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Problem 1:
The steadystate temperature distribution in a one–dimensional slab of thermal conductivity
50W/m.K and thickness 50 mm is found to be T= a+bx
2
, where a=200
0
C, b=2000
0
C/ m
2
, T
is in degrees Celsius and x in meters.
(a) What is the heat generation rate in the slab?
(b) Determine the heat fluxes at the two wall faces. From the given temperature distribution
and the heat fluxes obtained, can you comment on the heat generation rate?
Known: Temperature distribution in a one dimensional wall with prescribed thickness and
thermal conductivity.
Find: (a) the heat generation rate, q in the wall, (b) heat fluxes at the wall faces and relation
to q.
Schematic:
Assumptions: (1) steadystate conditions, (2) one –dimensional heat flow, (3) constant
properties.
Analysis: (a) the appropriate form of heat equation for steady state, one dimensional
condition with constant properties is
3 5 2 0
.
2
.
.
m / W 10 0 . 2 K . m / W 50 ) m / CC 2000 ( 2 q
bk 2 ] bx 2 [
dx
d
k
) bx a ( dx
d
dx
d
k q
dx
dT
dx
d
K q
× = × ÷ ÷ =
÷ = ÷ =
+
÷ =
÷ =
(b) The heat fluxes at the wall faces can be evaluated from Fourier’s law,
x
' '
x
dx
dT
k ) x ( q ÷ =
Using the temperature distribution T(x) to evaluate the gradient, find
dx
d
k ) x ( q
' '
x
÷ = [a+bx
2
]= 2kbx.
The flux at the face, is then x=0
2
x
' '
2 0 ' '
x
x
' '
m / W 000 , 10 ) L ( q
m 050 . 0 ) m / C 2000 ( K . m / W 50 2 kbL 2 ) l ( q , L atX
0 ) 0 ( q
=
× ÷ × ÷ = ÷ = =
=
Comments: from an overall energy balance on the wall, it follows that
0 E E E g
.
out
.
in
.
= + ÷ 0 L q ) L ( q ) 0 ( q
.
x
' ' ' '
x
= + ÷
3 5
2 "
x
"
x
.
m / W 10 0 . 2
m 050 . 0
0 m / w 00 , 10
L
) 0 ( q ) L ( q
q × =
÷
=
÷
=
Problem 2:
Consider a solar pond having three distinct layers of watersalt solution. The top and bottom
layers are well mixed with salt. These layers are subjected to natural convention, but the
middle layer is stationary. With this arrangement, the top and bottom surfaces of the middle
layer is maintained at uniform temperature T
1
and T
2
, where T
1
>T
2
. Solar radiation is
absorbed in the middle layer in the form q=Ae
mx
, resulting in the following temperature
distribution in the central layer
C Bx e
ka
A
x T
mx
+ + ÷ =
÷
2
) (
In the above equation, k is the thermal conductivity, and the constants A (W/m
3
), a (1/m), B
(K/m) and C(K) are also known.
Obtain expressions for the interfacial heat flux from the bottom layer to the middle layer, and
from the middle layer to the top layer. Are the conditions are steady or transient? Next,
obtain an expression for the rate at which thermal energy is generated in the entire middle
layer, per unit surface area.
Known: Temperature distribution and distribution of heat generation in central layer of
a solar pond.
Find: (a) heat fluxes at lower and upper surfaces of the central layer, (b) whether
conditions are steady or transient (c) rate of thermal energy generation for the entire
central layer.
Schematic:
Assumptions: (1) central layer is stagnant, (2) onedimensional conduction, (3)constant
properties.
Analysis (1) the desired fluxes correspond to conduction fluxes in the central layer at the
lower and upper surfaces. A general form for the conduction flux is
+ ÷ = =
+ ÷ = =
÷ =
=
÷
=
+ ÷
B
km
A
k q q B e
km
A
k q q
Hence
B e
km
A
k q
x cond u
ml
L x cond l
mx
cond
"
) 0 (
" "
0 (
"
"
(b) Conditions are steady if cT/ct=0. Applying the heat equation,
t
T 1
k
q
t
T
.
2
2
c
c
o
= +
c
c
t
e
k
A
e
k
A
mx mx
c
T c
= + ÷
÷ ÷
o
1
Hence conditions are steady since
t
T
c
c
=0 (for all 0<=x<=L)
For the central layer, the energy generation is
) 1 ( ) 1 (
0
.
0 0
"
.
mL mL
L
mx
g
L L
g
e
a
A
e
a
A
e
a
A
E
mxdx e A qdx E
÷ ÷ ÷
÷ = ÷ ÷ = ÷ =
÷ í = í =
Alternatively, from an overall energy balance,
g
.
"
1
"
2
E q q + ÷ =0 = (q”
cond(x=0)
)(q”
cond(x=L)
)
"
g
.
E =
"
1
q 
"
2
q
) 1 (
.
mL mL
g e
m
A
B e
km
A
K B
km
A
k E
÷ ÷
÷ = + ÷ + =
Comments: Conduction is the negative xdirection, necessitating use of minus signs in the
above energy balance.
Problem 3:
Consider 1D heat transfer across a slab with thermal conductivity k and thickness L. The
steady state temperature is of the form T=Ax
3
+Bx
2
+Cx+D. Find expressions for the heat
generation rate per unit volume in the slab and heat fluxes at the two wall faces (i.e. x=0, L).
Known: steadystate temperature distribution in onedimensional wall of thermal
conductivity, T(x)=Ax
3
+Bx
2
+CX+d.
Find: expressions for the heat generation rate in the wall and the heat fluxes at the two wall
faces(x=0, L).
Assumptions: (1) steady state conditions, (2) onedimensional heat flow, (3) homogeneous
medium.
Analysis: the appropriate form of the heat diffusion equation for these conditions is
0
k
q
dx
T d
.
2
2
= + Or
2
2
.
dx
T d
k q ÷ =
Hence, the generation rate is
] B 2 Ax 6 [ k q
] 0 C Bx 2 Ax 3 [
dx
d
k
dx
dT
dx
d
q
.
2
.
+ ÷ =
+ + + ÷ =
÷ =
which is linear with the coordinate x. The heat fluxes at the wall faces can be evaluated from
Fourier’s law,
] C Bx 2 Ax 3 [ k
dx
dT
k q
2 "
x
+ + ÷ = ÷ =
Using the expression for the temperature gradient derived above. Hence, the heat fluxes are:
Surface x=0; (0)=kC
"
x
q
Surface x=L;
"
x
q (L) = K [3AL
2
+2BL+C]
COMMENTS: (1) from an over all energy balance on the wall, find
BkL 2 AkL 3 E
0 E ] C BL 2 AL 3 )[ K ( ) kC ( ) L ( q ) 0 ( q
0 E E E
2
' '
g
.
g
.
2
x
"
x
"
g
.
out
.
in
.
÷ ÷ =
= + + + ÷ ÷ ÷ = ÷
= + ÷
From integration of the volumetric heat rate, we can also find
BkL 2 AkL 3 E
] Bx 2 Ax 3 [ k dx ] B 2 Ax 6 [ k dx ) x ( q E
2
g
' '
.
L
0
L
0
2
.
L
0
' '
g
.
÷ ÷ =
+ ÷ = + ÷ = í =
í
Problem 4:
Consider a one dimensional system of mass M with constant properties and no internal heat
generation as shown in the figure below. The system is initially at a uniform temperature T
i
.
The electrical heater is suddenly switched ON, resulting in a uniform heat flux q”
o
at the
surface x=0 . The boundaries at x=L and elsewhere are perfectly insulated.
(a) Set up the differential equation along with the boundary and initial conditions for the
temperature T(x,t).
(b) Sketch the temperature variation with x for the initial condition (t<=0) and for several
times after the heater is switched ON. Comment whether a steadystate temperature
distribution will ever be reached.
(c) For any given time, sketch the heat flux variation with x. Choose the following
planes: x=0, x=L/2, and x=L.
(d) After time t
e
, the heater power is switched off. Assuming no heat loss, derive an
expression determine T
f
, the final uniform temperature, as a function of the relevant
parameters.
Known: one dimensional system, initially at a uniform temperature Ti, is suddenly exposed
to a uniform heat flux at one boundary while the other boundary is insulated.
Find: (a) proper form of heat diffusion equation; identify boundary and initial conditions, (b)
sketch temperature distributions for following conditions: initial condition (t<=0), several
times after heater is energized ;will a steadystate condition be reached?, (c) sketch heat flux
for x=0, L/2, L as a function of time, (d) expression for uniform temperature, Tf, reached
after heater has been switched off the following an elapsed time , te, with the heater on.]
Schematic:
Assumptions: (1) one dimensional conduction, (2) no internal heat generation, (3) constant
properties.
Analysis: (a) the appropriate form of the heat equation follows. Also the appropriate
boundary and initial conditions are:
t
T 1
x
T
2
2
c
c
o
=
c
c
Initial condition: T(x, 0) =T
i
uniform temperature
Boundary conditions: x=0 0 t ) x / T k q
0
"
o
> c c ÷ =
x=L 0 ) x / T
L
= c c Insulated
(b) The temperature distributions are as follows:
No steadystate condition will be reached since is constant. in
. .
out
in
.
E and E E ÷
(c) The heat flux as a function of time for positions x=0, L/2 and L appears as:
( d) If the heater is energized until t=t
o
and then switched off, the system will eventually reach
a uniform temperature , T
f.
Perform an energy balance on the system, for an interval of time
At=t
e
,
.
st
in
.
E E =
e s
"
o s
"
0
t
0 in in
t A q dt A q Q E
e
= í = = ) T T ( Mc E
i f st
÷ =
It follows that = OR
e s
"
o
t A q ) T T ( Mc
i f
÷ + =
i f
T T
Mc
t A q
e s
"
o
Problem 5:
A 1–mlong metal plate with thermal conductivity k=50W/m.K is insulated on
its sides. The top surface is maintained at 100
0
C while the bottom surface is
convectively cooled by a fluid at 20
0
C. Under steady state conditions and with
no volumetric heat generation, the temperature at the midpoint of the plate is
measured to be 85
0
C. Calculate the value of the convection heat transfer
coefficient at the bottom surface.
Known: length, surface thermal conditions, and thermal conductivity of a
Plate. Plate midpoint temperature.
Find: surface convection coefficient
Schematic:
Assumptions: (1) onedimensional, steady conduction with no generation, (2)
Constant properties
Analysis: for prescribed conditions, is constant. Hence,
2 / L
T T
q
2 1 "
cond
÷
= =
2
0
m / W 1500
k . m / W 50 / m 5 . 0
C 15
=
K . m / W 30 h
m / W 1500
W / K . m ) h / 1 02 . 0 (
C 30
) h / 1 ( ) k / L (
T T
" q
2
2
2
0
1
=
=
+
=
+
÷
=
·
Comments: The contributions of conduction and convection to the thermal
resistance are
W / K . m 033 . 0
h
1
R
W / K . m 02 . 0
K
L
R
2
cond , t
"
2
cond , t
"
= =
= =
Problem 6:
The wall of a building is a multilayered composite consisting of brick (100mm
layer), a 100mm layer of glass fiber(paper faced. 28kg/m
2
), a 10mm layer of
gypsum plaster (vermiculite), and a 6mm layer of pine panel. If h
inside
is
10W/m
2
.K and h
outside
is 70W/m
2
.K, calculate the total thermal resistance and the
overall coefficient for heat transfer.
Known: Material thickness in a composite wall consisting of brick, glass fiber,
and vermiculite and pine panel. Inner and outer convection coefficients.
Find: Total thermal resistance and overall heat transfer coefficient.
Schematic:
K
b
K
gl
Brick
Gypsum glass
Pine panel,K
p
100mm 10mm 6mm
hi=10W/m
2.
K
h
0
=70W/m
2
.K
0
h
1
b
b
K
L
gl
l
g
k
L
gy
gy
k
L
p
p
K
L
i
h
1
Assumptions: (1) one dimensional conduction, (2) constant properties, (3)
negligible contact resistance.
Properties: T= 300K: Brick, k
b
=1.3 W/m.K: Glass fiber (28kg/m
3
), k
g1
=
0.038W/m.K: gypsum, k
gy
=0.17W/m.K: pine panel, k
p
=0.12W/m.K.
Analysis: considering a unit surface Area, the total thermal resistance
W / K .. m 93 . 2 R
W / K . m ) 1 . 0 0500 . 0 0588 . 0 6316 . 2 0769 . 0 0143 . 0 ( R
W
K . m
10
1
12 . 0
006 . 0
17 . 0
01 . 0
038 . 0
1 . 0
3 . 1
1 . 0
70
1
R
h
1
K
L
k
L
k
L
K
L
h
1
R
2 "
tot
2 "
tot
2
"
tot
i p
p
gy
gy
1 g
1 g
B
B
0
"
tot
=
+ + + + + =
+ + + + + =
+ + + + + =
The overall heat transfer coefficient is
. K . m / W 341 . 0 U
) W / K . m 93 . 2 (
R
1
A R
1
U
2
1 2
tot
"
tot
=
= = =
÷
Comments: an anticipated, the dominant contribution to the total resistance is
made by the insulation.
Problem 7:
The wall of an oven is a composite of the following layers. Layers A has a
thermal conductivity k
A
=20W/m.K, and layer C has a thermal conductivity
k
C
=50W/m.K. The corresponding thicknesses are L
A
=0.30m and L
C
=0.15m,
respectively. Layer B is sandwiched between layers A and C, is of known
thickness, L
B
=0.15m, but unknown thermal conductivity k
B.
Under steadystate
operating conditions, the outer surface temperature is measured to be
T
s,0
=200C. Measurements also tell us that the inner surface temperature T
s,i
is
600
0
C and the oven air temperature is T =800
0
C. The inside convection
coefficient h is known to be 25W/m
2
.K. Find the value of k
B
.
Known: Thickness of three material which form a composite wall and thermal
conductivities of two of the materials. Inner and outer surface temperatures of
the composites; also, temperature and convection coefficient associated with
adjoining gas.
Find: value of unknown thermal conductivity, k
B.
Schematic:
T
s
,
0
=20
0
C
L
A
=0.3m
L
B
=L
C
=0.15m
k
A
=20W/m.K
k
C
=50W/m.K
K
C
T
·
=800
0
C
h= 25W/m
2
.K
K
B
K
A
T
s,i
=600
0
C
L
A
L
B
L
C
Assumptions: (1) steady state conditions, (2) onedimensional conduction, (3)
constant properties, (4) negligible contact resistance, (5) negligible radiation
effects.
Analysis: Referring to the thermal circuit, the heat flux may be expressed as
2
B
B
0
C
C
B
B
A
A
0 , s i , s "
m / W
K / 15 . 0 018 . 0
580
K . m / W 50
m 15 . 0
K
m 15 . 0
018 . 0
m 3 . 0
C ) 20 600 (
K
L
K
L
K
L
T T
q
+
=
+ +
÷
=
+ +
÷
=
The heat flux can be obtained from
2 ' '
0 2
i , s
"
m / W 5000 q
C ) 600 800 ( K . m / W 25 ) T T ( h q
=
÷ = ÷ =
·
Substituting for heat flux,
. K . m / W 53 . 1 K
098 . 0 018 . 0
5000
580
018 . 0
q
580
K
15 . 0
B
"
B
=
= ÷ = ÷ =
Comments: In an over, radiation effects are likely to have a significant influence on the
net heat flux at the inner surface of the oven.
Problem 8:
A steam pipe of 0.12 m outside diameter is insulated with a 20mmthick layer
of calcium silicate. If the inner and outer surfaces of the insulation are at
temperatures of T
s,1
=800 K and T
s,2
=490 K, respectively, what is the heat loss
per unit length of the pipe?
Known: Thickness and surface temperature of calcium silicate insulation on
a steam pipe.
Find: heat loss per unit pipe length.
Schematic:
T
s,1
=800K
D
2
=0.16m
Steam
T
s,2
=490K
D
1
=0.12m
Calcium silicate insulation
Assumptions: (steady state conditions, (2) onedimensional conduction, (3)
constant properties.
Properties: calcium silicate (T=645K): k=0.089W/m.K
Analysis: The heat per unit length is
m / W 603 q
) m 12 . 0 / m 16 . 0 ln(
K ) 490 800 )( K . m / W 089 . 0 ( 2
q
) D / D ln(
) T T ( K 2
q
q
q
'
r
'
r
1 2
2 , s 1 , s
L
r '
r
=
÷ t
=
÷ t
= =
Comments: heat transferred to the outer surface is dissipated to the surroundings
by convection and radiation.
Problem 9:
A cylindrical nuclear fuel rod of 0.1m dia has a thermal conductivity
k=0.0W/m.K and generates uniformly 24,000W/m
3
. This rod is encapsulated
within another cylinder having an outer radius of 0.2m and a thermal
conductivity of 4W/m.K. The outer surface is cooled by a coolant fluid at
100
0
C, and the convection coefficient between the outer surface and the coolant
is 20W/m
2
.K. Find the temperatures at the interface between the two cylinders
and at the outer surface.
Known: A cylindrical rod with heat generation is cladded with another cylinder
whose outer surface is subjected to a convection process.
Find: the temperature at the inner surfaces, T
1,
and at the outer surface, T
c
.
Schematic:
Assumptions: (1) steadystate conditions, (2) onedimensional radial
conduction, (3), negligible contact resistance between the cylinders.
Analysis: The thermal circuit for the outer cylinder subjected to the
convection process is
o
'
2
2
1 o '
1
r 2 h
1
R
k 2
r / r ln
R
t
=
t
=
Using the energy conservation requirement, on the inner cylinder,
g
.
out
.
E E =
Find that
2
1
.
1
'
r q q t × =
The heat rate equation has the form hence , R / T q
'
.
A =
' ' '
2
'
1
'
i
R / T andq ) R R ( q T T A = × × = ÷
·
Numerical values:
m / W 0 . 754 m ) 1 . 0 ( m / W 000 , 24 q
W / m . K 0398 . 0 m 20 . 0 2 K . m / W 20 / 1 R
W / m . K 0276 . 0 K . m / W 4 2 / 1 . 0 / 2 . 0 ln R
2 2 3 '
2 '
2
'
1
= × t × =
= × t × =
= × t =
Hence
C 130 30 100 W / m . K 0398 . 0 m / W 0 . 754 C 100 T
C 8 . 150 8 . 50 100 W / m . K ) cccc 0276 . 0 ( m / W 0 . 754 C 100 T
0 0
C
0 0
i
= + = × + =
= + = + × + =
Comments: knowledge of inner cylinder thermal conductivity is not
needed.
Problem 10:
A steel cable having a diameter of 0.005m and an electrical resistance of 6*10
4
/m carries an electrical current of 700 A. The surrounding temperature of the
cable is 300°C, and the effective coefficient associated with heat loss by
convection and radiation between the cable and the environment is
approximately 25W/m
2
.K.
(a) If the cable is uncoated, what is its surface temperature?
(b) If a very thin coating of electrical insulation is applied to the cable, with a
contact resistance of 0.02m
2
K/W, what are the insulation and cable surface
temperatures?
(c) What thickness of this insulation (k=0.5W/m.K) will yields the lowest
value of the maximum insulation temperature? What is the value of the
maximum temperature when the thickness is used?
Known: electric current flow, resistance, diameter and environmental
conditions associated with a cable.
Find: (a) surface temperature of bare cable, (b) cable surface and insulation
temperatures for a thin coating of insulation, (c) insulation thickness which
provides the lowest value of the maximum insulation temperature.
Corresponding value of this temperature.
Schematic:
T
∞
T
s
E
g
q
Assumptions: (1) steadystate conditions, (2) onedimensional conduction in r,
(3) constant properties.
Analysis: (a) the rate at which heat is transferred to the surroundings is fixed by
the rate of heat generation in the cable. Performing an energy balance for a
control surface about the cable, it follows that or, for the bare cable,
q Eg
.
=
/ 10
4
O
÷
. m / W 294 ) m 6 ( ) A 700 ( R I withq ). T T )( L D ( h L R I
2 '
e
2 '
s i
'
e
2
= × = = ÷ t =
·
It follows that
C 7 . 778 T
) m 005 . 0 ( ) K . m / W 25 (
m / W 294
C 30
D h
q
T T
0
s
2
0
i
'
s
=
t
+ =
t
+ =
·
(b) With thin coating of insulation, there exists contact and convection
resistances to heat transfer from the cable. The heat transfer rate is
determined by heating within the cable, however, and therefore remains the
same,
h
1
R
) T T ( D
q
L D h
1
L D
R
T T
L D h
1
R
T T
q
c , t
s i '
i i
c , t
s
i
c , t
s
+
÷ t
=
t
+
t
· ÷
=
t
+
÷
=
·
·
And solving for the surface temperature, find
C 1153 T
C 30
W
K . m
04 . 0
W
K . m
02 . 0
) m 005 . 0 (
m / W 294
T
h
1
R
D
q
T
0
s
0
2 2
c , t
i
'
s
=
+


.

\

+
t
= +

.

\

+
t
=
·
The insulation temperature is then obtained from
e , t
s
R
T T
q
·
÷
=
Or
C 7 . 778 T
) m 005 . 0 (
W
K . m
02 . 0
m
W
294
C 1153
L D
R
q C 1153 qR T T
0
i
2
0
i
c , t
"
0
c , t s i
=
t
×
÷ =
t
÷ = ÷ =
(c) The maximum insulation temperature could be reduced by reducing the
resistance to heat transfer from the outer surface of the insulation. Such a
reduction is possible D
i
<D
cr.
m 02 . 0
K . m / W 25
K . m / W 5 . 0
h
k
r
2
cr
= = =
Hence, D
cr =
0.04m> D
i =
0.005m. To minimize the maximum temperature, which
exists at the inner surface of the insulation, add insulation in the amount.
m t
m D D D D
t
i cr i
0175 . 0
2
) 005 . 0 04 . 0 (
2 2
0
=
÷
=
÷
=
÷
=
The cable surface temperature may then be obtained from
( )
C 318.2 T
π(0.005m)
W
.K m
0.02
m
W
294
C 692.5
L πD
R
q T qR T T
/R T T q , that g recognizin
C 692.5 T
2.25m.K/W
C 30 T
0.32)m.K/W 0.66 (1.27
C 30 T
m
W
294
hence,
π(0.04m)
.K m
W
25
1
) 2ππ(0.5W/.
005) ln(0.04/0.
π(0.005m)
.K/W 0.02m
C 30 T
hππ
1
2ππ
) /D ln(D
πD
R
T T
q
0
i
2
0
i
"
c t,
s c, t, s i
c, t, i s
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Comments: use of the critical insulation in lieu of a thin coating has the
effect of reducing the maximum insulation temperature from 778.7
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318.2
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surface temperatures to 692.5
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K (2000 0 C / m 2 ) 0. it follows that E in E out E g 0 . .050m q '' x (L) 10. find d [a+bx2]= 2kbx. is then x=0 q x ( x ) k '' q '' x (0) 0 ' atX L. dx The flux at the face. q " (L) q " (0) 10.000 W / m 2 Comments: from an overall energy balance on the wall.050m . q 'x (l) 2kbL 2 50W / m.' q 'x ( x ) k dT dx x Using the temperature distribution T(x) to evaluate the gradient. q .0 10 5 W / m 3 L 0. ' q 'x (0) q '' x (L) q L 0 .00w / m 2 0 x x 2. .
A general form for the conduction flux is . but the middle layer is stationary. Solar radiation is absorbed in the middle layer in the form q=Aemx . Obtain expressions for the interfacial heat flux from the bottom layer to the middle layer. (3)constant properties. The top and bottom layers are well mixed with salt. resulting in the following temperature distribution in the central layer A T ( x) 2 e mx Bx C ka In the above equation. (b) whether conditions are steady or transient (c) rate of thermal energy generation for the entire central layer.Problem 2: Consider a solar pond having three distinct layers of watersalt solution. where T1>T2. These layers are subjected to natural convention. Known: Temperature distribution and distribution of heat generation in central layer of a solar pond. obtain an expression for the rate at which thermal energy is generated in the entire middle layer. Are the conditions are steady or transient? Next. With this arrangement. a (1/m). (2) onedimensional conduction. and from the middle layer to the top layer. the top and bottom surfaces of the middle layer is maintained at uniform temperature T1 and T2. B (K/m) and C(K) are also known. Find: (a) heat fluxes at lower and upper surfaces of the central layer. and the constants A (W/m3). per unit surface area. k is the thermal conductivity. Schematic: Assumptions: (1) central layer is stagnant. Analysis (1) the desired fluxes correspond to conduction fluxes in the central layer at the lower and upper surfaces.
A mx " qcond k e B km Hence A ml " A " " B ql" qcond ( x L 0 k e B qu qcond ( x0 ) k km km (b) Conditions are steady if T/t=0.q" = (q”cond(x=0))(q”cond(x=L)) 2 Eg k . A mx A mx 1 e e k k t T =0 t (for all 0<=x<=L) For the central layer. necessitating use of minus signs in the above energy balance. " E g = q1 . Applying the heat equation." Alternatively. " q " q1 E g =0 2 . the energy generation is L L E g 0 qdx A 0 e mxdx . " Eg . A mx L A A e (e mL 1) (1 e mL ) 0 a a a . A A mL A BK e B (1 e mL ) km km m Comments: Conduction is the negative xdirection. . from an overall energy balance. 2 T q 1 T 2 t k t Hence conditions are steady since .
q" (L) = K [3AL2+2BL+C] x COMMENTS: (1) from an over all energy balance on the wall. '' g 3AkL2 2BkL . L). . From integration of the volumetric heat rate. Hence. '' . . Known: steadystate temperature distribution in onedimensional wall of thermal conductivity. the generation rate is q . Assumptions: (1) steady state conditions. Find: expressions for the heat generation rate in the wall and the heat fluxes at the two wall faces(x=0. find E in E out E g 0 q " x (0) q " x (L) ( kC) ( K )[3AL2 2BL C] E g 0 E g 3AkL2 2BkL . the heat fluxes are: q" (0)=kC Surface x=0.Problem 3: Consider 1D heat transfer across a slab with thermal conductivity k and thickness L. Hence. The steady state temperature is of the form T=Ax3+Bx2+Cx+D. we can also find L L E g 0 q( x )dx k[6Ax 2B]dx k[3Ax 2 2Bx]0 0 . . T(x)=Ax3+Bx2+CX+d. x Surface x=L. . L). (3) homogeneous medium. The heat fluxes at the wall faces can be evaluated from Fourier’s law. x=0. d 2T q 0 dx 2 k Or d 2T q k 2 dx . dT q " k k[3Ax 2 2Bx C] x dx Using the expression for the temperature gradient derived above. d dT d 2 dx k dx [3Ax 2Bx C 0] dx q k[6Ax 2B] which is linear with the coordinate x. L E . Find expressions for the heat generation rate per unit volume in the slab and heat fluxes at the two wall faces (i. Analysis: the appropriate form of the heat diffusion equation for these conditions is . (2) onedimensional heat flow. '' .e.
derive an expression determine Tf . (b) Sketch the temperature variation with x for the initial condition (t<=0) and for several times after the heater is switched ON. with the heater on. Also the appropriate boundary and initial conditions are: 2 T 1 T Initial condition: T(x. as a function of the relevant parameters. the final uniform temperature. Analysis: (a) the appropriate form of the heat equation follows. is suddenly exposed to a uniform heat flux at one boundary while the other boundary is insulated. identify boundary and initial conditions. The boundaries at x=L and elsewhere are perfectly insulated. Choose the following planes: x=0. reached after heater has been switched off the following an elapsed time . (c) sketch heat flux for x=0. Known: one dimensional system. Assuming no heat loss. The system is initially at a uniform temperature Ti. sketch the heat flux variation with x. The electrical heater is suddenly switched ON. 0) =Ti uniform temperature x 2 t q " kT / x ) 0 t 0 Boundary conditions: x=0 o . (a) Set up the differential equation along with the boundary and initial conditions for the temperature T(x. te. (2) no internal heat generation. (3) constant properties.] Schematic: Assumptions: (1) one dimensional conduction.t). and x=L. (d) After time te. initially at a uniform temperature Ti. resulting in a uniform heat flux q”o at the surface x=0 . (c) For any given time. (b) sketch temperature distributions for following conditions: initial condition (t<=0). L/2. x=L/2. Tf. (d) expression for uniform temperature. Find: (a) proper form of heat diffusion equation.Problem 4: Consider a one dimensional system of mass M with constant properties and no internal heat generation as shown in the figure below. L as a function of time. Comment whether a steadystate temperature distribution will ever be reached. the heater power is switched off. several times after heater is energized .will a steadystate condition be reached?.
. Tf.x=L T / x ) L 0 Insulated (b) The temperature distributions are as follows: No steadystate condition will be reached since E in E out and E in is constant. (c) The heat flux as a function of time for positions x=0. ( d) If the heater is energized until t=to and then switched off. . Perform an energy balance on the system. the system will eventually reach a uniform temperature . . t E in Q in 0e q " A s dt q " A s t e 0 o E st Mc(Tf Ti ) q" A s t e o Mc It follows that q " A s t e = Mc(Tf Ti ) o OR Tf Ti . L/2 and L appears as: . E in E st . for an interval of time t=te.
cond L 0.5m / 50W / m. surface thermal conditions. Known: length. Hence.033m 2 .cond R " t . The top surface is maintained at 1000C while the bottom surface is convectively cooled by a fluid at 200C.K is insulated on its sides.K / W K 1 0.K Comments: The contributions of conduction and convection to the thermal resistance are R " t . (2) Constant properties Analysis: for prescribed conditions.k T1 T 30 0 C q" 1500W / m 2 (L / k ) (1 / h ) (0. Find: surface convection coefficient Schematic: Assumptions: (1) onedimensional. Calculate the value of the convection heat transfer coefficient at the bottom surface.K / W h .Problem 5: A 1–mlong metal plate with thermal conductivity k=50W/m.02m 2 .K / W q" cond h 30W / m 2 . steady conduction with no generation. and thermal conductivity of a Plate. Plate midpoint temperature. T1 T2 15 0 C = 1500W / m 2 L / 2 0. Under steady state conditions and with no volumetric heat generation. is constant. the temperature at the midpoint of the plate is measured to be 850C.02 1 / h )m 2 .
Known: Material thickness in a composite wall consisting of brick.038W/m.K. If hinside is 10W/m2.12W/m. (2) constant properties. kb=1. and vermiculite and pine panel. Schematic: Brick glass Gypsum Pine panel. kp=0.Problem 6: The wall of a building is a multilayered composite consisting of brick (100mm layer). and a 6mm layer of pine panel. kg1= Analysis: considering a unit surface Area. 0.K h0=70W/m2.17W/m.K: Glass fiber (28kg/m3). Find: Total thermal resistance and overall heat transfer coefficient. Inner and outer convection coefficients.Kp Kb Kgl hi=10W/m2. Properties: T= 300K: Brick.K and houtside is 70W/m2. the total thermal resistance .3 W/m. glass fiber.K: gypsum. kgy=0. a 100mm layer of glass fiber(paper faced. (3) negligible contact resistance.K.K: pine panel.K 100mm 10mm 6mm 1 h0 Lb Kb Lg l k gl L gy k gy Lp Kp 1 hi Assumptions: (1) one dimensional conduction. a 10mm layer of gypsum plaster (vermiculite). calculate the total thermal resistance and the overall coefficient for heat transfer. 28kg/m2).
038 0.01 0.0143 0. .0588 0.006 1 m 2 .17 0.1 70 1.0769 2.93m 2 .93m 2 .K / W tot The overall heat transfer coefficient is U 1 R tot A 1 R " tot (2.K.0500 0.K 1 0.K / W ) 1 U 0.6316 0.341W / m 2 .R" tot R" tot 1 L B L g1 L gy L p 1 h 0 K B k g1 k gy K p h i 0.K / W tot R " 2..1)m 2 .3 0.12 10 W R " (0. the dominant contribution to the total resistance is made by the insulation. Comments: an anticipated.1 0.
Layers A has a thermal conductivity kA=20W/m.0=200C Ts. temperature and convection coefficient associated with adjoining gas.K KA KB KC LA=0.30m and LC=0. Measurements also tell us that the inner surface temperature Ts. is of known thickness.K.Problem 7: The wall of an oven is a composite of the following layers. Find: value of unknown thermal conductivity. Under steadystate operating conditions. (4) negligible contact resistance.K LA LB LC Assumptions: (1) steady state conditions. Schematic: Ts. Inner and outer surface temperatures of the composites.i=6000C T=8000C h= 25W/m2. (5) negligible radiation effects. The inside convection coefficient h is known to be 25W/m2. but unknown thermal conductivity kB.0=200C.3m LB=LC=0. kB.K kC=50W/m.15m. LB=0.K. (3) constant properties. the heat flux may be expressed as . Find the value of kB. Layer B is sandwiched between layers A and C. respectively. also. and layer C has a thermal conductivity kC=50W/m. (2) onedimensional conduction. the outer surface temperature is measured to be Ts.15m.15m kA=20W/m. Known: Thickness of three material which form a composite wall and thermal conductivities of two of the materials.i is 6000C and the oven air temperature is T =8000C.K. Analysis: Referring to the thermal circuit. The corresponding thicknesses are LA=0.
018 0.0 (600 20) 0 C 0.K.q" Ts.15m LA LB LC 0.K KA KB KC 580 W / m2 0.15m 0. .018 KB 50W / m. 0.K (800 600) 0 C q '' 5000W / m 2 Substituting for heat flux.15 580 580 " 0. Comments: In an over.098 KB 5000 q K B 1.018 0.3m 0.018 0.15 / K B The heat flux can be obtained from q " h (T Ts.i T s .53W / m. radiation effects are likely to have a significant influence on the net heat flux at the inner surface of the oven.i ) 25W / m 2 .
1 T s.12 m outside diameter is insulated with a 20mmthick layer of calcium silicate. Properties: calcium silicate (T=645K): k=0.2=490 K.12m) q 'r 603W / m Comments: heat transferred to the outer surface is dissipated to the surroundings by convection and radiation.089W/m.089 W / m. Schematic: Ts. respectively.1=800 K and Ts.K Analysis: The heat per unit length is q 'r q 'r q r 2K (Ts.Problem 8: A steam pipe of 0. (3) constant properties. 2 ) qL ln(D 2 / D1 ) 2(0. Find: heat loss per unit pipe length.12m Calcium silicate insulation Ts. If the inner and outer surfaces of the insulation are at temperatures of Ts.1=800K D2=0. (2) onedimensional conduction.16m / 0.16m Steam D1=0. what is the heat loss per unit length of the pipe? Known: Thickness and surface temperature of calcium silicate insulation on a steam pipe.K )(800 490)K ln(0.2=490K Assumptions: (steady state conditions. .
This rod is encapsulated within another cylinder having an outer radius of 0.K. Analysis: The thermal circuit for the outer cylinder subjected to the convection process is .Problem 9: A cylindrical nuclear fuel rod of 0. Find the temperatures at the interface between the two cylinders and at the outer surface.000W/m3. Schematic: Assumptions: (1) steadystate conditions. The outer surface is cooled by a coolant fluid at 1000C. (2) onedimensional radial conduction. Known: A cylindrical rod with heat generation is cladded with another cylinder whose outer surface is subjected to a convection process.0W/m. and at the outer surface. negligible contact resistance between the cylinders. and the convection coefficient between the outer surface and the coolant is 20W/m2. Find: the temperature at the inner surfaces. (3).1m dia has a thermal conductivity k=0.2m and a thermal conductivity of 4W/m.K. T1.K and generates uniformly 24. Tc.
m / W q ' 24.' R1 ln ro / r1 2k 2 1 h 2ro R '2 Using the energy conservation requirement.20m 0. E out E g .m / W 100 30 130 0 C Comments: knowledge of inner cylinder thermal conductivity is not needed.8 0 C TC 100 0 C 754. .8 150.0W / m 0. The heat rate equation has the form q T / R ' . on the inner cylinder.m / W .m / W 100 50.0398K. hence ' Ti T q ' (R 1 R '2 )andq ' T / R ' ' R 1 ln 0. Find that q ' q1 r12 . Numerical values: R '2 1 / 20 W / m 2 .0W / m Hence Ti 100 0 C 754.1 / 2 4W / m.0398K.0276 cccc)K.K 0.K 2 0. .0276K.0W / m (0.000 W / m 3 (0.1) 2 m 2 754.2 / 0.
K. (a) If the cable is uncoated. (c) insulation thickness which provides the lowest value of the maximum insulation temperature. (b) cable surface and insulation temperatures for a thin coating of insulation. Find: (a) surface temperature of bare cable. . (3) constant properties. Schematic: Ts T∞ q Eg Assumptions: (1) steadystate conditions.Problem 10: A steel cable having a diameter of 0.K) will yields the lowest value of the maximum insulation temperature? What is the value of the maximum temperature when the thickness is used? Known: electric current flow. diameter and environmental conditions associated with a cable. (2) onedimensional conduction in r.5W/m.02m2K/W. what is its surface temperature? (b) If a very thin coating of electrical insulation is applied to the cable. with a contact resistance of 0. and the effective coefficient associated with heat loss by convection and radiation between the cable and the environment is approximately 25W/m2. what are the insulation and cable surface temperatures? (c) What thickness of this insulation (k=0. resistance. The surrounding temperature of the cable is 300°C.005m and an electrical resistance of 6*104 /m carries an electrical current of 700 A. Corresponding value of this temperature.
It follows that Ts T 294W / m q' 30 0 C hD i (25W / m 2 .c h q' And solving for the surface temperature. it follows that E g q or. The heat transfer rate is determined by heating within the cable.c T 0.c 11530 C D i L 294 W m 2 .02 m W (0. .K 0. and therefore remains the same.005m) . find 1 294W / m m 2 .c hD i L D i L hD i L D i (Ts T ) 1 R t . however. q Ts T Ts T 1 R t .7 0 C (b) With thin coating of insulation.005m) W W Ts q' D i Ts 11530 C The insulation temperature is then obtained from q Ts T R t . Performing an energy balance for a control surface about the cable.c 11530 C q Ti 778.c 1 R t .7 0 C R " t .e Or Ti Ts qR t .Analysis: (a) the rate at which heat is transferred to the surroundings is fixed by the rate of heat generation in the cable.K 0.K )(0.K m 2 . I 2 R 'e L h (D i L)(Ts T ).005m) Ts 778. there exists contact and convection resistances to heat transfer from the cable.withq ' I 2 R 'e (700A) 2 (6 10 4 / m) 294 W / m.04 h (0.02 30 0 C R t . for the bare cable.
02m h 25W / m 2 .70C to 318. D0 Di Dcr Di (0. Dcr =0.2 0 C q Ts Ti /R t.04m> Di =0.r /D i ) 2ππ 1 hππ c.20C.005m) 2ππ(0.66 0. Ti 318.005) π(0.c m W Ts q 692.27 0.005)m 2 2 2 t 0.K/W ln(0.K 294 0.c.c. ) 1 25 W π(0.5 0 C πD i L π(0. Ti Ts qR t.(c) The maximum insulation temperature could be reduced by reducing the resistance to heat transfer from the outer surface of the insulation. Comments: use of the critical insulation in lieu of a thin coating has the .5W/.K/W 2. Use of the critical insulation thickness also reduces the cable surface temperatures to 692.0175m t The cable surface temperature may then be obtained from q '` R "t.r Ts 30 0 C 0.04/0.K/W Ts 692. Such a reduction is possible Di<Dcr. which exists at the inner surface of the insulation.02m 2 .04 0.005m.K Hence.32)m. To minimize the maximum temperature. rcr k 0.02 R "t.K hence.70C with no insulation or fro 11530C with a thin coating.005m) effect of reducing the maximum insulation temperature from 778. W m 2 .25m. Ts 30 0 C Ts 30 0 C W 294 m (1.5W / m.c πD i Ts T ln(D c.04m) m 2 .5 0 C recognizing that .50C from 778.K 0. add insulation in the amount.
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