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University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate

in collaboration
with Ministry of Education

GCE Ordinary Level Biology


5094 and 5100 Syllabuses
Overview of the Syllabus

What’s new and what’s the same.


Structure of the Examination and
Scheme of Assessment
Candidates take all 3 papers

Paper Type of Paper Time Marks Weighting

1 Multiple Choice 1 hour 40 30% (25)

2 Structured and free- 1 h 45 min 80 50% (50)


response questions

3 School-based 96 20% (25)


Practical Assessment
(5094) or 1 h 30 min 40
Practical test (5100)

Figures in red refer to the current 5093 syllabus


Assessment objectives

z Assessment Objective A Knowledge with Understanding


(45%)
Assessment Objective B Handling Information and Solving
problems (55%)
There is no change to the weightings allocated to these.

z The end of each syllabus section has the following


sentence;
‘Use the knowledge gained in this section in new
situations or to solve related problems’
This emphasises the importance of Assessment objective
B in the teaching and learning process.
Structure of the Papers
z Paper 1 40 compulsory multiple choice items of the
direct choice type.

z Paper 2 Section A will carry 50 marks and consist of a


variable number of compulsory structured questions.
Section B will carry 30 marks and consist of 3 free
response questions. The first two questions are
compulsory questions, one of which will be a data-
based question carrying 8 - 12 marks. The last
question will be presented in an either/or form and will
carry 10 marks.

z Practical component SPA in 5094, Practical paper in


5100
Changes to the syllabus content

1 Cell structure and Organisation

New material Material removed from syllabus


Identify the following membrane Examine under the microscope an
systems and organelles from animal and a plant cell.
diagrams and electronmicrographs: Draw diagrams to represent
Endoplasmic reticulum, observations of plant and animal
mitochondria,.Golgi body and cells.
ribosomes.
2 Movement of Substances

Assess the importance of


water potential gradient in
the uptake of water by
plants.
3 Biological Molecules

State the roles of water in living Define enzymes as proteins


organisms. which function as biological
Explain the mode of action of catalysts.
enzymes in terms of an active
site, enzyme-substrate
complex, lowering of activation
energy and enzyme specificity.
List the chemical elements of
carbohydrates, fats and
proteins.
Describe and carry out tests for
starch, reducing sugars, protein
and fats.
State that large molecules are
synthesised from smaller basic
units - glycogen from glucose,
polypeptides and proteins from
amino acids, lipids from fatty
acids and glycerol (From
Animal Nutrition).
4 Animal Nutrition

Balanced diet.
Sources and importance of
carbohydrates, fats, proteins,
vitamins, mineral salts, fibre
and water.
Relationship of diet to age,
sex and activity.
Effects of malnutrition in
relation to constipation,
obesity, starvation and heart
disease.
Why food must be digested.
State the role of fats as a
storage substance.
5 Plant nutrition

Discuss light intensity, Understand that


carbon dioxide photosynthesis is the
concentration and fundamental proces by which
temperature as limiting plants manufacture
carbohydrates from raw
factors on the rate of
materials.
photosynthesis.
Explain why most forms of life
are completely dependent on
photosynthesis.
Understand the effect of a lack
of nitrate and magnesium ions
on plant.
6 Transport in flowering plants

Explain the movement of Investigate, using a


water between plant cells, suitable stain, the pathway
and between them and the of water in a cut stem.
environment in terms of
water potential. (Calculations Explain the movement of
on water potential are not water through the stem in
required) terms of transpiration pull.
Define the term translocation Describe how water
as the transport of food in vapour loss is related to
the phloem tissue and cell surfaces, air spaces
illustrate the process through and stomata.
translocation studies.
7 Transport in humans
List the ABO blood Describe the circulatory system as a
groups and all possible system of tubes with a pump and
combinations for the valves to ensure the one-way flow of
donor and recipient in blood.
blood transfusions. Describe the low pressure circulation
Outline the cardiac to the lungs and high pressure
cycle in terms of what circulation to the body tissues.
happens during systole Identify red and white blood cells
and diastole. under a microscope, in diagrams and
photomicrographs.
List the components of blood as red
blood cells, white blood cells,
platelets and plasma.
8 Respiration

Describe the removal of Define respiration as the


carbon dioxide from the release of energy from food
lungs, including the role of substances in all living cells.
the carbonic anhydrase Name and state the uses of
enzyme. (From excretion) energy in the body.
Describe the effect of Investigate and state the
tobacco smoke and its differences between
major toxic components, inspired and expired air.
nicotine, tar and carbon Investigate and state the
monoxide on health. effect of physical activity on
(From The use and abuse rate and depth of breathing.
of drugs)
9 Excretion

Outline the function of the Identify on diagrams and


kidney tubules with name: kidneys, ureters,
reference to ultra-filtration bladder, urethra and state
and selective reabsorption the function of each.
in the production of urine.
Outline the role of anti-
diuretic hormone (ADH) in
the regulation of osmotic
concentration.
10 Homeostasis

Explain the basic


principles of homeostasis
in terms of a stimulus
resulting from a change in
the internal environment, a
corrective mechanism and
a negative feedback.
11 Co-ordination and response

State the relationship


between receptors, the
central nervous system and
the effectors.
Explain what is meant by an
endocrine gland, with
reference to the Islets of
Langerhans in the pancreas.
Explain how the blood
glucose concentration is
regulated by insulin and
glucagon as a homeostatic
mechanism.
The use and abuse of drugs

All sections removed


12 Reproduction
Describe one commercially important,
application of asexual reproduction in
plants.
Describe the external features of wind and
animal dispersed seeds.
Investigate and describe the structure of a
non-endospermic seed.
Investigate and state the environmental
conditions affecting germination.
State that seed and fruit dispersal by wind
and by animals provides a means of
colonising new areas.
Reproduction (cont.)

Describe the uses of enzymes in


seed germination.
Compare male and female
gametes.
Describe methods of birth control.
Describe the cause, transmission,
signs, symptoms and treatment of
syphilis.
13 Cell Division

State the importance of mitosis.


Identify the main stages of mitosis.
Explain the need for the production of
genetically identical cells.
Explain what is meant by homologous pairs of
chromosomes.
Identify the main stages of meiosis.(names of
sub-divisions of prophase are not required)
Define the terms, haploid and diploid and
explain the need for a reduction division prior
to fertllisation.
State how meiosis and fertilisation can lead to
variation.
14 Molecular Genetics
Outline the relationship between DNA, State that genes are
genes and chromosomes.
carried on chromosomes.
State the structure of DNA in terms of
the bases, sugar and phosphate groups
in each of their nucleotides.
State the rule of complementary base
pairing.
State the DNA is used to carry the
genetic code, which is used to
synthesise specific polypeptides.
State that each gene is a sequence of
nucleotides, as part of a DNA molecule.
Molecular Genetics (cont.)

Outline the process of large-scale


production of insulin using fermenters.
Explain that genes can be transferred
between cells. (Reference should be
made to transfer between organisms of
the same or different species - transgenic
plants or animals).
Briefly explain how the gene controlling
the production of human insulin can be
inserted into bacterial DNA to produce
human insulin.
Discuss the social and ethical
implications of genetic engineering, with
reference to a named example. (From
Inheritance)
15 Inheritance

Explain the terms dominant,


recessive, co-dominant,
homozygous, heterozygous,
phenotype and genotype.
Use genetic diagrams to solve
problems involving monohybrid
inheritance. (Autosomal linkage
and epistasis are not required)
Give examples of environmental
factors that act as forces of natural
selection.
Microorganisms and Biotechnology

All sections removed


16 Organisms and their Environment

Outline the roles of microbes State that the sun is the


in sewage disposal as an principal source of energy
example of environmental input to biological systems.
biotechnology. Describe the transmission
and control of the malarial
pathogen.
Describe the effects of man
on the ecosystem.
Describe the effects of air
pollution by SO2 and oxides
of nitrogen.
Discuss reasons for
recycling.