Você está na página 1de 602

No part of this ebook may be reproduced in any form, by photostat, microfilm, xerography, or any other means, or incorporated into any information retrieval system, electronic or mechanical, without the written permission of the publisher. All inquiries should be emailed to rights@newagepublishers.com

ISBN (13) : 978-81-224-2872-8

PUBLISHING FOR ONE WORLD

NEW AGE INTERNATIONAL (P) LIMITED, PUBLISHERS 4835/24, Ansari Road, Daryaganj, New Delhi - 110002 Visit us at www.newagepublishers.com

λ

λ=

=

 π λ λ rr ∴ π π

π

Distance
K
L
M
N
O
Charge Density

π

π

λ

λ

π

+

+

λ

=

=

π λ

λ=

=

ψ

ψ

+

π

−=

ψ

ψ

+

ψ

+

ψπ +

=

ψ

π

∇+

ψ

ψ

=

π

ψ ψ ψ ψ ψ

ψ ψ

ψψψψψ ψψψψψ

ψ ψ ψ

×

+∞

−∞

ψ

=

ψ

 ∂ ∂ψ + ∂ ψ + ∂ θ ∂ψ ∂ ∂ θ ∂ϕ θ ∂θ ∂θ

+

π µ

−=

θ ϕ

m e
N rr
E
(a)
e
m
r
E
N
(b)

ψ θ φ ψ θ, ϕ ( ) .

θ

Φ

ψ θ, φ ψ θ, φ

Θ (θ) . Φ (φ)

Θ

(θ)

ϕ

(φ)

θ

ψ ψ θ φ ψ

 ∂ ψ ∂ ψ ∂ ψ +++ π −= ψ ∂ ∂ ∂

 ψ ψ

 [x] V V V=0 0 x=0 x=L (a)
n=1
n=3
n=2
(b)
n=3
n=2
n=1
|
| 2
L
0
L

(c)

ψ ψ

ψ

ψ

ψ

ψ

Energy

π

π

π

=

π

n=3

n=2

n=1

E

E

E

0

x=0

x=L

3

2

1

∆ ∆
∆ ∆

=

θ

y

z
+
x

y

z
+

p

(a)

x

x

y

z
+

p

(b)

y

x

y

z
+

p

(c)

z

x

y
y
y
z
z
z
+
+
+
x
x
x
+
+
+

d

(a)

xy

y

d

(b)

yz

y

d

(c)

xz

z
z
Negative
dough nut in
+
x
+
+
x-y plane
+
x-y plane
2
2
d z 2
p x –y
(d)
(e)

x

1s
r 0
1
2
Å
Probability
2s
0
r 1
2
r 2
468
Å
Probability
Distance r
Distance r
(a)
(b)
3s
2p
0
2468
Å
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
Å
Distance r
Distance r
(c)
(d)
Probability
Probability
3p
Probability

Distance r

(e)

3d
Probability

Distance r

(f)

 ψ ψ

+
Na
Cl
Na +
Cl –

× ×

× ×

× ×

× ×

×

× ×

×

× ×

×

×

× ×

× ×

×

× × ×

× ×

× ×

× ×

×

×

×

×

× ×

×

×

×

×

× ×

× ×

×
Br ×
.
Br ×
×
×
×
Ca:
+
Ca ++
(CaBr )
.
2
×
× Br ×
× Br
×
×
++
+
=
+
−−
+
=
++
+
=
µ
×
×
× ×
×
× ×
×
×
×
× ×
×
× ×
×

× × Cl × +

×

×

Cl ×

+ ×Cl

×

×

Cl

+

.

C

.

+

× Cl

×

×

.

×

×

×

.

+ ×Cl

×

×

×

×

Cl

Cl

× ×

× ×

Cl

× ×

× ×

Chlorine

molecule

.

× × Cl × C ×Cl

.

.

.

Cl

× ×

× ×

×

×

× Carbon tetrachloride

×

molecule

 ⇒ ⇒ →

 H H . . N × . × × . . H + H H . O × . × . . H + H F . . B × . × × . . F F . – .

F

+
H
.
.
.
+
(NH )
H
N
.
H
×
.
4
H
Ammonium ion
+
.
.
+
(H
H
O
.
H
O
)
×
.
3
H
Hydronium ion
F
.
.
(BF )
F
B
F
×
.
4
F
×
×
×
×
×
.
.

 → ↓

−−

δ

H

+–

– F

H

+

– F

hydrogen bond

H

+

– F

H

+–

– F

H O
H
O
H
O
H
O
Covalent
H
H
H H
bond
Hydrogen

bond

+
+
H
O
ON
O
H
O
ON
O
+
+
ONO
H—O
ONO
H—O

OO
+
O
H
C
HH
O
N
H
O
O
Salicylaldehyde
o -Nitrophenol

H O
H O
R

H

µµµµµ

d
e +
e –

∴µ⇒

µ
+
µ
+
µµ
α

µ µ

α

+ →

+

Q = –98.2 kcal
1
NaCl(s)
Na(s)
+
2 Cl (g)
2
Crystal
1
D = +28.9 kcal
S = +26.0 kcal
2
Determination of electron
affinity of Na atom.
Na(g)
Cl(g)
I = +118.0 kcal
(– e)
Lattice energy of
E
= ? (+e)
U 0
NaCl
crystal.
+
Na (a)
Cl
(g)
U
=
–180.4 kcal
0

→

σ

H
H
H
:
H

H
+
H
F
F

1s

H
1s
N
2p z
1s
2p y
2p x
+
+
+
+
+
+

z

z
y
NH molecule
3
+
+
+
+
+
+

z

x

y

z

x
+
+
+ +
+ 1s
H O molecule
2

y

z

σ

p y
p y
p z
p z
p x
+
F atom
F atom

p x

F molecule
2

σ π

p y
p y
p z
p z
p x
p y
p y
p z
p z

σ π

-bond

-bond

π

 ⇒ ⇒
1s
2s
2p

+
+
+
s
p x
p y
p z
sp 3
109° 28
sp 3
sp 3
C
sp 3
+
++
sp 3
sp 3
sp 3
sp 3

hybrid orbitals

H
C
H
H
H
 C in the ground state C in the excited state

One 2

p hybridize to give

s

and two 2

electrons

1 s
2 s
2 p
Four unpaired
electrons
2
sp
hybridization
2
p

-bond

H
H
C
C
-bond
H
H
-bond

π

π

F

F
2
sp –p ( –bond)
2
sp –p ( -bond)
B
2
F
sp –p ( -bond)

 C in the ground state C in the excited state

Electronic configuration

of sp hybridized C-atom

1s
2s
2p
p x p y p z
Four unpaired
electrons
sp hybridization
2p

σ π σ π

H
H
HC

CH

 Be in ground state Be in excited state

sp hybridized Be atom

2s
2p
Two unpaired
electrons
sp hybridization with two
unpaired electrons.
2p

sp hybridized orbitals

F
Be
F
180°
F
F
Be

σ

π

• π σ π

 ≡ ≡

p x
s
p y
p z
dz 2

dsp 3

P-atom in ground state

P-atom in the excited state

3s
3p
3d
Five unpaired
electrons
3
sp d hybridization
3d

Cl

Cl
Cl
PP
Cl

Cl

S-atom in ground state

S-atom in excited state

3s
3p
3d
Six unpaired
electrons
2
sp 3 d hybridization

F
FF
FF
SS
FF
FF

F