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Joao Rocha Graduation Report

Joao Rocha Graduation Report

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My Graduation Project, at the end of my Integrated Product Design MSc at Technical University of Delft.

It is statistically proven that more Disasters are happening, to more impoverished people. Aiming at reducing Disaster Risk, I tested, compiled and presented several techniques for the poorest, most illiterate people in the world, to produce their own Disaster Preparedness Supplies.

This report contains is divided in Introduction/Context/Techniques/Education Package and Project Evaluation. It illustrates the process and provides figures to support my decisions.

Please check also:
Booklet 01 Make Yourself Ready.PDF
Booklet 02 Educator's Guidebook.PDF
My Graduation Project, at the end of my Integrated Product Design MSc at Technical University of Delft.

It is statistically proven that more Disasters are happening, to more impoverished people. Aiming at reducing Disaster Risk, I tested, compiled and presented several techniques for the poorest, most illiterate people in the world, to produce their own Disaster Preparedness Supplies.

This report contains is divided in Introduction/Context/Techniques/Education Package and Project Evaluation. It illustrates the process and provides figures to support my decisions.

Please check also:
Booklet 01 Make Yourself Ready.PDF
Booklet 02 Educator's Guidebook.PDF

More info:

Categories:Types, Research
Published by: João Rocha on May 19, 2011
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The Design of a Disaster Preparedness Solution for the Base of the Pyramid

Technische Universiteit Delft - Industrieel Ontwerpen

João Landeiro Negrão Silva Rocha
1401971

Delft, 2010

João Rocha | TU Delft, Industrial Design Engineering, IPD

2

João Landeiro Negrão Silva Rocha
1401971
Integrated Product Design MSc Programme
2010

digitalgraphite@gmail.com
00351 911 948 596

Graduation Project: Design of a Disaster Preparedness Solution for the Base of the Pyramid

Page 3

13 Introduction

15

1. A Primer

19

2. Introduction

20

3. For who is this Project?

21

4. What is the result of this project?

22

5. Approach

5.1 Research

23

5.2 Product

24

5.3 Implementation

25

26

6. Reading this report

29 Context

30

1. Introduction

30

2. Need for Solutions

30

3. Challenges at the Base of the Pyramid

30

4. Adequacy of Disaster Preparedness solutions

31

A - Disasters

33

1. Defnitions

34

2. Research Boundaries

35

3. Origin of Natural Disasters

36

4. Considered Types of Natural Disasters

37

5. Disaster Occurrence

38

6. Disaster Consequences
6.1 Infrastructure
Consequences

39

6.2 Social
Consequences

40

6.3 Economic
Consequences

41

42

7. Conclusions

45

B - Base of the Pyramid

47

1. Introduction

48

2. Who is the Base of the Pyramid

51

3. BoP Disaster Preparedness

52

4. When Disaster Strikes

53

5. Disaster Risk Reduction

54

6. Conclusions

Table of
Contents

João Rocha | TU Delft, Industrial Design Engineering, IPD

4

57
C - Disaster Preparedness

59

1. Disaster Management

60

2. Cycles in Disaster Management
2.1 Mitigation

61

2.2 Preparedness 62
2.3 Response

63

2.4 Recovery

64

65

3. Preparedness as Project Focus

66

4. Typical Preparedness requirements
4.1 Equipping

67

4.2 Planning

67

4.3 Staying Informed

67

68

5. Disaster Preparedness and the Base of the Pyramid

70

6. Conclusions

73 Techniques

74

1.Introduction

74

2. Four Basic Areas

75
D - Shelter

77

1. Importance of Shelter

78

2. Approach

79

3. Expected Conditions
3.1 Urban Setting 79

3.2 Social
Rearrangement 80

81

4. Requirements

82

5. Coping Stragegies

83

6. Shelter Elements

84

7. Cover

86

8. Unions

87

9. Operating Costs

88

10. Conclusions

91
E - Water

93

1. Importance of Water

94

2. Approach

95

3. Expected Conditions
3.1 Urban Setting 95
3.2 Water Supply
Condition

95

97

4. Requirements

98

5. Water Treatment Principles

100

6. Selected Water Treatment Techniques

101

7. Boiling

102

8. Chemical Desinfection
8.2 Chlorine
Treatment (Bleach)

103

8.2 Tincture of
Iodine (Iodine)

104

105

9. Solar Disinfection (SODIS)

106

10. Water Storage

107

11. Sanitation and Hygiene

108

12. Conclusions

111
F - Cooking

113

1. Importance of Cooking

114

2. Approach

115

3. Expected Conditions
3.1 little available

115

food for consumption

3.3 poor cooking

115

conditions

116

4. Requirements

117

5. Coping Strategies

118

6. Rocket Stove

120

7. Conclusions

Graduation Project: Design of a Disaster Preparedness Solution for the Base of the Pyramid

Page 5

123
G - Communications

126

1. Importance of Communications

127

2. Radios as means to communicate

128

3. Approach

129

4. Type of Radio

130

5. Suggested Instituitions

5.1 Lifeline Energy

130

5.2 Send a Radio 130

5.3 Ears to our World

130

5.4 Farm Radio
International

130

131

6. Conclusions

135 Education Package

1. Introduction 136

137
H - Education Approach

139

1.Introduction

140

2. Educational Approach
2.1 Teaching Product
Making Techniques

141

2.2 Teaching
Educational
Techniques

142

143

3. Teaching Disaster Preparedness
3.1 Organize

143

3.2 Research

144

3.3 Plan

144

3.4 Make

144

3.5 Educate

145

4. Tools for the Educator 146

4.1 Cultural
Assessment
Questionnaire

146

4.2 Education
Conditions
Questionnaire

146

147

5. Supporting Theories
5.1 Cultural
Dimensions

147

5.1.1 Collectivism

147

5.1.2 Power Distance

148

5.1.3 Future Orientation

148

5.1.4 Gender Egalitarienism

148

5.1.5 Humane Orientation

148

5.1.6 Assertiveness

149

5.1.7 Uncertainty Avoidance

149

5.1.8 Performance
Orientation

149

150

5.2 A Model for Learning
5.2.1 Students Characteristics

151

5.2.2 Education Characteristics

151

5.2.3 Education Context
Characteristics

151

5.3. Experiential
Learning Theory

152

5.4. Kolb's
Learning Styles

153

5.4.1 Assimilating

153

5.4.2 Converging

153

5.4.3 Diverging

153

5.4.4 Accommodating

153

João Rocha | TU Delft, Industrial Design Engineering, IPD

6

157
I - Designed Manuals

159

1. Introduction

160

2. Make Yourself Ready
2.1 Section 1,
introduction

160

2.2 Section 2,
How to make a
cooking stove

161

2.3 Section 3,
How to make shelter

161

2.4 Section 4,
How to treat water

162

2.5 Section 5,
How to get a
radio device

163

164

3. Educator's Guidebook
3.1 Section A,
Introduction

164

3.2 Section B,
Method

165

3.3 Section C,
Disaster Preparedness

166

3.4 Section D,
Education

167

3.5 Section E,
Your Community 167

169

4. Information Accessibility
4.1 Language

169

4.2 Layout

169

4.3 Visuals

170

44. Questionnarire
Design

171

175 Project Evaluation

177

1. Future Recommendations

1.1 1.1 Further Testing
of Techniques
and Presentation 177

1.2 Strategies for
Distribution of
knowledge

177

1.3 Open-source
and Crowd-sourced
contributions

177

178

2. Results

178

3. Process

179

4. Refection

Graduation Project: Design of a Disaster Preparedness Solution for the Base of the Pyramid

Page 7

This project was my biggest academic endeavour so far and it clearly
changed me. There are too many people to thank for their support,
insight and or just fun.

Friends I shared a break with; colleagues that kept their interest high;
a client that asked me to see the bigger, more interesting picture and a
supervisory team that was always there.

However, the biggest thank you note of all goes to my parents.
For this gift, for their love and support and for making an effort to keep
up with the wandering wishes of a young designer-to-be.

There are also some people that perhaps even unaware of this, kept me
motivated, inspired or just sane. They deserve a special mention:

Fabrício Astúa, Juan de Borja, Madeleine Borthwick, Henri Eskonen,
André Jerónimo, Tomas Nielsen, Iñigo Olazabal, Dinis Ramos,
Ricardo Schoonewolff, Richard Verdoorn and Matjaz Zaccaria.

Obrigado!

João,
2010

Acknowledgements

João Rocha | TU Delft, Industrial Design Engineering, IPD

8

Graduation Project: Design of a Disaster Preparedness Solution for the Base of the Pyramid

Page 9

Lard Breebaart, owner of Larddesign, was the Client of this project.
As a designer, he is very interested in mobility solutions for the urban
context. This is the reason we started working together in the frst place,
when the project was focused on technical clothing for rescue workers.

Lard's inquiring attitude and constant curiosity were central to the
current project focus. Lard pushed me to look deeper into what happens
in a Disaster and welcomed what this project has come to be.

As a project client, I would say that he struck a fne balance between
allowing me to explore and pressing me with the diffcult questions that
lead to better work.

Ir. Lard Breebaart

Project Client

Ir. Iemkje Ruiter

Chair Professor

Ir. Henk Kuipers

Project Mentor

Professor Iemkje Ruiter, from the Applied Ergonomics and Design sec-
tion of the Department of Industrial Design, was the Chair Professor of
this project. I initially asked her to be my chair professor because I was
expecting a big focus on traditional ergonomics and anthropometry. The
project changed in the meanwhile, but Professor Iemkje Ruiter was very
welcoming of the new directions it was taking.

Never limiting me on what I though it was pertinent to work on, Professor
Ruiter displayed a very motivating interest and curiosity in this project.
Although offcially, she was this project's Chair Professor, the degree to
which she followed it showed a much bigger involvement

Professor Henk Kuipers is also from the Applied Ergonomics and Design
section of the Department of Industrial Design.

I had already had Professor Henk Kuipers as a mentor, during the Integral
Design Project, where I liked his pragmatic approach combined with an
eye for the underlying questions of a project.

Professor Henk Kuipers was also very welcoming to the changes I gradu-
ally introduced in the project, showing an encouraging level of confdence
in my work.

João Rocha | TU Delft, Industrial Design Engineering, IPD

10

Graduation Project: Design of a Disaster Preparedness Solution for the Base of the Pyramid

Page 11

This project was the design of educational material that teaches popula-
tions in the Base of the Pyramid how to make their own Disaster Pre-
paredness supplies.

However, for techniques to be adopted, the mere giving of technical
instruction documents is not enough. It is necessary that there is a more
directed approach, appropriate to the considered community and its
specifc cultural characteristics.

This project has two parts:

The design of a technical instructions manual, teaching the making of
supplies for Disaster Preparedness

The design of an educator's resource to guide non-specialists in
establishing Disaster Preparedness education initiatives in their
community.

This project in 100 words

João Rocha | TU Delft, Industrial Design Engineering, IPD

12

Graduation Project: Design of a Disaster Preparedness Solution for the Base of the Pyramid

Page 13

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