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Client/Server Frequently Asked Questions
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From: email@example.com (Lloyd Taylor) Newsgroups: comp.client-server, comp.object.corba Subject: Client/Server Frequently Asked Questions Sender: firstname.lastname@example.org Message-ID: <email@example.com> Reply-To: firstname.lastname@example.org (Client/Server FAQ Maintainer) Summary: This posting contains a list of Frequently Asked Questions about Client/Server Computing. Please read it before you post questions to the comp.client-server newsgroup. Keywords: FAQ CLIENT SERVER DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING Date: 17 Aug 1998 09:16:12 -0400 Posted-By: auto-faq 18.104.22.168 Archive-name: client-server-faq
Revision: 1.12 1998/08/17 13:15:27 Posting-frequency: Monthly, on the 17th Client/Server Frequently Asked Questions Information about this document Contained below is a list of commonly asked questions in comp.client-server. Before posting a question to comp.client-server, check to see if your question(s) are already answered below. Additional questions (and answers!) may be emailed to email@example.com. If the question is of general interest, it may be added to the CS-FAQ. Questions that relate to specific client/server implementation issues may be answered in one or more of the books listed in the FAQ. If answers cannot be found there, consider posting your question to comp.client-server. Due to the volume of email I receive, I cannot respond to individual questions. Vendors of client/server products and services are welcome to submit *brief* summaries of their offerings for inclusion in a separate portion of this FAQ. A single paragraph which includes pointers to additional information (www, ftp, email, or voice telephone) is welcome. The most recent (authoritative) version of this FAQ is always available at: http://www.abs.net/~lloyd/csfaq.txt In addition, this FAQ is archived at many sites, including the following. Any site which mirrors "rtfm.mit.edu" should have a current copy as well. If you did not receive the entire posting, please check here: ftp://ftp.uu.net/usenet/news.answers/client-server-faq.Z ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet-by-group/news.answers/
-- Lloyd Taylor comp.client-server FAQ maintainer Home Page: <http://www.wp.com/Lloyd.Taylor> Changes since last release: Updated contact info for Talarian
1 3.3 2.Subject: Table of Contents Client/Server Frequently Asked Questions List Last Revision: 8/17/98 Part 1: Introduction and Miscellaneous questions 1.6 Client/Server Business Issues Business-Focused Client/Server Architecture Client/Server Business Application Architectures Business Drivers Business Benefits What does business expect from IT? What is Business Process Reengineering? .2 3.2 2.3 3.10 3.4 3.8 3.5 3.12 3.1 4.4 4.14 Client/Server Technical Issues are the characteristics of a Client/Server architecture? are the different types of Servers? are the different client/server processing styles? is Distributed or Remote Presentation? is Remote Data Management? is Distributed Function Processing? is IBM's System Application Architecture? is APPLE's VITAL architecture? What What What What What What What What What is Sun's Open Network Computing Architecture? What is Digital's Network Application System (NAS) architecture? What is OSF-DCE? What are DOMS (Distributed Object Management Systems)? What is CORBA? What is DAE? Part 4: 4.2 4.11 3.8 2.4 2.6 3.9 3.1 What archives/FTP sites carry client-server related material? Part 2: Client/Server Definitions 2.3 4.7 3.9 What is Client-server Computing? What What What What What What What What is is is is is is is is a Client Process? a Server Process? a Two-Tier Architecture? a Three-Tier Architecture? Middleware? Cooperative Processing? Distributed Processing? an "Intranet"? Part 3: 3.7 2.1 2.6 2.5 4.5 2.13 3.
wenet.org/dce/faq-mauney.html Client/Server Computing Page http://www.Part 5: Books and Articles on Client/Server computing 5.de/~cetus/software.html ftp://ftp.2 6.edu.3 6.edu> Object Management Group: http://www.org/dce/qna OSF/DCE FAQ http://www.net/~jtmalone/ Subject: Part 2: Definitions .1 5.3 Introductory/Overview Books Detailed Technical Books Other Books Part 6: Vendor Information 6.omg.1 What sites carry client-server related material? From: Lloyd Taylor <Lloyd.osf.au/pub/DCE/ Object-Oriented Links at Cetus (Germany) http://www.osf.1 6.2 5.dstc.rhein-neckar.Taylor@jhuapl.org/ DCE Questions and Answers: http://www.4 Middleware Vendors Test Software Vendors Development Tool Vendors Other Client/Server Vendors Subject: 1.
The client-based process is the front.com> The short answer: Client/server is a computational architecture that involves client processes requesting service from server processes.cc. The long answer: Client/server computing is the logical extension of modular programming. The client process contains solution-specific logic and provides the interface between the user and the rest of the application .ibm.1 What is Client-server Computing? From: Steve Hultquist <ssh@vnet. The logical extension of this is to have clients and servers running on the appropriate hardware and software platforms for their functions.rochester. requesting that the server perform a task (service). Subject: 2. It is this latter perspective that has created the widely-believed myth that client/server has something to do with PCs or Unix machines. and sometimes execute business logic. validate data entered by the user.Subject: 2.end of the application that the user sees and interacts with. Client/server computing takes this a step farther by recognizing that those modules need not all be executed within the same memory space. the calling module becomes the "client" (that which requests a service). Client programs usually manage the user-interface portion of the application.edu> The client is a process (program) that sends a message to a server process (program). With this architecture. For example. and the called module becomes the "server" (that which provides the service). database management system servers running on platforms specially designed and configured to perform queries. or file servers running on platforms with special elements for managing files. dispatch requests to server programs. Modular programming has as its fundamental assumption that separation of a large piece of software into its constituent parts ("modules") creates the possibility for easier development and better maintainability.2 What is a Client process? From: Ravi Kalakota <kalakota@uhura.
The server process acts as a software engine that manages shared resources such as databases. communication links. it is usually necessary to move to a three-tier architecture. The client process also manages the local resources that the user interacts with such as the monitor.cc. manages the windows on the display and displays the data in the windows. printers. The server-based process "may" run on another machine on the network. It is typically used in small environments (less than 50 users). with no intervening server. Subject: 2.edu> A server process (program) fulfills the client request by performing the task requested.Taylor@jhuapl. Sometimes server programs execute common or complex business logic.system.4 What is a Two-Tier Architecture? From: Lloyd Taylor <Lloyd. This server could be the host operating system or network file server. the window manager detects user actions. properly scale to hundreds or thousands of users. Normally a part of operating system i. Subject: 2.3 What is a Server process? From: Ravi Kalakota <kalakota@uhura. The server process performs the back-end tasks that are common to similar applications. This approach will usually result in an ineffective system. two-tier environment. A common error in client/server development is to prototype an application in a small. Or in some cases. workstation CPU and peripherals.edu> A two-tier architecture is where a client talks directly to a server. as the server becomes overwhelmed. To .e.rochester. Server programs generally receive requests from client programs. and then scale up by simply adding more users to the server. another desktop machine provides the application services. manage data integrity and dispatch responses to client requests. execute database retrieval and updates. One of the key elements of a client workstation is the graphical user interface (GUI). keyboard. the server is then provided both file system services and application services. or high powered-processors.
The protocols are divided into three groups: media.edu> Connectivity allows applications to transparently communicate with other programs or processes.rochester.6 What is Middleware? From: Ravi Kalakota <firstname.lastname@example.org What is a Three-Tier Architecture? From: Lloyd Taylor <Lloyd. Transport Level Interface (TLI) and Sequenced Packet Exchange (SPX)). Media protocols determine the type of physical connections used on a network (some examples of media protocols are Ethernet. NOS provides services such as routing.edu> A three-tier architecture introduces a server (or an "agent") between the client and the server. The role of the agent is manyfold. and returning a single response to the client. A transport protocol provides the mechanism to move packets of data from client to server (some examples of transport protocols are Novell's IPX/SPX. a client-server protocol is required before the user can access the network services. Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol (TCP/IP). The key element of connectivity is the network operating system (NOS). transport and client-server protocols. coaxial and twisted-pair). Once the physical connection has been established and transport protocols chosen. Apple's AppleTalk. Token Ring.cc.Subject: 2. Sockets. Advanced Program-to-Program Communication (APPC). distribution. collating the results. Named Pipes. A client-server protocol dictates the manner in which clients request information and services from a server and also how the server replies to that request (some examples of clientserver protocols are NetBIOS. . Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) and Government Open Systems Interconnection Profile(GOSIP)). messaging. or intellegent agent services (as in mapping a request to a number of different servers. metering services (as in acting as a transaction monitor to limit the number of simultaneous requests to a given server). NOS rely on communication protocols to provide specific services. It can provide translation services (as in adapting a legacy application on a mainframe to a client/server environment).Taylor@jhuapl. Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI). Subject: 2. RPC. regardless of their location. file and print. and network management services.
i.rochester. each process performs part of an application in a sequence. Cooperative processing is related to both distributed and client/server processing. Cooperative processing can also be considered to be a style of client/server processing if communication between processors is performed through a message passing architecture.rochester. Many corporations have discovered that these same technologies can be used for internal client/server applications with the same ease that they are used on the Internet.9 What is an "Intranet"? From: Lloyd Taylor <Lloyd. Subject: 2. Thus was born the concept of the "Intranet": the use of Internet technologies for implementing internal client/server applications.cc. server standard (HTTP).e. these programs interact and execute concurrently on different processors.7 What is Cooperative Processing? From: Ravi Kalakota <kalakota@uhura. and markup language (HTML). Subject: 2. It is a form of distributed computing where two or more distinct processes are required to complete a single business transaction. Often the data used in a distributed processing environment is also distributed across platforms. processing is distributed across two or more machines and the processes are most likely not running at the same time.8 What is Distributed Processing? From: Ravi Kalakota <email@example.com> The explosion of the World Wide Web is due to the world-wide acceptance of a common transport (TCP/IP).cc.Taylor@jhuapl. In other words. Distributed processing implies that processing will occur on more than one processor in order for a transaction to be completed. . Usually.edu> Cooperative processing is computing which requires two or more distinct processors to complete a single transaction.edu> The distribution of applications and business logic across multiple processing platforms.Subject: 2.
such as data files and peripheral devices. the client passes requests for files or file records over a network to the file server.2 What are the different types of servers? From: Ravi Kalakota <kalakota@uhura. There are procedural statements on the server to execute a group of SQL statements (transactions) which either all succeed or fail as a unit. Subject: 3. In database servers. The communication overhead in this approach is kept to a minimum as the exchange typically consists of a single request/reply (as opposed to multiple SQL statements in database servers). Application servers are not necessarily database centered but are used to server user needs. transaction server and application servers (Orfali and Harkey 1992). In transaction servers. The applications based on transaction servers are called On-line Transaction Processing (OLTP) and tend to be mission-critical applications which require 1-3 second response time. by moving them from standalone PCUs onto a Networked File Server (NFS).edu> The simplest form of servers are disk servers and file servers. clients invoke remote procedures that reside on servers which also contains an SQL database engine.rochester. The code that processes the SQL request and the data resides on the server allowing it to use its own processing power to find the requested data. such as.cc. download capabilities from Dow Jones or regulating a electronic mail process. rather than pass all the records back to a client and let it find its own data as was the case for the file server. Traditional LAN computing allows users to share resources. clients passes SQL (Structured Query Language) requests as messages to the server and the results of the query are returned over the network. which are also based in the server. They can be scaled horizontally or vertically. Basing resources on a server allows users to share data. This form of data service requires large bandwidth and can slow a network with many users down considerably. Horizontal scaling means adding or removing client workstations with only a slight performance impact. while security and management services.well-defined set of standard application program interfaces (API's) and RPC's. . ensure data integrity and security. 4) An important characteristic of client-server systems is scalability. With a file server. The more advanced form of servers are database servers. Vertical scaling means migrating to a larger and faster server machine or multiservers. 100% of the time and require tight controls over the security and integrity of the database.
However. Mapping. most processing remains on the host or server.rochester.cc.The workstation interprets the data and converts it to graphical form in a window. distributed function.edu> Gartner group came out with the five ways of describing the different c/s styles based on how they split the three components of any application: user interface. For example.g. where a GUI front end is added to an IBM/MVS 3270/5250 application and is placed on a workstation. (Typically every mainframe screen used by the application has a corresponding window on the workstation and vice versa). business or application logic. When the user enters the data in a GUI window. 3270) data streams sent from a host for display in a windowed environment. .4 What is distributed or remote presentation? From: Ravi Kalakota <kalakota@uhura. client-server is essentially distributed or remote presentation. data management. and distributed data management. The mode of operation is typically intelligent workstations intercepting and interrogating text-screen (e.3 What are the different client/server processing styles? From: Ravi Kalakota <kalakota@uhura. remote presentation. Front-ending or HLLAPI (High-Level Language Application Programming Interface).cc. (Note: This is an arbitary classification and others may do it differently) Subject: 3.Subject: 3. The merged data is sent to the workstation as a 3270 data stream. data from an application program is sent to a 3270 screen program on the mainframe to be displayed. This style maps a workstation Graphical User Interface (GUI) front end onto an existing application's text-based screen. remote data management.edu> For people whose roots are embedded in the mainframe IBM world.rochester.This is "frontware" solution. This is also called Remote. it is transformed by the frontware application into a corresponding 3270 data format and is sent to the host computer. with the exception of user interface translation logic and possibly validation logic. The five styles are distributed presentation.
Workstations support the presentation and function logic and interface with the data server through the data manipulation language. In this instance. This is most relevant for architectures having data spread across several servers and when access to a DBMS on another server is required. other to the server. Data frequently updated or accessed by many users would reside on the server.edu> Here the split occurs in the application functionality. The underlying communications facilities may implement either a message-based or remote procedure call (RPC) mechanism for transfer of dialog and data.Distributed data management is an extension of remote data management and uses the distributed facilities of the DBMS to access distributed data in a manner transparent to users. One variant of the distributed function style is where data management and application function occur at both the client and server.6 What is distributed function processing? From: Ravi Kalakota <firstname.lastname@example.org. read-only data.7 What is IBM's System Application Architecture? .This style represents a more traditional LAN database server or file server approach. Subject: 3.5 What is Remote Data Management? From: Ravi Kalakota <email@example.com. the server then responds with data that satisfies the query. Distributed function applications are the most complex of the three typologies since two separately compiled application programs must be developed. data management at the client would include referential. one part going to the client. Remote Data Management is relatively easily to program for because there is just one application program. there are many variants of this typology.Subject: 3. However. Developers must analyze where each function should reside and what type of dialog must occur between the two programs. RDBMS products that offer remote data management provide a layer of software on the client to handle the communication with the DBMS server.cc. the entire application resides on the client and the data managment is located on a remote server/host.cc. The client communicates with the server using SQL. Subject: 3.edu> In remote data management.
DAL sits between the client and server components. efficient RPC that is particularly effective for installations not requiring WAN support. Subject: 3. .Common Programming Interface (CPI) provides languages. integrated applications across the major IBM computing environments. Subject: 3. Four major components of this architecture are: .8 What is APPLE's VITAL architecture? From: Ravi Kalakota <kalakota@uhura. a change in the DBMS does not affect the front-end.cc. such as LU 6.rochester. and protocols that are used as a framework for developing consistent. A cornerstone of Apple's client/server architecture is Data Access Language (DAL). conventions. Sun's RPC is licensed by more than 300 companies.rochester.Common User Access (CUA) defines conventions for GUI look and feel.cc.edu> VITAL provides a way of building information systems constructed from generalized modules that can be reused and shared.Common Communication Support (CCS) supports existing communications standards. including DEC. IBM.From: Ravi Kalakota <kalakota@uhura.It specifies how to construct and provide interfaces for these modules.cc. it simply requires the appropriate DAL link. This approach allows varied clients to communicate with many different servers. With DAL. written by IBM.edu> SAA is a collection of selected software interfaces. and Apple Computer. DAL consists of software components for the client and the server (Macintosh System 7 includes the client component.2.Common Applications. Transport Independent Remote Procedure .9 What is Sun's Open Network Computing Architecture? From: Ravi Kalakota <kalakota@uhura. . DOS and Windows clients are sold separately). tools. will serve as demonstrations of SAA concepts and make it easy for users to migrate between systems. It is a lean. .rochester.edu> Open Network Computing (ONC) is the Sun architecture. with third party alliances providing the missing pieces. and APIs that give applications greater portability and more consistent user interfaces across multiple platforms.
NetWise developed the TI-RPC Application Toolkit source code generation technology.Calls (TI-RPC) were co-developed by Sun and AT&T. allowing applications to run unmodified over multiple transport protocols including NetWare.mauney. from the Open Software Foundation.Communication and Central services which support communications using electronic mail and EDI .html) DCE is the Distributed Computing Environment. Security.and Distributed File Service (DFS). the Cell and Global Directory Services (CDS and GDS). TI-RPC runs independent of the underlying network transport. AIX/ESA. from the DCE FAQ. CDS.cc.) DCE consists of multiple components which have been integrated to work closely together. graphical or character terminal based) . (It is called "the DCE" by sticklers for grammatical consistency.edu> NAS is a software suite that enables applications to be integrated across a distributed network of multivendor systems: NAS services are divided into four main groups: . with permission.osf.com> (Extracted. UNIX/SVR4.org/dce/faq-mauney.11 What is OSF-DCE? From: Jon Mauney <mauney@jtec. Subject: 3. the Security Service. They are the Remote Procedure Call (RPC).Application Access Services which support user interface (forms based. Subject: 3. The Threads.10 What is Digital's Network Application System (NAS) architecture? From: Ravi Kalakota <kalakota@uhura. Distributed Time Service (DTS). available at http://www. graphics and conventional text) . Solaris. which supports database access and compound documents (collection of images.Information and resource sharing. DCE Threads. and DTS components are commonly referred to as the "secure core" and are the required . RPC. AIX/6000. PCNFS.rochester.System Access services which provides a standard operating system interface.
integrate. It is a set of standard mechanisms for naming.Taylor@jhuapl.A single interface to manage the complexities of a heterogeneous environment ." intended to exist alone. (For technical details. non-network.13 What is CORBA? From: Lloyd Taylor <Lloyd.components of any DCE installation.A uniform framework.edu> . and defining objects in a distributed computing environment. to build.omg. Subject: 3. but instead should be integrated or bundled into a vendor's operating system offering.14 What is DAE? From: Ravi Kalakota <kalakota@uhura. based on standards and extensibility.rochester. Subject: 3.12 What are Distributed Object Management Systems (DOMS)? From: Ravi Kalakota <kalakota@uhura. for example.edu> DOMS provide a way of pulling diverse components together and managing their communications.A method for creating location independence for client applications. analogs.rochester. peruse the Object Management Group web site at http://www. They are aimed at addressing the following: . DCE's security and distributed filesystem. and deploy open distributed-computing applications .org) Subject: 3.cc. can completely replace their current. It is not DCE is called "middleware" or "enabling technology. locating.edu> CORBA stands for the Common Object Request Broker Architecture.cc. DFS is an optional component.
(2) DATABASE services . which details the business functions of the organisation (eg accept orders.1 Business-Focused Client/Server Architecture From: Bernard Robertson-Dunn <brd@netinfo. The functional structure and process model rarely. client/server computing demands a three layer view of the . deliver goods.au> When analysing a business there are three views of the organisation: . equipment and sensors. to meet the needs of the business an application architecture should reflect the complete range of business requirements.Distributed Application Environment is designed to allow businesses to use IBM's RISC System/6000 and PS/2 computers in a client/server network (or standalone) for their business applications. (4) DEVICE services to capture data and to control a broad category of controllers.com. which details the information that the organisation needs to function. make goods.au> Traditional applications architectures have been based on function. . devices. (3) PRESENTATION services. if ever. Subject: 4.com.An information model. receive money). Subject: Part 4: Client/Server Business Issues Subject: 4. DAE consists (1) MESSAGING services. Client/Server Business Application Architectures From: Bernard Robertson-Dunn <brd@netinfo.A functional model.A process model.2. . agree. bill customers. Today. which reflects organisational responsibilities and the way in which the people who use the system view their work. Therefore.
organisation.applications were built in isolation . which implements the process model 3 The data layer. 1 The user interface layer.the supporting technology was based on a centralised control model Information technology.applications were developed to model vertical applications .com. has almost reached the stage where these systems can be designed and created. The development and implementation of client/server computing is more complex. . The only answer to the question "why build client/server applications?" is "because the business demands the increased benefits. which must be incorporated into the new. if the environment is robust and reliable enough and the business is prepared to pay the additional costs associated with workstation and LAN technology. although such technology can be utilised. more difficult and more expensive than traditional. which implements the functional model 2 The business function layer. flexible. which is an enabling factor in systems building.3 Business Drivers From: Bernard Robertson-Dunn <brd@netinfo. integrated environment. Unfortunately.applications were complex . responsive and comprehensive applications to support the complete range of business processes. Subject: 4.au> Client/server computing has arisen because of a change in business needs. Problems with existing systems include: . which implements the information model It should be noted that this application architecture does not demand multiple hardware platforms. most businesses have existing systems based on older technology. Businesses today need integrated. single process applications.applications were implemented as monolithic systems .
Existing functionally aligned systems are not appropriate .5 What does business expect from IT? From: Bernard Robertson-Dunn <brd@netinfo.There is a need for empowerment of staff and audit trail of actions . .The user will perform as much processing as possible during customer contact time .The customer should have a single point of contact for all business with the organisation .There is a perceived need for vendor independence. programming paradigms.com.There is a change to team based management . products and architectures.Multi-skilled and multi-function teams need access to multiple applications Subject: 4.Organisation have changed from steep hierarchies to flattened hierarchies .Application complexity needs to be hidden .au> .com.Network management is replacing vertical management .The customer should deal with the same person over multiple contacts.New applications should be aligned with both the user's view and the business process view.au> . This includes application development methodologies. .Subject: 4.Applications need to provide a consistent user interface .The user interaction must be flexible .4 Business Benefits From: Bernard Robertson-Dunn <brd@netinfo.The time required to complete the work will be minimised .
Consistent information across all applications . cultural values.edu> Reengineering is the organizational process required to align people.Users should be able to modify business rules without reference to IT staff .It is essential that there be integrity of transactional processes Subject: 4.An ability to evolve IT systems to reflect changing business requirements .cc.IT systems will support all activity performed by the user. not just a part . Subject: Part 5: Books on Client/Server Computing Subject: 5.. processing and incentives towards targeted improvements. information (data). policies. organizational structures.A variety of user interface styles to reflect the needs of the work . et.edu> AUTHOR: TITLE: PUBLISHED: Orfali.rochester.Taylor@jhuapl.6 What is Business Process Reengineering? From: Ravi Kalakota <kalakota@uhura. It can also be thought of as taking a business in its current state and forming an organizational and operational blueprint to redirect skills. Robert. Essential Client/Server Survival Guide New York : Van Nostrand Reinhold .1 Introductory/Overview Books From: Lloyd Taylor <Lloyd. processes and technology with strategies to achieve business integration. al.
Client/server computing Carmel. c1992. Ind. Patrick. J. c1996. 2nd Edition New York : Wiley. c1997. Client/server programming with OS/2 2. 1957Introduction to Client/Server Systems. Wiley professional computing 0471133337 .edu> AUTHOR: TITLE: PUBLISHED: SERIES: ISBN: AUTHOR: TITLE: PUBLISHED: SERIES: ISBN: AUTHOR: TITLE: PUBLISHED: SERIES: ISBN: Orfali. c1992. Professional reference series. : SAMS. Alex Client-server architecture / Alex Berson.2 Detailed Technical Books From: Lloyd Taylor <Lloyd. Paul E. James Martin/McGraw-Hill productivity series 007016732X Renaud. Dawna Travis Client/server computing New York : McGraw-Hill. c1993. New York : McGraw-Hill. 0672300656 Linthicum. 047117467X Subject: 5..ISBN: AUTHOR: TITLE: PUBLISHED: SERIES: ISBN: AUTHOR: TITLE: PUBLISHED: SERIES: ISBN: AUTHOR: TITLE: PUBLISHED: ISBN: 0-442-01941-6 Berson. Robert. VNR computer library 0442012195 Dewire. Dan Harkey.Taylor@jhuapl. David David Linthicum's Guide to Client/Server and Intranet Development Wiley. c1992.0 New York : Van Nostrand Reinhold. Ranade series on computer communications 0070050767 Smith.
Networking the enterprise : how to build client/server systems that work New York : McGraw-Hill.Taylor@jhuapl. Please limit your submission to one paragraph. and include contact information. . c1994 McGraw-Hill series on computer communications 0070050899 : 0070050902 (PBK) Khanna. get one. 1947Implementing client/server computing : a strategic perspective McGraw-Hill systems design & implementation 0070062153 Subject: Part 6: Vendor Information Vendors may submit information for possible inclusion in this section to lloyd@abs..edu> AUTHOR: TITLE: PUBLISHED: SERIES: ISBN: AUTHOR: TITLE: PUBLISHED: ISBN: AUTHOR: TITLE: PUBLISHED: ISBN: AUTHOR: TITLE: SERIES: ISBN: Baker. Bernard H.net. it is strongly suggested that you include a pointer to your WWW page. c1993. (Editor) Distributed Computing: Implementation and Management Strategies New Jersey: Prentice Hall. c1994 0-13-220138-0 Inmon. No endorsement is to be inferred from inclusion in the CS-FAQ. R. Developing client/server applications Boston : QED Pub. If you don't have one. Richard H. If you want to be taken seriously by the readership of comp. 0894354582 Boar. Group. William H.Subject: 5.3 Other Books From: Lloyd Taylor <Lloyd.client-server.
Solaris 2.Subject: 6.std.Taylor@jhuapl. Windows NT. and error handling. Piccolo is supported on UNIX versions AIX. send email to sales@noblenet. TCP/IP. and the Tandem NonStop Kernel. Application developers use the Piccolo API to access data and applications residing on any of the supported platforms on a network. or browse <http://www.com/. and several others. Macs. PIPES Platform automatically maintains information on all PIPES Platform resources.x. from Cornerstone Software. We also publish a Windows rpcgen and distribute the IONA coporation's Orbix Object Request Broker development toolkit. precompiler. from PeerLogic.1. integrity. or E-mail piccolo@corsof. is message-oriented middleware that provides the essential communications services for distributing applications across the enterprise.1 Middleware Vendors From: Lloyd Taylor <Lloyd. non-blocking. prioritization. including most UNIXes. PIPES Platform's cross-platform .com/>. and various libraries. For more information.corsof. ======= PIPES Platform. is a message-oriented middleware product that provides application developers with peer-to-peer connectivity without regard for the underlying communications transport (i.edu> ======= NobleNet specializes in providing high quality middleware tools for client-server development. Inc.noblenet. a distributed two-tier ODBC driver SDK. Our premier product is EZ-RPC. an RPC precompiler tool kit that includes our enhanced XDR (packaged as an IDL). An EZ-RPC mailing list is available. and Silicon Graphics (SGI). OS/2. EZ-RPC is available on more than 40 platforms. or call Piccolo Sales at 603-595-7480.com. event-driven architecture. sequencing. even as machines and applications are added or moved. Inc. Subscribe by sending a message to ezrpc-request@world. is available for those working with databases. at 508-460-8222. It is also supported on Windows 3. point your Web browser to http://www. NetBios.e. dynamic re-routing. We provide free evaluation copies of EZ-RPC to qualified programmers. most Windows. Tandem S2 Integrity.com with the single word "subscribe" in the message body. HP-UX (HP9000/700 & 800). Session management services provide guaranteed message delivery. Vms. SCO. contact NobleNet. Async).com. For more information. ======= Piccolo(tm). A dynamic name service lets you find at run-time and communicate with any application resource in the PIPES Platform network. PIPES Platform's process-to-process messaging allows development of applications with an asynchronous. The developers need no programming knowledge of the underlying transport protocol. A new product.
com/product/topend/index. TOP END has been used by customers in banking.entersoft. Entersoft also provides add-on products for transaction processing.and multiprotocol support provide a consistent communications interface that allows developers to focus on business logic. such as the TOP END-Tuxedo Message Gateway.edu> . ======= Entersoft Systems Corporation supplies NCR's TOP END (tm) Transaction Request Broker middleware. and deals with recovery after system/network failures. TOP END runs on Windows (all versions). Product Marketing. 145. on a WAN. Included as part of the package are graphical tools for monitoring and debugging your application. reliably. retail. Also. or E-mail info@talarian. and includes support for Java and Active/X applications. guarantees delivery of messages. peer-to-peer. SmartSockets is an industrial-strength package which takes care of network interfaces. It supports a variety of communication paradigms including publish-subscibe. Customers can also get additional TOP END information at NCR. through the use of messages.1. Windows 3. The communicating processes can reside on the same machine. 800-733-7601. SmartSockets's programming model is built specifically to offer high-speed interprocess communication.com/ ======= SmartSockets (tm).000s users. not communications.talarian. SmartSockets is available on most UNIX. from Talarian Corporation.Taylor@jhuapl. on a LAN. Entersoft is the sole supplier of TOP END on most platforms. For more information.com/. and RPC. and OS/2. and securely across different operating system platforms. UNIX. and legacy platform. scalability. Contact Jennifer Hart. jhart@peerlogic. or anywhere on the Internet. Customers can contact Entersoft at http://www. handles communication protocols.2 Test Software Vendors From: Lloyd Taylor <Lloyd. reliability and fault tolerance. Director. Subject: 6.ncr. visit our home page at http://www.com.com or at 908-575-9100.htm. is a rapid application development toolkit which enables processes to communicate quickly. http://www. Windows 95. telecomm and other industries to build some of the largest transaction processing systems connectiong 100s of nodes and up to 10. at http://www. OpenVMS. contact Kelly Bernardo at 650-965-8050 ext. Windows NT.peerlogic.com.
ICONIX. these tools enhance normal data access (e. contact Alyse Rome. 8200 Greensboro Drive. Voice: 310-458-0092.. Inc.biap. ======= Unisys TransIT Open/OLTP Software is a suite of development tools and runtime management software that provides transaction processing extensions for Windows and Windows NT and UNIX based applications.com Subject: 6.Taylor@jhuapl. Inc. For further information. These applications can then seamlessly blend the attributes of UNIX. Performix. ICONIX offers a free white paper on combining OMT with Objectory for client/server development. VA 22102 (703)448-6606. networks and protocols. Windows NT and mainframe systems and can integrate and synchronize the many different databases used on each of these platforms. McLean. Enterprises can quickly develop distributed and highly scaleable business application systems. C++ or COBOL. It builds scripts that can be replayed client devices. Director. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org> ======= ICONIX Software Engineering.3 Development Tool Vendors From: Lloyd Taylor <Lloyd. based on standard (X/Open and ISO) high-level APIs.. naming/location services .======= EMPOWER/CS is load testing software for client/server applications. by visiting the new ICONIX WWW PowerPage site: <http://www.com. is the maker of ICONIX PowerTools. email: ICONIX@eworld.g. New Media Marketing & Communications. plus Windows and Windows NT Dynamic Link Libraries (DLLs). EMPOWER/CS listens to the traffic server. along with special offers and product information about ICONIX PowerTools. Scripts can be enhanced with C of many users on an between a client and with or without the language to extend captured activity and vary the data in queries and updates. Suite 1475. This Client/Server middleware works with Microsoft or third party development tools and includes the libraries for C. On every platform. Load testing is the process of analyzing the effect application. CASE tools for object-oriented and structured development. (703)893-1939 (fax).com/iconix/>. Windows. EMPOWER/CS charts the time each user must wait for his or her screen response before an application is deployed. ODBC or SQL) capabilities with transaction processing. The Windows and Windows NT support also includes OLE point-and-click features for application development.
000 product licenses at 16.com . server applications are immune to client changes due to new platforms. and others. 100's of C library function calls. DB/2. with annual revenues exceeding $120 million.com. including DOS. software configuration management and data warehousing. Informix. Email: jazzin@jyacc. OS/2 Presentation Manager. its own scripting language called JPL. Learn more about Client/Server Connection by visiting us at http://www. The INTERSOLV World Wide Web site can be accessed at http://www.com ======= JYACC is the maker of JAM 7. so that developers can create true Three-Tier applications. Likewise. develop your project plan. JAM works with the leading Transaction Monitors. both in character-mode and in Motif. Macintosh.com>. broad coverage and rich functionality. Customers benefit from INTERSOLVs common look and feel.unisys. applications or interfaces. open client/server development. MS-Windows.com or contacting us.intersolv.com/>. INTERSOLV development solutions are available for object-oriented development. a cross-platform tool for building client/server and distributed applications. ODBC. or contact Phil Wimpenny via telephone at +1-215-986-5765 or via email at email@example.com/. ======= CS/8000 is the first development system that seamlessly integrates methodology. and various tools and utilities. Sybase. and virtually every implementation of UNIX.and the store and forward (queuing) of messages. and generate all of your project documentation. expert systems and client/server system architectures. Use it to select your system architecture. including native drivers for Oracle. CS/8000 keeps you organized and keeps you on track.bb. VAX/VMS. Motif. please reference <http://www. For more information. Voice: 914-241-9100 email: cscl@cscl. JAM applications can run unmodified on more than 100 platforms and operating environments. a Visual Object Repository to allow creation of complex objects that can be shared across screens and updated through inheritance.000+ customer sites around the world.jyacc. For more information. With CS/8000 you have all the tools you need to manage client/server projects of any level of complexity. INTERSOLV. It consists of a graphical screen painter. Runtime environments are highly tunable with the ability to locate and/or replicate server applications as desired without any impact to the client applications.unisys.cscl. JAM also integrates seamlessly with more than twenty of the most popular RDMBS products. including Tuxedo. please reference: <http://www. Phone:800-458-3313 or 212-267-7722 ======= INTERSOLV is a leading provider of open client/server development solutions. has more than 375.
Japan and Korea.com US TechSupport: 415. DB2/AIX. Tuxedo. MAGNA X is an open OLTP application development system that simplifies growth into the complex world of distributed computing involving PCs. MX "Wizards" automate the construction of fully functional "test clients" with no programming required. For more information: info@magna.======= Cornut Informatique provides a range of client/server products.6647 email: us_sales@blyth. Oracle. UNIX servers. and mainframes. Unlike competing 3-tier products.346. Service programs are generated in COBOL and/or C++ (available late '96) and are fully compiled. deploying.com UK/EUC Tech Supp: (44) 1344. C or C++.570. Industry-standard middleware (Encina. MAGNA X generates three-tier client/server TP systems.com UK/EUC Sales: (44) 1344. Blyth has more than 25. MAGNA X is strictly open. URL: http://www.com email: info@blyth. Eclipse Query is an easy to use query tool for Macintosh and PC/Windows. England.2220 email: us_support@blyth. There is no run-time software.482258 email: firstname.lastname@example.org. fbouquet@cornut. and maintaining workgroup. The MAGNA X development environment is currently available on most major UNIX platforms.482258 email: uk_sales@blyth. a path that preserves and leverages your existing IS investment. CI-Link is a powerful middleware that connects SQL database with Macintosh and PC/Windows applications.blyth. concentrating on the SERVER portion of distributed systems.magna. California.800. Hamburg. Java. Services are generated for UNIX and/or CICS/ESA. Front-end clients can be written in any language. Windows NT support has been announced.com ======= . If PB or VB is used.com US Sales: 1. Don't read our lips.com or call 212/691-0300.fr/. try and judge.000 registered developers and 450 ISVs worldwide. efficient. with international offices in London. Frederic Bouquet. www. Germany. Eclipse Builder is C/S development environment for Macintosh and PC/Windows. ======= Blyth Software is an international supplier of modular application development tools for building. Blyth Software is headquartered in Foster City. Local service and support is available in the U.S. Delphi. CICS. including Power Builder. Sybase and Informix are supported.cornut. The Cornut Informatique Web site can be accessed at http://www. departmental and enterprise client/server applications. and distributors throughout Europe. Eclipse Report is graphical multi data source report generator. DB2/MVS. Asia Pacific and Latin America. Entera) is used for connectivity. Europe.fr ======= MAGNA X from Magna Software Corporation provides a safe growth path to the open systems environments of the 1990's. Visual Basic.
It is also possible to create servers that can be accessed from Visual Basic.no. SQL for Oracle. NatStar is a perfect tool for Component Based Development and today offers a catalog of tried and tested technical . Systemator provides support for all phases of the development process. Its powerful repository and conceptual modeling abilities ensure cost effective development as well as much lower maintenance costs. OS/2. a well-known Scandinavian software company.x/95/NT. Informix. data model and workflow model of the application. Data modeling is used for describing the structure of the information handled by the organization. with the option to modify it if necessary.com where local country information is also available. It provides a truly Open solution. Thanks to its graphical dialog modeling and editing tools. Sybase. tel:+47 22 09 65 00. to out on NT.no/tools/systemator/ or by contacting Vivian Ra (vra@sysdeco. Services can be automatically partitioned in various ways. Presentation can be targeted at Windows 3. generating runtime-free C code. NatStar automatically generates code and SQL that can be deployed in a multi-tier environment. NatStar offers an pragmatically object oriented and user friendly environment for rapidly developing applications that can be deployed enterprise-wide. DB2/2. from the mainframe to the desktop. Motif and Macintosh. native to the target platforms. database systems and user interfaces. OS/2. ====== Systemator is produced by Sysdeco. fax: +47 22 09 65 01) ======= Nat Systems builds and supports the NatStar development tool. The data model is the basis for generating both database structures and user dialogs. from modeling through to implementation. as well as Tuxedo for more complex distributed applications requiring TP.sysdeco. from standalone with the client. Systemator provides a powerful GUI prototyping capability which greatly facilitates user involvement in the initial stage of prototyping.Dynasty is a true Enterprise Client/Server development environment.dynasty. with no limit to the number of tiers. For more information see http://www. SqlBase. Powerbuilder and Internet clients. Such an abstract model of the data ensures portability between several database management systems and windowing systems. the functions and the information of your enterprise. Systemator supports a wide range of machine platforms. Standard communication protocols such as IMC and TCP/IP are supported. enabling a dynamically partitioned application. In Systemator's model designer you can build abstract models of the structure. testing and maintenance of information systems. Unix or Tandem servers. Nonstop SQL. More information is available on the WWW at http://www. NatStar's development environment offers three separate but tightly integrated modules for graphically defining the presentation. SQL Server and ODBC is automatically generated. making native use of middleware.
data warehouses and the application of internet technologies to business communications (including intranets). or browse our website at http://www. ======= . architects enterprise-class computing environments based on open systems. document management. There is also a Client/Server Spotlight section that contains a C/S Newsletter and information on other C/S resources.natsys. See www. Call (530) 626-5700. It addresses both business and technical issues.com for more info. Sequent leads all other vendors of high-end UNIX systems supporting very large-scale on-line transaction processing (OLTP).Taylor@jhuapl. educational and professional services geared to help organizations re-architect their existing information technology infrastructures. Sequent's next-generation. decision support (DSS)/data warehousing and Internet-based applications. and today. Sequent successfully commercialized symmetric multiprocessing (SMP).edu> ======= The IBM Client/Server Computing Unit maintains a web page at http://www.csc. will scale to more than 250 processors and manage 100 terabytes of data. etc.sequent.000 systems. Sequent's project-oriented offerings include consulting.ibm. Suggestions on additional content are welcome.com dedicated to information related to client/server computing. and business components for the near future. The business side includes a Consultant's Corner where there are articles from industry experts.com/. Configuration & Change management. ======= Sequent Computer Systems. workflow tools. enabling integration with upper CASE tools.4 Other Client/Server Vendors From: Lloyd Taylor <Lloyd. Subject: 6. With an installed base of nearly 8. Nat Systems offers support for the entire software development cycle. NUMA-Q systems.components. is a leading architect and provider of open client/server solutions for enterprise business computing. Symmetry servers incorporate up to 30 industry-standard processors to provide superior price/performance and scalability for on-line transaction processing (OLTP). Inc. The technical side includes a web demo of IBM's Client/Server Advisor System and many client/server success stories from around the world. NatWeb is Nat Systems' solution for developing Internet applications that front-end legacy systems.
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