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ƒ¥®¬¥âà¨ç¥áª ï ¯à®£à¥áá¨ï: 2.

m { 楫®¥;
n
bn = b1 + b1 q + b 1 q 2 +    + b 1 q 1 = b1 (11 qq ) m + p { 楫®¥.
P
3.

R( sin x; os x) = R(sin x; os x) ! os x def


’ਣ®­®¬¥âà¨ç¥áª¨¥ ä㭪樨:
= t;
1 + tg2 = os12 ; 1 + tg2 = sin12 ;
sin ( ) = sin ( ); os ( ) = os ( ); tg ( ) = tg ( ); R(sin x; os x) = R(sin x; os x) ! sin x def
= t;
sin 2 = 2 sin os ; os 2 = os 2 sin 2 ; tg 2 = 1 2 tg
tg2 ;
R( sin x; os x) = R(sin x; os x) ! tg x def
= t;
sinm x osn x dx { ¢ëç¨á«ï¥âáï á ¯®¬®éìî ¨áªãáá⢥­­ëå ¯à¥-
R
tg 2 = 1 sin os = 1+ os
sin ;
®¡à §®¢ ­¨© ¨«¨ ¯à¨¬¥­¥­¨¥¬ ä®à¬ã« ¯®­¨¥­¨ï;
sin 3 = 3 sin 4 sin3 ; os 3 = 4 os3
R R R R
3 os ; tg 3 = dx = + ; dx = + ; dx = + ; dx = + ;
3 tg tg3 ;
1 3 tg2 ”®à¬ã«  ’¥©«®à :

sin(  ) = sin os  os sin ; os(  ) = os os  n (k)


ak (x x0 )k + o(x x0)n , £¤¥ ak = f k(!x0 ) .
P
tg ; ‹®ª «ì­ ï: f (x) =
sin sin ; tg(  ) = 1tgtg tg k=0
; os2 = 1+ os ; tg2 = 1 os ; n f (k) (0) k
sin2 2 = 1 os 2 2 2 2 1+ os Ǒਠx0 = 0: f (x) =
P
x + o(xn ).
k=0 k!
sin  sin = 2 sin 2 os 2 ; nP1 f (k) (a)
os + os = 2 os +2 os 2 ; ”®à¬ã«  ’¥©«®à : f (x) = (x a)k + Rn (x), (a  x  b),
k=0 k!
os os = 2 sin +2 sin 2 ; > ; £¤¥ Rn (x) =
f (n) (a+(x a)) (x a)n (0 <  < 1) (®áâ â®ç­ë© ç«¥­
n!
sin  os = 21 (sin( + ) + sin( )); sin  sin = 12 ( os( ¢ ä®à¬¥ ‹ £à ­ ),
) os( + )); os  os = 12 ( os( + ) + os( )); (n)
¨«¨ Rn (x) = f (a(n+11)!(x a)) (1 1 )n 1 (x a)n (®áâ â®ç­ë© ç«¥­
x x x x x x
sh x = e 2e ; h x = e +2e ; th x = eex +ee x ; ¢ ä®à¬¥ Š®è¨).

„¨ää¥à¥­æ¨ «ë ¨ ¯à®¨§¢®¤­ë¥: ex = 1 + x + x2!2 +    + xnn! + o(xn );


Ž¡é¨¥ ¯à ¢¨« :
R R
(1+ x)m = 1+ mx + m(m2! 1) x2 +    + m(m 1)n!(m n+1) xn + o(xn );
d[ f (x) dx℄ = f (x) dx; df (x) = f (x) + ;
R R ln (1 + x) = x x22 +    + ( 1)n 1 xnn + o(xn );
Af (x) dx = A f (x) dx;
R R R
[f (x) + g(x)℄ dx = f (x) dx + g(x) dx sin x = x x3!3 +    + ( 1)n 1 (2x2nn 1)!1
+ o(x2n ); os x = 1 x2!2 +
2 n
y = F (g(x)) ) y0 = [F (g(x))℄0g(x)  (g(x))0x    + ( 1)n (2x n)! + o(x2n+1);
’ ¡«¨æ  ¯à®¨§¢®¤­ëå:
p sh x = x + x3!3 + x5!5 +    ; h x = 1 + x2!2 + x4!4 +    ;
(xn )0 = nxn 1 ; ( x1 )0 = x12 ; ( x)0 = 2p1 x ;
1 t = 1+t+t +t +   ; 1+t = 1 t+t t +   ; ax+b = b(1+ ab x) ;
1 2 3 1 2 3 1 1
(ax )0 = ax ln a; (ex )0 = ex ; ( 1)( 2)( 3) ( 1+k+1) ;
(loga x)0 = x ln1 a ; (ln x)0 = x1 ; Cnk = n(n 1)(n k+1) ;
k! Ck 1 = k!
(sin x)0 = os x; ( os x)0 = sin x; (tg x)0 = os12 x ; ( tg x)0 =
ƒ ¬¬ -äã­ªæ¨ï:

1 +R1
sin2 x ; Ǒਠx > 0: (x) = tx 1 e t dt; (x + 1) = x (x); ¥á«¨ n - 楫®¥
0
(sh x)0 = h x; ( h x)0 = sh x; (th x)0 = h12 x ; ( th x)0 = 1
sh2 x ;
¯®«®¨â¥«ì­®¥, â®
p
(n) = (n 1)!; (n + 21 ) = 13:::2n(2n 1) .
Š á â¥«ì­ ï: y (x) = f 0 (x0 )(x x 0 ) + y0 .
®à¬ «ì: y (x) = 1
f 0 (x0 ) (x x0 ) + y0 . Ǒਠ0 < x < 1: (x) (1 x) = sinx .
R1
ˆ­â¥£à «ë: ¥â -äã­ªæ¨ï: ¯à¨ x > 0 ¨ y > 0: B (x; y) = tx 1 (1 t)y 1 dt;
xn dx = xnn+1
+1
6 dx = ln jxj + x =
6 0; dx 0
R R R
+ n = 1; x 1+x = B (x; y) = ((xx)+(yy))
ln j1 + xj + ;
n
R
dx ar tg x+ ; R dx = 1 ln 1+x + ; ˆ­â¥£à «ì­ ï äã­ªæ¨ï ”ãàì¥:
1+x2 = ar tgx+ 1 x2 2 1 x f x0
…᫨ ( ) § ¤ ­  ­  ®á¨ 1<x< 1
+ , ªãá®ç­®-­¥¯à¥à뢭 
pxdx2 1 = ln jx + px2  1j + ; f x
n
R
p1dxx2 = ar sin x+ ; R ¢¬¥á⥠( ) ¢ ª ¤®¬ ª®­¥ç­®¬ ¯à®¬¥ã⪥ ¨  ¡á®«îâ­® ¨­-
ar sinx+ ⥣à¨à㥬  ­  ¨­â¥à¢ «¥ ( 1; 1
+ ), â® ¢® ¢á¥å ᢮¨å â®çª å
ax dx = lnaxa + (a > 0, a 6= 1); ex dx = ex + ;
R R ­¥¯à¥à뢭®á⨠®­  ¤®¯ã᪠¥â ¯à¥¤áâ ¢«¥­¨¥ ¢ ä®à¬¥ ¨­â¥£à « 
”ãàì¥:
R R
sin x dx = os x + ; os x dx = sin x + ; +R1
f (x) = [a() os x + b() sin x℄ d,
tg x dx = ln j os xj + ; ar tg x dx = x ar tg x 21 ln(1+ x2 )+ ;
R R
0
+1f () os  d
R
R
dx R
dx a() = 1
sin2 x = tg x + ; os2 x = tg x + ; £¤¥
1
R R
sh x dx = h x + ; h x dx = sh x + ; 1 R +1f () sin  d.
¨ b() = 
R
dx R
dx
sh2 x = th x + ; h2 x = th x + ;
1
R
dx = ln tg x + (x 6= k); R dx = ln tg ( x +  ) + (x 6=
‚ â®çª å à §à뢠 ä㭪樨 f (x) «¥¢ ï ç áâì ä®à¬ã«ë ¤®«­ 
x os x 1 [f (x + 0) + f (x 0)℄.
 sin 2 2 4 ¡ëâì § ¬¥­¥­  ­  2
2 + k);
„«ï çñâ­®© ä㭪樨 f (x), á ⥬ ¥ § ¬¥ç ­¨¥¬ ®â­®á¨â¥«ì­®
a2 +x2 = a ar tg a + (a 6= 0); a2 x2 = 2a ln a x + (a 6= 0);
R
dx 1 x R
dx 1 a+x
â®ç¥ª à §à뢠, ä®à¬ã«  ¤ ñâ:
+R1
a2 x2 =  2 ln ja  x j + ; pa2 x2 = ar sin a + (a > 0);
R
xdx 1 2 2 R
dx x
a() os x d, £¤¥ a() = 2 0+1f () os  d.
R
f (x) =
pxdx p 0
2 a2 = ln jx + x  a j + (a > 0);
R
2 2
„«ï ­¥çñâ­®© ä㭪樨 f (x), á ⥬ ¥ § ¬¥ç ­¨¥¬ ®â­®á¨â¥«ì­®

paxdx p2 2 â®ç¥ª à §à뢠, ä®à¬ã«  ¤ ñâ:


2 x2 =  a  x + (a > 0);
R
+R1
b() sin x d, £¤¥ b() = 2 0+1f () sin  d.
R
R p p R p f (x) =
a2 x2 dx = x2 a2 x2 + a22 ar sin xa + ; x2  a2 dx = 0
p p
x x2  a2  a2 ln jx + x2  a2 j + (a > 0); „¢®©­ë¥ ¨­â¥£à «ë:
2 2 RR PP

f (x; y) dx dy f (xi ; yj ) xi yj , £¤¥ xi =
R m
x (a + bxn ) dx = + : = max jlim
xi j!0 i j
max jyj j!0
1. ¥á«¨ p { 楫®¥: x def
= zN , N { ®¡é¨© §­ ¬¥­ â¥«ì m ¨ n; xi+1 xi , yj = yj+1 yj , ¨ á㬬  à á¯à®áâà ­ï¥âáï ­  â¥
§­ ç¥­¨ï i ¨ j , ¤«ï ª®â®àëå (xi ; yj ) 2
.
¥á«¨ mn+1 { 楫®¥: a + bx def
= zN , N { §­ ¬¥­ â¥«ì p; …᫨
§ ¤ ­  ­¥à ¢¥­á⢠¬¨ a  x  b, y1 (x)  y  y2 (x),
2.

m+1 + p { 楫®¥: ax n + b def £¤¥ y1 (x) ¨ y2 (x) - ­¥¯à¥àë¢­ë¥ ä㭪樨 ­  ᥣ¬¥­â¥ [a; b℄, â®
3. ¥á«¨ n = zN , N { §­ ¬¥­ â¥«ì p; ᮮ⢥âáâ¢ãî騩 ¤¢®©­®© ¨­â¥£à «:

¥á«¨ n = 1, â® ãá«®¢¨ï íª¢¨¢ «¥­â­ë ᮮ⢥âá⢥­­®: RR b


R y2R(x)

f (x; y) dx dy = dx f (x; y) dy.
a y1 (x)
1. p { 楫®¥;

1
‡ ¬¥­  ¯¥à¥¬¥­­ëå:
…᫨ ­¥¯à¥à뢭® ¤¨ää¥à¥­æ¨àã¥¬ë¥ ä㭪樨 = ( ), = x x u; v y
y(u; v)
®áãé¥á⢫ïîâ ®¤­®§­ ç­®¥ ®â®¡à ¥­¨¥ ®£à ­¨ç¥­­®© ¨
0
§ ¬ª­ã⮩ ®¡« áâ¨
¢ ¯«®áª®á⨠Oxy
­  ®¡« áâì
¢ ¯«®áª®áâ¨
Ouv, D(x;y)
I= D

¨ 类¡¨ ­ (u;v) á®åà ­ï¥â ¯®áâ®ï­­ë© §­ ª ¢ § ,


¨áª«î祭¨¥¬, ¬®¥â ¡ëâì, ¬­®¥á⢠ ¬¥àë ­ã«ì, â®:


0 f (x(u; v); y(u; v))jI j du dv.
RR RR

f (x; y) dx dy =
„«ï ¯¥à¥å®¤  ª ¯®«ïà­ë¬ ª®®à¤¨­ â ¬ r ¨ ' ¯® ä®à¬ã« ¬ x =
r ' y r '
os ¨ = sin , ¨¬¥¥¬:
RR RR

f (x; y) dx dy =
0 f (r os '; r sin ')r dr d'.
RR
Ǒ«®é ¤ì ®¡« á⨠S : S = S dx dy.
Ž¡êñ¬ 樫¨­¤à®¨¤ , ®£à ­¨ç¥­­®£® ᢥàåã z = f (x; y )  0, á­¨§ã
z = 0 ¨ á ¡®ª®¢ ¯àאַ© 樫¨­¤à¨ç¥áª®© ¯®¢¥àå­®áâìî, RR ¢ë१ î-
饩 ¨§ Oxy ª¢ ¤à¨à㥬ãî ®¡« áâì
, à ¢¥­ V =
f (x; y) dy dy.
Ǒ«®é ¤ì £« ¤ª®© ªà¨¢®«¨­¥©­®© ¯®¢¥àå­®á⨠z = z (x; y ): S =
RR q
z 2 z 2

1 + ( x ) + ( y ) dx dy, £¤¥
- ¯à®¥ªæ¨ï ¯®¢¥àå­®á⨠­ 
Oxy.
…᫨ ãà ¢­¥­¨¥ ¯®¢¥àå­®á⨠§ ¤ ­® ¯ à ¬¥âà¨ç¥áª¨:
x x u; v y y u; v z
= ( ), = ( ), = ( ), £¤¥ ( )
,
- ®£à - z u; v u; v 2
­¨ç¥­­ ï § ¬ª­ãâ ï ª¢ ¤à¨à㥬 ï ®¡« áâì, ¨ ä㭪樨 , ¨ x y z
­¥¯à¥à뢭® ¤¨ää¥à¥­æ¨àã¥¬ë ¢ ®¡« áâ¨
, â® ¯«®é ¤ì ¯®¢¥àå-
S
RR
=
2 pEG F du dv x )2 + ( y )2 + ( z )2 ,
E
= ( u
­®áâ¨: , £¤¥ u u
G = ( x 2 y 2 z 2 x x y y z z
v ) + ( v ) + ( v ) , F = u v + u v + u v .
’ன­®© ¨­â¥£à «
ɇǬ ( f x; y; z V
) ­¥¯à¥à뢭 , ¨ ®¡« áâì ®£à ­¨ç¥­  ¨ ®¯à¥¤¥«ï-
¥âáï ­¥à ¢¥­á⢠¬¨: 1 x xx y yy z zz
2, 1 2, 1 2,
y x y x z x; y z x; y
£¤¥ 1 ( ), 2 ( ), 1 ( ), 2 ( ), - ­¥¯à¥àë¢­ë¥ ä㭪樨, â®
âன­®© ¨­â¥£à « ®â ( f x; y; z
), à á¯à®áâà ­ñ­­ë© ­  : V
RRR Rx R y (x) R z (x;y)
2 2
V f (x; y; z) dx dy dz = x1 dx y1 (x) dy z1 (x;y) f (x; y; z) dz.
2
Œ®­® â ª¥:
RRR Rx RR
V f (x; y; z) dx dy dz = x12 dx S(x) f (x; y; z) dy dz,
£¤¥ S (x) - á¥ç¥­¨¥ ®¡« á⨠V ¯«®áª®áâìî x = onst.
‡ ¬¥­  ¯¥à¥¬¥­­ëå: ¥á«¨ ®£à ­¨ç¥­­ ï § ¬ª­ãâ ï ªã¡¨à㥬 ï
®¡« áâì V
¯à®áâà ­á⢠ Oxyz
¢§ ¨¬­® ®¤­®§­ ç­® ®â®¡à  ¥â-
áï ­  ®¡« áâì V0
¯à®áâà ­á⢠ O0 uvw
á ¯®¬®éìî ­¥¯à¥à뢭®
¤¨ää¥à¥­æ¨à㥬ëå ä㭪権 = ( ), = (x
x u; v; w y y u; v; w z
), =
x;y;z) ¯à¨ (u; v; w) 2 V 0 ¯®çâ¨
z(u; v; w), ¯à¨çñ¬ 类¡¨ ­ I = DD((u;v;w )
¢áî¤ã (¢ á¬ëá«¥ ¬¥àë) á®åà ­ï¥â ¯®áâ®ï­­ë© §­ ª, â® á¯à ¢¥¤-
«¨¢  ä®à¬ã« :
RRR
V f (x; y; z) dx dy dz =
V 0 f (x(u; v; w); y(u; v; w); z(u; v; w))jI j du dv dw.
RRR
=
Š ª ç áâ­ë¥ á«ãç ¨: 樫¨­¤à¨ç¥áª ï á¨á⥬  ª®®à¤¨­ â ', r , h,
£¤¥ x = r os ', y = r sin ', z = h, ¨ DD((x;y;z )
r';h) = r, ¨ áä¥à¨ç¥áª ï
á¨á⥬  ª®®à¤¨­ â ', , r , £¤¥ x = r os ' os , x = r sin ' os ,
z = r sin , ¨ DD((r;';
x;y;z) = r2 os .
)
RRR
Ž¡êñ¬ ®¡« á⨠V : V = V dx dy dz.
Œ áá  â¥« : ¥á«¨ ⥫® § ­¨¬ ¥â ®¡êñ¬ V ¨  = (x; y; z) - ¯«®â-
RRR
­®áâì ¥£® ¢ â®çª¥ (x; y; z ), â® ¬ áá  â¥« : M = V dx dy dz.
Š®®à¤¨­ âë 業âà  âï¥á⨠⥫ :
RRR 9
x0 1
= M1 RRRV xdx dy dz; =
y0 = M1 RRRV
ydx dy dz;
z0 = M V zdx dy dz:
;

…᫨ ⥫® ®¤­®à®¤­®, â®  = 1.


Œ®¬¥­âë ¨­¥à樨 ⥫  ®â­®á¨â¥«ì­® ª®®à¤¨­ â­ëå ¯«®áª®á⥩:
RRR
Ixy = V z2 dx dy dz,
RRR
Iyz = V x2 dx dy dz,
RRR
Izx = V y2 dx dy dz.
Œ®¬¥­â ¨­¥à樨 ⥫  ®â­®á¨â¥«ì­® ­¥ª®â®à®© ®á¨ : l
RRR
Il = V r2 dx dy dz, £¤¥ r - à ááâ®ï­¨¥ ¯¥à¥¬¥­­®© â®çª¨ ⥫ 
(x; y; z) ®â ®á¨ l. ‚ ç áâ­®áâ¨, ¤«ï ª®®à¤¨­ â­ëå ®á¥© Ox, Oy, Oz
¨¬¥¥¬: Ix = Ixy + Ixz , Iy = Iyx + Iyz , Iz = Izx + Izy .
Œ®¬¥­â ¨­¥à樨 ⥫  ®â­®á¨â¥«ì­® ­ ç «  ª®®à¤¨­ â:
RRR 2 2 2
IO = V (x + y + z ) dx dy dz, IO = Ixy + Iyz + Izx .