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contents

A
A. contents A1

B. general - installed power


1. methodology B1

2. rules and statutory regulations B3


2.1 definition of voltage ranges B3
table B1
standard voltages between 100 V and 1000 V (IEC 38-1983) B3
table B2
standard voltages above 1 kV and not exceeding 35 kV (IEC 38-1983) B3
2.2 regulations B4
2.3 standards B4
2.4 quality and safety of an electrical installation B5
2.5 initial testing of an installation B6
2.6 periodic check-testing of an installation B6
table B3
frequency of check-tests commonly recommended for an electrical installation B6
2.7 conformity (with standards and specifications) of equipment
used in the installation B7

3. motor, heating and lighting loads B8


3.1 induction motors B8
table B4
power and current values for typical induction motors B9
3.2 direct-current motors B10
table B6
progressive starters with voltage ramp B10
table B7
progressive starters with current limitation B10
3.3 resistive-type heating appliances and incandescent lamps
(conventional or halogen) B11
table B8
current demands of resistive heating and incandescent lighting (conventional or halogen)
appliances B11
3.4 fluorescent lamps and related equipment B11
table B10
current demands and power consumption of commonly-dimensioned fluorescent
lighting tubes (at 220 V/240 V - 50 Hz) B12
table B11
current demands and power consumption of compact fluorescent lamps
(at 220 V/240 V - 50 Hz) B12
3.5 discharge lamps B13
table B12
current demands of discharge lamps B13

4. power loading of an installation B14


4.1 installed power (kW) B14
4.2 installed apparent power (kVA) B15
table B13
estimation of installed apparent power B15
4.3 estimation of actual maximum kVA demand B16
table B14
simultaneity factors in an apartment block B16
table B16
factor of simultaneity for distribution boards (IEC 439) B17
table B17
factor of simultaneity according to circuit function B17
4.4 example of application of factors ku and ks B17
table B18
an example in estimating the maximum predicted loading of an installation
(the factor values used are for demonstration purposes only) B17

contents - A1
contents (continued)

A
B. general - installed power (continued)
4. power loading of an installation (continued)
4.5 diversity factor B18
4.6 choice of transformer rating B18
table B19
IEC-standardized kVA ratings of HV/LV 3-phase distribution transformers
and corresponding nominal full-load current values B18
4.7 choice of power-supply sources B19

C. HV/LV distribution substations


1. supply of power at high voltage C1
1.1 power-supply characteristics of high voltage distribution networks C1
table C1
relating nominal system voltages with corresponding rated system voltages
(r.m.s. values) C2
table C2
switchgear rated insulation levels C3
table C3A
transformers rated insulation levels in series I (based on current practice other than
in the United States of America and some other countries) C3
table C3B
transformers rated insulation levels in series II (based on current practice in the United
States of America and some other countries) C4
table C4
standard short-circuit current-breaking ratings extracted from table X IEC 56 C4
1.2 different HV service connections C11
1.3 some operational aspects of HV distribution networks C13

2. consumers HV substations C15


2.1 procedures for the establishment of a new substation C15

3. substation protection schemes C17


3.1 protection against electric shocks and overvoltages C17
3.2 electrical protection C22
table C18
power limits of transformers with a maximum primary current not exceeding 45 A C25
table C19
rated current (A) of HV fuses for transformer protection according to IEC 282-1 C26
table C20
3-phase short-circuit currents of typical distribution transformers C27
3.3 protection against thermal effects C31
3.4 interlocks and conditioned manœuvres C31

4. the consumer substation with LV metering C34


4.1 general C34
4.2 choice of panels C36
table C27
standard short-circuit MVA and current ratings at different levels of nominal voltage C37
4.3 choice of HV switchgear panel for a transformer circuit C38
4.4 choice of HV/LV transformer C38
table C31
categories of dielectric fluids C41
table C32
safety measures recommended in electrical installations using dielectric liquids
of classes 01, K1, K2 or K3 C42

5. a consumer substation with HV metering C44


5.1 general C44
5.2 choice of panels C46
5.3 parallel operation of transformers C48

6. constitution of HV/LV distribution substations C49


6.1 different types of substation C49
6.2 indoor substations equipped with metal-enclosed switchgear C49
6.3 outdoor substations C52
A2 - contents
A
7. appendix 1␣ : example in coordination of the
characteristics of an HV switch-fuse combination
protecting an HV/LV transformer App C1-1
7.1 transfert current and take-over current App C1-2
7.2 types of faults involved in the transfer region App C1-3

8. appendix 2␣ : ground-surface potential gradients


due to earth-fault currents App C2-1

9. appendix 3␣ : vector diagram of ferro-resonance


at 50Hz (or 60 Hz) App C3-1

D. low-voltage service connections


1. low-voltage public distribution networks D1
1.1 low-voltage consumers D1
table D1
survey of electricity supplies in various countries around the world. D1
table D2 D6
1.2 LV distribution networks D7
1.3 the consumer-service connection D10
1.4 quality of supply voltage D13

2. tariffs and metering D14

E. power factor improvement and harmonic filtering


1. power factor improvement E1
1.1 the nature of reactive energy E1
1.2 plant and appliances requiring reactive current E2
1.3 the power factor E2
1.4 tan ϕ E3
1.5 practical measurement of power factor E4
1.6 practical values of power factor E4
table E5
example in the calculation of active and reactive power E4
table E7
values of cos ϕ and tan ϕ for commonly-used plant and equipment E4

2. why improve the power factor? E5


2.1 reduction in the cost of electricity E5
2.2 technical/economic optimization E5
table E8
multiplying factor for cable size as a function of cos ϕ E5

3. how to improve the power factor E6


3.1 theoretical principles E6
3.2 by using what equipment? E7
3.3 the choice between a fixed or automatically-regulated bank
of capacitors E8

4. where to install correction capacitors E9


4.1 global compensation E9
4.2 compensation by sector E9
4.3 individual compensation E10

contents - A3
contents (continued)

A
E. power factor improvement and harmonic filtering (continued)
5. how to decide the optimum level of compensation E11
5.1 general method E11
5.2 simplified method E11
table E17
kvar to be installed per kW of load, to improve the power factor of an installation E12
5.3 method based on the avoidance of tariff penalties E13
5.4 method based on reduction of declared maximum apparent
power (kVA) E13

6. compensation at the terminals of a transformer E14


6.1 compensation to increase the available active power output E14
table E20
active-power capability of fully-loaded transformers, when supplying loads at different
values of power factor E14
6.2 compensation of reactive energy absorbed by the transformer E15
table E24
reactive power consumption of distribution transformers with 20 kV primary windings E16

7. compensation at the terminals of an induction motor E17


7.1 connection of a capacitor bank and protection settings E17
table E26
reduction factor for overcurrent protection after compensation E17
7.2 how self-excitation of an induction motor can be avoided E18
table E28
maximum kvar of P.F. correction applicable to motor terminals without risk
of self-excitation E19

8. example of an installation before and after


power-factor correction E20

9. the effect of harmonics on the rating of a capacitor


bank E21
9.1 problems arising from power-system harmonics E21
9.2 possible solutions E21
9.3 choosing the optimum solution E22
table E30
choice of solutions for limiting harmonics associated with a LV capacitor bank E22
9.4 possible effects of power-factor-correction capacitors
on the power-supply system E23

10. implementation of capacitor banks E24


10.1 capacitor elements E24
10.2 choice of protection, control devices, and connecting cables E25

11. appendix 1␣ : elementary harmonic filters App E3-1

12. appendix 2␣ : harmonic suppression reactor


for a single (power factor correction)
capacitor bank App E4-1

F. distribution within a low-voltage installation


1. general F1
1.1 the principal schemes of LV distribution F1
1.2 the main LV distribution board F4
1.3 transition from IT to TN F4

A4 - contents
A
2. essential services standby supplies F5
2.1 continuity of electric-power supply F5
2.2 quality of electric-power supply F6
table F10
assumed levels of transient overvoltage possible at different points of a typical
installation F8
table F12
typical levels of impulse withstand voltage of industrial circuit breakers labelled
Uimp = 8 kV F8
table F18
compatibility levels for installation materials F13

3. safety and emergency-services installations,


and standby power supplies F15
3.1 safety installations F15
3.2 standby reserve-power supplies F15
3.3 choice and characteristics of reserve-power supplies F16
table F21
table showing the choice of reserve-power supply types according to application
requirements and acceptable supply-interruption times F16
3.4 choice and characteristics of different sources F17
table F22
table of characteristics of different sources F17
3.5 local generating sets F18

4. earthing schemes F19


4.1 earthing connections F19
table F25
list of exposed-conductive-parts and extraneous-conductive-parts F20
4.2 definition of standardized earthing schemes F21
4.3 earthing schemes characteristics F23
4.4.1 choice criteria F29
4.4.2 comparison for each criterion F30
4.5 choice of earthing method - implementation F31
4.6 installation and measurements of earth electrodes F32
table F47
resistivity (Ω-m) for different kinds of terrain F33
table F48
mean values of resistivity (Ω-m) for an approximate estimation of an earth-electrode
resistance with respect to zero-potential earth F33

5. distribution boards F36


5.1 types of distribution board F36
5.2 the technologies of functional distribution boards F37
5.3 standards F38
5.4 centralized control F38

6. distributors F39
6.1 description and choice F39
6.2 conduits, conductors and cables F41
table F60
selection of wiring systems F41
table F61
erection of wiring systems F41
table F62
some examples of installation methods F43
table F63
designation code for conduits according to the most recent IEC publications F44
table F64
designation of conductors and cables according to CENELEC code for harmonized
cables F45
table F66
commonly used conductors and cables F46

contents - A5
contents (continued)

A
F. distribution within a low-voltage installation (continued)
7. external influences F47
7.1 classification F47
table F67
concise list of important external influences (taken from Appendix A of IEC 364-3) F48
7.2 protection by enclosures: IP code F49

G. protection against electric shocks


1. general G1
1.1 electric shock G1
1.2 direct and indirect contact G1

2. protection against direct contact G2


2.1 measures of protection against direct contact G2
2.2 additional measure of protection against direct contact G3

3. protection against indirect contact G4


3.1 measure of protection by automatic disconnection of the supply G4
table G8
maximum safe duration of the assumed values of touch voltage in conditions where
UL = 50 V G4
table G9
maximum safe duration of the assumed values of touch voltage in conditions where
UL = 25 V G4
3.2 automatic disconnection for a TT-earthed installation G5
table G11
maximum operating times of RCCBs (IEC 1008) G6
3.3 automatic disconnection for a TN-earthed installation G6
table G13
maximum disconnection times specified for TN earthing schemes (IEC 364-4-41) G7
3.4 automatic disconnection on a second earth fault in an IT-earthed
system G8
table G18
maximum disconnection times specified for an IT-earthed installation (IEC 364-4-41) G9
3.5 measures of protection against direct or indirect contact
without circuit disconnection G10

4. implementation of the TT system G13


4.1 protective measures G13
table G26
the upper limit of resistance for an installation earthing electrode which must not be
exceeded, for given sensitivity levels of RCDs at UL voltage limits of 50 V and 25 V G13
4.2 types of RCD G14
4.3 coordination of differential protective devices G15

5. implementation of the TN system G18


5.1 preliminary conditions G18
5.2 protection against indirect contact G18
table G42
correction factor to apply to the lengths given in tables G43 to G46 for TN systems G20
table G43
maximum circuit lengths for different sizes of conductor and
instantaneous-tripping-current settings for general-purpose circuit breakers G20
table G44
maximum circuit lengths for different sizes of conductor and rated currents for type B
circuit breakers G20
table G45
maximum circuit lengths for different conductor sizes and for rated currents of circuit
breakers of type C G21
table G46
maximum circuit lengths for different conductor sizes and for rated currents of circuit
breakers of type D or MA Merlin Gerin G21
5.3 high-sensitivity RCDs G22
5.4 protection in high fire-risk locations G22
5.5 when the fault-current-loop impedance is particularly high G23
A6 - contents
A
6. implementation of the IT system G24
6.1 preliminary conditions G24
table G53
essential functions in IT schemes G24
6.2 protection against indirect contact G25
table G59
correction factors, for IT-earthed systems, to apply to the circuit lengths given
in tables G43 to G46 G28
6.3 high-sensitivity RCDs G29
6.4 in areas of high fire-risk G29
6.5 when the fault-current-loop impedance is particularly high G30

7. residual current differential devices (RCDs) G31


7.1 description G31
7.2 application of RCDs G31
table G70
electromagnetic compatibility withstand-level tests for RCDs G32
table G72
means of reducing the ratio I∆n/lph (max.) G33
7.3 choice of characteristics of a residual-current circuit breaker
(RCCB - IEC 1008) G34
table G74
typical manufacturers coordination table for RCCBs, circuit breakers, and fuses G34

H. the protection of circuits and the switchgear


H1. the protection of circuits
1. general H1-1
1.1 methodology and definitions H1-1
table H1-1
logigram for the selection of cable size and protective-device rating for a given circuit H1-1
1.2 overcurrent protection principles H1-3
1.3 practical values for a protection scheme H1-4
1.4 location of protective devices H1-5
table H1-7
general rules and exceptions concerning the location of protective devices H1-5
1.5 cables in parallel H1-5
1.6 worked example of cable calculations H1-6
table H1-9
calculations carried out with ECODIAL software (Merlin Gerin) H1-8
table H1-10
example of short-circuit current evaluation H1-9

2. practical method for determining the smallest


allowable cross-sectional-area of circuit conductors H1-10
2.1 general H1-10
table H1-11
logigram for the determination of minimum conductor size for a circuit H1-10
2.2 determination of conductor size for unburied circuits H1-10
table H1-12
code-letter reference, depending on type of conductor and method of installation H1-10
table H1-13
factor K1 according to method of circuit installation (for further examples refer
to IEC 364-5-52 table 52H) H1-11
table H1-14
correction factor K2 for a group of conductors in a single layer H1-11
table H1-15
correction factor K3 for ambient temperature other than 30 °C H1-12
table H1-17
case of an unburied circuit: determination of the minimum cable size (c.s.a.), derived
from the code letter; conductor material; insulation material and the fictitious current I'z H1-13

contents - A7
contents (continued)

A
H. the protection of circuits and the switchgear (continued)
H1. the protection of circuits (continued)
2. practical method for determining the smallest
allowable cross-sectional-area of circuit conductors (continued)
2.3 determination of conductor size for buried circuits H1-14
table H1-19
correction factor K4 related to the method of installation H1-14
table H1-20
correction factor K5 for the grouping of several circuits in one layer H1-14
table H1-21
correction factor K6 for the nature of the soil H1-15
table H1-22
correction factor K7 for soil temperatures different than 20 °C H1-15
table H1-24
case of a buried circuit: minimum c.s.a. in terms of type of conductor; type of insulation;
and value of fictitious current I'z (I'z = Iz) H1-15
K

3. determination of voltage drop H1-17


3.1 maximum voltage-drop limit H1-17
table H1-26
maximum voltage-drop limits H1-17
3.2 calculation of voltage drops in steady load conditions H1-18
table H1-28
voltage-drop formulae H1-18
table H1-29
phase-to-phase voltage drop ∆U for a circuit, in volts per ampere per km H1-18

4. short-circuit current calculations H1-20


4.1 short-circuit current at the secondary terminals of a HV/LV
distribution transformer H1-20
table H1-32
typical values of Usc for different kVA ratings of transformers with HV windings i 20 kV H1-20
table H1-33
Isc at the LV terminals of 3-phase HV/LV transformers supplied from a HV system
with a 3-phase fault level of 500 MVA, or 250 MVA H1-20
4.2 3-phase short-circuit current (Isc) at any point within
a LV installation H1-21
table H1-36
the impedance of the HV network referred to the LV side of the HV/LV transformer H1-21
table H1-37
resistance, reactance and impedance values for typical distribution transformers
with HV windings i 20 kV H1-22
table H1-38
recapitulation table of impedances for different parts of a power-supply system H1-23
table H1-39
example of short-circuit current calculations for a LV installation supplied at 400 V
(nominal) from a 1,000 kVA HV/LV transformer H1-23
4.3 Isc at the receiving end of a feeder in terms of the Isc
at its sending end H1-23
table H1-40
Isc at a point downstream, in terms of a known upstream fault-current value
and the length and c.s.a. of the intervening conductors, in a 230/400 V 3-phase system H1-24
4.4 short-circuit current supplied by an alternator or an inverter H1-25

5. particular cases of short-circuit current H1-26


5.1 calculation of minimum levels of short-circuit current H1-26
table H1-49
maximum circuit lengths in metres for copper conductors (for aluminium, the lengths
must be multiplied by 0.62) H1-28
table H1-50
maximum length of copper-conductored circuits in metres protected by B-type
circuit breakers H1-29
table H1-51
maximum length of copper-conductored circuits in metres protected by C-type
circuit breakers H1-29
table H1-52
maximum length of copper-conductored circuits in metres protected by D-type
circuit breakers H1-29
table H1-53
correction factors to apply to lengths obtained from tables H1-49 to H1-52 H1-30
A8 - contents
A
5.2 verification of the withstand capabilities of cables
under short-circuit conditions H1-31
table H1-54
value of the constant k2 H1-31
table H1-55
maximum allowable thermal stress for cables (expressed in amperes2 x seconds x 106) H1-31

6. protective earthing conductors (PE) H1-32


6.1 connection and choice H1-32
table H1-59
choice of protective conductors (PE) H1-33
6.2 conductor dimensioning H1-33
table H1-60
minimum c.s.a.'s for PE conductors and earthing conductors
(to the installation earth electrode) H1-34
table H1-61
k factor values for LV PE conductors, commonly used in national standards
and complying with IEC 724 H1-34
6.3 protective conductor between the HV/LV transformer
and the main general distribution board (MGDB) H1-35
table H1-63
c.s.a. of PE conductor between the HV/LV transformer and the MGDB, in terms of transformer
ratings and fault-clearance times used in France H1-35
6.4 equipotential conductor H1-35

7. the neutral conductor H1-36


7.1 dimensioning the neutral conductor H1-36

7.2 protection of the neutral conductor H1-36


table H1-65
table of protection schemes for neutral conductors in different earthing systems H1-37

H2. the switchgear


1. the basic functions of LV switchgear H2-1
table H2-1
basic functions of LV switchgear H2-1
1.1 electrical protection H2-1
1.2 isolation H2-1
table H2-2
peak value of impulse voltage according to normal service voltage of test specimen H2-2
1.3 switchgear control H2-2

2. the switchgear and fusegear H2-4


2.1 elementary switching devices H2-4
table H2-7
utilization categories of LV a.c. switches according to IEC 947-3 H2-5
table H2-8
factor "n" used for peak-to-rms value (IEC 947-part 1) H2-5
table H2-13
zones of fusing and non-fusing for LV types gG and gM class fuses
(IEC 269-1 and 269-2-1) H2-7
2.2 combined switchgear elements H2-9

3. choice of switchgear H2-11


3.1 tabulated functional capabilities H2-11
table H2-19
functions fulfilled by different items of switchgear H2-11
3.2 switchgear selection H2-11

contents - A9
contents (continued)

A
H2. the switchgear (continued)
4. circuit breakers H2-12
table H2-20
functions performed by a circuit breaker/disconnector H2-12
4.1 standards and descriptions H2-12
4.2 fundamental characteristics of a circuit breaker H2-15
table H2-28
tripping-current ranges of overload and short-circuit protective devices
for LV circuit breakers H2-16
table H2-31
Icu related to power factor (cos ϕ) of fault-current circuit (IEC 947-2) H2-17
4.3 other characteristics of a circuit breaker H2-18
table H2-34
relation between rated breaking capacity Icu and rated making capacity Icm at different
power-factor values of short-circuit current, as standardized in IEC 947-2 H2-19
4.4 selection of a circuit breaker H2-20
table H2-38
examples of tables for the determination of derating/uprating factors to apply to CBs
with uncompensated thermal tripping units, according to temperature H2-21
table H2-40
different tripping units, instantaneous or short-time delayed H2-23
table H2-43
maximum values of short-circuit current to be interrupted by main and principal
circuit breakers (CBM and CBP respectively), for several transformers in parallel H2-25
4.5 coordination between circuit breakers H2-27
table H2-45
example of cascading possibilities on a 230/400 V or 240/415 V 3-phase installation H2-28
table H2-49
summary of methods and components used in order to achieve discriminative tripping H2-29
4.6 discrimination HV/LV in a consumer's substation H2-32

J. particular supply sources and loads


1. protection of circuits supplied by an alternator J1
1.1 an alternator on short-circuit J1
1.2 protection of essential services circuits supplied in emergencies
from an alternator J4
1.3 choice of tripping units J5
1.4 methods of approximate calculation J6
table J1-7
procedure for the calculation of 3-phase short-circuit current J6
table J1-8
procedure for the calculation of 1-phase to neutral short-circuit current J7

1.5 the protection of standby and mobile a.c. generating sets J9

2. inverters and UPS


(Uninterruptible Power Supply units) J10
2.1 what is an inverter? J10
2.2 types of UPS system J10
table J2-4
examples of different possibilities and applications of inverters, in decontamination of supplies
and in UPS schemes J11
2.3 standards J11
2.4 choice of a UPS system J12
2.5 UPS systems and their environment J14
2.6 putting into service and technology of UPS systems J15
2.7 earthing schemes J17

A10 - contents
A
2.8 choice of main-supply and circuit cables, and cables for the battery
connection J20
table J2-21
voltage drop in % of 324 V d.c. for a copper-cored cable J21
table J2-22
currents and c.s.a. of copper-cored cables feeding the rectifier, and supplying the load
for UPS system Maxipac (cable lengths < 100 m) J21
table J2-23
currents and c.s.a. of copper-cored cables feeding the rectifier, and supplying the load
for UPS system EPS 2000 (cable lengths < 100 m). Battery cable data are also included J21
table J2-24
input, output and battery currents for UPS system EPS 5000 (Merlin Gerin) J22
2.9 choice of protection schemes J23

2.10 complementary equipments J24

3. protection of LV/LV transformers J25


3.1 transformer-energizing in-rush current J25
3.2 protection for the supply circuit of a LV/LV transformer J25
3.3 typical electrical characteristics of LV/LV 50 Hz transformers J26
table J3-5
typical electrical characteristics of LV/LV 50 Hz transformers J26
3.4 protection of transformers with characteristics as tabled in J3-5
above, using Merlin Gerin circuit breakers J26
table J3-6
protection of 3-phase LV/LV transformers with 400 V primary windings J26
table J3-7
protection of 3-phase LV/LV transformers with 230 V primary windings J27
table J3-8
protection of 1-phase LV/LV transformers with 400 V primary windings J27
table J3-9
protection of 1-phase LV/LV transformers with 230 V primary windings J28

4. lighting circuits J29


4.1 service continuity J29
4.2 lamps and accessories (luminaires) J30
table J4-1
analysis of disturbances in fluorescent-lighting circuits J30
4.3 the circuit and its protection J31

4.4 determination of the rated current of the circuit breaker J31


table J4-2
protective circuit breaker ratings for incandescent lamps and resistive-type heating
circuits J31
table J4-3
maximum limit of rated current per outgoing lighting circuit, for high-pressure discharge
lamps J32
table J4-4
current ratings of circuit breakers related to the number of fluorescent luminaires to be
protected J32
4.5 choice of control-switching devices J33
table J4-5
types of remote control J33
4.6 protection of ELV lighting circuits J34

4.7 supply sources for emergency lighting J35

5. asynchronous motors J36


5.1 protective and control functions required J36
table J5-2
commonly-used types of LV motor-supply circuits J37

5.2 standards J38

5.3 basic protection schemes: circuit breaker / contactor / thermal relay J38
table J5-4
utilization categories for contactors (IEC 947-4) J39
5.4 preventive or limitative protection J41

contents - A11
contents (continued)

A
J. particular supply sources and loads (continued)
5. asynchronous motors (continued)
5.5 maximum rating of motors installed for consumers supplied at LV J43
table J5-12
maximum permitted values of starting current for direct-on-line LV motors (230/400 V) J43
table J5-13
maximum permitted power ratings for LV direct-on-line-starting motors J43
5.6 reactive-energy compensation (power-factor correction) J43

6. protection of direct-current installations J44


6.1 short-circuit currents J44
6.2 characteristics of faults due to insulation failure, and of protective
switchgear J45
table J6-4
characteristics of protective switchgear according to type of d.c. system earthing J45

6.3 choice of protective device J45


table J6-5
choice of d.c. circuit breakers manufactured by Merlin Gerin J46
6.4 examples J46

6.5 protection of persons J47

7. Appendix␣ : Short-circuit characteristics


of an alternator App J1-1

L. domestic and similar premises and special locations


1. domestic and similar premises L1
1.1 general L1
1.2 distribution-board components L2
1.3 protection of persons L4
1.4 circuits L6
table L1-9
recommended minimum number of lighting and power points in domestic premises L6
table L1-11
c.s.a. of conductors and current rating of the protective devices in domestic
installations (the c.s.a. of aluminium conductors are shown in brackets) L7

2. bathrooms and showers L8


2.1 classification of zones L8
2.2 equipotential bonding L10
2.3 requirements prescribed for each zone L10

3. recommendations applicable to special installations


and locations L11

A12 - contents
1. methodology

B
the study of an electrical installation listing of power demands
The study of a proposed electrical installation corresponding chapter
by means of this guide requires the
necessitates an adequate understanding of B - general - installed power
reading of the entire text in the order all governing rules and regulations.
in which the chapters are presented. A knowledge of the operating modes of
power-consuming appliances, i.e. "loads"
(steady-state demand, starting conditions,
non-simultaneous operation, etc.) together
with the location and magnitude of each load
shown on a building plan, allow a listing of
power demands to be compiled. The list will
include the total power of the loads installed
as well as an estimation of the actual loads to
be supplied, as deduced from the operating
modes.
From these data the power required from
the supply source and (where appropriate)
the number of sources necessary for an
adequate supply to the installation, are
readily obtained.
Local information regarding tariff structures is
also required to permit the best choice of
connection arrangement to the power-supply
network, e.g. at high voltage or low voltage.

service connection
This connection can be made at:
c High Voltage: C - HV/LV distribution substations
a consumer-type substation will then have to
be studied, built and equipped. This
substation may be an outdoor or indoor
installation conforming to relevant standards
and regulations (the low-voltage section may
be studied separately if necessary). Metering
at high-voltage or low-voltage is possible in
this case
c Low Voltage: D - low-voltage service connections
the installation will be connected to the local
power network and will (necessarily) be
metered according to LV tariffs.

reactive energy
The compensation of reactive energy within E - power factor improvement
electrical installations normally concerns only
power factor improvement, and is carried out
locally, globally or as a combination of both
methods.

LV distribution
The whole of the installation distribution F - distribution within a low-voltage
network is studied as a complete system. installation
The number and characteristics of standby
emergency-supply sources are defined.
Earth-bonding connections and neutral-
earthing arrangements are chosen according
to local regulations, constraints related to the
power-supply, and to the nature of the
installation loads.
The hardware components of distribution,
together with distribution boards and
cableways, are determined from building
plans and from the location and grouping of
loads.
The kinds of location, and activities practised
in them, can affect their level of resistance to
external influences.

protection against electric shock


The system of earthing (TT, IT or TN) having G - protection against electric shock
been previously determined, it remains, in
order to achieve protection of persons against
the hazards of direct and indirect contact, to
choose an appropriate scheme of protection.

general - installed power - B1


1. methodology (continued)

B
circuits and switchgear
Each circuit is then studied in detail.
From the rated currents of the loads; the level
of short-circuit current; and the type of
protective device, the cross-sectional area of
circuit conductors can be determined, taking
into account the nature of the cableways and
their influence on the current rating of
conductors.
Before adopting the conductor size indicated H1 - the protection of circuits
above, the following requirements must be
satisfied:
c the voltage drop complies with the relevant
standard,
c motor starting is satisfactory,
c protection against electric shock is assured.
The short-circuit current Isc is then
determined, and the Isc thermal and electro-
dynamic withstand capability of the circuit is
checked.
These calculations may indicate that a
different conductor size than that originally
chosen is necessary.
The performance required by the switchgear H2 - the switchgear
will determine its type and characteristics.
The use of cascading techniques and the
discriminative operation of fuses and tripping
of circuit breakers are examined.

particular supply sources


and loads
Particular items of plant and equipment are J - particular supply sources and loads
studied:
c specific sources such as alternators or
inverters,
c specific loads with special characteristics,
such as induction motors, lighting circuits or
LV/LV transformers, or
c specific systems, such as direct-current
networks.

domestic and similar premises


and special locations
Certain premises and locations are subject to L - domestic and similar premises and special
particularly strict regulations: the most locations
common example being domestic dwellings.

Ecodial 2.2 software


Ecodial 2.2 software* provides a complete conception and design package for LV installations, in
accordance with IEC standards and recommendations.
The following features are included:
c construction of one-line diagrams,
c calculation of short-circuit currents,
c calculation of voltage drops,
c optimization of cable sizes,
c required ratings of switchgear and fusegear,
c discrimination of protective devices,
c recommendations for cascading schemes,
c verification of the protection of persons,
c comprehensive print-out of the foregoing calculated design data.
* Ecodial 2.2 is a Merlin Gerin product and is available in French and English versions.

B2 - general - installed power


2. rules and statutory regulations

B
Low-voltage installations are governed by a
number of regulatory and advisory texts,
which may be classified as follows:
c statutory regulations (decrees, factory acts,
etc.),
c codes of practice, regulations issued by
professional institutions, job specifications,
c national and international standards for
installations,
c national and international standards for
products.

2.1 definition of voltage ranges


IEC voltage standards and
recommendations
three phase, four wire or three wire systems single phase, three wire systems
nominal voltage (V) nominal voltage (V)
- 120/240
230/400(1) -
277/480(2) -
400/690(1) -
1000 -
table B1: standard voltages between 100 V and 1000 V (IEC 38-1983).
1) The nominal voltage of existing 220/380 V and 240/415 V systems shall evolve towards the recommended value of
230/400 V. The transition period should be as short as possible, and should not exceed 20 years after the issue of this IEC
publication. During this period, as a first step, the electricity supply authorities of countries having 220/380 V systems should
bring the voltage within the range 230/400 V +6% -10% and those of countries having 240/415 V systems should bring the
voltage within the range 230/400 V +10% -6%. At the end of this transition period the tolerance of 230/400 V ±10% should have
been achieved; after this the reduction of this range will be considered. All the above considerations apply also to the present
380/660 V value with respect to the recommended value 400/690 V.
2) Not to be utilized together with 230/400 V or 400/690 V.

50 Hz and 60 Hz systems 60 Hz systems


series I series II (North American practice)
highest voltage nominal system highest voltage nominal system
for equipment (kV) voltage (kV) for equipment (kV) voltage (kV)
3.6(1) 3.3(1) 3((1) 4.40(1) 4.16(1)
7.2(1) 6.6(1) 6(1) - -
12 11 10 - -
- - - 13.2(2) 12.47(2)
- - - 13.97(2) 13.2(2)
- - - 14.52(1) 13.8(1)
(17.5) - (15) - -
24 22 20 - -
- - - 26.4(2) 24.94(2)
36(3) 33(3) - - -
- - - 36.5(2) 34.5(2)
40.5(3) - 35(3) - -
table B2: standard voltages above 1 kV and not exceeding 35 kV (IEC 38-1983).
* These systems are generally three-wire systems unless otherwise indicated. The values indicated are voltages between
phases.
The values indicated in parentheses should be considered as non-preferred values. It is recommended that these values should
not be used for new systems to be constructed in future.
1) These values should not be used for public distribution systems.
2) These systems are generally four-wire systems.
3) The unification of these values is under consideration.

general - installed power - B3


2. rules and statutory regulations (continued)

B
2.2 regulations
In most countries, electrical installations shall
comply with more than one set of regulations,
issued by National Authorities or by
recognised private bodies. It is essential to
take into account these local constraints
before starting the design.

2.3 standards
This Guide is based on relevant IEC
standards, in particular IEC 364. IEC 364 has
been established by medical and engineering
experts of all countries in the world
comparing their experience at an international
level. Currently, the safety principles of
IEC 364 and 479-1 are the fundamentals of
most electrical standards in the world.
IEC - 38 Standard voltages
IEC - 56 High-voltage alternating-current circuit breakers
IEC - 76-2 Power transformer - Part 2: Temperature rise
IEC - 76-3 Power transformer - Part 3: Insulation levels and dielectric tests
IEC - 129 Alternating current disconnectors and earthing switches
IEC - 146 General requirements and line commutated converters
IEC - 146-4 General requirements and line commutated converters - Part 4: Method
of specifying the performance and test requirements of uninterruptible power
systems
IEC - 265-1 High-voltage switches - Part 1: High-voltage switches for rated voltages above
1 kV and less than 52 kV
IEC - 269-1 Low-voltage fuses - Part 1: General requirements
IEC - 269-3 Low-voltage fuses - Part 3: Supplementary requirements for fuses for use by
unskilled persons (fuses mainly for household and similar applications)
IEC - 282-1 High-voltage fuses - Part 1: Current limiting fuses
IEC - 287 Calculation of the continuous current rating of cables (100% load factor)
IEC - 298 AC metal-enclosed switchgear and controlgear for rated voltages above 1kV
and up to and including 52 kV
IEC - 364 Electrical installations of buildings
IEC - 364-3 Electrical installations of buildings - Part 3: Assessment of general
characteristics
IEC - 364-4-41 Electrical installations of buildings - Part 4: Protection of safety - Section 41:
Protection against electrical shock
IEC - 364-4-42 Electrical installations of buildings - Part 4: Protection of safety - Section 42:
Protection against thermal effects
IEC - 364-4-43 Electrical installations of buildings - Part 4: Protection of safety - Section 43:
Protection against overcurrent
IEC - 364-4-47 Electrical installations of buildings - Part 4: Application of protective measures
for safety - Section 47: Measures of protection against electrical shock
IEC - 364-5-51 Electrical installations of buildings - Part 5: Selection and erection of electrical
equipment - Section 51: Common rules
IEC - 364-5-52 Electrical installations of buildings - Part 5: Selection and erection of electrical
equipment - Section 52: Wiring systems
IEC - 364-5-53 Electrical installations of buildings - Part 5: Selection and erection of electrical
equipment - Section 53: Switchgear and controlgear
IEC - 364-6 Electrical installations of buildings - Part 6: Verification
IEC - 364-7-701 Electrical installations of buildings - Part 7: Requirements for special
installations or locations - Section 701: Electrical installations in bathrooms
IEC - 364-7-706 Electrical installations of buildings - Part 7: Requirements for special
installations or locations - Section 706: Restrictive conductive locations
IEC - 364-7-710 Electrical installations of buildings - Part 7: Requirements for special
installations or locations - Section 710: Installation in exhibitions, shows, stands
and funfairs
IEC - 420 High-voltage alternating current switch-fuse combinations
IEC - 439-1 Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies - Part 1: Types-tested
and partially type-tested assemblies
IEC - 439-2 Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies - Part 2: Particular
requirements for busbar trunking systems (busways)
IEC - 439-3 Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies - Part 3: Particular
requirements for low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies intended
to be installed in places where unskilled persons have access for their use -
Distribution boards
IEC - 446 Identification of conductors by colours or numerals
IEC - 479-1 Effects of current on human beings and livestock - Part 1: General aspects
IEC - 479-2 Effects of current on human beings and livestock - Part 2: Special aspects
IEC - 529 Degrees of protection provided by enclosures (IP code)
IEC - 644 Specification for high-voltage fuse-links for motor circuit applications

B4 - general - installed power


B
IEC - 664 Insulation coordination for equipment within low-voltage systems
IEC - 694 Common clauses for high-voltage switchgear and controlgear standards
IEC - 724 Guide to the short-circuit temperature limits of electrical cables with a rated
voltage not exceeding 0.6/1.0 kV
IEC - 742 Isolation transformer and safety isolation transformer. Requirements
IEC - 755 General requirements for residual current operated protective devices
IEC - 787 Application guide for selection for fuse-links of high-voltage fuses for
transformer circuit application
IEC - 831-1 Shunt power capacitors of the self-healing type for a.c. systems having a rated
voltage up to and including 660 V. - Part 1: General - Performance, testing
and rating - Safety requirements - Guide for installation and operation

2.4 quality and safety of an electrical installation


Only by
c the initial checking of the conformity of the
electrical installation,
c the verification of the conformity of electrical
equipment,
c and periodic checking
can the permanent safety of persons and
security of supply to equipment be achieved.

general - installed power - B5


2. rules and statutory regulations (continued)

B
2.5 initial testing of an installation
Before a power-supply authority will connect These tests and checks are basic (but not
an installation to its supply network, strict exhaustive) to the majority of installations,
pre-commissioning electrical tests and visual while numerous other tests and rules are
inspections by the authority, or by its included in the regulations to cover particular
appointed agent, must be satisfied. cases, for example: TN-, TT- or IT-earthed
These tests are made according to local installations, installations based on class 2
(governmental and/or institutional) insulation, SELV circuits, and special
regulations, which may differ slightly from one locations, etc.
country to another. The principles of all such The aim of this guide is to draw attention to
regulations however, are common, and are the particular features of different types of
based on the observance of rigorous safety installation, and to indicate the essential rules
rules in the design and realization of the to be observed in order to achieve a
installation. satisfactory level of quality, which will ensure
IEC 364 and related standards included in safe and trouble-free performance. The
this guide are based on an international methods recommended in this guide,
consensus for such tests, intended to cover modified if necessary to comply with any
all the safety measures and approved possible variation imposed by a local supply
installation practices normally required for authority, are intended to satisfy all pre-
domestic, commercial and (the majority of) commissioning test and inspection
industrial buildings. Many industries however requirements.
have additional regulations related to a
particular product (petroleum, coal, natural
gas, etc.). Such additional requirements are
beyond the scope of this guide.
The pre-commissioning electrical tests and
visual-inspection checks for installations in
buildings include, typically, all of the following:
c insulation tests of all cable and wiring
conductors of the fixed installation, between
phases and between phases and earth,
c continuity and conductivity tests of
protective, equipotential and earth-bonding
conductors,
c resistance tests of earthing electrodes with
respect to remote earth,
c allowable number of socket-outlets per
circuit check,
c cross-sectional-area check of all
conductors for adequacy at the short-circuit
levels prevailing, taking account of the
associated protective devices, materials and
installation conditions (in air, conduit, etc.),
c verification that all exposed- and
extraneous metallic parts are properly
earthed (where appropriate),
c check of clearance distances in bathrooms,
etc.

2.6 periodic check-testing of an installation


In many countries, all industrial and
commercial-building installations, together
with installations in buildings used for public
gatherings, must be re-tested periodically by
authorized agents.
Table B3 shows the frequency of testing
commonly prescribed according to the kind of
installation concerned.

installations which require c locations at which a risk of degradation, annually


the protection of employees fire or explosion exists
c temporary installations at worksites
c locations at which HV installations exist
c restrictive conducting locations where mobile
equipment is used
other cases every 3 years
installations in buildings according to the type of establishment
used for public gatherings, and its capacity for receiving the public,
where protection against the re-testing period will vary from one
the risks of fire and panic to three years
are required
residential according to local regulations
table B3: frequency of check-tests commonly recommended for an electrical installation.

B6 - general - installed power


B
2.7 conformity (with standards and specifications) of equipment used in the installation
conformity of equipment with the attestation of conformity
The conformity of equipment with the relevant
relevant standards can be attested in standards can be attested:
several ways. c by an official conformity mark granted by
the standards organization concerned, or
c by a certificate of conformity issued by a
laboratory, or
c by a declaration of conformity from the
manufacturer.

declaration of conformity
In cases where the equipment in question is
to be used by qualified or experienced
persons, the declaration of conformity
provided by the manufacturer (included in the
technical documentation) together with a
conformity mark on the equipment
concerned, are generally recognized as a
valid attestation. Where the competence of
the manufacturer is in doubt, a certificate of
conformity can be obtained from an
independent accredited laboratory.

the standards define several mark of conformity


methods of quality assurance which Conformity marks are inscribed on
appliances and equipment which are
correspond to different situations generally used by technically inexperienced
rather than to different levels of persons (for example, domestic appliances)
quality. and for whom the standards have been
established which permit the attribution, by
the standardization authority, of a mark of
conformity (commonly referred to as a
conformity mark).

certification of Quality
Assurance
A laboratory for testing samples cannot certify
the conformity of an entire production run:
these tests are called type tests. In some
tests for conformity to standards, the samples
are destroyed (tests on fuses, for example).
Only the manufacturer can certify that the
fabricated products have, in fact, the
characteristics stated.
Quality assurance certification is intended to
complete the initial declaration or certification
of conformity.
As proof that all the necessary measures
have been taken for assuring the quality of
production, the manufacturer obtains
certification of the quality control system
which monitors the fabrication of the product
concerned. These certificates are issued by
organizations specializing in quality control,
and are based on the international standard
ISO 9000, the equivalent European standard
being EN 29000.
These standards define three model systems
of quality assurance control corresponding to
different situations rather than to different
levels of quality:
c model 3 defines assurance of quality by
inspection and checking of final products,
c model 2 includes, in addition to checking of
the final product, verification of the
manufacturing process. This method applies,
for example, to the manufacture of fuses
where performance characteristics cannot be
checked without destroying the fuse,
c model 1 corresponds to model 2, but with
the additional requirement that the quality of
the design process must be rigorously
scrutinized; for example, where it is not
intended to fabricate and test a prototype
(case of a custom-built product made to
specification).
general - installed power - B7
3. motor, heating and lighting loads

B
The examination of actual values of
an examination of the actual
apparent-power required by each load
apparent-power demands of different enables the establishment of:
loads: a necessary preliminary step c a declared power demand which
in the design of a LV installation. determines the contract for the supply of
energy,
c the rating of the HV/LV transformer, where
applicable (allowing for expected increases in
load),
c levels of load current at each distribution
board.

3.1 induction motors


the nominal power in kW (Pn) of a current demand
The full-load current Ia supplied to the motor
motor indicates its rated equivalent is given by the following formulae:
mechanical power output. Pn x 1,000
3-phase motor: Ia =
The apparent power in kVA (Pa) ex U x η x cos ϕ
supplied to the motor is a function of 1-phase motor: Ia = Pn x 1,000
the output, the motor efficiency and U x η x cos ϕ
where
the power factor. Ia: current demand (in amps)
Pa = Pn Pn: nominal power (in kW of active power)
η cos ϕ U: voltage between phases for 3-phase
motors and voltage between the terminals for
single-phase motors (in volts). A single-phase
motor may be connected phase-to-neutral or
phase-to-phase.
η: per-unit efficiency, i.e. output kW
input kW
cos ϕ: power factor, i.e. kW input
kVA input

motor-starting current
Starting current (Id) for 3-phase induction Id depends on the value of starting
motors, according to motor type, will be: resistances in the rotor circuits:
c for direct-on-line starting of squirrel-cage Id = 1.5 to 3 In (mean value = 2.5 In).
motors: c for induction motors controlled by speed-
v Id = 4.2 to 9 In for 2-pole motors changing variable-frequency devices (for
v Id = 4.2 to 7 In for motors with more than example: Altivar Telemecanique), assume
2 poles (mean value = 6 In), where that the control device has the effect of
In = nominal full-load current of the motor, increasing the power (kW) supplied to the
c for wound-rotor motors (with slip-rings), and circuit motor (i.e. device plus) by 10%.
for D.C. motors:

it is generally advantageous for compensation of reactive-power


technical and financial reasons to (kvar) supplied to induction
reduce the current supplied to motors
induction motors. This can be The application of this principle to the As noted above cos ϕ = kW input so that a
operation of induction motors is generally kVA input
achieved by using capacitors without referred to as "power-factor improvement" or reduction in kVA input will increase (i.e.
affecting the power output of the "power-factor correction". improve) the value of cos ϕ.
motors. As discussed in chapter E, the apparent- The current supplied to the motor, after
power (kVA) supplied to an induction motor power-factor correction, is given by:
can be significantly reduced by the use of Ia x cos ϕ
shunt-connected capacitors. cos ϕ'
Reduction of input kVA means a where cos ϕ is the power factor before
corresponding reduction of input current compensation and cos ϕ' is the power factor
(since the voltage remains constant). after compensation, Ia being the original
Compensation of reactive-power is current.
particularly advised for motors that operate
for long periods at reduced power.

table of typical values


Table B4 shows, as a function of the rated Note: the rated voltages of certain loads
nominal power of motors, the current listed in table B4 are still based on 220/380 V.
supplied to them at different voltage levels The international standard is now (since
under normal uncompensated conditions, 1983) 230/400 V.
and the same motors under the same To convert the current values indicated for a
conditions, but compensated to operate at a given motor rating in the 220 V and 380 V
power factor of 0.93 (tan ϕ = 0.4). columns to the currents taken by 230 V and
These values are averages and will differ to 400 V motors of the same rating, multiply by
some extent according to the type of motor a factor of 0.95.
and the manufacturer concerned.
B8 - general - installed power
B
3.1 induction motors (continued)
without compensation with compensation
nominal η cos ϕ Pa current at different voltages cos ϕ capa- Pa current at different voltages
power at Pn 1-PH 3-PH at Pn citor 1-PH 3-PH
Pn 220 V 220 V 380 V 440 V 500 V 660 V rating 220 V 220 V 380 V 440 V 500 V 660 V
kW HP % kVA A A A A A A kvar kVA A A A A A A
0.37 0.5 64 0.73 0.79 3.6 1.8 1.03 0.99 0.91 0.6 0.93 0.31 0.62 2.8 1.4 0.8 0.77 0.71 0.47
0.55 0.75 68 0.75 1.1 4.7 2.75 1.6 1.36 1.21 0.9 0.93 0.39 0.87 3.8 2.2 1.3 1.1 1 0.72
0.75 1 72 0.75 1.4 6 3.5 2 1.68 1.5 1.1 0.93 0.48 1.1 4.8 2.8 1.6 1.3 1.2 0.88
1.1 1.5 75 0.79 1.9 8.5 4.4 2.6 2.37 2 1.5 0.93 0.53 1.6 7.2 3.7 2.2 2 1.7 1.3
1.5 2 78 0.80 2.4 12 6.1 3.5 3.06 2.6 2 0.93 0.67 2.1 10.3 5.2 3 2.6 2.2 1.7
2.2 3 79 0.80 3.5 16 8.7 5 4.42 3.8 2.8 0.93 0.99 3 13.7 7.5 4.3 3.8 3.3 2.4
3 4 81 0.80 4.6 21 11.5 6.6 5.77 5 3.8 0.93 1.31 4 18 9.9 5.7 5 4.3 3.3
3.7 5 82 0.80 5.6 25 13.5 7.7 7.1 5.9 4.4 0.93 1.59 4.8 22 11.6 6.6 6.1 5.1 3.8
4 5.5 82 0.80 6.1 26 14.5 8.5 7.9 6.5 4.9 0.93 1.74 5.2 22 12.5 7.3 6.8 5.6 4.2
5.5 7.5 84 0.83 7.9 35 20 11.5 10.4 9 6.6 0.93 1.80 7 31 17.8 10.3 9.3 8 5.9
7.5 10 85 0.83 10.6 47 27 15.5 13.7 12 8.9 0.93 2.44 9.5 42 24 13.8 12.2 10.7 7.9
9 12 86 0.85 12.3 - 32 18.5 16.9 13.9 10.6 0.93 2.4 11.3 - 29 16.9 15.4 12.7 9.7
10 13.5 86 0.85 13.7 - 35 20 17.9 15 11.5 0.93 2.6 12.5 - 32 18 16.4 13.7 10.5
11 15 87 0.86 14.7 - 39 22 20.1 18.4 14 0.93 2.50 13.6 - 36 20 19 17 13
15 20 88 0.86 19.8 - 52 30 26.5 23 17.3 0.93 3.37 18.3 - 48 28 25 21 16
18.5 25 89 0.86 24.2 - 64 37 32.8 28.5 21.3 0.93 4.12 22.4 - 59 34 30 26 20
22 30 89 0.86 28.7 - 75 44 39 33 25.4 0.93 4.89 26.6 - 69 41 36 31 23
25 35 89 0.86 33 - 85 52 45.3 39.4 30.3 0.93 5.57 30 - 79 48 42 36 28
30 40 89 0.86 39 - 103 60 51.5 45 34.6 0.93 6.68 36 - 95 55 48 42 32
33 45 90 0.86 43 - 113 68 58 50 39 0.93 7.25 39 - 104 63 54 46 36
37 50 90 0.86 48 - 126 72 64 55 42 0.93 8.12 44 - 117 67 59 51 39
40 54 91 0.86 51 - 134 79 67 60 44 0.93 8.72 47 - 124 73 62 55 41
45 60 91 0.86 57 - 150 85 76 65 49 0.93 9.71 53 - 139 79 70 60 45
51 70 91 0.86 65 - 170 98 83 75 57 0.93 11.10 60 - 157 91 77 69 53
55 75 92 0.86 70 - 182 105 90 80 61 0.93 11.89 64 - 168 97 83 74 56
59 80 92 0.87 74 - 195 112 97 85 66 0.93 10.98 69 - 182 105 91 80 62
63 85 92 0.87 79 - 203 117 109 89 69 0.93 11.66 74 - 190 109 102 83 65
75 100 92 0.87 94 - 240 138 125 105 82 0.93 13.89 88 - 225 129 117 98 77
80 110 92 0.87 100 - 260 147 131 112 86 0.93 14.92 93 - 243 138 123 105 80
90 125 92 0.87 112 - 295 170 146 129 98 0.93 16.80 105 - 276 159 137 121 92
100 136 92 0.87 125 - 325 188 162 143 107 0.93 18.69 117 - 304 176 152 134 100
110 150 93 0.87 136 - 356 205 178 156 118 0.93 20.24 127 - 333 192 167 146 110
129 175 93 0.87 159 - 420 242 209 184 135 0.93 23.84 149 - 393 226 196 172 126
132 180 94 0.87 161 - 425 245 215 187 140 0.93 24 151 - 398 229 201 175 131
140 190 94 0.87 171 - 450 260 227 200 145 0.93 25.55 160 - 421 243 212 187 136
147 200 94 0.87 180 - 472 273 236 207 152 0.93 26.75 168 - 442 255 221 194 142
150 205 94 0.87 183 - 483 280 246 210 159 0.93 27.26 172 - 452 262 230 196 149
160 220 94 0.87 196 - 520 300 256 220 170 0.93 29.15 183 - 486 281 239 206 159
180 245 94 0.87 220 - 578 333 289 254 190 0.93 32.76 206 - 541 312 270 238 178
185 250 94 0.87 226 - 595 342 295 263 200 0.93 33.79 212 - 557 320 276 246 187
200 270 94 0.88 242 - 626 370 321 281 215 0.93 30.78 229 - 592 350 304 266 203
220 300 94 0.88 266 - 700 408 353 310 235 0.93 33.81 252 - 662 386 334 293 222
250 340 94 0.88 302 - 800 460 401 360 274 0.93 38.44 286 - 757 435 379 341 259
257 350 94 0.88 311 - 826 475 412 365 280 0.93 39.45 294 - 782 449 390 345 265
280 380 95 0.88 335 - 900 510 450 400 305 0.93 42.63 317 - 852 483 426 378 289
295 400 95 0.88 353 - 948 546 473 416 320 0.93 44.80 334 - 897 517 448 394 303
300 410 95 0.88 359 - 980 565 481 420 325 0.93 45.66 339 - 927 535 455 397 306
315 430 95 0.88 377 - 990 584 505 445 337 0.93 47.98 356 - 937 553 478 421 319
335 450 95 0.88 401 - 1100 620 518 472 365 0.93 51 379 - 1041 587 490 447 336
355 480 95 0.88 425 - 1150 636 549 500 370 0.93 54 402 - 1088 602 519 473 350
375 500 95 0.88 449 - 1180 670 575 527 395 0.93 57.1 424 - 1117 634 544 499 374
400 545 95 0.88 478 - 1250 710 611 540 410 0.93 60.84 453 - 1183 672 578 511 388
425 580 95 0.88 508 - 1330 760 650 574 445 0.93 64.60 481 - 1258 719 615 543 420
445 600 95 0.88 532 - 1400 790 680 595 455 0.93 67.63 504 - 1325 748 643 563 431
450 610 95 0.88 538 - 1410 800 690 608 460 0.93 68.50 509 - 1334 757 653 575 435
475 645 95 0.88 568 - 1490 850 730 645 485 0.93 70.40 538 - 1410 804 691 610 459
500 680 95 0.88 598 - 1570 900 780 680 515 0.93 72.26 566 - 1486 852 738 643 487
530 720 95 0.88 634 - 1660 950 825 720 545 0.93 80.64 600 - 1571 899 781 681 516
560 760 95 0.88 670 - 1760 1000 870 760 575 0.93 85.12 634 - 1665 946 823 719 544
600 810 95 0.88 718 - 1880 1090 920 830 630 0.93 91.33 679 - 1779 1031 871 785 596
630 855 95 0.88 754 - 1980 1100 965 850 645 0.93 95.81 713 - 1874 1041 913 804 610
670 910 95 0.88 801 - 2100 1200 1020 910 690 0.93 101.88 758 - 1987 1135 965 861 653
710 965 95 0.88 849 - - 1260 1075 960 725 0.93 107.95 804 - - 1192 1017 908 686
750 1020 95 0.88 897 - - 1350 1160 1020 770 0.93 114 849 - - 1277 1098 965 729
800 1090 95 0.88 957 - - 1450 1250 1100 830 0.93 121.68 905 - - 1372 1183 1041 785
900 1220 95 0.88 1076 - - 1610 1390 1220 925 0.93 136.86 1019 - - 1523 1315 1154 875
1100 1500 95 0.88 1316 - - 1980 1700 1500 1140 0.93 167.35 1245 - - 1874 1609 1419 1079

table B4: power and current values for typical induction motors.
Reminder: some columns refer to 220 and 380 V motors. for 230 V and 400 V motors is 0.95, as noted on the
The international (IEC 38) standard of 230/400 V has been previous page.
in force since 1983. The conversion factor for current values

general - installed power - B9


3. motor, heating and lighting loads (continued)

B
3.2. direct-current motors
D.C. motors are mainly used for specific
applications which require very high torques
and/or variable speed control (for example
machine tools and crushers, etc.).
Power to these motors is provided via speed-
control converters, fed from 230/400 V
3-phase a.c. sources; for example, Rectivar 4
(Telemecanique).
The operating principle of the converter does
not allow heavy overloading. The speed
controller, the supply line and the protection
are therefore based on the duty cycle of the
motor (e.g. frequent starting-current peaks)
rather than on the steady-state full-load
current.
For powers i 40 kW, this solution is
progressively replaced with a speed-
changing variable-frequency device and an
asynchronous motor. It is still used for
gradual starters and/or retarders.
Im

M
V power-supply network

In

fig. B5: diagram of a low-power speed controller.


motor maximum power motor GRADIVAR catalogue number weight
220 V 380 V 415 V 440 V (60 Hz) In Ith kg
kW kW kW kW A A
1.5 3 3.3 - 7 10 VR2-SA2121 1.95
- - - 3.5 7 10 VR2-SA2123 1.95
4 5.5 6 - 12 20 VR2-SA2171 3.10
- - - 6.5 12 20 VR2-SA2173 3.10
5.5 7.5 8 - 16 30 VR2-SA2211 4.90
- - - 8.5 16 30 VR2-SA2213 4.90
11 18.5 20 - 37 60 VR2-SA2281 5.30
- - - 21.5 37 60 VR2-SA2283 5.30
18.5 30 33 - 60 100 VR2-SA2361 5.30
- - - 35 60 100 VR2-SA2363 5.30
22 37 40 - 72 130 VR2-SA2401 5.40
- - - 42 72 130 VR2-SA2403 5.40
- 55 60 - 105 200 VR2-SA2441 10.00
- - - 63 105 200 VR2-SA2443 10.00
table B6: progressive starters with voltage ramp.

motor maximum power motor GRADIVAR catalogue number weight


220 V 380 V 415 V 440 V (60 Hz) In Ith kg
kW kW kW kW A A
4 5.5 6 - 12 20 VR2-SA3171 3.30
- - - 6.5 12 20 VR2-SA3173 3.30
5.5 7.5 8 - 16 30 VR2-SA3211 5.10
- - - 8.5 16 30 VR2-SA3213 5.10
11 18.5 20 - 37 60 VR2-SA3281 5.50
- - - 21.5 37 60 VR2-SA3283 5.50
18.5 30 33 - 60 100 VR2-SA3361 5.50
- - - 35 60 100 VR2-SA3363 5.50
22 37 40 - 72 130 VR2-SA3401 5.60
- - - 42 72 130 VR2-SA3403 5.60
- 55 60 - 105 200 VR2-SA3441 11.00
- - - 63 105 200 VR2-SA3443 11.00
- 75 80 - 140 350 VR2-SA3481 45.00
- - - 90 140 350 VR2-SA3483 45.00
- 132 140 - 245 530 VR2-SA3521 45.00
- - - 147 245 530 VR2-SA3523 45.00
table B7: progressive starters with current limitation.

B10 - general - installed power


B
3.3. resistive-type heating appliances and incandescent lamps (conventional or halogen)
The power consumed by a heating appliance For an incandescent lamp, the use of
the power consumed by a heating
or an incandescent lamp is equal to the halogen gas allows a more concentrated light
appliance or an incandescent lamp is nominal power Pn quoted by the source. The light output is superior and the
equal to the nominal power Pn manufacturer (i.e. cos ø = 1). life of the lamp is doubled.
quoted by the manufacturer The currents are given by: Note: at the instant of switching on, the cold
(i.e. cos ø = 1). c 3-phase case: filament gives rise to a very brief but intense
Ia = Pn* peak of current.
ex U
the currents are given by: c 1-phase case: * Ia in amps; U in volts. Pn is in watts. If Pn is
c 3-phase case: Ia = Pn* in kW, then multiply the equation by 1,000.
U
Ia = Pn* where U is the voltage between the terminals
ex U of the equipment.
c 1-phase case:
nominal current demand
Ia = Pn* power 1-phase 1-phase 3-phase 3-phase
U
kW 127 V 230 V 230 V 400 V
where U is the voltage between the
0.1 0.79 0.43 0.25 0.14
terminals of the equipment. 0.2 1.58 0.87 0.50 0.29
0.5 3.94 2.17 1.26 0.72
1 7.9 4.35 2.51 1.44
1.5 11.8 6.52 3.77 2.17
2 15.8 8.70 5.02 2.89
2.5 19.7 10.9 6.28 3.61
3 23.6 13 7.53 4.33
3.5 27.6 15.2 8.72 5.05
4 31.5 17.4 10 5.77
4.5 35.4 19.6 11.3 6.5
5 39.4 21.7 12.6 7.22
6 47.2 26.1 15.1 8.66
7 55.1 30.4 17.6 10.1
8 63 34.8 20.1 11.5
9 71 39.1 22.6 13
10 79 43.5 25.1 14.4
table B8: current demands of resistive heating and incandescent lighting (conventional or
halogen) appliances.

3.4. fluorescent lamps and related equipment


the power in watts indicated on the standard tubular fluorescent
tube of a fluorescent lamp does not lamps
include the power dissipated in the The power Pn (watts) indicated on the tube of
a fluorescent lamp does not include the
ballast. power dissipated in the ballast.
The current taken by the complete circuit is
the current is given by: given by:
Pballast + Pn Ia = Pballast + Pn
Ia = U x cos ø
U x cos ø
where U = the voltage applied to the lamp,
If no power-loss value is indicated for complete with its related equipment.
the ballast, a figure of 25% of Pn may with (unless otherwise indicated):
be used. c cos ø = 0.6 with no power factor (PF)
correction* capacitor,
c cos ø = 0.86 with PF correction* (single or
twin tubes),
c cos ø = 0.96 for electronic ballast.
If no power-loss value is indicated for the
ballast, a figure of 25% of Pn may be used.
Table B8 gives these values for different
arrangements of ballast.
* "Power-factor correction" is often referred to as
"compensation" in discharge-lighting-tube terminology.

general - installed power - B11


3. motor, heating and lighting loads (continued)

B
3.4. fluorescent lamps and related equipment (continued)
arrangement of tube power current (A) at 220V/240 V tube
lamps, starters power consumed PF not PF electronic length
and ballasts (W) (1) (W) corrected corrected ballast (cm)
single tube with starter 18 27 0.37 0.19 60
36 45 0.43 0.24 120
58 69 0.67 0.37 150
single tube without 20 33 0.41 0.21 60
starter (2) with 40 54 0.45 0.26 120
external starting strip 65 81 0.80 0.41 150
twin tubes with starter 2 x 18 55 0.27 60
2 x 36 90 0.46 120
2 x 58 138 0.72 150
twin tubes without starter 2 x 40 108 0.49 120
single tube with 32 36 0.16 120
high frequency ballast 50 56 0.25 150
cos ø = 0.96
twin tubes with high- 2 x 32 72 0.33 120
frequency ballast 2 x 50 112 0.50 150
cos ø = 0.96
(1) Power in watts marked on tube.
(2) Used exclusively during maintenance operations.

table B10: current demands and power consumption of commonly-dimensioned


fluorescent lighting tubes (at 220 V/240 V - 50 Hz).

compact fluorescent tubes


Compact fluorescent tubes have the same
characteristics of economy and long life as
classical tubes.
They are commonly used in public places
which are permanently illuminated (for
example: corridors, hallways, bars, etc.) and
can be mounted in situations otherwise
illuminated by incandescent lamps.
type of lamp lamp power current at
power consumed 220/240 V
(W) (A)
globe lamps with 9 9 0.090
integral ballast 13 13 0.115
cos ø = 0.5 (1) 18 18 0.160
25 25 0.205
electronic lamps 9 9 0.070
cos ø = 0.95 (1) 11 11 0.090
15 15 0.135
20 20 0.155
lamps with type 5 10 0.185
starter single 7 11 0.175
only "U" form 9 13 0.170
incorporated cos ø ≈ 0.35 11 15 0.155
(no ballast) type 10 15 0.190
double 13 18 0.165
"U" form 18 23 0.220
cos ø ≈ 0.45 26 31 0.315
(1) Cos ø is approximately 0.95 (the zero values of V and I are almost in phase) but the power factor is 0.5 due to the
impulsive form of the current, the peak of which occurs "late" in each half cycle.
table B11: current demands and power consumption of compact fluorescent lamps
(at 220 V/240 V - 50 Hz).

B12 - general - installed power


B
3.5. discharge lamps
These lamps depend on the luminous
the power in watts indicated on the
electrical discharge through a gas or vapour
tube of a discharge lamp does not of a metallic compound, which is contained in
include the power dissipated in the a hermetically-sealed transparent envelope at
ballast. a pre-determined pressure.
These lamps have a long start-up time,
during which the current Ia is greater than the
nominal current In. Power and current
demands are given for different types of lamp
in table B12 (typical average values which
may differ slightly from one manufacturer to
another).
The power in watts indicated on the tube of a
discharge lamp does not include the power
dissipated in the ballast.

table B12 gives the current taken by type of power current In(A) starting luminous average utilization
a complete unit, including all lamp demand PF not PF Ia/In period efficiency life of
(W) at corrected corrected lumens lamp
associated ancillary equipment. (W) 230V 400V 230V 400V 230V 400V (mins) (per watt) (h)
high-pressure sodium vapour lamps
50 60 0.76 0.3 1.4 4 to 6 80 to 120 9000 - lighting of
70 80 1 0.45 to 1.6 large halls
100 115 1.2 0.65 - outdoor
150 168 1.8 0.85 spaces
250 274 3 1.4 - public
lighting
400 431 4.4 2.2
1000 1055 10.45 4.9
low-pressure sodium vapour lamps
standard lamp
18 26.5 0.14 1.1 7 to 15 100 to 200 8000 to - lighting of
35 43.5 0.62 0.24 to 1.3 12000 autoroutes
55 72 0.34 - security
lighting, station
90 112 0.84 0.50 platform,
135 159 0.73 stockage areas
180 216 0.98
economy lamps
26 34.5 0.45 0.17 1.1 7 to 15 100 to 200 8000 to - new types
36 46.5 0.22 to 1.3 12000 more
66 80.5 0.39 efficient
same
91 105.5 0.49 utilization
131 154 0.69
mercury vapour + metal halide (also called metaliodide)
70 80.5 1 0.40 1.7 3 to 5 70 to 90 6000 - lighting of
150 172 1.80 0.88 6000 very large
250 276 2.10 1.35 6000 areas by
projectors (for
400 425 3.40 2.15 6000 example:sports
1000 1046 8.25 5.30 6000 stadiums, etc)
2000 2092 2052 16.50 8.60 10.50 6 2000
mercury vapour + fluorescent substance (fluorescent bulb)
50 57 0.6 0.30 1.7 3 to 6 40 to 60 8000 to - workshops
80 90 0.8 0.45 to 2 12000 with very high
125 141 1.15 0.70 ceilings (halls,
hangars)
250 268 2.15 1.35 - outdoor
400 421 3.25 2.15 lighting
700 731 5.4 3.85 - low light
1000 1046 8.25 5.30 output (1)
2000 2140 2080 15 11 6.1
(1) replaced by sodium vapour lamps.
Note: these lamps are sensitive to voltage dips. They extinguish if the voltage falls to less than 50% of their nominal voltage, and
will not re-ignite before cooling for approximately 4 minutes.
Note: Sodium vapour low-pressure lamps have a light-output efficiency which is superior to that of all other sources. However,
use of these lamps is restricted by the fact that the yellow-orange colour emitted makes colour recognition practically impossible.
table B12: current demands of discharge lamps.

general - installed power - B13


4. power* loading of an installation

B
In order to design an installation, the actual for the installation, from which the
maximum load demand likely to be imposed requirements of a supply system (distribution
on the power-supply system must be network, HV/LV transformer, or generating
assessed. set) can be specified.
To base the design simply on the arithmetic
sum of all the loads existing in the installation
would be extravagantly uneconomical, and
bad engineering practice. *power: the word "power" in the title has
The aim of this chapter is to show how all been used in a general sense, covering
existing and projected loads can be assigned active power (kW) apparent power (kVA) and
various factors to account for diversity (non- reactive power (kvar). Where the word power
simultaneous operation of all appliances of a is used without further qualification in the rest
given group) and utilization (e.g. an electric of the text, it means active power (kW).
motor is not generally operated at its full-load The magnitude of the load is adequately
capability, etc.). The values given are based specified by two quantities, viz:
on experience and on records taken from c power,
actual installations. In addition to providing c apparent power.
basic installation-design data on individual power
The ratio = power factor
circuits, the results will provide a global value apparent power

4.1 installed power (kW)


Most electrical appliances and equipments
the installed power is the sum of the
are marked to indicate their nominal power
nominal powers of all power- rating (Pn).
consuming devices in the installation. The installed power is the sum of the nominal
This is not the power to be actually powers of all power-consuming devices in the
supplied in practice. installation. This is not the power to be
actually supplied in practice.
This is the case for electric motors, where the
power rating refers to the output power at its
driving shaft. The input power consumption
will evidently be greater (See 3.1).
Fluorescent and discharge lamps associated
with stabilizing ballasts, are other cases in
which the nominal power indicated on the
lamp is less than the power consumed by the
lamp and its ballast (See 3.4).
Methods of assessing the actual power
consumption of motors and lighting
appliances are given in Section 3 of this
Chapter.
The power demand (kW) is necessary to
choose the rated power of a generating set or
battery, and where the requirements of a
prime mover have to be considered.
For a power supply from a LV public-supply
network, or through a HV/LV transformer, the
significant quantity is the apparent power in
kVA.

B14 - general - installed power


B
4.2 installed apparent power (kVA)
the installed apparent power is The installed apparent power is commonly From this value, the full-load current
assumed to be the arithmetical sum of the Ia (amps)* taken by the load will be:
commonly assumed to be the kVA of individual loads. The maximum Pa 103 for single phase-to-neutral
arithmetical sum of the kVA of c Ia =
estimated kVA to be supplied however is not V connected load
individual loads. The maximum equal to the total installed kVA.
c Ia =
Pa 103
for three-phase balanced load
estimated kVA to be supplied The apparent-power demand of a load (which ex U
might be a single appliance) is obtained from where: V = phase-to-neutral voltage (volts)
however is not equal to the total its nominal power rating (corrected if U = phase-to-phase voltage (volts)
installed kVA. necessary, as noted above for motors, etc.) It may be noted that, strictly speaking, the
and the application of the following total kVA of apparent power is not the
coefficients: arithmetical sum of the calculated kVA ratings
output kW of individual loads (unless all loads are at the
η = the per-unit efficiency =
input kW same power factor).
kW It is common practice however, to make a
cos ø = the power factor =
kVA simple arithmetical summation, the result of
The apparent-power kVA demand of the load which will give a kVA value that exceeds the
Pn true value by an acceptable "design margin".
Pa =
η x cos ø
* For greater precision, account must be
taken of the factor of maximum utilization as
explained below in 4-3.

When some or all of the load characteristics generally too small to be expressed in kVA or
are not known, the values shown in table B13 kW). The estimates for lighting loads are
may be used to give a very approximate based on floor areas of 500 sq-metres.
estimate of VA demands (individual loads are

fluorescent lighting (corrected to cos ø = 0.86)


type of application estimated (VA/m2) average lighting
fluorescent tube level
with industrial reflector (1) (lux = Im/m2)
roads and highways 7 150
stockage areas, intermittent work
heavy-duty works: fabrication and 14 300
assembly of very large work pieces
day-to-day work: 24 500
office work
fine work: 41 800
drawing offices
high-precision assembly workshops
power circuits
type of application estimated (VA/m2)
pumping station compressed air 3 to 6
ventilation of premises 23
electrical convection heaters:
private houses 115 to 146
flats and apartments 90
offices 25
dispatching workshop 50
assembly workshop 70
machine shop 300
painting workshop 350
heat-treatment plant 700
(1) example: 65 W tube (ballast not included), flux 5,100 lumens (lm), luminous efficiency of the tube = 78.5 lm/W.

table B13: estimation of installed apparent power.

general - installed power - B15


4. power* loading of an installation (continued)

B
4.3 estimation of actual maximum kVA demand
All individual loads are not necessarily
all individual loads are not
operating at full rated nominal power nor
necessarily operating at full rated necessarily at the same time. Factors ku and
nominal power nor necessarily at the ks allow the determination of the maximum
same time. Factors ku and ks allow power and apparent-power demands actually
the determination of the maximum required to dimension the installation.
power and apparent-power demands
actually required to dimension the factor of maximum utilization (ku)
installation. In normal operating conditions the power In an industrial installation this factor may be
consumption of a load is sometimes less than estimated on an average at 0.75 for motors.
that indicated as its nominal power rating, a For incandescent-lighting loads, the factor
fairly common occurrence that justifies the always equals 1.
application of an utilization factor (ku) in the For socket-outlet circuits, the factors depend
estimation of realistic values. entirely on the type of appliances being
This factor must be applied to each individual supplied from the sockets concerned.
load, with particular attention to electric
motors, which are very rarely operated at full
load.

factor of simultaneity (ks)


It is a matter of common experience that the number of down- factor of
simultaneous operation of all installed loads stream consumers simultaneity (ks)
of a given installation never occurs in 2 to 4 1
practice, i.e. there is always some degree of 5 to 9 0.78
diversity and this fact is taken into account for
10 to 14 0.63
estimating purposes by the use of a
simultaneity factor (ks). 15 to 19 0.53
The factor ks is applied to each group of 20 to 24 0.49
loads (e.g. being supplied from a distribution 25 to 29 0.46
or sub-distribution board). 30 to 34 0.44
The determination of these factors is the 35 to 39 0.42
responsibility of the designer, since it requires 40 to 49 0.41
a detailed knowledge of the installation and 50 and more 0.40
the conditions in which the individual circuits
are to be exploited. For this reason, it is not table B14: simultaneity factors in an
possible to give precise values for general apartment block.
application.
Factor of simultaneity for an apartment
4th 6 consumers
block floor 36 kVA
0.78
Some typical values for this case are given in
table B14, and are applicable to domestic
consumers supplied at 230/400 V (3-phase 3rd 4 consumers
4-wires). In the case of consumers using floor 0.63
24 kVA
electrical heat-storage units for space
heating, a factor of 0.8 is recommended,
regardless of the number of consumers. 2nd 5 consumers
floor 0.53
30 kVA
Example:
5 storeys apartment building with
25 consumers, each having 6 kVA of installed
1st
load. floor
6 consumers 0.49
36 kVA
The total installed load for the building
= 36 + 24 + 30 + 36 + 24 = 150 kVA
The apparent-power supply required for the ground 4 consumers
building = 150 x 0.46 = 69 kVA floor 24 kVA 0.46
From table B 14, it is possible to determine
the magnitude of currents in different sections
of the common main feeder supplying all
floors. For vertical rising mains fed at ground
level, the cross-sectional area of the fig. B15: application of the factor of
conductors can evidently be progressively simultaneity (ks) to an apartment block of
reduced from the lower floors towards the 5 storeys.
upper floors.
These changes of conductor size are
conventionally spaced by at least 3-floor
intervals.
In the example, the current entering the rising
main at ground level is
150 x 0.46 x 103
= 100 A
400 x e
The current entering the third floor is:
(36+24) x 0.63 x 103
= 55 A
400 x e

B16 - general - installed power


B
Factor of simultaneity for distribution Factor of simultaneity according
boards to circuit function
Table B16 shows hypothetical values of ks for ks factors which may be used for circuits
a distribution board supplying a number of supplying commonly-occurring loads, are
circuits for which there is no indication of the shown in table B17.
manner in which the total load divides
between them. circuit function factor of
If the circuits are mainly for lighting loads, it is simultaneity (ks)
prudent to adopt ks values close to unity. lighting 1
heating and air
number of factor of conditioning 1
circuits simultaneity (ks) socket-outlets 0.1 to 0.2 (1)
assemblies entirely tested lifts and catering hoists (2)
2 and 3 0.9 - for the most powerful
4 and 5 0.8 motor 1
6 to 9 0.7 - for the second most
10 and more 0.6 powerful motor 0.75
assemblies partially tested - for all other motors 0.60
in every case choose 1.0 (1) In certain cases, notably in industrial installations, this
table B16: factor of simultaneity for factor can be higher.
(2) The current to take into consideration is equal to the
distribution boards (IEC 439). nominal current of the motor, increased by a third of its
starting current.
table B17: factor of simultaneity according
to circuit function.

4.4 example of application of factors ku and ks


In this example, the total installed apparent kVA x 103
an example in the estimation of I=
power is 126.6 kVA, which corresponds to an Ue
actual maximum kVA demands at all actual (estimated) maximum value at the LV where kVA is the actual maximum 3-phase
levels of an installation, from each terminals of the HV/LV transformer of 65 kVA apparent-power value shown on the diagram
load position to the point of supply. only. for the circuit concerned, and U is the phase-
Note: in order to select cable sizes for the to-phase voltage (in volts).
distribution circuits of an installation, the
current I (in amps) through a circuit is
determined from the equation
level 1 level 2 level 3

utilization apparent- utilization apparent- simultaneity apparent- simultaneity apparent- simultaneity apparent-
power (Pa) factor power demand factor power demand factor power demand factor power demand
kVA max. max. kVA kVA kVA kVA
workshop A lathe n°1 5 0.8 4 distribution
box
n°2 5 0.8 4
n°3 5 0,8 4 power
circuit
0.75 14.4 workshop
n°4 5 0.8 4 A
distribution
pedestal- n°1 2 0.8 1.6 board
drill main
n°2 2 0.8 1.6 0,9 18.9
socket- general
5 socket- outlets distribution
outlets 10/16 A 18 1 18 0.2 3,6 lighting board
circuit MGDB
30 fluorescent 3 1 3 1 3
lamps
power
circuit LV/HV
workshop B compressor 15 0.8 12 1 12 socket- workshop
B 65
3 socket- 10/16 A 10.6 1 10.6 0.4
outlets
4,3 lighting distribution 15.6 0.9
outlets circuit
board
10 fluorescent 1 1 1 1 1 0.9
lamps
workshop C ventilation n°1 2,5 1 2.5 distribution workshop
fan box C
n°2 2,5 1 2.5 power distribution
circuit
1 35 board
oven n°1 15 1 15
0.9 37.8
n°2 15 1 15
socket-
5 socket- outlets
outlets 10/16 A 18 1 18 0.28 5 lighting
circuit
20 fluorescent 2 1 2 1 2
lamps

table B18: an example in estimating the maximum predicted loading of an installation (the factor values used are for demonstration purposes
only).

general - installed power - B17


4. power loading of an installation (continued)

B
4.5 diversity factor
The term DIVERSITY FACTOR, as defined
in IEC standards, is identical to the factor of
simultaneity (ks) used in this guide, as
described in 4.3. In some English-speaking
countries however (at the time of writing)
DIVERSITY FACTOR is the inverse of ks i.e.
it is always u 1.

4.6 choice of transformer rating


When an installation is to be supplied directly c the possibility of improving the power factor
from a HV/LV transformer and the maximum of the installation (see chapter E),
apparent-power loading of the installation has c anticipated extensions to the installation,
been determined, a suitable rating for the c installation constraints (temperature...)
transformer can be decided, taking due standard transformer ratings.
account of the following considerations:

In (A)
voltage (at no load) 400 V 420 V 433 V 480 V
rated power (kVA)
50 72 69 67 60
100 144 137 133 120
160 231 220 213 192
250 361 344 333 301
315 455 433 420 379
400 577 550 533 481
500 722 687 667 601
630 909 866 840 758
800 1155 1100 1067 962
1000 1443 1375 1333 1203
1250 1804 1718 1667 1504
1600 2309 2199 2133 1925
2000 2887 2749 2667 2406
2500 3608 3437 3333 3007
table B19: IEC-standardized kVA ratings of HV/LV 3-phase distribution transformers and
corresponding nominal full-load current values.

The nominal full-load current In on the LV Simplified equation for 400 V (3-phase load)
side of a 3-phase transformer is given by: In = kVA x 1.4
Pa 103 The IEC standard for power transformers is
In = where
Ue IEC 76.
* as given on the transformer-rating
Pa = kVA rating of the transformer
nameplate. For table B19 the no-load voltage
U = phase-to-phase voltage at no-load* (in
used is 420 V for the nominal 400 V winding.
volts)
In is in amperes.
For a single-phase transformer:
3
In = Pa 10 where
V
V = voltage between LV terminals at no-load*
(in volts).

B18 - general - installed power


B
4.7 choice of power-supply sources
The study developed in F2 on the importance It should be noted, however, that:
of maintaining a continuous supply raises the c the consumer is the proprietor of the HV/LV
question of the use of standby-power plant. substation and, in some countries, he must
The choice and characteristics of these build and equip it at his own expense. The
alternative sources are described in F3-3. power authority can, in certain circumstances,
For the main source of supply the choice is participate in the investment, at the level of
generally between a connection to the HV or the HV line for example,
the LV network of the public power-supply c a part of the connection costs can, for
authority. instance, often be recovered if a second
In practice, connection to a HV source may consumer is connected to the HV line within a
be necessary where the load exceeds (or certain time following the original consumer's
is planned eventually to exceed) a certain own connection,
level - generally of the order of 250 kVA, or if c the consumer has access only to the LV
the quality of service required is greater than part of the installation, access to the HV part
that normally available from a LV network. being reserved to the supply-authority
Moreover, if the installation is likely to cause personnel (meter reading, operational
disturbance to neighbouring consumers, manœuvres, etc.). However, in certain
when connected to a LV network, the supply countries, the HV protective circuit breaker
authorities may propose a HV service. (or fused load-break switch) can be operated
Supplies at HV can have certain advantages: by the consumer,
in fact, a HV consumer: c the type and location of the substation are
c is not disturbed by other consumers, which agreed between the consumer and the
could be the case at LV, supply authority.
c is free to choose any type of LV earthing
system,
c has a wider choice of economic tariffs,
c can accept very large increases in load.

general - installed power - B19


1. protection of circuits supplied by an alternator

J
Most industrial and large commercial as certain equipment, the stoppage of which
a major difficulty encountered when
electrical installations include certain would entail a loss of production, or the
an installation may be supplied from important loads for which a power supply destruction of a machine tool, etc.
alternative sources (e.g. a HV/LV must be maintained, in the event that the One of the current means of maintaining a
transformer or a LV generator) is the public electricity supply fails: supply to the so-called “essential” loads, in
provision of electrical protection c either, because safety systems are involved the event that other sources fail, is to install a
(emergency lighting, automatic fire-protection diesel-generator set connected, via a
which operates satisfactorily on equipment, smoke dispersal fans, alarms and changeover switch, to an emergency-power
either source. The crux of the signalization, and so on...) or: standby switchboard, from which the
problem is the great difference in the c because it concerns priority circuits, such essential services are fed (figure J1-1).
source impedances; that of the
generator being much higher than HV
that of the transformer, resulting in a G
LV
corresponding difference in the
magnitudes of fault currents.

standby supply
change-over switch

non essential loads essential loads


fig. J1-1: example of circuits supplied from a transformer or from an alternator.

1.1 an alternator on short-circuit


the establishment of short-circuit
current (fig. J1-2)
Apart from the limited magnitude of fault 0.5 seconds, or more, at a value which
current from a standby alternator, a further depends mainly on the type of excitation
difficulty (from the electrical-protection point system, viz:
of view) is that during the period in which c manual;
LV circuit breakers are normally intended to c automatic
operate, the value of short-circuit current (see figure J1-2).
changes drastically. Almost all modern generator sets have
For example, on the occurrence of a short- automatic voltage regulators, compounded to
circuit at the three phase terminals of an maintain the terminal voltage sensibly
alternator, the r.m.s. value of current will constant, by overcoming the synchronous
immediately rise to a value of 3 In to 5 In*. impedance of the machine as reactive current
An interval of 10 ms to 20 ms following the demand changes.
instant of short-circuit is referred to as the This results in an increase in the level of fault
“sub-transient” period, in which the current current during the transient period to give a
decreases rapidly from its initial value. The steady fault current in the order of 2.5 In to
current continues to decrease during the 4 In* (figure J1-2).
ensuing “transient” interval which may last for In the (rare) case of manual control of the
80 ms to 280 ms depending on the machine excitation, the synchronous impedance of the
type, size, etc. The overall phenomenon is machine will reduce the short-circuit current
referred to as the “a.c. decrement”. The to a value which can be as low as 0.3 In, but
current will finally stabilize in about is often close to In*.
subtransient transient
r.m.s. period period

alternator
3 In with automatic
voltage regulator

In alternator
with manual
excitation control
0.3
In

instant 10 to 0.1 to t
of fault 20 ms 0.3 s
fig. J1-2: establishment of short-circuit current for a three-phase short circuit at the
terminals of an alternator.
* depending on the characteristics of the particular machine.

particular supply sources and loads - J1


1. protection of circuits supplied by an alternator (continued)

J
1.1 an alternator on short-circuit (continued)
Figure J1-2 shows the r.m.s. values of
current, on the assumption that no d.c.
transient components exist. In practice, d.c.
components of current are always present to
some degree in at least two phases, being
maximum when the short-circuit occurs at the
alternator terminals.
This feature would appear to complicate still
further the matter of electrical protection, but,
in fact, the d.c. component in each phase
simply increases the r.m.s. values already
mentioned, so that calculations and tripping-
current settings for protective devices based
only on the a.c. components, as indicated
below, will be conservative, i.e. the actual
currents will always be either equal to or
higher than those calculated.
The further the point of short-circuit from the
generator the lower the fault current, and the
more rapidly the transient d.c. components
disappear. Furthermore, the a.c. decrement
also becomes negligible when the network
impedance to the fault position attains ohmic
values which are high compared with the
reactance values of the alternator (since the
overall change in impedance is then relatively
small).

alternator impedance data


Manufacturers furnish values of the several The sub-transient reactance is used when
impedances mentioned below. Resistances calculating the short-circuit current-breaking
are negligibly small compared to the rating for LV circuit breakers which have
reactances. opening times of 20 ms or less, and also for
It can be seen from the constantly-changing the electrodynamic stresses to be withstood
value of r.m.s. current that the effective by CBs and other components (such as
reactance* changes constantly from a low busbars, cleated single-core cables, etc.).
value (sub-transient reactance) to a high The transient reactance is used when
value (synchronous reactance) in a smooth considering the breaking capacity of LV circuit
progression. breakers with an opening time that exceeds
The values discussed below are derived from 20 ms, and also for the thermal withstand
test curves and correspond with current capabilities of switchgear and other system
values measured at the instant of short- components.
circuit.
* An explanation of the significance of the Remark: from the instant at which the short-
fixed reactance values and how they relate to circuit is established, the alternator reactance
a smooth variation of current is briefly will rapidly increase. This means that the
described in Appendix J1. currents calculated from the defined fixed
c the sub-transient reactance x”d is values x"d and x'd (for breaking capacity) will
expressed in % by the manufacturer always exceed those that will actually occur
(analogous to the short-circuit impedance at the instant of circuit breaker contact
voltage of a transformer). The ohmic value separation, i.e. there is an inherent safety
X”d is therefore calculated as follows: factor incorporated in the current-level
x”d Un2 10-5 calculation.
X”d (ohms) =
Pn These calculations for the circuit breaker
where: short-circuit breaking capacity are based on
x”d is in % the symmetrical a.c. components of current
Un is in volts (phase/phase) only, i.e. no account is taken of the d.c.
Pn is in kVA unidirectional components.
c the % transient reactance x’d is given in For the circuit breaker short-circuit making
ohms by: capacity, the d.c. components are crucial, as
x'd Un2 10-5 discussed in Chapter C, Sub-clause 1.1
X'd (ohms) =
Pn (figure C-5).
c the % zero-phase-sequence reactance x’o
is given in ohms by:
x'o Un2 10-5
X'o (ohms) =
Pn
In the absence of more precise information,
the following representative values may be
used:
x”d = 20% ; x’d = 30 % ; x’o = 6%
Pn and Un being, respectively, the rated
3-phase power (kVA) and the rated
phase/phase voltage of the alternator (volts).

J2 - particular supply sources and loads


J
short-circuit current magnitude
at the terminals of an alternator
c the transient 3-phase short-circuit current a transformer of equal kVA rating, the current
at the terminals of an alternator is given by: from the alternator will be found to be of the
Ig order of 5 or 6 times less than that from the
Isc = 100* where:
x’d transformer. The difference will be even
Ig: rated full-load current of the alternator greater where (as is generally the case) the
x’d = transient reactance per phase of the alternator rating is lower than that of the
alternator in %; transformer.
c when these values are compared with * for CBs with opening time exceeding 20 ms.
those for a short-circuit at the LV terminals of

630 kVA 250 kVA


20 kV/400 V 400 V
Usc = 4% X'd = 30%

non essential loads essential loads


fig. J1-3: example of an essential services switchboard supplied (in an emergency) from a
standby alternator.
Example (figure J1 - 3) c alternator supply
What is the value of 3-phase short-circuit 3-phase Isc = Ig x 100 = Pn x 100
current at point A according to the origin of x'd eUn x'd
supply? where: Pn is expressed in kVA
Circuit impedances are negligible compared Un is expressed in volts
with those of the sources. x’d is expressed in %
c transformer supply Isc is expressed in kA
3-phase Isc = 21.5 kA 3-phase Isc = 250 x 100 = 1.2 kA
(see table C20 in Chapter C) ex 400 x 30

particular supply sources and loads - J3


1. protection of circuits supplied by an alternator (continued)

J
1.2 protection of essential services circuits supplied in emergencies from an alternator
The characteristics (s.c. breaking capacity Note 1. Sensitive high-speed protection of an
the difficulty is due to the small
and range of adjustable magnetic tripping alternator against internal faults (i.e.
margin between the rated current unit) of the CBs protecting the circuits of upstream of its CB) is always possible by
and the short-circuit current of the essential loads must be defined as described using a pilot-wire and current-transformers
alternator. below: differential scheme of protection, with the
Choice of s.c. breaking capacity advantage that discrimination with circuit
This parameter must always be calculated for protection schemes is absolute. The problem
the condition of supply from the transformer, of discriminative overload protection (as
or other “normal” source. noted above) remains, however.
A widely-used solution to this problem is
Adjustment of magnetic tripping units provided by a voltage-controlled overcurrent
In practice, the only circuit breakers relay, which depends on the following
concerned are those protecting the essential principle: short-circuit currents cause much
services circuits at the main general lower system voltages than overload
distribution board. currents. An inverse-time/current overload
The protection of circuits from local relay is used having two operating curves,
distribution or sub-distribution boards is one of which corresponds to that of fig. J1-4,
always calibrated at a much lower level than and is effective when system voltage levels
those at the main general distribution board, are normal.
so that, except in unusual cases, adequate If the system voltage falls below a pre-set
fault currents are available from an alternator value, the relay is automatically switched to
to ensure satisfactory protective-gear operate much faster and at lower current
operation at these lower levels. levels than those shown in fig. J1-4.
Two difficulties have to be overcome: Modern low-setting magnetic tripping units,
c the first is the need for discrimination of however, often provide a simpler solution as
circuit protection with the protection scheme noted in 1.3 below.
for the alternator. Note 2. Where the level of earth-fault current
For the basic protection requirements of an is not sufficient, in IT* and TN systems, to trip
alternator, viz: overload protection, the curve CBs on overcurrent, the protection against
shown in figure J1-4 is representative (see indirect-contact hazards can be provided by
Note 1). an appropriate use of RCDs, as indicated in
c the second concerns protection of persons Chapter G Sub-clause 6.5 Suggestion 2 (for
against electric shock from indirect contact, IT circuits) and Sub-clause 5.5. Suggestion 2
when the protection depends on the (for TN circuits).
operation of overcurrent relays (for example,
in IT* or TN systems). The operation of these time (s)
relays must be assured, whether the supply
is from the alternator or from the transformer
(see Note 2). 1000
Instantaneous or short-time delay magnetic-
relay trip settings of the circuit breakers
concerned must therefore be set to operate
at minimum fault levels occurring at the 100
extremity of the circuits they protect, when
being supplied from the alternator. 12
10
7
3
2
1

1.1 1.2 1.5 2 3 4 5 I/IG


overload
fig. J1-4: overload protection of an
alternator.
* Two concurrent earth faults on different phases or on one phase and on a neutral conductor, are necessary on IT systems, to
create an indirect-contact hazard.

J4 - particular supply sources and loads


J
1.3 choice of tripping units
the calculation of the minimum fault calculation of the fault-current
current (in IT or TN schemes) is loop impedance (Zs) for IT and
complex. Software packages for this TN systems
purpose are available. The determination of the minimum level of
short-circuit current, from the calculation of
the fault-loop impedance Zs (by the sum of
impedances method) is difficult, mainly
because of the uncertainly, in a practical
installation, of the accuracy of the zero-
phase-sequence impedances. When
conductor routes are known in sufficient
detail, impedances can then be determined
by the use of software, currently available
commercially. Approximate methods for
3-phase and 1-phase short circuits are
presented in Sub-clause 1.4.

types of suitable tripping units


The choice of low-setting magnetic tripping
units will generally be necessary, such as
Compact NS* with STR (magnetic-trip short
time delay is adjustable from 1.5 to 10 Ir) or
circuit breakers Multi 9* curve B (tripping
between 3 and 5 In).
In practice, these CBs (or their equivalents)
will always be necessary when the current
rating of the CB is greater than one third of
the alternator current rating and will, in most
cases, obviate the need for voltage-controlled
overload relays.
Switchgear manufacturers often furnish
tables showing recommended combinations
of circuit breakers for commonly-used
standby-generator schemes.
* Merlin Gerin products.

characteristics of protection
for essential-services circuits
type of circuit fault-breaking rating tripping unit adjustment
(FBR)
diesel-
generator
protection
cabinet

power-source
changeover switch

main FBR > Isc Im or short-delay trip setting


circuits with supply level < the minimum
from transformer fault current at the far end
of the circuit when supplied
from the alternator
(see Note 2 in Sub-clause 1.2)
B

sub- FBR > Isc check the protection


and final with supply of persons against
circuits from transformer indirect-contact hazards,
particularly on IT and TN
systems (see Note 2
in Sub-clause 1.2)

Isc: 3-ph short-circuit current


Im: magnetic-tripping-relay current setting
loads

fig. J1-5: the protection of essential services circuits.

particular supply sources and loads - J5


1. protection of circuits supplied by an alternator (continued)

J
1.4 methods of approximate calculation
An installation on (normal) 630 kVA What circuit breakers should be installed on
transformer supply (figure J1-6) includes an the out-going ways from the essential-
essential-services distribution board which services board:
can also be supplied from a standby 400 kVA c if the installation is TN-earthed?
diesel-alternator set. c if the installation is IT-earthed?

transformer
630 kVA alternator
20 kV/400 V 400 kVA
400 V

alternator
and diesel
protection
equipment
cabinet

PE

essential circuits main


non essential circuits distribution board

NS250N
STR22SE NS160N
250 A TM400D

IB = 220 A IB = 92 A
100 m 70 m
120 mm2 35 mm2

PE : 70 mm2 PE : 35 mm2

sub-distribution board
fig. J1-6: example.
calculation of the minimum level
of 3-phase short-circuit current
Table J1-7 shows the procedure for an
alternator together with one or several
circuits.

item of plant R X Z Isc


mΩ mΩ mΩ kA
alternator Ra X'd
circuit 22.5 L 0.08 x L
S
total R X R2 + X 2 1.05xVn
R2 + X 2
table J1-7: procedure for the calculation of 3-phase short-circuit current.
S = c.s.a. in mm2
L = length in metres
For the calculation of cable impedance, refer
to Chapter H1, Sub-clause 4.2.

J6 - particular supply sources and loads


J
Consider the 220 A circuit in figure J1-6
c alternator
Ra = 0
2 2
X’d = Un x 0.30 = 400 x 0.30 = 120 mΩ
Pn 400
c circuit
Rc = 22.5 x 100 = 18.75 mΩ
120
Xc = 0.08 x 100 = 8 mΩ
c application of the method of impedances as
indicated in table J1-7;
R = Ra + Rc = 0 + 18.75 = 18.75 mΩ
X = X’d + Xc = 120 + 8 = 128 mΩ
total impedance per phase:
Z = R2 + X 2 = (18.75)2 + (128)2 = 129.4 mΩ

Isc = 1.05 Vn = 1.05 x 230 = 1.87 kA (r.m.s.)


Z 0.129

Note: In practice there will always be some


measure of d.c. transient current in at least
two phases, so that the above value will
normally be exceeded during the period
required to trip the CB.

calculation of the minimum level


of 1-phase to earth short-circuit
fault current
Table J1-8 shows the procedure for an
alternator together with one or several
circuits.

item of plant R X Z Isc


mΩ mΩ mΩ kA
alternator Ra 2 X'd + Xo
3
circuit 22.5 L (1 + m) 0.08 x L x 2
Sph
total R X R2 + X 2 1.05xVn
R2 + X 2
table J1-8: procedure for the calculation of 1-phase to neutral short-circuit current.
For the calculation of cable impedance, refer
to Chapter H1, Sub-clause 4.2.

Consider the 220 A circuit in figure J1-6


c alternator
Ra = 0
2
Xa = (2 x 120 + 400 x 0.06) x 1 = 88 mΩ
400 3
c circuit
Rc = 22.5 x 100 x (1 + 120 / 70) = 50.89 mΩ
120
Xc = 0.08 x 100 x 2 = 16 mΩ
c application of the method of impedances,
as for the previous example:
R = Ra + Rc = 0 + 50.89 = 50.89 mΩ
X = Xa + Xc = 88 + 16 = 104 mΩ
The total impedance:
Z = R2 + X 2 = 50.892 + 1042 = 115.8 mΩ

and Isc1 (phase/neutral) = 1.05 x 230 = 2.09 kA.


115.8

particular supply sources and loads - J7


1. protection of circuits supplied by an alternator (continued)

J
1.4 methods of approximate calculation (continued)
maximum permissible setting
of instantaneous or short-time
delay tripping units
c TN scheme Where
Of the two fault conditions considered Z1 = positive phase-sequence impedance
(3-phase and 1-phase/neutral) the 3-phase Z2 = negative phase-sequence impedance
fault was found to give the lower short-circuit Z0 = zero phase-sequence impedance
current. The setting of the protective relay
must therefore be selected to a current level Simplifications:
below that calculated. c Z1 is assumed to be equal to Z2 so that
For the 220 A outgoing circuit the trip unit formula ➁ becomes
would be rated at 250 A and adjusted (in eVph = 0.866 Vph or 0.866 Isc (3-phase)
principle) to Isc/250, i.e. 1,870/250 = 7.4 In. 2 Z1 Z1
Owing to a ± 20 % manufacturing tolerance
however, the maximum permissible setting c In table J1-8 the calculated cable reactance
would be 7.4 = 6.2 In assumes that X1 = X2 = X0 for the cable, so
1.2 that in formula ③ the total reactance
A tripping unit type TM250D* set at 6 In on a = (X1 + X2 + X0) 1/3 = (3 X1) 1/3 = X1
NS250N* circuit breaker (breaking capacity * Merlin Gerin product.
= 36 kA i.e. > 21.5 kA) would be appropriate;
c IT scheme
In this case the protection must operate for a
second earth fault occurring before the first
earth fault is cleared. This condition (only)
produces indirect-contact hazards on an IT
system.
If the neutral conductor is not distributed, then
the minimum short-circuit current for the
system will be the phase-to-phase value
(i.e. concurrent earth faults on two different
phases) which is equal to 0.866 Isc
(Isc = the 3-phase s.c. current).
If the neutral is distributed, the minimum s.c.
current occurs when a phase-to-earth fault
and a neutral-to-earth fault occur
concurrently, and a protective relay setting
equal to 0.5 Isc (phase to neutral) i.e. half the
value of a phase-to-neutral short-circuit
current, is conventionally used to ensure
positive relay operation,
v for the case of a non-distributed neutral,
the minimum s.c. current =
0.5 x 0.866 x 1.87 = 0.81 kA
The tripping unit rated at 250 A will be set at
810 x 1 = 2.7 In
250 1.2
(the factor 1.2 accounting for the ± 20 %
manufacturing tolerance for tripping units).
A TM250D or a STR22SE tripping unit set at
2.5 In would be appropriate,
v when the neutral is distributed, the
minimum s.c. current relay setting
= 0.5 x 2.08 = 1.04 kA
The 250 A tripping unit will be set at
1.040 x 1
250 1.2
= 3.5 In (the 1.2 factor covering
manufacturing tolerance, as before)
A STR22SE tripping unit, set at 3.0 In would
be satisfactory.
Note: The foregoing method is based on a
simplified application of the following
formulae:

Isc (3-phase) = V ph
Z1

Isc (phase/phase) = eVph
Z1+Z2


Isc (phase/earth) = 3 Vph
Z1+Z2+Z0

J8 - particular supply sources and loads


J
1.5 the protection of standby and mobile a.c. generating sets
Practical guides in certain national standards
classify generator sets according to three
categories, viz:
c permanent installations (as discussed in
Sub-clauses 1.1 to 1.4);
c mobile sets (figure J1-9);
c portable power packs (figure J1-10).

mobile sets
These are used mainly to provide temporary
supplies (on construction sites for example)
where protection of persons against electric
shock must be ensured by the use of RCDs
with an operating threshold not exceeding
30 mA.

non-metallic
conduit prividing
supplementary
insulation

PE

C32N
30 mA

Vigi-
compact
NS100
TM63G
30 mA

PE

load circuits
fig. J1-9: mobile generating set.

portable power packs


The use of hand-carried power packs by the
general public is becoming more and more
popular. When the pack and associated
appliances are not of Class II (i.e. double
insulation), 30 mA RCDs are required by
most national standards.
C60N
30 mA
T

fig. J1-10: portable power pack with RCD


protection.

particular supply sources and loads - J9


2. inverters and UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply units)

J
2.1 what is an inverter?
An inverter produces an a.c. supply of high fluorescent-lamp circuits and (normally
quality (i.e. an undistorted sine-wave, free undetectable, but totally unacceptable to
from interference) from a d.c. source; its sensitive electronic systems) of mini-
function is the inverse of that of a rectifier interruptions of several milli-seconds.
(figure J2-1). By the addition of a storage battery at the
Its main purpose (when associated with a input terminals of the inverter (and therefore
rectifier which provides its input) is to afford a across the output terminals of the associated
high-quality power supply to equipment for rectifier), an elementary UPS system is
which the interference and disturbances of a formed.
normal power-supply system cannot be In normal circumstances, the rectifier supplies
tolerated (e.g. to computer systems). the load through the inverter, while, at the
Power systems are subjected to many kinds same time, a trickle charge from the rectifier
of perturbation which adversely affect the maintains the battery fully charged.
quality of supply: atmospheric phenomena A loss of a.c. power supply from the
(lightning, freezing), accidental faults (short- distribution network would simply result in the
circuits), industrial parasites, the switching of battery automatically maintaining the output
large electric motors (lifts, fluorescent lighting) from the inverter with no discernable
are among the many causes of poor quality interruption.
of supplies.
d.c. source load
Apart from occasional loss of supply, the
disturbances take the form of more-or-less
severe voltage dips, high- and low-frequency sinusoidal
inverter a.c. output
parasites, continuous “noise” from
fig. J2-1: inverter function.

2.2 types of UPS system


Several types of UPS system exist according
there are two main types of UPS to the degree of protection against power-
system: network “pollution” required, and whether
c off-line, supply autonomy (automatic standby-supply
c on-line. on the loss of normal power supply) is
specified, or not. The two most commonly-
used types are described below.

An off-line type of UPS system (figure J2-2) transient currents such as those for motor-
is connected in parallel with a supply direct starting and switching on of (cold) resistive
from the public distribution network, as shown loads. The most common use for such units
in figure J2-2, and is autonomous, within the is the supply to multi-workstation ITE
capacity of its battery, on loss of the a.c. (information technology equipment)
power supply. In normal operation the filter installations, such as cash registers.
improves the quality of the current while the a. c. power supply
voltage is maintained sensibly constant at its network
declared value by appropriate and automatic
regulation within the filter unit.
F
When the tolerance limits are exceeded,
sensitive
including a total loss of supply, a contactor, load
which carries the normal load, changes over
rapidly to the UPS unit (in less than 10 ms) rectifier/ inverter filter
the power then being supplied from the charger
battery. On the return of normal power supply,
the contactor changes back to its original battery
condition; the battery then recharges to its full fig. J2-2: off-line UPS system.
capacity.
These units are normally of low rating
(i 3 kVA) but are capable of passing large

An on-line type of UPS system (figure J2-3) a.c. power supply sensitive
is connected directly between the public a.c. network load
supply network and the load, and has an
autonomous capability, the period of which rectifier inverter
depends on the battery capacity and load charger
magnitude.
The total load passes through the system, battery
which affords a supply of electrical energy
fig. J2-3: on-line UPS system.
within strict tolerance limits, regardless of the
state of the a.c. power supply network.
On loss of the latter, the battery automatically,
and without interruption, maintains the
pollution-free a.c. supply to the load.
This system is equally suitable for small loads
(i 3 kVA) or large loads (up to several MVA).

J10 - particular supply sources and loads


J
Other apparatus, not assuring a no-break
performance, but which protect sensitive
loads from certain disturbances commonly
occurring on power distribution network,
include the following:
c the filter-plug which is simply an a.c. plug
for connecting or interconnecting loads, which
has built-in HF (high-frequency) filters, in
order to reduce HF parasitic interference to
acceptable levels. Its principal use is on
micro-informatic stand-alone PCs rated at
250 to 1,000 VA, for general office purposes;
c the network (or mains) -supply conditioner
is a complete system for providing an
uncontaminated a.c. power supply, but
without autonomy, i.e. no provision against
loss of supply from the a.c. distribution
network.
Its principal functions are to:
v filter out HF parasites,
v maintain a sensibly-constant voltage level,
v isolate (galvanically) the load from the a.c.
power network.
It is equally applicable to office or industrial
systems which do not require a no-break
standby supply, up to ratings of 5,000 VA;
c the slim-line UPS has integral protection
with autonomy for each micro-informatic
stand-alone PC and its peripherals, and is
installed immediately under the micro-
processor. Two outputs, each with back-up
from the UPS unit, supply the central
processor and screen. Two further outputs,
which are filtered, supply other less-sensitive
units (e.g. the printer). The slim-line UPS
belongs to the class of off-line UPS schemes.
types of UPS units, filter plug mains-supply slim-line off-line on-line
conditioners and filters conditioner UPS UPS UPS
diagrams of principle
F
F

disturbances considered
type of network corrective
disturbance measures
HF parasites c c c c c
variations of voltage regulation c c c c
autonomy
10 to 30 mn (according to battery capacity) c c c
rated power
i 250 VA c c c c c
300 - 1,000 VA c c c c
1,000 - 2,500 VA c c c
> 2,500 VA c c
applications
minimal all micro- micro-informatic highly disturbed a.c.
protection sensitive informatic terminals power systems and/or
loads stand-alone PC heavy loads
table J2-4: examples of different possibilities and applications of inverters, in decontamination of supplies and in UPS schemes.

2.3 standards
The international standard presently covering
semi-conductor converters is IEC 146-4.

particular supply sources and loads - J11


2. inverters and UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply units) (continued)

J
2.4 choice of a UPS system
The choice of a UPS system is determined types of load, it may be necessary to adjust
mainly by the following parameters: the power rating of the UPS system.
c rated power, based on: c voltage levels upstream (input) and
v maximum value of actual estimated kVA downstream (output) of the UPS unit;
demand, c duration of autonomy required (i.e. supply
v transitory current peaks (motor starting, from the battery);
energization of resistive loads, c frequencies upstream (input) and
transformers...). downstream (output) of the UPS unit;
Note: in order to obtain satisfactory c level of availability required.
discrimination of protective devices for all

(9)

(8) (5) UPS distribution board


(4) (6)
mains 2
C/S

mains 1

(2)
(1)

(3)
(7)

fig. J2-5: classical arrangement of a UPS on-line installation, using an inverter.


UPS 1. inverter
2. rectifier/charger
3. batteries (usual periods of autonomy 10 - 15 - 30 mn - several hours)
4. static contactor (see “availability” below)
5. isolating transformer, if galvanic isolation from upstream circuits is necessary.
6. outgoing ways
7. transformer for specific downstream-circuits voltage
8. changeover switch
9. transformer to match the upstream voltage to that of the consumer.
Note: At first sight, the circuit arrangement in Conditions will automatically return to normal
figure J2-5 closely resembles that of the if the overload, etc. is corrected.
off-line UPS system (of figure J2-2). In fact,
however, it is an on-line system, in which the In this arrangement, the voltage output of
load is normally passing through circuit 1. the inverter is always maintained in
The static contactor is open in this situation, synchronism with the voltage of the power-
but closes automatically if the UPS system supply network (i.e. within close tolerance
becomes overloaded, or fails for any reason. limits of magnitude and phase difference)
In such a case, the load will then be supplied thereby minimizing the disturbance in the
from the (reserve) circuit 2. This action is the event of “instantaneous” changeover from
converse of that of the off-line scheme. circuit 1 to circuit 2 operation.

the power rating of a UPS unit must power (VA)


take account of the peak motor- The rated power of the UPS unit must be Instantaneous variations of load:
sufficient to satisfy the steady load demand these variations occur at times of energizing
starting currents, of the possibility of as well as loads of a transitory nature. The and de-energizing of one or more items of
future extensions to the installation, demand will be the sum of the apparent (VA) load. For an instantaneous change of load up
and of the overload capability of the loads of individual items, for example, the to 100 % of the nominal rating of the UPS
inverter and other UPS-unit CPU (central processing unit) and will unit, the output voltage generally remains
components. amount to Pa, generally corrected by a between + 10 % and - 8 % of its rated value.
factor (1.2 to 2) to allow for future
extensions.
However, in order to avoid oversizing of the
installation, account should be taken of the
overload capacity of the UPS components.
For example, inverters manufactured by
Merlin Gerin can safely withstand the
following overloaded condition:
c 1.5 In for 1 minute;
c 1.25 In for 10 minutes.

J12 - particular supply sources and loads


J
Example of a power calculation
Choice of a UPS unit suitable for the loads
shown in figure J2-6.
load circuits no.:
1 : 80 kVA
2 : 10 kVA
3 : 20 kVA
4 : 20 kVA
5 : 30 kVA
fig. J2-6: example.
Assumed operating constraints:
circuit no. 4 will take a transitory current equal
to 4 In for a period of 200 ms when initially
energized. This operation will be carried out
at least once a day. The peak kVA demand,
therefore, represents a supplement (over the
steady-state 20 kVA demand) of 3 x 20 kVA =
60 kVA.
The remaining circuits require no such
transitory peak currents. In all cases the kVA
values cited have taken the load power
factors into account. Possible future
extensions to the installation are estimated to
amount to 20% of the existing load.
The maximum steady-state power demand
presently considered is therefore:
P = 80 + 10 + 20 + 20 + 30 = 160 kVA.
With allowance for extensions (of 20%)
= 160 x 1.2 = 192 kVA.
With an additional 200 ms peak of (3 x 20)
kVA the total amounts to 192 + 60 = 252 kVA.
C/S
The total of 252 kVA however, includes the
60 kVA peak current which is easily absorbed
by the 1.5 In overload capability of (a M.G) 200 kVA
UPS system, so that the rating of a suitable
UPS unit would be 252 x 1/1.5 = 168 kVA
for the nearest standard rating available
above the calculated value, e.g. 200 kVA.
For the choice of suitable protective devices,
see Sub-clause 2.9. fig. J2-7: solution to the example.

availability
A UPS system is generally provided with an
alternative (unconditioned) emergency
source, a situation which affords a relatively
high level of availability.
By way of example, a UPS alone has a
MTBF (mean time between failures) of
50,000 hours.
In the usual case, where the supply is
doubled as noted above (mains 1 and
C/S
mains 2 in figure J2-5) the MTBF obtained is
in the range 70,000 to 200,000 hours, P/2
depending on the availability of the second
source.
Switching from one source to the other is
achieved automatically by a static (solid P/2
state) contactor. P
Configurations having a higher redundancy,
e.g. three UPS units each rated at P/2 to P/2
supply a load of P (figure J2-8) are also
sometimes installed. The calculation of their
level of availability can be carried out by
specialists, and the manufacturers are able to fig. J2-8: 3 UPS P/2 units providing a high
quote availability levels, relative to their own level of availability of a power rated P.
products and recommended layouts.

particular supply sources and loads - J13


2. inverters and UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply units) (continued)

J
2.5 UPS systems and their environment
UPS units can communicate with other This evolution towards a general compatibility
UPS system components include the
equipments, notably with IT (information between diverse systems and related
means to communicate with other technology) systems, passing data hardware requires the incorporation of new
equipments. concerning the state of the UPS components functions in the UPS systems. These
(static contactor open or closed, and so on...) functions can be designed to ensure
and receiving orders controlling its function, in mechanical and electrical compatibility with
order to: other equipments: standard versions are now
c optimize the protection scheme: provided with dry contacts and current loops.
the UPS, for example, transmits data Interconnection facilities according to the
(such as: condition normal, supply being standards RS 232, RS 422 or RS 485 can be
maintained by the battery, alarm for period incorporated on request.
of autonomy almost reached) to the computer In fact, certain advanced modules include
it is supplying. The computer deduces the modern cards with integral protocole (JBus
appropriate corrective action, and indicates for example).
accordingly; Furthermore, they can make use of
c permit remote control: specialized software for automatic checking
the UPS transmits data concerning the state and fault diagnosis (e.g. Soft-Monitor on PC)
of UPS components, together with measured which may be integrated into other systems
quantities, to the console of an operator, who of overall supervision (figure J2-10).
is then able to carry out operational
manœuvres through remote-control
channels;
c supervise (manage) the installation:
the consumer (i.e. the “user”) has a
centralized management technique facility
which allows him to acquire data from the
UPS unit(s) which are then stored and
analysed, with anomalies indicated, and the
state of the UPS is presented on a mimic
board or displayed on a screen, and finally to
exercise remote control of UPS functions
(figures J2-9 to J2-11).

fig. J2-9: UPS units can communicate with fig. J2-10: software (e.g. Soft-Monitor)
centralized system management allows remote checking and automatic
terminals. fault diagnosis of the UPS system.

fig. J2-11: UPS units are readily integrated into centralized management systems.

J14 - particular supply sources and loads


2. inverters and UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply units) (continued)

J
2.10 complementary equipments
transformers
A two-winding transformer included on the c prevents third harmonic currents (and
upstream side of the static contactor multiples of them) which may be present on
of circuit 2 (see figure J2-5) allows: the secondary side from passing into the
c a change of voltage level when the power power-system network, providing that the
network voltage is different to that of the load; primary winding is connected in delta.
c a different arrangement for the neutral on
the load-side winding, from that of the power
network.
Moreover, such a transformer:
c reduces the short-circuit current level on
the secondary, (i.e. load) side compared with
that on the power network side,

anti-harmonic filter
The UPS system includes a battery charger For example, when:
which is controlled by commutated thyristors c the power rating of the UPS system is large
or transistors. The resulting regularly- relative to the HV/LV transformer supplying it;
chopped current cycles “generate” harmonic c the LV busbars supply loads which are
components in the power-supply network. particularly sensitive to harmonics;
These indesirable components are filtered at c a diesel (or gas-turbine, etc.) driven
the input of the rectifier and for most cases alternator is provided as a standby power
this reduces the harmonic current level supply.
sufficiently for all practical purposes. In In such cases, the manufacturers of the UPS
certain specific cases however, notably in system should be consulted.
very large installations, an additional filter
circuit may be necessary.

communications equipment
Communication with equipment associated
with informatic systems (see Sub-clause 2.5)
may entail the need for suitable facilities
within the UPS systems.
Such facilities may be incorporated in an
original design, or added to existing systems
on request.

fig. J2-27: a UPS installation with incorporated communication systems.

J24 - particular supply sources and loads


3. protection of LV/LV transformers

J
These transformers are generally in the range with protective systems incorporated, and the
of several hundreds of VA to some hundreds manufacturers must be consulted for details.
of kVA and are frequently used for: Overcurrent protection must, in any case, be
c changing the (LV) voltage level for: provided on the primary side. The exploitation
v auxiliary supplies to control and indication of these transformers requires a knowledge
circuits, of their particular function, together with a
v lighting circuits (230 V created when the number of points described below.
primary system is 400 V 3-phase 3-wires), Note: In the particular cases of LV/LV safety
c changing the method of earthing for certain isolating transformers at extra-low voltage, an
loads having a relatively high capacitive earthed metal screen between the primary
current to earth (informatic equipment) or and secondary windings is frequently
resistive leakage current (electric ovens, required, according to circumstances, as
industrial-heating processes, mass-cooking recommended in European Standard
installations, etc.). EN 60742, and as discussed in detail in
LV/LV transformers are generally supplied Sub-clause 3.5 of Chapter G.

3.1 transformer-energizing in-rush current


At the moment of energizing a transformer, I
high values of transient current (which
includes a significant d.c. component) occur, Î first
and must be taken into account when 10 to 25 In
considering protection schemes. The
magnitude of the current peak depends on:
c the value of voltage at the instant of
energization,
In
c the magnitude and polarity of magnetic flux
(if any) existing in the core of the transformer, θ t
c characteristics of the load on the fig. J3-1: transformer-energizing in-rush
transformer. current.
In distribution-type transformers, the first
current peak can attain a value equal to 10 to
15 times the full-load r.m.s. current, but for
small transformers (< 50 kVA) may reach
values of 20 to 25 times the nominal full-load
current. This transient current decreases
rapidly, with a time constant θ (see figure
J3-1) of the order of several milli-seconds to
several tens of milli-seconds.

3.2 protection for the supply circuit of a LV/LV transformer


The protective device on the supply circuit for t
a LV/LV transformer must avoid the possibility
of incorrect operation due to the magnetizing
in-rush current surge, noted above in 3.1. It is
necessary to use therefore:
c selective (i.e. slightly time-delayed) circuit
breakers of the type Compact NS STR*
(figure J3-2) or 50 to
c circuit breakers having a very high 70 ms
magnetic-trip setting, of the types
Compact NS or Multi 9* curve D (figure J3-3).
* Merlin Gerin. r.m.s. value instantaneous I
of the first trip
peak
fig. J3-2: tripping characteristic of a
Compact NS STR circuit breaker.
t

In 10In 20In I
r.m.s. value
of the first
peak
fig. J3-3: tripping characteristic of a circuit
breaker according to standardized type D
curve (for Merlin Gerin 10 to 14 In).

particular supply sources and loads - J25


3. protection of LV/LV transformers (continued)

J
3.2 protection for the supply circuit of a LV/LV transformer (continued)
Example (figure J3-4)
A 400 V 3-phase circuit is supplying a NS250N
125 kVA 400/230 V transformer (In = 180 A) tripping unit
STR22SE (Ir = 200)
for which the first in-rush current peak can
reach 17 In, i.e. 17 x 180 A = 3,067 A.
A Compact NS250 circuit breaker with Ir
setting of 200 A would therefore be a suitable 3 x 70 mm2
protective device.
A particular case: overload protection 400/230 V
125 kVA
installed at the secondary side of the
transformer
An advantage of overload protection located fig. J3-4: example.
on the secondary side, is that the short-circuit
protection on the primary side can be set at a Note: The primary protection is sometimes
high value, or alternatively a circuit breaker provided by fuses, type a M. This practice
type MA* may be used. The primary-side has two disadvantages:
short-circuit protection setting must, however, c the fuses must be largely oversized (at
be sufficiently sensitive to ensure its least 4 times the nominal full-load rated
operation in the event of a short-circuit current of the transformer);
occurring on the secondary side of the c in order to provide isolating facilities on the
transformer (upstream of secondary primary side, either a load-break switch or a
protective devices). contactor must be associated with the fuses.
* Motor-control circuit breaker, the short-circuit protective
relay of which is immune to high transient-current peaks, as
shown in figure J5-3.

3.3 typical electrical characteristics of LV/LV 50 Hz transformers


3-phase
kVA rating 5 6.3 8 10 12.5 16 20 25 31.5 40 50 63 80 100 125 160 200 250 315 400 500 630 800
no-load losses (W) 100 110 130 150 160 170 270 310 350 350 410 460 520 570 680 680 790 950 1160 1240 1485 1855 2160
full-load losses (W) 250 320 390 500 600 840 800 1180 1240 1530 1650 2150 2540 3700 3700 5900 5900 6500 7400 9300 9400 11400 11400
s.c. voltage (%) 4.5 4.5 4.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 5 5 4.5 5 5 5.5 4.5 5.5 5 5 4.5 6 6 5.5 5.5
1-phase
kVA rating 8 10 12.5 16 20 25 31.5 40 50 63 80 100 125 160
no-load losses (W) 105 115 120 140 150 175 200 215 265 305 450 450 525 635
full-load losses (W) 400 530 635 730 865 1065 1200 1400 1900 2000 2450 3950 3950 4335
s.c. voltage (%) 5 5 5 4.5 4.5 4 4 5 5 4.5 5.5 5 5
table J3-5: typical electrical characteristics of LV/LV 50 Hz transformers.

3.4 protection of transformers with characteristics as tabled in J3-5 above, using


Merlin Gerin circuit breakers
3-phase transformers (400 V primary) circuit breakers
P (kVA) In (A) Usc % type trip-unit current
rating (A)/type no.
5 7 4.5 C60 / NC100 D or K 20
10 14 5.5 C60 / NC100 D or K 32
16 23 5.5 C60 / NC100 D or K 63
20 28 5.5 C60 / NC100 D or K 63
25 35 5.5 NC100 D 80
31.5 44 5 NC100 D 80
40 56 5 NC100 D 80
50 70 4.5 NC100 D 100
63 89 5 NS100H/L MA100
NS160H/L STR22SE
80 113 5 NS160H/L STR22SE
100 141 5.5 NS250N/H/L STR22SE
125 176 4.5 NS250N/H/L STR22SE
NS400N/H/L STR23SE
160 225 5.5 NS250N/H/L STR22SE
NS400N/H/L STR23SE
250 352 5 C801N/H/L STR35SE
315 444 4.5 C801N/H/L STR35SE
400 563 6 C801N/H/L STR35SE
500 704 6 C801NH/L STR35SE
C1001N/H/L STR35SE
630 887 5.5 C1001N/H/L STR35SE
C1251N/H STR35SE
table J3-6: protection of 3-phase LV/LV transformers with 400 V primary windings.

J26 - particular supply sources and loads


J
3-phase transformers (230 V primary) circuit breakers
P (kVA) In (A) Usc % type trip-unit current
rating (A)/type no.
5 12 4.5 C60 / NC100 D or K 40
10 24 5.5 C60 / NC100 D or K 63
16 39 5.5 NC100 D 80
20 49 5.5 NC100 D 100
25 61 5.5 NS100H/L STR22SE
31.5 77 5 NS100H/L STR22SE
40 97 5 NS100H/L STR22SE
50 122 4.5 NS100H/L STR22SE
63 153 5 NS250N/H/L STR22SE
NS400N/H/L STR23SE
80 195 5 NS250N/H/L STR22SE
NS400N/H/L STR23SE
100 244 5.5 NS630N/H/L STR23SE
125 305 4.5 C801N/H/L STR35SE
160 390 5.5 C801N/H/L STR35SE
250 609 5 C801N/H/L STR35SE
C1001N/H/L STR35SE
315 767 4.5 C1001N/H/L STR35SE
C1251N/H STR35SE
400 974 6 C1251N/H STR35SE
table J3-7: protection of 3-phase LV/LV transformers with 230 V primary windings.

1-phase transformers (400 V primary) circuit breakers


P (kVA) In (A) Usc % type trip-unit current
rating (A)/type no.
0.1 0.24 13 C60 D or K 1
0.16 0.39 10.5 C60 D or K 1
0.25 0.61 9.5 C60 D or K 1
0.4 0.98 7.5 C60 D or K 2
0.63 1.54 7 C60 D or K 3
1 2.44 5.2 C60 D or K 6
1.6 3.9 4 C60 / NC100 D or K 10
2 4.88 2.9 C60 / NC100 D or K 10
2.5 6.1 3 C60 / NC100 D or K 16
4 9.8 2.1 C60 / NC100 D or K 20
5 12.2 1.9 C60 / NC100 D or K 32
6.3 15.4 1.6 C60 / NC100 D or K 40
8 19.5 5 C60 / NC100 D or K 50
10 24 5 C60 / NC100 D or K 63
12.5 30 5 C60 / NC100 D or K 63
16 39 4.5 NC100 D 80
20 49 4.5 NC100 D 100
25 61 4.5 NS160H/L STR22SE
31.5 77 4 NS160H/L STR22SE
40 98 4 NS160H/L STR22SE
50 122 4 NS160H/L STR22SE
63 154 5 NS250N/H/L STR22SE
NS400N/H/L STR23SE
80 195 4.5 NS250N/H/L STR22SE
NS400 STR23SE
100 244 5.5 NS630 STR23SE
125 305 5 C801N/H/L STR35SE
160 390 5 C801N/H/L STR35SE
table J3-8: protection of 1-phase LV/LV transformers with 400 V primary windings.

particular supply sources and loads - J27


3. protection of LV/LV transformers (continued)

J
3.4 protection of transformers with characteristics as tabled in J3-5 above, using
Merlin Gerin circuit breakers (continued)
1-phase transformers (230 V primary) circuit breakers
P (kVA) In (A) Usc % type trip-unit current
rating (A)/type no.
0.1 0.4 13 C60 D or K 1
0.16 0.7 10.5 C60 D or K 2
0.25 1.1 9.5 C60 D or K 3
0.4 1.7 7.5 C60 D or K 4
0.63 2.7 7 C60 D or K 6
1 4.2 5.2 C60 / NC100 D or K 10
1.6 6.8 4 C60 / NC100 D or K 16
2 8.4 2.9 C60 / NC100 D or K 16
2.5 10.5 3 C60 / NC100 D or K 20
4 16.9 2.1 C60 / NC100 D or K 40
5 21.1 1.9 C60 / NC100 D or K 50
6.3 27 1.6 C60 / NC100 D or K 63
8 34 5 NC100 D 80
10 42 5 NC100 D 100
12.5 53 5 NC100 D 100
16 68 4.5 NS160H/L STR22SE
20 84 4.5 NS160H/L STR22SE
25 105 4.5 NS250N/H/L STR22SE
NS250N/H/L STR22SE
31.5 133 4 NS250N/H/L STR22SE
40 169 4 NS250N/H/L STR22SE
NS400N/H/L STR23SE
50 211 5 NS250N/H/L STR22SE
NS400N/H/L STR23SE
63 266 5 NS630N/H/L STR23SE
80 338 4.5 C801N/H/L STR35SE
100 422 5.5 C801N/H/L STR35SE
125 528 5 C801N/H/L STR35SE
160 675 5 C801N/H/L STR35SE
C1001N/H/L STR35SE
table J3-9: protection of 1-phase LV/LV transformers with 230 V primary windings.

J28 - particular supply sources and loads


4. lighting circuits

J
The planning and realization of a lighting In fact, the provision of adequate illumination
the presence of adequate lighting
installation requires a sound understanding of in the event of fire or other catastrophic
contributes to the satety of persons. the materials installed, together with circumstances is of great importance in
familiarity with the rules for safety against fire reducing the likelihood of panic, and in
hazards in establishments receiving the permitting the necessary safety manœuvres
public. to be carried out.

emergency lighting is intended definitions


to facilitate the evacuation of persons Normal lighting refers to the installation Standby lighting is intended to substitute
designed for everyday use. normal lighting, where the latter fails. Standby
in case of fire or other panic-causing Emergency lighting must ensure easy lighting permits everyday activities to
situations, when normal lighting evacuation of persons from the premises continue more or less normally, depending on
systems may have failed. concerned, in the event that the normal the original design specification, and on the
lighting system fails. Furthermore, emergency extent of the normal lighting failure. Failure of
lighting must be adequate to allow any the standby lighting system must
particular safety manœuvres provided in the automatically switch on the emergency
premises to be carried out. lighting system.

4.1 service continuity


continuity of normal lighting service normal lighting
must be sufficient, independent of Regulations governing the minimum
requirements for ERP (Establishments
other supplementary systems. Receiving the Public) in most European
countries, are as follows:
c installations which illuminate areas
accessible to the public must be controlled
and protected independently from
installations providing illumination to other
areas;
c loss of supply on a final lighting circuit (i.e.
fuse blown or CB tripped) must not result in
total loss of illumination in an area which is
capable of accommodating more than
50 persons;
c protection by RCDs (residual current
differential devices) must be divided amongst
several devices (i.e. more than one device
must be used).

in emergency lighting circuits, emergency lighting


absolute discrimination between These schemes include illuminated
emergency exit signs and direction
protective devices on the different indications, as well as general lighting.
circuits must be provided. c emergency exit indications
In areas accommodating more than
50 persons, luminous directional indications
to the nearest emergency exits must be
provided;
c general emergency lighting
General lighting is obligatory when an area
can accommodate 100 persons or more
(50 persons or more in areas below ground
level).
A fault on a lighting distribution circuit must
not affect any other circuit:
v the discrimination of overcurrent-protection
relays and of RCDs must be absolute, so that
only the faulty circuit will be cut off,
v the installation must be an IT scheme, or
must be entirely class II, i.e. doubly-insulated.

Sub-clause 4.7 describes different kinds of


suitable power supplies.

particular supply sources and loads - J29


4. lighting circuits (continued)

J
4.2 lamps and accessories (luminaires)
fluorescent tubes
For normal operation a fluorescent tube c the starter is a switch, which, by breaking
requires a ballast and a starter (device for the (electrode-preheating) current passing
initiating the luminous discharge). through the ballast, causes a high-voltage
c the ballast is an iron-cored inductor, transient pulse to appear across the tube.
permanently connected in series with the This causes an arc (in the form of a gaseous
tube; its function is threefold, viz: discharge) to be established through the
v to limit the preheating current during the tube. The discharge is then self-sustaining at
(brief) starting period, normal voltage.
v to provide a pulse of high voltage at the end The ballast, capacitor and the tube, engender
of the starting period to strike the initial arc, disturbances during the periods of starting,
v to stabilize the current through the luminous steady operation and extinction. These
column (hence the term “ballast”). disturbances are analysed in table J4-1
below.
The presence of the ballast means that the
power-factor (cos ø) of the circuit is low (of
the order 0.6) with the corresponding
consumption of reactive energy, which is
generally metered. For this reason each
fluorescent lamp is normally provided with its
own power-factor-correction capacitor.

switching-on disturbances switching-off disturbances steady-operating disturbances


single-phase fluorescent c high current peak to charge no particular problems circulation of harmonic currents
lamp with its individual capacitor; order of magnitude 10 In (sinusoidal currents at frequencies equal
p.f. correction capacitor for 1 sec. to whole-number multiples of 50
A number of lamps on one circuit (or 60) Hz:
1
2 can result in peaks of 300-400 A for c delta-connected lamps (see
3 0.5 ms. Appendix J2) (3-ph 3-wire 230 V system)
This can cause a CB to trip, or the 1
welding of contacts in a contactor. In 2
practice, limit each circuit to 8 tubes 3
per contactor;
c moderate overload at the presence of 5th and 7th harmonics at very
beginning of steady operating low level
condition (1.1-1.5 In for 1 sec)
according to type of starter. c star-connected lamps (3-ph 4-wire
single-phase twin-tube c no high current peak as noted no particular problems 400/230 V system)
fluorescent lamp with above; 1
each tube having its c same order of moderate overload 2
3
own starter and series at beginning of steady operating N
ballast. One of the tubes condition as for the single tube
has a capacitor noted above. presence of 3 rd harmonic currents in the
connected in series with This arrangement is recommended neutral, which can reach 70 to 80% of the
its ballast. The two sets for difficult cases. nominal phase current.
of equipment are In this case, therefore, the c.s.a. of the
connected in parallel. neutral conductor must equal that of the
The arrangement is phase conductors.
known internationally as
a “duo”-circuit luminaire.
The capacitor displaces
the phase of the current
through its tube, to
nullify the flicker effect,
as well as correcting the
overall p.f.
starter
ballast
A

B
starter
fluorescent lamp with c can generate a current peak at no particular problems
HF ballast start;
c can cause leakage to earth of HF
Advantages: current (at 30 kHz) via the phase
Energy savings of the conductor capacitances to earth.
order of 25%.
Rapid one-shot start.
No flicker or
stroboscopic effects.
table J4-1: analysis of disturbances in fluorescent-lighting circuits.

J30 - particular supply sources and loads


J
4.3 the circuit and its protection
dimensions and protection of the
conductors
The maximum currents in the circuits can be Note: for circuits in which large peak currents
estimated using the methods discussed in occur (at times of switching on) and their
Chapter B. magnitude is such that CB tripping is a
Accordingly, account must be taken of: possibility, the cable size is chosen after the
c the nominal power rating of the lamp and protective CB (with an instantaneous trip
the ballast; setting sufficient to remain closed during the
c the power factor. current peaks) has been selected. See the
The temperature within the distribution panel Note following table J4-2.
also influences the choice of the protective
device (see Chapter H2 Sub-clause 4.4).
In general tables are available from
manufacturers to assist in making a choice.

factor of simultaneity ks
(diversity)
A particular feature of large (e.g. factory) Consequently, the interior of distribution
lighting circuits is that the whole load is “on” panels supplying lighting schemes are
or “off”, i.e. there is no diversity. Furthermore, frequently at an elevated temperature, an
even among a number of lighting circuits from important consideration to be taken into
a given distribution panel, the factor ks is account when selecting protective devices.
generally near unity.

4.4 determination of the rated current of the circuit breaker


The rated current of a circuit breaker is The following tables allow direct selection of
generally chosen according to the rating of circuit breaker ratings for certain particular
the circuit conductors it is protecting (in the cases.
particular circumstances in the Note of 4.3
above, however, the reverse procedure was
found to be necessary). The circuit conductor
ratings are defined by the maximum steady
load current of the circuit.

power 230 V 1-phase 230 V 3-phase 400 V 3-phase


(kW) current rating In (A) current rating In (A) current rating In (A)
1 6 3 2
1.5 10 4 3
2 10 6 4
2.5 16 10 4
3 16 10 6
3.5 20 10 10
4 20 16 10
4.5 25 16 10
5 25 16 10
6 32 20 10
7 32 20 16
8 40 25 16
9 50 25 16
10 50 32 20
table J4-2: protective circuit breaker ratings for incandescent lamps and resistive-type
heating circuits (see Note below).
Note: at room temperature the filament resistance of a 100 W 230 V incandescent lamp is
approximately 34 ohms. Some milli-seconds after switching on, the filament resistance rises to
2302/100 = 529 ohms.
The initial current peak at the instant of switch closure is therefore practically 15 times its normal
operating current.
A similar (but generally less severe) transient current peak occurs when energizing any resistive-
type heating appliance.

particular supply sources and loads - J31


4. lighting circuits (continued)

J
4.4 determination of the rated current of the circuit breaker (continued)
The following table (J4-3) is valid for 230 V and 400 V installations, with or without individual
power-factor correcting capacitors.
mercury vapour fluorescent lamps
P i 700 W 6A
P i 1000 W 10 A
P i 2000 W 16 A
metal-halogen mercury-vapour lamps
P 275 W 6A
P 1000 W 10 A
P 2000 W 16 A
high-pressure sodium discharge lamps
P 400 W 6A
P 1000 W 10 A
table J4-3: maximum limit of rated current per outgoing lighting circuit, for high-pressure
discharge lamps.
single-phase distribution 230 V
three-phase distribution + N : 400 V phase/phase
types de tube number of luminaires per phase
luminaires rating
(W)
single-phase 18 7 14 21 42 70 112 140 175 225 281 351 443 562 703
with capacitor 36 3 7 10 21 35 56 70 87 112 140 175 221 281 351
58 2 4 6 13 21 34 43 54 69 87 109 137 174 218
duo circuit 2x18= 36 3 7 10 21 35 56 70 87 112 140 175 221 281 351
with 2x36= 72 1 3 5 10 17 28 35 43 56 70 87 110 140 175
capacitor 2x58= 116 1 2 3 6 10 17 21 27 34 43 54 68 87 109
current rating of
1-,2-,3 -or 4- pole CBs 1 2 3 6 10 16 20 25 32 40 50 63 80 100

Calculation for tubes with p.f. capacitor; connected in star


number of tubes per phase = 0.8 C x 0.86 V
Pu x 1.25

where: C = current rating of C B, V = phase/neutral voltage, 0.86 = cos ø of circuit, 0.8 = derating
factor for high temperature in CB housing, 1.25 = factor for watts consumed by ballast,
Pu = nominal power rating of tube (W).

three-phase 3 wire system(230 V) phase/phase


types de tube number of luminaires per phase
luminaires rating
(W)
single-phase 18 4 8 12 24 40 64 81 101 127 162 203 255 324 406
with capacitor 36 2 4 6 12 20 32 40 50 64 81 101 127 162 203
58 1 2 3 7 12 20 25 31 40 50 63 79 100 126
duo circuit 2x18= 36 2 4 6 12 20 32 40 50 64 81 101 127 162 203
with 2x36= 72 1 2 3 6 10 16 20 25 32 40 50 63 81 101
capacitor 2x58= 116 0 1 1 3 6 10 12 15 20 25 31 39 50 63
current rating of
2- or 3- pole CBs 1 2 3 6 10 16 20 25 32 40 50 63 80 100
Calculation for tubes with p.f. capacitor; connected in delta
number of tubes per phase = 0.8 C x 0.86 U
Pu x 1.25 x e
where: U = phase/phase voltage
tables J4-4: current ratings of circuit breakers related to the number of fluorescent
luminaires to be protected.

J32 - particular supply sources and loads


2. inverters and UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply units) (continued)

J
2.10 complementary equipments
transformers
A two-winding transformer included on the c prevents third harmonic currents (and
upstream side of the static contactor multiples of them) which may be present on
of circuit 2 (see figure J2-5) allows: the secondary side from passing into the
c a change of voltage level when the power power-system network, providing that the
network voltage is different to that of the load; primary winding is connected in delta.
c a different arrangement for the neutral on
the load-side winding, from that of the power
network.
Moreover, such a transformer:
c reduces the short-circuit current level on
the secondary, (i.e. load) side compared with
that on the power network side,

anti-harmonic filter
The UPS system includes a battery charger For example, when:
which is controlled by commutated thyristors c the power rating of the UPS system is large
or transistors. The resulting regularly- relative to the HV/LV transformer supplying it;
chopped current cycles “generate” harmonic c the LV busbars supply loads which are
components in the power-supply network. particularly sensitive to harmonics;
These indesirable components are filtered at c a diesel (or gas-turbine, etc.) driven
the input of the rectifier and for most cases alternator is provided as a standby power
this reduces the harmonic current level supply.
sufficiently for all practical purposes. In In such cases, the manufacturers of the UPS
certain specific cases however, notably in system should be consulted.
very large installations, an additional filter
circuit may be necessary.

communications equipment
Communication with equipment associated
with informatic systems (see Sub-clause 2.5)
may entail the need for suitable facilities
within the UPS systems.
Such facilities may be incorporated in an
original design, or added to existing systems
on request.

fig. J2-27: a UPS installation with incorporated communication systems.

J24 - particular supply sources and loads


3. protection of LV/LV transformers

J
These transformers are generally in the range with protective systems incorporated, and the
of several hundreds of VA to some hundreds manufacturers must be consulted for details.
of kVA and are frequently used for: Overcurrent protection must, in any case, be
c changing the (LV) voltage level for: provided on the primary side. The exploitation
v auxiliary supplies to control and indication of these transformers requires a knowledge
circuits, of their particular function, together with a
v lighting circuits (230 V created when the number of points described below.
primary system is 400 V 3-phase 3-wires), Note: In the particular cases of LV/LV safety
c changing the method of earthing for certain isolating transformers at extra-low voltage, an
loads having a relatively high capacitive earthed metal screen between the primary
current to earth (informatic equipment) or and secondary windings is frequently
resistive leakage current (electric ovens, required, according to circumstances, as
industrial-heating processes, mass-cooking recommended in European Standard
installations, etc.). EN 60742, and as discussed in detail in
LV/LV transformers are generally supplied Sub-clause 3.5 of Chapter G.

3.1 transformer-energizing in-rush current


At the moment of energizing a transformer, I
high values of transient current (which
includes a significant d.c. component) occur, Î first
and must be taken into account when 10 to 25 In
considering protection schemes. The
magnitude of the current peak depends on:
c the value of voltage at the instant of
energization,
In
c the magnitude and polarity of magnetic flux
(if any) existing in the core of the transformer, θ t
c characteristics of the load on the fig. J3-1: transformer-energizing in-rush
transformer. current.
In distribution-type transformers, the first
current peak can attain a value equal to 10 to
15 times the full-load r.m.s. current, but for
small transformers (< 50 kVA) may reach
values of 20 to 25 times the nominal full-load
current. This transient current decreases
rapidly, with a time constant θ (see figure
J3-1) of the order of several milli-seconds to
several tens of milli-seconds.

3.2 protection for the supply circuit of a LV/LV transformer


The protective device on the supply circuit for t
a LV/LV transformer must avoid the possibility
of incorrect operation due to the magnetizing
in-rush current surge, noted above in 3.1. It is
necessary to use therefore:
c selective (i.e. slightly time-delayed) circuit
breakers of the type Compact NS STR*
(figure J3-2) or 50 to
c circuit breakers having a very high 70 ms
magnetic-trip setting, of the types
Compact NS or Multi 9* curve D (figure J3-3).
* Merlin Gerin. r.m.s. value instantaneous I
of the first trip
peak
fig. J3-2: tripping characteristic of a
Compact NS STR circuit breaker.
t

In 10In 20In I
r.m.s. value
of the first
peak
fig. J3-3: tripping characteristic of a circuit
breaker according to standardized type D
curve (for Merlin Gerin 10 to 14 In).

particular supply sources and loads - J25


3. protection of LV/LV transformers (continued)

J
3.2 protection for the supply circuit of a LV/LV transformer (continued)
Example (figure J3-4)
A 400 V 3-phase circuit is supplying a NS250N
125 kVA 400/230 V transformer (In = 180 A) tripping unit
STR22SE (Ir = 200)
for which the first in-rush current peak can
reach 17 In, i.e. 17 x 180 A = 3,067 A.
A Compact NS250 circuit breaker with Ir
setting of 200 A would therefore be a suitable 3 x 70 mm2
protective device.
A particular case: overload protection 400/230 V
125 kVA
installed at the secondary side of the
transformer
An advantage of overload protection located fig. J3-4: example.
on the secondary side, is that the short-circuit
protection on the primary side can be set at a Note: The primary protection is sometimes
high value, or alternatively a circuit breaker provided by fuses, type a M. This practice
type MA* may be used. The primary-side has two disadvantages:
short-circuit protection setting must, however, c the fuses must be largely oversized (at
be sufficiently sensitive to ensure its least 4 times the nominal full-load rated
operation in the event of a short-circuit current of the transformer);
occurring on the secondary side of the c in order to provide isolating facilities on the
transformer (upstream of secondary primary side, either a load-break switch or a
protective devices). contactor must be associated with the fuses.
* Motor-control circuit breaker, the short-circuit protective
relay of which is immune to high transient-current peaks, as
shown in figure J5-3.

3.3 typical electrical characteristics of LV/LV 50 Hz transformers


3-phase
kVA rating 5 6.3 8 10 12.5 16 20 25 31.5 40 50 63 80 100 125 160 200 250 315 400 500 630 800
no-load losses (W) 100 110 130 150 160 170 270 310 350 350 410 460 520 570 680 680 790 950 1160 1240 1485 1855 2160
full-load losses (W) 250 320 390 500 600 840 800 1180 1240 1530 1650 2150 2540 3700 3700 5900 5900 6500 7400 9300 9400 11400 11400
s.c. voltage (%) 4.5 4.5 4.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 5 5 4.5 5 5 5.5 4.5 5.5 5 5 4.5 6 6 5.5 5.5
1-phase
kVA rating 8 10 12.5 16 20 25 31.5 40 50 63 80 100 125 160
no-load losses (W) 105 115 120 140 150 175 200 215 265 305 450 450 525 635
full-load losses (W) 400 530 635 730 865 1065 1200 1400 1900 2000 2450 3950 3950 4335
s.c. voltage (%) 5 5 5 4.5 4.5 4 4 5 5 4.5 5.5 5 5
table J3-5: typical electrical characteristics of LV/LV 50 Hz transformers.

3.4 protection of transformers with characteristics as tabled in J3-5 above, using


Merlin Gerin circuit breakers
3-phase transformers (400 V primary) circuit breakers
P (kVA) In (A) Usc % type trip-unit current
rating (A)/type no.
5 7 4.5 C60 / NC100 D or K 20
10 14 5.5 C60 / NC100 D or K 32
16 23 5.5 C60 / NC100 D or K 63
20 28 5.5 C60 / NC100 D or K 63
25 35 5.5 NC100 D 80
31.5 44 5 NC100 D 80
40 56 5 NC100 D 80
50 70 4.5 NC100 D 100
63 89 5 NS100H/L MA100
NS160H/L STR22SE
80 113 5 NS160H/L STR22SE
100 141 5.5 NS250N/H/L STR22SE
125 176 4.5 NS250N/H/L STR22SE
NS400N/H/L STR23SE
160 225 5.5 NS250N/H/L STR22SE
NS400N/H/L STR23SE
250 352 5 C801N/H/L STR35SE
315 444 4.5 C801N/H/L STR35SE
400 563 6 C801N/H/L STR35SE
500 704 6 C801NH/L STR35SE
C1001N/H/L STR35SE
630 887 5.5 C1001N/H/L STR35SE
C1251N/H STR35SE
table J3-6: protection of 3-phase LV/LV transformers with 400 V primary windings.

J26 - particular supply sources and loads


J
3-phase transformers (230 V primary) circuit breakers
P (kVA) In (A) Usc % type trip-unit current
rating (A)/type no.
5 12 4.5 C60 / NC100 D or K 40
10 24 5.5 C60 / NC100 D or K 63
16 39 5.5 NC100 D 80
20 49 5.5 NC100 D 100
25 61 5.5 NS100H/L STR22SE
31.5 77 5 NS100H/L STR22SE
40 97 5 NS100H/L STR22SE
50 122 4.5 NS100H/L STR22SE
63 153 5 NS250N/H/L STR22SE
NS400N/H/L STR23SE
80 195 5 NS250N/H/L STR22SE
NS400N/H/L STR23SE
100 244 5.5 NS630N/H/L STR23SE
125 305 4.5 C801N/H/L STR35SE
160 390 5.5 C801N/H/L STR35SE
250 609 5 C801N/H/L STR35SE
C1001N/H/L STR35SE
315 767 4.5 C1001N/H/L STR35SE
C1251N/H STR35SE
400 974 6 C1251N/H STR35SE
table J3-7: protection of 3-phase LV/LV transformers with 230 V primary windings.

1-phase transformers (400 V primary) circuit breakers


P (kVA) In (A) Usc % type trip-unit current
rating (A)/type no.
0.1 0.24 13 C60 D or K 1
0.16 0.39 10.5 C60 D or K 1
0.25 0.61 9.5 C60 D or K 1
0.4 0.98 7.5 C60 D or K 2
0.63 1.54 7 C60 D or K 3
1 2.44 5.2 C60 D or K 6
1.6 3.9 4 C60 / NC100 D or K 10
2 4.88 2.9 C60 / NC100 D or K 10
2.5 6.1 3 C60 / NC100 D or K 16
4 9.8 2.1 C60 / NC100 D or K 20
5 12.2 1.9 C60 / NC100 D or K 32
6.3 15.4 1.6 C60 / NC100 D or K 40
8 19.5 5 C60 / NC100 D or K 50
10 24 5 C60 / NC100 D or K 63
12.5 30 5 C60 / NC100 D or K 63
16 39 4.5 NC100 D 80
20 49 4.5 NC100 D 100
25 61 4.5 NS160H/L STR22SE
31.5 77 4 NS160H/L STR22SE
40 98 4 NS160H/L STR22SE
50 122 4 NS160H/L STR22SE
63 154 5 NS250N/H/L STR22SE
NS400N/H/L STR23SE
80 195 4.5 NS250N/H/L STR22SE
NS400 STR23SE
100 244 5.5 NS630 STR23SE
125 305 5 C801N/H/L STR35SE
160 390 5 C801N/H/L STR35SE
table J3-8: protection of 1-phase LV/LV transformers with 400 V primary windings.

particular supply sources and loads - J27


3. protection of LV/LV transformers (continued)

J
3.4 protection of transformers with characteristics as tabled in J3-5 above, using
Merlin Gerin circuit breakers (continued)
1-phase transformers (230 V primary) circuit breakers
P (kVA) In (A) Usc % type trip-unit current
rating (A)/type no.
0.1 0.4 13 C60 D or K 1
0.16 0.7 10.5 C60 D or K 2
0.25 1.1 9.5 C60 D or K 3
0.4 1.7 7.5 C60 D or K 4
0.63 2.7 7 C60 D or K 6
1 4.2 5.2 C60 / NC100 D or K 10
1.6 6.8 4 C60 / NC100 D or K 16
2 8.4 2.9 C60 / NC100 D or K 16
2.5 10.5 3 C60 / NC100 D or K 20
4 16.9 2.1 C60 / NC100 D or K 40
5 21.1 1.9 C60 / NC100 D or K 50
6.3 27 1.6 C60 / NC100 D or K 63
8 34 5 NC100 D 80
10 42 5 NC100 D 100
12.5 53 5 NC100 D 100
16 68 4.5 NS160H/L STR22SE
20 84 4.5 NS160H/L STR22SE
25 105 4.5 NS250N/H/L STR22SE
NS250N/H/L STR22SE
31.5 133 4 NS250N/H/L STR22SE
40 169 4 NS250N/H/L STR22SE
NS400N/H/L STR23SE
50 211 5 NS250N/H/L STR22SE
NS400N/H/L STR23SE
63 266 5 NS630N/H/L STR23SE
80 338 4.5 C801N/H/L STR35SE
100 422 5.5 C801N/H/L STR35SE
125 528 5 C801N/H/L STR35SE
160 675 5 C801N/H/L STR35SE
C1001N/H/L STR35SE
table J3-9: protection of 1-phase LV/LV transformers with 230 V primary windings.

J28 - particular supply sources and loads


4. lighting circuits

J
The planning and realization of a lighting In fact, the provision of adequate illumination
the presence of adequate lighting
installation requires a sound understanding of in the event of fire or other catastrophic
contributes to the satety of persons. the materials installed, together with circumstances is of great importance in
familiarity with the rules for safety against fire reducing the likelihood of panic, and in
hazards in establishments receiving the permitting the necessary safety manœuvres
public. to be carried out.

emergency lighting is intended definitions


to facilitate the evacuation of persons Normal lighting refers to the installation Standby lighting is intended to substitute
designed for everyday use. normal lighting, where the latter fails. Standby
in case of fire or other panic-causing Emergency lighting must ensure easy lighting permits everyday activities to
situations, when normal lighting evacuation of persons from the premises continue more or less normally, depending on
systems may have failed. concerned, in the event that the normal the original design specification, and on the
lighting system fails. Furthermore, emergency extent of the normal lighting failure. Failure of
lighting must be adequate to allow any the standby lighting system must
particular safety manœuvres provided in the automatically switch on the emergency
premises to be carried out. lighting system.

4.1 service continuity


continuity of normal lighting service normal lighting
must be sufficient, independent of Regulations governing the minimum
requirements for ERP (Establishments
other supplementary systems. Receiving the Public) in most European
countries, are as follows:
c installations which illuminate areas
accessible to the public must be controlled
and protected independently from
installations providing illumination to other
areas;
c loss of supply on a final lighting circuit (i.e.
fuse blown or CB tripped) must not result in
total loss of illumination in an area which is
capable of accommodating more than
50 persons;
c protection by RCDs (residual current
differential devices) must be divided amongst
several devices (i.e. more than one device
must be used).

in emergency lighting circuits, emergency lighting


absolute discrimination between These schemes include illuminated
emergency exit signs and direction
protective devices on the different indications, as well as general lighting.
circuits must be provided. c emergency exit indications
In areas accommodating more than
50 persons, luminous directional indications
to the nearest emergency exits must be
provided;
c general emergency lighting
General lighting is obligatory when an area
can accommodate 100 persons or more
(50 persons or more in areas below ground
level).
A fault on a lighting distribution circuit must
not affect any other circuit:
v the discrimination of overcurrent-protection
relays and of RCDs must be absolute, so that
only the faulty circuit will be cut off,
v the installation must be an IT scheme, or
must be entirely class II, i.e. doubly-insulated.

Sub-clause 4.7 describes different kinds of


suitable power supplies.

particular supply sources and loads - J29


4. lighting circuits (continued)

J
4.2 lamps and accessories (luminaires)
fluorescent tubes
For normal operation a fluorescent tube c the starter is a switch, which, by breaking
requires a ballast and a starter (device for the (electrode-preheating) current passing
initiating the luminous discharge). through the ballast, causes a high-voltage
c the ballast is an iron-cored inductor, transient pulse to appear across the tube.
permanently connected in series with the This causes an arc (in the form of a gaseous
tube; its function is threefold, viz: discharge) to be established through the
v to limit the preheating current during the tube. The discharge is then self-sustaining at
(brief) starting period, normal voltage.
v to provide a pulse of high voltage at the end The ballast, capacitor and the tube, engender
of the starting period to strike the initial arc, disturbances during the periods of starting,
v to stabilize the current through the luminous steady operation and extinction. These
column (hence the term “ballast”). disturbances are analysed in table J4-1
below.
The presence of the ballast means that the
power-factor (cos ø) of the circuit is low (of
the order 0.6) with the corresponding
consumption of reactive energy, which is
generally metered. For this reason each
fluorescent lamp is normally provided with its
own power-factor-correction capacitor.

switching-on disturbances switching-off disturbances steady-operating disturbances


single-phase fluorescent c high current peak to charge no particular problems circulation of harmonic currents
lamp with its individual capacitor; order of magnitude 10 In (sinusoidal currents at frequencies equal
p.f. correction capacitor for 1 sec. to whole-number multiples of 50
A number of lamps on one circuit (or 60) Hz:
1
2 can result in peaks of 300-400 A for c delta-connected lamps (see
3 0.5 ms. Appendix J2) (3-ph 3-wire 230 V system)
This can cause a CB to trip, or the 1
welding of contacts in a contactor. In 2
practice, limit each circuit to 8 tubes 3
per contactor;
c moderate overload at the presence of 5th and 7th harmonics at very
beginning of steady operating low level
condition (1.1-1.5 In for 1 sec)
according to type of starter. c star-connected lamps (3-ph 4-wire
single-phase twin-tube c no high current peak as noted no particular problems 400/230 V system)
fluorescent lamp with above; 1
each tube having its c same order of moderate overload 2
3
own starter and series at beginning of steady operating N
ballast. One of the tubes condition as for the single tube
has a capacitor noted above. presence of 3 rd harmonic currents in the
connected in series with This arrangement is recommended neutral, which can reach 70 to 80% of the
its ballast. The two sets for difficult cases. nominal phase current.
of equipment are In this case, therefore, the c.s.a. of the
connected in parallel. neutral conductor must equal that of the
The arrangement is phase conductors.
known internationally as
a “duo”-circuit luminaire.
The capacitor displaces
the phase of the current
through its tube, to
nullify the flicker effect,
as well as correcting the
overall p.f.
starter
ballast
A

B
starter
fluorescent lamp with c can generate a current peak at no particular problems
HF ballast start;
c can cause leakage to earth of HF
Advantages: current (at 30 kHz) via the phase
Energy savings of the conductor capacitances to earth.
order of 25%.
Rapid one-shot start.
No flicker or
stroboscopic effects.
table J4-1: analysis of disturbances in fluorescent-lighting circuits.

J30 - particular supply sources and loads


J
4.3 the circuit and its protection
dimensions and protection of the
conductors
The maximum currents in the circuits can be Note: for circuits in which large peak currents
estimated using the methods discussed in occur (at times of switching on) and their
Chapter B. magnitude is such that CB tripping is a
Accordingly, account must be taken of: possibility, the cable size is chosen after the
c the nominal power rating of the lamp and protective CB (with an instantaneous trip
the ballast; setting sufficient to remain closed during the
c the power factor. current peaks) has been selected. See the
The temperature within the distribution panel Note following table J4-2.
also influences the choice of the protective
device (see Chapter H2 Sub-clause 4.4).
In general tables are available from
manufacturers to assist in making a choice.

factor of simultaneity ks
(diversity)
A particular feature of large (e.g. factory) Consequently, the interior of distribution
lighting circuits is that the whole load is “on” panels supplying lighting schemes are
or “off”, i.e. there is no diversity. Furthermore, frequently at an elevated temperature, an
even among a number of lighting circuits from important consideration to be taken into
a given distribution panel, the factor ks is account when selecting protective devices.
generally near unity.

4.4 determination of the rated current of the circuit breaker


The rated current of a circuit breaker is The following tables allow direct selection of
generally chosen according to the rating of circuit breaker ratings for certain particular
the circuit conductors it is protecting (in the cases.
particular circumstances in the Note of 4.3
above, however, the reverse procedure was
found to be necessary). The circuit conductor
ratings are defined by the maximum steady
load current of the circuit.

power 230 V 1-phase 230 V 3-phase 400 V 3-phase


(kW) current rating In (A) current rating In (A) current rating In (A)
1 6 3 2
1.5 10 4 3
2 10 6 4
2.5 16 10 4
3 16 10 6
3.5 20 10 10
4 20 16 10
4.5 25 16 10
5 25 16 10
6 32 20 10
7 32 20 16
8 40 25 16
9 50 25 16
10 50 32 20
table J4-2: protective circuit breaker ratings for incandescent lamps and resistive-type
heating circuits (see Note below).
Note: at room temperature the filament resistance of a 100 W 230 V incandescent lamp is
approximately 34 ohms. Some milli-seconds after switching on, the filament resistance rises to
2302/100 = 529 ohms.
The initial current peak at the instant of switch closure is therefore practically 15 times its normal
operating current.
A similar (but generally less severe) transient current peak occurs when energizing any resistive-
type heating appliance.

particular supply sources and loads - J31


4. lighting circuits (continued)

J
4.4 determination of the rated current of the circuit breaker (continued)
The following table (J4-3) is valid for 230 V and 400 V installations, with or without individual
power-factor correcting capacitors.
mercury vapour fluorescent lamps
P i 700 W 6A
P i 1000 W 10 A
P i 2000 W 16 A
metal-halogen mercury-vapour lamps
P 275 W 6A
P 1000 W 10 A
P 2000 W 16 A
high-pressure sodium discharge lamps
P 400 W 6A
P 1000 W 10 A
table J4-3: maximum limit of rated current per outgoing lighting circuit, for high-pressure
discharge lamps.
single-phase distribution 230 V
three-phase distribution + N : 400 V phase/phase
types de tube number of luminaires per phase
luminaires rating
(W)
single-phase 18 7 14 21 42 70 112 140 175 225 281 351 443 562 703
with capacitor 36 3 7 10 21 35 56 70 87 112 140 175 221 281 351
58 2 4 6 13 21 34 43 54 69 87 109 137 174 218
duo circuit 2x18= 36 3 7 10 21 35 56 70 87 112 140 175 221 281 351
with 2x36= 72 1 3 5 10 17 28 35 43 56 70 87 110 140 175
capacitor 2x58= 116 1 2 3 6 10 17 21 27 34 43 54 68 87 109
current rating of
1-,2-,3 -or 4- pole CBs 1 2 3 6 10 16 20 25 32 40 50 63 80 100

Calculation for tubes with p.f. capacitor; connected in star


number of tubes per phase = 0.8 C x 0.86 V
Pu x 1.25

where: C = current rating of C B, V = phase/neutral voltage, 0.86 = cos ø of circuit, 0.8 = derating
factor for high temperature in CB housing, 1.25 = factor for watts consumed by ballast,
Pu = nominal power rating of tube (W).

three-phase 3 wire system(230 V) phase/phase


types de tube number of luminaires per phase
luminaires rating
(W)
single-phase 18 4 8 12 24 40 64 81 101 127 162 203 255 324 406
with capacitor 36 2 4 6 12 20 32 40 50 64 81 101 127 162 203
58 1 2 3 7 12 20 25 31 40 50 63 79 100 126
duo circuit 2x18= 36 2 4 6 12 20 32 40 50 64 81 101 127 162 203
with 2x36= 72 1 2 3 6 10 16 20 25 32 40 50 63 81 101
capacitor 2x58= 116 0 1 1 3 6 10 12 15 20 25 31 39 50 63
current rating of
2- or 3- pole CBs 1 2 3 6 10 16 20 25 32 40 50 63 80 100
Calculation for tubes with p.f. capacitor; connected in delta
number of tubes per phase = 0.8 C x 0.86 U
Pu x 1.25 x e
where: U = phase/phase voltage
tables J4-4: current ratings of circuit breakers related to the number of fluorescent
luminaires to be protected.

J32 - particular supply sources and loads


J
4.5 choice of control-switching devices
The advent of switching devices which Certain switching devices include control
combine the functions of remote control and circuitry for operation at ELV (extra-low-
protection, of which the remotely-controllable voltage, i.e. < 50 V or < 25 V according to
residual-current circuit breaker is the requirements); these control circuits being
prototype, simplifies lighting-control circuits insulated for 4,000 V with respect to the
considerably, thereby enlarging the scope power circuits.
and diversity of control schemes. The situation at the time of writing is
summarized below in table J4-5.

remote-control function of corresponding switchgear and controlled equipment


mode
remote remote control remote control local control centralized control
control + overcurrent + overcurrent protection devices devices
protection + insulation monitoring
and protection
point-to-point bistable switch circuit residual current circuit push-button stairway time-switch
remote control breaker breaker controlled with automatic switch-off
centralized contactor controlled by hard-wire system switch automatic photo-electric
remote control by hard-wire system lighting-control switches
point-to-point “pilot” bistable switch push movement detectors;
and centralized remote controlled button central clock relaying
remote control switch
control signals remotely remotely controlled residual current circuit according
over commun- controlled circuit breaker over breaker controlled over to type
ications bus switch communications bus communications bus
control signals remotely controlled static contactor/
over time- circuit breaker combination
multiplexing
channels
table J4-5: types of remote control.

particular supply sources and loads - J33


4. lighting circuits (continued)

J
4.6 protection of ELV lighting circuits
A LV/ELV transformer is often located in an
inaccessible position, so that protection
installed on the secondary side would be
equally difficult to reach.
For this reason the protection is commonly
provided on the primary circuit.
The protective device is therefore chosen:
c to provide switching control (Multi 9
type C CB, or type aM fuses);
c to ensure protection against short-circuits.
It must therefore be verified that:
v in the case of a CB, the minimum value of
short-circuit current exceeds by a suitable
margin the short-circuit magnetic relay setting
Im of the CB concerned,
v in the case of fuses it is also necessary to
ensure that the I2t energy let-through of the
fuse(s) at minimum short-circuit current is
well below the level of the thermal withstand
capacity of the circuit conductors,
c if necessary, overload protection must be
provided. If the number of lamps on the circuit
has been correctly chosen, however,
overload protection is not necessary.
Example:
The s.c. current Isc2 at the secondary
2A
terminals of a single-phase LV/ELV
transformer is equal to
Us where Zs = Us2 x Usc %
Zs Pn 100
so that Isc2 = Pn x 100 = 400 x 100 LV 230/12 V
Us x Usc% 12 x 6 ELV
400 VA
= 555 A which gives Isc1 = 29 A in the Usc = 6%
primary circuit.

Circuit breaker type C trips if the primary


current u Im1 = 10 In = 20 A, which
corresponds to a secondary current of secondary
circuit
20 x 230 = 383 A
12
The maximum resistance of the ELV (i.e.
secondary) circuit* may be deduced from
these two secondary s.c. currents, viz: 555 A fig. J4-6: example.
and 383 A as follows:
Rc = U2 - V2 = 12 - 12 = 0.0313 - 0.0216
Im2 Isc2 383 555
= 9.7 mΩ
* from the transformer terminals to the ELV distribution
board.

Note: The true value of Rc permitted is,


in principle, greater than 9.7 milli-ohms,
because the source impedance (i.e. U2/555,
will be mainly reactive, not resistive, as
(implied) in the example. However,
for simplicity, and to automatically provide
a safety margin under all circumstances,
an arithmetic subtraction, as shown,
is recommended.
The maximum length of the 12 V circuit
based on 9.7 mΩ will therefore be:
Rc (mΩ) x S (mm2) in metres = 9.7 x 6
2 x 22.5 (µΩ.mm) 2 x 22.5
for a 6 mm2 copper cable = 1.3 m
It is then necessary to check that this length
is sufficient to reach the 12 V distribution
board, where the outgoing ways are
protected with other devices. If the length is
insufficient, then an increase in the c.s.a. of
the conductors, proportional to the increased
length required, will satisfy the constraint for
maximum Rc; for example, a conductor of
10 mm2 would allow 1.3 x 10/6 = 2.2 m of
circuit length in the above case.

J34 - particular supply sources and loads


J
4.7 supply sources for emergency lighting
Supply sources for emergency-lighting
systems must be capable of maintaining the
supply to all lamps in the most unfavourable
circumstances likely to occur, and for a period
judged necessary to ensure the total
evacuation of the premises concerned,
with (in any case) a minimum of one hour.

compatibility between
emergency lighting sources and
other parts of the installation
Emergency-lighting sources must supply Central sources for emergency supplies may
exclusively the circuits installed only for also be used to provide standby supplies,
operation in emergency situations. provided that the following conditions are
Standby lighting systems operate to maintain simultaneously fulfilled:
illumination, on failure of normal lighting c where there are several sources, the failure
circuits (generally in non-emergency of one source must leave sufficient capacity
circumstances). However, failure of standby in service to maintain supply to all safety
lighting must automatically bring the systems, with automatic load shedding of
emergency lighting system into operation. non-essential loads (if necessary);
c the failure of one source, or one equipment
concerned with safety, must leave all other
sources and safety equipments unaffected;
c any safety equipment must be arranged to
receive supply from any source.

classification of emergency-
lighting schemes
Many countries have statutory regulations Type C
concerning safety in buildings and areas The lamps may, or may not, be supplied in
intended for public gatherings. normal conditions and, if supplied, may be
Classification of such locations leads to the fed from the normal lighting system, or from
determination of suitable types of solutions, the emergency-lighting supply.
authorized for use in emergency-lighting c the emergency-lighting batteries must be
schemes in the different areas. maintained on charge from the normal source
The following four classifications are typical. by automatically regulated systems, that
Type A ensure a minimum of capacity equal to the
The lamps are supplied permanently and full emergency-lighting load for one hour;
totally during the presence of the public by a c the heat-engine-driven generator sets must
single central source (battery of storage cells, be capable of automatically picking-up the full
or a heat-engine-driven generator). These emergency lighting load from a standby
circuits must be independent of any other (stationary) condition, in less than
circuits (1). 15 seconds, following the failure of normal
supply.
Type B The engine start-up power is provided by a
The lamps are permanently supplied during battery which is capable of six starting
the presence of the public, either: attempts, or by a system of compressed air.
c by a battery to which the lamps are Minimum reserves of energy in the two
permanently connected, and which is on systems of start-up must be maintained
permanent trickle charge from a normal automatically.
lighting source, or, c failures in the central emergency supply
c by a heat-engine-driven generator, the source must be detected at a sufficient
characteristics of which also assure supplies number of points and adequately signalled to
to essential loads within one second (since supervisory/maintenance personnel;
the set is already running and supplying the c autonomous units may be of the
emergency lighting) in the event of failure of permanently-lit type or non-permanently-lit
the normal power supply, or, type.
c by autonomous units which are normally The circuits for all emergency lamps must be
supplied and permanently alight from the independent of any other circuits (2).
normal lighting supply, and which remain
alight (for at least one hour), on the loss of Type D
normal supply, by virtue of a self-contained This type of emergency lighting comprises
battery. The battery is trickle-charged in hand-carried battery-powered (primary or
normal circumstances. secondary cells) at the disposal of service
These units have fluorescent lamps for personnel or the public.
general emergency lighting, and fluorescent (1) Circuits for types A and B, in the case of a central
emergency power source, must also be fire-resistant.
or incandescent lamps for exit and direction- Conduit boxes, junction sleeves and so on must satisfy
indicating signs. national standard heat tests, or the circuits must be installed
in protective cable chases, trunking, etc. capable of assuring
The circuits for all emergency lamps must be satisfactory performance for at least one hour in the event of
independent of any other circuits (1). fire.
(2) Cable circuits of type C are not required to comply with
the conditions of (1).

particular supply sources and loads - J35


5. asynchronous motors

J
The consequences of an incorrectly protected It is, therefore, the safety of persons and
the asynchronous (i.e. induction)
motor can include the following: goods, and reliability and availability levels
motor is robust and reliable, c for persons: which must influence the choice of protective
and very widely used. 95% v asphyxiation due to the blockage of motor equipment.
of motors installed around the world ventilation, In economic terms, it is the overall cost of
are asynchronous. The protection v electrocution due to insulation failure in the failure which must be considered; a penalty
motor, which is increasingly severe as the size of the
of these motors is consequently v accident due to sticking (contact welding) of motor, and difficulties of access to it increase.
a matter of great importance the controlling contactor; Loss of production is a further, and evidently
in numerous applications. c for the driven machine and the process: important factor.
v shaft couplings and axles, etc. damaged
due to a stalled rotor,
v loss of production,
v manufacturing time delayed;
c for the motor:
v motor windings burnt out due to stalled
rotor,
v cost of dismantling and reinstating or
replacement of motor,
v cost of repairs to the motor.

specific features of motor A motor power-supply circuit presents certain t I" = 8 to 12 In


constraints not normally encountered in other Id = 5 to 8 In
performance influence the power- (common) distribution circuits, owing to the In = nominal motor
supply circuits required for particular characteristics, specific to motors, current
satisfactory operation. such as:
c heavy start-up current (see figure J5-1)
which is highly reactive, and can therefore be
the cause of an important voltage drop; td
1 to 10s
c number and frequency of start-up
operations are generally high;
c the heavy start-up current means that
motor overload protective devices must have
operating characteristics which avoid tripping
during the starting period.
20 to
30 ms

In Id I" I
fig. J5-1: direct-on-line starting-current
characteristics of an induction motor.

5.1 protective and control functions required


Functions generally provided are:
functions to be provided generally c basic protection, including:
include: v isolating facility,
c basic protective devices, v manual local and/or remote control,
c electronic control equipment, v protection against short-circuits,
c preventive or limitative protection v protection against overload;
c electronic controls consisting of:
equipment. v progressive “soft-start” motor starter, or,
v speed controller;
c preventive or limitative protection by means
of:
v temperature sensors,
v multi-function relays,
v permanent insulation-resistance monitor or
RCD (residual-current differential device).
Table J5-2 below, shows diverse motor-circuit
configurations commonly used in LV
distribution boards.

J36 - particular supply sources and loads


J
basic protection fuse-disconnector circuit breaker* motor circuit contactor circuit
+ discontactor + discontactor breaker* + contactor breaker* ACPA
(using thermal relay) (using thermal relay)
standards

disconnection
(or isolation)

manual remote
control control

short-circuit
protection

* circuit breaker includes disconnector capability


overload c large power range c large power range c method is simple c low installation costs
protection c allow all types c avoids need to stock and compact for c no maintenance
of starting schemes fuse cartridges low-power motors c high degree of safety
c a well-proven method c disconnection is and reliability
c suitable for systems visible in certain cases c suitable for systems
having high fault c identification of having high fault levels
levels the reason for tripping c long electrical life
refer also to Chapter H2, Sub-clause 2-2 i.e. short circuit
or overload
electronic controls progressive “soft-start” speed
starter device controller
c limitation c from 2 to 130 % of
v current peaks I nominal speed
v voltage drops U c thermal protection is
v mechanical constraints incorporated
during start-up period c possibility of
c thermal protection is communication facilities
incorporated
preventive or limitative
protection devices thermal sensors
Protection against abnormal
heating of the motor by
thermistance-type sensors in the
motor windings, connected to
associated relays.

multi-function relays
Direct and indirect thermal protection against:
c the starting period excessively long, or
stalled-rotor condition
c imbalance, absence or inversion of phase
voltages
c earth fault or excessive earth-leakage current
c motor running on no-load; motor blocked
during start-up
c pre-alarm overheating indication

permanent insulation-to-earth monitor and


RCD (residual-current differential relay)
Protection against earth-leakage current
and short-circuits to earth.
Signalled indication of need for motor
maintenance or replacement.

table J5-2: commonly-used types of LV motor-supply circuits.

particular supply sources and loads - J37


5. asynchronous motors (continued)

J
5.2 standards
The international standards covering
materials discussed in this Sub-clause are:
IEC 947-2, 947-3, 947-4-1, and 947-6-2.
These standards are being adopted (often
without any changes) by a number of
countries, as national standards.

5.3 basic protection schemes: circuit breaker / contactor / thermal relay


The control and protection of a motor can be
functions to be implemented are:
provided by one, two or three devices, which
c control (start/stop), share the required functions of:
c isolation (safety during c control (start/stop);
maintenance), c disconnection (isolation) for safety of
c protection against short-circuits, personnel during maintenance work;
c short-circuit protection;
c specific protection as noted in c protection specific to the particular motor
Sub-clause 5.1 (but at least thermal relay overcurrent
Where several different devices are protection).
used to provide protection, co- When these functions are performed by
several devices, co-ordination between them
ordination between them is
is essential. In the case of an electrical fault
necessary. of any kind, none of the devices involved
must be damaged, except items for which
minor damage is normal in the particular
circumstances, e.g. replaceable arcing
contacts in certain contactors, after a given
number of service operations, and so on...
The kind of co-ordination required depends
on the necessary degree of service continuity
and on safety levels, etc.

among the many possible methods t range 1.05 - 1.20 In


of protecting a motor, the association circuit
breaker
of a circuit breaker incorporating an characteristics
end of of thermal relay
instantaneous magnetic trip for short- magnetic start-up
relay period
circuit protection and a contactor with
a thermal overload relay* provides contactor cable thermal-withstand
ts
many advantages. 1 to
limit
thermal
relay 10 s

limit of thermal-
câble relay constraint
short-circuit tripping
characteristic
motor of the circuit breaker
(nominal 20 to (type MA)
current In) 30 ms
In Is I" Imagn. l CB plus contactor (see Note)
short-circuit-current
circuit breaker only breaking capacities
fig. J5-3: tripping characteristics of a circuit breaker (type MA)** and
thermal-relay / contactor (1) combination.
Advantages c interlocking;
This combination of devices facilitates c diverse remote indications;
installation work, as well as operation and c better protection for the starter for short-
maintenance, by: circuit currents up to about 30 In (see
c the reduction of the maintenance work load: figure J5-3).
the CB avoids the need to replace blown In the majority of cases short-circuit faults
fuses and the necessity of maintaining a occur at the motor, so that the current is
stock (of different sizes); limited by the cable and the wiring of the
c better continuity performance: a motor starter (e.g. the direct-acting trip coil of the
circuit can be re-energized immediately CB).
following the elimination of a fault; c possibility of adding RCD:
c additional complementary devices v an RCD of 500 mA sensitivity practically
sometimes required on a motor circuit are eliminates fire risk due to leakage current,
easily accommodated; v protection against destruction of the motor
c tripping of all three phases is assured (short-circuiting of laminations) by the early
(thereby avoiding the possibility of “single- detection of earth-fault currents (300 mA to
phasing”); 30 A);
c full-load current switching possibility (by c etc.
CB) in the event of contactor failure, e.g.
contact welding;
* The association of an overload relay and a contactor is referred to as a “discontactor” in some countries.
** Merlin Gerin.

J38 - particular supply sources and loads


J
Note: When short-circuit currents are very
high, the contacts of some contactors may be
momentarily forced open by electro-magnetic
repulsion, so that two sets of contacts (i.e.
those of the CB and those of the contactor)
are acting in series. The combination
effectively increases the s.c. current-breaking
capacity above that of the CB alone.
Conclusion
The association circuit breaker / contactor /
thermal relay(1) for the control and protection
of motor circuits is eminently appropriate
where:
c the maintenance service for an installation
is reduced, which is generally the case in
tertiary and small-and medium-sized
industrial enterprises;
c the job specification calls for
complementary functions;
c there is an operational requirement for a
load-breaking facility in the event of contact
welding of the contactor.
(1) a contactor in association with a thermal relay is
commonly referred to as a discontactor.

standardization of the
association of circuit breakers/
discontactors
Categories of contactor
The standard IEC 947-4 gives utilization
categories which considerably facilitate the
choice of a suitable contactor for a given
service duty.
The utilization categories advise on:
c a range of functions for which the contactor
may be adapted;
c its current breaking and making
capabilities;
c standard test values for expected life
duration on load, according to its utilization.
The following table gives some typical
examples of the utilization categories
covered.
utilization application characteristics
category
AC-1 Non-inductive (or slightly inductive) loads: cos ø u 0.95 (heating, distribution)
AC-2 Starting and switching off of slip-ring motors
AC-3 Cage motors: starting, and switching off motors during running
AC-4 Cage motors: starting, plugging, inching
table J5-4: utilization categories for contactors (IEC 947-4).
Types of co-ordination Which type to choose?
For each association of devices, a type of co- The type of co-ordination to adopt depends
ordination is given, according to the state of on the parameters of exploitation, and must
the constituant parts following a circuit be chosen to satisfy (optimally) the needs of
breaker trip out on fault, or the opening of a the user and the cost of installation.
contactor on overload. c type 1:
IEC 947-4-1 defines two types of co- v qualified maintenance service,
ordination, type 1 and type 2, which set v volume and cost of switchgear reduced,
maximum allowable limits of deterioration of v continuity of service not demanded, or
switchgear, which must never present a provided by replacement of motor-starter
danger to personnel. drawer;
c type 1: deterioration of the contactor and/or c type 2:
of its relay is acceptable under 2 conditions: v continuity of service imperative,
v no risk for the operator, v no maintenance service,
v all elements other than the contactor and its v specifications stipulating this type of co-
relay must remain undamaged; ordination.
c type 2: burning, and the risk of welding of
the contacts of the contactor are the only
risks allowed.

particular supply sources and loads - J39


5. asynchronous motors (continued)

J
5.3 basic protection schemes: circuit breaker / contactor / thermal relay (continued)
key points in the successful
association of a circuit breaker
and a discontactor
t
Compact NS 2 1 CB magnetic-trip performance curve
type MA 2 thermal-relay characteristic
3 thermal-withstand limit of the thermal relay

1
3

Isc ext.

fig. J5-5: the thermal-withstand limit of the thermal relay must be to the right of the CB
magnetic-trip characteristic.
Standards define precisely all the elements c the short-circuit current breaking rating of
which must be taken into account to realize a the contactor must be greater than the
correct co-ordination of type 2: regulated threshold of the CB magnetic trip
c absolute compatibility between the thermal relay, since it (the contactor) must be capable
relay of the discontactor and the magnetic trip of breaking a current which has a value equal
of the circuit breaker. In figure J5-5 the to, or slightly less than, the setting of the
thermal relay is protected if its limit boundary magnetic relay (as seen from figure J5-5);
for thermal withstand is placed to the right of c a reliable performance of the contactor and
the CB magnetic trip characteristic curve. its thermal relay when passing short-circuit
In the case of a motor-control circuit breaker current, i.e. no excessive deterioration of
incorporating both magnetic and thermal either device and no welding of contactor
devices, co-ordination is provided in the contacts.
design;

it is not possible to predict the s.c. short-circuit current-breaking


current-breaking capability of a CB + capacity of a combination circuit
contactor combination. Laboratory breaker + contactor
tests and calculations by In the studies, the s.c. current-breaking
manufacturers are necessary to capacity which must be compared to the
prospective short-circuit current is:
determine which type of CB to c either, that of the CB + contactor
associate with which contactor, and combination, if these devices are physically
to establish the s.c. breaking capacity close together (e.g. in the same drawer or
M
of the combination. compartment of a MCC*). A short-circuit
downstream of the combination will be limited
Tables are published by Merlin Gerin to some extent by the impedances of the fig. J5-6: circuit breaker and contactor
giving this information in their contactor (see previous Note) and the mounted in juxtaposition.
“LV Distribution” catalogue. thermal relay. The combination can therefore
be used on a circuit for which the prospective
short-circuit current level exceeds the rated
s.c. current-breaking capacity of the circuit
breaker. This feature very often presents a
significant economic advantage;
c or, that of the CB only, for the case where
the contactor is separated from the CB
(so that a short-circuit is possible on the
intervening circuit). For such a case,
IEC 947-4-1 requires the rating of the circuit M
breaker to be equal to or greater than the
prospective short-circuit current at its point of fig. J5-7: circuit breaker and contactor
installation. separately mounted, with intervening
* Motor Control Centre. circuit conductors.

J40 - particular supply sources and loads


J
choice of instantaneous
magnetic-trip relay for the circuit
breaker
The operating threshold must never be less
than 12 In for this relay, in order to avoid
possible tripping due to the first current peak
during start-up. This current peak can vary
from 8 In to 11 or 12 In.

5.4 preventive or limitative protection


The main protection devices of this type for
preventive or limitative protection
motor are:
devices detect signs of impending c thermal sensors in the motor (windings,
failure, so that action can be taken bearings, cooling-air ducts, etc.);
(automatically or by operator c multifunction protections;
intervention) to avoid or limit the c insulation-failure detection devices on
running, or stationary motor.
otherwise inevitable consequences.
thermal sensors
Thermal sensors are used to detect abnormal
temperature rise in the motor by direct
measurement.
The thermal sensors are generally embedded
in the stator windings (for LV motors), the
signal being processed by an associated
control device acting to trip the circuit breaker
(figure J5-8).

fig. J5-8: overheating protection by


thermal sensors.

multi-function motor-protection
relay
The multi-function relay, associated with a
number of sensors and indication modules,
provides protection for motors, such as:
c thermal overload;
c rotor stalled, or starting-up period too long;
c overheating;
c phase current imbalance, loss of one
phase, inverse rotation;
c earth fault (by RCD);
c running on no-load, blocked rotor on
start-up.
The advantages of this relay are essentially:
c a comprehensive protection, providing a
reliable, high-performance and permanent fig. J5-9: multi-function protection,
monitoring/control function; typified by the Telemecanique relay, type
c efficient surveillance of all motor-operating LT8 above.
schedules;
c alarm and control indications;
c possibility of communication via
communication buses.

particular supply sources and loads - J41


5. asynchronous motors (continued)

J
5.4 preventive or limitative protection (continued)
preventive protection of
stationary motors
This protection concerns the monitoring of the
level of insulation resistance of a stationary
motor, thereby avoiding the undesirable SM20
consequences of insulation failure during
operation, such as:
c for motors used on emergency systems for MERLIN GERIN
example: failure to start or to perform SM20

correctly; IN OUT

c in manufacturing: loss of production.


This type of protection is indispensable for
essential-services and emergency-systems
motors, especially when installed in humid
and/or dusty locations.
Such protection avoids the destruction of a fig. J5-10: preventive protection of
motor by short-circuit to earth during start-up stationary motors.
(one of the most frequently-occurring
incidents) by giving a warning in advance that
maintenance work is necessary to restore the
motor to a satisfactory operational condition.
Examples of application (figure J5-10)
Fire-protection system “sprinkler” pumps.
Irrigation pumps for seasonal operation, etc.
Example: a vigilohm SM 20 (Merlin Gerin)
relay monitors the insulation of a motor, and
signals audibly and visually any abnormal
reduction of the insulation resistance level.
Furthermore, this relay can prevent any
attempt to start the motor, if necessary.

limitative protection
Residual current differential protective
devices (RCDs) can be very sensitive and
detect low values of leakage current which
occur when the insulation to earth of an
installation deteriorates (by physical damage,
contamination, excessive humidity, and so
on). Some versions of RCDs, specially
designed for such applications, provide the
following possibilities:
c to avoid the destruction of a motor
(by perforation and short-circuiting of the RH328A
laminations of the stator) caused by an
eventual arcing fault to earth. This protection
can detect incipient fault conditions by
operating at leakage currents in the range of MERLIN GERIN

300 mA to 30 A, according to the size of the


motor (approx. sensitivity: 5 % In).
Instantaneous tripping by the RCD will greatly
limit the extent of damage at the fault
location;
c to reduce considerably the risk of fire due to
earth-leakage currents (sensitivity i 500 mA). fig. J5-11: example using relay RH328A.
A typical RCD for such duties is type
RH328A relay (Merlin Gerin) which provides:
c 32 sensitivities (0.03 to 250 A);
c possibility of discriminative tripping or to
take account of particular operational
requirements, by virtue of 8 possible time-
delays (instantaneous to 1 s.);
c automatic operation if the circuit from the
current transformer to the relay is broken;
c protected against false operation;
c insulation of d.c. circuit components:
class A.

J42 - particular supply sources and loads


J
The importance of limiting voltage drop Example:
voltage drop at the terminals of a
at the motor during start-up c with 400 V maintained at the terminals of a
motor during starting must never In order that a motor starts and accelerates to motor, its torque would be 2.1 times that of
exceed 10% of rated voltage Un. its normal speed in the appropriate time, the the load torque;
torque of the motor must exceed the load c for a voltage drop of 10% during start-up,
torque by at least 70%. However, the starting the motor torque would be 2.1 x 0.92 = 1.7
current is much greater than the full-load times the load torque, and the motor would
current of the motor; moreover, it is largely accelerate to its rated speed normally;
inductive. These two factors are both very c for a voltage drop of 15% during start-up,
unfavourable to the maintenance of voltage the motor torque would be 2.1 x 0.852 = 1.5
at the motor. Failure to provide sufficient times the load torque, so that the motor-
voltage will reduce the motor torque starting time would be longer than normal.
significantly (motor torque is proportional to In general, a maximum allowable voltage
U2) and will result either in an excessively drop of 10% Un is recommended during the
long starting time, or, for extreme cases, in start-up of a motor.
failure to start.

5.5 maximum rating of motors installed for consumers supplied at LV


The disturbances caused on LV distribution currents for DOL motors are shown below in
networks during the start-up of large DOL table J5-12.
(direct-on-line) a.c. motors can occasion Corresponding maximum power ratings of the
considerable nuisance to neighbouring same motors are shown in table J5-13.
consumers, so that most power-supply Since, even in areas supplied by one power
authorities have strict rules intended to limit authority only, “weak” areas of the network
such disturbances to tolerable levels. exist as well as “strong” areas, it is always
The amount of disturbance created by a advisable to secure the agreement of the
given motor depends on the “strength” of the power supplier before acquiring the motors
network, i.e. on the short-circuit fault level at for a new project.
the point concerned. The higher the fault Other (but generally more costly) alternative
level, the “stronger” the system and the lower starting arrangements exist, which reduce the
the disturbance (principally volt-drop) large starting currents of DOL motors to
experienced by neighbouring consumers. acceptable levels; for example, star-delta
For distribution networks in many countries, starters, slip-ring motors, “soft start” electronic
typical values of maximum allowable starting devices, etc.
type of motor single- location maximum starting current (A)
or three-phase overhead- underground-
line network cable network
single phase dwellings 45 45
others 100 200
three phase dwellings 60 60
others 125 250
table J5-12: maximum permitted values of starting current for direct-on-line LV motors
(230/400 V).

type of motor single- single-phase three-phase 400 V


or three-phase 230 V
location (kW) direct-on-line other methods
starting at full load of starting
(kW) (kW)
dwellings 1.4 5.5 11
others overhead line 3 11 22
network
underground 5.5 22 45
cable network
table J5-13: maximum permitted power ratings for LV direct-on-line-starting motors.

5.6 reactive-energy compensation (power-factor correction)


The effect of power factor correction on the
amount of current supplied to a motor is
indicated in table B4 in Chapter B
Sub-clause 3-1, and the method of correction
in Chapter E Clause 7.

particular supply sources and loads - J43


6. protection of direct-current installations

J
differences between a.c. and d.c.
installations
Although the basic design principles in each
case are similar, there are differences in:
c the calculations for short-circuit currents,
and;
c the choice of protective equipment, since
the techniques employed for the interruption
of direct current differ in practice from those
used for alternating current.

6.1 short-circuit currents


in order to calculate the maximum battery of storage cells (or
short-circuit current from a battery of accumulators)
storage cells, when the internal For a short-circuit at its output terminals, a Example:
battery will pass a current according to Ohm’s What is the short-circuit current level at the
resistance of the battery is unknown, law equal to Isc = Vb/Ri terminals of a battery with the following
the following approximate formula where: Vb = open circuit voltage of the fully- characteristics:
may be used: charged battery c 500 Ah capacity;
Isc = kC where C = the rated Ri = the internal resistance of the battery (this c fully-charged open-circuit voltage 240 V
ampere-hour capacity of the battery, value is normally obtained from the (110 cells at 2.2 V/cell);
manufacturer of the battery, as a function of c discharge rate 300 A;
and k is a coefficent close to 10 (and its ampere-hour capacity) c autonomy 1/2 hour;
in any case is less than 20). When Ri is not known, an approximate c internal resistance is 0.5 milli-ohm/cell
formula may be used, namely: Isc = kC so that Ri = 110 x 0.5 = 55 mΩ for the battery,
3
where C is the ampere-hour rating of the and Isc = 240 x 10 = 4.4 kA
battery and k is a coefficient close to 10, and 55
in any case is always less than 20. The short-circuit currents are seen to be
(relatively) low.

Isc

fig. J6-1: battery of storage cells.

direct-current generator
If Vg is the open-circuit voltage of the Example:
generator and Ri its internal resistance, then: A d.c. generator rated at 200 kW, 230 V, and
Isc = Vg / Ri. having an internal resistance of 0.032 ohm,
In the absence of precise data, and for a d.c. will give a terminal short-circuit current of
system of voltage Un, Vg may be taken as 230 x 1.1 = 7.9 kA
1.1 Un. 0.032

G
= Icc

fig. J6-2: direct-current generator.

Isc at any point in an installation


In this case Isc = V +
Ri + Rl
Where Ri is as previously defined, -
V is either Vb or Vg as previously defined,
Rl is the sum of the resistances of the fault-
current loop conductors.
Where motors are included in the system,
they will each (initially) contribute a current of
fig. J6-3: short-circuit at any point of an
approximately 6 In (i.e. six times the nominal
installation.
full-load current of the motor) so that:
Isc = V + 6 (In mot)
Ri + Rl
where In mot is the sum of the full-load
currents of all running motors at the instant of
short-circuit.

J44 - particular supply sources and loads


J
6.2 characteristics of faults due to insulation failure, and of protective switchgear
Devices for circuit interruption are sensitive to Note: In the following text the word “pole” has
the level of d.c. voltage at their terminals two meanings, viz:
when breaking short-circuit currents. 1. Referring to a d.c. source, for example:
The table below provides the means for the positive pole or the negative pole of a
determining these voltages, which depend on battery or generator.
the source voltage and on the method of 2. Referring to a switch or circuit breaker, for
earthing the source. example:
a pole of a circuit breaker makes or breaks
the current in one conductor. A pole of a
circuit breaker may be made up of modules,
each of which contains a contact. The pole
may therefore consist of one module or
(particularly in d.c. circuits) several series-
connected modules.

Voltage stresses across opening contacts


are reduced by the technique of connecting a
number of contacts in series per pole, as
mentioned in the table below, and in the
following text.
types of network system earthing unearthed system
one pole earthed source with source is not
at the source mid-point earthing earthed
earthing schemes i
a
i
a
i
a
and various fault +
+ +
conditions U/2
+
U R R U R
– B – U/2 B –
A A B A
b C b b
C C

case 1 case 2 case 3


analysis fault A pole (a) must break pole (a) must break there is no short-circuit
of each maximum Isc at U volts maximum Isc* in this case
fault at U/2 volts
fault B poles (a) and (b) must poles (a) and (b) must poles (a) and (b)
break the maximum break the maximum must break the maximum Isc
Isc at U volts Isc at U volts at U volts
fault C there is no short-circuit as for fault A but as for fault A
current in this case concerning pole (b)*
* U/2 divided by Ri/2 = Isc (max.)
the most fault A A=B=C fault B (or faults A and C
unfavourable case see Note below the table simultaneously)
case of a circuit breaker all the contacts participating in provide in the CB pole provide the number of contacts
current interruption are series for each conductor the number necessary for breaking the
connected in the positive- of contacts necessary to break current indicated in the CB pole
conductor (or the negative Isc (max.) at the voltage U/2. of each conductor.
conductor if the positive pole
of the source is earthed). Provide
an additional pole for inserting in the
earthed polarity conductor, to permit
circuit isolation (figure J6-6).
table J6-4: characteristics of protective switchgear according to type of d.c. system earthing.
Note: each pole is equally stressed for faults at A, B or C, since maximum Isc must be broken with U/2 across the CB pole(s) in each case.

6.3 choice of protective device


The choice of protective device depends on: c the time constant of the fault current (L/R
for each type of possible insulation
c the voltage appearing across the current- in milli-seconds) at the point of installation of
failure, the protective devices against breaking element. In the case of circuit the CB.
short-circuits must be adequately breakers, this voltage dictates the number of Table J6-5 below gives characteristics
rated for the voltage levels noted in circuit-breaking contacts that must be (current ratings, s.c. current-breaking
table J6-4 above. connected in series for each pole of a circuit capacity, and the number of series-connected
breaker, to attain the levels indicated in contacts per pole required for a given system
table J6-4; voltage) for circuit breakers made by
c the rated current required; Merlin Gerin.
c the short-circuit current level at its point of
installation (in order to specify its s.c. current-
breaking capacity);

particular supply sources and loads - J45


6. protection of direct-current installations (continued)

J
6.3 choice of protective device (continued)
type ratings sc current-breaking capacity kA thermal coefficient for
(A) for L/R i 0.015 seconds overload uprating the
(the number of series-connected protection instantaneous
contacts per pole is shown in brackets) magnetic
24/48 V 125 V 250 V 500 V 750 V 1000 V tripping units*
C32HDC 1 to 40 20 (1p) 10 (1p) 20 (2p) 10 (2p) special DC special DC
C60a 10 to 40 10 (1p) 10 (2p) 20 (3p) 25 (4p) ditto AC 1.38
C60N 6 to 63 15 (1p) 20 (2p) 30 (3p) 40 (4p) ditto AC 1.38
C60H 1 to 63 20 (1p) 25 (2p) 40 (3p) 50 (4p) ditto AC 1.38
C60L 1 to 63 25 (1p) 30 (2p) 50 (3p) 60 (4p) ditto AC 1.38
NC100H 50 to 100 20 (1p) 30 (2p) 40 (3p) 20 (4p) ditto AC 1.42
NC100LH 10 to 63 50 (1p) 50 (1p) 50 (1 p) 50 (3p) ditto AC 1.42
NS100N 16 to 100 50 (1p) 50 (1p) 50 (1p) 50 (2p) ditto AC 1.42
NC100H 16 to 100 85 (1p) 85 (1p) 85 (1p) 85 (2p) ditto AC 1.42
NS100L 16 to 100 100 (1p) 100 (1p) 100 (1p) 100 (2p) ditto AC
NS160N 40 to 160 50 (1p) 50 (1p) 50 (1p) 50 (2p) ditto AC
NS160H 40 to 160 85 (1p) 85 (1p) 85 (1p) 85 (2p) ditto AC
NS160L 40 to 160 100 (1p) 100 (1p) 100 (1p) 100 (2p) ditto AC
NS250N 40 to 250 50 (1p) 50 (1p) 50 (1p) 50 (2p) ditto AC
NS250H 40 to 250 85 (1p) 85 (1p) 85 (1p) 85 (2p) ditto AC
NS250L 40 to 250 100 (1p) 100 (1p) 100 (1p) 100 (2p) ditto AC
NS400H MP1/MP2-400 85 (1p) 85 (1p) 85 (1p) 85 (2p) no thermal relay; tripping units
NS630H MP1/MP2/MP3-630 85 (1p) 85 (1p) 85 (1p) 85 (2p) provide MP1/MP2/MP3
C1251N-DC P21/P41-1250 50 (1p) 50 (1p) 50 (2p) 50 (3p) 25 (3p) an external special for
M10-DC 1000 100 (3p) 100 (3p) 100 (3p) 100 (3p) 50 (4p) 50 (4p) relay direct current
M20-DC 2000 100 (3p) 100 (3p) 100 (3p) 100 (3p) 50 (4p- 50 (4p) (if necessary)
M40-DC 4000 100 (3p) 100 (3p) 100 (3p) 100 (3p) 50 (4p) 50 (4p)
M60-DC 6000 100 (4p) 100 (4p) 100 (4p)
M80-DC 8000 100 (4p) 100 (4p) 100 (4p)
table J6-5: choice of d.c. circuit breakers manufactured by Merlin Gerin.
* These tripping units may be used on a.c. or d.c. circuit breakers, but the operating levels marked on each unit correspond to
r.m.s. a.c. values. When used on a d.c. circuit breaker the setting must be changed according to the co-efficient in table J6-5.
For example, if it is required that the d.c. circuit breaker should trip at 800 A or more the coefficient given in table J6-5 is 1.42,
then the setting required will be 800 x 1.42 = 1,136 A.

6.4 examples
Example 1 Table J6-4 shows that the full system voltage
Choice of protection for an 80 A outgoing d.c. will appear across the contacts of the positive
circuit of a 125 V system, of which the pole.
negative pole is earthed. The Isc = 15 kA. Table J6-5 indicates that circuit breaker
NC100H (30 kA 2 contacts/pole 125 V) is an
+ appropriate choice.
125 V = Preferred practice is to (also) include a
-
contact in the negative conductor of the
outgoing circuit, to provide isolation (for
NC100 H maintenance work on the load circuit for
3-pole
80 A example), as shown in figure J6-6.
Note: three contacts in series, which open in
load unison, effectively triple the speed of contact
fig. J6-6: example. separation. This technique is often necessary
for successfully breaking d.c. current.

Example 2 Table J6-4 shows that each pole will be


Choice of protection for a 100 A outgoing d.c. subject to a recovery voltage of U/2, i.e.
circuit of a 250 V system, of which the mid- 125 V for all types of s.c. fault.
point is earthed. Isc = 15 kA. Table J6-5 indicates that circuit breaker
NC100H (30 kA 2 contacts/pole 125 V) is
+
suitable for cases A and C, i.e. 2 contacts in
250 V = the positive and 2 contacts in the negative
-
pole of the CB.
It will be seen in the 250 V column that
NC100 H 4 contacts will break 20 kA at that voltage
4-pole (case B of table J6-4).
100 A

load

fig. J6-7: example.

J46 - particular supply sources and loads


J
6.5 protection of persons + +
U fixed U variable ou fixed
The rules for protection are the same as - -
those already covered for a.c. systems.
However, the conventional voltage limits and XM200
TR5A
the automatic disconnection times for safety
of persons are different (see tables G8 and
G9 of Chapter G, Sub-clause 3.1):
fig. J6-8: insulation (to earth) monitors for
c all exposed conductive parts are
an IT direct-current installation.
interconnected and earthed;
c automatic tripping is achieved in the time-
period specified.
RCDs are not applicable to d.c. circuits, so
that in practice:
c the principles of the TN scheme are used
for cases 1 and 2 of Sub-clause 6.2. It is then
sufficient to check that, in the case of a short-
circuit, the current magnitudes will be
sufficient to trip the instantaneous magnetic
relays.
The checking methods are identical to those
recommended for an a.c. network.
c principles of the IT scheme for case 3 in
Sub-clause 6.2,
v the insulation level of the installation must
be under permanent surveillance and any
failure must be immediately indicated and
alarmed: this can be achieved by the
installation of a suitable monitoring relay as
shown in Chapter G, Sub-clause 3.4,
v the presence of two concurrent faults to
earth (one on each polarity) constitutes a
short-circuit, which will be cleared by
overcurrent protection. As for the a.c.
systems, it is sufficient to verify that the
current magnitude exceeds that necessary to
operate the magnetic (or short-time delay)
circuit breaker tripping units.

particular supply sources and loads - J47


7. short-circuit characteristics of an alternator

J
The characteristics of a 3-phase alternator As shown in figure AJ1-1, the current
under short-circuit conditions are obtained reduction requires a certain time, and the
from oscillogram traces recorded during reason for this is that, as the rotor flux begins
tests, in which a short-circuit is applied to diminish, the change of flux induces a
instantaneously to all three terminals of a current in the closed rotor circuit in the
machine at no load, excited (at a fixed level) direction which, in effect, increases the
to produce nominal rated voltage. excitation current, i.e. opposes the
The resulting currents in all three phases will establishment of a reduced level of magnetic
normally* include a d.c. component, which flux. The gradual predominance of the stator
reduces exponentially to zero after m.m.f. depends on the overall effect of rotor
(commonly) some tens of cycles. The curve and stator time constants, the result of which
shown below in figure AJ1-1 is the current is the principal factor in the "a.c. current
trace, from which the d.c. component has decrement" shown in figure AJ1-1.
been eliminated, of a recording made during If, during a short-circuit, there were no eddy
the testing of a 3-phase 230 V 50 kVA currents induced in the unlaminated face of
machine. round-rotor alternators, or in damper
The definitions of alternator reactance windings (see note 1) of salient-pole
values are based on such "symmetrical" alternators, the envelope of the a.c. current
curves. decrement would be similar to that of
curve b in figure AJ1-1, i.e. the so-called
c transient-current envelope.
b The presence of either of the two features,
i
mentioned above however, gives rise to the
sub-transient component of current (curve C).
a The effect is analogous to that of the closed
0 circuit of the rotor-excitation winding
t described above (i.e. the induced currents
oppose the change), but having a very much
shorter time constant.
The overall a.c. current decrement is
therefore composed of the sum of two
exponentially-decaying quantities, viz. the
fig. AJ1-1: short-circuit current of one sub-transient and the transient components,
phase of a 3-phase alternator with the d.c. as shown in figure AJ1-2.
component eliminated. Note 1: Damper windings are made up of heavy gauge
* unless, by chance, the voltage of a phase happens to be copper bars embedded in the pole faces of salient-pole
maximum at the instant of short-circuit. In that case, there rotors, to form a squirrel-cage "winding" similar to that of an
will be no d.c. transient in the phase concerned. induction motor. Their purpose is to help to maintain
synchronous stability of the alternator.
With the rotor turning at the same speed as that of the
The reduction of current magnitude from its m.m.f. due to the stator currents, no currents will be
initial value occurs in the following way. induced in the damper windings; if a difference in the speed
At the instant of short-circuit, the only of rotation occurs, due to loss of synchronism, then currents
induced in the damper windings will be in a direction that
impedance limiting the magnitude of current produces a torque which acts to slow (an overspeeding
is principally** the inherent leakage rotor) or to accelerate (an underspeeding rotor). A similar,
reactance of the armature (i.e. stator) but much smaller effect occurs due to eddy currents in the
surface of solid unlaminated rotors of turbo-alternators.
windings, generally of the order of
10%-15%. For advanced analytical studies of
The large stator currents are (practically) alternators, two component axes "direct" and
entirely inductive, so that the synchronously "quadrature" are defined, and subtransient
rotating m.m.f. produced by them acts in and transient reactances, etc. are derived for
direct opposition to that of the excitation each component system.
current in the rotor winding. In the simple studies needed for 3-phase
The result is that the rotor flux starts to symmetrical fault levels and for circuit-
reduce, thereby reducing the e.m.f. breaker performance based on such faults,
generated in the stator windings, and the direct-axis component system only is
consequently reducing the magnitude of the required; this accounts for the suffix "d" of
fault current. The effect is cumulative, and reactance values, shown in figure AJ1-2.
the reduced fault current, in turn, now Suffix "q" is used for quadrature quantities.
reduces the rotor flux at a slower rate, and ia enveloppe
so on, i.e. the flux follows the exponential i" of the current, ia
law of natural decay, its reduction rate at any
instant depending on the magnitude of the Vo/x"d i'
quantity causing the phenomenon.
Vo/x'd
Eventually, a stable state is reached, in which i
the (greatly reduced) rotor flux produces just
enough voltage to maintain the stator current t
at the level of equilibrium between the three Vo/xd
quantities, viz. current, flux and voltage.
The reduction of fault current therefore is
subs- transient steady
caused by a diminution of the generated transient period state
e.m.f. due to armature reaction, and not, in period
fact, by an increase in impedance of the x''d = the sub-transient reactance Vo/i''
machine (that is why the term "effective x'd = the transient reactance Vo/i'
xd = the synchronous reactance Vo/i
reactance" was used in Chapter J Vo = peak rated voltage of the alternator
Sub-clause 1.1).
fig. AJ1-2: a.c. component of armature
** the sub-transient reactance, which is defined later, is
very nearly equal to the leakage reactance.
current versus time, in a short-circuited
alternator (no d.c. transient is shown).

Appendix J1 - 1
J
The reactances are generally defined as
r.m.s. voltages divided by r.m.s. currents. In
the current trace of figure AJ1-2, however, it
is simpler to use the projected peak values
of current, so that Vo must be the rated peak
voltage of the machine.
Note 2: in the definition of "i" some authors use the actual
voltage measured during the test, instead of Vo. Moreover,
xd is generally denoted by Xs and is referred to as
"synchronous reactance".

asymmetrical currents
As previously noted, in general, all 3-phases
of short-circuit current will include a d.c.
component. These components give rise to
additional electro-dynamic and thermal
stresses in the machine itself, and in circuit-
breakers protecting a faulted circuit.
The worst condition is that of a phase in
which the d.c. component is the maximum
possible, i.e. the d.c. transient value at zero
time (the instant of fault) is equal to the peak
value of current given by Vo/xd'', as defined
in figure AJ1-2.
A typical test trace of this condition is shown
in figure AJ1-3.
stator
phase
current

d.c. component

time

instant of
short circuit
The current envelope of an asymmetrical transient has the
same dimensions about the d.c. transient curve, as the
symmetrical envelope has about the current zero axis.
fig. AJ1-3: a fully-offset asymmetrical
transient fault-current trace.
The consequence of asymmetrical transient
fault currents and the standardized
relationship between the symmetrical and
asymmetrical quantities for circuit breaker
performance ratings are given in
Sub-clause 1.1 of Chapter C, and are
illustrated in figure C5.

2 - Appendix J1
1. the basic functions of LV switchgear

H2
National and international standards define breakers, in the form of thermal-magnetic
the role of switchgear is that of:
the manner in which electric circuits of LV devices and/or residual-current-operated
c electrical protection; installations must be realized, and the tripping devices (less-commonly, residual-
c safe isolation from live parts; capabilities and limitations of the various voltage-operated devices - acceptable to, but
c local or remote switching. switching devices which are collectively not recommended by IEC).
referred to as switchgear. In addition to those functions shown in table
The main functions of switchgear are: H2-1, other functions, namely:
c electrical protection; c over-voltage protection;
c electrical isolation of sections of an c under-voltage protection are provided by
installation; specific devices (lightning and various other
c local or remote switching. types of voltage-surge arrester; relays
These functions are summarized below in associated with: contactors, remotely-
table H2-1. controlled circuit breakers, and with combined
Electrical protection at low voltage is (apart circuit breaker/isolators… and so on).
from fuses) normally incorporated in circuit
electrical protection isolation control
against
overload currents - isolation clearly indicated - functional switching
short-circuit currents by an authorized fail-proof - emergency switching
insulation failure mechanical indicator - emergency stopping
- a gap or interposed insulating - switching off for
barrier between the open mechanical maintenance
contacts, clearly visible.
table H2-1: basic functions of LV switchgear.

1.1 electrical protection


The aim is to avoid or to limit the destructive circuit to which the load is connected)
electrical protection assures:
or dangerous consequences of excessive originates. Certain derogations to this rule are
c protection of circuit elements (short-circuit) currents, or those due to authorized in some national standards, as
against the thermal and mechanical overloading and insulation failure, and to noted in chapter H1 sub-clause 1.4.
stresses of short-circuit currents; separate the defective circuit from the rest of c the protection of persons against
c protection of persons in the event the installation. insulation failures (see chapter G).
A distinction is made between the protection According to the system of earthing for the
of insulation failure; of: installation (TN, TT or IT) the protection will
c protection of appliances and c the elements of the installation (cables, be provided by fuses or circuit breakers,
apparatus being supplied (e.g wires, switchgear…); residual current devices, and/or permanent
motors, etc.). c persons and animals; monitoring of the insulation resistance of the
c equipment and appliances supplied from installation to earth.
the installation; c the protection of electric motors
c the protection of circuits (see chapter J clause 5) against overheating,
(see chapter H1): due, for example, to long term overloading;
v against overload; a condition of excessive stalled rotor; single-phasing, etc. Thermal
current being drawn from a healthy relays, specially designed to match the
(unfaulted) installation, particular characteristics of motors are used.
v against short-circuit currents due to Such relays may, if required, also protect the
complete failure of insulation between motor-circuit cable against overload. Short-
conductors of different phases or (in TN circuit protection is provided either by type
systems) between a phase and neutral (or aM fuses or by a circuit breaker from which
PE) conductor. the thermal (overload) protective element has
Protection in these cases is provided either been removed, or otherwise made
by fuses or circuit breaker, at the distribution inoperative.
board from which the final circuit (i.e. the

1.2 isolation
The aim of isolation is to separate a circuit or c it must be provided with a means of locking
a state of isolation clearly indicated
apparatus, or an item of plant (such as a open with a key (e.g. by means of a padlock)
by an approved "fail-proof" indicator, motor, etc.) from the remainder of a system in order to avoid an unauthorized reclosure
or the visible separation of contacts, which is energized, in order that personnel by inadvertence;
are both deemed to satisfy the may carry out work on the isolated part in c it must conform to a recognized national or
national standards of many perfect safety. international standard (e.g. IEC 947-3)
In principle, all circuits of an LV installation concerning clearance between contacts,
countries. shall have means to be isolated. In practice, creepage distances, overvoltage withstand
in order to maintain an optimum continuity of capability, etc. and also:
service, it is preferred to provide a means of (1) the concurrent opening of all live conductors, while not
isolation at the origin of each circuit. always obligatory, is however, strongly recommended (for
reasons of greater safety and facility of operation). The
An isolating device must fulfil the following neutral contact opens after the phase contacts, and closes
requirements: before them (IEC 947-1).
c all poles of a circuit, including the neutral
(except where the neutral is a PEN
conductor) must be open (1);

the protection of circuits - the switchgear - H2-1


1. the basic functions of LV switchgear (continued)

H2
1.2 isolation (continued)
v verification that the contacts of the isolating Industrial LV switchgear which affords
device are, in fact, open. The verification may isolation when open is marked on the front
be: face by the symbol .
- either visual, where the device is suitably This symbol may be combined with those
designed to allow the contacts to be seen indicating other features where a device also
(some national standards impose this performs other functions as shown in figure
condition for an isolating device located at the H2-4.
origin of a LV installation supplied directly
from a HV/LV transformer),
- or mechanical, by means of an indicator fig. H2-3: symbol for a disconnector* also
solidly welded to the operating shaft of the commonly referred to as an isolator.
device. In this case the construction of the
device must be such that, in the eventuality
that the contacts become welded together in switch-disconnector*, also
referred to as a load-break
the closed position, the indicator cannot isolating switch
possibly indicate that it is in the open position.
v leakage currents. With the isolating device
open, leakage currents between the open
circuit breaker suitable
contacts of each phase must not exceed: for circuit isolation
- 0.5 mA for a new device,
fig. H2-4: symbols for circuit isolation
- 6.0 mA at the end of its useful life.
capability incorporated in other switching
v voltage-surge withstand capability, across
devices.
open contacts. The isolating device, when
open must withstand a 1.2/50 µs impulse, * IEC 617-7 and 947-3.
having a peak value of 5, 8 or 10 kV
according to its service voltage, as shown in Note. In this guide the terms "disconnector"
table H2-2. The device must satisfy these and "isolator" have the same meaning.
conditions for altitudes up to 2,000 metres.
Consequently, if tests are carried out at sea
level, the test values must be increased by
23% to take into account the effect of altitude.
See standard IEC 947 and the Note
immediately preceding table F-10.

service (nominal) impulse withstand


voltage peak voltage
(V) (kV)
230/400 5 kV
400/690 8 kV
1,000 10 kV
table H2-2: peak value of impulse voltage
according to normal service voltage of
test specimen.

1.3 switchgear control


In broad terms "control" signifies any facility operation of switchgear is an important part of
switchgear-control functions allow
for safely modifying a load-carrying power power-system control.
system operating personnel to system at all levels of an installation. The
modify a loaded system at any
moment, according to requirements,
functional control
and include:
This control relates to all switching operations each outgoing way of all distribution and sub-
c functional control (routine in normal service conditions for energizing or distribution boards.
switching, etc.); de-energizing a part of a system or The manœuvre may be:
c emergency switching; installation, or an individual piece of c either manual (by means of an operating
c maintenance operations on the equipment, item of plant, etc. lever on the switch) or;
Switchgear intended for such duty must be c electric, by push-button on the switch or at
power system. installed at least: a remote location (load-shedding and re-
c at the origin of any installation; connection, for example).
c at the final load circuit or circuits (one These switches operate instantaneously (i.e.
switch may control several loads). with no deliberate delay), and those that
Marking (of the circuits being controlled) must provide protection are invariably omni-polar*.
be clear and unambiguous. The main circuit breaker for the entire
In order to provide the maximum flexibility installation, as well as any circuit breakers
and continuity of operation, particularly where used for change-over (from one source to
the switching device also constitutes the another) must be omni-polar units.
protection (e.g. a circuit breaker or
* one break in each phase and (where appropriate) one
switch-fuse) it is preferable to include a break in the neutral (see table H1-65).
switch at each level of distribution, i.e. on

H2-2 - the protection of circuits - the switchgear


H2
emergency switching -
emergency stop
An emergency switching is intended to c a "break glass" emergency switching
de-energize a live circuit which is, or could initiation device is authorized, but in
become, dangerous (electric shock or fire). unmanned installations the re-energizing of
An emergency stop is intended to arrest a the circuit can only be achieved by means of
movement which has become dangerous. In a key held by an authorized person.
the two cases: It should be noted that in certain cases, an
c the emergency control device or its means emergency system of braking, may require
of operation (local or at remote location(s)) that the auxiliary supply to the braking-system
such as a large red mushroom-headed circuits be maintained until final stoppage of
emergency-stop pushbutton must be the machinery.
recognizable and readily accessible, in
(1) Taking into account stalled motors.
proximity to any position at which danger (2) In a TN schema the PEN conductor must never be
could arise or be seen; opened, since it functions as a protective earthing wire as
well as the system neutral conductor.
c a single action must result in a complete
switching-off of all live conductors (1) (2);

switching-off for mechanical


maintenance work
This operation assures the stopping of a
machine and its impossibility to be
inadvertently restarted while mechanical
maintenance work is being carried out on the
driven machinery. The shutdown is generally
carried out at the functional switching device,
with the use of a suitable safety lock and
warning notice at the switch mechanism.

the protection of circuits - the switchgear - H2-3


2. the switchgear and fusegear

H2
2.1 elementary switching devices
disconnector (or isolator)
This switch is a manually-operated, lockable,
two-position device (open/closed) which
provides safe isolation of a circuit when
locked in the open position. Its characteristics
are defined in IEC 947-3. fig. H2-5: symbol for a disconnector
A disconnector is not designed to make or to (or isolator).
break current* and no rated values for these
functions are given in standards. It must,
however, be capable of withstanding the
passage of short-circuit currents and is
assigned a rated short-time withstand
capability; generally for 1 second, unless
otherwise agreed between user and
manufacturer. This capability is normally
more than adequate for longer periods of
(lower-valued) operational overcurrents, such
as those of motor-starting.
Standardized mechanical-endurance,
overvoltage, and leakage-current tests, must
also be satisfied.
* i.e. a LV disconnector is essentially a dead-
system switching device to be operated with
no voltage on either side of it, particularly
when closing, because of the possibility of an
unsuspected short-circuit on the downstream
side. Interlocking with an upstream switch or
circuit breaker is frequently used.

load-breaking switch
This control switch is generally operated
manually (but is sometimes provided with
electrical tripping for operator convenience)
and is a non-automatic two-position device
(open/closed).
It is used to close and open loaded circuits
under normal unfaulted circuit conditions.
It does not consequently, provide any
protection for the circuit it controls.
IEC standard 947-3 defines:
c the frequency of switch operation
(600 close/open cycles per hour maximum);
c mechanical and electrical endurance
(generally less than that of a contactor);
c current making and breaking ratings for
normal and infrequent situations.
IEC 947-3 also recognizes 3 categories of
load-breaking switch, each of which is
suitable for a different range of load power
factors, as shown in table H2-7.

fig. H2-6: symbol for a load-breaking


switch.
When closing a switch to energize a circuit
there is always the possibility that an
(unsuspected) short circuit exists on the
circuit. For this reason, load-break switches
are assigned a fault-current making rating,
i.e. successful closure against the
electrodynamic forces of short-circuit current
is assured. Such switches are commonly
referred to as "fault-make load-break"
switches.
Upstream protective devices are relied upon
to clear the short-circuit fault.

H2-4 - the protection of circuits - the switchgear


H2
nature utilization category typical applications
of frequent infrequent
current operation operation
alternating AC-20A AC-20B connecting and disconnecting
current under no-load conditions
AC-21A AC-21B switching of resistive loads
including moderate overloads
AC-22A AC-22B switching of mixed resistive
and inductive loads, including
moderate overloads
AC-23A AC-23B switching of motor loads or
other highly inductive loads
table H2-7: utilization categories of LV a.c. switches according to IEC 947-3.
Category AC-23 includes occasional
switching of individual motors. The switching
of capacitors or of tungsten filament lamps
shall be subject to agreement between
manufacturer and user.
The utilization categories referred to in table
H2-7 do not apply to an equipment normally
used to start, accelerate and/or stop
individual motors. The utilization categories
for such an equipment are dealt with in
chapter J, table J5-4.
Example:
A 100 A load-break switch of category AC-23
(inductive load) must be able:
c to make a current of 10 In (= 1,000 A) at a
power factor of 0.35 lagging;
c to break a current of 8 In (= 800 A) at a
power factor of 0.35 lagging;
c to withstand short-circuit currents (not less
than 12 In) passing through it for 1 second,
where 12 In equals the r.m.s. value of the a.c.
component, while the peak value (expressed
in kA) is given by a factor "n" in table XVI of
IEC 947- Part 1, reproduced below for reader
convenience (table H2-8).

test current I power-factor time-constant n


(A) (ms)
I i 01 500 0.95 5 1.41
1 500 < I i 3 000 0.9 5 1.42
3 000 < I i 4 500 0.8 5 1.47
4 500 < I i 6 000 0.7 5 1.53
6 000 < I i 10 000 0.5 5 1.7
10 000 < I i 20 000 0.3 10 2.0
20 000 < I i 50 000 0.25 15 2.1
50 000 < I 0.2 15 2.2
table H2-8: factor "n" used for peak-to-rms value (IEC 947-part1).

bistable switch (télérupteur)


This device is extensively used in the control
of lighting circuits where the depression of a
pushbutton (at a remote control position) will
open an already-closed switch or close an
open switch in a bistable sequence. fig. H2-9: symbol for a bistable remotely-
Typical applications are: operated switch (télérupteur).
c two-way switching on stairways of large
buildings;
c stage-lighting schemes;
c factory illumination, etc.
Auxiliary devices are available to provide:
c remote indication of its state at any instant;
c time-delay functions;
c maintained-contact features.

the protection of circuits - the switchgear - H2-5


2. the switchgear and fusegear (continued)

H2
2.1 elementary switching devices (continued)
contactor
The contactor is a solenoid-operated c a rated current making and breaking
switching device which is generally held performance according to the category of
closed by (a reduced) current through the utilization concerned.
closing solenoid (although various Example:
mechanically-latched types exist for specific A 150 A contactor of category AC3 must have
duties). Contactors are designed to carry out a minimum current-breaking capability of 8 In
numerous close/open cycles and are (= 1,200 A) and a minimum current-making
commonly controlled remotely by on-off rating of 10 In (= 1,500 A) at a power factor
pushbuttons. (lagging) of 0.35.
The large number of repetitive operating
cycles is standardized in table VIII of IEC
947-4-1 by:
c the operating duration: 8 hours;
uninterrupted; intermittent; temporary of 3,
10, 30, 60 and 90 minutes;
c utilization category: (for definition see table
control power
J5-4) for example, a contactor of category circuit circuit
AC3 can be used for the starting and
fig. H2-10: symbol for a contactor.
stopping of a cage motor;
c the start-stop cycles (1 to 1,200 cyles per
hour);
c mechanical endurance (number of off-load
manœuvres);
c electrical endurance (number of on-load
manœuvres);

discontactor*
A contactor equipped with a thermal-type circuit breaker, since its short-circuit current-
relay for protection against overloading breaking capability is limited to 8 or 10 In. For
defines a "discontactor". Discontactors are short-circuit protection therefore, it is
used extensively for remote push-button necessary to include either fuses or a circuit
control of lighting circuits, etc., and may also breaker in series with, and upstream of, the
be considered as an essential element in a discontactor contacts.
motor controller, as noted in sub-clause 2.2. *This term is not defined in IEC publications
"combined switchgear elements". but is commonly used in some countries.
The discontactor is not the equivalent of a

two classes of LV cartridge fuse are fuses


very widely used: Fuses exist with and without "fuse-blown" A gM fuse-link, which has a dual rating is
mechanical indicators. characterized by two current values. The first
c for domestic and similar Fuses break a circuit by controlled melting of value In denotes both the rated current of the
installations type gG the fuse element when a current exceeds a fuse-link and the rated current of the fuse-
c for industrial installations type gG, given value for a corresponding period of holder; the second value Ich denotes the
gM or aM. time; the current/time relationship being time-current characteristic of the fuse-link as
presented in the form of a performance curve defined by the gates in Tables II, III and VI of
for each type of fuse. IEC 269-1.
Standards define two classes of fuse: These two ratings are separated by a letter
c those intended for domestic installations, which defines the applications.
manufactured in the form of a cartridge for For example: In M Ich denotes a fuse
rated currents up to 100 A and designated intended to be used for protection of motor
type gG in IEC 269-3; circuits and having the characteristic G. The
c those for industrial use, with cartridge types first value In corresponds to the maximum
designated gG (general use); and gM and aM continuous current for the whole fuse and the
(for motor-circuits) in IEC 269-1 and 2. second value Ich corresponds to the G
The main differences between domestic and characteristic of the fuse link. For further
industrial fuses are the nominal voltage and details see note at the end of sub-clause 2.1.
current levels (which require much larger An aM fuse-link is characterized by one
physical dimensions) and their fault-current current value In and time-current
breaking capabilities. characteristic as shown in figure H2-14.
Type gG fuse-links are often used for the Important: Some national standards use a gI
protection of motor circuits, which is possible (industrial) type fuse, similar in all main
when their characteristics are capable of essentails to type gG fuses.
withstanding the motor-starting current Type gI fuses should never be used,
without deterioration. however, in domestic and similar installations.
A more recent development has been the
adoption by the IEC of a fuse-type gM for
motor protection, designed to cover starting,
and short-circuit conditions. This type of fuse
is more popular in some countries than in
others, but at the present time the aM fuse in
combination with a thermal overload relay is fig. H2-11: symbol for fuses.
more-widely used.

H2-6 - the protection of circuits - the switchgear


H2
fusing zones -
conventional currents
The conditions of fusing (melting) of a fuse these fuses have a poor performance in the
are defined by standards, according to their low overload range.
class. v it is therefore necessary to install a cable
c class gG fuses larger in ampacity than that normally required
gM fuses require a separate overload These fuses provide protection against for a circuit, in order to avoid the
relay, as described in the note at the overloads and short-circuits. consequences of possible long term
end of sub-clause 2.1. Conventional non-fusing and fusing currents overloading (60% overload for up to one hour
are standardized, as shown in figure H2-12 in the worst case).
and in table H2-13. By way of comparison, a circuit breaker of
v the conventional non-fusing current Inf is similar current rating:
the value of current that the fusible element v which passes 1.05 In must not trip in less
can carry for a specified time without melting. than one hour; and
Example: a 32 A fuse carrying a current of v when passing 1.25 In it must trip in one
1.25 In (i.e. 40 A) must not melt in less than hour, or less
one hour (table H2-13) (25% overload for up to one hour in the worst
v the conventional fusing current If (=I2 in case).
fig.H2-12) is the value of current which will
cause melting of the fusible element before t
the expiration of the specified time.
Example: a 32 A fuse carrying a current of 1h.
minimum
1.6 In (i.e. 52.1 A) must melt in one hour or pre-arcing
time curve
less (table H2-13).
IEC 269-1 standardized tests require that a
fuse-operating characteristic lies between the
two limiting curves (shown in figure H2-12) for
the particular fuse under test. This means
that two fuses which satisfy the test can have fuse-blown
curve
significantly different operating times at low
levels of overloading.
v the two examples given above for a 32 A I
Inf I2
fuse, together with the foregoing notes on
standard test requirements, explain why fig. H2-12: zones of fusing and non-fusing
for gG and gM fuses.

class rated current* conventional non- conventional fusing conventional


In (A) fusing current current If time h
Inf I2
gG In i 4 A 1.5 In 2.1 In 1
gM 4 < In < 16 A 1.5 In 1.9 In 1
16 < In i 63 A 1.25 In 1.6 In 1
63 < In i 160 A 1.25 In 1.6 In 2
160 < In i 400 A 1.25 In 1.6 In 3
400 < In 1.25 In 1.6 In 4
table H2-13: zones of fusing and non-fusing for LV types gG and gM class fuses (IEC 269-1
and 269-2-1).
* Ich for gM fuses

c class aM (motor) fuses t


class aM fuses protect against
These fuses afford protection against short-
short-circuit currents only, and must circuit currents only and must necessarily be
always be associated with another associated with other switchgear (such as minimum
device which protects against discontactors or circuit breakers) in order to pre-arcing
overload. ensure overload protection < 4 In. They are time curve
not therefore autonomous. Since aM fuses
are not intended to protect against low values fuse-blown
curve
of overload current, no levels of conventional
non-fusing and fusing currents are fixed. The
characteristic curves for testing these fuses
are given for values of fault current exceeding
approximately 4 In (see figure H2-14), and
fuses tested to IEC 269 must give operating 4In x In
curves which fall within the shaded area. fig. H2-14: standardized zones of fusing
Note: the small "arrowheads" in the diagram for type aM fuses (all current ratings).
indicate the current/time "gate" values for the
different fuses to be tested (IEC 269).

the protection of circuits - the switchgear - H2-7


2. the switchgear and fusegear (continued)

H2
2.1 elementary switching devices (continued)
rated short-circuit breaking I
currents
prospective
A characteristic of modern cartridge fuses is fault-current peak
that, owing to the rapidity of fusion in the case rms value of the a.c.
of high short-circuit current levels*, a current component of the
cut-off begins before the occurrence of the prospective fault current
current peak
first major peak, so that the fault current limited by the fuse
never reaches its prospective peak value
(fig. H2-15).
0.01s
This limitation of current reduces significantly t
Tf Ta 0.005s
the thermal and dynamic stresses which
Ttc
would otherwise occur, thereby minimizing
danger and damage at the fault position.
The rated short-circuit breaking current of the
fuse is therefore based on the r.m.s. value of 0.02s
the a.c. component of the prospective fault
current.
No short-circuit current-making rating is Tf: fuse pre-arc fusing time
assigned to fuses. Ta: arcing time
*for currents exceeding a certain level, depending on the Ttc: total fault-clearance time
fuse nominal current rating, as shown below in figure
H2-15A. fig. H2-15: current limitation by a fuse.
Reminder maximum possible current
Short-circuit currents initially contain d.c. prospective fault peak characteristic
current (kA) peak i.e. 2.5Ir.m.s. (IEC)
components, the magnitude and duration of
which depend on the XL/R ratio of the fault- 100

current loop. (c)


Close to the source (HV/LV transformer) the 50

relationship I peak / Irms (of a.c. component)


immediately following the instant of fault, can 160A
be as high as 2.5 (standardized by IEC, and 20 nominal
100A fuse
shown in figure H2-15A). (b) ratings
50A
At lower levels of distribution in an 10

installation, as previously noted, XL is small (a)


compared with R and so for final circuits I 5
peak current
peak / I rms ~ 1.41, a condition which cut-off
characteristic
corresponds with figure H2-15 above and curves
2
with the "n" value corresponding to a power
factor of 0.95 in table H2-8.
1
1 2 5 10 20 50 100

The peak-current-limitation effect occurs only a.c. component of prospective


fault current (kA) r.m.s.
when the prospective r.m.s. a.c. component
of fault current attains a certain level. For fig. H2-15A: limited peak current versus
example, in the above graph the 100 A fuse prospective r.m.s. values of the a.c.
will begin to cut off the peak at a prospective component of fault current for LV fuses.
fault current (r.m.s.) of 2 kA (a). The same
fuse for a condition of 20 kA r.m.s.
prospective current will limit the peak current
to 10 kA (b). Without a current-limiting fuse
the peak current could attain 50 kA (c) in this
particular case.
As already mentioned, at lower distribution
levels in an installation, R greatly
predominates XL, and fault levels are
generally low.
This means that the level of fault current may
not attain values high enough to cause peak-
current limitation. On the other hand, the d.c.
transients (in this case) have an insignificant
effect on the magnitude of the current peak,
as previously mentioned.

Note on gM fuse ratings.


A gM type fuse is essentially a gG fuse, the
fusible element of which corresponds to the
current value Ich (ch = characteristic) which
may be, for example, 63 A.
This is the IEC testing value, so that its time/
current characteristic is identical to that of a
63 A gG fuse.
This value (63 A) is selected to withstand the
high starting currents of a motor, the steady-
state operating current (In) of which may be
in the 10-20 A range.

H2-8 - the protection of circuits - the switchgear


H2
This means that a physically smaller fuse
barrel and metallic parts can be used, since
the heat dissipation required in normal
service is related to the lower figures
(10-20 A).
A standard gM fuse, suitable for this situation
would be designated 32M63 (i.e. In M Ich).
The first current rating In concerns the
steady-load thermal performance of the fuse-
link, while the second current rating (Ich)
relates to its (short-time) starting-current
performance.
It is evident that, although suitable for short-
circuit protection, overload protection for the
motor is not provided by the fuse, and so a
separate thermal-type relay is always
necessary when using gM fuses.
The only advantage offered by gM fuses,
therefore, when compared with aM fuses, are
reduced physical dimensions and slightly
lower cost.

2.2 combined switchgear elements


Single units of switchgear do not, in general,
fulfil all the requirements of the three basic
functions, viz: protection, control and
isolation.
Where the installation of a circuit breaker is
not appropriate (notably where the switching
rate is high, over extended periods)
combinations of units specifically designed for
such a performance are employed.
The most commonly-used combinations are
described below:

switch and fuse combinations


Two cases are distinguished:
c the type in which the operation of one
(or more) fuse(s) causes the switch to open.
This is achieved by the use of fuses fitted
with striker pins, and a system of switch
tripping springs and toggle mechanisms.
This type of combination is generally used for
current levels exceeding 100 A, and is
commonly associated with a thermal-type
overcurrent relay for overload protection (for
which the fuses alone may not be suitable). fig. H2-16: symbol for an automatic-
If the switch is classified as AC22 or AC23, tripping switch-fuse, with a thermal
and associated with a motor-overload type of overload relay.
thermal relay, the ensemble, i.e. switch,
striker-pin fuses and overload relay, is
suitable for the control and protection of a
motor circuit,
and:
c the type in which a non-automatic switch is
associated with a set of fuses in a common
enclosure.
In some countries, and in IEC 947-3, the fig. H2-17 (a): symbol for a non-automatic
terms "switch-fuse" and "fuse-switch" have switch-fuse.
specific meanings, viz:
v a switch-fuse comprises a switch (generally
2 breaks per pole) on the upstream side of
three fixed fuse-bases, into which the fuse
carriers are inserted (figure H2-17(a)),
v a fuse-switch consists of three switch
blades each constituting a double-break per
phase. fig. H2-17 (b): symbol for a non-automatic
These blades are not continuous throughout fuse-switch.
their length, but each has a gap in the centre
which is bridged by the fuse cartridge. Some
designs have only a single break per phase,
as shown in figures H2-17(a) and (b).

the protection of circuits - the switchgear - H2-9


2. the switchgear and fusegear (continued)

H2
2.2 combined switchgear elements (continued)
The current range for these devices is limited
to 100 A maximum at 400 V 3-phase, while
their principal use is in domestic and similar
installations.
To avoid confusion between the first group
(i.e. automatic tripping) and the second
group, the term "switch-fuse" should be
qualified by the adjectives "automatic" or
"non-automatic".

fuse - disconnector
+ discontactor
fuse - switch-disconnector
+ discontactor
As previously mentioned, a discontactor does
not provide protection against short-circuit
faults. It is necessary, therefore, to add fuses
(generally of type aM) to perform this
function.
The combination is used mainly for motor-
control circuits, where the disconnector or fig. H2-18 (a): symbol for a fuse-
switch-disconnector allows safe operations disconnector + discontactor.
such as:
c the changing of fuse links (with the circuit
isolated);
c work on the circuit downstream of the
discontactor (risk of remote closure of the
discontactor).
The fuse-disconnector must be interlocked
with the discontactor such that no opening or
closing manœuvre of the fuse-disconnector is
possible unless the discontactor is open
(figure H2-18 (a)), since the fuse-
disconnector has no load-switching capability.
A fuse-switch-disconnector (evidently) fig. H2-18 (b): symbol for a fuse-switch-
requires no interlocking (figure H2-18 (b)). disconnector + discontactor.
The switch must be of class AC22 or AC23 if
the circuit supplies a motor.

circuit-breaker + contactor
circuit-breaker + discontactor
These combinations are used in remotely-
controlled distribution systems in which the
rate of switching is high, or for control and
protection of a circuit supplying motors.
The protection of induction motors is
considered in chapter J, clause J5.

H2-10 - the protection of circuits - the switchgear


3. choice of switchgear

H2
3.1 tabulated functional capabilities
After having studied the basic functions of LV
switchgear (clause 1, table H2-1) and the
different components of switchgear
(clause 2), table H2-19 summarizes the
capabilities of the various components
to perform the basic functions.

isolation control electrical protection


switchgear functional emergency switching emergency stop switching for overload short-circuit differential
item (mechanical) mechanical
maintenance
isolator (or c
disconnector)
(4)
switch (5) c c c (1) c (1) (2) c
residual c c c (1) c (1) (2) c c
device
(RCCB) (5)
switch- c c c (1) c (1) (2) c
disconnector
contactor c c (1) c (1) (2) c c (3)
bistable-switch c c (1) c
(telerupteur)
fuse c c c
circuit c c (1) c (1) (2) c c c
breaker (5)
circuit breaker c c c (1) c (1) (2) c c c
disconnector
(5)
residual c c c (1) c (1) (2) c c c c
and
overcurrent
circuit breaker
(RCBO) (5)
point of origin of all points where, in general at the at the supply at the supply origin origin origin of
installation each for operational incoming circuit point to each point to each of each of each circuits where
(general circuit reasons it may to every distribution machine machine circuit circuit the earthing
principle) be necessary board and/or on the system is
to stop the machine appropriate
process concerned TN-S, IT, TT
table H2-19: functions fulfilled by different items of switchgear.
(1) Where cut-off of all active conductors is provided
(2) It may be necessary to maintain supply to a braking system
(3) If it is associated with a thermal relay (the combination is commonly referred to as a "discontactor")
(4) In certain countries a disconnector with visible contacts is mandatory at the origin of a LV installation supplied directly from a HV/LV transformer
(5) Certain items of switchgear are suitable for isolation duties (e.g. RCCBs according to IEC 1008) without being explicitly marked as such.

3.2 switchgear selection


Software is being used more and more in the In order to determine the number of poles for
field of optimal selection of switchgear. an item of switchgear, reference is made to
Each circuit is considered one at a time, and chapter H1, clause 7, table H1-65.
a list is drawn up of the required protection Multifunction switchgear, initially more costly,
functions and exploitation of the installation, reduces installation costs and problems of
among those mentioned in table H2-19 and installation or exploitation. It is often found
summarized in table H2-1. that such switchgear provides the best
A number of switchgear combinations are solution.
studied and compared with each other
against relevant criteria, with the aim of
achieving:
c satisfactory performance;
c compatibility among the individual items;
from the rated current In to the fault-level
rating Icu;
c compatibility with upstream switchgear or
taking into account its contribution;
c conformity with all regulations and
specifications concerning safe and reliable
circuit performance.

the protection of circuits - the switchgear - H2-11


4. circuit breakers

H2
As shown in table H2-19 the circuit breaker/
the circuit breaker/disconnector fulfills
disconnector is the only item of switchgear
all of the basic switchgear functions, capable of simultaneously satisfying all the
while, by means of accessories, basic functions necessary in an electrical
numerous other possibilities exist. installation.
Moreover, it can, by means of auxiliary units,
provide a wide range of other functions, for
example: indication (on-off - tripped on fault);
undervoltage tripping; remote control… etc.
These features make a circuit-breaker/
disconnector the basic unit of switchgear for
any electrical installation.
functions possible conditions
isolation c
control functional c
emergency switching c (with the possibility of a tripping
coil for remote control)
switching-off for mechanical c
maintenance
protection overload c
short-circuit c
insulation faulty c (with differential-current relay)
undervoltage c (with undervoltage-trip coil)
remote control c added or incorporated
indication and measurement c (generally optional with an electronic
tripping device)
table H2.20: functions performed by a circuit-breaker/disconnector.

4.1 standards and descriptions


industrial circuit breakers must standards
conform with IEC 947-1 and 947-2 or For industrial LV installations the relevant IEC
standards are, or are due to be:
other equivalent standards. c 947-1: general rules;
Corresponding European standards c 947-2: part 2: circuit breakers;
are presently being developed. c 947-3: part 3: switches, disconnectors,
Domestic-type circuit breakers switch-disconnectors and fuse combination
should conform to IEC standard 898, units;
c 947-4: part 4: contactors and motor-
or an equivalent national standard. starters;
c 947-5: part 5: control-circuit devices and
switching elements;
c 947-6: part 6: multiple function switching
devices;
c 947-7: part 7: ancillary equipment.
Corresponding European and many national
standards are presently in the course of
harmonization with the IEC standards, with
which they will be in very close agreement.
For domestic and similar LV installations, the
appropriate standard is IEC 898, or an
equivalent national standard.

H2-12 - the protection of circuits - the switchgear


H2
description
Figure H2-21 shows schematically the 3 - a trip-mechanism actuating device:
principal parts of a LV circuit breaker and its c either: a thermal-magnetic device, in which
four essential functions: a thermally-operated bi-metal strip detects an
1 - the circuit-breaking components, overload condition, while an electromagnetic
comprising the fixed and moving contacts striker pin operates at current levels reached
and the arc-dividing chamber. in short-circuit conditions, or:
2 - the latching mechanism which c an electronic relay operated from current
becomes unlatched by the tripping device transformers, one of which is installed on
on detection of abnormal current each phase.
conditions. 4 - a space allocated to the several types of
This mechanism is also linked to the terminal currently used for the main power-
operation handle of the breaker. circuit conductors.

power circuit terminals

contacts and
arc-dividing chamber

fool-proof mechanical indicator

latching mechanism

trip mechanism and protective devices

fig. H2-21: principal parts of a circuit breaker.

domestic circuit breakers conforming


to IEC 898 and similar national
standards perform the basic
functions of:
c isolation
c protection against overcurrent.

fig. H2-22: domestic-type circuit breaker


providing overcurrent protection and
circuit isolation features.

some models can be adapted to


provide sensitive detection (30 mA)
of earth-leakage current with CB
tripping, by the addition of a modular
block, as shown in figure H2-23,
while other models (complying with
IEC 1009) have this residual-current
feature incorporated, viz. RCBOs.,
and, more recently, IEC 947-2
(appendix B) CBRs.
fig. H2-23: domestic-type circuit breaker
as above (H2-22) plus protection against
electric shocks by the addition of a
modular block.

the protection of circuits - the switchgear - H2-13


4. circuit breakers (continued)

H2
4.1 standards and descriptions (continued)
apart from the above-mentioned 1
functions further features can be
associated with the basic circuit
breaker by means of additional 2
modules, as shown in figure H2-24; 3
4
notably remote control and indication
5
(on-off-fault).

-OFF
O-O
O FF

O-OFF
O-OFF

fig. H2-24: "Multi 9" system* of LV modular switchgear components.

moulded-case type industrial circuit


breakers conforming to IEC 947-2
are now available, which, by means
of associated adaptable blocks SDE
OF2

provide a similar range of auxiliary OF1


SD

functions to those described above


OF2
(figure H2-25). SDE
SD
OF1

fig. H2-25: example of a modular (Compact NS*) industrial type of circuit breaker capable
of numerous auxiliary functions.
* Merlin Gerin product.

H2-14 - the protection of circuits - the switchgear


H2
heavy-duty industrial circuit breakers
of large current ratings, conforming to
IEC 947-2, have numerous built-in
communication and electronic
functions (figure H2-26).

fig. H2-26: examples of heavy-duty industrial circuit breakers. The "Masterpact"* provides
many automation features in its tripping module.
These circuit breakers are provided with
means to adjust protective-device settings
over a wide range, and also with:
c a 20 mA output loop;
c remote indication contacts;
c load indication at the CB.

4.2 fundamental characteristics of a circuit breaker


the fundamental characteristics of a rated operational voltage (Ue)
circuit breaker are: This is the voltage at which the circuit breaker
has been designed to operate, in normal
c its rated voltage Ue (undisturbed) conditions.
c its rated current In Other values of voltage are also assigned to
c its tripping-current-level adjustment the circuit breaker, corresponding to disturbed
ranges for overload protection (Ir** or conditions, as noted in sub-clause 4.3.
Irth**) and for short-circuit protection
(Im)** rated current (In) frame-size rating
c its short-circuit current breaking This is the maximum value of current that a A circuit breaker which can be fitted with
rating (Icu for industrial CBs; Icn for circuit breaker, fitted with a specified over- overcurrent tripping units of different current-
domestic-type CBs). current tripping relay, can carry indefinitely at level-setting ranges, is assigned a rating
an ambient temperature stated by the which corresponds with that of the highest
manufacturer, without exceeding the current-level-setting tripping unit that can be
specified temperature limits of the current- fitted.
carrying parts.
Example:
A circuit breaker rated at In = 125 A for an
ambient temperature of 40 °C will be
equipped with a suitably calibrated
overcurrent tripping relay (set at 125 A).
The same circuit breaker can be used at
higher values of ambient temperature
however, if suitably "derated".
Thus, the circuit breaker in an ambient
temperature of 50 °C could carry only 117 A
indefinitely, or again, only 109 A at 60 °C,
while complying with the specified
temperature limit.
Derating a circuit breaker is achieved
therefore, by reducing the trip-current setting
of its overload relay, and marking the CB
accordingly. The use of an electronic-type of
tripping unit, designed to withstand high
temperatures, allows circuit breakers (derated
as described) to operate at 60 °C (or even at
70 °C) ambient.

Note: In for circuit breakers (in IEC 947-2) is


equal to Iu for switchgear generally, Iu being
rated uninterrupted current.
* Merlin Gerin products.
** Current-level setting values which refer to the current-operated thermal and "instantaneous" magnetic tripping devices for
over-load and short-circuit protection.

the protection of circuits - the switchgear - H2-15


4. circuit breakers (continued)

H2
4.2 fundamental characteristics of a circuit breaker (continued)
overload relay trip-current
setting (Irth or Ir)
Apart from small circuit breakers which are That value must be greater than the
very easily replaced, industrial circuit maximum load current IB, but less than the
breakers are equipped with removable, i.e. maximum current permitted in the circuit Iz
exchangeable, overcurrent-trip relays. (see chapter H1, sub-clause 1.3).
Moreover, in order to adapt a circuit breaker The thermal-trip relays are generally
to the requirements of the circuit it controls, adjustable from 0.7 to 1.0 times In, but when
and to avoid the need to install over-sized electronic devices are used for this duty, the
cables, the trip relays are generally adjustment range is greater; typically 0.4 to
adjustable. 1 times In.
The trip-current setting Ir or Irth (both Example (figure H2-27): a circuit breaker
designations are in common use) is the equipped with a 320 A overcurrent trip relay,
current above which the circuit breaker will set at 0.9, will have a trip-current setting:
trip. It also represents the maximum current Ir = 320 x 0.9 = 288 A
that the circuit breaker can carry without Note: for circuit breakers equipped with non-adjustable
tripping. overcurrent-trip relays, Ir = In.

rated current of the tripping unit


to suit the circumstances
0.7 In In
adjustment range

overload trip current setting


to suit the circuit circuit-breaker
Ir frame-size rating

224 A 288 A 320 A 400 A I


fig. H2-27: example of a 400 A circuit breaker equipped with a 320 A overload trip unit
adjusted to 0.9, to give Ir = 288 A.

short-circuit relay trip-current


setting (Im)
Short-circuit tripping relays (instantaneous or For the latter circuit breakers there exists a
slightly time-delayed) are intended to trip the wide variety of tripping devices which allow a
circuit breaker rapidly on the occurrence of user to adapt the protective performance of
high values of fault current. the circuit breaker to the particular
Their tripping threshold Im is: requirements of a load.
c either fixed by standards for domestic type
CBs, e.g. IEC 898, or,
c indicated by the manufacturer for industrial-
type CBs according to related standards,
notably IEC 947-2.

type of pro- overload short-circuit


tective relay protection protection
domestic thermal- Ir = In low setting standard setting high setting circuit
breakers magnetic type B type C type D
IEC 898 3 In i Im < 5 In 5 In i Im < 10 In 10 In i Im < 20 In (1)
modular thermal- Ir = In low setting standard setting high setting
industrial (2) magnetic fixed type B or Z type C type D or K
circuit breakers 3.2 In < fixed < 4.8 In 7 In < fixed < 10 In 10 In < fixed < 14 In
industrial (2) thermal- Ir = In fixed fixed: Im ≈ 7 to 10 In
circuit breakers magnetic adjustable: adjustable:
IEC 947-2 0.7 In i Ir < In - low setting : 2 to 5 In
- standard setting: 5 to 10 In
electronic long delay short-delay, adjustable
0.4 In i Ir < In 1.5 Ir i Im < 10Ir
instantaneous (I) fixed
I ≈ 12 to 15 In
table H2.28: tripping-current ranges of overload and short-circuit protective devices for LV
circuit breakers.
(1) 50 In in IEC 898, which is considered to be unrealistically high by most European manufacturers (M-G = 10 to 14 In).
(2) For industrial use, IEC standards do not specify values. The above values are given only as being those in common use.

H2-16 - the protection of circuits - the switchgear


H2
t (s) t (s)

I(A) I(A)
Ir Im PdC Ir Im I PdC
fig. H2-29: performance curve of a circuit fig. H2-30 : performance curve of a circuit
breaker thermal-magnetic protective breaker electronic protective scheme.
scheme.
Ir: overload (thermal or short-delay) relay trip-current setting.
Im: short-circuit (magnetic or long-delay) relay trip-current setting.
I: short-circuit instantaneous relay trip-current setting.
PdC: breaking capacity.

isolating feature
A circuit breaker is suitable for isolating a All Multi 9, Compact NS and Masterpact LV
circuit if it fulfills all the conditions prescribed switchgear of Merlin Gerin manufacture is in
for a disconnector (at its rated voltage) in the this category.
relevant standard (see sub-clause 1.2).
In such a case it is referred to as a circuit
breaker-disconnector and marked on its front
face with the symbol

the short-circuit current-breaking rated short-circuit breaking


performance of a LV circuit breaker is capacity (Icu or Icn)
related (approximately) to the cos ϕ The short-circuit current-breaking rating of a In practice, all power-system short-circuit fault
CB is the highest (prospective) value of currents are (more-or-less) at lagging power
of the fault-current loop. Standard current that the CB is capable of breaking factors, and standards are based on values
values for this relationship have been without being damaged. commonly considered to be representative of
established in some standards. The value of current quoted in the standards the majority of power systems.
is the r.m.s. value of the a.c. component of In general, the greater the level of fault
the fault current, i.e. the d.c. transient current (at a given voltage), the lower the
component (which is always present in the power factor of the fault-current loop, for
worst possible case of short-circuit) is example, close to generators or large
assumed to be zero for calculating the transformers.
standardized value. This rated value (Icu) for
industrial CBs and (Icn) for domestic-type Table H2-31 below extracted from IEC 947-2
CBs is normally given in kA r.m.s. relates standardized values of cos ϕ to
Icu (rated ultimate s.c. breaking capacity) and industrial circuit breakers according to their
Ics (rated service s.c. breaking capacity) are rated Icu.
defined in IEC 947-2 together with a table
relating Ics with Icu for different categories of Icu cos ϕ
utilization A (instantaneous tripping) and B 6 kA < Icu i 10 kA 0.5
(time-delayed tripping) as discussed in sub- 10 kA < Icu i 20 kA 0.3
clause 4.3. 20 kA < Icu i 50 kA 0.25
Tests for proving the rated s.c. breaking 50 kA i Icu 0.2
capacities of CBs are governed by standards,
and include: table H2-31: Icu related to power factor
c operating sequences, comprising a (cos ϕ) of fault-current circuit. (IEC 947-2).
succession of manœuvres, i.e. closing and c following an open - time delay - close/open
opening on short-circuit; sequence to test the Icu capacity of a CB,
c current and voltage phase displacement. further tests are made to ensure that
When the current is in phase with the supply v the dielectric withstand capability;
voltage (cos ϕ for the circuit = 1), interruption v the disconnection (isolation) performance
of the current is easier than that at any other and
power factor. v the correct operation of the overload
Breaking a current at low lagging* values of protection,
cos ϕ is considerably more difficult to have not been impaired by the test.
achieve; a zero power-factor circuit being
(theoretically) the most onerous case.

the protection of circuits - the switchgear - H2-17


4. circuit breakers (continued)

H2
4.3 other characteristics of a circuit breaker
Familiarity with the following less-important
characteristics of LV circuit breakers is,
however, often necessary when making a
final choice.

rated insulation voltage (Ui)


This is the value of voltage to which the
dielectric tests voltage (generally greater
than 2 Ui) and creepage distances are
referred.
The maximum value of rated operational
voltage must never exceed that of the rated
insulation voltage, i.e. Ue i Ui.

rated impulse-withstand voltage


(Uimp)
This characteristic expresses, in kV peak (of
a prescribed form and polarity) the value of
voltage which the equipment is capable of
withstanding without failure, under test
conditions.
For further details see chapter F, clause 2.

category (A or B) and rated t (s)


short-time withstand current
(Icw)
As already briefly mentioned (sub-clause 4.2)
there are two categories of LV industrial
switchgear, A and B, according to IEC 947-2:
c those of category A, for which there is no
deliberate delay in the operation of the
"instantaneous" short-circuit magnetic-
tripping device (figure H2-32), are generally
moulded-case type circuit breakers, and,
c those of category B for which, in order to
discriminate with other circuit breakers on a
time basis, it is possible to delay the tripping
of the CB, where the fault-current level is I(A)
lower than that of the short-time withstand Im
current rating (Icw) of the CB (figure H2-23). fig. H2-32: category A circuit breaker.
This is generally applied to large open-type
t (s)
circuit breakers and to certain heavy-duty
moulded-case types. Icw is the maximum
current that the B category CB can withstand,
thermally and electrodynamically, without
sustaining damage, for a period of time given
by the manufacturer.

I(A)
Im I Icw PdC
fig. H2-33: category B circuit breaker.

H2-18 - the protection of circuits - the switchgear


H2
rated making capacity (Icm) Icu cos ϕ Icm = kIcu
Icm is the highest instantaneous value of 6 kA < Icu i 10 kA 0.5 1.7 x Icu
current that the circuit breaker can establish 10 kA < Icu i 20 kA 0.3 2 x Icu
at rated voltage in specified conditions. In a.c. 20 kA < Icu i 50 kA 0.25 2.1 x Icu
systems this instantaneous peak value is 50 kA i Icu 0.2 2.2 x Icu
related to Icu (i.e. to the rated breaking
current) by the factor k, which depends on the table H2.34: relation between rated
power factor (cos ϕ) of the short-circuit breaking capacity Icu and rated making
current loop (as shown in table H2-34). capacity Icm at different power-factor
values of short-circuit current, as
Example: a LV circuit breaker has a rated
standardized in IEC 947-2.
breaking capacity Icu of 100 kA r.m.s.
Its rated making capacity Icm will be
100 x 2.2 = 220 kA peak.

in a correctly designed installation, rated service short-circuit


a circuit breaker is never required to breaking capacity (Ics)
operate at its maximum breaking The rated breaking capacity (Icu) or (Icn) is characteristic (Ics) has been created,
the maximum fault-current a circuit breaker expressed as a percentage of Icu, viz: 25, 50,
current Icu. can successfully interrupt without being 75, 100% for industrial circuit breakers.
For this reason a new characteristic damaged. The probability of such a current The standard test sequence is as follows:
Ics has been introduced. occurring is extremely low, and in normal c O - CO - CO* (at Ics);
It is expressed in IEC 947-2 as a circumstances the fault-currents are c tests carried out following this sequence
considerably less than the rated breaking are intended to verify that the CB is in a good
percentage of Icu (25, 50, 75, 100%).
capacity (Icu) of the CB. On the other hand it state and available for normal service.
is important that high currents (of low For domestic CBs, Ics = k Icn. The factor k
probability) be interrupted under good values are given in IEC 898 table XIV.
conditions, so that the CB is immediately In Europe it is the industrial practice to use a
available for reclosure, after the faulty circuit k factor of 100% so that Ics = Icu.
has been repaired. Note: O represents an opening operation.
It is for these reasons that a new CO represents a closing operation followed by an opening
operation.

many designs of LV circuit breakers fault-current limitation


feature a short-circuit current The fault-current limitation capacity of a CB current limiters) have standardized limiting I2t
concerns its ability, more or less effective, in let-through characteristics defined by that
limitation capability, whereby the preventing the passage of the maximum class.
current is reduced and prevented prospective fault-current, permitting only a In these cases, manufacturers do not
from reaching its (otherwise) limited amount of current to flow, as shown in normally provide characteristic performance
maximum peak value (figure H2-35). figure H2-35. curves.
The current-limitation performance of The current-limitation performance is given by
the CB manufacturer in the form of curves Icc
these CBs is presented in the form of (figure H2-36 diagrams (a) and (b)). prospectice
graphs, typified by that shown in c diagram (a) shows the limited peak value of fault-current peak
figure H2-36, diagram (a). current plotted against the r.m.s. value of the
a.c. component of the prospective fault
current ("prospective" fault-current refers to prospectice
the fault-current which would flow if the CB fault-current
had no current-limiting capability);
c limitation of the current greatly reduces the
thermal stresses (proportional I2t) and this is limited
current peak
shown by the curve of diagram (b) of figure
H2-36, again, versus the r.m.s. value of the limited
a.c. component of the prospective fault current
current.
LV circuit breakers for domestic and similar tc t
installations are classified in certain
standards (notably European Standard fig. H2-35: prospective and actual
EN 60 898). CBs belonging to a class (of currents.

nt
limited rre limited
peak cu s peak
current d i c
ite st current
(kA) m ri
n -li cte (A2 x s)
a
no har 4,5.105
c
22

2.105

(a) prospective a.c. (b) prospective a.c.


component (r.m.s.) component (r.m.s.)

150
150 kA
fig. H2-36: performance curves of a typical LV current-limiting circuit breaker.

the protection of circuits - the switchgear - H2-19


4. circuit breakers (continued)

H2
4.3 other characteristics of a circuit breaker (continued)
current limitation reduces both the advantages
thermal and electrodynamic stresses of current limitation
on all circuit elements through which The use of current-limiting CBs affords Example:
numerous advantages: On a system having a prospective short-
the current passes, thereby c better conservation of installation networks: circuit current of 150 kA r.m.s., a circuit
prolonging the useful life of these current-limiting CBs strongly attenuate all breaker limits the peak current to less than
elements. Furthermore, the limitation harmful effects associated with short-circuit 10% of the calculated prospective peak
feature allows "cascading" currents; value, and the thermal effects to less than 1%
techniques to be used (see 4.5) c reduction of thermal effects: of those calculated.
conductors (and therefore insulation) heating Cascading of the several levels of distribution
thereby significantly reducing design is significantly reduced, so that the life of in an installation, downstream of a limiting
and installation costs. cables is correspondingly increased; CB, will also result in important economies.
c reduction of mechanical effects: The technique of cascading, described in
forces due to electromagnetic repulsion are sub-clause 4.5 allows, in fact, substantial
lower, with less risk of deformation and savings on switchgear (lower performance
possible rupture, excessive burning of permissible downstream of the limiting CB(s))
contacts, etc.; enclosures, and design studies, of up to 20%
c reduction of electromagnetic-interference (overall).
effects: Discriminative protection schemes and
less influence on measuring instruments and cascading are compatible, in the range
associated circuits, telecommunication Compact NS*, up to the full short-circuit
systems, etc. breaking capacity of the switchgear.
These circuit breakers therefore contribute * A Merlin Gerin product.
towards an improved exploitation of:
c cables and wiring;
c prefabricated cable-trunking systems;
c switchgear, thereby reducing the ageing of
the installation.

4.4 selection of a circuit breaker


the choice of a range of circuit choice of a circuit breaker
breakers is determined by: The choice of a CB is made in terms of: c installation regulations; in particular:
c electrical characteristics of the installation protection of persons;
the electrical characteristics of the for which the CB is destined; c load characteristics, such as motors,
installation, the environment, the c its eventual environment: ambient fluorescent lighting, LV/LV transformers, etc.
loads and a need for remote control, temperature, in a kiosk or switchboard Problems concerning specific loads are
together with the type of enclosure, climatic conditions, etc.; examined in chapter J.
telecommunications system c short-circuit current breaking and making The following notes relate to the choice of a
requirements; LV circuit breaker for use in distribution
envisaged. c operational specifications: discriminative systems.
tripping, requirements (or not) for remote
control and indication and related auxiliary
contacts, auxiliary tripping coils, connection
into a local network (communication or
control and indication) etc.,

choice of rated current in terms temperature of air


of ambient temperature surrounding the
circuit breakers
The rated current of a circuit breaker is ambient ambient
temperature temperature
defined for operation at a given ambient
temperature, in general:
c 30 °C for domestic-type CBs;
c 40 °C for industrial-type CBs.
Performance of these CBs in a different
ambient temperature depends principally on
the technology of their tripping units.

single CB circuit breakers installed


in free air in an enclosure
fig. H2-37: ambient temperature.

H2-20 - the protection of circuits - the switchgear


H2
circuit breakers with uncompensated uncompensated thermal-
thermal tripping units have a trip- magnetic tripping units
current level that depends on the Circuit breakers with uncompensated thermal the CB reference temperature. It may be
tripping elements have a tripping-current level noted from typical examples of such tables
surrounding temperature. that depends on the surrounding (tables H2-38) that a lower temperature than
temperature. If the CB is installed in an the reference value produces an up-rating of
enclosure, or in a hot location (boiler room, the CB.
etc.), the current required to trip the CB on Moreover, small modular-type CBs mounted
overload will be sensibly reduced. When the in juxtaposition, as shown typically in figure
temperature in which the CB is located H2-24, are usually mounted in a small closed
exceeds its reference temperature, it will metal case. In this situation, mutual heating,
therefore be "derated". For this reason, CB when passing normal load currents, generally
manufacturers provide tables which indicate requires them to be derated by a factor of 0.8.
factors to apply at temperatures different to

C60a. C60H: curve C. C60N: curves B and C (reference temperature: 30 °C)


rating (A) 20 °C 25 °C 30 °C 35 °C 40 °C 45 °C 50 °C 55 °C 60 °C
1 1.05 1.02 1.00 0.98 0.95 0.93 0.90 0.88 0.85
2 2.08 2.04 2.00 1.96 1.92 1.88 1.84 1.80 1.74
3 3.18 3.09 3.00 2.91 2.82 2.70 2.61 2.49 2.37
4 4.24 4.12 4.00 3.88 3.76 3.64 3.52 3.36 3.24
6 6.24 6.12 6.00 5.88 5.76 5.64 5.52 5.40 5.30
10 10.6 10.3 10.0 9.70 9.30 9.00 8.60 8.20 7.80
16 16.8 16.5 16.0 15.5 15.2 14.7 14.2 13.8 13.5
20 21.0 20.6 20.0 19.4 19.0 18.4 17.8 17.4 16.8
25 26.2 25.7 25.0 24.2 23.7 23.0 22.2 21.5 20.7
32 33.5 32.9 32.0 31.4 30.4 29.8 28.4 28.2 27.5
40 42.0 41.2 40.0 38.8 38.0 36.8 35.6 34.4 33.2
50 52.5 51.5 50.0 48.5 47.4 45.5 44.0 42.5 40.5
63 66.2 64.9 63.0 61.1 58.0 56.7 54.2 51.7 49.2

NS250N/H/L (reference temperature: 40 °C)


rating (A) 40 °C 45 °C 50 °C 55 °C 60 °C
TM160D 160 156 152 147 144
TM200D 200 195 190 185 180
TM250D 250 244 238 231 225
tables H2-38: examples of tables for the determination of derating/uprating factors to
apply to CBs with uncompensated thermal tripping units, according to temperature.
Example table H2-38). To allow for mutual heating in
What rating (In) should be selected for a CB the enclosed space, however, the 0.8 factor
c protecting a circuit, the maximum load noted above must be employed, so that,
current of which is estimated to be 34 A; 35.6 x 0.8 = 28.5 A, which is not suitable for
c installed side-by-side with other CBs in a the 34 A load.
closed distribution box; A 50 A circuit breaker would therefore be
c in an ambient temperature of 50 °C. selected, giving a (derated) current rating of
A circuit breaker rated at 40 A would be 44 x 0.8 = 35.2 A.
derated to 35.6 A in ambient air at 50 °C (see

compensated thermal-magnetic
tripping units
These tripping units include a bi-metal This CB, besides affording protection against
compensating strip which allows the overload indirect-contact hazard, will trip on overload;
trip-current setting (Ir or Irth) to be adjusted, in this case, if the consumer exceeds the
within a specified range, irrespective of the current level stated in his supply contract with
ambient temperature. the power authority.
For example: The circuit breaker (i 60 A) is compensated
c in certain countries, the TT system is for a temperature range of - 5 °C to + 40 °C.
standard on LV distribution systems, and c LV circuit breakers at ratings i 630 A are
domestic (and similar) installations are commonly equipped with compensated
protected at the service position by a circuit tripping units for this range (- 5 °C to + 40 °C).
breaker provided by the supply authority.

the protection of circuits - the switchgear - H2-21


4. circuit breakers (continued)

H2
4.4 selection of a circuit breaker (continued)
general note concerning derating
of circuit breakers
It is evident that a CB rated to carry a current
In at its reference ambient temperature
(30 °C) would overheat when carrying the
same current at (say) 50 °C.
Since LV CBs are provided with overcurrent
protective devices which (if not compensated)
will operate for lower levels of current in
higher ambient temperatures, the CB is
automatically derated by the overload tripping
device, as shown in the tables H2-38.
Where the thermal tripping units are
temperature-compensated, the tripping
current level may be set at any value
between 0.7 to 1 x In in the ambient
temperature range of - 5 °C to + 40 °C.
The reference ambient temperature in this
case is 40 °C (i.e. on which the rating In is
based).
For these compensated units, manufacturers'
catalogues generally also give derated values
of In for ambient temperatures above the
compensated range, e.g. at + 50 °C and
+ 60 °C; typically, 95 A at + 50 °C and 90 A at
+ 60 °C, for a 100 A circuit breaker.

H2-22 - the protection of circuits - the switchgear


H2
electronic tripping units are highly electronic tripping units
stable in changing temperature An important advantage with electronic as mentioned in the general note above, so
tripping units is their stable performance in that manufacturers generally provide an
levels. changing temperature conditions. operating chart relating the maximum values
However, the switchgear itself often imposes of permissible trip-current levels to the
operational limits in elevated temperatures, ambient temperature (figure H2-39).
M25N/H/L i 40 °C 45 °C 50 °C 55 °C 60 °C
circuit breaker A In (A) 2500 2500 2500 2450 2400
maximum adjustment Ir 1 1 1 0.98 0.96
circuit breaker B In (A) 2500 2500 2500 2350 2200
maximum adjustement Ir 1 1 1 0.94 0.88

coeff. In (A)

1 2500

circuit breaker A
0.96 2400

0.94 2350
circuit breaker B

0.88 2200
θ °C
20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
fig. H2-39: derating of two circuit breakers having different characteristics, according to
the temperature.

selection of an instantaneous, or
short-time-delay, tripping
threshold
Principal charasteristics of magnetic or short-
time-delay tripping units. Type classification
according to IEC 898. See also table H2-28.
type tripping unit applications
t low setting c sources producing low-short-circuit-current levels
type B (standby generators)
c long lengths of line or cable

I
t standard setting c protection of circuits: general case
type C

I
t high setting c protection of circuits having high initial transient
type D or K current levels (e.g. motors, transformers, resistive
loads)

I
t 12 In c protection of motors in association with
type MA discontactors (contactors with overload protection)

table H2-40: different tripping units, instantaneous or short-time-delayed.

the protection of circuits - the switchgear - H2-23


4. circuit breakers (continued)

H2
4.4 selection of a circuit breaker (continued)
the installation of a LV circuit breaker selection of a circuit breaker
requires that its short-circuit breaking according to the short-circuit
capacity (or that of the CB together breaking capacity requirements
with an associated device) be equal The installation of a circuit breaker in a LV In the second case, the characteristics of the
installation must fulfil one of the two following two devices must be co-ordinated such that
to or exceeds the calculated conditions: the energy permitted to pass through the
prospective short-circuit current at its c either have a rated short-circuit breaking upstream device must not exceed that which
point of installation. capacity Icu (or Icn) which is equal to or the downstream device and all associated
exceeds the prospective short-circuit current cables, wires and other components can
calculated for its point of installation, or withstand, without being damaged in any
c if this is not the case, be associated with way.
another device which is located upstream, This technique is profitably employed in:
and which has the required short-circuit c associations of fuses and circuit breakers;
breaking capacity. c associations of current-limiting circuit
breakers and standard circuit breakers.
The technique is known as "cascading" (see
sub-clause 4.5 of this chapter).

The selection of main and principal circuit


breakers
c a single transformer 250 kVA
Table C-13 (in chapter C) gives the short- 20 kV/400 V
circuit current level on the downstream side
of a commonly-used type of HV/LV
Visucompact
distribution transformer. If the transformer is NS400N
located in a consumer's substation, certain
national standards require a LV circuit
breaker in which the open contacts are fig. H2-41: example of a transformer in a
clearly visible*. consumer's substation.
Example (figure H2-41):
the circuit breaker at the output of the What type of circuit breaker is suitable for the
smallest transformer must have a main circuit breaker of an installation supplied
short-circuit capacity adequate for a through a 250 kVA HV/LV (400 V) 3-phase
fault current which is higher than that transformer in a consumer's substation?
through any of the other transformer In transformer = 360 A
Isc (3-phase) = 8.9 kA.
LV circuit breakers (fig. H2-42). A 400 A CB with an adjustable tripping-unit
range of 250 A-400 A and a short-circuit
breaking capacity (Icu) of 35 kA* would be a
suitable choice for this duty.
* A type Visucompact NS400N of Merlin Gerin manufacture
is recommended for the case investigated.
c several transformers in parallel
(figure H2-42) HV HV HV
v the circuit breakers CBP outgoing from the
Tr1 Tr2 Tr3
LV distribution board must each be capable of
breaking the total fault current from all
LV LV LV
transformers connected to the busbars, viz:
A1 A2 A3
Isc1 + Isc2 + Isc3, CBM CBM CBM
v the circuit breakers CBM, each controlling
the output of a transformer, must be capable B1 B2 B3
of dealing with a maximum short-circuit
current of (for example) Isc2 + Isc3 only, for a CBP CBP
short-circuit located on the upstream side of
CBM1. E
From these considerations, it will be seen that
the circuit breaker of the smallest transformer fig. H2-42: transformers in parallel.
will be subjected to the highest level of fault
current in these circumstances, while the
circuit breaker of the largest transformer will
pass the lowest level of short-circuit current.
v the ratings of CBMs must be chosen
according to the kVA ratings of the associated
transformers.
Note: the essential conditions for the share the load correctly with a 1,000 kVA
successful operation of 3-phase transformers transformer having a Zsc of 6%, i.e. the
in parallel may be summarized as follows: transformers will be loaded automatically in
1. the phase shift of the voltages, primary to proportion to their kVA ratings.
secondary, must be the same in all units to be For transformers having a ratio of kVA ratings
paralleled. exceeding 2, parallel operation is not
2. the open-circuit voltage ratios, primary to recommended, since the resistance/
secondary, must be the same in all units. reactance ratios of each transformer will
3. the short-circuit impedance voltage (Zsc%) generally be different to the extent that the
must be the same for all units. For example, a resulting circulating currrent may overload the
750 kVA transformer with a Zsc = 6% will smaller transformer.
H2-24 - the protection of circuits - the switchgear
H2
Table H2-43 indicates, for the most usual
arrangement (2 or 3 transformers of equal
kVA ratings) the maximum short-circuit
currents to which main and principal CBs
(CBM and CBP respectively, in figure H2-42)
are subjected. The table is based on the
following hypotheses:
c the short-circuit 3-phase power on the HV
side of the transformer is 500 MVA;
c the transformers are standard 20/0.4 kV
distribution-type units rated as listed;
c the cables from each transformer to its LV
circuit breaker comprise 5 metres of single-
core conductors;
c between each incoming-circuit CBM and
each outgoing-circuit CBP there is 1 metre of
busbar;
c the switchgear is installed in a floor-
mounted enclosed switchboard, in an
ambient-air temperature of 30 °C.
Moreover, this table shows selected circuit
breakers of M-G manufacture recommended
for main and principal circuit breakers in each
case.
number and minimum S.C. main circuit breakers minimum S.C. rated current
kVA ratings of breaking (CBM) total discrimination breaking cap. In of principal
20/0.4 kV capacity of main with out going-circuit of principal circuit breaker
transformers CBs (Icu)* kA breakers (CBP) CBs (Icu)* kA (CPB) 250 A
2 x 400 14 M08 N1/C 801 N ST 27 NS 250 N
3 x 400 27 M08 N1/C 801 N ST 40 NS 250 H
2 x 630 22 M10N1/CM1250/C 1001 N 42 NS 250 H
3 x 630 43 M10H1/CM1250/C 1001 N 64 NS 250 H
2 x 800 24 M12N1/CM1250/C 1251 N 48 NS 250 H
3 x 800 48 M12H1/CM1250/C 1251 N 71 NS 250 L
2 x 1000 27 M16N1/CM1600 54 NS 250 H
3 x 1000 54 M16H2/CM1600 80 NS 250 L
2 x 1250 31 M20N1/CM2000 60 NS 250 H
3 x 1250 62 M20H1/CM2000 91 NS 250 L
2 x 1600 36 M25N1/CM2500 70 NS 250 H
3 x 1600 72 M20H2/CM2500H 105 NS 250 L
2 x 2000 39 M32H1/CM3200 75 NS 250 L
3 x 2000 77 M32H2/CM3200H 112 NS 250 L
table H2-43: maximum values of short-circuit current to be interrupted by main and
principal circuit breakers (CBM and CBP respectively), for several transformers in parallel.
* or Ics in countries where this alternative is practised.

Example: (figure H2-44)


c circuit breaker selection for CBM duty:
In for an 800 kVA transformer = 1.126 A (at 3 Tr
410 V, i.e. no-load voltage) Icu (minimum) = 800 kVA
48 kA (from table H2-43), the CBM indicated 20 kV/400V
in the table is a Compact C1251 N
(Icu = 50 kA) (by Merlin Gerin) or its CBM
equivalent;
c circuit breaker selection for CBP duty:
The s.c. breaking capacity (Icu) required for
these circuit breakers is given in the table CBP1 CBP2 CBP3
(H2-43) as 71 kA.
A recommended choice for the three outgoing
circuits 1, 2 and 3 would be current-limiting 400 A 100 A 200 A
circuit breakers types NS 400 L, NS 100 L fig H2-44: transformers in parallel.
and NS 250 L respectively (by MG) or their
equivalents. The Icu rating in each case =
150 kA.
These circuit breakers provide the
advantages of:
v absolute discrimination with the upstream
(CBM) breakers,
v exploitation of the "cascading" technique,
with its attendant economy for all
downstream components.

the protection of circuits - the switchgear - H2-25


4. circuit breakers (continued)

H2
4.4 selection of a circuit breaker (continued)
Choice of outgoing-circuit CBs v solution 2: install a range of CBs having a
short-circuit fault-current levels at any
and final-circuit CBs higher rating. This solution is economically
point in an installation may be c use of table H1-40 interesting only where one or two CBs are
obtained from tables. From this table, the value of 3-phase short- affected;
circuit current can be determined rapidly for v solution 3: associate current-limiting fuses
any point in the installation, knowing: (gG or aM) with the CBs concerned, on the
v the value of short-circuit current at a point upstream side. This arrangement must,
upstream of that intended for the CB however, respect the following rules:
concerned; - the fuse rating must be appropriate
v the length, c.s.a., and the composition of - no fuse in the neutral conductor, except in
the conductors between the two points. certain IT installations where a double fault
A circuit breaker rated for a short-circuit produces a current in the neutral which
breaking capacity exceeding the tabulated exceeds the short-circuit breaking rating of
value may then be selected. the CB. In this case, the blowing of the
c detailed calculation of the short-circuit neutral fuse must cause the CB to trip on all
current level phases.
In order to calculate more precisely the short-
circuit current, notably, when the short-circuit
current-breaking capacity of a CB is slightly
less than that derived from the table, it is
necessary to use the method indicated in
chapter H1 clause 4.
c two-pole circuit breakers (for phase and
neutral) with one protected pole only
These CBs are generally provided with an
overcurrent protective device on the phase
pole only, and may be used in TT, TN-S and
IT schemes. In an IT scheme, however, the
following conditions must be respected:
v condition (c) of table H1-65 for the
protection of the neutral conductor against
overcurrent in the case of a double fault;
v short-circuit current-breaking rating:
A 2-pole phase-neutral CB must, by
convention, be capable of breaking on one
pole (at the phase-to-phase voltage) the
current of a double fault equal to 15% of the
3-phase short-circuit current at the point of its
installation, if that current is i 10 kA; or 25%
of the 3-phase short-circuit current if it
exceeds 10 kA;
cascading: a particular solution to v protection against indirect contact: this
problems of CBs insufficiently rated protection is provided according to the rules
for S.C. breaking duty. for IT schemes, as described in chapter G
sub-clause 6.2.
c insufficient short-circuit current-
breaking rating
In low-voltage distribution systems it
sometimes happens, especially in heavy-duty
networks, that the Isc calculated exceeds the
Icu rating of the CBs available for installation,
or system changes upstream result in lower-
associating fuses with CBs avoids level CB ratings being exceeded.
the need for a fuse in the neutral, v solution 1: check whether or not
except in particular circumstances on appropriate CBs upstream of the CBs
some IT systems. affected are of the current-limiting type,
allowing the principle of cascading (described
in sub-clause 4.5) to be applied;

H2-26 - the protection of circuits - the switchgear


H2
4.5 coordination between circuit breakers
Preliminary note on the essential function Furthermore, the higher the current, the more
of current limiting circuit breakers the repulsive force on the bar and the greater
Low-voltage current-limiting CBs exploit the the arc resistance as its path lengthens, i.e.
resistance of the short-circuit current arc in the current magnitude is (to some extent)
the CB to limit the value of current. self-regulating.
An improved method of achieving current- The circuit breaker is easily able to break the
level limitation is to associate a separate resulting low value of current, particularly
current-limiting module (in series) with a since the power factor of the fault-current
standard CB. loop is increased by the resistive impedance
A contact bar (per phase) in the module of the arcs.
bridges two (specially-designed heavy-duty) When used in a cascading scheme as
contacts, the contact pressure of which is described below, the tripping of the limiting
accurately maintained by springs. Other CB main contacts is briefly delayed, to allow
rigidly-fixed conductors are arranged in series downstream high-speed circuit breakers to
with, and close to the contact bar, such that clear the (limited) current, i.e. the current-
when current is passed through the limiter CB remains closed.
ensemble, the electromagnetic force tends to The contact bar in the limiter module resets
move the contact bar to open its contacts. under the influence of its pressure springs
This occurs at relatively low values of short- when the flow of short-circuit current ceases.
circuit current, which then passes through the Failure of downstream CBs to trip will result in
arcs formed at each contact. The resistance the tripping of the current-limiting CB, after its
of the arcs is comparable with system brief time delay.
impedances at low voltage, so that the
current is correspondingly restricted.

the technique of "cascading" uses cascading


the properties of current-limiting Definition of the cascading technique
By limiting the peak value of short-circuit
circuit breakers to permit the current passing through it, a current-limiting
installation of all downstream CB permits the use, in all circuits downstream
switchgear, cables and other circuit of its location, of switchgear and circuit
components of significantly lower components having much lower short-circuit
performance than would otherwise breaking capacities, and thermal and
electromechanical withstand capabilities than
be necessary, thereby simplifying would otherwise be the case.
and reducing the cost of an Reduced physical size and lower
installation. performance requirements lead to substantial
economies and to the simplification of
installation work.
It may be noted that, while a current-limiting
circuit breaker has the effect on downstream
circuits of (apparently) increasing the source
impedance during short-circuit conditions, it
has no such effect at any other time; for
example, during the starting of a large motor
(where a low source impedance is highly
desirable).
A new range of Compact* current-limiting
circuit breakers with powerful limiting
performances (namely: NS 100, NS 160,
NS 250 and NS 400) is particularly
interesting.
in general, laboratory tests are Conditions of exploitation
Most national standards permit use of the
necessary to ensure that the cascading technique, on condition that the
conditions of exploitation required by amount of energy "let through" by the limiting
national standards are met and CB is less than that which all downstream
compatible switchgear combinations CBs and components are able to withstand
without damage.
must be provided by the In practice this can only be verified for CBs by
manufacturer. tests performed in a laboratory. Such tests
are carried out by manufacturers who provide
the information in the form of tables, so that
users can confidently design a cascading
scheme based on the combination of circuit
breaker types recommended.
By way of an example, table H2-45 indicates
the possibilities of cascading circuit breaker
types* C 60 and NC 100 when installed
downstream of current-limiting CBs
NS 250 N, H or L for a 230/400 V or
240/415 V 3-phase installation.

* Merlin Gerin products

the protection of circuits - the switchgear - H2-27


4. circuit breakers (continued)

H2
4.5 coordination between circuit breakers (continued)
Advantages of cascading Short-circuit breaking capacity of the
The limitation of current benefits all upstream (limiter) CBs
downstream circuits that are controlled by the kA r.m.s.
current-limiting CB concerned. 150 NS250L
The principle is not restrictive, i.e. current-
100
limiting CBs can be installed at any point in
70 NS250H
an installation where the downstream circuits
would otherwise be inadequately rated. 36 NS250N
The result is: 25
c simplified short-circuit current calculations; 22
c simplification, i.e. a wider choice of Short-circuit breaking capacity of the
downstream switchgear and appliances; downstream CBs (benefiting from the
c the use of lighter-duty switchgear and cascading technique)
appliances, with consequently lower cost;
c economy of space requirements, since kA r.m.s.
light-duty equipment is generally less 150 NC100LH
voluminous. NC100LMA
100 NC100LS
70 NC100LS NC100L
NC100LH
NC100LMA
50 NC100L
40 C60L i 40 C60L i 40
30 C60H C60N C60N
C60L C60H C60H
C60L C60L
(50 to 63) (50 to 63)
NC100H NC100H
25 C60N
NC100H
20 C60a C60a
15 C60a
tables H2-45: example of cascading
possibilities on a 230/400 V or 240/415 V
3-phase installation.

discrimination may be absolute or discriminative tripping IscA


partial, and based on the principles of (selectivity) A
current levels, or time-delays, or a Discrimination is achieved by automatic
protective devices if a fault condition,
combination of both. A more recent occurring at any point in the installation, is
development is based on the IscB
cleared by the protective device located B
principles of logic. immediately upstream of the fault, while all
A (patented) system by Merlin Gerin other protective devices remain unaffected
exploits the advantages of both (figure H2-46).
Discrimination between circuit breakers A and
current-limitation and discrimination. B is absolute if the maximum value of short- absolute discrimination Icc
circuit-current on circuit B does not exceed IrB IccB
the short-circuit trip setting of circuit breaker
A. For this condition, B only will trip (figure partial discrimination
H2-47). B only open A and B opens Icc
Discrimination is partial if the maximum
IrB Ic IccB
possible short-circuit current on circuit B
exceeds the short-circuit trip-current setting of fig. H2-46: absolute and partial
circuit breaker A. For this maximum condition, discrimination.
both A and B will trip (figure H2-48).

H2-28 - the protection of circuits - the switchgear


H2
t t

B A B A

Isc downstream of B
Ir B Ir A Icc B Irm A I Ir B Ir A Irm A Isc B IscA I

B only A and B
opens open
fig. H2-47: absolute discrimination fig. H2-48: partial discrimination
between CBs A and B. between CBs A and B.

1. discrimination based on current levels. Discrimination is absolute or partial, t


This method is realized by setting successive according to the particular conditions, as
relay tripping thresholds at stepped levels, noted in the above examples.
from downstream relays (lower settings)
B A
towards the source (higher settings).

Irm B Irm A Isc B I

2. discrimination based on stepped time In the two-level arrangement shown, A


delays. upstream circuit breaker A is delayed t
This method is implemented by adjusting the sufficiently to ensure absolute discrimination
time-delayed tripping units, such that with B (for example: Masterpact electronic). B
downstream relays have the shortest
operating times, with progressively longer
A
delays towards the source.
∆t
B
Isc B I

3. discrimination based on a combination Discrimination is absolute if t


of methods 1 and 2. Isc B < Irm A (instantaneous).
A mechanical time-delay added to a current- The upstream CB has two high-speed B A
level scheme can improve the overall magnetic tripping thresholds:
discrimination performance. - Irm A (delayed) or a SD* electronic timer Isc B
- Irm A (instantaneous) standard (Compact
type SA)

* short-delay. Irm A Irm A I


delayed instantaneo
us

4. discrimination based on arc-energy chambers of the CBs. The heated-air t


levels (Merlin Gerin patent) pressure level depends on the energy level of
In the range of short-circuit currents, this the arc, as described in the following pages
system provides absolute discrimination (figures H2-54 and H2-55). conventional
between two circuit breakers passing the instantaneous
magnetic-trip
same fault current. This is achieved by using characteristic
current-limiting CBs and initiating CB tripping
by pressure-sensitive detectors in the arcing pressure
operated
magnetic-trip
characteristic

Irm B Irm A Isc

table H2-49: summary of methods and components used in order to achieve discriminative tripping.

the protection of circuits - the switchgear - H2-29


4. circuit breakers (continued)

H2
4.5 coordination between circuit breakers (continued)
Current-level discrimination Example:
current-level discrimination is
Current-level discrimination is achieved with circuit breaker A: Compact NS250 N fitted
achieved with stepped current-level circuits breakers, preferably limiters, and with a trip unit which includes a SD feature.
settings of the instantaneous stepped current-level settings of the Ir = 250 A, magnetic trip set at 2,000 A
magnetic-trip elements. instantaneous magnetic-trip elements. circuit breaker B: Compact NS100N
c the downstream circuit breaker is not a Ir = 100 A
current-limiter. The Merlin Gerin distribution catalogue
The discrimination may be absolute or partial indicates a discrimination limit of 3,000 A
for a short-circuit fault downstream of B, as (an improvement over the limit of 2,500 A
previously noted in 1, above. obtained when using a standard tripping unit).
Absolute discrimination in this situation is
practically impossible because Isc A z Isc B,
so that both circuit breakers will generally trip
in unison.
In this case discrimination is partial, and
limited to the Irm of the upstream circuit
breaker.
c the downstream circuit breaker is a I peak
current limiter. A
Improvement in discriminative tripping can be fault current limitation
obtained by using a current limiter in a upstream curve for
of B circuit breaker
downstream location, e.g. for circuit (see note) B
breaker B. fault
For a short-circuit downstream of B, the downstream
limited level of peak current IB would operate of B
the (suitably adjusted) magnetic trip unit of B,
but would be insufficient to cause circuit
breaker A to trip.
Note: All LV breakers (considered here) have
some inherent degree of current limitation,
Isc Isc I
even those that are not classified as current-
limiters. This accounts for the curved prospective (rms)
characteristic shown for the standard circuit fig. H2-50: downstream limiting circuit
breaker A in figure H2-50. breaker B.
Careful calculation and testing is necessary,
t
however, to ensure satisfactory performance
A (compact S)
of this arrangement.
B
c the upstream circuit breaker is high-
speed with a short-delay (SD) feature.
These circuit breakers are fitted with trip units
which include a non-adjustable mechanical
short-time-delay feature. The delay is
sufficient to ensure absolute discrimination
with any downstream high-speed CB at any
value of s.c. current up to Irms (figure H2-51).

only B opens A and B open


Irm A Irm S I
delayed instantaneous
fig. H2-51: use of a "selective" circuit
breaker upstream.

Time-based discrimination c the delay corresponding to the first step is


discrimination based on time-delayed
This technique requires: greater than the total current-breaking time of
tripping uses CBs referred to as c the introduction of "timers" into the tripping a high-speed CB (type Compact for example)
"selective" (in certain countries). mechanisms of CBs; or of fuses (figure H2-52).
Application of these CBs is relatively c CBs with adequate thermal and mechanical
withstand capabilities at the elevated current t
simple and consists in delaying the
levels and time delays envisaged.
instant of tripping of the several Two circuit breakers A and B in series (i.e. A
series-connected circuit breakers in a passing the same current) are discriminative B non tripping
time of A
stepped time sequence. if the current-breaking period of downstream
breaker B is less than the non-tripping time of
circuit breaker A. current-breaking
time for B
Discrimination at several levels
An example of a practical scheme with (MG)
circuit breakers Masterpact (electronic
protection devices).
These CBs can be equipped with adjustable only B open
timers which allow 4 time-step selections,
Ir B Isc B Isc I
such as:
c the delay corresponding to a given step is fig. H2-52: discrimination by time delay.
greater than the total current breaking time of
the next lower step;

H2-30 - the protection of circuits - the switchgear


H2
Discrimination logic
discrimination schemes based on
This discrimination system requires CBs
logic techniques are possible, using equipped with electronic tripping units,
CBs equipped with electronic tripping designed for this application, together with
A pilot wires
units designed for the purpose interconnecting pilot wires for data exchange
(Compact, Masterpact by MG) and between the CBs.
With 2 levels A and B (figure H2-53), circuit
interconnected with pilot wires. breaker A is set to trip instantaneously, unless
the relay of circuit breaker B sends a signal to
confirm that the fault is downstream of B. This B
signal causes the tripping unit of A to be
delayed, thereby ensuring back-up protection fig. H2-53: discrimination logic.
in the event that B fails to clear the fault, and
so on…
This system (patented by Merlin Gerin) also
allows rapid localization of the fault.

Limitation and discrimination by


recently-introduced circuit breakers
exploitation of arc energy
such as Merlin Gerin type NS, use The technique of "arc-energy discrimination" CB (A) Compact NS
the principle of arc-energy levels to (Merlin Gerin patent) is applied on circuits (a)
obtain discrimination. having a short-circuit current level u 25 In and
ensures absolute selectivity between two
CBs carrying the same short-circuit current. CB (B) Compact NS
Discrimination requires that the energy
allowed to pass by the downstream CB (B) is
Isc = 50 kA
less than that which will cause the upstream
CB (A) to trip (fig. H2-54 (a)). I
Isc (prospective)
Operation principle
Both CBs are current limiters, so that the CB (A) only
electromagnetic forces due to a short-circuit
downstream of CB (B) will cause the current- (b)
CB (A) and CB (B)
limiting arcing contacts of both CBs to open in series
simultaneously. The fault current will be very
strongly limited by the resistance of the two Isc (limited)
series arcs. The intense heat of the current t
arc in each CB causes a rapid expansion of
Pressure
the air in the confined space of the arcing in arcing
chambers, thereby producing a chamber
correspondingly rapid pressure rise.
Above a certain level of current, the pressure
CB (A) setting
rise can be reliably detected and used to
initiate instantaneous tripping. (c)
Discrimination principle CB (B) setting
If both CBs include a pressure tripping device
suitably regulated, then absolute
discrimination between two CBs of different t
current ratings can be achieved by setting
fig. H2-54: arc-energy discrimination
CB (B) to trip at a lower pressure level than
principles.
that of CB (A) (fig. H2-54). If a short-circuit
occurs downstream of CB (A) but upstream
of CB (B), then the arc resistance of CB (A) NS250N
only will limit the current. The resulting current CB (A)
TM260D
will therefore be significantly greater than that
occurring for a short-circuit downstream of
CB (B) (where the two arcs in series cause a
very strong limitation, as previously mentioned). CB (B) NS100N
TM100D
The larger current through CB (A) will
produce a correspondingly greater pressure,
which will be sufficient to operate its fig. H2-55: ratio of rated currents of CBs
pressure-sensitive tripping unit (diagrams (b) and of tripping units, must comply with
and (c) of fig. H2-54). limits stated in the text, to ensure
As can be seen from figure H2-49 (4), the larger discrimination.
the short-circuit current, the faster the CB will
trip.
Discrimination is assured with this particular
switchgear if:
c the ratio of rated currents of the two
CBs u 2.5;
c the ratio of the two trip-unit current ratings
is > 1.6, as shown (typically) in figure H2-55.

For overcurrent conditions less than those of


short-circuits i 25 In, the conventional
protection schemes are employed, as
previously described in this chapter.

the protection of circuits - the switchgear - H2-31


4. circuit breakers (continued)

H2
4.6 discrimination HV/LV in a consumer's substation
In general the transformer in a consumer's
substation is protected by HV fuses, suitably
rated to match the transformer, in accordance
with the principles laid down in IEC 787 and
IEC 420, by following the advice of the fuse
manufacturer.
The basic requirement is that a HV fuse will
not operate for LV faults occurring
downstream of the transformer LV circuit
breaker, so that the tripping characteristic
curve of the latter must be to the left of that of
the HV fuse pre-arcing curve.
This requirement generally fixes the
maximum settings for the LV circuit breaker
protection:
c maximum short-circuit current-level setting
of the magnetic tripping element;
c maximum time-delay allowable for the
short-circuit current tripping element.
See also Chapter C sub-clause 3.2.7, and
Appendix C1, for further details.

63 A

1250 kVA
20 kV / 400 V
full-load current
1760 A
3-phase
short-circuit
current level Visucompact
31.4 kA CM 2000
set at 1800 A

fig. H2-56: example.


c short-circuit level at HV terminals of t
transformer: 250 MVA; (ms)
CM 2000
c transformer HL/LV: 1,250 kVA 20/0.4 kV; set at
c HV fuses: 63 A (table C 11); 1000 1800 A
c cabling, transformer - LV circuit breaker: minimum
pre-arcing
10 metres single-core cables; 200 curve for 63 A HV
c LV circuit breaker: Visucompact CM 2000 100 fuses (current
set at 1,800 A (Ir). referred to the
secondary side
What is the maximum short-circuit trip current of the transformer)
setting and its maximum time delay
allowable? 10
The curves of figure H2-57 show that 1 4 6
Ir Ir Ir
discrimination is assured if the short-time
delay tripping unit of the CB is set at: 8
Ir
c a level i 6 Ir = 10.8 kA;
c a time-delay setting of step O or A. step C
220 step B
A general policy for HV fuse/LV circuit step A
1
breaker discrimination, adopted in some
countries, which is based on standardized 50 step 0
manufacturing tolerance limits, is mentioned
in chapter C sub-clause 3.2.7, and illustrated 0,01
in figure C-21. 1800 A 10 kA Isc maxi I
Ir 31,4 kA
Where a transformer is controlled and
protected on the high-voltage side by a circuit fig. H2-57: curves of HV fuses and LV
breaker, it is usual to install separate CT- and/ circuit breaker.
or VT- operated relays, which energize a
shunt-trip coil of the circuit breaker.
Discrimination can be achieved, together with
high-speed tripping for faults on the
transformer, by using the methods described
in chapter C sub-clause 3.2.

H2-32 - the protection of circuits - the switchgear


1. general

H1
1.1 methodology and definitions
component parts of an electric circuit methodology
Following a preliminary analysis of the power c ensure protection of persons against
and its protection are determined requirements of the installation, as decribed indirect contact hazards, particularly in
such, that all normal and abnormal in Chapter B Clause 4, a study of cabling* TN- and IT- earthed systems, where the
operating constraints are satisfied. and its electrical protection is undertaken, length of circuits may limit the magnitude
starting at the origin of the installation, of short-circuit currents, thereby delaying
through the intermediate stages to the final automatic disconnection (it may be
circuits. remembered that TT- earthed installations are
The cabling and its protection at each level obligatorily protected at the origin by a RCD,
must satisfy several conditions at the same generally rated at 500 mA).
time, in order to ensure a safe and reliable The cross-sectional areas of conductors are
installation, e.g. it must: determined by the general method described
c carry the permanent full load current, and in Sub-clause 1.2 of this Chapter. Apart from
normal short-time overcurrents, this method some national standards may
c not cause voltage drops likely to result in an prescribe a minimum cross-sectional area to
inferior performance of certain loads, for be observed for reasons of mechanical
example: an excessively long acceleration endurance. Particular loads (as noted in
period when starting a motor, etc. Chapter J) require that the cable supplying
Moreover, the protective devices (circuit them be oversized, and that the protection of
breakers or fuses) must: the circuit be likewise modified.
c protect the cabling and busbars for all
* the term "cabling" in this chapter, covers all insulated
levels of overcurrent, up to and including conductors, including multi-core and single-core cables and
short-circuit currents, insulated wires drawn into conduits, etc.

kVA to be supplied short-circuit MVA


at the origin
upstream or of the circuit
downstream network

maximum load short-circuit


current current
IB Isc
rated current of protective short-circuit current-breaking
device (C.B. or fuses) rating of C.B. or fuses
In I scb
choice
choice of of C.B.
protective or fuses
device

conditions of cross-sectional area of verification of thermal


installation conductors of the circuit withstand requirements

verification of the IT or TN scheme


maximum voltage
drop
verification of the
maximum length
of the circuit
TT scheme

determination of the confirmation of the cross-sectional area of the


cross-sectional area cabling, and the choice of its electrical protection
of the conductors

table H1-1: logigram for the selection of cable size and protective-device rating
for a given circuit.

the protection of circuits - the switchgear - H1-1


1. general (continued)

H1
1.1 methodology and definitions (continued)
definitions
Maximum load current: IB main
c at the final circuits level, this current distribution
corresponds to the rated kVA of the load. In board
the case of motor-starting, or other loads
which take an initially-high current,
particularly where frequent starting is combined factors
concerned (e.g. lift motors, resistance-type of simultaneity
spot welding, and so on) the cumulative (or diversity) IB = 290 x 0.69 = 200 A
and utilization
thermal effects of the overcurrents must be ks x ku = 0.69
taken into account. Both cables and thermal-
type relays are affected; sub-distribution
c at all upstream circuit levels this current board
corresponds to the kVA to be supplied, which
takes account of the factors of simultaneity
(diversity) and utilization, ks and ku 80 A 60 A 100 A IB = 50 A
respectively, as shown in figure H1-2.
Maximum permissible current: IZ normal load
This is the maximum value of current that the M motor current
cabling for the circuit can carry indefinitely, 50 A
without reducing its normal life expectancy.
The current depends, for a given cross- fig. H1-2: calculation of maximum load
sectional area of conductors, on several current IB.
parameters:
c constitution of the cable and cable-way
(Cu or Alu conductors; PVC or EPR etc.
insulation; number of active conductors);
c ambient temperature;
c method of installation;
c influence of neighbouring circuits.

overcurrents
An overcurrent occurs each time the value of Short-circuit currents
current exceeds the maximum load current IB These currents result from the failure of
for the load concerned. insulation between live conductors or/and
This current must be cut off with a rapidity between live conductors and earth (on
that depends upon its magnitude, if systems having low-impedance-earthed
permanent damage to the cabling (and neutrals) in any combination, viz:
appliance if the overcurrent is due to a c 3 phases short-circuited (and to neutral
defective load component) is to be avoided. and/or earth, or not);
Overcurrents of relatively short duration can c 2 phases short-circuited (and to neutral
however, occur in normal operation; two and/or earth, or not);
types of overcurrent are distinguished: c 1 phase short-circuited to neutral (and/or to
Overloads earth).
These overcurrents can occur in healthy
electric circuits, for example, due to a number
of small short-duration loads which
occasionally occur co-incidentally; motor-
starting loads, and so on.
If either of these conditions persists however
beyond a given period (depending on
protective-relay settings or fuse ratings) the
circuit will be automatically cut off.

H1-2 - the protection of circuits - the switchgear


H1
1.2 overcurrent protection principles
A protective device is provided at the origin of t
the circuit concerned. maximum I2t cable
c acting to cut-off the current in a time shorter load characteristic
than that given by the I2t characteristic of the current
circuit cabling;
c but allowing the maximum load current IB to
flow indefinitely.
The characteristics of insulated conductors
when carrying short-circuit currents can, for
temporary circuit-breaker
periods up to 5 seconds following short-circuit tripping curve
overload
initiation, be determined approximately by the
formula:
Is2 x t = k2 x S2 which shows that the
allowable heat generated is proportional to
the cross-sectional-area of the condutor
squared. IB Ir Iz ISCB PdC I
Where: fig. H1-3: circuit protection by circuit
t: duration of short-circuit current (seconds); breaker.
S: c.s.a. of insulated conductor (mm2);
t
Is: short-circuit current (A r.m.s.);
k: insulated conductor constant (values
of k2 are given in table H1-54). I2t cable
For a given insulated conductor, the characteristic
maximum permissible current varies
according to the environment. For instance,
for a high ambient temperature (θa1 > θa2),
IZ1 is less than IZ2 (fig. H1-5).
θ means "temperature". fuse
temporary curve
overload
Note:
Isc means 3-phase short-circuit current.
IscB means rated 3-ph. short-circuit breaking
current of the circuit breaker.
Ir (or Irth)* means regulated "nominal" current IB Ir cIz Iz I
level; e.g. a 50 A nominal circuit breaker can
be regulated to have a protective range, i.e. fig. H1-4: circuit protection by fuses.
a conventional overcurrent tripping level t 1 2
(see figure H1-6) similar to that of a 30 A
circuit breaker.
* both designations are commonly used in different
standards. θa1 > θa2

5s
I2t = k2S2

Iz1 < Iz2 I


fig. H1-5: I2t characteristic of an insulated
conductor at two different ambient
temperatures.

the protection of circuits - the switchgear - H1-3


1. general (continued)

H1
1.3 practical values for a protection scheme
The following methods are based on rules representative of the practices in many
laid down in the IEC standards, and are countries.

loads circuit cabling

e
ax

bl
i
im

Iz iss
um

nt rm

Iz
rre pe
lo

x
a

45
cu m
d

u
cu

1.
m
rre

i
ax
n

m
t IB
1.45 Iz ISC
IB Iz
In I2 ISCB
zone a zone c
zone b

t
en
g

nt or
t
ui atin

I2 urr
Ir
rre In irc ng r

nt rc
cu t
c

rre ve
d en
t - i
or ak

cu l o
te rr

sh t bre
la cu

p na
gu al

tri tio
p n
3- urre
re in

en
its om

nv
-c
ult
n

co

fa
protective device

fig. H1-6: current levels for determining circuit breaker or fuse characteristics.

IB i In i Iz zone a general rules


A protective device (circuit breaker or fuse) The "conventional" setting tripping time may
I2 i 1,45 Iz zone b functions correctly if: be 1 hour or 2 hours according to local
ISCB u ISC zone c c its nominal current or its setting current In is standards and the actual value selected for
greater than the maximum load current IB but I2.
less than the maximum permissible current IZ For fuses, I2 is the current (denoted If) which
for the circuit, i.e. IB i In i IZ corresponding to will operate the fuse in the conventional time;
zone "a" in figure H1-6; c its 3-phase short-circuit fault-current
c its tripping current I2 "conventional" setting breaking rating is greater than the 3-phase
is less than 1.45 IZ which corresponds to short-circuit current existing at its point of
zone "b" in figure H1-6. installation.
This corresponds to zone "c" in figure H1-6.

criteria for a circuit breaker: applications


Protection by circuit breaker Particular case:
IB i In (or Ir) i Iz
By virtue of its high level of precision the if the circuit breaker itself does not protect
and, current I2 is always less than 1.45 In (or against overloads, it is necessary to ensure
rated short-circuit breaking current 1.45 Ir) so that the condition, that I2 i 1.45 IZ that, at a time of lowest value of short-circuit
ISCB u ISC the 3-ph. short-circuit (as noted in the "general rules" above) will current, the overcurrent device protecting the
current level at the point of CB always be respected. circuit will operate correctly. This particular
case is examined in Sub-clause 5.1.
installation.

Protection by fuses
criteria for fuses:
The condition I2 i 1.45 IZ must also be taken For fuses type gl:
IB i In i IZ into account, where I2 is the fusing (melting- In i 10 A k3 = 1.31
k3 level) current, equal to k2 x In (k2 ranges from 10 A < In i 25 A k3 = 1.21
and, 1.6 to 1.9) according to the particular fuse In > 25 A k3 = 1.10
the rated short-circuit current concerned. Moreover, the short-circuit current breaking
A further factor k3 has been introduced (in the capacity of the fuse ISCF must exceed the
breaking capacity of the fuse national standards from which these notes level of 3-phase short-circuit current at the
ISCF u ISC the 3-ph. short-circuit have been abstracted) such that I2 i 1.45 IZ point of installation of the fuse(s).
current level at the point of fuse will be valid if In i IZ/k3.
installation.
Association of different protective devices associated cabling and appliances can
The use of protective devices which have withstand without damage.
fault-current ratings lower than the fault level In pratice this arrangement is generally
existing at their point of installation are exploited in:
permitted by IEC and many national c the association of circuit breakers/fuses;
standards in the following conditions: c the technique known as "cascading" in
c there exists upstream, another protective which the strong current-limiting performance
device which has the necessary short-circuit of certain circuit breakers effectively reduces
rating, and the severity of downstream short-circuits.
c the amount of energy allowed to pass Possible combinations which have been
through the upstream device is less than that tested in laboratories are indicated in certain
which the downstream device and all manufacturers catalogues.
H1-4 - the protection of circuits - the switchgear
H1
1.4 location of protective devices
a protective device is, in general, general rule
required at the origin of each circuit. A protective device is necessary at the origin P
of each circuit where a reduction of
permissible maximum current level occurs.

P2 P3 P4

50 mm2 10 mm2 25 mm2

possible alternative locations in


certain circumstances P1
The protective device may be placed part
way along the circuit: A
c if AB is not in proximity to combustible short-circuit
<3m
material, and sc protective
c if no socket-outlets or branch connections device
are taken from AB.
B B
Three cases may be useful in practice. s overload
P2 B protective
Consider case (1) in the diagram device3
c AB i 3 metres, and P3
c AB has been installed to reduce to a
practical minimum the risk of a short-circuit case (1) case (2) case (3)
(wires in heavy steel conduit for example).
Consider case (2)
c the upstream device P1 protects the length
AB against short-circuits in accordance with
Sub-clause H1-5.1.
Consider case (3)
c the overload device (S) is located adjacent
to the load. This arrangement is convenient
for motor circuits. The device (S) constitutes
the control (start/stop) and overload
protection of the motor while (SC) is: either a
circuit breaker (designed for motor protection)
or fuses type aM,
c the short-circuit protection (SC) located at
the origin of the circuit conforms with the
principles of Sub-clause H1-5.1.

circuits with no protection


Either P1: C60 calibre 15 A
c the protective device P1 is calibrated to
2,5 mm2
protect the cable S2 against overloads and
short-circuits; S2:
1,5 mm2
Or
c where the breaking of a circuit constitutes a
risk, e.g.
v excitation circuits of rotating machines,
v circuits of large lifting electromagnets,
v the secondary circuits of current
transformers.
No circuit interruption can be tolerated, and
the protection of the cabling is of secondary
importance.

table H1-7: general rules and exceptions concerning the location of protective devices.

1.5 cables in parallel


Conductors of the same cross-sectional-area, The following precautions should be taken to
the same length, and of the same material, avoid the risk of short-circuits on the
can be connected in parallel. paralleled cables:
The maximum permissible current is the sum c additional protection against mechanical
of the individual-core maximum currents, damage and against humidity, by the
taking into account the mutual heating introduction of supplementary protection;
effects, method of installation, etc. c the cable route should be chosen so as to
Protection against overload and short-circuits avoid close proximity to combustible
is identical to that for a single-cable circuit. materials.

the protection of circuits - the switchgear - H1-5


1. general (continued)

H1
1.6 worked example of cable calculations
installation scheme
The installation is supplied through a Following the one-line diagram of the system
1,000 kVA transformer. The process requires shown in figure H1-8 below, a reproduction of
a high degree of supply continuity and this is the results of a computer study for the circuit
provided by the installation of a 500 kVA C1 and its circuit breaker Q1, and C2 with
400 V standby generator, and by the adoption associated circuit breaker Q2 are presented.
of a 3-phase 3-wire IT-system at the main These studies were carried out with
general distribution board from which the ECODIAL 2.2 software (a Merlin Gerin
processing plant is supplied. The remainder product).
of the installation is isolated by a 315 kVA This is followed by the same calculations
400/400V transformer: the isolated network is carried out by the methods described in this
a TT-earthed 3-phase 4-wire system. guide.

TR1
1000 kVA
5%
400 V
26. 44 kA
C1
8m
.18%
3x (3 x 240)

Q1
M16 N1
STR 38
1600 A

B1 G1
500 kVA
721 A

Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 Q6
C801N
STR35SE
800 A
C2 C3 C4
15m
.7%
3x (1 x 240)

I1 I2
T1
315 kVA
400 V
B2

Q7 Q8 Q9 Q10
NS630N
STR35SE
630 A

Q11 Q12 Q13


NS250N NS160N NS100N
TMD TMD TMD
250 A 160 A 80 A

fig. H1-8: one-line diagram of the installation.

H1-6 - the protection of circuits - the switchgear


H1
calculations using software Ecodial 2.2
General network characteristics
earthing system IT
neutral distributed N
voltage (V) 400
frequency (Hz) 50
Transformer TR 1 input data output
number of transformers 1
upstream fault level (MVA) 500
rating (kVA) 1000
short-circuit impedance voltage (%) 5
remarks
nominal current (A) 1374
resistance of transformer (mΩ) 2.13
reactance of transformer (mΩ) 8.55
running total of impedance RT (mΩ) 2.18
running total of impedance XT (mΩ) 8.9
3-phase short-circuit current (kA) 26.44
short-circuit power factor .23
Cable C 1 input data output
maximum load current (A) 1374
type of insulation PRC
conductor material Cu
ambient temperature (°C) 30
single-core or multi-core cable UNI
installation method 13
number of circuits in close proximity
(table H1-14) 1
other coefficient 1
number of phases 3
selected cross-sectional area (mm2) 3 x 240
protective conductor 1 x 240
neutral conductor
length (m) 8
voltage drop ∆U (%) .18
running total of impedance RT (mΩ) 2.43
running total of impedance XT (mΩ) 9.11
voltage drop ∆U total (%) .18
3-phase short-circuit current (kA) 25.7
1-phase-to-earth fault current (A) 20334
resistance of protective conductor RPE (mΩ) .75
touch voltage (V) 15
Circuit breaker Q 1 input data output
voltage (V) 400
3-ph short-circuit current upstream
of the circuit breaker (kA) 25.7
maximum load current (A) 1374
ambient temperature (°C) 40
number of poles 3
circuit breaker M 16
type N1
tripping unit type STR 38
rated current (A) 1600
Busbars B 1
maximum load current (A) 1374
number of phases 3
number of bars per phase 1
width (mm) 125
thickness (mm) 5
length (m) 3
remarks
impedance of busbars R (mΩ) .1
impedance of busbars X (mΩ) .45
voltage drop ∆U(%) .16
running total of impedance RT (mΩ) 2.53
running total of impedance XT (mΩ) 9.55
voltage drop ∆U total (%) .34
3-ph short-circuit current (kA) 24.53

the protection of circuits - the switchgear - H1-7


1. general (continued)

H1
1.6 worked example of cable calculations (continued)
Circuit breaker Q 2 input data output
voltage (V) 400
3-ph short-circuit current upstream
of the circuit breaker (kA) 24.53
maximum load current (A) 433
ambient temperature (°C) 40
number of poles 3
circuit breaker NS630
type N
tripping unit type STR23SE
rated current (A) 630
3-phase fault current (A) 13221
protection against indirect contact assured
upstream circuit breaker M16 N1 STR38
absolute discrimination
Cable C 2 input data output
maximum load current (A) 433
type of insulation PRC
conductor material Cu
ambient temperature (°C) 30
single-core or multi-core cable UNI
installation method 13
number of circuits in close proximity
(table H1-14) 1
other coefficient 1
number of phases 3
selected cross-sectional area (mm2) 1 x 240
protective conductor 1 x 70
neutral conductor
length (m) 15
voltage drop ∆U (%) .33
running total of impedance RT (mΩ) 3.93
running total of impedance XT (mΩ) 10.75
voltage drop ∆U total (%) .67
3-phase short-circuit current (kA) 21.18
1-phase-to-earth fault current (A) 13221
resistance of protective conductor RPE (mΩ) 5.57
touch voltage (V) 73
table H1-9: calculations carried out with ECODIAL software (M.G).
the same calculations using The resistances and the inductive reactances
the methods recommended in for the three conductors in parallel are, for a
length of 8 metres (see H1-4.2):
this guide 22.5 x 8
Dimensioning circuit C 1 R= = 0.25 mΩ per phase
240 x 3
The HV/LV 1,000 kVA transformer has a rated 0.12 x 8
no-load voltage of 420 V. Circuit C 1 must be X= = 0.32 mΩ per phase
3
suitable for a current of (0.12 mΩ/metre was advised by the cable
In = 1,000 = In = 1,374 A per phase maker).
ex 0.42
Dimensioning circuit C 2
Three single-core XLPE-insulated copper
Circuit C 2 supplies a 315 kVA 3-phase
cables in parallel will be used for each phase;
400/400 V isolating transformer
these cables will be laid on cable trays
corresponding with reference F (see tables in Ib = 315 = 433 A.
0.42 x e
Clause H1 2.2). The "K" correction factors are
A multi-core XLPE cable laid on a cable tray
as follows:
(together with two other cables) in an ambient
K1=1
air temperature of 30 °C is proposed.
K 2 = 0.82 ( 3 three-phase groups in a single
The circuit breaker is regulated to 433 A.
layer)
Iz = 433 A
K 3 = 1 (temperature 30 °C).
The method of installation is characterized by
If the circuit breaker is a withdrawable or
the reference letter E, and the "K" correcting
unpluggable* type, which can be regulated,
factors are:
one might choose:
K1=1
Iz = 1,374 A applying H1.2.1
K 2 = 0.82
Iz
I’z = = 1,676 A. K 3 = 1.
K1xK2xK3
433
Each conductor will therefore carry 558 A. I’z = = 528 A so that
1 x 0.82 x 1
Table H1-17 indicates that the c.s.a. is
a c.s.a. of 240 mm2 is appropriate.
240 mm2.
The resistance and inductive reactance are
* Withdrawable, CBs are generally mounted in drawers for
maintenance purposes. Plug-in type CBs are generally
respectively:
moulded-case units, which may be completely removed 22.5 x 15
from the fixed-base sockets. R= = 1.4 mΩ per phase
240
X = 0.08 x 15 = 1.2 mΩ per phase.

H1-8 - the protection of circuits - the switchgear


H1
Calculation of short-circuit currents for Circuit C 1 will be of class 2 insulation i.e.
the selection of circuit breakers Q 1 and double insulation and no earthed exposed
Q2 conductive parts. The only indirect-contact
requirement for this circuit, therefore, is at the
*all values are to a 420 voltage base transformer tank. The 240 mm2 P.E.
e conductor mentioned above, generally
circuits R* X* Z* Isc* connects the tank of the HV/LV transformer to
components parts mΩ mΩ mΩ kA the earth electrode for the installation at a
500 kVA at the common earthing busbar in the main general
HV source network 0.050 0.35 distribution board. This means that if one (of
HV/LV transformer 2.24 8.10 the two) concurrent LV phase-to-earth faults
cable C 1 0.25 0.32 should occur in the transformer, an indirect
sub-total for Q1 2.54 8.77 9.13 26.5 contact danger will exist at the transformer
busbars B1 - 0.75 9.85 24.6 tank.
In such a case, the HV overcurrent protection
cable C 2 1.40 1.2
for the transformer is unlikely to operate, but
sub-total for Q2 3.94 10.72 11.42 21.2 the protection on the second faulty LV circuit
table H1-10: example of short-circuit must do so infallibly to ensure protection
current evaluation. against the indirect contact danger, as
described.
Sub-clause H1-4.2 shows the formula for
Since a HV fault to earth at the transformer is
calculating the short-circuit current Isc at a
also always possible, and very often HV
given point in the system.
lightning arresters on the transformer are
If the rated no-load voltage of the transformer
connected to earth through the P.E.
is 420 V:
conductor in question, a conductor of large
420 c.s.a. is invariably selected for this section
Isc =
of the installation. Dimensioning
3 2.542 + 8.772
considerations for this conductor are given
in Sub-clause 6.3.
= 26.5 kA at Q 1.
For circuit C2, tables G.43 and G.59, or the
The inductive reactance of busbars B1 is
formula given in Sub-clause G.6.2 may be
estimated to be 0.15 x 5 = 0.75 mΩ - its
used for a 3-phase 3-wire circuit.
resistance being negligibly small.
The maximum permitted length of the circuit
The Isc at the location of Q 2 is computed as
is given by:
for Q 1, and found to be 21 kA.
Lmax = 0.8 x 230 x 240 x ex 103
In order to make the final choice, features
2 x 22.5 x (1.25 + 240/70) x 630 x 11.5
such as selectivity, isolating capability,
withdrawal or unplugging facility and general = 76,487 = 50 metres.
1,530
ease of maintenance, and so on, must be
The factor 1.25 in the denominator is a 25%
considered, with the aid of manufacturers
increase in resistance for a 240 mm2
catalogues.
conductor, in accordance with Chapter G
The protective conductor Sub-clause 5.2.
Thermal requirements. (The value in the denominator
Tables H1.60 and H1.61 show that, when 630 x 11.5 = Im i.e. the current level at which
using the adiabatic method (IEC 724 (1984) the instantaneous short-circuit magnetic trip
Clause 2) the c.s.a. for the protective earth of the 630 A circuit breaker operates). This
(PE) conductor for circuit C1 will be: value is equal to 10 In + 15 % (the highest
26500 x √0.1 positive manufacturing tolerance for the
u = 47.6 mm2
176 tripping device). For further details of
a single 240 mm2 conductor dimensioned for magnetic tripping devices, please refer to
other reasons mentioned later is therefore Chapter H2 Sub-clause 4.2.
largely sufficient, provided that it also satisfies The length of 15 metres is therefore fully
the requirements for indirect-contact protected by "instantaneous" overcurrent
protection (i.e. that its impedance is devices.
sufficiently low).
Voltage drop
For the circuit C2, the c.s.a. of its PE
From table H1.29 it can be seen that:
conductor should be:
for C1 (3 x 240 mm2 per phase)
21,000 x √0.1
u = 37.7 mm2 0.21 V/A/km x 1,374 A x 0.008 km
176 ∆U =
3
In this case a 70 mm2 conductor may be
= 0.77 V
adequate if the indirect-contact protection
conditions are also satisfied. ∆U % = 100 x 0.77 = 0.19 %;
400
Protection against indirect-contact for C2
hazards ∆U = 0.21 V/A/km x 433 A x 0.015 km
Reminder: the LV neutral point of an = 1.36 V
IT-scheme transformer is isolated from earth,
or is earthed through a high resistance ∆U % = 100 x 1.36 = 0.34 %;
400
(1-2 kΩ) so that an indirect-contact hazard At the circuit terminals of the LV/LV
can only exist if two earth faults occur transformer the percentage volt-drop
concurrently, each on a different phase (or on ∆U % = 0.53 %.
one phase and a neutral conductor).
Overcurrent protective devices must then be
relied upon to cut-off the faulty circuits, except
in particular circumstances i.e. where the
resistance of P.E. conductors is too high, as
noted in Chapter G Sub-clauses 6.3 to
6.5. RCDs are often employed in such cases.

the protection of circuits - the switchgear - H1-9


2. practical method for determining the smallest allowable
cross-sectional-area of circuit conductors

H1
2.1 general
installation maximum load current IB
conditions IB
for the conductors
rated current In of the protective device must
be equal to or greater than the maximum load
current IB

determination of K In
factors and of the choice of maximum permissible current IZ for the
appropriate letter circuit, corresponding to a conductor size that the
code protective device is capable of protecting

fuse circuit breaker


IZ = 1.31 In if In 10 A*
IZ = 1.21 In if In 10 A*
and In 25 A* I Z = I n*
IZ = 1.10 In if In 25 A*

I Z1 I Z2

Determination of the size (c.s.a.) of the conductors of the circuit


capable of carrying IZ1 or IZ2, by use of an equivalent current I'Z,
which takes into account the influences of factor K (I'Z = IZ/K), of
the letter code, and of the insulating sheath of the conductors
(refer to tables H1-17 or H1-24)
I 'Z I 'Z
S1 S2

verification of other conditions that may be required-see figure H1.1

* or slightly greater

table H1-11: logigram for the determination of minimum conductor size for a circuit.
The first step is to determine the size of the reference which takes into account:
phase conductors. The dimensioning of the v the type of circuit (single-phase; three-
neutral and protective conductors is phase, etc.) and
explained in H1-6 and H1-7. v the kind of installation: and then
In this clause the following cases are c determine the factor K of the circuit
considered: considered, which covers the following
c unburied conductors, influences:
c buried conductors. v installation method,
The tables in this clause permit the v circuit grouping,
determination of the size of phase conductors v ambient temperature.
for a circuit of given current magnitude.
The procedure is as follows:
c determine an appropriate code-letter

2.2 determination of conductor size for unburied circuits


determination of the code-letter installation are numerous, but the most
the size of a phase conductor is
reference common of them have been grouped
given in tables which relate: according to four classes of similar
c the code letter symbolizing the The letter of reference (B to F) depends on environmental conditions, as shown below in
the type of conductor used and its method of table H1-12.
method of installation, and installation. The possible methods of
c the factor of influence K.
These tables distinguish unburied types of conductor method of installation letter code
circuits from buried circuits. single-core wires and c under decorative moulding with or
multi-core cables without a removable cover, surface
or flush-mounting, or under plaster
c in underfloor cavity or behind B
false ceiling
c in a trench, moulding or wainscoting
c surface-mounted in contact with
wall or ceiling
c on non-perforated cable trays C
multi-core cables c cable ladders, perforated trays, E
or on supporting brackets
c surface-mounted clear of the surface
(e.g. on cleats)
c catenary cables

single-core cables F

table H1-12: code-letter reference, depending on type of conductor and method of


installation.

H1-10 - the protection of circuits - the switchgear


H1
for circuits which are not buried, determination of the factor K
factor k characteristizes the The factor k summarizes the several features
which characterize the conditions of
conditions of installation, and is given installation.
by: K = K1 x K2 x K3 It is obtained by multiplying three correction
the three component factors factors K1, K2 and K3.
depending on different features The values of these factors are given in
tables H1.13 to H1.15 below.
of the installation.
correction factor K1
Factor K1 is a measure of the influence of the
method of installation.

factor K1 is a measure of the code letter installation details example K1


influence of the method of B - cables installed directly in 0.70
thermal-insulation materials
installation.

- conduits installed in thermal- 0.77


insulation materials

- multi-core cables 0.90

- construction cavities and closed 0.95


cables trenches

C - surface mounted on ceiling 0.95

B, C, E, F - other cases 1

table H1-13: factor K1 according to method of circuit installation (for further examples
refer to IEC 364-5-52 table 52H).
Correction factor K2 Two circuits are considered to be in close
Factor K2 is a measure of the mutual proximity when L, the distance between
influence of two circuits side-by-side in close two cables, is less than double the diameter
proximity. of the larger of the two cables.

factor K2 is a measure of the mutual code location of correction factor K2


letter cables in close number of circuits or multicore cables
influence of two circuits side-by-side proximity 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 12 16 20
in close proximity.
B,C embedded 1.00 0.80 0.70 0.65 0.60 0.57 0.54 0.52 0.50 0.45 0.41 0.38
or buried
in the walls
C single layer 1.00 0.85 0.79 0.75 0.73 0.72 0.72 0.71 0.70 0.70
on walls or
floors, or on
unperforated
cables trays
single layer 0.95 0.81 0.72 0.68 0.66 0.64 0.63 0.62 0.61 0.61
on ceiling
E,F single layer 1.00 0.88 0.82 0.77 0.75 0.73 0.73 0.72 0.72 0.72
on horizontal
perforated
trays, or on
vertical trays
single layer 1.00 0.87 0.82 0.80 0.80 0.79 0.79 0.78 0.78 0.78
on cable ladders,
brackets, etc
table H1-14: correction factor K2 for a group of conductors in a single layer

the protection of circuits - the switchgear - H1-11


2. practical method for determining the smallest allowable
cross-sectional-area of circuit conductors (continued)

H1
2.2 determination of conductor size for unburied circuits (continued)
When cables are installed in more than one
layer a further factor, by which K2 must be
multiplied, will have the following values :
2 layers : 0.80
3 layers : 0.73
4 or 5 layers : 0.70.
Correction factor K3
Factor K3 is a measure of the influence of the
temperature, according to the type of
insulation.

factor K3 is a measure of the ambient insulation


influence of the temperature temperatures elastomer polyvinylchloride cross-linked-
(rubber) (PVC) polyethylene (XLPE)
according to the type of insulation. butyl, ethylene-
propylene-rubber (EPR)
10 1.29 1.22 1.15
15 1.22 1.17 1.12
20 1.15 1.12 1.08
25 1.07 1.07 1.04
30 1.00 1.00 1.00
35 0.93 0.93 0.96
40 0.82 0.87 0.91
45 0.71 0.79 0.87
50 0.58 0.71 0.82
55 - 0.61 0.76
60 - 0.50 0.71
65 - - 0.65
70 - - 0.58
75 - - -
80 - - -
table H1-15: correction factor K3 for ambient temperatures other than 30 °C.
Example: 1 2 3
A 3-phase 3-core XLPE cable is laid on a
perforated cable-tray in close proximity to
three other circuits, consisting of:
c a 3-phase 3-core cable (circuit no. 1),
c three single-core cables (circuit no. 2),
c six single-core cables (circuit no. 3),
circuit no. 2 and no. 3 are 3-phase circuits,
θa = 40°C XLPE
the latter comprising 2 cables per phase.
There are, therefore, effectively 5 3-phase
circuits to be considered, as shown in figure fig. H1-16: example in the determination of
H1-16. The ambient temperature is 40 °C. factors K1, K2 and K3.
The code letter indicated in table H1-12 is E.
K1 given by table H1-13 = 1.
K2 given by table H1-14 = 0.75.
K3 given by table H1-15 = 0.91.
K = K1 x K2 x K3 = 1 x 0.75 x 0.91 = 0.68.

H1-12 - the protection of circuits - the switchgear


H1
determination of the minimum
cross-sectional area of a
conductor
The current Iz when divided by K gives a
fictitious current I'z. Values of I'z are given in
table H1-17 below, together with
corresponding cable sizes for different types
of insulation and core material (copper or
aluminium).
insulation and number of conductors (2 or 3)
rubber butyl or XLPE or EPR
or PVC
code B PVC3 PVC2 PR3 PR2 B code
letter C PVC3 PVC2 PR3 PR2 C letter
E PVC3 PVC2 PR3 PR2 E
F PVC3 PVC2 PR3 PR2 F
c.s.a. 1.5 15.5 17.5 18.5 19.5 22 23 24 26 1.5 c.s.a.
copper 2.5 21 24 25 27 30 31 33 36 2.5 copper
(mm2) 4 28 32 34 36 40 42 45 49 4 (mm2)
6 36 41 43 48 51 54 58 63 6
10 50 57 60 63 70 75 80 86 10
16 68 76 80 85 94 100 107 115 16
25 89 96 101 112 119 127 138 149 161 25
35 110 119 126 138 147 158 169 185 200 35
50 134 144 153 168 179 192 207 225 242 50
70 171 184 196 213 229 246 268 289 310 70
95 207 223 238 258 278 298 328 352 377 95
120 239 259 276 299 322 346 382 410 437 120
150 299 319 344 371 395 441 473 504 150
185 341 364 392 424 450 506 542 575 185
240 403 430 461 500 538 599 641 679 240
300 464 497 530 576 621 693 741 783 300
400 656 754 825 940 400
500 749 868 946 1083 500
630 855 1005 1088 1254 630
c.s.a. 2.5 16.5 18.5 19.5 21 23 25 26 28 2.5 c.s.a.
aluminium 4 22 25 26 28 31 33 35 38 4 alu
(mm2) 6 28 32 33 36 39 43 45 49 6 (mm2)
10 39 44 46 49 54 59 62 67 10
16 53 59 61 66 73 79 84 91 16
25 70 73 78 83 90 98 101 108 121 25
35 86 90 96 103 112 122 126 135 150 35
50 104 110 117 125 136 149 154 164 184 50
70 133 140 150 160 174 192 198 211 237 70
95 161 170 183 195 211 235 241 257 289 95
120 186 197 212 226 245 273 280 300 337 120
150 227 245 261 283 316 324 346 389 150
185 259 280 298 323 363 371 397 447 185
240 305 330 352 382 430 439 470 530 240
300 351 381 406 440 497 508 543 613 300
400 526 600 663 740 400
500 610 694 770 856 500
630 711 808 899 996 630
table H1-17: case of an unburied circuit: determination of the minimum cable size (c.s.a.),
derived from the code letter; conductor material; insulation material and the fictitious
current I'z.

the protection of circuits - the switchgear - H1-13


2. practical method for determining the smallest allowable
cross-sectional-area of circuit conductors (continued)

H1
2.2 determination of conductor size for unburied circuits (continued)
Example Determination of the cross-sectional areas
The example shown in figure H1-16 for A standard value of In nearest to, but higher
determining the value of K, will also be used than 23 A is required.
to illustrate the way in which the minimum Two solutions are possible, one based on
cross-sectional-area (c.s.a.) of conductors protection by a circuit breaker and the second
may be found, by using the table H1-17. on protection by fuses.
The XLPE cable to be installed will carry c circuit breaker: In = 25 A
23 amps per phase. v permissible current Iz = 25 A
Previous examples show that: v fictitious current
c the appropriate code letter is E, I'z = 25 = 36.8 A
c the factor K = 0.68. 0.68
v cross-sectional-area of conductors is found
1 2 3
as follows:
In the column PR3 corresponding to code
letter E the value of 42 A (the nearest value
greater than 36.8 A) is shown to require a
copper conductor c.s.a. of 4 mm2.
For an aluminium conductor the
corresponding values are 43 A and 6 mm2.
θa = 40°C XLPE c fuses: In = 25 A
v permissible current Iz = K3
fig. H1-18: example for the determination In = 1.21 x 25 = Iz = 30.3 A
of minimum cable sizes. v the fictitious current I'z = 30.3 = 40.6 A
0.68
v the cross-sectional-areas, of copper or
aluminium conductors are (in this case) found
to be the same as those noted above for a
circuit-breaker-protected circuit.

2.3 determination of conductor size for buried circuits


In the case of buried circuits the A code letter corresponding to a method of
determination of minimum conductor sizes, installation is not necessary.
necessitates the establishement of a factor K.

for buried circuits the value of factor determination of factor K


K characteristizes the conditions of Factor K summarizes the global influence of
different conditions of installation, and is
installation, and is obtained from the obtained by multiplying together correction
following factors: factors K4, K5, K6 and K7.
K4 x K5 x K6 x K7 = K The values of these several factors are given
each of which depends on a in tables H1-19 to H1-22.
particular feature of installation. Correction factor K4
Factor K4 is a measure of the influence of the
method of installation.

factor K4 measures the influence of method of installation K4


the method of installation. placed in earthenware ducts; in 0.8
conduits, or in decorative mouldings
other cases 1
table H1-19: correction factor K4 related to
the method of installation.
Correction factor K5
factor K5 measures the mutual
Factor K5 is a measure of the mutual
influence of circuits placed side-by- influence of circuits placed side-by-side in
side in close proximity. close proximity.
Cables are in close proximity when the
distance L separating them is less than
double the diameter of the larger of the two
cables concerned.

location of correction factor K5


cables side-by-side number of circuits or of multicore cables
in close proximity 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 12 16 20
buried 1.00 0.80 0.70 0.65 0.60 0.57 0.54 0.52 0.50 0.45 0.41 0.38
table H1-20: correction factor K5 for the grouping of several circuits in one layer.
When cables are laid in several layers,
multiply K5 by 0.8 for 2 layers, 0.73 for
3 layers, 0.7 for 4 layers or 5 layers.

H1-14 - the protection of circuits - the switchgear


H1
Correction factor K6
factor K6 is a measure of the
This factor takes into account the nature and
influence of the earth in which the condition of the soil in which a cable (or
cable is buried. cables) is (are) buried; notably its thermal
conductivity.

nature of soil K6
very wet soil (saturated) 1.21
wet soil 1.13
damp soil 1.05
dry soil 1.00
very dry soil (sunbaked) 0.86
table H1-21: correction factor K6 for the
nature of the soil.
Correction factor K7
factor K7 is a measure of the
This factor takes into account the influence of
influence of the soil temperature. soil temperature if it differs from 20 °C.

soil temperature insulation


°C polyvinyl-chloride cross-linked polyethylene
(PVC) (XLPE)
ethylene-propylene
rubber (EPR)
10 1.10 1.07
15 1.05 1.04
20 1.00 1.00
25 0.95 0.96
30 0.89 0.93
35 0.84 0.89
40 0.77 0.85
45 0.71 0.80
50 0.63 0.76
55 0.55 0.71
60 0.45 0.65
table H1-22: correction factor K7 for soil temperatures different than 20 °C.
Example
A single-phase 230 V circuit is included with
θa = 20°C
four other loaded circuits in a buried conduit.
The soil temperature is 20 °C. The
conductors are PVC insulated and supply a 5 kW
230 V
5 kW lighting load. The circuit is protected by
a circuit breaker.
fig. H1-23: example for the determination
of K4, K5, K6 and K7.
K4 from table H1-19 = 0.8.
K5 from table H1- 20 = 0.6.