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minhas lindas figuras

“M inha linda figura” era o título padrão que costumava usar para as figuras antes que esti-
vessem terminadas. Na época meu principal problema era a construção de diagramas de
circuitos eletrônicos e, como solução, encontrei o conjunto de macros circuit_macros escritos em lingua-
gem m4 por J. D. Aplevich (ece.uwaterloo.ca/~aplevich/Circuit_macros/). Reuni aqui a maior
parte das figuras que fiz nos últimos 10 anos. Uma parte delas foi feita com estas macros.
A maioria das figuras, no entanto, foi escrita em PStricks (http://www.tug.org/PSTricks/). Aviso
aos navegantes que nenhum dos códigos foi revisado ou escrito para ser didático. Alguns códigos eram
muito longos e resolvi colocar apenas a figura, caso se interessem por umas destas figuras cujo código
não está disponível, enviarei por email (leite.andre@gmail.com).
A numeração de uma figura e de seu código é a mesma, embora o código as vezes apareça uma ou
duas páginas depois. No total são 125 figuras, dais quais 79 foram escritas em PSTricks.

Recife, 02 de fevereiro de 2011


André Leite

1
2

n Σ

1 1 1

2 2 1 2

3 3 2 2 2 1 5

4 4 3 3 3 15

Figura 1: Tree structure.

Código da Figura .1 Código em PStricks.


\newrgbcolor{gray}{.8 .8 .8}
\newcommand{\estado}[3]{\rput(#1,#2){\pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=gray]
(0,0){.25cm}\rput[c](0,0){#3}}}
\begin{pspicture}(-8,0)(5,4.5)
5 \psline(0,3)(2,2)(3,1)\psline(0,3)(-2,2)(-4,1)(-6,0)\psline(2,2)(1,1)%
\psline(-2,2)(-1,1)\psline(-2,2)(-2,1)\psline(-4,1)(-3,0)\psline(-4,1)(-4,0)%
\psline(-4,1)(-5,0)\rput[c](5,3){1}\rput[c](5,2){2}%
\rput[c](5,1){5}\rput[c](5,0){15}\rput[c](-8,3){1}
\rput[c](-8,2){2}\rput[c](-8,1){3}\rput[c](-8,0){4}%
10 \rput[c](-8,4){$n$}\rput[c](5,4){$\Sigma$}%
\psline[linestyle=dotted,linecolor=black](-2,1)(-2,0.2)%
\psline[linestyle=dotted,linecolor=black](-1,1)(-1,0.2)%
\psline[linestyle=dotted,linecolor=black](1,1)(1,0.2)%
\psline[linestyle=dotted,linecolor=black](3,1)(3,0.2)%
15 \psline[linestyle=dotted,linecolor=gray](-7.5,3)(4.5,3)%
\psline[linestyle=dotted,linecolor=gray](-7.5,2)(4.5,2)%
\psline[linestyle=dotted,linecolor=gray](-7.5,1)(4.5,1)%
\psline[linestyle=dotted,linecolor=gray](-7.5,0)(4.5,0)
\estado{0}{3}{1}%
20 \estado{2}{2}{1}%
\estado{-2}{2}{2}%
\estado{3}{1}{1}%
\estado{1}{1}{2}%
\estado{-1}{1}{2}%
25 \estado{-2}{1}{2}%
\estado{-4}{1}{3}%
\estado{-3}{0}{3}%
\estado{-4}{0}{3}%
\estado{-5}{0}{3}%
30 \estado{-6}{0}{4}%
\end{pspicture}
3

n+1 n n

1 n

Figura 2: A closer view.

Código da Figura .2 Código em PStricks.


\newrgbcolor{gray}{.8 .8 .8}
\newcommand{\estado}[3]{\rput(#1,#2){%
\pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=gray](0,0){.25cm}\rput[c](0,0){#3}}}%
\newcommand{\estadot}[3]{\rput(#1,#2){%
5 \pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white,linestyle=dotted](0,0){.25cm}%
\rput[c](0,0){#3}}}%
\newcommand{\estador}[4]{\rput(#1,#2){%
\pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=gray](0,0){#4}\rput[c](0,0){#3}}}%
\begin{pspicture}(-5,-1)(5,3.5)
10 \psbrace[ref=ct,rot=90,nodesepB=5pt](0,0)(3,0){$n$}
\psbrace[ref=ct,rot=90,nodesepB=5pt](-2,0)(-1,0){1}
\psline(0,2)(2.5,.5)\psline(0,2)(.5,.5)\psline(0,2)(-1.5,.5)%
\psline[linestyle=dotted](0,2)(1.5,.5)%
\estado{0}{2}{$n$}\estado{2.5}{.5}{$n$}\estado{.5}{.5}{$n$}
15 \estadot{1.5}{.5}{}\estador{-1.5}{.5}{{\scriptsize $n+1$}}{.4cm}
\end{pspicture}

8 6 9

2 3
24

12

1 3

 1
A = 1, 2, 3, 6, 8, 9 
A= 1, 3, 6, 12, 24

x•y ⇔ x|y x•y ⇔ x|y

Figura 3: Diagrama de Hasse. Figura 4: Diagrama de Hasse.


4

Código da Figura .3 Código em PStricks.


\def\raio{0.075}
\psset{xunit=1.5cm,yunit=1.5cm}
\newrgbcolor{gray1}{.6 .6 .6}
\newrgbcolor{gray2}{.8 .8 .8}
5 \begin{pspicture}(-3,-1.25)(3,2.5)
\psline(0,0)(-.75,1)\psline(0,0)(.75,1)\psline(-.75,1)(-1.5,2)%
\psline(-.75,1)(0,2)\psline(.75,1)(1.5,2)\psline(.75,1)(0,2)%
\pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=gray2](0,0){\raio}%
\pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=gray2](-.75,1){\raio}%
10 \pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=gray2](.75,1){\raio}%
\pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=gray2](-1.5,2){\raio}%
\pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=gray2](0,2){\raio}%
\pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=gray2](1.5,2){\raio}%
\rput[c](0,-0.25){\scriptsize $1$}%
15 \rput[c](0,2.25){\scriptsize $6$}%
\rput[c](-1,1){\scriptsize $2$}%
\rput[c](1,1){\scriptsize $3$}%
\rput[c](-1.5,2.25){\scriptsize $8$}%
\rput[c](1.5,2.25){\scriptsize $9$}%
20 \rput[c](0,-.75){\scriptsize $\mathcal{A}=\big\{1,2,3,6,8,9\big\}$}%
\rput[c](0,-1.25){\scriptsize $x\bullet y \Leftrightarrow x\mathbin{|}y$}%
\end{pspicture}

Código da Figura .4 Código em PStricks.


\def\raio{0.075}
\psset{xunit=1cm,yunit=1cm}
\newrgbcolor{gray1}{.6 .6 .6}
\newrgbcolor{gray2}{.8 .8 .8}
5 \begin{pspicture}(-3,-1.5)(3,2.5)
\psline(0,0)(0,2)%
\pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=gray2](0,0){\raio}%
\pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=gray2](0,.5){\raio}%
\pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=gray2](0,1){\raio}%
10 \pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=gray2](0,1.5){\raio}%
\pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=gray2](0,2){\raio}%
\rput[l](0.2,0){\scriptsize $1$}%
\rput[l](0.2,.5){\scriptsize $3$}%
\rput[l](0.2,1){\scriptsize $6$}%
15 \rput[l](0.2,1.5){\scriptsize $12$}%
\rput[l](0.2,2){\scriptsize $24$}%
\rput[c](0,-.5){\scriptsize $\mathcal{A}=\big\{1,3,6,12,24\big\}$}%
\rput[c](0,-1.0){\scriptsize $x\bullet y \Leftrightarrow x\mathbin{|}y$}%
\end{pspicture}
5

{a, b, c}

{a, b} {b, c}
{a, c}
{a, b}
{a} {b} {c}

{a} {b}




 A = a, b, c
A = a, b

X, Y ⊂ P(A) X, Y ⊂ P(A)

X◦Y⇔X⊂Y X◦Y⇔X⊂Y

Figura 5: Diagrama de Hasse. Figura 6: Diagrama de Hasse.

Código da Figura .5 Código em PStricks.


\def\raio{0.075}
\psset{xunit=1cm,yunit=1cm}
\newrgbcolor{gray1}{.6 .6 .6}
\newrgbcolor{gray2}{.8 .8 .8}
5 \begin{pspicture}(-3,-2)(3,2.5)

\psline(0,0)(1,.75)(0,1.5)(-1,.75)(0,0)%

\pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=gray2](0,0){\raio}%
10 \pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=gray2](-1,.75){\raio}%
\pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=gray2](1,.75){\raio}%
\pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=gray2](0,1.5){\raio}%

\rput[c](0,-.25){\scriptsize $\varnothing$}%
15 \rput[c](-1.4,.75){\scriptsize $\{a\}$}%
\rput[c](1.4,.75){\scriptsize $\{b\}$}%
\rput[c](0,1.75){\scriptsize $\{a,b\}$}%
\rput[c](0,-.75){\scriptsize $\mathcal{A}=\big\{a,b\big\}$}%
\rput[c](0,-1.25){\scriptsize %
20 $\mathcal{X},\mathcal{Y}\subset\mathscr{P}(\mathcal{A})$}%
\rput[c](0,-1.75){\scriptsize %
$\mathcal{X}\circ\mathcal{Y}\Leftrightarrow\mathcal{X}\subset\mathcal{Y}$}%
\end{pspicture}
6

Código da Figura .6 Código em PStricks.


\def\raio{0.075}
\psset{xunit=1.1cm,yunit=1.1cm}
\newrgbcolor{gray1}{.6 .6 .6}
\newrgbcolor{gray2}{.8 .8 .8}
5 \begin{pspicture}(-3,-2)(3,4)

\psline(0,0)(1.5,1)%
\psline(0,0)(-1.5,1)%
\psline(0,0)(0,1)%
10 \psline(-1.5,1)(-.75,2)%
\psline(-1.5,1)(0,2)%
\psline(0,1)(-.75,2)%
\psline(0,1)(.75,2)%
\psline(1.5,1)(0,2)%
15 \psline(1.5,1)(.75,2)%
\psline(-.75,2)(0,3)%
\psline(.75,2)(0,3)%
\psline(0,2)(0,3)%

20 \pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=gray2](0,0){\raio}%
\pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=gray2](-1.5,1){\raio}%
\pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=gray2](0,1){\raio}%
\pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=gray2](1.5,1){\raio}%
\pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=gray2](-.75,2){\raio}%
25 \pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=gray2](0,2){\raio}%
\pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=gray2](.75,2){\raio}%

\pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=gray2](0,3){\raio}%

30 \rput[c](0,-.25){\scriptsize $\varnothing$}%
\rput[c](-1.9,1){\scriptsize $\{a\}$}%
\rput[c](1.9,1){\scriptsize $\{c\}$}%
\rput[c](-.3,.9){\scriptsize $\{b\}$}%
\rput[c](-1.25,2){\scriptsize $\{a,b\}$}%
35 \rput[c](1.25,2){\scriptsize $\{b,c\}$}%
\rput[c](0,1.65){\scriptsize $\{a,c\}$}%
\rput[c](0,3.25){\scriptsize $\{a,b,c\}$}%
\rput[c](0,-.75){\scriptsize $\mathcal{A}=\big\{a,b,c\big\}$}%
\rput[c](0,-1.25){\scriptsize %
40 $\mathcal{X},\mathcal{Y}\subset\mathscr{P}(\mathcal{A})$}%
\rput[c](0,-1.75){\scriptsize %
$\mathcal{X}\circ\mathcal{Y}\Leftrightarrow\mathcal{X}\subset\mathcal{Y}$}%
\end{pspicture}
7

L(θ)

Distribuição para θ1

Distribuição para θ2

θ IE(θ̂) max{x1 , . . . , xn } θ

Figura 7: Um estimador viesado θ1 que possui uma Figura 8: Função de verosimilhança.


variância menor que um estimador não viesado θ2 .

Código da Figura .7 Código em PStricks.


\scriptsize%
\psset{xunit=1.25cm,yunit=1.25cm,labelFontSize=\scriptsize}%
\begin{pspicture}(0,-0.25)(4,3)
\psline[linewidth=1pt]{->}(0,0)(4,0)
5 \psplot[linecolor=orange,linewidth=1pt,plotpoints=150]{0.25}{3.75}%
{2 PI .75 mul mul -0.5 exp x 2 sub 2 div .75 1 exp div 2 exp neg EXP mul 1.5 mul}%
\psplot[linecolor=orange,linewidth=1pt,plotpoints=150]{0.25}{3.75}%
{2 PI .1 mul mul -0.5 exp x 2.5 sub 2 div .1 1 exp div 2 exp neg EXP mul 1.5 mul}%
\rput[t]{0}(2,-.1){\scriptsize\sffamily $\theta$}%
10 \rput[t]{0}(2.5,-.05){\scriptsize\sffamily $\E(\hat{\theta})$}%
\psline[linewidth=1pt,linecolor=gray,linestyle=dotted]{-}%
(!2 2 PI .75 mul mul -0.5 exp 2 2 sub 2 div .75 1
exp div 2 exp neg EXP mul 1.5 mul)(!2 0)
\psline[linewidth=1pt,linecolor=gray,linestyle=dotted]{-}%
15 (!2.5 2 PI .1 mul mul -0.5 exp 2.5 2.5 sub 2 div .1 1
exp div 2 exp neg EXP mul 1.5 mul)(!2.5 0)
\rput[l]{0}(2.7,1.6){\scriptsize\sffamily Distribuição para $\theta_1$}%
\rput[l]{0}(3,.55){\scriptsize\sffamily Distribuição para $\theta_2$}%
\end{pspicture}%

Código da Figura .8 Código em PStricks.


\scriptsize%
\psset{xunit=1.25cm,yunit=1.25cm,labelFontSize=\scriptsize}%
\begin{pspicture}(0,-.25)(4,2.25)
\psaxes[ labels=none, ticks=none, linewidth=1pt, arrowscale=1.2]{->}(0,0)(4,2)%
5 \psline[linestyle=dashed,linecolor=gray](!.5 1 .5 .3 add 2 exp div)(.5,0)
\psplot[linecolor=orange,linewidth=1pt,plotpoints=150]{.5}{3.75}%
{1 x .3 add 2 exp div}%
\rput[l]{0}(.5,-.2){\scriptsize\sffamily $\max\{x_1,\dots,x_n\}$}%
\rput[l]{0}(4,-.1){\scriptsize\sffamily $\theta$}%
10 \rput[r]{0}(-.1,2){\scriptsize\sffamily $L(\theta)$}%
\end{pspicture}%
8

R(d; θ2 )

L(θ)

1,00 b t

0,75 b

0,50
b
0,25

b
0
θ R(d; θ1 )
0 0,25 0,50 0,75 1,00

Figura 9: Teste não aleatorizados e testes aleatori- Figura 10: Fronteira.


zados.

Código da Figura .9 Código em PStricks.


\scriptsize%
\psset{xunit=3cm,yunit=2.5cm,labelFontSize=\scriptsize}%
\begin{pspicture}(0,-.25)(1.25,1.5)
\psaxes[comma, ticksize=-4pt 0, Dx=.25,Dy=.25, ticks=all, tickstyle=bottom,
5 linewidth=1pt, arrowscale=1.2]{->}(0,0)(1.25,1.25)%
\rput[l]{0}(1.25,-.1){\scriptsize\sffamily $\theta$}%
\rput[r]{0}(-.1,1.25){\scriptsize\sffamily $L(\theta)$}%
\psdots[linecolor=orange,dotscale=1](0,1)(1,0)(.5,.3)(.5,.7)
\psline[fillstyle=hlines,hatchwidth=0.1pt,hatchsep=2pt,%
10 linecolor=orange!80,hatchcolor=orange!80](0,1)(.5,.7)(1,0)(.5,.3) (0,1)
\end{pspicture}%

Código da Figura .10 Código em PStricks.


\scriptsize%
\psset{xunit=3cm,yunit=3cm,labelFontSize=\scriptsize}%
\begin{pspicture}(0,-.25)(1.25,1.5)
\psaxes[comma, labels=none, linewidth=1pt, arrowscale=1.2]{->}(0,0)(1.25,1.25)%
5 \rput[l]{0}(1.25,-.1){\scriptsize\sffamily $R(d;\theta_1)$}%
\rput[r]{0}(-.1,1.25){\scriptsize\sffamily $R(d;\theta_2)$}%
\rput[c]{0}(-.125,.8){\scriptsize\sffamily $t$}%
\psline[linecolor=orange!80!black,linewidth=1.2pt](!0 .2 sub 2 2
sqrt div neg 2 add .2 add)(!2 2 sqrt div neg 2 add .1 add 0 .1 sub)
10 \pscustom[fillstyle=hlines,hatchwidth=0.1pt,hatchsep=2pt,%
linecolor=orange!80,hatchcolor=orange!80]{%
\psplot{0}{1}{x 1 sub 2 exp neg 1 add sqrt 1 sub neg}%
\psplot{1}{0}{x 2 exp neg 1 add sqrt}}%
\end{pspicture}%
9

θ̂ θ̂

u2 (θ)
h2 (θ)
u1 (θ) h1 (θ)
θ̂ 5,26

θ θ
θ̂2 θ̂1 5,26 13,48

Figura 11: Método para obter intervalos de confi- Figura 12: Intervalo de confiança.
ança.

x y

Figura 13: Plot

Código da Figura .11 Código em PStricks.


\scriptsize
\psset{xunit=1.25cm,yunit=1.25cm,labelFontSize=\scriptsize}%
\begin{pspicture}(0,-.25)(4,3)
\psaxes[ labels=none, ticks=none, linewidth=1pt, arrowscale=1.2]{->}(0,0)(4,2.5)%
5 \psline[linestyle=dashed,linecolor=gray](!1 2.25 .75 add log 1.5 mul .5 add)(!1 0)%
\psline[linestyle=dashed,linecolor=gray](!2.25 0)(!2.25 2.25 .75
add log 1.5 mul .5 add)(!0 2.25 .75 add log 1.5 mul .5 add)%
\psplot[linecolor=orange,linewidth=1pt,plotpoints=150]{-.5}{1.5}%
{ x 1.5 sub 1.5 mul EXP .75 add}%
10 \psplot[linecolor=orange,linewidth=1pt,plotpoints=150]{-.25}{2.5}%
{ x .75 add log 1.5 mul .5 add}%
\rput[c]{0}(1,-.2){\scriptsize\sffamily $\hat\theta_2$}%
\rput[c]{0}(2.25,-.2){\scriptsize\sffamily $\hat\theta_1$}%
\rput[c]{0}(1.5,1.9){\scriptsize\sffamily $u_2(\theta)$}%
15 \rput[c]{0}(2.5,1.4){\scriptsize\sffamily $u_1(\theta)$}%
\rput[l]{0}(4,-.1){\scriptsize\sffamily $\theta$}%
\rput[c]{0}(!-.2 2.25 .75 add log 1.5 mul .5 add){\scriptsize\sffamily $\hat\theta$}%
\rput[r]{0}(-.15,2.4){\scriptsize\sffamily $\hat\theta$}%
\end{pspicture}%
10

Código da Figura .12 Código em PStricks.


\scriptsize\psset{xunit=1.25cm,yunit=1.25cm,labelFontSize=\scriptsize}%
\begin{pspicture}(0,-.25)(4,3)
\psaxes[labels=none, ticks=none, linewidth=1pt, arrowscale=1.2]{->}(0,0)(4,2.5)%
\psline[linestyle=dashed,linecolor=gray](!3 .39 mul 3 .39 mul)(!3 .39 mul 0)%
5 \psline[linestyle=dashed,linecolor=gray](!3 0)(!3 3 .39 mul)(!0 3 .39 mul)%
\psplot[linecolor=orange,linewidth=1pt,plotpoints=150]{0}{1.5}{ x }%
\psplot[linecolor=orange,linewidth=1pt,plotpoints=150]{0}{3.25}{ x .39 mul}%
\rput[c]{0}(!3 .39 mul -.25){\scriptsize\sffamily $5,\! 26$}%
\rput[c]{0}(3,-.25){\scriptsize\sffamily $13,\! 48$}%
10 \rput[c]{0}(1.5,1.7){\scriptsize\sffamily $h_2(\theta)$}%
\rput[c]{0}(3.25,1.45){\scriptsize\sffamily $h_1(\theta)$}%
\rput[l]{0}(4,-.1){\scriptsize\sffamily $\theta$}%
\rput[r]{0}(!-.1 3 .39 mul){\scriptsize\sffamily $5,\! 26$}%
\rput[r]{0}(-.15,2.4){\scriptsize\sffamily $\hat\theta$}%
15 \pszigzag[linecolor=orange, coilwidth=1.75mm, coilarm=0]{|-|}(!3 .39 mul 0)(3,0)%
\end{pspicture}%

Código da Figura .13 Código em PStricks.


\centering
\psset{unit=.75}
\begin{pspicture}(-3,-2.5)(3,4)
\psset{Alpha=45,Beta=25}
5 \pstThreeDCoor[xMin=0,xMax=5,yMin=0,yMax=5,zMin=0,zMax=4]
\psplotThreeD[plotstyle=line,linestyle=none,linecolor=blue,fillstyle=gradient,%
yPlotpoints=50,xPlotpoints=50,%
linewidth=0.25pt,hiddenLine=false](0,4.5)(0,4.5){%
x 2 sub 2 exp y 2 sub 2 exp add neg EXP 5 mul}
10 \parametricplotThreeD[plotstyle=line,linecolor=red!90,linestyle=dashed,%
linewidth=1pt,hiddenLine=false](0,360){%
t sin .6 mul 2 add t cos .6 mul 2 add 0}
\parametricplotThreeD[plotstyle=line,linecolor=red!90,linestyle=dashed,%
linewidth=1pt,hiddenLine=false](0,360){%
15 t sin 2 mul 2 add t cos 2 mul 2 add 0}
\parametricplotThreeD[plotstyle=line,linecolor=red!90,linestyle=dashed,%
linewidth=1pt,hiddenLine=false](0,360){%
t sin 1.25 mul 2 add t cos 1.25 mul 2 add 0}
\parametricplotThreeD[plotstyle=line,linecolor=orange,linestyle=dashed,%
20 linewidth=1pt,hiddenLine=false](-2.5,1.5){%
t 2.75 add t 2 exp .25 mul 2.5 add 0}
\parametricplotThreeD[plotstyle=line,linecolor=orange,linestyle=solid,
yPlotpoints=50,xPlotpoints=50,%
linewidth=1pt,hiddenLine=false](-2.5,1.5){%
25 t 2.75 add t 2 exp .25 mul 2.5 add t 2.75 add 2 sub 2
exp t 2 exp .25 mul 2.5 add 2 sub 2 exp add neg EXP 5 mul}
\end{pspicture}
11

O M1 x
b
y

b
M(x, y)
B l
b
M2

y x

O x1 x2

Figura 14: Figura 15:

O a α c β b
Figura 16:

Código da Figura .14 Código em PStricks.


\scriptsize%
\psset{xunit=1cm,yunit=1cm,labelFontSize=\scriptsize}%
\begin{pspicture}(0,0)(4,3.5)
\psaxes[labels=none, ticks=none, linewidth=1pt,
5 arrowscale=1.2]{->}(0,3)(-.25,3.25)(4,0)%
\psplot[linecolor=orange,linewidth=1.25pt,plotpoints=50]{0}{3}%
{x 3 sub x 3 sub mul 3 add .25 mul }%
\rput[b]{0}(-.2,3.2){\scriptsize\sffamily $O$}%
\rput[b]{0}(.3,3.1){\scriptsize\sffamily $M_1$}%
10 \rput[l]{0}(!3.1 3 3 sub 3 3 sub mul 3 add .25 mul){\scriptsize\sffamily $M_2$}%
\rput[t]{0}(.2,.2){\scriptsize\sffamily $y$}%
\rput[c]{0}(4,3.25){\scriptsize\sffamily $x$}%
\psdot(!3 3 3 sub 3 3 sub mul 3 add .25 mul)
\psdot(!1.5 1.5 3 sub 1.5 3 sub mul 3 add .25 mul)
15 \rput[lb]{0}(!1.55 1.5 3 sub 1.5 3 sub mul 3 add .25 mul .05 add)
{\scriptsize\sffamily $M(x,y)$}%
\psdot(0,3)%
\end{pspicture}%
12

Código da Figura .15 Código em PStricks.


\scriptsize%
\psset{xunit=1.25cm,yunit=1cm,labelFontSize=\scriptsize}%
\begin{pspicture}(0,0)(4,3.5)
\psaxes[labels=none, ticks=none, linewidth=1pt,
5 arrowscale=1.2]{->}(0,0)(-0.25,-0.25)(4,3)%
\psplot[linecolor=orange,linewidth=1.25pt,plotpoints=50]{1}{3}%
{x 2 sub x 2 sub mul neg 6 add .25 mul }%
\rput[b]{0}(-.2,-.3){\scriptsize\sffamily $O$}%
\psline[linestyle=dotted,linewidth=1pt](1,0)(1,2.5)
10 \psline[linestyle=dotted,linewidth=1pt](3,0)(3,2.5)
\rput[c]{0}(1,-.2){\scriptsize\sffamily $x_1$}%
\rput[c]{0}(3,-.2){\scriptsize\sffamily $x_2$}%
\rput[c]{0}(2,1.3){\scriptsize\sffamily $l$}%
\rput[c]{0}(.72,1.3){\scriptsize\sffamily $B$}%
15 \psccurve[linewidth=1.5pt,showpoints=false,linecolor=black]%
(.5,1.2)(.75,1.6)(1.25,2.1)(2,2.25)(3.25,1.75)(3.5,1)(3,.5)(2,.6)(1,.75)
\rput[t]{0}(.2,3){\scriptsize\sffamily $y$}%
\rput[c]{0}(4,0.25){\scriptsize\sffamily $x$}%
\end{pspicture}%

Código da Figura .16 Código em PStricks.


\scriptsize%
\psset{xunit=1.25cm,yunit=1cm,labelFontSize=\scriptsize}%
\begin{pspicture}(0,0)(4,3.5)
\psaxes[labels=none,ticks=none,linewidth=1pt,
5 arrowscale=1.2]{->}(0,0)(-0.25,-0.25)(4,3)%
\psplot[linecolor=orange,linewidth=1.25pt,plotpoints=150]{1}{3}%
{2 PI .075 mul mul -0.5 exp x 2 sub 2 div .075 1
exp div 2 exp neg EXP mul 1.25 mul}%
\rput[b]{0}(-.2,-.3){\scriptsize\sffamily $O$}%
10 \rput[t]{0}(.2,3){\scriptsize\sffamily $\eta$}%
\rput[c]{0}(1,-0.2){\scriptsize\sffamily $a$}%
\rput[c]{0}(3,-0.2){\scriptsize\sffamily $b$}%
\rput[c]{0}(2,-0.2){\scriptsize\sffamily $c$}%
\rput[c]{0}(1.5,-0.2){\scriptsize\sffamily $\alpha$}%
15 \rput[c]{0}(2.5,-0.2){\scriptsize\sffamily $\beta$}%
\psline[linewidth=.75pt]{-}(1,.05)(1,-.05)
\psline[linewidth=.75pt]{-}(1.5,.05)(1.5,-.05)
\psline[linewidth=.75pt]{-}(2,.05)(2,-.05)
\psline[linewidth=.75pt]{-}(2.5,.05)(2.5,-.05)
20 \psline[linewidth=.75pt]{-}(3,.05)(3,-.05)
\end{pspicture}%

y y

y = f (u)

F (x)
F (x) f (x) m M

O a x u O a x x1 u

Figura 17: Figura 18:


13

Código da Figura .17 Código em PStricks.


\scriptsize\psset{xunit=1cm,yunit=.75cm,labelFontSize=\scriptsize}%
\begin{pspicture}(0,0)(4,3.25)
\pscustom[fillstyle=vlines,hatchwidth=0.1pt,hatchsep=2pt,linestyle=none]{%
\psplot[linecolor=black,linewidth=1pt,plotpoints=50]{.5}{3.5}%
5 {x 100 mul sin .2 mul .1 x mul neg EXP mul 2 add}%
\psplot[linecolor=black,linewidth=1pt,plotpoints=50]{3.5}{.5}{0}}
\psaxes[labels=none,ticks=none,%
arrowscale=1.2]{->}(0,0)(4,3)%
\psplot[linecolor=black,linewidth=1pt,plotpoints=50]{.5}{3.5}%
10 {x 100 mul sin .2 mul .1 x mul neg EXP mul 2 add}%
\rput[b]{0}(-.2,2.9){\scriptsize\sffamily $y$}%
\rput[l]{0}(1.8,2.3){\scriptsize\sffamily $y=f(u)$}%
\rput[t]{0}(4.1,-.1){\scriptsize\sffamily $u$}%
\rput[t]{0}(-.1,-.1){\scriptsize\sffamily $O$}%
15 \psline(!.5 .5 100 mul sin .2 mul .1 .5 mul neg EXP mul 2 add)(.5,0)%
\psline(!3.5 3.5 100 mul sin .2 mul .1 .35 mul neg EXP mul 2 add)(3.5,0)%
\rput[c](!3.85 3.5 100 mul sin .2 mul .1 .35 mul neg EXP mul 2 add .5 mul)
{\scriptsize\sffamily $f(x)$}%
\rput[c]{0}(.5,-.2){\scriptsize\sffamily $a$}%
20 \rput[c]{0}(3.5,-.2){\scriptsize\sffamily $x$}%
\rput(!2 3.5 100 mul sin .2 mul .1 .35 mul neg EXP mul 2 add .5 mul)
{\psframebox*[framearc=.3]{\scriptsize\sffamily $F(x)$}}
\end{pspicture}%

Código da Figura .18 Código em PStricks.


\scriptsize\psset{xunit=1cm,yunit=.75cm,labelFontSize=\scriptsize}%
\begin{pspicture}(0,0)(4,3.25)
\pscustom[fillstyle=vlines,hatchwidth=0.1pt,hatchsep=2pt,linestyle=none]{%
\pscurve[showpoints=true]{-}(.5,2)(0.7,2)(1.75,2.75)(2.5,1.9)
5 \psplot[linecolor=black,linewidth=1pt,plotpoints=50]{2.5}{.5}{0}}
\pscustom[fillstyle=hlines,hatchwidth=0.1pt,hatchsep=2pt,linestyle=none]{%
\pscurve[showpoints=true]{-}(2.5,1.9)(2.8,1.7)(3.25,2.1)(3.5,1.8)
\psplot[linecolor=black,linewidth=1pt,plotpoints=50]{3.5}{2.5}{0}}
\psaxes[labels=none,ticks=none,arrowscale=1.2]{->}(0,0)(4,3)%
10 \pscurve[linewidth=1pt]{-}(.5,2)(0.7,2)(1.75,2.75)(2.8,1.7)(3.25,2.1)(3.5,1.8)
\rput[b]{0}(-.2,2.9){\scriptsize\sffamily $y$}%
\rput[t]{0}(4.1,-.1){\scriptsize\sffamily $u$}%
\rput[t]{0}(-.1,-.1){\scriptsize\sffamily $O$}%
\psline(.5,2)(.5,0)%
15 \psline(2.5,1.9)(2.5,0)%
\psline(3.5,1.8)(3.5,0)%
\psline[linestyle=dashed,linewidth=.75pt]{<->}(2.8,1.7)(2.8,0)%
\psline[linestyle=dashed,linewidth=.75pt]{<->}(3.25,2.1)(3.25,0)%
\rput[c]{0}(.5,-.2){\scriptsize\sffamily $a$}%
20 \rput[c]{0}(2.5,-.2){\scriptsize\sffamily $x$}%
\rput[c]{0}(3.5,-.2){\scriptsize\sffamily $x_1$}%
\rput(!1.5 2.75 .5 mul){\psframebox*[framearc=.3]{\scriptsize\sffamily $F(x)$}}
\rput(!2.8 1.7 .5 mul){\psframebox*[framearc=.3]{\scriptsize\sffamily $m$}}
\rput(!3.25 2.1 .5 mul){\psframebox*[framearc=.3]{\scriptsize\sffamily $M$}}
25 \psline(3.5,1.8)(3.5,0)%
\end{pspicture}%
14

x3
 
0

1
 0
b = −2  7
7

 
0
−2 
0
x2
 
x1 1
0
0

Figura 19: Um vetor em um espaço tridimensional.

2b

x3
 
1

1
 b + c = 2 
b = −2  8
7

 
0
c = 4 
1

x2

x1
−b

−2b

Figura 20: Adição de vetores e multiplicação por um escalar.


15

Código da Figura .19 Código em PStricks.


\psset{coorType=1,Alpha=135,yunit=.5}
\begin{pspicture}(-3.25,-2)(2.5,9.6)
\pstThreeDCoor[IIIDticks, zMax=8, xMax=2, yMin = -3,
yMax=2,arrowscale=1.5,nameX=$x_1$,nameY=$x_2$,nameZ=$x_3$]%
5 \pstThreeDBox[linecolor=gray!50!white,linestyle=none,
hiddenLine,drawCoor=false](0,0,0)(1,0,0)(0,-2,0)(0,0,7)
\pstThreeDLine[linewidth=1.5pt,linecolor=black,arrows=->,arrowscale=1.5]%
(0,0,0)(1,0,0)
\pstThreeDLine[linewidth=1.5pt,linecolor=black,arrows=->,arrowscale=1.5]%
10 (0,0,0)(0,-2,0)
\pstThreeDLine[linewidth=1.5pt,linecolor=black,arrows=->,arrowscale=1.5]%
(0,0,0)(0,0,7)
\pstThreeDLine[linewidth=1.5pt,linecolor=black,arrows=->,arrowscale=1.5]%
(0,0,0)(1,-2,7)
15 \pstThreeDPut(0,0.5,7){\scriptsize $\arraycolsep = 2pt \left[ \begin{array}{r}
0\\
0\\
7
\end{array}\right]$}
20 \pstThreeDPut(1,0.2,-1.1){\scriptsize $\arraycolsep = 1pt \left[ \begin{array}{r}
1\\
0\\
0
\end{array}\right]$}
25 \pstThreeDPut(0,-2.35,1){\scriptsize $\arraycolsep = 1pt \left[\!\! \begin{array}{r}
0\\
-2\\
0
\end{array}\right]$}
30 \pstThreeDPut(1,-2.6,7){\scriptsize $\arraycolsep = 1pt b=\left[\!\! \begin{array}{r}
1\\
-2\\
7
\end{array}\right]$}
35 \end{pspicture}
16

Código da Figura .20 Código em PStricks.


\psset{coorType=1,Alpha=135,yunit=.5,xunit=.5}
\begin{pspicture}(-3,-12.2)(3,12.2)
\pstThreeDCoor[IIIDticks, zMax=8, xMax=8, yMax=8,
arrowscale=1.5,nameX=$x_1$,nameY=$x_2$,nameZ=$x_3$]%
5 \pstThreeDLine[linestyle=dashed,linewidth=1.5pt,
linecolor=black,arrows=->,arrowscale=1.5]%
(0,0,0)(-2,4,-14)
\pstThreeDLine[linestyle=dashed,linewidth=1.5pt,
linecolor=black,arrows=->,arrowscale=1.5]%
10 (0,0,0)(2,-4,14)
\pstThreeDLine[linewidth=1.5pt,linecolor=black,arrows=->,arrowscale=1.5]%
(0,0,0)(-1,2,-7)
\pstThreeDLine[linewidth=1.5pt,linecolor=black,arrows=->,arrowscale=1.5]%
(0,0,0)(0,4,1)
15 \pstThreeDLine[linewidth=1.5pt,linecolor=black,arrows=->,arrowscale=1.5]%
(0,0,0)(1,2,8)
\pstThreeDLine[linewidth=1.5pt,linecolor=black,arrows=->,arrowscale=1.5]%
(0,0,0)(1,-2,7)
\pstThreeDLine[linewidth=1pt,linecolor=black,arrows=-]%
20 (0,4,1)(1,2,8)(1,-2,7)
\pstThreeDPut(0,5,2){\scriptsize $\arraycolsep = 1pt c=\left[\!\! \begin{array}{r}
\ 0\\
\ 4\\
\ 1
25 \end{array}\right]$}
\pstThreeDPut(1,4,7.75){\scriptsize $\arraycolsep = 1pt b+c=\left[\!\! \begin{array}{r}
\ 1\\
\ 2\\
\ 8
30 \end{array}\right]$}
\pstThreeDPut(1,-3.75,7){\scriptsize $\arraycolsep = 1pt b=\left[\!\! \begin{array}{r}
1\\
-2\\
7
35 \end{array}\right]$}
\pstThreeDPut(-1,2.5,-6.8){\scriptsize $-b$}
\pstThreeDPut(-2,4.6,-13.8){\scriptsize $-2b$}
\pstThreeDPut(2,-4.6,13.8){\scriptsize $2b$}
\end{pspicture}
17

matriz 3 por 4 matriz 4 por 2 matriz 3 por 2

b11 b12
 
a11 a12 a13 a14 ⋆ ⋆
   
 
 
  b21 b22   
    
a21 a22 a23 a24   =⋆ ⋆ 
    
  b31 b32   
 
a31 a32 a33 a34   ⋆ (AB)32
b41 b42

Figura 21: Uma ilustração de multiplicação de matrizes.

Código da Figura .21 Código em PStricks.


\psset{yunit=.5,xunit=.5}
\begin{pspicture}(0,0)(14,5)
%\psgrid[linecolor=gray!20!white](0,0)(14,4.5)
\psline[linewidth=1pt,linecolor=red!80!white](1,.5)(8.65,3.7)
5 \psline[linewidth=1pt,linecolor=red!60!white](2.55,.5)(8.65,2.35)
\psline[linewidth=1pt,linecolor=red!40!white](4.5,.5)(8.65,1.1)
\psline[linewidth=1pt,linecolor=red!20!white](5.55,.5)(8.65,-.15)
\psline[linewidth=1pt,linecolor=red!80!white](8.65,3.7)(11.55,.5)
\psline[linewidth=1pt,linecolor=red!60!white](8.65,2.35)(11.55,.5)
10 \psline[linewidth=1pt,linecolor=red!40!white](8.65,1.1)(11.55,.5)
\psline[linewidth=1pt,linecolor=red!20!white](8.65,-.15)(11.55,.5)
\pscircle[linewidth=1pt,linecolor=red!80!white,fillstyle=solid](1,.5){.275}
\pscircle[linewidth=1pt,linecolor=red!60!white,fillstyle=solid](2.55,.5){.275}
\pscircle[linewidth=1pt,linecolor=red!40!white,fillstyle=solid](4,.5){.275}
15 \pscircle[linewidth=1pt,linecolor=red!20!white,fillstyle=solid](5.55,.5){.275}
\pscircle[linewidth=1pt,linecolor=red!20!white,fillstyle=solid](8.65,-.15){.275}
\pscircle[linewidth=1pt,linecolor=red!40!white,fillstyle=solid](8.65,1.1){.275}
\pscircle[linewidth=1pt,linecolor=red!60!white,fillstyle=solid](8.65,2.35){.275}
\pscircle[linewidth=1pt,linecolor=red!80!white,fillstyle=solid](8.65,3.7){.275}
20 \rput[c](7,1.75){\scriptsize $\Ds
\begin{bmatrix}
a_{11} & a_{12} & a_{13} & a_{14}\\[10pt]
a_{21} & a_{22} & a_{23} & a_{24}\\[10pt]
a_{31} & a_{32} & a_{33} & a_{34}
25 \end{bmatrix}
\begin{bmatrix}
b_{11} & b_{12}\\[10pt]
b_{21} & b_{22}\\[10pt]
b_{31} & b_{32}\\[10pt]
30 b_{41} & b_{42}
\end{bmatrix}=
\begin{bmatrix}
\ \star &\star \\[10pt]
\ \star &\star \\[10pt]
35 \ \star &(AB)_{32}
\end{bmatrix}$}
\rput[c](3.25,4.75){\Gray{\scriptsize\sffamily matriz $3$ por $4$ }}
\rput[c](8.1,4.75){\Gray{\scriptsize\sffamily matriz $4$ por $2$ }}
\rput[c](12.1,4.75){\Gray{\scriptsize\sffamily matriz $3$ por $2$ }}
40 \end{pspicture}
18

ci
α
evento prob. result.
ganha ganha
A α ci α 1−α
ci cj
não A 1−α cj
1−α cj

Figura 22: Maneiras de apresentar uma loteria [ci , α, cj ] para o decisor.

Código da Figura .22 Código em PStricks.


\scriptsize%
\psset{xunit=1cm,yunit=1cm,labelFontSize=\scriptsize}%
\begin{pspicture}(0,0)(2,2)
\rput[c](1,1){%
5 \parbox{2cm}{\centering\small\sffamily
\begin{tabular}{c|c|c}
evento & prob. & result.\\
\hlinem{.5pt}{1pt}{0mm}
$A$ & $\alpha$ & $c_i$ \\
10 não $A$ & $1-\alpha$ & $c_j$\\
\hlinem{.5pt}{.5pt}{0mm}
\end{tabular}
}}%
\end{pspicture}\hspace{4cm}%
15 \begin{pspicture}(0,0)(2,2)
\pscircle[linewidth=1.2pt,linecolor=cor](1,1){1}
\pswedge[linecolor=cor,linewidth=1.2pt,fillstyle=vlines,
hatchcolor=cor,hatchwidth=1pt,hatchsep=1.8pt,
hatchangle=45](1,1){1}{135}{225}
20 \rput[c](.4,1){\psframebox*[linestyle=none]{\small $\alpha$}}
\rput[c](1.5,1){\small $1-\alpha$}
\rput[r](-.1,1){\parbox{1cm}{\centering\small \textsf{ganha} $c_i$}}
\rput[l](2.1,1){\parbox{1cm}{\centering\small \textsf{ganha} $c_j$}}
\end{pspicture}\hspace{2cm}%
25 \begin{pspicture}(0,0)(2,2)
\psline[linecolor=cor,linewidth=1.2pt](0,1)(2,2)
\psline[linecolor=cor,linewidth=1.2pt](0,1)(2,0)
\pscircle[linewidth=1.2pt,linecolor=cor,
fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white](0,1){.075}
30 \rput[c](1,1.8){\small $\alpha$}
\rput[c](1,.2){\small $1-\alpha$}
\rput[c](2.25,2){\small $c_i$}
\rput[c](2.25,0){\small $c_j$}
\end{pspicture}%
19

C2

c2k cjk

c1j C1
Figura 23: Exemplo de partição do plano de dois atributos C1 e C2 .

Código da Figura .23 Código em PStricks.


\psset{xunit=1cm,yunit=1cm}
\begin{pspicture}(0,-.2)(7,6)
\psgrid[subgriddiv=0,gridlabels=0pt,gridcolor=cor!20!white](0,0)(6,5)%
\psframe[linecolor=cor,linestyle=none,linewidth=.75pt,fillstyle=vlines,
5 hatchcolor=cor,hatchwidth=1pt,hatchsep=1.8pt,
hatchangle=45](0,3)(3,4)
\psframe[linecolor=cor,linestyle=none,linewidth=.75pt,fillstyle=vlines,
hatchcolor=cor,hatchwidth=1pt,hatchsep=1.8pt,
hatchangle=-45](2,0)(3,4)
10 \rput[c](2.5,3.5){\psframebox*[linestyle=none,framearc=.5]{\small $\mbf{c}_{jk}$}}
\rput[c](2.5,-.25){\small $c^1_j$}
\rput[c](-.25,3.5){\small $c^2_k$}
\rput[c](6.3,-.25){\small $\mathcal{C}_1$}
\rput[c](-.275,5.3){\small $\mathcal{C}_2$}
15 \psaxes[
labels=none,%
ticks=none,%
arrowscale=1.2]{->}(6.5,5.5)%
\end{pspicture}%
20

C2
não relacionado
com c34
c25 b b b b b

crs cij ≡ cij 4 crs

c24 b b b b b b

c23 b b b b b b

c22 b b b b b b

c21 b b b b b b

c11 c12 c13 c14 c15 c16 C1


Figura 24: Exemplo de partição do plano de dois atributos e relações entre c34 e demais consequências.

Código da Figura .24 Código em PStricks.


Too big. Ask me.

c65
c55 c64
c45 c54 c63
c35 c44 c53 c62
c25 c34 c43 c52 c61
c15 c24 c33 c42 c51
c14 c23 c32 c41
c13 c22 c31
c12 c21
c11
Figura 25: Diagrama de Hasse de C = (C, 4) quando n = 2, n1 = 6 e n2 = 5.

Código da Figura .25 Código em PStricks.


Too big. Ask me.
21

C2
c22 c22
c22
c22 b b
c12 c21

c12 c21 c21 c12


c21 b b

c11 c11
c11 c12 C1 c11

(a) (b) (c)


Figura 26: Exemplo de partição de um espaço de consequência com dois atributos. (a) Plano representando
as consequências. (b) Diagrama de Hasse da ordem parcial induzida. (c) Extensões lineares da ordem parcial
induzida.

C2
c23
c23 b b

c13 c22
c22 b b

c12 c21
c21 b b

c11 c12 C1 c11

(a) (b)
Figura 27: Exemplo de partição de um espaço de consequências com dois atributos. (a) Plano representando as
consequências. (b) Diagrama de Hasse da ordem parcial induzida.
22

Código da Figura .26 Código em PStricks.


\psset{xunit=1cm,yunit=1cm}
\begin{pspicture}(-1,-1)(3,3)
\psgrid[subgriddiv=0,gridlabels=0pt,gridcolor=cor!20!white](0,0)(2,2)%
\psdots[linecolor=cor](.5,.5)(1.5,.5)(.5,1.5)(1.5,1.5)%
5 \rput[c](.5,-.25){\small $c^1_1$}
\rput[c](1.5,-.25){\small $c^1_2$}
\rput[c](-.25,.5){\small $c^2_1$}
\rput[c](-.25,1.5){\small $c^2_2$}
\rput[c](2.3,-.25){\small $\mathcal{C}_1$}
10 \rput[c](-.275,2.3){\small $\mathcal{C}_2$}
\rput[c](1,-1){\small (a)}
\psaxes[ labels=none,ticks=none,arrowscale=1.2]{->}(2.5,2.5)%
\end{pspicture}%
\def\raio{0.075}
15 \psset{xunit=1cm,yunit=1cm}
\begin{pspicture}(-1,-1)(3,3)
\psline[linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](1,0)(2,1)(1,2)%
\psline[linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](1,0)(0,1)(1,2)%
\pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white,linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](1,0){\raio}%
20 \pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white,linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](2,1){\raio}%
\pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white,linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](0,1){\raio}%
\pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white,linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](1,2){\raio}%
\uput{7.5pt}[270](1,0){\small $\mbf{c}_{11}$}
\uput{7.5pt}[270](2,1){\small $\mbf{c}_{21}$}
25 \uput{7.5pt}[270](0,1){\small $\mbf{c}_{12}$}
\uput{7.5pt}[270](1,2){\small $\mbf{c}_{22}$}
\rput[c](1,-1){\small (b)}
\end{pspicture}
\psset{xunit=1cm,yunit=1cm}
30 \begin{pspicture}(-1,-1)(3,3)
\psline[linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](.5,0)(.5,2)%
\psline[linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](2,0)(2,2)%
\pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white,linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](.5,0){\raio}%
\pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white,linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](.5,.666){\raio}%
35 \pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white,linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](.5,1.333){\raio}%
\pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white,linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](.5,2){\raio}%
\pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white,linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](2,0){\raio}%
\pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white,linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](2,.666){\raio}%
\pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white,linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](2,1.333){\raio}%
40 \pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white,linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](2,2){\raio}%
\rput[c](1,-1){\small (c)}
\uput{5pt}[180](.5,0){\small $\mbf{c}_{11}$}
\uput{5pt}[180](.5,.666){\small $\mbf{c}_{21}$}
\uput{5pt}[180](.5,1.333){\small $\mbf{c}_{12}$}
45 \uput{5pt}[180](.5,2){\small $\mbf{c}_{22}$}
\uput{5pt}[180](2,0){\small $\mbf{c}_{11}$}
\uput{5pt}[180](2,1.333){\small $\mbf{c}_{21}$}
\uput{5pt}[180](2,.666){\small $\mbf{c}_{12}$}
\uput{5pt}[180](2,2){\small $\mbf{c}_{22}$}
50 \end{pspicture}
23

Código da Figura .27 Código em PStricks.


\psset{xunit=1cm,yunit=1cm}
\begin{pspicture}(-1,-1)(3,4.5)
\psgrid[subgriddiv=0,gridlabels=0pt,gridcolor=cor!20!white](0,0)(2,3)%
\psdots[linecolor=cor](.5,.5)(1.5,.5)(.5,1.5)(1.5,1.5)(.5,2.5)(1.5,2.5)%
5 \rput[c](.5,-.25){\small $c^1_1$}
\rput[c](1.5,-.25){\small $c^1_2$}
\rput[c](-.25,.5){\small $c^2_1$}
\rput[c](-.25,1.5){\small $c^2_2$}
\rput[c](-.25,2.5){\small $c^2_3$}
10 \rput[c](2.3,-.25){\small $\mathcal{C}_1$}
\rput[c](-.275,3.3){\small $\mathcal{C}_2$}
\rput[c](1,-1){\small (a)}
\psaxes[labels=none,ticks=none,arrowscale=1.2]{->}(2.5,3.5)%
\end{pspicture}%
15 \def\raio{0.075}
\psset{xunit=1cm,yunit=1cm}
\begin{pspicture}(-2,-1)(3,4.5)
\psline[linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](1,0)(2,1)(1,2)%
\psline[linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](1,0)(0,1)(1,2)%
20 \psline[linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](0,1)(-1,2)(0,3)(1,2)%
\pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white,linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](1,0){\raio}%
\pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white,linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](2,1){\raio}%
\pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white,linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](0,1){\raio}%
\pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white,linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](1,2){\raio}%
25 \pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white,linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](-1,2){\raio}%
\pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white,linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](0,3){\raio}%
\uput{7.5pt}[270](1,0){\small $\mbf{c}_{11}$}
\uput{7.5pt}[270](2,1){\small $\mbf{c}_{21}$}
\uput{7.5pt}[270](0,1){\small $\mbf{c}_{12}$}
30 \uput{7.5pt}[270](1,2){\small $\mbf{c}_{22}$}
\uput{7.5pt}[270](-1,2){\small $\mbf{c}_{13}$}
\uput{7.5pt}[270](0,3){\small $\mbf{c}_{23}$}
\rput[c](1,-1){\small (b)}
\end{pspicture}
24

{c11 , c12 , c22 , c13 , c23 }

{c11 , c12 , c22 , c13 } {c11 , c12 , c21 , c22 }

{c11 , c12 , c13 } {c11 , c12 , c21 }

{c11 , c12 } {c11 , c21 }

{c11 }

Figura 28: Diagrama de Hasse do conjunto parcialmente ordenado J(C).

Código da Figura .28 Código em PStricks.


\psset{xunit=1cm,yunit=1cm}\def\raio{0.075}
\begin{pspicture}(-2,-1.5)(3,6)
\psline[linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](1,0)(2,1)(1,2)%
\psline[linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](1,0)(0,1)(1,2)%
5 \psline[linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](0,1)(-1,2)(0,3)(1,2)%
\psline[linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](0,3)(1,4)(2,3)(1,2)%
\psline[linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](1,5.5)(1,4)%
\psline[linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](1,0)(1,-1.5)%
\pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white,linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](1,0){\raio}%
10 \pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white,linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](2,1){\raio}%
\pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white,linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](0,1){\raio}%
\pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white,linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](1,2){\raio}%
\pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white,linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](-1,2){\raio}%
\pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white,linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](0,3){\raio}%
15 \pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white,linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](2,3){\raio}%
\pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white,linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](1,4){\raio}%
\pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white,linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](1,5.5){\raio}%
\pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white,linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](1,-1.5){\raio}%
\uput{5pt}[180](1,-1.5){\small $\varnothing$}
20 \uput{5pt}[180](1,0){\small $\{\mbf{c}_{11}\}$}
\uput{5pt}[180](0,1){\small $\{\mbf{c}_{11},\mbf{c}_{12}\}$}
\uput{5pt}[0](2,1){\small $\{\mbf{c}_{11},\mbf{c}_{21}\}$}
\uput{5pt}[180](-1,2){\small $\{\mbf{c}_{11},\mbf{c}_{12}, \mbf{c}_{13}\}$}
\uput{5pt}[0](1,2){\small $\{\mbf{c}_{11},\mbf{c}_{12}, \mbf{c}_{21}\}$}
25 \uput{5pt}[0](2,3){\small $\{\mbf{c}_{11},\mbf{c}_{12}, \mbf{c}_{21}, \mbf{c}_{22}\}$}
\uput{5pt}[180](0,3){\small $\{\mbf{c}_{11},\mbf{c}_{12}, \mbf{c}_{22}, \mbf{c}_{13}\}$}
\uput{5pt}[180](1,4){\small $\{\mbf{c}_{11},\mbf{c}_{12}, \mbf{c}_{22}, \mbf{c}_{13},
\mbf{c}_{23}\}$}
\uput{5pt}[180](1,5.5){\small $\mathcal{C}$}
30 \end{pspicture}
25

Figura 29: Cadeias maximais de J(C) ou extensões lineares de C .

Código da Figura .29 Código em PStricks.


\psset{xunit=1cm,yunit=1cm}\def\raio{0.075}
\begin{pspicture}(-2,-1.5)(3,6)
\psline[linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](1,0)(2,1)(1,2)
\psline[linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](1,0)(0,1)(1,2)%
5 \psline[linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](0,1)(-1,2)(0,3)(1,2)%
\psline[linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](0,3)(1,4)(2,3)(1,2)%
\psline[linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](1,5.5)(1,4)%
\psline[linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](1,0)(1,-1.5)%
\pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white,linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](1,0){\raio}%
10 \pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white,linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](2,1){\raio}%
\pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white,linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](0,1){\raio}%
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\pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white,linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](0,3){\raio}%
15 \pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white,linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](2,3){\raio}%
\pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white,linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](1,4){\raio}%
\pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white,linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](1,5.5){\raio}%
\pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white,linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](1,-1.5){\raio}%
\uput{5pt}[180](1,-1.5){\small $\varnothing$} \uput{5pt}[180](1,5.5){\small $\mathcal{C}$}
20 \psline[linecolor=red!60!white, linewidth=1.2pt]{|-|}(1.4,-1.3)(1.4,0)
(2.4,1)(1.4,2)(2.4,3)(1.4,4)(1.4,5.3)
\psline[linecolor=cor!20!white, linewidth=1.2pt]{|-|}(1.2,-1.3)(1.2,0)
(2.2,1)(1.2,2)(0,3.2)(0.8,4)(.8,5.3)
\psline[linecolor=cor!40!white, linewidth=1.2pt]{|-|}(.8,-1.3)(.8,0)(0,.8)
25 (2.2,3)(1.2,4)(1.2,5.3)%
\psline[linecolor=cor!60!white, linewidth=1.2pt]{|-|}(.6,-1.3)(.6,0)(-.3,.9)
(.8,2)(-.3,3.1)(.6,4)(.6,5.3)%
\psline[linecolor=red!60!white, linewidth=1.2pt]{|-|}(.4,-1.3)(.4,0)(-1.6,2)(.4,4)(.4,5.3)
\end{pspicture}
26

c33
C2
c23 c32
c23 b b b

c13 c22 c31


c22 b b b

c12 c21
c21 b b b

c11 c12 c13 C1 c11

(a) (b)
Figura 30: Exemplo de partição do plano de dois atributos mais simples possível. (a) Plano representando as
consequências. (b) Diagrama de Hasse da ordem parcial induzida.

Figura 31: Exemplo de partição do plano de dois atributos mais simples possível.
27

Código da Figura .30 Código em PStricks.


\psset{xunit=1cm,yunit=1cm}
\begin{pspicture}(-1,-1)(4.5,4.5)
\psgrid[subgriddiv=0,gridlabels=0pt,gridcolor=cor!20!white](0,0)(3,3)%
\psdots[linecolor=cor](.5,.5)(1.5,.5)(.5,1.5)(1.5,1.5)(.5,2.5)
5 (1.5,2.5)(2.5,.5)(2.5,1.5)(2.5,2.5)%
\rput[c](.5,-.25){\small $c^1_1$}
\rput[c](1.5,-.25){\small $c^1_2$}
\rput[c](2.5,-.25){\small $c^1_3$}
\rput[c](-.25,.5){\small $c^2_1$}
10 \rput[c](-.25,1.5){\small $c^2_2$}
\rput[c](-.25,2.5){\small $c^2_3$}
\rput[c](3.3,-.25){\small $\mathcal{C}_1$}
\rput[c](-.275,3.3){\small $\mathcal{C}_2$}
\rput[c](1,-1){\small (a)}
15 \psaxes[labels=none,ticks=none,arrowscale=1.2]{->}(3.5,3.5)%
\end{pspicture}%
\def\raio{0.075}
\psset{xunit=1cm,yunit=1cm}
\begin{pspicture}(-2,-1)(4.5,4.5)
20 \psline[linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](1,0)(2,1)(1,2)(2,3)(3,2)(2,1)%
\psline[linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](1,0)(0,1)(1,2)(0,3)%
\psline[linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](0,1)(-1,2)(0,3)(1,4)(2,3)%
\pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white,linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](1,0){\raio}%
\pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white,linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](2,1){\raio}%
25 \pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white,linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](0,1){\raio}%
\pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white,linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](1,2){\raio}%
\pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white,linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](-1,2){\raio}%
\pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white,linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](0,3){\raio}%
\pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white,linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](3,2){\raio}%
30 \pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white,linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](2,3){\raio}%
\pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white,linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](1,4){\raio}%
\uput{7.5pt}[270](1,0){\small $\mbf{c}_{11}$}
\uput{7.5pt}[270](2,1){\small $\mbf{c}_{21}$}
\uput{7.5pt}[270](3,2){\small $\mbf{c}_{31}$}
35 \uput{7.5pt}[270](0,1){\small $\mbf{c}_{12}$}
\uput{7.5pt}[270](1,2){\small $\mbf{c}_{22}$}
\uput{7.5pt}[270](2,3){\small $\mbf{c}_{32}$}
\uput{7.5pt}[270](-1,2){\small $\mbf{c}_{13}$}
\uput{7.5pt}[270](0,3){\small $\mbf{c}_{23}$}
40 \uput{7.5pt}[270](1,4){\small $\mbf{c}_{33}$}
\rput[c](1,-1){\small (b)}
\end{pspicture}
28

Código da Figura .31 Código em PStricks.


\psset{xunit=1cm,yunit=1cm}
\def\raio{0.075}
\begin{pspicture}(-2,-1)(3,8.5)
\psline[linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](1,0)(2,1)(1,2)%
5 \psline[linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](1,0)(0,1)(1,2)%
\psline[linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](0,1)(-1,2)(0,3)(1,2)%
\psline[linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](0,3)(1,4)(2,3)(1,2)%
\psline[linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](1,5)(1,4)%
\psline[linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](1,0)(1,-1)%
10 \psline[linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](2,1)(3,2)(2,3)%
\psline[linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](1,2)(1,3)%
\psline[linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](0,3)(0,4)%
\psline[linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](2,3)(2,4)%
\psline[linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](1,3)(3,5)(1,7)(1,8)%
15 \psline[linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](1,3)(-1,5)(1,7)%
\psline[linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](0,4)(2,6)%
\psline[linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](2,4)(0,6)%
\pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white,linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](1,0){\raio}%
\pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white,linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](2,1){\raio}%
20 \pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white,linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](3,2){\raio}%
\pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white,linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](0,1){\raio}%
\pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white,linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](1,2){\raio}%
\pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white,linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](-1,2){\raio}%
\pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white,linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](0,3){\raio}%
25 \pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white,linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](2,3){\raio}%
\pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white,linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](1,4){\raio}%
\pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white,linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](1,5){\raio}%
\pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white,linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](1,-1){\raio}%
\pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white,linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](1,3){\raio}%
30 \pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white,linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](0,4){\raio}%
\pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white,linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](2,4){\raio}%
\pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white,linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](-1,5){\raio}%
\pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white,linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](3,5){\raio}%
\pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white,linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](0,6){\raio}%
35 \pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white,linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](2,6){\raio}%
\pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white,linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](1,7){\raio}%
\pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white,linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](1,8){\raio}%
\uput{5pt}[180](1,-1){\small $\varnothing$}
\uput{5pt}[180](1,8){\small $\mathcal{C}$}
40 \end{pspicture}
29

c33
C2
c23 c32
c23 b b b

c13 c22 c31


c22 b b b

c12 c21
c21 b b b

c11 c12 c13 C1 c11


Figura 32: Ordem induzida para n = 2, n1 = 3 e n2 = 3.

Etapa 1 Etapa 2 Etapa 3

c23 c23 c23

c13 c22 c13 c22 c13 c22

c12 c21 c12 c21 c21

c11

Etapa 4 Etapa 5 Etapa 6

c23 c23 c23

c22 c22

c21

Figura 33: Aplicação do algoritmo de ordenação topológica de C com n = 2, n1 = 2 e n2 = 3. Visualização a


partir do diagrama de Hasse. Os vértices em destaque são elementos minimais.
30

Código da Figura .32 Código em PStricks.


\psset{xunit=1cm,yunit=1cm}
\begin{pspicture}(-1.5,-.25)(4.5,4.5)
\psframe[linestyle=none,fillstyle=solid, fillcolor=red!60!white](0,2)(1,3)
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5 \psframe[linecolor=cor,linestyle=none,linewidth=.75pt,fillstyle=vlines,
hatchcolor=cor,hatchwidth=1pt,hatchsep=1.8pt,
hatchangle=45](1,0)(3,2)
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\psdots[linecolor=cor](.5,.5)(1.5,.5)(.5,1.5)(1.5,1.5)(.5,2.5)
10 (1.5,2.5)(2.5,.5)(2.5,1.5)(2.5,2.5)%
\rput[c](.5,-.25){\small $c^1_1$}
\rput[c](1.5,-.25){\small $c^1_2$}
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15 \rput[c](-.25,1.5){\small $c^2_2$}
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\rput[c](-.275,3.3){\small $\mathcal{C}_2$}
\psaxes[labels=none,ticks=none,arrowscale=1.2]{->}(3.5,3.5)%
20 \end{pspicture}%
\def\raio{0.075}\psset{xunit=1cm,yunit=1cm}
\begin{pspicture}(-2,-.25)(4.5,4.5)
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25 \psline[linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](0,1)(-1,2)(0,3)(1,4)(2,3)%
\pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white,linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](1,0){\raio}%
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\pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white,linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](1,2){\raio}%
30 \pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white,linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](-1,2){\raio}%
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35 \uput{7.5pt}[270](1,0){\small $\mbf{c}_{11}$}
\uput{7.5pt}[270](2,1){\small $\mbf{c}_{21}$}
\uput{7.5pt}[270](3,2){\small $\mbf{c}_{31}$}
\uput{7.5pt}[270](0,1){\small $\mbf{c}_{12}$}
\uput{7.5pt}[270](1,2){\small $\mbf{c}_{22}$}
40 \uput{7.5pt}[270](2,3){\small $\mbf{c}_{32}$}
\uput{7.5pt}[270](-1,2){\small $\mbf{c}_{13}$}
\uput{7.5pt}[270](0,3){\small $\mbf{c}_{23}$}
\uput{7.5pt}[270](1,4){\small $\mbf{c}_{33}$}
\end{pspicture}
31

Código da Figura .33 Código em PStricks.


\def\raio{0.075}\psset{xunit=1cm,yunit=1cm}\begin{pspicture}(-2,-.2)(3,4)
\pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=red!40!white,linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](1,0){.2cm}%
\psline[linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](1,0)(2,1)(1,2)
\psline[linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](1,0)(0,1)(1,2)%
5 \psline[linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](0,1)(-1,2)(0,3)(1,2)%
\pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white,linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](1,0){\raio}%
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10 \pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white,linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](-1,2){\raio}%
\pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white,linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](0,3){\raio}%
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\uput{7.5pt}[270](0,1){\small $\mbf{c}_{12}$} \uput{7.5pt}[270](1,2){\small $\mbf{c}_{22}$}
\uput{7.5pt}[270](-1,2){\small $\mbf{c}_{13}$} \uput{7.5pt}[270](0,3){\small $\mbf{c}_{23}$}
15 \rput[c](0,3.5){\small\sffamily Etapa 1}\end{pspicture}\begin{pspicture}(-2,-.2)(3,4)
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\psline[linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](2,1)(1,2)\psline[linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](0,1)(1,2)%
\psline[linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](0,1)(-1,2)(0,3)(1,2)%
20 \pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white,linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](2,1){\raio}%
\pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white,linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](0,1){\raio}%
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25 \uput{7.5pt}[270](2,1){\small $\mbf{c}_{21}$}\uput{7.5pt}[270](0,1){\small $\mbf{c}_{12}$}
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\end{pspicture}\begin{pspicture}(-2,-.2)(3,4)
\pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=red!40!white,linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](-1,2){.2cm}%
30 \pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=red!40!white,linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](2,1){.2cm}%
\psline[linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](2,1)(1,2)\psline[linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](-1,2)(0,3)(1,2)%
\pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white,linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](2,1){\raio}%
\pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white,linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](1,2){\raio}%
\pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white,linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](-1,2){\raio}%
35 \pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white,linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](0,3){\raio}%
\uput{7.5pt}[270](2,1){\small $\mbf{c}_{21}$}\uput{7.5pt}[270](1,2){\small $\mbf{c}_{22}$}
\uput{7.5pt}[270](-1,2){\small $\mbf{c}_{13}$} \uput{7.5pt}[270](0,3){\small $\mbf{c}_{23}$}
\rput[c](0,3.5){\small\sffamily Etapa 3}\end{pspicture}\begin{pspicture}(-2,-.2)(3,4.5)
\pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=red!40!white,linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](2,1){.2cm}%
40 \psline[linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](2,1)(1,2)\psline[linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](0,3)(1,2)%
\pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white,linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](2,1){\raio}%
\pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white,linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](1,2){\raio}%
\pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white,linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](0,3){\raio}%
\uput{7.5pt}[270](2,1){\small $\mbf{c}_{21}$}\uput{7.5pt}[270](1,2){\small $\mbf{c}_{22}$}
45 \uput{7.5pt}[270](0,3){\small $\mbf{c}_{23}$}\rput[c](0,3.5){\small\sffamily Etapa 4}
\end{pspicture}\begin{pspicture}(-2,-.2)(3,4.5)
\pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=red!40!white,linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](1,2){.2cm}%
\psline[linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](0,3)(1,2)%
\pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white,linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](1,2){\raio}%
50 \pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white,linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](0,3){\raio}%
\uput{7.5pt}[270](1,2){\small $\mbf{c}_{22}$}\uput{7.5pt}[270](0,3){\small $\mbf{c}_{23}$}
\rput[c](0,3.5){\small\sffamily Etapa 5}\end{pspicture}\begin{pspicture}(-2,-.2)(3,4.5)
\pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=red!40!white,linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](0,3){.2cm}%
\pscircle[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white,linecolor=cor,linewidth=1pt](0,3){\raio}%
55 \uput{7.5pt}[270](0,3){\small $\mbf{c}_{23}$}\rput[c](0,3.5){\small\sffamily Etapa 6}
\end{pspicture}
32

ℓ 1
α 0 0 1 0 2 2 1 2 2
c33
c32 c33
c31
c23 c23 c32
c22
c21 c13 c22 c31
c13
c12 c12 c21
c11
c11 c12 c13 c21 c22 c23 c31 c32 c33

Figura 34: Matriz de incidência e diagrama de Hasse para etapa 2 do processo de edução da ordem. Note-se que o
decisor precisa escolher entre dois elementos minimais.

Código da Figura .34 Código em PStricks.


Too big. Ask me.

x2
24h x2
24h

16h

1h 8h

1h 24h x1 x1

Figura 35: Lista de Micro I. Figura 36: Lista de Micro I.


y
4

(x, y) % a

2 b

1 2 4 x

Figura 37: Lista de Micro I.


33

Código da Figura .35 Código em PStricks.


\scriptsize%
\psset{xunit=1cm,yunit=1cm}%
\newrgbcolor{gray1}{.8 .8 .8}
\newrgbcolor{gray2}{.9 .9 .9}
5 \begin{pspicture}(0,0)(3.5,3.75)
\pscustom[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=gray2,linestyle=none]{%
\psplot[linecolor=black,linewidth=1pt,plotpoints=50]{0}{3}%
{3 x sub }%
\psplot[linecolor=black,linewidth=1pt,plotpoints=50]{1}{0}%
10 {1 x sub }}
\psaxes[labels=none,ticks=none,arrowscale=1.2]{->}(3.5,3.5)%
\psplot[linecolor=black,linewidth=1pt,plotpoints=50]{0}{3}{3 x sub }%
\psplot[linecolor=black,linewidth=1pt,plotpoints=50]{0}{1}{1 x sub }%
\rput[c]{0}(1,-.2){\scriptsize 1h}%
15 \rput[c]{0}(3,-.2){\scriptsize 24h}%
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\rput[b]{0}(-.3,3.4){\small\sffamily $x_2$}%
\rput[t]{0}(3.6,-.1){\small\sffamily $x_1$}%
20 \end{pspicture}%

Código da Figura .36 Código em PStricks.


\scriptsize%
\psset{xunit=1cm,yunit=1cm}%
\newrgbcolor{gray1}{.8 .8 .8}
\newrgbcolor{gray2}{.9 .9 .9}
5 \begin{pspicture}(0,-.1)(4,3.25)
\pscustom[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=gray2,linestyle=none]{%
\psplot[linecolor=black,linewidth=1pt,plotpoints=50]{0}{3.5}%
{2.4}%
\psplot[linecolor=black,linewidth=1pt,plotpoints=50]{3.5}{0}%
10 {1.6 }}
\psaxes[labels=none,ticks=none,arrowscale=1.2]{->}(0,0)(4,3)%
\psplot[linecolor=black,linewidth=1pt,plotpoints=50]{0}{3.5}{2.4 }%
\psplot[linecolor=black,linewidth=1pt,plotpoints=50]{0}{3.5}{1.6 }%
\rput[r]{0}(-.1,1.6){\scriptsize 16h}%
15 \rput[r]{0}(-.1,2.4){\scriptsize 24h}%
\rput[r]{0}(-.1,.8){\scriptsize 8h}%
\rput[b]{0}(-.3,2.9){\small\sffamily $x_2$}%
\rput[t]{0}(4.1,-.1){\small\sffamily $x_1$}%
\end{pspicture}%
34

Código da Figura .37 Código em PStricks.


\scriptsize%
\psset{xunit=1cm,yunit=1cm}%
\newrgbcolor{gray1}{.8 .8 .8}
\newrgbcolor{gray2}{.9 .9 .9}
5 \begin{pspicture}(0,-.1)(3.5,4)
\pscustom[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=gray2,linestyle=none]{%
\psplot[linecolor=black,linewidth=1pt,plotpoints=50]{1.333}{0}%
{4 x 2 mul sub}%
\psplot[linecolor=black,linewidth=1pt,plotpoints=50]{0}{2}%
10 {4.25}}
\pscustom[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=gray2,linestyle=none]{%
\psplot[linecolor=black,linewidth=1pt,plotpoints=50]{1.333}{4}%
{4 x sub 2 div}%
\psplot[linecolor=black,linewidth=1pt,plotpoints=50]{4}{0}%
15 {4.25}}%pscustom
\psaxes[labels=none,ticks=none,arrowscale=1.2]{->}(4.5,4.5)%
\psplot[linecolor=black,linestyle=dotted,linewidth=1pt,plotpoints=50]{0}{4}%
{4 x sub 2 div}%
\psplot[linecolor=black,linestyle=dotted,linewidth=1pt,plotpoints=50]{0}{2}%
20 {4 x 2 mul sub}%
\psplot[linecolor=black,linestyle=solid,linewidth=1pt,plotpoints=50]{1.333}{4}%
{4 x sub 2 div}%
\psplot[linecolor=black,linestyle=solid,linewidth=1pt,plotpoints=50]{0}{1.333}%
{4 x 2 mul sub}%
25 \rput[c]{0}(2.5,3){\scriptsize $(x,y)\piq \mbf{a}$}%
\rput[c]{0}(1,-.2){\scriptsize 1}%
\rput[c]{0}(2,-.2){\scriptsize 2}%
\rput[c]{0}(4,-.2){\scriptsize 4}%
\rput[r]{0}(-.1,2){\scriptsize 2}%
30 \rput[r]{0}(-.1,4){\scriptsize 4}%
\psdot(1,2)
\rput[b]{0}(-.2,4.4){\small\sffamily $y$}%
\rput[t]{0}(4.6,-.1){\small\sffamily $x$}%
\end{pspicture}

y
4

2 b

a ≻ (x, y)

1 2 4 x
Figura 38: Lista de Micro I.
35

Código da Figura .38 Código em PStricks.


\scriptsize%
\psset{xunit=1cm,yunit=1cm}%
\newrgbcolor{gray1}{.8 .8 .8}
\newrgbcolor{gray2}{.9 .9 .9}
5 \begin{pspicture}(0,0)(3.5,4)
\pscustom[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=gray2,linestyle=none]{%
\psplot[linecolor=black,linewidth=1pt,plotpoints=50]{1.333}{0}%
{4 x 2 mul sub}%
\psplot[linecolor=black,linewidth=1pt,plotpoints=50]{0}{2}%
10 {0}}%pscustom
\pscustom[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=gray2,linestyle=none]{%
\psplot[linecolor=black,linewidth=1pt,plotpoints=50]{1.333}{4}%
{4 x sub 2 div}%
\psplot[linecolor=black,linewidth=1pt,plotpoints=50]{4}{0}%
15 {0}}%pscustom
\psaxes[labels=none,ticks=none,arrowscale=1.2]{->}(4.5,4.5)%
\psplot[linecolor=black,linestyle=dotted,linewidth=1pt,plotpoints=50]{1.333}{4}%
{4 x sub 2 div}%
\psplot[linecolor=black,linestyle=dotted,linewidth=1pt,plotpoints=50]{0}{1.333}%
20 {4 x 2 mul sub}%
\rput[c]{0}(1,.75){\scriptsize $\mbf{a}\pq (x,y)$}%
\rput[c]{0}(1,-.2){\scriptsize 1}%
\rput[c]{0}(2,-.2){\scriptsize 2}%
\rput[c]{0}(4,-.2){\scriptsize 4}%
25 \rput[r]{0}(-.1,2){\scriptsize 2}%
\rput[r]{0}(-.1,4){\scriptsize 4}%
\psdot(1,2)
\rput[b]{0}(-.2,4.4){\small\sffamily $y$}%
\rput[t]{0}(4.6,-.1){\small\sffamily $x$}%
30 \end{pspicture}%

y y
Plano 1 Plano 2

R$ 60,00

R$ 20,00

300 340 x 160 260 x


Figura 39: Lista de Micro I. Figura 40: Lista de Micro I.
36

Código da Figura .39 Código em PStricks.


\scriptsize%
\psset{xunit=1cm,yunit=1cm}%
\newrgbcolor{gray1}{.5 .5 .5}
\newrgbcolor{gray2}{.7 .7 .7}
5 \newrgbcolor{gray3}{.9 .9 .9}
\begin{pspicture}(0,0)(5,4)
\pscustom[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=gray3,linestyle=none]{%
\psline[linecolor=black,linestyle=solid,linewidth=1pt](0,1)(3.5,1)(4.5,0)(0,0)}
\psaxes[labels=none,ticks=none,arrowscale=1.2]{->}(5,3.5)%
10 \psline[linecolor=black,linestyle=solid,linewidth=1pt](0,1)(3.5,1)(4.5,0)
\rput[c]{0}(3.5,-.2){\scriptsize 300}%
\rput[c]{0}(4.5,-.2){\scriptsize 340}%
\rput[r]{0}(-.1,1){\scriptsize R\$ 20,00}%
\rput[c]{0}(2,3){\scriptsize\bf Plano 1}%
15 \rput[b]{0}(-.2,3.3){\small\sffamily $y$}%
\rput[t]{0}(5,-.1){\small\sffamily $x$}%
\end{pspicture}%

Código da Figura .40 Código em PStricks.


\scriptsize%
\psset{xunit=1cm,yunit=1cm}%
\newrgbcolor{gray1}{.5 .5 .5}
\newrgbcolor{gray2}{.7 .7 .7}
5 \newrgbcolor{gray3}{.9 .9 .9}
\begin{pspicture}(0,0)(5,4)
\pscustom[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=gray2,linestyle=none]{%
\psline[linecolor=black,linestyle=solid,linewidth=1pt](0,2)(2,2)(3.25,0)(0,0)}
\psaxes[labels=none,ticks=none,arrowscale=1.2]{->}(5,3.5)%
10 \psline[linecolor=black,linestyle=solid,linewidth=1pt](0,2)(2,2)(3.25,0)
\rput[c]{0}(2,-.2){\scriptsize 160}%
\rput[c]{0}(3.25,-.2){\scriptsize 260}%
\rput[r]{0}(-.1,2){\scriptsize R\$ 60,00}%
\rput[c]{0}(2,3){\scriptsize\bf Plano 2}%
15 \rput[b]{0}(-.2,3.3){\small\sffamily $y$}%
\rput[t]{0}(5,-.1){\small\sffamily $x$}%
\end{pspicture}%

y
R$ 85,00 Plano 3

x2

30

80 186, 25 x 15 60 x1
Figura 41: Lista de Micro I. Figura 42: Lista de Micro I.
37

Código da Figura .41 Código em PStricks.


\scriptsize%
\psset{xunit=1cm,yunit=1cm}%
\newrgbcolor{gray1}{.5 .5 .5}
\newrgbcolor{gray2}{.7 .7 .7}
5 \newrgbcolor{gray3}{.9 .9 .9}
\begin{pspicture}(0,0)(5,4)
\pscustom[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=gray1,linestyle=none]{%
\psline[linecolor=black,linestyle=solid,linewidth=1pt](0,3)(.75,3)(2,0)(0,0)}
\psaxes[labels=none,ticks=none,arrowscale=1.2]{->}(5,3.5)%
10 \psline[linecolor=black,linestyle=solid,linewidth=1pt](0,3)(.75,3)(2,0)
\rput[c]{0}(.75,-.2){\scriptsize 80}%
\rput[c]{0}(2,-.2){\scriptsize 186,\! 25}%
\rput[r]{0}(-.1,3){\scriptsize R\$ 85,00}%
\rput[c]{0}(2,3){\scriptsize\bf Plano 3}%
15 \rput[b]{0}(-.2,3.3){\small\sffamily $y$}%
\rput[t]{0}(5,-.1){\small\sffamily $x$}%
\end{pspicture}%

Código da Figura .42 Código em PStricks.


\scriptsize%
\psset{xunit=1cm,yunit=1cm}%
\newrgbcolor{gray1}{.8 .8 .8}
\newrgbcolor{gray2}{.9 .9 .9}
5 \begin{pspicture}(0,0)(3.5,2.75)
\pscustom[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=gray2,linestyle=none]{%
\psplot[linecolor=black,linewidth=1pt,plotpoints=50]{0}{.75}%
{1.5 2 x mul sub }%
\psplot[linecolor=black,linewidth=1pt,plotpoints=50]{.75}{0}%
10 {0}}
\psaxes[labels=none,ticks=none,arrowscale=1.2]{->}(3.5,2.5)%
\psplot[linecolor=black,linewidth=1pt,plotpoints=50]{0}{3}%
{1.5 .5 x mul sub }%
\psplot[linecolor=black,linewidth=1pt,plotpoints=50]{0}{.75}%
15 {1.5 2 x mul sub }%
\rput[c]{0}(.75,-.2){\scriptsize 15}%
\rput[c]{0}(3,-.2){\scriptsize 60}%
\rput[r]{0}(-.1,1.5){\scriptsize 30}%
\rput[b]{0}(-.3,2.4){\small\sffamily $x_2$}%
20 \rput[t]{0}(3.6,-.1){\small\sffamily $x_1$}%
\end{pspicture}%
38

x2

30

15 30 x1
Figura 43: Lista de Micro I.

Código da Figura .43 Código em PStricks.


\scriptsize%
\psset{xunit=1cm,yunit=1cm}%
\newrgbcolor{gray1}{.8 .8 .8}
\newrgbcolor{gray2}{.9 .9 .9}
5 \begin{pspicture}(0,0)(2.5,2.75)
\pscustom[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=gray2,linestyle=none]{%
\psplot[linecolor=black,linewidth=1pt,plotpoints=50]{0}{1.5}%
{1.5 1 x mul sub }%
\psplot[linecolor=black,linewidth=1pt,plotpoints=50]{.75}{0}%
10 {0}%
}%pscustom
\psaxes[
labels=none,%
ticks=none,%
15 arrowscale=1.2]{->}(2.5,2.5)%
\psplot[linecolor=black,linewidth=1pt,plotpoints=50]{0}{1.5}%
{1.5 1 x mul sub }%
\psplot[linecolor=black,linewidth=1pt,plotpoints=50,linestyle=dotted]{0}{.75}%
{1.5 2 x mul sub }%
20 \rput[c]{0}(.75,-.2){\scriptsize 15}%
\rput[c]{0}(1.5,-.2){\scriptsize 30}%
\rput[r]{0}(-.1,1.5){\scriptsize 30}%
%\rput[r]{0}(-.1,3){\scriptsize 24h}%
\rput[b]{0}(-.3,2.4){\small\sffamily $x_2$}%
25 \rput[t]{0}(2.6,-.1){\small\sffamily $x_1$}%
\end{pspicture}%
39

aorta
a. pulmonar
v. cava superior vv. pulmonares

átrio esquerdo

átrio direito

ventrículo direito ventrículo esquerdo

v. cava inferior

Figura 44: Esquema anatômico do coração.

Código da Figura .44 Código em PStricks.


Too big. Ask me.

nódulo sinusal

nódulo AV

átrio direito
feixe de His

fibras de Purkinje

Figura 45: Sistema de condução de estímulos do coração.

Código da Figura .45 Código em PStricks.


Too big.
40

200 fluxo direto regurgitação


(sístole) (diástole)

160

pressão [mmHg] VE
120 Aorta

80

40

t0
0 b t [s]
0,25 0,50 0,75 1,00

400

300
Fluxo [ml/s]

200

100

0 t [s]
0,25 0,50 0,75 1,00
−100

Figura 46: Os eventos do ciclo cardíaco. Baseada em uma figura que não me lembro mais a fonte, acredito que
seja de Herbet Voß.

120
Ps
Pressão Arterial (mm Hg)

100

Pp
80

60
Pd

40
t (seg.)
0 0,25 0,50 0,75 1,00 1,25 1,50 1,75 2,00 2,25

Figura 47: Contorno da curva de pressão arterial.


41

Código da Figura .46 Código em PStricks.


\pstverb{106 45 {dup mul exch dup mul add 1.0 exch sub} setscreen}
\scriptsize\psset{xunit=8cm, yunit=0.025cm}
\begin{pspicture}(-0.15,-40)(1.15,240.0)
\psaxes[Dx=0.25,Dy=40,tickstyle=bottom,comma,arrowscale=1.2]{->}(0,0)(0,-20)(1.15,220)
5 \rput(-0.15,90){\rotateleft{\small\sffamily pressão [mmHg]}}
\psline[linestyle=dashed,linewidth=1.5pt,linecolor=red](0.6,120)(0.8,120)
\rput[l](0.85,120){\small\sffamily Aorta}
\psline[linewidth=1.5pt,linecolor=blue](0.6,145)(0.8,145)
\rput[l](0.85,145){\small\sffamily VE}
10 \uput[0](1.15,0){\textsf{t [s]}}\psdot*(0.4,0.04)\uput[90](0.4,0){$t_0$}
\fileplot[linewidth=1.5pt,linestyle=dashed,linecolor=red]{Dados/data1.dat}
\fileplot[linewidth=1.5pt,linecolor=blue]{Dados/data2.dat}
\end{pspicture}
\psset{xunit=8cm,yunit=0.008cm}
15 \begin{pspicture}(-0.15,-100)(1.15,550.0)
\psaxes[Dx=0.25,Dy=100,tickstyle=bottom,comma,arrowscale=1.2]{->}(0,0)(0,-100)(1.15,520)
\uput[0](1.15,0){\textsf{t [s]}}
\rput(-0.15,200){\rotateleft{\small\sffamily Fluxo [ml/s]}}
\psline[linestyle=dashed,linewidth=.01](0.02,-100.0)(0.02,1300)
20 \psline[linestyle=dashed,linewidth=.01](0.3625,-100.0)(0.3625,1300)
\psline[linestyle=dashed,linewidth=.01,arrowscale=1.2]{<->}(0.02,1290)(0.3625,1290)
\rput(0.19,1320){\footnotesize\sffamily fluxo direto}
\rput(0.19,1260){\footnotesize\sffamily (sístole)}
\psline[linestyle=dashed,linewidth=.01,arrowscale=1.2]{<->}(0.3625,1290)(1,1290)
25 \rput(0.68,1320){\footnotesize\sffamily regurgitação}
\rput(0.68,1260){\footnotesize\sffamily (diástole)}
\fileplot[linewidth=1.5pt,linecolor=blue]{Dados/data3.dat}
\end{pspicture}

Código da Figura .47 Código em PStricks.


\scriptsize
\readdata[nStep=5]{\DataABP}{Dados/casoch4.txt}%
\newrgbcolor{gray1}{.9 .9 .9}
\pstverb{106 45 {dup mul exch dup mul add 1.0 exch sub} setscreen}
5 \psset{xunit=3.5cm,yunit=.06cm}%
\begin{pspicture}(-.5,30)(3,140)
\psframe[linestyle=dotted,fillcolor=gray1,fillstyle=solid](1.5,40)(2.45,120)
\psaxes[Oy=40,Dx=.25,Dy=20,comma,ticks=all,tickstyle=bottom,
arrowscale=1.2]{->}(0,40)(2.52,130)%
10 \rput[b]{90}(-.3,80){\small\sffamily Pressão Arterial (mm Hg)}%
\rput[t]{0}(2.7,40){\small\sffamily $t$ (seg.)}%
\listplot[linewidth=1.2pt,linecolor=blue]{\DataABP}
\psdots(1.584,106.4713)(2.246,63.126)
\rput[b]{0}(1.584,110){\small $P_s$}%
15 \rput[t]{0}(2.25,56){\small $P_d$}%
\psline[linewidth=.5pt]{<->|}(2.3,106.8)(2.3,63.126)%
\psline[linewidth=.5pt]{-}(2.33,106.4713)(1.6,106.4713)%
\rput[l]{0}(2.32,85){\small $P_p$}%=P_s-P_d$}%
\end{pspicture}%
42

2,5

Fluxo Sanguíneo (× normal) 2,0

1,5

1,0

0,5

0
0 50 100 150 200 250

Pressão Arterial (mm Hg)

Figura 48: Fluxo sanguíneo como uma função da pressão arterial.

Código da Figura .48 Código em PStricks.


\scriptsize
\pstverb{106 45 {dup mul exch dup mul add 1.0 exch sub} setscreen}
\psset{xunit=.03cm,yunit=2cm}%
\begin{pspicture}(-35,-.5)(270,2.7)
5 \psaxes[Ox=0,Dx=50,Dy=.5,comma,ticks=all,tickstyle=bottom,
arrowscale=1.2]{->}(0,0)(270,2.7)%
\rput[t]{0}(125,-.4){\small\sffamily Pressão Arterial (mm Hg)}%
\rput[b]{90}(-35,1.25){\small\sffamily%
Fluxo Sanguíneo ($\times$ normal)}%
10 \psplot[linewidth=1.5pt,linecolor=red,plotpoints=200,linestyle=dashed]{10}{250}%
{x 0.0035 mul .6 add}%
\psplot[linewidth=1.5pt,linecolor=blue,plotpoints=200]{30}{80}%
{x 44 sub .08 mul ATAN .4 mul 0.385 add }%
\psplot[linewidth=1.5pt,linecolor=blue,plotpoints=200]{80}{180}%
15 {x 0.0035 mul .6 add}%
\psplot[linewidth=1.5pt,linecolor=blue,plotpoints=200]{180}{240}%
{x 220 sub .08 mul ATAN .4 mul 1.737 add }%
\end{pspicture}%
43

(a) (b)
3,0
Fluxo Sanguíneo (× normal)

Fluxo Sanguíneo (× normal)


4
2,5

2,0 3

1,5
2
1,0

1
0,5

0 0
0 20 40 60 0 2 4 6 8

% • deficiente Metabolismo (× normal)


Figura 49: (a) Fluxo sanguíneo em função da deficiência de • no sangue, mantendo pressão arterial e metabolismo
constante. (b) Fluxo sanguíneo em função do metabolismo, mantendo pressão arterial e • fixos e com valores
normais.

Código da Figura .49 Código em PStricks.


\scriptsize
\pstverb{106 45 {dup mul exch dup mul add 1.0 exch sub} setscreen}
\psset{xunit=.06cm,yunit=1.5cm}%
\begin{pspicture}(-15,-.6)(80,3.7)
5 \psaxes[Ox=0,Dx=20,Dy=.5,comma,ticks=all,tickstyle=bottom,
arrowscale=1.2]{->}(0,0)(79,3.3)%
\rput[t]{0}(40,-.5){\small\sffamily \% $\oo$\ deficiente}%
\rput[b]{90}(-15,1.5){\small\sffamily%
Fluxo Sanguíneo ($\times$ normal)}%
10 \psplot[linewidth=1.5pt,linecolor=blue,plotpoints=200]{0}{70}%
{.97 x .06 mul EXP 0.03 mul add}%
\rput[c]{0}(40,3.3){\bfseries\small (a)}%
\end{pspicture}%
\hspace{2cm} %
15 \pstverb{106 45 {dup mul exch dup mul add 1.0 exch sub} setscreen}
\psset{xunit=.6cm,yunit=1cm}%
\begin{pspicture}(-.5,-.9)(9.2,3.7)
\psaxes[Ox=0,Dx=2,Dy=1,comma,ticks=all,tickstyle=bottom,
arrowscale=1.2]{->}(0,0)(8.7,4.826)%
20 \rput[t]{0}(4,-.75){\small\sffamily Metabolismo ($\times$ normal)}%
\rput[b]{90}(-1,2.2){\small\sffamily%
Fluxo Sanguíneo ($\times$ normal)}%
\psplot[linewidth=1.5pt,linecolor=blue,plotpoints=200]{.5}{8}%
{ x .2 mul EXP .8 mul}%
25 \rput[c]{0}(4,4.95){\bfseries\small (b)}%
\end{pspicture}%
44

SNA
vias eferentes
Efeito Cronotrópico
Simpático
regulação da freqüência cardíaca

Efeito Cronotrópico
Parasimpático

Efeito Inotrópico regulação da contratilidade do miocárdio


Simpático

SCV
Efeito Dromotrópico
Simpático
regulação do atraso de condução

Efeito Dromotrópico
Parasimpático

Efeito Periférico regulação da resistência periférica


Simpático

vias aferentes pressão


Baroreceptores
arterial

Figura 50: Arco barorreflexo, esquema da regulação da pressão arterial (cf. seção ??).

120

110
Pressão Arterial (mm Hg)

100

90

80

70

60

50
t (seg.)
0 0,25 0,50 0,75 1,00 1,25 1,50 1,75 2,00 2,25

Figura 51: Contorno da curva de pressão arterial.


45

Código da Figura .50 Código em PStricks.


\centering\scriptsize%
\psset{xunit=1cm,yunit=1cm}%
\newrgbcolor{gray2}{.9 .9 .9}
\begin{pspicture}(-2.25,-1.5)(10,10)
5 \pstverb{106 45 {dup mul exch dup mul add 1.0 exch sub} setscreen}%
\psframe[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=gray2,linestyle=dotted](-2.25,-.25)(2.75,9.5)
\rput[c]{0}(!-2.25 2.75 add 2 div 9){\large\bfseries\sffamily SNA}%
\psline[linewidth=.75pt]{->}(!9 3 8.5 add 2 div)(9,-1)(6.5,-1)%
\psline[linewidth=.75pt]{->}(7,-1)(-2,-1)(-2,8)(-1.27,8)
10 \psline[linewidth=.75pt]{->}(-2,6.5)(-1.27,6.5)
\psline[linewidth=.75pt]{->}(-2,5)(-1.27,5)
\psline[linewidth=.75pt]{->}(-2,3.5)(-1.27,3.5)
\psline[linewidth=.75pt]{->}(-2,2)(-1.27,2)
\psline[linewidth=.75pt]{->}(-2,.5)(-1.27,.5)
15 \psline[linewidth=.75pt]{->}(2,8)(2.5,8)(2.5,7.3)(8,7.3)
\psline[linewidth=.75pt]{->}(2,6.5)(2.5,6.5)(2.5,7.2)(8,7.2)
\psline[linewidth=.75pt]{->}(2,5)(8,5)
\psline[linewidth=.75pt]{->}(2,3.5)(2.5,3.5)(2.5,2.8)(8,2.8)
\psline[linewidth=.75pt]{->}(2,2)(2.5,2)(2.5,2.7)(8,2.7)
20 \psline[linewidth=.75pt]{->}(2,.5)(8,.5)%
\rput[b]{0}(5.25,7.4){\sffamily\scriptsize regulação da freqüência cardíaca}%
\rput[b]{0}(5.25,5.1){\sffamily\scriptsize regulação da contratilidade do miocárdio}%
\rput[b]{0}(5.25,2.9){\sffamily\scriptsize regulação do atraso de condução}%
\rput[b]{0}(5.25,.6){\sffamily\scriptsize regulação da resistência periférica}%
25 \rput[b]{0}(5.25,8.5){\sffamily\scriptsize\bfseries vias eferentes}%
\rput[r]{0}(2,8){\psframebox[linewidth=1pt]{\parbox[c]{3cm}%
{\centering\sffamily\scriptsize Efeito Cronotrópico\\ Simpático}}}%
\rput[r]{0}(2,6.5){\psframebox[linewidth=1pt,]{\parbox[c]{3cm}%
{\centering\sffamily\scriptsize Efeito Cronotrópico\\ Parasimpático}}}%
30 \rput[r]{0}(2,5){\psframebox[linewidth=1pt]{\parbox[c]{3cm}%
{\centering\sffamily\scriptsize Efeito Inotrópico\\ Simpático}}}%
\rput[r]{0}(2,3.5){\psframebox[linewidth=1pt]{\parbox[c]{3cm}%
{\centering\sffamily\scriptsize Efeito Dromotrópico\\ Simpático}}}%
\rput[r]{0}(2,2){\psframebox[linewidth=1pt]{\parbox[c]{3cm}%
35 {\centering\sffamily\scriptsize Efeito Dromotrópico\\ Parasimpático}}}%
\rput[r]{0}(2,.5){\psframebox[linewidth=1pt]{\parbox[c]{3cm}%
{\centering\sffamily\scriptsize Efeito Periférico\\ Simpático}}}%
\psframe[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white](8,0)(10,7.75)
\rput[c]{90}(!9 0 7.5 add 2 div){\large\bfseries\sffamily SCV}%
40 \rput[r]{0}(6.5,-1){\psframebox[linewidth=1pt,fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white%
]{\parbox[c]{3cm}%
{\centering\sffamily\scriptsize Baroreceptores}}}%
\rput[c]{0}(7.75,-1){{\parbox[c]{3cm}%
{\centering\sffamily\scriptsize pressão\\ arterial}}}%
45 \rput[b]{0}(0.5,-.9){\bfseries\sffamily\scriptsize vias aferentes}%
\end{pspicture}%
46

Código da Figura .51 Código em PStricks.


\scriptsize
\readdata[nStep=5]{\DataABP}{Dados/casoch4.txt}%
\newrgbcolor{gray1}{.6 .6 .6}
\psset{xunit=3.5cm,yunit=.06cm}%
5 \begin{pspicture}(-.5,40)(3,140)
\psaxes[Oy=50,Dx=.25,Dy=10,comma,ticks=all,%
tickstyle=bottom,arrowscale=1.2]{->}(0,50)(2.52,130)%
\rput[b]{90}(-.3,80){\small\sffamily Pressão Arterial (mm Hg)}%
\rput[t]{0}(2.7,50){\small\sffamily $t$ (seg.)}%
10 \listplot[linewidth=.5pt,linecolor=gray1]{\DataABP}
\psplot[linewidth=1pt,linecolor=blue,linestyle=solid]{0}{.75}%
{ 105 .70 x mul neg EXP mul}%
\psplot[linewidth=1pt,linecolor=blue,linestyle=solid]{.75}{1.48}%
{ 104 .69 x .75 sub mul neg EXP mul}%
15 \psplot[linewidth=1pt,linecolor=blue,linestyle=solid]{1.48}{2.25}%
{ 107 .70 x 1.48 sub mul neg EXP mul}%
\end{pspicture}%

120
b
b
P̄τ = 4,16 + 1,01 · P̄
115 b

b b

110 b

105 bb
b
P̄τ (mm Hg)

b b
b
b
b b
b
b b b b b b
b b
b b
b b b b b
100 b
b
bb
b
bb
b b
bb
b
b
b

b b b b bb b
b b b
b b
b b b b bb
b
b bb b b b
b bb b bbb b

95 b
bb b
b bb bb b bb b b
b b b b b b b b bb
bb b b
bb b
b b b b b
b b
bb

b b b
b b b b bb b b
bb b b b b
b bb b
b b b bb b b b b b
b b b b b b b b bb b b b b b b b
bb b b
bb b b b bb b
90 b b
b b b b bb b
b
bb
b
b bb b b b
b bb b b
b b b bb b b
b
b

bb bb bb b b
b b b b b bb b
b b b
b b b b
b b b
b b b

85 b
b b
bb
b
b
bb

b b

80

75
75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120

P̄ (mm Hg)
Figura 52: Relação entre a média calculada e a média estimada no modelo de Windkessel.
47

Código da Figura .52 Código em PStricks.


\scriptsize
\readdata[nStep=5]{\DataABP}{Dados/pampamrcADE.txt}%
\newrgbcolor{gray1}{.6 .6 .6}
\psset{xunit=.12cm,yunit=.12cm}%
5 \begin{pspicture}(60,67)(130,130)
\psaxes[Ox=75, Oy=75,Dx=5,Dy=5,comma,ticks=all,%
tickstyle=bottom,arrowscale=1.2]{->}(75,75)(125,125)%
\rput[b]{90}(67,97.5){\small\sffamily $\bar{P}_\tau$ (mm Hg)}%
\rput[t]{0}(97.5,67){\small\sffamily $\bar{P}$ (mm Hg)}%
10 \listplot[showpoints=true,linestyle=none,dotstyle=*,linecolor=blue,dotsize=2pt]{\DataABP}
\psplot[linewidth=1pt,linecolor=red]{75}{112}%
{4.1621 1.015 x mul add}
\rput[l]{0}(113,118){\small $\bar{P}_\tau=4,\! 16 + 1,\! 01 \cdot \bar{P}$}%
\end{pspicture}%

120

110
Pressão Arterial (mm Hg)

100

90

80

70

60

50
t (seg.)
0 0,25 0,50 0,75 1,00 1,25 1,50 1,75 2,00 2,25

Figura 53: Contorno da curva de pressão arterial.

Código da Figura .53 Código em PStricks.


\scriptsize
\readdata[nStep=5]{\DataABP}{Dados/casoch4.txt}%
\newrgbcolor{gray1}{.6 .6 .6}
\psset{xunit=3.5cm,yunit=.06cm}%
5 \begin{pspicture}(-.5,40)(3,140)
\psaxes[Oy=50,Dx=.25,Dy=10,comma,ticks=all,%
tickstyle=bottom,arrowscale=1.2]{->}(0,50)(2.52,130)%
\rput[b]{90}(-.3,80){\small\sffamily Pressão Arterial (mm Hg)}%
\rput[t]{0}(2.7,50){\small\sffamily $t$ (seg.)}%
10 \listplot[linewidth=.5pt,linecolor=gray1]{\DataABP}
\psline[linestyle=solid,linewidth=.5pt]{|<->|}(.75,62)(.86,62)%
\psline[linestyle=solid,linewidth=.5pt]{|<->|}(.86,62)(1.48,62)%
\psline[linewidth=1pt,linecolor=blue,linestyle=solid](0,60)%
(.13,104)(.75,62)(.86,103)(1.48,63)(1.59,106)(2.25,62)
15 \end{pspicture}%
b
48
b

120 b

b
b
P̄△ = 1,87 + 1,08 · P̄
115 b

b
110 b b

bb
b

b
b b
b
b b
b b b b b b
b bb
105 b b
b b
b

P̄△ (mm Hg)


b b
b b b b bb
b b b b b b
b
b b b b b
b bb
b b b b
b b b b
b

100 b b
bb
b
b

b b bb b b b
b
b b b b bb b b b
b bb
bb
b
b b bb
b

b bb b b b
b b
bb b b b b b b b bb
b bb b b b
bb b b b b b b b
b b b
b b b bb b
b
b b b bb b b b b b
95 bb
b
b b b b b b bb b b b bb b
bb b bb b
b b
b b bb b b b b b
b
b

b b b bb b
b b b b b bb b b
b b bb b b b
b b bb b b b b b b
b b b b
b
b bb b bb
b b b b b

90 b
b
b b
b

b bb
b
b

bb
b
b b
b

85 b

80

75
75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120

P̄ (mm Hg)
Figura 54: Relação entre a média calculada e a média estimada no ajuste triangular.

120

110
Pressão Arterial (mm Hg)

100

90

80

70

60

50
t (seg.)
0 0,25 0,50 0,75 1,00 1,25 1,50 1,75 2,00 2,25

Figura 55: Contorno da curva de pressão arterial e ajuste polinomial.

Código da Figura .54 Código em PStricks.


\scriptsize\readdata[nStep=5]{\DataABP}{Dados/pampamtriangloADE.txt}%
\psset{xunit=.12cm,yunit=.12cm}%
\begin{pspicture}(60,67)(130,130)
\psaxes[Ox=75,Oy=75,Dx=5,Dy=5,comma,ticks=all,%
5 tickstyle=bottom, arrowscale=1.2]{->}(75,75)(125,125)%
\rput[b]{90}(67,97.5){\small\sffamily $\bar{P}_\triangle$ (mm Hg)}%
\rput[t]{0}(97.5,67){\small\sffamily $\bar{P}$ (mm Hg)}%
\listplot[showpoints=true,linestyle=none,dotstyle=*,linecolor=blue,dotsize=2pt]{\DataABP}
\psplot[linewidth=1pt,linecolor=red]{75}{112}{1.8733 1.0869 x mul add}
10 \rput[l]{0}(113,118){\small $\bar{P}_\triangle=1,\! 87 + 1,\! 08 \cdot \bar{P}$}%
\end{pspicture}%
49

Código da Figura .55 Código em PStricks.


\scriptsize
\readdata[nStep=5]{\DataABP}{Dados/casoch4.txt}%
\psset{xunit=3.5cm,yunit=.06cm}%
\begin{pspicture}(-.5,40)(3,140)
5 \psaxes[Oy=50,Dx=.25,Dy=10,comma,ticks=all,%
tickstyle=bottom, arrowscale=1.2]{->}(0,50)(2.52,130)%
\rput[b]{90}(-.3,80){\small\sffamily Pressão Arterial (mm Hg)}%
\rput[t]{0}(2.7,50){\small\sffamily $t$ (seg.)}%
\listplot[linewidth=.5pt,linecolor=gray1]{\DataABP}
10 \psplot[linewidth=1pt,linecolor=blue,linestyle=solid]{0}{.75}%
{x .75 x sub 4 exp mul 5 .75 div 5 exp 4 -4 exp mul 43 mul mul 62 add}%
\psplot[linewidth=1pt,linecolor=blue,linestyle=solid]{.75}{1.48}%
{x .75 sub 1.48 x sub 4 exp mul 5 .73 div 5 exp 4 -4 exp mul 41 mul mul 63 add}%
\psplot[linewidth=1pt,linecolor=blue,linestyle=solid]{1.48}{2.25}%
15 {x 1.48 sub 2.25 x sub 4 exp mul 5 .78 div 5 exp 4 -4 exp mul 46 mul mul 63 add}%
\end{pspicture}%

120
P̄n = 4,29 + 0,95 · P̄
115
110 b b

105 b b
P̄△ (mm Hg)

100 bb
b
b
b

b b
b
b b
b
b b b b b b

95 b
b
b
b
bb
b
b b
b bb
bb
b
b

b
b

b
b
b
b
b

b b b bb
b b b b b
b b
b b b b b b

90 b
b b bb
bb b b b b b b
b bb b
b b b b b bb b b b b
bb
bb
b b bb
b

bb b
b
b bb

b
b
b
b b b b bbb b b

bb bb b b b b
b b b bb b
b b b bb b bb
b b b bb b b b
b b b b b b b b b b bb b b b b b b b

85 bb
b b
b
bb

b b bb b
bb bb b b b
b b
b
b
b b bb
b bb b b b
b bb b

b bb b b
b b b bb b b
b
b
b

bb bb b
b b b bb
b b b b b
b b
b b b

80 b b
b
b b
bb b
b
bb

75
75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120
P̄ (mm Hg)
Figura 56: Relação entre a média calculada e a média estimada no ajuste polinomial.

Código da Figura .56 Código em PStricks.


\readdata[nStep=5]{\DataABP}{Dados/pampampolinomioADE.txt}%
\psset{xunit=.12cm,yunit=.12cm}%
\begin{pspicture}(60,67)(130,130)
\psaxes[Ox=75,Oy=75,Dx=5,Dy=5,comma,ticks=all,%
5 tickstyle=bottom,arrowscale=1.2]{->}(75,75)(125,125)%
\rput[b]{90}(67,97.5){\small\sffamily $\bar{P}_\triangle$ (mm Hg)}%
\rput[t]{0}(97.5,67){\small\sffamily $\bar{P}$ (mm Hg)}%
\listplot[showpoints=true,linestyle=none,dotstyle=*,linecolor=blue,dotsize=2pt]{\DataABP}
\psplot[linewidth=1pt,linecolor=red]{75}{112}{4.2945 0.9511 x mul add}
10 \rput[l]{0}(113,118){\small $\bar{P}_n=4,\! 29 + 0,\! 95 \cdot \bar{P}$}%
\end{pspicture}%
50

xa
diástole b

sístole

bd bs
b b
b

Figura 57: Esboço da variedade M .


51

Código da Figura .57 Código em PStricks.


\psset{xunit=.6cm,yunit=.6cm}%
\begin{pspicture}(0,-3)(12,11)
\rput{90}(3.5,5){\psplot[linewidth=1pt]{-1.9}{1.81}{x 3 exp -2 x mul add 1.5 mul}}%
\rput{90}(6,10){\psplot[linewidth=1pt]{-1.17}{.8}{x 3 exp 2 x mul add 1.5 mul}}%
5 \psbezier[linewidth=1pt,showpoints=false]{-}(0,6.8)(1.5,8)(2.5,9)(2.8,10.81)%
\psbezier[linewidth=1pt,showpoints=false]{-}(8.1,3.1)(9,5)(10,7)(11.9,8.8)%
\psbezier[linewidth=1pt,showpoints=false]{-}(2.5,4.65)(3.54,5.15)(3.9,5.2)(4.5,6.2)%
\psbezier[linewidth=1pt,showpoints=false]{-}(5.13,5.8)(4.9,7)(5.2,8.7)(5.4,8.5)%
\psbezier[linewidth=1pt,showpoints=false]{-}(5.4,8.5)(5.45,8.45)(5.4,8.4)(5.2,8.1)
10 \rput[c]{0}(3.1,10.4){\small\sffamily $M$}%
\rput[c]{0}(7,3.8){\small\sffamily sístole}%
\rput[c]{0}(2,7.2){\small\sffamily diástole}%
\psline[linewidth=.8pt,arrowscale=1.4]{->}(1.85,4.5)(1.85,6.3)
\psline[linewidth=.8pt,arrowscale=1.4]{->}(5.15,5.5)(5.15,3.6)
15 \psline[linewidth=1pt,linestyle=dotted](2.8,2)(12,2)(9.2,-2)(0,-2)(2.8,2)%
\psline[linewidth=1pt,arrowscale=1.2]{->}(1,0)(11.5,0)
\psline[linewidth=1pt,arrowscale=1.2]{->}(4.6,-2.5)(7.4,2)(7.68,2.45)
\psbezier[linewidth=1pt,showpoints=false]{-}(6.15,0)(5.4,-1.2)(6,-1.5)(6.5,-2)%
\psbezier[linewidth=1pt,showpoints=false]{-}(6.15,0)(5.4,-1.2)(4,-1.75)(2.5,-2)%
20 \psdots(8.5,0)(4,0)
\rput[c]{0}(3.1,1.6){\small\sffamily $\mathscr{C}$}%
\rput[b]{0}(8.5,0.2){\small\sffamily $b_s$}%
\rput[b]{0}(4,0.2){\small\sffamily $b_d$}%
\rput[b]{0}(11.7,-.2){\small\sffamily $b$}%
25 \rput[b]{0}(7.8,2.5){\small\sffamily $a$}%
\psline[linewidth=.8pt,linestyle=dashed](4,.8)(4,3.5)%
\psline[linewidth=.8pt,linestyle=dashed](4,4.5)(4,5.2)%
\psline[linewidth=.8pt,linestyle=dashed](4,5.4)(4,6.3)%
\psline[linewidth=.8pt,linestyle=dashed](4,7.2)(4,8)%
30 \psdots(4,7.2)\rput[b]{0}(4.45,7.3){\small\sffamily $x_a$}%
\end{pspicture}
52
a1 : a2 :

bd bs bd bs
b b b b

a3 : a4 :

bd bs bd bs
b b b b

Figura 58: Ilustração da dinâmica para valores diferentes de a.

5,90

5,85
rs

5,80
− log α△

5,75
rs
5,70

5,65

5,60 rs rs
Média

5,55
rs Média ± E.P.
Média ± 1,96×E.P.
5,50
1 2 3

Peso categorizado

Figura 59: Influência do peso no − log α△ .


53

Código da Figura .58 Código em PStricks.


\newrgbcolor{gray1}{.6 .6 .6}
\psset{xunit=.75cm,yunit=.75cm}%
\begin{pspicture}(-3,-3)(3,3)
\rput{90}(0,0){\psplot[linewidth=1pt]{-1.6}{1.6}%
5 {x 3 exp 2 x mul add .4 mul}}%
\psline[linewidth=.75pt,arrowscale=1.2]{->}(-3,0)(3,0)%
\psline[linewidth=.75pt,arrowscale=1.2]{->}(0,-3)(0,3)%
\psdots(-1,.875)%
\psdots[dotscale=.8](-1,0)(2,0)%
10 \rput[b]{0}(-1,0.2){\small\sffamily $b_d$}%
\rput[b]{0}(2,0.2){\small\sffamily $b_s$}%
\rput[c]{0}(-3,3){\small\sffamily $a_1$:}%
\end{pspicture}\hspace{1.5cm}
\psset{xunit=.75cm,yunit=.75cm}%
15 \begin{pspicture}(-3,-3)(3,3)
\rput{90}(0,0){\psplot[linewidth=1pt]{-1.7}{1.7}%
{x 3 exp -1.5 x mul add 1 mul}}%
\psline[linewidth=.75pt,arrowscale=1.2]{->}(-3,0)(3,0)%
\psline[linewidth=.75pt,arrowscale=1.2]{->}(0,-3)(0,3)%
20 \psdots[dotscale=.8](-1,0)(2,0)%
\psdots(-1,1.475)%
\rput[c]{0}(-3,3){\small\sffamily $a_2$:}%
\rput[b]{0}(-1,0.2){\small\sffamily $b_d$}%
\rput[b]{0}(2,0.2){\small\sffamily $b_s$}%
25 \end{pspicture}
\vspace{1cm}
\psset{xunit=.75cm,yunit=.75cm}%
\begin{pspicture}(-3,-3)(3,3)
\rput{90}(0,0){\psplot[linewidth=1pt]{-1.9}{1.9}%
30 {x 3 exp -2 x mul add 1 mul}}%
\psline[linewidth=.75pt,arrowscale=1.2]{->}(-3,0)(3,0)%
\psline[linewidth=.75pt,arrowscale=1.2]{->}(0,-3)(0,3)%
\psdots[dotscale=.8](-1,0)(2,0)%
\psdots(-1,1.6)%
35 \rput[c]{0}(-3,3){\small\sffamily $a_3$:}%
\rput[b]{0}(-1,0.2){\small\sffamily $b_d$}%
\rput[b]{0}(2,0.2){\small\sffamily $b_s$}%
\end{pspicture}\hspace{1.5cm}
\begin{pspicture}(-3,-3)(3,3)
40 \rput{90}(0,0){\psplot[linewidth=1pt]{-2.25}{2.25}%
{x 3 exp -3.5 x mul add 1 mul}}%
\psline[linewidth=.75pt,arrowscale=1.2]{->}(-3,0)(3,0)%
\psline[linewidth=.75pt,arrowscale=1.2]{->}(0,-3)(0,3)%
\psdots(-1,2)
45 \psdots[dotscale=.8](-1,0)(2,0)%
\rput[c]{0}(-3,3){\small\sffamily $a_4$:}%
\rput[b]{0}(-1,0.2){\small\sffamily $b_d$}%
\rput[b]{0}(2,0.2){\small\sffamily $b_s$}%
\end{pspicture}
54

Código da Figura .59 Código em PStricks.


\scriptsize
\newrgbcolor{gray1}{.8 .8 .8}\psset{xunit=1cm,yunit=14cm}%
\begin{pspicture}(0,-.08)(8,.46)
\psaxes[Ox=0,Oy=5.50,Dx=2,Dy=.05,comma,axesstyle=frame,yticksize=8 .5,ticklinestyle=dotted,%
5 labels=y,ticks=all,tickstyle=bottom,linewidth=1pt,arrowscale=1.2,ylabelPos=left,%
labelsep=20pt,]{-}(0,0)(8,.45)%
\rput[t]{0}(2,-.02){\small\sffamily $1$}\psline[linewidth=.5pt](2,0)(2,-.01)%
\rput[t]{0}(4,-.02){\small\sffamily $2$}\psline[linewidth=.5pt](4,0)(4,-.01)%
\rput[t]{0}(6,-.02){\small\sffamily $3$}\psline[linewidth=.5pt](6,0)(6,-.01)%
10 \rput[t]{0}(4,-.07){\small\sffamily Peso categorizado}%
\rput[b]{90}(-1,.225){\small\sffamily $-\log\alpha_\triangle$}%
\def\ycatA{5.82935973876614\space}
\def\ycatEPA{0.032319\space}
\def\ycatB{5.711550\space}
15 \def\ycatEPB{0.026445\space}
\def\ycatC{5.598516\space}
\def\ycatEPC{0.027083\space}
\psline[linewidth=.75pt,tbarsize=.75]{-|}(!2 \ycatA \ycatEPA sub 5.5 sub)%
(!2 \ycatA \ycatEPA 1.96 mul sub 5.5 sub)%
20 \psline[linewidth=.75pt,tbarsize=.75]{-|}(!2 \ycatA \ycatEPA sub 5.5 sub)%
(!2 \ycatA \ycatEPA 1.96 mul add 5.5 sub)%
\psframe[linewidth=.75pt,fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=gray1](!1.5 \ycatA \ycatEPA sub 5.5 sub)%
(!2.5 \ycatA \ycatEPA add 5.5 sub)%
\psline[linewidth=.75pt,tbarsize=.75]{-|}(!4 \ycatB \ycatEPB sub 5.5 sub)%
25 (!4 \ycatB \ycatEPB 1.96 mul sub 5.5 sub)%
\psline[linewidth=.75pt,tbarsize=.75]{-|}(!4 \ycatB \ycatEPB sub 5.5 sub)%
(!4 \ycatB \ycatEPB 1.96 mul add 5.5 sub)%
\psframe[linewidth=.75pt,fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=gray1](!3.5 \ycatB \ycatEPB sub 5.5 sub)%
(!4.5 \ycatB \ycatEPB add 5.5 sub)%
30 \psline[linewidth=.75pt,tbarsize=.75]{-|}(!6 \ycatC \ycatEPC sub 5.5 sub)%
(!6 \ycatC \ycatEPC 1.96 mul sub 5.5 sub)%
\psline[linewidth=.75pt,tbarsize=.75]{-|}(!6 \ycatC \ycatEPC sub 5.5 sub)%
(!6 \ycatC \ycatEPC 1.96 mul add 5.5 sub)%
\psframe[linewidth=.75pt,fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=gray1](!5.5 \ycatC \ycatEPC sub 5.5 sub)%
35 (!6.5 \ycatC \ycatEPC add 5.5 sub)%
\psdots[dotscale=1.2,dotstyle=square](!2 \ycatA 5.5 sub)
(!4 \ycatB 5.5 sub)(!6 \ycatC 5.5 sub)(8.4,.1)%
\rput[l]{0}(8.75,.1){\small\sffamily Média}%
\rput[l]{0}(8.75,.06){\small\sffamily Média $\pm$ E.P.}%
40 \rput[l]{0}(8.75,.02){\small\sffamily Média $\pm$ $1,\! 96\times$E.P.}%
\psdots[dotscale=3.5,dotstyle=square](8.4,.06)%
\psline[linewidth=.5pt,tbarsize=.4]{|-|}(!8.4 .02 .012 add)(!8.4 .02 .012 sub)%
\end{pspicture}%
55

6,1
rs
6,0

5,9

5,8 rs
− log α△

5,7
rs

5,6

5,5
rs
5,4
rs
Média
5,3 rs Média ± E.P.
5.2
Média ± 1,96×E.P.
1 2 3 4
IMC categorizado
Figura 60: Influência do IMC no − log α△ .

1,0 u
u u u u u
ut
ut
u u
ut
uut
b
tuu
b
ut
b
ut
b
ut
b
ut
b
bc
ubt
bc
ubt
bc
utb
bc
butbc utb
bc butbc

u ut b b bc bc
b bc
u ut b bc
0,9 u
b
but
b
bc
bc
bc

u b ut bc
bc
0,8 u b
b
ut bc
b bc

0,7 u b ut bc
Especialista 1:
Probabilidade

b bc

0,6 u

b
b ut

bc
bc
Min
ut

0,5
b
bu
bc
bcut
Max
u

0,4
b
b u
bc
bc ut
Especialista 2:
Min
bc ut
0,3 b
b u
bc
bc

b u bc ut
0,2 b
b
u bc
bc
ut
b
Max
b bc
b bcu ut
0,1 b
b
b
bc
bc
bc
u ut
b b bc bc u ut
b b bc bc u ut
bbc b b bc bc bc bc u u ut ut
bbc ut
bbcut ubct bcut ubct ut ut uut utu ut ut ut ut
0 ut ut ut ut

0 20 40 60 80 100

Figura 61: Dois Especialistas.


56

Código da Figura .60 Código em PStricks.


\scriptsize
\newrgbcolor{gray1}{.8 .8 .8}\psset{xunit=1cm,yunit=7cm}%
\begin{pspicture}(0,-.08)(10,1.05)
\def\linf{5.2\space}
5 \psaxes[Ox=0,Oy=\linf,Dx=2,Dy=.1,comma,axesstyle=frame,yticksize=10 .5,ticklinestyle=dotted,%
labels=y,ticks=all,tickstyle=bottom,linewidth=1pt,arrowscale=1.2,%
ylabelPos=left,labelsep=20pt,]{-}(0,0)(10,1)%
\rput[t]{0}(2,-.02){\small\sffamily $1$}\psline[linewidth=.5pt](2,0)(2,-.01)%
\rput[t]{0}(4,-.02){\small\sffamily $2$}\psline[linewidth=.5pt](4,0)(4,-.01)%
10 \rput[t]{0}(6,-.02){\small\sffamily $3$}\psline[linewidth=.5pt](6,0)(6,-.01)%
\rput[t]{0}(8,-.02){\small\sffamily $4$}\psline[linewidth=.5pt](8,0)(8,-.01)%
\rput[t]{0}(5,-.07){\small\sffamily IMC categorizado}%
\rput[b]{90}(-1,.5){\small\sffamily $-\log\alpha_\triangle$}%
\def\ycatA{6.028096\space}
15 \def\ycatEPA{0.055217\space}
\def\ycatB{5.794006\space}
\def\ycatEPB{0.025370\space}
\def\ycatC{5.668812\space}
\def\ycatEPC{0.027090\space}
20 \def\ycatD{5.429746\space}
\def\ycatEPD{0.043501\space}
\psline[linewidth=.75pt,tbarsize=.75]{-|}(!2 \ycatA \ycatEPA sub \linf sub)%
(!2 \ycatA \ycatEPA 1.96 mul sub \linf sub)%
\psline[linewidth=.75pt,tbarsize=.75]{-|}(!2 \ycatA \ycatEPA sub \linf sub)%
25 (!2 \ycatA \ycatEPA 1.96 mul add \linf sub)%
\psframe[linewidth=.75pt,fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=gray1](!1.5 \ycatA \ycatEPA sub \linf sub)%
(!2.5 \ycatA \ycatEPA add \linf sub)%
\psline[linewidth=.75pt,tbarsize=.75]{-|}(!4 \ycatB \ycatEPB sub \linf sub)%
(!4 \ycatB \ycatEPB 1.96 mul sub \linf sub)%
30 \psline[linewidth=.75pt,tbarsize=.75]{-|}(!4 \ycatB \ycatEPB sub \linf sub)%
(!4 \ycatB \ycatEPB 1.96 mul add \linf sub)%
\psframe[linewidth=.75pt,fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=gray1](!3.5 \ycatB \ycatEPB sub \linf sub)%
(!4.5 \ycatB \ycatEPB add \linf sub)%
\psline[linewidth=.75pt,tbarsize=.75]{-|}(!6 \ycatC \ycatEPC sub \linf sub)%
35 (!6 \ycatC \ycatEPC 1.96 mul sub \linf sub)%
\psline[linewidth=.75pt,tbarsize=.75]{-|}(!6 \ycatC \ycatEPC sub \linf sub)%
(!6 \ycatC \ycatEPC 1.96 mul add \linf sub)%
\psframe[linewidth=.75pt,fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=gray1](!5.5 \ycatC \ycatEPC sub \linf sub)%
(!6.5 \ycatC \ycatEPC add \linf sub)%
40 \psline[linewidth=.75pt,tbarsize=.75]{-|}(!8 \ycatD \ycatEPD sub \linf sub)%
(!8 \ycatD \ycatEPD 1.96 mul sub \linf sub)%
\psline[linewidth=.75pt,tbarsize=.75]{-|}(!8 \ycatD \ycatEPD sub \linf sub)%
(!8 \ycatD \ycatEPD 1.96 mul add \linf sub)%
\psframe[linewidth=.75pt,fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=gray1](!7.5 \ycatD \ycatEPD sub \linf sub)%
45 (!8.5 \ycatD \ycatEPD add \linf sub)%
\psdots[dotscale=1.2,dotstyle=square,linewidth=1pt](!2 \ycatA \linf sub)
(!4 \ycatB \linf sub)(!6 \ycatC \linf sub)(!8 \ycatD \linf sub)(10.4,.15)%
\rput[l]{0}(10.75,.15){\small\sffamily Média}\rput[l]{0}(10.75,.085){\small\sffamily %
Média $\pm$ E.P.}%
50 \rput[l]{0}(10.75,.02){\small\sffamily Média $\pm$ $1,\! 96\times$E.P.}%
\psdots[dotscale=3.5,dotstyle=square](10.4,.085)%
\psline[linewidth=.5pt,tbarsize=.4]{|-|}(!10.4 .02 .02 add)(!10.4 .02 .02 sub)%
\end{pspicture}%
57

Código da Figura .61 Código em PStricks.


\centering\scriptsize%
\psset{xunit=.075cm,yunit=4.5cm}%
\newrgbcolor{gray1}{.6 .8 .6}
\newrgbcolor{gray2}{.7 .9 .7}
5 \begin{pspicture}(0,-.2)(110,1.2)
\psaxes[Dy=.1,Dx=20,comma,labels=all,ticks=all,%
tickstyle=bottom, arrowscale=1.2]{->}(110,1.1)%
\pscustom[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=gray1!90!white,linestyle=none]{%
\psplot[linecolor=black,linewidth=1pt,plotpoints=50]{0}{100}%
10 {1 x 45 sub .2 mul neg EXP 1 mul 1 add div 0 add}%
\psplot[linecolor=black,linewidth=1pt,plotpoints=50]{100}{0}%
{1 x 55 sub .2 mul neg EXP 1 mul 1 add div 0 add}}%pscustom
\pscustom[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=gray2!30!white,opacity=.6,linestyle=none]{%
\psplot[linecolor=black,linewidth=1pt,plotpoints=50]{0}{100}%
15 {1 x 45 sub .1 mul neg EXP 1 mul 1 add div 0 add}%
\psplot[linecolor=black,linewidth=1pt,plotpoints=50]{100}{0}%
{1 x 55 sub .1 mul neg EXP 1 mul 1 add div 0 add}}%pscustom
\psplot[linecolor=black,linewidth=1pt,plotpoints=50,showpoints=true,%
dotstyle=triangle,dotsize=3pt]{0}{100}%
20 {1 x 55 sub .2 mul neg EXP 1 mul 1 add div 0 add}%
\psplot[linecolor=black,linewidth=1pt,plotpoints=50,showpoints=true,%
dotstyle=triangle*,dotsize=3pt]{0}{100}%
{1 x 45 sub .2 mul neg EXP 1 mul 1 add div 0 add}%
\psplot[linecolor=black,linewidth=1pt,plotpoints=50,showpoints=true,%
25 dotstyle=o,dotsize=3pt]{0}{100}%
{1 x 55 sub .1 mul neg EXP 1 mul 1 add div 0 add}%
\psplot[linecolor=black,linewidth=1pt,plotpoints=50,showpoints=true,%
dotstyle=*,dotsize=3pt]{0}{100}%
{1 x 45 sub .1 mul neg EXP 1 mul 1 add div 0 add}%
30 \rput{0}(55,-.2){$\theta$}%
\rput{90}(-13.5,.5){\small\sffamily Probabilidade}%
\rput{0}(110,.6){\psdots[dotstyle=triangle,dotsize=3pt](0,0)%
\psdots[dotstyle=triangle*,dotsize=3pt](0,-.1)%
\psdots[dotstyle=o,dotsize=3pt](0,-.3)%
35 \psdots[dotstyle=*,dotsize=3pt](0,-.4)%
\rput[l]{0}(2,0){\small\sffamily Min}%
\rput[l]{0}(2,-.1){\small\sffamily Max}%
\rput[l]{0}(2,-.3){\small\sffamily Min}%
\rput[l]{0}(2,-.4){\small\sffamily Max}%
40 \rput[l]{0}(-12,.1){\small\sffamily Especialista 1:}
\rput[l]{0}(-12,-.2){\small\sffamily Especialista 2:}}%
\end{pspicture}%
58
Governo oferece Indivíduo aceita Governo paga uma Indivíduo decide O indivíduo
um contrato ou recusa o parcela do seguro se realiza esforço permanece ou não
{bt , at } contrato desemprego ou não desempregado
1 2 3 4 5

t=0 t=1 t=2 t=3 t=4

Figura 62: minha linda figura.

Código da Figura .62 Código em PStricks.


\psset{xunit=1.25cm}
\begin{pspicture}(0,3.5)(12,5)
\psline[linewidth=5pt,linecolor=blue!50!white]{->}(-.1,4)(10.8,4)
\psframe[linestyle=none,gradlines=1000,gradmidpoint=1,%
5 fillstyle=gradient,gradbegin=blue!10!white,gradangle=90,%
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\pscircle[linestyle=none,fillcolor=blue,fillstyle=solid](1,4){.12}
\pscircle[linestyle=none,fillcolor=blue,fillstyle=solid](3,4){.12}
\pscircle[linestyle=none,fillcolor=blue,fillstyle=solid](5,4){.12}
10 \pscircle[linestyle=none,fillcolor=blue,fillstyle=solid](7,4){.12}
\pscircle[linestyle=none,fillcolor=blue,fillstyle=solid](9,4){.12}
\rput[c](1,4){\tiny\White{\textbf{1}}}
\rput[c](3,4){\tiny\White{\textbf{2}}}
\rput[c](5,4){\tiny\White{\textbf{3}}}
15 \rput[c](7,4){\tiny\White{\textbf{4}}}
\rput[c](9,4){\tiny\White{\textbf{5}}}
\rput[lc](1,4.75){\parbox{2cm}{\sffamily\scriptsize\centering %
Governo oferece um contrato $\{b_t,a_t\}$}}
\rput[lc](3,4.75){\parbox{2cm}{\sffamily\scriptsize\centering %
20 Indivíduo aceita ou recusa o contrato}}
\rput[lc](5,4.75){\parbox{2.2cm}{\sffamily\scriptsize\centering %
Governo paga uma parcela do seguro desemprego}}
\rput[lc](7,4.75){\parbox{2cm}{\sffamily\scriptsize\centering %
Indivíduo decide se realiza esforço ou não}}
25 \rput[lc](9,4.75){\parbox{2.1cm}{\sffamily\scriptsize\centering %
O indivíduo permanece ou não desempregado}}
\rput[lc](1,3.5){\scriptsize $t=0$}
\rput[lc](3,3.5){\scriptsize $t=1$}
\rput[lc](5,3.5){\scriptsize $t=2$}
30 \rput[lc](7,3.5){\scriptsize $t=3$}
\rput[lc](9,3.5){\scriptsize $t=4$}
\end{pspicture}
59

Coluna B – IB
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

Coluna A – IA

Figura 63: Visualização gráfica da questão mais difícil.

1,0 u
u u
ut
u tuu
b
tu
b
ut
b
bc
ubt
bc
ubt
bc
ubtbc
ut b
u bc
b bc
ut
0,9 u
b
bc
b
bc
ut
0,8 b
bc
u
b
0,7 ut
bc Especialista 1:
Probabilidade

b
0,6 bc
ut
Mínima
u
b
0,5 bc
u
Máxima
ut
b
0,4 bc Especialista 2:
u
b
0,3 bc
ut
bc
Mínima
b
bc
0,2 b
u
b
Máxima
bc ut
b
0,1 b bc
bc
u
ut
b bc
b bc u ut
bbc b bc bc u
bbcut ut
ubct ut ut utu ut ut
0 ut

0 20 40 60 80 100

Parâmetro

Figura 64: O Caso de Dois Especialistas.

X, a Y, b Z, c
unidade unidade unidade

Figura 65: Exemplo de sistema.

Matéria Processo Processo Processo Processo Processo Produtos


prima A B C D E acabados

Figura 66: Sistema de produção.


60

Código da Figura .63 Código em PStricks.


\centering\scriptsize%
\psset{xunit=1.0cm,yunit=1.0cm}\newrgbcolor{grayclaro}{.9 .9 .9}
\begin{pspicture}(0,-.5)(6,6.5)\psframe[linecolor=gray](0,0)(6,6)%
\multido{\nx=0+0.3}{19}{%
5 \rput(\nx,6){\psframe[linewidth=.5pt,fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=grayclaro](0,0)(.3,-.3)}}
\multido{\nx=0+0.3}{18}{%
\rput(\nx,5.7){\psframe[linewidth=.4pt,fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=grayclaro](0,0)(.3,-.3)}}
\multido{\nx=0+0.3}{17}{%
\rput(\nx,5.4){\psframe[linewidth=.4pt,fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=grayclaro](0,0)(.3,-.3)}}
10 \multido{\nx=0+0.3}{16}{%
\rput(\nx,5.1){\psframe[linewidth=.4pt,fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=grayclaro](0,0)(.3,-.3)}}
\multido{\nx=0+0.3}{15}{%
\rput(\nx,4.8){\psframe[linewidth=.4pt,fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=grayclaro](0,0)(.3,-.3)}}
\multido{\nx=0+0.3}{14}{%
15 \rput(\nx,4.5){\psframe[linewidth=.4pt,fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=grayclaro](0,0)(.3,-.3)}}
\multido{\nx=0+0.3}{13}{%
\rput(\nx,4.2){
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20 \rput(\nx,3.9){\psframe[linewidth=.4pt,fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=grayclaro](0,0)(.3,-.3)}}
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\rput(\nx,3.6){\psframe[linewidth=.4pt,fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=grayclaro](0,0)(.3,-.3)}}
\multido{\nx=0+0.3}{10}{%
\rput(\nx,3.3){\psframe[linewidth=.4pt,fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=grayclaro](0,0)(.3,-.3)}}
25 \multido{\nx=0+0.3}{9}{%
\rput(\nx,3.0){\psframe[linewidth=.4pt,fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=grayclaro](0,0)(.3,-.3)}}
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30 \rput(\nx,2.4){\psframe[linewidth=.4pt,fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=grayclaro](0,0)(.3,-.3)}}
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\multido{\nx=0+0.3}{5}{%
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35 \multido{\nx=0+0.3}{4}{%
\rput(\nx,1.5){\psframe[linewidth=.4pt,fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=grayclaro](0,0)(.3,-.3)}}
\multido{\nx=0+0.3}{3}{%
\rput(\nx,1.2){\psframe[linewidth=.4pt,fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=grayclaro](0,0)(.3,-.3)}}
\multido{\nx=0+0.3}{2}{%
40 \rput(\nx,0.9){\psframe[linewidth=.4pt,fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=grayclaro](0,0)(.3,-.3)}}
\multido{\nx=0+0.3}{1}{%
\rput(\nx,0.6){\psframe[linewidth=.4pt,fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=grayclaro](0,0)(.3,-.3)}}
\multido{\nx=.3+.3}{19}{%
\psline[linewidth=.4pt,linestyle=dotted,dotsep=2pt](\nx,\nx)(6,\nx)
45 \psline[linewidth=.4pt,linestyle=dotted,dotsep=2pt](\nx,\nx)(\nx,0)}%
\multido{\nx=.3+.3}{20}{%
\rput(\nx,\nx){\psframe[linewidth=.4pt,linecolor=lightgray,%
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\psframe[linewidth=.4pt,linecolor=darkgray,fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=darkgray](.6,3)(.9,2.7)%
50 \psframe[linewidth=.4pt,linecolor=darkgray,fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=darkgray](3.3,5.4)(3,5.1)%
\psline[linewidth=.6pt](0,0)(6,6)%
\multido{\n=1+1}{20}{\rput[c]{0}(!\n\space 1 sub 20 6 div div .15 add -.15){\tiny\n}}%
\multido{\n=1+1}{20}{\rput[r]{0}(!6.3 \n\space 1 sub 20 6 div div .15 add ){\tiny\n}}%
\rput[l](0,-.5){Coluna A -- $I_A$}\rput[r](6.9,6.2){Coluna B -- $I_B$}%
55 \end{pspicture}
61

Código da Figura .64 Código em PStricks.


\centering\scriptsize%
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15 \pscustom[fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=c1!90!white,linestyle=none]{%
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\rput{0}(100,.6){\psdots[dotstyle=triangle,dotsize=3pt](0,0)%
40 \psdots[dotstyle=triangle*,dotsize=3pt](0,-.1)%
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62

Código da Figura .65 Código em PStricks.


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Código da Figura .66 Código em PStricks.


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63

15 un/dia 20 un/dia 8 un/dia 10 un/dia 15 un/dia


Demanda: 14 un/dia

Matéria Processo Processo Processo Processo Processo Produtos


prima A B C D E acabados

Figura 67: Sistema de produção com processos dependentes.

Código da Figura .67 Código em PStricks.


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Teoria das Restrições

Gerenciamento Processos de
Logística
das restrições pensamento

Ganho
Processo de Inventário Decisão sobre mix Ganho Diagramas Auditoria Diagrama de
programação Análise V-A-T Despesas de produtos dólar/dia ECE ECE nuvens
operacionais

TPC:
Tambor-Pulmão-
Corda

Gerenciamento
dos Pulmões

Figura 68: Classificação da Teoria das Restrições.

64
65

Estoque de matérias
primas

Estoque produto em
processo
Inventário
Estoque produto acabado

Ativos em geral

Figura 69: Inventário.

ganho despesas
inventário operacionais

Figura 70: Indicadores da Teoria das Restrições.

Aumento do
LL

Aumento do Aumento do
ganho RSI

Aumento do
FC

Figura 71: Impacto do aumento do ganho.


66

Restrições físicas Processo de Aprimoramento


contínuo

Restrições não físicas Processo de raciocínio

Figura 72: Divisão dos processos da Teoria das Restrições.

identificar a restrição Etapa 1


do sistema

explorar a restrição para Etapa 2


melhorar a performance

subordinar todos os outros Etapa 3


recursos à restrição

elevar a capacidade Etapa 4


da restrição

não restrição sim Etapa 5


elevada?

Figura 73: Processo de melhoria contínua.

Processo X Processo Y
20 un/sem 10 un/sem

Figura 74: Sistema de produção XY.


67

Código da Figura .68 Código em PStricks.


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68

Código da Figura .69 Código em PStricks.


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Código da Figura .70 Código em PStricks.


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69

Código da Figura .71 Código em PStricks.


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Código da Figura .72 Código em PStricks.


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70

Código da Figura .73 Código em PStricks.


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Código da Figura .74 Código em PStricks.


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71

Efeitos indesejáveis

O que mudar? Árvore da realidade


atual

Para o que mudar? Árvore da realidade


futura

Como mudar? Árvores de pré-requisitos


e transição

Figura 75: Processo de raciocínio.

Produto I Produto II Produto III — Vendas


Acidificação Reação Salinização
OP10 OP20 OP30
sub prod. A

cam. prod. II

Sulfatação Produto IV — Vendas


cam. sub prod. A OP40
Produto III

Extrusão filmes Produto VI — Vendas


OP60
Polimerização Produto V
OP50
Extrusão resinas Produto VII — Vendas
OP70

Figura 76: Fluxograma dos processos.


72

Código da Figura .75 Código em PStricks.


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5 \rput[c](0,0){\parbox[c]{6cm}{\centering\small\sffamily %
Efeitos indesejáveis}}}%
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10 O que mudar?}}}%
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\rput[c](0,0){\parbox[c]{6cm}{\centering\small\sffamily %
Para o que mudar?}}}%
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20 fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white](0,0)(3,.75)
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Árvore da realidade\\[-5pt] futura}}}%
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25 \rput[c](0,0){\parbox[c]{6cm}{\centering\small\sffamily %
Como mudar?}}}%
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73

Código da Figura .76 Código em PStricks.


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5 \psline[linewidth=1pt,arrowscale=1.2]{->}(15.5,8.2)(20.3,8.2)%
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15 \psline[linewidth=1pt,arrowscale=1.2]{->}(15.6,2.5)(20.3,2.5)%
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\rput[b]{0}(18,8.3){\small{\sffamily Produto} III --- {\sffamily Vendas}}
20 \rput[br]{0}(11.6,6.8){\small{\sffamily cam. prod.} II}%
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\rput[b]{90}(4.9,6.4){\small{\sffamily sub prod. A}}%
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35 {\sffamily Reação}\\[-3pt] OP20}}}%
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{\sffamily Salinização}\\[-3pt] OP30}}}%
40 \rput{0}(8,5){\psframe[linewidth=1pt,linecolor=red,framearc=.4,%
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{\sffamily Sulfatação}\\[-3pt] OP40}}}%
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55 {\sffamily Extrusão resinas}\\[-3pt] OP70}}}%
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74

Acidificação
OP10

Reação Sulfatação
OP20 OP40

Extrusão filmes
OP60
Salinização Polimerização
OP30 OP50
Extrusão resinas
OP70

Figura 77: Interdependência dos processos.

Protudo III Protudo VI Protudo VII

OP60 OP70

OP50 OP50

OP30 OP30 OP30

OP20 OP20 OP20

OP10 OP10 OP10

Figura 78: Estrutura de produção.


75

Código da Figura .77 Código em PStricks.


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5 \psline[linewidth=1pt,arrowscale=1.2]{->}(3.5,1.5)(6.5,1.5)%
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10 \rput[c](0,0){\parbox[c]{3cm}{\centering\small %
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fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white](-1.5,-.7)(1.5,.7)
\rput[c](0,0){\parbox[c]{3cm}{\centering\small %
15 {\sffamily Reação}\\[-3pt] OP20}}}%
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fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white](-1.5,-.7)(1.5,.7)
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{\sffamily Salinização}\\[-3pt] OP30}}}%
20 \rput{0}(8,5){\psframe[linewidth=1pt,linecolor=red,framearc=.4,%
fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white](-1.5,-.7)(1.5,.7)
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{\sffamily Sulfatação}\\[-3pt] OP40}}}%
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25 fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white](-1.5,-.7)(1.5,.7)
\rput[c](0,0){\parbox[c]{3cm}{\centering\small %
{\sffamily Polimerização}\\[-3pt] OP50}}}%
\rput{0}(14,2.5){\psframe[linewidth=1pt,linecolor=red,framearc=.4,%
fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white](-1.6,-.7)(1.6,.7)
30 \rput[c](0,0){\parbox[c]{3cm}{\centering\small %
{\sffamily Extrusão filmes}\\[-3pt] OP60}}}%
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fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white](-1.6,-.7)(1.6,.7)
\rput[c](0,0){\parbox[c]{3cm}{\centering\small %
35 {\sffamily Extrusão resinas}\\[-3pt] OP70}}}%
\end{pspicture}
76

Código da Figura .78 Código em PStricks.


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5 \psline[linewidth=1pt,arrowscale=1.2]{->}(2,5.7)(2,12.3)%
\psline[linewidth=1pt,arrowscale=1.2]{->}(8,1.7)(8,2.3)%
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10 \psline[linewidth=1pt,arrowscale=1.2]{->}(8,9.7)(8,12.3)%
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(-1.5,-.7)(1.5,.7)\rput[c](0,0){\parbox[c]{3cm}{\centering\small OP20}}}%
20 \rput{0}(14,5){\psframe[linewidth=1pt,linecolor=red,framearc=.4,fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white]%
(-1.5,-.7)(1.5,.7)\rput[c](0,0){\parbox[c]{3cm}{\centering\small OP30}}}%
\rput{0}(14,7){\psframe[linewidth=1pt,linecolor=red,framearc=.4,fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white]%
(-1.5,-.7)(1.5,.7)\rput[c](0,0){\parbox[c]{3cm}{\centering\small OP50}}}%
\rput{0}(14,9){\psframe[linewidth=1pt,linecolor=red,framearc=.4,fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white]%
25 (-1.5,-.7)(1.5,.7)\rput[c](0,0){\parbox[c]{3cm}{\centering\small OP70}}}%
\rput{0}(14,13){\psframe[linewidth=1pt,linecolor=red,framearc=0,fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white]%
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(-1.5,-.7)(1.5,.7)\rput[c](0,0){\parbox[c]{3cm}{\centering\small OP10}}}%
30 \rput{0}(2,3){\psframe[linewidth=1pt,linecolor=red,framearc=.4,fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white]%
(-1.5,-.7)(1.5,.7)\rput[c](0,0){\parbox[c]{3cm}{\centering\small OP20}}}%
\rput{0}(2,5){\psframe[linewidth=1pt,linecolor=red,framearc=.4,fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white]%
(-1.5,-.7)(1.5,.7)\rput[c](0,0){\parbox[c]{3cm}{\centering\small OP30}}}%
\rput{0}(2,13){\psframe[linewidth=1pt,linecolor=red,framearc=0,fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white]%
35 (-1.5,-.7)(1.5,.7)\rput[c](0,0){\parbox[c]{3cm}{\centering\small {\sffamily Protudo} III}}}%
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(-1.5,-.7)(1.5,.7)\rput[c](0,0){\parbox[c]{3cm}{\centering\small OP10}}}%
\rput{0}(8,3){\psframe[linewidth=1pt,linecolor=red,framearc=.4,fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white]%
(-1.5,-.7)(1.5,.7)\rput[c](0,0){\parbox[c]{3cm}{\centering\small OP20}}}%
40 \rput{0}(8,5){\psframe[linewidth=1pt,linecolor=red,framearc=.4,fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white]%
(-1.5,-.7)(1.5,.7)\rput[c](0,0){\parbox[c]{3cm}{\centering\small OP30}}}%
\rput{0}(8,7){\psframe[linewidth=1pt,linecolor=red,framearc=.4,fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white]%
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\rput{0}(8,9){\psframe[linewidth=1pt,linecolor=red,framearc=.4,fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white]%
45 (-1.5,-.7)(1.5,.7)\rput[c](0,0){\parbox[c]{3cm}{\centering\small OP60}}}%
\rput{0}(8,13){\psframe[linewidth=1pt,linecolor=red,framearc=0,fillstyle=solid,fillcolor=white]%
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77

F (x) b
b b

b
b
0.75
b
b

0.50 b

0.25
b

0 b

0.25 0.50 b
0.75 1.00
x
−0.25 b

b
−0.50 b

−0.75 b

b b
−1.00 b

Figura 79: Aproximação de F (t) = sin(6t)


78

Código da Figura .79 Código em PStricks.


\centering
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\begin{pspicture}(-0.2,-1.1)(1.25,1.5)
\psaxes[labels=all, ticks=all, showorigin=true, Dx=0.25,Dy=0.25,arrowscale=1.2]%
5 {->}(0,0)(0,-1)(1.25,1)
\rput(1.01,-0.2){$x$}
\rput(1.01,-0.2){$F(x)$}
\psplot{0}{1}{x 180 mul 3.1415 div 6 mul sin}
\savedata{\FunExD}[{%
10 { 0 , -0.00154334496763381}
{ 0.05 , 0.297234743364894}
{ 0.1 , 0.592664822883889}
{ 0.15 , 0.780666607227646}
{ 0.2 , 1.009975906655610}
15 { 0.25 , 0.956811009523580}
{ 0.3 , 0.970330876781844}
{ 0.35 , 0.802302704112419}
{ 0.4 , 0.655892508348767}
{ 0.45 , 0.455214041214377}
20 { 0.5 , 0.141519855373167}
{ 0.55 , -0.101448070792488}
{ 0.6 , -0.470317416315246}
{ 0.65 , -0.668531388995452}
{ 0.7 , -0.85154079064767}
25 { 0.75 , -1.01532882321143}
{ 0.8 , -0.97542773420711}
{ 0.85 , -0.978152328814847}
{ 0.9 , -0.751893891591666}
{ 0.95 , -0.542839531164022}
30 { 1 , -0.284186066703517}}]
\dataplot[plotstyle=dots,showpoints=true,linecolor=red]{\FunExD}
\end{pspicture}
{\fontsize{8pt}{9.6pt}{\caption{Aproximação de $F(t)=\sin(6t)$}}}
79

Figura 80: Válvula.

B2
C2
A2
B7 B3
D7 D2 C3
A7 B1 A3

C7 C1 D3
B6 A1 B4
C6 D1 C4
A6 B5 A4

D6 C5 D4

A5

D5

Figura 81: Sistema célular com 7 clusters e N = 4.


80

Código da Figura .80 Código em M4/Pic.


.PS
include(libcct.m4)
cct_init
linethick=linethick*(1.5)
5 dimen_=dimen_
\newrgbcolor{azulclaro1}{.1 .5 1}
\newrgbcolor{azulclaro2}{.2 .2 1}
\psset{linecolor=azulclaro1,fillcolor=azulclaro2,fillstyle=none}%
Origem:(0,0)
10 linethick=linethick*12
R:circle radius 5*dimen_/2 with .c at Origem
L1:line right_ dimen_ with .c at Origem
L2:line right_ dimen_ with .e at L1.w-(dimen_/3,0)
L3:line right_ dimen_ with .w at L1.e+(dimen_/3,0)
15 L4:line from (L2.c.x,-dimen_/1.25) to (L3.c.x,-dimen_/1.25)
L5:line from (L2.c.x,dimen_/1.25) to (L3.c.x,dimen_/1.25)
L6:line from L5.c up_ 4*dimen_
L7:line from L4.w+(dimen_/5,dimen_/5) down_ 4*dimen_;
L8:line from L4.e-(dimen_/5,-dimen_/5) down_ dimen_/1.5;
20 linethick=linethick/2
linethick=linethick/6
.PE
81

Código da Figura .81 Código em M4/Pic.


% quick.m4
.PS # Pic input begins with .PS
include(libcct.m4)
cct_init
5 linethick=linethick*(1.5)
dimen_=dimen_*.5
j=dimen_*sqrt(3)/2
i=dimen_/2
define cell {
10 move to ($2,$3)
A:line up_ dimen_*sqrt(3)/2 right_ dimen_/2
B:line right_ dimen_
C:line down_ dimen_*sqrt(3)/2 right_ dimen_/2
D:line down_ dimen_*sqrt(3)/2 left_ dimen_/2
15 E:line left_ dimen_
F:line up_ dimen_*sqrt(3)/2 left_ dimen_/2
"$1$" at A.start + (dimen_,0)
move to C.end}
cell(,0,0)
20 cell(B_1,0,2*j)
cell(C_1,3*i,j)
cell(D_1,3*i,-j)
cell(,0,4*j)
cell(B_2,0,6*j)
25 cell(C_2,3*i,5*j)
cell(D_2,3*i,3*j)
cell(,6*i,2*j)
cell(B_3,6*i,4*j)
cell(C_3,9*i,3*j)
30 cell(D_3,9*i,1*j)
cell(,6*i,-2*j)
cell(B_4,6*i,0)
cell(C_4,9*i,-1*j)
cell(D_4,9*i,-3*j)
35 cell(,0,-4*j)
cell(B_5,0,-2*j)
cell(C_5,3*i,-3*j)
cell(D_5,3*i,-5*j)
cell(,-6*i,-2*j)
40 cell(B_6,-6*i,0)
cell(C_6,-3*i,-1*j)
cell(D_6,-3*i,-3*j)
cell(,-6*i,2*j)
cell(B_7,-6*i,4*j)
45 cell(C_7,-3*i,1*j)
cell(D_7,-3*i,3*j)
linethick=linethick*(.5)
A:line dotted from (2*i,0) to (2*i,4*j); "\blue{$_{_{A_1}}$}" at A.start rjust
B:line dotted from (2*i,0) to (8*i,2*j);"\blue{$_{_{A_2}}$}" at A.end + (0,.1)
50 C:line dotted from (2*i,0) to (8*i,-2*j);"\blue{$_{_{A_3}}$}" at B.end ljust
D:line dotted from (2*i,0) to (2*i,-4*j);"\blue{$_{_{A_4}}$}" at C.end ljust
E:line dotted from (2*i,0) to (-4*i,-2*j);"\blue{$_{_{A_5}}$}" at D.end + (0,-.1)
F:line dotted from (2*i,0) to (-4*i,2*j);"\blue{$_{_{A_6}}$}" at E.end rjust
G:line dotted from (2*i,0) to (-4*i,2*j);"\blue{$_{_{A_7}}$}" at F.end rjust
55 "\blue{$_{_{A_7}}$}" at G.end rjust
.PE # Pic input ends
82

Figura 82: Divisão de uma célula em quatro novas

Código da Figura .82 Código em M4/Pic.


% quick.m4
.PS # Pic input begins with .PS
include(libcct.m4)
cct_init
5 linethick=linethick*(1.5)
dimen_=dimen_*1
j=dimen_*sqrt(3)/2
i=dimen_/2
define cell {
10 move to ($2,$3)
A:line up_ dimen_*sqrt(3)/2 right_ dimen_/2
B:line right_ dimen_
C:line down_ dimen_*sqrt(3)/2 right_ dimen_/2
D:line down_ dimen_*sqrt(3)/2 left_ dimen_/2
15 E:line left_ dimen_
F:line up_ dimen_*sqrt(3)/2 left_ dimen_/2
"$1$" at A.start + (dimen_,0)
move to C.end}
cell(,0,0)
20 dimen_=dimen_*.5
cell(,0,0)
cell(,3*i/2,j/2)
cell(,3*i/2,-j/2)
.PE # Pic input ends

oct

Detetor de
RF + A envelope BF

Figura 83: Diagram de blocos.


83

Código da Figura .83 Código em M4/Pic.


.PS
linethick=linethick*(1.5)
include(libcct.m4)
cct_init
5 linethick=linethick*(1.5)
dimen_=dimen_
L1:line -> right_ dimen_/2; "RF" rjust at L1.w
C1:circle radius dimen_/4 with .w at L1.e
L2:line -> from C1.e right_ dimen_/2
10 B1:box " $A$ " wid dimen_ ht dimen_*3/4
L3:line -> right_ dimen_;
L4:line -> from L3.c down_ dimen_*1 then left_ dimen_/2;
B4:box "$\beta$" wid dimen_ ht dimen_*3/4
L7:line -> left_ (B4.w.x-C1.c.x) then up_ to C1.s
15 "$+$" at C1.c
B2:box with .w at L3.e "{\small Detetor de}" "{\small envelope}"
L5:line -> from B2.e right_ dimen_/2; "BF" ljust
L6:line <- from B1.n up_ dimen_/2;
B3:box "oct" ht dimen_/2 wid dimen_*3/4
20 .PE

−gm /2 gLC is C 2L

Figura 84: Super regeneração.

Código da Figura .84 Código em M4/Pic.


.PS
linethick=linethick*(1.5)
include(libcct.m4)
cct_init
5 linethick=linethick*(1.5)
dimen_=dimen_*1.25
G1:ebox(down_ dimen_); rlabel(,-g_m/2,)
L1:line from G1.n right_ dimen_;
G2:ebox(down_ dimen_); rlabel(,{g_{LC}},)
10 L2:line from G2.n right_ dimen_;
S1:source(up_ dimen_ with .n at L2.e,I); llabel(,i_s,)
L3:line from S1.n right_ dimen_;
C1:capacitor(down_ dimen_); llabel(,C,);
L4:line from C1.n right_ dimen_;
15 L1:inductor(down_ dimen_,W); llabel(,2L,);
line to G1.s
.PE
84

F1 (ω) F2 (ω)
1
A
−2
0 2 ω

ω0 −1
−2ω0 −ω0 0 2ω0 ω

Figura 85: Lista de métodos matemáticos.

f (t) = A cos(20t)

π 0 π t
5 5

Figura 86: Pulso de seno.


A′ B′

A 0 B ℜ

Figura 87: Pulso de Gaussiano.

g(t)
A

0 t

Figura 88: Laplace.


85

Código da Figura .85 Código em M4/Pic.


.PS
include(libcct.m4)
cct_init
linethick=linethick*(1.5)
5 dimen_=dimen_
O:(0,0)
\newrgbcolor{red}{1 0 0}
\newrgbcolor{yellow}{1 1 0}
\newrgbcolor{black}{0 0 0}
10 \newrgbcolor{white}{1 1 1}
\newrgbcolor{blue}{0 0 1}
X:line -> from O-(2.5*dimen_,0) right_ 5*dimen_; "$\omega$" below;
Y:line -> from O-(0,.5*dimen_) up_ 3*dimen_; "$F_1(\omega)$" rjust;
\psset{linecolor=red}%
15 L1:line from O-(2*dimen_,0) to O+(-dimen_,1.5*dimen_) then to O
then to O+(dimen_,1.5*dimen_) then to O+(2*dimen_,0);
"${\scriptsize 2\omega_0}$" at L1.end below
"${\scriptsize \omega_0}$" at O+(dimen_,0) below
"${\scriptsize -\omega_0}$" at O+(-dimen_,0) below
20 "${\scriptsize -2\omega_0}$" at O-(2*dimen_,0) below
"${\scriptsize 0}$" at O below rjust
"${\scriptsize A}$" at O+(0,1.5*dimen_) rjust
.PE
.PS
25 include(libcct.m4)
cct_init
linethick=linethick*(1.5)
dimen_=dimen_
O:(0,0)
30 \newrgbcolor{red}{1 0 0}
\newrgbcolor{yellow}{1 1 0}
\newrgbcolor{black}{0 0 0}
\newrgbcolor{white}{1 1 1}
\newrgbcolor{blue}{0 0 1}
35 X:line -> from O-(2.5*dimen_,0) right_ 5*dimen_; "$\omega$" below;
Y:line -> from O-(0,1.5*dimen_) up_ 3*dimen_; "$F_2(\omega)$" rjust;
\psset{linecolor=red}%
L1:line from O-(2*dimen_,0) down_ 1*dimen_ then right_ 2*dimen_
then up_ 2*dimen_ then right 2*dimen_ then down_ dimen_
40 "${\scriptsize 2}$" at L1.end below
"${\scriptsize 1}$" at O+(0,dimen_) rjust
"${\scriptsize -2}$" at O+(-2*dimen_,0) above
"${\scriptsize -1}$" at O-(0,1*dimen_) ljust
"${\scriptsize 0}$" at O below rjust
45 .PE
86

Código da Figura .86 Código em M4/Pic.


.PS
include(libcct.m4)
cct_init
linethick=linethick*(1.5)
5 dimen_=dimen_
O:(0,0)

\newrgbcolor{red}{1 0 0}
\newrgbcolor{yellow}{1 1 0}
10 \newrgbcolor{black}{0 0 0}
\newrgbcolor{white}{1 1 1}
\newrgbcolor{blue}{0 0 1}
X:line -> from O-(2.5*dimen_,0) right_ 5*dimen_; "$t$" below;
Y:line -> from O-(0,.5*dimen_) up_ 2*dimen_; "$f(t)=A\cos(20t)$" ljust;
15 "${\scriptsize 0}$" at O below rjust
\psset{linecolor=red}%
for i=-2*dimen_ to 1.99*dimen_ by 0.01 do {
line from (i,.25*cos(2*3.1415*3.18*i)) to (i+0.01,.25*cos(2*3.1415*3.18*(i+0.01)))}
"${\scriptsize \frac{\pi}{5}}$" at O+(2*dimen_,0) below
20 "${\scriptsize \frac{\pi}{5}}$" at O-(2*dimen_,0) below
.PE

Código da Figura .87 Código em M4/Pic.


.PS
include(libcct.m4)
include(libgen.m4)
cct_init
5 linethick=linethick*(1.5)
dimen_=dimen_
O:(0,0)
\newrgbcolor{red}{1 0 0}
\newrgbcolor{yellow}{1 1 0}
10 \newrgbcolor{black}{0 0 0}
\newrgbcolor{white}{1 1 1}
\newrgbcolor{blue}{0 0 1}
X:line -> from O-(2.5*dimen_,0) right_ 5*dimen_; "$\Re$" below;
Y:line -> from O-(0,.5*dimen_) up_ 2*dimen_; "$\Im$" rjust;
15 "$0$" at O below rjust
\psset{linecolor=red}
L1: line from O-(1.5*dimen_,0) up_ dimen_ then right_ 3*dimen_
then down_ dimen_ then left_ 3*dimen_
L2:line -> from O left_ .75*dimen_
20 \psset{linecolor=black}
"${\scriptsize A}$" at L1.sw below
"${\scriptsize B}$" at L1.se below
"${\scriptsize A^\prime}$" at L1.nw above
"${\scriptsize B^\prime}$" at L1.ne above
25 linethick=linethick*(.5)
dimension_(from L1.se to L1.ne,-.15,$f$,14bp__);
.PE
87

Código da Figura .88 Código em M4/Pic.


.PS
include(libcct.m4)
cct_init
linethick=linethick*(1.5)
5 dimen_=dimen_
O:(0,0)
\newrgbcolor{red}{1 0 0}
\newrgbcolor{yellow}{1 1 0}
\newrgbcolor{black}{0 0 0}
10 \newrgbcolor{white}{1 1 1}
\newrgbcolor{blue}{0 0 1}
X:line -> from O-(2.5*dimen_,0) right_ 5*dimen_; "$t$" below;
Y:line -> from O-(0,.5*dimen_) up_ 3*dimen_; "$g(t)$" rjust;
"${\scriptsize 0}$" at O below rjust
15 "${\scriptsize A}$" at O+(0,1) rjust
\psset{linecolor=red}%
for i=-2*dimen_ to 1.99*dimen_ by 0.01 do {
line from (i,exp(-abs(i))) to (i+0.01,exp(-abs(i+0.01)))}
.PE

0 h

v βV V

αH
H

Figura 89: Imagem de vídeo estátitica.


88

Código da Figura .89 Código em M4/Pic.


.PS
include(libcct.m4)
include(libgen.m4)
cct_init
5 linethick=linethick*(1.5)
dimen_=dimen_*.75
O:(0,0)
\newrgbcolor{red}{1 0 0}
\newrgbcolor{yellow}{1 1 0}
10 \newrgbcolor{black}{0 0 0}
\newrgbcolor{white}{1 1 1}
\newrgbcolor{blue}{0 0 1}
X:line -> from O-(.5*dimen_,-.5*dimen_) right_ 2*dimen_; "$h$" above;
Y:line -> from O-(.5*dimen_,-.5*dimen_) down_ 2*dimen_; "$v$" rjust;
15 "$0$" at X.start above rjust
linethick=linethick*(.75)
\psset{fillcolor=black,fillstyle=solid}%
B1: box ht 3*dimen_ wid 4.5*dimen_ with .nw at O;
\psset{fillcolor=white,fillstyle=solid}%
20 B2: box ht 1*dimen_ wid 1.5*dimen_ with .nw at O+(1.5*dimen_,-1*dimen_);
dimension_(from B1.ne to B1.se,.5,$V$,14bp__);
dimension_(from B2.ne+(1.5*dimen_,0) to B2.se+(1.5*dimen_,0),.2,$\beta V$,14bp__);
dimension_(from B1.sw to B1.se,-.4,$H$,20bp__);
dimension_(from B2.sw-(0,1*dimen_) to B2.se-(0,1*dimen_),-.15,$\alpha H$,20bp__);
25 .PE
89

f1 (t) f2 (t)

0 3 4 5 7 t 0 2 3 4 7 t

Figura 90: Lista de métodos matemáticos.

g(t)
α2 α1

t − β2 0 β1 t

Figura 91: Lista de métodos matemáticos.

Λ(t)

0 n=1n=2 n=3 t

Figura 92: Lista de métodos matemáticos

f (t) f (t)
1
← t2

···
0 T′ t
1 2 3 4 ··· N t

Figura 93: Lista de métodos matemáticos. Figura 94: Senoide retificada em onda completa.
90

Código da Figura .90 Código em M4/Pic.


.PS
include(libcct.m4)
cct_init
linethick=linethick*(1.5)
5 dimen_=dimen_
O:(0,0); "${\scriptsize 0}$" below rjust
\newrgbcolor{red}{1 0 0}
\newrgbcolor{red2}{1 .5 0}
\newrgbcolor{red3}{1 .5 .5}
10 \newrgbcolor{yellow}{1 1 0}
\newrgbcolor{black}{0 0 0}
\newrgbcolor{white}{1 1 1}
\newrgbcolor{blue}{0 0 1}
\newrgbcolor{gray}{.5 .5 .5}
15 X:line -> from O-(.25*dimen_,0) right_ 4.5*dimen_; "$t$" below;
Y:line -> from O-(0,1*dimen_) up_ 2.5*dimen_; "$f_1(t)$" rjust;
\psset{linecolor=red}
L1:line from O+(0,.75*dimen_) right_ 1.5*dimen_ then down_ 1.5*dimen_
then right_ .5*dimen_ then up_ 1.5*dimen_ then right_ .5*dimen_
20 then down_ 1.5*dimen_ then right_ dimen_ then up_ .75*dimen_
"${\scriptsize 3}$" at O+(1.5*dimen_,0) below rjust
"${\scriptsize 4}$" at O+(2*dimen_,0) below rjust
"${\scriptsize 5}$" at O+(2.5*dimen_,0) below rjust
"${\scriptsize 7}$" at O+(3.5*dimen_,0) below rjust
25 .PE
.PS
include(libcct.m4)
cct_init
linethick=linethick*(1.5)
30 dimen_=dimen_
O:(0,0); "${\scriptsize 0}$" below rjust
\newrgbcolor{red}{1 0 0}
\newrgbcolor{red2}{1 .5 0}
\newrgbcolor{red3}{1 .5 .5}
35 \newrgbcolor{yellow}{1 1 0}
\newrgbcolor{black}{0 0 0}
\newrgbcolor{white}{1 1 1}
\newrgbcolor{blue}{0 0 1}
\newrgbcolor{gray}{.5 .5 .5}
40 X:line -> from O-(.25*dimen_,0) right_ 4.5*dimen_; "$t$" below;
Y:line -> from O-(0,1*dimen_) up_ 2.5*dimen_; "$f_2(t)$" rjust;
\psset{linecolor=red}
L1:line from O+(0,-.75*dimen_) right_ 1*dimen_ then up_ 1.5*dimen_
then right_ .5*dimen_ then down_ 1.5*dimen_ then right_ .5*dimen_
45 then up_ 1.5*dimen_ then right_ 1.5*dimen_ then down_ .75*dimen_
"${\scriptsize 3}$" at O+(1.5*dimen_,0) below rjust
"${\scriptsize 4}$" at O+(2*dimen_,0) below rjust
"${\scriptsize 2}$" at O+(1*dimen_,0) below rjust
"${\scriptsize 7}$" at O+(3.5*dimen_,0) below rjust
50 .PE
91

Código da Figura .91 Código em M4/Pic.


.PS
include(libcct.m4)
include(libgen.m4)
cct_init
5 linethick=linethick*(1.5)
dimen_=dimen_
O:(0,0); "${\scriptsize 0}$" below rjust
\newrgbcolor{red}{1 0 0}
\newrgbcolor{red2}{1 .5 0}
10 \newrgbcolor{red3}{1 .5 .5}
\newrgbcolor{yellow}{1 1 0}
\newrgbcolor{black}{0 0 0}
\newrgbcolor{white}{1 1 1}
\newrgbcolor{blue}{0 0 1}
15 \newrgbcolor{gray}{.5 .5 .5}
X:line -> from O-(2.5*dimen_,0) right_ 6*dimen_; "$t$" below;
Y:line -> from O-(0,.5*dimen_) up_ 2.25*dimen_; "$g(t)$" rjust;
line from O - (1.5*dimen_,0) up_ dimen_/10
line from O + (1.75*dimen_,0) up_ dimen_/10
20 line -> from O - (1*dimen_,-.5*dimen_) right_ dimen_/2
dimension_(from O - (2*dimen_,-dimen_) right_ 1*dimen_,.1,${\scriptsize \alpha_2}$,14bp__);
dimension_(from O + (1*dimen_,dimen_) right_ 1.5*dimen_,.1,${\scriptsize \alpha_1}$,14bp__);
\psset{linecolor=red}
L1:line from O - (2*dimen_,0) up_ dimen_ then right_ 1*dimen_ then down_ dimen_
25 L2:line from O + (1*dimen_,0) up_ dimen_ then right_ 1.5*dimen_ then down_ dimen_
"${\scriptsize t-\beta_2}$" at O - (1.5*dimen_,0) below;
"${\scriptsize \beta_1}$" at O + (1.75*dimen_,0) below;
\psset{linecolor=red}
.PE
92

Código da Figura .92 Código em M4/Pic.


.PS
include(libcct.m4)
cct_init
linethick=linethick*(1.5)
5 dimen_=dimen_
O:(0,0); "${\scriptsize 0}$" below rjust
\newrgbcolor{red}{1 0 0}
\newrgbcolor{red2}{1 .5 0}
\newrgbcolor{red3}{1 .5 .5}
10 \newrgbcolor{yellow}{1 1 0}
\newrgbcolor{black}{0 0 0}
\newrgbcolor{white}{1 1 1}
\newrgbcolor{blue}{0 0 1}
\newrgbcolor{gray}{.5 .5 .5}
15 X:line -> from O-(5*dimen_,0) right_ 10*dimen_; "$t$" below;
Y:line -> from O-(0,.25*dimen_) up_ 3*dimen_; "$\Lambda(t)$" rjust;
L4:line dotted from O+(.5*dimen_,2*dimen_) left_ .5*dimen_; "${\scriptsize 1}$" rjust
\psset{linecolor=red}%
L1: line from O - (.5*dimen_,0) to O+(.5*dimen_,2*dimen_) then
20 to O + (1.5*dimen_,0); "${\scriptsize n=1}$" below
\psset{linecolor=red2}%
L2: line from O - (1.5*dimen_,0) to O+(.25*dimen_,2*dimen_) then
to O + (2.25*dimen_,0); "${\scriptsize n=2}$" below
\psset{linecolor=red3}%
25 L3: line from O - (3.875*dimen_,0) to O+(.125*dimen_,2*dimen_) then
to O + (4.125*dimen_,0);"${\scriptsize n=3}$" below
.PE
93

Código da Figura .93 Código em M4/Pic.


.PS
include(libcct.m4)
cct_init
linethick=linethick*(1.5)
5 dimen_=dimen_
O:(0,0)
\newrgbcolor{red}{1 0 0}
\newrgbcolor{yellow}{1 1 0}
\newrgbcolor{black}{0 0 0}
10 \newrgbcolor{white}{1 1 1}
\newrgbcolor{blue}{0 0 1}
\newrgbcolor{gray}{.5 .5 .5}
X:line -> from O-(.25*dimen_,0) right_ 5*dimen_; "$t$" below;
Y:line -> from O-(0,.25*dimen_) up_ 3*dimen_; "$f(t)$" rjust;
15 O2:O-(1.5*dimen_,0);
\psset{fillcolor=gray,fillstyle=solid}%
L1:line from O2+(2.5*dimen_,0) up_ 1/(2.5*dimen_)^2 then left_ dimen_/2 then
down_ 1/(2.5*dimen_)^2 then right_ dimen_/2; "$2$" below;
L2:line from O2+(3*dimen_,0) up_ 1/(3*dimen_)^2 then left_ dimen_/2 then
20 down_ 1/(3*dimen_)^2 then right_ dimen_/2; "$3$" below;
L3:line from O2+(3.5*dimen_,0) up_ 1/(3.5*dimen_)^2 then left_ dimen_/2 then
down_ 1/(3.5*dimen_)^2 then right_ dimen_/2; "$4$" below;
L4:line from O2+(5*dimen_,0) up_ 1/(5*dimen_)^2 then left_ dimen_/2 then
down_ 1/(5*dimen_)^2 then right_ dimen_/2; "$N$" below;
25 L5:line dotted from O2+(2*dimen_, 1/(2*dimen_)^2) down_ 1/(2*dimen_)^2; "$1$" below;
move to L5.start + (dimen_/4,dimen_/3); "$\leftarrow \frac{1}{t^2}$"
#move to L4.start - (dimen_/2,0); "$n-1$" below
"$\cdots$" at O2+(4*dimen_,(1/(4*dimen_)^2)/2)
"$\cdots$" at O2+(4*dimen_,0) below
30 \psset{linecolor=red}%
for i=1.75*dimen_ to 6*dimen_ by 0.01 do {
line from O2+(i,1/(i^2)) to O2+(i+0.01,1/((i+.01))^2)}
.PE
94

Código da Figura .94 Código em M4/Pic.


.PS
include(libcct.m4)
cct_init
linethick=linethick*(1.5)
5 dimen_=dimen_
O:(0,0)
\newrgbcolor{red}{1 0 0}
\newrgbcolor{yellow}{1 1 0}
\newrgbcolor{black}{0 0 0}
10 \newrgbcolor{white}{1 1 1}
\newrgbcolor{blue}{0 0 1}
X:line -> from O-(2.5*dimen_,0) right_ 5*dimen_; "$t$" below;
Y:line -> from O-(0,.5*dimen_) up_ 3*dimen_; "$f(t)$" rjust;
"$0$" at O below rjust
15 "$T’$" at O+(2*dimen_,0) below
"$A$" at O+(0,.75) rjust
\psset{linecolor=red}%
for i=-2*dimen_ to 1.99*dimen_ by 0.01 do {
line from (i,.75*abs(sin(3.1415*i/(2*dimen_)))) to
20 (i+0.01,.75*abs(sin(3.1415*(i+.01)/(2*dimen_))))}
.PE

f (t)

0 T t
2

Figura 95: Senoide retificada em meia onda.

f (t)

A f (t)
3
... ... ... 2 ...

1
τ 0 τ t 0 t
− T2 2 2
T T 2T T
2 3 3

Figura 96: Trem de pulsos. Figura 97: Função Escada.


95

Código da Figura .95 Código em M4/Pic.


.PS
include(libcct.m4)
cct_init
linethick=linethick*(1.5)
5 dimen_=dimen_
O:(0,0)
\newrgbcolor{red}{1 0 0}
\newrgbcolor{yellow}{1 1 0}
\newrgbcolor{black}{0 0 0}
10 \newrgbcolor{white}{1 1 1}
\newrgbcolor{blue}{0 0 1}
X:line -> from O-(2.5*dimen_,0) right_ 5*dimen_; "$t$" below;
Y:line -> from O-(0,.5*dimen_) up_ 3*dimen_; "$f(t)$" rjust;
"$0$" at O below rjust
15 "$\frac{T}{2}$" at O+(2*dimen_,0) below
"$A$" at O+(0,.75) rjust
\psset{linecolor=red}%
for i=0*dimen_ to 1.99*dimen_ by 0.01 do {
line from (i,.75*abs(sin(3.1415*i/(2*dimen_)))) to
20 (i+0.01,.75*abs(sin(3.1415*(i+.01)/(2*dimen_))))}
line from O-(2*dimen_,0) right_ 2*dimen_
.PE

Código da Figura .96 Código em M4/Pic.


.PS
include(libcct.m4)
cct_init
linethick=linethick*(1.5)
5 dimen_=dimen_
O:(0,0)
\newrgbcolor{red}{1 0 0}
\newrgbcolor{yellow}{1 1 0}
\newrgbcolor{black}{0 0 0}
10 \newrgbcolor{white}{1 1 1}
\newrgbcolor{blue}{0 0 1}
X:line -> from O-(2.5*dimen_,0) right_ 5*dimen_; "$t$" below;
Y:line -> from O-(0,.5*dimen_) up_ 3*dimen_; "$f(t)$" rjust;
"$0$" at O below rjust
15 \psset{linecolor=red}%
L1:line from O-(.75*dimen_,0) up_ 1.75*dimen_ then right_ 1.5*dimen_
then down_ 1.75*dimen_
"$\frac{\tau}{2}$" at L1.start below
"$\frac{\tau}{2}$" at L1.end below
20 "$A$" at O+(0,1.75*dimen_) above rjust
"$\frac{T}{2}$" at O+(2*dimen_,0) below
"$-\frac{T}{2}$" at O+(-2*dimen_,0) below
"$\dots$" at O + (2*dimen_,1.75*dimen_/2)
"$\dots$" at O + (-2*dimen_,1.75*dimen_/2)
25 .PE
96

Código da Figura .97 Código em M4/Pic.


.PS
include(libcct.m4)
cct_init
linethick=linethick*(1.5)
5 dimen_=dimen_
O:(0,0)
\newrgbcolor{red}{1 0 0}
\newrgbcolor{yellow}{1 1 0}
\newrgbcolor{black}{0 0 0}
10 \newrgbcolor{white}{1 1 1}
\newrgbcolor{blue}{0 0 1}
X:line -> from O-(.5*dimen_,0) right_ 3*dimen_; "$t$" below;
Y:line -> from O-(0,.5*dimen_) up_ 2.5*dimen_; "$f(t)$" rjust;
"$0$" at O below rjust
15 \psset{linecolor=red}%
L1:line from O up_ .5*dimen_ then right_ .5*dimen_ then up_ .5*dimen_
then right_ .5*dimen_ then up_ .5*dimen_ then right_ .5*dimen_
then down_ 3*.5*dimen_;
"${T}$" at O+(3*.5*dimen_,0) below
20 "$\frac{2T}{3}$" at O+(2*.5*dimen_,0) below
"$\frac{T}{3}$" at O+(1*.5*dimen_,0) below
"$1$" at O+(0,1*.5*dimen_) rjust
"$2$" at O+(0,2*.5*dimen_) rjust
"$3$" at O+(0,3*.5*dimen_) rjust
25 "$\dots$" at O + (-1*dimen_,1*dimen_)
"$\dots$" at O + (2*dimen_,1*dimen_)
.PE

Figura 98: Reator.


97

Código da Figura .98 Código em M4/Pic.


.PS
include(libcct.m4)
cct_init
linethick=linethick*(1.5)
5 O:(0,0);
C1:circle radius .03 with .c at O;
L1:line from C1.e right_ dimen_/2;
D1:diode(up_ .75*dimen_)
L2:line right_ 1.5*dimen_
10 I1:inductor(right_ dimen_,W); llabel(,L,)
L3:line right_ dimen_/2 then down_ dimen_/2;
R0: resistor(down_ dimen_); llabel(,R,)
L4:line down_ dimen_/2 then left_ 3*dimen_
D2:diode(up_ .75*dimen_)
15 L5:line up_ .5*dimen_
C2:circle radius .03 with .c at O-(0,.5*dimen_);
L1:crossover(from C2.e right_ 1.25*dimen_,L,L5);
move down_ .75*dimen_;
D3:diode(up_ .75*dimen_)
20 L6:line up_ .5*dimen_
D4:diode(up_ .75*dimen_)
.PE

Vcc

Q9 Q8 Q6 Q5

C
Ven− Q10 Q7 Ven+
Vsa

R0

Q1 Q3 Q4
Q2

Vss
1 2 3 4

Figura 99: Esquema simplificado do Amplificador Operacional projetado


98

Código da Figura .99 Código em M4/Pic.


.PS
include(libcct.m4); cct_init; linethick=linethick*(1.5)
Q1:bi_tr(up_ dimen_,R); "$Q_1$" at Q1.C - (0,dimen_/2); line from Q1.B right_ 1.5*dimen_
Q2:bi_tr(up_) with .B at Here; "$Q_2$" at Q2.B - (0,dimen_/3)
5 line from Q2.B right_ 2.75*dimen_
Q3:bi_tr(up_) with .B at Here; "$Q_3$" at Q3.C - (0,dimen_/2)
move from Q3.B right_ 1.5*dimen_
Q4:bi_tr(down_,R,P) with .B at Here; "$Q_4$" at Q4.E - (0,dimen_/2)
L12:line from Q4.E up_ 3*dimen_
10 Q5:bi_tr(up_) with .E at Here; "$Q_5$" at Q5.C - (0,dimen_/2)
move from Q5.B left_ 1.5*dimen_
Q6:bi_tr(down_,R,P) with .B at Here; "$Q_6$" at Q6.E - (0,dimen_/2)
move from Q6.B left_ 1.85*dimen_
Q8:bi_tr(down_,R,P) with .B at Here; "$Q_8$" at Q8.E - (0,dimen_/2)
15 move from Q8.B left_ .5*dimen_
Q9:bi_tr(down_,,P) with .B at Here; "$Q_9$" at Q9.E - (0,dimen_/2)
move from Q8.C down_ .5*dimen_
Q7:bi_tr(up_,R,) with .C at Here; "$Q_7$" at Q7.C - (0,dimen_/2)
move from Q9.C down_ .5*dimen_
20 Q10:bi_tr(up_,,) with .C at Here; "$Q_{10}$" at Q10.C - (0,dimen_/2)
move to Q1.C; line up_ dimen_/4; R0: resistor(up_ dimen_); rlabel(,R_0,)
L1:line from Q1.E down_ dimen_/4; line from Q2.E down_ dimen_/4
line from Q3.E down_ dimen_/4; L2:line from Q4.C down_ dimen_/4
L3:line from Q5.C up_ dimen_/4; line from Q6.E up_ dimen_/4
25 line from Q8.E up_ dimen_/4; line from Q9.E up_ dimen_/4
L4:line from R0.end up_ to (R0,L3.end)
line "$V_{ss}$" below right_ from L1.end to L2.end
line "$V_{cc}$" above right from L4.end to L3.end
line from Q1.C to (Q1.B,Q1.C) to Q1.B
30 line from Q9.B to (Q9.B,Q9.C) to Q9.C
line from Q9.C to Q10.C; line from Q8.C to Q7.C
L5:line from Q5.B left_ dimen_/4; L6:line from Q4.B left_ dimen_/4
L7:line from L5.end to L6.end; L8:line from Q6.C to Q3.C
line from L7.c to L8.c; line from Q8.B to Q9.B
35 line from Q6.B left_ dimen_/4 then down_ .75*dimen_
Cap:line from Here to (Q8.C,Here)
move to Cap.start;line dotted right_ dimen_/3; capacitor(right_ dimen_/5);
rlabel(,C,);line dotted right_ dimen_/3;
L9:line from Q7.E down_ dimen_/2
40 L10:line from Q10.E down_ dimen_/2
L11: line from L9.end to L10.end; line from Q2.C to L11.c
line from L12.c right_ dimen_/2; down_;dot; llabel(,V_{sa},)
move to Q7.B; dot; llabel(,V_{en+},); move to Q10.B; dot; rlabel(,V_{en-},)
linethick=linethick*(.5); move to L1.end - (dimen_/4,dimen_/2)
45 B1:line dotted "\tiny \Gray{1}" above right_ 1.4*dimen_
B2:line dotted "\tiny \Gray{2}" above right_ 3.25*dimen_
B3:line dotted "\tiny \Gray{3}" above right_ 1.5*dimen_
B4:line dotted "\tiny \Gray{4}" above right_ 1.35*dimen_
line dotted from B1.end up_ 6.5*dimen_
50 line dotted from B2.end up_ 6.5*dimen_
line dotted from B3.end up_ 6.5*dimen_
line dotted from B4.end up_ 6.5*dimen_
line dotted left_ to (B1.s,Here) then down to B1.s
.PE
99

Vcc

Q2 Q1
Vsa

Ven− Q4 Q3 Ven+

1mA

Vss

Figura 100: Par diferencial.

Código da Figura .100 Código em M4/Pic.


.PS
include(libcct.m4)
cct_init
linethick=linethick*(1.5)
5 Q1:bi_tr(down_,R,P) with .B at Here
move from Q1.B left_ .5*dimen_
Q2:bi_tr(down_,,P) with .B at Here
move from Q1.C down_ .5*dimen_
Q3:bi_tr(up_,R,) with .C at Here
10 move from Q2.C down_ .5*dimen_
Q4:bi_tr(up_,,) with .C at Here
A:line from Q3.E to Q4.E
line from A.c down_ dimen_/4; source(down_ dimen_/2,I); llabel(,1mA,);
F:line from Here down_ dimen_/4
15 line from Q4.C to Q2.C;
line from Q3.C to Q1.C;
line from Q1.B to Q2.B;
line from Q2.B to (Q2.B,Q2.C) then to Q2.C;
B:line from Q1.E up_ dimen_/4;
20 C:line from Q2.E up_ dimen_/4;
"$Q_1$" at Q1.E - (0,dimen_/2);
"$Q_2$" at Q2.E - (0,dimen_/2);
"$Q_3$" at Q3.C - (0,dimen_/2);
"$Q_4$" at Q4.C - (0,dimen_/2);
25 D:line "$V_{cc}$" above from C.end - (dimen_/2,0) to B.end + (dimen_/2,0)
E:line "$V_{ss}$" below from (D.start,F.end) to (D.end,F.end)
move to Q3.B; dot; rlabel(,V_{en+},)
move to Q4.B; dot; llabel(,V_{en-},)
move to Q1.C; line from Q1.C right_ dimen_/2;up_;dot; rlabel(,V_{sa},)
30 line invis from D.start + (0,dimen_/4) to D.end + (0,dimen_/4)
.PE
100

Vcc

Vcc
Ven Vsa
Ven
Vsa
1mA

Vss Vss

Figura 101: Emissor Comum Figura 102: Estágio de Saída Classe B

Código da Figura .101 Código em M4/Pic.


.PS
include(libcct.m4)
cct_init
linethick=linethick*(1.5)
5 Q1:bi_tr(down_,R,P) with .B at Here
B:line from Q1.E up_ dimen_/4
C:line "$V_{cc}$" above from B.end - (dimen_/2,0) to B.end + (dimen_/2,0)
move to Q1.C; line down_ dimen_/4;
source(down_ dimen_/2,I); llabel(,1mA,);
10 A:line down_ dimen_/4
line "$V_{ss}$" below from A.end - (dimen_/2,0) to A.end + (dimen_/2,0)
move to Q1.B; line left_ dimen_/4; down_; dot; rlabel(,V_{en},)
move to Q1.C; line right_ dimen_/2; up_;dot; rlabel(,V_{sa},)
line invis from C.start + (0,dimen_/4) to C.end + (0,dimen_/4)
15 .PE
101

Código da Figura .102 Código em M4/Pic.


.PS
include(libcct.m4)
cct_init
linethick=linethick*(1.5)
5 Q1:bi_tr(down_,R,P) with .B at Here
L1:line from Q1.E up_ 1.5*dimen_
Q2:bi_tr(up_) with .E at Here
move from Q2.B left_ 1.5*dimen_
L2:line from Q1.C down_ dimen_/4
10 L3:line from Q2.C up_ dimen_/4
L5:line from Q2.B left_ dimen_/4
L6:line from Q1.B left_ dimen_/4
L7:line from L5.end to L6.end
line "$V_{ss}$" below from L2.end - (dimen_/2,0) to L2.end + (dimen_/2,0)
15 A:line "$V_{cc}$" above from L3.end - (dimen_/2,0) to L3.end + (dimen_/2,0)
line from L1.c right_ dimen_/2; down_;dot; llabel(,V_{sa},)
line from L7.c left_ dimen_/4; up_; dot; llabel(,V_{en},)
line invis from A.start + (0,dimen_/4) to A.end + (0,dimen_/4)
.PE

Vcc

Vsa
Ven

Vss

Figura 103: Configuração Emissor Comum

Código da Figura .103 Código em M4/Pic.


.PS
include(libcct.m4)
cct_init
linethick=linethick*(1.5)
5 Q1:bi_tr(up_ dimen_) with .B at Here
move to Q1.C;D:line from Q1.C up_ dimen_/4; R:resistor(up_ dimen_/2);
B:line from R.end up_ dimen_/4
C:line "$V_{cc}$" above from B.end - (dimen_/2,0) to B.end + (dimen_/2,0)
move to Q1.E;
10 A:line down_ dimen_/4
line "$V_{ss}$" below from A.end - (dimen_/2,0) to A.end + (dimen_/2,0)
move to Q1.B; line left_ dimen_/4; down_; dot; rlabel(,V_{en},)
move to Q1.C; line right_ dimen_/2; up_;dot; rlabel(,V_{sa},)
line invis from C.start + (0,dimen_/4) to C.end + (0,dimen_/4)
15 .PE
102
R1 R2
+
Ven

− +
+
Vsa

Figura 104: Amplificador Operacional na configuração inversora

Código da Figura .104 Código em M4/Pic


.PS
include(libcct.m4)
cct_init
linethick=linethick*(1.5)
5 In:dot at (0,0); down_;rlabel(,+,);
line right_ dimen_/4;
R1:resistor(right_ dimen_);llabel(,R_1,)
L1:line right_ dimen_/2
R2:resistor(right_ dimen_);llabel(,R_2,)
10 L2:line from L1.c down_ .75*dimen_ then right_ dimen_/4
Amp:opamp(right_ dimen_) with .In1 at L2.e
line from R2.e right_ dimen_/4 then down_ dimen_
line from Amp.Out right_ dimen_;
Out:dot; down_;llabel(,+,)
15 move to In; down_
L3:line invis "$V_{en}$" down dimen_;
dot; down_; rlabel(,-,);ground;
move to Out; down_
L4:line invis "$V_{sa}$" down dimen_;
20 dot; down_; rlabel(,-,);ground;
line from Amp.In2 left_ dimen_/4 then down_ dimen_/4; ground;
.PE
103

Ven

z1
+


z2

z3

+
z4

z5

Figura 105: Esquema do Girador

Código da Figura .105 Código em M4/Pic.


.PS
include(libcct.m4)
cct_init
linethick=linethick*(1.5)
5 En:dot at (0,0); down_;llabel(,V_{en},);
line from En.c down_ dimen_/2;
Z1:ebox(down_ dimen_);llabel(,z_1,)
Z2:ebox(down_ dimen_);llabel(,z_2,)
Z3:ebox(down_ dimen_);rlabel(,z_3,)
10 Z4:ebox(down_ dimen_);rlabel(,z_4,)
Z5:ebox(down_ dimen_);rlabel(,z_5,)
ground;
A1:line from Z1.e left_ dimen_/3 then down_ 3*dimen_/4 then left_ dimen_/4
Amp1:opamp(left_ dimen_) with .In2 at Here
15 line from Amp1.In1 right_ dimen_/4 then down_ 3*dimen_/4 then right_ dimen_/3
A2:line from Here right_ dimen_/3 then down_ 3*dimen_/4 then right_ dimen_/4
Amp2:opamp(right_ dimen_) with .In1 at Here
line from Amp2.In2 left_ dimen_/4 then down_ 3*dimen_/4 then left_ dimen_/3
line from Amp1.Out left_ dimen_/4 then down_ 2*dimen_ then right_ dimen_*11/6
20 line from Amp2.Out right_ dimen_/4 then up_ 2*dimen_ then left_ dimen_*11/6
.PE
104

R R
+
C −
R2

R1

Figura 106: Amplificador Sintonizado

Código da Figura .106 Código em M4/Pic.


.PS
include(libcct.m4)
cct_init
linethick=linethick*(1.5)
5 In:circle radius .05
line right_ dimen_/4;
R1:resistor(right_ dimen_);llabel(,R,)
L1:line right_ dimen_/2
R2:resistor(right_ dimen_);llabel(,R,)
10 L2:line right_ dimen_/2
L3:line right_ dimen_/2
Amp:opamp(right_ elen_,"$+$","$-$",.6,) with .In1 at L3.e
line from L1.c up_ dimen_ then right_ dimen_*1.5
C1: capacitor(right_ dimen_); llabel(,C,)
15 L5:line right_ dimen_*1.5
L7:line down_ (Here.y - Amp.Out.y)
move to L2.c;
C2: capacitor(down_ dimen_); rlabel(,C,); ground(,T);
line from Amp.Out right_ dimen_;
20 circle radius .05
line from Amp.In2 left_ dimen_/4 then down_ dimen_*.75
L8:line right_ (L7.e.x - Here.x)
resistor(up_ dimen_); llabel(,R_2,); line up_ (L7.e.y - Here.y);
move to L8.e
25 resistor(down_ dimen_); rlabel(,R_1,); ground;
.PE
105

Vcc Vcc
C2
R L C R L
C1
Vsa Vsa

Q1 Q2 Q1 Q2

R R
Ree Ree

Vee

Figura 107: Oscilador Sony Figura 108: Oscilador Colpitts

Código da Figura .107 Código em M4/Pic.


.PS
include(libcct.m4)
cct_init
linethick=linethick*(1.5)
5 dimen_=dimen_
Q1:bi_tr(up_ dimen_,R)
move right 1*dimen_
Q2:bi_tr(up_ dimen_) with .B at Here
L1:line from Q1.E down_ dimen_/4
10 L2:line from Q2.E down_ dimen_/4
L3:line from L1.s to L2.s;
move to L3.c
resistor(down_ dimen_); llabel(,R_{ee},); ground(,T)
L4:line from Q2.C up_ dimen_;
15 inductor(up_ dimen_,W); llabel(,L,);
line from L4.end left_ dimen_*3/4;
resistor(up_ dimen_); llabel(,R,)
line from L4.end right_ dimen_*3/4;
capacitor(up_ dimen_); llabel(,C,)
20 L5:line "$V_{cc}$" above left_ (Here.x - Q1.C.x)
line down_ to Q1.C
L6:line from Q1.C+(0,dimen_/4) right_ dimen_*.75
L7:line to Q2.B
L8:line from Q2.C+(0,dimen_/4) left_ dimen_*.75
25 crossover(from L8.end to Q1.B,,L7)
line from L4.end right_ dimen_; circle radius .05;"$V_{sa}$" ljust_
move to Q1
"$Q_1$" rjust_
move to Q2
30 "$Q_2$" ljust_
.PE
106

Código da Figura .108 Código em M4/Pic.


.PS
include(libcct.m4)
cct_init
linethick=linethick*(1.5)
5 dimen_=dimen_
Q1:bi_tr(up_ dimen_)
move right 3*dimen_
Q2:bi_tr(up_ dimen_,R) with .B at Here
L1:line from Q1.E down_ dimen_/4
10 L2:line from Q2.E down_ dimen_/4
L3: line from L1.end to L2.end
move to L3.center
Ree:resistor(down_ dimen_); llabel(,R_{ee},);
move to Ree.end + (dimen_/4,0); line "$V_{ee}$" below left_ dimen_/2
15 line from Q1.B left_ dimen_/4; K1:circle radius .05; move to K1.s
resistor(down_ dimen_); llabel(,R,); ground(,T)
line from Q2.B right_ dimen_/4; K2:circle radius .05; move to K2.s
resistor(down_ dimen_); llabel(,R,); ground(,T)
L4:line from Q2.C up_ dimen_
20 inductor(up_ dimen_,W); llabel(,L,)
line from L4.n left_ dimen_*.75
resistor(up_ dimen_); llabel(,R,)
line from L4.n right_ dimen_*.75
C1:capacitor(up_ dimen_/2); llabel(,_{C_1},)
25 C2:capacitor(up_ dimen_/2); llabel(,_{C_2},)
line "$V_{cc}$" above left_ (Here.x - Q1.C.x)
line down_ to Q1.C
L5:line from L4.n right_ dimen_*3/2; K3:circle radius .05; "$V_{sa}$" ljust;
L6:line from C1.end right_ dimen_/2 then up_ dimen_
30 line left_ (Here.x - K1.c.x) then down_ to K1.n
"$Q_1$" at (Q1.C.x,(Q1.C.y + Q1.E.y)/2)
"$Q_2$" at (Q2.C.x,(Q2.C.y + Q2.E.y)/2)
.PE
107

Vcc

Rc Rc

Vsa

Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4

Ven1

Q5 Q6
Ven2

Ree

Figura 109: Esquema do Multiplicador de Gilbert proposto

Vcc

Rc Rc

Vsa

Ven1 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4

Vss Vss

Rb Rb
Ven2 Q5 Q6
C
Ra Ra

Ree

Vss

Figura 110: Multiplicador de Gilbert com polarização


108

Código da Figura .109 Código em M4/Pic.


.PS
include(libcct.m4); cct_init; linethick=linethick*(1.5)
dimen_=dimen_; K1:circle radius .05;
L0:line right_ dimen_/4; Q1:bi_tr(up_ dimen_,);
5 line from Q1.E down_ dimen_/4; L1:line right_ dimen_;
line up_ dimen_/4; Q2:bi_tr(up_ dimen_,R) with .E at Here;
L2:line from Q2.B right_ dimen_/4; Q3:bi_tr(up_ dimen_,) with .B at Here;
line from Q3.E down_ dimen_/4; L3:line right_ dimen_;
line up_ dimen_/4; Q4:bi_tr(up_ dimen_,R) with .E at Here;
10 L4:line from L1.c down_ dimen_/2; Q5:bi_tr(up_ dimen_,) with .C at Here;
line from Q5.E down_ dimen_/4; L5:line right_ to (L3.c.x,Here.y);
line up_ dimen_/4; Q6:bi_tr(up_ dimen_,R) with .E at Here;
L10:line from Q6.C up_ dimen_/2; L8:line from L5.c down_ dimen_/4;
resistor(down_ dimen_); llabel(,R_{ee},); ground(,T);
15 L7:line from Q5.B left_ dimen_/4; K2:circle radius .05;
line from Q6.B right_ dimen_/4; L6:line down_ dimen_;
crossover(from L6.end left_ to (L7.end.x,Here.y),R,L8);K3:circle radius .05;
line from Q4.B right_ dimen_/4; L9:line down_ dimen_;
crossover(from L9.end left_ to (Q3.B,Here),R,L10);
20 L12:crossover( from Here left_ to (Q1.B,Here),R,L4);line up_ to Q1.B;
L11:crossover(from L2.c down_ (dimen_ + .1),,L12)
L13:crossover(from L11.end to (L0.start,Here),R,L4);left_; K4:circle radius .05;
L14:line from Q4.C up_ dimen_/2; Rc1:resistor(up_ dimen_); rlabel(,R_c,);
L15:line from Q3.C up_ dimen_/2; Rc2:resistor(up_ dimen_); llabel(,R_c,);
25 line "$V_{cc}$" above from (Here - (dimen_/4,0)) right_ to (Rc1.end+(dimen_/4,0))
line from Q2.C up_ dimen_/4; crossover(from Here right_ to (Q4.C,Here),,L15);
line from Q1.C up_ dimen_/2 then to Rc2.start
L16:line from Rc1.start right_ dimen_; K5:circle radius .05;
crossover(from Q3.C right_ to (L16.end.x,Q4.C.y),,L14);K6:circle radius .05;
30 "$Q_1$" at Q1.B + (3*dimen_/4,0)
"$Q_2$" at Q2.B - (3*dimen_/4,0)
"$Q_3$" at Q3.B + (3*dimen_/4,0)
"$Q_4$" at Q4.B - (3*dimen_/4,0)
"$Q_5$" at Q5.B + (3*dimen_/4,0)
35 "$Q_6$" at Q6.B - (3*dimen_/4,0)
"$V_{{en}_1}$" at (K1.c.x,(K1.c.y+K4.c.y)/2)
"$V_{{en}_2}$" at (K2.c.x,(K2.c.y+K3.c.y)/2)
"$V_{sa}$" at (K5.c.x+ dimen_/2,(K5.c.y+K6.c.y)/2)
.PE
109

Código da Figura .110 Código em M4/Pic.


.PS
include(libcct.m4); cct_init; linethick=linethick*(1.5)
dimen_=dimen_; K1:circle radius .05; L0:line right_ dimen_/4;
Q1:bi_tr(up_ dimen_,); line from Q1.E down_ dimen_/4;
5 L1:line right_ dimen_; line up_ dimen_/4;
Q2:bi_tr(up_ dimen_,R) with .E at Here;
L2:line from Q2.B right_ dimen_/4;
Q3:bi_tr(up_ dimen_,) with .B at Here;
line from Q3.E down_ dimen_/4; L3:line right_ dimen_;
10 line up_ dimen_/4; Q4:bi_tr(up_ dimen_,R) with .E at Here;
L4:line from L1.c down_ 3*dimen_/2
Q5:bi_tr(up_ dimen_,) with .C at Here;
line from Q5.E down_ dimen_/4;
L5:line right_ to (L3.c.x,Here.y);
15 line up_ dimen_/4; Q6:bi_tr(up_ dimen_,R) with .E at Here;
L10:line from Q6.C up_ to L3.c; L8:line from L5.c down_ 0;
Ree:resistor(down_ dimen_); llabel(,R_{ee},);
line "$V_{ss}$" below from Ree.end - (dimen_/5,0) to Ree.end + (dimen_/5,0)
L7:line from Q5.B left_ dimen_/4; Rb3:resistor(up_ dimen_,);rlabel(,R_b,);
20 line "$V_{ss}$" above from Rb3.end - (dimen_/6,0) to Rb3.end + (dimen_/6,0)
line from Rb3.start down_ 0; Rb4:resistor(down_ dimen_,);llabel(,R_a,); ground(,T)
line from Q6.B right_ dimen_/4; Rb2:resistor(up_ dimen_,);rlabel(,R_b,);
line "$V_{ss}$" above from Rb2.end - (dimen_/6,0) to Rb2.end + (dimen_/6,0)
line from Rb2.start down_ 0; Rb1:resistor(down_ dimen_,);llabel(,R_a,); ground(,T)
25 C:capacitor(from Rb3.start left_ dimen_); llabel(,C,);
K2:circle radius .05; line from Q4.B right_ dimen_/4;
L9:line down_ dimen_; crossover(from L9.end left_ to (Q3.B,Here),R,L10);
L12:crossover( from Here left_ to (Q1.B,Here),R,L4);line up_ to Q1.B;
L11:line from L2.c down_ dimen_/2;ground(,T);
30 L14:line from Q4.C up_ dimen_/2; Rc1:resistor(up_ dimen_); rlabel(,R_c,);
L15:line from Q3.C up_ dimen_/2; Rc2:resistor(up_ dimen_); llabel(,R_c,);
line "$V_{cc}$" above from (Here - (dimen_/4,0)) right_ to (Rc1.end+(dimen_/4,0))
line from Q2.C up_ dimen_/4; crossover(from Here right_ to (Q4.C,Here),,L15);
line from Q1.C up_ dimen_/2 then to Rc2.start
35 L16:line from Rc1.start right_ dimen_; K5:circle radius .05;
crossover(from Q3.C right_ to (L16.end.x,Q4.C.y),,L14);K6:circle radius .05;
"$Q_1$" at Q1.B + (3*dimen_/4,0)
"$Q_2$" at Q2.B - (3*dimen_/4,0)
"$Q_3$" at Q3.B + (3*dimen_/4,0)
40 "$Q_4$" at Q4.B - (3*dimen_/4,0)
"$Q_5$" at Q5.B + (3*dimen_/4,0)
"$Q_6$" at Q6.B - (3*dimen_/4,0)
"$V_{{en}_1}$" at (K1.c) - (.2,0)
"$V_{{en}_2}$" at (K2.c) - (.2,0)
45 "$V_{sa}$" at (K5.c.x+ dimen_/2,(K5.c.y+K6.c.y)/2)
.PE
110
w1
x1

w2
x2 T saída

w3
x3

Figura 111: Neurônio de McCulloch-Pitts

Código da Figura .111 Código em M4/Pic.


.PS
include(libcct.m4)
cct_init
linethick=linethick*(1.5)
5 X2:line "$w_2$" above right_ dimen_*1;
X4:line -> right dimen_/2; move to X2.w; "$x_2$" rjust;
T:circle radius dimen_/2 with .w at X4.end; "$T$" at T.c
X1:line "$w_1$" above from X2.w+(0,dimen_) right dimen_*1;
line -> to T.nw; move to X1.w; "$x_1$" rjust;
10 X3:line "$w_3$" above from X2.w+(0,-dimen_) right dimen_*1;
line -> to T.sw; move to X3.w; "$x_3$" rjust;
Y1:line -> from T.e right dimen_*1.5; "saída" ljust;
.PE

a0 w0

w1 P R xj
a1 +

w2
a2

Figura 112: Neurônio proposto por Rosenblat


111

Código da Figura .112 Código em M4/Pic.


.PS
include(libcct.m4)
cct_init
linethick=linethick*(1.5)
5 T1:circle radius .15; "$a_1$" at T1.c;
X2:line -> "$w_{1}$" above from T1.e right_ dimen_*1.5;
T:circle radius dimen_/1.5 with .w at X2.end; "$\sum + \int$" at T.c
T2:circle radius .15 with .c at T1.c + (0,1*dimen_); "$a_0$" at T2.c;
X1:line -> "$w_{0}$" above from T2.e to T.nw;
10 T3:circle radius .15 with .c at T1.c - (0,1*dimen_); "$a_2$" at T3.c;
X1:line -> "$w_{2}$" above from T3.e to T.sw;
Y:line -> "$x_j$" above from T.e right dimen_*1.5
.PE

a2

a1

Figura 113: Conjunto de situações linearmente separáveis

1 w0

w1 P
a1
w2
a2

Figura 114: Esquema do Percéptron


112

Código da Figura .113 Código em M4/Pic.


.PS
include(libcct.m4)
cct_init
linethick=linethick*(1.5)
5 dimen_=dimen_
Origem:(0,0)
\newrgbcolor{red1}{1 0 0}
\newrgbcolor{yellow1}{1 1 0}
\newrgbcolor{black1}{0 0 0}
10 \newrgbcolor{white1}{1 1 1}
X:line -> right_ 3.5; "$a_1$" ljust
Y:line -> from X.w up_ 3.5; "$a_2$" rjust
D:line dashed from (-.2,1) to (3.5,2.25)
\psset{fillcolor=red1,fillstyle=solid}%
15 circle radius .1 with .c at (1,1)
circle radius .1 with .c at (1.5,.5)
circle radius .1 with .c at (2,1)
circle radius .1 with .c at (2.5,1.5)
circle radius .1 with .c at (3,.8)
20 \psset{fillcolor=yellow1,fillstyle=solid}%
circle radius .1 with .c at (0,2)
circle radius .1 with .c at (1,2.5)
circle radius .1 with .c at (1.5,2.25)
circle radius .1 with .c at (1.25,1.9)
25 circle radius .1 with .c at (2,2.6)
.PE

Código da Figura .114 Código em M4/Pic.


.PS
include(libcct.m4)
cct_init
linethick=linethick*(1.5)
5 T1:circle radius .15; "$a_1$" at T1.c;
X2:line -> "$w_{1}$" above from T1.e right_ dimen_*1.5;
T:circle radius dimen_/2 with .w at X2.end; "$\sum$" at T.c
T2:circle radius .15 with .c at T1.c + (0,1*dimen_); "$1$" at T2.c;
X1:line -> "$w_{0}$" above from T2.e to T.nw;
10 T3:circle radius .15 with .c at T1.c - (0,1*dimen_); "$a_2$" at T3.c;
X1:line -> "$w_{2}$" above from T3.e to T.sw;
Y:line -> from T.e right_ dimen_*1
B:box
L:line from (B.sw + (.1,.1)) right_ to (B.c.x,B.s.y+.1)
15 then up_ to B.n - (0,.1) then right_ to B.ne - (.1,.1)
.PE
113

Camadas Intermediárias

Camada de Entrada Camada de Saída

Figura 115: Percéptron Multicamada

y0 y1 y2

x0 x1 Polarização
Figura 116: Percéptron Multicamada

Reta de Decisão para nó 1

Classe 0 Classe 2

Reta de Decisão para nó 2

Reta de Decisão para nó 0

Classe 1

Figura 117: Regiôes de Decisão


114

Código da Figura .115 Código em M4/Pic.


.PS
include(libcct.m4); cct_init; linethick=linethick*(1.5)
dimen_=dimen_; Origem:(0,0)
\newrgbcolor{red1}{1 0 0}
5 \newrgbcolor{yellow1}{1 1 0}
\newrgbcolor{blue1}{0 0 1}
\newrgbcolor{green1}{0 1 0}
\newrgbcolor{gray1}{.7 .7 .7}
\psset{fillcolor=red1,fillstyle=solid}%
10 C1:circle radius dimen_/6 with .c at (0,0)
C2:circle radius dimen_/6 with .c at (0,-dimen_)
\psset{fillcolor=green1,fillstyle=solid}%
C3:circle radius dimen_/6 with .c at (1.5*dimen_,dimen_)
C4:circle radius dimen_/6 with .c at (1.5*dimen_,0)
15 C5:circle radius dimen_/6 with .c at (1.5*dimen_,-dimen_)
C6:circle radius dimen_/6 with .c at (1.5*dimen_,-2*dimen_)
C7:circle radius dimen_/6 with .c at (3*dimen_,dimen_)
C8:circle radius dimen_/6 with .c at (3*dimen_,0)
C9:circle radius dimen_/6 with .c at (3*dimen_,-dimen_)
20 C10:circle radius dimen_/6 with .c at (3*dimen_,-2*dimen_)
\psset{fillcolor=blue1,fillstyle=solid}%
C11:circle radius dimen_/6 with .c at (4.5*dimen_,0)
C12:circle radius dimen_/6 with .c at (4.5*dimen_,-dimen_)
line from C1.ne to C3.sw; line from C1.e to C4.w
25 line from C1.se to C5.nw; line from C1.se to C6.nw
line from C2.ne to C3.sw; line from C2.ne to C4.w
line from C2.e to C5.w; line from C2.se to C6.w
line from C3.e to C7.w; line from C3.se to C8.nw
line from C3.se to C9.nw; line from C3.se to C10.nw
30 line from C4.ne to C7.sw; line from C4.e to C8.w
line from C4.se to C9.nw; line from C4.se to C10.nw
line from C5.ne to C7.sw; line from C5.ne to C8.sw
line from C5.e to C9.w; line from C5.se to C10.nw
line from C6.ne to C7.sw; line from C6.ne to C8.sw
35 line from C6.ne to C9.sw; line from C6.e to C10.w
line from C7.se to C11.nw; line from C7.se to C12.nw
line from C8.e to C11.w; line from C8.se to C12.nw
line from C9.ne to C11.sw; line from C9.e to C12.w
line from C10.ne to C11.sw; line from C10.ne to C12.sw
40 "{\tiny Camadas Intermediárias}" at C3.c + (.35,.2)
"{\tiny Camada de Entrada}" at (-.5,(C1.c.y +C2.c.y)/2)
"{\tiny Camada de Saída}" at (C11.c.x+ .4,(C11.c.y +C12.c.y)/2)
.PE
115

Código da Figura .116 Código em M4/Pic.


.PS
include(libcct.m4)
cct_init
linethick=linethick*(1.5)
5 dimen_=dimen_
Origem:(0,0)
\newrgbcolor{red1}{1 0 0}
\newrgbcolor{yellow1}{1 1 0}
\newrgbcolor{blue1}{0 0 1}
10 \newrgbcolor{green1}{0 1 0}
\newrgbcolor{gray1}{.7 .7 .7}
\newrgbcolor{black1}{0 0 0}
\psset{fillcolor=black1,fillstyle=solid}%
C1:circle radius dimen_/6 with .c at (0,0)
15 C2:circle radius dimen_/6 with .c at (1.5*dimen_,0)
C3:circle radius dimen_/6 with .c at (3*dimen_,0)
\psset{fillcolor=red1,fillstyle=solid}%
C4:circle radius dimen_/6 with .c at (0,2*dimen_)
\psset{fillcolor=blue1,fillstyle=solid}%
20 C5:circle radius dimen_/6 with .c at (1.5*dimen_,2*dimen_)
\psset{fillcolor=green1,fillstyle=solid}%
C6:circle radius dimen_/6 with .c at (3*dimen_,2*dimen_)
\psset{linecolor=red1}%
line from C1.n to C4.s
25 line from C2.nw to C4.se
line from C3.nw to C4.se
\psset{linecolor=blue1}%
line from C1.ne to C5.sw
line from C2.n to C5.s
30 line from C3.nw to C5.se
\psset{linecolor=green1}%
line from C1.ne to C6.sw
line from C2.ne to C6.sw
line from C3.n to C6.s
35 "$x_0$" at C1.c - (0,.2)
"$x_1$" at C2.c - (0,.2)
"Polarização" at C3.c - (0,.2)
"$y_0$" at C4.c + (0,.2)
"$y_1$" at C5.c + (0,.2)
40 "$y_2$" at C6.c + (0,.2)
.PE
116

Código da Figura .117 Código em M4/Pic.


.PS
include(libcct.m4)
cct_init
linethick=linethick*(1.5)
5 dimen_=dimen_
Origem:(0,0)
\newrgbcolor{red1}{1 0 0}
\newrgbcolor{yellow1}{1 1 0}
\newrgbcolor{blue1}{0 0 1}
10 \newrgbcolor{green1}{0 1 0}
\newrgbcolor{gray1}{.7 .7 .7}
\psset{fillcolor=blue1,fillstyle=solid}%
circle radius .05 with .c at (1,.5)/2
circle radius .05 with .c at (1,1)/2
15 circle radius .05 with .c at (2,1)/2
circle radius .05 with .c at (2,1.5)/2
circle radius .05 with .c at (3,1)/2
\psset{fillcolor=red1,fillstyle=solid}%
circle radius .05 with .c at (-1.5,2)/2
20 circle radius .05 with .c at (-2,1)/2
circle radius .05 with .c at (-1.5,1)/2
circle radius .05 with .c at (-1.25,1.5)/2
circle radius .05 with .c at (-3,1.25)/2
\psset{fillcolor=green1,fillstyle=solid}%
25 circle radius .05 with .c at (-1.5,-.5)/2
circle radius .05 with .c at (-.5,-1)/2
circle radius .05 with .c at (.5,-1)/2
circle radius .05 with .c at (-1.25,-1.5)/2
circle radius .05 with .c at (0,-1.25)/2
30 \psset{linecolor=blue1}%
D1:line dashed from (2,-2.5)/2 to (-1,4)/2
\psset{linecolor=red1}%
D2:line dashed from (-3,-1)/2 to (2,3)/2
\psset{linecolor=green1}%
35 D3:line dashed from (-3.5,.2)/2 to (3,-.1)/2
"{\small Classe $0$}" at (-3,2)/2
"{\small Classe $1$}" at (0,-2)/2
"{\small Classe $2$}" at (2,2)/2
move to D1.w; "{\tiny Reta de Decisão para nó $1$}" ljust
40 move to D2.w; "{\tiny Reta de Decisão para nó $0$}" rjust
move to D3.w; "{\tiny Reta de Decisão para nó $2$}" rjust
"{ }" at (0,3)
.PE
117

ai aj
entrada i wij j

Figura 118: Representação da Regra de Hebb

Código da Figura .118 Código em M4/Pic.


.PS
include(libcct.m4)
cct_init
linethick=linethick*(1.5)
5 X2:line -> right_ dimen_*1; move to X2.w; "{\small entrada}" rjust;
T:circle radius dimen_/3 with .w at X2.end; "$i$" at T.c
X1:line -> "$w_{_{ij}}$" below from T.e right_ dimen_*1
T2:circle radius dimen_/3 with .w at X1.end; "$j$" at T2.c
X3:line -> from T2.e right_ dimen_*1
10 move to T.ne; "$a_i$" ljust
move to T2.ne;"$a_j$" ljust
.PE

2 2

entradas 1 j 1 saídas

n m

unidade de processamento

Figura 119: Representação da retropropagação


118

Código da Figura .119 Código em M4/Pic.


.PS
include(libcct.m4)
cct_init
linethick=linethick*(1.5)
5 dimen_=dimen_
Origem:(0,0)
\newrgbcolor{red1}{1 0 0}
\newrgbcolor{yellow1}{1 1 0}
\newrgbcolor{blue1}{0 0 1}
10 \newrgbcolor{green1}{0 1 0}
\newrgbcolor{gray1}{.7 .7 .7}
\psset{fillcolor=red1,fillstyle=solid}%
C1:circle radius dimen_/4 with .c at (0,0)
C2:circle radius dimen_/4 with .c at (0,dimen_)
15 C3:circle radius dimen_/4 with .c at (0,-dimen_)
\psset{fillcolor=blue1,fillstyle=solid}%
C4:circle radius dimen_/4 with .c at (1.5*dimen_,0)
\psset{fillcolor=green1,fillstyle=solid}%
C5:circle radius dimen_/4 with .c at (3*dimen_,0)
20 C6:circle radius dimen_/4 with .c at (3*dimen_,dimen_)
C7:circle radius dimen_/4 with .c at (3*dimen_,-dimen_)
line from C1.e to C4.w
line from C2.se to C4.nw
line from C3.ne to C4.sw
25 line from C4.e to C5.w
line from C4.ne to C6.sw
line from C4.se to C7.nw
"$1$" at C1.c
"$2$" at C2.c
30 "$n$" at C3.c
"$j$" at C4.c
"$1$" at C5.c
"$2$" at C6.c
"$m$" at C7.c
35 "{\small entradas}" at C1.w - (.4,0)
T1:"{\small saídas}" at C5.e + (.3,0)
line "{\small unidade de processamento}" above from
(T1.e.x+dimen_,-2*dimen_) left_ to (C4.c.x,-2*dimen_);
line -> up_ to C4.s - (0,.1);
40 .PE
119

Agente
Externo

Sensores Sensores
Digitais Analógicos Sistema de
Alarme

Sistema de
Transmissor Transmissor Rede
Neural Controle
FSK FM de Acesso

Sistema de
Anúncio
Receptor Receptor
FSK FM

Figura 120: Representação do sistema proposto

Filtro PF
em f0
Rede
Microfone
Neural
Filtro PF
em f1

Figura 121: Representação da solução proposta


120

Código da Figura .120 Código em M4/Pic.


.PS
include(libcct.m4)
cct_init
linethick=linethick*(1.5)
5 dimen_=dimen_
Origem:(0,0)
\newrgbcolor{red1}{1 0 0}
\newrgbcolor{yellow1}{1 1 0}
\newrgbcolor{blue1}{0 0 1}
10 \newrgbcolor{green1}{0 1 0}
\newrgbcolor{gray1}{.7 .7 .7}
\newrgbcolor{azulclaro1}{.1 .5 1}
\newrgbcolor{azulclaro2}{.2 .2 1}
B1:box "Agente" "Externo";
15 L1:line -> from B1.s down_ dimen_/4 then left_ 1.5*dimen_ then down_ dimen_/4;
B2:box wid 1 "Sensores" "Digitais";
L2:line -> from B1.s down_ dimen_/4 then right_ 1.5*dimen_ then down_ dimen_/4;
B3:box wid 1 "Sensores" "Analógicos";
L3:line -> from B2.s down_ dimen_/2;
20 B4:box wid 1 "Transmissor" "FSK";
L4:line -> from B3.s down_ dimen_/2;
B5:box wid 1 "Transmissor" "FM";
L5:line -> from B4.s down_ dimen_/2;
B6:box wid 1 "Receptor" "FSK";
25 L6:line -> from B5.s down_ dimen_/2;
B7:box wid 1 "Receptor" "FM";
L7:line -> from B6.s down_ dimen_ then right_ 4.5*dimen_
then up_ 3*dimen_ then right_ 1*dimen_
L8:line -> from B7.s down_ .75*dimen_ then right_ 1.25*dimen_
30 then up_ 2.75*dimen_+boxht/4 then right_ 1.25*dimen_
\psset{fillcolor=azulclaro1,fillstyle=solid}%
B8:box wid 1 "{\tt Rede}" "{\tt Neural}" with .w at L8.e-(0,boxht/8)
\psset{fillcolor=red1,fillstyle=none}%
L9:line -> from B8.e right_ dimen_;
35 B9:box wid 1 "Sistema de" "Controle" "de Acesso";
L10:line -> from B8.e+(0,boxht/6) right_ dimen_/2 then up_ dimen_ then right_ dimen_/2;
B10:box wid 1 "Sistema de" "Alarme";
L11:line -> from B8.e-(0,boxht/6) right_ dimen_/2 then down_ dimen_ then right_ dimen_/2;
B11:box wid 1 "Sistema de" "Anúncio";
40 .PE
121

Código da Figura .121 Código em M4/Pic.


.PS
include(libcct.m4)
cct_init
linethick=linethick*(1.5)
5 dimen_=dimen_
Origem:(0,0)
\newrgbcolor{red1}{1 0 0}
\newrgbcolor{yellow1}{1 1 0}
\newrgbcolor{blue1}{0 0 1}
10 \newrgbcolor{green1}{0 1 0}
\newrgbcolor{gray1}{.7 .7 .7}
\newrgbcolor{azulclaro1}{.1 .5 1}
\newrgbcolor{azulclaro2}{.2 .2 1}
B1:box "Microfone";
15 L1:line from B1.e right_ dimen_/2;
L2:line -> up_ dimen_/1.5 then right_ dimen_/2;
L3:line -> from L1.e down_ dimen_/1.5 then right_ dimen_/2;
B2:box "Filtro PF" "em $f_0$" with .w at L2.e;
B3:box "Filtro PF" "em $f_1$" with .w at L3.e;
20 L4:line -> from B2.e right_ dimen_/2 then down_ dimen_*.625 then right_ dimen_/2
L4:line -> from B3.e right_ dimen_/2 then up_ dimen_*.625 then right_ dimen_/2
B4: box "Rede" "Neural" with .w at (L4.e.x,L1.e.y)
.PE

C2

R6
R3 −
+
R2

C1
R5
+10V

Ven − R7
R1 − C3 D1
+ R4 Vsa
+
R8 C4 R9

Figura 122: Esquema elétrico do filtro BiQuad


Vsa
Ven +

Figura 123: Buffer para acoplamento dos circuitos


122

Código da Figura .122 Código em M4/Pic.


.PS
include(libcct.m4); cct_init; linethick=linethick*(1.5)
dimen_=dimen_; Origem:(0,0)
\newrgbcolor{red1}{1 0 0}
5 \newrgbcolor{yellow1}{1 1 0}
\newrgbcolor{blue1}{0 0 1}
\newrgbcolor{green1}{0 1 0}
\newrgbcolor{gray1}{.7 .7 .7}
Ven:circle radius .05; move to Ven.w;"$V_{en}$" rjust
10 L1:line from Ven.e right_ dimen_/2; R1:resistor(right_ dimen_); rlabel(,R_1,);
L2:line right_ dimen_/4; Amp1:opamp(right_ dimen_) with .In1 at L2.e;
line from Amp1.In2 left_ dimen_/4 then down_ dimen_/2; ground(,T)
L3:line from Amp1.Out right_ dimen_/4;
L5:line up_ dimen_ ; L6:line left_ dimen_/4;
15 C1:capacitor(left_ dimen_);rlabel(,C_1,);
L4:line from C1.end left_ dimen_/4 then down_ to R1.end
L7:line from L5.n up_ dimen_ then left_ dimen_/4;
R2:resistor(left_ dimen_);rlabel(,R_2,); L8:line left_ dimen_/4;
L9:line down_ dimen_; L10:line from L9.n up_ dimen_ then right_ dimen_/4;
20 R3:resistor(right_ dimen_);llabel(,R_3,); L11:line right_ dimen_/4
Amp2:opamp(left_ dimen_,"$+$","$-$",) with .Out at L11.e;
L12:line from Amp2.In1 right_ dimen_/4 then down_ dimen_/2; ground(,T)
L13:line from Amp2.In2 right_ dimen_/4
L14:line up_ dimen_*.75 then left_ dimen_/4
25 C2:capacitor(left_ dimen_);rlabel(,C_2,);
L15:line from C2.end left_ dimen_/4 then down_ to R3.end;
L16:line from L3.e right_ dimen_/4;
R4:resistor(right_ dimen_);rlabel(,R_4,); L17:line right_ dimen_/4;
Amp3:opamp(right_ dimen_) with .In1 at L17.e;
30 line from Amp3.In2 left_ dimen_/4 then down_ dimen_/2; ground(,T)
L18:line from R4.e up_ dimen_*.75 then right_ dimen_/4;
R5:resistor(right_ dimen_);llabel(,R_5,); L19:line right_ dimen_/4;
L20:line down_ dimen_; L21:line left_ dimen_/4;
L22:line from L19.e up_ to (L19.e,Amp2.In2) then left_ dimen_/4;
35 R6:resistor(left_ dimen_); rlabel(,R_6,); line left_ dimen_/4;
L23:line from L20.s right_ dimen_/4; C3:capacitor(right_ dimen_); llabel(,C_3,);
L24:line right_ dimen_/4; R7:resistor(up_ dimen_);rlabel(,R_7,);
T1:circle radius 0.05 with .s at R7.end; move to T1.e;"$+10V$" ljust;
move to L24.e; R8:resistor(down_ dimen_) ;llabel(,R_8,);ground;move to L24.e;
40 L25:line right_ dimen_/2; D1:diode(right_ dimen_); llabel(,D_1,)
L26:line right_ dimen_/2; C4:capacitor(down_ dimen_);rlabel(,C_4,);ground;
move to L26; L27:line right_ dimen_; R9:resistor(down_ dimen_);
llabel(,R_9,);ground;move to L27.e; L28:line right_ dimen_/4;
T1:circle radius 0.05 with .w at L28.end; move to T1.e;"$V_{sa}$" ljust;
45 .PE
123

Código da Figura .123 Código em M4/Pic.


.PS
include(libcct.m4)
cct_init
linethick=linethick*(1.5)
5 dimen_=dimen_
Origem:(0,0)
\newrgbcolor{red1}{1 0 0}
\newrgbcolor{yellow1}{1 1 0}
\newrgbcolor{blue1}{0 0 1}
10 \newrgbcolor{green1}{0 1 0}
\newrgbcolor{gray1}{.7 .7 .7}
Ven:circle radius .05; move to Ven.w;"$V_{en}$" rjust
L1:line from Ven.e right_ dimen_;
A1:opamp(right_ dimen_) with .In2 at L1.e;
15 L2:line from A1.Out right_ dimen_/4 then up_ dimen_ then
left_ 3*dimen_/2 then down_ .75*dimen_ then to A1.In1;
L3:line from A1.Out right_ dimen_;
T1:circle radius 0.05; move to T1.e; "$V_{sa}$" ljust;
.PE

R3


R4 + R5
+

V1
R1 D1

V2
R2

Vp
Rp
Figura 124: Esquema elétrico da RNA analógica
V2

classe 1
0.2

3
0.2
2.8

classe 2

V1
0.8 1
Figura 125: Regiões de Decisão esperada
124

Código da Figura .124 Código em M4/Pic.


.PS
include(libcct.m4)
cct_init
linethick=linethick*(1.5)
5 dimen_=dimen_
Origem:(0,0)
\newrgbcolor{red1}{1 0 0}
\newrgbcolor{yellow1}{1 1 0}
\newrgbcolor{blue1}{0 0 1}
10 \newrgbcolor{green1}{0 1 0}
\newrgbcolor{gray1}{.7 .7 .7}
Ve1:circle radius .05 with .c at (0,0); move to Ve1.w;"$V_{1}$" rjust
Ve2:circle radius .05 with .c at (0,-dimen_); move to Ve2.w;"$V_{2}$" rjust
Vp:circle radius .05 with .c at (0,-2*dimen_); move to Vp.w;"$V_{p}$" rjust
15 L1:line from Ve1.e right_ dimen_/2;
R1:resistor(right_ dimen_) with .start at L1.e;rlabel(,R_1,)
L2:line from Ve2.e right_ dimen_/2;
R2:resistor(right_ dimen_) with .start at L2.e;rlabel(,R_2,)
L3:line from Vp.e right_ dimen_/2;
20 R3:resistor(right_ dimen_) with .start at L3.e;rlabel(,R_p,)
L4:line from R1.e right_ dimen_/2;
L5:line from R2.e right_ dimen_/2;
L6:line from R3.e right_ dimen_/2;
L7:line up_ 5*dimen_/2 then right dimen_/4;
25 A1:opamp(right_ dimen_) with .In2 at L7.e;
L8:line from A1.Out right_ dimen_/4 then up_ dimen_ then left_ dimen_/4;
R4:resistor(left_ dimen_);rlabel(,R_3,);
L9:line left_ dimen_/4 then down_ .75*dimen_ then right_ dimen_/4
L10:line from A1.In1 left_ dimen_/2;
30 R5:resistor(left_ dimen_);llabel(,R_4,);
L11:line left_ dimen_/4 then down_ dimen_/4;ground(,T);
L12:line from A1.Out right_ dimen_;
A2:opamp(right_ dimen_,"$+$","$-$",) with .In1 at L12.e;
L13:line from A2.In2 left_ dimen_/2 then down_ dimen_/4; ground(,T);
35 L14:line from A2.Out right_ dimen_/4;
R6:resistor(right_ dimen_);llabel(,R_5,);
L15:line right_ dimen_/4;
L16:line down_ dimen_/4;
D1:diode(down_ dimen_,LE);rlabel(,D_1,);ground;
40 .PE
125

Código da Figura .125 Código em M4/Pic.


.PS
include(libcct.m4)
cct_init
linethick=linethick*(1.5)
5 dimen_=dimen_
Origem:(0,0)
\newrgbcolor{red1}{1 0 0}
\newrgbcolor{yellow1}{1 1 0}
\newrgbcolor{black1}{0 0 0}
10 \newrgbcolor{white1}{1 1 1}
X:line -> right_ 2.5; "$V_1$" ljust
Y:line -> from X.w up_ 2.5; "$V_2$" rjust
move to (0,2.5*dimen_);"$2.8$" rjust;
move to (0,3*dimen_);"$3$" rjust;
15 "$0.8$" at (.8*2*dimen_,-.1);
"$1$" at (1*2*dimen_,-.1);
\psset{fillcolor=red1,fillstyle=solid}%
D1:line dashed from (2*dimen_,0) to (2*dimen_,3*dimen_);
D2:line dashed from (0,3*dimen_) to (2*dimen_,3*dimen_);
20 C1:circle radius .05 with .c at (D1.n)
\psset{fillcolor=black1,fillstyle=solid}%
D3:line dashed from (0,2.5*dimen_) to (2*dimen_,2.5*dimen_);
C2:circle radius .05 with .c at (2*dimen_,2.5*dimen_)
D4:line dashed from (.8*2*dimen_,0) to (2*.8*dimen_,3*dimen_);
25 C3:circle radius .05 with .c at (2*.8*dimen_,3*dimen_)
dimension_(from C2.c to C1.c,-.2,"$^{0.2}$" ljust);
dimension_(from C3.c to C1.c,.2,"$^{0.2}$");
\psset{linecolor=red1}%
line from (0.5*2*dimen_,3.7*dimen_) to (2.8*dimen_,1.55*dimen_)
30 \psset{linecolor=black1}%
\psset{fillcolor=white1,fillstyle=solid}%
C4:circle radius .05 with .c at (.8*2*dimen_,2.5*dimen_)
"classe $1$" at (2,2)
"classe $2$" at (.4,.5)
35 .PE