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UDDD1123_Ch01_Intro_anato_physio_Part_1_

UDDD1123_Ch01_Intro_anato_physio_Part_1_

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Sections

  • An Introduction to the
  • Human Body
  • Levels of Organization
  • Homeostasis
  • Feedback Systems
  • Feedback Systems
  • Homeostatic Imbalances
  • Homeostatic Imbalances
  • Basic Anatomical Terminology
  • Anatomical Position
  • Reclining Position
  • Regional Names
  • Directional Terms
  • Major Directional Terms
  • Superior vs Inferior
  • Dorsal vs Ventral
  • Medial vs Lateral
  • Proximal vs Distal
  • Planes and Sections
  • Sagittal Plane
  • Other Planes and Sections
  • Body Cavities
  • Dorsal Body Cavity
  • Ventral Body
  • Cavity
  • Serous Membranes
  • Ventral Body Cavity
  • Mediastinum
  • Thoracic Cavity
  • Abdominopelvic Cavity

UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011

Topic 1
Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology
Dr. Sit Nam Weng
UDDD1123 Anatomy and
Physiology I
UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011
2
An Introduction to the
Human Body
The purpose of the topic is:
×introduce anatomy and physiology as specific
disciplines
×consider how living things are organized
Anatomy
¤ science of structure
¤ relationships revealed by dissection (cutting apart)
¤ imaging techniques
Physiology
¤ science of body functions
¤ normal adult physiology (include some genetic
variations)
UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011
3
Anatomy and Physiology
Defined
º Through a study of anatomy and its subdivisions, the
body may be examined at different levels of structural
organization.
º Anatomy
= == = the study of structure and the relationships among
structures.
= == = surface anatomy, gross anatomy, systemic
anatomy, regional anatomy, radiographic anatomy,
developmental anatomy, embryology, cytology, and
pathological anatomy.
UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011
4
º Physiology
= == = the study of how body structures function
= == = cell physiology, systems physiology,
pathophysiology, exercise physiology,
neurophysiology, endocrinology,
cardiovascular physiology, immunophysiology,
respiratory physiology, renal physiology, and
reproductive physiology
Anatomy and Physiology
Defined
UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011
5
Levels of Organization
• Chemical
• Cellular
• Tissue
• Organs
• System
level
• Organism
level
UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011
6
O The human body consists of several levels of
structural organization
O The chemical level
×atoms, the smallest units of matter that
participate in chemical reactions, and
molecules, two or more atoms joined together.
O Cells
×the basic structural and functional units of an
organism.
Levels of Organization
UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011
7
O Tissues
×groups of similarly specialized cells and the
substances surrounding them that usually arise
from a common ancestor and perform certain
special functions.
O Organs
×structures of definite form that are composed of
two or more different tissues and have specific
functions.
O Systems
×related organs that have a common function.
O The human organism
×a collection of structurally and functionally
integrated systems; any living individual.
UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011
8
Organ
Systems
UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011
9
The systems of the human body are the..
1. integumentary
2. skeletal
3. muscular
4. nervous
5. endocrine
6. cardiovascular
7. lymphatic
8. respiratory
9. urinary
10. digestive
11. reproductive
Levels of Organization
UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011
10
Characteristics of the Living
Human Organism
+ All living things have certain characteristics that
distinguish them from non-living things.
Metabolism
Responsiveness
Movement
Growth
Differentiation
Reproduction
UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011
11
Basic Life Processes
• All living things have certain characteristics that
distinguish them from nonliving things.
• Metabolism is the sum of all chemical processes
that occur in the body, including catabolism and
anabolism.
• Responsiveness is the ability to detect and respond
to changes in the external or internal environment.
• Movement includes motion of the whole body,
individual organs, single cells, or even organelles
inside cells.
UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011
12
Basic Life Processes
• Growth refers to an increase in size and complexity,
due to an increase in the number of cells, size of
cells, or both.
• Differentiation is the change in a cell from an
unspecialized state to a specialized state.
• Reproduction refers either to the formation of new
cells for growth, repair, or replacement, or the
production of a new individual.
UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011
13
Homeostasis
Q Homeostasis is a condition of
equilibrium in the body’s internal
environment produced by the
ceaseless interplay of all the body’s
regulatory processes.
Q Maintaining the internal environment
within physiological limits
Q First described by Claude Bernard
(1813-1878), a French physiologist
Q Process named by Walter Bradford
Cannon (1871-1945), an American
physiologist
Claude Bernard
Walter Bradford Cannon
UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011
14
Control of Homeostasis
O Homeostasis is continually being disrupted by
¤ external stimuli
• intense heat, cold, and lack of oxygen
¤ internal stimuli
• psychological stresses, exercise
O Disruptions are usually mild & temporary
O If homeostasis is not maintained,
death may result.
UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011
15
O Homeostatic imbalances occur because of disruptions
from the external or internal environments.
º Homeostasis is regulated by the nervous system
and endocrine system, acting together or
independently.
º The nervous system detects changes and sends
nerve impulses to counteract the disruption.
º The endocrine system regulates homeostasis by
secreting hormones.
O Whereas nerve impulses cause rapid changes,
hormones usually work more slowly.
O Examples: CO
2
, O
2
, temperature, pH, blood pressure
Control of Homeostasis
UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011
16
Feedback Systems
O General Principles
• A feedback system is a cycle of events in which
information about the status of a condition is
continually monitored and fed back (reported)
to a central control region.
• Any disruption that changes a controlled
condition is called a stimulus
O Three basic components of the Feedback System:
UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011
17
Feedback Systems...
+ A receptor monitors changes in a controlled
condition and sends input in the form of nerve
impulses or chemical signals to a control center.
+ The control center sets the range of values within
which a controlled condition should be
maintained, evaluates the input it receives from
the receptors, and generates output commands
when they are needed.
+ An effector is a body structure that receives
output from the control center and produces a
response or effect that changes the controlled
condition.
UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011
18
Components of Feedback Loop
O Receptor
× monitors a controlled
condition
O Control center
× determines next action
O Effector
× receives directions
from the control center
× produces a response
that changes the
controlled condition
UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011
19
Components of
Feedback Loop
O If a response reverses
the original stimulus,
the system is a
negative feedback
system.
O If a response
enhances the original
stimulus, the system is
a positive feedback
system.
UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011
20
O Pressure receptors in
walls of certain arteries
detect an increase in
BP
¤ Blood Pressure =
force of blood on
walls of vessels
O Brain receives input
and then signals heart
and blood vessels
¤ Heart rate slows and
arterioles dilate
O BP returns to normal
Negative Feedback of
Blood Pressure
UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011
21
O Stretch receptors in walls
of the uterus send
signals to the brain
O Brain releases a hormone
(oxytocin) into
bloodstream
O Uterine smooth muscle
contracts more forcefully
O More stretch ¬ ¬¬ ¬more
hormone ¬ ¬¬ ¬more
contraction ¬ ¬¬ ¬etc.
O Cycle ends with birth of
the baby & decrease in
stretch
Positive Feedback
during Childbirth
UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011
22
Homeostatic Imbalances
O Disruption of homeostasis can lead to disease and
death.
O Disorder is a general term for any derangement of
abnormality of function.
O Disease is a more specific term for an illness
characterized by a recognizable set of signs and
symptoms.
¤ A local disease is one that affects one part or a
limited region of the body.
¤ A systemic disease affects either the entire
body or several parts.
UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011
23
Homeostatic Imbalances...
O Disease is a more specific term for an illness
characterized by a recognizable set of signs and
symptoms.
¤ Signs are objective changes that a clinician can
observe and measure; e.g., fever or rash.
¤ Symptoms are subjective changes in body
functions that are not apparent to an observer;
e.g., headache or nausea.
O Diagnosis is the art of distinguishing one disease
from another or determining the nature of a
disease; a diagnosis is generally arrived at after
the taking of a medical history and the
administration of a physical examination.
UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011
24
Basic Anatomical Terminology
O Anatomical position
O Regions of the body
O Anatomical planes, sections and directional
terms
UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011
25
Anatomical Position
The anatomical position is a
standardized method of observing
or imaging the body that allows
precise and consistent anatomical
references.
¤ When in the anatomical position,
the subject stands:
• standing upright
• facing the observer, head level
• eyes facing forward
• feet flat on the floor
• arms at the sides
• palms turned forward (ventral)
UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011
26
Reclining Position
O If the body is lying
face down, it is in
the prone position.
O If the body is lying
face up, it is in the
supine position.
UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011
27
Regional Names
O Regional names are names given to specific
regions of the body for reference.
O Examples are:
cranial (skull),
thoracic (chest),
brachial (arm),
patellar (knee),
cephalic (head), and
gluteal (buttock)
O Clinical terminology is based on a Greek or Latin
root word.
UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011
28
Regional names
UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011
29
Directional Terms
O Directional terms are used to precisely locate one
part of the body relative to another and to reduce
length of explanations.
O Commonly used directional terms:
superior, inferior, anterior, posterior, medial,
lateral, intermediate, ipsilateral, contralateral,
proximal, distal, superficial and deep.
UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011
30
Major Directional Terms
UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011
31
Superior vs Inferior
O Superior
¤ towards the head
¤ The eyes are
superior to the
mouth.
O Inferior
· away from the
head
· The stomach is
inferior to the
heart.
UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011
32
O Dorsal or Posterior
¤ at the back of the body
¤ The brain is posterior
to the forehead.
O Ventral or Anterior
¤ at the front of the body
¤ The sternum is anterior
to the heart.
Dorsal vs Ventral
UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011
33
Medial vs Lateral
O Medial
º nearer to the
midline of the
body
º The heart lies
medial to the
lungs.
O Lateral
º farther from the
midline of the
body
º The thumb is on
the lateral side of
the hand.
UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011
34
Proximal vs Distal
O Proximal
nearer to the attachment
of the limb to the trunk
The knee is proximal to
the ankle.
O Distal
farther from the
attachment of the limb
to the trunk
The wrist is distal to the
elbow.
UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011
35
Planes and Sections
O Planes are imaginary flat surfaces that are used to
divide the body or organs into definite areas
O Principal planes include:
· midsagittal (medial) and parasagittal
· frontal (coronal)
· transverse (cross-sectional or horizontal)
· oblique
O Sections
+ flat surfaces resulting from cuts through body
structures, named according to the plane on which
the cut is made (transverse, frontal, and
midsagittal sections)
UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011
36
Sagittal Plane
O Sagittal plane
¤ divides the body
or an organ into
left and right sides
O Midsagittal plane
¤ produces equal
halves
O Parasagittal plane
¤ produces unequal
halves
UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011
37
Other Planes and Sections
O Frontal or coronal plane
¤ divides the body or an
organ into front (anterior)
and back (posterior)
portions
O Transverse (cross-sectional)
or horizontal plane
¤ divides the body or an
organ into upper
(superior) or lower
(inferior) portions
O Oblique plane
¤ some combination of 2
other planes
UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011
38
Planes and Sections of the Brain
UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011
39
Body Cavities
O Body cavities are spaces within the body that
help protect, separate, and support internal
organs.
UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011
40
Dorsal Body Cavity
O Located near dorsal
surface of body.
O 2 subdivisions
¤ cranial cavity
• holds the brain
• formed by skull
¤ vertebral or spinal canal
• contains the spinal
cord
• formed by vertebral
column
O 3-layered meninges line
dorsal body cavity
UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011
41
Ventral Body
Cavity
O Near ventral surface of
body
O 2 subdivisions
¤ thoracic cavity above
diaphragm
¤ abdominopelvic cavity
below diaphragm
O Diaphragm = large, dome-
shaped muscle
O Organs called viscera
O Organs covered with
serous membrane
UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011
42
Serous Membranes
O Thin slippery membrane lines body cavities not
open to the outside
¤ parietal layer lines walls of cavities
¤ visceral layer covers viscera within the
cavities
O Serous fluid reduces friction.
UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011
43
Ventral Body Cavity
O The thoracic cavity contains two pleural cavities, and
the mediastinum, which includes the pericardial cavity.
¤ The pleural cavities enclose the lungs.
¤ The pericardial cavity surrounds the heart.
O The abdominopelvic cavity is divided into a superior
abdominal and an inferior pelvic cavity.
· Viscera of the abdominal cavity include the
stomach, spleen, pancreas, liver, gallbladder, small
intestine, and most of the large intestine.
· Viscera of the pelvic cavity include the urinary
bladder, portions of the large intestine and internal
female and male reproductive structures.
UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011
44
Mediastinum
The mediastinum is a broad, median partition between the
lungs that extends from the sternum to the vertebral column,
it contains all contents of the thoracic cavity [heart and great
vessels, esophagus, trachea, thymus] except the lungs.
UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011
45
Thoracic Cavity
O Encircled by ribs, sternum, vertebral column and muscle
O Divided into 2 pleural cavities by mediastinum
O Mediastinum contains all thoracic organs except lungs
UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011
46
Abdominopelvic Cavity
O Inferior portion of
ventral body cavity
below diaphragm
O Encircled by
abdominal wall,
bones & muscles of
pelvis
UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011
47
Thoracic and Abdominal
Cavity Membranes
O A thin, slippery serous membrane covers the
viscera within the thoracic and abdominal cavities
and also lines the walls of the thorax and
abdomen.
O Parts of the serous membrane
¤ the parietal layer lines the walls of the cavities
¤ the visceral layer covers and adheres to the
viscera within the cavities.
O Serous fluid between the two layers reduces
friction and allows the viscera to slide somewhat
during movements.
UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011
48
Serous Membranes
O The serous membranes include the pleura, pericardium
and peritoneum .
O The pleural membrane surrounds the lungs
¤ visceral pleura clings to the surface of the lungs
¤ parietal pleura lines the chest wall
O The pericardium is the serous membrane of the
pericardial cavity
¤ visceral pericardium covers the surface of the heart
¤ parietal pericardium lines the chest wall
O The peritoneum is the serous membrane of the abdominal
cavity
¤ visceral peritoneum covers the abdominal viscera
¤ parietal peritoneum lines the abdominal wall

UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011

An Introduction to the Human Body
The purpose of the topic is: introduce anatomy and physiology as specific disciplines consider how living things are organized Anatomy science of structure relationships revealed by dissection (cutting apart) imaging techniques Physiology science of body functions normal adult physiology (include some genetic 2 variations)

UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011

Anatomy and Physiology Defined
Through a study of anatomy and its subdivisions, the body may be examined at different levels of structural organization. Anatomy the study of structure and the relationships among structures. surface anatomy, gross anatomy, systemic anatomy, regional anatomy, radiographic anatomy, developmental anatomy, embryology, cytology, and pathological anatomy.
3

UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011

Anatomy and Physiology Defined
Physiology the study of how body structures function cell physiology, systems physiology, pathophysiology, exercise physiology, neurophysiology, endocrinology, cardiovascular physiology, immunophysiology, respiratory physiology, renal physiology, and reproductive physiology

4

UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011 Levels of Organization • • • • • Chemical Cellular Tissue Organs System level • Organism level 5 .

6 . Cells the basic structural and functional units of an organism. the smallest units of matter that participate in chemical reactions.UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011 Levels of Organization The human body consists of several levels of structural organization The chemical level atoms. and molecules. two or more atoms joined together.

Organs structures of definite form that are composed of two or more different tissues and have specific functions. 7 . Systems related organs that have a common function.UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011 Tissues groups of similarly specialized cells and the substances surrounding them that usually arise from a common ancestor and perform certain special functions. any living individual. The human organism a collection of structurally and functionally integrated systems.

UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011 Organ Systems 8 .

skeletal 3.UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011 Levels of Organization The systems of the human body are the. endocrine 6. reproductive 9 . digestive 11. 1.. muscular 4. respiratory 9. lymphatic 8. integumentary 2. urinary 10. cardiovascular 7. nervous 5.

Metabolism Responsiveness Movement Growth Differentiation Reproduction 10 .UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011 Characteristics of the Living Human Organism All living things have certain characteristics that distinguish them from non-living things.

11 . including catabolism and anabolism. • Metabolism is the sum of all chemical processes that occur in the body. • Movement includes motion of the whole body. • Responsiveness is the ability to detect and respond to changes in the external or internal environment. or even organelles inside cells. individual organs. single cells.UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011 Basic Life Processes • All living things have certain characteristics that distinguish them from nonliving things.

or both. due to an increase in the number of cells. 12 . • Differentiation is the change in a cell from an unspecialized state to a specialized state. size of cells. or the production of a new individual.UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011 Basic Life Processes • Growth refers to an increase in size and complexity. or replacement. • Reproduction refers either to the formation of new cells for growth. repair.

UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011 Homeostasis Homeostasis is a condition of equilibrium in the body’s internal environment produced by the ceaseless interplay of all the body’s regulatory processes. Maintaining the internal environment within physiological limits First described by Claude Bernard (1813-1878). an American physiologist Claude Bernard Walter Bradford Cannon 13 . a French physiologist Process named by Walter Bradford Cannon (1871-1945).

UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011 Control of Homeostasis Homeostasis is continually being disrupted by external stimuli • intense heat. death may result. exercise Disruptions are usually mild & temporary If homeostasis is not maintained. cold. 14 . and lack of oxygen internal stimuli • psychological stresses.

The nervous system detects changes and sends nerve impulses to counteract the disruption. temperature. Examples: CO2. acting together or independently.UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011 Control of Homeostasis Homeostatic imbalances occur because of disruptions from the external or internal environments. Homeostasis is regulated by the nervous system and endocrine system. blood pressure 15 . pH. Whereas nerve impulses cause rapid changes. The endocrine system regulates homeostasis by secreting hormones. O2. hormones usually work more slowly.

UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011 Feedback Systems General Principles • A feedback system is a cycle of events in which information about the status of a condition is continually monitored and fed back (reported) to a central control region. • Any disruption that changes a controlled condition is called a stimulus Three basic components of the Feedback System: 16 .

17 . A receptor monitors changes in a controlled condition and sends input in the form of nerve impulses or chemical signals to a control center.. An effector is a body structure that receives output from the control center and produces a response or effect that changes the controlled condition. and generates output commands when they are needed..UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011 Feedback Systems. The control center sets the range of values within which a controlled condition should be maintained. evaluates the input it receives from the receptors.

UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011 Components of Feedback Loop Receptor monitors a controlled condition Control center determines next action Effector receives directions from the control center produces a response that changes the controlled condition 18 .

the system is a positive feedback system. the system is a negative feedback system.UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011 Components of Feedback Loop If a response reverses the original stimulus. 19 . If a response enhances the original stimulus.

Negative Feedback of Blood Pressure Pressure receptors in walls of certain arteries detect an increase in BP Blood Pressure = force of blood on walls of vessels Brain receives input and then signals heart and blood vessels Heart rate slows and arterioles dilate BP returns to normal 20 UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011 .

Positive Feedback during Childbirth UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011 Stretch receptors in walls of the uterus send signals to the brain Brain releases a hormone (oxytocin) into bloodstream Uterine smooth muscle contracts more forcefully More stretch more hormone more contraction etc. Cycle ends with birth of the baby & decrease in 21 stretch .

A local disease is one that affects one part or a limited region of the body. Disease is a more specific term for an illness characterized by a recognizable set of signs and symptoms. A systemic disease affects either the entire body or several parts.UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011 Homeostatic Imbalances Disruption of homeostasis can lead to disease and death. Disorder is a general term for any derangement of abnormality of function. 22 .

fever or rash. e. Symptoms are subjective changes in body functions that are not apparent to an observer.g. headache or nausea.. Diagnosis is the art of distinguishing one disease from another or determining the nature of a disease. Disease is a more specific term for an illness characterized by a recognizable set of signs and symptoms. e..g. a diagnosis is generally arrived at after the taking of a medical history and the 23 administration of a physical examination. Signs are objective changes that a clinician can observe and measure. ...UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011 Homeostatic Imbalances.

sections and directional terms 24 .UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011 Basic Anatomical Terminology Anatomical position Regions of the body Anatomical planes.

the subject stands: • standing upright • facing the observer.UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011 Anatomical Position The anatomical position is a standardized method of observing or imaging the body that allows precise and consistent anatomical references. When in the anatomical position. head level • eyes facing forward • feet flat on the floor • arms at the sides 25 • palms turned forward (ventral) .

it is in the supine position. 26 . If the body is lying face up.UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011 Reclining Position If the body is lying face down. it is in the prone position.

27 . Examples are: cranial (skull). cephalic (head).UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011 Regional Names Regional names are names given to specific regions of the body for reference. and gluteal (buttock) Clinical terminology is based on a Greek or Latin root word. thoracic (chest). patellar (knee). brachial (arm).

UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011 Regional names 28 .

medial. superficial and deep. anterior. ipsilateral. intermediate. contralateral. distal. lateral. proximal. Commonly used directional terms: superior. 29 . inferior.UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011 Directional Terms Directional terms are used to precisely locate one part of the body relative to another and to reduce length of explanations. posterior.

UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011 Major Directional Terms 30 .

Inferior away from the head The stomach is inferior to the heart.UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011 Superior vs Inferior Superior towards the head The eyes are superior to the mouth. 31 .

32 .UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011 Dorsal vs Ventral Dorsal or Posterior at the back of the body The brain is posterior to the forehead. Ventral or Anterior at the front of the body The sternum is anterior to the heart.

33 . Lateral farther from the midline of the body The thumb is on the lateral side of the hand.UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011 Medial vs Lateral Medial nearer to the midline of the body The heart lies medial to the lungs.

34 . Distal farther from the attachment of the limb to the trunk The wrist is distal to the elbow.UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011 Proximal vs Distal Proximal nearer to the attachment of the limb to the trunk The knee is proximal to the ankle.

frontal.UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011 Planes and Sections Planes are imaginary flat surfaces that are used to divide the body or organs into definite areas Principal planes include: midsagittal (medial) and parasagittal frontal (coronal) transverse (cross-sectional or horizontal) oblique Sections flat surfaces resulting from cuts through body structures. and 35 midsagittal sections) . named according to the plane on which the cut is made (transverse.

UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011 Sagittal Plane Sagittal plane divides the body or an organ into left and right sides Midsagittal plane produces equal halves Parasagittal plane produces unequal 36 halves .

UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011 Other Planes and Sections Frontal or coronal plane divides the body or an organ into front (anterior) and back (posterior) portions Transverse (cross-sectional) or horizontal plane divides the body or an organ into upper (superior) or lower (inferior) portions Oblique plane some combination of 2 37 other planes .

UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011 Planes and Sections of the Brain 38 .

UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011 Body Cavities Body cavities are spaces within the body that help protect. separate. 39 . and support internal organs.

2 subdivisions cranial cavity • holds the brain • formed by skull vertebral or spinal canal • contains the spinal cord • formed by vertebral column 3-layered meninges line dorsal body cavity 40 .UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011 Dorsal Body Cavity Located near dorsal surface of body.

UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011 Ventral Body Cavity Near ventral surface of body 2 subdivisions thoracic cavity above diaphragm abdominopelvic cavity below diaphragm Diaphragm = large. domeshaped muscle Organs called viscera Organs covered with serous membrane 41 .

42 .UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011 Serous Membranes Thin slippery membrane lines body cavities not open to the outside parietal layer lines walls of cavities visceral layer covers viscera within the cavities Serous fluid reduces friction.

43 .UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011 Ventral Body Cavity The thoracic cavity contains two pleural cavities. spleen. Viscera of the abdominal cavity include the stomach. The abdominopelvic cavity is divided into a superior abdominal and an inferior pelvic cavity. pancreas. liver. The pleural cavities enclose the lungs. which includes the pericardial cavity. portions of the large intestine and internal female and male reproductive structures. and the mediastinum. gallbladder. Viscera of the pelvic cavity include the urinary bladder. small intestine. The pericardial cavity surrounds the heart. and most of the large intestine.

thymus] except the lungs.UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011 Mediastinum The mediastinum is a broad. esophagus. median partition between the lungs that extends from the sternum to the vertebral column. it contains all contents of the thoracic cavity [heart and great 44 vessels. trachea. .

UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011 Thoracic Cavity Encircled by ribs. vertebral column and muscle Divided into 2 pleural cavities by mediastinum Mediastinum contains all thoracic organs except lungs 45 . sternum.

UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011 Abdominopelvic Cavity Inferior portion of ventral body cavity below diaphragm Encircled by abdominal wall. bones & muscles of pelvis 46 .

Parts of the serous membrane the parietal layer lines the walls of the cavities the visceral layer covers and adheres to the viscera within the cavities.UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011 Thoracic and Abdominal Cavity Membranes A thin. 47 . slippery serous membrane covers the viscera within the thoracic and abdominal cavities and also lines the walls of the thorax and abdomen. Serous fluid between the two layers reduces friction and allows the viscera to slide somewhat during movements.

pericardium and peritoneum .UDDD1123 Session Jan 2011 Serous Membranes The serous membranes include the pleura. The pleural membrane surrounds the lungs visceral pleura clings to the surface of the lungs parietal pleura lines the chest wall The pericardium is the serous membrane of the pericardial cavity visceral pericardium covers the surface of the heart parietal pericardium lines the chest wall The peritoneum is the serous membrane of the abdominal cavity visceral peritoneum covers the abdominal viscera 48 parietal peritoneum lines the abdominal wall .

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