Você está na página 1de 10



   !" 
#%$'&($')*$,+!-/.+!0 -213&!)5456
738:9 4;<+(=2+(>!0?; 9 4 73@<@38

A
BDC%EGFIH!J
K
L MONQPSR'TVUXWZY[N]\R_^VNa`5b<^dce`*b f
AhgiA jDk2lnmiohprqsprtuj mil
kwv2myxrzprqsprtug/g{g|g/g|g/g|g/g|g{g/g|g/g|g/g|g|g/g{g/g|g/g|g|g/g|g/g{g/g|g|g/g }
Ahg~ € l prq<myk2zQ‚
k]g|g/g|g|g/g|g/g{g|g/g|g/g|g/g|g{g/g|g/g|g/g|g|g/g{g/g|g/g|g|g/g|g/g{g/g|g|g/g }
ƒ „…c[†,^dR'‡[†ˆR'‰ŠbXY[W`*NQTY[N]\‹bXŒ`*bsSŒŽN 
~<giA jDk?szXmy‘V’rx g/g|g/g|g|g/g|g/g{g|g/g|g/g|g/g|g{g/g|g/g|g/g|g|g/g{g/g|g/g|g|g/g|g/g{g/g|g|g/g “
” •–‡†ˆR'‰ŠbX—ŠUXW ˜
™<giA šekw›rlnmyvVp–g/g{g/g|g/g|g|g/g|g/g{g|g/g|g/g|g/g|g{g/g|g/g|g/g|g|g/g{g/g|g/g|g|g/g|g/g{g/g|g|g/g œ
™<g~ žl Ÿ*‚nmyvVpOg/g{g/g|g/g|g|g/g|g/g{g|g/g|g/g|g/g|g{g/g|g/g|g/g|g|g/g{g/g|g/g|g|g/g|g/g{g/g|g|g/g  
f ¡¢£¤¡¥\ž¦§©¨O¢ ª
 «%¬?«\‹¬d¢®­®M¯•®°¬2• L3±
²3³µ´·¶¹¸»º½¼µ¾À¿…¸ ™
Á v
Âp*lÃ(xrza‚
xhtk?Ä<‚nl
k2Åxht‹qXkÇÆ'ÈXzs‘wÉ3kwt‹ÊuÅ{ÈXmi‚
x¥miÅÃ(xrln‚ p*za‚
kËaÈp*zsqXx{t kÇqXkwt
kÍÌ
p|xrÃX‚nmiÅmiÎdp*lIp*ÏiЊxXgÒÑÄ3myt
‚
k2Å
Å{ÈXmi‚
xhtuÅÊ2‚
xaqXxhtVÓs‚ p*zQ‚
xqXk2‚
k2lnÅmizXÔytn‚nmyvwxht vwxrÅxmi‚
k2l p*‚nmioŠxhtuÃp*l p%l
kwt
xrÏioŠk2lukwtn‚
kwtÇÃXl
xrÕXÏyk2ŖprtVg
ўtn‚ Ÿ:zsxÖkwt
vwxrÃ!xÖqXkwtn‚
k‚
k?Ä<‚
xÖx:ÅÊ2‚
x3qXx×qXkwt v2lnmi‚
x:Ã(xrl¥ØsgÚٞgSÙep*Ðhl p*zXЊkhÓÒv
Âp*ŖprqXx]Å{ÈXÏi‚nmiÃXÏimyvVprqXxrl
kwt
qXkÙSp*Ðhl p*zrÌnkhg–€ÛÅÊ2‚
xaqXxÖqXkÙep*Ðhl p*zXЊk–ÊkwtnÃ!kwv2Ôܐvwx¯Ãp*l p¯ÃXl
xrÕXÏyk2Ŗprt{ËaÈskt
k%vwxrzXÂskwvwk–x:qXxrÅÔizXmyx×qXk
‚nl p*Õp*ÏiÂsxXÓsxrÈ×t
kÍÌ
p<ÓXx%ÃXl
xrÕXÏyk2Ŗp‚
k2zXÂp%Æ'ÈXzs‘wÉ3kwtÇqXk/l
kwtn‚nlnmy‘V’rxÃXl
Ê/qXk?szXmyqsprtVg
Ý xrÅx‚ p*Å¥Õ(Ê2ÅÞÊDmiÅÃ(xrln‚ p*za‚
k|Ãp*l pxk2za‚
k2zsq<miÅk2zQ‚
x¯qXx–prt
tnÈXza‚
xXÓsx%‚
k?Ä<‚
x%Æßp*Î/ÈXŖpÕXl
k2oŠk/l
k2oamyt ’rx
qXkDÏimi‚
k2l p*‚nÈXl pt
xrÕXl
k{qXk2lnmiorprqsprtÇq<mil
kwv2myxrzprqsprt kDÐhl prq<myk2zQ‚
kwtdg
à ¶…áâ J
ãäÇKGå áµæ Jnç á H(èIçŽC{H!è }
[ p*l pÅk2ÏiÂsxrluvwxrÅÃXl
kwk2zsqXk2lxhtIÅ¥ÈXÏi‚nmiÃXÏimyvVprqXxrl
kwtDqXk/ÙSp*Ðhl p*zXЊkhÓkwtn‚ p%t kw‘V’rx%orp*mSp*ÃXl
kwt
k2za‚ p*l p*ÏiÐhÈXzstÇvwxrz<é
vwk2mi‚
xhtƈÈXzsqsp*Åk2zQ‚ p*mytzskwvwkwt
t Ÿ*lnmyxhtÇÃp*l px%‚ p*Ïêg
ëìíë îðïsñQòêó(ôõ‹ô!ö×î÷òêñŠïŽøXòêùSú‹ô!õ‹ôö
j/prqspÈXŖpÆ'ÈXzs‘V’rx Ó(prt qXk2lnmiohprqsprt q<mil
kwv2myxrzprqsprtDqXk l
k2ÃXl
kwt
k2za‚ p*Åûprtu‚ p5ÄsprtqXk
orp*lnm_pr‘V’rx–qsp%ƈÈXzs‘V’rxzpq<mil
kw‘V’rxOqXk/ÈXÅüoŠk2‚
xrluÈXzXmi‚ Ÿ*lnmyx
f = f (x1 , x2 , ..., xn ) f
qXk¥q<miÅk2zst ’rxmiÐhÈp*Ï[p gý3k
ƈxrlÇq<mÜÆßk2l
k2zsv2m_ŸwoŠk2Ï[k2Å (x1 , x2 , ..., xn )
pqXk2lnmiorprqspq<mil
kwv2myxrzp*ÏeÊ/qXk?szXmyqsp%Ã!k2Ï_pkwËaÈpr‘V’rxÖAhg
v(v1 , v2 , ..., vn ) n f

Dv f (x1 , x2 , ..., xn ) =
∂f
v1 +
∂f
v2 + ... +
∂f
vn þ Adÿ
ëì ðñŠôõ‹òêïŽú hï
∂x1 ∂x2 ∂xn
  

ex3qXk?éít
k|kwt v2l
k2oŠk2lp%kwËQÈpr‘V’rx×A/zp¥ÆˆxrlnŖpqXx%ÃXl
xaq<ÈX‚
xkwt vVp*Ï_p*lÇÅxhtn‚nl prqXxk2Å~<g
∂f ∂f ∂f
þ ~Šÿ
 

€½oŠk2‚
xrlDƈxrlnŖprqXx®Ã!k2Ï_prt qXk2lnmiohprqsprtDÃp*l
v2m_p*myt/qXk Ê v
Âp*ŖprqXxÖqXk Dk%qXk2zsxr‚ prqXx¯Ã!xrl g
Dv f (x1 , x2 , ..., xn ) = , , ..., · (v1 , v2 , ..., vn )
∂x1 ∂x2 ∂xn

ÑÒÏykOÃ(x3qXkOt k2l¥o3mytn‚
xvwxrÅxx]oŠk2‚
xrlËQÈsk¯p*Ã!xrzQ‚ p]Ãp*l p¤p×q<mil
kw‘V’rxðqXkOŖp*myt l Ÿ*ÃXmyqXxv2l
kwt v2miÅk2zQ‚
xðqXk g



f ∇f

€zsqXk Ê¥p‚ p5ÄspOqXk{v2l


kwt
v2miÅk2za‚
x:qXk zprËaÈsk2Ï_p–q<mil
kw‘V’rxXg Åk?Ä<‚
k2lnÅxOqXk þ k?Ägut
k2Ï_p<ӎÅÔizXmiÅxXÓ f

ŖŸ5Ä3miÅxQÿIÊ/k2zsvwxrzQ‚nl prqXxOzp%vwxrzsq<my‘V’rx g

|∇f | f f

mi‚
k2l
kwt
t p*za‚
k‹zsxr‚ p*lÒËaÈsk ʋzsxrlnŖp*Ïsp g xuvVprt
x qXkÒƈÈXzs‘wÉakwtËaÈskžÐŠk2l p*Å tnÈXÃ!k2lÆ'Ôyv2mykwtdÓdÐhl prq<myk2za‚
kwt
∇f = 0

Ã(k2lnÃ!k2zsq<myv2ÈXÏ_p*l
kwt rtuv2ÈXlnorprtÇqXk|zXÔioŠk2Ïêg
 
∇f v

  C çŽJ
J [èÇå KIH á ã¹å áÛæ è ÇH(è á
! " $# &% &'!% “
Ý xrzstnmyqXk2l
kÈXŖpðƈÈXzs‘V’rx qXk orp*lnm_ŸVoŠk2myt g ý3kðprt orp*lnm_ŸVoŠk2myt®Æˆxrl
k2Å
mizsqXk2Ã(k2zsqXk2za‚
kwtVÓxhtÇÃ(xrza‚
xhtÇv2lnÔi‚nmyvwxht þ vVp*zsq<myqsprqXxhtDp ŖŸ5Ä3miÅxXÓsÅÔizXmiÅx–kDÃ!xrzQ‚
xqXk|t k2Ï_pŠÿ?ÓXqXkwtn‚ p ƈÈXzs‘V’rx
n f = f (x) = f (x1 , x2 , ..., xn ) n

Ã(x3qXk2Åüt
k2lÇk2zsvwxrza‚nl prqXxhtumiÐhÈp*Ï_p*zsqXx®p ÎVk2l
x–prtÇqXk2lnmiohprqsprtÇÃp*l
v2m_p*mytÇÃp*l pvVprqsp%orp*lnm_ŸVoŠk2Ïêg
∂f ∂f
þ ™Šÿ
ý3kprtohp*lnm_ŸwoŠk2mytz’rx{ƈxrl
k2Å mizsqXk2Ã(k2zsqXk2za‚
kwtVÓ<Ŗprtt p*‚nmytÆêp*ÎVk2ÅÛÈXŖp¥t
Ê2lnmykuqXk
= ... = =0
∂x1 ∂xn

Ó3Ã(x3qXk?éít
kÇmyt xrÏ_p*lvVprqsp{orp*lnm_ŸVoŠk2ÏqsprtžÆˆÈXzs‘wÉakwtqXkl
kwtn‚nlnmy‘V’rx%kprt
+*-,-/.0 1 $/.2 2*-34
m ()

tnÈXÕstn‚nmi‚nÈXmilžk2Å ÓhqXk2Ã!xrmytVӊk2zsvwxrza‚nl p*zsqXx¥xhtÒÃ!xrzQ‚


xht‹v2lnÔi‚nmyvwxhtp*‚nl pwoŠÊwtqspDqXk2lnmiorprqsp/ÃXlnmiÅk2mil p|kÇp*zp*Ïimyt p*zsqXx
g1 (x1 , ..., xn ) = 0, ..., gm (x1 , ..., xn ) = 0

p–qXk2lnmiohprqsp¯t
k2ÐhÈXzsqsp®Ê Ã(xht tnÔioŠk2Ï[k2zsvwxrza‚nl p*l{xht ŖŸ5Ä3miÅxht/k ÅÔizXmiÅxht/qsp–ƈÈXzs‘V’rxXg|exrl
Ê2Å zsk2Å t
k2ÅÃXl
k
f

Ê:Ã!xht
tnÔioŠk2Ïul
kwt xrÏioŠk2l–Ã!xrlOkwtn‚
k×ÅÊ2‚
xaqXxXÓIk2za‚ ’rx ؊xht k2ÃX ٞgÙSp*Ðhl p*zXЊk]ÃXl
xrÃ(xhtOÈXÅ ÅÊ2‚
x3qXxXÓIv
Âp*ŖprqXx
5
)76
298
6
wg
;:$  4< /. 1= >

71

ìíë îðï ú‹ò !ù @? ACB

Ý xrzstnmyqXk2l
k k®tnÈprt l
kwtn‚nlnmy‘wÉakwt v2mi‚ prqXxhtprv2miŖp<g ý3kÍÌ
p*Å k2Ï_prt qXk2lnmiohŸwoŠk2myt–k2Å ÃXlnmiÅk2mil p¤xrl
qXk2Å k
vwxrzQ‚nÔizaÈprtžkËaÈsk f m
k2Å ËQÈp*ÏyËaÈsk2lÒv2mil
v2ÈXzstn‚ *zsv2m_p<gžý3k ‚nmioŠk2lÒÈXŅk?Ä<‚nl
k2Åx l
k2Ï_p*‚nmioŠx/qXk2zQ‚nl
x/qXktnÈprt
g

l
kwtn‚nlnmy‘wÉ3kwtVÓ<kwtn‚
kDÃ(xrza‚
xxavwxrlnl
k/k2ŵÈXÅ Ã!xrzQ‚
x Ó<‚ p*Ï©ËaÈsk Ã!k2ln‚
k2zs‘Vpp¥ÈXŖp%tnÈXÃ!k2lÆ'Ôyv2myk
ED
∇g 6= 0 f

qXkl
kwtn‚nlnmy‘V’rx]qXk zp×ËQÈp*Ïxht{Ðhl prq<myk2za‚
kwt P (x∗1 , x∗2 , ..., x∗n )
k P
t ’rx:Ãp*l p*Ïyk2ÏyxhtVÓÒxrÈ
t
kÍÌ
p<ÓXk?Ä3mytn‚
k ‚ p*ÏSËaÈsk|p%vwxrzsq<my‘V’rx}t
kÍÌ
p%t p*‚nmytÆßk2mi‚ p<g
λ
f ∇f (x∗1 , x∗2 , ..., x∗n ) ∇g(x∗1 , x∗2 , ..., x∗n )

∇f (x∗1 , x∗2 , ..., x∗n ) = λ∇g(x∗1 , x∗2 , ..., x∗n ) þ }aÿ


F G
J [è eäuK
" $# &H œ
I ìíë ï ©ñQò ø<ô
J LK

j/prqspÖp®ÆˆÈXzs‘V’rx þ miÐhÈXl pי<giAdÿ?ÓeÏimiÅmi‚ prqspÖÃ!k2Ï_p¯l


kwtn‚nlnmy‘V’rx g:€µÃXlnmiÅk2mil
x
Ãprt
t
xDÃp*l p/k2zsvwxrza‚nl p*lxht‹Å–Ÿ5Ä3miÅxhtkÅÔizXmiÅxhtqXkIÆ'ÈXzs‘V’rx|Êprv
Âp*lxDÐhl prq<myk2za‚
kqXk
f (x, y) = x2 ∗ y 2M x2 + y 2 = 8
f (x, y)
kÇqXk g
g(x, y)

M
miÐhÈXl p:A<N
f (x, y) = x2 ∗ y

∂ 2 ∂
 
∇f = (x ∗ y), (x2 ∗ y) = (2xy, x2 )
∂x ∂y
∂ 2 ∂ 2
 
∇g = (x + y 2 − 8), (x + y 2 − 8) = (2x, 2y)

ÑÒÅ t k2ÐhÈXmyqspp%kwËQÈpr‘V’rx qXk2oŠk|t


k2lÇt
xrÏiÈsv2myxrzprqsp%Ãp*l p g
∂x ∂y

∇f (x, y) = λ∇g(x, y) λ

(2xy, x2 ) = λ(2x, 2y)


2xy x2
λ= λ=
2x 2y
x2
 
y=

[ xrl XÏi‚nmiÅxðmyt
xrÏ_p5éít k k Ãp*l pðtnÈXÕst
‚nmi‚nÈXmilOk2Å k2zsvwxrza‚nl p*lO‚
x3qXxhtxht–Ãp*l
kwt–xrl
qXk2zprqXxht–ËaÈsk×p
2y

miŖp*Њk2Šl
kwtnÈXÏi‚ pzQÈXÅ k?Ä3‚nl
k2ÅxXg [xrl XÏi‚nmiÅx¤Õprtn‚ p¤tnÈXÕstn‚nmi‚nÈXmilkwt
‚
kwt%Ã(xrza‚
xhtk2Å k¯vwxrzsv2ÏiÈXmil–t k®Ê
PO
x y g

ŖŸ5Ä3miÅx–xrÈ:ÅÔizXmiÅxXg
QO
f

√ √ ! p
4 3 2 6 32 (6)
f , = max.
3 3 9
√ √ ! p
4 3 −2 6 32 (6)
f , =− min.
3 3 9
√ √ ! p
−4 3 2 6 32 (6)
f , = max.
3 3 9
√ √ ! p
−4 3 −2 6 32 (6)

þ “Šÿ
f , =− min.
3 3 9

Iì –ñ Šòíø<ô
 R ST

ÈXÏi‚nmiÃXÏimyvVprqXxrl
kwtÙSp*Ðhl p*zXЊkÇÃ!x3qXk2Åt
k2lÒÈX‚nÏimiÎdprqXxhtžÃp*l p/ÅmizXmiÅmiÎdp*l‹tnÈXÃ!k2lÆ'Ôyv2mykwtVÓQvwxrÅx/zsx|vVprt
x /t k2ÐhÈXmilVg
Å‚ p*zsËaÈsk¥qXk%›rÏykwx¯ËaÈsk{‚
k2Å pÆßxrlnŖp®qXk{ÈXÅGÃp*l p*Ïyk2Ïyk2ÃXÔiÃ!kwqXx þ t
k2ÅGx–‚
k2ÏiÂprqXxQÿ qXk%~ t k2l Ÿ
U 0

vwxrzstn‚nlnÈXÔyqXxk/qXkwt
kÍÌ
p5éít
k/l
kwq<ÈXÎwmilx%Ŗp*‚
k2lnm_p*ÏSÐQprtn‚
x%Ãp*l pk2lnÐhÈsk?éêÏyxXg
 <V<V<V
m3

ý3xrÏiÈs‘V’rx
Á tnÈXÃ(k2lƈÔyv2myk/Ê/qsprqsp%Ã!xrl
@N

þ œŠÿ
Á Æ'ÈXzs‘V’rxqXk/l
kwt
‚nlnmy‘V’rxÊ/xoŠxrÏiÈXÅk
A(x, y, z) = xy + 2xy + 2yz
<N

V (x, y, z) = xyz − 2000 = 0 þ  hÿ


ÒlnmiÅk2mil
x–ÃXl
kwv2myt p*Åxhtprv Âp*luxhtIÐhl prq<myk2zQ‚
kwt k/myt
xrÏ_p*l g
λ

∇A = (y + 2z, x + 2z, 2x + 2y)


∇V = (yz, xz, xy)
∇V (x, y, z) = λ∇A(x, y, z)
(y + 2z, x + 2z, 2x + 2y) = λ(yz, xz, xy)

Ý xrÅx λg 6= 0
Ã!xaqXk?éít
k/qXk2mÜÄsp*lÇz’rxŸ ÃXl
xrÕXÏyk2Ŗp–k2Åü‚
k2luprtIohp*lnm_ŸwoŠk2mytuzsxqXk2zsxrÅmizprqXxrl >N

1 2
λ= +
z y
W
1 2
λ= +
z x
22
λ=

šSk2Åxht qsp%ÃXlnmiÅk2mil pk/‚


k2l
vwk2mil pkwËaÈpr‘wÉ3kwtÇk gýaÈXÕstn‚nmi‚nÈXÔizsqXxzp%l
kwtn‚nlnmy‘V’rx
yx
N
y=x z = 12 x V (x, y, z)

1 1
f (x, x, x) = x3 = 2000

ýaÈXÕstn‚nmi‚nÈXÔizsqXxOkDl
kVp*ÏimiÎdp*zsqXxOprtÇxrÃ!k2l pr‘wÉakwtuxrÕX‚
Ê2Å%éít
k g
2 2

x = 15.874m, y = 15.874m, z = 7.937m


Y Z »¸ ³ 殼 B ¿…¸
Z
X

Á Ã!kwt p*lžqXkk?Ä3mytn‚nmil
k2Å xrÈX‚nl
xhtžÅÊ2‚
x3qXxht‹Ãp*l p|l
kwt
xrÏioŠk2lžÃXl
xrÕXÏyk2ŖprtqXkÇxr‚nmiÅmiÎdpr‘V’rx xhtžÅ¥ÈXÏi‚nmiÃXÏimyvVprqXxrl
kwtIqXk
ÙSp*Ðhl p*zXЊk|Ãp*l
kwvwk2Å l
kwt
xrÏioŠk?éêÏyxhtuqXk/Ŗp*zsk2mil pŖp*mytÇl Ÿ*ÃXmyqsp<g
Ã!xht
tnÔioŠk2ÏX‚ p*Å{Õ!Ê2ÅÖÓQp*‚nl pVoŠkwt‹qXkÙSp*Ðhl p*zXЊkhÓal
kwt
xrÏioŠk2lÒÃXl
xrÕXÏyk2ŖprtžËaÈskÇp*zQ‚
kwtžk2l p*ŠťÈXmi‚
x/vwxrÅÃXÏyk?Ä<xht
xrÈ×p*‚
Ê/miÅÃ!xht
tnÔioŠk2mytVÓXqXk2Ã!k2zsqXk2zsqXx–qXx%ÅÊ2‚
x3qXxXg

[ \ \ ² 殲¸ ¶ ²
^] G^_ G A >V

¬w£ a`0b ®M £ Âa‚n‚nà dÆ'Ŗp<g mÜÆng Èstnég ÕXl k2ÅmizXÐ 5Ï_p*Ðhl p*zXЊk 5zsxaqXk2}sg Âa‚nÅÏ Á vwkwt
t
x ~h~ 3A r~ h™
ab`Qc dNfe<e /ehg 7e -e @N e >Ve <V<V

w¬ £ M®£ Âa‚n‚nà |g ЊkwxrÅÖg ÈXmiÈsvhgÚkwq<È *kwq<Èsvdp*‚nmyxrz š  Ý p*Ïyv 3A *} hýa‚nÈsqXk2zQ‚


Ù[p*Õst *Ùep*Ðhl p*zЊk rp*ÃsÃ
Á vwkwt
t x ž~<A 3A r~ h™
a`0b ab`Qc dNfe<ejikiki +e +e
 U ml U ne >o$o$o e >X<X 7e /e -e

@N -e >Ve <V<V

w¬ £
a`0b M®£ Âa‚n‚nà 5l aÕ©g ÂsxrÅkhgÚvwk2lnz©gÚv  5l aÕ Á AVœ*ÃXà 5zsx3qXkhA2}a 3g Â3‚nÅÏ Á vwkwt t
x ‹~<A 3A r~ h™
ab`Qc dNfe<e p +e p +e  +e @N -e >Ve <V<V

•O£ %¢£ :W ¥bX`*Y Ý Ù Ý Ùe€ Ó /€ € D€ € šIÑÇg žxrÏÒ~<gIўq<mi‚


xrl p xax 3Ŗp*z©gǜhpOkwq<mÜé
‘V’rxXgž[xrln‚
x Á Ïyk2Ðhl
k é Dý(Ós~
q` srut wv mx  T U  zy |{ }o~  Ly €
p

n} <V<V<V