STATEMENT OF CONSTITUTIONAL AND LEGAL AUTHORITY
Article I of the U.S. Constitution grants Congress the power to appropriate funds from the Treasury, pay the
obligations of and raise revenue for the federal government, and publish statements and accounts of all financial
transactions.

By law, Congress is also obligated to write a budget representing its plan to carry out these transactions in the
forthcoming fiscal years. While the President is required to propose his administration’s budget requests for
Congress’s consideration, Congress alone is responsible for writing the laws that raise revenues, appropriate
funds, and prioritize taxpayer dollars within an overall federal budget.

The budget resolution is the only legislative vehicle that views government comprehensively. It provides the
framework for the consideration of other legislation. Ultimately, a budget is much more than a series of
numbers. It also serves as an expression of Congress’s principles, vision and philosophy of governing.

This Budget Resolution for Fiscal Year 2012 intends to recommit the nation fully to the timeless principles of
American government enshrined in the U.S. Constitution – liberty, limited government, and equality under the
rule of law. It seeks to guide policies by those principles, freeing the nation from the crushing burden of debt that
is now threatening its future.

This budget is submitted, as prescribed by law, to apply these principles, reflect this vision, and provide a
framework for the orderly execution of Congress’s constitutional duties for Fiscal Year 2012 and beyond.

House Budget Committee | April 5, 2011








3

Puts the budget on the path to balance and pays off the debt. and lifts the crushing burden of debt. Eliminates roughly $800 billion in tax increases imposed by the President’s health care law. applying the nation’s timeless principles to this generation’s greatest challenge. Calls for a simpler. reflects the ban on earmarks. TAXES Keeps taxes low so the economy can grow. stops spending money the government doesn’t have.1 trillion in higher wages and an average $1. Improves incentives for growth.This budget helps spur job creation today. SPENDING CUTS AND CONTROLS: Stops Washington from spending money it does not have on government programs that do not work. Ensures that the next generation inherits a stronger.8 trillion relative to the current-policy baseline. DEBT AND DEFICITS Reduces deficits by $4. Unleashes prosperity and economic security. Brings government spending to below 20 percent of the economy.4 trillion compared to the President’s budget over the next decade. Surpasses the President’s low benchmark of sustainability – which his own budget fails to meet – by reaching primary balance in 2015.5 million additional private-sector jobs in the last year of the decade. GROWTH AND JOBS Creates nearly 1 million new private-sector jobs next year. Lowers tax rates for individuals. RESTORING AMERICA’S EXCEPTIONAL PROMISE: Tackles the existential threat posed by rapidly growing government and debt.5 trillion over the decade. and results in 2. and investment. expanding access and protecting the doctor-patient relationship. SUMMARY OF THE FISCAL YEAR 2012 BUDGET RESOLUTION Where the President has failed. Eliminates hundreds of duplicative programs. a sharp contrast to the President’s budget. less burdensome tax code for households and small businesses. savings. and $5. yielding $1. advancing instead common-sense solutions focused on lowering costs. PATIENT-CENTERED HEALTH CARE: Repeals and defunds the President’s health care law. House Budget Committee | April 5. KEY FACTS SPENDING Cuts $6. KEY OBJECTIVES ECONOMIC GROWTH AND JOB CREATION: Fosters a better environment for private-sector job creation by lifting debt-fueled uncertainty and advancing pro-growth tax reforms. Spurs economic growth. 2011 4 .5 trillion tax increase called for in the President’s budget.This plan puts the budget on the path to balance and the economy on the path to prosperity. increasing real GDP by $1. more prosperous America. businesses and families. Sets top rates for individuals and businesses at 25 percent. Locks in spending cuts with spending controls. brings the unemployment rate down to 4 percent by 2015. in which spending never falls below 23 percent of GDP over the next decade. Prevents the $1. House Republicans will lead.000 per year in higher income for each family. and curbs corporate welfare bringing non-security discretionary spending to below 2008 levels. REAL SECURITY: Fulfills the mission of health and retirement security for all Americans by making the tough decisions necessary to save critical health and retirement programs.2 trillion in government spending over the next decade compared to the President’s budget.

Strengthening the Social Safety Net Repairing a Broken Medicaid System: Ends an onerous. and innovate in the United States by lowering the corporate tax rate from 35 percent. Ending Corporate Welfare: Ends the taxpayer bailouts of failed financial institutions. Boosting American Energy Resources: Removes barriers to safe. and stops Washington from picking the winners and losers across sectors of the economy. which is the highest in the industrialized world. unlocks American energy production to help lower costs. reforms Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. Preparing the Workforce for a 21st Century Economy: Consolidates the complex maze of dozens of overlapping job-training programs into more accessible. but also how tax dollars are spent. create jobs. Targets hundreds of government programs that have outlived their usefulness. Effective and Responsible Government Prioritizing National Security: Reflects $178 billion in savings identified by Defense Secretary Robert Gates. Streamlining Other Government Agencies: Returns non-security discretionary spending to below 2008 levels. reinvesting $100 billion in higher military priorities and dedicating the rest to deficit reduction. and reduce dependence on foreign fossil fuels. invest. KEY COMPONENTS Efficient. lowering rates and clearing out the burdensome tangle of loopholes that distort economic activity. House Budget Committee | April 5. Fulfilling the Mission of Health and Retirement Security Saving Medicare: Protects those in and near retirement from any disruptions and offers future beneficiaries the same kind of health-care options now enjoyed by members of Congress. Corporate Tax Reform: Improves incentives for job creators to work. Promoting Economic Growth and Job Creation Individual Tax Reform: Simplifies the broken tax code. addressing not only what Washington spends. accountable career scholarships aimed at empowering American workers to compete in the global economy. to a more competitive 25 percent. Reduces the bureaucracy’s reach by applying private-sector realities to the federal government’s civilian workforce. one-size-fits-all approach by converting the federal share of Medicaid spending into a block grant that gives states the flexibility to tailor their Medicaid programs to the specific needs of their residents. responsible energy exploration in the United States. Repeals the new health care law and moves toward patient-centered reform. Advancing Social Security Solutions: Forces action by the President and both chambers of Congress to ensure the solvency of this critical program. Changing Washington’s Culture of Spending: Locks in savings with enforceable spending caps and budget- process reforms. brings the top rate from 35 to 25 percent to promote growth and job creation. 2011 5 .

global competitiveness driving jobs overseas Size of Government Brings government down to below 20 Spending as a percent of GDP never percent of GDP by 2015.5 trillion tax the broken tax code increase Corporate Tax Lowers the corporate tax rate to 25 Leaves in place the highest corporate percent to promote job creation and tax rate in the developed world. Reduces deficits $4. 2011 6 . A CONTRAST IN BUDGETS The Path to Prosperity President’s FY2012 Budget Spending Cuts $6. Commits to 15 percent of GDP in 2050 the explosive growth of government Deficit Brings deficits under $1 trillion in $1. $5. Accelerates a debt-fueled over time economic crisis Health Care Repeals the job-destroying health care law Accelerates the job-destroying health care law Jobs According to the Heritage Center for Accelerates tax hikes.4 trillion the fourth straight deficit exceeding relative to President’s budget.2 trillion deficit in FY2012 marks FY2012. Data Analysis. pre- bailout levels Taxes Stops all of President’s taxes.1 trillion to the debt over the to the President’s budget. Puts the the $1 trillion mark budget on a path to balance Primary Balance Primary balance (spending – interest Never reaches primary balance – payments = revenue) is reached in 2015 failing to clear even the low bar the administration set for itself Debt Held by Public Reduces the debt by $4. creates nearly 1 million new debt and government spending – private-sector jobs next year. Reforms Imposes a $1. Brings policies that result in slower unemployment rate down to 4 percent in economic growth and fewer American 2015 jobs House Budget Committee | April 5.2 trillion in spending cuts relative $400 billion in new spending to President’s budget. Pays off the debt next decade.7 trillion relative Adds $9. health care law.8 trillion in above CBO’s current-policy spending cuts relative to CBO’s baseline current-policy baseline Spending Levels Brings non-security discretionary Locks in reckless spending spree spending to below pre-stimulus. drops below 23 percent.

2011 7 .House Budget Committee | April 5.

2011 8 . CHOICE OF TWO FUTURES House Budget Committee | April 5.

This did not sit well with the American people. In recent years. led the nation downhill. 2011 9 . Mismanagement and overspending have left the nation on the brink of bankruptcy. right at this moment. They deserve – and demand – honest leaders willing to stand for solutions. The President and his party’s leaders embarked on a stimulus spending spree that added hundreds of billions of dollars to the debt. Acute economic hardship was exploited to enact unprecedented expansions of government power. Americans reject leaders who focus on the pursuit of power at the expense of principle. unsurprisingly. taxing. This crisis squandered the nation’s savings and crippled its economy. The empty promises made by Washington over the years have resulted in economic hardships today and increasing pessimism about tomorrow. A government that buries the next generation under an avalanche of debt cannot claim the moral high ground in the world. and borrowing that are leading America. and entrepreneurs. just as they ended a unified Democratic majority last fall. and unleashing the genius of America’s workers. and moral imperatives by confronting the nation’s most urgent fiscal challenges. keeping America’s promises to seniors. millions of American families saw their dreams destroyed in a financial disaster caused by misguided policies. self-reliant. Citizens stood up and demanded that their leaders reacquaint themselves with America’s founding ideals of liberty. Congress can no longer afford to ignore these demands. investors. Government at all levels is mired in debt. and irresponsible leadership. This Path to Prosperity draws upon solutions from across the political spectrum and builds upon the important work of the President’s bipartisan Commission on Fiscal Responsibility and Reform. This budget. both political parties have squandered the public’s trust. The American people ended a unified Republican majority in 2006. INTRODUCTION Americans face a monumental choice about the future of their country. the last Congress took actions that further undermined them. But a government that loses its sovereignty to its bondholders cannot long guarantee its people’s prosperity – or secure their freedom. It chooses instead a path to prosperity – by limiting government to its core constitutional roles. Only recently. House Budget Committee | April 5. At a time when the free-market foundations of the American economy were in desperate need of restoration and repair. toward a debt-fueled economic crisis and the demise of America’s exceptional promise. They reject empty promises from a government that cannot live within its means. And a government that promotes dependency and undermines the institutions of faith and family will inevitably weaken the nation’s greatest strength: the exceptional character of its entrepreneurial. perverse incentives. limited government. The Path to Prosperity. A government that allows economic destinies to be determined by political considerations rather than merit cannot lead the world in productivity and growth. This budget resolution reflects that choice. Political parties lose elections. and equality under the rule of law. policymakers in Washington have traveled the path of least resistance – a path that has. For too long. It disavows the relentless government spending. and life in the republic goes on. economic. heeds America’s political. and hard-working citizens. yet failed to deliver on its promises to create jobs. They deserve the truth about the nation’s fiscal and economic challenges.

and aims to restore the dynamism that has defined America over the generations. economists and experts who have testified before the House Budget Committee. 2011 10 . House Budget Committee | April 5. This budget’s goal is to keep it exceptional. this Path to Prosperity calls for a government faithful to its limited but noble mission: securing every American’s right to pursue a destiny of his or her choosing. In the words of Abraham Lincoln.This Path to Prosperity reflects input from leaders at the state and local level. America is a nation conceived in liberty. and American citizens calling for honest leadership and real solutions. and strengthening the foundations of economic growth and job creation. Above all. “We cannot escape history. fulfilling the mission of health and retirement security for all Americans. This Path to Prosperity applies America’s timeless principles to today’s greatest challenges by committing to three key goals: lifting the crushing burden of debt. and defined by limitless opportunity. This budget rejects a culture of complacency. there has never been anything quite like America. We of this Congress and this Administration will be remembered in spite of ourselves. In all the chapters of human history. dedicated to equality. offers reforms that promote initiative by rewarding effort. and to preserve its promise for the next generation.” Will this be remembered as the Congress that did nothing as the nation slouched toward a preventable debt crisis and irreversible decline? Or will it instead be remembered as the Congress that did the hard work of preventing that crisis – the one that chose the path to prosperity? Decline is antithetical to the American Idea.

Understanding how the government spends the money it takes in by taxing and borrowing is the first step toward the goal of reversing the tide of red ink and getting the economy growing again. education. but it is important to put that number into perspective. That understanding begins with the elements of the federal budget: Annually Approved Spending Discretionary spending – FIGURE 1 funding debated and approved annually by Congress and the President – accounted for slightly less than 40 percent of all federal spending in 2010. Defense spending as a share of the budget has fallen from around 25 percent thirty years ago to around 20 percent today. Like all categories of government spending. The category in Figure 1 labeled “non-defense discretionary spending” is primarily devoted to funding other government agencies. But responsible budgeting must never lose sight of the fact that the first responsibility of the federal government is to provide for the defense of the nation. 2011 11 . Over half of this category goes toward national defense. Since January of 2009. This category includes transportation. energy. these agencies have been the beneficiaries of a major spending spree over the last two years. and funding for most government agencies. there has been a 24 percent increase in this slice of the pie – a number that jumps to 84 percent when stimulus funds are included. While American families have been tightening their belts. COMPONENTS OF THE FEDERAL BUDGET Before laying out a vision for the future of the country – for that is what a federal budget is – it is first necessary to provide an honest assessment of the facts. foreign aid. An inevitable consequence of the last Congress’s decision to ramp up spending so quickly was that billions of Americans’ hard-earned tax dollars were squandered. with considerable focus on the billions of dollars it wasted on dubious government projects as well as the many promises it broke with respect to job creation and economic growth. Of the many new laws that made up the recent spending spree. for example. received a 36 percent budget increase in just two short years. the 2009 stimulus law has gotten the most attention. The Government Accountability Office (GAO) – the non- House Budget Committee | April 5. But domestic government agencies also received large increases in their base budgets – the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). defense spending should be executed with greater efficiency and accountability.

these programs were created with a 20th-century economy in mind. seniors have been able to rely on Social Security and Medicare for their basic retirement needs. Social Security. while providing a safety net for those citizens who meet with misfortune along the way? For decades. Unless action is taken to reform these programs. and waste in federal spending. even though some of them affect one program more than the others. Because permanent law governs the funding levels of programs in this category. the share of the budget that goes to these entitlement programs is growing rapidly. and the House continues to push the Senate and the President to bring spending under control for the remainder of the current fiscal year. annually appropriate or properly scrutinize this category of spending. If an individual meets legal eligibility requirements for these government programs. Opportunities to Reduce Potential Duplication in Government Programs. which means that current workers’ Social Security taxes are used to pay benefits for current retirees. Congress does not regularly debate. Congress must restore discipline to this category. for 1Government Accountability Office. But Americans will not be able to rely on these programs for much longer unless Congress repairs and reforms them. The Path to Prosperity builds on these efforts to cut spending.gao.” The three largest entitlement programs are Social Security. ensuring government can efficiently and effectively meet its proper responsibilities. There are three key forces driving Social Security. overlap. Unlike defense. autopilot spending accounted for around 60 percent of all federal spending in 2010. Already this year. But getting discretionary spending under control is only a first step toward fiscal sustainability. and Enhance Revenue. in pursuit of dreams large and small. 2011 12 . the House of Representatives voted to return spending on domestic government agencies to their pre-stimulus levels.items/d11318sp. As illustrated in Figure 1. unemployment benefits. they will continue to crowd out all other national priorities until they break the federal budget. he or she automatically receives – or “is legally entitled” – to the benefit. This category includes food stamps. while Medicaid has sought to ensure that low-income Americans would not go without essential health care. it is usually referred to as “mandatory spending. http://www.1 Clearly. The real drivers of the nation’s debt lie elsewhere. They were not designed for the new demographic and economic challenges of the 21st century.partisan agency that audits the government’s books – recently found between $100 billion to $200 billion in duplication. Social Security is financed through a pay-as-you-go system. and Medicaid.pdf House Budget Committee | April 5. In 1935 when Social Security was enacted.” even though Congress can change the law at any time. there were about 42 working-age Americans for each retiree. Medicare and Medicaid all face structural problems that are driving them – and the country – into bankruptcy. Simply put. Demographics The first is demographic. All three are interrelated. Medicare and Medicaid into bankruptcy. and farm subsidies – programs that are frequently referred to as “entitlement programs. The average life expectancy for men in America was 60 years. March 2011. these major entitlements consumed about 30 percent of the budget – a number that has grown to over 40 percent today (see Figure 1). Congress created these programs in the middle decades of the last century in response to a problem that has preoccupied American lawmakers for over a century: How can government best preserve the freedom to risk and to dare. This problem is most clearly seen in the financing for Social Security. In 1970. Medicare. Save Tax Dollars. Autopilot Spending Programs that have “autopilot” spending authority under existing law make up the rest of the budget.gov/new.

In 1950. since the creation of the program. To put this in perspective. This is putting enormous pressure on Medicare and Medicaid. however. The first members of the baby-boom generation – those born between 1946 and 1964 – are already eligible for early retirement. toward Social Security recipients. Currently. Not only is our nation aging.women it was 64. In 2010. there has also been a demographic shift to a lower retirement age. In 2009. The explosion of payments in the 75 years since the Social Security system was enacted will be dwarfed by the demographic demands about to come. By 2030. Washington has been embroiled in a bruising debate over a law that was supposed to provide a “comprehensive” solution to the nation’s health-care problems by putting even more of the health sector under government control. Nearly 50 cents of every dollar spent on health care in this country is spent by federal. In 1945. the average age of retirement was 69. With these FIGURE 2 demographics. redundant treatments. This represents a massive shift of earnings away from younger families trying to build their futures. there are over 50 million beneficiaries – an over fourteen-fold increase. each wage earner will be paying for nearly half of each retired person’s full benefits. there were 3.5 million beneficiaries. life expectancies have lengthened to an average of 75 years for men and 80 years for women. At the same time. on average. was contributing less than 2.8 years. and the cost in both time and money of mistaken billings and misplaced House Budget Committee | April 5. But these programs aren’t just affected by rapidly rising health-care costs – they are actually a key driver of inflation in the health-care sector. Because of the design and structure of these programs.6 years. Real reform – especially with respect to Social Security – must reflect demographic reality. health-care costs rose by over 7 percent. it was 63. Economics The second force is economic. state or local government. For much of the last two years. and are expected to grow further. The demographic situation has changed dramatically. No economy can grow and thrive under that heavy a tax burden. when Social Security was first enacted in 1935. thanks to innovations in medical technology and health care. it was easy for the program to generate sufficient revenue to meet its promises to those over 65.Yet rapidly rising health-care costs remain as big a problem as ever. much of the government’s money gets wasted – and shows up as inflation in the cost of care. compared to around 1 percent for all other goods and services. Everyone who is on Medicare or knows someone on Medicare has stories about waste in the system – unnecessary tests. 2011 13 .5 percent of one retiree’s benefits. each worker.

or decentralized across the country at the state. Any effort to propose significant reforms to these programs triggers a barrage of demagoguery and entrenched resistance. dictates. Its so-called cost controls amount to the same kind of fee-for-service reductions that have failed to control costs in Medicare for decades. America’s health-care entitlements are currently set up as open-ended. Figure 3 makes it very clear that. and it’s a big reason that costs have spiraled out of control. Because the federal government matches every state dollar spent on the program. Real reform – especially with respect to Medicare – must eliminate this unsustainable waste and reduce inefficiencies and costs by giving beneficiaries themselves more control over their own health-care benefits and decisions. these patients are left with fewer options and lower- quality care. it saps the system of innovation and efficiency. In this country. This kind of waste is inevitable in a top-down. policymakers would be left with no good options. absent action. with its large expansions of Medicaid. At the same time. Skewed political incentives The third force. and it pushes quality health care out of reach for those who are not eligible for federal programs. Real reform – especially with respect to Medicaid – must give states the flexibility they need to better assist their most vulnerable populations. tax hikes and subsidies – exacerbates this flawed model and will push costs further in the wrong direction. drives the heedless expansion of these programs and therefore the growth of health-care costs for all Americans. controls. it is often the case that their only option is to impose across-the-board reductions in reimbursements to doctors. local and individual level? The current incentive structure. Medicare and Medicaid will soon grow to consume every dollar of revenue that the government raises in taxes. will funnel more people into a broken system. Already. Worse. Social Security. states do not pay the full cost of expanding the program. 2011 14 . These incentives encourage states to expand the program beyond those who are truly in need. Moreover. particularly with regard to Medicaid. as has happened in many states. with most of the power concentrated at the federal level. As government increases subsidies and control over the price and delivery of health care. When even their smaller share of the tab becomes unaffordable. Last year’s health-care law – with its maze of mandates. including the military.records. As a result. At that point. Skewed political incentives have proved especially damaging in the Medicaid program. is not really House Budget Committee | April 5. This results in more demands to increase federal subsidies and control. states are not given the flexibility to design their Medicaid programs in smart or efficient ways. but few have been willing to propose real solutions. Blank- check commitments create perverse incentives for everyone in the health-care system to maximize his or her share of this apparently limitless government subsidy. Empty promises Policymakers have known about these problems for decades. The new health care law. boils down to a question of control. blank-check commitments to reimburse health-care providers for services – and this very structure raises costs and reduces efficiency. Making do without any federal government departments. (Providers predictably increase the number of services provided for each condition as the government lowers fees). which leave many doctors unwilling to see Medicaid patients. This leads to waste and fraud on a massive scale. where should power reside? Should it be centralized in the hands of federal bureaucrats. every dollar in Medicaid expenditures cut from state budgets triggers more than a dollar worth of cuts in federal funding. health insurance companies have announced big premium hikes related to the law’s new mandates. And it will dramatically expand a Medicaid program that is already breaking state budgets and adding to a growing flood of red ink at the federal level. government-run system.

2011 15 . Of course. The government’s unfunded liabilities – promises the government makes to current workers about their health and retirement security for which it has no means to pay – are growing by trillions of dollars a year. Future benefit cuts – against a backdrop of skyrocketing House Budget Committee | April 5. responsible steps to update their unworkable. and a crushing tax burden on young families. Social Security benefits are scheduled to be cut by 22 percent in 2037. steep cuts in entitlement benefits to current seniors. if Congress continues to delay. The foreign governments and institutional lenders that finance America’s debt would cut up the nation’s credit cards before things got that far. less help for the poor. government gets closer to breaking promises to current retirees while adding to a growing pile of empty promises made to future generations. the U.FIGURE 3 option at all. Each year that Congress fails to act. Americans can expect the same thing to happen to Social Security and Medicare. much less severe than these take down some of its proudest companies. aviation and autos. America has seen unfunded obligations much. workers lost promised benefits when their employers failed to take timely. Under current law. Many retirees lost the critical health and retirement benefits that they were counting on. and neither is raising taxes to a level that no free and prospering economy could sustain.S. Medicare is on a similarly unsustainable path – the Medicare trend line illustrated in Figure 3 is a mathematical impossibility. when the Social Security trust fund runs out of assets and payroll taxes are not sufficient to cover benefits owed. That would mean sudden. In industries such as steel. it will lose even the ability to make such choices on its own terms. FIGURE 4 Unless Congress acts. 20th-century benefit structures.

3 2 Congressional Budget Office. Nor can the government solve this problem just by raising the top individual tax rates: Even if it were wise to raise taxes on the most successful small businesses in America – most of which are owned by individuals and file at individual rates – the government cannot even come close to closing the fiscal gap that way.pdf House Budget Committee | April 5. The trend is clear: Chasing ever-higher spending with ever-higher tax rates would leave the U.S. a fundamental tax reform plan that actually lowered income tax rates to promote growth. government is not running sustained deficits because Americans are taxed too little. 3 The National Commission on Fiscal Responsibility and Reform. on top of what these taxpayers already pay. government revenue has averaged between 18 percent and 19 percent of GDP.000 each year on average from every taxpayer in the top two brackets.S. Letter to Congressman Paul D. even though there is broad agreement that the structure of the tax code should be simplified and made more conducive to economic growth. protects those in or near retirement from any disruptions in their benefits. to say nothing of the pain felt by FIGURE 5 American families deprived of the chance to save for a better future. 2011 16 . high wages and entrepreneurship.fiscalcommission. If Congress wants to avoid defaulting on federal health and retirement programs.gov/sites/fiscalcommission. economy. Ryan. as part of an overall effort to fix the nation’s unsustainable deficits.gov/files/documents/TheMomentofTruth12_1_2010. while eliminating tax loopholes to broaden the tax base.2 That is one reason that the Commission on Fiscal Responsibility and Reform proposed. To close the fiscal gap by raising the top rates. and supports robust economic growth and job creation. The President’s budget would drive both spending and revenues to historic highs as a share of the total U. economy at a severe disadvantage compared to the rest of the world.costs – are a certainty if the program goes unreformed. The non-partisan Congressional Budget Office has concluded that the tax rates needed to sustain the nation’s current fiscal trajectory into the future would end up sinking the economy. it must adopt a program of gradual adjustment – one that frees the nation from the shadow of debt. The Moment of Truth. not a revenue problem. Figure 5 shows that Washington has a spending problem.S. Over the past 40 years. The government is running deficits because it spends too much. Americans have had enough instability in their lives. the government would have to collect an additional $500. and they deserve a federal health and retirement safety net that they can count on. December 2010. strengthens its health and retirement safety net. Taxes The U. May 2008. http:// www. This level has generally been compatible with prosperity.

The President’s budget would nearly double this debt over the next ten years. Congress must address this crisis now – before it is too late. The debt is the total amount outstanding that the government owes – it represents the accumulation of deficits over time.S. efficient and sustainable tax code. it has to borrow money to cover the shortfall. bringing it to $26 trillion. economy. 2011 17 . The deficit is how much the nation has to borrow to fund the gap between spending and revenue in a given year. which is nearly the size of the entire U. and the economic growth spurred by such a reform is a precondition to fixing the nation’s fiscal mess. House Budget Committee | April 5. The gross debt is scheduled to hit $14 trillion.A broader base with lower rates is central to a fair. Deficits and Debt When the government spends more than it takes in through taxes. Clearly. This year is projected to mark the third straight year in which the nation borrows over $1 trillion.

com/id/ 41990901/ (accessed March 31. 2011 18 . 2011 http://www. Congress must show the market that it has a credible plan for getting the national debt under control. in order to avoid this fate. Some have even decided to purge their portfolios of U.S. severe economic turmoil ensues. Congress has all the fiscal powers necessary to command a change of course. Over the past few years. and find it quickly. But the last crisis was foreseen only by a small number of perceptive individuals who recognized the implications of unwise decisions being made in Washington and on Wall Street.S. The government’s failure to prevent this completely preventable crisis would rank among history’s most infamous episodes of political malpractice. But it must find the will to change. debt. 2011). the Federal Reserve has recently become the largest buyer of government debt in the country. and when they cut up the credit cards of profligate countries. and these purchases have helped keep interest rates low. An Unsustainable Path The recent sovereign debt crises in Greece and other highly-indebted European countries provide a cautionary tale of the rough justice of the marketplace – lenders cannot and will not finance unsustainable deficits forever. government remains on its current unsustainable path.” Reuters with CNBC. March 9. But the Fed is scheduled to stop making these purchases this summer. America’s unsustainable budget path is no longer a problem that is far off in the future. It is the future of a nation in decline – its best days come and gone. Americans have seen just how quickly a severe financial crisis can create widespread pain and chaos. This budget is offered in the hope that it might demonstrate the new House majority’s determination to face the government’s most difficult fiscal challenges.com. 4 “Pimco’s Biggest Fund Dumps Treasury Bond Holdings.4 Through its interventions into the economy. House Budget Committee | April 5. nearly every fiscal expert and advisor in Washington has warned that a major debt crisis is inevitable if the U.Yet decline is not inevitable. The lenders who buy much of the federal government’s debt have noticed the disconnect between the government’s perilous fiscal situation and the low rates of interest it is paying on the bonds that constitute the government’s loans.cnbc. BURDEN OF DEBT The United States is facing a FIGURE 6 crushing burden of debt – a debt that will soon surpass the size of the entire U. in order to ease concerns over the government’s credit- worthiness and stave off an interest-rate spike.S. By contrast. economy and ultimately capsize it if left on its present course. and others are advising their clients to do the same. This is not the future of a proud and prosperous nation.

By that measure. the U.6 How a Debt Crisis Would Unfold Spiraling interest rates The first sign that a debt crisis has arrived is that bond investors lose confidence in a government’s ability to pay its debts – and by that point. According to the non-partisan CBO. the President’s budget would keep the debt climbing as a share of the economy in the decade ahead.art.usatoday. economy this year. But the nation’s reliance on foreign creditors has increased dramatically over the past few decades.S.S. 2011 19 . November 29. Deficit?” USA TODAY.com/ printedition/news/20101129/1adeficit29_cv. However. “Are We Ready to Cut the U. Hearing. Foreign flight It would be one thing if the U. partly because of the Fed’s interventions in the market. government’s ability to solve its most difficult fiscal challenges. said it best: “The era of deficit denial is over. Carmen M. That means that one in five tax dollars will be dedicated to making interest payments by the end of the decade – and that’s according to optimistic projections about interest rates. If foreign investors. Testimony before the U. 2011). a nation’s indebtedness is best understood in terms of how much it owes relative to how much it makes. government owed most of this money to domestic lenders.Erskine Bowles.S. If this were merely a temporary rise in the debt. 2011. the spending spree of the last two years. government is able to borrow at historically low rates. Foreigners now own roughly half of all publicly held U. Interest payments are already consuming around 10 cents of every tax dollar. from nearly 70 percent this year to over 87 percent of the U. If interest rates increase by a higher-than- expected amount in future – which appears to be more likely – then the nation’s interest payments could cost trillions of dollars more. it is usually too late to avoid severe disruption and economic pain. the Democratic co-chairman of the Commission on Fiscal Responsibility and Reform. 2010 http://www. debt. economy by 2021. debt – meaning sharply higher interest rates. House Budget Committee | April 5.S. 5 Wolf. This makes the nation vulnerable to a sudden shift in foreign investor sentiment.htm (accessed March 31. debt. government owes to others – will reach nearly 70 percent of the entire U.S. Right now. but also because the bonds of most foreign countries are looking even riskier. Interest rates – and the burden of paying interest on the debt – have nowhere to go but up. it would not be so alarming. begin to lose confidence in the U. especially foreign governments such as China. threaten to turn these recent deficit spikes into a permanent plunge into debt. March 10. Committee on the Budget. debt held by the public – money that the U. That is bad news for the United States. Neither of these conditions is going to last.S.S. Debt in excess of 60 percent of the economy is not sustainable for an extended period of time. University of Maryland economist Carmen Reinhart testified before the Budget Committee that 90 percent is often a trigger point for economic decline. they will demand higher compensation to offset the perceived risk of holding U. 6Reinhart. Lifting the Crushing Burden of Debt.S. particularly during a time of crisis.S. combined with the coming retirement of nearly 80 million baby boomers. House.S. Richard. But as interest rates rise from their current historically low levels and debt continues to mount. interest payments are projected to consume over 20 percent of all tax revenue by 2020.S. a sharp increase from a generation ago when foreigners owned just 5 percent of U.” 5 Nearing a Debt Crisis Like a household or business.

and this helped keep interest rates low. the only solutions to a debt crisis would be truly painful: massive tax increases.economics. government. This would create a huge hole in the economy that would be exacerbated by panic. A recent study completed by Reinhart and economist Ken Rogoff of Harvard confirms this common-sense conclusion. the nation would still be in for a long and grinding period of economic decline if it stays on its current path. It might even shock those who lived through the double-digit interest rates of the early 1980s. however. The study found conclusive empirical evidence that total debt exceeding 90 percent of the economy has a significant negative effect on economic growth.S. 2011 20 .” January 2010. Real pain for families Warning signs in financial markets would merely be a harbinger of the real economic pain that would eventually be felt by American families in the event of a debt crisis. the study confirmed that massive debts of the kind the nation is on track to accumulate are associated with “stagflation” – a toxic mix of economic stagnation and rising inflation. but inflation also becomes a problem. But these investment flows work both ways. If the Congress continues to put off difficult choices regarding the nation’s long-term problems. Essentially. runaway inflation.S. “Growth in a Time of Debt. sudden and disruptive cuts to vital programs.pdf House Budget Committee | April 5.harvard. Absent a bailout. Rogoff. Much higher interest rates on government debt would translate into much higher interest rates on mortgages. foreign investors will re-evaluate the creditworthiness of the United States and demand higher interest rates. For starters. or all three. credit cards and car loans. These higher rates would most likely come as a shock to most Americans. Carmen M. Even if high debt did not cause a crisis. debt exceeds 90 percent of the economy. 7 Reinhart. and Kenneth S. as the heavily indebted nations of Europe have recently learned. The study found that not only is average economic growth dramatically lower when gross U. The Consequences of Inaction Stagflation The economic effects of a debt crisis on the United States would be far worse than what the nation experienced during the financial crisis of 2008.FIGURE 7 During the financial crisis. foreigners flocked to Treasury debt simply because other investments looked so unsafe by comparison. no entity on the planet is large enough to bail out the U. http://www. who have grown accustomed to borrowing in a climate of historically-low interest rates. focusing on growth and inflation relative to past periods when this nation has experienced high debt levels.7 The study looked specifically at the United States.edu/ files/faculty/51_Growth_in_Time_Debt.

it will be forced to make immediate and painful fiscal adjustments (like the austerity program that has provoked riots in Greece). it becomes harder for the government to raise revenue through taxes. growth in overall consumer spending. Add in higher taxes from a cash-strapped government trying to appease its creditors. would soon lead to a destabilizing inflation. A large chunk of that total debt consists of home mortgages. the added interest costs for the typical family could easily exceed $1.Despite the increase in saving rates that has occurred in the wake of the financial crisis. A U. The resulting panic would be orders of magnitude more disruptive than the financial crisis in 2008. The rise in interest rates would lead to lower business investment as companies would face a much higher hurdle for profitability on potential expansion plans. U. households are still heavily indebted. the government would have to slash spending and raise taxes to narrow its large fiscal gap. As household borrowing costs spiked. the Fed may also face rising pressure to step in and “monetize” the government’s debt – essentially printing money to buy up the public debt that private investors refuse to finance. hitting seniors the hardest. or roughly 120 percent of their total disposable income.S. Promises to current retirees would be broken. considered to be safe and highly liquid assets by virtually all financial institutions worldwide. estimates suggest that an interest rate increase of just 1 percentage point would lead to over $400 in extra interest payments each year for the average family. Given that a serious debt crisis could lead to a sharp increase in Treasury rates. demand for their products (particularly consumer durables bought on credit like cars. and tax rates would be raised across-the-board. meanwhile.S. and U. Real pain for businesses Higher borrowing costs would also serve as a serious impediment for businesses. economy. 2011 21 . would decline. This would wipe out the savings of millions of Americans. House Budget Committee | April 5. Harsh austerity As economic growth deteriorates.S. dollar is the world’s reserve currency. Facing the inability to borrow at a reasonable rate in the market. this would mean punishing seniors twice.S. government were forced to address such a situation by cutting domestic spending and raising taxes to close the budget gap. home furnishings. etc. According to the current level and composition of U. and the inevitable result would be less business expansion and higher unemployment. Monetizing the debt. If the nation ultimately experiences a panicked run on its debt. meaning that a sudden increase in Treasury bond rates would lead to higher borrowing costs for consumers relatively quickly. When combined with benefit cuts. In such a crisis.S. as their funding costs were rising. The nation’s households still owe $13 trillion in private debt.) would be slipping as consumer spending tailed off. Financial system breakdown The U. Treasury bonds are the lynchpin of global debt markets. and the global economy.S. Businesses would be doubly squeezed because.000 per year.S. household debt. If the U. debt crisis would lead to sharp declines in the dollar and in the price of these bonds. It turns out that roughly half of all that debt is in the form of variable interest rate loans. it would be compelled to do so indiscriminately. causing a deterioration of the balance sheets of large financial institutions. and a vicious cycle ensues. which accounts for nearly 70 percent of the U.S. The consequences of these actions would be disastrous for the U. while the rest is in credit cards and other forms of debt. without regard for the economic consequences.

Alarm bells should be ringing loudly… [for] the United States. In just 16 years. House Budget Committee | April 5. Niall. but also about America’s status as a world power and its freedom to act in its own best interests. Last year in Foreign Affairs magazine. the debate about rising U. Congress must act now to change the nation’s fiscal course. If it stays on its current fiscal path.” 8 America must not lose its role in the world. For this and many other reasons. If the nation stays on its current path.The Path to Decline In the end. or it can begin – today – the work of restoring the vitality and greatness of America. the United States will be unable to afford its role as an economic and military superpower. 8Ferguson. interest payments on the national debt will begin to exceed yearly defense spending just 11 years from now. “Complexity and Collapse: Empires on the Edge of Chaos. debt is not just about dollars and cents. financial historian Niall Ferguson surveyed some of the great empire declines throughout history and observed that “most imperial falls are associated with fiscal crises. Congress can choose to let this nation go the way of fallen empires. yearly interest expenses will be double national defense spending.S. The new House majority was sent here by the American people to get spending under control. 2011 22 . and confront these great challenges today to allow this generation to pass an even greater nation along to the next generation. Other nations with very different interests will rush in to fill that role. as well as difficulties with financing public debt.” Foreign Affairs. March/ April 2010. All the… cases were marked by sharp imbalances between revenues and expenditures. keep taxes low.

Streamlining other government agencies: Government spending on domestic departments and agencies has grown too much. Instead. and reduce dependence on foreign oil. Ending corporate welfare: There is a growing and pernicious trend of government overreach into sectors of the private economy – a trend that stacks the deck in favor of entrenched interests and stifles growth. This budget attempts to lead where others have fallen short. too fast over the past decade. In certain key respects. Changing Washington’s culture of spending: The budget process in Washington contains numerous structural flaws that bias the federal government toward ever-higher levels of spending. A REFORM AGENDA FOR THE U. liberty and the pursuit of happiness. It targets hundreds of government programs that have outlived their usefulness. There is a vacuum of leadership in Washington. 2011 23 . This budget offers America a model of government guided by the timeless principles of the American Idea: free market democracy. with much of the money going to programs and projects the nation can do without. And it repeals the government takeover of health care enacted last year and moves toward patient-centered reform. Boosting American energy resources: Too great a percentage of America’s vast natural resources remain locked behind bureaucratic barriers and red tape. and unlocks American energy production to help lower costs. This budget locks in savings with enforceable spending caps and budget process reforms. GOVERNMENT When it comes to this generation’s defining challenge – the explosive growth of the national debt – the simple truth is that Washington has not been honest with the American people. and the current administration has offered no serious plan to address the sea of red ink. House Budget Committee | April 5. This budget recommits the federal government to the security of every American citizen’s natural right to life. When government takes on too many tasks. Reform government to make it more efficient. effective and responsible The role of the federal government is both vital and limited. Providing for the common defense: Recognizing that the first job of government is to secure the safety and liberty of its citizens from threats at home and abroad. Limited government also means effective government. the federal government has strayed from these timeless principles. across-the-board cuts in funding for national defense. responsible energy exploration in the United States. This budget offers a set of fundamental reforms to put the nation back on the right track.S. a secure safety net. 1. This budget removes moratoriums on safe. This budget achieves savings in the category of national defense without jeopardizing preparedness or critical missions. $100 billion of which would be reinvested in higher combat priorities. American men and women in uniform are presently engaged with a fierce enemy and dealing with emerging threats around the world. but also how tax dollars are spent. This budget starts to restore spending discipline to a government that badly needs it by returning non-security discretionary spending to well below 2008 levels. It reduces the bureaucracy’s reach by applying private-sector realities to the federal government’s civilian workforce. The last Congress added trillions to the problem. addressing not only what Washington spends. it usually doesn’t do any of them very well. while fostering an environment for economic growth and private sector job creation. it reflects the $178 billion in savings identified by Defense Secretary Robert Gates. this budget rejects proposals to make deep. a robust private sector bound by rules of honesty and fairness. ends Washington policies that drive up gas prices. To do otherwise would consign the United States to a diminished future – a future that disrespects the sacrifices that generations of American families have made to secure the promise of this exceptional nation. This budget ends the taxpayer bailouts of failed financial institutions and stops Washington from picking the winners and losers across sectors of the economy. open competition. It reflects an extension of the moratorium on earmarks. and equal opportunity for all under a limited constitutional government of popular consent. create jobs.

This budget heads off a crisis by forcing action from the President and both chambers of Congress to ensure the solvency of this critical program – creating the space for bipartisan solutions. driven by demographic changes. with high marginal rates that discourage growth. yet the tax itself raises relatively little revenue. House Budget Committee | April 5. This budget saves Medicare by fixing this flawed structure so that the program will be there for future generations. This budget extends those successes to other areas of the safety net to ensure that America’s safety net does not become a hammock that lulls able-bodied citizens into lives of complacency and dependency. Advancing Social Security solutions: The risk to Social Security. 3. Reform that empowers individuals — with a strengthened safety net for the poor and the sick — will guarantee that Medicare can fulfill the promise of health security for America’s seniors. accountable career scholarships aimed at empowering American workers with the resources they need to pursue their dreams. they will be able to choose from a list of guaranteed coverage options. who will receive the benefits they’ve organized their retirements around. These changes will not affect those in and near retirement in any way. Medicare will provide increased assistance for lower-income beneficiaries and those with greater health risks. This budget consolidates a complex maze of dozens of job-training programs into more accessible. invest. Corporate tax reform: American businesses labor under the highest corporate income tax in the developed world. Reform government programs to fulfill the mission of health and retirement security This budget puts an end to empty promises from a broke government. which are. It charts a prosperous path forward by reforming a tax code that is overly complex and unfair. growing private sector. Individual tax reform: The current code for individuals is too complicated. is nearer at hand than most acknowledge. and innovate in the United States by lowering the corporate rate from 35 percent to a much more competitive 25 percent. Reform the tax code to promote economic growth and job creation This budget recognizes that the nation’s fiscal health requires a vibrant. 2011 24 . When younger workers become eligible for Medicare. It strengthens Medicaid. who will inherit stronger programs they can count on when they retire. in turn. This budget improves incentives for job creators to work. This budget embraces the widely acknowledged principles of pro-growth tax reform by proposing to consolidate tax brackets and lowers tax rates. Reform welfare to strengthen the social safety net This budget builds upon the historic progress of bipartisan welfare reform in the late 1990s. 4.2. Preparing the workforce for a 21st century economy: The government’s dozens of job-training programs suffer from overlapping responsibilities and too often lack accountability. offering instead real security through real reforms. and for future generations. The perverse incentives created by the corporate income tax do a lot of damage. food stamps and job training programs by providing states with greater flexibility to help recipients build self-sufficient futures for themselves and their families. This budget ends an onerous. The framework established in this budget secures health and retirement benefit programs both for current beneficiaries. In addition. enjoying the same kind of choices in their plans that members of Congress enjoy today. Saving Medicare: A flaw in Medicare’s structure is driving up health care costs. Targeting assistance to those in need: The welfare reformers of the 1990s were not able to extend their work beyond cash welfare to other means-tested programs. clearing out the burdensome tangle of loopholes that distort economic activity. threatening to bankrupt the system – and ultimately the nation. Medicare would then provide a payment to subsidize the cost of the plan. one-size-fits-all approach by converting the federal share of Medicaid spending into a block grant that gives states the flexibility to tailor their Medicaid programs to the needs of their unique populations. The government must do a much better job of leveraging and targeting existing resources in this policy area. with a top rate of 25 percent. Repairing a broken Medicaid system: Medicaid’s flawed financing structure has created rapidly rising costs that are nearly impossible to check.

a subtle destroyer of the human spirit… It is in violation of the traditions of America. show conclusively that continued dependence upon relief induces a spiritual and moral disintegration fundamentally destructive to the national fiber. in the Senate and in the White House – now must take up the tools and start building the future Americans deserve. our present and our future. our nation has been marked by hardship. 1935. and each generation has found strength in America’s highest principles and called forth its deepest virtues to make certain that the next generation inherited a stronger. President Franklin Roosevelt – in words later repeated by President Ronald Reagan – warned of the threat to America’s national character from permanent dependency on government: The lessons of history. economic depression. Americans truly face a monumental choice – a choice that can no longer be avoided. and charts a new path to prosperity. The elected representatives of the American people – in the House of Representatives. more prosperous and free America. Each generation has been tested. yet defined by great courage and achievement in monumental efforts. whether civil war. Today. From the beginning. gradual moral-political decline as dependency and passivity weaken the nation’s character and as the power to make decisions is stripped from individuals and their elected representatives and given to non-elected bureaucracies. 2011 25 . assuring this nation’s workers. and weaken its national identity in ways that may not be reversible. While an important statement of priorities. and that it is determined to fulfill its commitments and responsibly restrain government’s growth. a budget is merely a blueprint for the actual work of statecraft. Restoring limits to the size and scope of government is not a partisan issue. In this we face two dangers: long-term economic decline as the number of makers diminishes and the number of takers grows and. This generation must not be the first generation to fail – to break the link between our past. It marks a new federal commitment. and lenders that the new House majority recognizes the threat that unlimited government poses to the American way of life. The Path to Prosperity charts a different course. transform its government. House Budget Committee | April 5. In his State of the Union Address on January 4. This generation’s defining moment has arrived. confirmed by the evidence immediately before me. or military threats from abroad. worse. savers. This budget provides a plan for assuring that this generation upholds America’s historic legacy. rediscovers her abiding principles. the nation’s crushing burden of debt jeopardizes this legacy. Americans have selflessly tackled the difficult challenges before the republic.The Choice Throughout history. The Path to Prosperity is the groundwork for a serious conversation about the future of this exceptional nation.To dole out relief in this way is to administer a narcotic. investors. America is drawing perilously close to a tipping point that has the potential to curtail free enterprise.

9 1.326 13.860 3.5 REVENUES 14.886 14.7 DEFICIT 9.858 3.0 1.618 3.0 19.5 74.9 18.9 2.418 12.5 71.3 17.6 17.8 16.9 19.5 71.3 2.800 15.739 39. S-­‐1 FY2012  CHAIRMAN'S  MARK (NOMINAL  DOLLARS  IN  BILLIONS) 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2012-­‐2021 OUTLAYS 3.0 18.9 20.681 16.217 12.958 REVENUES 2.354 34.2 20.388 -­‐995 -­‐699 -­‐492 -­‐434 -­‐481 -­‐408 -­‐379 -­‐414 -­‐402 -­‐385 -­‐5.8 68.801 13.2 73.4 17.2 20.237 3.533 2.254 15.6 PUBLIC .529 3.671 3.8 1.352 4.9 17.9 19.2 18.2 6.7 67.a.7 DEBT  HELD  BY  THE   68.3 4.8 20.8 17.544 4.2 72.9 17.1 17.7 69.8 74.377 3.088 DEBT  HELD  BY  THE   10. PUBLIC AS  A  SHARE  OF  GDP 10-­‐YEAR 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 AVERAGE OUTLAYS 24.589 3.1 22.559 3.5 2.363 14.586 3.7 19.8 1.351 11.745 3.123 4.939 4.094 3.5 21.071 n.142 4.998 4.870 DEFICIT -­‐1.8 72.7 70.7 20.6 2.230 2.4 2.

938 n.890 -­‐2.511 -­‐1.450 -­‐3.382 DEBT  HELD  BY  THE   -­‐38 -­‐243 -­‐443 -­‐715 -­‐1.406 -­‐1.649 DEBT  HELD  BY  THE   -­‐11 -­‐98 -­‐94 -­‐118 -­‐229 -­‐396 -­‐601 -­‐840 -­‐1.877 -­‐4.a. PUBLIC FY2012  CHAIRMAN'S  MARK  VS.139 -­‐1.162 DEFICIT -­‐11 -­‐86 7 -­‐21 -­‐104 -­‐154 -­‐182 -­‐206 -­‐251 -­‐308 -­‐344 -­‐1.735 n.  PRESIDENT'S  BUDGET (NOMINAL  DOLLARS  IN  BILLIONS) 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2012-­‐2021 OUTLAYS -­‐37 -­‐179 -­‐241 -­‐390 -­‐520 -­‐618 -­‐690 -­‐773 -­‐848 -­‐939 -­‐1.831 DEFICIT -­‐38 -­‐169 -­‐202 -­‐272 -­‐314 -­‐360 -­‐461 -­‐524 -­‐608 -­‐699 -­‐773 -­‐4.214 REVENUES 0 -­‐11 -­‐39 -­‐118 -­‐206 -­‐258 -­‐228 -­‐249 -­‐240 -­‐240 -­‐243 -­‐1.016 -­‐6. PUBLIC . S-­‐2 FY2012  CHAIRMAN'S  MARK  VS.  CBO  BASELINE (NOMINAL  DOLLARS  IN  BILLIONS) 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2012-­‐2021 OUTLAYS -­‐11 -­‐110 -­‐220 -­‐368 -­‐510 -­‐602 -­‐664 -­‐733 -­‐796 -­‐869 -­‐941 -­‐5.110 -­‐3.a.033 -­‐1.812 REVENUES 0 -­‐25 -­‐227 -­‐346 -­‐406 -­‐448 -­‐482 -­‐527 -­‐544 -­‐561 -­‐597 -­‐4.

S-­‐3 FY2012  CHAIRMAN'S  MARK  BY  MAJOR  CATEGORY (NOMINAL  DOLLARS  IN  BILLIONS) 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2021-­‐2022 SECURITY   711 683 679 686 697 714 725 736 757 772 788 7.671 3.586 3.863 OTHER  MANDATORY 489 410 373 309 270 279 264 242 267 268 269 2.058 1.559 3.544 4.123 4.159 MEDICAID 275 259 262 248 243 252 263 265 280 291 305 2.392 PRESIDENT'S  HEALTH   0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 CARE  LAW SOCIAL  SECURITY 727 760 799 841 888 939 995 1.667 MEDICARE 563 560 601 636 666 720 748 776 839 893 953 7.952 NET  INTEREST 212 256 318 387 448 507 558 600 634 666 687 5.618 3.529 3.739 39.236 GLOBAL  WAR  ON   76 118 93 65 54 51 50 50 50 50 50 630 TERROR NON-­‐SECURITY 565 482 435 416 404 396 395 396 402 410 422 4.352 4.060 TOTAL  OUTLAYS 3.266 9.124 1.194 1.958 .858 3.998 4.

617 MEDICAID 0 -­‐1 -­‐13 -­‐45 -­‐63 -­‐73 -­‐82 -­‐102 -­‐112 -­‐131 -­‐150 -­‐771 MEDICARE 0 0 1 3 4 3 0 -­‐3 -­‐9 -­‐14 -­‐17 -­‐30 PRESIDENT'S  HEALTH  CARE  LAW 0 -­‐6 -­‐9 -­‐66 -­‐122 -­‐164 -­‐182 -­‐194 -­‐208 -­‐219 -­‐233 -­‐1.810 NET  INTEREST -­‐2 -­‐4 -­‐10 -­‐22 -­‐41 -­‐64 -­‐93 -­‐125 -­‐161 -­‐200 -­‐244 -­‐965 TOTAL  OUTLAYS -­‐37 -­‐179 -­‐241 -­‐390 -­‐520 -­‐618 -­‐690 -­‐773 -­‐848 -­‐939 -­‐1.403 SOCIAL  SECURITY 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 OTHER  MANDATORY -­‐2 -­‐42 -­‐46 -­‐48 -­‐78 -­‐82 -­‐82 -­‐83 -­‐82 -­‐85 -­‐87 -­‐715 NET  INTEREST 0 -­‐1 -­‐4 -­‐7 -­‐15 -­‐27 -­‐42 -­‐58 -­‐76 -­‐97 -­‐119 -­‐446 TOTAL  OUTLAYS -­‐11 -­‐110 -­‐220 -­‐368 -­‐510 -­‐602 -­‐664 -­‐733 -­‐796 -­‐869 -­‐941 -­‐5.  CBO  BASELINE  BY  MAJOR  CATEGORY (NOMINAL  DOLLARS  IN  BILLIONS) 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2021-­‐2022 SECURITY 4 28 25 27 27 26 24 21 17 12 8 214 GLOBAL  WAR  ON  TERROR 2 -­‐10 -­‐58 -­‐95 -­‐111 -­‐119 -­‐122 -­‐126 -­‐130 -­‐134 -­‐138 -­‐1. S-­‐4 FY2012  CHAIRMAN'S  MARK  VS.016 -­‐6.044 NON-­‐SECURITY -­‐15 -­‐79 -­‐117 -­‐136 -­‐152 -­‐166 -­‐177 -­‐188 -­‐196 -­‐202 -­‐204 -­‐1.812 FY2012  CHAIRMAN'S  MARK  VS.214 .403 SOCIAL  SECURITY -­‐14 0 0 0 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 11 OTHER  MANDATORY -­‐7 -­‐85 -­‐106 -­‐155 -­‐186 -­‐199 -­‐205 -­‐212 -­‐216 -­‐221 -­‐225 -­‐1.  PRESIDENT'S  FY2012  BUDGET  BY  MAJOR  CATEGORY (NOMINAL  DOLLARS  IN  BILLIONS) 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2021-­‐2022 SECURITY 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 GLOBAL  WAR  ON  TERROR 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 NON-­‐SECURITY -­‐14 -­‐72 -­‐79 -­‐78 -­‐83 -­‐90 -­‐95 -­‐102 -­‐105 -­‐113 -­‐106 -­‐923 MEDICAID 0 -­‐1 -­‐14 -­‐44 -­‐61 -­‐69 -­‐77 -­‐97 -­‐106 -­‐125 -­‐140 -­‐735 MEDICARE 0 -­‐12 -­‐22 -­‐25 -­‐28 -­‐32 -­‐38 -­‐44 -­‐54 -­‐63 -­‐71 -­‐389 PRESIDENT'S  HEALTH  CARE  LAW 0 -­‐6 -­‐9 -­‐66 -­‐122 -­‐164 -­‐182 -­‐194 -­‐208 -­‐219 -­‐233 -­‐1.

S-­‐5 CHAIRMAN’S  MARK  VS  STATUS  QUO CBO  LONG-­‐TERM  ANALYSIS PROJECTED 2022 2030 2040 2050 CHAIRMAN'S  MARK TOTAL  REVENUES 18  ½ 19     19     19     TOTAL  SPENDING 20  ¼ 20  ¾ 18  ¾ 14  ¾ DEFICIT  (-­‐)  OR  SURPLUS -­‐2 -­‐1  ¾ ¼ 4  ¼ DEBT  HELD  BY  THE   70 64 48 10 PUBLIC ALTERNATIVE  FISCAL  SCENARIO TOTAL  REVENUES 19  ¼ 19  ¼ 19  ¼ 19  ¼ TOTAL  SPENDING 26  ¾ 32  ¼ 38  ½ 45  ¼ DEFICIT  (-­‐)  OR  SURPLUS -­‐7  ½ -­‐13     -­‐19  ¼ -­‐26     DEBT  HELD  BY  THE   95 146 233 344 PUBLIC .