P. 1
Tulare County Fair Educational Booklet

Tulare County Fair Educational Booklet

|Views: 97|Likes:
Publicado porKrista Scarbrough

More info:

Published by: Krista Scarbrough on Apr 01, 2011
Direitos Autorais:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

04/01/2011

pdf

text

original

     

  2010  

Educational  Handbook:       A  Guide  to  Livestock  at  the  Fair  

 

Adriene  Henderson   Krista  Scarbrough   Mike  Trevor     Brad  Smith     Vince  Bonafede    
Professor  Jacky  Eshelby    

TABLE  OF  CONTENTS    
Introduction  -­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐  Pg.  3     General  Exhibitor  Regulations  -­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐  Pg.  4     Large  Animals  -­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐  Pg.  5      Swine  Showmanship  -­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐  Pg.  5      Market  Swine  -­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐  Pg.  7      Cattle  Showmanship  -­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐  Pg.  10      Market  Cattle  -­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐  Pg.  12      Dairy  Showmanship  -­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐Pg.  15      Sheep  Showmanship  -­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐  Pg.  20      Market  Sheep  -­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐  Pg.  22      Goat  Showmanship  -­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐  Pg.  24      Market  Goat  -­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐  Pg.  26     Small  Animals  -­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐  Pg.  28      Rabbit  -­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐  Pg.  28      Cavy  -­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐  Pg.  29      Pygmy  Goat  -­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐  Pg.  30      Poultry  -­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐  Pg.  31     Works  Cited  -­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐  Pg.  32  

 
 

2  

INTRODUCTION  
 

The  purpose  of  this  booklet  is  to  serve  as  a  teaching  tool  for  educators  

who  desire  to  inform  their  students  about  the  livestock  at  the  fair.  Agriculture   Education  Days  happen  at  many  fairs  but  this  booklet  is  the  perfect  aid  for   those  that  cannot  attend  and  do  not  have  the  base  knowledge  themselves.   Agriculture  is  the  number  on  industry  in  the  nation  and  this  teaching  tool   aims  to  spark  more  interest  in  youth,  encouraging  them  to  participate  in   livestock  exhibiting.     Included  is  an  overview  of  the  different  animals  that  can  be  found  at   the  fair.    It  is  important  to  know  the  difference  between  exhibiting  the   animals  in  showmanship  classes  versus  market  classes.    When  competing  in  a   showmanship  class  the  focus  lies  on  the  exhibitor  and  their  ability  to  handle   animal.    When  competing  in  a  market  class  the  focus  lies  solely  on  the  body   composition  of  the  animal.        
 

Division  Characteristics:    
  Market    
   Focused  on  animal’s  appearance,  with  attention  to  muscle,  structural   composition,  frame,  style,  and  balance.     Animals  are  determined  either  market-­‐  ready  or  non-­‐market  ready.     Still  important  to  maintain  control  of  animal,  allowing  the  judge  to  examine  it   thoroughly.      

Showmanship    
  

Judged  on  your  ability  to  exhibit  an  animal  to  its  best  advantage.   Success  is  based  on  how  well  one  control’s  the  animal.   Practice  is  the  key  to  successful  showmanship.      

 

 
  3  

GENERAL  EXHIBITOR  REGULATIONS  
  Exhibitor  Age:  (See  local  fair  Exhibitor  Guide  for  location-­specific  Rules  and  Information.)  

 

 

  Exhibitor  Appearance:  (Adapted  from  Yuba-­Sutter  Fair  Exhibitor  Guide)    

less  than  nine  (9)  years  on  January  1,  2010.  Individuals  five  (5)  to  less  than   nine  (9)  years  as  of  the  current  year  may  not  exhibit  Beef,  Sheep,  Hog,  Dairy   Cattle  or  Dairy  Goats  and  may  not  participate  in  the  Junior  Livestock  Market   Divisions  or  Auction.     Independent  Junior  Exhibitors:  Ages  nine  (9)  through  thirteen  (13)   must  compete  in  4-­‐H  Divisions.  Ages  fourteen  (14)  through  nineteen  (19)  must   often  compete  in  FFA  Divisions.  (See  additional  Independent  Junior  Exhibitor   information  in  the  Local  Rules  and  Information  section.)    

     Primary  4-­H  Members  &  Independent  Exhibitors:  youth  five  (5)  to  

Junior  Livestock  Exhibitors  must  wear  the  appropriate  uniform  of   their  respective  organization  when  showing  and  selling  livestock:       FFA  show  uniform  white  pants,  white  dress  shirt,  the   official  FFA  Jacket  with  the  official  FFA  four-­in-­hand  necktie.   Shirts  must  be  tucked  in  and  have  short  or  long  sleeves  (not   sleeveless).       4-­H  show  uniform  white  pants  and  white  dress  shirt.  Shirt   must  be  tucked  in  and  have  short  or  long  sleeves  (not  sleeveless).  The   4-­‐H  tie  or  scarf  and  hat  must  be  worn.  Independent  Exhibitors  must   wear  white  pants  and  white  dress  shirts.  Shirts  must  be  tucked  in  and   have  short  or  long  sleeves  (not  sleeveless).  Belt  is  optional  for  added   neatness.  Leather  shoes  or  boots  should  be  worn  for  safety  and   appearance.  If  the  animal  steps  on  your  foot,  it  is  much  easier  for  the   hog's  foot  to  slip  off  a  leather  boot.  Do  not  wear  anything  that  may   take  the  judge's  concentration  away  from  the  animal.      

   

 

4  

SWINE  SHOWMANSHIP  
  General  Rules:      
   Animal  Ownership:  Swine  must  have  been  owned  by  and  under  the   management  and  direct  care  of  the  exhibitor  for  at  least  sixty  (60)   consecutive  days  prior  to  opening  day  of  fair.    

Equipment  Needed:  
 A  driving  tool  is  required  to  guide  or  drive  the  hog.  You  can  use  a   livestock  cane,  whip,  riding  crop,  or  stick.    

    

  You  should  use  a  small  hand  brush  to  brush  the  hog  if  needed  in  the   show  ring.  The  brush  needs  to  be  small  enough  to  fit  in  your  back   pocket.      

                  

  Use  a  spray  bottle  of  water  to  groom  and  cool  the  hog.  Do  not  take   the  bottle  into  the  ring  during  the  show.  Your  need  for  the  spray   bottle  is  discussed  later  in  this  publication.    

   
  5  

Judge’s  Criteria:    
  You  must  thoroughly  wash  your  hog,  and  be  sure  there  is  no   remaining  dirt,  shavings,  etc.  Hair  can  be  trimmed  if  desired,  but  be   careful  to  not  trim  too  short  to  prevent  difficulty  for  the  packers   following  the  animal’s  sale.       Just  before  entering  the  ring,  mist  the  hog  with  water  from  your  spray   bottle.  Brush  the  hog's  hair  the  way  the  part  naturally  falls;  this  will   give  the  hog  the  appearance  of  a  meatier  top.  Generally  avoid  spraying   oils  on  the  hog,  which  can  make  it  too  hot.      

Show  Ring  Tips:  (Adapted  from  Mississippi  State  University)  
  1. Be  prompt  and  on  time  for  your  class.     2. Drive  the  hog  10  to  15  feet  in  front  of  the  judge,  only  using  the   driving  tool  when  it  is  needed.   3. Always  keep  the  hog  between  you  and  the  judge.  When  you  move   or  change  directions,  switch  the  driving  tool  to  the  other  hand.     4. Be  aware  of  "danger  zones"  to  avoid,  such  as  groups  of  other  hogs   or  the  corner  of  the  show  ring.     5. If  you  are  selected  to  be  penned,  do  not  stop  showing.  Work  your   hog  toward  the  pen  area,  and  drive  it  into  the  designated  pen,  closing   and  latching  the  gate  behind  you.     6. Maintain  eye  contact  with  the  judge.  Good  eye  contact  ensures  you   will  not  miss  a  cue  to  be  penned  or  to  follow  some  other  request.   Additionally,  the  judge  is  more  likely  to  look  at  your  hog.   7. Be  ready  to  answer  questions  about  your  project.  The  judge  may   ask  any  number  of  questions  about  your  animal  and  the  swine   industry  to  find  out  what  you  have  learned  from  your  swine  project.     8. Continue  to  show  the  hog  as  you  leave  the  ring  when  the  show  is   completed.  Listen  to  the  judge's  comments  to  improve  your  next   experience  in  the  ring.      

           
  6  

MARKET  SWINE  
General  Rules:    
   May  show  either  a  gilt  (female)  or  barrow  (male)  swine.        Sale  Weight:  200-­‐260  pounds.  (For  top  weight  limits,  see  local  fair  Exhibitor  Guide.)    Animals  judged  market  ready  must  sell  in  the  Jr.  Livestock  Auction.      Animals  judged  not  market  ready  are  required  to  be  removed  from  the   grounds.  

  Judge’s  Criteria:     1. Structural  Correctness:    
County  4-­H)    

A  hog  should  move  with  ease  and  take  long  strides.  There  should  be  no   angles  to  their  joints.  Below  is  an  example  of  proper  structure:  (from  Rich    

 

 

2. Muscle:      
“Muscle  refers  to  meat  or  the  amount  of  meat  within  each  individual  market   swine.  Muscle  can  be  evaluated  in  several  areas.  When  viewing  the  side,  it  is   important  to  look  for  the  expression  through  the  shoulder  and  forearm.   However,  it  is  the  view  from  behind  and  down  the  top  that  gives  the   evaluator  the  most  accurate  view.  Remember,  muscle  is  bulging  and  roundish   in  shape.  Thus,  when  viewing  a  hog  from  behind  it  is  imperative  to  look  for   these  types  of  shapes  down  the  top,  from  stifle  and  throughout  all  portions  of   the  ham.”  (Chris  T.  Boleman,  Texas  A&M  University)  
 

 
  7  

3. Breed:  The  list  below  includes  some  of  the  most  common  breeds  shown  
National  Swine  Registry)  

today.  These  breeds  are  determined  largely  by  judge’s  preference.  (Images  from     3. Duroc    

   

1. Hampshire    

   

  2. Landrace    

  4. Yorkshire    

 

       

 

Animal  Anatomy:  (from  Nita  Judd)  
   

   

8  

Products  Produced:  “Everything  but  the  Oink!”  is  a  common  phrase,  since  

virtually  every  part  of  a  hog  is  used  to  make  a  variety  of  products.    The  following  is  a   short  list  of  products  known  to  contain  swine  by-­‐products:           Fabric  softener   Crayons   Lipstick   Anti  Freeze   Rubber   Insulation   Chalk   Floor  Wax  

         

 
         

   

           

 

9  

CATTLE  SHOWMANSHIP  
Equipment  needed:  
Halter-­‐Use  the  halter  to  lead.    When  walking  on  the  left  side  of  the  animal,   use  your  right  hand.    Grip  your  lead  so  your  thumb  is  pointing  upwards  and   you  little  finger  is  nearest  the  chain  which  ensures  your  wrist—which  is   stronger—is  in  control.  

  Show  Stick-­‐The  show  stick  can  be  used  to:     

 

Help  in  placing  and  setting  the  feet.   Keeping  the  top  of  the  animal  level.   Controlling  and  calming  the  animal.    

    Comb-­‐Used  to  groom  the  animals  after  being  handled  by  the  judges.   However,  for  short-­‐  haired  cattle  a  wipe  cloth  should  be  used  instead.  

     
 

 

10  

Show  Tips:  (Adapted  from  California  4-­H  website)    
1.  Begin  work  with  your  calf  at  a  young  age  to  develop  a  strong  relationship  with   trust.   2.  Walk  into  the  ring  on  the  left  side  of  your  steer  with  your  lead  strap  shortened.   3.  Carry  show  stick  in  your  left  hand  in  a  vertical  position.   4.  Keep  the  steer  in  line  with  3  feet  of  space  from  the  next  animal.   5.  When  setting  the  calf  put  the  lead  strap  in  your  left  hand  and  the  show  stick  in   your  right  hand.   6.  When  the  judge  begins  to  examine  your  animal,  rub  the  show  stick  under  the   animal’s  stomach  to  calm  it.  

                         

 

11  

MARKET  CATTLE  
General  Rules:    
   This  competition  is  focused  on  the  appearance  and  body  composition  of  your   animal.       It  is  important  that  the  animal  is  handled  well,  but  the  judge’s  main  focus  is   on  the  animal  itself.     The  steers  must  be  between  about  1000  and  1400  pounds  depending  on  the   fairs.           The  cattle  are  judged  on  muscle,  structural  correctness,  frame  size,   style  and  balance.    The  animal  should  move  with  ease  in  a  smooth   manner.  An  animal  that  is  complete  in  their  frame  size  with  good   muscle  development  is  ideal,  the  more  muscle  the  animal  has   maximizes  the  profit  for  the  seller.          A  good  head  carriage,  a  broad  neck  that  is  even  on  the   shoulders  and  in  line  with  the  spine.   A  long  straight  body  with  a  slight  bend  in  the  back.   The  cattle  must  have  strong  legs  that  are  sturdy.    They   shouldn’t  show  signs  of  being  cow-­‐hocked,  bow-­‐legged,  or   sickle-­‐hocked  because  this  could  be  a  sign  of  serious  injury  for   the  animal.   As  much  rib  extension  as  possible  and  a  deep  bodied  steer   ideal.        

Judge’s  Criteria:  (Adapted  from  University  of  Kentucky  Agripedia)  

           

 

12  

Breeds:  Most  show  animals  are  cross-­‐breeds  of  the  following.  
1. Hereford  

2. Angus    

3.  Shorthorn  

 

 

 

 

 

13  

Animal  Anatomy:  

 

 

Products  produced:  
    Muscles  are  used  for  dietary  needs,  including  different  steaks,   ribs,  hamburger,  and  hot  dogs.   Hinds  and  hair  are  used  for  leather  products,  baseball  gloves   and  baseballs,  paint  brushes,  wallpaper,  and  furniture  glue.       Fats  and  fatty  acids  are  used  in  lipsticks,  shampoos,  deodorant,   running  shoes,  fishing  waders,  and  floor  wax.       Bones,  horns,  hooves,  blood  and  gelatin  are  used  in  china   dishes,  ice  cream,  camera  film,  dog  food,  and  fire  extinguisher   foam.    Lastly,  the  cattle  pancreas  is  used  in  many  medicines.        

               
  14  

DAIRY  SHOWMANSHIP  
  Judge’s  Criteria:    
Dairy  Cow:  Dairy  cow  are  judged  on  5  categories:  Frame,  Dairy  Character,  Body  
Capacity,  Feet  and  Legs,  and  Udder.    Scores  range  from  50-­‐100,  with  breed  variation.     Generally,  90+  is  considered  excellent,  85-­‐89  is  very  good,  etc.  and  down  to  poor.     Frame-­  15%  (Adapted  from  University  of  Minnesota)   Rump,  Stature,  and  Front  End  receive  primary  consideration  when  evaluating   Frame.    Rump-­‐  long  and  wide  throughout  with  pin  bones  slightly  lower  than   hipbones.      Stature-­‐  height,  including  length  in  the  leg  bones.  A  long  bone  pattern   throughout  the  body  structure  is  desirable.  Height  at  the  withers  and   hips  should  be  relatively  proportionate.      Front  End-­‐  adequate  constitution  with  front  legs  straight,  wide  apart  and   squarely  placed.    Shoulder  blades  and  elbows  need  to  be  firmly  set   against  the  chest  wall.  The  crops  should  have  adequate  fullness.       Dairy  Character-­  20%  (Adapted  from  University  of  Minnesota)   Major  consideration  is  given  to  general  openness  and  angularity  while  maintaining   strength,  flatness  of  bone  and  freedom  from  coarseness.  Consideration  is  given  to   stage  of  lactation.        Ribs-­‐  wide  apart.  Rib  bones  are  wide,  flat,  deep,  and  slanted  toward  the   rear.      Thighs-­‐  lean,  incurving  to  flat,  and  wide  apart  from  the  rear.      Withers-­‐  Sharp  with  the  chine  prominent.      Neck-­‐  long,  lean,  and  blending  smoothly  into  shoulders.      Skin-­‐  thin,  loose,  and  pliable.     Body  Capacity-­  10%  (Adapted  from  University  of  Minnesota)   The  volumetric  measurement  of  the  capacity  of  the  cow  is  evaluated  with  age  taken   into  consideration.      Barrel-­‐  long,  deep,  and  wide.  Depth  and  spring  of  rib  increase  toward  the   rear  with  a  deep  flank.        Chest-­‐  deep  and  wide  floor  with  well-­‐sprung  fore  ribs  blending  into  the   shoulders.       Feet  and  Legs-­15%  (Adapted  from  University  of  Minnesota)    Feet-­‐  steep  angle  and  deep  heal  with  short,  well-­‐rounded  closed  toes.      Rear  Legs:  Rear  View-­‐  straight,  wide  apart  with  feet  squarely  placed.  Side      View-­‐  a  moderate  set  (angle)  to  the  hock.      Hocks-­‐  cleanly  molded,  free  from  coarseness  and  puffiness  with  adequate     15  

  Udder-­  40%  (Adapted  from  University  of  Minnesota)   The  udder  traits  are  the  most  heavily  weighted.  Major  consideration  is  given  to  the   traits  that  contribute  to  high  milk  yield  and  a  long  productive  life.        Udder  Depth-­‐  moderate  depth  relative  to  the  hock  with  adequate   capacity  and  clearance.  Consideration  is  given  to  lactation  number  and   age.      Teat  Placement-­‐  squarely  placed  under  each  quarter,  plumb  and  properly   spaced  from  side  and  rear  views.      Rear  Udder-­‐  wide  and  high,  firmly  attached  with  uniform  width  from  top   to  bottom  and  slightly  rounded  to  udder  floor.      Udder  Cleft-­‐  evidence  of  a  strong  suspensory  ligament  indicated  by   adequately  defined  halving.      Fore  Udder-­‐  firmly  attached  with  moderate  length  and  ample  capacity.      Teats-­‐  cylindrical  shape  and  uniform  size  with  medium  length  and   diameter.      Udder  Balance  and  Texture-­‐  should  exhibit  an  udder  floor  that  is  level  as   viewed  from  the  side.  Quarters  should  be  evenly  balanced;  soft,  pliable   and  well  collapsed  after  milking.     Exhibitor:       The  oral  presentation  should  be  approximately  one  and  a  half  to  two  minutes   in  length.  Beginning  contestants  should  start  with  a  shorter  more  basic  set  of   reasons  that  they  feel  comfortable  giving  without  reference  to  notes.  As  they   gain  experience  and  confidence,  the  reasons  can  be  expanded.  (from  Suwannee  
River  Youth  Fair)  

flexibility.      Pasterns-­‐  short  and  strong  with  some  flexibility.    

  • Organize  reasons  in  the  following  order:     o State  the  class  (age  and  breed)   o Your  Placing   o Placing  comparisons  with  at  least  one  grant  for  each  placing   o Re-­‐state  the  class  and  placing   o Optional  opening  and  closing  statements  can  be  added  to  reasons  as   contestant  gains  experience  for  the  oral  presentation    

 
   

       
  16  

Equipment  Needed:    

    De-­‐shedding  tool:  gently  massages  and  calms  your  animal  while  removing   undercoat  and  loose  hair.    

  Leather   Neck   Strap:   The   only   this   thing   the   cow   should   be   wearing   when   being   showed.  

 
 
 

Show  Tips  (from  MSU  CARES)  
As  the  exhibitors  lead  their  animals  slowly,  with  short  steps,  around  the  show  ring,   they  should  continually  watch  the  judge  and  their  animals  to  show  it  to  the  best   advantage.  Exhibitors  may  “circle”  a  nervous  animal  and  regain  their  same  position   by  turning  toward  the  center  of  the  ring  and  return.  Exhibitors  should  not  crowd  the   animal  in  front  nor  interfere  with  the  animal  behind.  (Adapted  from  Oklahoma   Cooperative  Extension  Service)     • It  is  important  the  exhibitor  learn  to  watch  the  animal  and  the  judge  at  all   times.  Do  not  be  distracted  by  persons  and  things  outside  the  ring.  Keep  your   animal  under  complete  control  at  all  times.   • Quickly  recognize  the  conformation  faults  of  the  animal  you  are  leading,  and   show  to  overcome  them.  You  may  be  asked  to  exchange  with  another   exhibitor  and  show  a  different  animal.   •    A  rolled  leather  halter  is  recommended;  color  is  optional  but  should   complement  the  breed  of  animal.  The  halter  should  fit  properly  and  be  placed   correctly  on  the  animal.  The  noseband  should  fit  across  the  bridge  of  the  nose   midway  between  the  eyes  and  the  muzzle.  A  leather  halter  with  leather  or   chain  lead  is  preferred.  

   
  17  

Breeds      

Holstein:    

  • Brown  Swiss:  

 

  Jersey:  

 

 

 

 

               
  18  

Animal  Anatomy:  (from  huhs.org)

Products  Produced  (from  livestockexpo.org)  
 

 

• Butter  –  a  solid  made  from  fat,  air,  and  water  when  cream  is  churned;  butter  is   80%  fat     • Buttermilk  –  cultured  milk  made  by  adding  certain  bacteria  to  sweet  milk     • Cheese  –  food  made  from  fermented  milk  curd  that  has  been  compressed  and   usually  aged     • Evaporated  milk  –  pasteurized  milk  that  is  vacuum-­‐heated  to  remove  60%  of   water;  it  is  then  homogenized,  fortified  with  Vitamin  D,  and  sealed  in   containers  for  long,  room-­‐temperature  storage     • Ice  cream  –  a  sweetened,  frozen  food  containing  cream  or  butterfat  and   flavorings   • Ice  milk  -­‐  a  sweetened,  frozen  food  containing  skim  milk  and  flavorings     • Low-­‐fat  milk  –  milk  that  contains  only  1-­‐2%  butterfat     • Skim  milk  –  or  fat  free  milk  (milk  with  less  than  0.5%  fat)   • Sour  cream  –  a  product  made  from  cream  and  bacteria  that  form  lactic  acid   • Whole  milk  –  milk  containing  3-­‐4%  butterfat  (no  butterfat  has  been  removed)   • Yogurt  –  a  fermented,  semisolid  food  made  from  milk  and  the  cultures  of  two   certain  bacteria  

 

       
  19  

SHEEP  SHOWMANSHIP  
  General  Rules:    (from  Sheridan  County  4-­H  and  FFA)    
  There  is  no  artificial  color,  paint  or  powder  to  be  allowed  on  the  sheep.  The  slapping   or  lifting  of  labs  in  the  showing  ring  is  never  allowed—lambs  must  keep  all  feet  on   the  ground  during  inspection  and  handling.  If  judges  find  exhibitors  to  place  the  feet   on  any  other  surface  a  warning  will  be  given  first,  with  disqualification  for  a  second   offense.  The  last  rule  and  regulation  worth  noting  is  drenching  the  animal  as  a   source  of  nutrition  is  not  allowed;  drenching  is  only  allowed  with  the  approval  by  a   licensed  veterinarian.       Equipment  Needed:  (from  Goats4H.com)     Sheep  shears  can  be  bought  in  two  different  forms:  machine  and  blade.  The   purpose  of  shears  is  to  cut  the  wool  layer  away  from  the  sheep  while   preserving  the  quality.  Mechanical  sheers  are  more  expensive  but  make  for   an  easier  job  to  shear  the  wool  from  the  sheep.  Blade  shears  are  relatively   inexpensive  and  work  in  the  same  way  as  scissors.  Blade  sheers  are  in  more   limited  use  today  as  they  leave  more  wool  on  the  sheep  compared  to   mechanical.     Mechanical           Blade      

     

              In  addition  to  shears  there  are  many  pieces  of  daily  equipment  that  is   needed.  Some  of  these  daily  supplies  include:  a  halter,  shampoo,  a  grain   container,  hoof  trimmers,  and  a  scrub  brush.  Also,  it  is  common  to  use  baby   wipes  to  clean  the  inside  of  a  lamb's  ears  and  the  groin  area.  Other  optional   equipment  includes  sweaters  to  keep  the  skin  taut  and  blankets  to  keep  them   clean  at  show  time.      

 

20  

Show  Tips    
    Have  complete  control  over  the  animal  at  all  times.   Have  your  animal  clean  and  properly  groomed.   The  animal’s  rear  should  be  facing  the  judge.   The  exhibitor  should  be  facing  his  animal  with  each  hand  grasping  a  check.  At   this  point  the  exhibitor  can  be  kneeling,  squatting,  or  which  position  they   prefer  to  control  the  animal.  The  exhibitor  should  be  far  enough  away  from   the  animal  so  that  the  judge  can  see  the  whole  animal.   The  animal  should  be  standing  on  level  ground.   When  the  judge  comes  up  to  view  the  animal  from  the  right  side  the  exhibitor   should  be  kneeling  or  squatting  on  the  left  side  near  the  head  with  his  or  her   hand  under  the  animals  jaw.   When  the  judge  moves  to  the  front  of  the  animal  the  exhibitor  should  move   to  the  animals  left  shoulder.   The  judge  will  now  move  to  view  the  left  side  of  the  animal  at  which  point  the   exhibitor  should  move  to  the  right  side  of  the  animal.  At  this  point  many   exhibitors  lose  control  of  the  animal  as  they  try  to  stretch  their  arm  too  far.   Once  the  judge  is  done  on  this  side  the  exhibitor  must  move  the  animal  into   line  while  keeping  it  a  proper  distance  away  from  the  judges  and  other   animals  in  line.  

    

  Breeds:  

  1.  Columbia  Sheep  

2.  Hampshire  Sheep  

 

       
  21  

MARKET  SHEEP  
  General  Rules:  (from  Sheridan  County  4-­H  and  FFA)  
    Lambs  entered  into  market  may  be  either  ewes  (female)  or  wethers  (male).     Classes  are  set  up  by  using  natural  or  logical  weight  breaks.    Market  lambs   must  weigh  100  pounds  and  any  lamb  heavier  than  145  pounds  will  be   considered  145  pounds.  Any  market  lamb  that  is  less  than  100  pounds  will   be  put  into  the  feeder  lamb  category.     Market  lambs  must  have  one  of  their  ears  tagged  with  a  State  ear  tag.     Lambs  showing  signs  of  rectal  prolapse  or  surgical  tail  removal  will  be   disqualified.  Speckled  face  lambs  must  show  mottling  or  black  and  white   color  on  the  face  and/or  black  speckles  on  the  face,  ears  and  below  the  knee   joint.  The  order  of  showing  at  a  market  will  be  Blackface,  Speckled  Face,   White  Face,  and  Overall.    

 

 

Judge’s  Criteria:  (from  Sheep201)  
 

Judging  is  based  on  four  main  aspects:  type,  muscling,  finish  and  balance.  Type  is   defined  as  the  weight  of  the  sheep.  Muscling  includes  thickness  through  leg,  amount   of  muscle  (heavy  muscled  sheep  rated  higher),  natural  thickness  over  the  top  and   legs  when  spread  wide  apart.  The  finish  of  the  animal  is  being  fat  enough  to  have  a   high  carcass  grade  (but  not  too  fat),  having  .15-­‐.25  inches  of  back  fat  covering  the  rib   eye  muscle,  no  sign  or  prominence  of  bones,  and  not  having  too  supple  of  a  feeling  to   the  touch.  Balance  includes  the  overall  appearance  of  the  animal  and  the  definition   in  the  straightness  of  lines.  (from  Purdue  University)       Carcass   Quality  grades  indicate  the  palatability  and  eating  characteristics  of  the   lamb’s  meat.  The  grades  are  Prime,  Choice,  Good,  and  Utility.  Fatter  lambs  are   usually  graded  Prime.     Age,  weight,  and  sex   The  average  weight  of  a  lamb  in  the  U.S.  to  market  and  sell  for  slaughter  is   about  135  pounds.    Lambs  are  marketed  between  the  ages  of  2  and  14   months.  Two-­‐month  old  lambs  are  sold  as  hot  house  lambs.  A  hot  house  lamb   is  a  milk-­‐fed  lamb  that  is  usually  born  out-­‐of-­‐season  (fall  or  early  winter)  and   raised  indoors.       Shrink  (drift)   Shrink  is  the  loss  in  a  lamb’s  total  body  weight  during  shipping.  A  lamb’s   shrink  is  mostly  loss  of  stomach  contents  or  “gut  fill”  during  the  first  20   hours  off  feed.  After  the  first  20  hours,  the  lamb’s  body  compensates  for   restricted  water  and  feed  intake  by  drawing  moisture  and  nutrients  from   carcass  tissue.  Young  lambs  tend  to  shrink  more  than  older  lambs.  On     22  

average  5  to  8  month  old  lambs  will  shrink  at  least  five  percent  from  farm  to   market  weight.  Some  buyers  use  a  "pencil  shrink"  before  purchasing  the   lamb.  The  method  of  pencil  shrink  is  subtracting  3  to  4  percent  of  the  scale   weight.  When  making  marketing  decisions,  shrink  needs  to  be  considered  as   a  cost.  Shrink  can  be  reduced  some  with  proper  handling.  

Animal  Anatomy:  

  Products  Produced:  (from  Purdue  University)    

From  the  Intestines     Once  cleaned,  intestines  can  be  used  as  casings  for  foods  such  as  sausages  and   frankfurters.    Instrument  strings  can  also  be  made  from  the  intestines.         From  Horns,  Hooves,  &  Bone     Products  include  bone  charcoal  for  high  grade  steel,  shampoo  and  conditioner,  bone   china,  collagen  and  bone  for  plastic  surgery,  horn  and  bone  handles,  adhesive  tape,   marshmallows,  piano  keys,  and  gelatin  desserts  (ice  cream,  yogurt,  jello,  etc).     From  Manure     Many  valuable  minerals  are  found  in  the  manure  such  as  nitrogen,  phosphorous,   and  potassium  carbonate.    The  manure  is  a  valuable  part  of  fertilizer.           From  Fats  &  Fatty  Acids     Sheep  fat  and  fatty  acids  are  sometimes  added  to  dog  and  chicken  feeds.  The  fat  is   also  used  to  make  items  like  paraffin,  crayons,  candles,  and  floor  wax.    Every  day   items  like  makeup,  tanning  lotion,  shaving  cream,  contain  sheep  fat  and  fatty  acids.       From  Wool     The  wool  can  create  products  like  artists  brushes,  insulation,  and  rug  pads.    A   baseball’s  core  is  wrapped  with  yards  of  tightly  wound  wool  and  covered  by   cowhide.         23  

GOAT  SHOWMANSHIP  
 

Equipment  Needed:  
A  Collar  is  needed  to  guide  or  drive  the  goat.  An  Angora  goat  does  not   need  a  collar  and  should  be  led  out  with  its  horn.                     Clippers  are  suggested  to  make  any  last  second  touch  ups  on  the  day  of   the  showing.     Small  link  chain  used  to  lead  the  goat  into  and  around  the  ring.      

   

        Judge’s  Criteria:    

  Health  and  appearance  are  essential  to  goat  showmanship.  Make  sure   that  the  goat  is  on  a  well  balanced  diet,  receives  grooming  and  clippings   regularly,  and  is  in  prime  shape  and  condition  at  the  event.  Clipping  the   showmanship  goat  is  to  be  taken  very  seriously  as  to  not  leave  any   clipper  marks.     The  goat  should  have  a  collar  that  is  inconspicuous  and  does  not  take   attention  away  from  the  goat.  Chain  leads  work,  however  leashes  are  not   recommended.    

       
 

24  

Show  Ring  Tips:  (Adapted  from  North  Dakota  State  University)  

  1. Be  prompt  and  on  time  for  your  class.  Being  prompt  shows  you  are   organized  and  ready  to  work;  it  is  courtesy  to  the  other  exhibitors.   2. Keep  the  goat’s  head  up  Keep  the  collar  high  on  the  neck,  just  under   the  jaw,  and  keep  the  head  up  at  all  times.     3. Walk  slowly  Imagine  your  goat  just  “loafing”  around  the  barn,  and   walk  the  animal  at  that  pace.     4. Don’t  crowd  the  animal  in  front  of  you  Always  maintain  at  least  a   goat’s  length  between  your  animal  and  the  animal  ahead  of  you.   5. Be  ready  to  answer  questions  about  your  project.  Questions  may   be  easy  and  include  such  items  as  the  weight,  gender,  breed,  age,  or   parts  of  the  animal.  They  may  also  include  carcass  composition,   feeding  and  nutrition,  or  marketing  systems.     6. Set  your  goat  up  in  line,  pose  the  feet  squarely  under  the  body  with   the  hind  feet  slightly  spread.  It  is  usually  easiest  to  set  up  the  hind  feet   first.     7. Keep  your  hands  off  the  animal  as  much  as  possible.  Do  not  draw  the   judge’s  attention  away  from  the  animal  to  you.     8. Show  your  animals  the  whole  time  you  are  in  the  ring,  until  the  judge   has  dismissed  the  class.      

                         
  25  

MARKET  GOATS  
  General  Rules:    (Adapted  from  Cleveland  county  livestock)  
 

Exhibitors  will  be  allowed  to  tag-­‐in  an  unlimited  number  of  goats,  but  only   show  one  goat.    Market  goats  must  have  both  ear  tags  when  it  comes  to  show.  If  the  goat   loses  one  tag,  the  exhibitor  must  contact  the  Market  Goat  Chairman   immediately.  If  the  goat  loses  both  ear  tags,  it  will  not  be  eligible  to  show.      The  market  goat  must  not  weigh  less  than  60  pounds  at  the  weigh-­‐ in.  Goats  will  have  one  opportunity  to  go  across  the  official  scales.  If  animal   does  not  make  the  weight,  it  may  be  (at  exhibitor’s  request)  backed  off  the   scales;  scales  will  be  re-­‐balanced,  and  animal  will  be  re-­‐weighed   immediately.      It  is  recommended  that  all  market  goats  should  be  slick  shorn  above  the   hock  and  knee  joints,  excluding  the  switch,  before  being  presented  for   weighing  at  the  show.    Goats  must  be  dehorned  or  their  horns  must  be  tipped  at  time  of  show.    All  goats  must  be  carrying  their  milk  teeth  at  the  time  of  tag-­‐in.  Goats   showing  either,  or  both,  of  the  first  pair  of  permanent  incisors  will  not  be   allowed  to  enter.     Breed:  The  list  below  includes  some  of  the  most  common  breeds  shown  today.   These  breeds  are  determined  largely  by  judge’s  preference.  (Images  from  Google)     1. Nubian  (dairy)   3. Boers  (meat)                                                     2. LaMancha  (dairy)   4. Kiko  (meat)                       

 
  26  

Animal  Anatomy:  (from  thekebun)  
   

 

Products  Produced:    
     Meat  goats  are  used  for  their  meat  and  eaten.     Angora  goats  are  bred  for  their  wool  like  sheep.     Dairy  goats  are  raised  for  their  milk,  which  can  be  used  for  butter  and   cheese.  Horns  of  goats  are  still  used  to  make  tools  such  as  spoons  and   handles.  Other  uses  for  goats  include  the  goat  intestine,  which  is  used  in   making  musical  strings  and  human  surgical  structures.  They  also  have   other  uses  such  as  hides  used  for  rugs,  skin  for  fine  leather,  gelatin,   fertilizers,  surgical  supplies,  medicine,  soaps,  ceramics,  pet  food  and  in   some  cases  are  used  for  making  luggage  and  footwear.  Goat  meat  from   younger  animals  is  called  kid  or  cabrito,  and  from  older  animals  is   sometimes  called  chevon,  or  in  some  areas  “mutton”.  

 

 
  27  

Small  Animal  Showmanship  
  Rabbits  
  Common  Breeds    
1. Netherland  Dwarf   3. Mini  Lop  

  2. New  Zealand  

 

 

   

 

Quick  Tips    
1. Rabbits  must  have  a  tattoo  for  identification  in  order  to  be   shown,  most  often  in  the  left  ear.     2. Carry  the  rabbit  with  its  head  should  be  tucked  under   exhibitor’s  arm,  much  like  carrying  a  football.     3. When  showing,  examine:  sides,  rump,  eyes,  nose,  teeth,  chest,   abdomen,  legs,  sex,  tail,  and  fur.      

 

     
  28  

Cavy  
      Common  Breeds  
1. Abyssinian  Satin      

  2. American      

 

    4. Teddy    

 

  Quick  Tips      

 

1. Cavy  age  classes  typically  range  from  Under  Four  (4)  Months  to   Over  Six  (6)  Months  of  Age.   2. Cavies  are  judged  on  type,  fitness,  and  cleanliness.    

   
 

 

29  

Pygmy  Goat    
Common  Breeds     1. African    

  2. Nigerian  Dwarf  

 

  Quick  Tips    

 

             
 

1. Doe  (female  pygmy  goat)  ages  range  from  one  (1)  month  to   over  four  (4)  years  of  age.  Wether  (male  pygmy  goat)  ages   range  from  one  (1)  month  to  over  three  (3)  years  of  age.     2. During  the  show,  exhibitors  walk  their  goat  by  its  collar,   counterclockwise  around  the  ring.  Exhibitors  form  a  line  with   their  animals  if  the  judge  requests.    

30  

Poultry  
      Common  Breeds  
1. Rhode  Island  
 

3. Silkie  
 

    2. Feather  Legged   Bantams

 

  Quick  Tips    
     

 

 

 

 

           

 

 

1.            Typically  limited  to  ten  (10)  birds  per  exhibitor.     2.            When  showing  the  animal,  bring  the  bird  head  first  out  of   its  cage,  with  the  head  toward  the  exhibitor.  Exhibitor   should  open  wings  and  examine  various  parts  of  the  body   for  the  judge.  The  bird  should  also  be  walked  on  the  table   for  the  judge  to  examine  its  movement.       3.   Each  bird  must  be  leg  banded  with  regulation  bands      that   must  correspond  to  the  number  listed  on  the  entry  form.     4.   A  judge  may  excuse  a  bird  from  competition  if  it  appears  to   be  fatigued,  out  of  condition,  injured,  or  unhealthy.  

 
  31  

Works  Cited  
"4-­‐H  Market  Steer  Handbook:"  Suwannee  River  Youth  Fair.  N.p.,  n.d.  Web.  1  Jun     2010.  <http://suwanneeriveryouthfair.org/pdf_beef/b12.pdf>.     Media,  Integrated.  College  of  Agriculture.  26  May  2010.  Web.  25  May  2010.     <http://www2.ca.uky.edu/>.       "Misssissippi  State  University  Coordinated  Access  to  the  Research  and  Extension     System."  Mississippi  Extension  Service  and  Experiment  Station  -­  Mississippi   StateUniversity  (MAFES)  (MS)  (Cooperative).  28  May  2010.  Web.  30  May  2010.   <http://msucares.com/>.   "Premium  Book  -­‐  Exibitors  Guide."  13th  District  Agricultural  Association  Yuba-­Sutter     County  Fair.  Web.  15  May  2010.  <http://ysfair.com/premiumbook.html>.     "Rules  and  Regulation."  CJLA.  N.p.,  n.d.  Web.  1  Jun  2010.       <http://californiajuniorlivestock.org/files_cjla/CJLARulesBooklet_0.pdf   National  Swine  Registry.  Web.  14  May  2010.  <http://www.nationalswine.com/>.     Schoenian,  Susan.  "Sheep  201:  Lamb  Marketing."  Sheep  101  Home  Page.        11  Feb.     2010.  Web.  01  June  2010.  <http://www.sheep101.info/201/lambmarketing.html>.   "Sheep  101:  Raising  Sheep."  Sheep  101  Home  Page.  14  May  2009.  Web.  01  June  2010.     <http://www.sheep101.info/sheepproduction.html>.   "Sheep  By-­‐Products."  Home  Page.  Web.  01  June  2010.     <http://ag.ansc.purdue.edu/sheep/ansc442/Semprojs/byproduct/sheep.html>.   "Sheep."  Goats  and  More  Goats.  Web.  01  June  2010.     <http://www.goats4h.com/Sheep.html#costs>.   "Sheep  Judging  and  Evaluation."  Home  Page.  2002.  Web.  01  June  2010.     <http://ag.ansc.purdue.edu/sheep/ansc442/Semprojs/2002/judging/Page5.html>.   "Sheep  Show."  Sheridan  County.  N.p.,  n.d.  Web.  1  Jun  2010.             <http://www.sheridancounty.com/info/assets/UWCES/Sheep%20Show201   pdf>.  

 

32  

You're Reading a Free Preview

Descarregar
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->