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CONTROL ENGINEERING

INTRODUCTION

Definition of Control
A control system is an arrangement of elements, or devices, such as
sensors, amplifiers, converters, actuators, human operators, and so on. These
devices are interconnected and interact in such a way as to maintain or to
affect in a prescribed manner, some condition of a body, process or machine
which forms port of a system.

An automatic control system is one which does not include a human


operator. If a human operator is included, the system is a manual control
system.

When the control system is used to control some physical quantity or


condition of a process, it is known as a process control system. Typical
examples of process control system are temperature control of a fluid, such as
diesel engine cooling water, by diverting the fluid past or through a cooler, or
boiler water level control.

Different media for control and the most common on ships are;

a.) mechanical – using shafts, gears and wires;


b.) hydraulic – using special hydraulic oils;
c.) pneumatic – using low pressure compressed air;
d.) electrical – using electric motors and relays;

ESSENTIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AUTOMATIC OPERATION OF


MARINE MACHINERY:

(UNATTENDED MACHINERY SPACES)

1. Bridge control of propulsion machinery.


The bridge watchkeeper must be able to take emergency control action.
Control and instrumentation must be as simple as possible.
2. Centralized control and instruments are required in machinery space.
Engineers may be called to the machinery space in emergency and
controls must be easily reached and fully comprehensive.
3. Automatic fire detection system.
Alarm and detection system must operate very rapidly.
Numerous well sited and quick response detector (sensors) must be
fitted.
4. Fire extinguishing system.
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In addition to conventional hand extinguishers a control fire station


remote from the machinery space is essential. The station must give control
of emergency pumps, generators, valves, ventilators, extinguishing media,
etc.
5. Alarm system.
A comprehensive machinery alarm system must be provided for control
and accommodation areas.
6. Automatic bilge high level fluid alarms and pumping units.
Sensing devices in bilges with alarms and hands or automatic pump cut
in devices must be provided.
7. Automatic start emergency generator.
Such a generator is best connected to separate emergency bus bars. The
primary function is to give protection from electrical blackout conditions.
8. Local hand control of essential machinery.
9. Adequate setting tank storage capacity.
10.Regular testing and maintenance of instrumentation.

INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL TERMINOLOGY

1.) Control system – An arrangement of elements (amplifiers, converters,


human operators) interconnected and interacting in such a way as to
maintain or offset in a prescribed manner, some condition of a body process
or machine which form of the system.
2.) Process control system – a control system, the purpose of which is to
control some physical quantity or condition of a process.
3.) Signal – Information in the form of a pneumatic pressure electric
voltage/current or mechanical position that carries information from one
control loop component to another.
4.) Variable – a level, quantity or value which is subject to change, this may be
regulated or simply measured.
5.) Command signal – The quantity or signal which is set or valued by some
device or human agent external to and independent of the control system
and which is intended to determine the value of controlled condition.
6.) Set value (set point) SV – The command signal to a process system.
7.) Desired value – The value of the controlled condition which the operator
desires to obtain.
8.) Manipulated variable – That in which is altered by the automatic control
equipment so as to change the variable under control and make it conform
with the desired value.
9.) Dead band – The change through which the input to an instrument can be
varied without initiating instrument response.
10.) Detecting element – Responds directly to the value of the variable.
11.) Measuring element – Responds to the signal from the detecting element
and gives a signal representing the variable value.
12.) Measuring unit – Comprises detecting element and measuring element.
13.) Sensor – Is a term used for the detecting element, is by its very nature,
essentially a transducer.
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14.) Transducer – Is a device to convert a signal of the form into a


corresponding signal of another form, retaining the amplitude variations of
energy being converted.
15.) Telemetering – Defined as a signal transmission over a considerable
distance.
16.) Transmitter – The measuring unit in telemetering systems.
17.) Receiver – a recording unit some distance away and may be associated
with transducer if required.

Comparison of Systems:
 Systems, telemetering or control, may be either pneumatic, hydraulic,
or electronic-electric, or combination.
Hydraulic systems are generally more restricted in application.
Basically the technique is as for pneumatics but fluid cannot be allowed to
escape and a recovery-storage system is required.
General use is in the higher pressure range.
A combination of electronic measure – record instrumentation and
pneumatic final power control element is very effective controllers may be
either pneumatic or electronic. The former of application to final power
transmission electronic-electric system has many obvious advantages.

 Advantages of Pneumatic system:


1. Less expensive initially, this is in spite of tubing and air supply
costs.
2. No heat generation and safe in explosive atmosphere.
3. Less susceptible to power supply variation, but do have
appreciable time lags.
4. Direct application, without transducers, to large final power
actuators.

 Advantages of an electronic systems:


1. small and adaptable with cheap flexible transmission lines.
2. No moving parts, can however generate heat.
3. Stable, generally accurate and very short time lags.
4. Low power consumption, Direct application to computer but often
needs final control element transducers.

 Advantages of hydraulic system:


1. Nearly instant response as fluid is virtually incompressible.
2. It can readily provide any type of motion
3. It can have accurate position control
4. It has high amplification of power

CONTROL LOOP
Measurement, in most applications, is part of a control system. The
measuring system, comprising a transducer, a signal conditioner and a
recording or display unit, will be formed into a loop by the addition of a control
element. An engineer may, by this actions in operating valves, etc. act as the
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control element. This would be considered as manual control. Where it is


achieved without human involvement it is referred to as automatic control.
Where it is achieved from a distance, but by manual intervention, it is known as
remote control. The applications for control are numerous and all involve the
adjusting or varying of one or more parameters in a device or system. Most
forms of control can be considered to act in a loop. The basic elements in a
control loop are a detector or measuring element, a comparator and a regulator,
all of which surround the process to form the loop. The representation for each
of these items uses blocks which are suitably labelled as shown in Figure A.

The loop is considered closed if the elements are directly connected to


one another and the control action takes place “automatically”. An “open loop”
would exist where the output was not fed back into the system, or perhaps
where a human operator performed some function to complete the loop.
In closed-loop control, therefore, the control action is dependent upon
the output. A detecting or measuring element will obtain a signal related to this
output which is fed back to the transmitter. From the transmitter the signal is
then passed to a comparator. The comparator is supplied with some set or
desired value of the controlled condition which is then compared with the
measured value signal. Any deviation or difference between the two values
results in an output signal to the controller. The controller will then act
according to the deviation and provide a signal to the correcting unit. The
correcting unit will then increase or decrease its effect on the system to achieve
the desired value of the system variable. This more involved control loop is
shown in Fig. B
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In a mathematical analysis of the system, the equation or transfer


function, which represents the relationship between output and input, for the
element, would be shown in the block. The transmitter, controller and
correcting unit are each supplied with an operating medium in order to
function. This operating medium may be compressed air, hydraulic oil or
electricity for each medium there are various types of transmitting devices,
controllers and regulating units in use.

CONTROL LOOP CHARACTERISTICS:


 The movement or transfer of signals around the control loop will be
subject to various time lags or delays. The action of the controller will also
introduce a delay. In addition, the process being controlled may possess some
self-regulating or inherent regulating ability. Some knowledge of these process
and control system characteristics is therefore necessary in order to achieve the
desired degree of control.

a.) Inherent Regulation – is the ability of a process to reach some equilibrium


state following a disturbance, without the application of any form of control.
The more inherent regulation present in a system the easier it is to control.
b.) Process reaction rate – is a measure of how quickly the controlled
condition can be changed following a disturbance in the system. It is largely
governed by the capacity and resistance of the process. A large capacity
system would be affected or altered slowly. Resistance in a process control
system is usually seem as an opposition of flow.
c.) Distance – velocity Lag – is a measure of the time between a process
disturbance and its detection, as a result of the distance the disturbance
must travel.
d.) Transfer Lag – results when energy is transferred through a resistance
either to, or from, a process with a capacity.
e.) Measurement Lag – occurs between a disturbance occuring and a signal
transmission relating to it being provided.
f.) Time constant – the time it takes for the output signal amplitude to reach
63.2% of the input signal amplitude.

CONTROL SYSTEM RESPONSE:


 In examining or analyzing a process, various forms of test input or
disturbance are applied and the system response can be quantified.
These test inputs are the same as those used for instruments, namely
step, ramp and sinusoidal.
1. Step input – a sudden or abrupt change of the input signal from one
steady value to another. The result is a transient and then a steady-state
response of the system .
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2. RAMP INPUT – Varies linearly with time and results in a response which
shows the steady-state error in the following the input.
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3. SINE WAVE INPUT– Shows how the system will respond to inputs of a cyclic
nature as the frequency is varied.
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ANALOGUE
 Many different physical phenomena behave in a similar way, i.e. are
analogues of each other. Two examples are air escape from a storage vessel and
electrical charge loss from a capacitor.

Rate of change of pressure ∞ pressure


Rate of change of charge ∞ voltage

i.e. rate of change of variable X = - Kx


dx = - Kx
dt

A solution; where C is the X value when time is zero, is:

Kt = In C
X

Voltage (or current) can readily be made analogous to physical phenomena. The
traditional electric clock is analogue i,e, continuos representation.

DIGITAL
 A digital device manipulates “bits”, i.e. discrete items of information-
illustrated by the digital clock representation. States are on/off/unequal, etc.
and the binary digit system is utilized.

COMPUTERS
 The electronic analogue computer is essentially a simulator on which
electrical analogues of various systems can be analyzed and illustrated. The
digital computer is a machine for routine, repetitive arithmetic. Hybrid types are
a combination.
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CHAPTER 1

MEASUREMENT OF TEMPERATURE

PRINCIPLES OF HEAT TRANSFER

 Temperature is defined as the degree of hotness or coldness of a substance.

 Heat is a form of energy measured in calories or BTU (British Thermal Unit).

 When two substances at different temperature come in contact with each


other, the substance at a lower temperature will conduct heat from the
substance with a higher temperature. This is called heat transfer.

Three Methods of Heat Transfer:

1. Convection
2. Conduction
3. Radiation

1. Convection heat is transferred by actual movement of gas or liquid caused


by a change in density due to temperature increase.

For Example:
In a force air heating system, warm air entering the room is denser or
lighter than the cool air in the room as the warm air cools it drops and returns
back to the system.
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2. Conduction heat is transferred one part of a substance to all its parts.

Example:

Figure 3, if heat is applied on one end of a steel rod, heat is transferred


to the other end.

3. Radiation heat energy is transferred in the form of rays sent out by the
heated substance.

Example:

Fig. 4 – you can feel the heat of the sun through its rays.
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PRINCIPLES OF TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS

 Temperature Measurement

Thermometer - Is an instrument used to measure temperature for


operation below 500ºC.

Pyrometer - Is used for temperature measuring instruments operating


above 500ºC.

 Three Types of Mechanical Thermometer

A. Liquid in glass Thermometer

Mercury can be used from - 38ºC to about 600ºC its freezing point
and 360ºC boiling point.
Alcohol is used in the range - 80ºC to 70ºC

B. Filled System Thermometer

The industrial filled system thermometer usually has a circular chart or


indicating scale where the pen or pointer is linked to a spiral pressure element
is connected by capillary tubing to a thermometer bulb located in the process
when the bulb is subjected to heat. A fill in the system creates an internal
pressure which moves the instrument pen or pointer in a definite relationship
to the temperature. Change of the process medium.

The principal features of thermometers based on the filled system are:


- Mercury in steel
- Vapour-Pressure
- Gas filled
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A. Mercury in steel – Which can pressurized for high temperature duty to


600ºC. Useful for remote sensing and telemetering. Capillary bore is about
0.02 mm.

B. Vapour Pressure Thermometer – commonly use freon, alcohol or ether


which partly fills the system as liquid and the remainder is vapour filled.
Measurement of vapour pressure gives an indication of liquid surface
temperature and is usually used in the range -50ºC to 260ºC. This is not
suited to remote indication.

C. Gas Filled Thermometers – Which usually employ nitrogen or helium


under high pressure, and pressure is proportional to absolute temperature
at constant volume. The usual temperature range is -50ºC to 430ºC and the
scale is linear. Compensation for ambient temperature variation is difficult,
when used as a sensor linked to a pneumatic transducer it is a very effective
device.

 Mercury Filled Thermal System

In this system, compensation for ambient temperature change at the


case is accomplished by a bimetallic strip which is integrally tied in with the
movement of the spiral in such a manner as to cause the spiral to rotate in a
direction opposite to the rotation cause by thermal system. (Figure 4) with
opposing forces being exerted the net result is no movement of pen or pointer
due to changing ambient temperature.

 Vapor Filled Thermal System

This system operates on the principle of pressure type system.


When the fluid is heated it expands and vaporize, and an internal
pressure is created which is proportional to the temperature that builds
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up in the system. This pressure causes the spiral to uncoil and move
the pointer along the scale. (Fig. 6)

 Gas Filled Thermal System

This system operates on the same principle as in vapor-filled system, but


is uses a stiff, high energy helix element (figure 3) to eliminate ambient
temperature error.

BI-METALLIC THERMOMETER
The principle of operation of BI-Metallic devices is that of differential
expansion of two different materials rigidly joined together, one on the other, as
a strip of BI-Metallic material. Fig. 8 illustrates a typical design usually
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employed between -40ºC and 320ºC the helix coils or uncoils with temperature
variation and as one end is fixed the movement rotates shaft and pointer. The
range of the instrument is fixed by the materials used.

ELECTRICAL THERMOMETRY

Resistance Thermometer

 The electrical resistance of a conductor usually a metal , will change as


its temperature changes. An increase in temperature will bring about a small
increase in resistance, i.e. a small positive temperature coefficient. A coil of
wire is usually used and is wound around a hollow ceramic former which acts
as an insulator. A protective cement coating is applied to the wire and the
complete assembly is housed in a metal sheat. Metals such as platinum or
nickel are used, and copper wires connect the resistance wire to the terminals
of the Thermometer. A wheatstone bridge may be used to measure the change
of resistance and provide and indication of temperature. The measuring tange is
about –200 to + 600 ºC.
Figure 9 shows diagramatically a resistance type of temperature
measuring unit using the well known wheatstone bridge principle r1 r2 is a
variable resistance used for balance purpose; at balance we have:

R1 + r1 = R3 + r
R2 + r2 R4 + r

r is the resistance of each of the wires and since each wire will be subjected to
the same temperature to the same temp. variation along its length their
resistances will always be equal.
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When the temperature detecting element is subjected to a temperature


alteration its resistance alters and the bridge balance is upset. By using the
variable resistor r1 r2 balance can be restored ( i.e galvanometer reading
returned to zero) and whilst this is being done another pointer can be moved
simultaneously and automatically to give the temperature-this is known as the
null balance method alternatively, the galvanometer can be the temperature
reading directly, in this case no variable resistance r1 r2 would be required.
For the measurement of ambient temperature measuring resistance,
would have to be made of a metal whose resistance does not vary with
temperature. A metal nearly fulfills the requirement is constant..

THERMISTOR ( Thermally sensitive resistor)

 Are semi-conducting materials manufactured by sintering powder


mixture of metallic oxide such as manganese, nickel, cobalt, copper, iron or
uranium. It has a positive and a negative temperature coefficient. The mixture
is formed under pressure (sintered) into various shapes such as reads, or rods
depending upon the applications. They are usually glass coated or placed under
a thin metal Cap. The change in Thermistor resistance as a result of
temperature from –250 to + 650ºC is possible but a single thermistor would not
be used over this range. The small size and high sensitivity are particular
advantages of this device.

 This devices are among a second class of resistance thermometer


utilizing elements made of semi-conducting material all of which have a
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characteristics of a resistance decrease with temperature increase. Included in


this category are carbon resistors and doped Germanium units (see Fig. 10).

THERMOCOUPLE TEMPERATURE SENSORS

Basic Principles:

 A Thermocouple is a temperature transducer consisting of two wires of


different metals joined at both ends. If the two junctions between the metals
are different temperatures an electric current will flow around the circuit. This
phenomenon is called the SEEBECK EFFECT or sometimes the
THERMOELECTRIC EFFECT.
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 If a voltmeter is inserted into the circuit as shown below, Fig. 12 it will


indicate a voltage which depends upon the difference in temperature between
the two junctions. Provided the internal resistance of the voltmeter is high, the
voltage it displays is primarily due to the following effect.

 Across the junction of any two dissimilar metals there always appears a
difference in electrical potentials called the CONTACT POTENTIAL. In Figure 12
above the contact potentials are labeled V1 and V2. The contact potential
between two metals varies with the temperature at their junction, increasing in
magnitude with increasing temperature. The voltmeter reading equals the
difference between the two contact potentials (V2 - V1).

 The connections between the voltmeter and the two junctions are
usually copper wire which will introduce two more dissimilar junctions
between the copper and metal B. The diagram, Fig. 13, shows the two
additional contact potentials V3 and V4. However if the two junctions between
metal (B) and the copper wire are the same temperature, V3 and V4 will be
equal. The net voltage across the voltmeter will still be (V2 - V1) because V3 and
V4 are in opposite directions in the circuit.
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 Figure 14 shows an alternative way of connecting a voltmeter into a


thermocouple circuit. The same reading will appear across the voltmeter in this
arrangement if the temperatures at the junctions are the same as in Fig. 13.
The voltmeter reading will equal the difference between the net contact
potential ( V5 - V6 ) at the low temperature junction and the contact potential
V2 at the high temperature junction. The net low-temperature contact potential
( V5 - V6 ) will be the same as the contact potential which would appear if
metals A and B were connected together directly (as in Fig. 13) because the
third metal, copper, is common to both of the low temperature connections. I.e.
V1 = (V5 - V6 ).

Summarising: If a third metal is introduced into a thermocouple circuit,


the net voltage is not affected, provided both junctions of the third metal
are at the same temperature.

RADIATION PYROMETRY

 When temperatures are above the practical range of thermocouples, or


the “target” is not accessible, or an average temperature of a large surface is
required then radiation pyrometers are used. Theory is generally based on black
body radiation and the work of Stefan, Boltzmann and Planck with amended
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factors of emissivity to allow for variation from the ideal black body radiator.
Types of radiation pyrometer are optical, radiation and two colour. The former
will be considered.

OPTICAL PYROMETER:
Referring to Fig. 15 is the source and rays enter lamp box L after passing
through the lens, aperture and absorption filter. The lamp is electric and
current and voltage are measured at G. Rays leaving L pass through a red filter,
lens aperture to eye E.

 The device is often known as a disappearing filament unit. Both source


and reference, the latter being the filament of a small vacuum lamp, are
observed through the microscope. The power to the lamp is adjusted until the
reference source just disappears into the main source . Power is calibrated to
give a temperature reading directly. Correction factors apply for the filters used
and the device is a selective radiation pyrometer as only a narrow band of
radiation wavelength is utilized. Radiation pyrometry is particularly useful for
furnace, molten metal, process control, etc. evaluation of temperature.

PHOTO-ELECTRIC PYROMETER
There are three types of photo-electric cells: the photo emissive, the
photo-conductive and the photo-voltaic: the latter is used here.
Incident light falls on p-type silicon layered on to n-type silicon backed
with metallic strip. The emf generated is measured, after calibration, by a
galvanometer or self balancing potentiometer connected across the p-type and
the backing.
Such pyrometers are best suited to measuring small radiation sources
and are stable and accurate with a very quick response time which makes them
very suitable for distance control systems.
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CHAPTER 2

MEASUREMENT OF PRESSURE

All machinery must operate within certain parameters. Instrumentation


enables the parameters pressure, temperature, and so on – to be measured or
displayed against a scale. A means of control is also required in order to change
or alter the displayed readings to meet particular requirements. Control must
be manual, the opening or closing of a valve, or automatic, where a change in
the system parameter result in actions which return the value to that desired
without human involvement. The various display used for the measurement of
system parameters will first be examined and then the theory and application of
automatic control.

PRESSURE MEASUREMENT:

The measurement of pressure may take place from one of two possible
datums, depending upon the type of instrument used. Absolute Pressure is a
total measurement using zero pressure as datum. Gauge Pressure is a
measurement above the atmospheric pressure which is used as a datum. To
express gauge pressure as an absolute value it is therefore necessary to add the
atmospheric pressure.

Manometer

 A manometer is a tube, usually bent in the form of a U, containing a


liquid of known specific gravity, the surface of which moves proportionally to
changes of pressure.

1. Open type, with an atmospheric surface in one leg and capable of


measuring gauge pressures.
2. Differential type, without an atmospheric surface and capable of
measuring only differences of pressure .

A U-tube manometer is shown in the figure below. One end is connected


to the pressure source; the other is open to atmosphere. The liquid in the tube
may be water or mercury it will be positioned as shown. The excess of pressure
above atmospheric will be shown as the difference in liquids levels; this
instrument therefore measures gauge pressure. It is usually used for low value
pressure reading such as air pressures. Where two different system pressures
are applied, this instrument will measure differential pressure.
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Water Manometer:
This instrument is used for measuring pressures of a low order such as
fan pressures, etc. Fig. 2.1 illustrates a U-tube water manometer, one limb of
which is connected to the system whose pressure reading is the difference of
the water levels read from the scale.

Mercury Manometer:
A mercury manometer of the well type is shown in Fig. 2.2. This
instrument measures pressures of a higher order than that measured by the
water manometer, such as scavenge or supercharge air pressure for IC engines.
The uniform bore glass tube is small in diameter so that when mercury is
displaced from the well into the tube, the fall in level of the mercury in the well
is so small it can be neglected. Hence the pressure reading is indicted directly
by the level of the mercury in the glass tube.
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Barometer:
 The mercury barometer is a straight tube type of manometer. A glass
capillary tube is sealed at one end, filled with mercury and then inverted in a
small bath of mercury. Almost vacuum conditions exist above the column of
mercury, which is supported by atmospheric pressure acting on the mercury in
the container. Standard atmospheric pressure .
1 Atm
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 The aneroid Barometer is shown in Fig. 2.4. It consists of a


corrugated cylinder (detecting element) made of phosper bronze, or other
similar material, a steel spring, bell crank, pointer, dial and case ( measuring
element ). The corrugated cylinder is completely evacuated hence the pressure
of the atmosphere tends to collapse it..

The center of the corrugated cylinder deflects downwards if atmospheric


pressure increases and the spring causes deflection upwards if atmospheric
pressure decreases. Cylinder motion is transmitted to the instrument pointer.

Bourdon Pressure Gauge:

 A pressure relay tube is the principal working component (detecting


element). This tube which is semi-elliptical in cross section is connected to the
pressure source. When the tube is subjected to a pressure increase it tends to
unwind or straighten out and the motion is transmitted to the gauge pointer
through the linkage, quadrant and gear (measuring element). If the tube is
subjected to a pressure decrease it winds, or coils, up and the motion is again
transmitted to the pointer. This gauge is therefore suitable for measuring
pressures above or below atmospheric pressure.

The Bourdon movement is frequently used in transducers and controllers


to vary output signals in pneumatic or electrical form.
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SCHAFFER PRESSURE GAUGE

 This type utilizes a strong flexible metal diaphragm (detecting element)


which moves up as pressure increases. The device is shown in Fig. 2.6. Again
this device can also be used as a transducer (pneumatic or electric) in
telemetering or control with an output signal proportional to diaphragm
movement.
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Differential Pressure Cell ( D/P Cell )


 The d/p cell is often used in direct differential pressure recording as
well as flow and level applications. The detecting element of the cell is a bellows,
or diaphragm, whose mechanical movement is used to indicate or transduced to
electrical or pneumatic signal output. Low pressure slack diaphragm.

Piozoelectric Detecting Element ( Sensor )


 With a certain solid crystals having an asymmetrical electric charge
distribution, any deformation of the crystal produces equal external unlike
electric charges on the opposite faces of the crystal. This crystal is known as the
piezoelectric effect.
Deformation of the crystal can be caused by pressure and the charges
produced can be measured by means of electrodes attached to the opposite
surfaces of the crystal.

Strain Gauge
 A strain gauge is fundamentally a resistive wire of about 0.01 mm
diameter subject to strain by pressure ( force or acceleration ) with electrical
resistance charge proportional to strain. Bonded elements of the wire wound
type are either flat grid or helical wound on a former. The wire is fixed to a
backing material such as paper, risen or plastic which is glued to the surface
under test, wires are soldered or spot welded.
The unbonded strain gauge is essentially a pressure sensor and a typical
design is shown in Fig, 2.9 .
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The measuring element for strain gauge is generally a wheatstone bridge circuit
with temperature compensating resistance and strain gauge resistance
arranged as two, of the four, resistances and a central galvanometer and
constant dc voltage source.
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Calibration curves for Bourdon Pressures.


Showing the effect of the following;

1. Zero adjustment changes base point without charging the slope or


shape of the calibration curve. It is usually achieved by rotating the
indication pointer relative to the movement, linkage and element.

2. Multiplication (Magnification) adjustment alters the slope without


charging base point or shape. This is effected by altering this drive
linkage length ratios between primary element and indicator pointer.

3. Angularity adjustment changes the curve shape without altering base


point and alters scale calibration at the ends. This error is minimized

4. by ensuring that link arms are perpendicular with the pointer at mid
scale.

Fig. 2.10 shows calibration curves and adjustment for the Bourden link
type of adjustment mechanism.

Generally a specialist subject. Pneumatic instrument would be tested by


master gauge, standard manometer or deadweight tester. Electrical instrument
are tested by standard resistors potentiometers, capacitors, etc.
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CHAPTER 3

MEASUREMENT OF LEVEL

Direct an inferential methods are the two usual classifications for the
measurement of level.
The use of the changing level of the liquid provides a measurement which
is a direct method.
Inferential or indirect methods-employ another varying quantity such as
air pressure. Which changes with liquid level change, and this provides a
measurement. Various pressure sensing devices including differential pressure
cells can therefore be utilized in the measurement of liquid level.

Direct Methods

Float Operated
The float is generally a hollow cylinder or ball working on direct action or
displacement principles. Level variation is transmitted by chain or wire and
fully or torque tube (usually with counterweights fitted) to the indicator. High or
low level alarm contact are easily arranged. Pully movement can also be
arranged to operate a contact arm over an electrical resistance so varying
current or voltage to indicator or receiver.

Probe Elements
Floatless types of level sensors can be arranged where the liquid is a
conductor. Sensing electrodes, Rous or Discs, vary electrical circuits when they
are in contact with liquids. A typical example is detection of the fluid level in a
tank by capacitive techniques.
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Detection of level is measured by variation of capacitance which is


accomplished by alteration in Dielectric strength, one plate of the capacitor is a
probe, possibly made of stainless steel, the other is the shell and both are
connected to an AC bridge which is supplied with high frequency low voltage
alternating current. As the interface moves the dielectric strength alters.

Displacement Gauge
The measurement of a small linear or angular distance is often required
and a number methods will now be described. These units all transduce, i.e.
convert, the measurement of linear motion into an electrical signal. They may
be used as independent units but are often to be within a particular instrument
that may utilize a linear motion for the measurement of pressure or
temperature.

Inferential methods
Pressure Elements
The static-Pressure method is extensively used.

P = gh
Where:

P – Pressure
 - density of fluid
g – gravitational head
h – fluid head

Any of the sensing and measuring devices described in the measurement


of pressure are therefore applicable to level measurement. In particular a
pressure gauge, calibrated in height units, is probably the most simple
indicator. Bellows or diaphragms are used with the pressure bulb located inside
or outside the vessel with suitable correction factors applied for correct datum
and density of fluid. The differential pressure cell is often used in level
measurement telemetering for remote reading is readily applied, pneumatically
or electrically, to the displacement movement of the level (pressure) sensor.

Remote water level indicator


Three types of remote water level indicator
(a) Electroflo Electrical Type
(b) Igema Remote water level indicator
(c) Boiler Remote water level indicator

A. ELECTROFLO ELECTRICAL TYPE


In Fig. ______, shows the difference in level h is directly proportional to
the difference between the level of the liquid in the tank and a datum. The
transducer element contains resistances immersed in mercury to form an
electrical circuit with transmission to remote indicator receivers.
30

B. IGEMA REMOTE WTAER LEVEL INDICATOR

Fig. 3.3 is diagramatic arrangement of the IGEMA remote water


indicator. The lower portion of the U tube contains a red coloured indicating
fluid which does not mix water and has a density greater than of water.

The equil.brium condition for the gauge is H = h + x


Where:  - is the relative density of the indicating fluid H,
hand x – are variables

If the water level in the boiler falls, h will be reduced, x will be increased
and H must therefore be increased. The level of the water in the condenser
reservoir being maintained by condensing steam.

If the water level in the boiler rises, h will be increased, x will be reduced
and H must therefore be reduced. Water will therefore flow over the weir in the
condenser reservoir in order to maintain the level constant..

A strip light is fitted behind the gauge which increases the brightness of
the red indicating fluid, which enables the operator to observe at a glance,
from considerable distance, whether the gauge is full or empty.
31

C. BOILER REMOTE WATER LEVEL INDICATOR

In this type the operating fluid is the boiler water itself, see Fig. 3.4. The
operation of the gauge is as follows.
If we consider a falling water level in the boiler, the pressure difference
across the diaphragm h will increase, causing the diaphragm to deflect
downwards. This motion of the diaphragm is transmitted by means of a linkage
arrangement (see insert) to the shutter which in turn moves down pivoting
about its hinge, causing an increase in the amount of (red) colour and a
decrease in the amount of (blue) colour seen at the glass gauge.
It will be clearly understood that if the water level now rises then the
(red) will be reduced and the (blue) increased.
Separating the (blue) and (red) colours, which are distinctive and can be
seen from a considerable distance, is a loose fitting black band which moves
with the shutter, giving a distinct separation of the two colours.
An adjustment screw and spring are provided to enable the difference in
diaphragm load to be adjusted. Hence correct positioning of the shutter and
band in relation to the reading of a glass water gauge fitted directly to the
boilers is possible.
32

Level Indicator Based on


The Bubbles System:

In this method, the air pressure in a pipeline is so regulated that the air
pressure in the bubbles tube as shown in Fig. 3.5 is minutely in excess of the
liquid pressure in the tank. The bubbler tube is installed vertically in the tank
with its open end at the zero level. The other end of the tube or pipe is
connected to a regulated air supply regulator or valve is so adjusted that the
pressure is slightly greater than the pressure (due to the height) exerted by the
liquid in the tank. This achieved by adjusting the air-pressure regulator until
bubbles can be seen slowly leaving the open end of the tube. There is, of course
a maximum air flow required to achieve these conditions, and often a small
airflow meter is fitted in the line so that a check is more readily available. The
pressure gauge then measures the air pressure required to overcome the
pressure of the liquid head above the open and of the pipe. Normally, the gauge
is calibrated in feet or inches. If the tank is uniformly shapped, the calibration
may be in units of volume.

Purge Systems
For small air flow rate, about one bubble per second, a pressure equal to
that in the dip tube will be applied to the indicator as shown in Fig. 3.5. This
simple bubbler device is an arrangement that is similar to the well known
pneumerator used for determining depths of water and oil in tanks. Air supply
to the open ended in the tank will have a pressure which is directly proportional
to the depth of liquid in the tank.
33

CHAPTER 4

MEASUREMENT OF FLOW
Flowmeters are generally divided into two fundamental types, i.e.
quantity meters and rate of flow meters. Use of the world flowmeter generally
implies the latter.

Quantity Meters

These devices measure the quantity of fluid that has passed a certain
point . No time is involved. Types are usually classified as positive or semi-
positive. A typical positive type utilize the flow to drive a reciprocating piston
and a counter is attached. The meter acts like a conventional engine with fluid
pressure supplying motive power. Stroke length and cylinder dimensions fix the
quantity delivered per cycle. Semi-positive types are usually rotary. A form of
gear pump, or eccentrically constrained rotor, can be used which is driven by
the fluid. Quantity is measured by number of rotations (cycles) and fluid per
cycle.

Rate of Flow Meters

Measure the velocity of fluid passing a certain point at agiven instant.


From this rate of flow (quantity per unit time) can be determined from velocity
multiplied by area of passage. They are therefore classified as inferential, i.e.
volume inferred from velocity. There are two fundamental components of the
rate of flow meter. The primary element is that portion of the instrument which
converts the quantity being measured into a variable to operate the secondary
element, for example, orifice and pressure tappings for a venturi. The secondary
element measures the variable created by the primary element, for example,
differential pressure cell.

Integrators:

Quantity meters are more expensive and less suited to deal with large
fluid quantities than rate of flow meters. Rate of flow meters are often used as
quantity meters by fitting an integrator. As a simple example consider variable
flow. The rate of flow can be measured at set time intervals and a graph plotted,
the area of which gives quantity over the time period required. In practice this is
performed mechanically or electrically by an integrator> One type is based on
the planimeter principle and another type (escapement) utilizes mid-ordinate
techniques from a heart-shaped can drive. Flat faced can drive, or worn and
wheel designs, can be used with a turbine wheel or helix type of primary
element having a counting mechanism secondary element, incorporating the
integrator to interpret quantity. The integrator is often included within the
receiving unit of telemetering systems. Integration is readily performed
electrically by use of a conventional watt-hour meter. It should be understood
34

that integration is general instrumentation operation whose use is not


restricted only to flowmeters.

Square Root Extration

When inferential devices are used, with velocity sensors utilizing


differential pressure techniques, the velocity is not directly proportional to
pressure difference, or head, i.e. a curve of flow rate plotted against pressure, or
head, is of parabolic form.
This means that if a pressure difference is used in a sensor device
connected to a manometer, or pointer through a linear mechanism, the rate of
flow scale on the manometer or traversed by the pointer would have to be a
square root function. The scale divisions would increase in square root
increments for equal increments of flow rate. From the effect of display and
continuous recording of flow rate the square root characteristic is not an
embarrassment. If however the differential pressure has to be used in a control
system the square root is usually extracted to give a signal which is directly
proportional to the fluid rate.

Inferential-Rotational

Basically these can be considered as mechanical or electrical.

Mechanical Type Flowmeter


Designs are usually of the “turbine ?wheel” type with speed of rotation
directly proportional to linear flow velocity and, with area of passage fixed, the
volume rate is inferred. A wheel, fan or helix is inserted in the pipe or duct,
mounted vertically or horizontally, gear train are used to interpret the
movement. This is the principle of vane anemometers.

Rotormeter
The measuring principle is illustrated in Fig. 4.1 where the meter, of the
duplex rotor positive displacement type, is shown in three specific positions.
This rotary flowmeter operates on the displacement principle, the measuring
system consisting of a casing with two rotors.
In position “ X “, the left-hand rotor is fully relieved from load while the
liquid pressure acts on one side of the right-hand rotor causing this rotor to
rotate in clockwise direction. Since both rotors are coupled together through
gears, the left-hand rotor will rotate in an counter-clockwise direction.
In position “ Y “, the liquid in the displacement chamber is pressed by
the right-hand rotor to the outlet.
In position “ Z “ , the right-hand rotor is entirely relieved from load while
the liquid pressure now acts on one side of the left-hand rotor so that it takes
over the task of the right-hand rotor.
To reduce leakage losses to a minimum, it is essential to provide for
effective sealing between inlet and outlet, to this end, the rotors seal off against
the casing by surface contact.
35

In the rotormeter, the motion of the rotor is transmitted to the external


parts by the attraction between two permanent magnets, an inner and outer
magnet. The maximum torque transmitted by this system is 0.4 N-m. This
arrangement offers the following practical advantages;

1.) Perfectly leakproof transmission, which means that it is impossible


for corrosive or hazardous liquids to leave the meter.
2.) Protection of attached parts or instruments. If the mechanism of
external parts or instruments should be blocked for whatever reason,
the permanent magnetic coupling will slip, thus avoiding any damage
to the instruments.
36

Electrical Type Flowmeter

One type utilizes rotating vanes with a small magnet attached to one
vane and a coil in the pipe wall. The electrical impulse can be counted on a
digital tachometer calibrated in flow rate. The design now described has no
moving parts Electro-magnetic flowmeter.
This type is shown in Fig. 4.2
The principle utilized is that of a moving conductor (the liquid) in a
magnetic field generating a potential difference. In simple arrangement shown
the two-electro-magnets are supplied with current (a.c. is preferred to d.c to
reduce polarization of the dialectric) There are two sensor electrodes. If B is the
flux density of the field, V velocity of flow, d pipe diameter, then in suitable
units the emf generated at any instant is given by;

E = Bvd

For constant B and d, e is directly proportional to v.

ROTAMETER

This is a variable are meter as shown in Fig. _____, A long tube is


graduated on its vertical axis. The float moves freely in the tube and by an
arrangement of shaped flutes in the float it slowly rotates. As flow rate increases
the float rises in the tube, so that the annular area increases which means that
the differential pressure across the tube is at a constant value. The float can be
37

arranged with a magnet attachment and a follower magnet outside will transmit
motion to pointer via linkage if required.

INFERENTIAL-DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE

Primary Elements
The orifice and the venturi will be described and these are mainly used
although flow nozzles and special inserts, such as a Dall tube, are also
employed, Fig. 4.4 shows both the orifice plate and venturi sensors using
energy conversion to produce a pressure difference which can be urtilized by
the secondary element to provide a signal for direct reading, telemetering or
control.
Using the venturi flow sensors as an example see Fig. 4.4
38

Secondary Elements

Any differential pressure device can be used as a secondary element


including the manometer, diaphragm and d/p cell. The measure scale will be
non-linear for direct recorders due to the square root relation and telemetering,
control and integration will be generally unsatisfactory unless a correcting unit
is fitted. When manometers are used various compensations can be used. The
simple manometer can utilize a curved measuring limb and the well type
manometer can be arranged with a shaped chamber or may include a parallel
tube and a shaped displacer.

Square Root Extractors

Fig. 4.5 is one type of square root extractor using a parabola shaped bell
which can be connected through linkage to mechanical, pneumatic or electrical
display and control systems.
The differential pressure is applied with the high pressure inside and the
low pressure outside the bell.
With its changing cross-sectional area and bouyancy, due to change in
differential pressure, the bell movement is made to be directly proportional to
the square root of the differential pressure. Hence the bell movement is directly
proportional to the fluid flow being sensed by the orifice plate or venturi sensor.
This device is often called a Ledoux Bell, For air flow measurement,
instead of the bell being shaped. A shaped displacer arranged in a separate
chamber. The displacer is connected to rise with the bell. Such a device is used
39

for measuring steam and air flow, and for controlling steam/air flow ratio, the
characteristic is linear.

Pneumatic Square Root Extractor

It utilize the pneumatic flapper nozzle position balance principle.


The differential pressure from a flow sensor acts on a horizontal lever B,
this effects the amount of air escaping from the nozzle and hence the pressure
in the bellows. Pressure alteration in the bellows causes movement of the
vertical lever A. The very small relative motion between levers A and B provides
square root extraction. The output air signal is directed to the measure element
or controller.
40

Electrical Root Extractor


 It is used on electrical force balance technique for a square root
extraction.
The differential pressure, in electrical signal form represented as variable
X input, is applied to the left hand side. With the force balance beam in
equilibrium the output signal is variable vx. Variation in input signal, causing
unbalance, can be arranged to be re-balanced by suitable adjustment to output
signal.
This can be done in various ways, one method could be to connect the
right hand of the beam to a differential capacitor in the output circuit (see Fig.
4.8). This is a closed loop but without electrical connection between input
detected signal and output measured signal. The force balance system is a
simple analogue computer-output can also be easily arranged for squaring,
summing, etc. by suitable wiring combinations.
41
42

CHAPTER 5

OTHER MEASUREMENT

Most speed measurement with regard to rotating machinery is angular


velocity, which is usually expressed in revolutions per minute. Tachometers
provide a direct reading of angular velocity and are usually mechanical or
electrical in operation.

Mechanical
 The Centrifugal tachometer is portable device using the watt governor
principle. Two masses are fixed on leaf springs which are fastened to the driven
shaft at the end and a sliding collar at the other. The sliding collar, through a
leakage mechanism, moves a pointer over a scale. As the driven shaft increases
in speed the weights move out under centrifugal force, causing an axial
movement of the sliding collar. This is turn moves the pointer to give a reading
of sped.

Electrical
 The drag cup tachometer uses an aluminum cup which is rotated in a
laminated iron electromagnet stator. The stator has two separate windings at
right angles to one another. An alternating current supply is provided to one
winding and eddy currents are not set up in the aluminum cup. This results in
an induced emf. in the other stator winding which is proportional to the speed
of rotation. The output voltage is measured on a voltmeter calibrated to read in
units of speed.
43

Various pick-up devices can be used in conjunction with a digital


counter to give a direct reading of speed. An inductive pick-up tachometer is
shown in Fig. 6.3a. As the individual teeth pass the coil they included an emf.
pulse which is approximately modified and the feed to a digital counter. A
capacitive type pick-up tachometer is shown in Fig. 6.3b. As the rotating vane
passes between the plates a capacitance change occurs which is detected and
then fed to a digital counter.
44

Torque-Power
 Indicated power can be measured by a conventional mechanical
indicator although modern practice is tending towards oscilloscope display with
integration for power. Shaft power of engines is measured by a torsionmeter in
conjunction with a tachometer (power proportional to product of torque and
rotational speed). Specific fuel consumption is radialy achieved from these
readings with a flowmeter calibration of fuel consumption. One design in
common use is based on magnetic stress sensitivity and is termed a torque
Inductor-torductor and is how described. The torductor is, as the name implies,
a torque inductor, it is a stress transducer that is eminetly suited to the
measuring of torque in rotating shafts. It gives a high power output and
requires no ship rings or other shaft attachments since it operates without any
contact. It consists of one primary ring which carries four poles, merked N,S,
that is supplied with (SOHZ) alternating current. Two outer secondary rings,
have four poles each, arranged at 45º to the primaries, a11 of which are
connected in series with mutually reversed windings. No contact exist between
the poles and the shaft, there being a 2 to 3 mm air gap provided to ensure
this.
When no torque is applied to the shaft are no stresses in the shaft and
the magnetic fields between NS poles induced in the shaft will be symmetrical,
the equipotential lines are then situated symmetrically under the secondary
poles S1 , S2 as shown and secondary flux and voltage will then be zero.
45

When a torque is being transmitted the equipotential lines form an


asymmetrical pattern, as shown due to the mutually perpendicular unlike
stresses, acting at 45º to the shaft axis, causing increased permeability in one
direction and decreased permeability at 90º in the other direction. This causes
the S, pole to become magnetically slightly positive and the S2 pole slightly
negative.
The out from the secondaries of the ring torductor is of the order of a few
milliwatts, which is large enough to be used without any amplication. If this
signal is now to a speed signal, from a tachogenerator perhaps, then the power
being developed could be displayed directly on to one dial.

Viscometer:
Figure 6.5 shows the operational arrangement of the sensor element of a
viscometer. A small gear pump driven at constant speed, by an electric motor
though a reduction gear, forces a constant fluid quantity from the housing
through a small bone tube (capillary). Fluid flows through the capillary without
turbulence, streamline ( laminar ) flow prevails and pressure differential is
proportional to viscosity of fluid. The pressure differential can be measured by
any of the means previously described.
46

Photo-emissive cells rely on the light energy providing energy to release


electrons from a metallic cathode. If visible light, which is radiation and hence
energy, falls upon certain alkali metals-such as caesium electrons will be
emitted from the surface of the metal. Light energy comes in packages called
photons and the energy of the photons is used in doing work to remove the
electrons and to give the electrons kinetic energy escape from the metal.

Figure 6.6 shows a simple photocell, visible light falls on the metal cathol
from which electrons are emitted, they collect the anode in this way create a
potential V which can then be amplified and used for alarm and control, etc.
They are used as sensors in many situation such as oil-water content, smoke
density, oil mist, flame indicator etc. detection as described later in this
chapter.
47

Oil In Water Sensor


 A useful application of photo-cells is in detection of oil water interface.
Fluid passing through glass is expressed to long wavelength light from an ultra
violet lamp which causes, fluorescence if oil particles are present. This light can
be detected by the secondary element photo-cell unit which produces a signal
for amplication. The amount of flourescent light is dependent on the amount of
oil in the oil-water mixture and this effects the amount of visible light detected
by the photo-cell. An ultrasonic beam between piezo-electrical crystal across the
interface is also used, sometimes utilising beam reflection or repraction across
the interface.

Smoke Density Detector


 For fire warning and exhaust gas indication a photo-cell in
conjunction with an amplifier and alarm or indicator is used. Three types are in
use, those which operate by light scatter, by light obscuration and a
combination.

A light scatter photo-cell separated from a semi-conductor intermittently


flashing light source. The housing enclosure allows smoke but not light inside.
With smoke present in the container light scattered around the barrier on to the
photo-cell and an alarm is triggered. The light obscuration type is used in oil
mist detection for IC engine crankcases and the combination type is used for
detection in CO2 flooding systems.
48

Oil Mist Detector


 The photo-cells of Fig. 5.8 normally in a state of electric balance, i.e
measure and reference tube mist content in equilibrium. Out of balance current
due to rise of crankcase mist density can be arrange to indicate on a
galvanometer which can be connected to continuous chart recording and auto
visual or audible alarms. The suction fan draws a large volume of slow moving
oil-air vapour mixture in turn from various crankcase selection points. Oil mist
bear the lower critical density region has a very high optical density. Alarm is
normally arrange to operate at 2.5% of the lower critical point, i.e. assuming 50
mg/L as lower explosive limit then warning at 1.25 mg/L.

Flame Detector
 Fig. 5.9 illustrates the infra red type of advice. Flame has
characteristic flicker frequency of about 25 HZ and use is made of this fact to
trigger an alarm. Flickening radiation from flames reaches the detector
lens/filter unit, which only allows infra-red rays to pass and be focused upon
cell. The signal from the cell goes into the selective amplifiers which tuned to
25HZ, then into a time delay unit ( to minimize incidence of false alarms, fire
has to be present for a pre-determined period), trigger and alarm circuits.
49

Heat (Fire) Detector


 Detector heads are generally one of types. At a set heat (temperature)
condition the increasing pressure on the pneumatic diaphragm bulb type closes
electrical alarm contacts, increased differential temperature on the bi-metallic
ty[e activates alarms, increased heat fractures a quartzoid bulb (containing a
highly expensive fluid) realizing water sprinkler supply and pressure alarm.

Explosive Gas-Detector Meter


 The instrument illustrated in Figure 5.11 is first changed with fresh
air from the atmosphere using the rubber aspirator bulb (A). On-off switch (S 2)
is closed together with check switch (S1) and the compensatory filament ( C )
and detector filament (D) allowed to reach steady state working temperature.
The zero adjustment rheostat (F), can now be adjusted so that galvanometer (G)
reads zero. Voltage is adjustable from battery (B) by the rheostant (E). Switch S 2
is now opened.

The instrument is now changed from suspect gas space and while
operating the bulb, the switch S2 is again closed. If a flammable or explosive
gas is present it will cause the detector filament to increase in temperature.
This disturbs the bridge balance and a current flows.
50

Vibration
 The measurement of vibration is largely for diagnostic purposes in
order to detect problems with rotating machinery before damage occurs. Two
different measurements are taken, the amplitude and the frequency. Amplitude
may be taken as a measurement of displacement, velocity or acceleration and
indicates the extent of the problem. The frequency at which the maximum
amplitude of vibration occurs may identify the source of the problem.
One type of velocity measuring vibration transducer utilities a coil and a
moving permanent magnet. Any vibration will cause the magnet to oscillate past
the coil and induce an emf. which is proportional to the rate of change of the
magnetic flux, i.e. velocity. An integrating amplifier can be, used to connect this
signal unto displacement.

Oxygen Analysis:
 Gases can generally be classified as either diamagnetic or
paramagnetic, the former seek the weakest part of a magnetic field and the
latter the strongest. Most of the common gases are diamagnetic but oxygen is
paramagnetic and we is made of this in the oxygen analysis shown in Fig. 5.12.
Two platinum wire resistance are heated by current from an ac bridge
and the gas to be measured enters the resistance chamber via a dippuser. One
of the resistance wires is placed in a magnetic field hence oxygen is drawn
towards this resistance, thus convection currents are set up around this
resistance which is then cooled relatively to the other resistance. The bridge is
then unbalance, the amount of unbalance is a measure of the oxygen content
and this is displayed on the galvanometer. The measurement of the oxygen
content is an atmosphere is important to personnel, particularly when entering
enclosed spaces. Also, inert gas systems use exhaust gases which must be
monitored to ensure that their oxygen content is below 5 percent. Use is also
made of the measurement of oxygen in boiler exhausts as a mean of ensuring
efficient combustion
51

Carbon Dioxide Analyzer:


 The measurement of carbon dioxide in a flue gas sample can be used
as a indication of good combustion in a boiler purchase. Various techniques
can be employed in this measurement and the continuously reading device will
now be described. The thermal conductivity of carbon is significantly different
from all other gases (except steam) which may be present in a flue gas sample.
Carbon dioxide has a thermal conductivity of 1 when related to carbon
monoxide of 4, oxygen of 2, nitrogen of 2 and water (steam) of 1. The
measurement obtained therefore relates to carbon dioxide as long as the gas
sample was previously dried. Any , usually small, amounts of hydrogen or
carbon monoxide will register as carbon dioxide unless they have been
previously burnt off or otherwise removed. A hot wire thermal conductivity gas
cell can be used for this measurement. It consists of two chambers, each
containing a platinum wire filament. The measuring chamber has the dried
filtered gas flowing through it and the other contains a dried filtered reference
gas such as air. The reference chamber may be open to a steady flow resistance
arms of a wheatstone bridge as shown in Fig. 6.13. The power supply applied
will result in the filaments being heated. This heat then transfers to the walls of
each chamber through the gas presents. Both reference and measuring cells are
identical in construction and form part of a single large block of metal. Any
difference in the filament temperatures can only therefore be as a result of
differences in thermal conductivity of their respective gases.
The difference in filament temperature will cause a difference in
resistance and turbulence the wheatstone bridge. The meter measuring
imbalance will give a reading of carbon dioxide present in the flue gas.
52

Humidity
 This is measurement of the amount of water vapour in a given volume
of a gas. A given volume of air is able to hold a particular amount of water
vapour. This amount varies with temperature such that the higher the
temperature the more water the volume can hold. The two terms to describe
humidity use absolute humidity and relative humidity. Absolute humidity is the
amount of water present in a given volume of air and is expressed, usually, in
grams per cubic centimetre. Relative humidity is the more common
measurement and is the ratio of the amount water vapour present in a given
volume of air to the maximum amount of water vapour that can be present
before precipitation occurs. The measurement is usually given as a percentage.
Actual measurements of relative humidity can be obtained using either a
psychrometer or a hygrometer. The psychrometer uses two thermometers. The
bulb one (wet bulb thermometer) is kept moist by wrapping in a water-soaked
material or wick is fed from a small bath. The other (dry bulb thermometer) is
exposed to the air, the wet bulb will always show a lower temperature because
of the evaporation of water from the wick. The two temperature readings, when
plotted on a psychrometric chart, will give a reading of relative humidity. A
psychrometric chart is a graphical display of the properties of moist air, using
axes of dry bulb temperature and absolute humidity interested by curves of
constant wet bulb temperature and relative humidity.
A hygrometer utilizes the physical changes that occur in human hair,
silk, animal membrane or other materials when they absorb moisture. Any
change in length of the material, which is exposed to a free flow of air, is
coupled by a linkage to an indicating or recording instrument. Electrical
53

hygrometers use transducers of hygroscopic (water absorbing) material. Any


resistance change of the material is measured in a wheatstone bridge by an
instrument calibrated for relative humidity.

Salinity Measurement
 Water purity, in terms of the absence of salts, is necessary
requirement where it is to be used as boiler feed. Pure water has a high
resistance to the flow of electricity, low conductivity, so much so that it is
considered non-conductive. Water containing dissolved salts, in particular sea
water, has a high conductivity. A measurement of conductivity is therefore a
measure of purity.
Conductivity is measured between two platinum wire ring electrodes and
two gun metal ring electrodes. The liquid flows through these rings which are
separated by insulated lengths of tubing, see Fig. 5.14. In effect measurements
are made on two columns of liquid. A bimetallic ship operates a plunger which
insulates the two columns and provides temperature compensation to 20ºC.
Specific conductive in siemens/cm2 is the conductive across a centimetre long
column of mercury whose cross-sectional area is one square centimetre. A
much smaller unit, the microsiemen/cm3, when corrected to 20ºC, is known as
a diomic unit. Pure distilled water has a conductance of about 1 diomic unit
while fresh water is about 500 diomic units. A de-gassifier should be fitted
upstream of this unit to remove distilled carbon dioxide since this will cause
errors in measurement.

Dissolved Oxygen water


 The unit is shown in Fig. 5.15. The sample water flows via a chamber
which sorrounds the kathonometer (wheatstone bridge circuit) and receives
pure hydrogen. Some hydrogen is taken into solution and this releases some
dissolved oxygen (in air). This mixture passes to atmosphere across one side of
the bridge while the other side is in pure hydrogen. The cooling effect is
different on the two sides of the kathanometer, depending on air (oxygen)
54

present, and resultant unbalance current operates indicator or recorder


calibrated directly in ppm oxygen. For very low oxygen content it is often
necessary to utilize an electro-chemical cell in place of this meter.

pH Meter
 Water, when acidic or alkaline, can cause corrosion. Boiler feed water
when acidic or strongly alkaline will cause corrosion. A scale of measurement
using pH values indicates the degree of acidity or alkalinity within a solution. A
solution which is neutral is neither acidic nor alkaline. The pH scale is a
measure of the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution using numbers
from 0 to 14. A strongly acidic solution has a pH of, a neutral solution a pH, of
7 and a strongly alkaline or (basic) solution a pH of 14.
The measurement of pH, or hydrogen in concentration in a solution,
requires the use of two specially designed electrodes, see Fig. 5.16a, one
electrode is used for measurement and is made up of a glass tube which
contains a buffer solution of constant pH, e.g. potassium chloride, into which is
instead a silver chloride coated silver wire. The lower end of this glass tube has
a thin walled special glass surface which acts as a membrane. The silver wire,
which is in a solution of constant pH, is sensitive to changes in hydrogen ion
concentration of the solution on the outer surfaces of the membrane.
The reference electrode is used to enable a voltage measurement which is
related to pH. A platinum electrode is located in a glass tube which contains a
mercurous chloride and potassium chloride paste and has a porous plug at the
bottom. This assembly is contained within another glass tube containing a
potassium chloride solution and additional crystals, saturated solution. This
outer tube is also fitted with a purous plug at the bottom. The complete
assembly is known as the reference electrode. As long as there is a minute flow
of potassium chloride into the sample solution, a small stable potential will
exist. The inner cell maintains a slight flow into the potassium chloride solution
and another stable potential is set up here. The reference cell is thus unaffected
by the hydrogen ion concentration of the solution. The potential occurring
55

between the measuring cell and the reference cell is thus a measure of the
sample solution pH. Temperature changes will effect hydrogen dissociation and
a temperature compensating resistor is used to provide compensation in the
circuit, see Fig. 5.16b.

The performance of this unit can be adversely affected by dirty or


distorted electrodes, poor electrical connections or the electrodes being allowed
to dry out.
56

Instrument Calibration
 The need for testing and calibration mist also be met on board, while
carrying of spares will enable replacement of faulty instruments. Various
potable test equipment is available to ensure the correct operation of electronic.
Pneumatic, mechanical and hydraulic instrumentation and control equipment.
A pneumatic instrument calibration and test set enables pressure
gauges, differential pressure transmitters, computing relays process controllers
and control value actuators to be calibrated to an accuracy of plus or minus
0.25 percent.
A temperature calibration bath can be used to test various primary
temperature sensing elements. The heated liquid may be oil or water and an
electric heating element is used. Accurate temperature control to within plus or
minus 0.01ºC is possible in the range ambient to 260ºC. A three-digit LED
display of temperature is provided. A cooling coil is also available to enable
temperature calibration down to -10ºC.
Electronic instrumentation can be checked with a calibration unit which
both measure and inject constant voltage and constant current signals. Typical
applications would be for controllers, indicators and recorders. The selected
output is continuously variable from 0 to 199.9mV or mA, using course and fire
potentiometer controls. An accuracy of plus or minus 0.1 percent of full scale
deflection with a resolution of 100mV/mA is provided.
57

CHAPTER 6

TRANSMISSION OF SIGNALS

 Control signals have so par been considered in terms of their


operating media. They can also exist in analogue or digital form, depending
upon how the signal is to be used, or manipulated, in the system.
A transducer converts an input into an output signal of a different form.
In an analogue transducer the input and output signals are continuous
functions of time. A digital transducer has input and output signals which only
occur at discrete, i.e. separate, interval of time. An analogue to digital
transducer has an input signal which is a continuous function of time and an
output signal which only occurs at discrete intervals of time and levels of
magnitude. A digital-to-analogue transducer has input signals which occur at
discrete intervals of time and levels of magnitude and output is a smooth
continuous function of time.

Transducers can generally be simplified into three basic reversible types


namely;

Mechanical displacement  pneumatic


Mechanical displacement  electrical
Pneumatic  electrical

Nozzle – Flapper
 The nozzle-flapper arrangement is used in many pneumatic devices
and can be considered as a transducer, a valve or an amplifier. It transduces a
displacement into a pneumatic signal. The flapper movement acts to close or
open a restriction and thus very air flow through the nozzle. The very small
linear movement of the flapper is then converted into a considerable control
pressure output from the nozzle. The position of the flapper in relation to the
nozzle will determine the amount of air that escapes. If the flapper is close to
the nozzle a high controlled pressure will exist, if some distance away, then a
low pressure, linear output over the pressure range is obtained for an affective
flapper travel range bear the nozzle of about 0.015 mm. Since the flapper
movement is very small it is not directly connected to a meaning unit unless a
feedback device is used.
58

Bellows
 The bellows is used in some pneumatic devices to provide feedback
and also as a transducer to convert an input pressure signal into a
displacement. The bellows will elongate when the supply pressure increases
and some displacement x, will occur.
59

FEEDBACK
 The use of feedback is shown to be for the purpose of reducing the
error between the reference input and the system output. The reduction of
system error is merely one of the many important effects that feedback may
have upon a system, so the general effect of feedback is that it may increase or
decrease the gain. In a nonvigorous manner, a system, a system is said to be
unstable if its output is out of control or increases without bound. Therefore,
we may state that feedback can cause a system that is originally stable to
become unstable. Certainly, feedback is a two edged sword, when it is
improperly used, it can be harmful.

Position-Balance Transducer (Pneumatics)


 The flapper-nozzle is the basis of many pneumatic mechanisms and
the position (motion) balance its essentially a balance of positions.

Ideally equal increments of flapper movement should produce equal


increments of pressure output. In practice this is only achieved over a limited
flapper travel. To ensure increased sensitivity and linearity negative feedback is
used via a bellows. Linear output over the pressure range is obtained for an
affective flapper travel range near the nozzle of about 0.015 mm. The device is
obviously a displacement-air pressure transducer, displacement variation from
flow , level, etc. variables.
60

Force-Balance Transducer (Pneumatic)


 This is essentially a will method, equal and opposite forces (torques)
which eliminates inherent errors of the position balance device. The flapper is
constrained bar pivoted about a fulcrum. Bellows have equal effective area with
the device in equilibrium assume an increase in measured signal pressure
which will produce a net up force and clockwise torque on the bar. The flapper
movement towards the nozzle will continue until the increased output pressure
in the feedback bellows produces can anti-clockwise torques to balance the
actuating torque, and at this point equilibrium is restored.

Electro-Pneumatic Transducer
 The figure shown in Fig. 6.5 is based on the force balance principle
with input variable of current ( 10-50 mA dc is usual ). Electrical current signal
variation causes a torque motor to produce a variable force ( F ) which is
balanced by the feedback pneumatic bellows force (A) at equilibrium. The bar is
circular and between the poles of the permanent magnet acts as an armature
when excited by a dc current. Consider an increase in armature current; the
strength of the armature poles will increase accordingly. The S pole will move
up as unlike poles attract and produce a clockwise moment about the pivot
while the N pole will move down producing an anti-clockwise moment. The
moment arm of the S pole force is greater so there is a net clockwise moment.
This action closes in on the nozzle giving a higher output pressure and
increasing the feedback bellows force until equilibrium is achieved.
61

Variable Conductance Transducer


 The figure shown in Fig. 6.5 is a differential transformer with three
coils fully wound on a cylindrical former the core, which is moved laterally by
displacement of a sensor element, provides the magnetic linking flux path
between coils. The primary ac voltage induces secondary voltages and as the
two secondary windings are in series opposition the two outputs are opposite in
magnitude and phase with the core laterally in the middle of the former.

With the core moved night the included voltage in secondary 2 winding
increases and that in secondary 1 decreases so giving a differential output.
Similarly left gives a voltage difference but 180º out of phase. The characteristic
can be linear with zero volts at mid travel.
62

Variable Capacitance Transducer

 The capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor is given by

C = AG
D
Where: A - plate area
Σ - absolute permittivity
d - plate separation

Differential capacitor principle can be used for displacement current


conversion. The unit shown in Fig. 6.7, the central plate of the differential
capacitor is moved vertically by the displacement of a sensor device. The outer
plates are connected to a combine oscillator , amplifier, rectifier unit. Movement
of the centre plate, towards one fixed plate and away from the other gives a
change in capacitance to the oscillator-amplifier. A change in output current to
receiver results.
63

Electronic Force-Balance System:


 Consider Fig. 6.8, when movement varies the inductance, coupled to
the oscillator amplifier, assume amplifier output current increases. This will
continue until the feedback current on the force motor produces equilibrium.
Effective full scale beam travel is only about 25 micros-input may be from
Bourdon tube or diaphragm.

Voltage-Current Transducer:
 It is often necessary to use a MV/I converter when dealing with
thermocouple or resistance thermometer inputs. Such a device is shown in Fig.
6.9. Deviation between input mV and a standardised zero suppression voltage,
from a zener diode power pack and bridge, is algebraically added and passed
through a filter network, avoiding stray ac pick-up. This signal is algebraically
added to the feedback stabilising coop of the amplifier and passed through the
amplier to output. Adjustable resistors A, C, D, allow temperature correction,
zero adjustment and spam control of feedback, B measured value.
64

Pneumatic Receiver Integrator:


 This receiver is for flow recording down force on bellows (B) from
increased (above datum) input signal (proportional to square of flow
measurement) and about fulcrum (x) closes force bar (F) into (F) into nozzle (N).
Increased pressure from relay ® acts on a 60 “tooth” turbine wheel (T) to cause
rotation and equilibrium is obtained when up force due to centrifugal force
through thrust pin (P) on bar balances down force. Adjustment is via spring (S)
causing movement of weights (W). Turbine wheel speed is directly proportional
to flow, and by gear reduction to the counter, indication is of total flow.

Potential Pen recorder


 The unit is shown in Fig. 6.11 input dc voltage, from say a
thermocouple, is measured against slidewire voltage at B with a constant
voltage bridge source. Difference between A and B is amplified at the
continuous balance unit so energizing the balancing motor to move pen arm
and B until the voltage difference is zero. The balancing motor is two phase with
a reference winding and a control winding from the balance unit.. Input to the
balance unit incorporates a converter and centre tap of an input transformer.
The vibrating need converter, in moving between two contacts allows current to
pass alternately through each half of the transformer. Secondary as voltage is
amplified and fed to the control winding of the balancing motor, so timed with
ac supply to give the correct restoring action.
65

XY Recorder:
 Used to measure a quantity y, varying with x, where x is not a
function of time. Two servo systems, perpendicularly connected cause the pen
to move to any area position on the chart. Inputs cause perpendicular travel
related to x and y.

Position Motors (dc)


 The unit is shown in Fig. 6.12 shows the arrangement in equilibrium
with equal currents (I) in line B and C and zero current in line A. The receiver
rotor is locked by equal and opposite torques from the attractions on unlike
pole forces. Assume the transmitter to be moved to clockwise. Current flows to
receiver from line C, subdivides at point X and equal currents return through
lines A and B of magnitude I/z. This creates a strong N pole at fixed magnet X
and two weak S poles at the other two fixed magnets. The receiver indicator will
therefore turn to the corresponding equilibrium position at 40.
66

Position Motors (ac)


 Both rotors are supplied from the same ac source and stators are
linked in star. With rotors in the same angular position emfs from transmitter
and receiver stators balance and there is no circulatory current. If the
transmitter rotor is moved, induced emfs are unequal and current circulates so
producing a torque to bring the receiver rotor into line and restore equilibrium
zero receiver torque exist at alignment and maximum occurs at 90º out of
alignment.
67

CHAPTER 7

FINAL CONTROLLING ELEMENTS

 Correcting unit is applicable to process control systems. Such devices


may be pneumatically, hydraulically or electrically operated or a combination
and the word motor is applicable to all.

Diaphragm:
 This consists essentially of a flexible synthetic rubber diaphragm
which forms parts of a pressure-tight chamber the diaphragm movement is
opposed by a spring. In the unit shown, an air pressure signal from the
controller acts on the top of the diaphragm. The diaphragm movement is
transmitted via the diaphragm head to the diaphragm rod or stem, which moves
down. Marine applications usually employ a hand control or jack which
operates directly on the diaphragm or by aside linkage into the spindle.

Motor Element:
 Air pressure acts on top of a synthetic rubber diaphragm and is
opposed by upward spring force, oil flow is right to left, hand regulation is
possible and the fail-safe position is shut. The pressure-stroke characteristic is
based on linear requires a large constant area diaphragm, minimum friction
and linear spring force-deflection characteristic.

Correcting Element (valve)


68

 The valve can be single seated reverse action as shown, or direct


action single seated, or double seated which give balanced valve forces and less
operating energy and are widely used. Materials for all components depend on
the medium being controlled the over all flow characteristic requires to be
assessed for the piping system as a whole, as well as for the valve, to achieve
design conditions.
In general values may be simplified into three types of variable % flow-%
valve lift characteristic Mitre valves with wings (level or puppet) usually give
inverted near parabola characteristics best suited to on-off operation. Vee port
(in wings) high lift or modified parabolic contoured valve plugs can be designed
for proportional control, equal increments of valve travel give equal percentage
change in existing flow.
Turn down ratio is the ratio between maximum controllable flow% and
minimum controllable flow %.

Positioner:
 These devices are necessary when:

1.) There is a high pressure drop across the valve.


2.) The valve is remote from the controller.
3.) The medium being controlled is viscous.
4.) There are high gland pressures required.

Such conditions above increase friction, hysteresis or unbalanced forces


acting on the valve spindle. The positioner provides extra power to position the
valve accurately and speedily to offset these effects.
A motion feedback device from the valve spindle senses deviation between
the desired valve position input signal and actual valve position and supplies
extra correcting power. A flapper is connected at one end to the valve spindle
and to a pressure bellows at the other, with the nozzle between the two
increase of pressure on the diaphragm until valve movement restores the
flapper to the throttle position and equilibrium is restored

Piston Operated Control Valve:


69

 Piston type actuator gives powerful valve forces, long stroke and
accurate positioning to the single seated valves can be used which often have a
more desirable flow pattern and require has maintenance. In the direct acting
type a loading pressure on top of a piston is maintained constant. Actuating
air on the bottom of the piston is controlled in pressure by a small relay pilot
valve, diaphragm operated from input signal, and connecting to supply or vent
(close down).

Butterfly Valves:
 The butterfly valve with its centrally hinged disc permits large flow
rates with a minimum pressure loss through the valve. On-off or throttling
control is possible with up to 60º of disc rotation. This limit results from the
torque position characteristic which rises with increasing angle of valve
opening. The principal consideration for actuator sizing is the torque, required
when opening or closing the valve against the shut-off pressure drop in the
pipeline. A dynamically controlled disc will enable on-off or throttling control
through 90º. Various disc-seat configurations are possible depending upon the
shut-off requirements or the process fluid.
70

Eccentric-disc type butterfly valves provide excellent shut-off against


high pressure drops since the disc moves is with the conical disc face
upstream and a linear flow characteristic is provided through 90º of rotation.
Ball control valves are another type of rotary steam valve but in this
arrangement the ball remains in constant contact with the seal during
rotation, this results in a good shut-off capability. The ball arrangement
permits on unrestricted straight-through flow and therefore a high capacity
one particular design has a patented V-notch in the ball, which produces an
equal-percentage flow characteristic through the 90º of rotation.
71

Temperature-Control Valve:
 Direct operation is brought about by a seated capsule containing a
wax mixture. When heated the mixture rapidly expands and this expansion is
transmitted via a plunger and linkage to a rotor which operates in a three-port
valve body. The rotor movement determines the extent of opening of the two
lower ports of the valve the temperature range of a valve is determined by the
wax mixture in the capsule.
72

Electrical Servo-motors:
 May be rectilinear or rotary operated by air, third or electricity applied
in either process or kinetic control systems.

DC-Electric Motors:
 Servo-motor is a conventional motor, series, shunt or compound, with
control of field current or armature voltage by the controlling device. Reversal
is arrange by reversing the current through the field or armature via the
controlling device, which is generally satisfactory.

AC. Electric Motors:


 Three phase induction motor is a most desirable machine in electrical
work, being cheap and reliable. Unfortunately starting torque is low and the
torque-sped characteristic is non-linear to that control is difficult. Thyristor
circuity offers the possibilities for improvement.
The two phase induction motor is used in low power systems especially
for position control. Such motor has two stator coils wound at night angles,
which are ped with alternating currents 90º out of phase, to produce the
rotating magnetic field. Heat generation at reference field and rotor are high for
reasonable modulation, torque is proportional to the two currents. If a fixed
voltage and frequency is applied to one reference winding, then torque is
proportional to the voltage of the other winding, which is connected to
represent the amplitude of the control signal.
Single phase motors for servo systems are unsatisfactory except for on-
off control and special starting arrangements, such as split phase, are
required.

Hydraulic Servomotors:
 Various designs of variable stroke pumps exist, with the radial piston
or Hele-show’ and the axial piston or swashplate being probably the most
common. The hydraulic motor version would be indentical in construction and
simply operated as a reverse pump.
A radial piston pump is shown. Within the casing a short length of shaft
drives the cylinder body which rotates around a central valve or tube
arrangement and is supported at the ends by ball bearings. A number of
pistons fit in the radial cylinders and are fastened to slippers by a gudgeon
pin. The slippers fit into a track in the circular floating ring. This ring may
rotate, being supported by ball bearings, and can also move from side to side,
since the bearings are mounted in guide blocks. The spindles which pass out
of the pump casing control the movement of the ring.
The operating principle will now be described by reference to Figure 7.9.
When the circular .
73

 Floating ring is concentrate with the central valve arrangement the


piston have no relative reciprocating motion in their cylinder Fig. 7.9(a). As a
result no oil is pumped and the pump, although rotating, is not delivering any
fluid. If however, the circular floating ring is pulled to the night then a relative
reciprocating motion of the pistons in their cylinders does occur. See Fig.
7.9(b). The lower piston, for instance, as it moves inwards will discharge fluid
out through the lower port in the central valve arrangement. As it continuous
past the horizontal position the piston moves outwards, drawing in fluid from
the upper port. Once past the horizontal position on the opposite side, it
begins to discharge the fluid. If the circular floating ring were pushed to the left
then the suction and discharge ports would be reverse, Fig. 7.9(c).
74

The construction and operation of an axial piston pump can be seen by


Fig, 7.10. Multiple pistons are positioned axially in a rotor which is connected
to the prime motor by a drive shaft.

 Each carries a slipper running against the swashplate. As the rotor


revolves the cylinders follow the path of the inlet port and are open to it. Any
inclination of the swashplate results in a relative movement of the pistons in
the cylinder bores during rotation. When the swashplate is vertical no pumping
takes place.

Hydraulic Ram Servomotor:


 Hydraulic ram unit is shown in Fig. 7.10. The cylinder is made up of
the cap, tube, head, piston and piston rod. A glad bearing permits movement
of the piston rod and seals against oil leakage. A mounting flange is fitted to
the cylinder cap and an adjustable throttle valve enables variation of the
cushioning. Tie rods clamp the assembly together and piston and rod seals
prevent leakage from the pressurized spaces.
75

Use for linear actuation, ram or pack type, but can be utilized as a
torque device with multiple rams. Generally a media control performance
system used in position devices.
76

CHAPTER 8

CONTROL THEORY

 To control a device or system is to be able to adjust or vary the


parameters which affect it. This can be achieved manually or automatically,
depending upon the arrangements made in the system. All forms of control can
be considered to act in a loop.
The simple automatic control system is shown in Fig. 8.1 using block
diagram, shows the principal elements in the controller, correcting and
measuring units.

This arrangement is an automatic closed if the elements are directly


connected to one another and the control action takes place without human
involvement.. A manual closed loop would exist if one element were replaced by
a human operator.
Fig. 8.2 is another diagram for automatic closed loop control showing the
basic elements present in the loop and they are a detector, a
comparator/controller and a correcting unit, all of which surround the process
and form the loop. It can be seen therefore that in a closed loop control system
the control action is dependent on the output.
77

A detecting or measuring element will obtain a signal related to this


output which is fed to the transmitter. From the transmitter the signal is then
passed to a comparator. The comparator will contain some or desired value of
the controlled condition which is compared to the measured valve signal. Any
deviation or difference between the two values will result in an output signal to
the controller. The controller will then take action in a manner related to the
deviation and provide a signal to a correcting unit, the correcting unit will then
increase or decrease its effect on the system to achieve the desired value of the
system variable. The comparator is usually built into the controller unit.
The transmitter, controller and regulating unit are supplied with an
operating medium in order to function. The operating medium any be
compressed air, hydraulic oil or electricity. For each medium various types of
transmitting devices, controller and regulating units used.

Transmitters ( Pneumatic )
 Many pneumatic devices use a nozzle and flapper system to give a
variation in the compressed air signal. A pneumatic transmitter is shown in
Fig. 8.3. If the flapper moves towards the nozzle then the transmitted pressure
is approximately proportional to the movement of the flapper and thus the
change in the measured variable. The flapper movement will be very minute
and where measurement of a reasonable movement is necessary a system of
levers and linkages must be introduced. This is turn leads to errors in the
system and little more than on-off control.
78

Response of Detection Elements:


 Time lags obviously occur in a plant due to the individual lags of
components and transmission of signal lags. The lags must be fully evaluated
before the control design can be established. As an illustration the lag of a
temperature detector element can be considered:
Consider a detector element which is directly inserted in a pipe line. The
fluid flowing increases in temperature at a uniform rate of say 10ºC in one
minute.
79

Referring to Fig. 8.4:


 The first indication of temperature change at the detector element may
be after about say 2 minutes and there may be a constant lag at a given
reading of about 6 minutes (ramp input).
If tF is the fluid temperature and tE is the element temperature:
tF - tE ∞ CE RF
Where:
CE is thermal capacity of element ( Mass times specific heat )
RF is liquid to element thermal resistance
tF - t E = k C E R F

Where : k is constant
Measuring lag is tF - tE ( say ºC )
CE RF is the time constant Ct ( say minutes )
tF - t E = k C t

This lag consideration is based on linear variation, if the variation was


exponential then the measure lag is usually arbitrarily defined in terms of the
time it takes for the output signal amplitude to reach 63.2% of the input signal
amplitude. The lag time on the sketch is given in minutes but should preferably
be reduced to seconds in practice Fig. 8.4 assumes fairly heavily damped
response. Under-damped response would show in oscillation curves about the
line tE.
If the disturbance causing the variation is a continuous sine form
variation the appearance would be as in Fig. 8.5, note that the response has a
reduced amplitude and has a phase lag. Ct is the lag of detecting element, n is
the period of process disturbance, attention applies as gain is less than unity.
80

Considering the case of a temperature detector in a pocket then to


reduce lags the time constant must be reduced to give quick response and the
following would be aimed at:

1. A close fitting thermometer in a pocket with immersion in a high


conductivity fluid.
2. Clean fittings and a high velocity for the fluid to be measured
(turbulent flow)
3. Light, good conductivity pocket material using deep immersion into
the flow of fluid.
4. Reduced piping distances, friction and inertia effects.

Distance Velocity Lag:


 That time interval between an alteration in the value of a signal and
its manifestation unchanged at a later stage arising solely from the finite speed
of propagation of the signal.
For example the time it takes for a heating effect to travel with the fluid
from heat source to detection element along a lagged pipeline.

Lag = Distance
Velocity , Causes phase lag.

Theoretically no magnitude change

Transfer Lag:
 That part of the transmission characteristic, exclusive of a signal and
thus delays the full manifestation of its influence.
For example the measure lag as given previously for the detection
element which is dependent on R and C, causes phase lag and reduces
amplitude.

Controller Action:
 The transmitted output is received by the controller which must
various undertake some corrective action. There will however be various time
lags or delays occuring during first the measuring and then the transmission of
a signal indicating a change. A delay will also occur in the action of the
controller. These delays produce what is known as the transfer function of the
unit or item that is, the relationship between the output signals.

The control system is designed to maintain some output value at a


constant desired value and a knowledge of the various lags or delays in the
system is necessary in order to achieve the desired control. The controller must
therefore rapidly compensate for these variation and ensure a steady output as
near to the desired value as practicable.
81

Types of control action:

Two step controller action:


 This is the simplest of controller actions, two extreme positions of the
controller are possible, either on or off. If the controller were, for example, a
valve it would be either open or closed. A heating system is considered with the
control valve regulating the supply of heating system. The controller action and
system response is shown in Fig. 8.6. As the measured value rises above its
desired value the valve will close. System lags will result in a continuing
temperature which eventually peaks and then falls below the desired value. The
valve will then open again and the temperature will cease to fall and will rise
again. This form control is acceptable where a considerable deviation from the
desired value is allowed.

Proportional Control Action:


 This is a from of continuous control where any change in controller
output is proportional to the deviation between the controlled condition and
the desired value.
The action of a controller whose output signal v ( or Ф ) is proportionate
to the deviation Ǿ.
Ǿ is the difference between the measured value of the controlled
condition Ǿo and the command signal Ǿ.

V£ -Ǿ
V = -kǾ
82

The negative sign denotes that the correction signal is opposite in


direction to the deviation. K1 , A constant depending on the controller
characteristics, is called the proportional action factor.

Potential correction φ is proportional to the movement of the correcting


unit ( which depends on v )

Φ£V
Φ = C1 V

Where: C1 is a constant depending on the correcting unit characteristic now,

V = k1 Ǿ
Φ = k1 C1 Ø
Ø = μØ

μ = Φ and is numerically the proportional control factor, or simply the


controller gain, A typical value, in pneumatically be about 15.

Fig. 8.7 liquid level control by self operating controller referring to Fig.
8.7 and assuming linear characteristics. It is desired to maintain a fixed height
h in the tank, the outflow demand varies. As this is self operating (no
intervening medium such as compressed air) then we can utilize V, k1 and Ø
as symbols. If h is set to 10m, assume the valve is then 0.25 mm from the seat,
k1 = 0.05 mm/m (decided by leverage), then if h increases to 11 m the valve
movement to shut in 0.05 (11-10) = 0.05 mm, i.e. the new valve position is 0.3
mm from the seat. There is no controller gain here, much the reverse in fact.
83

Proportional Band:
 is the amount by which the input signal value must change to move
the correcting unit between its extreme positions. The desired value is usually
located at the centre of the proportional band. Offset is a sustained deviation
as a result of a load change in the process.
That range of values of deviation corresponding to the full operating
range of output signal of the controlling unit, from proportional action only.
This ban can be expressed as a percentage of the range of values of the
controlled condition which the measuring unit of the controller is designed to
measure .

Proportional Band = Total valve span x 100


(total measure span) k1

For the example for the given level controller, if the full measurement
scale is from 0 to 20 m head, i.e. 100%, and the full valve stroke is 0.5 mm, i.e.
100% then 10m fully strokes the valve ( i.e. 0.05 x 10 = 0.5 )

Proportional Band = 10 x 100 = 50%


20
alternatively:

Proportional Band = 0.5 x 100 = 50%


0.05 x 20
84

For Good Control the following are Essential:


1. A high deviation reduction factor ( hence high μ ), i.e. small deviation
from set value after a disturbance. High μ, means high k1 , highly
sensitive , narrow proportional band, etc.
2. Minimum offset
3. Low value of subsidence ratio at short oscillating period, i.e. quick
return to set value after a disturbance.

These are achieved by plant analysis. Widening a proportional band


causes an increase of offset, of damping and of period of oscillation.
85

Offset
 Is sustained deviation due to an inherent characteristics of
proportional control action. ( it should be noted that with all proportional
controllers the set value differs from the desired value by varying amounts
depending on the given load conditions ). If k1 , is large, for a given deviation,
the offset will be small, k1 is dependent on the proportional band of the
controller ( see Fig. 8.10 ).

Integral Control Action:


 This type of controller action is used in conjunction with proportional
control in order to remove offset. Integral or reset action occurs when the
controller output varies at a rate proportional to the deviation between the
desired value and the measured value. The integral action of a controller can
usually be varied to achieve the required response in a particular system.

Note:
The object of integral control action is to reduce offset to zero.

Fig. 8.11 is given assuming an instantaneous deviation change. This


change is referred to as step function input. Deviation under proportional
action alone would constantly increase. Giving bigger offset, but the additions of
integral action maintains a constant deviation.
A more likely short term action would give integral action until deviation
ceased, i.e., no offset. Integral action reduces a previously fixed controller gain
μ and introduces extra lag, proportional band gives too big offsets. See Fig. 8.12
86

Proportional Plus Integral Action:

 assuming that the controller is acting properly and measured value


and set value are in equilibrium, ( that is, the deviation is “0” ), and the same
pressure as control pressure is sealed in the proportional bellows and reset
bellows. If measured value becomes too high as in the above case, p action
immediately takes place and control pressure increases. Thus control pressure
flows into the reset bellows through reset throttle valve.
As the pressure inside reset bellows, increases proportional lever comes
down and flappers approaches to the nozzle and back pressure increases.
Consequently pilot relay valve in opens to increase the control pressure and the
increasing pressure inside the proportional bellows lifts up the proportional
lever and causes the flapper to detach from the nozzle again. This resetting
effect continue until control pressure increases to such extent. That the control
valve opening enables the reversion of measured value to the set value ( that is,
until deviation becomes zero ).
Pressure of proportional bellows and reset bellows thus balances and the
original balance condition is established.
87

Referring to Fig. 8.14:


 In the levels rises, the small piston moves up and high pressure fluid
flows through the top port and returns through the port B, this action via the
link closes the valve to reduce the inflow. This movement will always continue
as long as a deviation exist and the rate of travel depends on the area of the top
port opening which is proportional to the deviation. Conversely fall in level
causes oil to flow in at the bottom port and return through port A. The only
time the valve is not moving is at the desired value, offset will never be possible.
88

Proportional plus Integral ( P + I ) two term can be applied by including


the link shown dotted in Fig. 8.14, for a rising float, above set point, both act in
the same direction downwards to close the valve, pivot P can be moved to vary
the individual actions. For a falling float above set point the actions are in
opposition. For a falling float below set point both act to open the valve, Integral
action is always tending to reduce offset. Integral action is not used alone, if it
was the characteristic would be similar to two step action.

Derivative Action:
 Where a plant or system has long time delays between changes in the
measured value and their correction. Derivative action may be applied this will
be in addition to proportional and integral action derivative or rate action is
where the output signal change is proportional to the rate of change of
deviation. A considerable corrective action can therefore take place for a small
deviation which occurs suddenly. Derivative action can also be adjusted within
the controller.
The object of derivative control action is to give quicker response and
supplement inadequate proportional control damping.

Derivative Action Time, T


By definition:
 In a controller having proportional plus derivative action, the time
interval in which the part of the output signal due to proportional action
increases by an amount equal to the part of the signal due to derivative action,
when the deviation is changing at a constant rate such deviation change is
referred to as ramp function input.

Referring to Fig. 8.15 :


 Now from mechanics, rate of change of displacement with respect to
time is velocity, at reasonable velocities damping resistance is proportional to
velocity, so one would expect some form of damping device in this rate response
action.
Derivative control is not used alone, it is a transient condition which
must be combined with proportional control.
89

Proportional Plus Derivative Plus Integral Action, ( P + D + I )


 The various controller actions in response to a process change are
shown in Fig. 8.16. The improve in response associated with the addition of
integral and derivative action can clearly be seen. Reference is often made to
the number of terms of a controller . This means the various actions:
Proportional (P), Integral (I), and derivative (D). A three-term controller would
therefore mean P + I + D, and two-term usually P + I. A controller may be
arranged to provide either split range or cascade control, depending upon the
arrangement in the control system.
90

Referring to Fig. 8.15:


Proportional plus derivative ( P + D ) two term can be applied by
including the link shown dotted, proportional plus derivative plus Integral ( P +
D + I ) three can be applied by including the link shown dotted and the link
shown chain dotted, for a rising float, for ( P + D + I ) with the arrangement
shown, above set point, all act in the same direction downward to close the
valve, pivot P can be moved to affect the value of all control factors.

Distance Graphs of Control Actions:


 In Fig. 8.18, shows such analysis gives a clear pictorial representation.
Slope of distance time graph is velocity; an inclined straight line is constant
velocity as the slope is constant velocity as the slope is constant, a curve of
decreasing slope represents deceleration. The top two diagrams should be self
explanatory, relative heights depend on proportionality factor. For integral
action note that whenever the variable is away from desired value the integral
effect is always moving to correct. For the value at any instant on the third
sketch think of area developed at that instant on the first sketch, applied on the
opposite side of the axis and to a suitable scale factor. For derivative action note
that it opposes the motion of the variable irrespective of the desired value.
91

SPLIT CONTROL:
Split-Range Control
 This enables two (or more) valves to be operated by one
controller. The output range of the controller may be divided or split. If for
example the controller must provide heating and cooling control as in the jacket
water temperature control system then it must operate both heater steam and
cooler valves. For this application a typical signal range may be as follows:
Assume the controller has a range 3-15 psi. Then the heater may operate 3-9
psi and the cooler 9-15 psi. However the range of controller output does not
necessarily have to be split equally.

Specific Application:
A jacket water temperature control system with cascade and split rang
controls.

Referring to Fig. 8.19:


 During engine warming up the primary measuring unit transmitter
signals will cause the master controller to alter the slave controller set point so
that the steam valve is open and the engine coolant is warmed. After the engine
operating temp. has been reached the steam valve is closed and the cooler sea
water valve opened to maintain the operating temp. When full away only the
cooler will be used. Maneuvering may cause the heater to again be employed.
The secondary measuring unit is to cause an anticipatory control action
by the slave controller for mainly sea water temperature changes (or any
irregularities affecting the primary coolant in its passage through the cooler and
heater ) . without the secondary measuring element there would be lags before
final adjustment to eliminate offset.
92

The measuring units could be direct acting controllers reverse acting with the
steam valve air to open and the sea water air-to-close.

Cascade Control System:


 This is a system in which there is more than one controller there may
be one “Master” controller and one or more “Slave” controllers. The desired
value of the controlled condition will be fed to the Master controller and the
output of the Master controller will be passed to the slave controller as its set
point. Thus the set point of the slave controller will vary depending on plant
conditions.

The reasons for using cascade control are:


a.) To reduce the difficulties of control by reducing effective lags.
b.) To reduce the effect of supply changes and other disturbances near to
their source.

Consider a multiple capacity system for level control, as an example a


two capacitor tank system illustrated in Fig. 9.18. Single capacitor systems
respond quickly to load changes and rate easy to control utilizing correct
proportional band and reset action but interaction occurs with multiple
systems. Tank a act as a lag effect on the controller process from tank B so the
combination is less sensitive, especially to supply variations, this is an inherent
problem with large inertia, (Mass, Heat Capacity, etc.) systems as for example
IC engine coolant circuits.
93

Consider Fig. 8.20:


 There are two variables, supply and output demand, affecting the
controlled variable which is level in tank B. The slave controller with level
sensing from tank a controls the input supply control valve according to the set
point and is a sing capacitor control loop for tank A. The master controller with
level sensing from tank B (controlled variable) controls the input quantity to
tank B, i.e. Lever in tank A, and is a single capacitor control loop for tank B.
This is achieved because the master controller signal controls the set point of
the slave controller a two capacitor system has therefore been simplified to two
single capacitor systems which are more easily controlled. Alternatively sensing
for the slave could be flow rate at supply rather than tank a level. The process
can be extended to multi-capacity system with control of any desired variable.
94

CHAPTER 9

PRINCIPLES OF PNEUMATIC CONTROL

Pneumatic:
 Where a control signal is transmitted by the use of a gas this is
generally known as pneumatics. Air is the usual medium and the control signal
may be carried by a varying pressure or flow. The variable pressure signal is
most common and will be considered in relation to the device used. These are
principally position-balance or force-balance devices. Position balance relate to
the balancing of linkage and lever movements and the nozzle-flapper device is
an example. Force balance relates to a balancing of forces and the only true
example of this is the stacked controller. Pivoted beams which are moved by
bellows and nozzle-flappers are sometimes considered as force-balance devices
fluidics is the general term for devices where the interaction of flows of a
medium result in a signal.
Air as a control medium is usually safe to use in hazardous areas unless
oxygen increases the hazard. No return path is required as the air simply leaks
away after use. It is freely and readily available although a certain amount of
cleaning as well as compressing is required. The signal transmission is slow by
comparison with electronics, and the need for compressors and storage vessels
is something of a disadvantage. Pneumatic equipment has been extensively
applied in Marine control systems and is still very popular.

Nozzle-Flapper:
 The nozzle-flapper arrangement is used in many pneumatic devices
and can be considered as a transducer, a valve or an amplifier it reduces a
displacement into a pneumatic signal. The flapper movement acts to close or
open a restriction and thus vary air flow through the nozzle. The very small
linear movement of the flapper is then converted into a considerable control
pressure output from the nozzle.

Bellows:
 The bellows is used in some pneumatic devices to provide feedback
and also as a transducer to convert an input pressure signal into a
displacement. The bellows will elongate when the supply pressure increases
and some displacement will occur .

Two-Step Pneumatic Control Technique:


The construction may be about 0.2 mm bore and the nozzle about 0.75
mm outlet bore, these sizes are largely fixed by air purity condition, i.e particle
filtration size.
95

With the flapper, or baffle, moved away from the nozzle full nozzle
pressure drop occurs, pressure P may be about 1.2 bar or less. With the flapper
almost closing the nozzle, pressure P may be near 2 bar, i.e. almost supply
pressure. Two values of pressure P can be arranged, which will depend on the
flapper position, which is in turn decided by the measure signal movement. An
on-off operation, or low-rate and high-rate operation, can be utilized with these
two pressure.

Relay
 Provides pneumatic amplification, proportional movement, and
reduced time lag. Equivalent in action to an electronic amplifier.

If the pressure increases (see Fig. 9.2) then the bellows acts to close the
bleed port and supply air passes, conversely if pressure decreases a continuous
bleed to atmosphere occurs.

Relays can also be used for the adding, subtracting, or averaging of a


number of input signals.
96

Pneumatic Proportional Control Technique:


 This utilizes adjustable (negative) feed back due to the bellows and
flapper linkage. Input (from measuring signal) is compared to output (from the
relay signal) and the action is to reduce this difference, so matching input to
output. Any desired ratio between input and output can be achieved by
adjusting the linkage ratio a:b shown in Fig. 9.4. For a 50% proportional band
the measurement change is 50% scale for full valve stroke, i, e. under ideal
conditions the control should operate to maintain measured value desired value
together at 50% valve stroke varying load means the controller keeps conditions
stable within the proportional band, but not at the desired value, maximum
offset cannot exceed half band width.
97

(Pneumatic Proportional Control Technique) pp. (A)


Stack-Type Controller ( P action )
 Consider Fig. 9.5, the construction is of air chambers stacked
on top of each other separated by diaphragms and incorporating relay valves,
nozzles and restrictor control valves.

The measured value (controlled condition) enters at chamber C and the


set value (command signal) set up at the reducing valve enters at chamber B.
Variation between these two values causes the diaphragm arrangement to move
up or down vertically so that air flow through the nozzle to the chamber D
controls cancellations of the deviation caused by the pressure variation.
Pressure at A and B would be equal if control valve X were closed hence
pressures at C and D would equalize as D pressure (control output signal)
changed, this means 100% proportional band.
Conversely if X were opened fully pressures at A and D would be equal so
that deviation from set value would cause the nozzle to be fully opened or
closed. This is two step control action. Valve Y can act as an adjustment but
essentially it prevents direct connection between output and set value air
lines.
Variation of the setting of X between open and closed gives proportional
band variation between 0% and 100%.

Pneumatic Proportional Plus Integral Control Technique:


 Integral (reset) action can be regarded as a low cancellation of the
sensitivity reduction provided by the negative feedback of the proportional
system.
98

Consider Fig. 9.6, without the needle value adjustable restrictor, the
proportional negative feedback bellows B1 effect would be completely cancelled
by the proportional positive feedback bellows B2 effect, (assuming equal bellows
sizes and form) Simulated two-step or near proportional action for limited
flapper travel would result (depending on flapper travel utilized). Similarly in the
steady state with the needle value as there would be zero pressure difference
across it.
When a disturbance causes a deviation to occur (say P increases) then
the rate of P2 change is proportional to the deviation effect P-P2.
If the measure unit moves right under a constant deviation increase then
P increases giving near proportional actions Vp immediately. Negative feedback
to bellows B1 reduces sensitivity giving wider proportional band and true
proportional action. Deviation, under proportional action alone, would become
greater, more offset would occur. However bellows B2 exerts positive feedback
to raise pressure P2 at A rate dependent on the deviation, this maintains
constant deviation. Integral action would continue until deviation ceased and
there would be no offset, i.e. restoration to desired value.

Pneumatic Proportional Plus Derivative Control Technique:


 Derivative (rate) action increases sensitivity by restricting the negative
feedback provided by the proportional system so that during the change high
speed sensitivity occurs but when the changes ceases ordinary proportional
action occurs.
99

Pneumatic Compound Controller


 Three term ( P + I + D ) or two term ( P + I or P + D ). A controller
action in which the output signal from the controller is the result of more than
one operation on the deviation.
Fig. 9.8 shows the compound pneumatic, controller, the action should be
clear from previous diagrams.
100

Pulse Controller:
 An electronic equipment used to provide an out that is not position
conscious and consist only of raise, lower or zero signals.
The pulse controller only provides an output signal when a movement of
the actuator is required. These signals are in the form of constant amplitude by
varying duration. Consider a step change in the set value signal of a process
with reference to Fig. 9.9. The deviation or error signal passing to the pulse
controller will result in a raise or lower series of output pulses. A long duration
pulse will occur first, followed by a series of small duration pulses. The actuator
will move at a constant velocity while the pulse exist, the actuator therefore
responds with a large movement and then a series of small steps which closely
follow an ideal controller response. As shown when a zero signal exist the
actuator will hold its last position transfer to manual control is therefore
instant and bumpless pulse controllers also provide a fail-safe condition of
“AS-IS” .
Bumpless transfer is of particular importance where sequence control or
computer supervised control is operating. The constant switching off-line and
on-line of various loops will require this facility.
101

CHAPTER 10

CONTROLLERS
Electro-Pneumatic Controller:
 The controller shown is a converter. A sliding contact resistor S is
moved by the valve spindle to form the position feedback and the input measure
signal is at contact M. If say Vm + VS > O then relay A is energized and supply
air flows to the diaphragm. If Vm + V < O relay B is energized and air from the
diaphragm top is vented, so allowing the valve spindle to move up, movement
gases as soon as Vm and VS equate to zero. When both nozzles are closed and no
current flows. Proportional band, for the value positioner, is adjustable at P.

An automatic control system must operate in a manner which meets the


design specifications. The adjustable of a system parameter, i.e. the gain of a
controller, may produce a satisfactory system response. It may however result
in instability in the system components within the system may be replaced in
order to improve performance, although a component is usually chosen to
perform a particular function. It is more usual for the control system to be
modified by the use of compensators. These are additional elements which
make amends, or compensate, for poor system performance.
The most common form of compensator in Marine System is a controller,
consider the compensated closed-loop control system shown in Fig. 10.2. The
transfer function of the controller, Gc, is

Mcs ) = Mcs )
Gc = E (s) R (s) – B (s)
102

This is also known as the controller action and can take one of several
forms. The basic actions are proportional (P), integral (I) and derivative (D). A
controller can be single-term, P , or two-term, P + I or P + D; or three-term, P + I
+ D.

Proportional control or action is where the controller output signal is


proportional to the error. The response is considered to be immediate and there
is no delay between changes in input and output. Proportional control cannot
completely eliminate error and an offset or steady-state error occurs with a
proportional-only controller. The use of proportional plus integral (P + I )
controller action will remove offset and hence improve the steady-state response
of the system. Integral action is where the output changes at a rate proportional
to the error. The controller action will therefore continue as long as an error
exists.
The use of proportional plus derivative (P + D) control will improve the
transient performance of a system. Derivative action is where the output is
proportional to the rate of change of the error signal. This controller action will
provide a considerable before the error becomes large. It is particularly useful in
systems where a sudden load or input change occurs.
Derivative control cannot be used alone and is therefore combined with
proportional action. Since derivative action will amplify unwanted noise signals,
it is usual to limit the gain at higher frequencies.
A three-term or P+I+D controller combine the above mentioned actions.
This type of controller will be used in process control where large transfer lags
exist.

Pneumatic Controller:
 This limit gives P, (P+D), (P+I), (P+I+D) control actions and also
provides addition (or subtraction), multiplication (or division) and averaging
computing actions, as may be required. This controller is an ideal example to
illustrate all the basic actions in as simple a manner as possible. The principle
is that of force-balance using the simple lever principle. Four bellows act on the
103

beam (lever) and variations of bellows forces or level fulcrum ratio (a:b) will
affect the magnitude of the output signal.

( P4 – P 3 ) a = ( P 1 – P 2 ) b

΅ P4 = b ( P 1 – P 2 ) + P 3

Variations of a, b, P1 , P2 or P3 obviously affect the value of P4 (output)


When used for proportional action:

P4 = b (P1 - P2) with P3 = 0


a

Difference between set value and measure value yields a proportional


output signal which is adjustable by aib ratio when integral action is added, the
restrictor I and capacity tank C give the necessary integral action via P 3
bellows. When derivative action is also added: the restrictor D and capacity
tank C give the necessary derivative action via an extra P5 bellows on the extra
(lower) totallizer. The P+I output from the upper totalizer P4 bellows is fet to the
P3 bellows of the lower totalizer to give P+I+D output from the lower totalizer P
bellows.
For averaging, taking a = b then P2 = P4
P4 = ½ (P1 + P2)
For addition:

Taking a = b then as P2 = 0
P4 = P 1 = P 3

Subtraction can be arranged utilizing the other bellows P2 in


place of bellows P3 . For multiplication with P3 = P2 = 0

P.6 = P4a
P4 = b P1
A

and ratio (a:b) decides multiplication factor if over unity. Division can be
arrange by making ratio a:b less than unity.
104

Foxboro Pneumatic:
 Forces exist due to four bellows on the force balancing floating disc
which acts as the flapper, the resultant of moments of bellows forces
determines the throttle position with the fulcrums over the proportional and
reset bellows there is no feedback effect and the distance between the centre
line of the adjusting lever and other bellows is a maximum so giving zero
percent proportional band see (A). With the centre line of the adjusting lever
about 1 unit from the proportional bellows and about 4 units from the jet
bellows gives a 25% proportional band (see B). 100% proportional band exist for
C. Infinite proportional band exists for D. Note the reversed controller action
105

available if required. Derivative addition gives delayed feedback with differential


across the resistor where flow is proportional to rate of change of deviation.
Integral addition gives the usual delayed feedback, on the reset bellows.

Dryton Pneumatic Controller:


 The sensing element, in this case thermo-sensitive system, on a
change of conditions will, via the bourdon tube, alter the flapper position. This
decides the control pressure, this pressure led back via the proportioning orifice
and sensitivity adjustment to the proportioning bellows. For maximum
sensitivity this pressure feedback is vented and no pressure acts on the
bellows. If sensitivity is decreased the resulting pressure build up on the
proportional bellows contracts the bellows and moves the nozzle away from the
flapper. This means a greater flapper travel is required to close the nozzle, wider
proportional band. When the flapper approaches the nozzle the control pressure
increases, this lifts the primary diaphragm causing the valve to open and allow
air pressure above the secondary diaphragm to the outlets (3). Increase of
pressure above the secondary diaphragm will tend to balance pressure under
the primary diaphragm, at balance the diaphragms return to the original
106

position, the valve closes on both seats, and balanced pressure acts on the
control valve for flapper travel away from the nozzle then pressure above the
secondary diaphragm will vent until balance is restored.

Fuel-Oil Ratio Controller:


 Change in combustion air flow is measured in terms of pressure
difference across the air register, and is transmitted via the large bellows to the
ratio beam. Change in fuel oil pressure, caused by the master pressure
controller due to variations of steam pressure, is fed to the smaller of bellows.
These two signals are in opposition when applied to the beam system.
Between the beams there is a movable roller fulcrum the movement of
which, by the ratio adjustment screw, gives different equilibrium conditions and
the ratio is indicated on the ratio scale. Beam lever position operates a linkage
to the pilot valve which vanes control air output signal. This output signal is fed
to the averaging relay where it trims the signal being fed through to the air
damper actuators.
The adjustable proportional band and negative feedback bellows should
be noted. This type of controller utilizes proportional proportional control only.
107

Pneumatic Controller (Viscosity)


 The high pressure connection (+) and low pressure connection (-) is led
to a dp cell. Differential pressure is applied across the diaphragm D of the
transmitter (cell). Increasing differential pressure causes the diaphragm and
balance beam to move to the left. The inlet supply nozzle B is opened by the
flapper F. Which allows build up of air pressure in the feedback bellows B. This
gives a restoring action on the balance beam until equilibrium is again reached.
Discharged nozzle A is shut. Air pressure in the feedback bellows is output
signal of the controller through C to a diaphragm valve regulating steam to the
oil fuel heater. For decreasing viscosity, discharge nozzle A is opened giving air
bleed, and inlet nozzle B is closed. At equilibrium nozzle are virtually closed
which reduces air wastage. The proportional action is ready extended to include
integral action by adjustable reset control of the feedback bellows.
108

CHAPTER 11

CONTROL CIRCUITS/SYSTEMS

Cooling Water Temperature Control:


 Accurate control of diesel engine cooling water is a requirement for
efficient operation. This can be achieved by a single controller under steady load
conditions, but because of the fluctuating situation during maneuvering a more
complex system is required.
The control system shown uses a combination of cascade and split range
control, cascade control is where the output from a master controller is used to
adjust automatically the desired value of a slave controller. It is used in order to
rapidly detect load changes in the engine and provide practice temperature
control. It will also rapidly detect and react to changes in sea water
temperature. The master controller obtains an outlet temperature reading from
the engine which is compared with a desired value. Any deviation acts to adjust
the desired value of the slave controller. The slave controllers also receives a
signal from the water inlet temperature sensor which it compares with its
latest desired value. Any deviation results in a signal to two control valves
arrange for split range control. Split range control where the output signal from
a single controller is split into two or more ranges to operate corresponding
more correcting units. The range of the output signal will determine which of
the correcting units will be operated to bring about the desired action. If the
cooling water temperature is high, the sea water valve is opened to admit more
cooling water to the cooler. If the cooling water temperature is low, then the sea
water valve will be closed in. If the sea water valve is fully closed, then the
steam inlet valve will be opened to heat the water. Both master and slave
controllers will be identical instruments and will be two-term (P+I) in action.
109

Fuel Valve Cooling Water Temperature Control:


 This independent system is necessary in order to avoid possible
contamination from leaking fuel oil. The controller obtains a temperature signal
which is sensed at the water inlet to the fuel valves. It then operates two valves
which are arrangement for split range control. One admits steam to a heater
and is used when warming through the engine. The other valve is a three-way
type which will vary the amount of water enters or bypasses the cooler . a dead
band ensures that the two valves cannot be open together.

Two Element Control:


 Two element type may be advantageous as but transfer rates are high
and sea water temperature becomes more critical than in smaller single element
loops. The two variables involved are engine load and sea water temperature.
If the engine is considered to be at a fixed load then by reference to the
figure it is seen that the water inlet temperature is fixed by the set valve of the
controller ‘A’ which accounts for water temperature changes and controller A is
slave.
Now if the engine load changes the inlet water temperature should
change, the lower the load the higher the water temperature. This achieved by
changing the desired valve of controller A according to the engine load
variations. Control B which is the master provides an indication of engine load
by measuring the return water temperature. A fresh water heater may be placed
in the engine supply line with heat input controlled by controller A. Split range
controls allows heat input at low coolant temperatures and cold input at high
coolant temperature. The actuator can be operated by local or remote control
with the controllers out of operation.
110

Lubricating Oil Temperature:


 This method of temperature control uses a single measuring device
located at the oil inlet to the engine. A three-way valve is provided in the oil
supply to the cooler to enable by passing, if required. The cooler is provided
with a full flow of sea water, which is not controlled by system. The temperature
sensing element on the lubricating oil inlet to the engine provides a signal to a
two-term (P+I) controller. The controller is provided with a desired value and
any deviation between it and the input signal will result in an output to the
three-way control valve. If the temperature is low, more oil will by pass the
cooler and its temperature will therefore increase. If the temperature is high,
then less oil will be bypassed, more will be cooled and the temperature will fall.
A simple system such as this can only be used after careful analysis of the
plant conditions and the correct sizing of equipment fitted. The lubricating oil
system will also have a low level alarm on the drain tank and a high differential
pressure alarm fitted across the duplex filters. A pressure switch located after
the pumps will provide an automatic star-up of the standby pump in the event
of low pressure.
111

Ring Main Control System:


 One obvious arrangement for sea water supply is to utilize
independent tappings from a continuously circulated ring main, in this design
individual sizes and flow rates require very careful investigation. Note that only
main engine circuits are controlled in this given case. It should have four
pumps capable of operation on the main. The pumps preferably divided with
say two speed and two controllable speed to allow flexibility harbour circulation
is best arranged by a feed into the main from say the ballast pump. The control
here is direct control of the sea water quantity utilising two-way diaphragm
control valves, all main engine circuits shown in the diagram are so controlled,
any auxiliary circuits can be similarly controlled if required. Certain discharges
where convenient, can be combined to reduce the number of shipside valves.

Series and Parallel Control System:


 The two diagrams given in Fig. 11.5 illustrate series circulation with
three way valves with bypass, and Parallel circulation with three-way valves
with direct supply, the latter arrangement requires a satisfactory system
pressure control such as control flow from pump or dump of excess water.
Grouping of the coolers and choice or combination of systems can be arranged
dependent or flow and temperature considerations.
112

Boiler Oil Purification Control System for IC Engine:


 This system is designed to maintain a working level in the boiler oil
service tank to the main engine. The oil supply from the dirty oil tanks
continuously passes through a self cleaning purifier. The oil fuel heater can
easily be arranged to give fixed oil temperature or controlled viscosity in a
similar manner to the previously described temperature flow control system.

Waste Heat Flash Evaporator Control:


 This system is shown in Fig. 11.7. Waste or low grade heat from
engine coolant has a good energy potential. Fresh water jacket coolant
evaporates sea water in the second stage heat exchanger which is condensed at
about oil bar in the first stage pre-heater and removed by the distillate pump.
When the pressure sensor-transducer (P) allows the controller ( C ) to
operate the sea and coolant inlet valves, vapour production starts. Control is by
measurement of made water flow at the flow sensor transducer (F) and the
signal allows the controller to regulate water inlet valves accordingly.
113

Viscosity Control:
 A continuous sample of oil is passed across a capillary tube. The
measurement of viscosity has been considered previously. Flow is laminar in
the tube so that viscosity is directly proportional to pressure drop. Pressure
difference is sensed by dp cell transmitter and the signal passed to a controller
and recorder. The controller if supplied by air can transmit a direct power
signal to operate a diaphragm control value. This valve controls steam input to
an oil fuel heater P control is generally adequate, rate and/or reset are easily
added.

 Refrigeration is a process wherein the temperature of a space or its


contents is reduced and maintained below that of their sorroundings.
Air conditioning is the control of temperature and humidity in a space
together with the circulation, filtering and refreshing of the air. The control
aspects of these processes will now be examined.
The basic refrigeration cycle operates by the controlled flow of high
pressure liquid refrigerant into a chamber called an evaporator. The liquid
refrigerant expands into a gas and the energy for this expansion comes from the
gas itself. The temperature of the gas talls and, provided the temperature
difference is large enough, heat will be transferred from the space which is to be
cooled. The gas then returns to the compressor for recompression. Before it is
released into the evaporator the compressed gas is cooled and liquefied in a
condenser. The twin circuit arrangement for each evaporator provides flexibility
and duplication in the event of one system failing. The back pressure valve
maintains a minimum constant pressure or temperature in the evaporator
when working a space in high temperature conditions, to prevent under-cooling
of the cargo. The liquid cooler is necessary where an abnormal high static head
114

has to be overcome between the machinery and the coolers. In this vessel the
liquid is sub-cooled to prevent it flashing off before reaching the thermostatic
expansion valve. The expansion valve or regulator meters the flow of refrigerant
from the high pressure to the low pressure side of the system. The bulb senses
the temperature of the refrigerant at the outlet from the evaporator and opens
or closes the valve accordingly. The design of the valve is critical and is related
to the pressure difference between the delivery and expansion side. Therefore it
is essential .

That the delivery pressure is maintained at or hear the maximum


design pressure thus, if the vessel is operating in cold sea water temperatures it
is necessary to recirculate the cooling water to maintain the correct delivery
pressure from the condenser. If this is not done, the valve will ‘hunt’ and
refrigerant liquid may be returned to the compressor suction. It is usual to have
a solenoid valve in the liquid line prior to the expansion valve or regulator. This
shuts or opens as, determined by a thermostat in the cooled space. It may also
be used to shut off certain circuits in the evaporator when the compressor is
operating on part-load conditions.

Refrigerated cargo vessels usually require a system which provides for


various spaces to be cooled to different temperatures. The arrangements used
can be considered in three parts: The central primary refrigerating
115

Plant, the brine circulating system, and the air circulating system for cooling
the cargo in the hold. The control regulating functions are compressor capacity
control, brine temperature control, level control and delivery temperature
control. The brine temperature corresponds to a certain pressure and
temperature in the compressor suction line. The desired brine temperature is
set with thumb-wheels as a value on the brine regulator. This unit controls the
compressor controller so that the compressor operates at a capacity
corresponding to the desired brine temperature regardless of the refrigerating
requirement..
The level regulator controls the expansion or regulating valve so that the
evaporator receives a correct charge, giving the suction gas the superheat which
is required.
The temperature regulator attempts to keep the delivery temperature
constant and correct within narrow margins. The temperature is set with a
thumb-wheel and measured by sensor.
The regulator controls a number of pneumatic three-way valves in the
brine system. In modern plants, use is also made of data loggers to log different
measuring points in the plant. This device writes out different reports, and
alarm recorders also list deviations from programmed limit valves.
116

Air Conditioning – is usual in a accommodation and some working spaces for


vessels which may operate in varying climatic conditions. Temperature and
relative humidity must both be controlled in order to provide conditions
suitable for human comfort. Several central units, see Fig. 11.11, are used to
distribute conditioned air to a number of cabins or spaces via a single pipe or
duct. In warm climates a mixture of fresh and recirculated air is cooled and
delumodified during its passage over the cooling coil. The refrigeration system
uses a thermostatically controlled regulating valve. In cold climates the air is
humidified by steam jets which will be controlled by a humidity sensor and
controller. Heating of the air may be by steam hot water or electrical heaters
using a temperature sensor and controller.

Oily-Water Separator:
 Oily-water separators are used to remove oil from engine room bilge
water before it is pumped over the side. They are an important piece of
equipment and must be used carefully within their designed throughput
capacity and kept in proper working order.

Oily-Water Separator Interface Level Control:


 The control system of Fig. 11.12 utilizes two probes with the lower
probe giving a balanced electrical bridge in water and the upper probe giving
balance in oil or air.
117

With the pump started and supplying water to the separator to rise to
the lower probe level, the bridge is balanced and the solenoid de-energised.
When water rises to the upper probe its bridge is unbalanced and the output
signal is amplified which energizes A “left-hand” solenoid (not shown) which
moves the pilot valve to the left. This allows clean water pressure to pass (from
1) to close the oil discharge valve (through 2) . Shell pressure rises and A spring
loaded water discharge valve is opened. As oil build up occurs the oil-water
interface moves down de-energizes the left-hand solenoid and then energizes
the right hand “solenoid” the pilot valve moves right (as shown) and water
discharge valve closes each probe and valve has a signal indicator lamp and an
alarm bell operates when the lower probe bridge is unbalanced. A third probe at
a low level can be arranged to cut the pump if oil falls to that point.

Refer to Fig. 11.12 for Emergency Devices:


 Obviously failure of any item in the above sequential cycle causes shut
down and alarm. In addition the following apply.
a.) High or low water levels initiate alarms and allow the master to
interrupt and shut down the sequential system.
b.) Water level is controlled by an electrode type of feed regulator and
controller. Sequential level resistors are immersed in conducting
mercury or non-conducting fluid, so deciding pump speed by variable
limb level. The fixed limb level passes over a weir in the feed box.
118

Auxiliary Boiler Automatic Fuel and Control System:


 Lighting sequence (consider Fig. 11.13

1. The pressure switch initiates the start of the cycle. The switch is often
arranged to cut in at about 1 bar bellow the working pressure and cut
out at about 1/5 bar above the working pressure (this difference is
adjustable).

2. The master initiating relay now allows “Air-On” the air feedback
confirms “air-on” and allows a 30 seconds time delay to proceed.

3. The master now allows the arc to be struck by the electrode relay. The
“arc made” feedback signal allow a 3 second time delay to proceed.

4. The master now allows the full initiating signal to proceed. The
solenoid valve allows fuel on to the burner. The “fuel on” feedback
signal allows a 5 second time delay to proceed (this may be preceded
by a fuel heating sequence for boiler oils).

5. The master the cycle is complete, it not then fuel is shutt off, an
alarm bell rings and the cycle is repeated.
119
120

CHAPTER 12

REMOTE CONTROL-DIESEL PROPULSION


 Remote control of the main engine from the bridge is nowadays
considered essential for practically all ships. Control can be electronics, electro-
pneumatic, electro-hydraulic or pneumatic.
Bridge control system is basically electro-pneumatic in operation with
pneumatic extended up to the wheelhouse so that any electronics faults will not
prevent the engine from being maneuvered from the bridge.
The system provides fully automatic engine direction selection, and
storing and speed control from the telegraph level with full interlocks.
A bridge control system for a slow-speed diesel main engine is shown in
Fig. 12.1 control may be from either station with the operating signal passing to
a programming and timing unit. Various safety interlocks will be signals to
prevent engine starting or to shut down the engine if a fault occurred. The
programming unit signal would then pass to the camshaft positioner to ensure
the correct directional location a logic device would receive the signal next and
arrange for the supply of starting air to turn the engine. A signal passing
through the governor would supply fuel to the engine to start and continue
operation. A feedback signal of engine speed would shut-off the starting air and
also enable the governor to control engine sped. Engine speed would also be
provided as an instrument reading at both control stations.
121

The bridge control system is automatic and makes possible the


starting, the reversing and controlling of the main engine from the bridge by
means of the bridge telegraph in the most expedient manner.
The telegraph is coupled to a potentiometer which sends signals to the
control system. The telegraph handle can either be moved in the normal way,
i.e. in steps corresponding to firm orders, or steplessly by fine adjustment of the
speed of rotation between the firm orders. If stepless regulation is desired, a
special handle for this purpose is provided in front of and between the telegraph
scales. The telegraph handle is locked in each position by means of an
electromagnetic brake. This brake is released by pressing a button on the
telegraph handle.
In front of the telegraph is mounted a panel containing three lamps
which indicate the following:

Automatic stop of main Engine


Automatic Reduction in Main Engine Speed.
Load Programme

Below these lamps is a marked emergency. In its closed position the


cover presses against knobs mounted underneath it. The knobs, which are
activated by pulling, have the following functions.

STOP – For immediate stopping of the main engine from the bridge
LOAD – For cancellation of the preset load programme
CANCELLING – For cancellation of the automatic reduction in main
engine speed, also including stop.

Safety System:
 The system can be connected to alarm devices which come into
operation during critical conditions. This makes it possible to automatically
reduce the RPM or to stop the engine by means of the servomotor or the stop
cylinder respectively. The shut down and slow down functions are fed to a
separate safety panel which transmits a signal to both the bridge control panel
and the alarm panel. The signal to the bridge control panel is delayed for a few
seconds to avoid the risk of momentary variations of the controlled values
having an influence on the engine. The panel also provides the possibility of
disengaging any defective functions from the bridge control panel.

Communication System:
 The telegraph contains an order panel which serve’s to give orders for
control from the engine room or the bridge.

Change-Over from Engine Room to Bridge:


 Movement of the order selector to the position corresponding to
control from the bridge results in the actuation of the telegraph bell. This signal
is acknowledged from the engine room by preparing the engine for bridge
control. This is carried out by shifting the maneuvering handle to a suitably
high index, as the maximum RPM that can be achieved from the bridge is
limited by the position of the maneuvering handle an indicator lamp indicates
122

that the handle has been placed in the correct position, while at the same time
a switch on the pneumatic order selector indicates that this is standing in the
bridge control position. The two switch functions acknowledged the order given
from the bridge and stop the telegraph alarm signal.

Change-Over from Bridge Control to Engine Room Control:


 The telegraph bell is activated when the order selector is shifted from
the bridge control to the engine room control position. By moving the order
selector to engine room control, a switch cancels the signal, and the telegraph
alarm ceases.
The order finished with engines can be acknowledged only by placing the
order selector to engine room control and the automatic shut-off valve in
blocked position.

Pneumatic Maneuvering System:


 The pneumatic maneuvering system makes it possible to carry out
maneuvers with propulsion engine in accordance with the orders issued from
the bridge. The system involves:

Bridge Control
Engine Room Control
Emergency Running
Manual Emergency Running

With normal operation, i.e. with bridge or engine room control, all main
engine control functions are carried out by means of a pneumatically-controlled
Governor. The terminal shaft of the Governor is connected to a Hydraulic
Governor amplifier, this in turn being connected to the regulating shaft of the
engine. If the Governor or the Governor amplifier fails, emergency running can
be used. Main engine control then takes place by the maneuvering handle and
reply telegraph via a positioner which is connected through a governor amplifier
and coupling to the regulating shaft.
If any further part of the pneumatic system fails, then manual emergency
running can be used.
During bridge control, the telegraph orders are sent as signals to the
bridge control panel which activates a servomotor connected mechanically to a
separate pneumatic fine adjustment valve. This valve sends control-air pressure
to the governor.
The bridge control panel also activates three solenoid valves for ahead,
astern and stop. Cylinders for the regulating shaft. These solenoid valves
activate the starting air system at start and reversing when the engine room
control is being used, orders from the bridge are transferred via the bridge
telegraph and the reply telegraph of the maneuvering console.
Reversing of the main engine is carried out with the reply telegraph
handle, while regulation of the engine power is affected via the maneuvering
handle which is also to be found on the maneuvering console.
123

If the engine is ready to be started the following methods of control


can be used:

Bridge Control
Engine Room Control
Emergency Running

Changes between bridge control and engine room control can be made at
any time, but a change to emergency running can take place only when
maneuvering handle is in the stop position.

Controllable Pitch Propellers:


 Propellers with adjustable blades (controllable pitch propellers) are a
further development of the normal propeller with fixed blades by means of
various types of adjusting mechanisms, these propellers can be set at various
pitches from full pitch for sailing ahead and through zero pitch to full pitch for
sailing astern.
A bridge control system for a controller-pitch propeller is shown in Fig.
12.2. The propeller pitch engine speed are usually controlled by a single lever
(combinator). The control lever signal passes via the selector to the engine
governor and the pitch-operating actuator. Pitch and engine speed signals will
be fed back and displayed at both control stations. The load control unit
ensures a constant load on the engine by varying propeller pitch as external
conditions change. The input signals are from the fuel pump setting and actual
engine speed. The output signal is supplied as a feedback to the pitch
controller.
124

Instrumentation and Alarms ( Bridge Control )

 Minimum usage, suggested alarms


1. Low starting air pressure
2. Lubricating oil discharge pressure and temperature
3. Cooling water discharge pressure and temperature
4. Tank contents level gauge
5. Fuel oil discharge pressure and temperature
6. Scavenge belt pressure.
125

CHAPTER 13

AIR SUPPLY

 An adequate supply of clean, dry compressed air is required with well


designed, installed and maintained air line systems.
Quantity is defined under standard intake conditions, i.e. 15ºC and a1
bar, which relate size, capacity and consumption.
Quality requires that filtration removes solid particles, oil and water. If
dew point can be reduced at high temperature, below any likely ambient
temperature of the system, the installation can be kept dry. High compression,
with interstage and after cooling is effective especially when large delivery
receivers allow cooling under pressure. Absorber filters such as silica gel or
activated alumina should be fitted at low level system points to act as moisture
traps-such traps should also be fitted adjacent to reducing valves.
126

AIR DEHYDRATION

After Coolers:
 After final compression, the air will be hot and, when cooling, will
deposit water in considerable quantities in the airline system which should be
avoided. The most effective way to remove the major part of this condensate is
to subject the air to aftercooling, immediately after compression.

Aftercoolers are heat exchangers, being either air cooled or water cooled
units.

Air Cooled
 Consisting of a nest of tubes through which the compressed air flows
and over which a forced draught of cold air is passed by means of a fan
assembly. A typical example is shown in Fig. 13.2.
The outlet temperature of the cooled compressed air should be
approximately 15ºC above the ambient cooling air temperature.

Water Cooled:
 Essentially, a steel shell housing tubes with water circulating on one
side and air on the other side, usually arranged so that the flow is in opposite
directions through the cooler. The principle is shown in Fig. 13.3.
127

Air Dryers:
 Aftercoolers cool the air to within 10-15ºC of the cooling medium. The
control and operating elements of the pneumatic will normally be at ambient
temperature (approx. 20ºC). This may suggest that no further condensate will
be precipitated, and that the remaining moisture passes out with the exhaust
air released to atmosphere. However, the temperature of the air leaving the
aftercooler may be higher than the sorrounding temperature through which the
pipeline passes, for example during night time. This situation cools the
compressed air further, thus condensing more of the vapour into water.

The measure employed in the drying of air is lowering the dew point,
which is the temperature at which the air is fully saturated with moisture (i.e.
100% humidity). The lower the dew point, the less moisture remains in the
compressed air.

There are three main types of air dryer available which operate on an
absorption, adsorption or refrigeration process.

Absorption (deliquescent) drying:


 The compressed air is forced through a drying agent such as
dehydrated chalk or magnesium chloride which remains in solid form, lithium
chloride or calcium chloride which reacts with the moisture to form a solution
which is drained from the bottom of the vessel.

The drying agent must be replenished at regular intervals as the dew


point increases as a function of consumption of the salt during operation, but
a pressure dew point of 5ºC at 7 bar is possible.

The main advantages of this method are that it is low initial and
operating cost, but the inlet temperature must not exceed 30ºC, the chemicals
involved are highly corrosive mist is not carried over to the pneumatic system.
128

Adsorption (dessicant) Drying:


 A chemical such as silica gel or activated alumina in granular form is
contained in a vertical chamber to physically absorb moisture from the
compressed air passing through it. When the drying agent becomes saturated it
is regenerated by drying, heating, or, as in Fig. 13.5, heatless by a flow of
previously dried air.
Wet compressed air is supplied through a directional control valve and
passes through dessicant column 1. The dried air flows to the outlet port.
Between 10-20% of the dry air passes through orifice 02 and column 2 in
reverse direction to –re-absorb moisture from the dessicant to regenerate it. The
regenerating air flow goes then to exhaust.
129

The directional control valve is switched periodically by timer to


alternately allow the supply air to one column and regenerating the other, to
provide continuous dry air.

Extremely low dew points are possible with this method, for example -
40ºC.
A colour indicator may be incorporated in the dessicant to monitor the
degree of saturating. Micro-filtering is essential on the driver outlet to prevent
carry-over of adsorbent mist. Initial and operating costs are comparatively high,
but maintenance cost tends to be low.

Refrigerant Drying:
 This is a mechanical unit incorporating a refrigeration circuit, and two
heat exchangers.

Humid high temperature air is pre-cooled in the first heat exchanger (1)
by transferring part of its heat to the cooled output air.

It is then cooled by the refrigerator principle of heat extraction as a result


of evaporating freon gas in the refrigerator circuit. In heat exchanger (2). At this
time, moisture and oil mist condense and are automatically drained.

The cold dry air return pipe passes through air heat exchanger (1) and
gains heat from the incoming high temperature air. This prevents dew forming
on the discharge outlet, increases volume and lowers relative humidity.
130

An output temperature of 20ºC is possible by modern methods,


although an output air temperature of 5ºC is sufficient for most common
applications of compressed air. Inlet temperatures may be up to 60ºC but it is
more economical to pre-cool to run at lower inlet temperatures.

As a general rule, the cost of drying compressed air may be 10-20% of


the cost of compressing air.

Automatic Drains:
 Two types of automatic drains are shown in the Figures 13.7 and 13.8
in the float type of drain 13.7 the tube guides the float, and is internally
connected to atmosphere via the filter, a relief valve, hole in the spring loaded
piston and along the stem of the manual operator.

The condensate accumulates at the bottom of the housing and when it


rises high enough to lift the float from its seat, the pressure in the housing is
transmitted to the piston which moves to the right to open the drain valve seat
and expel the water. The float then lowers to shut off the air supply to the
piston.

The relief valve limits the pressure behind the piston when the float
shuts the nozzle. This pre-set value ensures a consistent piston re-setting time
as the captured air bleeds off through a functional leak in the relief valve.

Fig. 13.8 shows an electrically driven type which periodically purges the
condensate by a rotating cam wheel tripping a lever operated poppet valve.
131

Main Line Filter:


 A large capacity filter should be installed after the air receiver to
remove contamination, oil vapours from the compressor and water from the air.

This filter must have a minimum pressure drop and the capability to
remove oil vapour from the compressor in order to avoid emulsification with
condensation in the line. It has no deflector for the water separation as is the
case of a “Standard Filter” as described in section “Air treatment” A built-in or
an attached auto drain will ensure a regular discharge of accumulated water.

The filter is generally a quick change cartridge type.

PRESSURE REGULATION

 Regulation of pressure is necessary because at pressure above


optimum, rapid wear will take place with little or no increase in output. Air
pressure which is too low is uneconomical because it results in poor efficiency.

Standard Regulator:

 Pressure regulators may have a piston or diaphragm construction to


balance the output pressure against an adjustable spring force.

The secondary pressure is set by the adjusting screw loading the setting
to hold the main valve open, allowing flow from the primary pressure p1 inlet
port to the secondary pressure p2 outlet port.

When the circuit connected to the outlet is at the set pressure, it acts on
the diaphragm creating a lifting force against the spring load. If the
consumption rate drops, p2 will slightly increase, this increases the force on the
diaphragm against the spring force, diaphragm and valve will then lift until the
spring force is equalled again. The air flow through the valve will be reduced
until it matches the consumption rate and the output pressure is maintained.
132

If the consumption rate increases, p2 will slightly decrease. This


decreases the force on the diaphragm against the spring force, diaphragm and
valve drop until the spring force is equalled again. This increases the air flow
through the valve until it matches the consumption rate.

Without air consumption, the valve is closed. If the secondary pressure rises
above the set value by virtue of
 Re-setting the regulator to a lower outlet pressure or

 An external reverse thrust from an actuator.

The diaphragm will lift to open the relieving seat so that excess pressure can
be bleed off through the vent hole in the regulator body cover.

With very high flow rates, the valve is wide open. The spring is therefore
elongated and thus weaker and the equilibrium between p2 on the diaphragm
area and the spring occurs at a lower level. This problem can be corrected by
creating a third chamber with a connection to the output channel. In this
channel the flow velocity is high,. As explained in section 3, the static pressure
is then low (Bernoulli). As p3 is now at a lower static pressure, the balance
against the weakened spring at high flow rates is compensated.

The effect can be improved by inserting a tube in the connection, cut


under an angle with the opening oriented towards the outlet Fig. 13.12
133

There is still an inconvenience in the regulator of Fig. 5.7: if the inlet


pressure p1 increases , a higher force is acting on the bottom of the valve,
trying to close it. That means, that an increasing input pressure decreases the
output pressure and vice versa. This can be eliminated by a valve having equal
surface areas for both input and output pressure in both directions. This is
realized in the regulator of Fig. 13.12
134

The most important parts are:


 Adjusting spindle
 Setting Spring
 Relieving Seat
 Diaphragm
 Flow Compensation Chamber
 Flow Compensation Connection Tube
 Valve
 O-Ring for Pressure Compensation
 Valve Spring
 O-Ring for Flow Compensation

Pilot Operated Regulator:


 The pilot operated regulator offers greater accuracy of pressure
regulation across a large flow range.

This accuracy is obtained by replacing the setting spring of a standard


regulator with a pilot pressure from a small pilot regulator sited on the unit.

The Pilot regulator on top of the unit supplies or exhaust pilot air only
during corrections of the output pressure. Its spring is therefore not longer with
very high flow rates.
135

Filter Regulator
 Air filtering and pressure regulation is combined in the single filter
regulator to provide a compact space saving unit..

Sizing a Regulator; Characteristics


 A regulator size is selected to give the flow required by the application
with a minimum of pressure variations across the flow range of the unit.

Manufacturers provide graphical information regarding the flow


characteristics of their equipment. The most important is the flow / p2
diagram. It shows how p2 decreases with increasing flow. Fig. 13.14. The curve
has three district portions:

 the inrush, with a small gap on the valve that does not yet allow real
regulation.

 the regulation range and the saturation range; 1 – the valve is wide open
136

and further regulation is impossible.

COMPRESSED AIR LUBRICATION

 Lubrication is no longer a necessity for modern Pneumatic


Components. They are available pre-lubricated for life.
The life and performances of these components are fully up to the requirements
of modern high cycling process machinery.
The advantages of “non-lube” systems include:
a.) Savings in the cost of lubrication equipment, lubricating oil and
maintaining oil levels.
b.) Cleaner, more hygenic systems; of particular importance in food and
pharmaceutical industries.
c.) Oil free atmosphere, for a healthier, safer working environment.

Proportional Lubricators:

 In a (proportional) lubricator a pressure drop between inlet and outlet,


directly proportional to the flow rate, is created and lifts oil from the bowl into
the sight feed dome.

With a fixed size of restriction, a greatly increased flow rate would create
an excessive pressure drop and produce an air/oil mixture that had too much
oil, flooding the pneumatic system.

Conversely a decreased flow rate may not create sufficient pressure drop
resulting in a mixture which is too lean.
137

To overcome this problem lubricators have self-adjusting cross sections


to produce a constant mixture.

Air entering at (A) follows two paths. It flows over the damper vane to the
outlet and also enters the lubricator bowl via a check valve.

When there is no flow, the same pressure exists above the surface of the
oil in the bowl, in the oil tube and the sight feed dome. Consequently there is no
move of oil.

When air flows through the unit, the damper vane restrictor causes a
pressure drop between the inlet and outlet. The higher the flow, the greater the
pressure drop.

Since the sight feed dome is connected by the capillary hole to the low
pressure zone immediately after the damper vane, the pressure in the dome is
lower than that in the bowl.

This pressure difference forces oil up the tube, through the oil check
valve and flow regulator into the dome.

Once in the dome, the oil seeps through the capillary hole into the main
airstream in the area of the highest air velocity. The oil is broken up into
miniscule particles, atomized and mixed homogenously with the air, by the
turbulance in the vortex created by the damper vane.
138

The damper vane is made from a flexible material to allow it to bend as


flow increases, widening the flow path, to automatically adjust pressure drop
and maintain a constant mixture throughout.

The flow regulator allows adjustment of the quantity of oil for a given
pressure drop. The oil check valve retains the oil in the upper part of the tube,
should the air flow temporarily stop.

The check valve allows the unit to be refilled without disconnection of air
supply.

The correct oil feed rate depends on operating conditions, but, a general
guide is to allow one or two drops per cycle of the machine.

A pure mineral oil of 32 centi-stokes viscosity is recommended.

FILTER REGULATOR-LUBRICATOR
 Modulator filter, pressure regulator and lubricator elements can be
combined into a service unit by joining with spacers and clamps. Mounting
brackets and other accessories can be easily fitted in more recent designs.
139

CHAPTER 14

MONITORING SYSTEMS

To replace the human operator, who would normally carry out the rule of
monitoring any operation, automatic monitoring systems must be introduced.
Monitoring systems vary in both size and complexity, ranging from a simple
make-break switch operated by pressure to activate an alarm, to a
sophisticated sequential scanning system.

The sophisticated system may have some of the following features:

1. Sequential monitoring of sensors and comparison of readings with a stored


data bank of alarm limit settings. Some modern systems can have over 6000
monitoring points around the ship.

2. Data acquisition and storage on computer tapes or disks for later reference.
Some ships now will automatically transmit this data by satellite to the
company headquarters for statistical analysis.

3. Data logging of monitored processes, with trend analysis computer VDU


displays.

4. Assessment of the machinery operating conditions, and automatic


adjustment to provide the optimum operating conditions for the prevailing
conditions. This particular facility may be used to adjust the speed of a ship
in passage to give the greatest fuel economy possible.

5. Machinery condition monitoring. The machinery may be fitted with sensors


to monitor the combustion process and general health of the engine to aid
efficient running and predictive maintenance schedules.

Generally the monitoring system of a ship would also comprise the following
sub-systems.

Alarm Systems
Within the rules and regulations are features which must be included
into the design of control equipment, in particular the alarm system. 4, 5, 6, Alarm
systems are associated with control and safety systems and are normally an
integral part of the monitoring system. The design must allow the alarm system
to function independently of any control or safety system, where practical, so
that the alarm system will still function if there is a fault in these other
systems.
Any alarm system must have an automatic change over to stand-by
power supply in the event of a main power supply failure. It must be self-
monitoring for faults within the alarm system itself, such as a broken wire or
140

sensor failure. Any internal system fault should cause the alarm system to give
an alarm.
The alarm system fitted must advise duty personnel quickly of any fault
condition. The presence of any unrectified faults should be indicated at all
times. Machinery, safety and control system faults must be indicated at the
control stations and alarms should be both visual and audible.
If a vessel is being operated in the UMS mode, then audible and visual
indication of machinery alarms must be relayed to the engineer’s
accommodation so that the engineering staff are aware that a fault has
occurred. If any machinery alarm has not been acknowledged in the control
room within a predetermined time the engineers’ general alarms should sound
automatically.
Any indication of machinery fault should also be relayed to the bridge, so
that they are aware of the fault, know that it is being attended to, and when it
is cleared.
Visual alarms are colour coded3 to give an indication of priority level.
They can be steady lamps or flashing lamps, depending on their application. An
audible alarm ‘silence button should not extinguish any visual alarm.
Audible alarms for different systems should have different tones or
sounds. The telegraph alarm should be different from the general engine room
alarm, which in turn should be different from the fire alarm
141

Bell, so that ship’s staff responding to the alarm can both quickly react to the
alarm and have some knowledge of the alarm type. A typical method of logic of
operation for a machinery alarm system, using a visual lamp and an audible
siren, would be as shown in Fig. 14.1.
There are many other different features which may be fitted to alarms
systems and these include:

a.) automatic reset – where the alarm will automatically reset after normal
conditions have been restored (but this would not be acceptable to
classification societies unless the alarm has already been accepted or
acknowledged);
b.) manual reset – where the alarm must be manually reset after normal
conditions are restored;

c.) lock in on fleeting alarms – where the alarm condition is still displayed even
though the fault condition has quickly appeared and then disappeared;

d.) time delay to prevent raising of spurious alarm signals;

e.) event recorder – which prints out a record of the alarm details and the
sequence and time of alarms;

f.) ‘first up’ or ‘first out’ – enabling identification of the first alarm that operated
within a group or ‘flood’ of alarms.

The industry is currently facing a problem with ‘flood’ alarms or alarm


overloads. With a fully automated main propulsion plant, if there is a failure of
some nature which causes a shutdown of the plant, such as a total electrical
‘blackout’, then the alarm system may have to cope with hundreds of alarm
signals in a very short space of time. If the recording devices are not of suitable
speed and quality then it becomes difficult to actually identify the correct order
of event and the initial cause of the failure.

Safety Systems
 Safety is of paramount importance in any control system. A safety
system is a system which reduces dangers and risks of injury to personnel and
damage to machinery. Any safety system should operate automatically to
prevent endangering both personnel and machinery.

Typical Safety Systems


There are numerous examples which could be used to illustrate safety systems,
below are some of the more commonly fitted.

Machinery Auto start-up


These systems are provided with a stand-by device which will
automatically start in the event of the running device failing through a fault
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condition. The start-up of the stand-by device must restore the normal
operating conditions and give an alarm on failure of the online device.
Main cooling water and lubricating oil circulating pumps are fitted in
pairs and arranged so that while one machine is in service, the other is in the
stand-by mode, ready to automatically start in the event of failure of the
running pump.
Electrical generators can be arranged with automatic start-up, which can
be initiated by a failure of the running generator, or by the electrical load for
one generator. In the latter case the switchboard must also be fitted with
automatic synchronizing equipment to allow the two generators to run in
parallel and load share.

Reduction of Power
 With this safety system the machinery output power is temporarily
reduced to meet the prevailing conditions. There are several situations which
may trigger this device, the most common being excessive high temperatures,
low pressures or high loads on the machinery.
This device is fitted to a main propulsion diesel engine cooling water
temperature monitoring system. If the engine becomes overloaded and the
jacket cooling water outlet temperature exceeds a ‘high’ set point, an alarm will
be raised. If that alarm is not responded to and the temperature continues to
rise to a ‘high-high’ set point, then the engine will automatically go into a load
reduction, e.g. the engine revolutions will be reduced from 120 revs/min to 45
revs/min in the case of a slow speed diesel engine.
This type of safety system with its alarm is known as a first stage
protection device.
Typical systems with power reduction protection on a main propulsion
diesel engine are:

a.) high scavenge air temperature;

b.) high oil mist level in crankcase;

c.) low piston cooling pressure or flow;

d.) high piston cooling outlet temperature;

e.) low cylinder cooling pressure or flow;

f.) high cylinder cooling temperature;

g.) high exhaust gas temperature on a cylinder, or high exhaust gas


temperature deviation from average exhaust temperature.

Machinery Shut Down


 With the shut down safety system the machinery is protected from
critical conditions by shutting off the fuel supply or power supply thereby
stopping the machinery. In some cases a shut down will follow a reduction of
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power if the prevailing conditions continue to develop into a critical situation or


if no remedial action is taken after a certain time period.
Consider the scenario of the diesel engine with a high-high jacket water
temperature. If, after the reduction in power decreases the speed of the engine
to 45 revs/min, the temperatures stay high-high, then after 3 minutes an
engine shut down will be triggered, stopping the engine.
The electrical power supply to electric motor driven circulating pumps
may be isolated if, for example, a shaft bearing fails, which may increase the
electric load on the motor. An overload trip will isolate the power.
This type of safety system with its associated alarm is known as a second
stage protection device, and it must be independent of the first stage device.

Bilge level detection system


 An alarm system must be fitted to provide warning when the contents
of the machinery space bilge wells has reached a predetermined level. This level
must be low enough for the contents of the bilges not to overflow onto the tank
tops.
Bilge water moving over the tank tops is particularly dangerous for
several reasons.

1. It can be a fire hazard, especially if there is oil in the bilge water. A local fire
could rapidly spread through the machinery space.

2. There is danger of free surface effect on the stability of the vessel.

3. There is a possibility water damage to electrical cables and motors, from


splashing.

Accumulation in the bilge wells must be detectable at all angles of heel and
trim of the vessel. Ships of 2000 tonnes gross or more must be fitted with two
independent detection systems so that each branch bilge is provided with a
level detector.
Some ships are fitted with automatic pumping for bilges. Before the bilge
level reaches the alarm level a float controller will activate the bilge pump,
open the required valves and activate the bilge pump. The system must be
designed to avoid causing pollution or masking an actual leak situation.

Fire detection alarm systems


 The fire detector indicator and alarm system must be situated in such a
position that fire in the machinery spaces will not make it inoperative.
Commonly it is sited on the bridge or in a special fire control centre.
The system panel normally gives local-audio-visual alarms and indicates
the source of the fire alarm. If the local warning alarm is not acknowledged
within a certain time it will initiate the main audible fire alarm, which must be
capable of being heard on the bridge, in the fire control station, and in the
accommodation and the machinery spaces.
Particular fire detector loops or individual detectors are capable of being
temporarily isolated, and the status of loops must be indicated on the panel. If
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a detector is inadvertently left off, the alarm system must reactivate the detector
automatically after a certain time period, usually 30 minutes.
The alarm system must be self monitoring and any power or system
failures, such as short circuits or broken wires, should raise an alarm but with
a different tone to that of the main fire alarm.

Fall safe policies


Any control system should be designed to ‘fail safe’. This means that if the
control system has a failure, then the controlled equipment must fail to a
condition so as not to cause an unsafe situation to arise, such as mechanical or
thermal overloads of machinery.
Depending on the particular use of the equipment the failure mode can
be different, for example a pneumatically operated valve can be arranged to:

a.) ‘open on air failure’ (OAF);

b.) ‘close on air failure’ (CAF); or to

c.) ‘fail fixed’, i.e. the valve remains in the position it was in at the time of the
air failure.

According to the Rules of Lloyd’s Register, failure of the actuator power


should not permit a valve to move to an unsafe condition?
A good example of fail safe operation is with a controllable pitch propeller
system. The response firstly depends on the type of hub fitted, which can be
either a spring loaded type or an all hydraulic type. With the spring loaded type
the hub fitted with a spring so that in the event of a hydraulic failure the
propeller blades will fail to the ahead position. The vessel will be able to
maintain its navigation speed, but reduced to about 75% of maximum, as the
water pressure acting on the propeller blades can overcome the spring
pressure above this power level.
With the all hydraulic hub type the response is dependent on the speed of
the vessel through the water. Generally speaking, the blades will move to the
zero pitch position. To get under way again the blades will have to be jacked,
using a manually operate as if with a conventional fixed pitch propeller.
For any fail safe device it is important to establish what it should do in a
failure mode and then test the device to ensure it operates correctly.