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Client/Server Frequently Asked Questions
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From: email@example.com (Lloyd Taylor) Newsgroups: comp.client-server, comp.object.corba Subject: Client/Server Frequently Asked Questions Sender: firstname.lastname@example.org Message-ID: <email@example.com> Reply-To: firstname.lastname@example.org (Client/Server FAQ Maintainer) Summary: This posting contains a list of Frequently Asked Questions about Client/Server Computing. Please read it before you post questions to the comp.client-server newsgroup. Keywords: FAQ CLIENT SERVER DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING Date: 17 Aug 1998 09:16:12 -0400 Posted-By: auto-faq 188.8.131.52 Archive-name: client-server-faq
Revision: 1.12 1998/08/17 13:15:27 Posting-frequency: Monthly, on the 17th Client/Server Frequently Asked Questions Information about this document Contained below is a list of commonly asked questions in comp.client-server. Before posting a question to comp.client-server, check to see if your question(s) are already answered below. Additional questions (and answers!) may be emailed to email@example.com. If the question is of general interest, it may be added to the CS-FAQ. Questions that relate to specific client/server implementation issues may be answered in one or more of the books listed in the FAQ. If answers cannot be found there, consider posting your question to comp.client-server. Due to the volume of email I receive, I cannot respond to individual questions. Vendors of client/server products and services are welcome to submit *brief* summaries of their offerings for inclusion in a separate portion of this FAQ. A single paragraph which includes pointers to additional information (www, ftp, email, or voice telephone) is welcome. The most recent (authoritative) version of this FAQ is always available at: http://www.abs.net/~lloyd/csfaq.txt In addition, this FAQ is archived at many sites, including the following. Any site which mirrors "rtfm.mit.edu" should have a current copy as well. If you did not receive the entire posting, please check here: ftp://ftp.uu.net/usenet/news.answers/client-server-faq.Z ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet-by-group/news.answers/
-- Lloyd Taylor comp.client-server FAQ maintainer Home Page: <http://www.wp.com/Lloyd.Taylor> Changes since last release: Updated contact info for Talarian
7 3.1 3.13 3.2 2.4 2.9 3.6 2.4 3.5 3.3 3.1 What archives/FTP sites carry client-server related material? Part 2: Client/Server Definitions 2.14 Client/Server Technical Issues are the characteristics of a Client/Server architecture? are the different types of Servers? are the different client/server processing styles? is Distributed or Remote Presentation? is Remote Data Management? is Distributed Function Processing? is IBM's System Application Architecture? is APPLE's VITAL architecture? What What What What What What What What What is Sun's Open Network Computing Architecture? What is Digital's Network Application System (NAS) architecture? What is OSF-DCE? What are DOMS (Distributed Object Management Systems)? What is CORBA? What is DAE? Part 4: 4.1 4.9 What is Client-server Computing? What What What What What What What What is is is is is is is is a Client Process? a Server Process? a Two-Tier Architecture? a Three-Tier Architecture? Middleware? Cooperative Processing? Distributed Processing? an "Intranet"? Part 3: 3.3 4.1 2.4 4.5 2.5 4.10 3.6 3.3 2.8 3.11 3.12 3.8 2.7 2.2 4.Subject: Table of Contents Client/Server Frequently Asked Questions List Last Revision: 8/17/98 Part 1: Introduction and Miscellaneous questions 1.6 Client/Server Business Issues Business-Focused Client/Server Architecture Client/Server Business Application Architectures Business Drivers Business Benefits What does business expect from IT? What is Business Process Reengineering? .2 3.
Part 5: Books and Articles on Client/Server computing 5.net/~jtmalone/ Subject: Part 2: Definitions .edu> Object Management Group: http://www.html Client/Server Computing Page http://www.4 Middleware Vendors Test Software Vendors Development Tool Vendors Other Client/Server Vendors Subject: 1.rhein-neckar.osf.1 6.osf.omg.de/~cetus/software.dstc.3 6.Taylor@jhuapl.org/ DCE Questions and Answers: http://www.edu.2 6.2 5.1 5.1 What sites carry client-server related material? From: Lloyd Taylor <Lloyd.au/pub/DCE/ Object-Oriented Links at Cetus (Germany) http://www.org/dce/faq-mauney.html ftp://ftp.org/dce/qna OSF/DCE FAQ http://www.3 Introductory/Overview Books Detailed Technical Books Other Books Part 6: Vendor Information 6.wenet.
2 What is a Client process? From: Ravi Kalakota <kalakota@uhura. It is this latter perspective that has created the widely-believed myth that client/server has something to do with PCs or Unix machines.cc. dispatch requests to server programs. Client programs usually manage the user-interface portion of the application. requesting that the server perform a task (service). the calling module becomes the "client" (that which requests a service). For example.1 What is Client-server Computing? From: Steve Hultquist <firstname.lastname@example.org. The client process contains solution-specific logic and provides the interface between the user and the rest of the application . The long answer: Client/server computing is the logical extension of modular programming. The client-based process is the front.end of the application that the user sees and interacts with. The logical extension of this is to have clients and servers running on the appropriate hardware and software platforms for their functions.edu> The client is a process (program) that sends a message to a server process (program). Modular programming has as its fundamental assumption that separation of a large piece of software into its constituent parts ("modules") creates the possibility for easier development and better maintainability. database management system servers running on platforms specially designed and configured to perform queries. and the called module becomes the "server" (that which provides the service). With this architecture. validate data entered by the user. and sometimes execute business logic.Subject: 2. or file servers running on platforms with special elements for managing files. Subject: 2.ibm. Client/server computing takes this a step farther by recognizing that those modules need not all be executed within the same memory space.com> The short answer: Client/server is a computational architecture that involves client processes requesting service from server processes.
system. A common error in client/server development is to prototype an application in a small.Taylor@jhuapl. execute database retrieval and updates.rochester.3 What is a Server process? From: Ravi Kalakota <kalakota@uhura. or high powered-processors. One of the key elements of a client workstation is the graphical user interface (GUI). The server process acts as a software engine that manages shared resources such as databases.4 What is a Two-Tier Architecture? From: Lloyd Taylor <Lloyd. Subject: 2. Subject: 2. the window manager detects user actions.edu> A server process (program) fulfills the client request by performing the task requested. manage data integrity and dispatch responses to client requests. printers. This server could be the host operating system or network file server. another desktop machine provides the application services. communication links. properly scale to hundreds or thousands of users. The server-based process "may" run on another machine on the network. Sometimes server programs execute common or complex business logic. as the server becomes overwhelmed. it is usually necessary to move to a three-tier architecture. Normally a part of operating system i. keyboard. with no intervening server.cc. Server programs generally receive requests from client programs. This approach will usually result in an ineffective system. manages the windows on the display and displays the data in the windows. two-tier environment. Or in some cases.e. To . workstation CPU and peripherals. The server process performs the back-end tasks that are common to similar applications.edu> A two-tier architecture is where a client talks directly to a server. and then scale up by simply adding more users to the server. the server is then provided both file system services and application services. It is typically used in small environments (less than 50 users). The client process also manages the local resources that the user interacts with such as the monitor.
Advanced Program-to-Program Communication (APPC). regardless of their location. Once the physical connection has been established and transport protocols chosen. The protocols are divided into three groups: media. Sockets. a client-server protocol is required before the user can access the network services.5 What is a Three-Tier Architecture? From: Lloyd Taylor <Lloyd. The role of the agent is manyfold. Subject: 2. file and print. Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol (TCP/IP). metering services (as in acting as a transaction monitor to limit the number of simultaneous requests to a given server). NOS provides services such as routing. Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) and Government Open Systems Interconnection Profile(GOSIP)). messaging. It can provide translation services (as in adapting a legacy application on a mainframe to a client/server environment).edu> Connectivity allows applications to transparently communicate with other programs or processes. distribution.rochester. and network management services. or intellegent agent services (as in mapping a request to a number of different servers. collating the results. . Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI). Transport Level Interface (TLI) and Sequenced Packet Exchange (SPX)). A client-server protocol dictates the manner in which clients request information and services from a server and also how the server replies to that request (some examples of clientserver protocols are NetBIOS. RPC.Subject: 2.edu> A three-tier architecture introduces a server (or an "agent") between the client and the server.cc. Token Ring. The key element of connectivity is the network operating system (NOS). and returning a single response to the client. transport and client-server protocols. A transport protocol provides the mechanism to move packets of data from client to server (some examples of transport protocols are Novell's IPX/SPX.Taylor@jhuapl. NOS rely on communication protocols to provide specific services. Apple's AppleTalk. Media protocols determine the type of physical connections used on a network (some examples of media protocols are Ethernet. Named Pipes.6 What is Middleware? From: Ravi Kalakota <kalakota@uhura. coaxial and twisted-pair).
Many corporations have discovered that these same technologies can be used for internal client/server applications with the same ease that they are used on the Internet. Distributed processing implies that processing will occur on more than one processor in order for a transaction to be completed. . It is a form of distributed computing where two or more distinct processes are required to complete a single business transaction.edu> The explosion of the World Wide Web is due to the world-wide acceptance of a common transport (TCP/IP). Usually. Cooperative processing is related to both distributed and client/server processing.rochester. Subject: 2.edu> The distribution of applications and business logic across multiple processing platforms. processing is distributed across two or more machines and the processes are most likely not running at the same time.e.cc.7 What is Cooperative Processing? From: Ravi Kalakota <kalakota@uhura. Subject: 2. Cooperative processing can also be considered to be a style of client/server processing if communication between processors is performed through a message passing architecture. Often the data used in a distributed processing environment is also distributed across platforms.Subject: 2.rochester. these programs interact and execute concurrently on different processors. In other words.edu> Cooperative processing is computing which requires two or more distinct processors to complete a single transaction.8 What is Distributed Processing? From: Ravi Kalakota <kalakota@uhura. each process performs part of an application in a sequence. server standard (HTTP).Taylor@jhuapl. and markup language (HTML).9 What is an "Intranet"? From: Lloyd Taylor <Lloyd. Thus was born the concept of the "Intranet": the use of Internet technologies for implementing internal client/server applications. i.cc.
With a file server.edu> The simplest form of servers are disk servers and file servers. Application servers are not necessarily database centered but are used to server user needs. 100% of the time and require tight controls over the security and integrity of the database. .well-defined set of standard application program interfaces (API's) and RPC's. The communication overhead in this approach is kept to a minimum as the exchange typically consists of a single request/reply (as opposed to multiple SQL statements in database servers). download capabilities from Dow Jones or regulating a electronic mail process. They can be scaled horizontally or vertically. transaction server and application servers (Orfali and Harkey 1992). Basing resources on a server allows users to share data. The code that processes the SQL request and the data resides on the server allowing it to use its own processing power to find the requested data. The more advanced form of servers are database servers. which are also based in the server. such as. 4) An important characteristic of client-server systems is scalability. Subject: 3. The applications based on transaction servers are called On-line Transaction Processing (OLTP) and tend to be mission-critical applications which require 1-3 second response time. clients passes SQL (Structured Query Language) requests as messages to the server and the results of the query are returned over the network. by moving them from standalone PCUs onto a Networked File Server (NFS). Vertical scaling means migrating to a larger and faster server machine or multiservers. In transaction servers. This form of data service requires large bandwidth and can slow a network with many users down considerably.rochester. There are procedural statements on the server to execute a group of SQL statements (transactions) which either all succeed or fail as a unit. while security and management services. Traditional LAN computing allows users to share resources. Horizontal scaling means adding or removing client workstations with only a slight performance impact.cc. clients invoke remote procedures that reside on servers which also contains an SQL database engine. the client passes requests for files or file records over a network to the file server. ensure data integrity and security.2 What are the different types of servers? From: Ravi Kalakota <kalakota@uhura. In database servers. rather than pass all the records back to a client and let it find its own data as was the case for the file server. such as data files and peripheral devices.
3 What are the different client/server processing styles? From: Ravi Kalakota <kalakota@uhura. However. This style maps a workstation Graphical User Interface (GUI) front end onto an existing application's text-based screen. business or application logic.edu> Gartner group came out with the five ways of describing the different c/s styles based on how they split the three components of any application: user interface.cc. For example. it is transformed by the frontware application into a corresponding 3270 data format and is sent to the host computer.Subject: 3.4 What is distributed or remote presentation? From: Ravi Kalakota <email@example.com. with the exception of user interface translation logic and possibly validation logic. The five styles are distributed presentation.This is "frontware" solution. distributed function. When the user enters the data in a GUI window. remote data management.rochester. Front-ending or HLLAPI (High-Level Language Application Programming Interface). The merged data is sent to the workstation as a 3270 data stream.cc. most processing remains on the host or server.edu> For people whose roots are embedded in the mainframe IBM world. client-server is essentially distributed or remote presentation. The mode of operation is typically intelligent workstations intercepting and interrogating text-screen (e. Mapping. data management. data from an application program is sent to a 3270 screen program on the mainframe to be displayed. . This is also called Remote.The workstation interprets the data and converts it to graphical form in a window. 3270) data streams sent from a host for display in a windowed environment.g. and distributed data management. (Typically every mainframe screen used by the application has a corresponding window on the workstation and vice versa). where a GUI front end is added to an IBM/MVS 3270/5250 application and is placed on a workstation. remote presentation. (Note: This is an arbitary classification and others may do it differently) Subject: 3.
The underlying communications facilities may implement either a message-based or remote procedure call (RPC) mechanism for transfer of dialog and data. However.edu> Here the split occurs in the application functionality. other to the server. there are many variants of this typology.rochester. In this instance.6 What is distributed function processing? From: Ravi Kalakota <firstname.lastname@example.org.Subject: 3. the server then responds with data that satisfies the query. Developers must analyze where each function should reside and what type of dialog must occur between the two programs.7 What is IBM's System Application Architecture? .edu> In remote data management.rochester.This style represents a more traditional LAN database server or file server approach. Workstations support the presentation and function logic and interface with the data server through the data manipulation language. Distributed function applications are the most complex of the three typologies since two separately compiled application programs must be developed.5 What is Remote Data Management? From: Ravi Kalakota <kalakota@uhura. One variant of the distributed function style is where data management and application function occur at both the client and server. Remote Data Management is relatively easily to program for because there is just one application program. one part going to the client. the entire application resides on the client and the data managment is located on a remote server/host. Data frequently updated or accessed by many users would reside on the server. RDBMS products that offer remote data management provide a layer of software on the client to handle the communication with the DBMS server. data management at the client would include referential. This is most relevant for architectures having data spread across several servers and when access to a DBMS on another server is required.cc. Subject: 3. Subject: 3. read-only data.Distributed data management is an extension of remote data management and uses the distributed facilities of the DBMS to access distributed data in a manner transparent to users. The client communicates with the server using SQL.
edu> SAA is a collection of selected software interfaces.2.rochester. This approach allows varied clients to communicate with many different servers. and protocols that are used as a framework for developing consistent.8 What is APPLE's VITAL architecture? From: Ravi Kalakota <email@example.com. and Apple Computer.edu> VITAL provides a way of building information systems constructed from generalized modules that can be reused and shared.9 What is Sun's Open Network Computing Architecture? From: Ravi Kalakota <kalakota@uhura. DAL sits between the client and server components.edu> Open Network Computing (ONC) is the Sun architecture. Four major components of this architecture are: . a change in the DBMS does not affect the front-end.Common User Access (CUA) defines conventions for GUI look and feel. DOS and Windows clients are sold separately).rochester. .Common Programming Interface (CPI) provides languages. Subject: 3. and APIs that give applications greater portability and more consistent user interfaces across multiple platforms. conventions. IBM. Transport Independent Remote Procedure .From: Ravi Kalakota <firstname.lastname@example.org.Common Applications.cc. A cornerstone of Apple's client/server architecture is Data Access Language (DAL). integrated applications across the major IBM computing environments. such as LU 6. written by IBM.cc. tools. efficient RPC that is particularly effective for installations not requiring WAN support. . will serve as demonstrations of SAA concepts and make it easy for users to migrate between systems. Subject: 3. . Sun's RPC is licensed by more than 300 companies. It is a lean.It specifies how to construct and provide interfaces for these modules.Common Communication Support (CCS) supports existing communications standards. With DAL. including DEC. with third party alliances providing the missing pieces. it simply requires the appropriate DAL link. DAL consists of software components for the client and the server (Macintosh System 7 includes the client component.
and Distributed File Service (DFS). RPC. Solaris.System Access services which provides a standard operating system interface.org/dce/faq-mauney. available at http://www. CDS. Subject: 3. graphics and conventional text) . Security.Calls (TI-RPC) were co-developed by Sun and AT&T.com> (Extracted. the Security Service.) DCE consists of multiple components which have been integrated to work closely together.edu> NAS is a software suite that enables applications to be integrated across a distributed network of multivendor systems: NAS services are divided into four main groups: . DCE Threads. The Threads. PCNFS. They are the Remote Procedure Call (RPC).Application Access Services which support user interface (forms based.mauney. from the Open Software Foundation.10 What is Digital's Network Application System (NAS) architecture? From: Ravi Kalakota <kalakota@uhura. Subject: 3. and DTS components are commonly referred to as the "secure core" and are the required . the Cell and Global Directory Services (CDS and GDS).11 What is OSF-DCE? From: Jon Mauney <mauney@jtec. from the DCE FAQ.rochester.cc. Distributed Time Service (DTS). AIX/6000. graphical or character terminal based) .Communication and Central services which support communications using electronic mail and EDI .Information and resource sharing. with permission. UNIX/SVR4. NetWise developed the TI-RPC Application Toolkit source code generation technology.osf. which supports database access and compound documents (collection of images. allowing applications to run unmodified over multiple transport protocols including NetWare. (It is called "the DCE" by sticklers for grammatical consistency.html) DCE is the Distributed Computing Environment. AIX/ESA. TI-RPC runs independent of the underlying network transport.
(For technical details.cc. can completely replace their current.org) Subject: 3. It is not DCE is called "middleware" or "enabling technology.A uniform framework.components of any DCE installation. Subject: 3.13 What is CORBA? From: Lloyd Taylor <Lloyd. based on standards and extensibility.omg.rochester. and defining objects in a distributed computing environment.edu> CORBA stands for the Common Object Request Broker Architecture. DCE's security and distributed filesystem. Subject: 3. DFS is an optional component. and deploy open distributed-computing applications .A single interface to manage the complexities of a heterogeneous environment .Taylor@jhuapl. analogs.edu> . non-network.cc.A method for creating location independence for client applications. They are aimed at addressing the following: .14 What is DAE? From: Ravi Kalakota <email@example.com> DOMS provide a way of pulling diverse components together and managing their communications.12 What are Distributed Object Management Systems (DOMS)? From: Ravi Kalakota <kalakota@uhura. for example. integrate. but instead should be integrated or bundled into a vendor's operating system offering. locating." intended to exist alone.rochester. peruse the Object Management Group web site at http://www. It is a set of standard mechanisms for naming. to build.
if ever. Subject: 4. . Today.2.au> Traditional applications architectures have been based on function.com. agree. Client/Server Business Application Architectures From: Bernard Robertson-Dunn <brd@netinfo. deliver goods. The functional structure and process model rarely. Therefore.1 Business-Focused Client/Server Architecture From: Bernard Robertson-Dunn <brd@netinfo. Subject: Part 4: Client/Server Business Issues Subject: 4. which details the business functions of the organisation (eg accept orders. devices. receive money). to meet the needs of the business an application architecture should reflect the complete range of business requirements. which reflects organisational responsibilities and the way in which the people who use the system view their work. bill customers.An information model. equipment and sensors. (4) DEVICE services to capture data and to control a broad category of controllers. DAE consists (1) MESSAGING services. which details the information that the organisation needs to function. (2) DATABASE services .A functional model.au> When analysing a business there are three views of the organisation: .Distributed Application Environment is designed to allow businesses to use IBM's RISC System/6000 and PS/2 computers in a client/server network (or standalone) for their business applications. . (3) PRESENTATION services.com. make goods. client/server computing demands a three layer view of the .A process model.
The only answer to the question "why build client/server applications?" is "because the business demands the increased benefits.applications were implemented as monolithic systems . which implements the process model 3 The data layer. which implements the information model It should be noted that this application architecture does not demand multiple hardware platforms. which is an enabling factor in systems building. if the environment is robust and reliable enough and the business is prepared to pay the additional costs associated with workstation and LAN technology. Subject: 4. although such technology can be utilised. has almost reached the stage where these systems can be designed and created. more difficult and more expensive than traditional. 1 The user interface layer. Problems with existing systems include: . flexible. Businesses today need integrated.au> Client/server computing has arisen because of a change in business needs. which must be incorporated into the new.the supporting technology was based on a centralised control model Information technology. .3 Business Drivers From: Bernard Robertson-Dunn <brd@netinfo. integrated environment.applications were complex . most businesses have existing systems based on older technology.com.applications were developed to model vertical applications . single process applications.organisation. Unfortunately. which implements the functional model 2 The business function layer. The development and implementation of client/server computing is more complex. responsive and comprehensive applications to support the complete range of business processes.applications were built in isolation .
.There is a need for empowerment of staff and audit trail of actions .5 What does business expect from IT? From: Bernard Robertson-Dunn <brd@netinfo.New applications should be aligned with both the user's view and the business process view.The customer should deal with the same person over multiple contacts. programming paradigms.com.Subject: 4.Multi-skilled and multi-function teams need access to multiple applications Subject: 4.Applications need to provide a consistent user interface .The customer should have a single point of contact for all business with the organisation .au> .There is a change to team based management .The time required to complete the work will be minimised .4 Business Benefits From: Bernard Robertson-Dunn <brd@netinfo.Application complexity needs to be hidden .There is a perceived need for vendor independence.au> .The user will perform as much processing as possible during customer contact time .The user interaction must be flexible . Existing functionally aligned systems are not appropriate .Organisation have changed from steep hierarchies to flattened hierarchies . This includes application development methodologies.Network management is replacing vertical management . .com. products and architectures.
cc. cultural values. Subject: Part 5: Books on Client/Server Computing Subject: 5.A variety of user interface styles to reflect the needs of the work .Taylor@jhuapl.An ability to evolve IT systems to reflect changing business requirements . processing and incentives towards targeted improvements. Essential Client/Server Survival Guide New York : Van Nostrand Reinhold .edu> Reengineering is the organizational process required to align people.rochester.6 What is Business Process Reengineering? From: Ravi Kalakota <kalakota@uhura. It can also be thought of as taking a business in its current state and forming an organizational and operational blueprint to redirect skills. processes and technology with strategies to achieve business integration. information (data).1 Introductory/Overview Books From: Lloyd Taylor <Lloyd.Consistent information across all applications . organizational structures.It is essential that there be integrity of transactional processes Subject: 4. al.edu> AUTHOR: TITLE: PUBLISHED: Orfali. policies..IT systems will support all activity performed by the user.Users should be able to modify business rules without reference to IT staff . Robert. not just a part . et.
Patrick.. David David Linthicum's Guide to Client/Server and Intranet Development Wiley. Alex Client-server architecture / Alex Berson. c1992. c1996. Dan Harkey. James Martin/McGraw-Hill productivity series 007016732X Renaud. 2nd Edition New York : Wiley. Client/server computing Carmel. c1992. Ranade series on computer communications 0070050767 Smith. VNR computer library 0442012195 Dewire. c1992.0 New York : Van Nostrand Reinhold. c1993.Taylor@jhuapl. Ind. Robert.edu> AUTHOR: TITLE: PUBLISHED: SERIES: ISBN: AUTHOR: TITLE: PUBLISHED: SERIES: ISBN: AUTHOR: TITLE: PUBLISHED: SERIES: ISBN: Orfali. Dawna Travis Client/server computing New York : McGraw-Hill. : SAMS. Wiley professional computing 0471133337 .2 Detailed Technical Books From: Lloyd Taylor <Lloyd. 0672300656 Linthicum. Professional reference series. J. 1957Introduction to Client/Server Systems. Paul E.ISBN: AUTHOR: TITLE: PUBLISHED: SERIES: ISBN: AUTHOR: TITLE: PUBLISHED: SERIES: ISBN: AUTHOR: TITLE: PUBLISHED: ISBN: 0-442-01941-6 Berson. Client/server programming with OS/2 2. New York : McGraw-Hill. 047117467X Subject: 5. c1997.
Networking the enterprise : how to build client/server systems that work New York : McGraw-Hill. c1994 0-13-220138-0 Inmon. Group. 1947Implementing client/server computing : a strategic perspective McGraw-Hill systems design & implementation 0070062153 Subject: Part 6: Vendor Information Vendors may submit information for possible inclusion in this section to lloyd@abs. Please limit your submission to one paragraph. Richard H.Taylor@jhuapl. c1993. If you want to be taken seriously by the readership of comp. it is strongly suggested that you include a pointer to your WWW page.edu> AUTHOR: TITLE: PUBLISHED: SERIES: ISBN: AUTHOR: TITLE: PUBLISHED: ISBN: AUTHOR: TITLE: PUBLISHED: ISBN: AUTHOR: TITLE: SERIES: ISBN: Baker. get one.Subject: 5. Bernard H. R. .net. 0894354582 Boar. William H.. If you don't have one. and include contact information. Developing client/server applications Boston : QED Pub. (Editor) Distributed Computing: Implementation and Management Strategies New Jersey: Prentice Hall.client-server.3 Other Books From: Lloyd Taylor <Lloyd. No endorsement is to be inferred from inclusion in the CS-FAQ. c1994 McGraw-Hill series on computer communications 0070050899 : 0070050902 (PBK) Khanna.
or browse <http://www.corsof.x.1. Inc. Inc. Session management services provide guaranteed message delivery. prioritization. EZ-RPC is available on more than 40 platforms.1 Middleware Vendors From: Lloyd Taylor <Lloyd. including most UNIXes. SCO.com with the single word "subscribe" in the message body.Taylor@jhuapl. most Windows. event-driven architecture.Subject: 6.com/>. Vms. Application developers use the Piccolo API to access data and applications residing on any of the supported platforms on a network. point your Web browser to http://www. even as machines and applications are added or moved. TCP/IP.com/. an RPC precompiler tool kit that includes our enhanced XDR (packaged as an IDL). We also publish a Windows rpcgen and distribute the IONA coporation's Orbix Object Request Broker development toolkit. Solaris 2.edu> ======= NobleNet specializes in providing high quality middleware tools for client-server development. For more information. PIPES Platform's cross-platform . from PeerLogic. A new product. and several others.com. sequencing. or call Piccolo Sales at 603-595-7480. OS/2. is a message-oriented middleware product that provides application developers with peer-to-peer connectivity without regard for the underlying communications transport (i. Subscribe by sending a message to ezrpc-request@world. is available for those working with databases. and the Tandem NonStop Kernel. contact NobleNet. Macs. send email to sales@noblenet. For more information. a distributed two-tier ODBC driver SDK.com. ======= Piccolo(tm). HP-UX (HP9000/700 & 800). is message-oriented middleware that provides the essential communications services for distributing applications across the enterprise. from Cornerstone Software.e. at 508-460-8222. A dynamic name service lets you find at run-time and communicate with any application resource in the PIPES Platform network. It is also supported on Windows 3. An EZ-RPC mailing list is available. We provide free evaluation copies of EZ-RPC to qualified programmers. NetBios. dynamic re-routing. PIPES Platform's process-to-process messaging allows development of applications with an asynchronous. integrity. and various libraries. and Silicon Graphics (SGI). Our premier product is EZ-RPC.noblenet. Piccolo is supported on UNIX versions AIX. ======= PIPES Platform. precompiler.std. Tandem S2 Integrity. PIPES Platform automatically maintains information on all PIPES Platform resources. Windows NT. or E-mail piccolo@corsof. and error handling. Async). The developers need no programming knowledge of the underlying transport protocol. non-blocking.
and securely across different operating system platforms.htm. and RPC. handles communication protocols. from Talarian Corporation. Windows NT. or anywhere on the Internet. on a LAN. and legacy platform. TOP END runs on Windows (all versions). Subject: 6. UNIX.Taylor@jhuapl.com/. Contact Jennifer Hart. Product Marketing. jhart@peerlogic. Director. The communicating processes can reside on the same machine. peer-to-peer. and includes support for Java and Active/X applications. not communications.com.edu> .com/ ======= SmartSockets (tm). or E-mail info@talarian. 145. telecomm and other industries to build some of the largest transaction processing systems connectiong 100s of nodes and up to 10. Windows 3. Entersoft is the sole supplier of TOP END on most platforms. SmartSockets's programming model is built specifically to offer high-speed interprocess communication. and deals with recovery after system/network failures. scalability. Customers can contact Entersoft at http://www. SmartSockets is an industrial-strength package which takes care of network interfaces.com or at 908-575-9100. contact Kelly Bernardo at 650-965-8050 ext.2 Test Software Vendors From: Lloyd Taylor <Lloyd.entersoft. OpenVMS. SmartSockets is available on most UNIX. on a WAN.000s users. through the use of messages.1. reliably. visit our home page at http://www. For more information.talarian. Windows 95. TOP END has been used by customers in banking. Included as part of the package are graphical tools for monitoring and debugging your application. at http://www.ncr. Also. and OS/2. http://www.and multiprotocol support provide a consistent communications interface that allows developers to focus on business logic. 800-733-7601.com/product/topend/index. retail. ======= Entersoft Systems Corporation supplies NCR's TOP END (tm) Transaction Request Broker middleware. is a rapid application development toolkit which enables processes to communicate quickly. guarantees delivery of messages. It supports a variety of communication paradigms including publish-subscibe. Entersoft also provides add-on products for transaction processing. reliability and fault tolerance. Customers can also get additional TOP END information at NCR.peerlogic. such as the TOP END-Tuxedo Message Gateway.com.
Windows NT and mainframe systems and can integrate and synchronize the many different databases used on each of these platforms. is the maker of ICONIX PowerTools. For further information. Director. New Media Marketing & Communications.biap. VA 22102 (703)448-6606. Windows. Voice: 310-458-0092. 8200 Greensboro Drive.edu> ======= ICONIX Software Engineering. by visiting the new ICONIX WWW PowerPage site: <http://www. Enterprises can quickly develop distributed and highly scaleable business application systems. Scripts can be enhanced with C of many users on an between a client and with or without the language to extend captured activity and vary the data in queries and updates. ICONIX. Inc.======= EMPOWER/CS is load testing software for client/server applications. ICONIX offers a free white paper on combining OMT with Objectory for client/server development. Load testing is the process of analyzing the effect application. McLean. CASE tools for object-oriented and structured development. ODBC or SQL) capabilities with transaction processing. along with special offers and product information about ICONIX PowerTools. contact Alyse Rome. EMPOWER/CS charts the time each user must wait for his or her screen response before an application is deployed. It builds scripts that can be replayed client devices. ======= Unisys TransIT Open/OLTP Software is a suite of development tools and runtime management software that provides transaction processing extensions for Windows and Windows NT and UNIX based applications.com. email: ICONIX@eworld.. networks and protocols. Performix. plus Windows and Windows NT Dynamic Link Libraries (DLLs). Email: firstname.lastname@example.org/iconix/>. based on standard (X/Open and ISO) high-level APIs. EMPOWER/CS listens to the traffic server. This Client/Server middleware works with Microsoft or third party development tools and includes the libraries for C. On every platform.g. Inc.com Subject: 6. These applications can then seamlessly blend the attributes of UNIX. Suite 1475. C++ or COBOL. The Windows and Windows NT support also includes OLE point-and-click features for application development. naming/location services ..3 Development Tool Vendors From: Lloyd Taylor <Lloyd.Taylor@jhuapl. (703)893-1939 (fax). these tools enhance normal data access (e.
JAM also integrates seamlessly with more than twenty of the most popular RDMBS products. The INTERSOLV World Wide Web site can be accessed at http://www. Motif. CS/8000 keeps you organized and keeps you on track. For more information. Macintosh.com ======= JYACC is the maker of JAM 7. Informix. INTERSOLV development solutions are available for object-oriented development. Phone:800-458-3313 or 212-267-7722 ======= INTERSOLV is a leading provider of open client/server development solutions. its own scripting language called JPL. or contact Phil Wimpenny via telephone at +1-215-986-5765 or via email at wimpenny@po3. including Tuxedo.unisys.com or contacting us. JAM works with the leading Transaction Monitors. Sybase.000 product licenses at 16. Email: jazzin@jyacc. JAM applications can run unmodified on more than 100 platforms and operating environments. With CS/8000 you have all the tools you need to manage client/server projects of any level of complexity. develop your project plan.intersolv.cscl. software configuration management and data warehousing. and various tools and utilities. Customers benefit from INTERSOLVs common look and feel. Voice: 914-241-9100 email: email@example.com. server applications are immune to client changes due to new platforms. applications or interfaces. please reference: <http://www. including native drivers for Oracle. and generate all of your project documentation. a Visual Object Repository to allow creation of complex objects that can be shared across screens and updated through inheritance. Likewise.unisys. and others. VAX/VMS. DB/2. broad coverage and rich functionality.com .com/>. and virtually every implementation of UNIX.com>. both in character-mode and in Motif. ODBC.and the store and forward (queuing) of messages. has more than 375. MS-Windows. including DOS. INTERSOLV. open client/server development. 100's of C library function calls. Learn more about Client/Server Connection by visiting us at http://www. with annual revenues exceeding $120 million. Use it to select your system architecture. It consists of a graphical screen painter. OS/2 Presentation Manager. expert systems and client/server system architectures.com/. Runtime environments are highly tunable with the ability to locate and/or replicate server applications as desired without any impact to the client applications.bb. ======= CS/8000 is the first development system that seamlessly integrates methodology. please reference <http://www. a cross-platform tool for building client/server and distributed applications.000+ customer sites around the world. so that developers can create true Three-Tier applications.jyacc. For more information.
Blyth Software is headquartered in Foster City. CI-Link is a powerful middleware that connects SQL database with Macintosh and PC/Windows applications.======= Cornut Informatique provides a range of client/server products.com email: info@blyth. and distributors throughout Europe.346. including Power Builder.fr ======= MAGNA X from Magna Software Corporation provides a safe growth path to the open systems environments of the 1990's. and maintaining workgroup. deploying.magna. The MAGNA X development environment is currently available on most major UNIX platforms.com or call 212/691-0300. Japan and Korea. Eclipse Builder is C/S development environment for Macintosh and PC/Windows. If PB or VB is used. Java. Oracle.fr/. Local service and support is available in the U.blyth. England.482258 email: alistair_killick@blyth. departmental and enterprise client/server applications.S. C or C++. try and judge. There is no run-time software. and mainframes. Services are generated for UNIX and/or CICS/ESA.cornut. a path that preserves and leverages your existing IS investment. Front-end clients can be written in any language. Eclipse Query is an easy to use query tool for Macintosh and PC/Windows.com UK/EUC Sales: (44) 1344. MX "Wizards" automate the construction of fully functional "test clients" with no programming required. CICS. Sybase and Informix are supported.000 registered developers and 450 ISVs worldwide. Frederic Bouquet. Asia Pacific and Latin America. Germany. Hamburg. The Cornut Informatique Web site can be accessed at http://www. efficient.com UK/EUC Tech Supp: (44) 1344. Industry-standard middleware (Encina. Windows NT support has been announced. Blyth has more than 25.com ======= . with international offices in London. Eclipse Report is graphical multi data source report generator.2220 email: us_support@blyth. www. DB2/AIX. MAGNA X is an open OLTP application development system that simplifies growth into the complex world of distributed computing involving PCs.482258 email: uk_sales@blyth. UNIX servers.570. Europe. For more information: info@magna. concentrating on the SERVER portion of distributed systems. Visual Basic. Don't read our lips. Tuxedo. URL: http://www.com US Sales: 1. Service programs are generated in COBOL and/or C++ (available late '96) and are fully compiled. ======= Blyth Software is an international supplier of modular application development tools for building. Unlike competing 3-tier products. MAGNA X is strictly open.com. California. firstname.lastname@example.org US TechSupport: 415. DB2/MVS.6647 email: us_sales@blyth. MAGNA X generates three-tier client/server TP systems. Delphi. Entera) is used for connectivity.800.
Unix or Tandem servers. generating runtime-free C code. making native use of middleware.Dynasty is a true Enterprise Client/Server development environment.x/95/NT. Informix. ====== Systemator is produced by Sysdeco. tel:+47 22 09 65 00.sysdeco. Systemator supports a wide range of machine platforms. NatStar automatically generates code and SQL that can be deployed in a multi-tier environment. Motif and Macintosh. the functions and the information of your enterprise. NatStar is a perfect tool for Component Based Development and today offers a catalog of tried and tested technical . as well as Tuxedo for more complex distributed applications requiring TP. Such an abstract model of the data ensures portability between several database management systems and windowing systems. Sybase. from the mainframe to the desktop.no. Presentation can be targeted at Windows 3. native to the target platforms. fax: +47 22 09 65 01) ======= Nat Systems builds and supports the NatStar development tool. SqlBase. NatStar offers an pragmatically object oriented and user friendly environment for rapidly developing applications that can be deployed enterprise-wide. Data modeling is used for describing the structure of the information handled by the organization. The data model is the basis for generating both database structures and user dialogs. testing and maintenance of information systems.no/tools/systemator/ or by contacting Vivian Ra (vra@sysdeco. For more information see http://www. enabling a dynamically partitioned application. Standard communication protocols such as IMC and TCP/IP are supported. Powerbuilder and Internet clients. with no limit to the number of tiers. In Systemator's model designer you can build abstract models of the structure. More information is available on the WWW at http://www. SQL for Oracle. Systemator provides support for all phases of the development process. Thanks to its graphical dialog modeling and editing tools. Its powerful repository and conceptual modeling abilities ensure cost effective development as well as much lower maintenance costs. OS/2. with the option to modify it if necessary. from standalone with the client. It is also possible to create servers that can be accessed from Visual Basic. NatStar's development environment offers three separate but tightly integrated modules for graphically defining the presentation. OS/2. Services can be automatically partitioned in various ways. It provides a truly Open solution. a well-known Scandinavian software company. data model and workflow model of the application. Systemator provides a powerful GUI prototyping capability which greatly facilitates user involvement in the initial stage of prototyping. SQL Server and ODBC is automatically generated. Nonstop SQL. from modeling through to implementation. database systems and user interfaces. DB2/2. to out on NT.com where local country information is also available.dynasty.
csc. NatWeb is Nat Systems' solution for developing Internet applications that front-end legacy systems. etc. will scale to more than 250 processors and manage 100 terabytes of data. is a leading architect and provider of open client/server solutions for enterprise business computing. data warehouses and the application of internet technologies to business communications (including intranets). architects enterprise-class computing environments based on open systems. ======= Sequent Computer Systems. and today. Configuration & Change management. With an installed base of nearly 8. enabling integration with upper CASE tools. The business side includes a Consultant's Corner where there are articles from industry experts. or browse our website at http://www.com/. There is also a Client/Server Spotlight section that contains a C/S Newsletter and information on other C/S resources.Taylor@jhuapl. decision support (DSS)/data warehousing and Internet-based applications. Nat Systems offers support for the entire software development cycle. and business components for the near future.000 systems. Suggestions on additional content are welcome. Sequent leads all other vendors of high-end UNIX systems supporting very large-scale on-line transaction processing (OLTP). NUMA-Q systems.ibm. Sequent successfully commercialized symmetric multiprocessing (SMP). It addresses both business and technical issues. The technical side includes a web demo of IBM's Client/Server Advisor System and many client/server success stories from around the world. document management. Call (530) 626-5700. Symmetry servers incorporate up to 30 industry-standard processors to provide superior price/performance and scalability for on-line transaction processing (OLTP).components.4 Other Client/Server Vendors From: Lloyd Taylor <Lloyd. ======= .sequent.edu> ======= The IBM Client/Server Computing Unit maintains a web page at http://www. educational and professional services geared to help organizations re-architect their existing information technology infrastructures.com dedicated to information related to client/server computing. Inc.com for more info. Sequent's project-oriented offerings include consulting. Subject: 6.natsys. See www. Sequent's next-generation. workflow tools.
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