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MHF4U ISU Part 1 – COMBINING POLYNOMIALS AND RATIONAL FUNCTIONS

Polynomial Function:

Domain: {x∈ℝ} or {-∞, ∞}

Range: {y∈ℝ} or {-∞, ∞}

Intercept:

X-intercept: -2, -1, 1

Y-intercept: -2

Asymptotes:

Intervals

Positive/negative:

Interval (-∞,-2) (-2,-1) (-1, 0) (0, 1) (1, ∞)


Sign of f(x) - + - - +
Increasing: x≤-1.5, x≥0.32

Decreasing: -1.5≤x≤0.32

End points:

x →-∞, y→-∞

x →∞, y→∞

Rational function:

Domain: {x∈ℝ}, x≠-1 or x≠1

Range: {y∈ℝ}, y≠0

Intercept:

X-intercept:

Y-intercept: -1

Asymptotes:

Vertical asymptote: x= -1 and x= 1

Horizontal asymptote: y= 0

Intervals

Positive/negative:

Interval of x x<-1 -1<x<1 x>1


Sign of f(x) + - +

Increasing: x<-1, x>1

Decreasing: -1<x<0, 0<x<1

End points:

As x→-1-, function increasing toward +∞

As x→-1+, function decreasing toward -∞

As x→1-, function decreasing toward -∞

As x→1+, function increasing toward +∞

Combined function:

Adding the two function

Domain: {x∈ℝ}, x≠-1 or x≠1

Range: {y∈ℝ}

Intercept:

X-intercept: -2.1

Y-intercept: -3

Asymptotes:

Vertical asymptote: x= -1 and x= 1

Horizontal asymptote:

Intervals

Positive/negative:

Interval of x (-∞, -2) (-2, ∞) -1<x<1 x>1

Sign of f(x) - + - +

Increasing: -∞<x<-1, -0.5<x<0, x<1.2

Decreasing: x<-0.5, 0<x<1, 1.2<x<-∞

End points:

x →-∞, y→-∞

As x→-1-, function increasing toward +∞

As x→-1+, function decreasing toward -∞

As x→1-, function decreasing toward -∞


As x→1+, function increasing toward +∞

Subtracting the two function

Domain: {x∈ℝ}, x≠-1 or x≠1

Range: {y∈ℝ}

Intercept:

X-intercept: -1.8, -1.6, -0.4, 0.6, 1.3

Y-intercept: -1

Asymptotes:

Vertical asymptote: x= -1 and x= 1

Horizontal asymptote:

Intervals

Positive/negative:

Interval of x (-∞, -1.8) -1.8<x<-1.6 -1.6<x<-1 -1<x<-0.4

Sign of f(x) - + - +

Interval of x -0.4<x<0.6 0.6<x<1 1<x<1.3 (1.3, ∞)

Sign of f(x) - + - +

Increasing: -∞<x<-1.7, -1<x<0.15, 0.15<x<1

Decreasing: -1.7<x<-1, 1<x<∞

End points:

x →-∞, y→-∞

As x→-1-, function decreasing toward -∞

As x→-1+, function increasing toward +∞

As x→1-, function increasing toward +∞

As x→1+, function decreasing toward -∞

Comparison
Polynomial Rational function: Combined function (Adding): Combined function (Subtracting):
function:

Domain: Domain: {x∈ℝ}, Domain: {x∈ℝ}, x≠-1 or x≠1 Domain: {x∈ℝ}, x≠-1 or x≠1
{x∈ℝ} or {-∞, x≠-1 or x≠1
∞}

Range: {y∈ℝ} Range: {y∈ℝ}, Range: {y∈ℝ} Range: {y∈ℝ}


or {-∞, ∞} y≠0

X-intercept: -2, X-intercept: X-intercept: -2.1 X-intercept: -1.8, -1.6, -0.4, 0.6, 1.3
-1, 1
Y-intercept: -1 Y-intercept: -3 Y-intercept: -1
Y-intercept: -2

Asymptotes: Vertical Vertical asymptote: x= -1 and Vertical asymptote: x= -1 and x= 1


asymptote: x= -1 x= 1
and x= 1 Horizontal asymptote:
Horizontal asymptote:
Horizontal
asymptote: y= 0

Positive: (-2,-1) Positive: x<-1and Positive: (-2, ∞) x>1 Positive: -1.8<x<-1.6, -1<x<-0.4,
and (1, ∞) x>1 0.6<x<1 and (1.3, ∞)
Negative: (-∞, -2) -1<x<1
Negative: (-∞,- Negative: Negative: (-∞, -1.8) , -1.6<x<-1,
2), (-1, 0) and -0.4<x<0.6 and 1<x<1.3
(0, 1)

Increasing: x≤- Increasing: x<-1, Increasing: -∞<x<-1, Increasing: -∞<x<-1.7, -1<x<0.15,


1.5, x≥0.32 x>1 -0.5<x<0, x<1.2 0.15<x<1

Decreasing: Decreasing: Decreasing: x<-0.5, 0<x<1, Decreasing: -1.7<x<-1, 1<x<∞


-1.5≤x≤0.32 -1<x<0, 0<x<1 1.2<x<-∞

End points: End points: End points: End points:

x →-∞, y→-∞ As x→-1-, x →-∞, y→-∞ x →-∞, y→-∞


function
x →∞, y→∞ increasing toward As x→-1-, function increasing As x→-1-, function decreasing toward
+∞ toward +∞ -∞

As x→-1+, As x→-1+, function decreasing As x→-1+, function increasing toward


function toward -∞ +∞
decreasing toward
-∞ As x→1-, function decreasing As x→1-, function increasing toward
toward -∞ +∞
As x→1-, function
decreasing toward As x→1+, function increasing As x→1+, function decreasing toward
-∞ toward +∞ -∞

As x→1+,
function
increasing toward
+∞
Works Cited

Erdman, Wayne, et al. Advanced Functions 12. Whitby: McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2008. Print.