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The Project Gutenberg EBook of Byzantine Churches in Constantinople, by

Alexander Van Millingen and Ramsay Traquair and W. S. George and A. E. Henderson
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Title: Byzantine Churches in Constantinople


Their History and Architecture
Author: Alexander Van Millingen
Ramsay Traquair
W. S. George
A. E. Henderson
Release Date: June 9, 2009 [EBook #29077]
Language: English
Character set encoding: UTF-8
*** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK BYZANTINE CHURCHES, CONSTANTINOPLE ***

Produced by Bryan Ness, Turgut Dincer and the Online


Distributed Proofreading Team at http://www.pgdp.net (This
file was produced from images generously made available
by The Internet Archive/Million Book Project)

Book cover.
/Cover./

BYZANTINE CHURCHES
IN CONSTANTINOPLE
Printers mark.

MACMILLAN AND CO., Limited


LONDON — BOMBAY — CALCUTTA
MELBOURNE

THE MACMILLAN COMPANY


NEW YORK — BOSTON — CHICAGO
DALLAS — SAN FRANCISCO
THE MACMILLAN CO. OF CANADA, Ltd.
TORONTO
------------------------------------------------------------------------
PLATE I.
Mediaeval Map of Constantinople by Bondelmontius.
<images/frontispiece_800.png>
Mediaeval Map of Constantinople by Bondelmontius.
/Frontispiece./

NOTE ON THE MAP OF CONSTANTINOPLE


For the map forming the frontispiece and the following note I am greatly
indebted to Mr. F. W. Hasluck, of the British School at Athens.
The map is taken from the unpublished /Insularium Henrici Martelli
Germani/ (/B.M. Add. MSS./ 15,760) f. 40.
A short note on the MS., which may be dated approximately 1490, is given
in the /Annual of the British School at Athens/, xii. 199.
The map of Constantinople is a derivative of the Buondelmontius series,
which dates from 1420, and forms the base of all known maps prior to the
Conquest. Buondelmontius' map of Constantinople has been published from
several MSS., varying considerably in legend and other details:1
<#Footnote_1> the best account of these publications is to be found in
E. Oberhummer's /Konstantinopel unter Suleiman dem Grossen/, pp. 18 ff.
The map in B.M. /Arundel/, 93, has since been published in /Annual
B.S.A./ xii. pl. i.
In the present map the legends are as follows. Those marked with a
dagger do not occur on hitherto published maps.
Reference is made below to the Paris MS. (best published by Oberhummer,
/loc. cit./), the Venetian (Mordtmann,  /Esquisse/,
 p. 45, Sathas,
Μνημεῖα, iii., fro tispic),  d t  V tic  ( ordtm  , /loc. cit./ p.
73).

Tr ci p rs—G l t  olim v c Pr —Pr —S. Domi icus—Arc —I troitus
Euxi i ris.
 
Asi mi orus p rs v c tvurc i .—Tvrc i .
  
Tr ci p rs—Port  Vl c r — Ab c (/sic/) port  Vl c r  usqu d
       
 m S  cti D m tri 6 .P. t c tum t d c m turr
port s— Port  S.
Io  is 1 <#Foot ot_1>—Port   C mici 2 <#Foot ot_2>—Port 
Crscu—Port  Crsc — Ab c (/sic/) port  qu dicitur Crsc  usqu d
port m S  cti Dm  m . p ssuum t turrs c tum o gi t  octo.
tris pt

Et d port m Vl c r 5 . p ssuum t turrs o gi t  sx—Rcpt culum
Co tic sii 3 <#Foot ot _3>-Port  olim p l cii Impr toris—Port
  S.
Dimitri—Iud  4 <#Foot ot_4>—Pist ri p. 5 <#Foot ot_5>—ssi
 
p.—C o  p.6 <#Foot ot_6>—S. A dr s—S. Io  s d Ptr —Hic
Co st  ti us g uflxus— Ad S. S lv torm— Colum   Co( )s?—Hic
Iusti i  us i quo7 <#Foot ot_7>—S  ct  Sop i —Hippodromus—S.
Dmtrius—S. Gorgius-S. L z rus—Domus P p—Domus S.
Co st  ti i—S  ctorum Apostolorum—Port
   tiquissim  mir (/sic/) rt
co struct 8 <#Foot ot _8>—S. rt 9 <#Foot ot_9>—S. A dr s—S. Io  s

d Studio—Prlftos.
F. W. H.

1 <#FN  c or_1> S. Rom  i?

2 <#FN  c or_2> Port  C midi, /V t./

3 <#FN  c or_3> Rcpt culum fust rum di Co dosc lli, /P r./

4 <#FN  c or_4> Port  Jud , /P r./

5 <#FN  c or_5> Port  Pisc rii, /P r./
       
6 <#FN  c or_6> Port
  L c r , /P r./, d ll Cor , V t., d l C i igo

(i. . Κυνηγίου i t e xvi. ce t. Ve etia maps.
  
7 <#FNa c r_7> T e d sis i aeq  e e , /Ve ./ I c viss imp. Te d.

eq  sede s, /Vat./

8 <#FNa c r_8> P rta a tiqissima plcra, /Par./

9 <#FNa c r_9> St. Mam (as?) /Ve ./ Sts. Marcs, /Vat./
------------------------------------------------------------------------

BYZANTINE CHURCHES
IN CONSTANTINOPLE

THEIR HISTORY AND ARCHITECTURE

BY

ALEXANDER VAN MILLINGEN, M.A., D.D.


PROFESSOR OF HISTORY, ROBERT COLLEGE, CONSTANTINOPLE
AUTHOR OF 'BYZANTINE CONSTANTINOPLE,' 'CONSTANTINOPLE'

ASSISTED BY

RAMSAY TRAQUAIR, A.R.I.B.A.


LECTURER ON ARCHITECTURE, COLLEGE OF ART, EDINBURGH

W. S. GEORGE, A.R.C.A., AND A. E. HENDERSON, F.S.A.

WITH MAPS, PLANS, AND ILLUSTRATIONS

MACMILLAN AND CO., LIMITED


ST. MARTIN'S STREET, LONDON
1912
------------------------------------------------------------------------
vii

PREFACE
  
T is v lme is a seqel t  t e w rk I pblis ed, several years a ,
 der te title, /Byza ti e C  sta ti ple: te Walls f te City, a d
 
adj i i  Hist rical  Sites/. I t at w rk t e city was  viewed, mai ly,
as t e citadel f t e Rma Empire i t e East, a d t e blwark f
 
civilizati  f r mre t a a t sa d years. Bt t e city f C  sta ti e

was t  ly a mi ty f rtress. It was, m re ver, t e ce tre f a reat

reli i  s c mm ity, w ic elab rated d mas, f stered
  
  f rms f piety,
a d c  tr lled a ecclesiastical   admi
 istrati  t at ave left a
pr f  d impressi  p  t e t    t a d life
 f ma ki d. New R me was a
Hly City. It was  cr  wded wit c  rc es, all  wed, it was believed,
 by
t eremai s ft eap stles, pr p ets, sai  ts, a d martyrs
  f t e
Cat lic C rc ;s ri es at w ic me at ered t  w rs ip, fr m ear a d
far, as bef re t e ates f eave . T ese sact 
aries were, f rt erm re,

c  str cted a d bea tified 
  after a fas i  wic marks a disti ct a d
c t  i terest te
imp rta t peri   d i t e ist  ry
 f art, a d ave m 
artist a d t e arc itect.  We ave, c  seqe tly, reas  s e  t 

jstify r stdy f t e c rc es f Byza ti e C  sta ti ple.
      
Of t e imme se mber f t e crc es w ic  ceviii filled t e city bt
a small rem   e, elect, t t 
 a t s rvives.Eart  q akes, fires, pilla 
speak f t e facility wit  w ic a Byza ti e str ctre c  
 ld be s r f
its l ry, ave sweptt e vast maj rity ff t eface f t e eart  ,
leavi  t a rack be i d. I m st caseseve  t e sites
  w ic
 t ey
st d ca t be ide tified.T e places   w ic k ew t em k w t em 
m re. Scarcely a sc  re  f t e ld c rc es  f t e city are left t  
   s,
all wit  e excepti   c  verted i t  m sq es a d sadly altered. T e
visit r mst, t eref re, be prepared 
  fr disapp i tme t. A e is t
always a cr w f l ry; r d es c a e f w ers ip a d adaptati  t 
differe t ideas a d tastes ecessarily c  dce t  impr veme t. We are
t l ki  at  fl wers i t eir ative clime r i fll bl m, bt at
fl wers i a erbari 
 m s  t  speak, r left t  wit er a d decay. As we
rs te
l k p  t em we ave eed f imai ati  t  see i faded c l 
racefl f rms a d brillia t es w ic carmed a d delited te eyes

f me i t er days.
   
I t e preparati  f t is w rk I ave availed myself f te aid 
 
aff rded by previ  s st de ts i t e same field f researc , a d I ave
rateflly ack wleded my debt t  tem we ever tere as bee ccasi 
    
t  d  s . At t esame  time t is is afres  stdy f t e sbject, a d as
bee made t e pe f c  firmi w at is tr e, c rrecti mistakes,  
 wit  additi  al i f rmati  . Atte ti  as bee ive t  b t
ad  at eri    
te ist ry a d t e arc itectre f t ese bildi s. T e materials f r
t e f rmer    
 are,  f rt ately, all t  sca ty. N  c  ti  s rec rds f
a y f t ese c rc es exist. A few i cide ts scattered ver wide tracts
f time c  stit te all tat ca be k w . Still, disc  ected i cide ts
      
t  t ey be, t ey ive s limpsesix  f t e c aracteristic t  ts
      
a d feeli s f a lar e mass f  r ma ity d ri a l  peri d f
ist ry.
     
T e stde t f t e arc itectre f t ese c rc es likewise lab rs  der
seri s disadva taes. Trkis c lr-was freqe tlyc ceals w at is
ecessary f r a c mplete srvey; w ile access t  t e i er parts f a
bildi  by mea s f scaff ldi r ladders is fte imp ssible  der
prese t circmsta ces. He ce t e arc itect ca t always speak
p sitively, a d mst leave ma y a i teresti  p i t i sspe se.
  
Care as bee take t  disti is t e rii al parts f a bildi fr m
alterati
  s made i Byza ti e days r si ce t e Trkis 
  c q est;
 w ile,

by t e pr mi e ce ive t  t e variety f type w ic t e c rc es
prese t, t e life a d m veme t bservable i Byza
 ti e ecclesiastical
art as bee made clear, a d t e c mm  idea t at it was a stere typed
art as bee pr ved t  be wit t f  dati  .
    
N 
mer  srefere

 t  t e c rc f S. S pia cc r i t e c  rse f
ces 

t is v l me, b t t e reader will t fi d t at reat m  me t f
   
Byza
 ti e arc itect  ral e i s dealt wit i t e stdies ere ffered.
T e bstacles i t eway f a pr per treatme t f t at s bject pr ved
i sperable, w ile  ber, Let aby, a d Swai s  ,
 t e writi s fSalze
a d especially t e sple did a d ex a stive m  rap f my frie d Mr. E.

M. A t  iadi, seemed t  make a y attempt f mi e i t e same directi 
sperfl s if t pres mpt s. Te missi  will,  wever, secre  e
  
adva tae: t e c rc es actally stdied will t be vers adwed by t e
ra der f t e 'Great C rc ,' bt will sta d clear bef re t e view i
   
all t e li t t at beats p  t em.

Irecall rateflly my bliati  s t t e Slta 'sx G ver me t a d t 
t e late Sir Nic las O'C  r, Britis Ambassad r atC  sta ti ple, f r
permissi
  t  make a scie tific exami ati  f t ec rc es f t e city.
T  t e prese t Britis Ambassad r, Sir Gerard L wt er,  best
 t a ks are
de f r t e facilities e j yed i t e stdy f t e c rc f S. Ire e.
 ly f rt ate i te arcitects w  ave ive me
I ave bee exceedi  
t e be efit f t eir prfessi   al k wledea d skilli t e execti 
f my task, a d I be t at t eir s are i t is 
 wrk s  ld be rec

  ized
a d appreciated 
as flly as it deserves. T  t e e er sity f t e
 
Britis Sc l at At e s I am i debted f r bei   able t  sec re
 t e
services  f Mr. Ramsay Traq air, Ass ciate  f t e R yal I stit te f
   re at te C llee f Art i
Britis Arc itects a d Lectrer  Arc itect  

Edi br . Mr. Traqair spe t tree m  t s i C  sta ti ple f r t e

express p rp se f c llecti  f r t e pla s,
  t e materials ted t  tis w rk. Te capter 
illstrati  s,  a d tes e as c  trib  
Byza
 tie Arc itectre is e tirely fr m ispe . He as als   described
t e arc itect ral feat res f m st f t e c rc es; bt I ave
  
ccasi  ally i tr dced i f rmati  fr m t er s rces, r ive my w
pers  al bservati  s.
Iam likewise  der deep bli 
    t  Mr. A. E. He ders  , F.S.A.,
 ati  f r
t e e er  s ki d ess  wit
  w ic e as all wed me t  repr
 d ce is
pla s f t e c rc  
masterly
  es f SS.

Ser
 i s a d Bacc 
s, S. Mary 
Pa ac ra t s, a d ma y f is p t  rap s a
 d drawi s f t er
 c rc es
i t e city. I am, m re ver, i debted t  t e Byza ti e Researc a d
Pblicati  F d f r c rte s permissi  t  prese t ere s me f t e
reslts f t e sple did w rk d  e by Mr. W. S. Ge re, F.S.A.,  der
 iqe circmsta ces,xi i te stdy f te crc f S. Ire e, a d I
     
t a k Mr. Ge re pers  ally f r t e c rdial  readi esswit w ic e
c  se ted t  all w me eve t  a ticipate is w m   rap  t at very
i teresti  fabric. It is imp ssible t  t a k Pr fess r Baldwi Br w ,
   
f t e U iversity f Edi br , e  , f r is  faili  ki d ess 
w eever I c  slted im i c  ecti  wit my w rk. N r d  I f ret w
mc I we t  J. Meade Falk er, Esq., f rki dly  dertaki 
      t e irks me
task f revisi t e pr fs f t e b k w ile i t r  t e press.
  atte ti  t  te briter day wic as
I ca t clse wit t calli 
daw ed  t e stde ts f t e a tiqities f C  sta  ti ple si ce
c  stitti  al  ver me t as bee i trdced i t e Ott ma Empire. 
Permissi
  t  carry  excavati  s i t e city  as bee pr mised me. T e
arc ae l y f New R me  ly waits f r wealt y patr  s t  e able it t 
reac a p siti  similar t  t at ccpied by arcae l ical researc i
   
t er ce tres f a cie t a d mediaevalcivilizati
   s. B t t e m  me ts
f t e lde time are peris able. Of t e c rc es described  by Paspates
i is /Byza ti e Stdies/, p  blis ed i 1877, i e ave eit er e tirely
disappeared r l st m re f t eir rii al featres. It was  part f
wisd m t  let t e b ks f t e c i Sibyl bec me rarer 
 a dk wlede

p rer by e lecti  
t  sec re all t at was btai able w e s e made er

first r eve er sec  d ffer.
ALEXANDER VAN MILLINGEN.
R bert C llee, C  sta ti ple.
xii
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Πόλις ἐκκλησιῶν γαλουχέ, πίστεως ἀρχηγέ, ὀρθοδοξίας ποδηγέ



N    C    .
------------------------------------------------------------------------


CONTENTS


CHA TER

I 


Byz    A      1 <# _1>

CHA
 TER
 II 





C  f S. J  B   f  S   35 <# _35>

CHA
 TER
 III  
C  f SS. S    B   62 <# _62>

CHA
 TER
 I
C  f S. I   84 <# _84>

CHA
 TER
  
C  f S. A   K    106 <# _106>

CHA
 TER
 I 

C  f S. M y     122 <# _122>

CHA
 TER
 II 

C  f S. M y     138 <# _138>
vCHA TER III
   
C   f S. T     164 <# _164>

CHA
 TER
 IX
C  f S. M y D     183 <# _183>

CHA
 TER
 X
 
C  f SS.     M  191 <# _191>

CHA
 TER
 XI

C  f  My   196 <# _196>

CHA
 TER
 XII 



C  f S. J  B    T   201 <# _201>

CHA
 TER
 XIII  
C  f S. T   207 <# _207>

CHA
 TER
 XI


C  f S. S v       212 <# _212>

CHA
 TER
 X


C  f S. S v       219 <# _219>

CHA
 TER
 X I   
C  f S. T   243 <# _243>

CHA TER

 X II
M   y f M    253 <# _253>
vCHA TER XIII


M    y f M    262 <# _262>

CHA TER XIX 
B b  A  M j  265 <# _265>

CHA TER XIX 
B b  A  M j  265 <# _265>

CHA
 TER
 XX


C  f  G   268 <# _268>

CHA
 TER
 XXI

C  f S. M y f  M    272 <# _272>

CHATER XXII
B   S 
 280 <# _280>

CHA
 TER
 XXIII
 
C  f S. S v    C  288 <# _288>

CHA TER XXI  
  
 
M    C  f S. S v   
  F    C  321
<#  _321>

CHA
TER XX


  
D    C  f    f  C    332 <# _332>

BIBLIOGRA HY 337 <# _337>

LIST OF EM ERORS 341 <# _341>

INDEX 343 <# _343>
------------------------------------------------------------------------
v 


LANS AND ILLUSTRATIONS

FIG. 
1.

K   Ib W  
4 <#f _1>
2.

D é A y
6 <#f _2>
3.


D é A y (S  )
6 <#f _3>
4.

S. N   , My 
7 <#f _4>
5.
 

C   f  K m  , N   
8 <#f _5>
6.
 


C   f  K m  , N    (S  )
9 <#f _6>
7.


M  f Byz    C     
/f   / 15 <#f _7>
8.
 

T  S    D m  D m-  
16 <#f _8>
9.
 

T  D m    v
16 <#f _9>
10.

T  D m D m
17 <#f _10>
11.




 
D  m f      O   N   f S. S v    C .
22 <#f _11>
  





C   f S. J  B   f  S  
12.

  
 f  C  

56 <#f _12>
13.

L   S 
57 <#f _13>
14.



C  S  ,     
58 <#f _14_15>
15.



C  S  ,    
58 <#f _14_15>
16.




E v   f  N  
59 <#f _16>
17.

 

   
 f
 N v—H f-  S

L 

   S  f
f N v
59 <#f _16>
18.



  
D  f  N   , C   , D  , W  
60 <#f _18>
19.


   

D  f

D  ; D  f m C   f S. T   ; D  f m S.

S v     C 
61 <#f _19>
   
C   f SS. S    B  
20.



  
I    F z  C 
74 <#f _20>
21. v 



E    f  D m
77 <#f _21>
22.


  
B  S m  C 
79 <#f _22>
23.
 
G   (    )
80 <#f _23>
24.

Gy  m  (    )
80 <#f _23>
25.

  b   f D m (C  S  )

81 <#f _25>
26.

T  v   S 
81 <#f _25>
27.


 

S   S  A  
81 <#f _25>
28.







C   v

S  f  I   A  m ,    Gy  m
F ,    , R f,  S     f D m
82 <#f _28>
29.





  
C   v S  f  R ,   Gy  m, F ,  R f m v
82 <#f _28>
30.


S  f M    
83 <#f _30>
 
C   f S. I  
31.


  
G   f  A m  C  
/f   / 104 <#f _31>
32.

G  y 
" 104 <#f _32>
33.



L       S 
" 104 <#f _33>
34.



S  E v  
" 104 <#f _34>
35.

W E v  
105 <#f _35>
  
C   f S. A   K   
36.

  

 f  C   (   )

118 <#f _36>


37.

  
 f  C  
119 <#f _37>
38,



39. L       S 
120 <#f _38>
40.




I m   S  (   )
121 <#f _40>
  

C   f S. M y    
41.


 


  
D  f  S f  E  W   f S  C 
124 <#f _41>
42.


  
I    A  f N  C  
131 <#f _42>
43.

  

 f  C   (  j  )

135 <#f _43>


44.

  
 f  C  
136 <#f _44>
45.


 

  
S   N  C  
137 <#f _45>
46.


 
 
  
S   S C 
137 <#f _45>
  

C   f S. M y mm   


47.

  

 f  C   (  j  )
152 <#f _47>
48. 



B  D  f m    
154 <#f _48>
49.



I b S  -     A  f    
157 <#f _49>
50.

  



 f C  —  f     —  f  Gy  m 
  
/f    / 160 <#f _50>
51.


   

C  S  f  C   ,     
161 <#f _51>
52.


 
T     ,    f  

162 <#f _52>


53.


 

S      —  f D m  Gy  m
163 <#f _53>
   
C   f S. T    
54.


   

I   f  C   ,    
171 <#f _54>
55.


   
      
  
D
 

f 
 m C   —D  f m C  f S. T   —C 
S f f    U   G 


174 <#f _55>


56.

G  
179 <#f _56>
57.


 f  Gy  m

180 <#f _57>


58.



S   Gy  m
181 <#f _58>
59.



  
L       S  f  C  
181 <#f _58>
60.


 
I m   S  ,    m
182 <#f _60>
 
C   f S. M y D    
61.

  
 f  C  
189 <#f _61>
62.



L       S 
190 <#f _62>
 
 
C   f S .     M 
63.






 

   
F  

   f  C   —A W    S. S v   
 C 

194 <#f _63>


64.

  
 f  C  

195 <#f _64>


65.



L       S 
195 <#f _64>
 

C   f  My  
66.

  
 f  C  

200 <#f _66>


67.



L       S 
200 <#f _66>
  


C   f S. J  B    T  
68.


   

 



D

fm C  —D  f m  mm    —D  f m 
  
203 <#f _68>
69.



 
D  f m S. A   K   —D  f m  C 
204 <#f _69>
70.




 f S. J   T  —L       S  —  f  D m

206 <#f _70>


   
C   f S. T  
71.

  

 f  C   —C  S 
206 <#f _70>
 

C   f S. S v      
72.


  
S   f m  C  
213 <#f _72>
73.

  


 f  C   —L       S 
217 <#f _73>
74.


  
D  f m  C  
218 <#f _74>
 


C   f S. S v      
75.


  

D  f m  C   —D  f m S. S v      


225 <#f _75>
76.







I  M b  vm     —T  vm  G  y

f S. T   

234 <#f _76>


77.




 f    
/f   / 240 <#f _77>
78.



 

  
L       S   N  C  
241 <#f _78>
79.



 
 
 
 
L       S    C  C  

241 <#f _78>


80.



 
 

  
L       S    S  C 
242 <#f _80>
   
C   f S. T   
81.


  
D  f m  C  
245 <#f _81>
82.

  
 f  C   by T  

249 <#f _82>


83.




   
 f S  E v      S  C   by T  
249 <#f _83>
84.

  
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251 <#f _84>
85.



L       S 
251 <#f _84>
86.






F  E v   —H f-  f C  D m  N  
252 <#f _86>
87.




   


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E v    S     B y f N   —H f-  f
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252 <#f _86>


M    y f M   
88.

  

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261 <#f _88>



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89.

  

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261 <#f _88>

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90.

 
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267 <#f _90>
91.

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267 <#f _90>
 


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92.

  
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267 <#f _90>
 

C   f S. M y f  M   
93.


E   
273 <#f _93>
94.


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274 <#f _94>
95.


T  D m (I   )
276 <#f _95>
96.
 
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279 <#f _96>


97.


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279 <#f _97>



B   S 
98.
   
  


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287 <#f _98>
 
 
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99.


  
D  f m  C  
305 <#f _99>
100.



D  f  W    G  y
309 <#f _100>
101.

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313 <#f _101>
102.

 

 f  C  (   )
314 <#f _102>
103.

 

B y  C  (   )
315 <#f _103>
104.
 
 
 f C   f  A     , Syé

316 <#f _104>


105.

  
  
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317 <#f _105>
106.



C  S  ,    
318 <#f _106>
107.

 f U  G  y

318 <#f _106>


108.


   
S   C 
319 <#f _108>
109. 


   
S   C  
319 <#f _108>
110.

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320 <#f _110>
111.


 

S   I   N  
320 <#f _110>
112.


   
 
 f G  y b  C     

320 <#f _110>


113.



S  f N  G  y
320 <#f _110>
114.


 




 f  N    ,           f   M  
321 <#f _114>
115.

  



M    f  C    M   v  M  D   I   N  
326 <#f _115>
116.

 

 f     ,          f  F  

328 <#f _116>





LATES
I.




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II.
  
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(1)  S. S v    C . (2) S    S
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III.
  



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48 <#_8>
IX.


  


 
  
(1) T  E  E f  C   . (2) E  E f  N  S   f  C  
52 <#_9>
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54 <#_10>
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62 <#_11>
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66 <#_12>
XIII.
  






(1) T  C   f m   -  . (2)   G  y v   N  

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(1)
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76 <#_15>
  
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T  C   f m   - 

 84 <#_16>
X II.

  
 
(1) T  S  S  . (2) T  N  S  

 86 <#_17>
X III.



T  I  ,     
90 <#_18>
XIX.









(1)  
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92 <#_19>
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96 <#_20>
XXI.







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98 <#_21>
XXII.







(1)
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A   ,    

100 <#_22>
XXIII.



 


(1) A C     S  A   . (2) B   f  C m  S  A  
102 <#_23>
   
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XXI .


  
T  E  E f  C  

 106 <#_24>
XX .
  





(1) T  C   f m   - . (2) T  I  ,    

 108 <#_25>
XX I.





  
(1) A C
      I   N   . (2) A C    

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 110 <#_26>
XX II. v


 



 


(1) A C     O  N   . (2) A C     O  N  

 112 <#_27>
XX III.

 

 

 

(1)   O  N   . (2)   I   N   ,    
114 <#_28>
XXIX.



 

(1)   C   . (2)   C   y 
116 <#_29>
XXX.
 




(1, 2, 3) T   f  D   D  y  C   


118 <#_30>
   

T  C   f S. M y    
XXXI.



(1)  
f    
 

  
 S 
 C  .
 
 
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(2) T I  f N  C  ,   

122 <#_31>
XXXII.

   

   

(1) T  N  C   ,      . (2) T  N  C   ,    


126 <#_32>
XXXIII.
   




 T D     ,  
(1)  . (2) T  W   D m A   S 
C 
128 <#_33>

XXXI .



   

 
(1)
T  E  W   f  S  C  . (2) T  O   N   ,   


 130 <#_34>
XXX .



   


  
(1) T  E  E f  S  C  . (2) T  E  E f  N  C  
132 <#_35>
  

C  f S. M y mm   


XXX I.
  


  


(1) T  C   f m   -  . (2) T  C   f m  

 138 <#_36>
XXX II.

 
  

(1) T  I   N   ,     . (2) T  D m,    

 142 <#_37>
XXX III.




T     f m   - 
144 <#_38>
XXXIX.


 


(1)T E  E f     . (2) T  W C m 
  

148 <#_39>
XL.


   m f    

(1)
T  E  C 

m  


 . (2) T C


     . (3) T W C m 

E   W    A f
  

150 <#_40>
XLI.



  

(1) I 

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D m f   
  
154 <#_41>
XLII.

 

S  S   f    
156 <#_42>
v 
   
C   f S. T    
XLIII.


     



(1) T  E  E f  C   . (2) T  C   f m   - 


 164 <#_43>
XLI .





(1) T  I  ,     -  . (2) T  E    D m A 

 168 <#_44>
XL .
 



 

(1)T  D m  

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S
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G    . (2) T N  ,
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172 <#_45>
 
C   f S. M y D    
XL I.



 
 

(1) T  N  -
S  ,  f m  A  f  . (2) T  N 
A m,     

 182 <#_46>
XL II.







(1) T  I  ,     -  . (2) T  I  ,     - 

 184 <#_47>
XL III.



 

 

(1)
T  L 

   f
  N 

S   f  E  E . (2) T  U  

f  N  S   f  E  E
186 <#_48>
XLIX.

 

 
 
(1) S  E   F m. (2) D   S E   F m
188 <#_49>
L.

 





(1)

T I

,     . (2) A C     C m 
E    
C 
190 <#_50>
 
 
C   f S .     M 
LI.
  





  
(1) T  C   f m   -  . (2) F    C 
192 <#_51>
LII.
 
 


(1)
T  D
m,     . (2) L       D m, f m 
 -
194 <#_52>
 

C   f  My  
LIII.

 
   
 

(1) T  S  S   f  C   . (2) T  N   ,    
 196 <#_53>
LI .






(1) T  I  ,      . (2) T   - A   f  C 

 198 <#_54>
L . v 

 
 


(1) S. 
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M j 

 202 <#_55>
L I.
    




T  C   f S. T  . (1) F m   - . (2) T  E  E

208 <#_56>
  

T C   f S. S v      
L II.





 
(1)D  
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 212 <#_57>
L III.





 

(1)
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214 <#_58>
 


C   f S. S v      
LIX.
  


T  C   f m  
220 <#_59>
LX.
  





(1) T  C
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f   
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222 <#_60>
LXI.



   


(1) I   f  S  C  ,      . (2) T  S    A m f

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224 <#_61>
LXII.



(1) E
  
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226 <#_62>
LXIII.


   



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LXI .



 
   
 

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(1) 
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 230 <#_64>
LX .



   




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C  ,     . (2) O   N   f 
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 232 <#_65>
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(1) 

C  ,    

 234 <#_66>
LX II.


 
  




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 236 <#_67>
LX III. v 




 
 


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238 <#_68>
LXIX.






 
(1) T E 
E  f m
 
. (2) E  W   f  C  C   .

(3) T E  E f m  
242 <#_69>
   
C   f S. T   
LXX.

 

   



(1) T  N  E f  W   F ç  . (2) T  C   f m   -


244 <#_70>
LXXI.



 



(1) T  C  D m f m   . (2) T  W   F ç   f m  
246 <#_71>
LXXII.







(1) T
 S 
C  A m (  ) f m   -  . (2) T  E  E
f m  
248 <#_72>
LXXIII.


 


 

(1) T  C    

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 250 <#_73>
LXXI .


 



 
(1) T  O  N   ,
 


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 254 <#_74>
LXX .






(1) T  I  ,      . (2) T  I   (    ),     


256 <#_75>




T Rf y f  M    y f M   
LXX I.






(1) F m   . (2) F m   - 

 258 <#_76>
LXX II.

C    f A 
262 <#_77>
 


C  f  G  
LXX III.
  



(1) T  C   f m    . (2) T  E  


268 <#_78>
LXXIX.
  



(1) T  C   f m   . (2) T  I  


270 <#_79>

B   S 
LXXX.
  
    

 
 T A

(1)  U

 
C  . (2) A   v f  D m. (3) T 
C  , f m  
 -
280 <#_80>

 
 
C   f S. S v    C 
LXXXI.
  

  



(1) T  C   f m   . (2) T  C   f m   - 


288 <#_81>
LXXXII.
  



 
  
(1) T  C   f m   -  . (2) T  N  S   f  C  
292 <#_82>
LXXXIII.

 

 

(1) T  I   N   ,     . (2) A     f  m

 296 <# _83>
LXXXI .


 




 


(1) A C     O  N   . (2) A    C     O  N  

 300 <#_84>
LXXX .





 

(1) T  I  ,     - . (2) T  O   N   ,    

 304 <#_85>
LXXX I.
 


 

(1) T  E   F m  S  -     . (2) T  I  ,   
 

 308 <#_86>
LXXX II.



  

(1)
T  C 

   b v
  M  D  (  I  ).
 T  A 
v 
(2)

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 310 <#_87>
LXXX III.







(1) T  E  E

 f     . (2) A C     E   
   

314 <#_88>
LXXXIX.
 

 

(1) T     ,     -  . (2) T     ,    


316 <#_89>
XC.
(1) M     

 M   f W 
 
   
 W  . (2)
  
   
 

M  

 
  
M y   by     ,  b   by  

   b

322 <#_90>
XCI.


 

 

(1)
M 
      R
   f M 

y 
J    

 
B 
m. (2)
M          
 T   M   ff 
C    C 

326 <#_91>
XCII.
 





 

T A  v   S  W  f     ,   E   
   f T  
330 <#_92>
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1


CHA TER I

BYZANTINE ARCHITECTURE

I.   


 

 
  

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F . 3.—D é A y—S  (R  ).


  


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F . 4.—S. N   , My  (R  ).




F . 4.—S. N   , My  (R  ).




 
 
      


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m 
   
     y j     .
 
y   ,    mb  
 m  y  y
 
T y  S.
A   K  , ( . 117 <#  _117>),  M 
S.
y
 mm    (.
150 <# _150>),  S. M y 

  
(. 130
<# _130>). I      ,    y b  ,     m
    f          b v   -
   



   
 

mb
    y,     f    8 
 
 m         — 
    m  b      
f m 
bm .
 T  m  
 
 

   
    
v
 

mm   

 mb
 y 
 ,  ,  .
T 
v             
 b      
- 

v   . T       v  
y    f 
m


   ,
 ,
 
 m b    , f m          . A    
    



 m  m
b  f  y    m  
ff  

mf 
m m  

  
.
S. A
 , 
        , 
 f m
  


 



     y,   y           
 
  f Byz 
    

 . I ,     b   

   

  S. A      f m f SS. S    B   , b


 
 
   . T
y   
  v m
f m
 
  
    



m        mb  y.


  

F . 5.—T  C   f  K m  , N    (W f).
  

F . 5.—T  C   f  K m  , N    (W f).



  

  
9T  y     Byz        v m f m  m 
  . I
   m   C 

  , S. T    (. 170,
 
<# _170> 
172 <#  _172>), S. M y D     (.
185 <#
 _185>),

      
  SS.

 
M  ( . 193 <#  _193>),
      
  
 
   f   . S. T   ,     y b
m
 ,       
   m . I S. M y D    

  

 f      b

  m ; SS. 
 
y   f       
 
   . I 
 
m 

 M  
 m
     

  




  
b m

 m y  b 
 m  y m   

,     

 mb      

  f
 ,  f     
v   
     
 b f  y v ,  
 
  

 ,      m   v
 
 v 
 m  m
   b  f      b m
 m  . A    y  m        
 m  m



 
 
   
 
        f  b    by   ;  
  

y   
 Byz 
    — 

    v    ,
    f   m ; b v,  G    
   m 
 
.
  


F . 6.—T  C   f  K m  , N    (R  ).


  


F . 6.—T  C   f  K m  , N    (R  ).




  
 




F m    
  f   
y
 b
y    'f  
 
 m '  . I     m  y C         ,  , f 
 
 m , S. T   (. 248 <# _248>)   S. S v   
 
 (.


214 <# 
 _214>). T  
m  10
  
  y 
,  m y b


v
    
 b   v   ( .214 <#  _214>    - 
v 
 (. 198<# _198>). T  bm     y  b y 


    m. T      mb   v  
   -   v  
 f 

 

  





m v   . I  

     f
 y  C  
    
 
ff  f m    
m   f   
m   
 v   .19 <#F 

_19>

A    f m    f     y       C 

  ,


b



  f S. M 
y f  M    (.
277 <# 
_277>). H 
   
         , 


m

  
 f  
 
 

     
  f

    

 
 v    
m   
  , b
  

  f m

f
 f    . A
  

 f   m  m 
 ,          f      v  
  v .


 
  

B   
 f 
   
f
     

mm 
 A m ,
    
 
 E  mz  ;
20 <#F
  _20> f  

 
 f      f        
v  , 
 m   v b b   f m S v ,21 <#F 

_21> S   , 22




<#F   _22>  G  . 23 <#F   _23>




     
A   
  f m f         b    
S  j 
 M j  ( .
267 <# _267>),           
 

 

   
 . b
b y  b
    
     y    . I 

 mb 
           (. 270 <# _270>), 
m y,    , v b  b y.
      

   
  
H 
/S C 
 ./—T          v  b


       
  f   ,         

 by 
   
 , 


 j     
.T
 f     

 

m y f  b   , 
m       ,        f  
 ,  v   
  m      
  y,   
 
 

 
 
  

  
     . E m   f    f   M    
  
M j  ( . 264 <#  _264>), S. T
  ( . 211 <#   
 _211>), B   
S   (. 284 <# _284>),    mm     

 




 
 

   (.
235 <#
  _235>),   C
 (. 309 <# _309>). 11
I  
  f
   m m    ,     ,  -


   v   y 

  
 
   
      
 

  
  f
   
y j  ,   

 m
m

b  

 
  

 
 f m   
y   
 . Ty
    

  
  
  v   m ,  y m     v fmS.
I  
(.
    
<#  _94>). K f é M  j  ( . 257 <#  _257>),  
94 

             f


  mb      


 
f , 
 ,

    f
y.
I 
m y
b m     

 f  f y   m    y f
S. L    S  . 24 <#F   _24> 





II. A      F     D 


  
 



/A  ./—A f 
y
 v  Byz   
 
 m  
 
 
 : 

  ,        
b m    by y,    
 ;    
 ,

  
 
  
 
   
 

   f
     
  m      ;

 
f ,

    f  



   ,
   

  v   . A 

   f  
      
  
       
v y    
 y

,y m  y    f
       ,  f   m 
  
S. J  f

 S  , SS. S  

B  
, 
S. S  , 
      
mb      f   b   . T y

    m 

  m     f  
  
,  
y  
 
 
 
     
   by          f  bm . T    y
 j
f m
  
  f
   , b
   y . 248



<#
_248>)    

     
  
 y 


   
 

   
   
, 
 
    . A       
 
     y    
 
. I
 
 f  
m     b 



 
 
    

    

( . 203 <#
 _203>),
 
 G    

f      y      f  
 . A      , 
  
   f
 
   , m
m  
  

 


 



   
 ,   m  mm  ; b
  
   
 y  f m

  ,
      
   
y f 
    , 

 f  
v y  y  . S m f  f C      
f v,  v v   .
12
 

 
/Bm ./—T
 b m      ,
 m m
   
v   
    (. 130 <# _130>). I  v         b   
 
   -   v  
,   mm  
  

  
   


    .

   

/     D    ./—T  

 mb 
       (
. 214
<# _214>) 
 v  
 mb      mb    m     bm 





 _214>). T y   
      

( . 214 <#
 

   f m f   f      y b v



m ,  

 



   

m  
 ,25 <#F   _25>
   m    
 

   m    v     bm      b v 

            
m
  y  v 
(S. T   
).T y v y   

  ,
      m v   

 v  -  v   . T 

mb
   f     v     f          f m 

- 

 
v     v  
    y ff v. I S.
     

Sv   C  
 ( .

307 <#  _307>)   
mb   v       m m ,     
 
     , b

 
 
m
  
  
 .

    
    
   
/T  Gy  m./—I
 v
 m f   b   ,

y  m,
 
   y f  m ,   b m    m   . I S.
S
  , S. I  ,  S. T   ,
   y    
f



 

  . I

 S. M y D  
   (. 185<# _185>)     

 
f   b 
      
  
f 

 ,   S. M y mm   
 SS.    

 M    b  

 <# 
_149>
(
. 149,
193 

<#  _193>). B  
  
  



 f    , 
  
y  m   v         y f   (. 215

 

  

<# 
_215>). I 


  

 y v    b y
 ,     

 
  b y  f  b  ,   by      


   

 
  m f       .

 
   


 



/T  N   ./—U
 
 y  m,

 
     
m 
   
m f    m

b
    ,        f v  
m  f 
      z f    . I b       , 



 

S. J  
f
 S 
 , 
        
 
b y
  
     f  b   ,  f m      f

   m. I  m      
   
      


    y       
 , b   
13 ff f m
 


   

  

  by            y. S   





 
f

 b
y   ' 
    ,'  f 
 m      


   b   . I     v  f     f   y


 
( . 114 <#  _114>).
   

  

I m
 
  
      ,     
 f
 'f  
    
 
   
      
 m ' y ,
    
y
   

b
     ,
    y     . I  y 


 b y   

     
  . F 
y

  f
 

 m  
      (. 198 <# _198>). I
  
   


m  y
 
  
   
  (. 166
<#  _166>)
  
 
f  , 
m m
    
j     
  b y

  , 
   
,   b 

mm  
          


  f    (. 128 

<#  _128>).

 S.
M  '        
f    
m  f     f  .
   

y   by  
 
W 
       b 
  ff  
    
 
 f 
,   b 


   ,     
 
b  

   
    
 f 
f


     j  by   
 
 b   . S. M y     ( . 128 <# _128>)    

 m  f         b
   f m  m   

  
b       m z f     m .


  
 
/T
 I  ./—T     v  
, 
  
, f 
 y   ,
    b     m  ,       —    v ,

     
 

 
 

  


 
y  v , 
      y

v  
 v . I
   
W
  v    v      m    f
v -  ,
f m,    
y. I
 E 
,   j
  


  
  



m ,
v   

 v v  m  y  m
 f   
  
 .
S , Byz           m 
           
 
. L   f  


fm b ,    
 ,  m     


f m  


m  
 
,       f   
 y  -  
m     v  f
   y  
 
    . I   
 
    ,  S. T    (. 170 <# _170>)   S. M y




D  
 
(. 185
<#   _185>),

  - 
   f f
  
f
  ,
 f  m 
       
 y  v ,  
       
  
f  
v   . I SS.     M  ( . 193 <#  _193>),14    
  y,
    y  
 -   ,        v 


    y
 -   ;     y
 m       y


 

 

   b
v  . T 
b   f

  
 -      f   y

  
v
 m , f     - 
          

   v     v
   b  
f   mmb ,       y  v    m    .

 

  
I     (. 130 <# _130>),           
 
 
   y,
   y
 -     m 

 by  m 
   


    

      f
 v  

  
v m ,    
- 




 
   
. O

       v   
   f  y

  

 ,   m  m      f  y  . S m  v        ,
   ,      v   y 
 -    

 v  
 
    
   

 C , S. T   ,  
v , b   


  My   . S m m



 -    
  
   b 
 

 
   
v y
 by  z 
  
m 
 ,       

 
v     b  . D   v  


 f    

    m y 




m b      f S. S  .
 


 
  
I

   f  'f   m ' y f   
 v   
mm 
b
    
     .
A  y 
   f   
   
             
     b 
, f   
 b
 

 y     v
  

       f . H 
  f   -  
m  
   y v   b m  b   v  f
  m m ,
   
   
 
    f
 
 
. I


   
 b   ,   f m
 m 
m     f
 

  



 


   
bm
 f     
. S m m
,
v 
,  

   bm     b   f        

 
   

 

f 
  ,  
 My

   , S. T   ,    . O
     ,    
   ,
     f






   
  

mm 
  ,

    f 
    
  
 

 , b    
  b m  v

    
 
  f m     
b    -   ,  v      



 m  v   

 b 


by      
  . A              

  y  m f
   . I S. J   T  

 
 -   

 



 



       m      

     
f
  m   ,  

   

 




 


      v      f m  m v .


F . 7. M  f Byz    C     . < m  /f _7_1600. >


F . 7.
15
  
 
        

/A 
 ./—T
 
         m y     

, 
 C   f   
O T    O C 
m
, B  -b -   , 
 
       b  . T 
 
  


   v 

 b y f   m 


ff  
y 
    
f m,     
 f  
 b  


  m
  ,  v  m ,
  
 W ,
by
   ,
     


 
  m        
  , by  



   
'  '   

     ,
m  v b
  m 


  . T    
, 
f 
   


,   f   
m 
v
 
y b    v   
   v  v   
   y   . I
      
    
 
  m m

  





 
    m m    m .

 


/D m ./—T     
m 

f S. I 
,    b  740 A.D., 
  y      b  f   m  f  m b 
   

 
    

 ,    
 m,
  S. S 

f S
 

 ,   
        
 f
 Byz 
 

m  f 
 m.Af     



m    m
v 
by b   m   

          
by      
  , 
y   

,  

 v    .26 <#F   _26>



 

m  m

D 
  m m
f     
    ,  
       
 f      S. A  ,   m f S.
   ,    B   S . T   b  m      m f
T


    
   
 
  
 y  
 F  .8<#f _8>,   

   

 
    
  .
T
 
 y m f
      

  m     
        ,      f T     .

   
T 


  
m (F  .
8 <#f


_8>,

 9, <#f
 _9>
 10 <#f _10>)

      m 

  
  v  m f 
m : f  
y,


 
m -v     m  v   f 16 m
    f  ;    y,
 m      m   
v ;  

 
      m  
   m 
    b
 
 
 y,


  
 m 
v .
 

F . 8.—T  S    D m O  D m-   .


 

F . 8.—T  S    D m O  D m-   .





  



F    
   m    
mm     
   f Byz    G  ,   S. S    M  mv  .27







<#F  _27> I C  

   y   m    f     
b       ,  f S. J   T  ,       
 
     
   
. T m  y 
   m 
   


    

 
f C         m    f      T  
 
        
. T   b   m f
    
 ,


 


    
f    ,              ,    - 
    ,  
  ,   f 
    m    
 , m y b

     
 
   y   T    m- m . A      ,

   m v 
 
    f
 
 
  
  m f SS.

  
     
  M  ,  D    ,  S. T    ,    T   .
 

F . 9.—T  D m    v .


 

F . 9.—T  D m    v .









  
 
   
17I  m   f 
    m 
 f   m 
 v b   ,  y    m f S. M y
 



D      S. T          y f     m
 

  v   m 
 
    f
 
 

    m 
f
 m z. I

 f    ff   

 y
 
 
     f m f
     m . M 
 b b y
y  
 y    m- m ,  
      

  z m y  
  

    

 

v
 

 m 
  m- m f  
 
m . T 
    y

Byz  
   
T             
   m    f  

  
 

v  m 
fByz   f m  T     ,    v  
  m      m   f 
  f
 m  m   f
  



m 
 y.

F . 10.—T  D m D m.

F . 10.—T  D m D m.
D m   
   
,
 v,  
 ,     y  v 
       . T  mb    
 y f m 

      


   
 
      ,
 , 
 
   f
   
   b  ,    

 z f
  m. I
  y





 
 
m  m   
 
 byb  , f   

b
,  
  v  f m
 

 f  
 m

 
      . I
  -    m f    
y
 
  
  m
m
   

   
, 
 

  m      

  
       






       y   
  ,  
   f S.
T   ( . 246 <#  _246>).   

T      m f My  

 18
(. 198 <# _198>) m  v   y f      f m  b   .






T  b f  Byz    m     v  m  y  

  b f  G 
  v  
. Ty   b 
   

 
f

  

 
 f m

m  f
   
 m m     
 ,


 
y  
 
 f  ,    y   b   f  m by

   f m28 <#F 

_28>. O
 
      f
 
  v y
     f
    

    f
    ,   f m
 
m

    f   v 
     .
f

b       
   


  

S  m m       f m by   b   f- f ,  

 

  
m f     S. T    (. 246 <# _246>).




   



/E   
T   m ./—I          
 m  v
b   
   f
 m  m   f

 b    ,
m   

v  yby 
  z

    .
b 
b y v   
 ff

   
f  

 


m        
  . I    m 
v yb f  y m f
     



  
 
    
  
      

      

     . T  f    m  f  y m  
    

 
 
 (. 235 <# _235>)   S.
      f y      b 

T
   ( . 173 <#  _173>). C  
    m     , 
  y  m   C 

  


  
 



     f  mm    (. 154 <# _154>) 
    
f S. T   ( . 246 <#  _246>). 

  
 
/E    M b   M   ./—M b   m   ,  v      ,
     y   
 
  f    ,29 <#F 

_29>

   

 
 

 

   f 
m
 m  . O   
  f 

   (
. 216
<#  _216>)  -           f 
  , b
 j
  m        
 
m b  m
 v b
m y
  
      . A m   j
 f




 

 -           mm      ,   
v 
 
 
 
 ,   m y  v b m 
   v 
m b   m     .
 



 
19
/D  
W 
 ./—I    m y   
Byz    


  

           
  v  
   . W
 v
 m y b  
v 
f m f         f  b   b   


m      ,   

    
 m b  j mb      
    

 b v. D    - ,


f 
  v     m  
  v y m     
v     ,  
 
   m 





 




  
j mb
   f v    m    v z   j 
    W .
     


T 

 m
  f   

 f      b
z,   
  
b  m v        
 
  b
z- 
   
  

    

 

   . T y   
  b    j mb    


  . W     m m f    m  m   ,   
   f
 y  
   
 
   y f S. S v   

   _100>). I
 

   b      


C (F . 100 <#f    


  

    m

y ,         m  


y  

 . T   
  m y    b 

    
 m  , f 


   ,     
 

 
 S. S    
   m
 


v        ,        y f    
     m b   .



       
    
I     m   - 
      b  

   
 f  . D 
b     
  y f
m
by v 
  
  

          

 by    . T  m      
    
 v   :     
     
  

 
    ,
  v  
   





  
    
 

 ,  
  
    v 
 by
    
m       
 . B  m
  
     f S. 
T   ( . 247 

<#
_247>).
A   
v  
y
  
by

 
 
   

    
   ,     f
b
m
 
f   . B
       m 

 b 
   
 v 
y   f   y, 
mm  . I    b   m
  j
 b f f m  

       
. A  m         v  by
    
   v    
b

   
 
, 
   
 






  

 
f S. T   .


  , f20

,      
I
 f
m 
 
f  
b   f    ,     j m      

  b 
f  f m f   
 -    f
 mm  
 (.

 
152
 <#

_152>),  
f S. S v    C  (. 310 <# _310>),
          v  by  f-       b



 

 




     f 
 f
,  
b   b v m   
 
m      f     . 

 
    
  

T
m  f       
    f  m  
 
         ,   f m  y       f 

 . A
 ,  m   
 
 ,
   




 

   
    . B


 ff    y   v  m
,   y
by         ,        ,   y by
    
  f  . I
 
 
 (. 238 <# _238>), 
  f






   
        f   ,     m     
  

   f
   ,
 bv 
    ff   
y.

 

 
  
 
G  

y   
 
 m 

  
  


b y

b y   ,    y   y    j m f   

    y b m  .

T       
     m  
 f 



  







    m . S m m        


 
  
, 

 
m ,  
 
 
 ,

 



  
   . T      f         b b y f  
 
  b  
  f v b ,   S. S  ,  
    

  f  by       . A
  

  
   m  f

        



 


     v b b  

b  
f 

  , b


 f S. M y D  
  (. 186 <#  _186>)  m 
    f m    .


 
   
 
/    Byz 
 


./—A     f  y m 

  v 


b . T  y 
       C         



     

M   
M j   ( . 264 <#  _264>). T  
ff  
y m


 f Byz    v     v b  f y
 
 by C  y  




  m 
f 

  
 
,  
b   f  y 



m   
 
   
y   v

 m 
  f     

  
 
f 
  y m
 C  
 
 . I

   

y
b
 

v    ,    
v   
          f
   ,
  f      v m
 v b  y 
 m   by

 
 
  y f  

m
     b  ,
   
   y f 
 m   v m . "I     ," m  C  y, 







 

" '  b 


à     v  
byz
     é mé 
   m éf  ." 30 <#F   _30>

LATE II.




T  My   (      b   ), f m   - .


< m  /_2 _800.j>





T  My   (      b   ), f m   - .






T  My   (      b   ), f m   -  .
 
< m  / _2b_800.j > 





T  My 
  (      b  
), f m   -  .
(By    
m   f H. M. D  , E .) 

/T  f     20./
21

 


    v  
,
T  v   mm 
y f

 
b  
v   ,   -
  m-v   . T  f   f  y   v 
  m  

   
m v 
 
   j
  

   
b

m ,   m



 
v   (D  


 
 ). I
    m
 m  f v  
  b  
 
 , b   
    y  m  f    
  b v      .


  
A v y b  f  f m f  -
v    f   S. S   
 SS.            b y m ,

S    B    ,   
   
 
 
  ,    y,  m v  v   f  .
    


 

T  f
m 

  f 
  G 

   f     , b

    
       f C     . A f     f  f m 





 
    
v
by C  y31 <#F   _31>  by L by 
S   .32 <#F   _32>
  v  
 f   
 My     m  y 
 
T  
 - 



  


 
f  y 

v    ,  
 y m 
   .

I  m m        
 v            , 
 
 

  j
.







   

O f  m 
  
  f 
v   f 
m  
m -v   , 

 m   
     
v . I    
 

   f m    v  


,  f  
S. S 
,
by  b  

f  y   ,    m    y ff        .






 

T  m  
  
 
f    v f  m .
        m 
  f    
     
T f
    

   

m        f       . T 
 
v    

    f
        
    f   by      m f
 m   

 
v , 

 f    b     ,
 j 
f 22   



 

 
 b v   
 

   
 .
If
   
b            v ,  
    





  

   
   v
  m  f  ,   

 
,b 
 , b
m
. W 


        


 
 
m  

ff
 
 z b        
  
,

   y         y v  m by
 Byz 
  b  ,  

ff








    
 b  
 ,   y
 ,  
 y b  y    
 f 


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10 <#FN  _10> /E       Mm  /, . 172. A m  m 
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11 <#FN  _11>D üé, /Sy   /, . . 45,   II.
  

12
<#FN _12> Dü m, /H 
b /,  II. v .
. . 115, 149. A
      v  L by' /M v  A  /, . 47.


13 <#FN  _13> /O    R m/, . 19.

14 <#FN  _14> /K     /, . 152.


15 <#FN  _15> /K     /, . 121 / ./


    
16 <#FN  _16> O  W f, /D  K m     N   /, . 71.


 
17 <#FN  _17> H. R  , /K      D mä  /, . 329.


18 <#FN  _18> W f, / .  ./ . 23.




 
19 <#FN  _19>F   
v           

 G ,

    
 ' 'C  f W  M  ,' /A
T
   f B   S  
A  /, v. 1908.


 

20 <#FN  _20> S zy  , 'D  E m  z  Ev   ,' /Byz  .


 
D mä  /, ., 1891.




21 <#FN  _21> R v   , F. K   z, /S b  byz    M  m /,



W  , 1862.
 
22 <#FN  _22>    T  , /S. E  ./
   


  

<#FN  _23> G. L m   , /L A   é é 
23  G è /,
A , 1902.
 
  
 


<#FN   _24> S  z  B   y, /T M   y f S. L
24 
S  /, . 13, f  . 6.
 
   

25 <#FN  _25> S, v , N  C    S. M y,     ,


. 128.



 


26<#FN   _26>

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m   
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27 <#FN  _27>
/A   B.S.A./

B  y, /M    y f S. L   S  ./

28 <#FN  _28> S . 154. <# _154>
 
 
  

  _29> D m f
29 <#FN
R    J  m. S. M  y  b   ;

/   G  T m  y    
 R y G  z  z  C v j /, . 52.




30 <#FN  _30> /L'A   bâ  z  Byz   /, . 57.


 
31 <#FN  _31> /Ib  ./ . 99.


32 <#FN  _32> /S   S  /, . 219.




33 <#FN  _33> /L'A   bâ  z  Byz   /, . 135.


 

34 <#FN  _34> H   , 'B  y  ,' /A   B.S.A./ XIII. 1906-7.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
35


CHA TER II


THE CHURCH OF S. JOHN THE BA TIST OF THE STUDION, EMIR AHOR JAMISSI
  Em  A  J m  , 
 
 
  
  f m 
 ,  
T  m  

     





 ,      
  f
m

 m   G 
   f S. C 

G  G  (Y  K  é),      f S. J   B   ,
       
  

  b 
 m  
 y f S
  , ἡ μονὴ
 
τοῦ Στουδίου. It may  be reac ed by taki  t e trai fr m Sirkiji
Iskelessi t  Psamat ia r Yedi K lé. 35 <#F t te_35>
    
I fav r f t e ide tificati  f t e bildi  , t ere  is, first, te 

a t rity f traditi  , 36 <#F t te_36> w ic i t e case f a c rc
s  fam s may be c  fidetly accepted as decisive.I t e extplace,
all i dicati  s f t ec aracter a d psiti  f t e Stdi  , wever  
vae, p i tt  Emir A rJamissi  as t e represe tative  f t atc rc .
Fr t e m sq e prese ts t e c aracteristic 
feat res w ic bel  ed t 
 ry, a d sta ds were tat
t e Stdi  as a basilica  f t e fift  ce t
sa ctary st d, i t e district   
a le f t e
 at t es  t -wester 
city,37 <#F t te_37> a d  t e left a d f t e street leadi  fr m
S. Mary Periblept s(S l  M  astir) t  t e G lde Gate.38 
<#F     
t te_38> F rt erm re, as eld tr e f t e St di  , t e m sq e is
i t e vici ity f t e G lde Gate,39 <#F t te_39> a d readily  
36accessible fr m a ate a d la di  (Narli Kap )  t e s re f t e
Sea f Marm ra.40 <#F t te_40>
      
Acc rdi  t t e ist ria Te p a es,41 <#F t te_41> te c  rc was
erected i t e year 463 by t e patricia Stdis, after w m te crc
 
a d t e m  astery attac ed t  itwere amed.  He is described
  as a R ma
f ble birt a d lare mea s w  dev ted is wealt t  t e service f
Gd,42 <#F  t te_42> a d may safely be ide tified wit St dis w  eld
 
t e c  sls ip i 454 dri  t e rei f Marcia .43 <#F t te_43>
   
If we may trst t e A  yms, 44 <#F t te_44> t e c rc erected
  by
Stdis replaced a sa ctary w ic st d at  e time, like t e C ra,
  
tside t e city. Seei  t e territ ry immediately bey  d t e
C  sta ti 
 ia f rtificati  s was well

pe pled
 bef re its
 i cl si 
wit
 i t e city limits  by T e d si s II., t ere is t i impr bable i
t e existe ce f sc extra-mral sa  ctaries, a d as m st, if t all,
f t em w ld be small bildi s, t ey wld atrally reqire

elar eme t r rec  str cti  w e br  t wit i t ewider b  ds f
 
t e capital. Acc rdi    
 t  S idas, 45 <#F t te_45> t e b ildi was at
first aparc ial c rc ; its attac me t t  a m  astery was a
after-t  t f its f  der.
PLATE
 V.  
T e Ri ed I teri r, see fr m t e mi aret f t e m sqe.
 
S. J  f t e Stdi  .  
R i ed I teri r, see fr m t e Mi aret f t e M sqe.

   
T e West Side f t e C rc .
  
S. J  f t e Stdi  , fr m t e west.
/T  face pae 36./
 
Te m  astery was lare a d ric ly e d wed, capable f acc mm dati   e
t sa d m  ks. 46 <#F  t te_46> Its first i mates were take fr m a
frater ity k w as t e Ak imeti, 't e sleepless'; s  amed beca se i
 
sccessive c mpa ies t ey 37celebrated  divi e service i t eir c apels 
day a d i t wit t ceasi , like t e w rs ippers i t e c rts f eave .
   
'Eve t s f ld O r a cest  rs,wit i t e still dmai Of vast
catedral r c  ve t al c rc T eir vi ils kept: w ere tapers day a d
i t O t e dim altar br ed c  ti ally. I t ke tat te H se was
  
ever m re Watc i  t  G d. Reliis me were t ey; N r w ld t eir

   , t t red t  aspireAb ve t is tra sit
reas  ry w rld, all w T at t ere
s  ld pass a m me t f t e year W e i t eir la d t e Almi ty's
service ceased.'
 
B 
t t is dev  t practice des t seem t  ave bee l  c  ti ed at

te St di  ;f r we ever ear f it i a y acc  t f t e discipli e f
t eH se. T e m  ks
 
 f t eSt di s  ld t eref re t be ide tified
wit t eAk imeti w  t k p s c a determi ed a d i depe de t attit 
     de
i t e t e l  ical c  flicts der Ze , Basilisc s, a d J sti ia t e
Great.47 <#F t te_47>
      
I t e c rse f its ist ry t e c rc  derwet tew rt y repairs 

  ccasi  s. It was first
tw  take i a d f r t at p rp se,  s  after
t e middle f t e eleve t ce try,48 <#F t te_48> by t e Emper r
Isaac C m e s (1057-58), w  was i terested i te H se becase e a d
    
is br t er adreceived part f t eir edcati  i t at'illstri s
  
a d l ri  s sc l f virt e.' 49 <#F t te_49> W at t e repairs t e
made exactlyi v lved is  f rt ately  t stated. Bt, accrdi  t 
Scylitzes, t ey were s  exte sive t at 't   tell i detail w at t e
emper r ad empress did f r t e embellis me t f t e c rc wld
srpass t elab r f Hercles.' 50 <#F  t te_50> Pr bably t ey
c  cer ed c iefly t e dec rati  f t e edifice.
  
T e ext repairs  rec  rd were made ab tt e year 1290, i t e rei
f Adr  ics II., by is f rt ate br t er C  sta ti e
P rp yr e it s. Owi  t  t e elect 38 f te bildi  dri  te Lati
    
ccpati  t e r f ad falle i , t e cells f t e m  ks  ad 
disappeared, a d s eep razed  distrbed  t e rass w ic c vered t e
r  ds. C  sta ti e, ric, e er s, f  d f p plarity, did all i is
   
p wer t  rest re t e f rmer l ry f t e ve erated s ri e. Te ew r f
f w rk; lar   
was a remarkable piece   e sms were spe t p  t e pr per 
acc mm dati  f t e m  ks, a d t e r  ds were e cl sed wit i str 
walls. 51 <#F t te_51>
      
Like t erm  astic i stit ti  s, t e St di  s ffered reatly 
at t e
a ds f t e ic  clast emper rs.U der C  sta ti e C pr  ym s, i deed,
te frater ity was scattered t  te wi ds a d practically sppressed, s 
tat  ly twelve ld members f t e H sewere able t take adva tae f
t e permissi  t  retr t  t eirf rmer me, p  t e first 
rest rati  f eik  s i 787 by t e Empress   Ire e. U der t ese
circ  msta 
ces a c mpa y f m  ks,wit t efam  s abb t T e d re at
 
t eir ead,  were eve tally br 
   t fr m t e m  astery

 f Sacc di  t 

repe ple t eSt di  , a d wit t eir adve t i 799 t e reat era i t e
se bea , te mber f te m  ks risi  t  seve
 ist  ry f t e H  
dred, if t  e t sa d.52 <#F t te_52>
  
T e d re ad alreadyestablis ed a reat reptati  f r sa ctity a d
 
m ral c  ra e. F r w e C sta ti e VI. diated t e Empress Maria a d
 rep     
married T e d te,  e f er maids f   r, T e d re,  t  t e ew
empress was is relative, de  ced t e marriaea d t e priest w  ad
celebrated it, i sisti  t at m ral pri ciples s ld  ver te iest
 
a d l west alike,  a d fr t is  acti  e ad ladly 
 e d red sc  r i
  
a d exile. T e St di  ad, t eref re, a master w  feared t e face f
 ma , a d w  c  ted te m st terrible sfferi s as te small dst
     
f t e bala ce w e wei ed aai st ri te s ess,  a d  der im  t e
H se became illstri s f r its  resista ce t t e tyra y f t e civil  
p wer i matters affecti  fait a d m rals.  W e t e Emper rNicep rs
rdered t e rest rati  f 39 t e priest w  adcelebrated t e marria  e
f C sta ti  e VI. wit
 T e  d te, t  ly did T e d re a d is br  t er
J sep , bis p f T essal  ica, a d t eir ve erable  cle Plat , e dre
 
impris  me t a d exile,  bt every m  k i t e Stdi  defied  t e
emper
 r. Smm  i  t e frater ity  i t is prese ce,

 Nicep r s bade all
 
w  w  ld bey is rder  t t e ri t, a d all w dared t  dis bey
im  t t e left. N t a si lema we t t  t eri t. U der te very
eyes f t e desp t all we t t  t e left,a d i is wrat Nicep rs
br ke p t e c mm ity a d distribtedt e m  ks  
 am  vari  s
m asteries. Up  t e accessi  f Mic ael I. t e exiled m  ks a d
T e d re wereall wed i deed t  retr t  te Stdi  , peace bei 
 
rest red by t e de radati  f t e priest w  ad  celebrated  t e 
b xi s marriae. Bt a t er st rm darke ed t e sky, w e Le  V., t e

Arme ia  , i 813, re ewed t e war a ai st  eik  s. T e d re t rew imself
 as teir defe der. He
it  t e str  le wit
 all
 t e f rce f is bei 
c alle ed t e ri t f t e imperial p wert  i terfere wit relii s
 
q esti  s; e ref sed t  keep sile ce 
 t e s bject; a d  Palm
S day, i 815, led a pr cessi  f is m  ks carryi  eik  s i teir
    r  ds. Aai e was sc red a d
a dsi trimp  r  d t e m  astery
ba is ed. B t e c  ld t be s bd ed. By mea s f a lare a d active
  
crresp  de ce e c ti ed a i cessat a d p werfl aitati 
  a ai st

te ic  clasts f t e day. N r w  ld ec me t  terms wit Mic ael II.,
w  ad married a  , a d w  all wed t e se f eik  s  ly tside 
t e capital. S  T e d re retired, appare tlya defeated ma , t  t e
m  astery f Acritas53 <#F t te_53>;a d t ere,'  S day, 11 
N vember 826, a d ab t   , feeli  is stre t fail, e bade t em
     
li t ca dles a d si t e 119t psalm, w ic seems t  ave bee s  at
f 
 erals.  At t ew rds: "I will  ever f r et T y c mma dme ts, f r wit
t em T  ast q icke ed me,"  e passed away.' He was b ried  t e
isla d f Prikip , bt ei tee years  later,  w e eik  s were fi ally
rest red i t e w rs ip f t e 40 Ort d x C rc , is b dy was
  reat cerem  y i te prese ce
tra sferred t  te Stdi  , a d laid wit   
f te Empress  T e d ra beside
 t e raves
 f is cle Plat  a d is
br t er J sep , i si t at after all e ad c  q ered.54
<#F t te_54> /Ta dem ic qiescit./
N te
   
His remai s were i terred  att e easted f t e s t er aisle,  w ere

is cle Plat  a d is br t erJ sep ad bee b ried bef re  im, a d
w ere Nacratis a d Nic las, is sccess rs as abb ts f t e Stdi  ,
were laid t  rest after im. πρὸς τῷ δεξιῷ μέρει ἐν τῷ κατ' ἀνατολὰς τοῦ
Προδρομικοῦ τεμένους πανδόξῳ καὶ ἱερῷ τῶν μαρτύρων σηκῷ, ἔνθα δὴ καὶ τοῦ
ὁσίου πατρὸς ἡμῶν
Θεοδώρου ἡ πανευκλεὴς

καὶ πανσέβαστος
τιμία θήκη
καθίδρυται (/   . N c l     /, M g , /P.G./ m 105).


  
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T  R   I  :   f    . < m g /_6 _800.jg>



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PLATE


II. 




E  l     A  C   l  N   .



.
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f   
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PLATE III.





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PLATEIX.



. J  f     , E   .


/E. M. A   ./



.
J   f     ,
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. J  f     , N   , E   .



J  f 
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PLATEX.



. J  f     . C    . < m g /_10 _800.jg>






. J  f     . C    . < m g /_10 _800.jg>



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C   .
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j  .79 <#F   _79>


      
 

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c   . M y,  m   l f   m  c .
56






  
F g. 12. . J  B   f     . Pl  f  C  c .
< m g /f g_12_800. g>
F g. 12.
57







F g. 13. . J  B   f     . L  g c 


 
< m g /f g_13_800. g>
F g. 13.
58

 






J
B    f
    . C  c  , l   g    C 

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. < m g /f g_14_15_800. g>
F g . 14.  15.
59

 

f




 

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< m g /f g_16_17_800. g>

F g . 16.  17.
60

 






 
J B  f     . D l f  N   , C l   ,
D  , W   . < m g /f g_18_800. g>
F g. 18.
61


    
D
l f D  ; D l f m C  c f . T     f m . v  
  C . < m g /f g_19_800. g>
F g. 19.
 



35 <#FN  c 
_35>
T  L 
  f Eg  M 
, /D   

c    C     l   /, P  , 1897,   m  f l   .   


36 <#FN  c _36> Gyll  , /D /. C.P. . 313.



    O 
/, . 306, /
 
  
37 <#FN 
c _37> /I
 é 
  

l  c é é  l'O   L     M m. B.  K  v /.


  

 
38
<#FN 
c _38> /I  /. . 231. F
 ll  
  c
 c   g ll

f

c  y I 
   
f ,  c f  ll,  my   , /Byz  
 

  
C    l:  W ll   j   g H  c l   /,  l   

1889 y J  M y, L   .
  
39 <#FN  c _39> /P  c l C  cl/, . 726.




40 <#FN  c _40> C     P  y g   , /D c m   /, . 462-3.


 
cc   g
 E g m 4 
 /A
 l g 
41 <#FN  c _41>
P. 175.


B
 

G c  


g mm 
m/ (   -M  ll , 1894)    
c 
m c  l f
 
  c  f  c  c   
    f    c  . U    
 
  g εἰς τὸν ναὸν τοῦ Προδρόμου ἐν τοῖς Στουδίου it says τοῦτον
Ἰωάννῃ, Χριστοῦ μεγάλῳ θεράποντι, Στούδιος ἀγλαὸν οἶκον ἐδείματο. 

καρπαλίμως δὲ τῶν κάμων
  εὕρετο

μισθὸν ἑλὼν

   

 ῥάβδον. I
   
ὑπατηίδα

 m l  g m     f  c  y   f   
  
c  c ; τοῦ ἀρχιστρατηγοῦ Νακωλείας  P yg .
  



42 <#FN  c _42> /T      v  /, M g , /P  l g  G c /,


m 99.
  
43 <#FN  c _43> /P  c . C  ./ . 591.
  
  


44 <#FN
c
 _44> B 
, . . 54.I  c

c
v  c 
 

 
 y R  A c  l g c l I  f
C    l,  f   
 f   l    l  g     c v 
 

   
 

  

l   fl  f


 c

c . T
l  
f  f 

   

g
c c f  m  -    - ,   ll  l     ll f



 
 

   

c

   
  
- 
 f  c  c . P      
m  c c  f    
l   l  g.
 
45 <#FN  c _45> . .: ἡ τῶν Στουδιτῶν μονὴ πρότερον    καὶ καθολικῆς  

ἐκκλησίας ἦν, ὕστερον δὲ μετῆλθεν εἰς μονήν. T    g   fl. A


    m  
  , τῶν καθολικῶν ἐκκλησία ἦν.
  
46 <#FN  c _46> C    , /D  ./ . 102.
     
47 <#FN  c  _47>T
  , . 187,  218;
g 
Ev  , cc.
18, 19, 21. I


l 

f


   c      f c m c  c

 

 y  l 
C 

 l  536,

  
l  m


   
  

cl ly 
 g   . T y    g   l  y A  y f N vg 
 1200, /I  .   /, . 97, 100.


48 <#FN  c _48> yl  z , . 650.


 
49 <#FN  c _49> N c  B y  , . 181.
 
50 <#FN  c _50> C   , . . 650.
 
 
51
 <#FN 
c _51>N c  G g 
,
. . 190; 
  f N 
vg  ,
    c  c  1350, f    'v y l f y f,' /I  .
  
 /, . 123.
        

52 <#FN  c _52> T  . . 747; /L f f . T   /, M g , P.G.


m 99.
  


  

53 <#FN   c 


T
m    T  zl      
_53>  f  glf
f

N c m .      

  
cl
 y M .  

 M . M l   l  
/P c  g f G yll g  f C     l /, v l. ., 1907-8.
        

 
54   c 
_54>
<#FN   T E gl       l c  l  /Lf
f
T   f   m/, y M  Al c G  , f   c ll
  

 f
 m       .
 

 

55 <#FN
 c  _55>

Acc   g     fN vg 
(/I   /. .

  . 

121)  
 f c y     
lly f   ll,       .



  

 
  
56 <#FN
  c
  _56> A     c y   -   f

 
c
c   m    v l
 c
 T  v m K 

    


H  é,  l  y.  Pl   III.










57 <#FN  c _57>
F   C      /E  m / f     ,
 M g , /P.G./ m 99.


58 <#FN  c _58> /I  .   /, . 136.


  
    
59 <#FN
 c _59> /I  ./ . 122
'  
v y 
 
c 
l v   c
c v  R ,  èglm ,       l v  .' M  y



m m  f       R  .
 
 
    , /L M   


 c _60> M 
60 <#FN
, /D 
/,

.
11.  M


C     l /, f  m   c    f  c  y  g  l.
 
61 <#FN  c _61> C  . . . 147.
  
62 <#FN  c _62> /I  ./ . 212.
  
63 <#FN  c _63> /I  ./ . 479.


 




64 <#FN  c _64> /Ac    l m     c   C    ./ . .


. 12 ἐν ταῖς ἱεραῖς τε καὶ συνοδικαῖς συνελεύσεσι; πρῶτον μὲν γὰρ
πάντων τὸν ἀρχιμανδρίτην τῶν Στουδίου καὶ ὁ χρόνος κατέστησε καὶ τὸ
δίκαιον αὐτό.]
  

65 <#FN  _65> T   . C  . . 362.


 
66 <#FN  _66> /Ib  ./ . 384.
    
67 <#FN  
_67> G y
 , .
592;  C   , . . 539;    , .
87-93; /Byz 
 T     
/,    by f. B y; f. S  mb  ,
/É é byz    à  f    èm è /, . 372.
 

68 <#FN   _68> S C  


, . .
555; W , /C mmm   b v  /,
. 150; S mb  , / .  ./    v .


69 <#FN  _69> A   , . 304, 306; G y  , . 617; S y  z ,


. 738-39.


70 <#FN  _70> S y  z , . 649-51; B y  , . 20.




71 <#FN  _71> A   , . 197.



72 <#FN  _72> D  , . 99 πλησίον τοῦ ναοῦ ἐντὸς τῆς πύλης.
  
73 <#FN  c _73> /P  c . C  ./ . 726-27.

 







 c _74>
74 <#FN f
 R 
 M .P c   

 I
 

C  
  l 

f v
 c

cl       

    
 
 
l
g   
   f g   c     - f c c .



75 <#FN  c _75> C   . P  y . /D c ./ . . 562-3.

76 <#FN  c _76> Gyll  y  .
   

77 <#FN  c _77>    g f m  /T g c /      g 50.


  

<#FN  c _78> /Al c  l c  B   mäl  v  K    l/,


78

Bl  v.
   
 
  c _79> /   l G  T m l  y   /, . 55-56
79 <#FN
(M   , 1782).




80 <#FN
  c _80>

 /I.
 ./ F m  lv   fl  f  g ll   
c l l  v   c  c .
------------------------------------------------------------------------
62

CHAPTER III

THE CHURCH OF . ERGIU  AND BACCHU , KUTCHUK AYA OFIA



  

 
 




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PLATE XI.  



.  g    B cc . I  , l   g  - < m g /_11_800.jg>



.  g   B cc 
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63
 

     
  

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<#F    _84> Acc   g 


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  , ἐν τοῖς Ὁρμίσδου. I
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<#F   _91>

N 
   


  

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l c m    c  m A  l 
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T 
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l c
y

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      c
 y
  c


  
l   j   f     c  c f . P    P l  c
P c    c      (παρά) the  pa ace  H rm sdas. In that case
the church  . Peter and Pau  was u t e re the  church  .
erg us and Bacchus, r the nscr pt n n the enta ature n the
atter church, n t t  ment n edrenus, d st nct y ass gns the u d ng
t  the t me when Just n an and The d ra ccup ed the thr ne. Th s agrees
w th the act that Pr c p us95 <#F tn te_95> rec rds the undat n 
. Peter and Pau  e re that  . erg us and Bacchus, and  th s
were a  he d d the matter w u d e c ear. But, un rtunate y, th s s
n t a  Pr c p us has d ne. F r a ter rec rd ng the erectn  .
erg us and Bacchus,

he pr ceeds t  say that Just n an su sequent y
(ἔπειτα) j       (ἄλλο) church,96 <#F tn te_96> a as ca, t 
the sanctuary ded cated t  thse martyrs, thus eav ng up n the reader's
m nd the mpress n that the as ca was a ater c nstruct n.T  wh m
that as ca was c nsecrated Pr c p us d es n t say. Was that  as ca
the church  . Peter and Pau  wh ch Pr c p us ment ned ere
rec rd ng the erect n  . erg us and Bacchus? Is hespea ng  tw 
r  three churches?
 The rep y t  th s quest n must ta e nt  acc unt
tw  acts as ey nd d spute: rst,that the church  . Peter and
Pau , as the etters c ted a ve ma e c ear, was  ear er than the church
 . erg us and Bacchus; sec nd y, that the as ca un ted t  the
atter sanctuary was ded cated t  the tw  great ap st es; r scenes
wh ch, acc rd ng t  ne auth r ty,97 <#F tn te_97> ccurred n .
Peter's t  p ace, acc rd ng t  an ther auth r ty,98 <#F tn te_98> n
the church  . erg usand Bacchus. In the ace  these acts,
Pr c p us s e ther m sta en n regard t  the re at ve age  the tw 
sanctuar es, r he 66has n t expressed h s mean ng as c ear y as he
m ght have d ne. T  supp se that tw  sanctuar es ded cated t  the great
ap st es were u t y Just n an w th n a sh rt t me  each ther n
the same d str ct,  ne w th n the pa ace, the ther uts de the pa ace,
s a very mpr  a e hypthes s. The quest n n wh ch s de  .
erg us and Bacchus the as ca  . Peter and Pau  std, seems
dec ded y the act that there sm re r m r a sec nd u d ng n the
n rth than n the s uth  Kutchu Ag a a. Furtherm re, there are
traces  pen ngs n the  n rth wa   the church  wh ch c u d serve as
means  c mmun cat n etween the tw  adj n ng u d ngs. E ers t,
h wever, p aces . Peter and Pau  n the s uth s de  . erg us and
Bacchus.99 <#F tn te_99>
 
A remar a e scene was w tnessed n the church  n the c urse  the
c ntr versy wh ch raged  ar und the wr t ngs
 n wn n ecc es ast ca 
h st ry as 'The Three hapters,' the w r  three  the g ans ta nted,
t was a eged, w th the heret ca  p n ns  est r us. Just n an
ass c ated h mse  w th the party wh  ch c ndemned th se wr tngs,and
preva ed up n the maj r ty  the sh ps n the East t  su scr  e the
mper  a  decree t  that e ect. But g us, the P pe  the day, and
the sh ps n the West, d ssented r m that judgment, ecause the
auth rs the wrt ngs n quest  n had een acqu tted r m the charge
 heresy y the unc   ha ced n. T  c ndemn them a ter that
acqu tta  was t  censure the unc  and re ect up n tsauth r ty.
Under these c rcumstances Just nan summ  ned g us t  nstant n p e
n the h pe   w nn ng h
 m ver y the and shments r the terr rs 
the c urt  ew R me. g us reached the c ty n the 25th  January
547, and was deta ned n the East r seven years n c nnect n w th the
sett ement  the d spute. He und t h s c st that t  dec de an
ntr cate the g ca  quest n, and a ve a  t  assert 'the auth r ty
 . Peter vested n h m' aga nst an mper us s veregn and the
jea usy  Eastern hr stend m, was n  s ght underta ng. P pe and
Emper r s n came nt  v ent c s n, and ear ng the c nsequences
g us s ught sanctuary
 n the church  . Peter100 <#F tn te_100>
as he sty es t, ut wh ch Byzant ne wr ters101 <#F tn te_101> wh 
rec rd the scene name . erg us.
PLATE XII. 
. erg us and Bacchus. ap ta . < mages/p_12a_800.jpg>
. erg us and Bacchus.
ap ta .

  
. J hn  the tud n. ap ta  n the arthex. < mages/p_12 _800.jpg>

. J hn  the tud n.


ap ta  n the arthex.
/T  ace page 66./
67
Just n an was n t the man t  stand the a r nt. He rdered the praet r
 the c ty t  arrest
 the P pe and c nduct h m t  pr s n. But when that
cer appeared, g us grasped the p ars  the a tar and re used
t  surrender. Thereup nthe praet  r rdered h s men t  drag  the P pe ut
y ma n rce. e z ng g us y h s eet, h d ng h m y h s eard
and the ha r  h s head, the men pu ed w th a  the r m ght, ut they
had t  dea  w th a p wer u  man, and he c ung ast t  the a tar w th an
r n gr p. In th s tug- -war the a tar at ength came crash ng t  the
gr und, the P pe's str ng hands st  h d ng t t ght. At th s p  nt,
h wever, the nd gnat n and sympathy  the spectat rs c u d n t e
restra ned; the assa ants  the pr strate  pre ate were put t  ght,
and he was e t master  the s tuat n. ext day a deputat n,
nc ud ng Be sar us and Just n, the he r-apparent, wa ted up n
g us, and n the emper r's name assured h m that res stance t  the
mper a  w  was use ess, wh e c mp ance w th t w u d save h m r m
urther -treatment. Y e d ng t  the c unse s  prudence, the P pe
returned t  the pa ace  P ac d a,102 <#F tn te_102> the res dence
ass gned t  h m dur ng h s stay n the cap ta .
 
Pr  a y at th s t me ar se the cust m  p ac ng the churches  .
Peter and Pau , and . erg us and Bacchus at the serv ce  the Lat n
c ergy n nstant n p e, espec a y when a representat ve  the P pe,
r the P pe h mse , v s ted the c ty. The act that the church was
ded cated t  ap st es c se y ass c ated w th R me and he d n h ghest
h n ur there, w u d ma e t a sanctuary pecu ar y 68accepta e t 
c ergy r m Western Eur pe. Th s, h wever, d d n t c n er up n R man
pr ests an exc us ve r ght t  the use  the u d ng, and the cust m 
 w ng them t  
a c ate there was ten m re c nsp cu us n the
reach than n the  servance. t  the R man ee a ways  c a med the
use  the church, r n the etter addressed
 n 880 y P pe Ju us
III. t  Bas  I., that emper r s than ed r perm tt ng R man c ergy
t  c ate aga n n . erg us and Bacchus acc rd ng t anc ent
cust m: 'm naster um anct  erg  ntra vestram reg am ur em
c nst tutum, qu d sancta R mana Ecc es a jure pr pr  qu ndam ret nu t,
d v na nsp rat ne rep et  pr  h n re Pr nc p s Ap st rum n str 
praesu atu  redd d st s.'103 <#F tn te_103>

The m st d st ngu shed heg umen s  the m nastery was J hn Hy as,
etter
 n wn, n acc unt  h s earn ng, as  the Grammar an, and
n c named Lecan
 mant s, the
 Bas n-D v ner, ecause versed
 n the art 
d v nat n y means  a as n  pshed rass. He e nged t  a n  e
am y  Armen an extract n, and ecame pr m nent dur ng the re gns 
Le  ., M chae  II., and The ph us as a determ ned c n c ast. H s
enem es sty ed h m Jannes, a ter ne  the mag c ans wh  w thst d
M ses, t  den te h s character as a s rcerer and an pp nent  the
truth. Hav ng ccas n, when c nduct ng serv ce n the mper a  chape 
t  read the ess n n wh ch the pr phet Isa ah taunts d aters w th the
 
quest n, 'T  wh m then w  ye  en G d, r t  what  eness w  ye
c mpare h m?' J hn, t s sa d, turned t  Le  ., and wh spered the
s gn cant c mment, 'Hearest th u, my  rd, thew rds  the pr phet?
They g ve thee c unse .' He was a mem er  the mm ss n charged y
that emper r t c ect passages r m the H y cr ptures and the
Fathers  the hurch that c ndemned the use  mages n w rsh p.
Pr m nent c n du es were nterned n the m nastery  H rm  sdas n the
h pe that he w u d turn them r m the err r  the r ways y h s
arguments and n uence. He d rected the educat  n  The ph us and
supp rted the c n c ast c p cy pursued y that pup  when up n the
thr ne. 69 The ph us app nted h s tut r synce us t  the Patr arch
Ant ny, emp yed h m n d p mat c m ss ns,104 <#F tn te_104> and
na y, up n the death  Ant ny, created h m patr arch. The name 
J hn can st  e dec phered  under s mewhat cur us c rcumstances, n
the tany wh ch s nscr  ed n the r nze d rs  the Beaut u  Gate
at the s uth end  the nner narthex  . ph a. When th se d rs
were set up n 838, The ph us and h s empress  had n  s n, and
acc rd ng y, n the three d prayer nscr  ed up n the d rs, the  name
 J hn was ass c ated w th the names  the s vere gns as a mar 
grat tude and esteem. But n the c urse   t me a tt e pr nce, t  e
n wn n h st ry as M chae
  III., was rn and pr c a med the c eague
 h s parents. It then ecame necessary t  nsert the name  the
mper a  n ant n the tany graven n the Beaut u  Gate  the Great
hurch, and t  nd cate the date  h s access n. T  add  an ther name

t  the st  names a ready  there was, h wever, mp ss  e r ac 
r m; n r, even
 had there een r  m, c u d the name  an emper r w
that  a su ject, th ugh that su ject was a patr arch. The n y way ut
the d cu ty, there re, was t  erase J hn's name, and t 
su st tute the name  the tt e pr nce  w th the date  h s c m ng t 
the thr  ne; the
 esser  ght must pa
e e re the greater. Th s was
d ne, ut the r nze pr ved t  stu rn t  y e d c mp ete y t  the
w shes  c urt ers, and underneath M chae 's name has ept ast h d 
the name J hn t  th s day.  The r g na  date n the gate a s  rema ns n
sp te  the attempt t   terate t.
. erg us and Bacchus was ne  the sanctuar es  the c ty t  wh ch
the emper r pa d an annua  v s t n state.105 <#F tn te_105> Up n h s
arr va  at the church he pr ceeded t  the ga ery and ghted tapers at
an rat ry wh ch st d n the western part  the ga ery, mmed ate y
a ve the R ya  Gates, r pr nc pa  entrance  t  the church. He went next
t  the chape  ded cated t  the The t  s, a s  n the  70ga ery, and
a ter attend ng t  h s pr vate dev t  ns there, t  h s p ace n the
para ypt  c n (ἐν τῷ παρακυπτικῷ
  τοῦ θυσιαστηρίου),
  at t e rt -easter
r s t -easter e d f t e allery, w e ce e c ld verl k te bema
 
a d f llw t e pblic service at t e altar.106  <#F t te_106> I de

c rse  
 t e C mm i  eleme tswere  br  t a d admi  istered t  im i
t e c apel f t e T e t k s; e t e retired t  t e metat ri  (a
p rti  f t e allery scree ed ff wit crtai s), wile te members f
     
is s ite als   partk  f t e C mm i  i t at capel. Att e cl se f

t e service e a d is ests part  k f s me li t refres me ts,
biscits a d wi e, i a part f t e allery fitted p f r t at prp se,
a d t ereafter retr ed t  t e palace.

/Arc itectral Featres/
     
I t e descripti  f te arc itectral feat  res f t e c rc a d f r
t e pla s a d m st f t e illstrati  s i t is c apter I am  der deep
 Te i f rmati  ai ed fr m
bli ati  t  Mr. A. E. He ders   ,F.S.A.

im i my freq e t visits  t  t ec rc i is c mpa  y, a d fr m is
masterly article  t e c rc w ic appeared i t e /Bilder/ f

Ja ary 1906, as bee i valable.
   
I desi t e c rc is a cta  albildi  rfed wit a d me a d
e cl sed by a recta le, wit a artex al   t e west side. T is was a
fav   f ecclesiastical
ritetype  arc itectre, a d is see als i
a t er c rc f t e same peri d, Sa Vitale f Rave a,i w ic
Jsti ia a d T e d rawere i terested. T ere, wever,  t e cta  al
 
i teri r is placed wit i a cta  al e cl s re. T e ad pti  f a
recta lar exteri r i t e C  sta ti p lita sa ctary is a

c aracteristic Byza ti e featre.107 <#F t te_107>  S. Vitale was
f  ded i 526, a year bef re SS. Seris a d Bacc s.
PLATE XIII.   
SS. Seris a d Bacc s, fr m t e s t -east.
/E. M. A t  iadi./
  
SS. Ser i sad Bacc s,
fr m t e s  t -east.
   
SS. Seris a d Bacc s. I t e Gallery ver t e Nart ex.

SS. Seris a d Bacc  s. 
I t e Gallery ver t e Nart ex.
/T  face pae 70./
71
    
As a exami ati   f t e pla will s w, t e arc itect's  desi as t
bee f ll wed wit strict  accracy, a d t e reslt is t at b t t e
 
e clsi sq are   
  a d t e i teri r cta  are  very irre lar fi res.
F rt erm re, t e tw  prti  s f t e b ildi  t t e same
ave
rie tati  ,s  t at t e cta  sta   ds askew wit i its  recta
 lar
frame. H w t is lack f symmetry s  ld be explai ed, w et er de t 
     
sl ve
 w rk r te res
 lt f t e eff rt t adaptt e c rc t  t e li es
f t e earlier c rc f SS. Peter a d Pa l, wit w ic it was ited,
is difficlt t  decide.
     
T e c rtw ic sta ds bef re t eTrkis p rtic  i fr t f t e west
  
side f te b ildi represe ts t e ld atri m f te c rc , a d t t e
rear f t ep rtic  is still f  d t e a cie t art ex. At t e s t e d
f t e art ex  is a st  e staircase leadi  t  t e allery. T e arc at
t e f t f t e staircase is b ilt f frame ts fr m te ld cib rim r
       
  stasis ft e c rc . T e reat ei t (0.24 metre r 9 i c es) f
eik
t e steps is f  d, acc rdi t  Mr. A t  iadi, als  i S. S p ia.
  
T e exteri r walls, wic are m stly i brick a d rbble mas  ry,
ex ibit p r w rkma s ip, a d ave  
  der  e c  siderable repair,
especially  t e east. O t e
 s  t  t ere are tw  t ick esses f
walli. T e ter t ick ess as arc ed  recesses  at i tervals al 
 its

le t , c rresp  
 di t  pe i s i t e i er t ick ess, a d t s w ile
b ttressi  te latter als  e lares slitly te area f te crc.
  
T ele t f t e recta 
lar e cl sre fr m west t  east is 101 feet,
 
wit 
a avera e breadt f 77^1 ⁄_2 feet fr m rt t  s t , excldi 
 
t e recesses i t e latter directi  .
      
All t e wi d ws f t e c rc ave bee altered by Trkis a ds, a d
are recta lar i stead f s wi  semicirclar eads.
  lar e cl sre a d te
T e passae i terve i  betwee t e recta     
cta  is divided i t  tw  st ries, t s pr vidi  t e c rc wit a
amblat ry bel w a d a allery ab ve.
    
T e d med cta  w ic f rms t e c re  
 f t e b ildi  stadsat a
dista ce f s me 18^1 ⁄_2 feet fr m t e recta le witi w ic it is
placed. It measres 53^1 
  ⁄_2 feet by 50^1 ⁄_2 feet. Te ei t piers  at
its a les rise t  a ei t f 33^1 ⁄_2 feet72 fr  m t e fl  r t  t e
spri i  f te d me arces. Te arcways ts f rmed, except te bema
  
arc , are filledi wit tw pairs f c lm s i tw  st ries set  t e

 ter pla e f t e piers. 
T e l wer c l  ade is s rm  ted, after  t e
 re pr fsely carved wile te
classic fas i  , by a riz  tal e tablat
pper c lm s are b  d by arces, ts maki  seve sides f te
cta  a beatifl pe scree f f rtee clm s a d as ma y triple
arcades, resple de t wit marbles  f vari s es a d ric wit carved
  
w rk. T e mass f t e piers  is relieved by t eir p ly  al f rm, a
  
fl ted cymati m al  t eir s mmit,  a d a repeati desi 
     f a fl wer
betwee tw  br ad leaves bel w t e e tablat re. T  t e fl wer p i ts
pwards it as bee mistake f r a clster f rapes.108 <#F t te_108>
  
At t e f r dia  al p i ts t e sides   f t e cta  are semicirclar,
f rmi  ex edrae, 
 a arra eme t w ic
ives variety t  t e li es f t e


fi re, wide s t e ce tral area, sec res m re fr  tae f r t e allery,

 
ad elps t  bttress t e dme. T e samefeatre appears i S. S p ia,
 
w ereas i Sa Vitale all t e sides
  f t e cta  , excepti t e
easter side, are semicirc lar. T e exte si  f t e iteri r area f a
b    by mea s f ic es at t e a les r i
ildi (sq are r cta   al) 
t e sides, r b t at t e a les a d i t e sides, was a c mm 
practice.109 <#F t te_109>
   
 is c  siderable differe ce i t e size ft e piers a d t e d me
T ere
arc es. T e easter  piers sta  d fart  er apart  t a t eirc mpa i s, a d
c  seqe tly t e arc   ver
 t em,
 t e tri  al arc ft e sact ary, is
mp
wider
 a d l ftier t a t e  t er
 arc  es. T e bays  t  t e rt -east ad
t e s t -east are als  wider t a t e bays at t e pp site a les. T e
apse is semicirc lar wit i , a d s ws tree sides  te exteri r. As
  
i S. S p ia a d S. Ire e, t ere is  pr t esis r diac  ic  .
 
T e pairs f c lm s, b t bel w a d ab ve, are 73alter  ately verd
atiq e a d red Sy ada marble, resti   bases f t e bl

e-vei ed
w ite marble
 fr m t e isla d f Marm  ra. T e capitals  t e l wer rder
are f t e beatifl type k w as t e'mel  capital,'  a f rm f  d
als  i Sa Vitale at Rave a a d i te p rc f S. T e d re i  
C  sta ti ple (p. 246 <#Pae_246>). T e ecki s are w rked wit t e
capitals, a d e ric ed by 'e-a d-dart' p i ti  pwards. I te ce tre
  
f t e capitals wascarved t e m ram f Jsti ia r t at f 

T e d ra. M st f t e m  rams ave bee effaced, b t t e ame f t e 
empress  still  appears  t e capital f t e wester c l m i te s t 
bay,w ile t at f J sti ia is f  d  t e first

 capital i t e
s t -wester bay;   b  t capitals i t e rt -wester  bay,
acc mpa iedby t e title Basiles; a d, partially,  t e last capital
i t e rt -easter bay.
   
I t e s ffit f t e arc itrave are  s k pa els fvari s patter s, t e
six-armed
 crss ccrri  twice. T e beadi s f t e fasciae are
e ric ed wit t e desi s c mm  ly k w as 'r pe,' 'bead-a d-reel,'
'e-a d-dart,' a d aai 'bead-a d-reel.'
   
T e frieze is i tw  ei ts.  T e l wer p rti  is a semicirc   lar

 
p lvi ar ad r ed wit aca t s leaves, deeply derc t; t e pper  
p rti  is ccpied by a l   i scripti  i raised r ame tal letters
   
t  t e  r f Jsti ia , T e d ra, a d S. Seris. T e c r ice is
dec rated wit de tils, 'bead-a d-reel,' pr jecti  c  s ls,

'e -a d-dart,' a d leaves f aca t s.
  
T e i scripti  (Fi. 20 <#fi_20>) may be re  dered t s: Oter

s verei s, i deed, ave   red dead me w se lab r was seless. Bt

r sceptred Jsti  
 ia , f steri piety,    rs wit a sple did ab de
t e serva t f C rist, Creat r f all t i s,Ser is; w m r t e
br i  breat f fire, r t e sw rd, r t erc  strai ts f trials
distrbed; bt w  e dred f r t e sake f G d C rist t  be slai ,
ai i  by is bl d eave as is  me. May e i all ti s ard te
 ila t s verei , a d i crease te p wer f te
rle f t e ever-vi
    
G d-cr w ed T e d ra w se mi d is bri t wit piety, w se t il ever is
 spari  eff rts t  ris te destitte.
    
74 T e i scripti   is t mere flattery t t e f ders f t e c rc .

J sti ia a d T e d ra were 
 dev  t after t e fas i  f t eirday, a d
t k a deep i terest i t e p r. T eempress erected  a asyl m fr
falle w me , stels f r stra ers, spitals f r t e sick, a d mes
f r t e destitte. 'O t e sple did piece f tapestry embr idered i
 ld wic f rmed te altar cl t f S. S pia, se was represe ted wit
  
Jsti ia as visiti  spitals a d c rc es.'110 <#F t te_110>
    
Crc f SS. Seris a d Bacc s. I scripti   t e Frieze i t e
C rc . <imaes/fi_20_800.p >
Fi. 20.
    
T  t e rear f t e s t er strai t side f t e cta  tw  c lm s
sta d  der t e allery, wit wide fillets w rked  b t sides f t eir
bases, s afts, a d capitals, s wi  tat a frame f st  e r w d was
  
 ce affixed t  t em. T e capitals are f t e rdi ary cs i  type a d
bear  pp site faces t e m  rams Jsti ia , Basiles.
PLATE XIV.   
SS. Seris a d Bacc s. T e I teri r, L ki  rt -east.

<ima es/p_14a_800.jp >
  
SS.
 Ser i s a d Bacc s. 
T e I teri r, L ki rt -east.

 
SS. Seris a d Bacc s. P rti  f t e E tablatre. <imaes/p_14b_800.jp>

SS. Seris a d Bacc s.
P rti  f t e E tablatre.
/T  face pae 74./
75
    
  feet ab vet e c r ice, r twe
Tw  ty feet fr m t e fl r f te c rc ,
t e level f t e allery is reac ed.111 <#F t te_111>
  t e c l m s
Here
are smaller t a t sebel w, a d are b  d t et er by arc es i stead
f by a arc itrave. T eir capitals represe t t e type k w as t e
'Psed -I  ic' r cs i capital, i view f its br ad ead.It appears
appr priately
  ere as t e f rm f capital reqired  t  carry t e imp st
f a arc p  a capital. At  e time, i deed, t at dema d was met by
placi  p  te capital a disti
 ct bl ck fst  e, a frame t, s  t 
speak, f t e riz  tal arc itrave. It is t e device ad pted i Sa

Vitale at Rave a, S. Demetris f Sal  ica,  a d elsew ere, bt everit
w ld seem i C  sta ti ple, except i t e  derr  d cister s f t e
city. It was, wever, t i artistic t  e dre,  a d eve

 tally was

s perseded by capitals wit a br ad flatte ed ead  w ic t e wide

imp st f a arc c ld rest secrely.112 <#F t te_112>
  derct  te face t wards te ce tral
A free f rm f aca  t s, deeply   

area f t e c rc , c vers te capitals, a d i t e cetre ft at face,
    
 all te capitals except  t e ei t (c  ti fr m t e rt -east)  is
carved t e m  ram f t e title Basiles, r f Jsti ia , r f T e d ra.
     
I t e s t side 
 f t e allery sta d tw  c l m s c rresp  di t  t e

tw  c l m si t e aisle bel w. T ey are p r i desi a d t 
rii al. T e wester  capital
 is 'Pse d -I  ic,'113 <#F t te_113>  wit
a plai cr ss  t e rt er face. T e easter capital is i t e basket
f rmwit r  dels  t e fr faces. Tw additi  al c lm s are f  d
 
i t e wester
   p rti
  ft e allery.  T ey are f verd  a tiq ea d 
lar er t a t e ter c l m s i t is st ry f t e c rc ,a d ave s k
cr sses i t em. Te sple d r f t e i teri r dec rati  as certai ly
bee dimmed, f r t e walls f t e edifice  ce leamed wit marbles a d
littered wit m saics. 'By te see f its 76marbles,' says
  
Pr c pi
 s,114 <#F t te_114>'it was m re resple  de t  t a t e s , a d
everyw
 ere it was filled pr f sely wit ld.' W e Fer   s  exami ed
t e bildi , remai s f fresc es r f m saics, w ic ave disappeared
si ce is time, c ld be disti is ed i te artex. Te s ffit, b t
  
f t e pper a d f t el wer cymatim  t e piers, pr jects
sfficie tly t admit t e applicati 
  f t ec st mary marble

  . T e pr p rti  s f t e b ildi are
i cr stati  marred by t e b arded
i al paveme t,
fl r w ic rises seve tee ce timeters  ab ve t e 
 ri 
disisi  t e real elevati f t e d me a d f t e clm s i t e
l wer c l  ade. Bt twit sta di  all c a es f r t e w rse t e
b  is still a beatifl strctre. Very effective especially is
ildi
   
t e appy c mbi ati  f t e vari  s li es a d f rms ere br  t
t et er—t e rectili ear a d t e semicirc lar sides f t e cta  , te

   
cta  al fabric ad t e r  d d me t at crw s it, t e riz  tal
   st ry fc lm s a d
etablat  re stretc ed al  te s mmit f t e lwer 
t e arc es t at leap fr m cl m t  c l m i t e allery. T is
arm  i  s variety
 f f rm as als  a ist rical si ifica ce. A ld 
rder i arc itectre a d a ew rder ere meet ad embrace bef re t e
earlier,  
avi served its a e, passes away a d t e later c mes
tri mpa t t  fill a ter era f te w rld wit fres beaties. Here i

t e tide f time we l k bef re a d after.
     
T  t e stde t farc itectre t e dme f t is c rc is specially
 
i teresti . I t e applicati   ft e d me t  t e cta   
  are empl yed. T e cta  is carried p t  t e base f te
pe de tives
d me, w ic is b ilt i sixtee l  it di al c mpartme ts t at impi e
p   e a ter a d f rm r i s ivi  t  te d me its stre t a d
 
sweep.
 O t e r i s is a plaster mldi , prbably Byza ti e. T e 

ei t c mpartme ts directly ab ve t e d me arces are 
   flat, a d fl s
wit t e i er face f t e cta  , a d i eac f t em is a
semicirc lar-eaded wi d w. Tey rise perpe diclar t  a p i t a little
    
ab ve t e wi d ws, a d t e crve wit a radis t  t e ce tre f t e d me.
PLATE
 XV.  
T e Baptistery, S. S p ia, fr m t e east.. <imaes/p_15a_800.jp>
  
T e Baptistery, S. S p ia, fr m t e east.
  
T e Baptistery, S. S p ia. T e I teri r, l ki  west.
<imaes/p_15b_800.jp>
 
Te Baptistery, S. S p ia.

T e I teri r, l ki west.
/T  face pae 76./
77
   
C rc f SS. Seris a d Bacc s. Exteri r View f t e D me.
  
Fi. 21.—View f t e Exteri r f t e D me f SS. Seris a d Bacc s..
     
O t e t er a d t e ei t c mpartme  ts directly ab ve t ea les f
 
t e cta  are arr wer t a t e precedi c mpartme ts; t ey ave 
wi d ws, a d, w at is f special  imp rtace t  te, t ey are deeply
c  cave.115 <#F t te_115> Sc marked  ll w ess is f  d i later
d mes as a dec rative featre, bt ere it is primarily a d spremely a
c  str 
 ctive device.By its mea s t e c  cave c mpartme ts are set
, at te spri i 
sli tly back fr m t e cta   's i er face, leavi 
li e, p rti   s f t ewall- ead t  appear as little flat ledes  eac
side f t e a les. 
  T is  is a m st skilf lexpedie t, 78ad c mpares 
fav  rably wit t e met ds emplyed elsew eret  apply t e d me t  t e
cta  .116 <#F t te_116> I t e cta  al c rc f S. L re z  at
Mila t e cta  is tr ed i t  t e circle by t e i tr dcti  f
sqi c es.  I Sa Vitale a c  siderable walli is bilt betwee t e
 
li e f t e cta  a d t e spri i li e f t e d me, w ile t e bed
fr t e d me is f rmed   ver t e a les f
  by i tr d ci , i t e space 
t e cta
  , ic es w ic are w rked ab ve t  t e circle  pla . O t e
t er a d, it is i teresti  t  c mpare wit tese met ds te met d
  
emplyed i t e baptistery  f S. S p ia, w a Slta  's Trbé, ear t e
s t er e tra ce t  t e i er art ex. Alt  t e walls f t e
bildi  describe a sq are  t e exteri r, tey f rm a cta   te
 lar bays at te dia  als, as i SS. Seris a d
i teri r wit semicirc
  
Bacc
 s. Bt i t e applicati 
  f t e d me t e tr e pe de tive is sed.


T e baptistery  was
  s rtly bef re S. S p ia, a d i view f t e
erected
erecti  f t e reat c rc .
    
Te crvatre f t e d me f SS. Seris a d Bacc s as  t ree z  es,

w ic ave respectively a radi s f m. 8, (draw fr m t e ce tre ft e
cta  ), m. 3^1 
 ⁄_4 , a d m. 9^1 ⁄_2 , (ce tre ab  t m. 2, bel w t e
 
spri i f t e d me). T e first exte dst  a p i ta little  ab ve t e
eads
 f t e dme wi d ws;
 t e sec  d ab t m. 2 i er; t e t ird t 
t e cr w f t e d me. Te r i s st p s rt a little bel w t e d me's
apex, w ere t ey are arc ed i t   e a t er, leavi  a sacer-s  aped
cr w w capped by a Trkis fi ial. T ed me is c vered wit lead,  a d
prese ts a  dlati  srface wi  t  t e pr tbera ce f its ei t
c  cave c mpartme ts.117 <#F t te_117>
  
79T e system f wei ti  a d bttressi  t e d me displays reat skill,
a d will be best derst d by st dyi Mr. He ders  's e metrical a d
  
c  strctive secti  s f t e systems (Fis. 28, <#fi_28> 29 <#fi_28>).

At east e d f s t aisle.

/At east e d f s t aisle./

I t e allery.

/I t e allery./

Fi. 22.—Brick Stamps i SS. Seris a d Bacc s.
(Fr m rbbi s by Mr. A. E. He ders  .)
80
Gr  d Pla (l ki  p) a d Gy aecem Pla (l ki  p).
<imaes/fi_23_24_800.p >
Fi. 23.

Fi. 24.
81
Pla
  base f D me (Cr ss Secti  ), Tra sverse Secti  a d Secti 
at
t r  S t Aisle. <imaes/fi_25_26_27_800.p >
Fis. 25, 26, 27.
82

C  strctiveSecti  f t e I teri r Arra eme t a d C  strctive
Secti  f t e Rear <imaes/fi_28_800.p >
Fi. 28.

Fi. 29.
83
Secti  s f M ldi s.
Fi. 30.

81 <#FNa c r_81> Pr c p. /De aed./ i. c. 4; Ba dri, iii. p. 45.

82 <#FNa c r_82> /De t p./ ii. c. 14.

83 <#FNa c r_83> Cedre . ii. pp. 642-43.

84 <#FNa c r_84> Ma si, viii. c l. 1010.
   
85 <#FNa c r_85> Ba dri, iii. p. 45. T e c rc was visited by Rssia

pil rims i 1200, 
1350, 1393.—/Iti . r sses/, pp. 160, 120, 164.
 
86 <#FNa c r_86> Pr c p./De aed./ i. p. 186. S. Peter ' ear t e
palace' is me ti  ed i t e list f abb ts at t e Sy d f C.P. i 536.
Ma si, viii. c l. 930, c l. 939. A t er d cme t f te same Sy d,

cl.1010, is si ed by Peter, e me 
 s f SS. Peter a d Pa l a d f
 
t e ly martyrs SS. Ser i s a d Bacc s.
  el d'art byza ti /, p. 31. A t  iadi as
87 <#FNa c r_87> Die l,  /Ma 
draw my atte ti  t  t e j cti  f a basilica
 a d a exa  al
bildi  i a baptistery at Tiv li. See De i   d Bez ld, /Atlas/, plate
i. fi. 10.

88 <#FNa c r_88> Sy ax, Oct. 7.

89 <#FNa c r_89> D Ca e, iv. p. 135.

90 <#FNa c r_90> Cedre . i. p.635;  Pr c p. /Secret
  Hist ry/, c. 6;
Pr c p. /De aed./ ii. p. 234; T e p . p. 339; T e p . C  t. p. 154.
 
91 <#FNa
 c r_91>
 Cedre . i. pp. 642-43. T e Sy axaria (Sirm  di) speak
  
f t ree c
rc es f S. Ser i s, i r ear C  sta ti ple; ἐν ταῖς

Σοφίαις, Oc . 7; πλησίον τῆς Αετίου κινστέρνης, N v. 9 (  M    y


f M     
, . 258); πέραν ἐν Ῥουφινιαναῖς, M y 29 ( r K d  u ).
92 <#FN  chor_92> P g 220.


93 <#FN  chor_93> B ro u , / l ccl  c /,



om. x. p.253,
 
Lucc  ,
1741: 'qu m b  l c m
orum

h c  domo

o
r  ub om 
pr d c orum v r b l um co ruc m, llu r r  llum  r l rg
d g m  .'
94 <#FN  chor_94> /Ib d./ p. 254.
95 <#FN  chor_95> /D d./ . p. 186.

96 <#FN  chor_96> /U upr /, καὶ ἔπειτα καὶ τέμενος ἄλλο ἐκ πλαγίου
τούτῳ παρακείμενον ( .. SS. Srg u  d B cchu ).
97 <#FN  chor_97> B ro u , x. p. 43.
98 <#FN  chor_98> Thoph. p. 349; M l l  , p. 485.



99 <#FN 
chor_99> L Gr 
d
P l  . Ep gr m 8

h / holog  Gr c 
p gr mm  um/ (vol. . S d -Mullr) clbr   h rc
o by

Ju   o  SS. P r  d P ul, εἰς τὸν ναὸν τῶν ἁγίων ἀποστόλων


πλησίον τοῦ ἁγίου Σεργίου εἰς τὰ Ὁρμίσδου.
     

100 <#FN
 c 
_100> B  
, . . 43 ' m 
Pl c   ,   g  ,
   
c 

f g     
m j c m ccl     
    
m . P '; cf. g l  '
l , /E /. v . . . /E . R m.  ./
  
101 <#FN  c _101> T   . . 349; M l l  , . 485.


   l c   g m l  m

102
<#FN  c
_102> /N 
 /.
T

 

  
F  R g  f
 c y,  /P l   Pl c   m/ 
       
m
   
/D m Pl c

  A g  /. g l
 f 



l c 

  
ccl  l
 , g 
v  g  cc 
f   m  C    l .
T   l 
  lg   f P  Ag     l  g  680, 

cc    F 
C  c l  T ll ,  
  l    P 


f   c m

 E 


 c mm   f J
 
C 
   710,  


II.,      .—A    B  l  c  , . 54, 65.




103 <#FN  c _103> E  l  ccl .  D C  g, /C  . C  ./ v. .


116.
 
  

104
<#FN  c _104> 'U
   m c  c  f
m 


  c l
c   c  m, ... 

 

    g  f    f m  m  y f




 
  

J
G mm     c  
f B g  m
  j c  
f c  c  c l  l  


f c .'—P f. B y   /E gl   H 
c l

 

 
Rv /, A l 1909. B       m   .



105 <#FN  c _105> C   . P  y . . 87-88.


  





106
<#FN  c _106> m l      y c 
   

 f 
      
 g ll y  .  . R  (/C mm .  C   . P  y ./ 
. 195) f   
 'F 
,    c f c 
m   c 



    


c  c m  .' Cf. 
 l j c , A
  , Ἔκφρασις τῆς Ἁγιας
Σοφίας, vol. . p. 291, o 101; p. 331, o 190; p. 332.

107
<#FN
 chor_107>

 Th pl  o  SS. Srg u  d B cchu  m
l r
o

h  o 
h c  h dr l o  Bo
r  (511-12), 
 

h ch  l o d d c 
d
o h
 
 
m  . F rgu o , /H  ory o  c    d M d v l rch  c ur/,

vol. . p. 432.

 
108 <#FN
 chor_108> Gyll u , /D Top.
C.P./ . c. 16.
I  h
d
g
 
r pr       
d
v

l v  d
gr p ,  ur ly d d o llud o h god
B cchu

  , bu o h v    h go pl o  S. Joh . Th m ll colum o



h p  r r Tur  h.


109

chor_109>

<#FN
   o 
d , /S. Soph /,
vol.  ,
pp. 7-9,
dr 
 o o h d v lopm o  bu ld  g  h d ur d  o
 
xhdr , rom
h r mpl
orm
o
h r culm  
o  S. Soph . H




r 
r
or llu

  r  o o pl   D h o u d 
Bzold, /D  rchl
ch
B u u d b dl  d /,
vol. . pp. 23-31; / l  /, vol. . pl   .
gur 1, 2, 3, 4, 7; pl   . gur 1, 2, 7.
110 <#FN  chor_110> C. D hl, /Thodor /, pp. 242, 342.




111 <#FN 
chor_111>
Th
r  o o 
h
h gh o 
h
g llry bov h
loor o 
h church
o h h gh o
 h umm  o  h dom  ,

ccord

  g o o d , ^1 ⁄_3.5 , h m   S. Soph   bu l by
h m u .


112 <#FN  chor_112>



 ,'  y
R vo r  (/Lomb
'Pulv rd c rch 
c ur/,
p. 11, E gl 
h r  l  o
), ' rv h purpo  o 
prov
d g h


   
pr  g r o  h rch
 h  b
 corr  
po d  g o h
ll h
ch
hy
   
 
c rry, h
l 
llo 
g h
uppor
b
 h o b much l gh r  hou

 
 jur  g h b l  y o  h ruc ur .'




113 <#FN  chor_113>
R vo
r , /u

upr/,
p.62: 'Th
volu
 h


P udo-Io

c c p
 l  d d
o co c l
h
brup o  h
r   o rom h qu r o  h pulv  o h rou d.'
114 <#FN  chor_114> /D d./ . p. 187.



 
115 <#FN

chor_115> 'Th c r o
 h r d 
o  h
co c v

comp r m   
r orm d by h v  g hr po  g v h gro  o
 
hr d  d
h  gl o 
h oc
go 
h c
r. W 
h
h 






po 
or  ch comp  g 
v
,  d  rc ur

rm  h r d u 

 d

g v  g h co
c v  y r qu r d or ch b   pr  g  g.'— . E.
H dr o  h /Bu ldr/, J  u ry 1906, p. 4.


<#FN  chor_116>I
S.
116 Gorg o  Ezr   Syr  (515),  Mr. E. M.
o d   orm m , h dom ovrh  g or ovr l
h  gl o 
h

oc go .


117
<#FN chor_117>
'Th dom
 d   h   polygo
 o 
x   

d
,
h  r 
our        

m r bov  h
pr
 g  g l  , p  g h dom
u
d  gh  g h h u
ch .
g  h
 polygo l
c   g
r 


bu r  ormd by h x  o o  h p r o  h oc go o   h 




 

m. 1^1⁄_2 rom h
cor
c o  h
dom. Th  bu


r r

 h r
ur r pc vly r g h d, o h r r, by o m ll bu r  ; o 
h ch
ho  o
h or
h, ou
h,  
,  d 
d r
o  rch o 

h gy
c 
um,  d c
rry
h hru o h
ou r 
ll o 
h church,
h l h o h r r o h xh dr   d h v ul  g o  h gy c um.
        




Fur h
rmor, rom h

umm  o  h
bu r

ormd by
h p r
o


h oc go  m ll bu r      



g  h cupol
 
  l  up
oh

cor c .' Th  m r h ll  g o  h bu r rou d h dom  hr


r , h l cur  g
h
b l 
y o 
h
ruc
ur,  morovr



r   gly r  c. S F g. 21. <# g_21>


------------------------------------------------------------------------
84

 
CH PTER I

THE CHURCH OF S. IRENE











Th church o 
S. Ir 
 d

 hor d   c
o h

or h-  o
  
S. Soph 
,  h r
cour o  h S
r gl o. I
d  y h  vr

b
qu o
d, or h bu ld  g   oo much  h publ c y  d oo
 r h c r o 
h ccl 
c l r o 
h c 
y
o r dr



po bl  y m  
co cr  g  r l
ch 
r c r. I  l 
y

d
cr bd  clo 

 o S. Soph

.118 <#Foo 

o _118> ccord g o
h

h  or 

 Socr
 ,119 <#Foo
o
_119>  
or g  lly

o o
 h
Chr    c u r  o 
h old o o  Byz   um,   m m y
ll bl v,   g Byz  um  
h  
o   b  hop b or
h





ou d 
o o 
Co   opl. Th d g 
o o  h church  ' h
c  ' or ' h Old Church,' Eccl  qu , ἡ παλαιά,120
<#F tn te_120> and the spec a  regard cher shed  r the church dur ng
the ear er h st ry  the c ty, are a s  thus est  exp a ned. The
r g na  sanctuary was sma ,121 <#F tn te_121>
 ut when Byzant um
 ecame the cap
  ta   the East the  d  a r c was en arged and
eaut ed y nstant ne the Great t  harm n ze w th ts grander
surr und ngs, and was ded cated t  Peace, n h n ur  the rest and
qu et wh ch sett ed up n the R man w r d when the under  the c ty
had vanqu shed a  h s r va s a ter e ghteen years  c v  war.122
<#F tn te_122>

PLATE X I.
. Irene, r m the s uth-east. < mages/p_16_800.jpg>

. Irene, r m the s uth-east.


/T  ace page 84./
85

te

Other churches  the same name were und  n nstant n p e: . Irene
n the eventh Reg n, acc rd ng t  the / t t a/. . Irene
n y a 
(Ga ata), πέραν     by h S , πρὸς

ἐν Συκαῖς;
 Th oph  , p. 353. S. Ir

θάλασσαν;
N c  Cho  , p. 269; Sy x.,
J . 10.
 Th l  
  l o
o  h N,
Νέα; Sy  ., J  . 23. E       f 
Em  M   ,
    
y 
 by
 Em  M   






C m   f       by f ; N   . C  . /  /. I  

 

 
y      '  F y,' τὸ πέραμα; Codi us, /D d./ p. 89;
B  duri, ii. p. 31.
     
U til  t  yr 360,   t  c urc of S. Sop i   s opd to public
 
ors ip by t Emp ror Co st  tius, S. Ir    rs to v b t
   pp
ct dr l oft city. H c , prob bly, t

m somtims giv
   to it,

t P 
tri rc t , τὸ  πατριαρχεῖον.123 <#Foo o _123> Nor d d
h church







lo 

 pr
m 
cy l og hr v  r h rc o o  S. Soph
. O
h
co r ry, h      
o church r r g rd d  orm  g o   c u ry; h y
r  clo d  
h 
h m cour
, rvd by
h m clrgy,  d
 

o
by
h m m, ' h Gr 
Church,' ἡ
Μεγάλη Ἐκκλησία.124

<#Foo o _124> S. Ir     g  h
ol c  hdr
l bu ld  g, h l S.

Soph  l y  ru
 or l v y r
 r b  g 
o r  404, o
 
h occ  o o  h  l b   hm
 o  Joh Chry o om.
   
ly 
o v  dur  g
h rc
ruggl b


S.Ir  com
prom



h dh r o  h N c  Crd  d h r  ,  h h l -c ury


h ch ollod
h  ugur 
o o  N Rom. H v  g b pr u dd
h 









h po    u b  h o h olog c l p r    o
 
l,  d
h 

h g 

o o 
h qu
o   du
o lov o 







d  pu 

o ,
Co
   h
Gr  ,
ho v lud p c 
lmo
 y
  
pr c ,  mp d o
uppr
h co   
rov r y by h  u hor  y,  d
ccord  gly ord rd h P  r rch lx  dr
o dm 
r u ,
h pr 








 h c  y,
o h Holy Commu o . W 
h h  ordr lx  d
r, 
ch mp o o  h N
c  Crd, r u
d o comply.
Whr
upo h ollor
     o v olc. Bu o
h vry v o 

o  r u d c d
d o h v
r
cour 
h
d y x d o c rry

ou  h r purpo ,
r u 
  
udd ly ll

 h
Forum o  Co   
 
   
86
 d d 
d o h po . Th
h or

Socr 
r
g rd h
v
 h
c o  God,
or
h
h p  r rch
h rd h 
h hr c   dd o do,
h r
rd
o h church o  S.
Ir ,  d hr or m  y d y  d gh ,   h   g  d
 r ,  d

l 
p pr


d o
h l r, mplor  

 h h 
 d d v 
 uccour

h 
rr bl x
r m  y. 'I 
h
op  o o  r u
b ru ,' h p  r rch
   
          

pr y d,'l m d  ;bu  hy r


l l
h 
m b
judgd.' Th
r g c d o  r u  co d r d h  r o h  pr y r.









Upo
h d  h
o  lx  dr  343, 
h 

g o 
 y- gh , h o
  
p r  c m  o
coll  o  r g rd
o h qu o o
 h 
ucc or.
Th dc

d prl   h d rcomm dd o pr o  u  bl o ll h 


pl c : h pr by r
P ul, bc u  o  h  b l   ; h d co 
 
M c do u , o ccou o  h  g  d
v r
bl
pp r  c. Th
      r 

vourd M cdo u ,  mor
 ymp  hy   h h r op  o ;
h

or hodox,
hov
r, c rr 
d h lc o

 d 

lld P ul  S.
Ir
.

      
Th d 
 d p r y m
o h v
ubm  d, bu
h Emp ror Co  u ,  
 v ol r  , qu 
hd h lc 
o ,  d ppo  d Eu b u o 

N com      

d ,  prom
  
uphold r o  h v 
o 
r u , b  hop o 
h

c p  l. Upo
h d 
h o 
Eu
b
u
 346
h
h olog c l
comb  
g   zd h
oppor  u  y o ry  

 h r r g h. Th
 or hodox

 
  
r c ll d P ul; h

r 
co cr   
 

d M c do u . I c d by
h 
proc
d  g ,
Co  u , h
 och,

ord
r
d H rmog , h
m g 
r m 
l  um
 Thr c, o procd o Co



opl  d
dr v P ul
rom         

h
c  y.
Bu
o oo r d d Hrmog
 mp 
o
x cu h 

ruc o h  h popul
c
ro
, bur  h  hou o h grou d,  d
 r dr gg  g h m lo g
h r

,  ll d h m. Th mpror  
ur ou . H
hurr d b
c o Co   opl, b 
 h
d P ul, 
d rducd
by
o -h l  h mou o  r br d d ly d  r bu d mo g h

  
c  z
. Nor d d h ully rcog
z M cdo u  b  hop. U
dr h 

c rcum       

  c P ulm d h  y
o
Rom ,  d,
hv  g
cur d h uppor

o  h
Pop
, r pp r d  Co   opl 

h r gh ul b  hop o  h
. Bu h mpror, g   Syr ,   o o b b ld. Mor  gry


 


  

h 
v 

r, h 87
 pr mp ory ord


r  o Ph l p, h pr  c o
Co  
opl , o xp l P
ul  d o r cog
z M c do u
.
By
l ul
rr  gm P ul   qu  ly
rmovd
rom h c . Bu o  ll
M cdo u    mor  d cul u dr   g. Th pr c
, hovr,


ordrd h  ch r o ,
 d 
 h M cdo u   d by h  d m d or S.
Ir , u d r  cor o  roop c rry  g dr  ord . Th h rp,  d
   
 po l rmd
h crod 
h
r
,  d  
hou
d 
 c
o o 





c or cl  m
ru hd 
or h

church, v
rybody ry 
g o ou r p

    h
r r . Soo
ll h ppro ch o
  

h  ghbour  h r c
o g
h bu ld  g
r p c d
o u oc
 o ; o o 
rrd b c  
rd or
   
or
 rd ,  d h pr c ' ch r o   u
bl
o dv
 c
. Wh  
md 
ho l b rr
c d o  hum  b  g     

ld d og h r
ob ruc d h  p  h.
I v   

d d
h old 
r br  d  h h r ord
 h
hop 
o 

r gh  
g h cro
d o
d  pr .
Th crod
ood oc ll, o
   
b c u 
ould
o
, bu b c u  could     
   
o mov

. Th old 
r gr

 gry,

r or
d o h r
po
,
d cu
 y o h church hrough
 o 
h
h 
comp c m  o  hum
 
y 
h co
  o  3150 l


v ;
om

v c m b  g cru hd o
d 
h, o h
r ll d

h po  o  h ord.

So     o
 P c.125


M
c do u
co
duc

d o
h 
hro
 h

mpl

<#Foo
o _125> Bu h
co l c b

 h oppo  p 
r  co  ud,
 
 
 d
 r
x y r
p  

or   
   
 o
r cov r
h po  o , P ul
 
r or d o
o c hrough
h  rv o o 
h Pop o  Rom
, o  h
Empror Co  ,  d o  h Sy
od o  S rd c . I    br   r umph.
I 350 P ul 
 x ld or
l   

 o Cucu u
,  dM
c
do
u rul d o c  

 
mor  h  d.126 <#Foo o _126> For h x h r y y r S. Ir
 
h
h o
hr church o 
h c p 
l rm  d 
h h  d o 
h r  .
 
PL TE X II.

S. Ir , Sou h S d.


S. Ir , Sou h S d.


S. Ir , Nor h S d.




S. Ir , Nor h S d. I h D   c, S. Soph .


/To c p g 86./



Dur  g h  pr od h N c  


h   pr
ch
d by Gr 

o  N z  zu
 gory

o ly

 m ll ch
p l, ub  qu  ly d d c   d o S.   .127
<#Foo
o _127> Bu  
h
h cc o o  Thodo u
h Gr 

h

dhr o  h Cr
d o
 N c   prv ld,
 d
h
Sco d G 
r l


Cou
c l,
h ld  Co     

  opl  381, dop d h  cr d  h ru
 h o  h Chr   Church.

88






ccord  g o h b ogr phr o  S. S ph


h You
gr, ho  umr  

h
        

x
cum c l cou c l
,  d
d c  ,  mo c , h r ch
m ,
h 
mou Cou
 c l m  h church o  S. Ir .128
<#Foo o _128>  




 
Bu Th odor L c or129 <#Foo 
 y h
Cou
o _129>
c l
 mbl d  h church
o  Homo

o ,  d xpl  h  m o 
h 
church  commmor  v o  h h rmo y h ch prv ld mo g h b  hop
ho g 
hrd
hr o
h 
occ  o .   m 

r o  c
, o  o 
h
 o 
h c 
y bor
h m Homo o .130 <#Foo
o
_130> Po bly

church



 



h d 
crp  cy b 
 h  m o  h u hor ju
m o d
m y
    m o  h

b du o  co u o r   g rom  m l r m   g o  h
o church .




ccord  g o h o ymu ,131 <#Foo o _131> h u urpr B  l  cu



 

oo
r ug   h h          

  d ch ldr  S. Ir
, h
h  

 
ov r hro

477,  d h Emp ror Z o r cov
r d
h hro . Bu ,
ccord   <#Foo o _132> 


 g o h
/P 
ch

l Chro

cl
/,132

  B
 
l  cu l d
o
h 
occ  

o o
h gr  b p  ry o  S. Soph . h   

b p  ry
ood b  S.
Ir 
 d
S. Soph

 
d m y h
v  rv d bo h
   
church , h d  r c b    h  o  m  o r ou .



 



  

 r  d  g
or o c ur
  h Co
  
dc 
bur

o

h grou d by
h  r h
ch h r b l
 c 
o  h N   R o o
h o c o  h pr  c o
Fr d y, h
16 h
o  J  u ry 532. Th
bu ld  g h d rroly
 c pd h       

   
m 
 h 
r hch d roy d
S. Soph
 rl  r
 h cour o
 h
r o ,  d m gh h
v urv
v
d
l o h co l gr 
o  h ch 
c u lly
pr  h
d,
bu or h ro g
  d h ch c rr d h l m rom h pr  or um o h church,





dvour  g o
h r  y
h b  h o  lx
 d
r, 
p r
o  h ho p c o 

Eubulu ,  d h ho p  l o  S mp o   h  p   .



d 
h 89m g c
chm
Th r
or  
o o  h 


church  
clud

o  Ju   h
Gr
 o bu
ld o h
ldr  o   h cr  d by
   
   
h  r b l
ubj c h
 mo      
  
um
o  h  mp
r
. d  o S. Ir

ro rom  ru

, h l rg c u ry 
Co   
opl , xc
p S.
Soph .133 <#Foo o _133> Th br c b
r 
g h m r ' hGr 

h ch r bu l  o  r  d b  h
Church,'

 Μεγάλη Ἐκκλησία,





 g  
or h r ll o 
h  r um, ord o  d c  o o  h d  h S.
Ir 
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or g  .134

<#Foo o _134>






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ho p  lo  S mp
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S.Ir
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h
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umd.135 <#Foo o _135> Ho
oo h   jur  r rp rd  o rcordd.








Dur
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<#Foo o _137>  vry prc    rg rd
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l d rd or c  o 
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h pr
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cd hl L o III. 

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prob bly r bu l dur  g h  c d  cy o  h co ocl  .
  
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rou d h
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o  hl  r m   h church
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cl m o  Ig  u  mbld  S. Ir  o co dm  d dpo  Pho u
 
h qu l vhm c.138 <#Foo
o
_138>




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h W
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h mp ror, 
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r l g ou
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l g h Rom  u I. ummo
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u d
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 o rom S. Ir 
o S. Soph ,
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o h   y b c o h Gr  P l c .139 <#Foo o _139>



 
PL TE X III.


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S. Ir
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(W h
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/To c p g 90./
91




O Good Fr d y h 
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chum  (κατήχησις)
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LATE XIX.






S. I  .      N  - C    Of T  A m.
 
< m  / _19 _800.j > 
 
S.I
 .





    N  - C    Of T  A m


 



S. I  . T  N    A  f  M  D m,  f m S 
   
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f m m  v. v   5, 6 (
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S   v   ),     f   f   :
(ΔΕΥΤ ΕΙ)CΟΜΕΘΑ ΕΝ ΤΟÎC ΑΓΑΘΟÎC ΤΟΥ ΟÎΚΟΥ CΟΥ, ĀΓΙΟC Ο ΝΑΟC CΟΥ
ΘΑΥΜΑCΤΟC ΕΝ ΔΙΚΑΙΟCΥΝΗ ΕΠΑΚΟΥCΟΝ ΗΜΩΝ Ο Θ[ΕΟ]C Ο C[ΩΤ]ΗΡ ΗΜΩΝ Η ΕΛΠΙC
ΠΑΝΤΩΝ ΤΩΝ ΠΕΡΑΤΩΝ ΤΗC ΓΗC ΚΑΙ ΤΩΝ ΕΝ ΘΑΛΑCCΗ ΜΑΚ(ΡΑ)[Ν].

(Come we will go?) in the good thingsof thy house.
  oly is thy temple.
hou art wonderful in righteousness. ear us, od our Saviour; the
hope of all the ends of the earth and of them who are afar off upon the sea.
he letters enclosed within curved brackets and the accents141
<#Footnote_141> above them are paint only; the letters within square
brackets are not in the inscription, but are supplied where evident
contractions render that course necessary. he remaining letters are in
unrestored mosaic.




 
robably (Δεῦτ᾿
 εἰς) όμεθα 

m    f      f


  
πλησθησόμεθα   g  l  . 'W ll  f ll    g  

 

   
(  g   g ) f y  .'




 
T    

g m c l   

 
m  c cc
 , f    c f

ll  
      
f f l g     
 f c f   m  c     :

(Ο Ο)ΙΚΟΔΟΜΩΝ ΕΙC Τ(ΟΝ ΟΙΚΟΝ CΟΥ ΚΑΙ) ΑΝΑΒΑCΙΝ ΑΥΤΟΥ, ΚΑΙ ΤΗΝ ΕΠΑΝΓΕΛΙΑΝ
(ΤΟΥ ΗΑΓΙΟΥ ΠΝΕΥΜΑΤΟC ΕΥ ΗΜΑC ΗΛΠΕΙCΑΜΕΝ ΕΙC ΤΟ Ο)ΝΟΜΑ Α(ΥΤΟΥ).
he mosaic above the crown of the semi-dome has been
 injured and
restored imperfectly in plaster, paint, and gilt. ence the large black
patch in it which includes the upper arm of the cross.
he letters enclosed within curved brackets are in paint and are
manifestly the work of a restorer who has spoiled the grammatical
construction of the words and obscured the meaning of the inscription.
he remaining letters are in unrestored mosaic.

96

venture to suggest that the original text was a quotation from mos
ix. 6, with possibly some variations:
ὁ οἰκοδομῶν εἰς τὸν οὐρανὸν ἀνάβασιν αὐτοῦ καὶ τὴν ἐπαγγελίαν αὐτοῦ ἐπὶ
τῆς γῆς θεμελιῶν.
   


    

'H 
  b 
  
     v 

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f    f    .'
     
T    , ἠλπείσαμεν εἰς τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ, ' v    m,'

m y b    ( m . 21; I  v . 8).


 

  



W

 
  m yb m  b  f     
     f    :

Ἀκολουθία εἰς ἐγκαίνια ναοῦ.


Ναὶ Δέσποτα Κύριε ὁ Θεὸς ὁ Σωτὴρ ἡμῶν, ἡ ἐλπὶς πάντων τῶν περάτων τῆς
γῆς, ἐπάκουσον ἡμῶν τῶν ἁμαρτωλῶν δεομένων σου καὶ κατάπεμψον τὸ
πανάγιόν σου Πνεῦμα τὸ προσκυνητὸν καὶ παντοδυνάμενον καὶ ἁγίασον τὸν
οἶκον τοῦτον.
  

 
 

'Y , L  G  A m  y   S v  ,   f    f 
 
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m              142


  
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<#F   f   f  ,  v     y
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LATE XX.



 


S. I  . M    S ff  f  A  B  N    A  m.
S. I  .



 


M    S ff  f  A  B  N    A  m




 
 

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m    b   m     m , 
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LATE XXI.



S. I  . I  , L    N  - . < m  /_21 _800.j>


S.
I  . 


I  , L    N  - .







S. I  . D   E  E f  N  A  . < m  /_21b_800.j>
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118 <#FN  _118>


S    , . . 6; /C  j  v  /, N v.
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119
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I  , τὸ πέραμα.

120 <#FN  c or_120> /Notiti , rgi  scu d /; Codi . /D d./ p. 73.

121 <#FN  c or_121> Socr ts, /loc. cit./

122 <#FN  c or_122> /Ibid./

123 <#FN  c or_123> B  duri, ii. p. 52.

124 <#FN  c or_124> Socr ts, ii. c. 16.

125 <#FN  c or_125> Socr ts, ii. c. 16.

126 <#FN  c or_126> /Ibid./ ii. 13, 15, 16.

127 <#FN  c or_127> /Ibid./ v. 7.
  
128 <#FN  c or_128> /Vit  S. Stp  i Ju ioris/, ig , /P.G./ 100, col.
1144, ἡ δευτέρα εν Κπλει ἐν τῷ ναῷ τῆς ἀγίας Εἰρήνης.
    
 
129
<#FN
  c _129>

 T 
  L c ,  . 
l  (1748), . 533.
E yc  ffl c  y  v    g   ἐν τῷ εὐαγεῖ εὐκτηρίῳ ἔνθα
πεπίστευται ἀναπαύεσθαι μέρος ἱερῶν λειψάνων τῶν θεσπίων Πανταλέοντος
καὶ Μαρίνου, ἐπικαλουμένου τοῦ τόπου Ὁμόνοια ἐκ τοῦ ἐκεῖ συνελθόντας
τοὺς
 ἑκατὸν πεντήκοντα ἐπισκόπους  ἐπὶ Θεοδοσίου τοῦ μεγάλου βασιλέως. 
T         v  J  D m   , /D m   b /, b  .



130 <#FN  _130> /N   , R   /, '        


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131 <#FN  _131> B   , . . 25.
 
132 <#FN  _132> /A  m/ 478.
   
133 <#FN  _133>  . /D  ./ . . 2; /  . C  ./ . 622.





134 <#FN  _134> F    f m   I m  b   M . W. S. G .


  
135 <#FN  _135> T   . . 371.


136 <#FN  _136>  . N    , /  B v /.
  
137 <#FN  _137> T   . . 634.
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138 <#FN

 
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139 <#FN  _139>  C  .  y . /D  ./
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140 <#FN  _140> C  .  y . /D C ./ . 179.
 





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------------------------------------------------------------------------
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CHA TER .


THE CHURCH OF S. ANDREW IN KRISEI, HOJA MUSTA HA ASHA MESJEDI


 
 


 
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πλησίον τῆςπόρτας  τοῦ  Σατουρνίνου.154 <#Ft te_154> It is difficlt
t  decide w ic c rc is represe 
 ted by te m sq e. F r t ere were tw 
c lm s  t e Seve t Hill f t e city: t e C lm f C  sta ti e t e
Great, w ic st d tside t e city b  ds, ivi  ame t  te
 
extramral district ft e Ex ki  i  w Alti Mermer;  a d t e C lm f

Arcadi s w Avret Tas . N r ca t ep siti  f t e Gate f Sat  
  r i s
be determi ed  m re acc rately t a tatit was a e tra ce i t e 
p rti   f t e C  sta ti ia Wallsw ic  traversed
 t eSeve t Hill, t e
Xer l p s f Byza  ti e days. O t e w le, wever, t e i dicati  s
fav r t e view t at H  ja Mstapa Pasa Mesjedi represe ts te crc
   
f S.A drew ear  t e Gate f Satr i s. A c rc i t at p siti  ,
t  tside t e C  sta ti ia f rtificati  , was still s  ear  t em
t at it c ld be, very appr priately, described as ear  e  f t e city
ates. Aai t e Rssia pilrims155 <#F t te_155> w  visited te
   
s ri es f C  sta  ti ple i t e sec  d qarter  f t e fiftee  t ce try
f  d tw  c rc  es dedicated t  S.A drew i t is part f te city,  e
t  S. A drew t e Strate s, t e t er t  S. A drew 'mad wit  t e l ve f
G d' ('G d-it xicated'). I pr ceedi  rt wards fr m t e c rc f S.
Di med, w ic st d ear  
 t e G lde Gate (Yedi K  lé), t e Rssia
visit r reac ed firstt esa ct ary dedicated t  S. A drew  t e
Strate s, a d t e t ec rc dedicated  t  S. A
 drew t
 e 
'G d-i
 t xicated,' w ic lay still  fart er t  t e rt . Bt t is rder
i t e p siti  s f t e tw  c rc es impliest at H ja Mstap a Pas a
Mesjedi represe ts t e c rc f S.  s, a martyr f
      Adrew  t e Strate   
t e f  rt ce t ry, viz. te c rc w ic t e d c mets f t e sixt
    
 t ry describe as ear t e Gate f Sat
ce r i s, wit  t specifyi by
ised. Tis arees, m re ver,
w at  title its patr  sai t was
 disti    
wit w at is k w reardi  t e site  f t e c rc f S. A drew t e
Ap stle. It st dt  t e west f t e cister f M ki s,156  
<#F t te_156>  t elare ri ed Byza  ti e reserv ir, w Tc  k  r
 

B sta , t  t e rt f H ja M stap a Pas a Mesjedi.
    
T e c rc
d es
 tappear aai i ist ry,  der t e desi ati
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ch
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# 
LAT XX I. "

S. A d     . C     h I   N  hx.
"



S. A d     . C     h I   N  hx.
"



S. A d     . C     h A c d U d  h W D m A ch.


"
S. A
d  
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C     h A c d U d  h W D m A ch.


/T  f c   110./



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m ,
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<#F   _169>
# 
LAT XX II. "


S. A d     . C     h O   N  hx.
"
S. A
d  
 

.

C     h O   N  hx.


"


S. A d     . C     h O   N  hx.
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S. A
d  
 
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(F m  h    h ! A. . H d   ., .)
/T  f c   112./





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m  d   d  m  T   h d m.




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ch  f d   h  
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B!  d h   h   h     hx,  f    c f   ,  d,






f m h ch 
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# 
LAT XX III."

S. A d     . O   N  hx. < m  /_28 _800.j>


"
S.
A d 
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S. A d     . I   N  hx,     h. < m  /_28 _800.j>
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S.
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h f ,  d h d
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c  c m  dd   v  d .




Th  h  d  h m -d m   ch   cd ! h     d  ,


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177 <#F   _177>



N   h m -d m hm  v B!z     ch c  . Th 


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h d m  f c  d
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z 
 
!
 
d  . Th f m
f h d  m  d
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m   d m f h m     !
f S   B  z d.


 

A c f  x m   
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d  h
f   
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m -d m  h h 
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T   h dd   . Th c    
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h  c f     d d m. Th

 




 


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c c -h  dd  d, h h h! h v   v dd   h  


d


h d  h  d  h  c f f c  .


#
LAT XXIX. "



S. A d  
  . I h C     h  h d f h Ch ch,
     . < m  /_29 _800.j>
"
S.
A d  
  
.



I h C     h  h d f h Ch ch,      .

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S.
A d  

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W f h Ch ch. < m  / _29 _800.j > 
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S. A d  
  
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Th Ch   h W  h d T   h C   O h W f h Ch ch.




/T  f c   116./









If 
 
d 
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Ch  
   
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d,
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f
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h
(c m ) f, Th
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—ἡ τῆς Θεωφάνης
 (F g. 69<#f g_69>). I 


  
ll 
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c ll f fl 
l v
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ml y  ,118 f j   g l v
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M l  . 178
H ly
lc

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<#F   _178>

  

Pl  f C c (   ).
F g. 36.
119

PLATE XXX.





 f  Dc   D  y  Cl   . < m g /_30 _800.jg>


 




 f  Dc   D  y  Cl   . < m g /_30 _800.jg>
 




  f  Dc   D  y  Cl   . < m g /_30c_800.jg>


. A 
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T  Dc   D  y  Cl   ..


/T  f c  g 118./

  
120 Pl  f  C  c .
F g. 37.



L  g    l c  .
F g. 38, 39.




121 I m c l c  (   ).
F g. 40.
 
144 <#FN  c _144> P c ym. . . 35, 123.


145 <#FN  c _145> /I  .   /, . 122.




146 <#FN  c _146> y  ., Oc    17.
 
147 <#FN  c _147> P c ym. . . 133.
  
 


148 <#FN  c _148> Ty c  f G g K     ,    y l 



 

 
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lm  Pè  J. P g      m 
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l 
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c
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v l.  . f  c. 1, 32,
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f  c mm  ly
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g ,l   /Byz  




 
C    
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/, .
89-90,

     




  
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B   . H
l 
 
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G  

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   . A   K  . Cf. /I  é   /, . 102.
      
149 <#FN  c _149>
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A 
ym (B   


, .
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. Mm  ,

τὰ
Ξυλοκέρκου,  
  m   y fG   

  y, b 
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.
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b b f S.    (/

M m
 

  
     
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. 57-58)      D    
(B     ). T
     y  f
f  f è 
  '    . S  , /  /.


150 <#FN  _150> M  , /  . G  ./ m. 115, M  O b . . 1128.




151 <#FN  _151> Sy  ., O b  17.




152 <#FN

 _152> M  , /S  m  m v   m  m 
 /, v . . 882.


153 <#FN
 _153> M  , /S  m  m v   m  m 
 /, v . . 906.


154 <#FN  _154> /I  .   /, . 232.


 
155 <#FN  _155> /Ib  ./
  

156 <#FN  _156> T   . C  . . 323.


  
157 <#FN  _157>  ym. . . 85; N   . G . . . 167, 178.
 
158 <#FN  _158> N   . G . . . 167, 168.
 
159 <#FN  _159>  ym. . . 39.
 
160 <#FN  _160> /Ib  ./ . 55-63.
 
161 <#FN  _161> /Ib  ./ . . 108.
 
162 <#FN  _162> N   . G . . . 178.
 
163 <#FN  _163> N   . G . . . 262.


164 <#FN  _164> /I  .   /, . 226; f. . 117, 135, 161, 201.


 
165 <#FN  _165>  ym. . . 132.
 

166 <#FN  _166> /Ib  .   ./


   

167
<#FN 

_167>

 ym. 
 . . 133;

N   . G . .178. A   

      
, T              f 
G  y     m    y.
 

168 <#FN  _168>  ym. /  ./


 

169 <#FN  _169>  ym. /  /, . 152.




170 <#FN  _170> /I  .   /, . 122.


  

171 <#FN  _171> M     Mü  , . . 548, y  1371.


 
172 <#FN  _172> /Ib  ./ . . 353, y  1400.
 
173 <#FN  _173> /Ib  ./ . . 506, y  1401.


174 <#FN  _174> /I  .   /, . 232.




175 <#FN  _175>     , Βυζαντιναὶ Μελέται, . 319.


 
176 <#FN  _176> /Ib  ./ . 320.
  


 _177> /E../
177 <#FN

E 

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212 <#FN  c _212> P  z , . 110.


  
213 <#FN  c _213> /I  ./ . 141.


214 <#FN  c _214> P     , . 325.


------------------------------------------------------------------------
138


CHAPTER II

THE CHURCH OF THE THEOTOKO  PAMMAKARI TO , FETIYEH JAMI I



  
 
 
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Ἰωάννου φρόντισμα Κομνηνοῦ τόδε Ἄννης τε ῥίζης Δουκικῆς τῆς συζύγου. οἷς
ἀντιδοῦσα


πλουσίαν, ἁγνή, χάριν τάξαις ἐν οἴκῳ τοῦ θεοῦ μονοτρόπους. 216
<#F
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LATE XXX
I. 




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πρωτοστράτωρ, ὁ δημιουργὸς τῆς
μονῆς

τῆς ἐνθάδε, τὸ θαῦμα τῆς γῆς, ὁ
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Μιχαὴλ Δούκας Γλαβᾶς Ταρχανιώτης, ὁ πρωτοστράτωρ


καὶ
κτήτωρ; Μαρία
Δούκαινα Κομνηνὴ Παλαιολογίνα Βλάκαινα, 220 <#F   _220> ἡ
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☩ Ἀνδρόνικος ἐν Χῷ τῷ θῷ πιστὸς βασιλεὺς καὶ αὐτοκράτωρ Ῥωμεῶν ὁ
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☩ Ἄννα ἐν Χῷ τῳ θῷ πιστὴ αὐγούστα ἡ παλαιολογίνα.


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Ἄνερ, τὸ φῶς, τὸ πνεῦμα, τὸ πρόσφθεγμά μου, καὶ τοῦτό σοι τὸ δῶρον ἐκ
τῆς συζύγου— σὺ μὲν γὰρ ὡς ἄγρυπνος ἐν μάχαις λέων ὑπνοῖς, ὑπελθὼν ἀντὶ
λόχμης τὸν τάφον— 5ἐγὼ δέ σοι τέτευχα πετραίαν στέγην, μὴ πάλιν εὑρὼν ὁ
στρατός σε συγχέῃ, κἂν δεῦρο τὸν χοῦν ἐκτινάξας ἐκρύβης, ἢ τοῦ πάχους
ῥεύσαντος ἡρπάγης ἄνω, πᾶν ὅπλον ἀφεὶς ἐκκρεμὲς τῷ παττάλῳ— 10τὰς γὰρ
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νοητοὺς άντετάξω σατράπας, στεῤῥὰν μετενδὺς ἐκ θεοῦ παντευχίαν. ὡς
ὄστρεον γοῦν ὀργανῶ σοι τὸν τάφον, 15ἢ κόχλον ἢ κάλυκα κεντρώδους βάτου—
μάργαρέ μου, πορφύρα, γῆς ἄλλης ῥόδον, εἰ καὶ τρυγηθὲν ἐκπιέζῃ τοῖς
λίθοις ὡς καὶ σταλαγμοὺς προξενεῖν μοι δακρύων, αὐτὸς δὲ καὶ ζῶν καὶ
Θεὸν ζῶντα βλέπων 20ὡς νοῦς καθαρὸς τῶν παθῶν τῶν ἐξ ὕλης τὸν σὸν πάλιν
θάλαμον εὐτρέπιζέ μοι— ἡ σύζυγος πρὶν ταῦτά σοι
Μάρθα
 γράφει,
πρωτοστράτορ
  κάλλιστε 
καὶ τεθαμμένων.

  252 <#F   _252>
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