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HEAT ENGINES

PRESENTATION
INTRODUCTION
What is heat engine?
An engine may be defined as a device which converts one form of energy into
mechanical energy. Mechanical energy can be further easily converted into
electrical energy which is the most required form of energy.

So, Heat Engine is a device which transforms heat energy into


mechanical energy. In every heat engine, some form of fuel is used to
convert the chemical(heat) energy into useful mechanical energy (or to
produce mechanical work).

The Heat Engines are mainly classified into two types:-


1. External combustion Engines, and
2. Internal Combustion Engines

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TYPES OF HEAT ENGINES
External Combustion Engines:-
In this engine, the products of combustion are air and fuel
transfer heat to a second fluid which is working fluid of the cycle, as
in the case of a steam engine or steam turbine plant.
Ex:- The heat of combustion is employed to generate steam
which is used in a piston engine or a turbine.

Internal Combustion Engine:-


In internal combustion engine, the products of combustion are
directly the motive fluid. Petrol, gas and diesel engines, open cycle
gas turbines are the examples of I. C. Engine.
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CLASSIFICATION OF HEAT
ENGINES
CLASSIFICATION NAME OF ENGINE RECIPROCATING/ROTARY
(A) Internal combustion Petrol Engine(SI) Reciprocating
Engines
Gas Engine(SI) Reciprocating
Diesel Engine(CI) Reciprocating
Wankle Engine(SI, CI) Rotary
Open Cycle Gas Turbine Rotary
Jet Engine Rotary
Rocket No Mechanism
(B)External combustion Steam Engine Reciprocating
engines
Steam Turbine Rotary
Sterling or Hot Air Engine Reciprocating

Closed Cycle Turbine Rotary

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ADVANTAGES OF HEAT
ENGINES
Advantages of Internal Combustion Engines are:-
1. Greater mechanical simplicity.
2. Lower weight and bulk to o/p ratio.
3. Lower first cost.
4. Higher overall efficiency.
5. Lesser requirements of water for dissipation of energy through cooling
system.

Advantages of External Combustion Engines are:-


1. Use of cheaper fuels.
2. High starting torque.
3. Higher weight and bulk to o/p ratio.

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COMPARISION BETWEEN
INTERNAL & EXTERNAL
COMBUSTION ENGINES
Parameter I.C. Engine External Combustion
Engine
1) Sutablity Small size upto 1 MW. Large sizes
2)Size(weight and bulk) Compact Bulky
3)Fuel Refined Fuel Cheaper Fuels
4)Pollution level Higher Lower
5)Efficiency Lower Higher
6) Complixity of Less More
components
7)Expansion Incomplete Complete
8)Heat Rejection At higher temperature At atm. temperature

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ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS OF A
HEAT ENGINE
1. Working Substance:- It is a medium for receiving and rejection
heat.
2. Heat Source:- It is reservoir from which the working substance
receives heat.
3. Heat Sink:- It is the reservoir where the working substance rejects
heat after developing work. It is at a lower temperature than the
source temperature.
4. Expander:- It is an enclosure where the working substance does
work. It may be either a cylinder or casing.
5. Pump:- it is device used to raise the pressure of the working
substance. It utilizes the work give out by the expander.
The essential elements of a direct cycle heat engine are shown
in fig.
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QS = Heat suppiled
ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS OF HEAT
CYCLE
Qs

HEAT
SOURCE
CONTROL
SURFACE

PUMP EXPANDE
R W

HEAT SINK

Qr

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CARNOT CYCLE
Every thermodynamic system exists in a particular thermodynamic state.
When a system is taken through a series of different states and finally
returned to its initial state, a thermodynamic cycle is said to have occurred. In
the process of going through this cycle, the system may perform work on its
surroundings, thereby acting as a heat engine. A system undergoing a Carnot
cycle is called a Carnot heat engine, although such a 'perfect' engine is
only theoretical and cannot be built in practice.

The working of carnot cycle is shown in fig. The working substance is enclosed
in a cylinder having frictionless piston. The walls of the cylinder and piston are
taken as perfect insulators of heat. The cylinder head is assumed diathermic
which permits the flow of heat. The heat source is at temperature T1 and heat
sink at temperature t2. there is also a work reservoir.

The carnot consists of the following four reversible processes:-

1. Isothermal expansion

2. Adiabatic expansion

3. Isothermal compression JIGAR MEVADA


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WORKING OF A CARNOT
CYCLE
The carnot consists of the following four reversible processes:-
1. Isothermal expansion
2. Adiabatic expansion
3. Isothermal compression
4. Adiabatic compression

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CARNOT CYCLE ON P-V
DIAGRAM
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Second level Second level
● Third level ● Third level
● Fourth level ● Fourth level
● Fifth level
● Fifth level

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CARNOT HEAT ENGINE
PROCESS 1-2:- In the first stage, the piston moves downward while the
engine absorbs heat from a source (T1)and gas begins to expand. The portion
of the graphic from point 1 to point 2 represents this behavior. Because the
temperature of the gas does not change, this kind of expansion is called
exothermic. (Heat absorption = Q1,T1=C)

PROCESS 2-3:- In the second stage, the heat source is removed; the piston
continues to move downward and the gas is still expanding while lowering in
temperature from T2 to T3. It is presented by the graphic from point 2 to point
3. This stage is called a adiabatic expansion.

PROCESS 3-4:- The piston begins to move upward and the cool gas is
recompressed in the third stage. The heat goes to sink. Point 3 point 4
represents the decrease in volume and increase in pressure. The engine gives
energy to the environment. This stage is called isothermal compression. (Heat
rejection =Q2, T2 = C)

PROCESS 4-1:- In the final stage, the piston to move upward and the cool gas
is secluded and compressed. Its temperature rises to its original state. Point 3
to point 4 illustrate this behavior; a continuing increase in pressure and
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decrease JIGAR MEVADA
position. 1212
So it is an adiabatic compression.
EFFICIENCY OF CARNOT CYCLE

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Second level
● Third level

● Fourth level

● Fifth level

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EFFICIENCY OF CARNOT CYCLE

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Second level
● Third level

● Fourth level

● Fifth level

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RANKINE CYCLE

Process 3-4:- The water from the


hot well at low pressure p1
pumped isentropically into the Click to edit Master text styles
boiler at high pressure p2. Second level
● Third level
● Fourth level
● Fifth level
Process 4-5 :- This is the
sensible heating of water along
the hot water is heated up to
the saturation temperature T1.
The area a-3-4-5-b-a represents
the heat supplied (hf5 – hf4)
during this process.

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RANKINE CYCLE
Process 5-1 :- The saturated Click to edit Master text styles
water at pressure p1 and
temperature T1 is completely
Second level
vaporized into steam. The heat
● Third level
added (h1 – hf5) is represented
● Fourth level
● Fifth level
by area b-5-1-c-b, i.e., the latent
heat of vaporization. The state
point 1’ shows wet steam, 1 dry
and saturated and 1’’
superheated condition of steam.
Process 1-2 :- It is the isentropic
expansion of steam in the
turbine from p1 to p2. RANKINE CYCLE
ON p-v DIAGRAM
Process 2-3 :- The exhaust steam
is condensed in the condenser at
pressure
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JIGART2
MEVADA 1616
giving latent heat to water.
EFFICIENCY OF RANKINE CYCLE
Consider 1 kg of the working fluid, we have (considering pump work).

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EFFICIENCY NEGLECTING PUMP
WORK
For this process assuming p-v diagram for neglecting pump
polytropic expansion, work done work
per kg of steam. P

P23 2
Adiab
atic
Proces
s

P 1
14

= (p1 v1 – p2 v2)
V

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This cycle is composed of four internally reversible processes, two
adiabatic and two constant volume processes. The p-v and T-s diagrams
as shown
Process in fig.
1-2:- Adiabatic compression(Q=0), Process 2-3:- Heat addition
at v=c,
Process 3-4:- Adiabatic expansion (Q=0), Process 4-1:- Heat Rajection
at v=c

WORKING OF OTTO CYCLE


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Second level Second level
● Third level ● Third level
● Fourth level ● Fourth level
● Fifth level ● Fifth level

Otto cycle on p-v Otto cycle on T-s


diagram diagram
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EFFICIENCY OF OTTO CYCLE

Consider 1 kg of air flowing through the cycle. Since the air in the cylinder acts
as a closed system.So, from first law of thermodynamics for isen tropic
compression and expansion, we have

q-w = Δu

So, for v=c heat supplied and rejection processes, since ω = 0 then, q=Δu=cv ΔT

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EFFICIENCY OF OTTO CYCLE

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Second level
● Third level

● Fourth level

● Fifth level

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EFFICIENCY OF OTTO CYCLE

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Second level
● Third level

● Fourth level

● Fifth level

The air standard efficiency of otto cycle depends on compression


ratio only and increases as compression ratio increases. In actual
engine the compression ratio varies from 5 to 8. This is used for S.I.
engines working on petrol engine.
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M.E.P. OF OTTO CYCLE

M.E.P. = Mean Effective Pressure

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DIESEL CYCLE
This cycle is used for compresssion ignition internal combustion
engines working on diesel oil. The p-v and T-s diagrams are shown in
fig. it consists of four internally reversible processes two adiabatic,
one p=c and one v=c.

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Second level
● Third level

● Fourth level

● Fifth level

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WORKING OF DIESEL CYCLE

Process 1-2:- Adiabatic compression of air, Process 2-3:- Heat addition


at p=c
Process 3-4:- Adiabatic expansion of air, Process 4-1:- Heat rejection
at v=c.

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EFFIECIENCY OF DIESEL CYCLE

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Second level
● Third level

● Fourth level

● Fifth level

The efficiency of diesel cycle increases as compression ratio


increases but decreases as cut-off ratio increases. The thermal
efficiency of diesel cycle is less then that of otto cycle. The
compression ratio for diesel cycle varies from 14 to 18.

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M.E.P. OF DIESEL CYCLE

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Second level
● Third level

● Fourth level

● Fifth level

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