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DISCUSSION MATERIAL

1. DEFINITION OF LIBERALISM
a. Definition of Liberalism in state context
b.Definition of Economic Liberalism
2. HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF LIBERALISM
a. History
b. Development of Liberalism
3. LIBERAL STATES
a. Liberalism in USA
b. Liberalism in China
4. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF LIBERALISM
5. COMPARISON OF LIBERALISM WITH REALISM
6. CONCLUSION
7. FUTHER READING
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1.DEFINITION OF LIBERALISM

Liberals appear at the end of the cold war and growing or acceptable in their
application. liberalism brought great progress in the political culture and humanity.
interpret constitutional and economic liberalism that aspires to democracy in which
there is free enterprise and trade. high values of liberalism is individual freedom. any
authority including negaratidak may impede this freedom.

a. Definition of Liberalism in state context


By Immanuel Kant who emphasized the liberal republican constitution in creating
peace. Kant argued that republican stated were ‘ peace producers ‘ that is they were
more inclined to peaceful behaviour than other sorts of states.

3 conditions for peace among liberal democracies in the republican liberalism:


1.democratic norms of peaceful conflict resolution
2. peaceful relations among democratic countries, based on the same moral
foundation
3. economic cooperation between democratic countries; relationship interdependence

In republican liberalism, the democratic culture, accustomed to solving problems and


conflicts peacefully. it is a foundation stone which is used as the basis for peaceful
relations.

b. Definition of Economic Liberalism


In the liberal economic trade, the economy as a 'positive-sum game' with
profits for all and the government should not meddle in the private economy.
Thus, in a world economy based on free trade will benefit all countries through
specialization and global welfare would increase. liberal economics is called "doctrine
and set of principles in organizing and groove economic growth and welfare of
individuals" (Gilpin 1987:27)
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2. HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF LIBERALISM


a. History
Liberalism is a doctrine that emerged from the European Enlightenment of the
eighteenth century. It became particularly strong in England, but also in the U.S.,
France, and later, other Anglophone societies like Australia. In each of these countries
it assumed slightly different forms.
The major philosophers of liberalism belong to a number of groups of theorists.
The first includes several theorists of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries who
preceded liberalism proper but who anticipated its doctrines. These were followed by
the political and economic theorists of classical liberalism in the mid–nineteenth
century. Later, other liberal theorists modified those doctrines of the classical liberals
and are often called "social liberals." There also emerged in the twentieth century
defenders of classical liberalism including, in the economic sphere.
Implementation of the realist theory raises a lot of criticism and argument, because on
this theory lead to war and conflict. At the end of the cold war, there is a view of
liberal theory is regarded as a refinement of realist theory because the priority sector
"economy" that began to develop from the "industrial revolution"

b. Development of Liberalism
Liberalism is a theory of individual freedom that developed at the end of the cold
war. John Locke in the 17th century, saw the great potential of human progress in
civil society and the modern capitalist economy, which both can thrive in countries
that guarantee individual freedom.
from the text we can conclude, that after the cold war, the world began to develop
other theories, in addition to the realist theory of the importance of "economic power"
and replace "military" as a principal basis, which makes appear some liberal state and
cause the development of "liberalism" which is divided into four groups:
1. sociological liberalism
2. interdependence liberalism
3. Institutional liberalism
4. Republican Liberalism
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3. LIBERAL STATES

Countries following the understand liberalism in continent of America is USA,


Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chili, Cuba, Colombia, Equador, Honduras, canada,
Mexsico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela. Now
liberalsm also adopted for Aruba, Bahamas, Dominican Republic, Greenland,
Grenada, Costa Rica, Puerto Rico dan Suriname.
Countries following the understand liberalism in continent of Europe is
Albania, Armenia, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatian, Cyprus, Republik
Cekoslovakia, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Greece, Hungaria, Islandia,
Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands,
Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Serbia Montenegro, Slovakia,
Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraina and United Kingdom Now
liberalsm also adopted for Andorra, Belarusia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Faroe Islands,
Georgia, Ireland and San Marino.
Countries following the understand liberalism in continent of Asia is India,
Iran, Israel, Jepang, South korea, Fhiliphines, Taiwan, Thailand and Turki. For
now, a lot of state in asia whose start the understand liberal. Another for now is
Myanmar, Kamboja, Hong Kong, Malaysia and Singapura.
Countries following the understand liberalism in Oceania islands is Australia
and New Zealand liberal economic system In Africa is a new. Basically, only
adopted for those living in Mesir, Senegal, And South Africa. For now, liberalsm
already understood by country Aljazair, Angola, Benin, Burkina Faso, Mantol
Verde, Côte D'Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, Gambia, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi,
Maroko, Mozambik, Seychelles, Tanzania, Tunisia, Zambia and Zimbabwe.

28 0ct,2010.http://www.ohio.edu/chastain/ip/libgerm.htm,22.50pm
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The following is an overview of liberalism in some countries:

a. Liberalism in USA
America adopts modern liberalism. america politicians acknowledge, that
understanding of classical liberalism is related to a broad range of individual
liberty, but refused to understand it in the application in the field of economics
because it leads to a form of government intervensionism social and economic
unification. it has been agreed in order to reach the success of politicians in the
country. but that success began to degenerate and disappear in the 1970s.
Liberal consensus in confronted with the collapse of Breton Woods system
pemetrintahan since Ronald Reagan's victory in presidential elections in 1980,
which makes liberalism a political must be strong in the United States. liberalism
United States rose in the early 20th century as an alternative to real politics, which
is the dominant international interaction. Franklin Roosevelt is someone who is
sensible self-proclaimed. World War 2, Roosevelt designed the un as a
distinguished tool in the form of expectations of reciprocity cooperation than the
threat of war and the use of force to solve international political. liberalism that
embraced by the United States emphasized cooperation and mutual collaboration
and individual effort, not by making threats and coercion as a form of a political
issue both inside or outside as it has been applied by Wilson and Roosevelt.

b. Liberalism in China
economy in China is one country that has the most formidable economic
power in the world. market economy in china open economy with a stranger with
an area economy in China has grown rapidly to nearly 10% during the last three
years rate world bank china including the few countries that utilize the experience
and lessons from countries which entered development in the previous period.
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4. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF


LIBERALISM

In the form of general applicability, Liberals have a theory that includes the
advantages and disadvantages:

goodness = community empowered, Human Rights upheld and upheld by state


badness = very high gap

http://peaceman.multiply.com/journal/item/215

In the specification of the disadvantages and advantages can be divided into:

 Advantages (+) of the liberal/minimal Welfare Regime/State:

• least sensitive to demographic changes in the population


• low taxes
• differentiated services
• stimulates job growth, especially in low-skills sector

 Disadvantages (-) of the liberal/minimal Welfare Regime/State:

• high inequality, great social cleavages (two class society)


• low level services for poor people
• welfare state is politically unpopular and not sustainable
• negative stigma attached to benefit recipient

http://www.scribd.com/doc/31149546/Sistem-Politik-Di-Negara-Liberal-Dan-Komunis
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5. COMPARISON OF LIBERALISM WITH REALISM

Liberalism and Realism have some fundamental differences, and the following
analysis:
a. Realism :
• Have a pessimistic view of human nature, and political progress as
well as international relations
• Giving priority sectors "military" as a major force
• In the implementation, "state" becomes the dominant factor
• Usually, the war became implementation theory

b. Liberalism:

• Have optimistic view of human nature, and political progress as


well as international relations
• Giving priority sectors "ekonomic" as a major force
• In the implementation, individuals and transnational actors
individuals and transnational actors play a major role
• diplomacy and cooperation are to be applied
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6. CONCLUSION

Liberalism is a theory that would explain "individual freedom", the role of


transnational sector in relations between countries.Theories that have a positive value
of human nature. Its application through diplomacy and cooperation.
Liberalism based "economic power" in their applications.

Liberal theory is divided into four groups


1. sociological liberalism
2. interdependence liberalism
3. Institutional liberalism
4. Republican Liberalism

Liberals have a theory that includes the advantages and disadvantages:

a. advantages

• least sensitive to demographic changes in the population


• low taxes
• differentiated services
• stimulates job growth, especially in low-skills sector

b. disadvantages

• high inequality, great social cleavages (two class society)


• low level services for poor people
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• welfare state is politically unpopular and not sustainable


• negative stigma attached to benefit recipient

Along its development, many countries begin using this theory, among others,
Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, South korea, Fhiliphines, etc.
Every liberal state has a different definition and basic in its application. But of
all it's all based on one that refers to the "economic power" and economic diplomacy
to meet the goals of each country.

7. FUTHER READING