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Contents

IMO decision

xix

Preface

xxi

Acronyms and Abbreviations used in the ECDIS Handbook

xxiii

Author's Biography

xxxi

Introduction IAMU model course on the operational use of ECDIS

Relevance to the work of IAMU • Methodology - including breakdown to smaller manageable tasks

ECDIS Training 2

Officers of the watch requirements • STCW'95 convention

1

Course outline 3

list of principal ECDIS subjects (Training Areas) • Course description • Course outline

• Entry standards • Course objectives • Course contents

1. Legal Aspects, Requirements and International Standards 11

Development of ECDIS • What is ECDIS? • legal aspects of using electronic navigational charts

1.1. Introduction. GIS and ECDIS 14

Introduction • Geographical Information Systems • GIS - A generic definition

• Overview of GIS system applications • Marine GIS • Coastal GIS • GIS in exploration

and production • Application of ENCs as GIS • GIS and ECDIS • Benefits of ECDIS

• Conclusions • ECDIS -INS -IBS • Integrated Navigation Systems • Integrated Bridge Systems • The application of SOlAS Chapter V/15 to INS, IBS

1.2. Carriage requirements 33

SOlAS background • ECDIS in SOlAS • Clear waters ahead for ECDIS • Hydrographic

data and charts • Consequences of new SOlAS V regulations • Proposed changes to

IMO Performance Standards on ECDIS • Conditions for possible introduction of ECDIS carriage requirements • Proposal for modification of SOLAS Chapter V, Regulation

19 • Proposal for modification of HSC Code, Chapter 13 • Possible authorisation of

use of ECDIS in RCDS mode without a requirement to carry an appropriate portfolio

of paper charts • Indication of acceptance of RNCs by individual coastal states

based on the survey to be conducted by IHO as requested by NAV 50 • Definition

of, and/or criteria for, the term "appropriate portfolio of paper charts" when

ECDIS is used in the RCDS mode and as ECDIS back up • Instruments required to monitor the promulgation of official digital charts and paper charts related to ECDIS operation, and provide this information to interested parties • Consider possible implications for IMO instruments and submit a report of its deliberations to NAV 51

• Mandatory ECDIS for high-speed craft • IHO online charts catalogue

1.3. Definitions of the main terms: ECDIS, ENe. SENC 44

The Importance of electronic charts • Electronic chart display and information

system (ECDIS) • Electronic navigational chart (ENC) • System electronic navigational

chart (SENC) • Standard display • Display base • All other information • Terminology

vi Contents

related to ECDIS • Electronic charts • What are electronic charts systems? • ECDIS • ECS

1.4. Equivalency of EC DIS and conventional paper chart 51

ENCs the only route to paperless navigation • ENC coverage • Requirements

• Navigate on ECDIS • National hydrographic offices (NHO) and the nautical chart

• Legal issues: ECDIS & the user • Conclusion

1.5. Performance standards for ECDIS IMO Resolution A.S17/19 56

ECDIS international standards description • Introduction • ECDIS performance standards

1.6. Data procurement according to IHO standards and requirements 60

IHO S-57 - Data transfer • IHO S-52 - Colours, Symbols, Display Aspects • IHO Committee on Hydrographic Requirements for Information Systems (CHRIS) • CHRIS

terms of reference • Rules of procedure

1.7. Technical standards and requirements (IEC, ISO) IEC 61174 • Scope • Conclusion

62

1.S. Training requirements 65

Training and assessment in operational use of ECDIS • GENERAL: The aim of the

course • Real-time training • Theory and demonstration • Simulator exercises

• Principal types of ECDIS systems and their display characteristics • Risks of overreliance on ECDIS • Detection of misrepresentation of information • Factors affecting

system performance and accuracy • PRACTICE: Setting up and maintaining display

• Operational use of electronic charts • Route planning • Route monitoring • Alarm handling • Manual correction of a ship's position and motion parameters • Records in

the ship's log. Chart updating • Operational use of ECDIS with radar/ARPA connected

• Operational use of ECDIS where AIS connected • Operational warnings, their benefits and limitations • System operational tests • Debriefing exercise • Training

and simulation

2. Principal Types of ECS and Electronic Charts 77

Cartographic design of the electronic chart • Introduction to electronic chart systems

and ECDIS • How do they work? • Electronic charts. Raster chart performance standards • ECS/ECDIS/RCDS

2.1. Characteristics of electronic chart systems and their different solutions SO

Electronic charts • Electronic chart system • Components of ECS and ECDIS

• Electronic chart systems. What are they and what do they do? • How should the mariner use the electronic charts? • Which type of electronic chart is the best for the navigators? • Electronic charts as an aid to navigation

2.2. Differences between ECDIS and ECS 84

Differences between ECDIS and ECS • Abstract • What is the navigator looking for?

• Terminology etc • ECS in use - Raster systems • ECS in use - Vector systems

2.3. Differences between vector and raster charts S9

What are electronic charts? • Vector chart system • Raster chart system • Official

vector data • Vector data formats other than IHO S-57 • Raster data • The necessity

for the "dual fuel" system • A BSB story • The two types of electronic charts -

Raster and Vector

2.4. Differences between ENC and RNC 10S

Electronic Navigational Charts (ENCs) • ENC production status • The Admiralty ENC Service. ENC distribution • Raster Navigational Charts (RNCs) • RNC distribution

• How to use the electronic charts? • What are the regulations? • The IMO

Contents vii

requirements when using a type-approved ECDIS • Which type of electronic chart is best for navigator? • So what does this mean in practical terms? • The future of primary navigation • ARCS and ENC • ENC and RNC availability in Australia

2.5. Admiralty Raster Chart Service (ARCS) 112

About admiralty charts • ARCS data • ARCS chart service levels • Electronic chart

system compatibility • Chart catalogue • A user's unique licence • Data updating

system • Proven benefits • ARCS and SOLAS convention • ARCS for GIS in action

• ARCS compatible display systems

2.6. Differences between RCDS and ECDIS 126

Raster Chart Display System (RCDS) • ECDIS versus RCDS • Dual fuelling and RCDS accepted by IMO

2.7. ENC versus privately manufactured data 133

Electronic Navigational Chart • ENC or privately manufactured data? • Services available to Hydrographic Offices from the Electronic Chart Centre • Key features

• ENC or privately manufactured data. One or the other or both? • Sources of data

• Electronic charts coverage • Quality of data • Assessment standard • ISO 19379- 2003 • Use of the standard. Contents of the standard. Present status and the future of privately manufactured data • Filling the gap? • Instead of ENC? • ENC and the private data manufacturer • Replacing paper charts • One or the other or both ... ? • The solution: public and private sectors join together • Collaborations proven successful

2.7.1 . C-Map vector charts in format CM-93 141

C-Map electronic charts obtain ISO certification • What is C-Map NT!

• Advantages with C -Map vector charts • CM-93 format • Reasons for compression of official electronic charts in S-57 to CM-93/3 • CM-93/3 is designed for automatic updating • CM-93/3 is projection-free • CM-93/3 supports all languages and alphabets • CM-93/3 is compatible with all hardware platforms and operating systems • CM-93/3 is not limited to S-57

• Global chart database • SENC distribution

2.7.2. Transas vector charts in format TX-97 147

'Interim charts' • Transas World Collection • Chart production • TX-97 customers • Updates and innovation • Transas Chart Catalogue • Transas

group

2.8. Characteristics of ECS/ECDIS systems for special purposes

153

2.8.1. Military ECDIS 153

ECDIS for naval applications • ECDIS-ECS: Real-time Marine GIS. ECDIS-N

• Warship ECDIS (WECDIS) • WECDIS and ECDIS-N • Additional military

layers • AML layer themes • Six AML products

2.8.2. The Digital Nautical Chart 160

Navigation Sensor System Interface (NAVSSI) • The Digital Nautical Chart

• What is the difference between DNC and ENC? • Rapid Digital Nautical Charting for military navigation • EC PINS DNC

2.8.3. Electronic charts for VTS purposes 168

VTS, AIS, ECDIS - A natural synergy • Three levels • Interrelationships

• ECDIS/vector chart based traffic image (new function) • Work of VTS,

Pilot's input and the need for cooperation • Conclusions

2.8.4. Ports and Waterways Safety System (PAWSS) System description

174

viii Contents

2.8.5. Inland ECDIS

Electronic Chart Display and Information System for inland navigation • Primary functions and performance of I-ECDIS • I-ECDIS related definitions

2.9. The failure of ECDIS versus the apparent success of ECS 183

RTCM ECS Standards • Electronic charts • ECDIS course • Confusion over charts

• Non-official charts • licensing • A chart distributor perspective • The failure of

ECDIS versus the apparent success of ECS • lack of co-operation between HOs

• lack of coverage in S-57 format • What of SOlAS and national obligations?

• Data from private data providers • Analogy with official paper charts • What about the ship-owners?

176

3. ECDIS Data

IMO requirement for ECDIS • ECDIS data • Associated IHO and IEC standards

3.1. Terms and definitions used in the context of ECDIS 194

Electronic chart data • SENC Delivery • ENCs the only route to paperless navigation

• Requirements • Navigate on ECDIS • S-57 Edition 3.1 format • SENC • ENC coverage increasing. Appendix 6

3.2. Data structure and data base 198

191

3.2.1. Data contents

Introduction • Specification for chart content and display of ECDIS (IHO S-52) • S-57 in detail • Theoretical data model • Data structure • Records

• ENC product specification • Chain-node topology • Cartographic objects

• Prohibited catalogue object and attribute classes

3.2.2. Catalogue of objects and attributes 200

ENC objects and their attributes • Spatial and meta object attributes

198

3.2.3. Data exchange standard S-57 204

Introduction • Background. Current limitations of S-57 Edition 3.1 • Goal, objectives and benefits • S-57 Edition 3.1 -, 4.0 (S-1 00) • Implications for

ENC Product Specification • Summary

3.2.4. Portraying spatial and attribute data

Spatial data • Attribute data • Portraying spatial and attribute data

207

3.3. ENC creation 208

ENC production • IHO S-57 Transfer Standard for Digital Hydrographic Data • Product Specification of S-57 • Updating ENC data set • Cartographic framework • Units

• legend • Object-Orientation and object data model. Methods and behaviours

• Display methods and active representation • Validation methods for data integrity

• Object versioning and long transactions • Topology and structure • ENC production flowline • ENC distribution

3.4. Reference systems 225

3.4.1. World geodetic system 1984 (WGS-84) 225

Background of geocentric coordinate systems • WGS-84 relationships with

other geodetic systems • Summary

3.4.2. Effects of using different reference 227

World geodetic system 1984 (WGS-84) • Why the need for a common reference system? • Geodetic datum transformation • European programme for the implementation of a common geodetic reference

frame • Relationship of WGS-84 to the ITRF and ETRF reference frames

Contents ix

• ETRS 89 • EUROCONTROL standard 'surveying of navigation facilities'

• Quality assurance

3.4.3. Effects of using different horizontal and vertical datum 228

Horizontal datum • Vertical datum • Horizontal datums on charts and

their electronic equivalents • What is a horizontal datum? • What is the

status of horizontal datums on australian charts? • System based datum conversions • Horizontal control of spatial data

3.5. Data quality 235

ENC data quality, accuracy, updatedness, completeness and liability • Accuracy requirements. Official ENC data • Unofficial ENC data • Electronic chart accuracy

• Source data deficiencies· Chart compilation inaccuracies s Addressing the accuracy problem. Quality assurance methods for utilising outside source hydrographic data

to update nautical charts • Conclusion

3.6. Handling of ECDIS data on board 241

Priority layers • Introduction. Gdynia Maritime University lab on ECDIS • Navi-Sailor

2400 of transas • Navi-Sailor 3000 of transas • Electronic charts of various formats

• Navi-Sailor 3000 - Information databases • Standard ECDIS functions • Optimised

user interface • Chart display modes • Information tools • Expert navigation capabilities • dKart Navigator of Morintech

3.7. Organisation of chart data distribution 251

3.7.1. The Worldwide Electronic Navigational Chart Database (WEND) 251

The present state and the future aspects of WEND • The WEND system

• Implementation of the WEND system • Ownership and responsibility

• Cooperation and coordination • Languages • Standards and quality management • Distribution • Updating • Reimbursement and financial arrangements • Assistance and training • Guidelines for the establishment of ENC production boundaries • WEND - World-wide Electronic Navigational Charts Data Base

3.7.2. Primar- World's first RENC 255

RENC (Regional ENC Co-ordinating Centre) • World's first RENC in stavanger (Norway) • Northern Europe RENC - A joint project (1995) • ENC - The basic products • The ENC production • The establishment of RENCs • The situation

in 2001 • The RENC organisation • The tasks of a RENC • Range of ENC services • Area of coverage • The Network system • Primar's contribution

to standardisation • Acceptance of ECDIS

3.7.3. International Centre of Electronic Navigational Charts (IC-ENC) 260

The Admiralty ENC service • ENC cell numbering • ENC unit numbering

• Types of CD in the Admiralty ENC Service • Conclusion

3.7.4. Cooperation between IC-ENC and Primar-5tavanger 263

Renewed cooperation between IC-ENC and Primar-Stavanger

14th October 2004 • Comprehensive guide IC-ENC and Primar on ENC

• What about the rest of the HOs? S-63

3.7.5. 5-57 data production by SevenCs 275

To be your own RENc/ ENC data server • Technical capabilities of SevenCs

ENC Server Suite

4. Presentation of ECDIS Data 277

Display characteristics • Display requirements and basic information to be displayed

• Use and restrictions of data • Calculations

X Contents

4.1. System's menu - Chart mode 282

Next generation of ECDIS • ECDIS Presentation Library. Navi-Sailor 2400 ECDIS

• Navi-Sailor 3000 ECDIS • User-adjustable interface

4.2. Presentation library (colours, marks, symbols and abbreviations) 289

Introduction • Status of the Presentation Library • S-57 and the Presentation

Model for ECDIS • Structure of the Presentation Model for ECDIS • Packaging of

the Presentation Library • The elements of the Presentation Library - An overview

• The colour coding scheme • The library of symbols, fill styles and line styles

• Symbology instructions • Conditional symbology procedures • The look-up tables

• Mariners' ECDIS Chart 1 diagrams • Catalogue of mariners' navigational object classes • Description of the colour coding system • The colours and symbols

• The vector symbol description language • Size and orientation of a vector-symbol

• Usage of a complex line style • General colour assignment for ECDIS features

• Background area shades • Presentation of navigation-related information

4.3. Major rules of data presentation 300

ECDIS data presentation • ENC visualisation • Main rules of display of SENC information • Real time data and ECDIS

4.4. Display categories of chart data 307

Electronic Chart Display and Information System (ECDIS) • Display categories of

chart data • Standard Display versus Display Base

4.5. Safety values 314

Four new chart features • Safety contour • Safety depth • Isolated dangers • Own-

ship safety contour • Contour intervals • Safety depth contour and raster chart

4.6. User's data

Additional user defined information • Navigational elements and parameters • User files • User chart creating procedure

4.7. Modification of presented chart 325

Introduction • Problem areas • Data versus information • Display options • Display

mode • ECDIS data display facilities • SCAMIN and soundings • Temporary versus permanent • 24-hour colour scheme • Some guiding principles • Final thoughts

• Display characteristics • Units, data layers and calculations

321

4.8. Automatic presentation rules 336

SCAM IN - The tool to control online generalisation • What is the definition of SCAMIN? • What are the effects of SCAMIN when compiling ENCs? • How are SCAMIN and usages related to each other? • What is the relation of SCAMIN and OVERSCALE? • Some rules how to apply SCAMIN • SCAMIN while zooming in

• SCAMIN while zooming out • A refined standard scale list • The relation of compilation scale and navigational purpose • Handling of large datasets for ECDIS

• Summary

4.9. Modes of presentation 351

Modes of presentation. True and relative motion • Display orientation • Look ahead

• North-up orientation. North-up, Head-up, Course-up presentation • Display mode

and generation of the neighbouring area • Projection

4.10. Errors in displayed data 356

Visualisation • Digital chart accuracy • Source data deficiencies • ENC chart creation • Chart compilation inaccuracies • ECS software • Data inconsistencies

across usage bands • Inconsistent depiction and misalignment of data at cell boundaries • Inconsistent depiction of data within a cell • Holes in data coverage

Contents xi

• Data gaps and overlaps • Accuracy of chartworks • Absolute accuracy with GPS and DGPS • Chart accuracy • NOAA electronic charts • Summary

4.11. 3D visualisation 368

Presentation of digital hydrographic data • Discussion on digital hydrographic data

• Introduction to 3D stereoscopic display techniques. The current situation • The

vision • The future rollout • Adding oceanographic marine information objects to

the ECDIS

5. Main Functions of ECDIS

Main benefits of ECDIS • Functional capability versus functional status • ECDIS main functions • Calculations • Usefulness of ECDIS to reduce navigational workload

5.1. Automatic functions

Navigational functions of the electronic charts • Generally, the functions of electronic charts relate to • The main advantage of ECDIS • Basic functions of NS 2400

• Additional functions

5.2. Manual functions 400

Manual functions • Controls • VRM/EBl • Fixed-point bearing and ERBl • ENC Scale

• The MOB button • The FIX button • Selecting the Positioning System

379

393

5.3. Own chart entries (Mariner's notes) 409

User charts • Mariners' objects • Making manual updates • Creating user charts

• Editing user charts • The purpose of user objects

5.4. Presentation of navigational marks 412

The use of visual aids to navigation • ENC Data Model • light sectors • lights on

fixed and floating aids to navigation

5.5. Additional information

Additional information • Manufacturer's information on the route monitoring display • Non-HO (non-EN C) chart information • limit on ENC coverage: non-HO data on

the display- ECDIS Chart 1 • Additional Information Display • Obtaining information

from an Electronic Chart

5.6. Vector types 423

Vector types • Chart orientation • Speed and log • Radar/ARPA vectors • Vectors information

419

6. Special Functions for Route Planning 429

The passage plan • Constructing a voyage track • Following a voyage plan • Route planning and route monitoring in ECDIS • The role of leglines and waypoints in route planning

6.1. International requirements for route planning 435

Route planning • Production of official ENC data • International collaboration - SHARED programme. International ECDIS Conference and Exhibition (IECE) • ECDIS

route planning argument • Understanding the process of navigation

6.2. Sea area selection 439

Sea area selection • Route planning • Ocean passage • Route planning in SOlAS

• Navi-Sailor information area • Scale of the chart • No-go area

5.3. Route planning information 445

Equipment inventory • Route planning information (where and how the mariner

can find it) • Obtaining information on ports • Obtaining information on tides

• Obtaining climatic data • Obtaining information on currents

xi i Contents

6.4. Route planning calculations 453

Route planning • Display Route Mode • Tabular form of route planning • Graphical

route planning • Route planning procedure • Passage plan • Great Circle Line calculation

6.5. Calculating the voyage schedule 460

Schedule generation and editing • Creating a schedule of the vessel's motion along

the route • Voyage calculation in ship-owner office • Route calculations • Current

route • Current Way point • ETA calculation in dKart Navigator

6.6. Construction of a route 466

Route generation • Route generation procedures • Graphic method • Construction

of a route • Waypoints and routes • Route planning mode. Planned route • New

route • Supplementary instructions & notes to the routes • Training. How ECDIS handles the datal

6.7. Curved track planning 475

Curved track planning • Course alterations & wheel-over • Curved track. Route elements • Radius of gyration • Current Way Point

6.8. Planning notes 479

Planning notes • Routes • Additional information • Berth-to-berth route planning

• Displaying Way Points' coordinates during editing • The benefits and considerations

for the master • Anticipated problems

6.9. Safety values according to size and manoeuvring parameters of the vessel 483

Safety value • Obtaining data for steering to the next route segment

6.10. Planned route checking for navigational safety 487

Planned route checking facility • Creating a route plan with a check for the presence

of dangers to navigation

6.11. Alternative routes 490

Contingencies • Alternative routes • Several potential routes through the each sea area

6.12. Optimisation of route planning 498

Route optimisation • Weather routeing • Weather Routing, Inc. • Integration with SPOS (weather and route planning tool) • Maritime Intelligent Systems WINGS-FOR-SHIPS

6.13. Modification of a pre-planned route 504

Modification of the plan • Editing a previously created route in Navi-Sailor

6.14. Ultimate route selection 508

Voyage Planning • Approval of VPs • Voyage execution • Back-up arrangements

6.15. Printout of final route plan 510

Printout of route plan • Tabular form of route planning • Presentation and sharing

of VPs

7. Route Monitoring and Special Functions 515

Monitoring the ship's progress • Route monitoring • Permissible range for deviation

from route

7.1. Monitored area selection

Route monitoring requirements • Route monitoring functions • Monitored area selection • Route monitoring functions

7.2. Required route

Voyage Monitoring mode

519

523

Contents XIII

7.3. Vector-time selection and setting 531

Bearing and planned speed for each leg • Time management • Setting the parameters for monitoring safety at sea in NS • Settings for the NS operation in the navigation mode

7.4. Check measurements and calculations 534

Sailing along the route • Route check and route correction • Loading of and working with a route and Voyage Schedule in the Voyage Monitoring Mode • Trial manoeuvre - obtaining data for steering to the next route segment

7.5. Look-ahead function 539

Look-ahead function • ECDIS Look-ahead • Ship's real-time position • True motion

and own ship offset from the centre of the screen • Compilation scale • The effective

size of the screen

7.6. Navigation in open (deep sea), coastal and confined waters 544

Real-time ship and environmental data • Scalable ship symbol. Precision navigation

• Ship's domain • Obtaining additional information during the Navi-Sailor 2400 operation in the voyage monitoring mode

7.7. Alarms and indications 553

Alarm settings for route check • Track control indications and alarms • Alarm requirements • Setting the alarms in Voyage Monitoring Mode in NS 2400 • Auxiliary

NS facilities used in the Voyage Monitoring Mode • Alarm settings in sailing along

the route • Alarms in NS

7.8. Current and wind effects

559

Manoeuvring and handling a ship • Planned route and past track • External sources - current and wind effects • NS purpose and capabilities • VOSS (Voyage Optimisation and Safety System) • Obtaining information on weather parameters • Wind interface

7.9. Practice with new techniques of presentation - windows statement 565

Windows boxes • Scroll windows • Dialogue windows • Functional window features

• Manipulative window features • Help box • Active and inactive windows • Advisory windows • Check window

8. Data Updating System 573

Background - Copenhagen Declaration • Specific requirements of nautical chart production • New challenges of nautical chart producers • Main benefit • ENC correction systems • New ENC supply and distribution system • Recommendations

on ENC data encoding for Improved ENC consistency • Commercial systems

• Terminology • Updating entities

8.1. Production and distribution of official digital updates 581

ENC production and distribution • NIMA DNC corrections - Digital Nautical Chart

Vector Database Updates • Updating the NOAA charts • NOAA corrections for

raster charts

8.1.1. The WEND/RENe concept of updating data distribution 586

ENC production status • WEND principles • RENC models • Regional ENC Coordinating Centre (RENC) • NHS RENC: Primar-Stavanger • PrimarStavanger distributors

8.1.2. The Ie-ENe concept of updating ENe data 590

International Centre for ENCs (IC-ENC) • The admiralty ENC service

• Non Profit Politics of IC-ENC • Quality assurance • ENC distribution • Unit

xiv Contents

concept • IC -ENC - From concept to reality • ENCs - The challenges ahead • IC-ENC - Meeting the challenges

8.1.3. Virtual RENC (VRENC) 595

Virtual RENC service • Services available to hydrographic offices from the Electronic Chart Centre (ECC)

8.1.4. Other solutions of ENC data distribution 598

Go-It-Alone • Future of the RENC concept • Optional SENC distribution of

official ENCs • Production of "small-scale" ENCs • Looking to the future

8.1.5. Digital notices to mariners - New digital products of HO 599

No updates - No ENC • Tentative conclusions • Why a new notices to mariners system is required? • dKart system of notices to mariners

8.2. Manual, semi-automatic and automatic updating 605

Updating paper charts • Updating official electronic charts • Updating categories

• IHO data protection scheme • Data protection • Encryption of ENC information

• Definition of user permit • How does the mariner check that all updates have been applied to the official ENe? • ENC service • How are official ENCs named? • Updating ENCs

8.3. Performing updates on board 612

Performing updates on board • Avoiding the update chore, electronically • Modus operandi • Co-operative. Work with S-57 format electronic charts in NS • Accepting

and displaying chart updating • Making manual updates • Infrastructure for ENC updating • A generic solution • Costs and communication technology • Update infrastructure • Preparation and transfer of chart updates via e-mail • Reception of

update information. C-Map real time updating service

8.4. Chart manager software 629

ENC chart manager • Data management and updating • Primar-Stavanger Chart Manager utility • How to use the official chart corrections in NS 30007 • Installation

of chart corrections • Installation of new charts • Transas chart updating - chart assistant

8.5. Updating and safe navigation 635

Updating and safe navigation

8.6. The UKHO updating system for ARCS Navigator and Skipper 639

Admiralty Raster Charts Service (ARCS) • ARCS level of service: Navigator • ARCS

level of service: Skipper • ARCS skipper chart updating • Latest chart updates applied

in seconds

9. Additional Navigation-Related Information Sensors, Display and Function Introduction • Composite radar with radar, AIS and ENC data correlation

9.1. Navigational sensors with potential for connection to ECDIS 650

Connections with other equipment • Navigational sensors • Display of other navigational information • Future trend • ECS/ECDIS possibilities

645

9.2. Performance limits concerning availability, accuracy and integrity 659

Behind the accuracy of electronic charts • The navigator's problem: A critical need for modern chart surveys • Other ECDIS limitations

9.3. Fall-back sensor systems 664

Connections with other equipment • Fall-back arrangements • Input and output

data and back up and fall-back arrangements • Back-up and fall-back arrangements

alarms and indications

Contents XV

9.4. Data reference system of each connected sensor 668

Geodetic datums • Geodetic reference systems • Map and chart accuracies

• WGS-84 - Common reference system for ECDIS and radar • Navigation with GPS

• Navigation in this new way • Chart datum • Datum transformation • The shape of our earth • Understanding chart accuracy counts • Specified chart accuracy • Positioning of survey data • Digital data

9.5. Selection of appropriate and unambiguous sensor data 675

Selection of appropriate and unambiguous sensor data (position, course, speed, etc.)

• Sensor's selection

9.6. Radar image superimposition 676

Introduction • Radar Image Overlay (RIO) • Radar as position back-up by ENC object correlation • Radar overlay in Navi-Sailor 3000 ECDIS - Advantages of Radar Integrator

• Accuracy limitation • Conclusions • Radar with chart display

9.7. ARPA information

ARPA information in ECDIS • Functional specifications of ECDIS • Correcting the vessel position using ARPA information • Trial manoeuvre for avoiding collision with other vessels

688

9.8. Automatic track-keeping 695

Track • Automatic track keeping • Autopilot • Channel EC DIS, AIS & Course Trajectory (CEACT) - Software features • Track control • Automatic Navigation & Track Keeping

System (ANTS) • Vessel advance predictor • Hydrodynamic predictor • Track storing

9.9. Information from radar transponders 700

Definitions of terms related to radar transponders • Vessel detection • Vessel identification • Vessel tracking. Tracking functions • Functions based on wireless

data communication (EDI) ship/shore. ECDIS - vector chart based on traffic image

(new function of VTS) • Operation with Racons and SARTs • A few words of history

9.10. Universal shipborne automatic identification system AIS 703

AIS transponder • AIS data for collision avoidance • Integration of AIS and ECDIS -

more information, better view, improved safety· Collision avoidance and surveillance

• Improved target identification • How AIS transponder works? • The equipment

• Shore usage • Graphical presentation of targets • Route planning and manoeuvring depending on the navigational situation. Local information services. Monitoring of the ship traffic in ports, channels and restricted waters • Enhanced communication facilities • Connection to any electronic chart or radar • Conclusion • Presentation of target information

9.11. Selection of additional information

Display of additional information on ECDIS • Temporary versus permanent

729

9.11.1. Weather information in fCDIS

Integrated weather information • Additional ECDIS functions • Integrated Navtex information • UAIS interface • User-adjustable interface • Navtex Manager • Navtex receivers

729

9.11.2. Adding oceanographic Marine Information Objects to the fCDIS 734

Marine Information Objects in ECDIS • Introduction • Oceanographic data

for navigation • Oceanographic hierarchy • Incorporation of oceanographic

data into EC DIS • Conclusion

9.11.3. GPSIGNSS and electronic navigation 744

xvi Contents

9.12. Reliability and plausibility of sensor Input values 746

Reliability and plausibility of sensor input • ECDIS as a decision support system

• Final thoughts

9.13. AML and the Recognised Environmental Picture (REP) 750

Additional Military Layers (AML) • Definition of AML • Concept of Recognised Environmental Picture (REP) • Maritime Foundation Data (MFD)

10. Voyage Data Recording (Documentation)

Voyage Data Recorder • Voyage recording in ECDIS • ECDIS outputs

10.1. Automatic voyage recording 760

Methods of recording • Conception of control, monitoring and recording system of

the ship's movement. Voyage data recording • Data Recording System (DSR)

757

10.2. Imposition of time intervals 764

IMO requirements on voyage recording in ECDIS • Author's concept of ADMAR unit

• Measurement of distance to the nearest navigational danger

10.3. Reconstruction of past track 773

Automatic recording of navigational situation • Log book records on-chart playback

• Playback function • Viewing archive data • Logging functions • Purpose • Printing

out information • Playback of the own ship track in play back utility • Display of the

own ship track in the NS • Electronic ship logbook formation principles

10.4. Electronic log book 780

Electronic logbook • Electronic ship's log in Navi-Sailor 2400 • Function: Logbook

• Table of events and event parameters in NS 3000 • Electronic ship logbook formation principles • ECDIS Electronic Log Book as a Vessel Management System

• Voyage data recording and playback in Navmaster ECDIS of PC Maritime

105 Composition of voyage reports 787

Records of navigation activities and daily reporting • Voyage report in OceanView of

C -Map • Display Pilot Mode in Navi-Sailor of Transas Marine • Data recorders • End

of Voyage Report (EOV)

10.6. Voyage data recorder VDR 791

Black boxes for ships • VDR carriage requirements • International VDR standardisation process • VDR features • Flexible I/O subsystem integrates a multitude of data types

• Advanced audio compression • Hardened fixed data capsule • Office Playback

• Remote data recovery via satellite • Ownership of the data • The computerised voyage reporter • IMO Resolution A.861 (20) • Conclusion

11. Errors, Status Indications, Warnings and Alarms 'Exxon Valdez' lesson • Monitoring technology

11.1. Definition and meaning of status indications, indicators and alarms relating to ECDIS 813

Definitions • Route planning in ECDIS • Route monitoring in ECDIS

807

11.2. Alarms and indicators list (IMO Res. A.817(19), App.5) Indication/Alarm • Alarms and indicators in IMO Res. A.817(19)

11.3. Nautical indications/alarms and sensor alarms

Alarms, indications and warnings • Acknowledgement of alarms • Presentation of alarms • Bridge Alarm Management System and Bridge Navigational Watch Alarm (proposal) • Sensor alarms • Alarms group in NS 3000 • Alarms window

11.4. Data and chart alarms/alarms settings 825

Improving safety at sea • Alarm settings in NS 2400 • Setting the alarms in voyage monitoring mode • Setting the alarms in work with ARPA • Alarm settings in

816

821

Contents xvii

sailing along the route • Function alarm • Recording of alarm activation and acknowledgement

11.5. Proper action checklists to avoid alarm situation 829

'Exxon Valdez' catastrophe • The cost benefits of electronic charts • What electronic

charts can do? • Faster vessel speeds • Some issues to note • Proper action checklists

to avoid alarm situation. Watch relief procedures • Passage planning criteria and checklist

11.6. Proper action checklists in alarm situation 836

Introduction • Potential errors in marine navigation • Distributed information _ An unsatisfactory approach? • Alarm handling • Alarm reaction • Example of bridge procedures _ Norwegian Cruise Line

11.7. Errors of interpretation 841

Errors of interpretation (false interpretation of data) • Screen size. Great potential

• Use of SCAMIN • Use of attribute CATZOC on meta object M_QUAL • Data gaps

and overlaps • Coordinate Multiplication Factor (COMF) • Possible ways ahead

• Recommendations • Conclusions

12. Operational Requirements 855

ECDIS - Procedural and organisational considerations • What should you consider

before procuring a digital chart system? • Firm quality control guarantees the safety

of navigation

12.1. System integrity monitoring and maintenance of equipment 860

The digital chart • System integrity monitoring and maintenance of equipment

• IEC 61174 _ ENC test data set _ General requirements • Data sub-set A - ENC

• Data sub-set B _ Automatic updating • Data sub-set C _ Manual updating

12.2. Back-up arrangements 871

Back-up requirements • Options for back-up arrangements • Back-up system options

• Appropriate portfolio of up-to-date paper chart as ECDIS back-up

12.3. Risk of overreliance on ECDIS 876

12.3.1. Risk of overreliance 876

Hydrographic data and charts • Risk Assessment method for ECDIS • Risks

and legislation • Risk assessment definitions. Areas of risk • Assessment

process • Practicalities • Benefits of risk assessment

12.3.2. Integrated marine GIS approach in Navigational Charting 884

Introduction • The roles and objective of Hydrographic Service • Customer aspirations and needs • Provision of charts • Coastal mapping • Coastal

charts database. Integration of coastal database with GIS • Conclusion

12.3.3. Private sector producers of electronic charts and equiomera: potential

exposure to liability 886

Introduction • An overview of the products and the risks faced by producers

• Potential claims against producers of electronic chart systems • Possible claimants. Shielding the producer from liability. Affirmative defences

when faced with a claim • Shifting the blame • Conclusions

Conclusions

Why are electronic charts important? • Looking to the future • Operational use of ECDIS, IAMU model course 3.02 • Where we are • What went wrong? • IHO response • What needs to be done by the IHO? • IHO CHRIS activities • Amendments to the ECDIS performance standards (2006) • Carriage requirements for ECDIS

895

xviii Contents
Appendix 1. Resolution A.817(19) Performance Standards for Electronic
Chart Display and Information Systems (ECDIS) 907
Appendix 2. ECDIS Model Course 921
Appendix 3. Reference Documents Concerning ECDIS, RCDS & ECS 925
Appendix 4. Global ENC Coverage 927
Annex A. Criteria IC-ENC for Appointing Value Added Resellers VARS 962
Annex B. IHO worldwide on-line chart catalogue 963
Appendix 5. ECDIS Related Web Sites (Internet Addresses) 968
Appendix 6. Glossary of ECDIS-Related Terms 971
Appendix 7. Main Questions on ECDIS 1000
Appendix 8. The Use of Risk Assessment Methodology When Operating ECDIS
in the Raster Chart Display System (RCDS) Mode 1013
Appendix 9. Revised Performance Standards for Electronic Chart Display
and Information Systems (ECDIS) MSC.232(82) 1026
Appendix 10. Admiralty Vector Chart Service (AVCS) 1042
Bibliography 1053
Subject index 1095
CD-ROM With PowerPoint Presentation - The IAMU Model Course
on Operational Use of ECDIS (inside back cover)