world to betray resentment. even when people look at him. o r drinking. they are so touchy th at their sense of honor is constantly being hurt and their pride stung by the un conscious thrusts of classmates and companions. is really an exaggerated form of s elf-consciousness. yet it causes one's personality to overshadow everything else. or any other defect which prevented his being a whole man. Over-sensitiveness. But after they have been in coll ege a term. putt ing slights upon him. Oftentimes. well educated and able. Many a good business man has been kept back. He imagines that people are criticizing his movements. when they are probably not thinking of h im at all. he is the center of obs ervation. "What shall I do to get rid of it?" asks a victim. he know s that he will be called the class booby.Thousands of young people are held back from undertaking what they long to do. so he is simp ly forced to drop his foolish sensitiveness. whether in man or woman. Thousands of people are out of positions. takes the nonsense out of him. wherever he goes. and depreciating and making light of them on ever y possible occasion. or analyzing his character. whatever he does. or to rid himself of a habit of lying. Do not brood over what is said to you. making fun at h is expense. by his quickness to take offense. He will be ashamed to play "cry baby" every time he feels h urt. who is so sensitive that he can not keep a pastorate long. cannot be a victim of over-sensitiveness. and seeing that exactly the same treatment is given to those above him as to himself. Do not have suc h a low and unjust estimate of people as to think they are bent on nothing but h urting the feelings of others. A man who appreciates himself at his true value. and are kept from trying to make real their great life-dreams. or whatever he says. He does not realize that other people are too busy and too much inter ested in themselves and other things to devote to him any of their time beyond w hat is absolutely necessary. It is far removed from conceit or self-esteem. Morbid sensitiveness requires heroic treatment. If one shows that he is hurt. They shrink from exposing their sore spots and sensitive points. Their super-sensitiveness makes cowards of them. He will realize that he must be a man and give and take with the others. they m ay not be even conscious of his presence. which smart from the lightest touch. but will make up his mind to grin and bear it. Become interested in things outside of yourself. saying and thinking unkind things. and have been knocked about and handled in a rough but good-humored manner by youths of their own age. or throw . or trying to hold him up to the ridicule of others. or stealing. and cannot keep places when they get them. because of this weakness. or even ruined. or to resent a fancied slight. and who gi ves his neighbors credit for being at least as good as he is. One of the best schools for a sensitive boy is a large business house in which he will be thrown among strangers who will not handle him with gloves. Working in competition with other people. when boys enter college as freshmen. When he thinks they are aiming remarks at him. because they are afraid to jostle with the world. From his distorted viewpoint some brother or sister in the church is always hurting him. they are not usually thinking of him.

it is give and take. touch an d go. or school committees. never touched their power.--then. and then only. No painter ever did a great masterpiece when trying to keep all the rules of hi s profession. who has been kept in a very ordinary situation for years simply because of her morbid sensitiveness. or trying to apply the conventional rules of or atory. in his mind. I have in mind a very strong. which greatly detracts from an otherwise agreeable personality. and she "flies off the handle" over every lit tle remark that she can possibly twist into a reflection upon herself. their rhetorical arr angement. fused in the fire of his geni us. No orator has ever electrified an audience while he was thinking of his style o r was conscious of his rhetoric. Everything must be swallowed up in his zeal. He always carries about an injured air.ing out hints and suggestions calculated to injure him in the eyes of the congre gation. no matter how rough in manner or bearing. but they have a ll they can do to attend to their own affairs. all the time. of perspective. are kin d-hearted. until he surrenders to that greater principle. and those who expect to get on must rid themselves of all morbid sensitive ness. forgets everything but his subject. and he forgets hi s audience. It is when the orator's soul is on fire with his theme. He shows what his real style is. or little bits of gossip which are reported to them make them feel as if people were sticking pins in them. that he writes naturally. the science of color. and would much rather help than hinder a fellowbeing. it is intended for her. If they do not. capable of filli ng a superior position. and regards every suggestion for the improvement of his work as a personal affr ont. No one ever does a really great thing until he feels that he is a part of something greater than himself. No singer ever captivated her audience until she forgot herself. vigorous editorial write r who is so prone to take offense that he can not hold a position either on a ma gazine or a daily paper. In the busy world of affairs. . a feeling that he has been imposed upon. Could anything be more foolish and short-sighted than to allow a morbid sensiti veness to interfere with one's advancement in life? I know a young lady with a superb mind and a fine personality. can he really create. and other people with artistic temperaments. their grammar. they doom themselves to unhappiness and failure. the laws of drawing. Self-consciousness is a foe to greatness in every line of endeavor. until she was lost in her song. She takes it for granted that if any criticism is made in the department where she works. The great majority of people. and have no time to spend in minu tely analyzing the nature and feeling of those whom they meet in the course of t heir daily business. Many schoolteachers are great sufferers from over-sensitiveness. that he really does a great thin g. by losing themselves in their subject. It is when a writer is so completely carried away with his subject that he cann ot help writing. Some of our best writers never found themselves. Writers. metaphorically speaking. The result is that she makes it so unpleasant for her employers that they do no t promote her. ar e usually very sensitive. And she can not understand why she does not get on faster. He is cut to the very quick by the slightest criticism. authors. Then they found their style. unt il they forgot their rules for construction. Remarks of par ents.

" said the negro. on the pla tform of the improvement of the Sangamon River." says Montesquieu. than the pedant by his awkward attempt to exhibit his erudition. leveling his rifle.--COLTON. If anything has gone wrong in his business and he fe els vexed. he knows that he is liable to give offense to these people without ev er intending it. and contribute their zeal to the greater good. "must kill you den. and that if he does not happen to approach them with a smiling fa ce. Lincoln took up a cradle and led the gang arou nd the field. they will not take offense." said Napoleon in surprise to his cook. that every quarter of an hour I put a fresh chicken down to roast. hain't time to go back and git a white man. but of many things he does not know. He'll suit his bearing to the hour. "Sire. "Tact clinches the bargain.No one wishes to employ anyone who is so sensitive that he is obliged to be on his guard every moment lest he wound him or touch a sore spot. massa. Address makes opportunities." When Abraham Lincoln was running for the legislature the first time. CHAPTER XX TACT OR COMMON SENSE "Who is stronger than thou?" asked Braham. and that they take into consideration the thousand and one little vexations and happenings which are ext remely trying." "I never will surrender to a nigger. when a colore d soldier chased and caught him. ELIZA COOK. so that he never quite knows whether they are i n sympathy with him or not. "Berry sorry. not their own." ."--VICTOR HUGO." This seemed to him the more strange because sometimes he would breakf ast at eight and at other times as late as eleven. Sails out of the bay. "he did not inte nd to guarantee them. The art of using moderate abilities to advantage wins praise. and will gain more credit by his adroit mode of hiding his ignorance. They asked no questions about internal improvements.--BOVEE." said the cook. Gets the vote in the Senate. he went to secure the votes of t hirty men who were cradling a wheatfield. the want of it gives them. A man wants to feel that his employees understand him. "I do not know how it is. "When God endowed human beings with brains. Spite of Webster or Clay. The whole thirty voted for him. but only seemed curious to know whether he had muscle enough to r epresent them in the legislature. and often acquire s more reputation than actual brilliancy." said a Confederate officer. so that your Majesty is sure always to have it at perfection.--ROCHEFOUCAULD. and Force replied "Address. A man who knows the world will not only make the most of everything he does kno w." The officer surrendered. Laugh. listen. or teach. It makes an emplo yer very uncomfortable to feel that those about him are carrying around an injur ed air a large part of the time. They will think of his troubles. with consideration and friendliness in his words or commands. learn. "but at whate ver hour I call for my breakfast my chicken is always ready and always in good c ondition. if they are wise: they will forget self. "the r eason is.

We often call these one-sided men geniuses. he would fall upon his feet. and lacked the other's skill and tact. as he read. The next day he wished to use some of the money. but I guess a bushel will do. to obtain several hundred d ollars' worth. Adam Smith could teach the world economy in his "Wealth of Nations . symmetrical man. but a monstrosity. Years afterward. "The professor is not at home. It is not a sixth sense. but. We see its failure everywhere. Many great men are very impractical even in the ordinary affairs of life. For his argument in the Florida Case. "Talent lies abed till noon. "Well. One of Napoleon's marshals understood military tactics as well as his chief . but the y were all gone. not a full-orbed. the keen smell. Napole on might fall. becaus e they can perform one kind of work that no one else can do as well. t he surmounter of all difficulties. "No matter. I declare. and lively touch. Learning of a new issue of gold pieces at the Treasury. but he did not know men so well. a "book-worm. Beethoven was a great musician. a large hole for the cat. Isaac Newton could read the secret of creation." but he could not manage the finances of his own household. but. Dean Swift nearly starved in a country parish where his more practical classmate Stafford became r ich." The world is full of theoretical. tact knows how to do i t. and yet he was so poor at times that he had only a biscuit and a gla ss of water for dinner. very well. the remover of all obstacles. A professor in mathematics in a New England college. to friends who seemed to appreciate their b eauty. He paid his tailor as large a sum in advance. though he may be an imbecile in the drawing-room. On turning the next leaf he found another. one-sided. Charles Lanman. Tact wi ll manipulate one talent so as to get more out of it in a lifetime than ten tale nts will accomplish without it. he directed his secretary." Talent is power. the quick ear. but it i s like the life of all the five. my wife did not say. but could not find any of the bills. A day or two after he put his hand in his pocket for one." replied Lessing. who have turned a ll the energies of their lives into one faculty until they have developed." said his servant who looked out of a window in the dark and failed to recognize Lessing when the latter knocked at his own door in a fit of absent-mindedness. It is the open eye. as he turned the page of a book." Many a great man has been so absent-minded at times as to seem devoid of common -sense. the judging taste. "How much will you have?" asked the mercha nt. "Oh. tact is skill. tact is up at six. impractical men. and the wo rld excuses their impractical and almost idiotic conduct in most matters.Talent in this age is no match for tact. I' ll call at another time. but he sent three hundred florins to pay f or six shirts and half a dozen handkerchiefs. it is the interpreter of all riddles." was asked b y his wife to bring home some coffee. a fee of one thousand dollars in crisp ne w bills of large denomination was handed to Daniel Webster as he sat reading in his library. while all their other faculties have atrophied and died. A merchant is excused if he is a giant in merchandise. he had two holes cut through the panel s for them to pass at will. He did not know enough of business to cut the coupon fro m a bond when he wanted money. and a small one for the ki tten. but on reflection remembered that he had given them away. tired of rising from his chair t o open the door for a cat and her kitten. "Talent is something. and so on until he took the whole amount lost from the places where he had deposite d them thoughtlessly. Talent knows what to do. but tact is everything. one by one. he found a bank-bill without a crease in it." . but sold the whole instrument. Webster was at first puzzled. like a cat.

although at first you treated us like friends. timid. weakens a man." Th e use of books must be found outside their own lids. but he knew sheep. "an d. one from Cambridge. beginning to show signs of open hostility as the hours passed without a s hadow on the face of the sun. The culture of books and colleges refines. The college graduate often mi stakes his crutches for strength. Even the University could not supply common sense.Louis Philippe said he was the only sovereign in Europe fit to govern. Book culture alone t ends to paralyze the practical faculties. He retired to his tent. But at length a dark spot was seen on one margin. He knew nothing of books or theories. one from Oxford. and too finely cultured for every day use. too highly polishe d. and the ranch beat every time." . as it became larger. and. The st amina of the vigorous mind he brought from the farm has evaporated in college. The owne r of the farm was an ignorant. The bookworm loses his individuality. Bacon said that studies "teach not their own use. too fine for the mechanical drudgery of practical life." said Columbus to the Indian chiefs. but the Indians did not believe him. coarse sheep-raiser. and the Indians shook their heads. To show his anger he will cause the sun to be in darkness. if po ssible. "Common sense. He could talk about nothing but sheep and farm. in the fierce struggle for existence. without practical exp erience. has developed hard common sense and practical wisdom. while the college men could scarcely get a living. Book education alone tends to make a man too critical. You brought us food in plenty every morning. Therea fter the Spaniards had all the provisions they needed. and the other from a German Universi ty.--college men tending brutes! Trained to lead men." said Wendell Phillips. he is astonished to find that he has lost the power to gra pple with men and things. the college against the ranch. His three hired graduates could speak foreign langu ages and discuss theories of political economy and philosophy. "We have been among you several weeks. and is therefore out-stripped in the race of life by t he boy who has had no chance. but he had made a fortun e." Do not expect too much from books. Not long ago three college graduates were found working on a sheep farm in Aust ralia. but no w you bring very little and the amount is less with each succeeding day. for he c ould black his own boots. It was "culture against ignorance. The world is full of men and women apparently splendid ly endowed and highly educated. On the appointed day the sun rose without a cloud. distrustful of his abili ties. It was said of a great Fren ch scholar: "He was drowned in his talents. and when the sun had passed out of the shadow they leaped and danced and sang for joy. and told the day and hour it would occur. yet it is often but an ethical cultu re. and continued to reduce the supply of food. promising to save them. too self-conscious." Over-culture. They readily promised. a nd when he graduates. his head is filled with theories and saturated with other men's thoughts. "bows to the inevitable and makes use of it. The Gre at Spirit is angry with you for not doing as you agreed in bringing us provision s. but who. He inhabits an ideal realm where common sense rarely dwells. yet who can scarcely get a living. The world cares little for his theories or his encyclopaedic know ledge. but that there is a practical wisdom without them. you are now jealous of us and are trying to drive us away. but he could make money. he came out and said that t he Great Spirit had pardoned them. and unfits him for real life. and would soon drive away the monster from th e sun if they would never offend him again. About the time for the eclipse to pass away. they drove sheep. and is gained at the cost of vigor and rugged strength." He knew that ther e was to be an eclipse of the sun. The cry of the age is for practical men. won by observation. the natives grew frantic and fell prostrate before Col umbus to entreat for help.

nose. but he had tact and intuition. "and give me a fresh horse as soon as you can. he flung it over the vegetable lantern. Moore. hiding forever from h is followers the ill omen of his threatened fall. reluctantly yielding the post of danger to them at their urge nt request. while I get the rifle pointed at this one. Cover up yo ur fire. Obed felt around to see if there were any smaller balls in the cupboard. and the Indians fled w ildly to the woods. The emperor of France favored the South. Joe!" whispered Obed early in the evening. but he invariably declined. one of th e two which he and Joe had been using to make Jack-o'-lanterns when the messenge r alarmed them. Moore carried the younger children to the loft of the cabin. Joe! Light up the other one! Don't you see that's wh at scar't 'em so?" demanded Obed. but the Indians did not return. and wit h a live coal from the ashes he lighted the candle inside. with open eyes. but I have to stop and think which is the right nail." Opening the bullet-pouch. He was unselfish. Weed was then sent to Europe to counteract the pernicious influence of secession agen ts. "Now for it!" he added. before I hit. "Quick. "Get ready for the redskins!" shouted an excited man as he galloped up to the l og-cabin of the Moore family in Ohio many years ago." he whispered. and nobody k nows where they'll turn up next!" "What shall we do?" asked Mrs. He could read m en as an open book. and induced him . he instantly grasped a handful of sand and held it aloft as a signal of triumph. Pulling off his coat. shut up as tight as you can. with a pale face. He was very indignant because Charl eston harbor had been blockaded. "They're coming. and almost stumbled over a very large pumpkin. and mold them to his will. pulling the coat away." w hich had a large circulation in Europe. ma de to imitate a gigantic grinning face. and don't strike a light to-night." It has been said that a few pebbles from a brook in the sling of a David who kn ows how to send them to the mark are more effective than a Goliath's spear and a Goliath's strength with a Goliath's clumsiness. and at the appearance of the second fiery face the savages gave a final yell and vanished in the forest. as he sa w several shadows moving across the fields. But Weed's rare tact modified his views. he galloped away to warn other settlers." Then springing upon the horse the b oys had brought. Goethe. but nearly fainted as he found it was too large for the rifle. Thoug h Weed and Bennett had not spoken to each other before for thirty years." "Husband away? Whew! that's bad! Well. "My husband went away y esterday to buy our winter supplies. Mr. An unear thly yell greeted the appearance of the grinning monster. His fat her had taken the wrong pouch. They killed a family down the river last night. Moore and dayligh t came together. thus shutting off French manufacturers from lar ge supplies of cotton. Mrs. By three presid ents whom his tact and shrewdness had helped to elect he was offered the English mission and scores of other important positions. and was creating a dangerous public sent iment abroad and at home by its articles in sympathy with the Confederacy. He had very few chances such as are now open to the humblest boy. said: "Shakespeare always hits the right nail on the head at onc e. "Stand by that window with the axe. if I give them time. the ver y next day after their interview the "Herald" became a strong Union paper.When Caesar stumbled in landing on the beach of Britain. Lincoln selected Weed to attempt the reconciliation of the "New York Herald. he took ou t a ball. and left Obed and Joe to watch. and mouth. and will not be back until morning. as he raised the covere d lantern to the window. speaking of some comparisons that had been instituted between himself a nd Shakespeare. Thurlow Weed earned his first quarter by carrying a trunk on his back from a sl oop in New York harbor to a Broad Street hotel. "They'll sound the wa r-whoop in a minute.

sir. Webster. "Speak to the jury." "Measure the width of this stream instantly. "Will you lecture for us for fame?" was the telegram young Henry Ward Beecher r eceived from a Young Men's Christian Association in the West." "I don't think the Proverbs of Solomon show very great wisdom. and Charlemagne could hardly write his name so that it could be deciphered. A. "Good-morning. E." said a judge to a witness who insisted upo n imparting his testimony in a confidential tone to the court direct. as he glanced at a thousand people waiting to take his hand. Walpole was an ignorant man."--"Sire. Mr. Webster. The triumphs of tact. and we are ten miles ahead of it." said Napoleon. or common sense. The man di d not understand and continued as before. and possesse d that practical wisdom and tact which have ever moved the world. He was equally successful in business. Montaigne tells of a monarch who. "Tell me the breadth of this stream." The engineer drew the cap-piece of his helmet down until the edge seemed just i n line between his eye and the opposite bank. M. His total want of tact had made him ridiculous." was the reply. sir." was the answer the shrewd young preacher sent back. as their Master did." thundered the godlike Daniel. be reasonable!"--"Ascerta in at once the width of this river. pointing to twelve silver statues in a cathed ral. or you shall be deposed." "How do you do. Mr. Webster. but these giants knew men and things. . he turned on his heel and noticed where the edge seemed to touch the bank o n which he stood. and acqu ired a fortune of a million dollars. this is Mr. I cannot. I think it's rheumatiz. "Mr. "I am not very well. but my wife----" "Mr." "Very well. "I could make as good ones myself. and let them go about doing good. leaving poor Mr." "I hope nothing serious is the matter. Smith. coin them into money. "bring in two to-morrow morning. "Yes. in a tone of anxious concern. "Sire." He did not bring them. James?" asked Webster mec hanically." replied Pr esident Wayland." replied Mr. which was on the same level as the other. the witness bowed low in awkward suavity. My scientific instruments are with the army. gentlemen. one of our most distinguished citizens. on the sudden death of an only child. the men sitti ng behind you on the raised benches. are seen everywh ere. showed his resentment against Providence by abolishing the Christian religion throughou t his dominions for a fortnight. "mel t them.to change to friendliness the tone of a hostile speech prepared for delivery to the National Assembly. holding himself carefully er ect. "The twelve Apostles. "Well. and said: "This is the approximate width of the strea m. He paced the distanc e to the point last noted. F. James. Fifty and my expenses." said Napoleon to his chief engineer. would be delayed for an hour by a fa ilure to make close connections. as t hey came to a bridgeless river which the army had to cross." said the mayor of a Western city. "Address yourself to the jury. England was working night and day preparing for war when Weed arrived upon the scene." broke in the mayor . over talent and genius. although weary with travel. "allow me to introduce you to Mr." "What are these?" asked Napoleon. and soon changed largely the current of public sent iment. and said. On his return to America the city of New York extended public thanks to h im for his inestimable services." He was promoted." Turning. I don't know that. then." said a student at Brown University. Webster. "Take them down. James to enjoy his bad health in the pitiless solitude of a c rowd. Mr. when it was learned that the g reat statesman. "The tru th is. James in a most lugubrious tone.

He sed my wax-wurks was a humbug. who are sure to have the advantage of the final word. mus t not omit a single essential detail. the prince and the peasant. Artemus Ward touches this bubble with a pretty sharp-pointed pen. "No. what duz this pussillanermus editer do but change his toon and abooze me like a injun. the fool and the fop. Abuv all. but who had a sort of dull energy in him which enabled him to get on in the world. One of the greatest elements of strength in the character of Washington was found in his forbearance when unjustly attack ed or ridiculed. these m iserable papers. Place him in a good light. A farmer who could not get a living sold one half of his farm to a young man wh o made enough money on the half to pay for it and buy the rest. honor and dishonor." said he. Some people show want of tact in resenting every slight or petty insult. According to an old custom a Cape Cod minister was called upon in April to make a prayer over a piece of land. He ground up the king and his vassal." was his reply. however rapid its flight. Napoleon could do anything in the art of war with his own hands. the simple and the profound. cuts the knots it cannot untie. and must be willing to work like a horse. and climb the n earest trunk to the light. and don't do you no more good than it would to jump into enny other mudpuddle. The palm is among the hardest and least yielding of all woods. fur the purpuss of s howin' fair play all round.--everything within the sweep of his vi sion he ground up into paint and spread it upon his mighty canvas. howeve r unworthy their notice. and could not cope with the stern realities of the age. that I was shaimfully aboozed by a editer in human form. like Alexander. pas sions and characters. and called me a horey-heded itinerent v agabone. Others make Don Quixote's mistake of fighting a windmil l by engaging in controversies with public speakers and editors. it is said to turn into a creeper.Tact. I giv it up. the pure and the impure. A practical man not only sees. Paul was all things to all men. which is jist what he wants. "It was in a surtin town in Virginny. when the old man asked how one could succeed so well where t he other had failed. as you would a picture. th e black and the white. don't assault a editer of this kind. The excellence s and defects will appear if you get the right angle. and I wood here t ake occashun to advise people when they run agin. to not pay no attenshun to um. an d kalled me the urbane and gentlemunly manager. During a storm at . that he might save some. went to anuther offiss to get my handbills printed. Ther e is a certain getting-on quality difficult to describe. It only gives him a notorosity. the Muther of Presidents and things. when shown the land. Even genius. as they sumtimes will. but which is the great winner of the prizes of life. he worked everything into his plays. "this does n ot need a prayer." John Jacob Astor had practical talent in a remarkable degree. even to the making of gunpowder. it needs manure. but when I. Edito rs are generally fine men. but seizes the opportunity. I thort at fust Ide pollish him orf ar-lar Beneki Boy. Shakespeare had marvelous tact." To see a man as he is you must turn him round and round until you get him at th e right angle. yet rather than be deprived of the rays of the life-giving sun in the de nse forests of South America. He set my Show up steep. but there must be black sheep in every flock. but on reflectin ' that he cood pollish me much wuss in his paper. The class leader had only a theoretical knowledge. "You have not ta ct. How our old schoolmates ha ve changed places in the ranking of actual life! The boy who led his class and w as the envy of all has been distanced by the poor dunce who was called slow and stupid. and leads its forces to g lorious victory.

or make a better mous e-trap than his neighbor. If I were a tinker. most zairtainly. what do you complain of?" "Why." Accuracy is the twin brother of honesty. between dalent and chenius. do it boldly. "and it has gained for them an a scendency." Seven years later the gentleman returned from India. If after seven years you come b ack to see me. which he used as a regulator. "but vy d o you shpeak of deir drading dalent all de time?" "But don't you regard it as a talent?" "A dalent? No! It is chenius." "Indeed! In that case I return you your money. dat is dalent.--EMERSON. "Let me see the watch. the world will make a beaten path to his door." "I remember our conditions. If a man can write a better book." said a traveler to one of that race. He learned his trade of Tampion." replied his companion. from which nothing will ever d isplace them. whose name on a timepiece was considered proof positive of its exc ellence. and can tell me there has been a difference of five minutes. When a person once asked him to repair a watch upon which his name was ." said the man." said Graham. "Sir. "take it with you wherever you please. and there is a difference of more than five minutes. in drade. If I were a cobbler." "And I would not break m y word for any consideration. I wi ll return you your money. it would be my pride The best of all cobblers to be. he would at least save his best suit of clothes. if not in the world. though he build his house in the woods. dat is chenius. If it be right. on his voyage to America. OLD SONG.sea." "Dey are coming to de vront. saying that if the ship should founder and he shou ld happen to be rescued.--GILPIN. "I have had it seven years. no tinker beside Should mend an old kettle like me. Genius is the infinite art of taking pains. le ave it undone. but ven annoder man goes into dat man's shtor e and sells him vot he don't vont. "Their trading talent is bringing the Jews to the front in America as well as i n Europe. I vill dell you what is de difference. if it be wrong. "Sir. the most exquisite mechanic in London. "I bring you back your watch." said George Graham of London to a customer who asked how far he could depend upon its keeping corr ect time. "for ten times the sum I paid for it. and dat is de chenius vot my race has got.--CARLYLE.--C. preach a better sermon." said he. it is a watch which I have made and regulated myself. but young Astor went below and coolly put on his best suit of clothes." CHAPTER XXI ENAMORED OF ACCURACY "Antonio Stradivari has an eye That winces at false work and loves the true. Well." "I would not part with my watch . so he paid the money and took the watch. expecting every minute to go down. SIMMONS. Ven one goes into a man's shtore and manaches to see l him vat he vonts. at least in certain branches of trade. the other passengers ran about the deck in despa ir." said the man." replied Graham. I hate a thing done by halves.

fraudulently engraved." the "dead escapement. and in another clause 20. About two hundred years later the English government offered 5. a navigator must know how far he is from the equator. "but perhaps you don't want to pay for a s good a one as I know how to make. probably. because of the accuracy of their work. but such a thing has not yet been mad e. A New York dealer in tools came to the village to sell his wares." The storekeeper soon ordered two dozen.000 pounds if within thirty miles.500 pounds if within forty miles." "As good a one as I know how?" asked David Maydole.000 pounds for a chronomete r by which a ship six months from home could get her longitude within sixty mile s. Tampion smashed it with a hammer. In the sixteenth century Spain offered a prize of a thousand crowns for the d iscovery of an approximately correct method of determining longitude. that had ever been made. The watchmakers of the world contested for the prizes. They we re usually sold without any warrant of excellence." said the carpenter. In a trip of one hundred and forty-seven days from Portsmouth to Jamaica a nd back. no matter whom it is for.000 pounds for correctness within thirty miles. the varia tion was only fifteen seconds. "Make me as good a hammer as you know how. When the contractor sa w the tools. "I want a good hammer. 10." none of which have been much improved since. and bought all the storekeeper had. David had wedged the handle in its place so that the head could not fly off. north o r south. doubtfully. "when I m ake a thing. or W ashington. Tampion and Graham lie in Westmi nster Abbey. a careless repetition. and each ordered just such a hammer. and handed the astonish ed customer one of his own master-pieces. yet it needs regulating but once in fifteen months. as Greenwich. and I've left mine at home. David might have grown very wealthy by making goods of the stan dard already attained. To insure safety." It was indeed a good hammer that he received." and the "orrery. The 20. but 1761 came. 7.000 pounds was paid to the man who had wor ked and experimented for forty years. "I can't make any better ones. if he cou ld have an absolutely accurate timekeeper. I do. and they had not been awarded." said the manager of an iron works employing thousands of m . In a round trip of one hundred and fifty-six days to Barbadoes." said a carpenter to the blacksmith in a New York village before the first railroad was built. "Sir." said Maydole. he ordered two for himself. a supply unheard of in his previous bus iness career. a wonderful improvement in the ey es of the carpenter. and how far east or west of some known point. asking that they be made a little bette r than those of his men. "We have no secret." "Yes. but throughout his long and successful life he never ceas ed to study still further to perfect his hammers in the minutest detail. and left a standing order for all the blacks mith could make. the word "Maydole" stamped on the head being universally considered a guaranty of the best article the world could produce. Paris. I make it as well as I can. Character is power. The clock which he m ade for Greenwich Observatory has been running one hundred and fifty years. He could be sure of this knowledge when the sun is shining. the best. They all came t o the shop next day. In that year John Harrison asked for a test of his chronom eter. By means of a longer hole than usual. and is the best advertisement in the world. it varied less than two minutes. and whose hand was as exquisitely delicate in its movement as the mechanism of his chronometer. "six of us have come to work on the new church. and only four seconds on the outward v oyage. who boasted of his prize to his companions. saying. here is a watch of my ma king." Graham invented the "compensating mercury pendulum.

" We condemn the boy for exaggerating in order to tell a wonderful story. duplicity. but even the pa tches in his trousers." "Madam. thinking to please the great man." or who call day after day the hottest of the summer or the coldest of the winter? There is nothing which all mankind venerate and admire so much as simple truth." said the disconcerted boy. to b ecome a pupil in his studio.en. it could not be le ss than ten: this I am quite certain of." When troubled with deafness." said Oliver Cromwell to the artist who. I am sure --in our street. I am not sure whic h. wishing his congregation to fresc o the recess back of the pulpit. but never mind. Gough told of a colored preacher who." said the sculptor H. "Paint me just as I am." "I will not believe you saw ten even." "Well. the rent in his coat. and the creases in his narrow-brimm ed stove-pipe hat. "I saw at least ou r Dash and another one.. it will either sink or swim. "Whi tin make. "I can remember when you blacked my father's shoes. but how good a machine." "I don't try to see how cheap a machine I can produce." John B. I'm quite sure. last night." said Wellington. The doctor apologized. suddenly closed his Bible and said. sir." s aid the Iron Duke. ther e were one hundred. you can try it for yourself. who p ut strong caustic into his ear. sir. of Northbridge. to a customer who complain ed of the high price of some cotton machinery. J. expressed great regrets. Ward." "It could not be. as an all-sufficient guaranty of Northbridge products. That is all the secret we've got. and gave with minutest fidelity not merely the man's features and expression. Whitin. It exhibits at once a strength of . and when there was occasion to advertise any machinery for sale." "But you will all ow me to attend you. Q. "for you spoke as confidently of seeing five hundred as of see ing this smaller number. To-day the name of Ward is that of the most prosper ous of all Americans sculptors. "this boy has something in him. You have contradicted yourself twice already. "We always try to beat our last batch of rails. and design. had omitted a mole." It was the figure of an Irishman who worked for the Ward family in Brooklyn years ago. and now I cannot believe you. and we don't care who knows it. A. but how much more truthful are they who "never saw it rain so before. and said that the blunder wou ld ruin him. "Just take a lump and put i t into water." said an old lady. "that would be lying. Brown." "Surely not so many. Six years later he invited her brother." "Well." said the late John C. Business men soon learned what th is meant. as he admired a statue in alabaster mad e by a youth in his teens." said a boy. my bredren. "but did I not black them well?" "It is easy to tell good indigo. Mass. "There. "I don' t think there are a hundred dogs in our village. "I saw an immense number of dogs--five hundred. "No. "I will never mention it." said the father. New E ngland cotton manufacturers were accustomed to state the number of years it had been in use and add. K. and if it is good. "True enough. Brown saw the statue at the house of a lady living at New burgh-on-the-Hudson." said the father. warts and all." said one member of the Hou se of Commons to another in the heat of debate. de Gospel will not be dispensed with any more from dis pulpit till de c ollection am sufficient to fricassee dis abscess. Wellington consulted a celebrated physician. so that people will not withdraw their confidence?" "No. exempt from artifice. "Well. causing an inflammation which threatened his lif e." "Father." said the father." was the prompt re ply. Mr.

would impair the correctness of the glass. to lack sincerity. It is a curious fact that not a si ngle astronomical discovery of importance has been made through a large telescop e. more fragrant. Clark's love of accuracy has made his name a synonym of exactness the world over." . for then even he cou ld not exist. "the p oise is so delicate that the heat from your hands affects it. It seems strange that there should be so strong a temptation to exaggerate in a country where the truth is more wo nderful than fiction." The marvelous resources and growth of America have developed an unfortunate ten dency to overstate. to evade. to dodge. overdraw. We find no lying. th eir very movement being "the uniform manifestation of the will of God. or in some far-off glen where n o human eye ever sees it." "But that's the very reason. Mr. to shirk the truth. let it cool before making another trial. the men who have advanced our knowledge of that science the most working with ordinary instruments backed by most accurately trained minds and eyes. and one sweep of the hand more than is needed. "No. During the test of the great glass which he made for Russia. Indeed. In Siberia a traveler found men who could see the satellites of Jupiter with th e naked eye. to exaggerate. when urged to speak on a q uestion soon to come up. The positive is stronger than the superlative. These men have made little advance in civilization.character and integrity of purpose in which all are willing to confide.000. yet they are fa r superior to us in their accuracy of vision. I haven't time to do that in this instance. it is really difficult to ascertain the exac t truth in America. Alva n Clark says. You nev er fail." "Ah. "Does the devil lie?" was asked of Sir Thomas Browne. but. for nothing else is half so strong as truth. "because I never allow myself to speak upon any subject without first making that subject thoroughly my own. a gesture. to assum e to know or think or feel what you do not--all these are but various manifestat ions of hollowness and falsehood resulting from want of accuracy. no inaccuracy. to seem to concur with another's opinions when you do not. and exaggerate. than that which blooms and blushes unhe eded amid the fern-decked brush by the roadside. How many American fortunes are built on misrepresentation th at is needless. more exquisitely perfect. boys. Even the tiny snowflake whose d estiny is to become an apparently insignificant and a wholly unnoticed part of a n enormous bank. you always speak well upon any subject. Its adjustment is so delicate that the human hand is the only instrument thus far known suitable for giving the final polish. the workmen turned it a little with their hands." said the orator. no slipshod business in nature. to deceive by a glanc e of the eye. toward the close of a Congressional session. Roses blossom and crystals form with the same precision of tint and angle to-day as in Eden on the morning of creation. Planets rush with dizzy sweep through almost limitless courses. I can't do it. The crystal found deep in the earth is constructed wit h the same fidelity as that formed above ground. "Wait. to face both ways. Hence I must refuse. assumes its shape of ethereal beauty as faithfully as though pr eparing for some grand exhibition. to keep silent rather than s peak the truth. "No. A double convex lens three feet in diameter is worth $60. it is impossible. "I am so p ressed with other duties that I haven't time to prepare myself to speak upon tha t theme. a smile." said Clark. Webster. to say what is expedient rath er than what is truthful." said Webster. yet return to equinox or solstice at the appointed second. To say nice things merely to avoid giving offense. to equivocate. The rose in the queen's garden is not more beautiful. but we igno re this fact in our speech. a nod of the head." Mr." Truth is necessary to permanency.

vague. the more fresh and spontaneous they become. "Whatever is right to do." said his publisher Dodsley. The more they are elaborated. The latter handed him a dead fish and told him to use his eyes." After a seco nd examination he shook his head. "That will do. You'll have to try again. That which seems a trifle to us may be the secret spring which shall mo ve the issues of life and death. but soon remarked. but I assure you it has cost me so much labor that it has w hitened my hair. of manuscript brought to be c opied. and the first chapters of his history eighteen times. saying. not to be true to the best one knows." Grove said of Beethoven. "There is only one real failure in life possible. or the crude. "Every line was then writte n twice over by Pope. The captain of a Nantucket whaler told the man at the wheel to steer by the Nor th Star. Of one of his works Montesquieu said to a friend: "You will rea d it in a few hours. Two hours later he examined his new pupil. In 1805 Napoleon broke up the great camp he had formed on the shores of the Eng lish Channel. Gibbon wrote his memoir nine times. He left nothing to chance." This roused the pupil to earnest effort. "You do not show that you can use your eyes." the Florentines would say when Dante passed. but was awakened towards morning by a request for another star to steer by. commonplace shape in which they were first written down." Stephen Girard was precision itself." "There goes a man that has been in hell. He believed that no gre at success is possible without the most rigid accuracy in everything. as they had "sailed by the other.Rufus Choate would plead before a shoemaker justice of the peace in a petty cas e with all the fervor and careful attention to detail with which he addressed th e United States Supreme Court. He did not allow those in his employ to de viate in the slightest degree from his iron-clad orders." Leonardo da Vinci would walk across Milan to change a single tint or the slight est detail in his famous picture of the Last Supper." He had made it his study by day and his dream by night. strength." An accomplished entomologist thought he would perfect his knowledge by a few le ssons under Professor Agassiz. "to find the length of time during which some of the best known instrumental melodies remained in his thoug hts till they were finally used. V ." said George Ripley. "will soon form the habit of not writing well on any occasion. and gave orders for his mighty host to defile toward the Danube." said Canon Farrar." "It is quite astonishing." said the great scientist. "should be done with our bes t care. He was as exact and precise even in the smallest trifles as Napoleon. and faithfulness of purpose. and he became so interested in things he had never noticed before that he did not see Agassiz when he came for the third examination." Reynolds said he could go on retouching a picture forever. "Yo u haven't really looked at the fish yet. "and that is." but absolutely good. "He who does not write as well as he can on every occasion. "I now see that you can use your eyes. People knew that his word was not "pretty good. so realistic seemed to them his description of the nether world. or determine their relative importance in God 's eyes." said an eminent writer. Every detail of b usiness was calculated and planned to a nicety. we have no scales by which we can weigh our faithfulness to duties. the al pha and omega of his aims and objects. yet his brother merchants attributed his s uperior success to good luck. He did not vary from a promise in the slightest degree.

Besides his scrapbooks. he might a s well do the work himself as employ another to do it in that way. "whose stitches always come out." "slipshod financiering. The historian. editors. and the result of that memorable march was the victory of Austerlitz. and method m eans character." said President Tuttle." "indifference. and the button s they sew on fly off on the mildest provocation. Shall I buy. saying that only by such means can a writer be natural. were carried out to the letter. These details . h e wrote in a notebook the separate names of grasses and wild flowers growing nea r. When h e chose to make careful preparation on a subject. every valuable hi nt he could get being preserved in the cold exactness of black and white. and you can't start a button in a generation. never allowed a sentence to stand until it was as good as he could make it.. polished discourses." "slouchiness. clergymen. "Am offered 10." "If you make a good pin." "State Po litics. as though they were rogue s or fools. no other speaker could command so great an array of facts." "Gener al Politics." "There are women. which sealed the fate of Eur ope for ten years. When Sir Walter Scott visited a ruined castle about which he wished to write. he gave such exhaustive attention th at before the bugle had sounded for the march he had planned the exact route whi ch every regiment was to follow.000 bushels wheat on your account at $1. How many thou sands have lost their wealth or lives. The omission of a period cost the Sacramento dealer $1. or is i t too high?" telegraphed a San Francisco merchant to one in Sacramento. Grattan." "Tariff. and you may tug away at their work on your coat. When a noted French preacher speaks in Notre Dame. there are other women who use the same needle and thread. as he delivers but five or six sermons a year. Accurate people are methodical people." etc." as was int ended. and professors in colleges have lost p osition and prestige by carelessness and inaccuracy! "You would be the greatest man of your age. If a carpenter must stand at his journeyman's elbow to be sure his w ork is right. and it is ver y certain that the employer will get rid of such a blunderer as soon as he can. "Those who employ men do not wish to be on the constant lookout. How m any clerks." "Public Men. eloquent." said Fields. "you will earn more t han if you make a bad steam-engine. and how many frightful accidents have occ urred through carelessness in sending messages! "The accurate boy is always the favored one. and leaving the elaboration of its deta ils to his lieutenants." "The Press. and the precise moment when it was to reach its destination.00. To details and minutiae which inferior captains would ha ve deemed too microscopic for their notice. the exact day and hour it was to leave that sta tion." said a successful manufacturer. so thoroughly premeditated. Price too high." came back over the wire instead of "No. la beled "Anecdotes. Macaulay. the scholars of Paris throng the cathedral to hear his fascinating. however." "Carelessness." could t ruthfully be written over the graves of thousands who have failed in life. cashiers." "French Spoliation." "Electoral Laws and Commissions." said Curran. "if you woul ." "Parliamentary Decisions.000.ast and various as were the projects fermenting in his brain. This bril liant finish is the result of most patient work." "United States History. or waistcoat. he did no t content himself with giving the order." "Geneva Award. "No pric e too high. Garfield had a large case of some fifty pigeonholes. or if a cashier must run over his bookkeeper's columns.

but he showed such a taste for drawing that a reluctant permission was given for him to follow art as a profession. The rhythmical fulness and poise of his periods are remarkable. and put it on his pianos. and the price increasing as other men began to get glimpses of the transcendent art revealed in his paintings. W. and straightforw ardness. t he greatest name on record. but Jonas Chickering sent a petition to the legislature. an art not fully comprehended even in our day. From the time Jonas Chickering began to work for a piano-maker. Turner was intended by his father for a barber. A. When consulted by a friend whose article had been rejected by several publishers. and employ them in as lofty work as they seem able to do. But although the pay was very small the work was never careless. To the end of his life he gave the finishing touch to each of his instrumen ts. Alexandre Dumas prepared his manuscript with the greatest care. he advised hi m to have it handsomely copied by a professional penman. he mastered every detail and worked hard.d buy a few yards of red tape and tie up your bills and papers. To him there were no trifles in the manufacturing of pianos. compared with accuracy and knowledge. Chickering's name was such a power that one piano -maker had his name changed to Chickering by the Massachusetts legislature. and then change the tit le. He surpassed the acknowledged masters in various fields of lan dscape work. T. He resolved that each pi ano should be an improvement upon the one which preceded it. and would trust it to no one else. a nd the name was changed back. He was easily the first forens ic orator America has produced. Met hod ruled in every department of his store. and for every delinquency a penalty was rigidly enforced. and. without selling two cents' worth. He soon made pianos in a factory of his own. perfection was his aim. and the article eagerly accepted by one of the very pu blishers who had refused it before. Neither time nor labor was of any account to him . every phrase must be of du e length and cadence. Exact precision characterized his style. His eye was upon his business in all its ramifications. and was characterized by simplicity. withstanding atmospheric chang es. Bergh tells of a man beginning business who opened and shut his shop regularly at the same hour every day for weeks. his work sure of a ma rket at some price. Stewart was extremely systematic and precise in all his transactions. The demand for perfection in the nature of Wendell Phillips was wonderful. but the price was increased and work of higher grade given him simply because men seek the services of those who are known to be faithful. Character has a commercial as well as an ethical v alue. Turner is in his special field. and preserving its purity and truthfulness of tone. transparency. He permitted no irregularity in workmansh ip or sales. he was noted fo r the pains and care with which he did everything. We must strive after accuracy as we would after wisdom. And so he toiled upward until he began to employ himself. frequently illustrating guide-books and almanacs. but as he lacked means he took anythin g to do that came in his way. He distanced all competitors. Many able essays have been rejected because of poor penmanship. What Shakespeare is in literature. Joseph M. His labor was w orth several times what he received for it. and left matchless studies of natural scenery in lines never before attempted. every sentence must be perfectly balanced before it left h is lips. He soon became skilful. or h . The advice was taken. yet whos e application attracted attention and paved the way to fortune." Curran realized that methodical people are accurate. successful. He determined to make an instrument yielding the fullest and richest volume of melody with the least exertion to the player. Ever y word must exactly express the shade of his thought. as a rule.

it was discovered that a girl had served twenty years for a twe nty months' sentence. crimina l blundering in railroad construction? Think of the tragedies caused by lies pac ked in car-wheels. against humanity. careless ness is as much a crime as deliberate criminality. it would not only reduce the loss of human life. somebody's blunders. of doing things to a finish. They are the evil fruit of the low i deals of slovenly. Carelessness. clear down to the plating. because of the mistake of a court cl erk who wrote "years" instead of "months" in the record of the prisoner's senten ce. careless. Woo den legs. the locomotive or other machinery to break. locomotives. Determine to form exact business hab its. and while being repair ed a hammer was found in the bottom that had been left there by the builders thi rteen years before. a leg. and engines. slighted their work. fatherless and motherless homes ev erywhere speak of somebody's carelessness. . Not long since. of thoroughness. buildings often fall and bury the workmen under their ruins. slipsh odness. armless sleeves. botched. Multitudes of people have lost an eye. lies in dishonest labor put into manufactured materi al by workmen who said it was good enough for the meager wages they got! Because people were not conscientious in their work there were flaws in the steel. The worst crimes are not punishable by law. From the constant motion of the boat the hammer had worn thr ough the planking. and the lives of a thousand passengers were jeopardized because of somebody's carelessness. Avoid slipshod financiering as you would the plague. Careless and indiffere nt habits would soon ruin a millionaire. thoughtlessne ss. Accuracy means character. steamboat boilers. to a fraction of what it is at present. because somebody was careless. did it to a complete finish. Where a tiny flaw or the slightest defect may cost a precious life. the mangling and maiming of men an d women. which cause so m uch misery and cost so many lives. carelessness. How many have lost their lives because of dishonest work. of disasters on land and sea. whic h caused the rail or pillar to snap. in a southern prison. somebody's habit of inaccuracy. ties. are the result of carelessness. blundering work. or are otherwise maime d. numberless graves. or an arm. are crimes against self. dishonest--either employer or emplo yee--and worked lies. or half-done. The steel shaft broke in mid-ocean. because dishonest workmen wrought deception into the articles they manufactur ed.idden treasure or anything we would attain. covered up defects and weak places with paint and varni sh. Even before they are completed. Everywhere over this broad earth we see the tragic results of botched work. that of ten do more harm than the crimes that make the perpetrator an outcast from socie ty. The history of the human race is full of the most horrible tragedies caused by carelessness and the inexcusable blunders of those who never formed the habit of accuracy. Nearly every very successful man is acc urate and painstaking. If everybody put his conscience into his work. lack of thoroughness. and character is power. into the building. lies in defectiv e rails. The majority of railroad wrecks. CHAPTER XXII DO IT TO A FINISH Years ago a relief lifeboat at New London sprung a leak. but it would also give us a hig her quality of manhood and womanhood. or switches. deceptions. indifferent workers.

stupefies the ambition. It paralyzes the normal functions. and when self-respect drops. . so subtle. After slighting your work. after a while. the general improvement. They do not realize that the education. On the contrary. and do not do it well. Many people are so constituted that their ambition wanes and their ideals drop when they are alone. palsies the asp iring faculty. or with careless. or carelessly doing things. Inferiority is an infection which. not so likely to regard your word as sacred as bef ore. They require the constant assistance. The habit of precision and accuracy strengthens the mentality. he does not know why he has failed! One's ambition and ideals need constant watching and cultivation in order to ke ep up to the standards. and the tragedy of it all is. indifferent people . like leaven. When he started on his career he was very exact and painstaking. its powe r to drag down. after doing a poor job. improves the whole character. doing things in a loose-jointed. who has been well trained in thoroughness. slipshod. How quickly a youth of high ideals. can hardly be estimated because the processes are so gradual. or example of othe rs to keep them up to standard. demoralizes the mental processes. and when confidence an d self-respect have gone. He demanded the best of himself--would not accept his second-best in anything. and causes deterioration all along the li ne. No one can respect himself who habitually botches his wo rk. from p utting the trade-mark of one's character on it. without apparent mortification or sense of humiliation. It dulls ideals. They try to do too much. It is astonishing how completely a slovenly habit will gradually.Most young people think too much of quantity. and he has become so demoralized by the habit which. The thought of slighting his work was painful to him. The entire person takes on the characteristics of one's usual way of doing things. to demoralize. often deteriorates when he leaves home and goes to work for an employer with inf erior ideals and slipshod methods! The introduction of inferiority into our work is like introducing subtle poison into the system. affects the entire system. and pulls down the whole life. insidiously f asten itself upon the individual and so change his whole mental attitude as to t hwart absolutely his life-purpose. seemingly without being conscious of it. excellence is impossible. careless manner det eriorates the whole mentality. even when he may think he is doing his best t o carry it out. you a re not quite the same man you were before. The mental and moral effect of half doing. of accepting his second-best. and tends to bring our whole conduct to the same l evel. He i s to-day doing quite ordinary things. and too little of quality in thei r work. but his menta l processes have so deteriorated. suggestion. the comfort. We are so constituted that the quality which we put into our life-work affects everything else in our lives. far outweighs the value that att aches to the doing of a thousand botched or slipshod jobs. grew upon him. You are not so likely to try to keep up the standard of your work. Every half-done or slovenly job that goes out of your hands leaves its trace of demoralization behind. prodding. the satisfaction. I know a man who was extremely ambitious to do something very distinctive and w ho had the ability to do it. and brac ing up of the whole man that comes from doing one thing absolutely right. confidence goes with it. that he now s lights his work without a protest.

deceiving their employers--to indifferent. Are the clerks who are respon sible for this carelessness likely to win promotion? Many an employee who would be shocked at the thought of telling his employer a lie with his lips is lying every day in the quality of his work. "What a fool you are. Perfe ct work harmonizes with the very principles of our being. to sli p in rotten hours. Of these more than eighty thousand bore no address whateve r. He never quite finishes anything he undertakes. Some one has said: "It is a race between negligence and ignorance as to which c an make the more trouble. It does not mean that if only you will not lie with your lips you may lie and defraud in the quality of your work. It fits our very natures. I shall thin k more of myself. it means truth in everything--in deed and in word. by blundering through carelessness or indif ference. or botched work. in his dishones ." You will like yourself better when you have the approval of your conscience. acc uracy. and I get twice as much money as you do. Merely not to steal another's money or goods is not all there is to honesty. There is a very intimate relation between the quality o f the work and the quality of the character. One of John Wanamaker's partners says that unnecessary blunders and mi stakes cost that firm twenty-five thousand dollars a year. Hundreds of clerks and book-keepers are getting sma ll salaries in poor positions today because they have never learned to do things absolutely right. Your contract with your employer means that you will give him your best . completeness. Nothing else can give you the glow of satisfa ction. It not only means reliability in your word. rotten service? If you should ask the inmates of our penitentiaries what had caused their ruin. "but I shall like myself better. 'Get the most money for the least work." Many a young man is being kept down by what probably seems a small thing to him --negligence.The human mechanism is so constituted that whatever goes wrong in one part affe cts the whole structure. Honesty is our normal expression. but also carefulness. you must not steal his goods or ruin his property by h alf finishing or botching your work. lack of accuracy. The dead letter depar tment of the Post Office in Washington received in one year seven million pieces of undelivered mail. and blundering of employees cost Chicago one million dollars a day. says that he has to station pickets here and there throughout t he establishment in order to neutralize the evils of inaccuracy and the blunderi ng habit. clipping their hours. many of them could trace the first signs of deterioration to shirking. skimped. the electric thrill and uplift which come from a superbly-done job. he can not be depended upon to do anything quite right. honesty in your work. "to take so much pains with that job." said one workman to another. inaccuracy. when you don't get much pay for it. to shirk." "That may be. The manager of a large hou se in that city. A prominent business man says that the carelessness. A great many of them were from business houses. Did you ever notice the rapid decli ne in a young man's character when he began to slight his work. and not your second-best." replied the other. Honesty means wh oleness. Honesty means integrity in e verything. You must not steal another's time. dishonest work. Th at will be worth more to you than any amount of money you can pocket through fra udulent. We were made to be honest. because we were made f or perfection. and any departure from it demoralizes and taints the whole character. his work always needs lo oking over by some one else.' is my rule. and that is more important to me than money.

even while prac tically new. Put such a quality into your work that anyone who comes across anything you have ever done will see character in it. chairs and bedsteads break down at the slightest provocation. seams give way at the slightes t strain. Your reputation is at stake in everyt hing you do. I am wi lling to be judged by it. castors co me off. Yet on every side we see all sorts of things selling for a song because the mak er put no character. There was a time when the names of Graham and Tampion on timepieces were guaran tees of the most exquisite workmanship and of unquestioned integrity. not for service. that lies can be acted as well as to ld and that acting a lie may be even worse than telling one. individuality and thoroughness wrought into it. much-worn garments. not realizing." "good enough. covered up with paint and varnish. Strangers from any part of the world could send their purchase money and order goods from those manufacturers without a doubt that they would be squarely dealt with. It is difficult to find anything that is well and honestly made. in the rotten hours he is slipping into it. in shirking. loss of character. but which in reality is full of blemishes and weaknesses. becaus e of its great reputation for integrity and square dealing. You cannot afford to do a poor job. as to express it with the lips. When you finish a thing you ought to be able to say to yourself: "There. in shirking. Articles of clothing that look stylis h and attractive when first worn. it is done a s well as I can do it." would be a good label for the great mass of ma nufactured articles in our markets to-day. Vast sums of money are often paid for the use of a name. It is just as dishonest to express deceptio n in poor work." "pretty good.t service." Never be satisfied with "fairly good. It is not pretty well done. your trade-mark of superiority upon it. I am w illing to stand for that piece of work. "Made to sell. Most things are just throw n together. handles pull out. to let botched work or anything that is inferior go out of your hands." Accept not hing short of your best. Glue starts at joints. done to a complete finish. dishonest manufacturing is so general that concerns w hich turn out products based upon honesty and truth often win for themselves a w orld-wide reputation and command the highest prices. to hide away during working hours to smoke a cigar ette or take a nap. Everywhere we see furniture which looks all right. to stea l his time when on an errand. I will stand for that. yet I have known of fice-boys. and must pay the price in loss of self-respect. Eve . who lies or cheats in the goods he sells or manuf actures. There is no other advertisement like a good reputation. no thought into them. perhaps. Tampion and Graham lie in Westminster Abbey because of the accuracy of their wo rk--because they refused to manufacture and sell lies. many things "go to pieces" altogether. Some of the world's gre atest manufacturers have regarded their reputation as their most precious posses sion. and often the entire arti cle goes to pieces before it is worn half a dozen times. very quickly get out of shape. and hang and lo ok like old. of standing in his communi ty. individuality in i t. and your reputation is your capital. The man who botches his work. is dishonest with himself as well as with his fellow men. who could not be induced to tell their employer a direct lie. This slipshod. dropped stitches are everywhere in evidence. and under no circumstances would they allow their names to be put on an im perfect article. Buttons fly off. that has chara cter. in his indif ference to his employer's interests.

" and not one of which was ever known to come to pieces or break.ry bit of your work. says that the "secret of success is to do the common duty uncommonly well. which he "made for etern ity. but because there is something in him which refuses to acce pt anything from himself but the best. Employers do not say all they think. Many a boy is marked for a higher position by his employer long before he is aw are of it himself. a little more obliging. "in this dry routine. Rockefeller. every piece of work you touch." between "fairly good" and "excellent. as Tampion regarded every watch that went out of his shop. being grounded in thoroughness as a li fe-principle. They keep their eye on the emplo yee who has the stamp of excellence upon him. it is ingenuity in finding new and more progressive ways of doing old things. Jr. it is being a little more polite. Many employees are looking for some great thing to happen that will give them a n opportunity to show their mettle. a little more accurate. "What can there be. who gets on in the world. The thing which you are now doing will unlock or bar the door t o promotion. no matter how unimportant or trivial it may seem. of always striving for excellence. such a passion to give quality to your work. in doing these common. than those about you that attracts the attention of your employer a nd other employers also." they say to themselves." between what ot . would give you! There is nothing like being enamored of accuracy. every-day duties of the position they are now filling.. a little more tactful. but when it does come the one who has appreciated the infinite difference bet ween "good" and "better. It is just the little touches afte r the average man would quit that make the master's fame. It is doing things a little better than those about you do them. John D. They know he has a future. who sees a very uncommon chance in a common situation. It must be the very best you can do. Regard your work as Stradivarius regarded his violins. you should regard every task that goes through your hands. I have known many instances where advancement hinged upon the little overplus o f interest. but they d etect very quickly the earmarks of superiority. that he is honest and made of good materi al. would take such pains to put his stamp of superiority upon his instrument." The majority of young people do not see that the steps wh ich lead to the position above them are constructed. the best that human skill can produce. carefulness. being a little neater. little by little. optimistic. helpful. humble. No other characteristic makes such a strong impression upon an employer as the habit of painstaking. to help me along? " But it is the youth who sees a great opportunity hidden in just these simple s ervices. a little more observant. Stradivari us did not need any patent on his violins. or several times its weight in gold. who takes pains with his work. ordinary things. Think of the value such a reputation for thoroughness as that of Stradivarius o r Tampion. accuracy. for no other violin maker would pay s uch a price for excellence as he paid. a humble positio n. a little quicker. by the fa ithful performance of the common. who does it to a finish. should be ar your trade-mark of excellence. not from the standpoint of salary or wha t he can get for it. on his doing a little better than was expected of him. It is just the little difference between the good and the best that makes the d ifference between the artist and the artisan. It may be months. of painstaking an employee put into his work. a little more energet ic. Every "Stradivarius" now in existence is worth from three to ten thousand dollars. He knows that if a youth puts his c onscience into his work from principle. a little more cheerful. or it may be a year before the opening come s.

helps to make you second-class. who will always fill very ordinary positions because they do not take pains. or in your environment. whose understanding has been dulled. all sorts of people who will never rise above mediocrity. A man weakened by dis sipation. he remains second-class. neglect of healt h. whose growth has been stunted by self-indulgences. Everywhere we see mediocre or second-class men--perpetual clerks who will never get away from the yardstick. is possible to practically eve . this little farther on. a little farther on. They have not been content with mediocrity. will be likely to get the place. but the surest consequence is that of becoming second-class . exhausts his strength and vitality. never to be second-class in anything. If there is that ss. Men get drunk for all sorts of reasons. is only half a man. all through life. through his amusements in his hours of leisure. they have never been satisfied to do thin gs just as others do them. Dissipation. and even a pretty good sort. People who have accomplished work worth while have had a very high sense of the way to do things. you will ac in some line provided you have the persistence and determinati ideal. the botched and slovenly. then you must expect to take second place. positio n." Then they keep on s moking because they have created an appetite as unnatural as it is harmful. Sometimes they are sec ond-rate or third-rate people because those who are responsible for their being and their care during their minor years were so before them. or in your personal habits. This is a good resolution wit h which to start out in your career. The submerged classes that the economists talk about are those that are bel ow the high-water mark of the best manhood and womanhood. and could in no sense be called first-class. they cannot remain first-class men and drink. is a second-class man. mechanics who will never be anything but bunglers. do not try to be first-class. i f you are not particular about quality in your work. No ma tter what you do. They always pushed things that came to their hands a little higher up. deal with the best. live up to your best. below the standard of the best men for any purpose. but more and more i s it becoming one's own fault if. wealth. he is not third-class. Aside from the lack of desire or effort to be first-class. A ma n who. there are other thin gs that help to make second-class men. Everybody knows the things that make for second-class characteristics. It is the constant effort to be first-class in everything one attempts that c onquers the heights of excellence. vitiates his blood. indeed. all make second-class men. It is this li ttle higher up. failure to get an education. choose the best. and happiness. if you insist hieve distinction on to follow your in your nature which demands the best and will take nothing le on keeping up your standards in everything you do. Have nothing to do wit h the inferior.hers call "good" and the best that can be done. but. Edu cation of some sort. Carelessness as to health fills the ranks of the infer ior. try to do it as well as it can be done. do not put conscience in to their work. to get control over you. Do your best in everything. if. Dissipation in other forms is pursued because of ple asure to be derived. whatever the reason. that counts in the quality of life's wor k. to fall back to the rear of the procession. It is said that Daniel Webster made the best chowder in his state on the princi ple that he would not be second-class in anything. But if you are satisfied with the cheap and shoddy. and puts you at a disadvantage in the race for honor. Boys imi tate older boys and smoke cigarettes in order to be "smart. Every fault you allow to become a habit. bad habits. wears his nerves till his limbs tremble like leav es in the wind. They have not con fined themselves to the beaten tracks. but always a little better.

Thoroughness characterizes all successful men. no excuse for b eing second-class when it is possible to be first-class. first-class men are wanted. always played as if he were before the most brilliant audi ences in the great metropolises of the world. Genius is the art of taking infi nite pains. New York. he replied: "I ne ver allow myself to speak on any subject until I have made it my own. If you are a king in your calling. no matter what your condition or circumstances . when playing before scant audiences in country theaters in England. his teacher soon found that when Elihu professed to k . who have had grit. There is no excuse for incompetence in this age of opportunity. who could stay by a task until it was don e. If we were to examine a list of the men who have left their mark on the world. and when first-class is in demand everywhere. even to the minutest detail. No you th can ever hope to accomplish much who does not have thoroughness and accuracy indelibly fixed in his life-habit. first-class me at. If you make yourself first-class in anything. or. infinite painstaking. It demands that you be a master in your line. common sense. or who gave great promise at the outset of their careers. eat first-class butter. and first-class bread. nothing can keep you from success . as a rule. the habit of half d oing things. When Daniel Webster. the great French novelist. is sure to relegate one to the ranks of the seco nd-class. The thorough boys are the boys that are heard from. inaccuracy. Slipshodness. will do it with all your might and with all the ability you possess. he made up his mind that anything he had to st udy he would keep at until he mastered it. slipshod. no matter what your race or color. Balzac. and Scotland. Although not considered one of the "b right" boys of the school. persistence. Macready. and usually from posts far higher up than those filled by the boys who were too "smart" to be thorough. you will be in demand. but rather of the plodding young men who. whether it be in books or in business training. a farmer. but it does demand that whatever you do undertake. I must refuse to speak on the subject. you will do it right. we should find that. Fo r work that really amounts to anything. half-done work into their careers and get firstclass products. Second-class things are wanted only when first-class can't be had. I reland. have had the power of a day's work in them. if they have not dazzled by their brilliancy. a lawyer. and honesty. Second-class me n are no more wanted than any other second-class commodity. and well done. I haven't time to do that in this case. who had the best brain of his time. it is not composed of those who were brilliant i n youth. One such boy is Elihu Root. would ruin the career of a youth with a Napoleon's mind. hence. The trouble with many Americans is that they seem to think they can put any sort of poor. now United States Senator. or a mer chant. sometimes worked a week on a single page. They are taken and u sed when the better article is scarce or is too high-priced for the occasion." Dickens would never consent to read before an audience until he had thoroughly prepared his selection. if you don't. you wish you could.ryone in our land. was asked to make a sp eech on some question at the close of a Congressional session. The world does not demand that you be a physician. Failure to get the best education available. You wear fir st-class clothes if you can pay for them. When he was a boy in the gra mmar school at Clinton. no matter how humble it may be. They do not realize that all great achievement has been characte rized by extreme care.

"Can't wait. and then they are ready for business. had a passion for self-improvement. Our great lack is want of thoroughness. We can't wait for a high-school. Parsons. who in his youth was har dly able to buy the clothes he needed. "Well . He was fond of hard problems requir ing application and patience." remarked the Chief Engineer. to his chosen business. and then a member of the President' s cabinet. they do poor. Half-trained clerg ymen bungle away in the pulpit." is characteristic of our country. intrusted with vast interests. of course. has helped to raise the German people t o their present commanding position in the world. Half-trained medical students perform bungling operations. or college education. "I have no use for anyone who can 'almost' do anything. a German who expects to engage in business takes a four years' cours e in some commercial school. and German employees. Elihu frequently remained in his r oom with his arithmetic or algebra. are in great demand to-day in England. Eve ry employer is looking for thoroughness. is their thoroughness. Sometimes the other boys called him a plodder. more than any other. A young man. the superiority of their training. rising to end the interview. Carrying the principle of "doing every thing to a finish" into the law. and after graduation serves three years' apprentice ship without pay. "I was not satisfied with knowing thi ngs superficially and by halves. The boy can't w ait to become a youth. Young men rush into busine ss with no great reserve of education or drill. How seldom you find a young man or woma n who is willing to prepare for his life-work! A little education is all they wa nt. but Elihu would only smile pleasantly. for he knew what he was about.now anything he knew it through and through." . and then blame society because he is a failure. on society. esp ecially in banks and large mercantile houses. and break down in middle life. and the completene ss of their preparation for business. As a rule. seminary. are increasing the power of Germany throughout the civilized world. because they are not willing to take time for thorough pre paration. it made him carefu l about jumping at conclusions. on schools. Half-trained lawyers stumble through their cases. "What can you do? Have you any specialt y?" asked Mr." "haven't time to be thorough." The quality which. but tried to get comprehensive views of what I studied." he says. "I wa nted to make the most of myself. "I can do almost anything. while the other boys were out skating. I prefer someone who can actually do one th ing thoroughly. and make their clien ts pay for experience which the law school should have given. the great New England divine. To every problem there was only one answer. armed with letters of introduction from prominent men. on churches. William Ellery Channing. and disgust their intelligent and cultured paris hioners. of the Rapid Transit Commission of New York as a candidate for a position. one day pre sented himself before Chief Engineer Parsons. he became one of the most noted members of the New York bar. On winter eve nings. and patience was the price to be paid for it. Thoroughness and reliability. while many die of old age in the forties. It is g iving young Germans a great advantage over both English and American youths. Mr. feveris h work. and is written on everything--on commerce. and bu tcher their patients. Root recently said that if his close app lication to problems in his boyhood did nothing else for him." answered the young man. Many an American youth is willing to stumble through life half prepared for his work. owing to their pr eeminence in this respect. a little smattering of books. nor the youth to become a man. Perhaps there is no other country in the world where so much poor work is done as in America. the German's characteristics.

shoddy shams. If yo ur work is badly done. The man who has dealt in shams and inferiority. sham. dealing in cheap. your future success. If you would be a fu . your whole career. which they can not practise with satisfaction or profit! The Patent Office at Washington contains hundreds. We are all of a piece. when we are constantly slipping rotten hours. will be affected by the way y ou do your work. let it characteriz e everything you touch. a little finer mechanical training. which they can neither write nor speak.--of inventi ons which are useless simply because they are not quite practical. You cannot be just to yourself and unjust to the man you are working for in t he quality of your work. It indicates the best kind of brain. thousands. it is the best substitute for genius. at stake. there is shoddy. They have acquisitions which remain permanently unavailable because they were not carried quite to the point of skill. dishonesty in your character . shirked. whose elements they have not fully mastered. you not only strike a fat al blow at your efficiency. compared with which salary is nothi ng. or make a better mousetrap than his neighbor. or "pulls" with the influen tial. Th ey can half do a great many things. If any work that goes out of your h ands is skimped. or bot ching one's work. who has botched his work all hi s life. You ar e never again quite the same man after doing a poor job. if there is shoddy or sham in it. untarni shed career." Never allow yourself to dwell too much upon what you are getting for your work. it is better capi tal than cash. manhood and womanhood are at stake. How many people almost know a language or two.There is a great crowd of human beings just outside the door of proficiency. The world is full of half-finished work. he can not help feeli ng that his career has been a botched one. Y our honor.--yes.--failures which require only a little more persistence. the education. defective material an d slipshod service into our work. or botched. A successful manufacturer says: "If you make a good pin. We cannot have an honest character. because the m en who started them lacked the staying quality. prea ch a better sermon. Everything you do is a part of your career. to a finish . the world will make a path to his door . must be conscious that he has not been a real man. to make them useful to civilization. i f there is dishonesty in it. but also smirch your character. bungled. if you slight your work. a little better education. by the conscience or lack of it which you put into your job." "If a man can write a better book. greater value. You have something of infinitely greater importance. after botching your wor k. or the ability ne cessary to carry them to the point of practicability. "though he build his house in the woods. but can't do any one thing well. an art or two. This is what every employer is looking for. Let superiority be your trade-mark. To spend a life buying and selling lies. a complete. is demoralizing to every element of nobility. Think what a loss it would be if such men as Edison and Bell had not come to the front and carried to a successful termina tion the half-finished work of others! Make it a life-rule to give your best to whatever passes through your hands. a science or two. your character will suffer. St amp it with your manhood. it is a better promoter than friends. they stopped just short of efficiency. for. if it goes to pieces." says Emerson. you will earn more mon ey than if you make a bad steam engine. Ch aracter. Beecher said he was never again quite the same man after reading Ruskin.

and your life-work will be what every one's should be--A MASTERPIECE. I was much impressed by this motto. There is a sense of who leness. It will be sure to mortify you when you least expect it. He is not haunted by the ghosts or tail ends of half-finished tasks. and the amount of damage is deducted from her wages. A famous artist said he would never allow himself to look at an inferior drawin g or painting. a complete man. Everything looks down when we are going down hill. of happiness. which I saw recently in a great establishme nt. of skipped problems. Every time we obey the inward law of doing right we hear an inward approval. Thousands of people are held back all their lives and obliged to accept inferio r positions because they cannot entirely overcome the handicap of slipshod habit s formed early in life. But in the ordinar y situations of life there is plenty of time to do everything as it ought to be done. There is an indescribable superiority added to the character and fiber of the m an who always and everywhere puts quality into his work. A single broken thread in a web of cloth is traced back to the girl who neglected her work in the factory . that's good enough. It will never die. We are so c onstituted that every departure from the right. Don't think you will never hear from a half-finished job. a just man. Whatever your vocation. of satisfaction. our whole nature im proves. a neglected or botche d piece of work. habits of inaccuracy. th e amen of the soul. groveling lowers it. Like Banquo's ghost. weave it into the texture of everythi ng you do. put it into your pocket-book. in his life which is never felt by the ma n who does not do his level best every time. would satisfy them! Adopt this motto as yours. "WHERE ONLY THE BEST IS GOOD ENOUGH. There is everything in holding a high ideal of your work. and makes us unhappy. is not kept awake by a tr oubled conscience. you must be honest to the core in the qualit y of your work. in the most embarrassing situations. lest familiarity wit h it should taint his own ideal and thus be communicated to his brush.ll man. or half doing it. shirking. CHAPTER XXIII . When we are trying with all our might to do our level best. what's the use of being so awfully particular?" has been t he beginning of a life-long handicap in many a career. let quality be your lifeslogan. of slurring their work. It will bob up farther along in your career at the most unexpected moments. in your office or place of business. a protest or condemnation. for whatever model th e mind holds. Many excuse poor. and every time we disobey it. to r esolve that. "Oh . slipshod work on the plea of lack of time. of skipping diffi cult problems in school. the life copies. Aspiration lifts the life. causes loss of s elf-respect. from principle. No one can be really happy who does not believe in his own honesty. Hang it up in your bedroom. whatever they did only the best they could do would be good enough. to do anything that was low or demoralizing." What a life-motto this would be! How i t would revolutionize civilization if everyone were to adopt it and use it. it will arise at the most unexpected moments to mar your happiness. of slovenliness.

Perpetual pushing and assurance put a difficulty out of countenance. his enamel would not melt." said Berna rd Palissy.--BURKE. "It is in me. His money was all gone. from lack of ability to buy fuel. Persistence had triumphed again. he attained no result until his fuel was gone. then looked up and said. though he kept the heat up s ix days. but.--CARLYLE." wrote a publisher to an ag . as he rushed home to his trembling wife. By a persistency that nothing seemed able to daunt." F rom the same man came that harangue against Warren Hastings which the orator Fox called the best speech ever made in the House of Commons. but in vain." With head on his hand Sheridan mused fo r a time. when it did come. "Mary. Though only a glass-painter. that poverty stared him in the face. The shelves of his pantry were then broken up and thro wn into the furnace. he so t rained himself to play the character that his success. To perfect his invention he next built a glass-furnace.--JEREMY COLLIER. and all London was at his feet. He was a little dark man with a voice naturally harsh.--NAPOLEON. but he borrowed some . and then a second. His furnitur e followed to no purpose." said Woodfall the reporter. he had the soul of an artist. and tried to get a better flux. when young." The nerve that never relaxes. which was a failur e. Success in most things depends on knowing how long it takes to succeed. a nd Charles shall go to Eton!" He had been so terribly in earnest with the study of his profession that he had at length made a mark on his generation. and the great burst of heat melted the enamel.--these are the masters of victory. "You would bet ter have stuck to your former pursuits. At length the time came for a trial. and it shall come out of me. you shall ride in your carriage yet. in Massinger's drama. as no other man had ever played it. and bought more pots and wood. "I had no other books than heaven and earth. at the age of eigh teen. The sight of an elegant Italian cup disturbed his whole existence and from that moment the dete rmination to discover the enamel with which it was glazed possessed him like a p assion. and soon had three hundred pieces baking. thou shalt not excel. but he determined. Tearing off the p alings of his garden fence.--MONTES QUIEU. The grand se cret was learned. who left his home in the south of France in 1828. carrying the bricks on his back. but he decided on the spot to beg in all over again. and he was forced. which are open to all. spoiling so many drugs and pots of c ommon earthenware. "I am sorry to say that I don't think this is in your line. and losing so much time. burning so much wood. the eye that never blanches. When next he li ghted his fire. For months and years he tried all kinds of experiments to learn the mate rials of which the enamel was compounded. was ove rwhelming. one of which came o ut covered with beautiful enamel. Flat failure was the result. the thought that nev er wanders. "Unstable as water. he fed them to the flames. "If you work hard two weeks without selling a book. Victory belongs to the most persevering. to try his experiments in a common furnace.THE REWARD OF PERSISTENCE Every noble work is at first impossible. after Sheridan had made his first speech in Parliament. and make a seeming impossibility give way. to play the character of Sir Giles Overreach. He built a furnace. "The pit rose at me!" exclaimed Edmund Kean in a wild tumult of emotion.

"Are your discoveries often brilliant intuitions?" asked a reporter of Thomas A ." said Reynolds. The last blow drives home the nail. erected the gorgeous temple at Jerusalem. valuable simply as novelties to catch the popular fancy. I have never had any time to put on electrical w onders. Instead of being progressive in anything.--can never acco mplish anything great or useful. and his youthful speeches prov oked the ridicule of his opponents. harnessed thousan ds of iron steeds to as many freighted cars. painted on canvas the gorgeous mimicry of nature. and set them flying from town to to wn and nation to nation. winged as many flying shuttles. Perseverance has wrought from the marble block the exquisite creati ons of genius. leve led the forests of the new world. cloud-c apped Alps. The slow trotter will out-travel the fleet racer. dimensions. I have always kept strictly within the lines of commercially useful inventions. from plan to plan. "will do neither. indeed. and if he have ability and common sense. "must bring all his mind to bear upon that one object from the moment that he rises till he goes to bed. scaled the stormy. The slow penny is surer than the quick dollar. "nor did any of my inventions come indirectly through accident. counted her myriad hosts o f worlds. Genius darts. in any other art. Anything I have begun is always on my mind. except the phonograph. The afternoon-man wears off the laurels. "The man who is perpetually hesitating which of two things he will do first." s aid William Wirt. and reared in its stead a community of states and nations. "you will make a success of it. No." [Illustration: Thomas Alva Edison] A man who thus gives himself wholly to his work is certain to accomplish someth ing. or. but suffers his resolu tion to be changed by the first counter-suggestion of a friend--who fluctuates f rom opinion to opinion. retrograde in all. with every breath of caprice that blows. and I am not easy while away from it until it is finished ." "Know thy work and do it. inclosed in adamant the Chinese Empire. but perseverance wears and wins." said Turner. he wi ll be at best stationary. How Bulwer wrestled with the fates to change his apparent destiny! His first no vel was a failure. But he fought his way to eminence through ri . Perseverance has put i n motion millions of spindles. It has whitened the waters of the world with the sails of a hundred nations. and computed their distances. tunneled mountains of granite. "I don't know any other reason. and velocities. and veers like a weather-cock to ever y point of the compass. It has reduc ed nature in her thousand forms to as many sciences. when I have fully decided that a result is worth getting I go ahead on it and make tr ial after trial until it comes. The all-day horse wins the race. the painter. and. taught her laws. "and work at it like a Hercules. more probably. measured her untrodden spaces. The man who resolves." "I have no secret but hard work." said Carlyle. his early poems were failures. and annihilated space wi th the lightning's speed. Edison. I like it. opened a highway through the watery wilderness of the Atlantic. his success will be great. and engraved on a metallic surface the viewless substance of the shadow. prophesied her future movements." Perseverance built the pyramids on Egypt's plains.ent. "Do they come to you while you are lying awake nights?" "I never did anything worth doing by accident. flutters. navigated every sea and explored every land." was the reply. and tires." "Whoever is resolved to excel in painting." con tinued the great inventor.

the great actor. had drifted from unknown lands in the west. drawn maps and charts to keep from starving. had sent out secretly an expedition of his own. his head bowed with discouragement a lmost to the back of his mule. a nd fights for them ever afterwards. George Stephenson was fifteen years perfecting his locomotive. his spirit enters into them. an d helps us to win the next victory. He was then called a crack-brained impostor by his fellow phys icians." Noah Webster spent thirty-six years on his dictionary. "But the sun and moon are round. industry will improve it. twenty years on his condensing engine. "if you have talent. rode slowly out through the beautiful gateway of the Alhambra. H arvey labored eight long years before he published his discovery of the circulat ion of the blood." said John Ruskin. and forsaken him. found on the shores of Portugal. In February. Blücher may have been routed at Ligny yesterday. if you have none. what holds it up?" asked the wise men. after working on it almost daily for seven y ears." said Columbus. Twenty years later he corrected the err or.: "I send your majesty the Last Supper. "Never depend upon your genius. But his last hop e of obtaining aid for a voyage of discovery had failed. Sothern. Watt. What a sublime patience he sho wed in devoting a life to the collection and definition of words! George Bancrof t spent twenty-six years on his "History of the United States. like fl . So the spirit of our conquests enters us. He believed that the piece of carved wood picked up four hundred miles at sea and the bodies of two men unlike any other human beings known. said that the early part of his theatrical career was spent in getting dismissed for incompetency. industry w ill supply the deficiency. Opposition gives us greater power of re sistance. "What holds the sun and moon up?" inquired Columbus. "But how can men walk with their heads hanging down." Newton rewrote h is "Chronology of Ancient Nations" fifteen times. "why not the earth?" "If the earth is a ball. To overcome one barrier gives us greater ability to overcome the next. Amid abuse and ridicule he waited twenty-five years before his great dis covery was recognized by the profession. King John of Portugal. Titian wrote to Charles V." Savages believe that when they conquer an enemy. but to-day you hear the thunder of his guns at Waterloo hurling dismay and death among his former conquerors. He had begged bread. his friends had called him crazy. Opposing circumstances create strength." He worked on his Pietro Martyn eight years. he had lost h is wife. in the words of Joshua Reyno lds. and showed that the planets roll in their orbits as a result of the same law which brings an apple to the ground. The council of wise men called by Ferdinand and Isabella ridiculed his theory of reaching the east by sailing west. and their feet up. Gibbon worked twenty years on his "Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. while pretending to think of helping him. From boyhood he had been haunted with the idea that the earth is r ound. Newton discovered the law of gravitation before he was twenty-one. 1492.dicule and defeat. but one slig ht error in a measurement of the earth's circumference interfered with a demonst ration of the correctness of his theory. a poor gray-haired man.

"It shall be done. telegraphic communication could be established between Europe and Ame rica." Columbus turned and with him turned the world. Columbus left the Alhambra in despair. and of a patient and continuous energy whic h then began to be matured. which says. when two hundred miles at sea. but. intending to offer his services to Charl es VII. but in Congress he encountered such bitter opposition from a powerful lobby that his m easure only had a majority of one in the Senate." said another phi losopher. Just as Mr. though he tells them it is but seventeen hundred." said Dickens. John's. Not a sailor would go voluntaril y. but he tells them the North Star is not exactly north. Terror seized the sailors. Seven hundred miles more of cable were ordere d. "how can trees grow with their roots in the air?" "The water would run out of the ponds and we should fall off. and a man of great skill was set to work to devise a better machine for payin . "This doctrine is contrary to the Bible. and they pick up a piece of wood curious ly carved. and m en paced the decks nervously and sadly." Cyrus W. Twenty-three hundred miles from home. and all improvement appertaini ng to it. Another stretch of one hundred and forty miles across the island of Cape Breton involved a great deal of labor. in his vessels scarcely larger than fishing-schooners. the current returned as quickly and mysteriously as it had disappeared. Columbus raised the banner of Castile over the western world. it caught in the machinery and parted. An old friend had told Isabella that it would add great renown to her reign at a trifling expense if what the sa ilor believed should prove true. the brakes were applied too suddenly just as the steamer gave a heavy l urch.ies on a ceiling?" asked a learned doctor. the compass ceased to point to the North Star. and upon the Niagara . the electric current was suddenly lost. so the king and queen compelled them. The preli minary work included the construction of a telegraph line one thousand miles lon g. Through four hundred miles of almo st unbroken forest they had to build a road as well as a telegraph line across N ewfoundland. He plunged into the undertaking with all the force of his being. Newfoundland. as did the laying of a cable across the St. when the sh ip was moving but four miles an hour and the cable running out at the rate of si x miles. By hard work he secured aid for his company from the British government. Call him back. The cable was loaded upon the A gamemnon.. Field had retired from business with a large fortune when he became po ssessed with the idea that by means of a cable laid upon the bottom of the Atlan tic Ocean. breaking the cable. "I will pled ge my jewels to raise the money. "How hard I worked at that tremendous shorthand." said Isabella. a bush with berries floats by. from New York to St. as if in the presence of death." said a priest. Lawrence. land birds fly near. the flag ship of the British fleet at Sebastopol. but he heard a voice calling his name. The following night. when five miles of c able had been paid out. Field was about to give the order to cut the cable. 'The heavens are stretched out like a tent:'--of course it is flat. it is rank heresy to say it is round. "I will only add to what I have already written of my p erseverance at this time of my life. On October 12. but Columbus calmed their fears with pict ures of gold and precious stones from India. Three days out. the Pinta floated a signal of distress for a bro ken rudder. The sailors are ready to mut iny. On the second tri al. Two hundred miles west of the Canar ies. a magnificent new frigate of the United States Navy. Field was not the man to give up.

yet with such persistence did they work that they persuaded men to furnis h capital for yet another trial even against what seemed their better judgment. if for two days. and he became one of the three greatest scholars of China. the public skeptical. Directors were disheartened. the cable parted. I see the difference in my exec ution. FIELD. Lyman Beecher w hen asked how long it took him to write his celebrated sermon on the "Government of God. the enterprise was abandoned for a year. Not discouraged by all these difficulties. the one headed for Ireland. This example of patience sent him back to his studies with a new determinat ion. and the vessels returned to the coa st of Ireland." replied the great violinist. Everything worked to a charm until with in six hundred miles of Newfoundland. Mr. the other for Newfoundland." A Chinese student. Before the vessels were three miles apart. "CYRUS W. and on July 13. with good prospects for usefulness for many years. discouraged by repeated failures. "Tw elve hours a day for twenty years. Faith now seemed dead except in the breast of Cyrus W. the whole project would have been abandoned . All well.g out the long line. and bu t for the indomitable energy and persuasiveness of Mr. and several messages were flashed through nearly seven hund red leagues of ocean. Talent is desirable. After sev eral attempts to raise it. when he saw a poor woman rubbing an iron bar on a stone to make a nee dle. At length in mid-ocean the two halves of the cable were spliced and the steamers began to separate. American and British inventors united in making a machine. Field. "About forty years. Again it was spliced. would bind two continents together." replied. and continued to Newfoundland. my friends see it. was begun the trial which ended with the following mes sage sent to New York:-"HEART'S CONTENT. and the tw o are still working. which. and made a new cable far superior to anything before us ed. when suddenly the current ceased. I will give him to sit down with me on my throne. which steamed slowly out to sea. had thrown away his book i n despair. Genius will falter by the side of labor. but perseverance is more so. or the favorable circumstances around them. Finally a third attempt was made. it was hoped. all the world know . Field. when it parted some twenty feet from the Agamemnon. A third time the cable was spliced and about two hundred miles paid out. it is said. who worked day and night almost without food or sleep. In Revelation we read: "He that overcometh. and if for a week. spliced. and one or two fr iends." The old cable was picked up. 1866. July 27. A new and superior cable was loaded upon the Great Eastern. Thank God! the cable i s laid and is in perfect working order. each running out the precious thread. great powers will yield to great industry. "How long did it take you to learn to play?" asked a young man of Geradini. their friends. organized a new company. "We arrived here at nine o'clock this morning. with such success that the whole cable was l aid without a break. Field went to work with a will. when the cable snapped and sank." Successful men. paying out as she advanced. but when the ships were eighty miles apart. the current was lost. owe more to their perseverance than to their natura l powers. Malibran said: "If I neglect my practice a day. capitalists were shy.

persistent struggle she found to be the price of her ma rvelous power. he carried his material through the streets on a wheelbarrow.s my failure. but he became the great orator of America. work-room. "such as i t is. Pointing to a piece of bread from which he had just eaten his dinner. "You can have the rest of the day for pigeon-shooting. persistent man. Indeed." said Webster. he loaned the manuscript to a neighbor who left it lying on the floor." he says. so he went to his room and learned seven hundred lines. When he s tarted in the printing business in Philadelphia. At last his opponents voted for him from admirati on of his pluck. and the servant gi rl took it to kindle the fire. He reproduced his drawings. Marcus Morton ran sixteen times for governor of Massachusetts. but when he heard his name called in the academy and all eyes tu rned towards him the room became dark and everything he ever knew fled from his brain. The principal anxio usly looked at his watch and grew nervous. but Audubon took his gun and note-book and started for the forest. He said he committed piece after piece and rehearsed th em in his room. Webster's tenacity was illustrated by a circumstance which occurred in the academy." Addison amassed three volumes of manuscript before he began the "Spectator. continuing to recite. Audubon. and sleeping-room. and he was elected by a majority of one! Such persistence alway s triumphs. The princi pal finally stopped him and asked him how many more he had learned. He w ent to recite them to the principal just before train time. I assure you. but Carlyle was n ot the man to give up. He hired one room for his office. Every one was ruined. When Dickens was asked to read one of his selections in public he replied that he had not time. humble." said the principal. would never have served me as it has but for the habit of co mmonplace. The principal punished him for shooting pigeons by compelling him to co mmit one hundred lines of Vergil. After many months of poring over hundreds of volumes of a uthorities and scores of manuscripts. he sai d: "Unless you can live cheaper than I can you can not starve me out. Benjamin Franklin had this tenacity of purpose in a wonderful degree. When an East India boy is learning archery. he reproduced that which had burned in a f ew minutes. . patient. it is doubtful whether Demosthenes himself surpassed his great reply to Hayne in the United States Sen ate." Everyone admires a determined. "My own invention. It was a bitter disappointment. the naturalist. had spent two years with his gun and note-book in the forests of America." All are familiar with the misfortune of Carlyle while writing his "History of t he French Revolution. "About five hundred more. toiling attention. After repeating the hundred lines he continued until he had recited two hundred. He knew the principal was to take a certain tr ain that afternoon." After the first volume was ready for the press. When he returned he opened the box only to fin d a nest of Norwegian rats in his beautiful drawings. It w as a terrible disappointment." Constant. and they were even better than the first. He found a formidable rival in the city and invited him to his ro om. making drawings of birds. for he was in the habit of reading the same piece every day for six months before reading it in public. he is compelled to practise three m onths drawing the string to his ear before he is allowed to touch an arrow. He nailed them all up securely in a box and went off on a vacation. Webster declared that when a pupil at Phillips Exeter Academy he never could de claim before the school. but Webster kept right on.

Is the stern watchword of 'Neve r give up!'" . until every trace of their efforts has been obliterated. An hour a day for twelve years more than equals the time given to study in a four years' course at a high school. th is is the courage of the Gospel. and it was en tirely reset. Adam Tucker spent eighteen years on the "Light of Nature. the glory of an unconquerable will! CHAPTER XXIV NERVE--GRIP. w hile my three lines will live forever. of Man against Dest iny--of the One against the World." Thoreau 's New England pastoral. "Patience." A rival playwright once laughed at Eu ripides for spending three days on three lines. work on in despair. He spen t ten years on his "Orlando Furioso. Seven hundred of the one thousand copies printed were returned from the publishers. by endless blotches and er asures. How came popular writers famous? By writing for years without any pay at all. The proof of Burke's "Letters to a Noble Lord" (one of the sublime st things in all literature) went back to the publisher so changed and blotted w ith corrections that the printer absolutely refused to correct it. Bishop Butler worked twenty years incessantly on his "Analogy. The rolling stone gathers no moss. Rousseau says he obtained the ease and grace of his style only by ceaseless inquietude." says Bulwer "is th e courage of the conqueror. Montesquieu was twenty-five years w riting his "Esprit des Lois. for the wisest is boldest." and only sold one hundred copies at fiftee n pence each. by w orking like galley-slaves at literature for half a lifetime with no other compen sation than--fame. Vergil worked eleven years on the Aeneid. The note-books of great men li ke Hawthorne and Emerson are tell-tales of the enormous drudgery. PLUCK "Never give up. And of all maxims." The head of the god Hercules is represented as covered with a lion's skin with claws joined under the chin. as the oldest." says Burke. and its importance in a social view--its import ance to races and institutions--cannot be too earnestly inculcated. seven.Great writers have ever been noted for their tenacity of purpose. Their works h ave not been flung off from minds aglow with genius. Adam Smith s pent ten years on his "Wealth of Nations. it is the virtue par excellence. "A Week on the Concord and Merrimac Rivers. by writing hundreds of pages as mere practise-work." was an ent ire failure. seven hundred of which I wrote myself. The persistent tortoise outruns the swift bu t fickle hare. Ariosto wrote his "Description of a Tempest" in sixteen different ways. another. they become our helpers. One of the paintings which made Titian famous was on his easel eig ht years. "But your five hundred lines in three days will be dead and forgotten. Knowing that Providence mingles the cup." and even then w as so dissatisfied that he wanted to burn it." Want of constancy is the cause of many a failure." yet you can read it in sixty minutes. but have been elaborated an d elaborated into grace and beauty. to show that when we have conquered our misfortunes . The reading and re-reading of a single volume has been the making of many a man. Thoreau wrote in his diary: "I have some nine hundred volumes i n my library. "Never despair. "but if you do. Oh." he replied. Therefore. Show me a really great triumph that is not the reward of persistence. the best. making the millionaire of today a beggar to-morrow." Yet he took up his pen wit h as much determination as ever. of the years p ut into a book which may be read in an hour. when he had written five hundred lines. and of the Soul against Matter.

"Soldiers." After Grant's defeat at the first battle of Shiloh. When Lincoln was asked how Grant impr essed him as a general. completely cowed. and said: "Gentlemen. even after his h ead is cut off. He fights. took a bundle of papers from a n inside pocket.Be firm. but their prov isions were completely exhausted. but Massena replied: "My soldiers must be allowed to march out with colors flying. "My sword is too short. Then. It is just such grit th at enables men to succeed.000. after several days of hard fighting without definite result. solid. handed one to each general. "Add a step to it. nearly every newspaper of b oth parties in the North. the enemy outnumbered them four to one. at dawn you w ill execute those orders. but free to fight when and where we please." and "I propose to fight it out on this line if it takes all summer. nothing can shake him off. and with the morning sun the army moved forward to victory." that settled the fate of the Rebellion . I will sally forth from Genoa sword in hand. speaking only at rare intervals to tell a pithy story. you are Frenchmen. then. that shows what Oxford boatm en call "the beefiness of the fellow. Lincoln listened for hours one night. w hen Santa Anna with 20. w ho had been a silent listener for hours." said old "Rough and Ready" at Buena Vista. and general after general told how he would withdraw. If you do not grant this.000 Austrians. not as p risoners of war. coolly walking among his disaffec ted generals when they threatened his life in the Egyptian campaign. Small though he looks. They had killed and captured more than 15. to die hard. if he dies. He has the grip of a bulldog." said Napoleon. another thought it better to retire by a different road.000 men offered him a chance to save his 4. At length all eyes were turned upon Grant. or seek a m ore favorable position in the rear. and public sentiment everywhere demanded his removal.000 soldiers b y capitulation. It is this keeping right on that wins in the battle of life. and gave us the greatest hero of the Civil War. It is said that the snapping-turtle will not release his grip." Every paper gave definite directions for an advance. the jaw that never yields Drags down the bello wing monarch of the fields! HOLMES. starvation stared them in the face. or fall back. It is the final effort that brings victory. as he withdrew. "The greatest thing about him is cool persis tency of purpose. and they seemed at the mercy of their opponents. until the clock struck one." "How brave he is!" exclaim ed the ringleader. when he once gets his teeth in. but at length the Mexicans we re glad to avoid further defeat by flight. and arms and baggage. old Teutonic pluck. With eight thousand famished . and too few to intimidate me. But only crowbars loose the bulld og's grip. Massena's army of 18. It is the last pul l of the oar. Once. with clenched teeth and knit muscles. "General Taylor never surrenders." was the only reply. The battle was long and desperate. He is resolved. He rose." It was Lincoln's marvelous insight and sagacity that saved Grant from the storm of popular passion. almost every member of Congress. he called a council of war. One general described the route by which he would retreat. Friends of the President pleaded with him to gi ve the command to some one else. h e said: "I can't spare this man. the mongrel's hold will slip. he replied. for his own sake as well as for the good of the country." It was "On to Richmond. St ick to your aim. for what is called luck is generally the prerogative of valiant souls. "you are to o many to assassinate. after a long silence.000 men in Genoa had been reduced by fighting and famine t o 8. Grant never looked backward. one constant element of luck Is genuine." said a Spartan youth to his father. G eneral Ott demanded a discretionary surrender.

Whoev er attempts to pass through the door to success will find it labeled." He then made his famous cavalry charge. and I intend never to eat another until I get out of debt. "There is room enough up higher. gentlemen. This is true in every department o f activity. Massena's only reply was: "Take my terms." Ot t knew the temper of the great soldier. "what do you intend buying it with?" "Brass. no backing. "I am going to buy the American Museum . consulted numerous references all telling of "a good showman. "Is this the way you eat your dinner?" he asked. and will pay for the Museum before the year is out. but Francis Olmstead. The goddess of fame or of fortune has been won by many a poor boy who had n o friends. "I have not eaten a warm dinner since I bought the Museum. who was orphaned in infancy and cast upon the world to make his own way in life: "When defeated. Olmstead. O lmstead was to appoint a money-taker at the door. "but w e will see who can pound the longest. Six months later Mr. we must have some oak and iron in us. Napoleon said of this man. "f or silver and gold have I none." was the prompt reply." said Barnum to a friend in 1841." "Ah! you are safe . and found Ba rnum eating for dinner a few slices of bread and some corned beef. and knew the condition of his pocket. Massena was always ready to fight a battle over again. "Push. Barnum assented to the arrangement. except on the Sabbat h. ." There is another big word in the English language: the perfection of grit is th e power of saying "No. as though he had been the conqueror." "The battle is completely lost." with emphasis that can not be mistaken. or if he would depart by sea so as not to be quickly joine d by reinforcements. The nature which is all pine and straw is of no use in times of trial. Olmstead entered the ticket-office at noon. who would do as he agreed. looking at his watch." Ott at last agreed." and he kept h is word." "It is very kind of them to 'sand' our letters for us." said Mr." Everyone interested in public entertainments in New York knew Barnum. The young man who succeeds must hold his ground and push hard. The remark attracted Napoleon's attention an d led to the promotion of the scrivener." "Buy it!" exclaimed the astonished friend. and I will fight till I cut my way through it. Mrs. or I will cut my way through your army." said Webster to a young man hesitating to stu dy law because the profession was so crowded. and we shall have time to gain another. or anything but pure grit and invincible purpose. when consul ted by Napoleon at Marengo. and credit Barnum towards the purchase with all above expenses and an allowance of fifty dollars per month to support his wife and three children. "but it is only two o'clock." said Desaix. He was right. and agreed to accept the terms if he wou ld surrender himself. for in less than a y ear Barnum had paid every cent out of the profits of the establishment. an d offered to cut down the household expenses to a little more than a dollar a da y. who knew that the showman had not a dollar. who owned the Museum building ." said Wellington at Waterloo to his officers. as an Austrian shell scattered earth over the dispatch he was writing at the d ictation of his commander-in-chief." said young Junot coolly . "Hard pounding.men I will attack your camp. and won the field. "Well. Learn to meet ha rd times with a harder will. alt hough a few minutes before the French soldiers all along the line were momentari ly expecting an order to retreat. and more determined pluck." and accepted a proposition to give security for the purchaser. Mr. when Massena said: "I give you notic e that ere fifteen days are passed I shall be once more in Genoa. slappi ng the young man approvingly on the shoulder.

Be awake. of the Persian co ndemned to lose his tongue. But let both persevere a nd at the end of five. a Venus de Medici. of a painter who produced an effect long desired by throwing hi s brush at a picture in rage and despair. will turn up something. labor turns out at six o'clock. of a musician who. Howe hi s sewing-machine. Indeed. after repeated fail ures in trying to imitate a storm at sea. not inaction. a Minerva. and that no one else can fill it as well. No life is w asted unless it ends in sloth. as the desire to work hard. but even here it wi ll usually be found that the sagacity with which the efforts are directed and th e energy with which they are prosecuted measure pretty accurately the luck conta ined in the results achieved. on character. Goodyear his rubber. while in the long run the rule will hold good. and raise ignorance to the skies? Does it imprison virtue. Fulton his steamboat. for all practica l purposes. Field. labor. a Rothschild. "Luck is ever waiting for something to turn up. a lo afer become a Girard or Astor." says Huxley. "labor. There is. but only opened an internal tumor.A good character. for industry. an Aeneid. or cowardice." Stick to the thing and carry it through. Luck lies in bed. with keen eyes and strong will. Vanderbilt. go forth to the task. tried to commit suicide. One b rings up a pearl. or a Greek Slave? Does luck raise rich crops on the land of the sluggard." Has luck ever made a fool speak words of wisdom. an element of luck in the amount of success which crowns the efforts of different men." says Cobden. an d with busy pen or ringing hammer lays the foundation of a competence. Edison his phonograph ? If you are told of the man who. while the other returns empty-handed. electrify yourself. effecting a cure. labor whistles. or Richmond. T wo pearl-divers. There is no luck. folly at a premium? Does it cast intelligence into the gutter. on whom a bungling operation merely removed an imped iment of speech. good habits. a carel ess stonecutter carve an Apollo. Morse his telegraph. Luck whin es. Only once learn to carry a . Apparent exceptions will be found to relate almost wholly to single undertakings. and laud vice ? Did luck give Watt his engine. Whitney his cot ton-gin. "Varied experience of men has led me. ten.--bear in mind that even this "luck" came to men as the result of action. No success is worthy of the name unless it is won by honest industry and brave breasting of the waves o f fortune. Believe you were made for the place yo u fill. to him who is not striving. and pamper idleness? Does luck put com mon sense at a discount. the longer I live. Luck relies on chance. and wishes the postman would bring him the news of a legacy. and whose senses are not all eagerly att ent. or a Hamlet. a dolt write an Odyssey. or twenty years it will be found that they succeeded almost in exact proportion to their skill and industry. does not come to much if a feeble frame is unable to respond to the desire. to attach more and more importance to industry an d physical endurance. What are called accidental discoveries are almost invariably made by those who are looking for something. and iron industry are impregnable to the assault s of the ill luck that fools are dreaming of. "to set less value on mere cleverness. A man incurs about as much risk of being struck b y lightning as by accidental luck. or Rockefeller. Blanchard his lathe. weeds and brambles on t hat of the industrious farmer? Does luck make the drunkard sleek and attractive. dive together and work with equal energy. a Paradise Lost. a coward win at Yorktown. Stewart. Put forth your whole energies. Waterloo. dishonesty. obtained the result desired by angrily running his hands together from the extremities of the keyboard. while the temperate man looks haggard and suffers want a nd misery? Does luck starve honest labor. Franklin his captive lightning. Wagram. perhaps. and his home cheerful. an ignoramus utter lectures on science. Bell his telephone. equally expert. I am much disposed to think that endurance is the most valuable quality of all. Gould. worn out by a painful disorder.

the ceaseless vi gilance and fidelity which made the Roman legionaries masters of the known world . he alone is great . His plans work out f or mortals. Thus. There lies Peru with its riches: here. the drenching storm. and verge enough for more. the workmen found the skeleton of a Rom an soldier in the sentry-box at one of the city's gates. I have a soul that. nakedness. determined doer. envies not. . DRYDEN. second. he had r emained at his post. "I like the man who faces what he must With step triumphant and a heart of chee r. I go to the south. each man. gives zest To every toiler. in the face of certain death. like an ample shi eld. e ase and pleasure." While digging among the ruins of Pompeii. and death. and you will become a hero . which was buried by the dust and ashe s from an eruption of Vesuvius A. 79.thing through in all its completeness and proportion. Who by a life heroic conquers fate. on this side. Panama and its poverty. Who fights the daily battle without fear. LONGFELLOW. Nor even murmurs at his humbler lot. N or loses faith in man. For my part. when his men were c lamoring to return to Panama. "on that side are toi l. not a tear Is shed when fortune. backbone. better." said Harriet Beecher Stowe."--BEETHOVEN." CHAPTER XXV CLEAR GRIT Let fortune empty her whole quiver on me. third. "neve r give up then. Can take in all. with love. Falls f rom his grasp. That wins each godlike act. desertion. At the time they had not even a vessel to transport them to the country they wished to conquer. You will think better of yourself. "Friends and comrades. others will think better of you. The world in its very heart admires the stern. true and just." said Pizarro. a crust Than living in dishonor. and plucks success E'en from the spear-proof crest of rugged danger." "When you get into a tight place and everything goes against you. He might have found saf ety under sheltering rocks close by. hunger. as he turned toward the south. Sees his hopes fail.-GOLDSMITH." Charles Sumner said "three things are necessary to a strong character: First. what best becomes a brave Castilian." So saying. on the little island of Gallo in the Pacific. D. backbone. Though a whole town's against him. Our greatest glory is not in never falling. Is it necessary to add that all difficulties yie lded at last to such resolute determination? "Perseverance is a Roman virtue. yet keeps unfa ltering trust That God is God. which the world holds dear. did Pizarro and his few volunteers resolve to stak e their lives upon the success of a desperate crusade against the powerful empir e of the Incas. B ut with a smile and words of hope. b ackbone. but does his best. that somehow. There's a brave fellow! There's a man of pluck! A man who's not afraid to say h is say. he crossed the line and was followed by thirteen Spaniards i n armor. "Thus far and no farther. a mute witness to the thorough discipline. but in rising every time we fall. but. Choose. after trac ing with his sword upon the sand a line from east to west. till it seems as if you could not hold on a minute longer. The barriers are not yet erected which shall say to aspiring talent. for that's just the place and time that the tide'll turn.

wo uld ruin the paper and himself. pure grit. when told that he would nev er make an orator as he had failed in his first speech in Parliament." said Sheridan. charact er. begged his father to give him full control of the paper. at th e close of any battle for principles. Walter and was s teadily losing money. was the result. that new life and new blood and new ideas had been infused int o the insignificant sheet. only added to his determination to succeed. The father was in utter dismay. Jr. He became known as one of the foremost orators of his day. The paper had not attempted to mold publi c opinion. and his foreign dispatches were all stopped at the outposts." and nothing could stay its progress. In the strife of parties and principles. that the first steam printed paper was given to the world. dishonesty trembles. John Walter. he was sure. and courageously grapples with his fate.The world admires the man who never flinches from unexpected difficulties. and had had no individuality or character of its own. there is no alternative but to keep pegging away. and Walter had duplicate and even triplicate types set. but among the missing. at his post. if need be . individuality. The aggressive editor antagonized the government. that its article s meant business. In the presence of men permeated with grit and sound i n character. replied: "Oh. even the government. and many a bas e thought has been unuttered. throwing off 17. and ev erybody admires achievement. the fa ther finally consented." As a rule. and fin ally the Walter Press. "Mean natures always feel a sort of terror before great natures. his name will be found neither among the d ead nor among the wounded. and scarcely dared recite . It is that quality which achieves. grit were behind the "Times. meanness and baseness slink out of sight. character. patiently. an d his personality pervaded every detail. Enterprise. The public soon saw that a new power stood behind the "Times". who calmly. by tying an opinion to a man's tongue. The audacious y oung editor boldly attacked every wrong. Lincoln. 1814. At enormous expense he employed special couriers.--a man who could make a way when he could not find one. and they appeared in the "Times" several days before their appearance in the government organs. Young Walter was the soul of the paper. many a sneaking vote withheld. But no remonstrance could swerve the son from hi s purpose to give the world a great journal which should have weight. The " leading article" also was introduced to stay. When a boy Henry Clay was very bashful and diffident. hypocrisy is uncertain. The "London Times" was an insignificant sheet published by Mr. In those days only three hundred copies of the paper could be struck off in an hour by the best presses. and independence. whi le the ministerial journalists were allowed to proceed. It was the 29th of November. whenever he though t it corrupt. backbone w ithout brains will carry against brains without backbone. has the right of way. Thereupon the public customs. Then he set his brain to work. After many misgivings. push. His son. "Clear grit" always commands respect. both sides printed.. then only twenty-seven years old. The young journalist began to remodel the establishment and to introduce new ideas everywhere. who dies." "It is in me and it shall come out.000 copies per hour. Mean men are uncomfortabl e. being asked by an anxious visitor what he would do after three or four years if the rebellion were not subdued. Am ong other new features foreign dispatches were introduced. make him the representative of that opinion. printing. Ev ery obstacle put in his way. You can not. and all opposition from the government. and the government adverti sements were withdrawn. But nothing could daunt this resolute young spirit. through the fear in spired by the rebuking presence of one noble man. that a man with brains and push and tenacity of purpo se stood at the helm.

and behind the face discharged of all telltale expression. and was willing to sleep on a hayrick. Many of the failures of life are d ue to the want of grit or business nerve. which enters into the very structure. that deaf pauper and master of Oriental learning. and if you tell him he should run for the presidency. proving that behind the cigar. . obliging this man by investing in hopeless speculation. Many of our generals in the Civil War exhibited heroism. by which he thought he co uld raise about twelve shillings. it perseveres. or in the barn with the horse a nd cows for an audience. he stolidly sm okes. He could not be moved from his base. he was self-centered. He told him t hat he would sell his books and pawn his handkerchief. is not clamor. even if he had to subsist like the Hottentots. So he commit ted speeches and recited them in the cornfields. While you are wondering what k ind of creature this man without a tongue is. It insp ires a sublime audacity and a heroic courage. you are suddenly electrified with the news of some splendid victory. but Grant had pure "grit" in the most con centrated form. indomitable will? Grit is a permanent. and in the the knowledge that ll prevail. the great President sat with crossed legs. and the generals in the war were denouncing his "f oolish" confidence in Grant. r ather than offend a friend. is the best brain to plan and the s trongest heart to dare among the generals of the Republic. with a leaky ship. He is spared the necessity of declaring himself. In the presence of his de cision and imperial energy they melted away. with no ability to say "No" with an emphasis. "If you try to wheedle out of him his plans for a campaign. in fact. There is a mighty force in sublime conviction and supreme self-confidence behind it. and was reminde d of a story. indorsing a questionable note. W hat were impossibilities to such a resolute. The man of grit carries in his very presence a power which controls and command s. he blandly lights another cig ar. through hurricane and tempest. the v ery tissues of the constitution. and. immov able. in truth is mighty. If impossibilities ever exist. can bear abuse and hatred. and delegations were waiting upon him to ask for th at general's removal. with a crew in mutiny. popularly speaking. and it dies still struggling. He begged his father to take him ou t of the poorhouse." an d often displayed great determination." Lincoln had pure "grit. nuts. He said he could live upon blackberries." When the illustrated papers everywhere were caricaturi ng him. they ought to have been foun d somewhere between the birth and death of Kitto. they were "plucky. if you call him an imbecile and a blunderer. but he determined to become an orator. Lincoln and Grant swerved by public truth. if you praise him as the greatest general living. and the conviction and confidence that it wi Pure grit is that element of character which enables a man to clutch his aim wi th an iron grip. it do es not disturb the equanimity with which he inhales and exhales the unsubstantia l vapor which typifies the politician's promises. for his grit speaks in his e very act. through sleet a nd rain.before his class at school. It is unfortunate for a young man to s tart out in business life with a weak. he placidly returns the pu ff from his regalia. both had that rare nerve which cares not for ridicule. and field turnips. it is a part of his life. solid quality. nothi ng but death can subdue it. when no epithet seemed too harsh to heap upon him. Here was real grit. But Kitto did not find them there. It does not come by fits and starts. Through sunshine and storm. yielding disposition. with no resolution or backbone to mark his own course and stick to it. when his methods were criticized by his own party. and keep the needle of his purpose pointing to the star of his hope.

" said Macaulay of Alexander the Great. walking from his home in the vill age of Dartmouth. by getting up every time I fell down. Oh. telling him to keep his posit ion for two hours longer at Aspern. Once when Marshal Ney was going into battle. to New Bedford to replenish his store of words and defi nitions from the town library." It is victory after victory with the soldier.. and the Austrians were confident i t was won. looking down at his knees which we re smiting together.' And he kept his word. the Austrians considered the day won. He was competing for the university prize. Crapo. helpless in bed. It helped Locke to live on bread and water in a Dutch garret. cut it i n two. the trumpet's blast being g iven. He persevered in spite of repeated attacks of illness and par tial loss of sight. the Old Guard charged down into the weakened center of the enemy. "After the defeat at Essling. the triumphs of this indomitable spirit of the conqueror! This it was that enabled Franklin to dine on a small loaf in the printing-office with a book in h is hand. Napoleon gave the command to charge." he replied. his frame weakened by his unparalleled exertions during a contest of forty hours. This order." "Often defeated in battle. while working his way through college. to do which he had to learn I talian and German. blow after blow with the laborer. he r ose painfully and said courageously. the bra ve student died. and the battle was won for France . but Napoleon knew the indomitable tenacity o f the man to whom he gave it. the success of Napoleon's attempt to withdraw his beaten army depended on the character of Masséna. and in four years he took his degr ee. 'Tell the Emperor that I will hold out for two hours. rolled the two wings up on either side. "You may well shake. and. picture after picture with the painter. to follow up the French. The French army was inferior in numbers. He resolved to make a critical study of Dante. Think of the para lytic lad. The lad determined to continue his college stu dies. fighting death inch by inch! What a lesson! Before his manuscript was published or the prize awarded. half starved and thinly clad. . and had given way.A little boy was asked how he learned to skate. Whipple tells a story of Masséna which illustrates the masterful purpose that plu cks victory out of the jaws of defeat. It sustai ned Lincoln and Garfield on their hard journeys from the log cabin to the White House. A promising Harvard student was stricken with paralysis of both legs. Then. and his whole appearance indicating a physical state better befitting the hospital than the field. but his work was successful. though the French themselves thought that the battle was lost. required almost an impossibility. The Austrian army extended its wing s on the right and on the left. Physician s said there was no hope for him. It enable d Gideon Lee to go barefoot in the snow. to whom the Emperor dispatched a messenger. "Oh." In the battle of Marengo. lesson after lesson with the scho lar. But that steadfast soul seemed alt ogether unaffected by bodily prostration. Congressman William W. The examiners heard him at his bedside. Mass. crop after crop with the farmer. Half dead as he was with fatigue. you would shake worse yet if you knew where I am going to take you. "he was alway s successful in war. competing for a prize. being too poor to buy a dictionary. couched in the form of a request . actually copied one. The messenger found Masséna seated on a heap of rubb ish. that secu res what all so much desire--SUCCESS. and mile after mile with the traveler. his eyes bloodshot. he said.

he simply says . pushing his way up through the middle classes. and I will back that young man to do better than most of those who have succeeded at the first trial. hissed from the House of Commons. better. His father refused to give him mo re. without opportunit y. legs and yet have achieved marvelous su ccess." was his audacious reply. he left home moneyle ss. and paying his notes at the same time. "to tell me that a young man has di stinguished himself by a brilliant first speech. Imagine England's su rprise when she awoke to find this insignificant Hebrew actually Chancellor of t he Exchequer! He was easily master of all the tortures supplied by the armory of rhetoric. Lord Melbourne. up through the upper classes. ridiculed. and the boy wit h no chance swayed the scepter of England for a quarter of a century. returned to college. Henry Fawcett put grit in place of eyesight. he could s ting Gladstone out of his self-control. Francis Parkman put grit in place of health and eyesight. Fox. fairly wringing success from adverse f ortune. rebuffed. and lift himself to success. asked him what he wish ed to be. until he stands self-poised upon the topmost round of political and social power . But he did not give up speaking till every poor man in England had a larger. graduated at the head of his class. and that he must now sink or swim." The time did come. forcing his leaders hip upon that very party whose prejudices were deepest against his race. and nevertheless has gone on. and became Lincoln's great Secretary of State during the Civil War. Barnum was a ruined man. Prescott also put grit in place of eyesight. for he knew his day would come. See young Disraeli." said Charles J. owing thousands more than he possessed. he could exhaust the resources of the bitterest invective. Indeed. he rose repeatedly from the ashes of his misfortune each time mo re determined than before. hands. eyes. "It is all very well. he was absolute master of himself and hi s situation. "The time will come when you will hear me. You could see that this young man intended to make his way in the w orld. You can not keep a man down who has these qualities. "Prime Minister of England. William H. Thousands of men have put gri t in place of health.President Chadbourne put grit in place of his lost lung. or he may be sati sfied with his first triumph. When the youth found the props all t aken out from under him. Handsome. when this gay young fop was introduced to him. One of the most remarkable examples in history is Disraeli. bu t phoenix-like. yet he resolutely resumed business once more. The son returned at the end of the fresh man year with extravagant habits and no money. Determined audacity was in his very face. sprung from a hated and persecuted race. but show me a young man who has not succeeded at f irst. and told him he could not stay at home. and whi ch had an utter contempt for self-made men and interlopers. and bec ame the greatest historian of America in his line. Again and again he was ruined. At fifty. was el ected Governor of New York." Cobden broke down completely the first time he appeared on a platform in Manche ster. He may go on. this was all he was to have. Scoffed. the great Prime Minister. Seward was given a thousand dollars by his father with which to go t o college. most of the great things of the world have been accomplished by g rit and pluck. studied law. ears. and cheaper loaf. and became the greatest Postmaster -General England ever had. with the hated Hebrew blood in his veins. after three defeats in parliamentary elections he was not th e least daunted. . and became one of America's greate st historians. and the chairman apologized for him. and worked thirty-five years after his funeral had been planned. He will make stepping-stones out of his stumbling-blocks.

they l acked will-power. where everything is pusher or pushed. and then he rode before the rebellious line and threatened with instant death the first mutineer that should try to leave. What chance is there in this crowding. pushing. Not the distance we have run. by dissipation. shiftless. unprovided for an d starving. by a weak constitution. But the general set the example of living on acorns. the land of opportunity. became mutinous and were going home. greedy world. the battle is not always to the strong. with th e opposition of parents who do not understand them? How many a round boy is hind ered in the race by being forced into a square hole? How many youths are delayed in their course because nobody believes in them." The triumph of industry and grit over low birth and iro n fortune in America. with povert y. of training. "The wise and active conquer difficulties. will all be taken into account. of circumstances. because they get no sympathy and are forever tortured for not doing that again st which every fiber of their being protests. They could not half will. those who have su ffered abuse in silence. self ish. ought to be sufficient to put to shame all grumblers over their hard fortune and those who attempt to excuse aiml ess. "there is nothing impossible to him who will try. I should say unhesitatingly. it is impossible. sloth and folly Shiver and sink at sight of toil and hazard. by "lif e-sappers". and who have been unrecognized or despised by their fel low-runners. During a winter in the War of 1812.Garfield said. I should call the stre ngth of will the test of a young man's possibilities. and hold whatever he undertakes with an iron grip? It is the iron grip that tak es the strong hold on life. By daring to attempt them. What is a man without a will? He is like an engine without steam. to Alexander." Were I called upon to express in a word the secret of so many failures among th ose who started out in life with high hopes. the poor woman who has buried her sor rows in her silent heart and sewed her weary way through life. of surrounding s. the weights we have c arried. the handicaps. We must take into consideration the hindrances. the disadvantages of education. The race is not always to the swift. The poor wretch who has plodded along against unknown temptations. Ho rses are sometimes weighted or hampered in the race. So in the race of life the distance alone does not determine the prize. a mere sport of chance. "Begone. and every drop of their blood rebe ls? How many men have to feel their way to the goal through the blindness of ign orance and lack of experience? How many go bungling along from the lack of early discipline and drill in the vocation they have chosen? How many have to hobble along on crutches because they were never taught to help themselves. by impaire d eyesight or hearing? When the prizes of life shall be finally awarded. for a young man with no will." "I can't. always at the mercy of those who have wills. no grip on life? "The truest wisdom. the disadvantages und er which we have made the race. will often receive the greater prize. of breeding. "is a resolute deter . will decide the prizes. because nobody encourages them . or friends? How many are fettered with ignorance. How many young men are weighted down with debt. the weights we have carried. to be tossed about hither and thither. And make the impossibility t hey fear. and this is taken into acco unt in the result. the distance we have run. General Jackson's troops." said a foiled lieutenant. "If the power to do hard work is not talent." said Napoleon. but the obstacles we have overcome. it is the best poss ible substitute for it. but have be en accustomed to lean upon a father's wealth or a mother's indulgence? How many are weakened for the journey of life by self-indulgence. hampered by inhospitable surroundings. with the support of invalid parents or brothers and sisters." shouted the conquering Macedonian. how many are crippled by disease. successless men because they have no chance. Can he will strong enough.

by that time. and if I don't send y ou back six dollars within forty-eight hours you may keep the horse. harrow. He early identified himself with the g rowing railroad interests of the country. "The undivided will 'T is that compels the elements and wrings A human music fr om the indifferent air.mination. If." Speaking of his first attempt at a debating club. He was a remarkable example of success under difficulties. untarnished by ambition or avarice . I took courage and had actually proceeded al . Curran. P. but with cha racter it would make a Wellington or a Grant. but great minds rise above t hem." The innkeeper asked the reason for this novel proposition. The work accomplished." CHAPTER XXVI SUCCESS UNDER DIFFICULTIES Victories that are easy are cheap. 1810." said a boy of twelve one day in 1806 to the innkeeper at South Amboy. "If you will pu t us across.--WASHINGTON IRVING. There was no keeping him down. and plant with corn the eight-acre lot. N. "on the twenty-seventh of this month you will be sixteen years o ld. he had started with only six dollars to travel a long distance home over the Jersey sands." replied the orator. and take it to New York in lighters. I'll leave with you one of my horses in pawn. Those only are worth having which come as th e result of hard fighting." said the innkeeper. my dear sir.--BEECHER. But the tide turned. and reached South Amboy penniless. From this small beginning Cornelius Vanderbilt laid the foundation of a colossal fortune. you will plow. The horse was soon redeemed. no opposition daunted him." The field was rough and stony. six horses. trembling through every fiber. The boy had been sent with three wagons . "I'll d o it. when he asked her to lend him one hundred dollars to buy a boat. "it was born some three and twe nty years and some months after me. In 1818 Vanderbilt owned two or three of the finest coasting schooners in New Y ork harbor. and became the richest man of his day in America. "Eloquence must have been born with you." An iron will without principle might produce a Napoleon. Barnum began the race of business life barefoot. for at the age of fifteen he w as obliged to buy on credit the shoes he wore at his father's funeral. on the first of May. and had a capital of nine thousand dollars." said a friend to J. to carry the cargo across a sand-spit to the lighte rs. he gave up his fine b usiness to become the captain of a steamboat at one thousand dollars a year. but remembering that in this I was but imitating Tully. I will advance you the money. he said: "I stood up. J. Seeing that steam-vessel s would soon win supremacy over those carrying sails only. but the work was done in time." said this same boy's mother. and learned that the lad's father had contracted to get the cargo of a vessel stranded near Sandy Ho ok. and he prospered so rapidly that he a t length owned over a hundred steamboats. in the face of opposition so bitter that he lost his last dollar. and three men. "My son. it was not. Little minds are tamed and subdued by misfortunes. "I have here three teams that I want to get over to Staten Island. J. For twelve years he ran between New York City and New Brunswick. as he looked into the bright honest eyes of the boy. and well done. N. In 1829 he b egan business as a steamboat owner. "Indee d. having imbibed a strong liki ng for the sea.

and mounta ins are leveled. yet was it. In af ter years he fought "steals" in Congress. "All the performances of human art. in time surmount the greatest difficulties. harassed by want and woe. "are instances of the resistless force of perseverance: it is by th is that the quarry becomes a pyramid." s ays Johnson." "I doubt not. when a cobbler's apprentice. yet those petty operation s. I became dismayed and dumb. and then he pawned his letters patent to pay his expenses home. and spoke at every opportunity. besides studying botany. H e sold his first machine for five pounds. by the slender force of human beings." and well did he deserve the title until he ventured to stare in astonishment at a speaker who was "culminating chronology by the most preposterous anachronis ms. as if I were the central object in nature. Great men have found no royal road to their triumph. work ou t their problem." Great men never wait for opportunities. Encouraged by this success. with the general design and last result. although it was worth fifty. on small scraps of leather. the astronomer. He also borrowed money to send his wife back to America. he had frequently to borrow money to live on. If a man was to compare the effect of a single stroke of the pickax. he took great pains to become a good speaker. notwithstanding he had to be at the factory at six in the mo rning. Out of his first week's wages he bought a Latin grammar. The farmer boy. to my astonishment and terror." He was nicknamed "Orator Mum . he wou ld be overwhelmed by the sense of their disproportion. and the r oom could not have contained as many more. Nor do they wait for fa cilities or favoring circumstances. and oceans bounded. 'Hear him!' but there was nothing to hear. and early learned the lesson that it takes one hundred cents to make a dollar. Bunyan wrote his "Pilgrim's Progress" on the untwisted papers which were used t o cork the bottles of milk brought for his meals." speaking fluently in his anger. A young man determined and willing wi ll find a way or make one. He bought beans and cooked them himself.' when. to my panic-stricken imag ination. they make them. Gifford wrote his first copy o f a mathematical work. or of one impression of the spade. at which we look with praise and wonder. first calculated eclipses on his plow handle. but I would recommend him to show it in future by so me more popular method than his silence. and amid the deafening roar of machinery would po re over its pages. Elihu B. He mastered Vergil and Horace in this way. they seize upon whatever is at hand.most as far as 'Mr." When Elias Howe. and assembled millions were gazing upon me in breathless expectation. and that distant countries are united with canals. until he was called the "Watchdog of t he Treasury. David Livingstone at ten years of age was put into a cotton factory near Glasgo w. incessantly continued. It is always the old route . and read extensively. that he would place his book bef ore him on the spinning-jenny. My friends cried. and Rittenhouse. and master the situation. I perceived that every eye was turned on me. He corrected his hab it of stuttering by reading favorite passages aloud every day slowly and distinc tly. He would sit up and study till midnight unless his mothe r drove him to bed. The boy Arkwright begins barbering in a cellar. by way of industry and perseverance." Stung by the taunt. Curran rose and ga ve the man a "piece of his mind. So eager for knowledge was he. was in London completing his first s ewing-machine. he c an bring electricity from the clouds with a common kite. A Franklin does not require elaborate apparatus. taught school at ten dollars per month. "that 'Orator Mum' possesses wonde rful talents for eloquence. and studied in the n ight schools for years. Washburn. but dies worth a million and a . Chairman. There were only six or seven present." said the annoyed speaker.

and lived to become honored and wealthy.half. Not in the brilliant salon. the unfolding of your p sprang the greatest of crowded ranks of toil. Daniel Webster. and death might be chanted by a Greek chorus as at once the pr elude and the epilogue of the most imperial theme of modern times? Born as lowly as the Son of God. and Sumner. career. before he publi shed his "Ferdinand and Isabella. and exercised an influence upon the thought of the world amounting to a species of intellectual legislation. the most experienced and accomplis hed men of the day. the guides and teachers of their kind. in bare and fireless garrets. He set his heart upon being a historian. but he snapped his fingers at their objections. and intrusted with the destiny of a nation. squalor. Columbus f ound the new world in an undecked boat. Nearly every great discovery or invention that has blessed mankind has had to f ight its way to recognition. The world treated his novelties just as it treats everybody's novelties--m ade infinite objection. But the boy would not lead a useless life. Amid scenes unpropitious. From among the rock-ribbed hills of New Hampshire American orators and statesmen. while this strange figure was brought by unseen hands to the front. with scarcely a natural grace. not in ease and comp etence. wretched. mustered all the impediments. and t rained themselves. "discovered a more splendid series of celestial phenomena than any one since with the great telescopes. with no gleam of light. There is scarcely a great truth or doctrine but has had to fight its way to pub lic recognition in the face of detraction. and Chase. but often in adversity and destitution. late in life. Everyone who enters makes his o wn door. a young manhood vex ed by weird dreams and visions. wh ose life. nor fair surrounding. have often come tors of our race. have men labored. reared in pe nury. From the and homes to which luxury is a stranger. not even permitting his own chil dren to pass. which closes behind him to all others. of what real parentage we know not. calumny. in a hovel. There is no open door to the temple of success. studied. even against the opposition of the most progressive men. is genius born and nurtured. not in the tapestried library. he spent ten years stu dying before he even decided upon a particular theme for his first book. poring over old archives and manuscripts." and the other eye became almost useless. were sent to the rear. singularly awkwar d. men like Seward. and persecution. repulsive. to be snatched from obscurity. have become the companions of kings. Then he spent ten years more. until they have at last emanated from the gloom of that obscu rity the shining lights of their times." said a sage. ungainly even among the uncouth about him: it was reserved for this remarkabl e character. The great l eaders of his party were made to stand aside. William H. the leaders and benefac Where shall we find an illustration more impressive than in Abraham Lincoln. "who has not suffered?" Schiller produced his . and given the reins of power." What a lesson in his life for young men! What a rebuke to those who have thrown away their opportunities and wasted their liv es! "Galileo with an opera-glass. statesmen famous and trained. Prescott was a remarkable example of what a boy with "no chance" can do." said Emerson. raised to supreme comm and at a supreme moment. ami dst the harassing cares of a straitened household. By the aid of others' eyes." Surroundings which men call unfavorable can not prevent owers. While at college. "What does he know. and turned all hi s energies in that direction. he lost one eye by a hard piece of bread thrown during a "biscuit battle.

Rebuffed by kings. scorned by quee ns. One of his audito rs. discovered the lost treasure. one of the profoundest thinkers the world has produced. His awkward gestures were also corrected by long and dete rmined drill before a mirror. yet he persevered and won s uccess. warned by palsy of the approach of death . He was so discouraged by his defeats that he determined to give up forever all attempts at oratory. after many hardships. who had defrauded him. He accordingly appeared again in public. and last of all his "Requiem. Jay had arranged with Great Britain. He was accused of dealing in magic. Beethoven produced his greatest works amidst gloomy sorrow. and whom he compelled to refund a part of his fortune. ostracism.greatest tragedies in the midst of physical suffering almost amounting to tortu re. and his breath woul d give out before he could get through a sentence. and was so short of breath. He went to the seashore and practised amid the roar of th e breakers with small pebbles in his mouth. he did not swerve a hair's breadth from the overmastering purpose which domi nated his soul. he determined to be an orator at any cost. in Boston. ridicule. Threats. As he withdrew. Even our own revered Washington was mobbed in the streets because he would not pander to the clamor of the people and reje ct the treaty which Mr. of common every-day industry. jeers. believed the young man had something in him." when oppressed by debt and struggling with a f atal disease. All his first attempts were nearly drowned by the hisses. and struggling with distress and suffering. Columbus was dismissed as a fool from court after court. but was hissed down as befor e. and scoffs of his audiences. mutiny of sailors. must be sacrificed. Young Phipps determined to find it. and at the same time accustom himself to the hisses and tumults of his audience . talking about a Spanish ship wrecked off the Bahama Islands. Satyrus. and he writes the Waverley Novels. He then heard of anothe . leaky vessels. The words "New World" were graven upon his heart. or swerved a hair's breadt h from his purpose. Roger Bacon. and he makes spurs of his poverty to urge him on. that he could scarcely get throug h a single sentence without stopping to rest. and he was kept in prison for ten years. and the people adopted his opinion. position. life itself if need be. hanging his head in great confusion. Place stumbling-blocks in his w ay and he takes them for stepping-stones. a noted actor. when o ppressed by almost total deafness. But he remained fir m. Handel was never greater than when. T ake away his money. Cripple hi m. He stammered so much that he could not pronounce some of the letters at all. He had such a weak voice. which was supposed to have money on board. when a young man. and reputation . however. could not shake his mighty purpose. All that is great and noble and true in the history of the world is the result of infinite painstaking. he sat down to compose the great w orks which have made his name immortal in music. Finally. He overcame his short breath by practising while running up steep and difficul t places on the shore. and encouraged him to persevere. and. pleasure. The Duke of Wellington was mobbed in the streets of London and his windows were broken while his wife lay dead in the hou se. in order to overcome his stammering. heard some sailors on the street. was terrib ly persecuted for his studies in natural philosophy. ease. encouraged him still further to try to overcome his impediment. and such an impedim ent in his speech. His first effort tha t met with success was against his guardian. He set out at once. but the "Iron Duke" never faltered in his course. Mozart composed his great opera s. his books were burned in public. William Phipps. Perhaps no one ever battled harder to overcome obstacles which would have dishe artened most men than Demosthenes. perpetual plodding. You can not keep a determined man from success. and on them will climb to greatness. storms. but he pushed his suit against an incredulous and ridiculing world.

and does not bear the sc ar of desperate conflict. As odors crushed are sweeter still. does not know the highest meaning of success. sewin g and economizing and growing narrower every year.500. Though losses and crosses be lessons right severe. He set sa il for England and importuned Charles II for aid. BURNS. have truly lived instead of vegetating.000. and independence. reputation. They proved to belong to th e wreck. and at length had to return to England to repair his vessel. Dante. "have we said that. Field placed his hand upon the tele graph instrument ticking a message under the sea. adds brains. blin d. A distinguished investigator in science said that when he encountered an appare ntly insuperable obstacle. he usually found himself upon the brink of some disco . on our own resources. abroad and at home.--Homer and Milton . Cyrus W.--SPU RGEON." "Many and many a time since. but he t urned the ship's guns on them. of opposition . which had been wrecked off Port De La Plata many years before. His crew mutinied and threatened to throw him overboard.r ship. was in his later years nearly. A constant struggle. One day an Indian diver went down for a curious s ea plant and saw several cannon lying on the bottom. ROGERS. of ridicule. The good are better made by ill. think you that the electric th rill passed no further than the tips of his fingers? When Thomas A. whereas." Two of the three greatest epic poets of the world were blind. a ceaseless battle to win success in spite of every barrie r. seen the world abundantly. won friends. or indeed their chief reward." "Kites rise against. ye'll find no other where. after years of toil. do you suppose those bright rays failed to illuminate the inmost recesses of his soul? CHAPTER XXVII USES OF OBSTACLES Nature. referring to her father's failure in business. by being thrown. "Adversity is the prosperity of the great. we have worked hard and usefully. but for that loss of money. He searched and searched for a long time in va in. Many men owe the grandeur of their lives to their tremendous difficulties. He had nothing but dim traditions to guide him. when she adds difficulties. James II was th en on the throne. we might h ave lived on in the ordinary provincial method of ladies with small means. but he returned to Engl and with $1. Edison demon strated that the electric light had at last been developed into a commercial suc cess. When. the wind." said Harriet Martineau.--EMERSON. To his delight the king fitted up the ship Rose Algier for him. It almost seems as though some great characters had been physically crippled in certain respects so that they would not dissipate their energy. whi le it was yet time. in short. while the third. is the price of all great achievements. There's wit there ye'll get there. but concentra te it all in one direction. if not altogether. The man who has not fought his way up to his own loaf. of repeated failure. not with. The money acquired by those who have thus struggled upward to success is not th eir only. and Phipps had to wait for four years before he could raise mo ney to return.

having noth ing to keep him steady. It is just so in lif e. T heir biting sarcasm and scathing rebuke are mirrors which reveal us to ourselves . These unkind stings and thrusts are often spurs which urge us on to grander su ccess and nobler endeavor. but they often act as a stimulus to the naturally indolent. If the germ of the seed has to struggle to push its way up through the stones a nd hard sod. "Let the adverse breath of criticism be to you only what the blast of the storm wind is to the eagle. by awakening p owers which were sleeping. An air of triumph is seen in every movement. Soon he was regarded as the brigh test ornament of the class. "Returned with thanks" has made many an author. There is nothing that does a young lawyer so much good as to be half starved. Failure often leads a man to su ccess by arousing his latent energy. They have developed in us the very power b y which we overcome them. Poverty and obscurity are not insurmount able obstacles. "To make his way at the bar. There is good philosophy in the injunction to love our enemies. Friends cover our faults and rarely rebuke. with snow and frost. a stronger muscle and stamina of body. We are the victors of our opponents. as the oak is braced and anchored for its th ousand battles with the tempests. The man who is tied down by half a dozen blooming responsibilities and their mother will make a higher and stronger flight than the bachelor who.--a force against him that lifts him higher. quickly rising above them in scholarship. They tell us the truth when friends flatter." A kite would not fly unless it had a string tying it down. "a young man must live li ke a hermit and work like a horse. Without their opposition we could never have braced an d anchored and fortified ourselves. and develop a firmer fiber of mind. the fiber of its timber will be all the t ougher and stronger. commanded their respect. Poverty and obscurity of origin may impede our progress. but are the better for them. We dread these thrusts an d exposures as we do the surgeon's knife. . They reac h depths before untouched. enemies d rag out to the light all our weaknesses without mercy. and we are led to resolve to redeem ourselves from sc orn and inferiority. and then to wrestle with s torm and tempest. but it is only like th e obstruction of ice or débris in the river temporarily forcing the water into edd ies. The man who has triumphed over difficulties bears the signs of victory in his f ace. and to struggle under difficulties su fficient to stimulate into activity their dormant powers. to fight its way up to sunlight and air. our sorrows. is always floundering in the mud. When Napoleon's school companions made sport of him on account of his humble or igin and poverty he devoted himself entirely to books. by firing a dormant purpose." said an eminent jurist. Men of mettle turn disappointments into helps as the oyster turns into pearl the sand which annoys it. and our griefs develo p us in a similar way. for they are of ten our best friends in disguise. where it accumulates strength and a mighty reserve which ultimately sweeps the obstruction impetuously to the sea. and. No effort is too dear which helps us along the line of our proper career.very. Our trials." Thousands of men of great native ability have been lost to the world because th ey have not had to wrestle with obstacles.

He should have some gr eat thwarting difficulty to struggle against. It is defeat that turns bone to flint. inasmuch as the only obstacle it has to overcome is the resistance of the air." "Then I must learn to sing better. and the greater the friction necessary to bring it out. defeat is the thres hold of their victory. Difficulties call out great qualities. their edge from grinding. an electric car came to a standstill j ust in front of a heavy truck that was headed in an opposite direction. Trials unlock their virtues. never. unable to fly at all. crushed. it would fall instantl y to the ground. Some people neve r come to themselves until baffled. . The harder the diamond. Me n who have stood up bravely under great misfortune for years are often unable to bear prosperity. The philosopher Kant observed that a dove. thwarted. Strong characters. as th e torrid zone enervates races accustomed to a vigorous climate." replied Northcote. who made a theology for the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. A drenching shower of adversity wo uld straighten his fibers out again. Perhaps Phillips and Garrison would never have been known to hi story had it not been for slavery. like the palm-tree. "Why not?" "Because he has an income of six thousand pounds a year. A century of peace would never have prod uced a Bismarck. when told that the very b oys laughed at his singing. warped too much to become an artist of high merit. Their good fortune takes the spring out of their energy. "Friction is a very good thing. "The gods look on no grander sight than an honest man struggling with adversity . All the urging of the teamster and the straining of the horse s were in vain. it is defeat that turns gristle to muscl e. it is defeat that has made those hero ic natures that are now in the ascendency. the fire in man wo uld never blaze but for antagonism. and then the truck lumbered on its way.--until the motorman quietly tossed a shovelful of sand on the tr ack under the heavy wheels. rebuffed.John Calvin. The huge truck wheels were sliding uselessly round on the car tracks that were wet and s lippery from rain. in th e opinion of those around them. The best tools receive their temper from fire. but were rocked in the cradle of difficulties and pillowed on hardships. the no blest characters are developed in a similar way. defeated. Yet if the air we re withdrawn. was tortured with disease for many years. with much jarring and jolting. might suppose that if only the air we re out of the way it could fly with greater rapidity and ease. and that has given the sweet law of l iberty instead of the bitter law of oppression. and the bird should try to fly in a vacuum. it is defeat that makes men invincible. The very element that offers the oppositi on to flying is at the same time the condition of any flight whatever." In the sunshine of wealth a man is. Suddenly. seem to thrive best when most abused. "No. How many ce nturies of peace would have developed a Grant? Few knew Lincoln until the great weight of the war showed his character. The spark in the flint would sleep forever but for friction. the mor e brilliant the luster. and so was Robert Hall. The great men who have lifted the world to a higher level were not developed in easy circumsta nces. as a rule." said Anaximander." remarked a passenger. and make greatness possible. Only its own dust is hard enough to make this most precious stone reveal its ful l beauty. "Will he not make a great painter?" was asked in regard to an artist fresh from his Italian tour.

slen der sapling. "Robinson Cru soe" was written in prison. and cannot fail to leave us stronger. S ir Walter Raleigh wrote "The History of the World" during his imprisonment of th irteen years. the Sunday-school. Place one in the country away from the hothouse culture and refinements of the city. But for our Civil War the names of its grand heroes would not be written among the greatest of our time. and watch them grow. Place h im under the tutelage of great masters and send him to Harvard. the harder the obstacle he meets the higher he rebounds. Every obstacle ove rcome lends him strength for the next conflict. The two meet. with only the district school. and. emergencies often call out powers and virtues before unknown and unsuspected. Like a rubber ball. Every rootlet lends its elf to steady the growing giant. The poor boy bemoans h is hard lot. Its roots reach out in every directio n. he will thrive. regrets that he has "no chance in life. or after some other calamity has knocked the props and crutches from under hi m. prepared to defy the hurricane. . and the other in the dense forest. clutching the rocks and piercing deep into the earth." and envies the city youth. The acorn planted in the deep forest. and useless brain. and only serve still further to toughen every minutest fiber from pith to bark. plant one on a hill by itself. or secure the prize we seek. but how changed! It is as easy to distinguished the stu rdy. The city lad is ashamed of his country brother. Give him thousan ds a year for spending money. Put the other boy in a Vande rbilt family. as nearly alike as possible. Shielded by its neighbors. thread bare clothes. and family influence. hard hands. Sometimes its upward growth seems checked for years. He compels respect and rec ognition from those who have ridiculed his poverty. For twenty years Dante worked in exile. position. he rises with more determination than before. and let him travel extensively. and awkward manner of the country boy make sorry contrast with the genteel appearance of the other. The prison has roused the slumbering fire in many a noble mind. tawny face. idle. Obstacles and opposition are but apparatus of the gymnas ium in which the fibers of his manhood are developed. The plain. The oak standing alone is exposed to every storm. self-made man from the one who has been propped up all his life by wealth. If he falls. From an aimless. Take two acorns from the same tree. The "Pilgrim's Progress" appeared in Bedford Jail. shoots up a weak. Then it shoots proudly aloft again. The effort or struggle to climb to a higher place in life has strength and dign ity in it. Give him French and German nurses. even though we may never reach the position we desire. and a few books. and even under sentence of death. or the loss of a fortun e. The gales which sport so rudely with its wide branches find more than their match. They meet again as men. Remove wealth and props of every kind. Take two boys. if he has the right sort of material in him. as it is for the shipbuilder to tell the differe nce between the plank from the rugged mountain oak and one from the sapling of t he forest. Luther translated the Bible while confined in the Castle of Wartbu rg. it feels no need of spreading its roots far and wide for support. on the other hand. as nearly alike as possible. but all the wh ile it has been expending its energy in pushing a root across a large rock to ga in a firmer anchorage. How often we see a young man develop as tounding ability and energy after the death of a parent.Emergencies make giant men. as if in anticipation of fierce conflict with t he elements. gratify his every wish. He thinks that it is a cruel Providence that places such a wide gulf between th em.

David Livingstone. Peabody.--the advancement of individuals as of nations. but what you don't like.When God wants to educate a man. John Huss led to the stake at Constance. " if he had only been well flogged when a boy. whose eyes have been sharpened b y affliction. he does not send him to school to the Graces." John Hunter said that the art of surgery would never advance until professional men had the courage to publish their failures as well as their successes. Kossuth called himself "a tempest-tossed soul. matures the judgment. Tyndale dying in his prison at Amsterdam." re plied the other." says Dr. teaching two little boys in Aldgate Street. "Seldom does one re ach a position with which he has reason to be satisfied without encountering dif ficulties and what might seem discouragements. not hindrances. for. and gives one independence of thought and force of char acter. The rude and rough experience of the eaglet fits him to become the bold king of birds." "Stick your claws into me. It has led to most of the mechanical inventions and improvements of the age. fierce and expert in pursuing his prey." said Mendelssohn to his critics when entering the B irmingham orchestra. A rich Spaniard was asked to help him. one of them exclaimed: "What a f ine profession ours would be if there were no gibbets!" "Tut. but he is spoiled by the ease with which he composes. or pursuit. But if they are properly met. yet what mighty purposes was God wo rking out by their apparent humiliations! Two highwaymen chancing once to pass a gibbet. Milton. and may prove to be helps. "Success grows out of struggles to overcome difficulties. amid the incipient earthquake throes of revolution. the y are not what they seem. but replied: "Heave n forbid that his necessities should be relieved. trade." Just so with every art. "gibbets are the making of us." says Smiles. you blockhead. or till the rending asunder of our affections forces us to become conscious of a ne ed. . it is his poverty that makes t he world rich. and had to write on scraps of leather." said Beethoven of Rossini." We do our best while fighting desperately to attain what the heart covets. There is no more helpful and profiting exercise than surmounting obstacles. e very one would be a highwayman. "If the re were no difficulties there would be no success. We are not conscious of the mighty cravings of our half divine humanity. we are not aware of the God within us until some chasm yawns which must be filled. St. "Don't tell me what you like. but to the Necessities. promotes self-reliance. Waters says that the struggle to obtain knowledge and to advance one's self in the world strengthens the mind. "Young men need to be taught not to expect a perfectly smooth and easy way to t he objects of their endeavor or ambition. Through the pit and the dungeon Joseph came to a throne. disciplines the faculties. wo rn to a shadow." He was so poor th at he could not even get paper during the last of his writing." It was in the Madrid jail that Cervantes wrote "Don Quixote. dying in a negro hut in Central Africa. it i s the difficulties that scare and keep out unworthy competitors." "He has the stuff in him to make a good musician. if there were no gibbets. In this necessity for exertio n we find the chief source of human advancement." As soon as young eagles can fly the old birds tumble them out and tear the down and feathers from their nest. alone--what failures the y might all have seemed to themselves to be. Paul in his Roman cell.

" said the aged Sidenham Poyntz. ye t they have given the world its noblest songs. the cold of which will kill the vermin. You must throw away the crutches of riches and stand upon your own feet. perennial fountains of rich ex perience and new joys often spring. Fierce winters are as necessary to it as long summers. crowded out. nerveless. Adversity strippe d him only to discover him. But look again: behold the magnificent statue. The Creator may see something grand a nd mighty which even He can not bring out as long as your wealth stands in the w ay. God knows where the richest melodies of our lives are. the chiseling of obstacles. kicked out." In one of the battles of the Crimea a cannon-ball struck inside the fort. that gives it value. the lightnings are the rough teachers that bring the tiny acorn to the sturdy oa k. the monument. Without this struggle it would have been characterless. and the polishing. chiseled into grace and beauty. but will let the plant live. With them persecution seems to bring prosperity. its wisest proverbs. and what drill and what discipline are necessary to bring them out. But from the ugly chasm there burst forth a spri ng of water which ever afterward flowed a living fountain. The statue would have slept in the marble forever but for the blasting.Boys who are bound out. They hold the purse-strings of many nations. are the chisel and mallet whic h shape the strong life into beauty. and deve loped their greatest virtues when reverses of fortune have swept away everything they had in the world. To them hardship ha s been "like spring mornings." while thos e who do not have these disadvantages frequently fail to "come out. The most beautiful as well as the strongest woods are found not in tropi cal climates. frosty but kindly. fighting for its life from the moment that it leaves the acorn until it goes into the shi p. and the sand-papering of a thousand annoya nces. Who has not observed the patience." "It was not the victories but the defeats of my life which have strengthened me . staminaless. The frost. its sweetest music. the chi seling. when disease had robbed them of all they held dear in li fe! Often we can not see the angel in the quarry of our lives. but in severe climates. to be hammered and squared by the quarryman. Many a man has never found himself until he has lost his all. and develop the long unused muscles of manhood. telling its grand story of valor in the public square for centuries. and its grain would have never been susceptible of high polish. crash ing through a beautiful garden. hardships. It is its half-century 's struggle with the elements for existence. God may see a rough diamond in you which only the hard hits of poverty can polish. From the ugly gashes which misfortunes and sorrows make in our hearts. where they have to fight the frosts and th e winter's cold. Almost from the dawn of history. Obstacles. usually "turn out. The angel of our higher and nobler selves would remai n forever unknown in the rough quarries of our lives but for the blastings of af fliction. the snows. the tempests. Don't lament and grieve over lost wealth. the statue of man . oppression has been the lot of the Hebrews. of the blasting which disturbs its peace of centuries: it is not pl easant to be rent with powder. the calm endurance. wrestling with the storm. They thrive where other s would starve. the sweet loveliness chi seled out of some rough life by the reversal of fortune or by some terrible affl iction? How many business men have made their greatest strides toward manhood. The rough ledge on the hillside complains o f the drill.

if it were lawful. but un covered in his nature possibilities of patience. and co mpels us to consider it in all its relations. Schiller wrote his best books in great bodily suffering. and Campbell. from her ashes and ruin. that ag e so fatal to genius. The lightning which smote his deares t hopes opened up a new rift in his dark life." Bunyan sa id that. did she arise. and th e great fire had licked up cheap. for the grea ter comfort's sake. has been spurred into eloquence by ridicule and abus e. Macaulay said. "Who best can suffer." said he. A man upon whom continuous sunshine falls is l ike the earth in August: he becomes parched and dry and hard and close-grained. and difficulties and o bstacles have squared and chiseled the granite blocks into grace and beauty. and hope which he ne ver before dreamed he possessed. talent." says Edmund Burke. shabby. and sick.hood. dejects cowards. Milton wrote his leading productions when blind. he had never seen. awes the opulent." Byron was stung into a determination to go to the top by a scathing criticism o f his first book. The greatest men will ever be those who have risen from the ranks. endurance. prudence. It will not suffer us to be superf icial. He was not free from pain for fifteen years. Many an orator like "stuttering Jack Curran. until the blasts of misfortune have rent the ledge. Men have drawn from adversity the elements of greatness." Men who have the right kind of material in them will assert their personality a nd rise in spite of a thousand adverse circumstances. and excite the invention. Beethoven was almost totally deaf and burdened with sorrow when he produced his greatest works. And learn in suffering what they teach in so ng. as he loves us better too. and fortitude of the voyager. "Hours of Idleness. He that wrestle s with us strengthens our nerves and sharpens our skill. "There is scarce an instance in history of so sudden a ri se to so dizzy an eminence as Byron reached. Every obstacle seems only to add to their ability to get on. This conflict with difficulty makes us acquainted with our object." In a few years he stood by the sid e of such men as Scott. ski ll. like those of the ocean. and makes the idle industrious. Many of our best poets "Are cradled into poetry by wrong. poor. puts the modest to the necessity of trying their skill. and died at thirty-seven. phoenixlike. Many a man has been ruined into salvation. "best can do. rouse the faculties. This is the crutch age. Adversity exasperates fools. You can not keep them down ." as he was once called. wicked London. "set over us by one who knows us better than we do ourselves. Southey. "Helps" and "aids" are advertised everywhere. Our antagonist is our h elper. he could even pray for greater trouble. We have i . True salamanders live best in the furnace of persecution. It is said t hat there are ten thousand chances to one that genius. until then. The grave buried his dearest hopes. and gave him glimpses of himself which. but draws out the faculties of th e wise and industrious." published when he was but nineteen years of age. The storms of adversity." or "Orator M um. Not until the breath of the plague had blasted a hundred thousand lives. and virtue shall issue from a farmhouse rather than from a palace. "Adversity is a severe instructor. a grand and mighty city.

integrity. ease. when we hav e purchased one thing.--P." One stands for the surrender of the will. Each sting." Our boys are too often tutored through college with very little study. The most beautiful as well as the strongest characters are not developed in war m climates. . that bids not sit nor stand but go. labor. And head-winds right for royal sails. we must stand by our decision. She will strip us of wealth. T. books. repine that we do not possess another we did not buy. it is poverty. The sculptor car es nothing for the block as such. but rather in a trying climate and on a stubborn soil. The heaviest charged words in our language are those briefest ones. magaz ines. libraries. and undertakes to do the world's drudgery and emancipate him from Eden's curse. le t us down from the ladder of fame. BROWNING. the other for character. one stands for gratification. and not like children. She emancipates from the lower only to call to the higher. as if conscious of delayed bles sings. "yes" and " no. so Nat ure cares only for the man or woman shut up in the human being. newspapers. and calls the race out of barbarism. the other for denial. CHAPTER XXVIII DECISION Resolve. It is rugged necessity. it is the strug gle to obtain. As the sculptor thinks only of the angel imprisoned in the marble block. has rushed to man's relief with her wondrous forces. and preachers our religion. A stout "no" means a stout character . whether riches. Intelligent labor found the world a wilderness and has made it a garden. He must have the p ower to decide instantly on which side he is going to make his mistakes. Nature has little regard for the mere lump of breathing clay. or knowledge. will discipline us in a thousand ways. That turns earth's smoothness rough. that makes Mexico with its mineral wealth poor. "Short roads" and "abridged methods" are characteristic of the century. Nature. the ready "yes" a weak one. and thou art free. Chambers of the gr eat are jails.nstitutes.--LONGFELLOW. and whatever w e buy with our time. Newspapers give us our politics. ARMOUR. or ingenuity. Our problems are all worked out in "explanati ons" and "keys. Everything must give way to that. D. teachers. The sculptor will chip off all unnecessary material to set free the angel. humble our pride.--MA THEWS. S he emancipates the muscles only to employ the brain and heart. The world is a market where everything is marked at a set price. universities. "The hero is not fed on sweets. that develops the stamina of m anhood. Nature will chip and pound us remorselessly to bring out our possibil ities. fame. humiliate our ambition. if she can develop a little character. and Ne w England with its granite and ice rich. gild it as we may. Self-help and self-reliance are getting old-fashioned." Then welcome each rebuff. and where exertion is a great effort. Our thinking is done for us.--T. She does not bid the world go and play while she does the work. colleges. It is no t chance that returns to the Hindoo ryot a penny and to the American laborer a d ollar for his daily toil. Ingenious methods are used everywhere to get the drudgery out of the college cou rse. where man finds his bread ready made on trees. Daily his own heart he eats. A man must master his undertaking and not let it master him. the priceless spur. But do not misinterpret her edict. MUNGER.

he is not a man." and his intrepid mind did not waver long. The man who said." he said. if I be still the same?" That power to decide instantly the best course to pursue. When Julius Caesar came to the Rubicon. it was victory or death. He may see the right. that he was meant to be possessed by others. There was no hope of return. and to sacrifice ever y opposing motive. An undecided man. a man who is ever balancing between two opinions. This act of daring and prompt decision so roused the Romans that they triumphantly swept fro m the sacred soil the enemy of their peace. the Romans wer e so hard pressed that they consented to purchase immunity with gold. who will do so mething. the Romans sent an ambassador who met Antiochus near Alexandria and comman ded him to withdraw. The invader gave an evasive reply. positive man. and war was prevented. only a satellite. bewildered crowd. when Camillus appeared on the scen e. events must submit to him. changes the face of everything. decided. the prompt man.When Rome was besieged by the Gauls in the time of the Republic. a legend tells us. although it may be wrong. but would win it with the sword. The whole history of the world w as changed by that moment's decision. threw his sword into the scales in place of the ransom. Such a man co mes upon the scene like a refreshing breeze blown down from the mountain top. forever debating which of two courses he will pursue. By the prompt decision of the intrepid ambassador the in vader was led to withdraw. which formed the boundary of Italia. This acti on was the key to the character and triumphs of this great warrior. is one of the most potent forces in winning success. the inhabitants resolved never to surrender. They were in the act of weighing it. but he drifts toward the wrong. the arrival of a prompt. like Napoleon. had the power to choose one co urse. and forbade his crossing the line until h e had given his answer.--" the sacred and inviolable. he burned all the ships which had borne them to the sh ores of Britain. "I came. He. In an emergency. I conque red. and declared that the Romans should not purchase peace. the man who is forever twisting and turning. Men who have left their mark upon their century have been men of great and prom pt decision. To hesitate is s ometimes to be lost. which was then under the protection of Rome. and. and made them masters of the world. does not wa it for favorable circumstances. All the great ac hievements in the history of the world are the results of quick and steadfast de cision. He is a tonic to the hesitating. and sacrifice every conflicting plan on the instant. to silence them forever and not al low them continually to plead their claims and distract us from our single decid ed course. excites a feeling akin to admiration. Caesar's quic k mind saw that he must commit his soldiers to victory or death. "The die is cast. he does not submit to events. backi . In order to cut off all hope of retreat. If he decide s upon a course he only follows it until somebody opposes it. The decided man. as he das hed into the stream at the head of his legions. or destroy my country."--even his great decision wavered at the thought of i nvading a territory which no general was allowed to enter without the permission of the Senate. proclaims by his indecisi on that he can not control himself." after his hopeless banishment from heaven." could not hesitate long. The prompt decision of the Rom ans won them many a battle. Satan's sublime decision in "Paradise Lost. In fact. when once sacrificed. When Antiochus Epiphanes invaded Egypt. But his alternative was "destroy myself. After a few moments of terrible s uspense he resumes his invincible spirit and expresses that sublime line: "What matter where. The brave Roman swept a circle around the king with his sword. I saw. When he landed with h is troops in Britain. The vacillating man is ever at the mercy of the opinion of the man who talked w ith him last.

Those who lin gered were swept off by the returning wave." .. dispatches an d. can do twice as much as the undecided and dawdling man who never quite knows what he w ants. He seemed to electrify everybody about him. The positive step landed them in safety. He belon gs to whatever can make capture of him. will never accomplish anything. and above all it must be done with speed. His will. The "ifs and buts. the decided man. The negative man creates no confidence. shuffling and parleying. he replied. splitting hairs over non-essentials. when asked how it was that he had conquered the world. is a power in the world. details. with no preponderi ng motive to enable him to decide. and stands for something. to attend to correspondence. at midnight. He is in stable equilibrium. His invincible energy thrilled the whole army. in whic h the fate of the engagement was decided. hesitating and dawdling. half-hearted men! "The doubt of Charles V. "can never be said to belong to him self. but he also saves the energy and vital force which is wast ed by the perplexed man who takes up every argument on one side and then on the other. which subdued nearly the who le of Europe. was as prompt and decisive in the minutest detail of command as in the greatest battle." When the packet ship Stephen Whitney struck. The vacillating man is never a prompt man. Decision of purpose and promptness of action enabled him to astonish the world with his marvelous successes. but also are often quickly gone. on an Irish cliff. There is not positiveness en ough in him." says Motley. What a lesson to dawdling. all the passengers who leaped instantly upon the rock were saved. and weighs them until the two sides hang in equipoise. He could rouse to imm ediate and enthusiastic action the dullest troops. and inspire with courage the most stupid men. he only invites distrust. the decided man. gauge hi m. "By not wavering. You can estimate the work that his energy will accomplish. as twigs and chips floating near the edge of a river are intercepted by every weed and whirled int o every little eddy." says John Foster." The decided man not only has the advantage of the time saved from dillydallying and procrastination. and engulfed forever. since if he dared to assert that he did. "A man without decision. "changed the destinies of the civilized world. yet it generally turned upon a few critical minutes. "are at present out of season. What he could accomplish in a day surprised all who knew him. an d clung for a few moments to the cliff. Napoleon used to say that although a battle might last an entire day." He would sit up all night if necessary. shiftless. It is related of A lexander the Great that. You can measure him. listening to every new motive whi ch presents itself. and without promptness no success is possible. may make a seizure of the unhappy boaster the very n ext minute. and contemptuously exhibit the futility of the determination by whic h he was to have proved the independence of his understanding and will." he said. Great opportunities not only come seldom into the most fortunate life . Prompt decision saved Napoleon and Grant and their armies many a time when delay would have been fatal. negativeness never accomplishes anything. abo ut as powerful as a spider. after riding thirty or forty leagues. He seemed to be everywhere at once. and one thing after another vindicates i ts right to him by arresting him while he is trying to go on.ng and filling. and so does not move at all of his own volition. The punctual man. but moves very easily at the slightest volition of another. the puny force of some cause. Yet there is not a man living who might not be a prompt and decided man if he w ould only learn always to act quickly. weighing and b alancing. But the positive man.

without pausing. and the young man who allows himself to waver every time he comes to a hard place in life will not succeed. that one man outweighs them all in influence. and. tak es the step. adopts it as his life's work.So powerful were President Washington's views in determining the actions of the people. If they would only show a little decision at firs t. which is in every body's way but stops no one. they are afraid of offending. who supports his judgment against thei r own and that of their representatives. they are here to-day and there to-morrow. his heart throbbing with a great purpose. the mountain has been leveled and the way lies open. impelled by his hatred to the Romans. never using his judgment or common sense. while the habit of som e others was to delay till about half tide. One vocation or occupation presents its rosy side to him." and thus they throw d . Learn." There is no vocation or occupation which does not present many difficulties. While other men are bemoaning difficulties and shrinking from dangers and obstacles. or wandering hither and thither. the skilful stage. You never know where to find them. ca ptured by any new occupation which happens to appeal to him as the most desirabl e at the time. There is a legend of a powerful genius who promised a lovely maiden a gift of r are value if she would go through a field of corn. and. "The secret of the whole matter was. The undecided man can not bring himself to a focus. full of enthusiasm. The value of the gift was to be in proportion to the size and perfection of the ear . throwing away all the skill they had acquired in mastering the drudgery of the last occupation. his enthusiasm evaporates. but was so eager to get the largest and m ost perfect that she kept on without plucking any until the ears she passed were successively smaller and smaller and more stunted. These people rarely reach the stage of compet ency. and. and lo. and. thus taking the top of the tide. They spend their lives at the beginning of occupations . she came out on the other side without any. So he vacillates through life." Most of the young men and women who are lost in our cities are ruined because o f their inability to say "No" to the thousand allurements and temptations which appeal to their weak passions. like a withered leaf. and contentment. "we had formed the habit of prompt acting. without fuss or noise. Such people are never led by principle. by every wind that blows. not being allowed to go backwa rd. he feels sure it is the thing he wants to do. going b ackward. he drops his own and adopts the other. Jefferson wrote to Monroe at Paris: "You will see by their proceedings the truth of what I always told you. to will strongly and decisively. and he wonders why he is so foolish as to think himself f itted for that vocation. they never go far enough in anything to get beyond the drudgery stage to the remunerative and agreeable stage. But in a few days the thorns begin to appear. but governed by his imp ressions and his feelings at the moment. She passed by many magnificent ones.--namely. Without decision there c an be no concentration. Finally they became so small that she was ashamed to select one of them. the great soul. Republicanism resigns the vessel to the pilot. Alexander. But they are weak. s catters his forces. An undecided man is like the turnstile at a fair. He can not hold to one thing long enou gh to bring success out of it. even crosses the Alps to compass his d esign. select the largest and ripest ear. one emphatic "No" might silence their solicitors forever. that when Congress adjourned. which are always most agreeable. In fact. thus getting on the flats." replied Amos Lawrence. they don't like to say "No. at times almost overwhelming. then. Hannib al. He dissipates his energy. to succeed. The one which his friend adopted is much better suited to him. and preparing expedients. a man must concentrate. comfort. conquers the world. thus fix your floating life and leave it no longer to be carried hither and thither. do ing this thing and that thing. and executes nothing.

"I am employed. their contagion infects their whole neig hborhood. he has gambled his life away. and all because he has never ma de up his mind what he would do with it." "Listlessness. perhaps. their capacity. "If sinners entice thee. great decision of character is usually accom panied by great constitutional firmness. How many hours have been wasted dawdling in bed. which is usually impaired or weakened from physica l suffering or any great physical debility."--do instantly. or la ck of tone and vigor. They do not realize that the habit of putting everything off puts off their manhood." "j ust this side of happiness. "Hoc age. and. "Your mo tto must be. and cam e to a point where two ways opened before them. turn ing over and dreading to get up! Many a career has been crippled by it. and they give me twenty reasons fo r and against. and bring assistance more quickly from th e bank or from a friend. "in hearing counsel every morning. and called. The fool pleaded that he was only a fool." "Nervelessness. The judge punished them both equa lly." he said. The fool desired to take the pleasant way. and wer e soon met by robbers. and Burto n came out with a bound. and especially is this tru e with the power of decision." "Always B ehind. It is my part. A little l ater both they and their captors were arrested by officers of the law and taken before the judge. Before a man knows what he has done." said he. On many of the tombstones of those who have failed in life could be read between the lines: "He Dawdled. When one asked a lazy young fellow what made him lie in bed so long. their success. first felt in the weakened or debilitated pow er of decisions.own the gauntlet and are soon on the broad road to ruin. But at l ast the urgency of the fool prevailed. it is the strong physical man who carries weight and conviction. the ot her narrow and rough." "Behind Time." There is no habit that so grows on the soul as irresolution. than the reputation of promptness. then dashed cold water into the bed between the sheets. and coaxed.--one broad and beautiful. they took the more inviting path. t he servant called. There is no quality of the mind which does not sympathize with bodily weakness. is. Any bodily weakness. Scott used to caution youth against the habit of dawdling. the wise man kn ew that the difficult one was the shortest and safest." "Shiftlessness. as an impartial judge. Hi s "days are lost lamenting o'er lost days. consent thou not. A little resolution ear ly in life will soon conquer the right to mind one's own business. The world knows that ." Such a man is at the mercy of any chance occurrence that may overtake him. This is the only way to check t he propensity to dawdling. listless people life becomes a mere shuffle of expedien ts. but Burton would beg him to be left a little longer. as a rule. Men who have been noted for great firmn ess of character have usually been strong and robust. The servant. shiftless. Burton c ould not overcome this habit. knowing that he would lose his shilling if he did n ot get him up. and so declared. or lassitude. " "Procrastination. To indolent. Nothing will give greater confidence. which creep s in at every crevice of unoccupied time and often ruins a bright life. and n o sensible man should have heeded his counsel. This man neither advances nor recedes. to hear all that can be sai d on both sides. and by the time the cause is over dinner is ready." Oh. the wrecks strewn along the shores of life "just behind success. An old legend says that a fool and a wise man were journeying together. Sloth to lie still. convinced that it would ruin his success." There is no doubt that. As a rule. he simply hovers ." above which the words of warning are flying! Webster said of such an undecided man that "he is like the irresolution of the sea at the turn of tide. Indus try advises me to get up. who seized their goods and made them captives. Then the wise man pleaded that the fool was to blame because h e desired to take the wrong way." He has no power to seize the facts w hich confront him and compel them to serve him. mad e his servant promise before he went to bed to get him up at just such a time.

consider. no opening it up for reconsideration. Yet having said so much. that gave the first confidence to the North that the rebellion was doom ed. those who saw him after that imagined that he picked up the material for his sermons on the street. and fears. who asked him for conditions of capit ulation." and which sent back the words "un conditional surrender" to General Buckner." Some minds are so constructed that they are bewildered and dazed whenever a res ponsibility is thrust upon them. difficulties. lest in a moment of discouragement and irresolution he be tempted t o sheathe it. and the North b reathed easy for the first time. and a thorough-going knowledge of the world of books.the prompt man's bills and notes will be paid on the day. When he draws his sword he must throw the sc abbard away. "I propose to fight it out on these lines if it takes all summer. Yet someh ow they seem fated with a morbid introspection which ever holds them in suspense . It was his decision whic h voiced itself in those memorable words in the Wilderness. which often does not present itself but once! It was said that Napoleon had an officer under him who understood the tactics o f war better than his commander. but nothing left for the moment um of action. once resolved. "When I first went to Brooklyn. fatal to progress. but they lacked that power of decision which made unconditional surrender absolutely imperative wherever he met the foe. that. At last Lincoln had a general who had the power of decision. and will trust him. He must nail his colors to the mast as Nelson did in battle. " Let it be your first study to teach the world that you are not wood and straw. There was no going behind it. ponder. Prompt decision and sublime a udacity have carried many a successful man over perilous crises where deliberati on would have been ruin. They analyze and analyze. They have just energy enough to weigh motives. . were better educated." "Let men know that what you say you will do. and I do not care what comes after. weigh. but he lacked that power of rapid decision and powerful concentration which characterized the greatest military leaders perhaps of the world." CHAPTER XXIX OBSERVATION AS A SUCCESS FACTOR Henry Ward Beecher was not so foolish as to think that he could get on without systematic study. it is true that much that was most vital in his preach ing he did pick up on the street. the ni ck of time. deliberate. The man who would forge to the front in this competitive age must be a man of p rompt and determined decision. The very effort to come to immediate and unflinching decision starts up all sort s of doubts. "men doubted whether I could sustain myself. How many a man can trace his downfall in life to the failure to seiz e his opportunity at the favorable moment. knew the country as well. 'Give me uninterrupted time till nine o'clock every morning. t hat there is some iron in you. you are not to be allured or intimidated. tha t your decision. "Hoc age. and they can not seem to get light enough to decide nor courage enough to attempt to remove the obstacle.--no wavering. fatal to success. I replied. They know that h esitation is fatal to enterprise. is final. they have a mortal dread of deciding anything. when it was within easy grasp. deter mined to sink with his ship if he can not conquer. but never act.'" He was a hard student during four hours every morning. a nd make retreat forever impossible. once made. he must burn his ships behind him. Grant's decision was like inexorable fate. There were several generals under Grant who were as well skilled in war tactics." he said. like Caesar.

in the stores. Although Beecher was an omnivorous reader he did not care much for the writings of the theologians. and entrancing sunsets. [Illustration: Henry Ward Beecher] When he once got a taste of the power and helpfulness which comes from the stud y of real life. and the business man. ambitious world was everywhere throbbing for him. and great crowds cam e from every direction to hear him. This great observer was not only a student of human nature. and upon one occasion he answered: "I keep my eyes open an d ask questions. He was in the swim of things. . He was in the smoke and din. gathering grandeur and sublimity from the great White Mountains. calamities. There was something in his sermons that appe aled to the best in everyone who heard him.--keeping his eyes open and asking q uestions. he was never again satisfied without illustrations fresh from the lives of the people he met every day. He did not watch the progress of the great human battle from his study. their naturalness. He saw that the strength of this great Master' s sermons was in their utter simplicity. healthy. He always preached on Sunday at the hotel where he stayed. He kept his hand upon the pulse of events. the rain. people on sick beds and death beds. and strong."Where does Mr. busy. a little more help ful." This is the secret of many a man's success. when he saw how much more forceful and interesting actual life s tories were as they were being lived than anything he could get out of any book except the Bible. the despondent. there he was studying its great problem s. the day laborer. the clerk. the optimist and the pessim ist. of the discouraged. or education. They were full of pictures of beauti ful landscapes. the Christ was his great model. orphans. and the storm were reflected in them. Now it was the problem of slavery. the fields. they had the vigor of bright red blood in them. but of all nature a s well. and where he spent many summers. and he knew that H e did not search the writings of the Sanhedrin for His sermons. accidents. which he loved so well. the newsboy.--whatever touched the lives of men. the cheerful. The clouds. Where the battle of life raged fiercest. to be a little more conscientious. the lawyer. the physician. He got them everywhere from life and nature. the train conduc tor. but picked them up as He walked along the banks of the Jordan and over the hills and through the meadows and villages of Galilee. to do t heir work a little better. passed in quick succession and stamped themselves on the brains of his eage r hearers. I watched him. a little more determined to do their share in the world. or commer ce. completely absorbed in drinking in the beaut ies of the marvelous landscape. in hospitals and in funeral processions. the brooks . Beecher believed a sermon a failure when it does not make a great mass of heare rs go away with a new determination to make a little more of themselves. The great. on Wall Street. many a time. they grew out of doors. Beecher get his sermons?" every ambitious young clergyman in th e country was asking. the steam-cars. the blacksmith. He got them from the brakem an. all sor ts of experiences and bits of life. the mechanic. the record of creation imprinted in the rocks and the mountains were interming led with the ferryboats. Beecher's sermons were very simple. life pictures of successes and failure s. as many did. He picked them u p in the marketplace. He went into the thick of the fight himself. the sun shine. birds and trees alte rnated with the direst poverty in the slums. seascapes. Happiness and sunshine. again the problem of government. The flowers. They pulsated with lif e. like Christ's. because.

The power which inheres in a trained faculty of observation is priceless. Lincoln was another remarkable example of the possibilities of an education thr ough reflection upon what he observed. Things so triv ial that his companion did not notice them at all. While visiting Luther Burbank. which reveals marve ls of beauty in common things. To place the right values upon men. The o ther young man was comparatively rich. which was performed. while the former ha d a genius for absorbing knowledge of every kind through the eye. but such was their confidence in his power to diagnose a case through symptoms and indications which escape most physicians. to be able to pierce t heir masks and read the real man or woman behind them. to b e able to discriminate between the genuine and the false. "Let's leave it to Osler. His experienced eye drew a conclusion from the slightest evidence. he could see the marvelous philosophy. his ears. a nd his mind open. Like Professor Agassiz." said the physicians at a consultation where a precio us life hung by a thread. Beecher had an eye like the glass of a microscope. recently. and extr acted the meaning of everything that came within its range. He has . I was much impressed by his marvelous power of seeing things. He could see beauty and harmony where others saw only ugliness and discord. one of whom was all eyes. He was not a great scholar. in his famous garden. the wizard horticulturist. the Divine plan. He rec ommended a certain operation. He could feel the Divine presence in all created things. He had a passion for knowledge. Beecher continued his study of life through observation. w hich he read as an open book. Wherever he went. Noth ing else was half so interesting. Like Ru skin. with additional eyes in finger tips s o familiar with the anatomy that they could detect a growth or displacement so s mall that it would escape ordinary notice. He watched the patient closely. "is an element of all great success. He was a poor student. "An exhaustive observation. but his mind pen etrated to the heart of things. meant a great deal to him. that they were willing to leave the whole decision to him.Wherever he went. to emphasize the right thing in them. because he read the hidden meaning in things. meant a great deal more to him and to the world than his colle ge education. His mind stopped and questioned. everyday oc currences. and the patient recovered. by keeping his eyes. and brought home almost nothing of value. the latter could scarcely recall anything of interest. Th e majority of those present disagreed with him. The day after leaving a city. th ere was a great interrogation point before him. he regarded as one of a c lergyman's greatest accomplishments. He saw symptoms which others could not see. he yearned to know the meaning of things. his manner of breathing. Then the great Johns Hopkins professor examined the pa tient. in the lowliest ob ject. Ruskin says: "Hundreds of people can talk for one who can think. The e ducation which Beecher got through observation. the philosophy underlying the common. who could see wonders in the scale of a fish or a grain of sand. Professo r Osler was called a living X-ray machine." says Herbert Spencer.--and the other never saw anything.--nothing s eemed to escape him. but he brought home rich treasures from over the sea. Everything he saw must give up i ts secret before he would let it go." There is no position in life where a trained eye can not be made a gre at success asset. but thousands can think for one who can see. He did not ask questions." I once traveled abroad with two young men. the appearance of the eye. To him man was the greatest study in the world .--everything was a telltale of the patient's condition. he did not stand nearly as high in col lege as some of his classmates whom he far outstripped in life.

weighing. sharp. It does not take long to develop a habit of attention that seizes the salient p oints of things. to see things carefully. It is a splendid drill for children to send them out on the street. ready. keen attention. his ears open. every triu mph of modern labor-saving machinery. He is always accumulating knowledge of eve ry kind. his mind ope n. he would never have advanced. the lack of ambition. Indifference. and is not carried with force and distin ctness enough to the brain to enable it to get at the truth and draw accurate co nclusions. Chi ldren often become passionately fond of this exercise. He keeps his ears open. But for this power of seeing things quickly. The efficient man is always growing. or out of d oors anywhere. b alancing. He was always looking for the next step above him. He does not merely look with his eyes. is due to the trained power of seeing things. yet he speaks ou r language fluently. for it is the mind. every discovery in science and art. the sewing machine. under the eye of this miracle worker. every great invention of the past or present. Few people realize what a tremendous success and happi ness is possible through the medium of the eye. a nd thoughtfulness. become marvels of beauty. Promotion was always staring him in the face.observed the habits of fruits and flowers to such purpose that he has performed miracles in the fields of floriculture and horticulture. that really sees. in fact. Close observation is a powerful mental process. the telescope. of absorbing knowledge. and how closely they can observe them. apathy. alert. the image is not clean-cut. Cortelyou was a stenographer not long ago. indifferent observation does not go back of the eye. forming opinions. not the optic nerve. who has been in this country only a year. He was a shrewd observer. If the mind is n ot focused. The mind is all the time working over the material which the eye brings it. mentally. The youth who would get on must keep his eyes open. mental lassitude and laziness are fatal to all effective observation. He keeps his mind open to all that is new and fresh and helpful. and much about our resources and opportunit ies. The majority of people do not see things. just for the purpose of finding out how many things they can see in a certain given time. calculating. The power of keen observation is indicative of a superior mentality. George W. the indifference of our young men to our marvelous possibilities. Many people thought he wou ld remain a stenographer. And he could not understand the lethargy. estimating. Most people are too lazy. considering. Just the effort to try to see how much they can remember and bring back is a splendid drill. The whole secret of a richly stored mind is alertness. He must be quick. and a great deal of our history. He knows its geograp hy. He sees with them. the telephone. they just look at them. Careless. He was after an oppo rtunity. I know a young Turk. Stunted and ugly flower s and fruits. and is capable of becoming a mighty power. the miracles o f electricity. The observing faculty is particularly susceptible to culture. and it becomes of inestim . He said that when he landed in New York it seemed to him that he saw more o pportunities in walking every block of our streets than he had ever seen in the whole of Turkey. but he always kept his eyes open. The telegraph. He has studied the map of our country.

He succeeded because all the world in concert could not have kept him in the background. Go into a place of business with the eye of an eagle. would make a good sale sman. You will see by h is show windows.able value in their lives. if honest. If you keep your eyes o pen. know ye not Who would be free themselves must strike the b low? BYRON. No matter where you go. perhaps. "Colonel Crockett makes room for himself!" exclaimed a backwoods congressman in answer to the exclamation of the White House usher to "Make room for Colonel Cr ockett!" This remarkable man was not afraid to oppose the head of a great nation . by gruff. Trace difficulties. perhaps. he is driving out of the door cus tomers the proprietor is trying to bring in by advertisements. Study his emp loyees.--PESTALOZZI. why he remains in mediocrity all his life. . it is the keen observer who gets ahead. Keep your eyes open. try to find out why. Who waits to have his task marked out. my son. Be sure. If he is making a remarkable success. Hereditary bondsmen. He thought a boy. and unc outh. Ask yourself why it i s that the proprietor at fifty or sixty years of age is conducting a business wh ich a boy of eighteen or twenty ought to be able to handle better. study the situation. In all my acquaintance I ha ve never known a man to be drowned who was worth the saving. analyze the situation. uncultured." said James A." Garfield was the youngest member of the House of Representatives when he entere d. and because when once in the front he played his part wi th an intrepidity and a commanding ease that were but the outward evidences of t he immense reserves of energy on which it was in his power to draw. He preferred being right to being president. but he had not been in his seat sixty days before his ability was recognized and his place conceded. "Poverty is uncomfortable. You can see that a little more knowledge of human nature would have revolutioni zed his whole business. in a little while. Make deductions from what you see and hear. Think why the man does not do bett er if he is not doing well. It will be one of the greatest factor s in your own success. and remember that the best men always make themselves. you can. You will find perhaps that he never knew the valu e of good manners in clerks. look up e vidences of success or failure everywhere. What I am I have made myself. Though rough. that there is no busines s insight. find out why this man is not a greater success. He stepped to the front with the confidence of one who b elonged there. You will see that this man has not studied men. but.--PATRIC K HENRY. Garfield. LOWELL. "but nine times out of ten the best thing that can happen to a young man is to be tossed overboard and compelled to sink or swim for himself. before you go into his store. He does not know them. Let nothing escape you. as I can testify. multiplied the receipts tenfold in a few years. no detection of the wants of possible buyers. your ears open.--HUMPHRY DAVY. Other things equal. CHAPTER XXX SELF-HELP I learned that no man in God's wide earth is either willing or able to help any other man. Crockett was a man of great courage and determination. uncouth manners. Shall die and leave his errand unfulfill ed.

the experience. who have risen highest. It leaves every man with profound unconcern to set his own rate. the character which trained habits of accuracy. weakness. patience. which the painter extolled in terms of the highest pr aise. sagacity. which has not felt the impress of their feet . but have you really given him anything ? You can not transfer the discipline. the power. and honest ambition has no heig ht that genius or talent may tread. method. growth." "A person under the firm persuasion that he can command resources virtually has them. the joy fe lt only in growth. foresight. and so entitle myself to the hand of your daughter?" Consent was given. "A pair of shirtsleeves. and which alone enables you to stand firm on your dizzy height. Your fortune wa s experience to you. an anxiety. with no education. Solario. to him it will be a temptation. You may leave your millions to your son. and strength which enabled you to maintain your lofty position. the spur which h as goaded man to nearly all the great achievements in the history of the world. honesty of dealing. Louis Philippe said he was the only sovereign in Europe fit to govern. the hardships. His great d etermination gained him his bride. You thought it a kindness to deprive yourself in order that your son might begi n where you left off. which will probably dwarf him. which lie concealed in your wealth. You have taken the priceless spur--necessity--away from him. you developed the mu scle. dispatch. discipline. where "Fame's proud temple shines afar."Take the place and attitude which belong to you. In climbing to your fortune. "and all men a cquiesce. every possible goal is accessible." says Emerson. which the acqu isition has given you. You had the power which comes only from experience. the . no chan ce. a self-made President of the United States replied. for he c ould black his own boots. Col l' Antonio thinking that he would never be troubled further by the gypsy." It is not the men who have inherited most. You thought to spare him the drudgery. It was wings to you. to him it may mean inaction." To such men. you can not transfer the delight of achieving. the pride of acquisition. but rather the men with no "start" who have wo n fortunes. except it be in nobility of soul and purpose. to you it was education and expansion of your high est powers. it will be a dead weight to him. It meant a great deal for you. the thirteenth child. joy. stamina. About the time that the ten years were to end the king's sister showed Coll' An tonio a Madonna and Child. Richard Arkwright. The world must be just. You cannot transfer the skill. and put a scepter in England's right h and such as the queen never wielded. in a hovel. promptness. indolence. prudence. gave his spinning model to the world. fell deeply in love with the daughter of the painter Coll' Antonio del Fiore. a wandering gypsy tinker. but was told that no one but a painter as good as the father should wed the maiden. politen ess of manner have developed. Judge of his surprise on learning that Solario was the artist. b ut means nothing to your heir." says Livy. lethargy. t o keep your millions intact. and character. When asked to name his family coat-of-arms. and have made adverse circumstances a spur to goad them up the steep mount. ignoranc e. "Will you give me ten years to learn to pa int.

will gradually die away. without which no real success. Don't wait for somebody to give you a lift. When Beethoven was examining the work of Moscheles." "I w ill give you just as many and just as good. "Man. make it yourself." said the dying Cyrus W. the lack of opportunities. "If now I had these I would be happy. his energy will be dissipated." said Robert Collyer. down they go. they are as helpless as capsized turtles. no great character is ever possible. He became literally the light of the church. His enthusiasm will evaporate. and rang the bell. who was visiting Engl and. I was so unkind to Edward when I thought I was being kind. "My life is a wreck. or unhorsed men in armor. he found written at the end . swept the rooms. then they w ould have known the meaning of money. What you call " no chance" may be your only chance. "Finis. Many a frontier boy has succeeded beyond all his expectations simply because all props were early knocked out from under him and he was obliged to stand upon his own feet. But grief shook the sands of life as he thought only of the son who had brought disgrace upon a name before unsullied. "A man's best friends are his ten fingers." was the reply." He wrote under it. I wish to go on a short err and. At length. and presenting them to the youth. If you do everything for your son and fight his battles for him. "They live on their brothers. I could sell them and buy food and lodgings. the meager education. no real happiness. the wounds were s harper than those of a serpent's tooth. Field. Don't wait for your place to be made for you . the old fisherman said. for he trimmed the lamps. lift yourself. to self-elevation. There is no manhood mill which takes in boys and turns out men. During the great financial crisis of 1857 Maria Mitchell. he sighed. Counting out from them as many as we re in the basket. asked an English lady what became of daughters when no property was left th em. He was poor and dejected. Men who have been bolstered up all their lives are seldom good for anything in a crisis. to self-discipline and self-help. in a little town near Cincinnati. and he lost all his depression in the excitement of pulling them in." was Miss Mitchell's reply. you will have a weakling on your hands at twenty-one." A young man stood listlessly watching some anglers on a bridge." asked the English lady." His table was covered with medals and cer tificates of honor from many nations. kindled the fires. who brought hi s wife to America in the steerage. "Only to tend this line till I come back." said the owner.--but he knew that a fine church and great salary can not make a great man. When misfortune comes. in recognition of his great work for civil ization in mooring two continents side by side in thought. with God's help. If I had only had firmness enough to compel my boys to earn their living. Meanwhile the fish snapped greedily at the hook." The proposal was gladly accepted." "And what is that?" asked the other. It the prop is not there.deprivations. "when there is no money left?" "They ear n it. H e accepted the first pastorate offered him. my home dishonored. "But what becomes of the Ameri can daughters. which you had on the old farm. Once down. But you have put a crutch into his hand instead of a staff. The old man was gone so long that the yo ung man began to get impatient. His salary was only about $200 a yea r. Oh. approaching a basket filled with fish. his ambition. you ha ve taken away from him the incentive to self-development. It was work and opportunity that he wanted. When the o wner returned he had caught a large number. not being stimulated by the struggle for selfelevation. help yourself. H enry Ward Beecher did not wait for a call to a big church with a large salary. who chanced to over hear his words. of the fame he had wo n and could never lose. He felt that if there were anything in him work would bring it out. "if you will do me a trifling favor. they look around for somebody to lean upon. "I f . "my fortune gone.

A lowly beg inning and a humble origin are no bar to a great career. bought three bushels of oysters. in the County of Hatework. are presidents of our banks. Where is the boy to-day who has less chance to ri . in a state of intense fear. and wait and wait for some good luck to give them a lift! But su ccess is the child of drudgery and perseverance. When it seemed that the crisis had really come. the founder of Boston University. Yo u take an oar." says Sallust. He found a board. and have filled the highest places as teachers and journalists. They therefo re petitioned the Powers that be to levy a tax upon the property of the entire c ounty for the purpose of laying out a macadamized highway. Soon his little savings amounted to $130." The grandest fortunes ever accumulated or possessed on earth were and are the f ruit of endeavor that had no capital to begin with save energy. in pulpits ." "Every one is the artificer of his own fortune." His biography shows how often the chisel and hammer were in h is hands to shape himself into his ideal. Labor is the only legal tender in the world to true success. but what of that? He made an opening. and all the way down hill to the latter place. my man. Like Horace Greeley. those men have won most who relied most upon themselves. and wh eeled them to his stand. said. intellect. Self-help has accomplished about all the great things of the world. Nearly all of the great capitalists of the city came from the c ountry. at the bar. and went three miles to an oyster smack. but he must lay the bricks him self. faint. not only in the getting of wealth. the larges t and strongest man in the party." says a printer's squib. and t he will. "The male inhabitants in the Township of Loaferdom. which closes behind him to all others. at twenty-three. He borrowed a wheelbarrow. You will never find success "marked down. "found themselves laboring under great inconvenience fo r want of an easily traveled road between Poverty and Independence. no. pay the price and it is yours. Man is not merely the architect of his own fate. an d made it into an oyster stand on the street corner. wrote: "I will become the sculptor of my o wn mind's statue. of our universities. Circumstances have rarely favored great men." "No. Our p oor boys and girls have written many of our greatest books. broad and smooth. nothing without it. he could find no opening for a boy. and threatened to capsize the boat. in Congress. The gods sell ever ything for that. It cannot be coaxed or bribed. to-day. "let the little man pray. and then he b ought a horse and cart. but also in the acquirement of eminence. Ask almost any great man in our larg e cities where he was born. They have fought their way to triu mph over the road of difficulty and through all sorts of opposition. The farmer's boys fill many of the greatest places in legislatures." shouted the bluff old boatman. but cast a line for yourself. to teach you whenever you see ot hers earning what you need to waste no time in foolish wishing. How many yo ung men falter.ulfil my promise from the fish you have caught. Every one who enters makes his own door. and dally with their purpose because they have no capital to start with. and he will tell you it was on a farm or in a small country village. Bayard Taylor. in business. Isaac Rich. Boys of lowly origin have made many of the greatest disco veries." The door to the temple of success is never left open. left Cape Cod for Boston to make his way with a capital of only four dollars. From Croesus down to Rockefeller the story is the same. "Let us pray ." A white squall caught a party of tourists on a lake in Scotland. of our colleges.

If men who have done great things could only reveal to the struggling youth of to-day h ow much of their reputations was due to downright hard digging and plodding. line by l ine." he replied. he managed. "at the rate of a line a week. but it was found that the "brilliants" and "off-hand sayings" with whic h he used to dazzle the House of Commons were elaborated. one of the greatest geniuses that ever lived. but when he was a student too poor t o buy books. at his death lef t large numbers of manuscripts filled with "sudden thoughts set down for use." Rousseau says of the labor involved in his smooth and lively style: "My manuscripts. but which have taxed the utmost powers of their authors. in whose shop h e had to work at the forge all the daylight. young Burritt had seized the opportunity and improved it. and often by candle-light? Yet. the disheartening trials. It is interesting to note that the men who t alk most about genius are the men who like to work the least. blotted. to pick up an excellent education in the odds and ends of time which most boys throw away. Lucretius worked nearly a lifetime on one poem. polished and repolishe d. the fears and despair involved in works which have gained the admiration of the worl d. Genius has been well defined as the infinite capacity for taking pains. and even then was not satisfied with it. "Hard at it. The drudgery which l iterary men have put into the productions which have stood the test of time is a lmost incredible. which overcame every obstacle in his pathway. At thirty years of age he was master of every important language in Europe and was studying those of Asia. but th e days and months of weary plodding over details and dreary drudgery often requi red to produce it would stagger belief. often rewritten a dozen times. th ey would be inspired with new hope. pull up by the roots. in most cases of down-right hard work. Sheridan was considered a genius. While the rich boy and the idler were yawning and stretching and ge tting their eyes open. What chance had such a boy for distinction? Probably not a single youth will read this book who has not a better opportunit y for success. and studying at night and holidays . Yet he had a thirst for knowledge and a desire for self-improveme nt. split. wha t an uplift of inspiration and encouragement they would give! How often I have w ished that the discouraged.se in the world than Elihu Burritt. It completely absorbed his life. Speaking of Fox. of what is called genius is merely the result of persistent. the h eadaches. by studying with a book before him at his meals. You can read in a fe w minutes or a few hours a poem or a book with only pleasure and delight. that it is the slavery to a single ide a which has given to many a mediocre talent the reputation of being a genius. the discouraged hours. scratched. he had actually borrowed and copied many hundreds of pages of large law books. the more he will have to say about great things being done by genius. The greatest works in literature have been elaborated and elaborated. The lazier the man . determined industr y. till it gained his consent t o exist." Lord Eldon astonish ed the world with his great legal learning." Even Lord Bacon. If the youth of America who are struggling against cruel circumstances to do so mething and be somebody in the world could only understand that ninety per cent. John Foster would sometimes linger a w eek over a single sentence. Matthew Hale for years studied law sixteen hours a day." H ume toiled thirteen hours a day on his "History of England. The greatest geniuses have been the greatest workers. in terlined. carrying it in his poc ket that he might utilize every spare moment. o r practise any other severity on whatever he wrote. and put down in his memorandum book ready for any emergency. There is not on . and scarcely legible. some one declared that he wrote "drop by drop. He would hack. struggling youth could know of the heartaches. It is said that Bryant rewrote "Thanatopsis" a hundred times. prune. paragraph by paragraph. attest the trouble they cost me. apprenticed to a blacksmith. the nerve-aches. Chalmers was once asked what Foster was about in London.

because he made himself such. one of the greatest writers that ever lived. He absorbed a great deal of information. son of a blacksmith. holding his book in one hand. double your talent just the same. wrote the first sentence in his "Republic" nine differ ent ways before he was satisfied with it. Michael Faraday was a poor boy. his father was a coachman and he. who apprenticed him at the age of thirteen to a bookbinder in London. "The barriers are not yet erected which can say to aspiring talent and industry 'thus far and no further. Bishop of Nismes. and Butler his famous "Analogy" twent y times. It took Vergil seven years to write his Georgics. a musician. at six o'clock. and who studied by the light of the shop windows in the streets . summer and winter. He remained at night. There is scarcely a bar in his music that was not writ ten and rewritten at least a dozen times. Franklin was b ut a poor printer's boy. who became a friend to him. to read and study the precious volumes. his reputation w as made. who had been a tallow-chandler in his youth. A glover's apprentice of Glasgow. He died while Napoleon's guns we re bombarding Vienna. m arried a servant girl. and was in his study ev ery morning. with less ch ance than almost any boy in America. to whi . there was no more barbering. when a man like Francis Joseph Campbell. became one of America's greatest historians in spi te of everything. Perhaps ninety-nine of a hundred under such unfortunate circumstances wou ld be content to remain helpless objects of charity for life. . Even Plato. one is taken at the worth he has put into himself. friendless and lonely. "The Creation. whose highest luxury at one time was only a penny roll. "The Creation" eclipsed them all. A French doctor once taunted Fléchier. and a great philanthropist. to acquire business power instea d of professional power. Michael laid the foundations of his future greatness by making himself familiar with the contents of the books he bo und." Beethoven probably surpassed all other musicians in his painstaking fidelity an d persistent application. some of the shot falling in his garden. and yet youth who waste their ev enings wonder at the genius which can produce "The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.--this poor boy. but he had a hard life of p ersecution until he became a barber in Vienna. Burke wrote the conclusion of his spee ch at the trial of Hastings sixteen times. Lord Tenterden was proud to point out to his son the shop where he had shaved for a penny. He was courted by princes and dined with kings and queens. with the meanness of his origin. He was so displeased with the latter that he attempted to rise from his deathbed to commit it to the flames.'" Gibbon wrote his autobiography nine times. who was too poor to afford even a c andle or a fire. a blind man. If it is your call to acquire money power instead of brain power. Some of my periods I have turned or returned in my head for five or six nights before they were fit to be put to paper." came upon the musical world like the rising of a new sun which never set. and clinging to the lamp-post with the other." upon which Gibbon worked twenty years. His favorite maxim was. . and when the shops were closed climbed the lamp-post. and twelve years to w rite the Aeneid. Francis Parkman. In 1798 this poor boy's oratorio. manages to put himself int o Parliament. no more poverty. Haydn was very poor. became the most eminent scholar of Scotland . He was sent away from home to act as errand boy for a mus ic teacher.e of them which I have not been obliged to transcribe four or five times before it went to press. Personal value is a coin of one' s own minting. half blind. without arms or legs. . But of his eight hundred compositions. eaten in the streets of Philadelphia. Scotland. we get a hint as to what it means to make the most possible out of ourselves and our opportun ities. When a man like Lord Cavanagh. after others had gone. Here he blacked boots for an infl uential man. becomes a di stinguished mathematician. no matter what it may be.

ch he replied, "If you had been born in the same condition that I was, you would still have been but a maker of candles." Edwin Chadwick, in his report to the British Parliament, stated that children, working on half time (that is, studying three hours a day and working the rest o f their time out of doors), really made the greatest intellectual progress durin g the year. Business men have often accomplished wonders during the busiest live s by simply devoting one, two, three, or four hours daily to study or other lite rary work. James Watt received only the rudiments of an education at school, for his atten dance was irregular on account of delicate health. He more than made up for all deficiencies, however, by the diligence with which he pursued his studies at hom e. Alexander V was a beggar; he was "born mud, and died marble." William Hersche l, placed at the age of fourteen as a musician in the band of the Hanoverian Gua rds, devoted all his leisure to philosophical studies. He acquired a large fund of general knowledge, and in astronomy, a science in which he was wholly self-in structed, his discoveries entitle him to rank with the greatest astronomers of a ll time. George Washington was the son of a widow, born under the roof of a Westmoreland farmer; almost from infancy his lot had been that of an orphan. No academy had welcomed him to its shade, no college crowned him with its honors; to read, to w rite, to cipher--these had been his degrees in knowledge. Shakespeare learned li ttle more than reading and writing at school, but by self-culture he made himsel f the great master among literary men. Burns, too, enjoyed few advantages of edu cation, and his youth was passed in almost abject poverty. James Ferguson, the son of a half-starved peasant, learned to read by listening to the recitations of one of his elder brothers. While a mere boy he discovered several mechanical principles, made models of mills and spinning-wheels, and by means of beads on strings worked out an excellent map of the heavens. Ferguson made remarkable things with a common penknife. How many great men have mounted t he hill of knowledge by out-of-the-way paths! Gifford worked his intricate probl ems with a shoemaker's awl on a bit of leather. Rittenhouse first calculated ecl ipses on his plow-handle. Columbus, while leading the life of a sailor, managed to become the most accomp lished geographer and astronomer of his time. When Peter the Great, a boy of seventeen, became the absolute ruler of Russia h is subjects were little better than savages, and in himself even the passions an d propensities of barbarism were so strong that they were frequently exhibited d uring his whole career. But he determined to transform himself and the Russians into civilized people. He instituted reforms with great energy, and at the age o f twenty-six started on a visit to the other countries of Europe for the purpose of learning about their arts and institutions. At Saardam, Holland, he was so i mpressed with the sights of the great East India dockyard that he apprenticed hi mself to a shipbuilder, and helped to build the St. Peter, which he promptly pur chased. Continuing his travels, after he had learned his trade, he worked in Eng land in paper-mills, saw-mills, rope-yards, watchmakers' shops, and other manufa ctories, doing the work and receiving the treatment of a common laborer. While traveling, his constant habit was to obtain as much information as he cou ld beforehand with regard to every place he was to visit, and he would demand, " Let me see all." When setting out on his investigations, on such occasions, he c arried his tablets in his hand and whatever he deemed worthy of remembrance was carefully noted down. He would often leave his carriage if he saw the country pe ople at work by the wayside as he passed along, and not only enter into conversa tion with them on agricultural affairs, but also accompany them to their homes,

examine their furniture, and take drawings of their implements of husbandry. Thu s he obtained much minute and correct knowledge, which he would scarcely have ac quired by other means, and which he afterward turned to admirable account in the improvement of his own country. The ancients said, "Know thyself"; the twentieth century says, "Help thyself." Self-culture gives a second birth to the soul. A liberal education is a true reg eneration. When a man is once liberally educated, he will generally remain a man , not shrink to a manikin, nor dwindle to a brute. But if he is not properly edu cated, if he has merely been crammed and stuffed through college, if he has mere ly a broken-down memory from trying to hold crammed facts enough to pass the exa mination, he will continue to shrink, shrivel, and dwindle, often below his orig inal proportions, for he will lose both his confidence and self-respect, as his crammed facts, which never became a part of himself, evaporate from his distende d memory. Every bit of education or culture is of great advantage in the struggle for exi stence. The microscope does not create anything new, but it reveals marvels. To educate the eye adds to its magnifying power until it sees beauty where before i t saw only ugliness. It reveals a world we never suspected, and finds the greate st beauty even in the commonest things. The eye of an Agassiz could see worlds o f which the uneducated eye never dreamed. The cultured hand can do a thousand th ings the uneducated hand can not do. It becomes graceful, steady of nerve, stron g, skilful, indeed it almost seems to think, so animated is it with intelligence . The cultured will can seize, grasp, and hold the possessor, with irresistible power and nerve, to almost superhuman effort. The educated touch can almost perf orm miracles. The educated taste can achieve wonders almost past belief. What a contrast between the cultured, logical, profound, masterly reason of a Gladstone and that of the hod-carrier who has never developed or educated his reason beyo nd what is necessary to enable him to mix mortar and carry brick! Be careful to avoid that over-intellectual culture which is purchased at the ex pense of moral vigor. An observant professor of one of our colleges has remarked that "the mind may be so rounded and polished by education, and so well balance d, as not to be energetic in any one faculty. In other men not thus trained, the sense of deficiency and of the sharp, jagged corners of their knowledge leads t o efforts to fill up the chasms, rendering them at last far better educated men than the polished, easy-going graduate who has just knowledge enough to prevent consciousness of his ignorance. While all the faculties of the mind should be cu ltivated, it is yet desirable that it should have two or three rough-hewn featur es of massive strength. Young men are too apt to forget the great end of life, w hich is to be and do, not to read and brood over what other men have been and do ne." "I repeat that my object is not to give him knowledge, but to teach him how to acquire it at need," said Rousseau. All learning is self-teaching. It is upon the working of the pupil's own mind t hat his progress in knowledge depends. The great business of the master is to te ach the pupil to teach himself. "Thinking, not growth, makes manhood," says Isaac Taylor. "Accustom yourself, t herefore, to thinking. Set yourself to understand whatever you see or read. To j oin thinking with reading is one of the first maxims, and one of the easiest ope rations." "How few think justly of the thinking few: How many never think who think they do." CHAPTER XXXI

THE SELF-IMPROVEMENT HABIT If you want knowledge you must toil for it.--RUSKIN. We excuse our sloth under the pretext of difficulty.--QUINTILLIAN. What sculpture is to a block of marble, education is to the human soul.--ADDISO N. A boy is better unborn than untaught.--GASCOIGNE. It is ignorance that wastes; it is knowledge that saves, an untaught faculty is at once quiescent and dead.--N. D. HILLIS. The plea that this or that man has no time for culture will vanish as soon as w e desire culture so much that we begin to examine seriously into our present use of time.--MATTHEW ARNOLD. Education, as commonly understood, is the process of developing the mind by mea ns of books and teachers. When education has been neglected, either by reason of lack of opportunity, or because advantage was not taken of the opportunities af forded, the one remaining hope is self-improvement. Opportunities for self-impro vement surround us, the helps to self-improvement are abundant, and in this day of cheap books and free libraries, there can be no good excuse for neglect to us e the faculties for mental growth and development which are so abundantly suppli ed. When we look at the difficulties which hindered the acquisition of knowledge fi fty years to a century ago; the scarcity and the costliness of books, the value of the dimmest candle-light, the unremitting toil which left so little time for study, the physical weariness which had to be overcome to enable mental exertion in study, we may well marvel at the giants of scholarship those days of hardshi p produced. And when we add to educational limitations, physical disabilities, b lindness, deformity, ill-health, hunger and cold, we may feel shame as we contem plate the fulness of modern opportunity and the helps and incentives to study an d self-development which are so lavishly provided for our use and inspiration, a nd of which we make so little use. Self-improvement implies one essential feeling: the desire for improvement. If the desire exists, then improvement is usually accomplished only by the conquest of self--the material self, which seeks pleasure and amusement. The novel, the game of cards, the billiard cue, idle whittling and story-telling will have to b e eschewed, and every available moment of leisure turned to account. For all who seek self-improvement "there is a lion in the way," the lion of self-indulgence , and it is only by the conquest of this enemy that progress is assured. Show me how a youth spends his evenings, his odd bits of time, and I will forec ast his future. Does he look upon this leisure as precious, rich in possibilitie s, as containing golden material for his future life structure? Or does he look upon it as an opportunity for self-indulgence, for a light, flippant good time? The way he spends his leisure will give the keynote of his life, will tell whet her he is dead in earnest, or whether he looks upon it as a huge joke. He may not be conscious of the terrible effects, the gradual deterioration of c haracter which comes from a frivolous wasting of his evenings and half-holidays, but the character is being undermined just the same. Young men are often surprised to find themselves dropping behind their competit

ors, but if they will examine themselves, they will find that they have stopped growing, because they have ceased their effort to keep abreast of the times, to be widely read, to enrich life with self-culture. It is the right use of spare moments in reading and study which qualify men for leadership. And in many historic cases the "spare" moments utilized for study w ere not spare in the sense of being the spare time of leisure. They were rather spared moments, moments spared from sleep, from meal times, from recreation. Where is the boy to-day who has less chance to rise in the world than Elihu Bur ritt, apprenticed at sixteen to a blacksmith, in whose shop he had to work at th e forge all the daylight, and often by candle-light? Yet he managed, by studying with a book before him at his meals, carrying it in his pocket that he might ut ilize every spare moment, and studying nights and holidays, to pick up an excell ent education in the odds and ends of time which most boys throw away. While the rich boy and the idler were yawning and stretching and getting their eyes open, young Burritt had seized the opportunity and improved it. He had a thirst for knowledge and a desire for self-improvement, which overcame every obstacle in his pathway. A wealthy gentleman offered to pay his expenses at Harvard. But no, Elihu said he could get his education himself, even though h e had to work twelve or fourteen hours a day at the forge. Here was a determined boy. He snatched every spare moment at the anvil and forge as if it were gold. He believed, with Gladstone, that thrift of time would repay him in after years with usury, and that waste of it would make him dwindle. Think of a boy working nearly all the daylight in a blacksmith shop, and yet finding time to study seve n languages in a single year. It is not lack of ability that holds men down but lack of industry. In many cas es the employee has a better brain, a better mental capacity than his employer. But he does not improve his faculties. He dulls his mind by cigarette smoking. H e spends his money at the pool table, theater, or dance, and as he grows old, an d the harness of perpetual service galls him, he grumbles at his lack of luck, h is limited opportunity. The number of perpetual clerks is constantly being recruited by those who did n ot think it worth while as boys to learn to write a good hand or to master the f undamental branches of knowledge requisite in a business career. The ignorance c ommon among young men and young women, in factories, stores, and offices, everyw here, in fact, in this land of opportunity, where youth should be well educated, is a pitiable thing in American life. On every hand we see men and women of abi lity occupying inferior positions because they did not think it worth while in y outh to develop their powers and to concentrate their attention on the acquisiti on of sufficient knowledge. Thousands of men and women find themselves held back, handicapped for life beca use of the seeming trifles which they did not think it worth while to pay attent ion to in their early days. Many a girl of good natural ability spends her most productive years as a cheap clerk, or in a mediocre position because she never thought it worth while to de velop her mental faculties or to take advantage of opportunities within reach to fit herself for a superior position. Thousands of girls unexpectedly thrown on their own resources have been held down all their lives because of neglected tas ks in youth, which at the time were dismissed with a careless "I don't think it worth while." They did not think it would pay to go to the bottom of any study a t school, to learn to keep accounts accurately, or fit themselves to do anything in such a way as to be able to make a living by it. They expected to marry, and never prepared for being dependent on themselves,--a contingency against which marriage, in many instances, is no safeguard.

The trouble with most youths is that they are not willing to fling the whole we ight of their being into their location. They want short hours, little work and a lot of play. They think more of leisure and pleasure than of discipline and tr aining in their great life specialty. Many a clerk envies his employer and wishes that he could go into business for himself, be an employer too but it is too much work to make the effort to rise a bove a clerkship. He likes to take life easy; and he wonders idly whether, after all, it is worth while to strain and strive and struggle and study to prepare o neself for the sake of getting up a little higher and making a little more money . The trouble with a great many people is that they are not willing to make prese nt sacrifices for future gain. They prefer to have a good time as they go along, rather than spend time in self-improvement. They have a sort of vague wish to d o something great, but few have that intensity of longing which impels them to m ake the sacrifice of the present for the future. Few are willing to work undergr ound for years laying a foundation for the life monument. They yearn for greatne ss, but their yearning is not the kind which is willing to pay any price in ende avor or make any sacrifice for its object. So the majority slide along in mediocrity all their lives. They have ability fo r something higher up, but they have not the energy and determination to prepare for it. They do not care to make necessary effort. They prefer to take life eas ier and lower down rather than to struggle for something higher. They do not pla y the game for all they are worth. If a man or woman has but the disposition for self-improvement and advancement he will find opportunity to rise or "what he can not find create." Here is an ex ample from the everyday life going on around us and in which we are all taking p art. A young Irishman who had reached the age of nineteen or twenty without learning to read or write, and who left home because of the intemperance that prevailed there, learned to read a little by studying billboards, and eventually got a pos ition as steward aboard a man-of-war. He chose that occupation and got leave to serve at the captain's table because of a great desire to learn. He kept a littl e tablet in his coat-pocket, and whenever he heard a new word wrote it down. One day an officer saw him writing and immediately suspected him of being a spy. Wh en he and the other officers learned what the tablet was used for, the young man was given more opportunities to learn, and these led in time to promotion, unti l, finally, the sometime steward won a prominent position in the navy. Success a s a naval officer prepared the way for success in other fields. Self-help has accomplished about all the great things of the world. How many yo ung men falter, faint, and dally with their purpose, because they have no capita l to start with, and wait and wait for some good luck to give them a lift! But s uccess is the child of drudgery and perseverance. It can not be coaxed or bribed ; pay the price and it is yours. One of the sad things about the neglected opportunities for self-improvement is that it puts people of great natural ability at a disadvantage among those who are their mental inferiors. I know a member of one of our city legislatures, a splendid fellow, immensely p opular, who has a great, generous heart and broad sympathies, but who can not op en his mouth without so murdering the English language that it is really painful to listen to him.

There ted to cters, ack of

are a great many similar examples in Washington of men who have been elec important positions because of their great natural ability and fine chara but who are constantly mortified and embarrassed by their ignorance and l early training.

One of the most humiliating experiences that can ever come to a human being is to be conscious of possessing more than ordinary ability, and yet be tied to an inferior position because of lack of early and intelligent training commensurate with his ability. To be conscious that one has ability to realize eighty or nin ety per cent of his possibilities, if he had only had the proper education and t raining, but because of this lack to be unable to bring out more than twenty-fiv e per cent of it on account of ignorance, is humiliating and embarrassing. In ot her words, to go through life conscious that you are making a botch of your capa bilities just because of lack of training, is a most depressing thing. Nothing else outside of sin causes more sorrow than that which comes from not h aving prepared for the highest career possible to one. There are no bitterer reg rets than those which come from being obliged to let opportunities pass by for w hich one never prepared himself. I know a pitiable case of a born naturalist whose ambition was so suppressed, a nd whose education so neglected in youth, that later when he came to know more a bout natural history than almost any man of his day, he could not write a gramma tical sentence, and could never make his ideas live in words, perpetuate them in books, because of his ignorance of even the rudiments of an education. His earl y vocabulary was so narrow and pinched, and his knowledge of his language so lim ited that he always seemed to be painfully struggling for words to express his t hought. Think of the suffering of this splendid man, who was conscious of possessing co lossal scientific knowledge, and yet was absolutely unable to express himself gr ammatically! How often stenographers are mortified by the use of some unfamiliar word or ter m, or quotation, because of the shallowness of their preparation! It is not enough to be able to take dictation when ordinary letters are given, not enough to do the ordinary routine of office work. The ambitious stenographer must be prepared for the unusual demand, must have good reserves of knowledge t o draw from in case of emergency. But, if she is constantly slipping up upon her grammar, or is all at sea the mo ment she steps out of her ordinary routine, her employer knows that her preparat ion is shallow, that her education is very limited, and her prospects will be li mited also. A young lady writes me that she is so handicapped by the lack of an early educa tion that she fairly dreads to write a letter to anyone of education or culture for fear of making ignorant mistakes in grammar and spelling. Her letter indicat es that she has a great deal of natural ability. Yet she is much limited and alw ays placed at a disadvantage because of this lack of an early education. It is d ifficult to conceive of a greater misfortune than always to be embarrassed and h andicapped just because of the neglect of those early years. I am often pained by letters from people, especially young people, which indica te that the writers have a great deal of natural ability, that they have splendi d minds, but a large part of their ability is covered up, rendered ineffectual b y their ignorance. Many of these letters show that the writers are like diamonds in the rough, wit

h only here and there a little facet ground off, just enough to let in the light and reveal the great hidden wealth within. I always feel sorry for these people who have passed the school age and who wil l probably go through life with splendid minds handicapped by their ignorance wh ich, even late in life, they might largely or entirely overcome. It is such a pity that, a young man, for instance, who has the natural ability which would make him a leader among men, must, for the lack of a little training , a little preparation, work for somebody else, perhaps with but half of his abi lity but with a better preparation, more education. Everywhere we see clerks, mechanics, employees in all walks of life, who cannot rise to anything like positions which correspond with their natural ability, be cause they have not had the education. They are ignorant. They can not write a d ecent letter. They murder the English language, and hence their superb ability c annot be demonstrated, and remains in mediocrity. The parable of the talents illustrates and enforces one of nature's sternest la ws: "To him that hath shall be given; from him that hath not shall be taken away even that which he hath." Scientists call this law the survival of the fittest. The fittest are those who use what they have, who gain strength by struggle, an d who survive by self-development by control of their hostile or helpful environ ment. The soil, the sunshine, the atmosphere are very liberal with the material for t he growth of the plant or the tree, but the plant must use all it gets, it must work it up into flowers, into fruit, into leaf or fiber or something or the supp ly will cease. In other words, the soil will not send any more building material up the sap than is used for growth, and the faster this material is used the mo re rapid the growth, the more abundantly the material will come. t s e d The same law holds good everywhere. Nature is liberal with us if we utilize wha she gives us, but if we stop using it, if we do not transform what she gives u into power, if we do not do some building somewhere, if we do not transform th material which she gives us into force and utilize that force, we not only fin the supply cut off, but we find that we are growing weaker, less efficient.

Everything in nature is on the move, either one way or the other. It is either going up or down. It is either advancing or retrograding; we cannot hold without using. Nature withdraws muscle or brain if we do not use them. She withdraws skill the moment we stop drilling efficiently, the moment we stop using our power. The fo rce is withdrawn when we cease exercising it. A college graduate is often surprised years after he leaves the college to find that about all he has to show for his education is his diploma. The power, the efficiency which he gained there has been lost because he has not been using the m. He thought at the time that everything was still fresh in his mind after his examination that this knowledge would remain with him, but it has been slipping away from him every minute since he stopped using it, and only that has remained and increased which he has used; the rest has evaporated. A great many college graduates ten years afterwards find that they have but very little left to show for their four years' course, because they have not utilized their knowledge. Th ey have become weaklings without knowing it. They constantly say to themselves, "I have a college education, I must have some ability, I must amount to somethin g in the world." But the college diploma has no more power to hold the knowledge you have gained in college than a piece of tissue paper over a gas jet can hold the gas in the pipe.

Everything which you do not use is constantly slipping away from you. Use it or lose it. The secret of power is use. Ability will not remain with us, force wil l evaporate the moment we cease to do something with it. The tools for self-improvement are at your hand, use them. If the ax is dull th e more strength must be put forth. If your opportunities are limited you must us e more energy, put forth more effort. Progress may seem slow at first, but perse verance assures success. "Line upon line, and precept upon precept" is the rule of mental upbuilding and "In due time ye shall reap if ye faint not." CHAPTER XXXII RAISING OF VALUES "Destiny is not about thee, but within,-- Thyself must make thyself." "The world is no longer clay, but rather iron in the hands of its workers," say s Emerson, "and men have got to hammer out a place for themselves by steady and rugged blows." To make the most of your "stuff," be it cloth, iron, or character,--this is suc cess. Raising common "stuff" to priceless value is great success. The man who first takes the rough bar of wrought iron may be a blacksmith, who has only partly learned his trade, and has no ambition to rise above his anvil. He thinks that the best possible thing he can do with his bar is to make it into horseshoes, and congratulates himself upon his success. He reasons that the rou gh lump of iron is worth only two or three cents a pound, and that it is not wor th while to spend much time or labor on it. His enormous muscles and small skill have raised the value of the iron from one dollar, perhaps, to ten dollars. Along comes a cutler, with a little better education, a little more ambition, a little finer perception, and says to the blacksmith: "Is this all you can see i n that iron? Give me a bar, and I will show you what brains and skill and hard w ork can make of it." He sees a little further into the rough bar. He has studied many processes of hardening and tempering; he has tools, grinding and polishing wheels, and annealing furnaces. The iron is fused, carbonized into steel, drawn out, forged, tempered, heated white-hot, plunged into cold water or oil to impr ove its temper, and ground and polished with great care and patience. When this work is done, he shows the astonished blacksmith two thousand dollars' worth of knife-blades where the latter only saw ten dollars' worth of crude horseshoes. T he value has been greatly raised by the refining process. "Knife-blades are all very well, if you can make nothing better," says another artisan, to whom the cutler has shown the triumph of his art, "but you haven't h alf brought out what is in that bar of iron. I see a higher and better use; I ha ve made a study of iron, and know what there is in it and what can be made of it ." This artisan has a more delicate touch, a finer perception, a better training, a higher ideal, and superior determination, which enable him to look still furth er into the molecules of the rough bar,--past the horse-shoes, past the knife-bl ades,--and he turns the crude iron into the finest cambric needles, with eyes cu t with microscopic exactness. The production of the invisible points requires a more delicate process, a finer grade of skill than the cutler possesses. This feat the last workman considers marvelous, and he thinks he has exhausted the possibilities of the iron. He has multiplied many times the value of the cut ler's product.

with a more finely organized mind. the effort made. if a pound could be collected. whose processes are so almost infinitely delicate. a pound of these slender. who shall set b ounds to the possibilities of the development of a human being. in triumph. that wonderful c ompound of physical. but so full of its new qualities that it almost seems instinct with life. acting and c ounteracting. A higher artist-artisan appears. After infinite toil and pain. the hand. more perfection can be reached. might be worth hundre ds of times as much. takes but a fragmen t of one of the bars of steel. by even the average educated man. behold! another very skilful mechanic. that his trade is unmentioned by the makers of dictionaries and encylopedias. more industry. the processes of educ . by pai nstaking care. he has made his dream true. The difference in human attainment is due only slightly to the original materia l. the r eal. the human being is a bundle of forces. and . worth only a few tho usand dollars. moral. a dozen processes are possible. by hard work. Other experts may still further refine the product. and the needles. by mixing brains with its molecules.But. He puts his bar through many processes of refinement and fine tempering. more patience. who tells us that the rough bar has not even y et found its highest expression. mental. that even mainsprings and ha irsprings are looked back upon as coarse. how the texture of the metal can b e so much refined that even a fiber. It is the ideal followed and unfolded. he shows you a few of the minutely barbed instruments used by dentists to dra w out the finest branches of the dental nerves. can do marvelous wo rk. by the training of the eye. in the develo pment of iron. but it will be many a day b efore the best will exhaust the possibilities of a metal that can be subdivided until its particles will float in the air. the knife-blades. It sounds magical. at every stage of manufacture. such ethereal fineness of touch. a higher order of skill. and spiritual forces? Whereas. perhaps forty ti mes the value of the same weight of gold. i f care enough be used in tempering the steel. crude. With penetrating. While the iron is an inert mass acted upon by external influences only. To him. he has raised th e few dollars' worth of iron to a value of one million dollars. whose product is so little known. and how. and by determination and grit. turns his product into almost invisible coils of delicate hair-spr ings. and cheap. an d a better training. yet all capable of control and direction by the higher self. it will not be stiff. almost clairvoyant vision. trenchant. even main-springs seem coarse and clumsy. and returns the product of his bar in fine mainsprings for watches. While a pound of gold. a slender thread of it. If a metal possessing only a few coarse material qualities is capable of such m arvelous increase in value. that he possesses the magic that can perform a still greater miracle in iron. Still another workman. He knows that the crude iron can be manipulated and coaxed into an elasticity t hat can not even be imagined by one less trained in metallurgy. this artist-artisan sees how every process of mainspring making can be carried further. When his work is don e. He knows that. knife-blades. is worth about two hundred and fifty dollars. a thousand influences may be brou ght to bear upon mind and character. passes with ease by the horse-shoes. but the magic is only that wrought by the application of the homeliest virtues. the perception. Where the others saw horseshoes. and develops its higher possibilities with such m arvelous accuracy. dominating personality. roughly s peaking. barbed filaments of steel. or needles. a more delicate touch. a nd merely a passive metal. his penetrating eye saw a product worth one hundred thousand doll ars.

and become worthless. and all are s ubject to the dominating will. if exposed to the elements. will oxidize. his lack of means to get a college education. and refine. everyday life. In the iron the qualities are. inherent. hammer. We must realize our own adaptability to great ends. has counterparts of all the tortures the iron undergoes. to temper it. and will attribute their f ailure to hard luck. if we would but realize them. Franklin. we can. or to better it in some way. five-hundredfold. and the drawing out. one man calls out an angel of beauty which delights every beholder. the beg gar. Ben Jonson. if every rolle r should pulverize it. if every furnace should burn the life out of it. another a hideous monster which demoralizes every one who sees i . the crushings of iron circumstances. all our efforts and struggles will nev er produce hairsprings. but it is hard to raise your life-product to higher values. while the ninety-nine will w onder why their material remains so coarse and crude. Cervantes. refined. is strengthened. to work on and up from clumsy horseshoes to delicate hairsprings. There is very little difference between the material given to a hundred average boys and girls at birth. and Haydn. those qualit ies that withstand all. Many of us consider our natural gift-bars poor. made more elastic or more resistant. the poor wheelwright's son. a nd through them it comes to its highest expression. The iron. the cutler's son. perhaps with infinitely poorer means. The blows of opposition. It is easy to remain a common bar of iron. and development. by becoming mer ely a horseshoe. are the on es who fail. If every blow sho uld fracture it. Demosthenes. I f we see only horseshoes or knife-blades. the raspings of care and anxiety. by infinite patience and persistence. the bricklayer. and stru ggle. yet one with no better means of improvement than the o thers. another with half his chances pi cks up a good education in the odds and ends of time which other boys throw away . if we are willing. dreary drudgery in education and discipline. the rebuffs that chill enthusiasm. a thousandfold. un til they towered head and shoulders above other men. the weariness of ye ars of dry. we m ust resolve to struggle. From the same rough piece of marble. so must we see in our lives glorious possibilities. and remains in ignorance. raise the value of the raw material to almost fabulous heights. but in ourse lves they are largely matters of growth. confident that the result will pay us for our suffering. or comparatively so.--all these are necessar y to the man who would reach the highest success. the grinding of constant difficulties. aye. Just as a bar of iron. and come out triumphan t in the end. to endure trials and tests. Life. the slave. and our ef forts. will raise his material in value a hundredfold. so wil l character deteriorate if there is no constant effort to improve its form. and mold our life-bar into its ultimate development." the faulty characters. culture. compared with those of others. and adapted to the use each artisan dreams of. Homer. the struggles amid want and woe. that draw profit from every test. and inadequate. of what use would it be? It has that virtue. the fiery trials of disaster and bereavement. to i ncrease its ductility.ation and experience undergone that fuse. the weaver. to pay the necessary price. by patience. by this manipulation. It was thus that Columbus . While one boy is regretting his want of opportunities. Those who shrink from the forging. refined product. toil. the journeyman printer. the rolling. the c ommon soldier. to hammer. but. study. mean. developed their powers. From the same material. in the main. draw out. the criminals. Just as each artisan sees in the crude iron some finished. the "nobodies. one man builds a palace and another a hovel. Aesop. our trials.

should make it a study. as expression before an audience. The occasions for little speaking are increasing enormously. Young people. A man may write as listlessly as he pleases. In music. his resourcefulness. It is doubtful whether anyone can reach the highest standard of culture without studying the art of expression. the rest is the com poser's. When one undert akes to think on his feet and speak extemporaneously before the public. only a few persons hear them . the powe r and the skill of the entire man are put to a severe test. but it must come through self-expression. whether vocal or i nstrumental. and perhaps no one will ever think of them again. everybody sh ould have such complete control of himself. Self-expression in some manner is the only means of developing mental power. d epends very largely upon your ideal. and it takes lots of stamina to undergo the processes that produce the finest product. and express his thoughts clearly and distinctly. so that he can at a moment's notice rise and express himself intelligently . but would you prefer to remain a roug h bar of iron or a horseshoe all your life? [Illustration: Lincoln studying by the firelight] CHAPTER XXXIII SELF-IMPROVEMENT THROUGH PUBLIC SPEAKING It does not matter whether you want to be a public speaker or not. we do not feel that so much depends upon our words. He does not have a great audience criticizing every sentence. and so quickly unfolds all of his powers. He do es not have to step upon the scales of every listener's judgment to be weighed. Yet anyone who lays any claim to culture.t. to be drawn out. The extent to which you can raise the value of your life-bar depends very large ly upon yourself. especially public vocal expression. should train himself to think on his feet. it is hard and painful. In all ages oratory has been regarded as the highest expression of human achievement. It may be in music. and he knows that he can burn his manuscript again and ag ain if it does not suit him. and what he writes may never b e seen by anyone. No one is wa tching him. A great many ques . weighing every thought. to be thrust from the fire into cold water or oil in order to get the proper temper. Of course. The writer has the advantage of being able to wait for his moods. there is always a chance for revision. In conversation. He can write when he feels like it. Then. what one gives out is only partially one's own. no matter how large or formidable. upon your having the grit to be hammered. Nothing else will call out what is in a man so quickly and so effectively as th e constant effort to do his best in speaking before an audience. no matter what they intend to be. whether blacksmith or farmer. as does the orator. merchan t or physician. There are not a thousand eyes upon him. should be so self-centered and selfposed that he can get up in any audience. it may be on canvas: it may be through oratory. inventiveness. Whether you go upward to the mainspring or hairspring stage. use much or lit tle of his brain or energy. your determination to be the higher thing. His pride and vanity are not touched. but no other form of self-expression develops a man so thoroughly and so effectively. just as he chooses or feels like doing. it may come th rough selling goods or writing a book. Self-expression in any legitimate form tends to call out what is in a man.

a shallow-brained business man. telling English tends to make one's everyday language choicer and more direct. by the dint of hard work and persistent grit. He could not even make a decent appearan ce. got up and made a brill iant speech. but they are nobodies when called upon to speak in public. they have position. There are plenty of business men to-day who would give a great deal of money if they could only go back and improve the early opportunities for learning to thi nk and speak on their feet which they threw away. was called upon to give his opinion upo n the matter under consideration. even to make a few remarks. It is a matter of painstaking and preparation. are to . and improves one 's diction generally. The effort to express one's ideas in lucid. because they were timid.tions which used to be settled in the office are now discussed and settled at di nners. and yet they are not able to stand on their feet in public. tells me that he has been surprised on several occasions when he has been called upon to speak at banquets. and strangers no doubt thought that he was much the stronger man. stammer out an apology and sit down. There was never before any such demand for dinner oratory as to-day. H e had simply cultivated the ability to say his best thing on his feet. but they always shrank from every opportunity. or scarcely to put a motion without trembling like an aspen leaf. concise. In this and other ways speech-making develops mental power and character. or felt that somebody else could handle t he debate or questions better. as helpless as a child. mortified. At the very meeting where this strong man who had the respect and confidence of everybody who knew him. who is king in his specialty. blush. and he got up and trembled and stammered and c ould scarcely say his soul was his own. embarrassed. They had plenty of opportunities when they were y oung. There is everything in learning what you wish to know. manner. or on other public occasions . and he felt cheap. Some time ago I was at a public meeting when a man who stands very high in the community. clean-cut. says Lord Chesterfield. and mental furnishing. in the same city. at the new discoveries he has made of himself of power which he never before d reamed he possessed. Your vocal culture. Every man. All they c an do is to look foolish. and he now regrets more than anything else that he has allo wed so many opportunities for calling himself out to go by in the past. and the o ther man had not. may choose good words instead of bad ones an d speak properly instead of improperly. We know men who have. he may have grace in his motions and ges tures. at school. who hadn't a hundr edth part of the other man's practical power in affairs. Now they have money. and who made such a miserable failure of his attempt to give his opinion upon an important public matter on which he was well posted. All sorts of business deals are now carried through at dinners. in debating clubs to get rid of their self-consciousness and to acquire ease and facility in public speaking. A very brilliant young man in New York who has climbed to a responsible positio n in a very short time. He had power and a great deal of experience. and probably would have given anything if he had early in life trained himself to get himself in hand so that he could think on his feet and say with power and effectiveness that which he knew. but there he stood. and was placed at a tremendous disadvantage. This explains the rapidity with which a young man develops in sc hool or college when he begins to take part in public debates or in debating soc ieties. lifted them selves into positions of prominence. and may be a very agreeable instead of disagreeable speaker if he will ta ke care and pains. b eing so confused and self-conscious and "stage struck" that he could say scarcel y anything.

One's manhood. The sense of power that comes from holding attention. The speaker summons all his reserves of education. . of natural or acquired ability. the greatest oratorical effo rt ever made on this continent. learning. and tends to make one more effective in ev ery particular. character. "Ninety-nine men in every hundred never rise above mediocrity b ecause the training of the voice is entirely neglected and considered of no impo rtance. One must know words. conviction. Learn to stop when you get through. too . At the same time he must speak effectively through a properly mo dulated voice. his poverty of speech. stirring the emotions or convincing the reason of an audience. the human mind tires very quickly without it. Do no t keep stringing out conversation or argument after you have made your point. and masses all his forces in the endeavor to capture the approval and applause of the audi ence. One. as do orators. There must be variety. Nothing else so thoroughly discloses a man's weaknesses or shows up his limitations of thought. vigorousl y. Nothing else is such a touchstone of the character and the extent of one's re ading. one must think quickly. compact statement must be had. and pausing now and then as if refreshing himself by slumber. There is no class of people put to such a severe test of showing what is in the m as public speakers. Gladstone said. with proper facial and bodily expression and gesture. good judgment. since force. must cultivate bodily posture. and have good habits at easy command. if he had sat down in the Senate and put his fee t on his desk? Think of a great singer like Nordica attempting to electrify an a udience while lounging on a sofa or sitting in a slouchy position. words press for choice. What woul d have been the result of Webster's reply to Hayne. An early training for effective speaking will make one careful to secure a good vocabulary by good reading and a dictionary. his narrow vocabular y. Nothing will tire an audienc e more quickly than monotony. the man who has no sensitiveness. This is especially true of a monotonous tone. He was a p erfect genius for dry uninteresting oratory.be made a matter for thought and careful training. the carefulness or carelessness of his observation. self-reliance. will-power are greatly affected by physical condition." It was indeed said of a certain Duke of Devonshire that he was the only English statesman who ever took a nap during the progress of his own speech. or sense of proportion. arouses ambition. enthusi asm. In youth the would-be orator must cultivate robust health. Yo u only weaken your case and prejudice people against you for your lack of tact. Eve ry mental faculty is quickened. It is a great art to be able to r aise and lower the voice with sweet flowing cadences which please the ear. no other men who run such a risk of exposing their weak sp ots. or making fools of themselves in the estimation of others. T houghts rush for utterance. assura nce. effectively. In thinking on one's feet before an audience. everything expressed on the same dead level. P ublic speaking--thinking on one's feet--is a powerful educator except to the thi ck-skinned man. gives self-confidence. Close. The attempt to become a good public speaker is a great awakener of all the ment al faculties. judgment of his opinions--al l things that go to make him what he is--are being unrolled like a panorama. every power of thought and expression spurred. or who does not care for what others think of him. moving forward with a monotonous dr oning. This requir es practise in early life. of experience. Do not neutralize all the good impression you have made by talking on and on long after you have made your point.

is to get the experience. Do the thing so many times that it will become second nature to you. on the ground that they are not quite well enough educated at present. Every time you rise to your feet will increase your confidence. He is so ability for public speak accepting invitations to that he has not had expe proud. Dormant impuls es are stirred. This shrinking into a corner and getting out of sight and avoiding pub licity is fatal to self-confidence. Do not wait until you are bett er prepared. Join just as many young people's organizations--especially self-improvement organizat ions--as you can. or how much trouble it is. more readily in reach. Webster. The way to acquire grace. until they have read more history and more literature. and after awhil e you will form the habit of speaking until it will be as easy as anything else. and sends the blood surging through the veins. and the chances are that you will never know the rules unti l you are thrust into the chair where you will be obliged to give rulings. lea ves these reserves permanently better in hand. Do not be afraid to show yourself. fires the eye. facility. Clay. they discovered themselves. The Debating Club is the nursery of orators. half-forgotten memories revived. flushes the cheek. the way to get poise and balance so t hat you will not feel disturbed in public gatherings. The effort to marshal all one's reserves in a lo gical and orderly manner. If you have an invitation to speak. You never will be. We know of a young man who has a great deal of natural ing. the imagination quickened to se e figures and similes that would never come to calm thought. no matter how much you may shrink from it. It is so easy and seductive. If th e chance does not come to you. and there is no one thing which will develop young people so rapidly and effect ively as the debating clubs and discussions of all sorts. and Patrick Henry got their training in the old-fashioned Debating So ciety. or how difficult it is to get the time. vigorous exercis e for the mind as wrestling is for the body. Do not be afraid to rise to put a mot ion or to second it or give your opinion upon it. No matter how far you have to go t o attend it. or how timid or shy you may be. Cho ate. Go up front. Lincoln. and force yourself to speak every time you get a chance.Such an effort takes hold of the entire nature. They want to wait until they can use a l ittle better grammar. ease. Jump to your feet and say something upon every question that is up for discussion. A vast number of our p ublic men have owed their advance more to the old-fashioned debating societies t han anything else. It was here they learned not to be afraid of themselves. Wilson. and when you have accepted the position you can post yo urself on the rules. This is just the place to learn. Here they learned confidence. Do not remain way back on the back seat. to bring to the front all the power one possesses. Nothing will call a young man out mo re than the struggle in a debate to hold his own. and yet he is so timid that he always shrinks from speak at banquets or in public because he is so afraid rience enough. to express their opinions with force and independence. and so afraid tha . the drill you will get by it is the turning point. beads the brow. This forced awakening of the whole personality has effects reaching much furthe r than the oratorical occasion. unt il they have gained a little more culture and ease of manner. especially for boys and girls in school or college . make it. resolve that you will not let this opportunity for self-enla rgement slip by you. Do not think that because you do not know anything about parliamentary law that you should not accept the presidency of your club or debating society. self-reliance. It is strong. He lacks confidence in himself. to shrink from the public debates or speaking.

that he has waited and waited a nd waited until now he is discouraged and thinks that he will never be able to d o anything in public speaking at all.--"Is that the way C aesar would have spoken it?" "Yes. but the man behind the speech." he replied. than to hav e missed the scores of opportunities which would undoubtedly have made a strong public speaker of him. or gatherings of any kind. It is not the speech. his power is crippled. He ws it. or as valuable as those of their companions." An almost fatal timidity seizes on an inexperienced person. One man carries weight because self convinced of what he says. studying him. scrutinizing him to see how much there is in him. While he is wondering what kind of an impression he is making. and as nervous as a cat. This timidity is often. the doubtful. what people thi nk of him. The mere thought of asserting themselves. What is technically called "stage fright" is very common. because then he would have profited by experience. "if Caesar had been scared half to death. he is him There is nothing of the negative. The sound of their own voices. l onging. One of the most entrancing speakers I have ever listened to--a man to hear whom people would go long distances and stand for hours to get admission to the hall where he spoke--never was able to get the confidence of his audience because he . that wins a way to the fro nt. in his act. criticizing him. but he knows that he kno it the entire weight of his being. even when a question in which they are deeply i nterested and on which they have strong views is being discussed. for it often arouses a determination to conquer the next time. which are measuring him. A college boy recited an address "to the conscript fathers. and so afraid of being gazed at that they don't dare to open their mouths. yet fearing to speak. the uncertain in his nature. they sit dumb. and his speech to that extent will be mechanic al. wh at he stands for. Some are constitutionally sensitive. wooden. if they should get on their feet to make a motion or to speak in a public gathering." are his toric examples. are very difficult to get out of one's consciousness. would paralyze them. It would have been a thousand times better for him to ha ve made a mistake. But no orator can make a great impression until he gets rid of himself. Tho se terrible eyes which pierce him through and through. not only knows a thing.t he will make some slip which will mortify him. as the fear lest one can make no suitable expression of his thought." His professor asked. Even a partial failure on the platform has good results. until h e can absolutely annihilate his self-consciousness. meetings of literary societies. The whole man He himself is in his conviction. he is himself the embodiment of power. Demosthenes' he roic efforts. At debating cl ubs. when he knows that all eyes are watching him. and making up their minds whether he measures more or less tha n they expected. that everybody in his audience is trying to measure a nd weigh him. not so much the fear of one's audience. which never leaves one. forget himself in his speech . His opinion carries with gives consent to his judgment. and Disraeli's "The time will come when you will hear me. The hardest thing for the public speaker to overcome is self-consciousness. however. of putting forward their views or opinions on any subject as being worthy of attention. makes them blush and shrink more into themselves. He would give anything in the world if he had only accepted all of the invitations he has had. or even to have broken down entirely a few times.

but the process is slower and less effect ive than the great occasion that discovers the orator.lacked character. an interesting thing. just as we can often say to a friend in animated conversation thi ngs which we could not possibly say when alone. Those who are prepared acquire a world-wide influence when the fit occasion comes. and John Bright might all be called to witness to this fact. previously undeveloped. in some great emergency. We bster. a mighty power which did not exist in his own personal ity. The power was there just the same before. Webster had no time for immediate prepara tion. The orator must be sincere. If t he audience sees mud at the bottom of your eye. and perhaps unexpected. Somehow the power t hat stands behind us in the silence. an indefinable magnetism th at stimulates all the mental faculties. but the occasion brought all the reserves in this giant. But somehow they could not beli eve what he said. No orator living was ever great enough to give out the same power and force and magnetism to an empty hall. The public is very quick to see through shams. Mirabeau. Great speeches have become the beacon lights of history. have developed and brought ou t some of the greatest orators of the world. the orator must be able to convince. the audience. but it was not aroused. Patrick Henry. In the presence of the audience lies a fascination. Cicero. intensifies our faculties a thousandfold and enables us to do things whi ch before we thought impossible. the footlights. Great occasions. As when two chemicals are united . and he towered so far above his opponent that Hayne looked like a pygmy in comparison. It is not enough to say a pleasing thing. and acts as a tonic and vitalizer. when nations have been in peril. The pen has discovered many a genius. There is something in a great sea of expectant faces whi ch awakens the ambition and arouses the reserve of power which can never be felt except before an audience. It would be difficult to estimate the great part which practical drill in orato ry may play in one's life. There was a great charm in the cadences of his perfect sentences. which it is impossible to feel at a col d mechanical rehearsal. In the presence of the orator. they will not take any stock in you. to empty seats. Every crisis calls out ab ility. we out-do ourselves. Actors tell us that there is an indescribable inspiration which comes from the orchestra. unti . We are as much amazed as ot hers are when. the audience is absolutely in his power to do as he will. that you are acting. that you are not honest yourself . The occasion had much to do with the greatest speech delivered in the United St ates Senate--Webster's reply to Hayne. a new substance is formed from the combination. They laugh or cry as he pleases. People liked to be swayed by his eloquence. and to convince others he must have strong convictions. in the depths of our natures. wh ich he calls inspiration. An or ator can say before an audience what he could not possibly say before he went on the platform. Very few people ever rise to their greatest possibilities or ever know their en tire power unless confronted by some great occasion. comes to our relief. that he could give to an audience c apable of being fired by his theme. which did not exist in either alone. or rise and fall at his bidding. he feels surging through his brain the combined force of his audience.

thrift. patience.l he releases them from the magic spell. What art is greater than that of changing the minds of men? Wendell Phillips so played upon the emotions. if we analyze his charact . and their contempt to approbation. so changed the convictions of Sou therners who hated him. and doin g well whatever you do. were fixed on them. to so arouse their emotio ns that they can not control themselves a moment longer without taking the actio n to which they are impelled? "His words are laws" may be well said of the statesmen whose orations sway the world." said another student. and they could not resist cheering him. det ermination. that. Some who hated him in the slavery days wer e there. HOLLAND. His opening words changed their scorn to adm iration. Seest thou a man diligent in business? He shall stand before kings. in relati ng his experience in listening to a great preacher. and persistence. rail-splitter and president." Men of great achievements are not to be set on pedestals and reverenced as exceptions to the average of humanity. His great eyes . With the eas e of a master he swayed his audience. We can best appreciate the uplifting power of these simple virtues which all ma y cultivate and exercise. they thought. No more illustrio us example of success won by the exercise of common virtues can be offered than Abraham Lincoln. Their example shows what can be accomplished by th e practise of the common virtues. The most encouraging truth that can be impressed upon the mind of youth is this : "What man has done man may do. "He gave us a glimpse into the Holy of Holies. It would be easy. industry. Instead. I have see n him when it seemed to me that he was almost godlike in his power. They meant to hoot him for his remaining in Tyl er's cabinet. he and Story went to Faneuil Hall to hear Webster. they reasoned. Is not oratory a fine art? The well-spring of eloquence.--LONGFELLOW. but who were curious to listen to his oratory. for the time being he almost persuaded them that they were in the wrong. Young people look upon him as a mar velous being. and Story livid. quenches the thirst of myriads of men. When he begun. and yet. What is oratory but to stir the blood of all hearers. When James Russell Lowell was a student. by taking some concrete example of great success which has been achieved by patient plodding toward a definite goal. It is not a question of what a man knows but what use he can make of what he kn ows. G.--diligence. raised up for a divine purpose.--J. when up-gushing as the very water of life. to get the three thousand people to join them. the se great men are to be considered as setting a standard of success for the emula tion of every aspiring youth. self-denial. CHAPTER XXXIV THE TRIUMPHS OF THE COMMON VIRTUES The talent of success is nothing more than doing what you can do well. without a thought of fame. Lowell turned pale. Probably Lincoln has been the hero of more American boys during the last two ge nerations than any other American character. He warped their own judgment an d for the time took away their prejudice. like the smitten roc k of the wilderness reviving the life of desert wanderers.--SOLOMON. said Wetmore Story.

The ability to do hard work. Everybody who knew him felt that he was a m an. whether it was a pig stuck in the mire. the most ordinary virtues w ithin the reach of the poorest youth in the land. frank. He was a simple man. or a farmer who needed advice. the poo rest boys and girls. and will prove my life to have been more successful than the fact that I have ever been president of t he United States. a loving. Let me assure you tha t the big prizes I have won are largely accidental. always ready to help everybody and everyth ing out of their troubles. The reader can see that it would be easy to make up the hundred per cent. but there is no evidence of any grea t genius. a poor widow in trouble. any marvelous powers. to be somebody. an inspiratio n to poor boys and poor girls that his great achievement can be accounted for by the triumph in his character of those qualities which are beyond the reach of m oney. Had a few events over which no one had control been other than they were it is quite possible I might never have held the high office I now oc . merely because I have tried to do my duty as I saw it in my home and in my business. his ability for hard work ten per cent. of family. his aspiration . so commanding that it could be ranked as genius . The door of his hea rt was always open so that anyone could read his inmost thoughts. it is o nly as anyone of you can succeed. t ransparent. a generous. helpf ul husband. that will be a far more real honor. The strong thing about Lincoln was his manliness. never had secrets. But I think that the verdict of history has given hi s honesty of purpose.er. for doing everything to a finish ten more. and as a citizen. that is genius. possess these qualities. we find it made up of the humblest virtues. wise and painstaking father. without finding a ny one quality which could be called genius. and to stick to it. generous friend. kindly neighbor a nd an honest citizen. He simply wanted to better his condition. the commonest qualities. his passion for wholen ess. There is no one quality in his entire make-up so overpowering. a large-hearted. He never covered up anything. his longing for growth. a passion for a larger and c ompleter life than that of those about him. of influence. Roosevelt said: "You think tha t my success is quite foreign to anything you can achieve. that the total of his character wou ld be made up of the sum of the commonest qualities. What an inestimable blessing to the world. his do gged persistence.--in fact. He had a helpful mind. they would probably expect to find some brilliant faculty which would rank at least f ifty per cent of the total. his integrity twenty per cent of the total. He was ambitious to make the most of himse lf. In a speech to the people in Colorado Mountains. who look upon him as a demigod. open. what an encouragement. and certainly these qualities are within the reach of the poorest boy an d the humblest girl in America. downrigh t honesty. "If when I die the ones who know me best believe that I was a thoughtful. He wanted to know something. his yearning for fulness of life ten more. If I have succeeded. is the right hand of genius an d the best substitute for it. but that are within the reach of the poorest and the humblest. His simplicity was his chief charm. Suppose we rank his honesty. his straightforward. If young people were to represent Lincoln's total success by one hundred. to lift his head up from his hu mble environment and be of some account in the world. his purity and unselfishness of motive as his highest attr ibutes. never straining after effec t. for completeness. It is true that he had a divine hunger for growth. You could depend upon him.

and he made a specialty of th e tariff. So. Every man and woman can exercise this virtue of perseverance. who looks on them as a sort of mental spring-board by which to vault across the gulf of failure to the sure. The biographies of the giants of the race are often discouraging to the average poor boy. There is no open door to the Temple of Success. the effect is largely lost upon himself. because the moment he gets the impression that the character he is re ading about was a genius. at which we look with praise and wonder. distancing fifty-three who started with bette r attainments and better minds. He was not a great genius. He had the bes t substitute for genius--the ability for hard work and persistence. When he is confronted by barriers he leaps over them. and. There was nothing very surpri sing or startling in his career. but I can never do those things. "Stonewa ll" Jackson. yet it has been the ope n sesame of more fast locked doors of opportunity than have brilliant tributes." But when he reads the life of McKinley he does not see any reason why he could not do the same things himself. sharpen his wits and develop his inna te resources." came out seventeenth in a class of seventy. because there were no great jumps. The difficulties which dishearten one man only stiffen the sinews of anoth er. Bricks and mortar are mortar and bri cks until the architect makes them something else. If he undertook a task. level head. following the advice of a statesman friend. "There is no difficulty to him who wills." It has been well said that from the same materials one man builds palaces. he was not a great lawyer. anot her hovels. One of the commonest of common virtues is perseverance. another villas. The world always stands aside for the determined man. and he knew that the only way to show what he was made of in Congress was to stick to one thing. he never let go till he had it done. He had no very brilliant talents. he did no t make a great record in Congress. "This is very interesting r eading. or makes a way around them. Nothing can keep from success the man who has iron in his blood and is determin ed that he will succeed." McKinley did not start with great mental ability. His classmates used to say that. Therefore each of you has the same chan ce to succeed in true success as I have had. solid ground of full success. if the course w as ten years instead of four." s ays Johnson. One of the greatest generals on the Confederate side in the Civil War.cupy. You will find no royal ro ad to your triumph. t unnels through them. because he kn ows that he is not a genius. and if my success in the end proves to have been as great as that achieved by many of the humblest of you I shall b e fortunate. He knew how to keep plodding. He kept up this steady gait." "All the performances of human art. when he went to West Point. increase his determination. one warehouses. The boulder which was an obst acle in the path of the weak becomes a stepping-stone in the pathway of the reso lute. how to hang on. and he says to himself. but no train of events could accidentally make me a noble character or a f aithful member of my home and community. no great leaps and bounds in his life from particula r ability or special opportunity. He had tact and diplom acy and made the most of every opportunity. Obstacles only serve to stiffen his backbone. but he avera ged well. from the least promising "plebe. He did not stand very high in school. The record of human achievement is full of the truth. With this he possessed great applicatio n and dogged determination. "are instances of the resistless force of perseverance. can refuse to stop . his habitual class response was that he was too busy getting the lesson of a few days back to look at the one of the da y. not notable as a sch olar. He had good common sense and was a hard worker. he would come out first. was noted for his slowness. but he had a good.

They would be willing to make any sacrifice. others will exalt you. Lock him up in a dungeon. and that he had decided to give up and go home. applied himself to his studies with determination to win. It is by the exercise of . Every little while I get letters from young men who say. if they were positivel y sure that they could be a Webster in law. schola Persistency is to talent what steam is to the engine. they would devote all their energies to study. and so they are not willing to make the great exertion." fascin all ch said. or if they could be an Ediso n in invention. You will think better of yourself. Nowadays people seem unwilling to tread the rough path of duty and by patience and steadfast perseverance step into the ranks of those the country delights to honor. it has been is the statesman's brain. tha t it is not making a tremendous strain to do something great. It has been observed that the dispatches of Napo leon rang with the word glory. a nd you will become a hero. or a great leader in medicine. Daniel Webster had no remarkable traits of character in his boyhood. The friend said he ought to go back. and stayed there only a short tim e when a neighbor found him crying on his way home. Fidelity to duty has been a distinguishing virtue in men who have risen to posi tions of authority and command. and it was not long before he silenced those who had ridiculed him. the great genius. and asked the reason. The man who puts his best into every task will leave far behind the man who lets a job g o with the comment "That's good enough. the tremendous talent exhibited by those leaders. You cannot keep a determined man from success." Stick to a thing and carry it through in all its completeness and proportion. the r's "open sesame. Perseverance. the warrior's sword. Daniel said he despaired of ever making a scholar." Nothing is good enough unless it reflec ts our best. Take away his money. A great dea l of persistency. can be counted on to go farther tha n a great deal of talent without persistency. But many of them say they do not feel that they have the marvelous ability. and see what hard study would do. He went back. earnestly living the everyday simple life. with a very little talent. or a merchant prince like Wanamak er or Marshall Field. the inventor's secret. and he make s spurs of his poverty to urge him on. fling their whole lives into their work. He was sen t to Phillips Exeter Academy in New Hampshire. they could work with enthusiasm and zeal and power and con centration. and he writes t he immortal "Pilgrim's Progress. by reaching the hea d of the class. Thoroughness is another of the common virtues which all may cultivate. Tenacity of purpose has been characteristic of aracters who have left their mark on the world. can decline to turn aside in search of pleasures that do but hinder progress.short of the goal of ambition. Wellington's dispatches centered around the commo n word duty. f or always being at the foot of the class. The romance of perseverance under especial difficulty is one of the most ating subjects in history. but that it is jus t honestly. He said the boys made fun of him. They do not realize that success is not necessarily doing some great thing. It is the driving force b y which the machine accomplishes the work for which it was intended. to undergo any hardship in order to achieve what these men have achieved. and remaining there.

would not compare in be auty and delicacy and loveliness to the things they trampled under their feet in trying to procure it. accommodatin g attitude toward those about us. Massachusetts. and often. that there must be some genius born in the man who achieves it. h omely. something showy that we ca n wave before the world in order to get its applause. he could never have become one o f the world's merchant princes. it is by all t hese simple things that we attain success. where he got his first position. But when he went to Chicago and saw the marvelou s examples around him of poor boys who had won success. In straining for effect. waiting upon a customer. John. what loveliness. that investigators are always looking for unusual phenomena. we miss them. by trying to be the best possible citizen. encouraging father. and teach him how to milk cows!" If Marshall Field had remained as clerk in Deacon Davis's store in Pittsfield. John. what a lot of common. Oh. Great scientists tell us that the reason why the secrets of nature have been hi dden from the world so long is because we are not simple enough in our methods o f reasoning. in the struggle to do something great and wonderful. and I don't want to hurt yo ur feelin's. delightful possible joys we trample under o ur feet in straining after something great. We have seen people in the country in the summer time trampling down the daisie s and the beautiful violets. as he watched his s on. steady boy. helpful neighbor. it is by trying to do everything one does to a comp lete finish.the common everyday virtues. "If others can do such wonderful things. It is most unfortunate that so many young people get the impression that succes s consists in doing some marvelous thing. for so mething complicated. what beauty. we spoil many of the most delicious things in life in our scra mbling and greed to grasp something which is unusual. else he could not do such remarkable things. Take him back to the farm. it is by always ringing true in our friendships. "Well. "we are old friends. and then we discover to our horror what we have missed on t he way up--what sweetness. as he took an apple from a barrel and handed it to Marshal l's father as a peace offering. cheering things we have lost in the useless struggle. which. it aroused his ambition and fired him with the determination to be a great merchant himself. a g ood. Davis?" asked Farmer John Field. by holding a helpful. for the grander t hings. w e miss the little successes. but he wouldn't make a merchant if he stayed i n my store a thousand years." he asked himself. There is no great secret about success. how many exquisite experiences. you and I are old friends. the lovely wild flowers in their efforts to get a b ranch of showy flowers off a large tree. all right. "why cannot I?" . and air goin' to tell you the truth. Marshall is a good. CHAPTER XXXV GETTING AROUSED "How's the boy gittin' on." replied Deacon Davis. that the principles of nature's secrets are so extremely si mple that men overlook them in their efforts to see and solve the more intricate problems. the sum of which would make our lives sublime. It is just a natural persistent exercis e of the commonest every-day qualities. perhaps. but I'm a blunt man. He weren't cut out for a merchant. a kind. in trying to do some marvelous thing that will attract attention and get our names in the papers! We trample down th e finer emotions. it is by trying to be scrupulously honest in every transaction. Marshall. accommodating. after all this straining and struggling for the larger.

awakened his ambition. Great possibil ities of usefulness and of achievement are. and in a few days she leape d forward years in her development. her faculties were aroused. as it slumbered in this girl. was in middle life. They are still in a dormant state. If we do not try to realize our ambition. or it will atrophy. the owner of the fine st library in his city. that it is not susceptible to improvement. with the reputation of being its best-read man. going to waste wi thin them. not what a Napoleon or ut what I can do. just as the faculty for music o r art does. O ur faculties become dull and soon lose their power if they are not exercised. She was dreamy. Ho w can we expect our ambition to remain fresh and vigorous through years of inact ivity. and always beat the predictions of its most sanguine inhabitants. A few years before it had been a mere Indian trading village. The judge of the municipal court in a flourishing western city. she suddenly awakened to full consciousne ss." To a Lincoln could do. They have developed only a small percentage of their success possibilitie s. In 1856 . one day. of latent force . "What I most need. an illiterate blacksmith. . and one whose highest endeavor is to help his fellow man. and yet had only attained the mental development of a small child. It makes all the difference in the world out the best thing in me or the worst. [Illustration: Marshall Field] Many people seem to think that ambition is a quality born within us. all unconsciously. Some time ago there appeared in the newspapers an account of a girl who had rea ched the age of fifteen years. an d indifferent to everything around her most of the time until. Only a few things interested her." as Emerson says.Of course. and it requires constant care and education. slumbering within us. which could do marvels if we would only awaken it. but circumstances. What caused the revolution in his life? The hearing of a single lecture on the value of education. before his latent pow er was aroused. or indifference? If we constantly allow opportunities to slip by us without making any attempt to grasp them. The best thing in them lies so deep that i t has never been awakened. me do what I can. when young Field went there. that is my problem. and set his f eet in the path of self-development. fifteen. that it is something thrust upon us which will take care of itself.--whether I utilize five. It had then only about eighty-five thousand inhabitants. while li stening to a hand organ on the street. It is doubt ful if he would have climbed so rapidly in any other place than Chicago. an ambition-arousing environment. one of the most highly esteemed jurists in his state. He is now sixty. Field from the start . Everybody felt that there were great possibilities ther e. She came to herself. twenty- Everywhere we see people who have reached middle life or later without being ar oused. When we meet these people we feel conscious that they have a great deal of latent power that has never been exercised. This was wh at stirred the slumbering power within him. "is somebody to make do what I can. indolence. inactive. But it is a passion that responds very quickly to cultivati on. or ninety per cent of my ability. b to me whether I bring ten. it will not keep sharp and defined. our inclination will grow duller and weaker. this marvelous city was just starting on its unpa ralleled career. Success was in the air. there was the making of a great merchant in Mr. had a great deal to do wi th stimulating his latent energy and bringing out his reserve force. Most of us have an enormous amount of power. Almost in a day she passed from childhood to budding womanhood. But the city grew by lea ps and bounds.

in his report for 1905. side by side. but the majority of those who go back to their tribes. able to resist the downward-dragging tendencies about them.--well dressed. as if from a long sleep. and how many of its inherit ed tendencies will remain? If brought up from infancy in a barbarous. it is an absolute truth. or whether you are with those who are forever breaking your idols. of course. every person who has touched you r life--has left an impress upon your character. Everything--every se rmon or lecture or conversation you have heard. has also come to the con clusion that environment is stronger than heredity. we are constantly be ing modified by our surroundings. people who believe in. howled like a wolf. you will find that multitudes have failed because they never got into a stimulating. in order that they might acquire American methods and ca tch the American spirit. Take the best-born child. They had developed ambitio n. encourage. blast ing your hopes. gradually drop back to t heir old manner of living. and throwing cold water on your aspirations.I have known several men who never realized their possibilities until they reac hed middle life. and a marked degree of excellence in thei r work. Within six months the Russians had become almost the eq uals of the American artisans among whom they worked. says: "Removing a boy or girl from improper environment is the first s tep in his or her reclamation. We naturally follow the examples about us. of course. they were again plodders. it will. after struggling awhile to keep up their new standards. become brutal. A year after their return to their own country. as a rule. The poet's "I am a part of all that I have met" is not a mere poetic flight of fancy. It does not take much to determine the lives of most of us. by re ading some inspiring. You are a little different. Then they were suddenly aroused. intelligent. believed i n. The chief probation officer of the children's court in New York. and encouraged them. and you are never quite the sam e person after the association or experience. It will make all the difference in the world to you whether you are with people who are watching for ability in you. and who actually took on all the characteristics of the wolf. the deadening. and determined our nature.--walk ed on all fours.--who understood. was suckled by a wolf with her own young ones. we rise or fall according to the stronge st current in which we live. and. but th ese are strong characters." The New York Society for the Prevention of Cruel ty to Children. non-progr essive atmosphere about them had done its work. If you interview the great army of failures. The story is told of a well-born chi ld who. brutal atm osphere. Even the strongest of us are not beyond the reach of our environment. The men had lost the desire to i mprove. and ate like one. Our Indian schools sometimes publish. Some years ago a party of Russian workmen were sent to this country by a Russia n firm of shipbuilders. The ambiti on aroused by stimulating environment had sunk to sleep again. We predic t great things for them. after thirty years of investigation of cases involving the socia l and moral welfare of over half a million of children. strong-willed. stimulating book. encouraging environment. by listening to a sermon or a lecture.--someone with high ideals.--just as Beecher was never the same man after reading Ruskin. personal initiative. beca . with the fire of ambition in their eyes. o r by meeting some friend. and prai se you. with the greatest in herited advantages. being lost or abandoned as an infant.--modif ied somewhat from what you were before. There are. many notable exceptions. individuality. with no goal beyond the day's work. photographs of the Indian y ouths as they come from the reservation and as they look when they are graduated . No matter how independent. and let it be reared by savages.

a manufacturer of instruments." the capitalist replied. PAXTON. an environment that will stimulate you to self-development." said Davis." "Oh. who was thought not capable of a serious idea. and he finally resolved to p roduce one. the more desirable such a machine appeared to him. Principles have achieved more victories than horsemen or chariots. Ideas go booming through the world louder than cannon. There is a great power in a battery of individuals who are struggling for the a chievement of high aims. A healthful hunger for a great idea is the beauty and blessedness of life." "Well. and the more he reflected . a mere youth of twenty. K eep close to people who understand you. or inclined to take it easy. But Elias Howe was not so rattle-headed as he seemed.--W . Whatever you do in life. and guiding and contro lling his entire life. M. yes it can.use their ambition was never aroused. who will help you to discover yourself and encourage you to make the most of yourself. make any sacrifice necessary to keep in an ambition-ar ousing atmosphere. "I can ma ke one myself. This may make all the difference to you between a grand success and a mediocre existence. or because they were not strong enough to rally under depressing." The words of Davis were uttered in a spirit of jest. A mbition is contagious. Keep close to those who are dead-in-earnest. who believe in you. but it can't be done. Most of the peopl e we find in prisons and poor-houses are pitiable examples of the influence of a n environment which appealed to the worst instead of to the best in them. you will be urged forward by the consta nt prodding of the more ambitious. lofty ambition. Thoughts are mightier th an armies.--peo ple of high aims.--JEA N INGELOW. indolent. CHAPTER XXXVI THE MAN WITH AN IDEA He who wishes to fulfil his mission must be a man of one idea. Four years passed. Sti ck to those who are trying to do something and to be somebody in the world. of one great overmastering purpose.--BATE. the light-hearted boy had become a thoughtful.--J. A profound conviction raises a man above the feeling of ridicule. of Boston. If you lack energy. and with a wife and three children to support in a great city on a salary of nine dollar s a week. a great magnetic force which will help you to attract t he object of your ambition. "you do it. discouraging. "why don't you make a sewing-machin e?" His advice had been sought by a rich man and an inventor who had reached the ir wits' ends in the vain attempt to produce a device for knitting woolen goods. You will catch the spirit that dominates in your environm ent. "What are you bothering yourselves with a knitting machine for?" asked Ari Davi s. and I'll insure you an independent fortune. STUART MI LL. or vicious surroundings. plodding man. over shadowing all his aims. if you are naturally lazy . The success of those about you who are trying to climb upward will encourag e and stimulate you to struggle harder if you have not done quite so well yourse lf. that is. After months wasted in the effort to work a needle pointed at both ends. The thoug ht of the sewing-machine haunted him night and day. It is very stimulating to be with people whose aspir ations run parallel with your own. bu t the novel idea found lodgment in the mind of one of the workmen who stood by. "I wish I could. with t .

he returned and built two cars which cost $18. George Fisher. He then went to work on t he principle that the more luxurious his cars were. Pull man. who at fifteen walked the streets of London in a vain search fo r work. He counts it a good investment to s urround his employees with comforts and beauty and good sanitary conditions. This machine. but it was not developed until mo re than two thousand years later. In May. It was an English blacksmith. Never despair. and he had faith enough in his idea to risk his all in it. and is considered more nearly perfect tha n any other prominent invention at its first trial. order. Everybody laughed at "Pullman's folly. All this time he was re volving in his mind his pet project of building a "sleeping car" which would be adopted on all railroads. He impr oved Newcomen's engine by cutting off the steam after the piston had completed a quarter or a third of its stroke. is an example of his belief in this principle. appeared on the scene. nor be discouraged." she wrote him while struggling in London. suddenly t he thought flashed through his mind that another stitch must be possible. There is not one of the mill ions of sewing-machines now in use that does not contain some of the essential p rinciples of this first attempt. but his own funds and those of his father. if the machine proved to be worth patentin g. Fisher and the other for hims elf. and letting the steam already in the chamber expand and drive the piston the remaining distance. He fitted up two old cars on the Chicago and Alton roa d with berths. and comfort. "If th e engine will not work. and so the town of Pullman is a model of cleanliness. Watt suffered from pinching poverty and hardships which would have disheartened ordinary men. A professor in the Glasgow University gave him the use of a room to work in. He ag reed to board Elias and his family and furnish five hundred dollars. and put in a bid for the great undertaking. who had aided him more or less. The germ idea of the steam engine can be s een in the writings of the Greek philosophers. but did it in such a way that business within them was scarcely interrupted. the greater would be the dem and for them. until he had made a rough mod el of wood and wire that convinced him of ultimate success." But Pullman believed that whatever relieved the tediousness of long trips would meet with speedy approval. one for Mr. but he was terribly in earnest. This saved nearly three-four ths of the steam. who has changed the face of Christendom. and while waiting for jobs he experimented with old vials for steam reservo irs and hollow canes for pipes.he eye in the middle. the machine was completed. But help came fro m an old schoolmate. After spending three years in Colorado gold mines. that should pass up and down through the cloth. a coal and wood merchant of Cambridge. with no opportunities. The sewing outlasted the cloth. but his engine consumed thirty pounds of coal in producing one horse power. Newcomen.000 each. who in the seven teenth century conceived the idea of moving a piston by the elastic force of ste am. "something el se will. as well as his magnificent cars. uneduc ated Scotch boy. When it was decided to try and elevate Chicago out of the mud by raising its im mense blocks up to grade. 1845. and in July Elias Howe sewed all the seams of two suits of woolen clothes. and wi th almost insane devotion he worked night and day. a poor." . The perfection of the modern engine is largely due to James Watt. In his mind's eye he saw his idea. Pullman was a great believer in the commercial value of beauty. It has ever been the man with an idea. which he puts into practical effect. and soon found they would be in demand. were insufficient to embody it in a working machine. which is still preserved. wil l sew three hundred stitches a minute. and his brave wi fe Margaret begged him not to mind her inconvenience. He not only raised the blocks. The wonderful t own which he built and which bears his name. and the contract was awarded to him. named George M. the young son of a poor mechanic. for which h e was to have one-half of the patent. for he could not bear to waste a moment.

" the "Perseverance. and if a communication were made between the cylinder and an exhausted vessel . A government inspector said that if a locomotive ever went ten miles an hour. "on a fine Sabbath afternoon." The "Perseverance" could make but six miles an hour. leaving th e "Rocket" to carry off the honors with an average speed of fifteen miles an hou r. drawing the cars by means of ropes and pulleys. 1829. The "Sanspareil" made an average of fourteen miles an hour. in all the railways it may grant. to earn a little money to attend a night school. He was one of those eager souls that would coin their own fl esh to carry their point. On the eventful day. then in process of construction." said Watt." and the "Sans pareil. when the idea came into my head that." the "Rocket. We trust tha t Parliament will. and might be there condensed without cooling the cylind er. . Sylvester is as great as c an be ventured upon." replied S tephenson. for the coo." This article referred to Stephenson's proposition to use h is newly invented locomotive instead of horses on the Liverpool and Manchester R ailroad. This was Stephenson's locomotive . and died poor."I had gone to take a walk. aga inst the most direful predictions of the foremost engineers of his day. but in it lay the germ of the first steam engine of mu ch practical value. and was crowded out. If there ever was a true inventor . patching th e clothes and mending the boots of his fellow-workmen at night. who reported that steam would be desirable only when used in stationary engines one and a half miles apart. But Ste phenson persuaded them to test his idea by offering a prize of about twenty-five hundred dollars for the best locomotive produced at a trial to take place Octob er 6. he would undertake to eat a stewed engine for breakfast. but also burst a pipe. 1825. "carriage makers and coachmen will starve for want of work. The company decided to lay the matter before two leading English engineers. limit the speed to eight or nine miles an hour. thousands of spectators assembled to watch the competition of four engines. to his blind father to pay his debts. the "Novelty. this man was one." For three days the committee of the House of Commons plies questions to him. which we entirely agree with Mr. He only uttered the obvious truth when he said one day . He was born poor. and so was ruled o ut. giving the first money he ever earned. his "roaring steam e ngine will set the house on fire with its sparks". indeed. but as it burst a water-pipe it lost its chance. $150. going at such a rate. and had p assed the old washing-house. will it n ot be an awkward situation?" "Yes. in a crisis of his invention. This was one of them: "If a cow get on the track of the engine traveling ten miles an hour. "What can be more palpably absurd and ridiculous than the prospect held out of locomotives traveling twice as fast as horses?" asked a writer in the English "Q uarterly Review" for March. lived poor. very awkward. "We should as soon expect the people of Woolwi ch to suffer themselves to be fired off upon one of Congreve's rockets as to tru st themselves to the mercy of such a machine. Poor he was in many senses. and so fully vindicated his theory that the idea of stationary engines on a ra ilroad was completely exploded. it would rush into a vacuu m. "smoke will pollute the air". The "Novelty" did splendidly. as steam is an elastic body." See George Stephenson." The idea was simple. Sir James Mackintosh places this poor Scotch boy who began w ith only an idea "at the head of all inventors in all ages and all nations. In all the records of invention there is no more sad or affecting story than th at of John Fitch. He had picked up the fixed engines which the gen ius of Watt had devised. that if he could get one hundred pounds by cutti ng off one of his legs he would gladly give it to the knife. the highest rate attained being twenty-nine. People say he is crazy. it would rush into it. working in the coal pits for sixpence a day. and set them on wheels to draw men and merchandise. as the conditions called for at least ten. poor in appearance. thinking upon the engine at the time. poor in spirit .

and the Clermo nt floats out into the river. a serv ice which has revolutionized the commerce of the world. and t he steam is turned on. By this time his fame had spread all over the civ ilized world. he was looked upon by ma ny as a public enemy. and tried to run her down. and a king's cutter wa . jeered at. Johnny Fitch will be forgotten. and when he died." the spectators persis t. ragged. he kept on till. The government employed Fulton to aid in building a powerful steam frigate. At noon. but other men will carry out his ideas and grow rich and great upon them. He also built a diving boat for the government f or the discharge of torpedoes. a crowd of curious people might have been s een along the wharves of the Hudson River. True. and "they will all be drowned. and fishermen rowed home as fast as poss ible to get out of the way of the fire monster. and minute guns were fire d as the long funeral procession passed to old Trinity churchyard. w hen steamboats will ascend the Western rivers from New Orleans to Wheeling. Nobody present. It was the opinion of everybody that the man who had tooled away his money and his time on the Clermont was little better than an idiot. having made this "impossible" passage.'" say s one. the plank is pulled in. But the passengers go on board. The owners of sailing vessels were jealous of the Clermo nt. As the Clermont burned pine wood. Notwithstanding that Fulton had rendered such great service to humanity. who in his youth said there is nothing impossible." exclaims a third. "It can never go up stream. August 4. in 1815. He would say: "You and I will not live to see the day. They had gathered to witness what the y considered a ridiculous failure of a "crank" who proposed to take a party of p eople up the Hudson River to Albany in what he called a steam vessel named the C lermont. in all probability. But the success of the Clermont soon led to the construction of other steamships all over the country. and detraction has usua lly been in proportion to the benefit the victim has conferred upon mankind. forlorn. and the boy. ridicule. Those on shore thought that a fire had broken out below the decks. and when steamboats will cross the ocean. as he sees vast columns of black smoke shoot up with showers of brilli ant sparks. dense columns of fire and smoke belched forth from her smoke-stack while she glided triumphantly up the river. had scored a great triumph. "it will burn up. refused by the rich. but in 1810 the Savannah from New York appeared off the coast o f Ireland under sail and steam. but the time wi ll come when the steamboat will be preferred to all other modes of conveyance. Critics and cynics turned up their noses when Fulton was m entioned." Poor. whi ch was called Fulton the First. Very few priv ate persons were ever honored with such a burial. in 1790. ever heard of a boat going by st eam. It ran six miles an hour against the tide. pitied as a madman. The severity of the world's censure. and the inhabi tants along the banks were utterly unable to account for the spectacle.He tried in vain both in this country and in France to get money to build his s teamboat. discouraged by the great. Sailors forsook their vessels. Lardner had "proved" to scientific men that a steamship could not cro ss the Atlantic. and had given to the world the first ste amboat that had any practical value. They rus hed to the shore amazed to see a boat "on fire" go against the stream so rapidly with neither oars nor sails. the legislature of New York wore badges of mourning. he had the first vessel on the D elaware that ever answered the purpose of a steamboat." says another. Did anybody ever hear of such a ridiculous idea as navigating against t he current up the Hudson in a vessel without sails? "The thing will 'bust. Dr. and eight miles with it. The Indians were as much frighte ned as their predecessors were when the first ship approached their hunting-grou nd on Manhattan Island. on Friday. The walking beam moves slowly up and down. 1807. and ought to be in an insane asylum. But it did go up stream. newspapers were marked with black lines . The noise of her great paddle-wheels increased the wonder. Others whose interests were affected denied Fulto n's claim to the invention and brought suits against him.

He could play the game alone. What a sublime picture of determination and patience was that of Charles Goodye ar. imperious. hoping always. a river steamer of seven hundred tons. despised by his neighbors for neglecting his family. to make India rubber of practical use! See him in prison for debt. Learning of this. his wife in rags and despair over her husband's "folly". At length Isaac Selby. defiant of oppositi on. who said the idea was practicable. pawn ing his clothes and his wife's jewelry to get a little money to keep his childre n (who were obliged to gather sticks in the field for fire) from starving. to make William of Prussia a greater potentate tha n Napoleon or Alexander. Watch his sublime courage and devotion to his idea. worn to a skeleton himself. was his all-absorbing purpose. Columbus was exposed to continual scoffs and indignities. But . plodding on through want and woe t o rediscover the lost art of enameling pottery. he said to himself. of New Haven. Diet. agreed to build a steamship of two thousand tons . and he reaped his re ward. faili ng steadily. buried in poverty and struggling with hardships for eleven lon g years. a pr ominent business man of London. condemned to be burnt alive on false charges of e mbezzlement. behold his vulcanized rubber. giving his clot hes to his hired man because he could not pay him in money. It mattered not what sto od in his way. Germany must hold the deciding voice in the Areopagus of the world. German unity was the idea engraven upon Bismarck's heart. the result of that heroic struggle. the famous German naturalist. He rode ro ughshod over everybody and everything that stood in his way. it is said. T o his surprise. or nation. po inted to their foreheads as he passed. seeing his six children die of neglect. on a rough and tedious voyage in 1832.s sent to her relief. but he never gave up his idea. and send her to New York. What a pathetic picture was that of Palissy. it was near ly twenty years before it was admitted that steam navigation could be made a com mercial success in ocean traffic. Smith's first encouragement came from Geor ge Grote. Although the voyage was made without accident. but only baked potatoes. all must bend to his mighty will . the historian and banker. Soon af ter Smith made the round trip between London and New York in thirty-two days. probably of starv ation. What cared this hercu lean despot for the Diet chosen year after year simply to vote down every measur e he proposed? He was indifferent to all opposition. melancholy. "Wh y not cross the ocean regularly in steamships?" In New York and in London a deaf ear was turned to any such nonsense. applied to o ver five hundred uses by 100. He simply defied and sent h ome every Diet which opposed him. The very children. and both vessels arrived at New York the same day. when he had no money to bury a de ad child and when his other five were near starvation. irrepressible! See the great Dante in exile. a poor wander er. As Junius Smith impatiently paced the deck of a vessel sailing from an English port to New York. An unexpected delay in fitting the engines led the projecto rs to charter the Sirius. whether people. Oke . when his neighbors were h arshly criticizing him for his neglect of his family and calling him insane. An American was once invited to dine with Oken. being taught to regard him as a kind of m adman. they had neither meats nor dessert.000 employees. ever believing that right would at last triumph. building his furnaces with brick s carried on his back.--he would risk no money in it. other parties started from Bristol four days later in the Great Western. he poured out his very soul into his immortal poem. gaunt form. but it wa s the same old story. the British Queen. until at last his great work was accomplished. Look at his starved features. To make Germany the greatest power in Europe. being ridiculed as a mere dreamer and stigmatized as an adventurer.

which is loved by all nations. in some cases a month. Oftentimes in these grea t battles for principle and struggles for truth. Duty and truth were his goal. but what could he do? He was not a chemist. of Morse. Howe. She thought it the last touch of cruelty to fight what couldn't fight back. But her idea has been adopted by all nations. persecution . i n common with all great benefactors. He kept on experimenting with narcotics in this manner until at last he found what he sought in ether. Of course the world laughed at this poor unaided woman. incurred the pity and scorn of the rich and highly educated. and that they preferred to live simply in order that he might obtain books and instruments for his scientific r esearches. to r ecover from the enormous dose. narrowness. that her husband's income was very small. Yet in every age and in every clime men and women have been willing to incur poverty. Amos Lawrence. however. Young Dr. no hunting for a middle ground between right and wron g." in the opinion of their neighbors. Gough. Mos es in espousing the cause of the Israelites. Dr. an d resulting in an improvement of the physical. Before the discovery of ether it often took a week. nor did he go to scientific men fo r advice. and moral condition of th ose around them? . Beecher had to fight every step of the way to his triumph through obstacles whi ch would have appalled all but the greatest characters. Ther e was no shilly-shallying. Edward Everett Hale in his little bands of King' s Daughters and Ten Times One is Ten! Here is Clara Barton who has created the R ed Cross Society. She noticed in our Civil War th at the Confederates were shelling the hospital. given t o a patient to deaden the pain during a surgical operation. and sc ores of others. no compromise on principles. and too magnanimous for envy. What a grand idea Bishop Vincent worked out for the young world in the Chautauq ua Circle. and she determined to have the barba rous custom stopped. each representing some great idea embodied in earnest action. But he never hesitated nor wavered when he once saw his duty. he was not liberally educ ated. Beecher. Morton bel ieved that there must be some means provided by Nature to relieve human sufferin g during these terrible operations. mental. Goodyear. Harriet Beecher Stowe. He tri ed intoxicants even to the point of intoxication. and bigotry. Edison. ho wever. In fact it is doubtful whether a ma n can perform very great service to mankind who is not permeated with a great pu rpose--with an overmastering idea. He hewed close to the chalk line and held his li ne plumb to truth. He never pandered for public favor nor sought applause. McCormick. Other churches did no t agree with him nor his. or Christ in living and dying to sa ve a fallen race. Hoe. toil. he stood almost alone fighting popular prejudice. Bell. Clark in his world-wide Christian Endeavor movement. and the enemy that aims a shot at the tent or building over which flies the white flag with the red cross has lost hi s last claim to human consideration. but as soon as the instruments were applied the patient would revive. sometimes five hundred drops of laudanum. the Methodis t Church in the Epworth League. but he was too broad for hatred. His wife explained. Dr. ridicule. Noah in building the ark. hardship. uncharitableness and envy even in hi s own church. What tale of the "Arabian Nights" equals in fascination the story of such lives as those of Franklin. but immediately began to experiment with well-known substances. he did not know the properties of chemical substances. M rs. too charitable for re venge. and he went straight to his mark. Morton did not resort to books. if thereby they might shed light or comfort upon the path which all must walk from the cradle to the grave. or even death. In all ages those who have advanced the cause of humanity have been men and wom en "possessed. George Peabody.n was too great a man to apologize for their simple fare.

"Ay. as an overwhelming force of Russian cavalr y came sweeping down.--this is heroism. "But how shall I get ideas?" Keep your wits open! Observe! Study! But above all . and each one challenges the independent soul." cr ied the ensign. To stand with a smile upon your face against a stake from which you cannot get away--that. Fortune befriends the bold. But the true glory is resignation to the inevit able.--you are not t he person to bring to us a message of his. Everything has not been invent ed. "bring up the men to the colors. "The Commons of France have resolved to deliberate . no doubt. All good things have not been done. "No." When the assembled senate of Rome begged Regulus not to return to Carthage to f ulfil an illegal promise. ay. save by the power of the bayonet. June 23.--BAYARD. men! Every man must die where he stands!" said Colin Campbell to the N inety-third Highlanders at Balaklava. It is my duty. say to those who sent you that we are here by the power of the people. Go. "Steady. and again to dare.--SHAKESPEARE. What's brave. but what are these to the shame of an infamou s act." The courage which Cranmer had shown since the accession of Mary gave way the mo ment his final doom was announced." shouted a captain at the battle of the Alma. or the wounds of a guilty mind? Slave as I am to Carthage. let's do it after the high Roman fashion. held only by the high er claims of duty. many of whom had to keep their word by thus obeying. "Bring back the colors. when an e nsign maintained his ground in front. who have neither place. Sir Colin! we'll do that!" was the response from men. and let the fire creep up to the heart. armed with a new idea.--you. ROBERTSON. who cannot be recognized as his organ in the National A ssembly. "We have heard the intentions that have been attributed to the king. Who conquers me. he calmly replied: "Have you resolved to dishonor me? Torture and death are awaiting me. voice. is heroic.--BYRON. what's noble. I still have t he spirit of a Roman. No great deed is done By falterers who ask for certainty. There are thousands of abuses to rectify . with perfect liberty to go away. sir. although the men were retreating." was Danton's noble defia nce to the enemies of France. Let the gods take c are of the rest. who brought an order from the king for them to dis perse. Let me die facing the enemy.--AGIS II. and you. nor right to speak. GEORGE ELIOT." "To dare. and that we will not be driven hence. The moral cowardice which had displayed itsel .--F. and make death proud to take us. but where they are.There are plenty of ideas left in the world yet. Think! and when a noble image is indelibly impressed upon the mind--Act! CHAPTER XXXVII DARE The Spartans did not inquire how many the enemy are. I have sworn to return." said Mirabeau to De Breze. To stand unchained. W. shall find a stubborn foe. 1789.--DRYDEN. and without end to dare.

my hand therefore shall be the first punished. the boy senseless. lest h e should be dashed to pieces. and Cranmer's strangely mingled nature found a po wer in its very weakness when he was brought into the church of St. the youth sprang to the edge of the bank. When General Jackson was a judge and was holding court in a small settlement. and that is the setting abroad of writings contrary to th e truth.--"now I come to the great thing that troubleth my conscience more than any other thing that ever I s aid or did in my life. the child is held aloft by his strong right arm. My boy. "There they are!" shouted the mother a moment later. but still alive. "God will give you a reward. and the blessings of thousands besides mine will attend you. my darling boy! How could I leave you?" But all eyes were bent upon the youth struggling with strong heart and hope ami d the dizzy sweep of the whirling currents far below. and the youth almost exhausted. over which the water flew in foam. "and the rapids would dash her to pieces in a moment!" Throwing off his coat. forasmuch as my hand offended in writing contr ary to my heart. they emerged unharme d from the boiling vortex. for if I come to the fire it shall be the first burned. Three times he was about to grasp the child. from whose grasp escape would seem impossible . Twice the boy went out of sight. to s ave my life." said a phre nologist.f in his miserable compliance with the lust and despotism of Henry VIII displaye d itself again in six successive recantations by which he hoped to purchase pard on." "This was the hand that wrote it. "and but for my sense of duty I should have retreated in my first fight. sunny day in 1750. he will save my child!" cried the mother. to repeat his recantation on the way to the stake. "Thank God. she will jump into the river. and in a few minutes reached a low place in the bank and were drawn up by their friends. scanned for a m oment the rocks and whirling currents. and written for fear of death. was one of the most terrible on record. "there he is! Oh." The youth was George Washington. The youth redoubled his exertions." replied the Iron Duke. my boy. "Oh. which here I now renounce and refuse as things written by a hand contra ry to the truth which I thought in my heart." solemnly spoke the gratefu l woman. and then. althou gh terribly near the most dangerous part of the river. who was examining Wellington's head. a . "Now . "See ! they are safe! Great God." exclaimed the woman as she caught sight of a youth of eighte en. I thank Thee!" And sure enough. "He will do great things for you in return for this day's work. "therefore it shall suffer first punishment". "You are right. The cries were repeat ed in quick succession.--my poor boy is drowning." That first fight. even in a canoe." said one of the men who was holding her. plunged into the roaring rapids. " A woman's piercing shriek suddenly startled a party of surveyors at dinner in a forest of northern Virginia on a calm." he a gain exclaimed at the stake. sir. but a man in stature and bearing. and they will not l et me go!" "It would be madness. and a non a whirlpool would drag him in. On e final effort he makes. "you will surely do something for me! Make these friends release me. and no one had ever dared to approach it. on an Indian field. when some stronger eddy would toss it from him." ended his address to the hushed congregation before him. Now it seemed as if he wou ld be dashed against a projecting rock. in a delirium of joy. and the men sprang through the undergrowth to learn thei r cause. and all rushed to the brink of the precipice. But pardon was impossible. Mary at Oxfo rd on the 21st of March. And. "he never stirred nor cried till life was gone. and h olding it steadily in the flame. "Your Grace has not the organ of animal courage largely developed. but a cry of horror bursts from the lips of every spectator as boy and man shoot over the falls and vanish in the seething waters below. The rush of waters here w as tremendous. but he had reappeared the second time. at sight of part of the boy's d ress. if it might be.

carried the column ac ross two hundred yards of clear space. discovered that a trestle was on fire. having on board several distin guished Frenchmen. Without a word o r a look of reproach. and that if the t rain. when the powerful King Powhatan had decreed his death. an d the valiant grenadiers were appalled by the task before them. Ill could the st ruggling colony spare him at that time. Forward again. Jennie Carey. Behind them were six thousand troops. and so he warned his companions that they must be ready to leave camp at a moment's notice. wherever they may be found. then. Thereu pon she ran out upon the track to a place where she could be seen from some litt le distance. "this court is adjourned for five minutes. This Napoleon had counted on in making the b old attack. came into the court-room with brutal violence and interrupted the court. Napoleon placed himself at their head. a murderer and desperado. of France. and th e result was the sending of the medal of this famous French society. with a battalion of three hundred carbineers in front. The contrast between Napoleon's slight figure and the massive grenad iers suggested the nickname "Little Corporal. The of ficer did not dare to approach him. It was the heroic devotion of an Indian girl that saved the life of Captain Joh n Smith." But they also shrank in fear from the ruffian. and a quick run. and his aides and g enerals rushed to his side. when o ne evening he received word that the chiefs of the Columbia River tribes desired to confer with him." When Stephen of Colonna fell into the hands of base assailants." said Jacks on. Napoleon masse d four thousand grenadiers at the head of the bridge. and attempted to pass the gateway to the bridge. The judge ordered him to be arrested. the Frenchmen brought the occurrence to the notice of President Carnot. and instead of rushing to the front and meeting the French onslaug ht. From the messenger's manner he suspected that the Indians m eant mischief. they asked him in derision. Then she took off her red flannel skirt and. Fourteen cannon--some accounts say thirty--were trained upon the F rench end of the structure. . the purpose of which is the honoring of bravery and merit. the column staggered and reeled backward. "Where is now your fortress?" "Here. "and arrest him. waved it back and forth across the track. afterwards saying. After the Mexican War General McClellan was employed as a topographical enginee r in surveying the Pacific coast. this time over heaps of dead that cho ked the passage. So sudde n and so miraculous was it all that the Austrian artillerists abandoned their gu ns instantly. many of whom must have suffered d eath but for Jennie's courage and presence of mind." He left the bench. who dropped his weapons. While a train on the Pan Handle Railroad. was bound to Chicago and the World's Fair. placing h is hand upon his heart. It was seen. The front ranks went down li ke stalks of grain before a reaper. when the train came in view. a soldier and a servant. who was then ten years old. entered it a dreadful wreck would take place. and with his eagle eye actually cowed the ruffian. "Call a posse." One of the last official acts of President Carnot. On May 10. was the sending o f a medal of the French Legion of Honor to a little American girl who lives in I ndiana. in the face of the Austri an batteries. Napoleon carried the bridge at Lodi. which was nearly due. counted by seconds only. From his headquarters at Vancouver he had gone on an exploring expedition with two companions." said the judge. scarcely a shot from the Austrians taking effect beyond the point where the platoons wheeled for the first leap.border ruffian. and the train stop ped. "Call me. On board of it were seven hundred people. their supports fled in a panic. "There was something in his eye I could not res ist. 1796. At the tap of the drum the foremost assailants whee led from the cover of the street wall under a terrible hail of grape and caniste r. walked straig ht up to the man." was his bold reply. When they returned to France .

Many distinguished foreign and American statesmen were present at a fashionable dinner party where wine was freely poured. and placed at the righ t hand of Saltese. was on the platform. He owed his life to his quickness of perception. "I dare not. declined to drink from a proffered cup.. until a sound of cracking timber below would have precipitated a stamp ede with fatal results but for the coolness of B. By his listlessness he had thrown his captors off their guard. therefore he and th ose with him would be the last to leave. but they were equal to the occasion. "Colfax dares not drink." was the quick response. McClellan said nothing. Nat urally hospitable. where his two followers were r eady to spring into the saddle and to escape from the villages. Saltese was released from the embrace of the strong arm. Telli ng the people to remain quiet. the committee taking great pains to have the fine st wines that could be procured for the table that night. he was given a rousing reception. Not a hand was raised agains t him. Rufus Choate spoke to an audience of nearly five thousand in Lowell. About thirty chiefs were holding council." "You have the wo rd of Saltese. Returning rather leisurely to the platform. the Houstonites determined to go beyond any other Southern city in the way of a banq uet and other manifestations of their good-will and hospitality. "You are right. "Revok e that sentence. This movement was a great surpr ise to the Texans. and was not responsible for the forest executions. The chiefs pondered long." sneered a Senator who had already taken too much. McClellan knew how sacred was the pledge which he had received.in five minutes". bu t had little to say. McClellan had been on friendly terms with them.Mounting his horse. They made lavis h preparations for the dinner. "I revoke it!" exclaimed Saltese. McClellan st rode out of the tent with his revolver in his hand. fairly livid from fear. his courage. and to his accurate knowledge of I ndian character. Butler. The floor of the great hall began to sink. and the c hiefs had vowed vengeance against the race. Without a single word be . in the name of the head men of the tribes. he said that he would see if there were any cause for alarm. in favor of the candidacy of James Buchanan for the presidency. the headwaiter went first to Grant. F. Without a word the general q uietly turned down all the glasses at his plate. he rode boldly into the Indian village. In 1856. He found the supports of the floor in so bad a condition that the sl ightest applause would be likely to bury the audience in the ruins of the buildi ng. he added. and then Saltese. settling more and more as he proceeded with his address." said the Vice-President. " I must have your word that I can leave this council in safety. McClellan was led into the circle. He was familiar with the Chinook jargon. he whispered to Choate as he pas sed. Two Indians had been captured by a party of white pioneers and hanged for the ft." When Grant was in Houston many years ago. and naturally inclined to like a man of Grant's make-up. The revolver wa s lowered. Retaliation for this outrage seemed imperative. He sat motionless. decreed that McClellan should immediately be put to death. then he told the crowd that ther e was no immediate danger if they would slowly disperse. then vice-presi dent of the United States. and could understand every word spoken in the council. M ass. apparently indifferent to his fate. Saltese made known the grievance of the tribe s. When the time came to serve the wine. who presided. The post of danger. He mounted his horse and rode to his camp. but still. No doubt many lives were saved by his c oolness. he was a white man. "We shall all be in ---. he whipped out his revolver and held it close to the chief's temple. which was most weakly supported. He had known that argument and pleas for justice or mer cy would be of no avail. but Schuyler Colfax. with his fingers c licking the trigger. Flinging his left arm around the neck of Salt ese. When the sentence was passed he acted like a flash. The council was prolonged for hours before sentence was passed. or I shall kill you this instant!" he cried.

"and they will burn your body to ashes as they did that of John Huss. misunderstood. where w ine flowed freely and ribald jests were bandied. though it rain Duke Georges for nine days together. or sung a song. and to pass for what you really are. a slight. C." "Yes. beaten. Two French officers at Waterloo were advancing to charge a greatly superior for ce. scoffed. every man along the line of the long tables turned his glasses down. boyish fel low who did not drink. derided. To his manhood.." "There are many cardinals and bishops at Worms." He replied: "It is my d uty to go. Colo nel Thomas Wentworth Higginson said that at a dinner at Beaufort. and they in turn dare not depart from th eir schools. in the Lord's name I would pass through it a nd appear before them. Custom or fashion . Dr. It takes courage and pluck to be outvoted. "he knows his danger. "Tis he is the coward who proves false to his vows." "That's a brave man. One. I am. "and if you were half as much fri ghtened. was told that he could not go until he had drunk a toast. laughed at.'" The men were so aff ected and ashamed that they took him by the hand and thanked him for displaying such admirable moral courage." It takes courage to do your duty in silence and obscu rity while others prosper and grow famous although neglecting sacred obligations . ridicul ed. and there was not a drop of wine taken that night. you would run away. Who dares conduct his household or business affairs in his own w ay. It takes courage to unmask your true self. dictates. but "They are slaves who dare not be In the right with two or three. observing that the other showed signs of fear. although I must drink it in water. living. said. everything must conform. How we shrink from an act of our own! We live as others live." A Western paper recently invited the surviving Union and Confederate officers t o give an account of the bravest act observed by each during the Civil War. misjudged.ing spoken. carriages. and snap his fingers at Dame Grundy? . Dress. I believe yo u are frightened. or your doctor or minister." We live ridiculously for fear of being thought ridiculous. It is 'Our Mothers." Anothe r man said to him: "Duke George will surely arrest you. told a story. and faces it. to stand alone with all the world against you." "An honest man is not the worse because a dog barks at him. and I will go. and that should flame up to heaven. It takes courage for a young man to stand firmly erect while others are bowing and fawning for praise and power." was the reply. Miner. for a laugh or a sneer. He replied: "I cannot sing." He said to another: "I would enter Worms though there we re as many devils there as there are tiles upon the roofs of the houses. S. or we are ostracized. but I will give a toa st. "Sir. when he saw a soldier turn pale as he ma rched against a battery. It takes courage to say "No" squarely when t hose around you say "Yes. to show your blemishes to a condemn ing world. his honor. servants." said Wellington. It takes courage to remain in honest pove rty when others grow rich by fraud. It takes courage to wear threadbare clothes wh ile your comrades dress in broadcloth." said a friend to Luther." Luther replied : "Although they should make a fire that should reach from Worms to Wittenberg." The youth who starts out by being afraid to speak what he thinks will usually e nd by being afraid to think what he wishes.

so the greatest hero is a coward somewhere. At last the powder and ball ran short and the hedges took fire. If that wire had been left there for a little time longer he would have gone dead lame. a nd soon two loaded wagons came galloping toward the farmhouse. but he could not stand the ridicule and the finger of scorn of the maidens in th e high priest's hall. condemned to be burned alive in Rome. horses. afforded him one desperate chance. fresh from his flocks. racked unti l her bones were dislocated. "Fear? " said the future admiral. sending wagon. untwisted a piece of telegraph wire which had begun to cut the horse's leg. "Dent. examined it deliberately." He dismounted. with the reckless daring of an English boy. spurred his strugglin g and terrified horses through the burning heap." Anne Askew. David. observing that the flames." said Grant.It takes courage for a public man not to bend the knee to popular prejudice. is the sublimest audacity the world has ever seen. I will. and raged more fiercely than ever. "I should have thought fear would have kept you from going so far. Behind him the flames closed u p. you should never take any chances with him. How much easier for a politician to prevaricate and dodge an issue than to stand squarely on his feet like a man! As the strongest man has a weakness somewhere. but looked her tormentor calmly in the face and refused to adjure her faith. with an orchard surrounded by a thick hedge. There is nothing attractive in timidity. "I guess looking after your horse's legs can wait." said Dent. appalled by his comrade's fate. and he actually denied even the acquaintance of the Master he had declared he would die for. amid the deafening cheers of the g arrison. nothing lovable in fear. to confront the colossal Gol iath with his massive armor." . when he and Colonel Dent were riding through the thickest of a fi re that had become so concentrated and murderous that his troops had all been dr iven back. A messenger had been sent for ammunition." Courage is victory. Don't be like Uriah Heep. and caught the powder. landed his terrible cargo safely within. which exploded in an instant. "Dent. "I don't know him. beaten back for the moment by the explosion." said he. and climbed into his saddle." said Grant. For a instant the driver of the second wag on paused." "To think a thing is impossible is to make it so. "when you've got a horse that you think a great deal o f. "The driver of th e first wagon. the next. never flinched. I wish you would get down and see what is the matter with that leg there . surroundi ng the orchard with a wall of flame." "All right. "if you don't want to see to it. and rider in fragments into the air. Bruno. sent his horses at the smoldering breach and. said to his judge: "You are more a fraid to pronounce my sentence than I am to receive it. which was so important a point in the British position that orders were given to hold it at any hazard or sacr ifice. It takes courage to refuse to follow custom when it is injurious to his health and morals. but the flames rose fiercely ro und. timidity 's defeat. begging everybody's pardon for taking the liberty of being in the world. "it is simply murder for us to sit here." Wellington said that at Waterloo the hottest of the battle raged round a farmho use. Peter was courageous enough to draw his sword to defend his Master. save with his shepherd's staff and sling. Manly courage is always dignified and graceful." said a rela tive who found the little boy Nelson wandering a long distance from home. That simple shepherd-lad. Both are deformities and are repulsive. and would perhaps have be en ruined for life. marching unattended and unarmed.

and he had determined to to his principles. and began his s peech to the crowd by saying that during the last two days he had been visited b y two ague fits. Napoleon looked at him and smili ngly said: "My friend. Through the long subterranea n galleries they hurried in silence. for her death soon occurred. After his head ha d been cut off and exhibited on a pole on London Bridge. When Sir Walter Raleigh came to the scaffold he was very faint. for all things serve a brave soul. and this day may be the last to any of us in a moment. . "by falterers wh o ask for certainty. I beseech you ascribe it to my sickness rather than to myself. even her mother. To half will and to hang forever in the balance is to lose your grip on life. the poor girl begged it of the authorities. damp. His him a fool for staying in a dark. what is your competitor bu t a man? Conquer your place in the world. encou nter disappointment courageously. sustain misfortune bravely. and tens of minutes passed. Her request was granted. "If. and who." Don't waste time dreaming of obstacles you may never encounter. At the battle of Copenhagen. Thoughts are but dreams until their effec ts be tried. and th as if it were a review. "No great deed is done. but a sound cure for al l diseases. filthy prison when he might erty by merely renouncing his doctrines. Sir William Napier's men became disobedient. and soon a terri ble upheaval of earth gave the signal to march to victory. had forsaken him. he said: "This is warm work. Com bat difficulty manfully. Every day sends to the gr ave obscure men who have only remained in obscurity because their timidity has p revented them from making a first effort. and the suspense became painful. that those fighting might not know their chief had fallen.At the battle of Friedland a cannon-ball came over the heads of the French sold iers. yielded at once. therefore. But Th His daughter showed the power of love to drive away fear. Execute your resolutions immediately. or in crossing bridges you have not reached. as Nelson walked the deck slippery with blood and covered with the dead. He and flogged four of the ringleaders under fire." He took the ax and kissed the blade. and a young soldier instinctively dodged. Does competition trouble you? work away. he c overed his face. Lieutenant Doughty and Sergeant Rees volunteered to examine the fuse." After the great inward struggle was over." When the mine in front of Petersburg was finished the fuse was lighted and the Union troops were drawn up ready to charge the enemy's works as soon as the expl osion should make a breach. would in all probability have gone great lengths in the career of u sefulness and fame. In a skirmish at Salamanca. But. endure poverty nobly. She remained true to her father when all others." says George Eliot. The men en marched three miles under a heavy cannonade as coolly pouring shot into his r at once ordered a halt. when he was shot and was being carried below. They found the defect. and requested that it be buried in the coffin with her. fired the train anew. But seconds. you perceive any weakness in me. The influence of the brave man is contagious a nd creates an epidemic of noble zeal in all about him. if they could have been induc ed to begin. remain loyal wife called have his lib done. while the enemy's guns were egiment. not knowing but that they were advancing to a horrible death. " At the battle of Trafalgar. if that ball were destined for you. and said to the sheriff: "'T is a sharp medicine. minutes. mark me. I would not be elsewhere for thousands. wi thout a sound from the mine. as some of the bishops had omas More preferred death to dishonor. though you were to bu rrow a hundred feet under ground it would be sure to find you there. Thomas More walked cheerfully to the block.

and when other lawyers had refused." Then to side with Truth is noble when we share her wretched crust. "mind your privileges. with little educa tion. Lincoln would alw ays plead the cause of the unfortunate whenever an opportunity presented. derisive scorn. When at last he had begun the practice of law. What the world wants is a Knox. and hisses? In him "at last the scornful world had met its match. and 'tis prosperous to be just: Then it is the brave ma n chooses. he arrived in advance of his troops. As Salmon P. Without waiting for his men. Only the most sublime moral courage could have sustained him as President to hold his ground against hostile criticism and a long train of disaster. Ere her caus e bring fame and profit. What cared Wendell Phillips for rotten eggs. or a scaffold erec ted in front of his door. the leper was made whole. Lincoln never shrank from espousing an unpopular cause when he believed it to b e right. "he's not afraid of any cause. give not away your right. At the trial of William Penn for having spoken at a Quaker meeting. to issue the Emancipation Procla mation. stood upon it." The rec order fined them forty marks apiece for their independence. when these hounded fugitives were seeking protectio n. When General Butler was sent with nine thousand men to quell the New York riots . who is not afraid of a jail." At last the jury. the recorde r. returned a verdict of "Not guilty. What cared Christ for the jeers of the crowd? The palsied hand moved. not satisfied with the first verdict. or you shall starve for it. if it's right. and began: "Delegates from Five Points. a man looked at him in surprise and said: "There goes a fi ne young fellow who has just ruined himself. said to the jury: "We will have a verdi ct by the help of God. despite the ridicule and scoffs of the spectators. and thus imperil what small reputation he had gained. LOWELL. which had already hanged several men to lamp-posts." "You are Englishmen. a Garrison. overturned an ash barrel. and no influential friends." people would say. Doubting in his abject spirit. Secretary of the United States Treasury.Abraham Lincoln's boyhood was one long struggle with poverty. and found the streets thronged with an an gry mob. Did Anna Dickins on leave the platform when the pistol bullets of the Molly Maguires flew about h er head? She silenced those pistols by her courage and her arguments. . "Go to Lincoln. an d Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court. while the coward stands aside. till hi s Lord is crucified. or a mob. At the time when it almost cost a young lawyer his bread and butter to defend the fugitive slave. Chase left the court room after an impassioned plea for the runawa y slave girl Matilda. fiends from hell. it required no little courage to cast his fortune with the weaker side in polit ics." said P enn." But in thus ruining himself Chase had taken the first important step in a career in which he became Governor of Oh io. the dead spake. who dares to preach on with a musket leveled at his head." and the bloodstained crowd quailed befo re the courageous words of a single man in a city which Mayor Fernando Wood coul d not restrain with the aid of police and militia. to support Grant and Stanton against the clamor of the politicians and t he press. Butler went to the place where the crowd was most dense. the blind saw. you have murdered your superiors. United States Senator from Ohio. after t wo days and two nights without food." Were Beecher and Gough to be si lenced by the rude English mobs that came to extinguish them? No! they held thei r ground and compelled unwilling thousands to hear and to heed.

published a volume of poems at fifteen. "Come and take them. It is astonishing what daring to begin and perseverance have enabled even you ths to achieve." said a staff officer. he outgeneraled and defeated. Cortez w as the conqueror of Mexico. Julius Caesar captured eight hundred c ities." exclaimed the Spartans at Thermopylae."Our enemies are before us. he dealt an almost annihilating blow at the republic of Rome. "impossible is the adje ctive of fools!" The courageous man is an example to the intrepid. the veteran marshals of Austria. Gladstone ruled England with a strong hand at eighty-four. Cowley." was the cool reply of Leonidas. had conquered the known world before dying at thirty-three. often before reaching the prime of lif e. Equal courage and resolution are often shown by men who have passed the allotte d limit of life. Alexander. became a gre at orator and one of the greatest statesmen known." "Then we will fight in the shade. defeated three million men. when Napoleon gave directions for a d aring plan. Me n follow him. who ascended the throne at twenty. at Cannae. one after another. the greatest of military commanders. Hannibal. and won his first battle as a colonel at twenty-two. Gladstone was in Parliament before he wa s twenty-two. For that were stupid and irrational . conquered three hundred nations. De Quincey at eleven. Peel was in Parliament at twenty-one. "And we are before them. . Nelson was a lieutenant in the British Navy before he was twenty. Robe rt Browning wrote at eleven poetry of no mean order. Luther was but twenty-nine when he nailed his famous thesis to the door of the bishop and defied the pope. He was but fo rty-seven when he received his death wound at Trafalgar. who sleeps in Westm inster Abbey. Begin! Begin! Begin!!! Whatever people may think of you." replied a Lacedemonian. A Per sian soldier said: "You will not be able to see the sun for flying javelins and arrows. Be ali ke indifferent to censure or praise. But he whose noble soul its fear subdues And bravely dares the danger nature s hrinks from." came the mes sage from Xerxes. What wonder that a handful of such men checked the march of the greatest host that ever trod the earth! "It is impossible. Lafayette was made general of the whole French Army at twenty. His influence is magnetic. Clive had established the British pow er in India. and still was a young man. Elizabeth Barrett Browning was proficient in Greek and Latin at twelve." was the answer Leonidas sent back. Wa shington was appointed adjutant-general at nineteen. Galileo was but eighteen when he saw the principle of the pendulum in the swing lamp in the cathedral at Pisa . and at twenty-four he was Lord of the Treasury. "Deliver your arms. do that which you believe to be right. "Impossible!" thundered the great commander. Charl emagne was master of France and Germany at thirty." Many a bright youth has accomplished nothing of worth to himself or the world s imply because he did not dare to commence things. and N apoleon was only twenty-seven when. and was a marvel of literary and scholarly ability. was only thirty when . Men who have dared have moved the world. Victor Hugo and Wellington were both in their prime after they had reached the age of threescore years and ten." "The brave man is not he who feels no fear. At thirty-six. on the plains of Italy. at thirty-two. was sent at twenty-one as a n ambassador to treat with the French. Shakespeare says: "He is not worthy of the honeycomb that shuns the hive becaus e the bees have stings.--PYTHAGORAS. even to the death.

--MIRABEAU. SHAKESPEARE. Can you conceive anything more absurd than that?" . isolation. " They began to demolish dike after dike of the strong lines. to the stranger. But from the parched lips of William.--TUPPER. and the besiegers laughed in scorn at the slow prog ress of the puny insects who sought to rule the waves of the sea. On the first and second of October a violent equinoctial gale rolled the ocean inland. It was an enormous task . it is curious to see how the spa ce clears around a man and leaves him room and freedom. and during the evening he drew the attention of Mr . abandonment. The iron will of one stout heart shall make a thousand quail: A feeble dwarf. Life.--BULWER. and no flourish of trumpets salutes. in commemoration of the wonderful del iverance of the city. as bring the oc ean to the wall of Leyden for your relief. d auntlessly resolved. as o f old. touching his own forehead with his finger. will turn the tide of battle." was the derisive shout of the Spanis h soldiers when told that the Dutch fleet would raise that terrible four months' siege of 1574. no renown rewards. a joyous procession marched through the streets to found the University of Leyden. then a prominent statesman. had issued the command: "Break down the dikes: give Holland back to ocean!" and the people had replied: "Better a drowned land than a lost land.I dare to do all that may become a man: Who dares do more is none. and swept the fleet on the rising waters almost to the camp of the Spaniards. Professor Mors e was also one of the guests. but the besiegers had fled in terror under cover of the darkness. Quit yourselves like men. But ever. The outer d ikes were replaced at once. In the lexicon of youth which fate reserves for a bright manhood there is no su ch word as fail. m isfortune. "there is a great deal in that head of his: but he has a strange fancy. and a counter tempest bru shed the water.--JOHN FOSTER. The next day the wind changed. "As well can the Prince of Orange pluck the stars from the sky. When th e flowers bloomed the following spring. The next morning the garrison sallied out to attack their enemies. For man's great actions are performed in minor struggles. 9. observing that his fore head indicated a great intellect. in New Yo rk City. CHAPTER XXXVIII THE WILL AND THE WAY "I will find a way or make one. and amo ng them was a young and rather melancholy and reticent Frenchman. ranged one within another for fifteen miles to their city of the interior. "Yes. There are obstinate a nd unknown braves who defend themselves inch by inch in the shadows against the fatal invasion of want and turpitude. some of the most distinguished men in the country were invited. There are noble and mysterious triumphs wh ich no eye sees. And rally to a nobler strife the giants that had fled. and poverty are battlefields which have their heroes. tossing on his bed of feve r at Rotterdam.--1 SAMUEL iv. At a dinner party given in 1837.--VICTOR HUGO." Nothing is impossible to the man who can will. with the fleet upon it. Gallatin. leaving the North Sea within its old bounds. the garrison was starving. at the residence of Chancellor Kent. from the surface of Holland. When a firm and decisive spirit is recognized. Heaven aids those who help themselves." replied Mr. Gallatin. Can you believe it? He has the idea that he will one day be th e Emperor of France.

lifting himself into eminence in any direction.--his dream of becoming Napoleon III. who had put out both his eyes by birdshot during a game hunt: "Never mind." says Milton. we can not ind orse the theory that there is nothing in circumstances or environments. or it will only lead us to ru n our heads against posts. but he gained hi s ambition at last. disaster. and patient labor and hope. Gladstone's last Postmaster-General." The true way to conquer circumstances is to be a greater circumstance yourself. before he accomplished his purpose there were long. The strong-willed. and yet. Not only had no woman ever held this position before. but with few exceptions it had only been held by men who in after life became highly distinguished. fourte en years later. intelligent. she succeeded in winning the post which had o nly been gained before by great men. There is scarcely anything in all biography grander than the saying of young He nry Fawcett. We must not expect to overcome a stubborn fact merely by a stubborn will. This is the kind of will that finds a way. was realized.It did seem absurd." began life as a ne wsdealer at Nottingham. True. For the first time in the history of Oxford Coll ege. while desiring to impress in the most forcible manner possible the fact th at will-power is necessary to success. yet he is a remarkable example of what pluck and energy can do. Yet. long afterward. the g reater the will-power. exile. led ever ywhere by a faithful daughter. publisher of the "Illustrated London News. strength. when they have . the grander and more complete the success. in the nature of things. his idea became a fact. which reaches back centuries. Think of a young man. Ingram. was Henry Fawcett. other things being equal. a Pi tt. a way can be found or made." One of the most pathe tic sights in London streets. Does any one wonder that such a youth succeede d? Once he rose at two o'clock in the morning and walked to London to get some p apers because there was no post to bring them. a Beecher. or that any man. scarcely on the threshold of active life. They have fought their way to triumph through all sorts of opposing obstacles. He was not scrupulous as to the means employed to accomplish his ends. without fortune or powerful connections. England. place ordinary clergymen in extraordinary pulpits. a Lincoln. M. blindness shall not interfere with my success in life. This achievement had had no parallel in history up to that date. Obstacles permane ntly insurmountable bar our progress in some directions. Every schoolboy knows that circumstances do give clients to lawyers and patient s to physicians. We must temper determination with discretio n.. as a rule. but in any direction we may reasonably hope and attempt to go we shall find that. a Webster. may become a Bonaparte. to s ay nothing of becoming one of the foremost men in a country noted for its great men! The courageous daughter who was eyes to her father was herself a marvelous exam ple of pluck and determination. and endurance. "Circumstances. and that. P. he walked ten miles to deliver a single paper r ather than disappoint a customer. simply because he has an indomitable will. "have rarely favored famous men. to his grief-stricken father. such as Gladstone. persistent man will find or make a way where. When Mr. who acted as amanuensis as well as guide to her p lucky father. place sons o f the rich at the head of immense corporations and large houses. We only have the right to assume that we can do anything wi thin the limit of our utmost faculty.--the post of senior wran gler. fathe r. su ddenly losing the sight of both eyes and yet by mere pluck and almost incomprehe nsible tenacity of purpose. and support it with knowledge and common sense. they are e ither not insurmountable or else not permanent. for this reserved Frenchman was then a poor adventurer. an exile from his country. He determined that his customers should not be disappointed. and attra cted the attention of the whole civilized world. dreary year s of imprisonment.

"molds the world to himself. while poor young men with unu sual ability. and ever putting him upon his own improvement. that we are underlings. Believe in the power of will. however strongly. Show me a man who according to popular prejudice is a victim of bad luck." The indomitable will. or some other requisite for success. sentimental doctrin e of fatalism. or trifling.--you must. and I will show you one who has some unfortunate crooked twist of temperament that in vites disaster. and sol emnly resolves upon it. In other words. circumstances do have a great deal to do with our posi tion. The youth who starts out i n life determined to make the most of his eyes and let nothing escape him which he can possibly use for his own advancement. A nd breasts the blows of circumstance. And grapples with his evil star. will find a way or make one. when others about them are raised by money or family influenc e into desirable places. burning like fire within him. you ought. will find that idea. or making means. but can't. that resolution. and large experience. that there are things impossible even to h im that wills. searching out. we all know that the best men do not al ways get the best places. and can perform wonders. Of Julius Caesar it was said by a contemporary that it was his activity and giant determination. often have t o fight their way for years to obtain even very mediocre situations. ent husiasm. yet that it is almost omnipotent. who keeps his hands open that he may clutch e very opportunity. good education. which annihilates the sickly. our salaries. by that very resolution has scaled the gre at barriers to it. He is ill-tempered. dear Brutus. lacks character. ra ther than his military skill. and he who seizes the grand idea of self-cultivation. But in ourselves. that won his victories. our station in life. is not in our stars. Give me the man who faces what he must. all history goes to prove. those who have towered high above their fellows. "they lack will. conceited. that there are thousands of young men of superior ability. giving courage for despondency . that labo r does not always conquer all things." "He who resolves upon any great end. who is ever on the alert for everything which can help him to . but it is impossible.very ordinary ability and scarcely any experience. good character." says Goethe. that there are limitations in our very natures which no amount of will-power or industry can overcome. The fault. Every one knows that there is not always a way where there is a will. "Who breaks his birth's invidious bar. Disraeli said that man is not the creature of circumstances. that one can not always make anything of himsel f he chooses. who seem to be compelled by circumstances to remain in very ordinary positi ons for small pay. "He who has a firm will. have bee n remarkable above all things else for their energy of will. As Sha kespeare says:-Men at some time are masters of their fates. and strength for weakness. the inflexible purpose." says Victor Hugo." "People do not lack strength." Nearly all great men. but that circumsta nces are the creatures of men. And grasps the skirts of happy chance. But while it is true that the will-power can not perform miracles. Ther e is always room for a man of force. He will find it remov ing difficulties. who keeps his ears open for every s ound that can help him on his way. both in the city and in the coun try.

defying poverty and wading through the snow two miles. to borrow a book to read before the sap-bush fire. the discouragement of early bankruptcy." said they. and everything which may inspire him. That which most easi ly becomes a habit in us is the will. When his friends nominated him as a candidate for the legislature. and walked to take his seat at Vandalia. straw hat. Napoleon was sent for. like a withered leaf. render himself almost anything he w ishes to become. and that every man may. send for him." Lincoln is probably the most remarkable example on the pages of history. In came a man who said. See Heyne. "I know a young officer who has the courage and ability to quell this mob. deaf pauper. wrote in his journal. by every wind that blows. subjugated the authorities. He read law barefoot under the trees." said Confucius. liv ing on bread and water in a Dutch garret. sleeping many a night on a barn floor with only a book for his pillow. and the fluctuations of popular politics.--that youth will be sur e to make his life successful. subjugated the m ob. who made shoes in the almshouse. When making his campaign speeches he wore a mixed jean coat so short that he could not sit down on it." The poor.--one hundred miles." History is full of such examples. "It is not talent that men lack. ruled France and then conquered Europe. through pove . When his friends suggested law to him. He had nothing in the world bu t character and friends. See Samuel Drew. who seizes every experience in life and grinds it up into p aint for his great life's picture. Paris was in the hands of a mob. with r ags for shoes. Learn. the authorities were panic-stricken. If he has his health. there are no "ifs" or "ands" about it. He had to borrow money to buy a suit of clothes to make a respectable appe arance in the legislature. No tyranny of circumstances can permanently imprison a determined will.. and he sometimes slept on the counter in the store where he wo rked. "but you can not defeat the determined mind of a peasant. Success in life is dependent largely upon the will-power. etc." It was the insatiable thirst for knowledge which held to his task. showin g the possibilities of our country. for they did not dare to trust their underlings. he rose to the championship of union and f reedom. then. according to his opportunities and industry. The world always stands aside for the determined man. to will decisively and strong ly. and whatever weakens or impairs it diminishes success. He who will pa y the price for victory need never fear final defeat. are mere rigmarole." "Send for him. he laughed at the idea of his being a la wyer. nothing can keep him from final success. it is the purpose. it is the will to labor. See Thurlow Weed. tightening his apro n string "in lieu of a dinner. hi s neighbors said. The will can be educated. Kitto. came. Lincoln's will made his way. He said he had not brains enough. "The general of a large army may be defeated. send for him. throu gh the rowdyism of a frontier town. thus fix your floating life. flax and to w-linen trousers. his enemies made fun of him. From the poverty in which he was born. See Locke. and pot-metal boots. on the threshold of manh ood: "I am not myself a believer in impossibilities: I think that all the fine s tories about natural ability. and leave it no longer to be carried hither and thither. who keeps his heart open that he may catch ev ery noble impulse.get on in the world. and who became t he greatest of Biblical scholars.

would not help him to an education beyond that of mere reading and writing." What seemed to be luck followed Stephen Girard all his life. What seemed luck with h . and his thirsty soul would drink in the precious treasures from its pri celess volumes for hours. It seemed to him that an opportunity to get at books and lectures was all that any man could need. He was rich when he discovered a little bo okstore. He never left anything of importance to others. and no obst acle could turn him from his purpose. His desire for an education defied the extremest poverty. Everybody. although he knew nothing whatever of medicine. Barefoot and alone . Sydney Sm ith said: "Webster was a living lie. stout. and he sailed f or India." Carlyle said of him: "One would incline at sight to back him again st the world. he bottled wine and cider. He bought and sold anything. No matter what he did. and added: "Bu t my boots needs other doctoring. and many times that which brought financial ruin to many others. He never lost a ship. there seemed to be nothing he would not do for money. and for nine years saile d between Bordeaux and the French West Indies. Nothing could discourage him from tr ying to improve himself by study. Before he was nineteen. short. and would not allow the slightest departure from them. His plans and schemes were worked out with mathemati cal care. His letters written to his captains in foreign ports. it always seemed to others to turn to his account. helped to fit him out. yet he was precision. he walked six or eight miles daily to learn to read. from groceries to old ju nk. When he began business for himself in Philadelphia. because no man on earth could be as great a s he looked. who thought this one of the most remarkable illustrations of perseverance. Hearing that a surgeon's assistant in the Civil Service was wanted. evidently thinking that he would never amount to anything. mastering the art of navigation. His f ather. blind in one eye. accuracy. A friend sent hi m a recipe for greasing his boots. for they not only admit water. yet they would cause loss in ninety-nine other cases. as the War of 1812. John Leyden. But he was not the m an to give up. He had begun as a cabin boy at thirteen. it was hard for him to get a start. Walter Scott. an d he took his degree with honor. Webster was very poor even after he entered Dartmouth College. thi s poor shepherd boy with no chance had astonished the professors of Edinburgh by his knowledge of Greek and Latin. H e used to say that while his captains might save him money by deviating from ins tructions once. only increased his wealth. from which he made a good profit. While undo ubtedly he was fortunate in happening to be at the right place at the right time . a Scotch shepherd's son. At the age of eight he had first discovered that he was blind in one eye. method. he determined to apply for it. laying out their routes and giving detailed instructions. are models of foresight and systematic planning. Everything he t ouched prospered. He was rigidly accura te in his instructions. perfectly oblivious of the scanty meal of bread and wa ter which awaited him at his lowly lodging. He left nothing to chance. He improved every leisure minute at sea. the neglect of his fathe r. There were on ly six months before the place was to be filled. especially his jealous brother merchants." Yet he became one of the greatest men in the world. Being a foreigner. but even peas a nd gravel-stones. which was all the schooli ng he had.rty and discouragement. Webster wrote and thanked him. attributed his great success to his luck. energy itself. unable to speak English. but nothing would daunt him. and the chagrin of his brothers' advancement soured his whole life. The discovery of his blindness. but sent his young er brothers to college. and with a repulsive face.

im was only good judgment and promptness in seizing opportunities, and the great est care and zeal in improving them to their utmost possibilities. The mathematician tells you that if you throw the dice, there are thirty chance s to one against your turning up a particular number, and a hundred to one again st your repeating the same throw three times in succession: and so on in an augm enting ratio. Many a young man who has read the story of John Wanamaker's romantic career has gained very little inspiration or help from it toward his own elevation and adv ancement, for he looks upon it as the result of good luck, chance, or fate. "Wha t a lucky fellow," he says to himself as he reads; "what a bonanza he fell into! " But a careful analysis of Wanamaker's life only enforces the same lesson taugh t by the analysis of most great lives, namely, that a good mother, a good consti tution, the habit of hard work, indomitable energy, determination which knows no defeat, decision which never wavers, a concentration which never scatters its f orces, courage which never falters, self-mastery which can say No, and stick to it, strict integrity and downright honesty, a cheerful disposition, unbounded en thusiasm in one's calling, and a high aim and noble purpose insure a very large measure of success. Youth should be taught that there is something in circumstances; that there is such a thing as a poor pedestrian happening to find no obstruction in his way, a nd reaching the goal when a better walker finds the drawbridge up, the street bl ockaded, and so fails to win the race; that wealth often does place unworthy son s in high positions; that family influence does gain a lawyer clients, a physici an patients, an ordinary scholar a good professorship; but that, on the other ha nd, position, clients, patients, professorships, managers' and superintendents' positions do not necessarily constitute success. He should be taught that in the long run, as a rule, the best man does win the best place, and that persistent merit does succeed. There is about as much chance of idleness and incapacity winning real success o r a high position in life, as there would be in producing a "Paradise Lost" by s haking up promiscuously the separate words of Webster's Dictionary, and letting them fall at random on the floor. Fortune smiles upon those who roll up their sl eeves and put their shoulders to the wheel; upon men who are not afraid of drear y, dry, irksome drudgery, men of nerve and grit who do not turn aside for dirt a nd detail. The youth should be taught that "he alone is great, who, by a life heroic, conq uers fate"; that "diligence is the mother of good luck"; that nine times out of ten what we call luck or fate is but a mere bugbear of the indolent, the languid , the purposeless, the careless, the indifferent; that, as a rule, the man who f ails does not see or seize his opportunity. Opportunity is coy, is swift, is gon e, before the slow, the unobservant, the indolent, or the careless can seize her :-"In idle wishes fools supinely stay: Be there a will and wisdom finds a way." It has been well said that the very reputation of being strong-willed, plucky, and indefatigable is of priceless value. It often cows enemies and dispels at th e start opposition to one's undertakings which would otherwise be formidable. It is astonishing what men who have come to their senses late in life have acco mplished by a sudden resolution. Arkwright was fifty years of age when he began to learn English grammar and imp rove his writing and spelling. Benjamin Franklin was past fifty before he began the study of science and philosophy. Milton, in his blindness, was past the age

of fifty when he sat down to complete his world-known epic, and Scott at fifty-f ive took up his pen to redeem a liability of $600,000. "Yet I am learning," said Michael Angelo, when threescore years and ten were past, and he had long attain ed the highest triumphs of his art. Even brains are second in importance to will. The vacillating man is always pus hed aside in the race of life. It is only the weak and vacillating who halt befo re adverse circumstances and obstacles. A man with an iron will, with a determin ation that nothing shall check his career, is sure, if he has perseverance and g rit, to succeed. We may not find time for what we would like, but what we long f or and strive for with all our strength, we usually approximate, if we do not fu lly reach. I wish it were possible to show the youth of America the great part that the wi ll might play in their success in life and in their happiness as well. The achie vements of will-power are simply beyond computation. Scarcely anything in reason seems impossible to the man who can will strong enough and long enough. How often we see this illustrated in the case of a young woman who suddenly bec omes conscious that she is plain and unattractive; who, by prodigious exercise o f her will and untiring industry, resolves to redeem herself from obscurity and commonness; and who not only makes up for her deficiencies, but elevates herself into a prominence and importance which mere personal attractions could never ha ve given her! Charlotte Cushman, without a charm of form or face, climbed to the very top of her profession. How many young men, stung by consciousness of physi cal deformity or mental deficiencies, have, by a strong, persistent exercise of will-power, raised themselves from mediocrity and placed themselves high above t hose who scorned them! History is full of examples of men and women who have redeemed themselves from disgrace, poverty, and misfortune by the firm resolution of an iron will. The co nsciousness of being looked upon as inferior, as incapable of accomplishing what others accomplish; the sensitiveness at being considered a dunce in school, has stung many a youth into a determination which has elevated him far above those who laughed at him, as in the case of Newton, of Adam Clark, of Sheridan, Wellin gton, Goldsmith, Dr. Chalmers, Curran, Disraeli and hundreds of others. It is men like Mirabeau, who "trample upon impossibilities"; like Napoleon, who do not wait for opportunities, but make them; like Grant, who has only "uncondi tional surrender" for the enemy, who change the very front of the world. "I can't, it is impossible," said a foiled lieutenant to Alexander. "Be gone," shouted the conquering Macedonian, "there is nothing impossible to him who will try." Were I called upon to express in a word the secret of so many failures among th ose who started out in life with high hopes, I should say unhesitatingly, they l acked will-power. They could not half will. What is a man without a will? He is like an engine without steam, a mere sport of chance, to be tossed about hither and thither, always at the mercy of those who have wills. I should call the stre ngth of will the test of a young man's possibilities. Can he will strong enough, and hold whatever he undertakes with an iron grip? It is the iron grip that tak es the strong hold on life. "The truest wisdom," said Napoleon, "is a resolute d etermination." An iron will without principle might produce a Napoleon; but with character it would make a Wellington or a Grant, untarnished by ambition or ava rice. "The undivided will 'Tis that compels the elements and wrings A human music fro m the indifferent air."

CHAPTER XXXIX ONE UNWAVERING AIM Life is an arrow--therefore you must know What mark to aim at, how to use the b ow-- Then draw it to the head and let it go. HENRY VAN DYKE. The important thing in life is to have a great aim, and to possess the aptitude and perseverance to attain it.--GOETHE. "A double-minded man is unstable in all his ways." Let every one ascertain his special business and calling, and then stick to it if he would be successful.--FRANKLIN. "Why do you lead such a solitary life?" asked a friend of Michael Angelo. "Art is a jealous mistress," replied the artist; "she requires the whole man." During his labors at the Sistine Chapel, according to Disraeli, he refused to meet any one, even at his own house. "This day we sailed westward, which was our course," were the simple but grand words which Columbus wrote in his journal day after day. Hope might rise and fal l, terror and dismay might seize upon the crew at the mysterious variations of t he compass, but Columbus, unappalled, pushed due west and nightly added to his r ecord the above words. "Cut an inch deeper," said a member of the Old Guard to the surgeon probing his wound, "and you will find the Emperor,"--meaning his heart. By the marvelous po wer of concentrated purpose Napoleon had left his name on the very stones of the capital, had burned it indelibly into the heart of every Frenchman, and had lef t it written in living letters all over Europe. France to-day has not shaken off the spell of that name. In the fair city on the Seine the mystic "N" confronts you everywhere. Oh, the power of a great purpose to work miracles! It has changed the face of t he world. Napoleon knew that there were plenty of great men in France, but they did not know the might of the unwavering aim by which he was changing the destin ies of Europe. He saw that what was called the "balance of power" was only an id le dream; that, unless some master-mind could be found which was a match for eve nts, the millions would rule in anarchy. His iron will grasped the situation; an d like William Pitt, he did not loiter around balancing the probabilities of fai lure or success, or dally with his purpose. There was no turning to the right no r to the left; no dreaming away time, nor building air-castles; but one look and purpose, forward, upward and onward, straight to his goal. His great success in war was due largely to his definiteness of aim. He always hit the bull's-eye. H e was like a great burning-glass, concentrating the rays of the sun upon a singl e spot; he burned a hole wherever he went. After finding the weak place in the e nemy's ranks, he would mass his men and hurl them like an avalanche upon the cri tical point, crowding volley upon volley, charge upon charge, till he made a bre ach. What a lesson of the power concentration there is in this man's life! To succeed to-day a man must concentrate all the faculties of his mind upon one unwavering aim, and have a tenacity of purpose which means death or victory. Ev ery other inclination which tempts him from his aim must be suppressed. A man may starve on a dozen half-learned trades or occupations; he may grow ric h and famous upon one trade thoroughly mastered, even though it be the humblest. Even Gladstone, with his ponderous yet active brain, said he could not do two t hings at once; he threw his entire strength upon whatever he did. The intensest

energy characterized everything he undertook, even his recreation. If such conce ntration of energy is necessary for the success of a Gladstone, what can we comm on mortals hope to accomplish by "scatteration"? All great men have been noted for their power of concentration which makes them oblivious of everything outside their aim. Victor Hugo wrote his "Notre Dame" d uring the revolution of 1830, while the bullets were whistling across his garden . He shut himself up in one room, locking his clothes up in another, lest they s hould tempt him to go out into the street, and spent most of that winter wrapped in a big gray comforter, pouring his very life into his work. Abraham Lincoln possessed such power of concentration that he could repeat quit e correctly a sermon to which he had listened in his boyhood. A New York sportsman, in answer to an advertisement, sent twenty-five cents for a sure receipt to prevent a shotgun from scattering, and received the following : "Dear Sir: To keep a gun from scattering put in but a single shot." It is the men who do one thing in this world who come to the front. Who is the favorite actor? It is a Jefferson, who devotes a lifetime to a "Rip Van Winkle," a Booth, an Irving, a Kean, who plays one character until he can play it better than any other man living, and not the shallow players who impersonate all part s. The great man is the one who never steps outside of his specialty or dissipat es his individuality. It is an Edison, a Morse, a Bell, a Howe, a Stephenson, a Watt. It is an Adam Smith, spending ten years on the "Wealth of Nations." It is a Gibbon, giving twenty years to his "Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire." It is a Hume, writing thirteen hours a day on his "History of England." It is a Web ster, spending thirty-six years on his dictionary. It is a Bancroft, working twe nty-six years on his "History of the United States." It is a Field, crossing the ocean fifty times to lay a cable, while the world ridicules. It is a Newton, wr iting his "Chronology of Ancient Nations" sixteen times. A one-talent man who decides upon a definite object accomplishes more than a te n-talent man who scatters his energies and never knows exactly what he will do. The weakest living creature, by concentrating his powers upon one thing, can acc omplish something; the strongest, by dispersing his over many, may fail to accom plish anything. A great purpose is cumulative; and, like a great magnet, it attracts all that i s kindred along the stream of life. [Illustration: Joseph Jefferson] A Yankee can splice a rope in many different ways; an English sailor only knows one way, but that is the best one. It is the one-sided man, the sharp-eyed man, the man of single and intense purpose, the man of one idea, who cuts his way th rough obstacles and forges to the front. The time has gone forever when a Bacon can span universal knowledge; or when, absorbing all the knowledge of the times, a Dante can sustain arguments against fourteen disputants in the University of Paris, and conquer in them all. The day when a man can successfully drive a doze n callings abreast is a thing of the past. Concentration is the keynote of the c entury. Scientists estimate that there is energy enough in less than fifty acres of sun shine to run all the machinery in the world, if it could be concentrated. But th e sun might blaze out upon the earth forever without setting anything on fire; a lthough these rays focused by a burning-glass would melt solid granite, or even change a diamond into vapor. There are plenty of men who have ability enough; th e rays of their faculties, taken separately, are all right, but they are powerle ss to collect them, to bring them all to bear upon a single spot. Versatile men,

universal geniuses, are usually weak, because they have no power to concentrate their talents upon one point, and this makes all the difference between success and failure. Chiseled upon the tomb of a disappointed, heart-broken king, Joseph II. of Aust ria, in the Royal Cemetery at Vienna, a traveler tells us, is this epitaph: "Her e lies a monarch who, with the best of intentions, never carried out a single pl an." Sir James Mackintosh was a man of remarkable ability. He excited in every one w ho knew him the greatest expectations. Many watched his career with much interes t, expecting that he would dazzle the world; but there was no purpose in his lif e. He had intermittent attacks of enthusiasm for doing great things, but his zea l all evaporated before he could decide what to do. This fatal defect in his cha racter kept him balancing between conflicting motives; and his whole life was al most thrown away. He lacked power to choose one object and persevere with a sing le aim, sacrificing every interfering inclination. He, for instance, vacillated for weeks trying to determine whether to use "usefulness" or "utility" in a comp osition. One talent utilized in a single direction will do infinitely more than ten tale nts scattered. A thimbleful of powder behind a ball in a rifle will do more exec ution than a carload of powder unconfined. The rifle-barrel is the purpose that gives direct aim to the powder, which otherwise, no matter how good it might be, would be powerless. The poorest scholar in school or college often, in practica l life, far outstrips the class leader or senior wrangler, simply because what l ittle ability he has he employs for a definite object, while the other, dependin g upon his general ability and brilliant prospects, never concentrates his power s. It is fashionable to ridicule the man of one idea, but the men who have changed the front of the world have been men of a single aim. No man can make his mark on this age of specialties who is not a man of one idea, one supreme air, one ma ster passion. The man who would make himself felt on this bustling planet, who w ould make a breach in the compact conservatism of our civilization, must play al l his guns on one point. A wavering aim, a faltering purpose, has no place in th e twentieth century. "Mental shiftlessness" is the cause of many a failure. The world is full of unsuccessful men who spend their lives letting empty buckets do wn into empty wells. "Mr. A. often laughs at me," said a young American chemist, "because I have but one idea. He talks about everything, aims to excel in many things; but I have l earned that, if I ever wish to make a breach, I must play my guns continually up on one point." This great chemist, when an obscure schoolmaster, used to study b y the light of a pine knot in a log cabin. Not many years later he was performin g experiments in electro-magnetism before English earls, and subsequently he was at the head of one of the largest scientific institutes of this country. He was the late Professor Henry, of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington. We should guard against a talent which we can not hope to practise in perfectio n, says Goethe. Improve it as we may, we shall always, in the end, when the meri t of the matter has become apparent to us, painfully lament the loss of time and strength devoted to such botching. An old proverb says: "The master of one trad e will support a wife and seven children, and the master of seven will not suppo rt himself." It is the single aim that wins. history. They do not focus their y into the roll of honor. Edward ppointed the expectations of his Men with monopolizing ambitions rarely live in powers long enough to burn their names indelibl Everett, even with his magnificent powers, disa friends. He spread himself over the whole field

of knowledge and elegant culture; but the mention of the name of Everett does n ot call up any one great achievement as does that of names like Garrison and Phi llips. Voltaire called the Frenchman La Harpe an oven which was always heating, but which never cooked anything. Hartley Coleridge was splendidly endowed with t alent, but there was one fatal lack in his character--he had no definite purpose , and his life was a failure. Unstable as water, he could not excel. Southey, th e uncle of Coleridge, says of him: "Coleridge has two left hands." He was so mor bidly shy from living alone in his dreamland that he could not open a letter wit hout trembling. He would often rally from his purposeless life, and resolve to r edeem himself from the oblivion he saw staring him in the face; but, like Sir Ja mes Mackintosh, he remained a man of promise merely to the end of his life. The man who succeeds has a program. He fires his course and adheres to it. He l ays his plans and executes them. He goes straight to his goal. He is not pushed this way and that every time a difficulty is thrown in his path; if he can not g et over it he goes through it. Constant and steady use of the faculties under a central purpose gives strength and power, while the use of faculties without an aim or end only weakens them. The mind must be focused on a definite end, or, li ke machinery without a balance-wheel, it will rack itself to pieces. This age of concentration men, not for geniuses, not to do one thing as well as f his soldiers better than calls, not for educated men merely, not for talented for jacks-of-all-trades, but for men who are trained it can be done. Napoleon could go through the drill o any one of his men.

Stick to your aim. The constant changing of one's occupation is fatal to all su ccess. After a young man has spent five or six years in a dry goods store, he co ncludes that he would rather sell groceries, thereby throwing away five years of valuable experience which will be of very little use to him in the grocery busi ness; and so he spends a large part of his life drifting around from one kind of employment to another, learning part of each but all of none, forgetting that e xperience is worth more to him than money and that the years devoted to learning his trade or occupation are the most valuable. Half-learned trades, no matter i f a man has twenty, will never give him a good living, much less a competency, w hile wealth is absolutely out of the question. How many young men fail to reach the point of efficiency in one line of work be fore they get discouraged and venture into something else! How easy to see the t horns in one's own profession or vocation, and only the roses in that of another ! A young man in business, for instance, seeing a physician riding about town in his carriage, visiting his patients, imagines that a doctor must have an easy, ideal life, and wonders that he himself should have embarked in an occupation so full of disagreeable drudgery and hardships. He does not know of the years of d ry, tedious study which the physician has consumed, the months and perhaps years of waiting for patients, the dry detail of anatomy, the endless names of drugs and technical terms. There is a sense of great power in a vocation after a man has reached the point of efficiency in it, the point of productiveness, the point where his skill beg ins to tell and brings in returns. Up to this point of efficiency, while he is l earning his trade, the time seems to have been almost thrown away. But he has be en storing up a vast reserve of knowledge of detail, laying foundations, forming his acquaintances, gaining his reputation for truthfulness, trustworthiness, an d integrity, and in establishing his credit. When he reaches this point of effic iency, all the knowledge and skill, character, influence, and credit thus gained come to his aid, and he soon finds that in what seemed almost thrown away lies the secret of his prosperity. The credit he established as a clerk, the confiden ce, the integrity, the friendships formed, he finds equal to a large capital whe n he starts out for himself and takes the highway to fortune; while the young ma n who half learned several trades, got discouraged and stopped just short of the

point of efficiency, just this side of success, is a failure because he didn't go far enough; he did not press on to the point at which his acquisition would h ave been profitable. In spite of the fact that nearly all very successful men have made a life-work of one thing, we see on every hand hundreds of young men and women flitting abou t from occupation to occupation, trade to trade, in one thing to-day and another to-morrow,--just as though they could go from one thing to another by turning a switch, as though they could run as well on another track as on the one they ha ve left, regardless of the fact that no two careers have the same gage, that eve ry man builds his own road upon which another man's engine can not run either wi th speed or safety. This fickleness, this disposition to shift about from one oc cupation to another, seems to be peculiar to American life, so much so that, whe n a young man meets a friend whom he has not seen for some time, the commonest q uestion to ask is, "What are you doing now?" showing the improbability or uncert ainty that he is doing to-day what he was doing when they last met. Some people think that if they "keep everlastingly at it" they will succeed, bu t this is not always so. Working without a plan is as foolish as going to sea wi thout a compass. A ship which has broken its rudder in mid-ocean may "keep everlastingly at it," may keep on a full head of steam, driving about all the time, but it never arri ves anywhere, it never reaches any port unless by accident; and if it does find a haven, its cargo may not be suited to the people, the climate, or conditions. The ship must be directed to a definite port, for which its cargo is adapted, an d where there is a demand for it, and it must aim steadily for that port through sunshine and storm, through tempest and fog. So a man who would succeed must no t drift about rudderless on the ocean of life. He must not only steer straight t oward his destined port when the ocean is smooth, when the currents and winds se rve, but he must keep his course in the very teeth of the wind and the tempest, and even when enveloped in the fogs of disappointment and mists of opposition. A tlantic liners do not stop for fogs or storms; they plow straight through the ro ugh seas with only one thing in view, their destined port, and no matter what th e weather is, no matter what obstacles they encounter, their arrival in port can be predicted to within a few hours. On the prairies of South America there grows a flower that always inclines in t he same direction. If a traveler loses his way and has neither compass nor chart , by turning to this flower he will find a guide on which he can implicitly rely ; for no matter how the rains descend or the winds blow, its leaves point to the north. So there are many men whose purposes are so well known, whose aims are s o constant, that no matter what difficulties they may encounter, or what opposit ion they may meet, you can tell almost to a certainty where they will come out. They may be delayed by head winds and counter currents, but they will always hea d for the port and will steer straight towards the harbor. You know to a certain ty that whatever else they may lose, they will not lose their compass or rudder. Whatever may happen to a man of this stamp, even though his sails may be swept away and his mast stripped to the deck, though he may be wrecked by the storms o f life, the needle of his compass will still point to the North Star of his hope . Whatever comes, his life will not be purposeless. Even a wreck that makes its port is a greater success than a full-rigged ship with all its sails flying, wit h every mast and every rope intact, which merely drifts along into an accidental harbor. To fix a wandering life and give it direction is not an easy task, but a life w hich has no definite aim is sure to be frittered away in empty and purposeless d reams. "Listless triflers," "busy idlers," "purposeless busy-bodies," are seen e verywhere. A healthy, definite purpose is a remedy for a thousand ills which att

end aimless lives. Discontent and dissatisfaction flee before a definite purpose . What we do begrudgingly without a purpose becomes a delight with one, and no w ork is well done nor healthily done which is not enthusiastically done. Mere energy is not enough; it must be concentrated on some steady, unwavering a im. What is more common than "unsuccessful geniuses," or failures with "commandi ng talents"? Indeed, the term "unrewarded genius" has become a proverb. Every to wn has unsuccessful educated and talented men. But education is of no value, tal ent is worthless, unless it can do something, achieve something. Men who can do something at everything and a very little at anything are not wanted in this age . What this age wants is young men and women who can do one thing without losing their identity or individuality, or becoming narrow, cramped, or dwarfed. Nothin g can take the place of an all-absorbing purpose; education can not, genius can not, talent can not, industry can not, will-power can not. The purposeless life must ever be a failure. What good are powers, faculties, unless we can use them for a purpose? What good would a chest of tools do a carpenter unless he could u se them? A college education, a head full of knowledge, are worth little to the men who cannot use them to some definite end. The man without a purpose never leaves his mark upon the world. He has no indiv iduality; he is absorbed in the mass, lost in the crowd, weak, wavering, and inc ompetent. "Consider, my lord," said Rowland Hill to the Prime Minister of England, "that a letter to Ireland and the answer back would cost thousands upon thousands of m y affectionate countrymen more than a fifth of their week's wages. If you shut t he post-office to them, which you do now, you shut out warm hearts and generous affections from home, kindred, and friends." The lad learned that it cost to car ry a letter from London to Edinburgh, four hundred and four miles, one eighteent h of a cent, while the government charged for a simple folded sheet of paper twe nty-eight cents, and twice as much if there was the smallest inclosure. Against the opposition and contempt of the post-office department he at length carried h is point, and on January 10, 1840, penny postage was established throughout Grea t Britain. Mr. Hill was chosen to introduce the system, at a salary of fifteen h undred pounds a year. His success was most encouraging, but at the end of two ye ars a Tory minister dismissed him without paying for his services, as agreed. Th e public was indignant, and at once contributed sixty-five thousand dollars; and , at the request of Queen Victoria, Parliament voted him one hundred thousand do llars cash, together with ten thousand dollars a year for life. It is a great purpose which gives meaning to life; it unifies all our powers, b inds them together in one cable and makes strong and united what was weak, separ ated, scattered. "Smatterers" are weak and superficial. Of what use is a man who knows a little of everything and not much of anything? It is the momentum of constantly repeate d acts that tells the story. "Let thine eyes look straight before thee. Ponder t he path of thy feet and let all thy ways be established. Turn not to the right h and nor to the left." One great secret of St. Paul's power lay in his strong pur pose. Nothing could daunt, nothing intimidate him. The Roman Emperor could not m uzzle him, the dungeon could not appall him, no prison suppress him, obstacles c ould not discourage him. "This one thing I do" was written all over his work. Th e quenchless zeal of his mighty purpose burned its way down through the centurie s, and its contagion will never cease to fire the hearts of men. "Try and come home somebody," said his mother to Gambetta as she sent him off t o Paris to school. Poverty pinched this lad hard in his little garret study and his clothes were shabby, but what of that? He had made up his mind to get on in

dangers only increase his courage. No matter what comes to him. poverty. t o take his place. is somet imes called out by a great emergency or sudden sorrow. provided for their maintenance. He still lived in the upper room in the musty Latin Qua rter. At last his opportunity came. landed in Amiens. for he lo ved our country. and the great Republ ican leader! When Louis Napoleon had been defeated at Sedan and had delivered his sword to W illiam of Prussia. and what we are will be the result of previous years of self-discipline. like driftwood. the brave G ambetta went out of the besieged city in a balloon barely grazed by the Prussian guns. though he might easily have made himself a millionaire. rough and uncouth. it would onl y have made him ridiculous. "The Republic has lost its greatest man.the world. poor and unknown. Had he not been equal to it. and when the Prussian army was marching on Paris. he never turn s his eye from his goal. living i n a garret." This youth who was poring over his books in an attic while other youths were promenad ing the Champs Elysées. and remained a poor man. He does not have one-half the opposition to overcome that the undecided. What a striking example of the great reserve of personal power. which shows none of its inherent beauties until the skill of the polisher sketches out the c . today. deputy-elect. and soon all France recogni zed him as the Republican leader." CHAPTER XL WORK AND WAIT What we do upon some great occasion will probably depend on what we already are . he was suddenly weaned from dissip ation. the world stan ds to one side and lets him pass. in the city of Marseilles. and took our Republic as the pattern for France. For many years Gambetta had been preparing for such an opportu nity. and directed their military operatio ns. and ever after leads the life to victory! When Gambetta found that his first speech had electrified all F rance. even in dissolute lives. For years he was chained to his desk and worked like a hero. sickness.--H. "Duos qui sequitur lepores. cutting his way through difficulties. He had been steadfastly working and fighting his way up against oppositions and poverty for just such an occasion. p urposeless man has who. yesterday. he chose this young man. b ut. and resolved to make his mark in the world. W hat a sublime spectacle it is to see a youth going straight to his goal. although but thirty-two years old. This sudden rise was not due to luck or accide nt. LIDDON. neutrum capit. and he was equal to it. opposition only doubles his exertions. There is no grander sight in the world than that of a young man fired with a gr eat purpose. dominated by one unwavering aim. and will carry down Gambetta's name to remote posterity. without stain of dishonor. which. uncouth Bohemian. That night all the papers in Paris were so unding the praises of this ragged. and by almost superhuman skill raised three armies of 8 00. Nor did he lose his head in h is quick leap into fame." American boys should study this great man.000 men. Jules Favre was to plead a great cause on a certain day. He is bound to win. runs against all sorts of snags to which he must yield simply because he has no momentum to force them out of his way. P . I consider a human soul without education like marble in a quarry. He made one of the greatest speeches that up to th at time had ever been made in France. being ill. When he died the "Figaro" said. it always makes way for the man with a will in him. disaster. like a gymnasium. as though they were but stepping-stones! Defeat. A German officer said: "This colossal energy is the most remarkable event of modern history. and surmounting obstacles which dishearten others . was now virtually dicta tor of France. his great reserve rushed to the front. only gives him new power. What a stride. absolutely unknown. and the greatest orator in the Republic.

. The result. He discovered this simple process only after trying in vain much more difficult and expensive methods. As a result his system of perforation was abandoned and he was deprived of his promised office. Bessemer chose the office." said his betrothed. that little word. the government coolly making use from that day to this.--ADDISON. like the schoolboy's pins which saved the lives of th ousands of people annually by not getting swallowed. His method consists simply in forcing hot air from below into sev eral tons of melted pig-iron.olors. His method was so simple that o ne could learn in ten minutes how to make a die from an embossed stamp for a pen ny. and they shall be enlarged. "I was a mere cipher in that vast sea of human enterprise. an d without an acquaintance in the city. and do more work with less effort. but. "I understand that. The chief also fully appreciated the new danger of easy counterfeiting. surely. and hastened to tell the good news to a young woman with whom he had agreed to share his fortune . and promptly suggested the improvement at the stamp office. fetters and stops itself. would render Bessemer's perforation device of far less value than a last year's bird' s nest. without compensation. if published in its connection. he at once entered in to a partnership which placed at his command the combined ideas of two very leve l heads. which has revolutionized the iron industry through out the world. or an office for life at eight hundred pounds a year. he set to work and invented a perforat ed stamp which could not be forged nor removed from a document." said Henry Bessemer . by keepin g out of the ponderous minds of the British revenue officers. At the public st amp office he was told by the chief that the government was losing 100. makes the surface shine. speaking of his arrival in London in 1831.--CHARLES KINGSLEY. but. so as to produce intense combustion. "Yes. Use your gifts faithfully. and then addi ng enough spiegel-eisen (looking-glass iron). and you shall attain to higher knowledge. had for a long per iod saved the government the burden of caring for an additional income of 100. and vein that runs throughout the body of it. And the same little word. So Bessemer's financial prospects were not very encouraging.--ARNOLD. after years of thought and experiment. but. and discovers every ornamental cloud. he soon made work for himself by inventin g a process of copying bas-reliefs on cardboard. an ore rich in carbon. if all stamps had a date put upon them they could not at a future time be used without detection. to change t he whole mass to steel. was the Bessemer pro cess of making steel cheaply.00 0 pounds a year. So he o ffered Bessemer a definite sum for his process of perforation. practise what you know. The more you know. Haste trips up its own heels. spot. he told how it would prevent any one from taking a valuable stamp from a document a hundred years old and using it a second time.--SENECA. the more you can save yourself and that which belongs to you . Although but eighteen years old. and of no special importance if we omit a single word of four letters. of the idea conveyed by that little insignificant word. He felt proud of the young woman's ingenuity. Having ascertained later that in this way the raised stamps on all official papers in England could easily be forged. realizing tha t the best capital a young man can have is a capital wife." This was a very short speech. In explaining his invention.000 pound s a year through the custom of removing stamps from old parchments and using the m again.

The weary years in preparator y school and college dishearten them. Buildings are rushed up so quickly t hat they will not stand. and hundreds of thousands of copie s are scattered over the world. a definite aim." are pitiable. and fai thfulness will shorten the way. Only one . Patience is Nature's motto. and consigned the young poet to temporary oblivion. he replied that he wou ld have spent six weeks. They only want a "smattering" of an educat ion. Everybody is in a hurry. The boy can't wait to become a youth. se minary." Henry Ward Beecher sent half a dozen articles to the publisher of a religious p aper to pay for his subscription. But the way to shorten the road to success is to take plenty of time to lay in your reserve power. Can't wait for a high school. on society. but they were respectfully declined. Think of Bishop Hall spending thirty years on one of hi s works! Owens was working on the "Commentary to the Epistle to the Hebrews" for twenty years. Johnson said a man must turn over half a library to write one book. The publi shers of the "Atlantic Monthly" returned Miss Alcott's manuscript. Our young people of to-d ay are not willing to lay broad. so that every sentence i s the quintessence of many books." The great lack of the age is want of thoroughness. She works ages to bring a flower to perfection. But as Pope says. Hard work. and many die of old a ge in the forties. And drinking largely sobers u s again. Today. the product of many hours of drudging research in the great libraries. on schools. a little smattering of books. "Sartor Resartus" is everywhere. and is written on everything. asking him if he did not think she could teach elocution if sh e could come to the university and take twelve lessons. and break down in middle life. and then they are read y for business. nor the youth a man. "Can't wait" is characteristic of the century. i t was refused almost contemptuously by three prominent publishers. and "the constant trembling lest some blunder should expose one's emptiness.-A little learning is a dangerous thing. Don't risk a life's superstructure upon a day's foundation. Y outh rush into business with no great reserve of education or drill. suggesting th at she had better stick to teaching. The shifts to cover up ignorance. How seldom you find a young man or woman who is willing to take time to prepare for his life work! A little education is all they want. At length he managed to get it into "Fraser's Magazine. One of the leading magazines ridiculed Tenn yson's first poems. on commerce. deep foundations." the editor of which conveyed to the author the pleasing information that his work had been received with "unqualifie d disapprobation." Not long ago a professor in one of our universities had a letter from a young w oman in the West. or college."All things come round to him who will but wait. or taste not the Pierian sp ring: There shallow draughts intoxicate the brain. out of them she has been carving her great statue. Drink deep. on churches. a perfect man. of course t hey do poor. Short cuts and abridged methods a re the demand of the hour. Carlyle wrote with the utmost difficulty and never executed a page of his great histories till he had consulted every known authority. Wha t will she not do for the greatest of her creation? Ages and aeons are nothing t o her. feverish work. Moore spent several weeks on one of his musical stanzas which rea ds as if it were a dash of genius. You can get it for a mere trifle at almost any bookseller's. But when Carlyle brought it to London in 1851. and everything is made "to sell. When an aut horess told Wordsworth she had spent six hours on a poem.

"proceed". struggling on cheerfully after his "Vanity Fair" was refused by a dozen pub lishers. Going back to the time of Charles II he gave the law and precedents involved with such readiness and accuracy of sequence that Burr asked in great surprise if he had been consulted before in th e case. a Mirabeau. a Michael Angelo." refusing all remuneration therefo r. Washington Irving was n early seventy years old before the income from his books paid the expenses of hi s household. nor hunger could discourage or intimidate. and then ordered at an expense of fifty dollars the necessary bo oks. not daunted by privations. destined to shake an empire. when he had finished. "Yes. in a quarter of that time. It wants men who can work and wait. but. as he was passing through New York City. lest his pencil might catch the taint of avarice. but it took me thirty years to learn how to do it in five minutes. he gazed in wonder upon the en ormous herds of buffaloes which dotted the plains as far as the eye could reach." said Burr. a Von Moltke." "Very well. a Milton. working seven long years decorating the Sistine Chapel with his matchless "Creation" and the "Last Judgment. Webster received a fee that paid him liberally for all the time and trouble he had spent for his early client. on account of the poverty of his client. "Most certainly not. A rich man asked Howard Burnett to do a little something for his album. Think of an American youth spending ten years with Da Vinci on the model of an equestrian statue that he might master the anatomy of the horse! Most young Amer ican artists would expect. who have the persistence to work and wait for half a century for their first great opportunities. a Thacke ray. to sculpture an Apollo Bel videre. They pick up what they know. to borrow the history of the French Revolution. Albert Bierstadt first crossed the Rocky Mountains with a band of pioneers in 1 859. "I never heard of your case till this evening. when denounced by his brother generals and politicians everywhere. When a young lawyer Daniel Webster once looked in vain through all the law libr aries near him. The thought haunted him and found its final embodiment in "The Last . Years after. a Grant. and. he was co nsulted by Aaron Burr on an important but puzzling case then pending before the Supreme Court. fighting on in hero ic silence. as they go along.of Ralph Waldo Emerson's books had a remunerative sale. As he followed the trail to Pike's Peak." without any effort to see how much he may lear n on any subject. a Farragut. debt. and thought of the time when they would have disappeared before the march of ci vilization. not hindered by discouragements. and eagerly devouring it before the sap-bush f ire. He saw in a moment that it was just like the blacksmith's case. just as a student crams for a particular ex amination. a Balzac. whe ther the world applaud or hiss. a Thurlow Weed. He won his case. to say noth ing of his time. just to "get through. thus losing heavily on the books bought. Burnett complied and charged a thousand francs. To-day very few boys learn any trade. who can struggle on for forty years before he has a chance to show the world his vast reserve." What the age wants is men who have the nerve and the grit to work and wait. a n intricate question of title. men whom neither pove rty. elaborating "Paradise Lost" in a world he could not see." he replied. "But it took you only five minutes." ob jected the rich man. walking two miles through the snow with rags tied around his feet for shoes. toiling and waiting in a lonely garret. which he had solved so thoroughly that it was to him now as simple as the multiplication table. In some respects it is very unfortunate that the old system of binding boys out to a trade has been abandoned. making sketches for the paintings of Western scenes for which he had become famous. on ly charged fifteen dollars. to obtain authorities and precedents in a case in which his client was a po or blacksmith.

it is said.of the Buffaloes" in 1890. The giant oak on the hillside was detained months or years in its upward growth while its root took a great turn around some rock. "I have just begun my education. solid foundation. It is simply asto . When he appeared upon the sta ge." retorted the clergyman. changes the mulberry leaf to satin. perhaps the most beautiful ever painted. Byron. true to the plumb-line through all the tempests that lash its granite sides. In Rome the foundation is often the most expensive part of an edifice." Endurance is a much better test of character than any one act of heroism. but it is this foundation. To perfect this great work he had spent twenty years." said the President ." A learned clergyman was thus accosted by an illiterate preacher who despised ed ucation: "Sir. must have a deep. The accom plishments of such industry. As the great actor went on to delineate the terrible conseque nces of sin. A chart is made out which sho ws just what must be done in the case of wars with the different nations. "I am thankful. Fifty feet of Bunker Hill Monument is under ground." said the former. Byron fainted. A large part of every successful life must be spent in laying foundation stones underground. which will stand the test of time. Da Vinci spent four years on the head of Mona Lisa. such perseverance. and had come to say good-by. There is a schedule of trains which will supersede all other schedules the moment war is declared. but he left therein an a rtistic thought for all time. "that the Lord opened my mouth without any lea rning. "For years I was in my place of business by sunrise. which enables it to stand upright. I presume?" "Yes. in order to gain a hold by which the tree was anch ored to withstand the storms of centuries. The Gentleman Villain. The pianist Thalberg said he never ventured to perform one of his celebrated pi eces in public until he had played it at least fifteen hundred times. Success is the child of drudgery and perseverance and depends upon "knowing how long it takes to suc ceed. Everything which endures. he practised constantly before a glass. so deep must they dig to build on the living rock." A young man just graduated told the President of Trinity College that he had co mpleted his education. He laid no claim whatever to genius. Before Edmund Kean would consent to appear in that character which he acted wit h such consummate skill. and ev ery officer's place in the scheme is laid out beforehand. and this is so arranged that the commander of the army here could telegraph to any officer to take such a train and go to such a place at a moment's notice. apparentl y thrown away. unseen and unappreciated by those who tread about that historic shaft. he said it was all a question of hard work." said a wealthy banker who had begun without a dollar. "Indeed. "happened in Balaam's time. you have been to college." Many an extraordinary man has been made out of a very ordinary boy: but in orde r to accomplish this we must begin with him while he is young. "and often I did not leave it for fifteen or eighte en hours. studying expression for a year and a half." was the reply. would put to shame many a man wh o claims genius. said he never looked upon so fearful and wicked a face." "A similar event. Said Captain Bingham: "You can have no idea of the wonderful machine that the G erman army is and how well it is prepared for war." Patience. who went with Moore to see him. howev er noble. sir.

or living out a miserable existence in the slums of our cities." replied hi s friend. an ornament to the human race instead of a foul blot and ugly scar.' but t he instrument responded 'pecia. the great public can see it. I can see the result. but refused. and courteous in their bearing. and amid all his public and private duties. his "impro . Although he had spent many years of preparation for his life work. and moral! How of ten a man who is in the penitentiary." Webster was once urged to speak on a subject of great importance. ha s slumbering within the rags possibilities which would have developed him into a magnificent man. so determine d was he that his life should be rounded out to its fullest measure. Horace Mann. it is because I do not allow myself to speak on any subject until my mind is imbued with it. "It is an ill mason that rejects any stone.' It was enough to drive one mad. mental. His on ly inheritance was poverty and hard work. every opportunity. and grinding them all up i nto experience. when a book was presented to him. It exactly fitted the occasi on. "If there be so much weight in my words. was a remarkable example of that pluck and patience which can work and wait. and which he had not thought of in the meantime. that their own friends sc arcely knew them. in spite of the consciousness of marvelous natural endowments wh ich would have been deemed sufficient by many young men. he not only spent eleven terms more in the study of the law. erect. pecia. what a miracle is possible in the lad who is taken early and put under a c ourse of drill and systematic training." On one occasion Webster made a remarkable speech before the Phi Beta Kappa Society at Harvard." Webster replied. if he has good material in him.' I said into the phonograph 'specia. specia. Gladstone was bound to win. Webst er once repeated with effect an anecdote which he had heard fourteen years befor e. and m ade them manly. and added: "From eighteen to twenty hours a day for the last seven months I have worked on this single word 'specia. He braided straw to earn m oney to buy books for which his soul thirsted. slovenly. yet he decided to make him self master of the situation. but also studied Greek co nstantly and read every well-written book or paper he could obtain. no matter how insignificant it may seem at the time. pecia. "a very few words from you would do much to awaken public attention to it. every occasion. rough. saying he was very busy and had no time to master the subject. my friends can see it. both physical." The habit of seizing every bit of knowledge. and comes under the tutelage of a skilled educator before his habits become fixed or confirmed. but after he had gone. if I practise two days. and even dull lad. You will find use for all of it. had he only been fortunate enough early in life to have enjoyed the benefi ts of efficient and systematic training! Laziness begins in cobwebs and ends in iron chains." The road to distinction must be paved with years of self-denial and hard work. Ole Bull said: "If I practise one day. can not be overestimated. Even a few weeks' or months' drill of the rawest and roughest recruits in the l ate Civil War so straightened and dignified stooping and uncouth soldiers. "But. and notwithstanding he had gained the coveted prize of a seat in Parliament. and that hi s mind should have broad and liberal culture. the great author of the common school system of Massachusetts. if I practise three days.nishing what training will do for a rough. If this change is so marked in the youth who has grown to matu rity. But he had an unquenchable thirst for knowledge and a determination to get on in the world. Edison described his repeat ed efforts to make the phonograph reproduce an aspirated sound. B ut I held firm. and I have succeeded. or among the tramps. in the poorhouse. specia. uncouth.

ridiculing the faithful young fellow who came to learn the business and make a man of himself because he will not join in wasting his time in dissipation. who are pushed back by a straw. "do not allow their principles to take root. when he will be glad to accept a situation from the fellow-clerk whom he now ridicules and affects to despise. and s till find you have something left. but was refused. Nelaton. Alexander Hamilton said. but meanwhile he studied with all his might." The law of labor is equally b inding on genius and mediocrity. "Men give me credit for genius. to stand the strain of a long fight. Permanent success is oftener won by holding on than by sudden dash. but also wait. it was said. without previously pr eparing himself. Then the effort which I make the people are pleased to call the fruit of genius. Collyer declares that reserves mean to a man also achiev ement. Reserves which carry us through great emergencies are the result of long workin g and long waiting. Dr. because you never are beaten." says Longfellow. dispensing benefits and acquiring fort une." "I have been watching the careers of young men by the thousand in this busy cit y of New York for over thirty years.--"the power to do the grandest thing possible to your nature when you fee l you must. of getting along nicely and easily during the day. "who thinks chiefly of his mustache and b oots and shiny hat. however brilliant. or a fast horse. even to make remarks. the opera. will see the day. Napoleon had applied for every vacant position for seven years bef ore he was recognized. said that if he had four minutes in which to perfor m an operation on which a life depended. if his useless li fe is not earlier blasted by vicious indulgences." says Sizer. it is the fruit of labor and thought." said Dr. Day and night it is before me. I explore it in all its bearings. and talki ng about the theater. and so to never know you are beaten. "Many men. when called upo n. "I am not prepared. as children do flowers they have planted. but best in the crisis on which all things turn. but replie d. Cuyler.--to do well always." In fact. They who understand and practise Abraham Lincoln's homely maxim of 'pegging away' have achieved the solidest success. Demosthenes was once asked to speak on a great and sudden emergency. but p ull them up every now and then. when the latter shall stand in the firm." The Duke of Wellington became so discouraged because he did not advance in the army that he applied for a much inferior position in the customs department. he would never rise. the great surgeon.mptu" speech. All the genius I have lies just in this: when I have a subject in hand I study it profoundly. are all the time dropping to the rear--to perish or to be carried along on the stretcher of charity. carefully written out. In any meeting or assembly. was found in the book which he had forgotte n to take away. because he never allowed himself to speak on any s ubject without thorough preparation. or some precious thing will be lost." We must not only work. it was thought by many that Demosthenes did not possess any genius whatever. My mind becomes pervade d with it. "The spruce young spark. The easily discouraged." . "and I find that the chie f difference between the successful and the failures lies in the single element of staying power. supplementin g what was considered a thorough military education by researches and reflection s which in later years enabled him easily to teach the art of war to veterans wh o had never dreamed of his novel combinations. to see if they are growing. he would take one minute to consider ho w best to do it.

The power of observation in the American Indian would put many an educated man to shame. glistening in the brook.--EMERSON. no Anglo-Norman dynasty could have arisen. "A pebble on the streamlet scant Has turned the course of many a river. and thoroughness. and asked him how he could give suc h a minute description of the man he had never seen. sti ll pursuing. Among the lofty Alps. life. white man. "Not for school. And trifles. fickleness. lest the vibration of the voice bring down an avalanche. with a short gun. Meeting a man on the route. After careful observation he started to trac k the thief through the woods. A different result at Plataea would have delayed the progress of the human race more than ten cent uries. Still achieving. Patience." CHAPTER XLI THE MIGHT OF LITTLE THINGS Think naught a trifle.--WENDELL PHI LLIPS. The creation of a thousand forests is in one acorn. or of tardiness. be up and doing. With a heart for any fate. but for life. Harold would not have fal len at Hastings. moment s make the year. "I knew the thief was a lit ." We may tell which way the wind blew before the Deluge by marking the ripple and cupping of the rain in the petrified sand now preserved forever. and germs of limitless mental growth. he asked him if he ha d seen a little. walked to the river's e dge to find their food. which had been hanging up to dry. and our habits--o f promptness." "Had she not thus fascinated Duke Robert the Liberal." "Arletta's pretty feet. Learn to labor and to wait. He that despiseth small things shall fall by little and little. but was surprised to find that the In dian had not even seen the one he described. and with a small bobtailed do g." "The bad thing about a little sin is that it won't stay little. the three great essentials to success in menta l and physical labor are Practice. though it small appear. the guides sometimes demand absolute silence. whom man never saw. It is but the littleness of man that sees no greatness in trifles. Returning home. The man told him he had met such a man. then. To vary the language of another. "Let us. YOUNG. an Indian discovered that his venison.--NAPOLEON. had been stolen. and Perseverance. it is said. Men are led by trifles. Small sands the mountain. of Normandy. made her the mother of William the Conqueror.He only is independent in action who has been earnest and thorough in preparati on and self-culture. we learn". but the greatest of these is Perseverance." says Palgrave's "History of Normandy and England. giving instead to Europe and America models of the highest politica l freedom yet attained. We tell the ve ry path by which gigantic creatures. old.--ECCLESIASTICUS . no British Empire. earnestness. It was little Greece that rolled back the overflowing tide of Asiatic luxury an d despotism. and su perficiality--are the things acquired most readily and longest retained.

Clair River. Lake St. Green Bay. they would have been dashed upon a ledge o f rock had it not been for a cricket which a soldier had brought on board. floating on the waves. Niagara River. the Straits of Mackinaw. A few bits of seaweed and driftwood. I knew he was a white man by his turning out his toes in walking. Striking on opposite sides of the roof of a court-house in Wisconsin. yet such was the formation of the continent that a trifling cause was multiplied almost beyond the power of figures to express its momentous effect upon the des tinies of these companion raindrops. Agassiz could deduce the entire structure and habits of an animal which no man had ever seen so accurately that subsequent discoveri es of complete skeletons have not changed one of his conclusions. I knew he was an old man by his short steps.tle man. A little boy in Holla nd saw water trickling from a small hole near the bottom of a dike. t hrough the carelessness of the watch. so he h eld his hand over the hole for hours on a dark and dismal night until he could a ttract the attention of passers-by. A spark falling upon some combustibles led to the invention of gunpowder. or that the sickness of an Italian chemi st's wife and her absurd craving for reptiles for food should begin the electric telegraph. I knew the dog was small by his tracks and short steps. A trigger may be pulled in an instant." A stamp act to raise 60. "The fate of a nation. Detro it River. enabled Columbus to stay a mutiny of his sailors which threatened to prevent the discovery of a new world . St. "because he rolled up a stone to stand on in order to reach the venison. Lake Michi gan. and fi nally reached the Gulf of St. Dana could interest a class for hours on a grain of sand. and that he had a bob -tail by the mark it left in the dust where he sat. Madame Galvani noticed the contraction of the muscles of a skinned f rog which was accidentally touched at the moment her husband took a spark from a n electrical machine. but the soul returns never." Two drops of rain. falling side by side. The commanding off icer and hundreds of his men were going to South America on a great ship. Lake Ontario. Clair. and thus warned them of their danger. His name is still held in grateful remembran ce in Holland. I knew he had a short gun by the mark it left on the tree where he had stood it u p. She gave the hint which led to the discovery of galvanic e lectricity. the St. such as n o one had ever seen before. were separated a few inches by a gentl e breeze. and. The beetling chalk cliffs of England were built by rhizopods. When the little insect scented the land. Who can calculate the future of the smalles t trifle when a mud crack swells to an Amazon and the stealing of a penny may en d on the scaffold? The act of a moment may cause a life's regret. Lake Huron. He realized that the leak would rapidly become larger if the water were not checked. while the other entered successively the Fox River. A cricket once saved a military expedition from destruction. one rolled southward through the Rock River and the Mississippi to the Gulf of M exico. Lawrence River. it broke its long silence by a shrill note. "has often depended upon the good or ba d digestion of a fine dinner. a war that . By gnawing through a dike. and from a single bone. now so useful in the arts and in transmitting vocal or written langu age." says Gladstone. which an Indian never does." said the Indian. Lawrence. How slight the influence of the breeze. too small to be c learly seen without the aid of a magnifying-glass. What was so unlikely as that throwing an empty wine-flask in the fire should fu rnish the first notion of a locomotive.000 pounds produced the American Revolution. even a rat may drown a nation. Lake Erie. There are moments in history which balance years of ordinary life.

and it was rejected from the regalia of crown je one of t value of England. "The turn of a sentence has decided many a friendship. It was a little thing for the janitor to leave a lamp swinging in the cathedral at Pisa. Tha t's the whole story. but that he "facets" was slightly fractured. loaded his pistol. If I could record the motions of the point and send it over the same surface afterward. yet it may have cost you a friend fore ver." said Edison. I saw no reason why the thing would not talk. This young man became General Robert Clive. a re little things. he went to his room. The cackling of a goose aroused the sentinels and saved Rome from the Gauls. Bentham says. The quarrel of two Indian boys over a grassh opper led to the "Grasshopper War. The phonograph is the result of the pricking of a finger.000 pounds. A war between France and England. but it laid Chicago in ashes. secured to the East India Company and afterwards to Great Britain a great and rich country with two hundred millions of people. grew out of a quarrel as to which of two vessels should first be served with water. and. The report of the weler was that it was the finest he had ever seen or heard of. but they have wre cked many a career. some self-indulgence." It was a little thing for a cow to kick over a lantern left in a shanty. and made but one stinging remark. you say. who. "I was singing to the mouthpiece of a telephone." What mighty contests rise from trivial thing s! A young man once went to India to seek his fortune.cost England 100. and pulled the trigger. to ma ke the most of it. when placed beside great abilities.000. That invisible fracture reduced the the ruby thousands of dollars. "when the vibrat ions of my voice caused a fine steel point to pierce one of my fingers held just behind it. The Parliament of Great Britain. and never again to cheapen it. Henry Ward Beecher came within one vote of being elected superintendent of a ra ilway. He pulled the trigger and it went off the first time. and represe ntative governments all over the world have come from King John signing the Magn a Charta. Some little weakness. What a little thing fixes destiny! Trifles light as air often suggest to the thinking mind ideas which have revolu tionized the world. the Congress of the United States. put the muzzle to his head. an d conceived the idea of thus measuring time. for a ught we know. costing more than a hundred thousand lives. the fate of many a kingdom. with but a handful of European soldiers. Trembling with excitement he resolved to hold his life sacred. That set me to thinking. telling them what I had discovered. and rendered homeless a hundred thousand people. but. But it did not go off. an d the pain from a thistle warned a Scottish army of the approach of the Danes. He went to the window to point it in another di rection and try it again. finding no opening. a quick temper. and gave m y assistants the necessary instructions. I determined to make a machine that would work accurately. . resolved that if the weapon went off he would regard i t as a Providence that he was spared." Perhaps you turned a cold shoulder bu t once. but in that steady swaying motion the boy Galileo saw the pendulum. If he had had that vote America would probably have lost its greatest pre acher. A famous ruby was offered to the English government. want of decision.

and perfection is no trifle. the exact day he was to arrive at a certain station. What is the happiness of your life made up of? Little courtesies. brought out that muscle. polished that. the camp kettles. "When they a re sent to me. given some expres sion to this lip. "It may be so. When he was growing anxious. From this hint came the telescope. and they were all to reach the point of destinati on at a precise moment. A bird alighting on the bough of a tree at the mouth o f the cave where Mahomet lay hid turned aside his pursuers. etc. for to the Spanish seamen of that day it was good luck to follow in the wake of a flock of birds when on a vo yage of discovery. a friendly letter. even to the smallest detail." wrote Humboldt. Martin Alonzo Pinzon persuaded him t o follow a flight of parrots toward the southwest." That infinite patience which made Michael Angelo spend a week in bringing out a muscle in a statue. "I have retouched this part. The cry of the infant Moses attracted the attention of Pharoah's daughter. pleasant words. Napoleon was a master of trifles. The masons would call out. . bring us anither hod o' lime. desperate. and our whole life but a day repeated. A single misspelled word prevented a deserving young man from obtaining a situation as instructor in a New England college. so far as he could possibly avoid it. with more vital fidel ity to truth. more energy to that limb. the shoes. and t he exact hour he was to leave. those that dare misspend it." The absence of a comma in a bill which passed through Congress years ago cost o ur government a million dollars. The web of a spider sugge sted to Captain Brown the idea of a suspension bridge. "John. makes all the difference between success and failure. When the bugle sounde d for the march to battle. and gave the Jews a lawgiver. A flight of birds probably prevented Columbus from discovering t his continent. and t o observe the difference between one monthly return and another. and told their father that distant objects looked large r. A missing marriage certificate kept the hod-carrier of Hugh Miller from establi shing his claim to the Earldom of Crawford. good wishes." Napoleon left nothing to chance. "But. But for his change of course Columbus would have reached the coast of Florida. or Gerhard Dow a day in giving the right effect to a dewdrop on a cabbage leaf. "I cannot see that you have made any progress since my last visit." replied the great artist. softened that feature. "but trifles make per fection. No thing was too small for his attention.The sight of a stranded cuttlefish led Cuvier to an investigation which made hi m one of the greatest natural historians in the world." "But they are trifles!" exclai med the visitor. and good de eds. Ye arl of Crawford. It is said that nothing could be more perfectly planned than his memorable march which led to the victory of Austerlitz." said a gent leman to Michael Angelo. One in a million--once in a lifetime--may do a heroic action. nothing to contingency. and gave a prophet t o many nations. Those that d are lose a day are dangerously prodigal. th e horse fodder. No young girl e njoys her novel as much as I do these returns. every officer had his orders as to the exact route wh ich he should follow. genial smiles. "Never. To details which his inferior officers though t too microscopic for their notice he gave the most exhaustive consideration. He would often charge his absent officers t o send him perfectly accurate returns. and which seale d the fate of Europe for many years. Every day is a little life. Everything was pl anned to a nicety before he attempted to execute it. "had the flight of birds more importa nt consequences. little kindne sses. I give up every occupation in order to read them in detail." said the sculptor. He must know all about the provisions." The children of a spectacle-maker placed two or more pairs of the spectacles be fore each other in play. the biscuits.

and a prism. was beautiful enough to spare the tip of he r nose." says Poor Richard. falling like dew upon a thought.Wellington. was "great in little things. and asked to be shown over those laboratories of his in which science had been enriched by so many great discoveries. a few poems from Lowell an d Whittier. While other generals trusted to subordinates. having squandered all his property. "for want of a horseshoe nail. think." "Words are things" says Byron. and a sheet of pasteboard enabled Newton to unfold the composition of light and the origin of colors. "For want of a nail the shoe was lost. and the leaven is at work which will not cease its action until the whipping-post and bodily servitude are abolished forever." A burnt stick and a barn door served Wilkie in lieu of p encil and paper. A pan of w ater and two thermometers were the tools by which Dr. and if Cleopatra's had been an inch shorter Mark Antony might never have become infatuated with her wonderful charms. too. but in the aggregate forming a mass of evidence. and a Linnaeus constructs the science of botany. when the doctor took him into a little study. a small balance. and often great losses! How m any wills are contested from the carelessness of lawyers in the omission or shad ing of words." A single remark dropped by an unknown person in the street led to the successfu l story of "The Bread-winners. An eminent foreign savant called on Dr. about to sail for America when a law was passed prohibiting emigra time he was a profligate. Had he not b who can tell what the history of Great Britain would have been? From the careful and persistent accumulation of innumerable facts. and the poor people of Austerfield and Scrooby into perpetual exile. At that when he found een detained. a Darwin extracts h is law of evolution. and a blow-pipe. F or want of a horse the rider was lost. produces that which makes thousands. and gave a nation an altered destiny." He knew no such things as trifle s. For want of a shoe the horse was lost. It seemed a small thing to drive William Brewster. A few immortal sentences from Garrison and Phillips." "I give these books for the founding of a college in this colony". But that he could not leave England he reformed his life. Wollaston. it is said. who feared n ot to attack the proudest monarchs in their capitols. "T here is my laboratory. said. shrank from the political influence of one independent woman in private life. Cromwell was tion. or ambiguous use of language! Not even Helen of Troy. the lack of little words which seemed like surplus age. perhaps millions. and the blemish would have changed the history of the world. Anne Boleyn's fascinating smile split the great Churc h of Rome in twain. and. on which st ood a few watch glasses. The history of many a failure could be written in three words. "and a small drop of ink. Napoleon. each trivial in itself. "Lack of detail. and which involved his clients in litigation. A single potato. and all. driving famine from Ireland again and again. he gave his personal attention to the minutest detail. Black discovered latent he at. but as Pilgrims they bec ame the founders of a mighty people. such were th e words of ten ministers who in the year 1700 assembled at the village of Branfo . a lens. John Robinson. test papers. pointing to an old tea tray on the table. has multiplied into food for millions. Madame de Staël." A hymn chanted by the barefooted friars in the t emple of Jupiter at Rome led to the famous "Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire . carried to England by Sir Walter Raleigh in th e sixteenth century." How many a lawyer has failed from the lack of details i n deeds and important papers.

every tree. The microscope reveals as great a world below as the telescope above . He did not forget the kindness of Sir Walter. . In nature there is not hing small.--Laffitte. and. taking its bill for a model." A poor boy applied for a situation at a bank in Paris. There is a phonograph in our natures which catches. A soldier who escapes the bullets of a thousand battles may die from the scratc h of a pin. Goodyear discovered how to vulcanize rubber by forget ting. The bank president saw this. Bits of glass arranged to amuse children led to the disc overy of the kaleidoscope. This boy was George Kemp. greatest of all harvests. hill. while w e are sensitive and neglectful of our weaknesses. flo wer. such was the founding of Yale College. every scene upon the street. Tracks of extinct animals in the old red sandstone led Hugh Miller on and on until he became the g reatest geologist of his time. stream.rd. A single noble or heroic act of one man has sometimes elevated a nation. A Massachusetts soldier in the Civil War observed a bird hulling rice. he picked up a pin. a skillet containing a compound which he had befo re considered worthless. and many a ship has survived the shocks of icebergs and the storms o f ocean only to founder in a smooth sea from holes made by tiny insects. Each of the worthy fathers deposited a few bo oks upon the table around which they were sitting. Goethe once asked a monarch to excuse him. Many an honorable career has re sulted from a kind word spoken in season or the warm grasp of a friendly hand. reproduced in our descendants. and asked him to ride. and renders it immortal. and a single drop of water is a miniature ocean. Trifles light as air suggest to the keen observer the solut ion of mighty problems. It is the little rift within the lute That by and by will make the music mute. Small things become great when a great soul sees them. Indeed. in fact. and registers foreve r the slightest enunciation. but was refused. while he went to an adjoining room to jot d own a stray thought. everything wh ich comes within its range. mountain. every plant. when th e latter died. All of nature's laws govern the smallest atoms. A ship-worm boring a piece of wood suggested to Sir Isa mbard Brunel the idea of a tunnel under the Thames at London. All life comes from microscopic beginnings. every syllable we utter. Great men are noted for their attention to trifles. Yet it is our greatest weaknes s which measures our real strength. We are all inclined to be proud of our strong points. who became so enthusiastic in his study of sculpture that he walked fifty miles and back to se e a beautiful statue. he invented a hulling machine which has revolu tionized the rice business. during an interview." seems to be one of the great la ws of nature. to a truly great mind there a re no little things. These notes may appear a t housand years hence. in all their beautiful or te rrible detail. however large and strong all the others may be. a few miles east of New Haven. and shot it. As he l eft the door. The eye is a perpetual camera imprinting upon the sensitive mental plates and p acking away in the brain for future use every face. Sir Walter Scott once saw a shepherd boy plodding sturdily along. "Least of all seeds. called the boy ba ck. until it became red hot. however thoughtless and transient. The strength of a chain lies in its weakest link. and gave him a situation from which he rose until he became the greatest ban ker of Paris. Hogarth would make sketches of rare faces and characteristi cs upon his finger-nails upon the streets. threw his soul into the design of the magnificent monument erecte d in Edinburgh to the memory of the author of "Waverley.

and the best o f all. The other part. and the one whom he most defrauds is himself. He worked so assiduously. but t he larger part of the real pay of a real man's work is outside of the pay envelo pe. more efficient man. ever widening. I would say: "Don't think too much of the amo unt of salary your employer gives you at the start. will make all the difference to you between fai lure and success. and to learn from his mistakes. rather. But it spread the morning's glory Over the livelong day. It is life's school for practical training of the faculties. stretching the mind. for development. while he is being paid for learning his trade or profession. is the opportunity for growth. and is actuated by no higher mo tive. Bismarck was said to have really founded the German Empire when working for a s mall salary as secretary to the German legation in Russia. whose pay envelope was his goal. "If the laborer gets no more than the wages his employer offers him. If I were allowed but one utterance on this subject. or encouraging word. for mental expansion. the opportunity to become a larger. He is cheating himself. not a mere mill for grinding out a salary of dollars and cents. is dishonest. It is the opport unity. he is chea ted. who could not see infinitely more in his wor k than what he found in the envelope on Saturday night. The opportunity for growth in a disciplinary institution. t ry as he may. where the practical f aculties. Think. I have never known an employee to rise rapidly.' As she passed along the way." A man's or a boy's work is materi al with which to build character and manhood. slowly silence all. "It was only a glad 'good-morning. and Germany a ta ngle of petty states. so vital to every young ma n starting on the journey of life. my employee friend. that will help you to make a large man of yourself. in expanding your exp erience. in increasing your skill. Has lifted many a bur den no other gift could have stirred. can never give him back. so efficiently. vigorous exercis e at a definite time and for a definite number of hours. One part of this outside salary is the opportunity of the employee to absorb th e secrets of his employer's success. are brought into systematic. of the possib le salary you can give yourself. TENNYSON. no mat ter how small your remuneration. for in that position he absorbed the secrets of strategy and diplomacy which later were used so effec tively for his country." A boy or a man who works simply for his salary. in the quality of his daily work." CHAPTER XLII THE SALARY YOU DO NOT FIND IN YOUR PAY ENVELOPE The quality which you put into your work will determine the quality of your lif e. of that which all the after years.And. broader. There is no estimating the value of such training. or even to get beyond mediocrit y. w . of always dema nding of yourself the highest. he cheats himself. that Germany p rized his services more than those of the ambassador himself. he might have remained a perpetual clerk. and strengthening and developing the intellect. is an advantage beyond computation." "Only a thought in passing--a smile. The habit of insisting upon the best of which you are capable. in enlarging and ennobling yourself. That is necessity. If Bismarck had ea rned only his salary. the executive faculties. never accepting the lowest or second best.

the boys who rise in the world are not those who. By doing the thing at hand surpassingly well. Often we see bright boys who have worked. John Wanamaker. The few dollars he finds in his pay envelope are to this larger salary as the c hips which fly from the sculptor's chisel are to the angel which he is trying to call out of the marble. efficient man. from the grand spirit which yo u bring to it. on small salaries. he shows that it would be profitable to employ him in some higher form of occupation. You can draw from the faithfulness of your work. to a bsorb the secrets of the business.hich. in character building. says: "Th e man who brings to his occupation a loyal desire to do his best is certain to s ucceed. more useful m an. Rober t C. president of the Western Union Telegraph Company. the ideal employer gives those who work for him a great deal that is not found in the pay envelope. too. Why? Sim ply because. He inspir es them with the possibility of doing something higher. Then. a re compense so munificent that what your employer pays you will seem insignificant beside it. as if by magic. in the enthusiasm. Ogden. No. He pays you in dollars. they would now pro bably be working on comparatively small salaries for other people. you pay yourself in valuable experience. Clowry. the high purpose which emanates from you in its performance. and. while they were learning the lessons that m ade them what they are to-day. you could not possibly do without being employed in some kind of an institution which has the motive.--a chance to show what was in him. And instead of paying for the opportunity of unfolding and developing from a green. determination. and high purpose they brought to their tasks. How small and narrow and really blind to his own interests must be the youth wh o can weigh a question of salary against all those privileges he receives in exc hange for the meager services he is able to render his employer. wor ked without pay as a messenger boy for months for experience.--and what emp loyer is not?--it will be to his own interest to do so. you are paid! The youth who is always haggling over the question of how many dollars and cent s he will sell his services for. in e xpanding his experience. better. W. perhaps. Colonel Robert C. while their employers were paying them but a few dollars a week. in splendid discipline." Do you think that kings of business like Andrew Carnegie.--just as soon as it is p rofitable. the patronage to give you th e disciplining and training you need to bring out your strongest qualities. ignorant boy into a strong. sympathy. perhaps for years. stronger. They were satisfied with a dollar or two apie ce a week. Do not fear that your employer will not recognize your merit and advance you as rapidly as you deserve. It was not sa lary. and other lesser powers in the commercial world would have attained their present commanding success had they hesitated and haggled about a dollar o r two of salary when they began their life-work? If they had. the machinery. which he regarded . that each wanted. into high and responsible positions. he is pretty sure to secure it. at the start. It he is looking for efficient employees. little realizes how he is cheating himself by n ot looking at the larger salary he can pay himself in increasing his skill. in self-expressio n. when there is p rofit in his promotion. Bourke Cockran. split hairs about salaries. suddenly jumping. level-headed. th ey were paying themselves vastly more in the fine quality of their work. He gives them encouragement. in f ine training. himself a remarkable example of success. and in increased insight into business methods. and in making himself a better. in increased efficiency. hardly enough to live on. but opportunity.

they notified him. but the boy who walked one hundred miles to New York to get a job saw in every opportunity a great occasion. always looki ng out for the main chance. that they were prepared to enter into a ten-year contract with him at ten tho usand dollars a year. who probably said to him. I accep ted an offer from the firm to remain for five years at a salary of seven dollars and a half a week. You have actuall y gotten an opportunity to get right into the very heart of the great activities of a large concern. Incredible as it may seem. and all that sort of thing. The very first time he swept out the store. and that. for he was bound some day to be a partn er or to have a store of his own. and to abso rb every bit of knowledge that he could. know . to be somebody. just think of yourself as actually starting out in business for yourself. throu gh your eyes and your ears." he said. He felt that the opportunity was the salary. The chance actually to do with his own hands the thing which he wanted to learn. but that he did not accept it because he wouldn't br eak his contract. but that. I should be glad to talk with him in regard to his proposition. Suppose that this boy had listened to his associates. He told me that he and his wi fe lived on eight dollars a week in New York. They told him they would think the matter over and see what th ey could do for him. At the end of his co ntract. many times: "What a fool you are. He never allowed anything of importance to escape hi s attention. to make th eir secrets his own. Long before this time had expired.000. an opportunity to absorb knowledge and valuable secrets on every hand. h e was called into the office of the head of the house. to see the way in which princely merc hants do business." When his contract was nearly up. He told me that he did not go out of N ew York City for twelve years. they laid up $117. as really working for yourself. I had a proposit ion from another large concern in New York to act as its foreign representative at a salary of three thousand dollars a year. an opportunity to drink in. when it is not expected of you?" Would he then have ris en above them. You can tell by the spirit which he brings to his tas k whether there is in him the capacity for growth. I told the manager that I was then under contract. It is not difficult to see a proprietor in the boy who sweeps the store or wait s on customers--if the qualities that make a proprietor are in him--by watching him work for a single day. and the contract was closed. to absorb their processes. He put himself into training. to do as little as p ossible for the largest amount of salary. When you get a job. When he was not working. he was watching others. George. enlargement. an am bition to rise. during a large part of this time. compared with which the three dollars and fifty cents looked contemptible.as worth infinitely more than salary--and scores of our most successful men have cheerfully done the same thing. that he preferred to study the store. so eager was he to learn how everything was done. when my time should be completed. knowledge wherever you go in the establishment. Get as much salary as you can. expansion. however. to get close to men who do things. The young man told his employers that the manager of another house had offered him that am ount a year or more before. and asking questions of everybody he came in contact with in the store. "I walked fro m my home in New England to New York. and a new contract with h im for a term of years at three thousand dollars a year was proposed. to watch their methods. and he determined that he would be. for he could not tell when fate might be taking his measure fo r a larger place. bu t remember that that is a very small part of the consideration. leaving them in the ranks of perpetual employees? No. At the end of a year. "where I secured a place to swee p out a store for three dollars and a half a week. studying methods. to work here overtime to do the thing s which others neglect! Why should you stay here nights and help pack goods. he was taken into the firm as a partner. A millionaire merchant of New York told me the story of his rise. or an inclination to shirk. a little late r.--this was his salary. by saving and investments. he felt within him the ability to become a great merchant. and became a millionaire.

Don't say to yourself. shrewdness. never mind. and power. and you will be surprised to see how quickly you will attract the attention of those above you. which means the ultimate attainment of your maximum efficiency. that you will enter into your work with a spirit of e nthusiasm and a zest which know no bounds. In the absence of money ca . if you do not believe in yourself. training. The constant stretching of the mind over prob lems which interest you. no one can rob you of your greatest reward. your career is a t an end so far as its upward tendency is concerned. acumen. Just make up your mind that you are going to be a sponge in that institution an d absorb every particle of information and knowledge possible. but never when you have lost confidence in yourself. Nothing will ever compensat e you for the loss of faith in yourself. and no amount of juggling with yourself can induce that inward monitor which says "righ t" to the well-done thing and "wrong" to the botched work. all of which advantages you wi ll carry with you to your next position. If you think you are being kept back. call out the best thing in you. larger." for this means a loss of selfrespect. more effective man. up-to-date. anyway. of capital which is worth vastly more than money cap ital--the chance to make a man of yourself. he can not keep you from absorbi ng the secrets of his business which may have been purchased by him at an enormo us cost of toil and sacrifice and even of several failures. a habit of thoroughness. the power you have gained. You will never again have the same confidence in your ability to succee d. if you give your best to your employer. by carelessness or indifference. of close observation. There is something within you that you cannot bribe. a habit of adjusting means to ends . Then again. that you will b e progressive. a habit of putting your best into everythi ng you do. you will always be conscious that you have done a little. It will call out your resource s. In ot her words. if you are working for too small a salary . without robbing y ourself of infinitely more. mean thing. to alter its verdict in your favor. a divine sen se of justice and right that can not be blindfolded. If you work with this spirit. the skill. but he can not close your eyes and ears. If you do not respect yourself. an employee's reputation is his capital. if favoritism puts some one into a position above you which you have justly ea rned. which are to mean everything to you in the future. You may still succeed when others have lost confidence in you. of system. a habit of reading human nature. shirking your work. Resolve that you will call upon all of your resourcefulness. Your employer may pinch you on salary.ledge that will be invaluable to you in the future. and it is perfectly right for me to shirk when my employer is not in sight or to clip my hours when I can. This striving for excellence will make you grow. every bit of knowledge y ou can absorb. to devise new and better ways of doing things. On the other hand. he can not shut off your perceptive faculties. the eff iciency. whatever it may be. will help you expand into a broader. I do not get e nough salary. your inventiveness . the chance to have a clean record be hind you instead of a smirched one. the best possible comes back to you in skill. of giving the best thing in you to your employer. Every hint and every suggestion which you can pick up. your ingenuity. you should regard as a part of your future capital which will be worth more than money capital when you start out for yourself. "I am not paid for doing this extra work. you will form a like habit of accuracy. the consciousness of doing your level best. it is impossible for you to rob your employer by clipping yo ur hours.

He must work all the harder to overcome the handicap of a bad reputatio n. Young men are sometimes surprised at their rapid advancement. but he carried with him to th e new position the same habits of painstaking. he went to a third large publishing house at ten thousand doll ars a year. of a good reputation which is backing them. for such a small salary. We fi nd it waiting at the bank when we try to borrow money. will make his burden infinitely greater. if it does not drag him down to failure. and also with an interest in the business. w ho has done just as little work for his salary as possible. so much the harder to attain. Employees sometimes think that they get no credit for trying to do more than th ey are paid for. The very reputation of the first young man is splendid credit. his reputation means everything. They can not unde rstand it. He is backed up by the good opinion of everybody that knows him. Contrast the condition of a young man starting out for himself who has looked u pon his position as a sacred trust. he is starting out in life with a heavy handicap. backed. smarter man he was. and who has gone on the principle that the more he could get out of an employer--the more salary he could get with less effort--the shrewder. even a purely commercial success. just because he was trying to earn a great deal more than he was paid for doing. got a position in a publishing house a t fifteen dollars a week. and very soon advanced him to seventy-five. It is always backing us up and helping us in all sorts of ways . and true to his employer's intere sts--with that of another young man of equal ability starting out for himself. and is always helping us. solid. and supported by a splendid past. The salary is of very little importance to you in comparison with the reputatio n for integrity and efficiency you have left behind you and the experience you h ave gained while earning the salary. It sticks to us through life. and worked five years before he received thirty-five d ollars a week. His work attracted the attention of a publisher who offered him sixty dollars a week. The other employees and his friends called him a fool for staying at the office after hours and taking work home nights and holidays. loyal.pital. These are the great things. but regarding the opportunity as everything. but he told them that the opportunity was what he was after. The result was. according to its nature. that in less than two years from the time he was receiving sixt y dollars a week. In other words. because they do not realize the tremendous power of a clean name. a great opportunity. which. buttressed. but it also follows him when he goes into business for hims elf. I know a young man who came to New York. a clean record. never thinking of the salary. but here is an instance of a young man who attracted the attent ion of others even outside of the firm he worked for. substantial reputation. not the salary. He beat his employer. It not only follows him around from one employer to another. and is always either helping or hindering him. an untarnished reputation--a reputation for being a dead-in-earnest hard worker. an untarnished past. why should not he beat others? Ev erybody knows that he has not been honest at heart with his employer. a smirched record. and success. square. or at the jobber's when w e ask for credit. People are afraid of the other: they can not trust him. . There is nothing like a good. not loyal or true. hard work.

will make all the difference to you between med iocrity or failure. that whether he is a man of high ideals or not. Whether it is beautiful or hideous. The quality which you put into your work will determine the quality of your lif e. whether you will make of it a stepping-st one or a stumbling-block. My young friends. they cut very sorry figures in life. botched work into the foundation. to loiter when out on business for their employer. Regard the living-getting. no mat ter how small your remuneration. you have nothing to do with your employer's character or his method of doing things. but yo u can do right yourself. If you bring to your work the spirit of an arti st instead of an artisan. is the key that will unlock the door above you. if they can only get through with it and get their salary for it. pay very dearly for their trifling. will never ma ke a key to unlock the door to anything but failure and disgrace. Remember that you ar e a sculptor and that every act is a chisel blow upon life's marble block. The habit of insisting upon the best of which you are capable. never accepting the lowest or second best. Slighted work. and often would pay their employer for the opportunity. these will ta ke the drudgery out of it and make it a delight. of your God-given faculties. and slighted. Many employees may not think it is so very bad to clip their hours. beauty. solid. you will be one. No matter how mean and s tingy he may be. You c an not afford to strike false blows which may mar the angel that sleeps in the s tone. You may not be able to make him a gentleman. to go to their work in the morning all used up from dissipation. Take no chances of marring your reputation by the picayune and unworthy endeavo r "to get square" with a stingy or mean employer. resolve that you will approach your task in the spirit of a master. and not as a mere living-getter. w hich are uncut diamonds sacredly intrusted to you for the polishing and bringing out of their hidden wealth and beauty. Those w ho do not care how they do their work. your opportunity for the time is with him. with a chan ce to work without salary for years in order to learn their business or trade. money-ma king part of your career as a mere incidental as compared with the man-making pa rt of it. de epening. and it rests with yo u whether you will use it or abuse it. and if you slip rotten hours. There is nothing else so valuable to you as an opportunity to build a name for yourself. and success. to shirk at every opportunity. your way of doing your work. but often when they try to get another place their reputat ion has gone before them. The foundation must be clean. of your ideals. botched work. Look upon it as a man-builder.In olden times boys had to give years of their time in order to learn a trade. an absorbing enthusiasm. of always dema nding of yourself the highest. You may not be able to make him do what is right. a charact er-builder. harmony. and you can not afford to ruin yourself and your whole future just because your employer is not what he ought to be. a burning zeal. A youth might just as well exc use himself for his boorish manners and ungentlemanly conduct on the ground that other people were mean and ungentlemanly to him. . divine or brutal. but you ca n be one yourself. English boys used to thi nk it was a great opportunity to be able to get into a good concern. to sneak away and hide during business hours. N ow the boy is paid for learning his trade. your superstr ucture will topple. and firm. Your reputation is the foundation for your future success. Regard your work as a great life school for the broadening. Never mind what kind of a man he is. the image you evolve from the block must stand as an expression of yourself. The fact is that your present position. rounding into symmetry. Others excuse themselves for poor work on the ground that their employer does n ot appreciate their services and is mean to them. and they are not wanted.

These covered-up defects are al ways coming back to humiliate them later. the lowest and most despicable thing in you. You can not afford to debase or demoralize yourself by bringing out your mean si de. narrow. the best thing in you. inefficient. to do the square thing. larger. It is a lofty ideal that redeems the life from the curse of commonness and i mparts a touch of nobility to the personality. just because they do not get quite as much salary as they think they should. for the sake of "get ting square" with their employer. weak men. and go through life half men instead of full men--sma ll. It may be necessary to secure your bread and butter. Start out with a tacit understanding with yourself that you will be a man. deliberately throw away all of the other. bring the entire man to your task. noble. complete man. and become small. shirking. Their leader ship faculties. While trying to "get square" with their employer. or thinks more of you for your conscientiousness. be all there. with nothing large or magnanimous. to trip them up. their initiative. narrow. but . instead of the strong. and had given the largest. but you have somethin g infinitely higher to satisfy than that. progressive in their nature. t he dishonest work done away back in their youth.The smallest people in the world are those who work for salary alone. than they would have worked if they had tried to do their best. the botched work. No matter how small your salary. and will encourage you to push ahead toward larger triumphs. The hardest work in the world is th at which is grudgingly done. they blight their own growth. by giving him pinched service. do-as-litt le-as-possible policy. The great failure army is full of people who have tried to get square with their employers for the small salary and lack of appreciation. inventiveness. fling your life into it with all the ene rgy and enthusiasm you can muster. The m an who has not learned to fling his whole soul into his task. Never mind whether your employer appreciates the high quality of your work or n ot. that you will express in your work the highest thing in you. you will certainly think m ore of yourself after getting the approval of that still small voice within you which says "right" to the noble act. and instead of getting this larger. Poor work injures your employer a little. The littl e money you get in your pay envelope is a pretty small. your sense of the right. which they can pay themselves. the demand in you to do your level best. full. and all the qualities which make the leader. Many young employees. Keep your standard up. the l arge. the most liberal service possible to their employers. to be a man. str angle their own prospects. low motive for which to work. They deliberately adopt a shirking. grander re muneration possible for them outside of their pay envelope. No one can respect himself or have that sublime faith in himself which makes fo r high achievement while he puts half-hearted. and to bar their prog ress. they prefer the consequent arrested development . trying to keep from working hard in the performance of their duties. grand. has not learned the first principles of success or happiness. These should speak so loud in you that the mere bread-and-butter quest ion will be insignificant in comparison. I have known employees actually to work harder in scheming. Everywhere we see people who are haunted by the ghosts of half-finished jobs. complete men they might be. more important salary . mean service into his work. their ingenuity and re sourcefulness. Let ot her people do the poor jobs. remain undeveloped. rutty men and women. who has not learne d the secret of taking the drudgery out of his work by putting the best of himse lf into it. if they will. the fa ir thing. their planning ability. or how unappreciative your employer. nothing broad. The effort always to do your best will enla rge your capacity for doing things. that is.

in self-confidence. You forsake yourself when you lose your confidence. your health. You may lose your p roperty. and he can't who thinks he ca n't. indisputable law. ordered him to mount his own horse and deliver it with all possible speed. Napoleon dictated his answer a nd. . of your plans.it may ruin you. is not half as important as what you think of yourself. There is no room for chance in God's world of system and supreme order. assuming it. Co unt that man an enemy who shakes your faith in yourself. what the world thinks of you. Conduct yourself in such a way that you can always look yourself in the face wi thout wincing. No matter how great the ability. y our power is gone. Others are with you comparatively littl e through life. A soldier once took a message to Napoleon in such great haste that the horse he rode dropped dead before he delivered the paper. for when your confidence is gone. of a conqueror. It would be as reasonable for Napoleon to have expected to get his army over th e Alps by sitting down and declaring that the undertaking was too great for him. and you can not afford to tie that divine thing in you to a scoundrel . If you ne ver lose that. who had unwavering faith in their power to accomplish the tasks the y undertook. firm self-faith first. No matter if they call you a visionary. in your own marvelous possibilities. CHAPTER XLIII EXPECT GREAT THINGS OF YOURSELF "Why. A stream can not rise higher than its source. or how splendid the education. Determine to do your l evel best and never to demoralize yourself by doing your second best. the world will. even. how larg e the genius. The miracles of civilization have been performed by men and women of great self -confidence. an d in persistent endeavor to attain it. unless it be to succeed i n everything everywhere?" Nothing else will so nerve you to accomplish great thi ngs as to believe in your own greatness. their determination. "should we call ourselves men. a crank. other people's confidence. in your ability to do t he thing you have set your heart upon doing. but a sufficient caus e--a cause as large as the result. demanding it. or a dreamer. then you will have a courage born of conviction. but ther e is always hope for you so long as you keep a firm faith in yourself. the achievement will never rise hig her than the confidence. handing it to the messenger. Never allow anybody or any misfortune to shake your belief in yourself. or of your ai ms. but keep pushing on. Your achievement will never rise higher than your self-faith. He can who thinks he can. of personal nobi lity and integrity which have never been tarnished. This is an inexorable. The race would have been centuries behind what it is to-day had it not been for their grit. or the thing will never come. There must be a strong. It does not matter what other people think of you. you must beli eve in yourself. You have to live with yourself day and night through your whole existence." asked Mirabeau. Everything must have not only a cause. sooner or later. your reputation. as for you to hope to achieve anything significant in life while harboring grav e doubts and fears as to your ability. Be proud of your work and go to it every morning superbly equi pped. A great success must have a great source in expectation. make way fo r you. There is no law by which you can achieve success in anything without expecting it. their persistence in finding and m aking real the thing they believed in and which the world often denounced as chi merical or impossible. What your employer thinks of you. go to it in the spirit of a master.

They do not claim enough. "Nothing is too good or too magnificent for a French soldier. make ourselves become whatever we long to be. "For unto every one that hath shall be given." says Marie Corelli. The statue follows the model.The messenger looked at the magnificent animal. live mediocre lives. nor to what extent w e can really be masters of ourselves. which are always tripping the self-depr . and said. magnetizes conditions. who believes that he is going to win out. if you only expect small things of yourself." Napoleon said. and playing it royall y. expect enough. They do not know how to call out their best. "then we s hall be used as clods of clay for braver feet to tread on." The world is full of people like this poor French soldier. will lower your whole standard of life and paralyze your abi lity. something in his very a ppearance that wins half the battle before a blow is struck. do not realize our e of the universe. that it does not fit their humble condition. who think that what others have is too good for them. human race as a whole has not measured up to its possibiliti one reason why we see everywhere splendid ability doing the is because people do not think half enough of themselves. but this is too gorgeous. If you are ambitious to do big things. "Nay. work of mediocrity. One reason why the es. They have grown up under this conviction of their inferiority. There is something in the atmosphere of the man who has a large and true estima te of himself. and undertakes his work with t he assurance of success. A man who is self-reliant. too magnificent for a common sold ier. We divinity. because they do not expect or demand enough of themselves. ineffective being. A vast number of men and women who are really capable of doing great things. You will never become a giant if you only make a pygmy's claim for yourself. that the good and the beautiful things of lif e were not designed for them. but were reserved for those especially favored by fortune. Things get out of t he way of the vigorous. Most people have been educated to think that it was not intended they should ha ve the best there is in the world. " They do not realize how they weaken themselves by this mental attitude of self -depreciation or self-effacement. There is no law which can cause a pyg my's thinking to produce a giant. optimistic. "If we choose to be no more than clods of clay. or de mand enough of or for themselves. affirmative man. The model is the inward vision. that we are a part of the great causation principl We do not think highly enough of our superb birthright. and he shall have abundance. and assume the part it demands. positive. nor comprehend to what heights of sublimity we were intended and expected to rise." There is everything in assuming the part we wish to play. We fail to see that we can control our own destiny: make ourselves do whatever is possible. t hat they are not expected to have as good things as those who are "more favored. to its promise. and of c ourse they will be inferior until they claim superiority as their birthright." The persistent thought that you are not as good as others. you must make a large program for your self. He draws to himself the literal fulfilment of the promise. do sm all things. with its superb trappings. that you are a weak. General.

and ability increase in a direct ratio to the number of his achievements. the mental attitude that claims success as an inalienable b irthright. A man who carries in his very presence an air of victory. perpetual thinking along the l ine of the ambition. all his power. and imparts to others confidence that he can do the thing he attempts. if you think that you lack positiveness. or in art add to the conqueror's power to do the next thing. Set the mind toward the thing you would accomplish so resolutely. that makes the difference betw een mediocrity and a grand achievement. radiates assurance. If you doubt your ability to do what you set out to do. and a lack of confidence undermine. and make each successive triu mph easier of achievement than its predecessor. no firm s elf-faith. and put so much grit into your resolutio n. and timidity must be turned out of your mind. so in reality does every conquest in war. His friends and acquain tances affirm and reaffirm his ability to succeed. The whole mental army waits until confidence leads the way. We often hear it said of a man. This very assertion of superiority. into his career. you will never accomplish much. is the prod which brings out the last ou nce of reserve force. . such a man wrings success from the most adverse circumstanc es. and with such vigorous determination. negative man. if you have a timid. i n commerce. They do not have that superb confidence in th emselves which never looks back. if you lack boldness. There is jus t uncertainty enough as to whether they will succeed to take the edge off their effort. doubt. If there is no out-reach to your mind. It doubles and trebles the power of all the other faculties. His self-poise. As time goes on. will strengthen the whole man and give power to a combination of facu lties which doubt. so definitely . A man's confidence measures the height of his possibilities. shrinking nature. if the neg atives preponderate in your vocabulary. which burns all bridges behind it." By the force of his character and the creative p ower of his thought. Fear. assurance. born of self-confidence. Confidence begets confidence. and it is just this little difference between doing pretty well and flin ging all oneself. in peaceful industry. confi dence. fear. Power is largely a question of strong. vigorous.eciating. in invention. but also by that of all who know him. Even a race-horse can not win the prize after it has once lost confidence in it self. As the savage Indian thought that the power of every enemy he conquered entered into himself. Here is wher e power originates. initiative. if you think that other s are better fitted to do it than you. Courage. you can never win anything very great unti l you change your whole mental attitude and learn to have great faith in yoursel f. Confidence is the Napoleon of the mental army." or "Everyt hing he touches turns to gold. A stream can not r ise higher than its fountain-head. The reason why so many men fail is because they do not commit themselves with a determination to win at any cost. aggressiveness. Your own mental picture of yourself is a good measure of yourself and your poss ibilities. no spirit of daring. "Everything he undertakes succeeds. he is reenforced not only by the power o f his own thought. the assumption of power. parallel with the aim--the great life purpose. the affirmation of belief in yourself. that nothing on earth can turn you from your purpose until you attain it. ability. if you fear to let yourself out and take chances. in science.

When a man ceases to believe in himself--gives up the f ight--you can not do much for him except to try to restore what he has lost--his ." Our faith is a very good measure of w hat we get out of life. no vigor in their efforts. and a st rong. vigorous concept of the thing we want to do is a tremendous initial step. A thought that is timidly born will be timidly executed. If we were to analyze the marvelous successes of many of our self-made men. The fact is that their success represents their expectations of themselves--the sum of their creative. Many people make a very poor showing in life. There mu st be vigor in our expectation. we should find that when they first started out in active life they held the confid ent. as it is the intensity of the electrical fo rce that dissolves the diamond--the hardest known substance. We are very apt to think of men who have been unusually successful in any line as greatly favored by fortune. and we try to account for it in all sorts of ways but the right one. Their mental attitude was set so stubbornly toward thei r goal that the doubts and fears which dog and hinder and frighten the man who h olds a low estimate of himself. There must be vigor of conception or an indifferent execution.The deed must first live in the thought or it will never be a reality. It is th eir mental attitude outpictured and made tangible in their environment. All the greatest achievements in the world began in longing--in dreamings and h opings which for a time were nursed in despair. We must resolve with the energy that does things. and expects but little. We must not only believe we can succeed. As it is the fierceness of the heat that melts the iron ore and makes it possib le to weld it or mold it into shape. that wins success. the man of mighty fai th gets much. Their resolutions are spineless. We must have a positive conviction that we can attain success. that resolution which burns all bridges behind it and is willing to risk eve rything upon the effort. positive. in our determination. and the world made way for them. with no light in sight. in our faith. The man of weak faith gets little. They hav e wrought--created--what they have and what they are out of their constructive t hought and their unquenchable faith in themselves. got out of their path. Nothing was ever accompli shed by a half-hearted desire. because there is no vim. The very intensity of your confidence in your ability to do the thing you attem pt is definitely related to the degree of your achievement. but we must believe it with all our he arts. vigorous. of or for himself. habitual thinking. in our endea vor. persistent thought of and belief in their ability to accomplish w hat they had undertaken. so it is the concen trated aim. No lukewarm energy or indifferent ambition ever accomplished anything. One must have that determination which never looks back and which knows no defe at. who asks. This lon ging kept the courage up and made self-sacrifice easier until the thing dreamed of--the mental vision--was realized. demands. there is no backbone in thei r endeavor--no grit in their ambition. Not only must the desire for the thing we long for be kept uppermost. the invincible purpose. but there must be strongly concentrated intensity of effort to attain our object. "According to your faith be it unto you.

We are not bold en ough. and it comes from the consciou sness of possessing the ability requisite for what one undertakes. There is nothing which will multiply one's ability like self-faith. When a man lives so near to th e Supreme that the divine Presence is felt all the time. between the man who wavers and to" and "I can. A firm self-faith helps a man to project himself with a force that is almost ir resistible. ever gathering momentum agai nst the obstacles which confront him. a doubter. b This difference between uncertainty sion. between "I hope and "I will"--this little difference measur power. every issue must be met wholly. and no one can accomplish great things in l ife unless he works in oneness with the Infinite. an irresistible force. There or who nd" to equal is a great difference between a man who thinks that "perhaps" he can do. a mysterious destiny which decides things whether he will or not. Self-confidence is not egotism. We ought to think upward. The man whose mind is set firmly toward achievement does not approp riate success. and certainty. has no projectile power.self-faith--and to get out of his head the idea that there is a fate which toss es him hither and thither. It sees what is in visible to those who follow in the valleys. no positiveness in his energy. There is no vigor in his initiative. Whatever we long for. "will try" to do a thing. struggle for. to fling the whole weight of his being into his work. A balancer. Civilization to-day rests upon self-confidence. It can make a one-talent man a success. we tend to become just in exact proportion to the intensity and persistence o f the thought. to any emergency. then we would reach the heights where superio rity dwells. that sustained him when his . while a ten-talent man without it would fail. He can not do this with a wavering. who feels within himself a pulsating power. If he starts at all. he is success. and hold persistently in the min d. The man who does things must be able to project himself with a mighty force. yearn for. You can not do much with him until he comprehends that he is bigger than any fate. is because we do not have a large faith in ourselves and in our power to accomplish." between "I'll try" es the distance between weakness and etween commonness and superiority. and a man who "knows" he can do it. We think ourselves into smallness. One reason why the careers of most of us are so pinched and narrow. unstable mind. between mediocrity and excellence. he moves with uncertainty. shows that there is something within him that make s him equal to the work he has undertaken. into inferiority by thinking d ownward. unhesitati ngly. between vacillation and deci the man who decides things. that he has within himself a power mightier than any force outsi de of him. We are timid about venturing. Faith unites man with the Infinite. It was the sustaining power of a mighty self-faith that enabled Columbus to bea r the jeers and imputations of the Spanish cabinet. who is "bou do it. We are held back by too much caution. then he is in a positio n to express power. doubting. It is knowledge. The fact that a man believes implicitly that he can do what may seem impossible or very difficult to others. Faith walks on the mountain tops. hence its superior vision.

Were we to think upward we should reach the heights where superiority dwells. to believe that his yearnings and hungerings and aspirations for higher. entering in his diary d ay after day--"This day we sailed west. any more than he would have mocked the wild birds with an instinct t o fly south in the winter without giving them a sunny South to match the instinc t. Whenever you see a person who has been unusually successful in any field. for t here is no power in the universe that can help a man do a thing when he thinks h e can not do it." It was this self-faith which gave courage and determination to Fulton to attemp t his first trip up the Hudson in the Clermont. nobler things have any basis in reality or any real. past the defenses of the enem y in Mobile Bay. toward his fellow men. It comes because there is an affinity within you for it. The cause of whatever comes to you in life is within you. his aspiration. and art. toward himsel . nobler self. If only we better und erstood our divinity we should all have this larger faith which is the distincti on of the brave soul. the call to something better.sailors were in mutiny and he was at their mercy in a little vessel on an unknow n sea. in fact. b y their foolish convictions of inefficiency. torpedoes. They are more handicapped by their limiting thought. it has been the great tonic in the world of invention. it led Nelson and Grant to victory. that enabled him to hold steadily to his purpose. Self-faith must lead the way. Your own comes to you. No man gets very far in the world or expresses great power until self-faith is born in him. and mines to victory at Manil a Bay. He believed he could do the thing he attempted though the whole world was against him. it carried Farragut. It is one of the most difficult things to a mortal to really believe in his own bigness. until he catches a glimpse of his higher. There is where it is created. it has won a thousand triumphs i n war and science which were deemed impossible by doubters and the faint-hearted . than by almost anything else. Self-faith has been the miracle-worker of the ages. It has held innumerable heroes to their tas ks until the glorious deeds were accomplished. until he rea lizes that his ambition. remem ber that he has usually thought himself into his position. It has enabled the inventor and the discoverer to go on and on amidst troubles and trials which otherwise w ould have utterly disheartened them. is always seeking you. lashed to the rigging. The thing you long for and work for comes to you because your thought h as created it. You can not go beyond the limits you set for yourself. in his own grandeur. ult imate end. of power t o make them real. The Creator would not have mocked us with the yearning f or infinite achievement without giving us the ability and the opportunity for re alizing it. They are the stirrings of the divinity within us. the signs of ability to match them. before thousands of his fellow c itizens. because there is something inside you that attracts it. The only inferiority in us is what we put into ourselves. Perhaps there is no other one thing which keeps so many people back as their lo w estimate of themselves. are proofs of his ability to reach the ideal which haunts him. toward his vocation. We think ourselves into smallness. his mental attitude a nd energy have created it. what he stands for in his community has come from his attitude toward life. discovery. to go higher. But they are. What miracles self-confidence has wrought! What impossible deeds it has helped to perform! It took Dewey past cannons. who had gathered to howl and jeer at his expected failure. which was our course.

All through the Bible we find emphasized the miracle-working power of faith. It looks beyond all boundaries. It is doubt and fear. Faith never fails. but will also make you successful and happy. from quitting his upward life struggle. because it sees the way out. It sees resources. Above all else. powers. Then there will be no poverty in the world. but feel a great consciousness of added power because we have touched omnipotence. CHAPTER XLIV THE NEXT TIME YOU THINK YOU ARE A FAILURE If you made a botch of last year. timidity and cowardice. and matched with honest effort. wasted your time and money. If we had faith enough we should travel Godward infinitely faster than we do. no failures. if you feel that it was a failure. it would be this--"Believe in yourself with all your might. and gotten a glimpse of the great source of things. that hold us down and keep us in mediocrity--doing petty things when we are capable of sublime deeds. Fa ith in himself indicates that a man has a glimpse of forces within him which eit her annihilate the obstacles in the way. tran scends all limitations. It has dip ped in the realms of our finer life our higher and diviner kingdom. Faith is assured. and our lives would be one triumphal march to the goa l of our ambition. that there is a power within you which. of his inward vision of himself. The time will come when every human being will have unbounded faith and will li ve the life triumphant. If we had faith in God and in ourselves we could remove al l mountains of difficulty. It is the prophet within us. if you were gullible. that we are not only encouraged to go on. believe that your des tiny is inside of you. developed. because faith sees. Faith is that something within us which does not guess." That is. and the discords of life will all vanish. sees the solution of its problem. it is a miracle worker. or make them seem insignificant in comp arison with his ability to overcome them. Faith opens the door that enables us to look into the soul's limitless possibil ities and reveals such powers there. the divine messenger appointed to accompany man through life to guide and direct and encourage him. The men who have done the great things in the world have been profound believer s in themselves. don't drag these ghosts a long with you to handicap you and destroy your happiness all through the future.f. . It gives him a glimpse of his possibiliti es to keep him from losing heart. If I could give the young people of America but one word of advice. All things a re possible to him who has faith. our animal natures can not see. will not only make a noble man o r woman of you. recognizes the power that means accomplishment. if awakened. that you f loundered and blundered and did a lot of foolish things. If we had faith enough we could cure all our ills and accomplish the maximum of our possibilities. arou sed. penetrates all obstacles and sees the goal. the result of his estimate of his powers and possibilities. It knows bec ause it sees what our coarser selves. Our faith knows because it sees what we can not see. but knows. such unconquerable forces. it is the outcome of his self-faith. potencies which our doubts and fears veil from us. m ade imprudent investments. is never a fraid.

. Throw away all useless baggage. There is only one thing to do with a disagreeable. Free yourself from everything which handicaps you. indecision or discouragement. optim istic outlook." He only is beaten who a dmits it. and never look back. perhaps breaking up and destroying the work of years of building up. If there is anything we ever feel grateful for. to keep going when things looked da rk and when seemingly insurmountable obstacles confronted us. our faith in ourselves. te ar through our mentalities. and never allow the hideou s pictures of distressing conditions to enter our minds again. keeps you ba ck and makes you unhappy. harmful experience. There is no use in castigating yourself for not having done better. Form a habit of expelling from your mind thoughts or suggestions which call up unpleasant subjects or bitter memories. waste any more of your time or des troy any more of your happiness. We are all the time "queering" our lif e game by our vicious.Haven't you wasted enough energy worrying over what can not be helped? Don't le t these things sap any more of your vitality. Don't be mortgaged to the past. and we have to start all over again. tearing-down thoughts and unfortunate moods. We control our own des tiny. that hinders your progress. and which have a bad influence upon you. We ought to forget everything that has kep t us back. We are our own Fates. drop everything that i s a drag. Everything d epends upon our courage. Every one ought to make it a life-rule to wipe out from his memory everything t hat has been unpleasant. "It is not in our stars. it is that we h ave had courage and pluck enough to push on. like a bull in a china shop. despondency." to drop the yesterdays. we let the tearing-down thought. Most people are their own worst enemies. blunders and unfortunate mistakes. who voluntarily ta kes an inferior position because he thinks the best things were intended for som ebody else. to forget bitter memories. has been disagreeable. any way open for retreat to tempt our weakness. a loss or any misfortune. in our holding a hopeful. doubt. has made us suffer. and that is--forget it! There are many times in the life of a person who does things that are worth whi le when he gets terribly discouraged and thinks it easier to go back than to pus h on. Enter upon to-morrow with a clean slate and a free mind. and tha t is to forget them. But there is no victory in retreating. One of the worst things that can ever happen to a person is to get it into his head that he was born unlucky and that the Fates are against him. There is only one thing to do with bitter experiences. The man is inferior who admits that he is inferior. or with memories that worry us and which kill our efficiency. whenever we have a dis couraging day or an unfortunate experience. outside of our own mentality. We should never leave any bridges u nburned behind us. whenever things go wrong with us. fear. we climb up only to fall back. that we are underlings. unfortunate. but in ourselves. and often lose all we gain. bury them! To-day is a good time to "leave the low-vaulted past. There is no fate or destiny which puts one man down and another up. Resolve that you will close the door on everything in the past that pains and c an not help you. We work and live like the frog in the well. There are no F ates. and yet.

Increase your self-confiden ce in every possible way. but as perfect. you are more likely to carry it to reality than if you mere ly resolve in silence. vehemently uttered--which is not apparent to many in merely thinking about what the words express. earnestly--seems to aro use the sleeping forces in the subconscious self more effectually than thinking the same thing. and you can do this to a remarkable degree by the powe r of self-suggestion. Train yourself to expect great things of yourself. "Now. accompanies the spoken word--especially if earnes tly. makes a much deeper impression upon us . even by your manner. If you repeat a firm resolve to yourself aloud.You will find that just in proportion as you increase your confidence in yourse lf by the affirmation of what you wish to be and to do. This form of suggestion--talking to oneself vigorously. j ust as words which pass through the eye from the printed page make a greater imp ression on the brain than we get by thinking the same words. your ability will increa se. Stoutly assert that there is a place for you in the world. power. They sometimes arouse slumbering energies within us which th inking does not stir up--especially if we have not been trained to think deeply. these are thoughts and ide als that make a strong man. When you go into an undertaking just say to yourself. A vividness. a certain force. vigorous ly. The way to get the best out of yourself is to put things right up to yourself. even vehemently. The audible self-encouragement treatment may be used with marvelous results in correcting our weaknesses. I've got to make good. never allow yourself to doubt that you can do or become what you long to. efficiency. capable. to show the man in me or the coward. Nev er admit. . poorly of yourself. Never regar d yourself as weak. Failure and misery are not for the man who has seen the God-side of hims elf. There is no backing out. overcoming our deficiencies. We become so accustomed to our silent thoughts that the voicing of them. narrowly. It is marvelous what mental strength can be developed by the perpetual affirmat ion of vigorous fitness. Ne ver even think of the possibility of going through life a failure or a partial f ailure. diseased. as seeing objects o f nature makes a more lasting impression upon the mind than thinking about them. this thing is right up to me. No matter what other people may think about your ability. inefficient. Never allow yourself to think meanly. to focus the mind closely. the gi ving audible expression to our yearnings. and that you are goi ng to fill it like a man. and talk to yourself as you would to a son of yo urs who has great ability but who is not using half of it. complete. There is a force in words spoken aloud which is not stirred by going over the s ame words mentally. They are for those who have never disc overed themselves and their God-like qualities. handle yourself without gloves. who has been in touch with divinity. strength. They make a more lasting impression upon the mind." You will be surprised to see how quickly this sort of self-suggestion will brac e you up and put new spirit in you. that you think you are destined to do little thin gs all your life.

his standards droop and his ambition oo ze out. your standards are dropping. a bracing-up all along the line. There is no fault. think to some purpose! Do not mull and mope like this. When he feels that he is not doing all that he ought to. you do not feel as troubled as you used t o. He began as a poor boy living in the slums of New York with no one to take an inter est in him. Though he had little opportunity for schoolin g when he was a small boy. get the cobwebs out of your head. an d the worst of it all is that when you do a poor job. because you are not as progressive and up-to-date a s you ought to be. Think. You are not making good. however great or small. on the contrary. Now. Assu re yourself that there is no reason why you should be timid. You must make this a red-letter day. encourage or push him. You are only half-alive. brush off the brain ash. you may be naturally timid and shrin k from meeting people. he has given himself a splendid education. but you will deriv e so much benefit from it that you will have recourse to it in remedying all you r defects. don't be a coward. and does not allow h imself to skip hard problems. and has a good hear t-to-heart talk with himself something after this fashion: "Now young man. your ideals are getting dull. a conqueror." By years of stern discipline of this kind he has done wonders with himself. you are the embodiment of courage and bravery. At first it may seem silly to you to be talking to yourself. you need a good talking-to. self-development. until you are doing yourself justice. or are careless about your dress and indifferent in your manner. that you are attractive and that you know how to act in the presence of others. Say to yourself that you are never again g oing to allow yourself to harbor any thoughts of self-depreciation or timidity o r inferiority. to the woods if possible." as he calls it . You are letting a lot of good chances slip by you. I am going to keep right after you. that he ha s made some foolish mistake or has failed to use good sense and good judgment in any transaction. instead of crawling about like a whipped cur. g et a move on you!" This young man says that every morning when he finds his standards are down and he feels lazy and indifferent he "hauls himself over the coals. I have never known any one else who carried on such a vigo rous campaign in self-victory.I have a friend who has helped himself wonderfully by talking to himself about his conduct. you are becoming lazy. "In short. You will have to watch yourself very closely or you will be left behind. and you may distrust your own ability. he goes off alone to the country. because there is no thing inferior or peculiar about you. this indifference will seriously cripple your career if you're not very careful. Nobody ever amo unts to much who lets his energies flag. in order to force himself up to a higher standard and put himself in tune for the day. man. you will be greatly helped by assuring yourself in your daily self-talks that you are not t imid." he says to himself. think. that you are going to hold your head up and go about as though yo u were a king. Bestir yourself. mainly sin ce he was twenty-one. you ar . You must sta rt out to-day with a firm resolution to make the returns from your work greater to-night than ever before. Yo u are going stale. self-culture as this young man has. that. "If others have done this. This take-it-easy sort of policy will never land you at the go al you started for. He forces himself to do the most disagreeable tasks first. This lethargy. you can do it. It is the very first thing he attends to. "You are capable of something much better than what you are doing. You like to take things easy. this inertia. If so. which will not succumb to persistent audible suggestion. "Now. self-training. when he feels that his stamina and ambition are deteriorating. For example. young man.

it helps you to become o ne. because they posse ss stout hearts. stoutly affirm your ability to begin things. Stop and face the other way. but it is possible to everybody. the true instead of the false. It is perfectly possible for a well-trained mind to completely rout the worst c ase of the "blues" in a few minutes.e going to assert your manhood. and success. those who lack faith in themselves. as the habit of constantly affirming their own importance. a power among men. and optimism. their own power. to kee ." A man who is at the mercy of a capricious disposition can never be a leader. I know of nothing so helpful for the timid. that luck is against you. This is not always easy. You will be surprised to see how you can increase your courage. d o not accurately measure our ability. hope. A great many people fail to reach a success which matches their ability because they are victims of their moods. and w ith such wealth they can never be poor. your individuality. We berate ourselves. You can not get away from your ideals. The art of arts is learning how to clear the mind of its enemies--enemies of ou r comfort. do not put the right estimate upon our pos sibilities. upon ha rmony instead of discord. simpl y because there are so many days when they do not "feel like it" or when they ar e discouraged or "blue. a determination to push ahead which know s no retreat. the forming of the right thought habits. that your work does not amount to much--turn about face. Everywhere we see people with great ambitions doing very ordinary things. health instead of disease. your confidence . diviner man in us. the ir own divinity. that you can't do an ything worth while. we keep them closed and try to eject the darkness by main fo rce. And always put your resolve into action at the first opportu nity. There are thousands of people who have lost everything they valued in the world . the standard which you hold for yourself. gloomy people just as we avoid a picture which makes a disagre eable impression upon us. life instead of death. and your ability. and if you acknowledge in your thought that you are a failure. belittle. happiness. Every time you think you are a failure. We avoid morose. The best way to keep out darkness is to keep the life filled with light. It is a great thing to learn to focus the min d upon the beautiful instead of the ugly. if you will be sincere with yourself and strong and persiste nt in your affirmations. It requires only skilful t hinking. efface ourselves. but the trouble with most of us is that ins tead of flinging open the mental blinds and letting in the sun of cheerfulness. all the material results of their lives' endeavor. If you lack initiative. that you don't have the same oppor tunity that other people have---your convictions will control the result. which repel people and repel business. because we do not s ee the larger. Resolve th at you will go no further in that direction. unconquerable spirits. they are just as far from real failure as before their loss. and go the other way. for your thought is your life pattern and you can not get away from it. and yet. and to pus h them to a finish. Try this experiment the very next time you get discouraged or think that you ar e a failure. The trouble is that we do not think half enough of ourselves.

contemplate beauty and loveliness. "I am a man and I am going to do the work of a man. death-dealing thoughts. Sweep away all depressing thoughts. life-giving ones. re st. to shut out ugliness. su ggestions. all the rubbish that is troubling you. You will be surprised to see how unfortunate suggestions and adverse conditions will melt away before it. dejected face. We should start out every morning with a clean sla te. that you will feel like it. unhea lthy. to shut out error. just rise up in arms aga inst the enemies of your peace and happiness. that all tha t is real must be good. Think the pleasantest. It's right up to me and I am going to face the situati on. summon all the force you can muste r and drive them out. just affirm that you must feel like it. that your condition is largely due to exhausted vitality. hideous pictures which haunt your mind. The next time you get into trouble. and whatever doesn't seem to b e good is not like its creator and therefore can not be real. or from vicious habits of some kind. The next time you feel jaded. keep it filled with harmony. We should early form the habit of erasing from the mind all disagreeable. and things to delight and cheer us. all the disagreeable past. overeating. affirm it vig orously and it will come true. all the mistakes. either from overwork. Let go of everything that is u npleasant. We should blot out from our mental gallery all discordant pictures and repla ce them with the harmonious. as though life had been a disappointme nt instead of a priceless boon. Just say to yourself. When you are feeling "blue" or discouraged. with a sad. happie . Multitudes of people suffer from despondency and melancholy. or over-stimulated nerves from dissipation. completely played out and "blue. Whatever you do. Persist in this af firmation. This c ondition is caused by the clamoring of exhausted nerve cells for nourishment. if you look for the reason. to get rid of all that is sour and unwholesome. that you are going to enjoy yourself. or violating in so me way the laws of digestion. that you are normal an d that you are in a position to do your best. Drive out the black . discouraged. long-continued excitement. suffering tortures from melancholy. just try the experiment of affirming vigorously. Resolve that no matter what happens you are going to be ha ppy. No matter whether you feel like it or not. Say it deliberately. just get b y yourself--if possible after taking a good bath and dressing yourself becomingl y--and give yourself a good talking-to." yo u will probably find. get as complete a change of environ ment as possible. keep the mind fil led with truth. Opposite thoughts can not occupy the mind at the same time. uplifting." Do not let anybody or anything shake your faith that you can conquer all the en emies of your peace and happiness. due to their irregular. Talk to yourself in the same dead-in-ear nest way that you would talk to your own child or a dear friend who was deep in the mire of despondency. due to overstr