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Layout & Special Features Of GT46MAC

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1.

DRIVERS CAB

12. COOLING FANS

2.

#1 ELECTRICAL CONTROL CABINET

13. RADIATORS

3.

DYNAMIC BRAKE GRIDS & FANS

14. AC TRACTION MOTOR

4.

#1 TCC

15. BATTERY BOX

5.

#2 TCC

16. FUEL TANK

6.

DUST BIN BLOWER

17. UNDER FRAME

7.

TRACTION MOTOR BLOWER

18. DRAFT GEAR

8.

EXHAUST MANIFOLD

19. COUPLER

9.

ENGINE

20. AIR BRAKE RACK

10

EQUIPMENT RACK

21. TRACTION ALTERNATOR

11

AIR COMPRESSOR

AC-AC locomotives hitherto manufactured by GM have been only for the North American market which does not impose any major constraint on the layout primarily because axle loads are in region of 30t are permitted on North American Railroads. Development of the layout for GT46MAC the axle load for which is restricted to around 20.5 t , was therefore, a major exercise in locomotive design.

The locomotive has been designed on the ‘platform’ concept i.e. the layout and the mounting of equipment is arranged in such a manner that retrofitment of equipment developed in future on existing locomotives as well as equipment changes/upgradation of the existing design of the locomotive can be implemented without any major change in the underframe, superstructure and even layout.

2

GT46MAC is provided with the following special features-

710G3B fuel efficient engine is a low maintenance high fuel efficiency diesel engine. The fuel efficiency of this locomotive is 11 % better than the existing WDM2 locomotive. The engine has many modern features like

:

Laser hardened cylinder liners,

Unit fuel injectors which eliminate the problematic HP tube

Inconel valves and Hydraulic valve adjuster

Durable crankcase and piston structure

AC-AC transmission has the following features / advantages -

High adhesion and Tractive effort

Maintenance-free traction motors

No limitation of minimum continuous speed

High reliability and availability

Lower rolling resistance and higher energy efficiency

Computer Control, a 32 BIT computer control for locomotive controls having, following advanced features -

Trouble Shooting and Self -Diagnostics

Alpha Numeric display

Archive memory and Data logging

Radar based super series Wheel Slip/Slide Control system

High adhesion HTSC bogies, which have traction bar arrangement with unidirectional traction motors resulting in low maintenance, longer wheel life and higher adhesion.

Improved mechanical systems, the notable being -

microprocessor based engine cooling system

High lube oil sump capacity

Self-cleaning inertial type primary filter

Efficient secondary air filtration

Improved Miscellaneous Electrical Systems, the notables being:

Wide range dynamic brakes effective down to near standstill

Maintenance-free roller suspension bearings having lower rolling resistance

Efficient filtration for electronic cabinet

5. Locomotive Design

There have been significant changes in locomotive technology during past 10-15 years. Modern electric and diesel-electric locomotives have sophisticated control systems that allow precise control for power application to the rails. These locomotives, therefore, have the ability to significantly out- perform older technology locomotives. Introduction of AC-AC technology ensures that the locomotives are dispatched to gain the maximum benefit of the increased dispatchable adhesion.

The following mechanical principles and mathematical formulas that govern locomotive power application need to be clearly defined:

5.1

Locomotive Horsepower

There are four different horsepower ratings on a locomotive:

5.1.1

Brake horsepower.

Brake horsepower is measured at the engine crankshaft and is a measure of the TOTAL horsepower available for conversion to electrical energy at the main generator plus the power required for driving accessory loads.

5.1.2 Traction Horsepower

Traction horsepower = Brake horsepower - Accessory loads

GT46MAC

demands:

locomotive

has

Auxiliary Generator.

the

following

accessory

horsepower

Traction Motor/Main Generator Blower.

Air Compressor - mechanically driven by engine, but has a zero horsepower load when unloaded and is disengaged. GT46MAC has a clutch which disengages when no compressed air is required.

Inertial Filter Blower Motor.

Radiator Cooling Fans - electrically driven by the companion alternator. GT46MAC utilises two speed-cooling fans to lessen the horsepower demands for engine cooling when full cooling is not required.

AC

Inverter

alternator.

Blowers

-

electrically

driven

by

the

companion

cooling when full cooling is not required. • AC Inverter alternator. Blowers - electrically driven by

Traction HP rating is the most commonly used rating when quoting locomotive horsepower. When railroads dispatch loads on hp/ton basis, they in almost all cases use traction hp for calculations.

5.1.2

Net Traction Horsepower

Net Traction Horsepower = Traction Horsepower x Generator Efficiency

In case of GT46MAC locomotive, 0.94 is the efficiency of the main generator.

5.1.3

Rail Horsepower

Rail horsepower, the power delivered by the locomotive wheels at the rails, can be expressed by Rail Horsepower = Traction Horsepower x Transmission Efficiency

Transmission efficiency is through:

 

Main Generator

 

Switch Gear

Cables

Traction Motors

Traction Motor Axle Gears.

Inverters

5.1.4

Draw Bar Horsepower

The power developed at the draw bar called Draw Bar Horsepower and is the actual horsepower used to pull a trailing load. It is the engine to generator horsepower minus electrical transmission losses minus horsepower necessary to move the locomotive only.

Drawbar Horsepower =

 

{(Engine to Generator H.P. x Transmission Efficiency) - resistance x kmph)}

(Loco weight x locomotive

 

270

kg km per hour

Due to the fact that the formula includes "locomotive resistance" and kmph, it is necessary to specify the grade and curve condition as well as the speed of movement to obtain draw bar hp value. The resistance for each one percent of grade requires an additional 9.2 kg/t. Each degree of curvature requires and additional about 0.37 kg/t. The influence of Rolling Resistance on DB

horse power will be explained later. It should be clear that the Draw bar horsepower decreases with increased speed.

5.1.5 Horsepower Required to Pull a given Train Load

The calculations to find the Drawbar horsepower to pull a given train up a specified grade and curvature can also be made.

Drawbar HP required =

Resistance X Wt. of Freight Car X No. of Freight Cars X kmph

270

Draw bar horsepower requirements will increase with increased speed.

5.2

Resistance

5.2.1

Rolling Resistance

The rolling resistance of a train can be determined by formula is generally is taken from tables and curves based on formula. The most widely used of such formulae is the "Davis Formula". Rolling resistance is generally expressed in kg/t and is summation of Flange Resistance, Journal Resistance and Air Resistance.

Other things being equal, total Rolling Resistance increases as speeds increase.

5.2.2 Grade Resistance

Grade resistance, expressed in kg/t , is independent of and unrelated to train speed. It is due to the force of gravity. It is always equal to 10 kg/tonne for each percent of grade as illustrated in the calculations below.

1% Grade =

1 m rise

100 m distance

when

Weight, W = 1 tonne = 1000 Kg

R G = 1/100 x 1000 Kg =

10 Kg

W = 1 tonne = 1000 Kg R G = 1/100 x 1000 Kg = 10

Grade resistance = 10 Kg per 1 % of grade.

kg/t) Total Grade Resistance =

Rise in elevation x 100 x

R G

(10

Distance travelled

.

Comment [D1]:

Comment [D1]:

5.2.3 Curve Resistance

A one degree curve is a curve whose central angle extends to a chord of 30.48 m (100 feet). A 30.48 m (100 feet ) chord is 1/360 of a complete circle, the radius of a 1' curve is 1746.5 m (5730 feet). Curve resistance is expressed in kg / t / degree.

Degree of curvature = 5730 /

5.3 Tractive Effort

Radius in feet or 1746 / Radius in m

Tractive effort is defined as the turning force produced at the rails by the driving wheels. Tractive Effort can be expressed mathematically as follows for an AC locomotive.

Tractive Effort = Traction Horsepower x 315 mile-Ibs/hr / Speed in miles per hour

or Traction Horsepower x 230 km-kg/hr / Speed in km per hour

a. Tractive effort depends on five major factors:

I. Horsepower of the diesel engine.

II. Ability of the main generator.

III. Ability of the traction motors.

IV. Gear ratio.

V. Adhesion

Weight on driving wheels.

Rail condition.

Wheel Slip Control System.

Inverter System.

b. The effect of the above factors on tractive effort is explained

below:

i) Horsepower of the Engine

HP of the diesel engine primarily determines the possible TE a locomotive can develop at the rims of the driving wheels. T.E calculations use the Traction HP for calculation purposes.

With an increase in the horsepower of the engine, either T.E. of the locomotive will increase for the same speed or speed will be increase with the same T.E.

ii) Ability of the Main Generator

will increase for the same speed or speed will be increase with the same T.E. ii)

Main Generator Voltage x Main Generator Current

Main Generator Voltage x Main Generator Current
Main Generator Voltage x Main Generator Current
Main Generator Voltage x Main Generator Current

The main generator is the first step in the transmission of engine horsepower to the wheels. The main generator converts the mechanical power into electrical energy, referred to as kW. This electrical energy is then used by the traction motors to turn the locomotive wheels. kW are measured by the following formulas :

Main Generator Kilowatts =

1000 W per kilowatt Tractive Horsepower = Main Generator Kilowatt /0.746 HP per kilowatt

The generator can produce any combination of amperage and voltage within the rated power range of the locomotive.

iii) Ability of the Traction Motors

Traction motors transform the electrical energy of the main generator into mechanical force to turn the locomotive wheels. At low speeds, the traction motors must be capable of operating at their thermal limit. Maximum locomotive speed is limited by the safe rotational speed of the armature. In a DC motor, the armature windings limit the maximum speed of the armature to approximately 2400 RPM. In an AC motor for the GT46MAC, the induction rotor allows the operating RPM to increase to 3600 RPM.

The ratings of the traction motors also affect the "Minimum Continuous Speed" of a DC locomotive, as well as the tractive horsepower available for transmission to the motors. With an AC locomotive, however, "Minimum Continuous Speed" is not a consideration. With AC traction motors, the locomotive can be put to full throttle at standstill without any damage to the motors.

iv) Effect of Gear Ratio

At full load, a given power output will produce a corresponding rotor speed regardless of gear ratio. The effect of changing gear ratio is to change the train speed at which full load can be applied continuously without thermal damage to the motors.

Therefore:

1. Increasing the gear ratio reduces the minimum speed (hence increases tonnage) at which a given locomotive can operate without heat damage to the motors.

2. Reducing the gear ratio, the maximum speed at which a given locomotive can operate without mechanical damage to the motors.

v) Adhesion

Adhesion can be defined by the following locomotive formula:

% Adhesion = Tractive Effort (kg) X 100/ Locomotive Weight

There are three classes of adhesion:

Required (Train Weight and Grade dependent)

Available (Operation under a given set of rail conditions)

Developed (Locomotive capability through enhancements-wheel slip control)

The adhesion rating of a locomotives depends upon confidence level. This means that at a confidence level of 98%, the user can count on the locomotive developing the given adhesion factor 98% of the time. This is also termed as "All Weather Adhesion".

There are cases where trains can be dispatched with a lower confidence level and a higher adhesion requirement. For example, trains may be dispatched during the summer months at a lower confidence level i.e. the user is counting on higher adhesions because of good weather conditions. Under inclement weather conditions, the locomotives can be dispatched at a higher confidence level of making a successful trip as the rail conditions deteriorate. There is a large gain in dispatchable adhesion as the confidence level drops to say 80 %. This means that if one counts on the locomotive to produce 43% adhesion, it will probably make the run successfully only 80% of the time without help.

Weight on Driving wheels

The weight on the driving wheels is that portion of the entire weight supported by the wheels driven by traction motors. The weight on driving wheels is in an important factor in the locomotive's "adhesion". Adhesion is the grip produced by friction between the steel wheels and steel rails. Adhesion is required to keep the wheels from slipping. In the modern locomotives which allow "wheel creep" (controlled wheel slip), however, the maximum tractive effort can be much higher due to the precise control of the wheel creep systems.

Rail Conditions

With a given weight on rails, adhesion depends on rail conditions. Dampness, water, leaves, rust, ice, frost, and oil cause rails to be slippery. With GT46MAC locomotive, the adhesion may TEMPORARILY reach as much as 45% (with ideal rail conditions). Practical year round adhesion factor may be as low as 33 %.

Wheel Slip Control System

(with ideal rail conditions). Practical year round adhesion factor may be as low as 33 %.

The wheel slip control system used on a locomotive can have a dramatic effect on the adhesion level achieved. Until the introduction of the "Super Series" wheel slip control system, all wheel slip control systems were "corrective" type systems. In other words, they operated under the principle that all wheel slip is bad and would reduce power to traction motors to control the slip.

The introduction of "Super Series" improved dispatchable adhesion. The "Super Series" wheel creep control system allows the wheels to exceed ground speed by a certain percentage, depending on rail conditions, to improve adhesion. Super Series is activated automatically through the control system.

The introduction of AC technology also improves the wheel creep control system due to its rapid response. In a DC locomotive, power is modulated by varying the DC field current of the main generator. There is an inherent lag time as the main generator's magnetic field requires time to collapse. With the AC locomotive, the wheel creep corrections are far more rapid as the devices that control the power output to the AC traction motors (called Gate Turn Off Thrystors, or simply GT0s) can have their switching sequence changed almost instantaneously. Power corrections are much more rapid and smoother with the AC traction equipped locomotive.

Inverter System

GT46MAC locomotive utilizes a system called "truck control", where one inverter controls all of the axles within a truck unlike GE which uses single axle inverter system i.e. one inverter per axle.

While "truck control" system has less number of physical components to maintain, this has the disadvantage of the power reduction in the event of an inverter failure.

5.4 Dynamic braking effort

Dynamic braking effort may be considered as negative tractive effort. It is useful for controlling train speed. Dynamic Brakes are normally not used to stop a train but are used to assist deceleration.

Dynamic Brakes are the preferred tool to control train speed on, many railroads for the following reasons:

i) It saves considerable brake shoe wear, the subsequent reduction in air brake use minimizes the chance of stuck brakes on the train.

ii) It eliminates the fuel inefficient practice of 'Stretch braking' a train with air brakes.

brakes on the train. ii) It eliminates the fuel inefficient practice of 'Stretch braking' a train

5.5 Brake Effort

Braking effort for a train can be calculated by the Following formula:

Brake Effort = (-G R r+ C R + Car R ) x (Trailing load in tonne + Locomotive Wt. in tonne)

where

G

R

C R

Car R

= Grade resistance

= Curve resistance

= Car resistance

5.6 Comparison Between Four Axle & Six Axle Locomotive

Six axle locomotive has 50% more Traction Motors than a four axle locomotive resulting in:

Six axle locomotive has about axle locomotive.

50% more tractive effort than a four

Six axle locomotive weighs locomotive.

about

50% more than a four axle

Six axle locomotive's minimum continuous speed is approximately 40% more than a four axle locomotives with equal horsepower.

With equal trailing tonnage, six axle locomotive's running time on a given run over the railroad is slightly longer than the four axle locomotive. This is because of the increased rolling resistance with the additional two motors / axles.

As a general rule, if the locomotive's primary mission is to haul trains at high speeds (intermodal use), four axle locomotive is better suited. If the locomotive's primary responsibility is heavy service over terrain with grades and curves, six axle locomotive is better suited.

primary responsibility is heavy service over terrain with grades and curves, six axle locomotive is better

Locomotive Design

There have been significant changes in locomotive technology during past 10-15 years. Modern electric and diesel-electric locomotives have sophisticated control systems that allow precise control for power application to the rails. These locomotives, therefore, have the ability to significantly out- perform older technology locomotives. Introduction of AC-AC technology ensures that the locomotives are dispatched to gain the maximum benefit of the increased dispatchable adhesion.

The following mechanical principles and mathematical formulas that govern locomotive power application need to be clearly defined:

1

Locomotive Horsepower

There are four different horsepower ratings on a locomotive:

1.1

Brake horsepower.

Brake horsepower is measured at the engine crankshaft and is a measure of the TOTAL horsepower available for conversion to electrical energy at the main generator plus the power required for driving accessory loads.

1.2 Traction Horsepower

Traction horsepower = Brake horsepower - Accessory loads

GT46MAC

demands:

locomotive

has

Auxiliary Generator.

the

following

accessory

horsepower

Traction Motor/Main Generator Blower.

Air Compressor - mechanically driven by engine, but has a zero horsepower load when unloaded and is disengaged. GT46MAC has a clutch which disengages when no compressed air is required.

Inertial Filter Blower Motor.

Radiator Cooling Fans - electrically driven by the companion alternator. GT46MAC utilises two speed-cooling fans to lessen the horsepower demands for engine cooling when full cooling is not required.

AC

Inverter

alternator.

Blowers

-

electrically

driven

by

the

companion

1

cooling when full cooling is not required. • AC Inverter alternator. Blowers - electrically driven by

Traction HP rating is the most commonly used rating when quoting locomotive horsepower. When railroads dispatch loads on hp/ton basis, they in almost all cases use traction hp for calculations.

1.3

Net Traction Horsepower

Net Traction Horsepower = Traction Horsepower x Generator Efficiency

In case of GT46MAC locomotive, 0.94 is the efficiency of the main generator.

1.4

Rail Horsepower

Rail horsepower, the power delivered by the locomotive wheels at the rails, can be expressed by Rail Horsepower = Traction Horsepower x Transmission Efficiency

Transmission efficiency is through:

 

Main Generator

Switch Gear

Cables

Traction Motors

Traction Motor Axle Gears.

Inverters

1.5

Draw Bar Horsepower

The power developed at the draw bar called Draw Bar Horsepower and is the actual horsepower used to pull a trailing load. It is the engine to generator horsepower minus electrical transmission losses minus horsepower necessary to move the locomotive only.

Drawbar Horsepower =

 

{(Engine to Generator H.P. x Transmission Efficiency) - resistance x kmph)}

(Loco weight x locomotive

 

270

kg km per hour

Due to the fact that the formula includes "locomotive resistance" and kmph, it is necessary to specify the grade and curve condition as well as the speed of movement to obtain draw bar hp value. The resistance for each one percent of grade requires an additional 9.2 kg/t. Each degree of curvature requires and additional about 0.37 kg/t. The influence of Rolling Resistance on DB

 

2

horse power will be explained later. It should be clear that the Draw bar horsepower decreases with increased speed.

1.6 Horsepower Required to Pull a given Train Load

The calculations to find the Drawbar horsepower to pull a given train up a specified grade and curvature can also be made.

Drawbar HP required =

Resistance X Wt. of Freight Car X No. of Freight Cars X kmph

270

Draw bar horsepower requirements will increase with increased speed.

2

Resistance

2.1

Rolling Resistance

The rolling resistance of a train can be determined by formula is generally is taken from tables and curves based on formula. The most widely used of such formulae is the "Davis Formula". Rolling resistance is generally expressed in kg/t and is summation of Flange Resistance, Journal Resistance and Air Resistance.

Other things being equal, total Rolling Resistance increases as speeds increase.

2.2 Grade Resistance

Grade resistance, expressed in kg/t , is independent of and unrelated to train speed. It is due to the force of gravity. It is always equal to 10 kg/tonne for each percent of grade as illustrated in the calculations below.

1% Grade =

1 m rise

100 m distance

when

Weight, W = 1 tonne = 1000 Kg

R G = 1/100 x 1000 Kg =

10 Kg

W = 1 tonne = 1000 Kg R G = 1/100 x 1000 Kg = 10

Grade resistance = 10 Kg per 1 % of grade.

kg/t) Total Grade Resistance =

Rise in elevation x 100 x

R G

(10

Distance travelled

.

3

Comment [D1]:

Comment [D1]:

2.3 Curve Resistance

A one degree curve is a curve whose central angle extends to a chord of 30.48 m (100 feet). A 30.48 m (100 feet ) chord is 1/360 of a complete circle, the radius of a 1' curve is 1746.5 m (5730 feet). Curve resistance is expressed in kg / t / degree.

Degree of curvature = 5730 /

3 Tractive Effort

Radius in feet or 1746 / Radius in m

Tractive effort is defined as the turning force produced at the rails by the driving wheels. Tractive Effort can be expressed mathematically as follows for an AC locomotive.

Tractive Effort = Traction Horsepower x 315 mile-Ibs/hr / Speed in miles per hour

or Traction Horsepower x 230 km-kg/hr / Speed in km per hour

a. Tractive effort depends on five major factors:

I. Horsepower of the diesel engine.

II. Ability of the main generator.

III. Ability of the traction motors.

IV. Gear ratio.

V. Adhesion

Weight on driving wheels.

Rail condition.

Wheel Slip Control System.

Inverter System.

b. The effect of the above factors on tractive effort is explained

below:

i) Horsepower of the Engine

HP of the diesel engine primarily determines the possible TE a locomotive can develop at the rims of the driving wheels. T.E calculations use the Traction HP for calculation purposes.

With an increase in the horsepower of the engine, either T.E. of the locomotive will increase for the same speed or speed will be increase with the same T.E.

4

the engine, either T.E. of the locomotive will increase for the same speed or speed will
5

5

5
5

ii) Ability of the Main Generator

The main generator is the first step in the transmission of engine horsepower to the wheels. The main generator converts the mechanical power into electrical energy, referred to as kW. This electrical energy is then used by the traction motors to turn the locomotive wheels. kW are measured by the following formulas :

Main Generator Voltage x Main Generator Current

Main Generator Kilowatts =

1000 W per kilowatt Tractive Horsepower = Main Generator Kilowatt /0.746 HP per kilowatt

The generator can produce any combination of amperage and voltage within the rated power range of the locomotive.

iii) Ability of the Traction Motors

Traction motors transform the electrical energy of the main generator into mechanical force to turn the locomotive wheels. At low speeds, the traction motors must be capable of operating at their thermal limit. Maximum locomotive speed is limited by the safe rotational speed of the armature. In a DC motor, the armature windings limit the maximum speed of the armature to approximately 2400 RPM. In an AC motor for the GT46MAC, the induction rotor allows the operating RPM to increase to 3600 RPM.

The ratings of the traction motors also affect the "Minimum Continuous Speed" of a DC locomotive, as well as the tractive horsepower available for transmission to the motors. With an AC locomotive, however, "Minimum Continuous Speed" is not a consideration. With AC traction motors, the locomotive can be put to full throttle at standstill without any damage to the motors.

iv) Effect of Gear Ratio

At full load, a given power output will produce a corresponding rotor speed regardless of gear ratio. The effect of changing gear ratio is to change the train speed at which full load can be applied continuously without thermal damage to the motors.

Therefore:

1. Increasing the gear ratio reduces the minimum speed (hence increases tonnage) at which a given locomotive can operate without heat damage to the motors.

2. Reducing the gear ratio,

the maximum speed at which a given

locomotive can operate without mechanical damage to the motors.

v) Adhesion

Adhesion can be defined by the following locomotive formula:

% Adhesion = Tractive Effort (kg) X 100/ Locomotive Weight

There are three classes of adhesion:

Required (Train Weight and Grade dependent)

Available (Operation under a given set of rail conditions)

Developed (Locomotive capability through enhancements-wheel slip control)

The adhesion rating of a locomotives depends upon confidence level. This means that at a confidence level of 98%, the user can count on the locomotive developing the given adhesion factor 98% of the time. This is also termed as "All Weather Adhesion".

There are cases where trains can be dispatched with a lower confidence level and a higher adhesion requirement. For example, trains may be dispatched during the summer months at a lower confidence level i.e. the user is counting on higher adhesions because of good weather conditions. Under inclement weather conditions, the locomotives can be dispatched at a higher confidence level of making a successful trip as the rail conditions deteriorate. There is a large gain in dispatchable adhesion as the confidence level drops to say 80 %. This means that if one counts on the locomotive to produce 43% adhesion, it will probably make the run successfully only 80% of the time without help.

Weight on Driving wheels

The weight on the driving wheels is that portion of the entire weight supported by the wheels driven by traction motors. The weight on driving wheels is in an important factor in the locomotive's "adhesion". Adhesion is the grip produced by friction between the steel wheels and steel rails. Adhesion is required to keep the wheels from slipping. In the modern locomotives which allow "wheel creep" (controlled wheel slip), however, the maximum tractive effort can be much higher due to the precise control of the wheel creep systems.

Rail Conditions

With a given weight on rails, adhesion depends on rail conditions. Dampness, water, leaves, rust, ice, frost, and oil cause rails to be slippery. With GT46MAC locomotive, the adhesion may

6

Dampness, water, leaves, rust, ice, frost, and oil cause rails to be slippery. With GT46MAC locomotive,

TEMPORARILY reach as much as 45% (with ideal rail conditions). Practical year round adhesion factor may be as low as 33 %.

Wheel Slip Control System

The wheel slip control system used on a locomotive can have a dramatic effect on the adhesion level achieved. Until the introduction of the "Super Series" wheel slip control system, all wheel slip control systems were "corrective" type systems. In other words, they operated under the principle that all wheel slip is bad and would reduce power to traction motors to control the slip.

The introduction of "Super Series" improved dispatchable adhesion. The "Super Series" wheel creep control system allows the wheels to exceed ground speed by a certain percentage, depending on rail conditions, to improve adhesion. Super Series is activated automatically through the control system.

The introduction of AC technology also improves the wheel creep control system due to its rapid response. In a DC locomotive, power is modulated by varying the DC field current of the main generator. There is an inherent lag time as the main generator's magnetic field requires time to collapse. With the AC locomotive, the wheel creep corrections are far more rapid as the devices that control the power output to the AC traction motors (called Gate Turn Off Thrystors, or simply GT0s) can have their switching sequence changed almost instantaneously. Power corrections are much more rapid and smoother with the AC traction equipped locomotive.

Inverter System

GT46MAC locomotive utilizes a system called "truck control", where one inverter controls all of the axles within a truck unlike GE which uses single axle inverter system i.e. one inverter per axle.

While "truck control" system has less number of physical components to maintain, this has the disadvantage of the power reduction in the event of an inverter failure.

4 Dynamic braking effort

Dynamic braking effort may be considered as negative tractive effort. It is useful for controlling train speed. Dynamic Brakes are normally not used to stop a train but are used to assist deceleration.

Dynamic Brakes are the preferred tool to control train speed on, many railroads for the following reasons:

i) It saves considerable brake shoe wear, the subsequent reduction in air brake use minimizes the chance of stuck brakes on the train.

7

brake shoe wear, the subsequent reduction in air brake use minimizes the chance of stuck brakes

ii) It eliminates the fuel inefficient practice of 'Stretch braking' a train with air brakes.

5 Brake Effort

Braking effort for a train can be calculated by the Following formula:

Brake Effort = (-G R r+ C R + Car R ) x (Trailing load in tonne + Locomotive Wt. in tonne)

where

G

R

C R

Car R

= Grade resistance

= Curve resistance

= Car resistance

6 Comparison Between Four Axle & Six Axle Locomotive

Six axle locomotive has 50% more Traction Motors than a four axle locomotive resulting in:

Six axle locomotive has about axle locomotive.

50% more tractive effort than a four

Six axle locomotive weighs locomotive.

about

50% more than a four axle

Six axle locomotive's minimum continuous speed is approximately 40% more than a four axle locomotives with equal horsepower.

With equal trailing tonnage, six axle locomotive's running time on a given run over the railroad is slightly longer than the four axle locomotive. This is because of the increased rolling resistance with the additional two motors / axles.

As a general rule, if the locomotive's primary mission is to haul trains at high speeds (intermodal use), four axle locomotive is better suited. If the locomotive's primary responsibility is heavy service over terrain with grades and curves, six axle locomotive is better suited.

8

primary responsibility is heavy service over terrain with grades and curves, six axle locomotive is better

15. Locomotive Testing And Painting

15.1 Locomotive Test

General Motors adheres to following concept/philosophy:

All individual assemblies and components are tested during the locomotive assembly either at the GM works or at the supplier end.

All electronic and air brake equipment are to be left unplugged during assembly.

15.2 Testing should verify/ audit integration of all locomotive system and sub-system.

A very elaborate test procedure for the complete locomotive is followed by EMD before the locomotive is put on line. The test procedure is based on the relevant Engineering Test Instructions, defects found on previous units and reports from the service department. In case of GT46MAC, which would be a prototype even as it is electrically similar to SD70MAC, the procedure for the first locomotive is a more exhaustive and stringent test protocol. After completion of testing, the test records are scrutinised. As test checks are completed or at the end of the shift, they are to be initialled by the test personnel opposite to the test numbers.

After the preliminary inspection, Hi Pot Test for power & control circuits including Dynamic brake is done to ensure that no damage has been done during production assembly. It is followed by continuity check on various sub-system and installation of EM2000 modules. All the connections to other electronic system are completed and power-up & self-tests done. During testing the following safety procedure are taken into consideration. The second stage of testing starts with pre-lube of engine. The engine is started and all mechanical and electrical checks including Siemen’s Commissioning checks are completed. A pre-load test is done to confirm that other systems are ready for load test, e.g., Inertial blower and also customer specific feature, if any. During the load test, the locomotive power output is dissipated in the dynamic grids to confirm the integrity of the cabling of Dynamic brake system. The locomotives not having self load Test feature, are connected to external grids. During the Load Test, measurement of cab noise and vibrations at few selected locations are also done.

Finally, in the last stage, the locomotive is prepared for Track Test. Air brake system is checked to ensure its integrity, besides any other specific feature which remains to be checked. The track test is done on a test track of 1/2 miles length approx. with maximum permissible speed of 35 kmph.(located in Diesel Division). it is done for single unit as well as multiple unit. The functioning of speed indicator, ground relay and pneumatic controls checked, besides push pull test for Dynamic brake Drag operation.

A pre-delivery inspection is carried out by down-loading all the fault/unusual message encountered during testing of the loading and a final inspection carried out before dispatching the locomotive.

On microprocessor units whenever a module is installed or removed, power supply to the computer is switched off. A wrist grounding strap is used.

All the electronic system should be disconnected prior to megger and hi-pot testing.

To check the continuity and test point voltage, only digital type meter should be used

Under open circuit condition, the main generator should not be excited.

The meter leads and jumpers should not touch the carbody ground from 15V circuits.

Test points in 15 Volt supply should not be jumpered.

Engine blow-out must be performed before starting the engine if the engine has been down for eight hours or more.

Some preliminary tests like checking of hand brakes, wheels, air compressor, engine oil, dust etc. are done before starting the actual testing. The testing consists of the following well defined steps sequentially -

Hi Pot test

Trainline continuity

Lighting circuit

Blower/Fans operation

Power contactor operation

EM2000 module application and computer preliminary test

EM 2000 system integration

Dynamic brake signals

Sanding

TM blower shutter

Engine run

Engine start

AG checks

Air compressor control, low air engine speed up & air system safety valve

TCC phase module temperature control

TCC power supplies, systems and operations test

Excitation test

Preload

Load test

Track test

Traction inverter cut-out

Multiple unit operation

Pre delivery test

15.3 Locomotive Painting:

The locomotive after complete testing is brought to specially designed painting booth. The painting is done as per the following sequence:

Preparatory booth

The locomotive is washed, degreased and deburring of all external welded joints completed. The appropriate areas e.g., consoles in the cab, TG fan, valves & pipes, rubber side bearer etc. are masked.

Painting Booth

There are two painting booths where the following activity are done:-

The external is coated with the epoxy primer.

The cab and long-hood exterior surfaces are given polyurethane paint coat.

The polyurethane masked stickers as per the painting style ( pertaining to rail road name, road number and longitudinal strips) are affixed at the appropriate locations. The masks are removed after the final painting.

The external surfaces including underframe & bogies are then given one coat of polyurethane paint. Two hours drying time is given before applying another coat of the same paint. The dry & wet gauges are used to measure the paint thickness . Normally the paint thickness is of the order of 6 thou and its uniformity over the surface is maintained by the experience of the painter.

EMD also have separate painting booth for small piece parts and underframe. The underframe assembly after fabrication is given one coat of epoxy paint before & after piping and cabling. Similarly assembled equipment rack is also given one coat of epoxy paint.

16. Visits To Various Facilities

16.1 Visit To M/S Atchison Castings/Kansas -USA

Atchison Castings Corporation (ACC) was re-organized in 1991 with the purpose of becoming a broad based foundry company. ACC products are iron and steel castings ranging in size from 1 to 120, 000 lb. ACC customers are leaders in their own field and include General Motors, Caterpillar, General Dynamics, Rockwell International, Westinghouse, John Deere, General Electric, Morrison Knubsen, Bombardier, ABB etc.

The company was founded in Atchison, Kansas in 1872 to supply iron castings to the Railroads. In 1956, the facility was acquired by Rockwell International. In 1991, ACC acquired Rockwell’s Foundry in Atchison, Kansas and Machine Shop in St. Joseph, MO.

All the castings are electronically analysed in the design development process and create modifications using solidification software techniques, which optimise quality and cost without adversely affecting functional performance. M/s Atchison Casting is using their proprietary bonding agent. They have also very excellent sand recovery system.

All the casting ranges produced by ACC Castings are machined in fully finished

condition at

St. Joe division (Atchison Castings Machine Shop)

which is a separate

unit.

The casting of truck requires one piece thin walled, high integrity, frame castings. With solidification and mould filling simulation on computer, the company is able to achieve excellent quality. Bogie frame for HTSC truck have been developed as U-section in place of traditional Box-section. This design eliminates use of cores. The use of cores increase the cost of production and decrease the quality of castings. M/s GM/EMD and M/s Atchison Castings have collaborated for development of this design.

It is learnt that for future supplies of cast steel HTSC bogie frames to DLW, M/s Atchison Casting has entered into a TOT contract with M/s Simplex Engg. & Foundry Works/Bhilai.

16.2 Visit To M/S Lord Corporation/ Erie/ PA - USA

Lord Corporation have facilities for designing, manufacturing and testing of metal bonded rubber components as per customer requirements.

Main component supplied to EMD is metal bonded rubber spring used in secondary suspension and metal bonded rubber bushes for various joints.

The design of metal bonded rubber spring is done on FEM package to optimise the profile of rubber to avoid stress concentration.

Lord Corpn. have modern manufacturing facility for manufacture of metal bonded rubber components. Transfer moulding process is followed for moulding the rubber. For bonding between metal and rubber, they use special type of chemical developed for this purpose.

M/s Lord corporation have extensive fatigue testing facilities. Company has set up new testing shop which is equipped modern fatigue testing machines, vibration shaker which are controlled by computer various data are recorded and analysed further. since major percentage of their products are supplied to aircraft industry, so they have installed three axis machines by which they can conduct all modes of testing simultaneously. The locomotive components are required to be tested for one million cycle at varying frequency.

17. Computer Aided Design By Unigraphics

EMD uses Unigraphics package which is a completely integrated software and is used for drawing-drafting and modelling. The underframe, car body, cab, bogie frame and other bogie components such as wheels, axles, axle box, traction motors, suspension and brake rigging components are generated by solid modelling and assembled together. The package is very useful for preparation of layouts and study of infringement/clearances between different components of bogie. The package also enables calculation of weights, moment of inertia and centre of gravity which are required for vehicle dynamics studies. The models prepared by Unigraphics can be

transferred to ANSYS for finite element analysis. The package is supported by standard library of components such as nuts, bolts, screws, etc.; the components most commonly used can be generated and can also be included in the library.

Sizing of various cross section was done by keeping section modules of this bogie frame same with a similar bogie frame with box section. Afterwards optimisation of sections were carried out by FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS by applying load cases.

18.

Recommendations

18.1

DLW should install Unigraphics system and ANSYS FEM package not only to

fully assimilate EMD technology but also develop expertise in design of new locomotives of horse power ranging from 3000 to 5000 hp with EMD 12 cylinder and 20 cylinder engines.

18.2 DLW should follow EMD project

design and manufacture of locomotives and assemblies.

management and design review process in

GT46MAC LOCOMOTIVE

Specification

Track Gauge

1676 mm

Total Weight on Rails

126 t

Design Speed

100 kmph

Wheel Arrangement

Co-Co

Height

(top of rail to top of cooling fan)

4,120 mm

Overall Length Over Buffers Fuel Capacity Cooling Water Capacity

21, 245 mm 6,000 L 1144 L

Performance Specification

TCV

4,000

Starting Tractive Effort

540 kN

Braking effort capability

270 kN

Turbocharger

High Efficiency

Fuel Injection

Unit Fuel Injection

Traction Technology

AC-AC

No. of invertors

One/truck

EM2000 Advanced Computer

32-bit microprocessor Reduction in modules and components compared to Dash-2 series controls Improved reliability and performance Information can be downloaded to a laptop computer Flexible and expendable to accommodate future system enhancements Complete self-diagnostics Archived unit history data,

HTSC Bogie

No wearing surfaces extends bogie overhaul intervals to 1.6 million km Dual high adhesion and high speed Available gear ratios for heavy haul and passenger operation

Cab Features

Air operated windshield wipers Dual desk type control console - optional Multi-resettable vigilance controls - optional

Air System

Direct drive air compressor

Brake System

Electronic Air Brake System

Reliability and Serviceability

90-day maintenance intervals AC motors doubles traction motor life No running maintenance required

* No brushes, commutator, or rotor insulation

* No flashovers Bogie Inverter Control

* High level of reliability with fewer parts 1.6 million kilometre overhaul with HTSC Bogie 6-year engine overhaul period

Safety Aspects

Increased Crashworthiness Provision of Anti-climber

WDG4 loco

DESCRIPTION OF BOGIE

1. WDG4 loco is provided with HTSC (High Tensile Steel Cast) Bogies.

2. This is a three-axle bolster-less bogie with two-stage suspension with helical coil springs in primary stage and rubber compression springs in secondary stage of suspension.

3. The locomotive car body weight is transferred directly to the bogie frame through four rubber “Compression” spring assemblies.

4. The lateral stiffness of rubber springs is utilized to provide lateral guidance at the secondary stage and provide the yaw stiffness for stability.

5. Lateral spacing of rubber springs affords stability of locomotive on curves and damping provided by

rubber springs and yaw dampers prevents nosing at high speed.

6. The bogie frame is supported on axles through “soft primary” suspension consisting of twelve

single helical coil springs, two springs mounted on each axle box, to provide ride quality and

equalization of wheel-set loads.

7. Shims of different thickness are provided above the outer and inner rubber “compression” spring

assemblies for axle load equalization.

8 Centre pivot does not take any vertical load and is used only for transfer of traction and braking

forces.

9

The bogie is fitted with lightweight asynchronous, axle hung, nose suspended traction motors.

10.

All traction motor nose positions are oriented to the same side of each axle within the bogie frame.

11.

The relatively stiff secondary suspension, uni-directional arrangement of traction motors and low

center pivot limits the weight transfer between axles during adhesion.

12 For wheel-set guidance in longitudinal mode, guide link fitted with rubber bush is provided between

axle box and bogie frame to cushion the longitudinal thrust.

13

Traction and braking forces are transmitted from wheel-set to bogie frame through these guide

links.

14.

Axle boxes are fitted with tapered roller bearings with integrated bearing adapter.

15.

Six vertical hydraulic dampers are provided in primary stage between axle and bogie frame, one

with each nest of primary springs on the axle box.

16. Two hydraulic yaw dampers are provided in secondary stage between bogie frame and the loco

under frame to supplement the damping provided by rubber springs.

17.

The yaw dampers are oriented in such a way that they provide damping both in lateral and yaw

modes.

18 Safety links are provided at the lateral stop locations between bogie frame and the under frame.

19 These links serve to prevent separation of the bogie from the locomotive car body in case of derailment and also provide means of lifting the bogie along-with the locomotive car body.

20 Safety “hoops” are installed between each axle interlock bracket.

21. The locomotive is provided with conventional brake gear arrangement with single composition brake shoe per wheel.

Ride Characteristics of WDG4 locomotive

Designed for 110 km/h

Axle load of

21.0t

Maximum Lateral force 4t

Derailment coefficient <1

Lateral and Vertical acceleration 0.3g preferred ( 0.35g max.)

RI in Lateral & Vertical 3.75 preferred (max. 4.0)

Ride and stability Performance

Oscillation test was carried on Main Line track (Lucknow - Sultanpur) speed of 115 km/h

Max. Lateral force observed was 2.9t

Derailment Coefficient was 0.30

RI Vertical at 115 km/h

RI Lateral at 115 km/h was 3.83

Acceleration in Vertical and Lateral mode were within limit.

Some special features of bogie

Cast “U” type frame-High strength.

Unidirectional TM- High Adhesion.

Use of Guide links-Low flange force.

TM suspension through nose links-maintenance free.

Four bar mechanism centre pivot arrangement-maintenance free.

Soft primary helical springs-better load equalisation.

Stiff secondary rubber springs-controls pitching.

was 3.65

WDP4 loco

Design features of WDP4 bogie

Basic design is similar to that of WDG4 bogie the differences are highlighted

Axle load 19.5t

AA1 (B1) wheel arrangement

Lighter bogie frame (reduction of section of end transom).

Softer Primary helical springs.

Axle size is smaller of axle 3 & 4.

Secondary rubber lateral stiffness made softer

Different shimming due to difference in axle load.

Stiffer guide links.

Use of happy pads.

Different Damper capacity.

Performance observed

Tested at Pueblo USA

On standard gauge

Tested up to Max speed of 180km/h

Lateral force, Derailment coefficient, Acceleration/RI (Vertical & Lateral) were measured.

Curving performance was checked.

Design parameters

Speed potential of 180 km/h

Lateral force 3t

Derailment coefficient < 1

RI Vertical & Lateral < 4.0

Acceleration Vertical & Lateral mode < 0.35g

For track standards maintained to C&MI Vol-1

Ride Characteristics of WDP4 locomotive

Oscillation test was carried on at Pueblo(USA) speed of 180km/h

Max. Lateral force observed was 1.5t

Derailment Coefficient was 0.18

RI Vertical at 180 km/h

RI Lateral at 180 km/h was 3.42

Acceleration in Vertical and Lateral mode were within limit(less than 0.19g/0.15g)

was 3.66

LUBE OIL SYSTEM

INTRODUCTION The complete engine lubrication system is a combination of four separate systems. They are the main lubricating system, the piston cooling system, the scavenging system and the soak back or turbo lube system. Each system has its own oil pump. The main lube oil pump and piston cooling oil pump (although individual pumps) are contained in the same housing and driven from a common drive shaft. There are separate pumps for scavenging and turbo lube oil system also. The main lube, piston cooling and scavenging pumps are driven mechanically from engine through accessory gear train at the front of the engine. The turbo soak back pump is driven electrically by an AC motor. System lube oil capacity: 950 Litres/ 1450 Ltrs, The oil level is checked by an oil gauge (Dip Stick). The oil level should be between low and full marks when the engine is at idle and the oil is hot (66°C) The system lube oil pressure is 125 psi. (LOPS setting: 8-12 psi at idle and 25-29 psi at full speed) The filter by pass valve is set at 40 psi. The turbo soak back oil pressure is 50 psi.

Main lubricating system

The main lubricating oil system supplies oil under pressure to most of the moving parts of the engine. It takes oil from strainer housing and sends it to main oil manifold, located above the crank shaft. System oil pressure is limited upto 125 psi by a relief valve situated in the passage between the pump and the manifold. Oil tubes at the center of each main bearing “A” frame conduct oil from the main manifold to the upper half of the main bearings. Drilled passages in the crankshaft supply oil to the connecting rod bearings, torsional damper and accessory drive gear at the front of the crank shaft. Leak off oil from adjacent main bearings lubricates the crank shaft thrust bearings. Oil from manifold enters the gear train at the rear of the engine, at the idler gear stub shaft. Oil passages in the base of the stub shaft distribute the oil. One passage conducts oil upward to the left bank camshaft drive gear stub shaft bracket through a jumper, and downward to the lower idler gear stub shaft and bearing. Another passage conducts oil to the right bank camshaft drive stub shaft bracket and on to the turbocharger oil filter supply line. After passing through the filter, the oil enters the return line, returning to the upper idler gear stub shaft bore and bearing. Filtered oil enters the turbocharger oil system from upper idler gear stub shaft. An oil pressure line connects to the top of turbocharger oil manifold, adjoining the filter. This oil pressure line goes to the low oil pressure device in the governor. Oil enters the hollow bore camshafts from the camshaft drive stubshafts. Radial holes in the camshaft conduct oil to each camshaft bearing. An oil line from one camshaft bearing

at each cylinder supplies oil to the rocker arm shaft, rocker arm cam follower assemblies, hydraulic lash adjusters and injector rocker arm button. Leak off oil returns to the oil pan. Passages in the turbocharger conduct oil to the turbo charger bearings, idler gear, planet gear assembly and auxiliary drive bore.

idler gear, planet gear assembly and auxiliary drive bore. Piston cooling oil system Piston cooling oil

Piston cooling oil system

Piston cooling oil system pump receives oil from a common section with the main lube oil pump and delivers oil to the two piston cooling oil manifolds extending the length of the engine, one in each side. A piston cooling oil pipe at each cylinder directs a stream of oil through the carrier to cool the underside of the piston crown and the ring belt. Some of the oil enters the grooves in the piston pin bearing and the remainder drains out through holes in the skirt to the sump.

Scavenging oil system The scavenging oil system pump takes oil from the oil pan sump

Scavenging oil system The scavenging oil system pump takes oil from the oil pan sump through the scavenging oil strainer. The pump then forces the oil through the oil filters and cooler, which are located at the equipment rack near the engine. Oil then returns to the strainer housing to supply the main lube oil pump and piston-cooling pump with cooled and filtered oil. Excess oil spills over a dam in the strainer housing and returns to the oil pan.

Soak back oil system To ensure lubrication of the turbo bearings prior to engine start, and the removal of residual heat from the turbo after engine shutdown, a separate lube oil pressure source is provided, called soak back system. The working of this system is controlled automatically by the locomotive control system.

controlled automatically by the locomotive control system. The motor is timed to operate 35 minutes after

The motor is timed to operate 35 minutes after each time it is started. Oil circulation through the turbocharger is necessary prior to starting the engine and during the period when the engine oil pressure is building up to provide proper lubrication.

Turbo lube pump timing after shut down is based on the throttle position. Throttle position is logged by the computer. If throttle remains in position for 2 minutes or more the timing is as follows:

Throttle position

Time

1

15 Mins

2

20 Mins

3

25 Mins

4

30 Mins

5 (or higher)

35 Mins

An AC motor driven pump draws lube oil from oil pan, pumps the oil through a filter and head of the turbocharger oil filter directly into the turbocharger bearing area. The motor driven pump and the filter are mounted on the side of the oil pan on the Right Bank of the engine. A 55 psi relief valve, located in the head of the filter, controls the system pressure. A bypass valve set at 70 psi is also located at the filter head. This valve will open to permit oil from the soak back pump to bypass the filter element, if clogged. So that, lubrication can be supplied to the turbocharger to prevent turbo damage.

SYSTEM COMPONENTS

Lube oil strainer housing Lube oil strainer housing is situated at the accessory end of the crank case It contains one strainer (coarse) at the suction side of the scavenging pump and two strainers (fine) at the suction side of the main lube and piston cooling pump. An oil level is maintained in the strainer housing up to the bottom of the overflow opening by the scavenging system. This oil serves as the supply for the main lube and piston cooling system. Excess oil not used by these systems returns to the engine sump. A spring-loaded valve is provided to drain the oil from the strainer housing into the engine sump for strainer maintenance. Both of these valves are located under the filler cover. Normally oil is added to the engine by strainer housing.

Both of these valves are located under the filler cover. Normally oil is added to the

STRAINER

The scavenging oil strainer (coarse) is installed in the housing at the suction side of scavenging pump. All oil for the scavenging system is drawn through it. Its duty is to protect scavenging pump from foreign materials. Main and piston cooling oil strainers (Fine): They are two in numbers, installed within the housing by a crab and hand wheel on the stud between the holes. Each strainer is sealed at the top by a “O” ring seal to arrest leakage. Each strainer consists of an element of pleated perforated metal core covered with mesh screening, and a metal cylinder that encloses the element. Cylinder prevents collapse of the element in the event of high pressure drop. The element is attached to the cylinder by a through bolt in the cylinder, which runs through the base of the element and is secured with a lock nut. The unperforated outer cylinder provides a constant head of oil since suction is from the bottom only and not through the entire length of the screen. Oil flow is from the bottom of the strainer between the cylinder and the mesh screen, through the mesh screen and the perforated metal core into the center of the element, then out the top of the strainer.

Main Lube Oil and Piston Cooling pump The main lube oil and piston cooling pumps are positive displacement helical gear type pumps contained in one housing. A spacer plate separates the two pumps between the sections of the pump body. Each has individual oil inlet and discharge opening. The lube oil and piston cooling pump assembly is mounted in the center of the accessory drive housing, and driven by the accessory drive gear. Discharge capacity of main lube oil pump: 229 GPM at 900 rpm Discharge capacity of piston cooling pump: 109 GPM at 900 rpm

Scavenging Oil Pump The scavenging oil pump is a positive displacement helical gear type pump, exactly similar to main and piston cooling pump except for the spacer between them. The scavenging pump is mounted on the accessory housing in line with, and to the left of the crankshaft, and is driven by accessory drive gear. The pump body, split transversely for ease of maintenance, contains sets of mated pumping gears. The driving gears are retained on the pump drive gear shaft by woodruff keys. The idler shaft is held stationary in the housing by a setscrew, and the driven pump gears rotate on this shaft on bushings pressed into the gear bores. The drive shaft turns in bushings pressed into the pump body. Pump discharge capacity: 405 GPM at 900 rpm.

the gear bores. The drive shaft turns in bushings pressed into the pump body. Pump discharge
the gear bores. The drive shaft turns in bushings pressed into the pump body. Pump discharge

Lube oil Filter Tank

Lube oil filter tank is situated at the equipment rack in the front side of the engine. It consists of 05 Nos. pleated paper type filter elements. Filter elements must be renewed if filter tank pressure reaches 25 psi. at 8 th notch and 7 psi at idle.at 66°C lube oil temperature. A bypass valve is provided in the filter tank to bypass the filter during cold start or plugged filter element. The bypass valve works at 40 psi differential pressure.

The bypass valve works at 40 psi differential pressure. LUBE OIL COOLER Lube Oil Cooler The
The bypass valve works at 40 psi differential pressure. LUBE OIL COOLER Lube Oil Cooler The

LUBE OIL COOLER

Lube Oil Cooler The lube oil cooler assembly is positioned at an angle in the equipment rack at the front side of the engine. The external construction of the cooler consists of a fabricated steel oil tank surrounding the oil cooler core. The cooling water returning from the radiators enters the cooler through flange connection at the top side, flows down through the cooler tubes and is discharged through flanged connection at the bottom of the cooler. The lubricating oil enters the shell space through a flanged connection near one end of the cooler, flows transversely around the tubes and around the end of the baffles, and leaves the shell through a flanged connection near the opposite end of the cooler. The coolant and the oil flow through the cooler in opposite directions to produce the maximum cooling effect.

Lube Oil Pressure Relief Valve The lube oil pressure relief valve is installed on the lube oil cross over manifold, inside the accessory gear train housing on the left side of the engine. This valve is accessible for inspection and service by removing the Engine Protection Device. The purpose of the valve is to limit the maximum pressure of the lube oil entering the engine oil system. When the lube oil pump pressure exceeds the spring tension on the valve, the valve will be lifted off its seat and relieve the excess pressure. This oil drains into the accessory housing and then into oil pan.

oil drains into the accessory housing and then into oil pan. Turbocharger oil filter The turbocharger

Turbocharger oil filter The turbocharger oil filter provides additional protection for the high speed bearings and other lubricated areas of turbocharger, by filtering the oil just before it is admitted to the turbocharger. Oil enters the filter through a cast manifold and, after passing through the filter, returns to the upper idler gear stubshaft and into the turbocharger. The filter element is of pleated paper construction, and is disposable. The filter is mounted on camshaft drive housing at the right bank of the engine. Some engines have disposable spin on type turbo lube filter. The filters should always be filled with clean oil before installing on the engine.

FORCED AIR SYSTEM

This is a centralised system for storing and providing clean air for all-purpose engine requirement like cooling, combustion air and pressurisation of compartments etc. Its location is in between the TCCs and engine compartment. It is properly sealed so that unfiltered air should not rush into it. Entry of air is done through inertial filters located at either side of the locomotive car body and dirt blower expels separated dirt, out to the atmosphere through the roof of the locomotive. Air that is drawn into the compartment is primarily to supply:

Combustion air for the diesel engine

Cooling air for MG, companion Alternator and rectifier bank

Cooling air for Traction Motors

Cooling air for Traction Inverter equipments

Pressurisation of engine room and electrical cabinets

BLOWERS Various blowers used in this system are:

1. M G BLOWER Mounted on Aux. Generator on the front side closest to the Main Generator. Both MG

Blower and TM Blower are mounted on the same housing separated by a partition. It supplies air for:

Cooling Main Generator Rectifier bank, Main Generator, Companion Alternator and finally to Engine Room.

Maintain slight positive pressure in the engine room

Part of this air is used by Air Compressor and thus reduces the load of its filter assembly

2. TM BLOWER Mounted on Aux Generator on the front side away from the Main Generator. It supplies air for:

Traction Motor cooling

Generator pit operator operation

Main electrical cabinet pressurisation

Traction computer cooling

3. TCC ELECTRONIC BLOWER Mounted at Central Air compartment. It is driven by AC motor powered by Companion Alternator. This air is further filtered by paper filter located under each filter cabinet. Used for:

Cooling and pressurising a part of the Inverter Cabinet containing DC Link Capacitors, gate units and Traction Computers

4. TCC BLOWERS There are two TCC Blowers, one for each cabinet. It’s a 3 phase AC motor driven blower powered by Companion Alternator. Initial command for blower operation comes from TCC Computer and finally executed by EM 2000. They draw air directly from the ambient across the modules and expel it across the R-2 snubber resistor. They are used for supplying air for cooling phase module and cabinet.

ENGINE AIR INTAKE FILTER (FIBER GLASS BAG) Additional filtration is required for the air used by the engine. For this a fiberglass bag filter element is used for engine intake air filter. It is equipped with pressure switches to sense the pressure difference between turbocharger inlet and ambient. The switches are located inside the electrical cabinet and connected by tubes to the turbo inlet side of engine air filter and to ambient. They work as follows:

If pressure difference exceed 356 mm/ 14of water column Filter Vacuum Switch (FVS) will trip closed and display message will read (FILTER VACUUM SWITCH TRIPPED)

If pressure difference reaches 610 mm/ 24of water column Engine Filter Switch (EFS) trip close and EM 2000 will reduce engine speed and load to 6 th notch with the display message (ENGINE AIR FILTERS ARE DIRTY- CHANG OUT REQUIRED, POWER MAY BE LIMITED TO 6 TH NOTCH). Hose stems are provided on the front of the electrical cabinet to take the manometer reading of pressure drops across the inertial air filter, the engine plus inertial air filters and the electrical cabinet filters.

14. Electrical Systems & Traction Design

Alternator Design & Aux. System

14.1 Locomotive Electrics- Basic AC-AC System:

The system basically uses diesel engine, alternator, rectifier, d.c. link, invertor(s) and asynchronous motors. The alternator is directly coupled to the diesel engine. The frequency of the alternator output varies with the speed of diesel engine. The voltage is rectified and the power is fed through a d.c. link to the invertor of the tractive system. Drive system uses asynchronous motors. Asynchronous motor when used on railway vehicle has to be supplied variable alternating voltage of variable frequency (VVVF). This is accomplished by the invertor the input to which is d.c. voltage through d.c. link. All AC-AC diesel locomotives employ this principle. The number of invertors and the size of the alternator depends on the amount of energy to be converted.

ENGINE

GENERATOR

INVERTOR

TRACTION

MOTOR

G = M 3 ~ 3~ 3 ~
G
=
M
3 ~
3~
3 ~

The electronic control system ensures that the correct control inputs

are given to the invertor. It also controls and monitors the diesel engine, the alternator and the other auxiliaries of the locomotive. It is the central control unit which ensures that the locomotive operates optimally.

14.2 Main Alternator and Companion Alternator

Alternator is foot mounted with flange coupling with the engine. Alternator TA17 is a 3 phase, 10 pole machine equipped with two independent and interwoven sets of stator winding. It is basically two generators in one - two sets of stator windings, permanently connected in series, work with a rotating field common to both the windings in order to provide a higher generator output voltage, which is a basic requirement of a low current high voltage generator used on AC-AC locomotives.

The main alternator has a companion auxiliary generator CA 6 for power supply to large auxiliaries. It is also the main excitation source for the main alternator. The companion alternator is an electrically independent machine and is mechanically coupled on the main shaft of the traction alternator. The companion alternator rotor field is excited directly by auxiliary supply of the locomotive (74+4 VDC). It receives the excitation current from the auxiliary generator through slip rings located adjacent to the slip rings of the main generator. The output voltage is directly proportional to the speed of rotation but varies to some extent with change in alternator temperature and load.

directly proportional to the speed of rotation but varies to some extent with change in alternator

Both these alternators are forced air cooled. A dedicated blower coupled to the engine crankshaft provides cooling to the Alternator / Rectifier system. The air flow pattern has been depicted below.

Alternator

Alternator AIR FLOW Axial & Radial Cooling In EMD

AIR FLOW

Alternator AIR FLOW Axial & Radial Cooling In EMD

Axial

&

Radial

Cooling

In

EMD

 

STS

     
  STS       CORE

CORE

STACKS

 
 
  AIR FLOW

AIR FLOW

COMPANION ALTERNATOR RECTIFIER ALTERNATOR MAIN WINDING
COMPANION ALTERNATOR
RECTIFIER
ALTERNATOR MAIN WINDING

14.3 Rectifier

AC output from the main alternator is supplied to air cooled rectifier. The rectifier assembly consists of high current, high voltage silicon diodes connected in 3 phase full wave bridge rectifier circuits. RC circuits are connected to suppress the transients signal.

14.4 Traction Motor

The asynchronous motor with a squirrel cage rotor is the simplest of all electrical machines. When fed by a 3- phase alternating voltage, a magnetic field rotates in the stator. The speed of rotation of this field is directly proportional to the frequency of the A.C. voltage. The rotating magnetic field causes the rotor to turn at a slightly lower speed due to electric slip. This difference in speed is responsible for the development of the torque.

The only winding fed with voltage in the asynchronous motor is housed in stator. To prevent hot-spot developing in winding overhang, it is directly ventilated. The winding is impregnated under vacuum. There are no exposed

developing in winding overhang, it is directly ventilated. The winding is impregnated under vacuum. There are

metallic parts, so that excellent protection is assured. The rotor is squirrel type, i.e. it consists of un-insulated copper bars joint to sturdy short-circuiting rings. There is no commutator, sliprings, Brushgear or anything similar.

Following aspects are given primary importance while designing AC traction motors :

Vibrations and shocks from track

Envelope dimensions - more torque packed in small space

Reliability - TM subjected to different elements like movement of locomotive, dirt heat & humidity

Presence of transients

Requirement of starting and road characteristics

14.5 Electrical Control Cabinet No. 1 (HVC)

Electrical

equipment :-

control

cabinet

is

for

mounting

of

the

following

main

Main Control Panel

DC Link switch gear

Braking contactors

Circuit breakers

EM2000 computer chassis

EM2000 support hardware

GFC, GFD & IMGF

SCR bridge

Power supply for GTO1 & GTO2

TCC blower contactors - six numbers

IB1 ,IB2 , IBKBL1 , IBKBL2 transducers

Display Screen on ECC#1 door

Engine Control Panel

TMA transducer

74 V receptacles

The routine testing of HVC is an elaborate process . There is a dedicated test station which is microprocessor controlled and has the facility to check the important aspects related with performance and reliability, viz., continuity of all the wires on the cabinet and actual operation of the relays, switches and contactors. All the test data is logged, abnormalities identified and a printout is taken for undertaking the rectification work.

The software for the test station is written in HP Basic. EM 2000 Modules, which are not mounted at this stage, are therefore not tested at EMD. The cabinet complete is despatched to DD , London, OT.

14.5.1 Design Aspects Of ECC#1

are therefore not tested at EMD. The cabinet complete is despatched to DD , London, OT.

Ventilation Engineering of the cabinet has been done based on the cooling requirements of major components, e.g. power chassis , EM2000 , SCR Bridge Assembly. Main duct has been constructed along the wall sided which branches to supply air to the components.

The panel is modular so as to facilitate quicker assembly.

The cabinet is pressurised to avoid ingress of dust etc. A pressure of 2 to 3” of water gauge is maintained.

No electro pneumatic contactors are used on this cabinet.

Components and cables of a common electrical circuit are grouped together (e.g. GFC, GFD, RE2 , RE32, CA32 and the SCR Bridge) in order to reduce EMC interference.

14.5.2 Electrical Cabinets 2 & 3

Electrical cabinet number two and three are smaller cabinets than the HVC. These cabinets consist of the following components:

Cabinet# 2.

Auxiliary Generator circuit breaker

ST & STA contactors - for starting of engine.

RE11 & RE12

BCASM - Battery Charging assembly

Provision for Shunt DC

DVR - Digital Voltage Regulator

Inductor L4,5,6

Air Filter

Cabinet# 3 (AC Cabinet)

Cooling fan contactors -six numbers

Terminal Boards

MRPTs- Main reservoir pressure transducer

DIP80 - Diode Panel and CMUX hardware for multiplexing

Air Filter

146 EM 2000

EM2000 is a modern locomotive computer control system. The system, has effectively replaced the outdated electronic and IC-based control systems used earlier. Some of the basic features of the system, inter alia, are-

Significant reduction in number of control modules

Better fault detection of components

Self diagnostics and self tests to aid in troubleshooting

Memory archive and data snap shot

The main computer chassis contains the following modules

to aid in troubleshooting • Memory archive and data snap shot The main computer chassis contains
 

One CPU module which uses a 32 bit Motorola 68020 16 Mhz microprocessor

 

Three Digital Input/Output (I/O) modules ( DIOs)

One communication module (COM)

One Analogue to digital and digital to analogue module ( ADA)

One memory module ( MEM )

The computer chassis is split in the middle by a metal partition. The right houses the high speed data modules, CPU, MEM and COM. The left side houses the I/O handlers, i.e., ADA and DIOs. On the front of all the above modules, Fault LEDs are mounted on the face plate. These LEDs illuminate for a couple of seconds as part of the ‘power up’ diagnostic routine. These are tripped by watchdog timer faults, database errors or through certain other conditions satisfied in the

software.

software.

  Comment [D1]:
 
  Comment [D1]:

Comment [D1]:

14.6.1 CPU Module

 

CPU Module is the brain of the entire computer system. which processes all incoming locomotive parameters and controls locomotive responses to derive the operating characteristics. It contains the following hardware

32 bit Motorola 68020 16.5 Mhz microprocessor with a math co- processor for enhancing the speed and efficiency of information processing

Motorola 68881 floating point co-processor running at 16.5 M Hz

512 KB ‘flash prom’ memory storage which can be easily reprogrammed in the field with the aid of laptop computer communicating through an RS 232 port or through special module called MMB. While the time required to load a programme from MMB is approximately 15 seconds, the same through laptop computer is 15 minutes. The programme storage can be upgraded to 1 MB.

128 KB static RAM for data storage, which can be upgraded to 1 MB

64 K B static dual port RAM for inter processor communication .

6840 Programmable timers which are use for periodic inputs and out puts.

RS232 Serial port with programmable baud rates.

RS422 Serial port with programmable baud rates. One of these port is dedicated to the display unit.

CPU module plays a very active role in SCR gating sequence as it sends the weak gate signals to the FCD and receives information from the zero cross detection circuit on the FCF so that it knows what phase angle to fire at to achieve desired alternator excitation.

 

14.6.2 Digital Input /Out Put (I/O) Modules

The digital inputs and output to and from EM2000 are handled by three such modules. Each module has 24 input channels and 26 output channels. This module works as an interface between locomotive’s 74 VDC control system and the computer’s 5 VDC system.

The DIO input channels are either +74 VDC or 0 VDC signals depending upon the relay/contactor status, picked up or dropped out. The DIO output channels, in turn, depend upon the logic built-up, either +74 or 0 VDC, so as to pickup or drop out the relay/contactor by supplying the gating power to the field effect transistor.

Multiplexing is a selective monitoring process through which several inputs may be monitored through the use of only one input channel. In other words not all inputs need be monitored constantly.

14.6.3 Communication Module

All the computers on board i.e. EM2000, Sibas 16, electronic brake computer etc. need communication with each other. The two traction computers SIBAS 16 communicates to each other and to EM2000. The link carries all sorts of the information which, inter alia, could be data ranging from torque requests, feed backs to contactor requests and acknowledgements to fault annunciation etc.

14.6.4 Analogue To Digital And Digital To Analogue Module

It is responsible for converting analogue input signals to digital signal for processing the data and digital information from the CPU into an analogue signal that is required by the receiving device (external ammeters). It has within it -

Differential analogue inputs

Hall effect transducer current inputs

General

purpose

frequency

inputs

measurements

for

period

&

frequency

14.6.5 Memory (Archive Memory) Module

This module holds dynamic locomotive parameters and archive data that are required to remain intact even in case of power failure. It has one 128 KB battery backed static RAM . which can be upgraded. The amount of data stored with each fault is substantial. For selected faults such as ground relay, data is stored from each of the 5 seconds before the occurrence of the fault.

14.6.6 Panel Mounted Modules

Many other modules, called panel mounted modules, belonging to the EM2000 control are directly mounted to the rear panel of the HVC. These modules are-

mounted modules, belonging to the EM2000 control are directly mounted to the rear panel of the

Analogue signal conditioner modules- ASC 300- scales and filters analogue signals.

Firing control driver - FCD 300 - amplifies SCR gate signals to control the CA6 output for main alternator field.

Firing control feedback - FCF 300 - scales three phase companion alternator frequency feedback

Voltage amplifying module- VAM 300- trainline 24 T interface for slow speed pace setter control ( optional for GT46MAC)

Trainline filter - TLF 300- scales and filters digital data from trainline signals.

14.7

Power Supply

EM2000 control system requires different power supply and conditioner modules which are mounted in the Power Chassis. These modules

are-

PSM 300 module for Power supply of +5V DC - the main power supply for EM2000

PSM310 module for +12VDC -

PSM 320 module for Power supply of +15VDC - for feed back circuits like hall effect transducer devices & analogue circuits viz. magnetic speed pickup

PRG300 power regulator is the power conditioner for the PSM modules and functions properly even with the voltage variation within 20-95 VDC. It regulates the output voltage between 64-77 VDC when the input voltage is between 25-68VDC. If the input is beyond this range, there is a variation in the output within the acceptable limit.

14.8

Development Of Software

The software for EM2000, or any sophisticated computer system, is developed by EMD in the following steps-

Development of Sales Specification Finalization of System Specification Development of Software Specification Actual Software Code Writing Software Test

A locomotive characterisation report, which identifies the exact type of the equipment used, defines all the functions and indicates the value of all the parameters, is issued by the Product Engineering group. This report forms the basic locomotive document and the foundation on which the entire software of the locomotive is built up.

14.9 Locomotive Performance & Train Run Simulation

on which the entire software of the locomotive is built up. 14.9 Locomotive Performance & Train

EMD has developed versatile computer simulation programme for train run simulation and offers this service to all its customers on commercial basis.

14.10 Thyristors, GTOs And AC Motor Control

The thyristor offers immense advantages like compactness, high reliability, excellent time response and low loss. An added advantage of using thyristors in power converters for drive control is the easy manner in which they can be adopted for sophisticated feed-back schemes. As a result, microprocessor control of thyristor-drive systems can provide great operational flexibility.

GTO thyristor or the ‘gate turn-off thyristor’ is referred to briefly as ‘GTO’. It is a four-layer silicon semiconductor device and is an improvement over the normal, slow devices used in line commutated converters into increasingly faster devices with better dynamic characteristics by refining the gate geometry.

GTO allows fast turn-off with a negative current impulse by means of the gate alone, which is not possible with the conventional thyristor. This results in simplification of the converter circuitry.

A three-phase inverter system with variable voltage and frequency output, is achieved by using GTOs for speed/torque control of 3-phase asynchronous motor.

14.11 Pulse-Width Modulation

Six load carrying thyristors and six free wheeling diodes are the basic ingredients of three phase bridge inverter circuit. A DC-link capacitor is added for stabilising the DC-link voltage and supplying of magnetising reactive power required for induction motor.

+ + + M I N P U T C O N V E R
+
+
+
M
I N P U T
C O N V E R T E R
3 ~
+
+
+
V O L T. - S O U R C E
I N V E R T E R
D C
L I N K
C A P.
+ + + M I N P U T C O N V E R T

PWM INVERTER CIRCUIT

FIG-7

Amplitude and frequency setting take place solely by the principle of pulse width modulation (PWM). The max. possible amplitude of the phase-to- phase output voltage Uv depends on the magnitude of the DC link voltage Ud such that,

Uv = 0.78 Ud

This method of voltage control of an inverter is known as pulse-width modulation.

14.12 Locomotive Cables, Wire Running And Layout

GT46MAC locomotive employs mainly the Exxon cables. The cables used on this locomotive are classified into following categories:

Category 0 - These are used in the circuits with extremely high potential requiring increased creepage distances.(DC link cables)

Category 1- These are used in the circuits of high potential and high current levels ( Generator , Traction Motors and Battery Trunk Lines to be routed through cleats)

Category 2 - These are used in the circuits of AC voltage and high current DC voltage (conductors larger than AWG#12, not including traction circuit)

Category 3 - These are used in locomotive control logic wiring (typically 74 V DC including all electro mechanical devices)

Category 4 - Low voltage and energy control signal lines ( shielded multi conductor cables, and signals below 24 V)

Category 5 -

Specific

conductors

requiring

independent

routing

(communication radio conductors)

antenna

cabling,

or

high

energy

unfused

14.13 Locomotive Cabling:

All the cables which are to be laid out on the underframe are performed with end lugs, connectors, sockets provided. For this purpose there is a separate section consisting of the wire measuring and cutting table, end shearing machine for preparing the ends and crimping of the lugs. The bigger size lugs are made in house using metallic tubes on a lug making machine, others are bought out from trade.

The cabling on the underframe is done in the belly up position (in the over- turned position)

The cable layout has been so planned that all the cables are planned to run on only one side of the underframe i.e. on the left side in the belly up position looking from the short hood side.

to run on only one side of the underframe i.e. on the left side in the

Brackets for the rubber cleats are welded to the underframe before the laying of cables is started and are located through out the length of the underframe.

The power cables are laid first followed by the control cables. For the control wires running between EM2000 and Traction Control Cabinet use is made of special channel having EMI protection and runs on the top corner through out the length of U/frame.

The cleats used are of BUNA-N rubber. Special clamps for smaller diameter cables are used which have a rubber lining to prevent the damage of insulation of cable due to vibrations and prevention from grounding.

Splicing of the power cable going into the traction motor is done to avoid running of large number of cables from TCC and the exposed joints are covered using heat shrinkable silicon rubber boots.

Cutouts on the underframe are already provided for the cables and no oxy cutting of the underframe is done at all during the cabling stage.

A separate wire running list as per zone, wire category and wire tag is

prepared and circulated to the shop to give details of wire running from source

to

destination. The wire running list is derived from the locomotive schematic

as

soon as the same is ready.

14.14 Electrical Schematics

The schematic of GT46MAC consists of two major parts - EMD schematics and Siemens schematic. The schematic conventions followed by EMD and Siemens are different.

The major equipment covered by the two sections of schematic are as

under-

EMD schematic - EMD manufactured or vendor supplied equipment viz. alternator - rectifier, locomotive computer, electrical control cabinets including all switches, contactors and relays, auxiliary machines, safety and alarm circuits, third party equipment like radar etc.

Siemens schematic - Siemens manufactured equipment viz. inverter and inverter control equipment, traction computer and traction motors.

The EMD schematic is built around the main block diagram of the electrical equipment of the locomotive. The schematic is a representation of

the hard wiring along with the connection/termination details of the equipment.

All the computer/microprocessor modules, which control the operation of the

hardware like relays, contactors etc., have been represented as a block. The logic used by EMD is not known.

All the electrical sub-assemblies like ECCs, control consoles etc. have been allocated a zone identification. This schematic also explains the various wiring nomenclature used in the EMD schematic. For locating any item, the equipment locator chart provided in the schematic can be used which

used in the EMD schematic. For locating any item, the equipment locator chart provided in the

identifies location based on the zone in which the equipment in question lies on the locomotive and schematic sheet no. along with the location on the schematic sheet. Similarly, the circuit for any function like engine cooling control, engine governor control, traction motor bearing temperature probe etc. can be located easily in the schematic by using an alphabetical index. In addition, locator charts based on digital & analogue input/output functions employed on EM 2000. A chart detailing the location of various switches and circuit breakers as well as the sequence of operation of main interlock contact of the switches is also provided in the schematic.

The schematic is very versatile and the category, size and specification of any wire can be read straightaway from the connecting points. In addition, details of all plugs and receptacles are also provided clearly indicating the used & potential free pin numbers. Details of terminal boards are also given with internal & external connections with locomotive wire numbers.

The schematic can be divided into three strings of control viz. Battery (i.e. on battery side & past battery knife switch), local control (PA / NA string) & control (13T/4T string). The schematic shows the interfacing with the inverter cabinet (TCC1 & TCC2) and other third party.

The Siemens schematic has been drawn by Siemens and is annexed to the EMD schematic. As indicated earlier, this schematic is meant largely for inverter and inverter control equipment, traction computer and traction motors. The schematic gives the details of the arrangement of GTOs along with other devices like anti parallel diodes, snubber capacitors and resistors etc. The protection circuits including the hard and soft crowbar circuits for protection of GTOs, have been shown in the schematic. The interface and connections to the SIBAS traction computer have also been shown.

14.15 Integration

Systems

Of

Electrics

With

Engine

And

Other

Mechanical

The following mechanical aspects which are closely linked or interfaced with the electrics of the locomotive are -

Coupling of alternator with engine

Torque requirement of the engine and starter motor requirement

Engine cooling system interface with EM 2000

Engine cooling fan design and air circuit

starter motor requirement • Engine cooling system interface with EM 2000 • Engine cooling fan design

FUELOILSYSTEM

OBJECTIVE

Understand the Fuel Oil System of WDM2 Locomotive.

Learn the function of individual components of Fuel Oil System.

Learn the concept of Fuel Feed System and Fuel Injection System.

Check the efficiency of fuel feed system on full load condition

Learn the purpose of fuel efficient kit application on diesel engine

STRUCTURE

1. Introduction

2. Fuel Feed System and it's associate components

3. Functioning of fuel feed system

4. Fuel Injection System ( fuel injection pump & nozzle )

5. Orifice test of fuel feed system

6. Calibration of fuel injection pumps

7. Phasing of fuel injection pumps

8. Fuel injection nozzle test

9. Nozzle valve lift

10. Fuel efficient kit

11. Summary

12. Self Assessment

INTRODUCTION

All locomotive units have individual fuel oil system. The fuel oil system is designed to introduce fuel oil into the engine cylinders at the correct time, at correct pressure, at correct quantity and correctly atomised. The system injects into the cylinder correctly metered amount of fuel in highly atomised form. High pressure of fuel is required to lift the nozzle valve and for better penetration of fuel into the combustion chamber. High pressure also helps in proper atomisation so that the small droplets come in better contact with the fresh air in the combustion chamber, resulting in better combustion. Metering of fuel quantity is important because the locomotive engine is a variable speed and variable load engine with variable requirement of fuel. Time of fuel injection is also important for better combustion. FUEL OIL SYSTEM The fuel oil system consists of two integrated systems. These are-

FUEL FEED SYSTEM.

FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM.

FUEL FEED SYSTEM AND ITS ASSOCIATE COMPONENTS The fuel feed system provides the back-up support to the fuel injection pumps by maintaining steady supply of fuel to them at the required pressure so that the fuel pump

1

can meter and deliver the oil to the cylinder at correct pressure and time. The fuel feed system includes the following:-

Fuel oil tank

A fuel oil tank of required capacity (normally 5000ltrs), is fabricated under the

superstructure of the locomotive and located in between the two bogies. Baffle walls are used inside it to arrest surge of oil when the locomotive is moving. A strainer filter at the

filling plug, an indirect vent, drain plug, and glow rod type level indicators are also provided.

Fuel primary filter

A filter is provided on the suction side of the fuel transfer pump to allow only filtered oil

into the pump. This enhances the working life of the fuel transfer pump. This filter is most often a renewable bleached cotton waste packed filter, commonly known as socks type filter element. These socks type filters are coarse filters and have a greater ability to absorb moisture, and are economical. However, in certain places, it has been replaced by paper type filter, which have longer service life.

Fuel transfer pump or booster pump

The fuel feed system has a transfer pump to lift the fuel from the tank. The gear type pump is driven by a dc motor, which is run by storage batteries through a suitable circuit. The pump capacity is 14 ltrs per minute at 1725 rpm at pressure 4 to 4.8 kg/cm. sq.

Fuel relief valve

The spring- loaded relief valve is meant for by passing excess oil back to the fuel tank, thus releasing excess load on the pump and on the motor, to ensure their safety. It is

adjusted to a required pressure (normally 5 kg/cm 2 ), and it by- passes the excess fuel back

to the oil tank. It also ensures the safety of the secondary filter and the pipe lines.

Fuel secondary filter

The fuel secondary filter is located after the booster pump in the fuel feed system. The filter used is a paper type filter, cartridge of finer quality, renewable at regular intervals. This filter arrests the finer dirt particles left over by the primary filter and ensures longer life of the fuel injection equipments.

Fuel regulating valve

The fuel-regulating valve is spring-loaded valve of similar design as the fuel relief valve.

It is located after the secondary filter in the fuel feed system. This valve is adjusted to the

required pressure (3 kg/cm 2 ), and always maintains the same pressure in the fuel feed system by releasing the excess oil to the fuel oil tank. There is no by-passing of oil if the pressure is less than the adjusted level.

Functioning of fuel feed system The fuel booster pump or transfer pump is switched on and the pump starts sucking oil from the fuel oil tank, filtered through the primary filter. Because of variable consumption by the engine, the delivery pressure of the pump may rise increasing load on the pump and its drive motor. When the rate of consumption of the fuel by the engine is low, the relief valve ensures the safety of the components by releasing load, by- passing the excess

2

pressure back to the tank. Then oil passes through the paper type secondary filter and proceeds to the right side fuel header. The fuel header is connected to eight numbers of fuel injection pumps on the right-bank of the engine, and a steady oil supply is maintained to the pumps at a pressure of 3 Kg./ sq. cm. Then the fuel oil passes on to the left side header and reaches eight fuel injection pumps on the left bank through jumper pipes. The regulating valve remaining after the left side fuel header, takes care of excess pressure over 3 Kg/cm Square by passing the extra oil back to the tank. A gauge connection is taken from here leading to the driver's cabin for indicating the fuel oil feed pressure. Thus the fuel feed system keeps fuel continuously available to the fuel injection pumps, which the pumps may use or refuse depending on the demand of the engine.

FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM

When diesel engine is started, all fuel injection pumps start functioning. According to firing order all F.I. pumps start discharging fuel oil at high pressure to there respective nozzles through high pressure line tube. Fuel injection nozzle injects fuel oil to combustion chamber at 4000 psi. The internal function of F.I. pump and nozzle are described below.

1.

FUEL INJECTION PUMP It is a constant stroke plunger type pump with variable quantity of fuel delivery to suit the demands of the engine. The fuel cam controls the pumping stroke of the plunger. The length of the stroke of the plunger and the time of the stroke is dependent on the cam angle and cam profile, and the plunger spring controls the return stroke of the plunger. The plunger moves inside the barrel, which has very close tolerances with the plunger. When the plunger reaches to the BDC, spill ports in the barrel, which are connected to the fuel feed system, open up. Oil then fills up the empty space inside the barrel. At the correct time in the diesel cycle, the fuel cam pushes the plunger forward, and the moving plunger covers the spill ports. Thus, the oil trapped in the barrel is forced out through the delivery valve to be injected into the combustion chamber through the injection nozzle. The plunger has two identical helical grooves or helix cut at the top edge with the relief slot. At the bottom of the plunger, there is a lug to fit into the slot of the control sleeve. When the rotation of the engine moves the camshaft, the fuel cam moves the plunger to make the upward stroke. It may also rotate slightly, if necessary through the engine governor, control shaft, control rack, and control sleeve. This rotary movement of the plunger along with reciprocating stroke changes the position of the helical relief in respect to the spill port and oil, instead of being delivered through the pump outlet, escapes back to the low pressure feed system. The governor for engine speed control, on sensing the requirement of fuel, controls the rotary motion of the plunger, while it also has reciprocating pumping strokes. Thus, the alignment of helix relief with the spill ports will determine the effectiveness of the stroke. If the helix is constantly in alignment with the spill ports, it bypasses the entire amount of oil, and nothing is delivered by the pump. The engine stops because of no fuel injected, and this is known as ‘NO-FUEL’ position. When alignment of helix relief with spill port is delayed, it results in a partly effective stroke and engine runs at low speed and power output is not the maximum. When the helix is not in alignment with the spill port through out the stroke, this is known as ‘FULL FUEL POSITION’, because the entire stroke is effective.

3

Oil is then passed through the delivery valve, which is spring loaded. It opens at the oil pressure developed by the pump plunger. This helps in increasing the delivery pressure of oil. it functions as a non-return valve, retaining oil in the high pressure line. This also helps in snap termination of fuel injection, to arrest the tendency of dribbling during the fuel injection. The specially designed delivery valve opens up due to the pressure built up by the pumping stroke of plunger. When the oil pressure drops inside the barrel, the landing on the valve moves backward to increase the space available in the high-pressure line. Thus, the pressure inside the high-pressure line collapses, helping in snap termination of fuel injection. This reduces the chances of dribbling at the beginning or end of fuel injection through the fuel injection nozzles.

FUEL INJECTION NOZZLE The fuel injection nozzle or the fuel injector is fitted in the cylinder head with its tip projected inside the combustion chamber. It remains connected to the respective fuel injection pump with a steel tube known as fuel high pressure line. The fuel injection nozzle is of multi-hole needle valve type operating against spring tension. The needle valve closes the oil holes by blocking the oil holes due to spring pressure. Proper angle on the valve and the valve seat, and perfect bearing ensures proper closing of the valve. Due to the delivery stroke of the fuel injection pump, pressure of fuel oil in the fuel duct and the pressure chamber inside the nozzle increases. When the pressure of oil is higher than the valve spring pressure, valve moves away from its seat, which uncovers the small holes in the nozzle tip. High-pressure oil is then injected into the combustion chamber through these holes in a highly atomised form. Due to injection, hydraulic pressure drops, and the valve returns back to its seat terminating the fuel injection, termination of fuel injection may also be due to the bypassing of fuel injection through the helix in the fuel injection pump causing a sudden drop in pressure. ORIFICE TEST

This test is a rough and ready method to ascertain the efficiency of the fuel feed system under full load condition. The procedure of testing is as under:

1. An orifice plate of 1/8 inch is fitted in the system before the regulating valve.

2. A container to be placed under the orifice to collect the oil that would leak through it during the test.

3. The fuel booster pump to be switched on for 60 seconds.

The rate of leakage should be about 9 lt. of fuel per minute through the orifice ( with the engine in stopped condition ). The system should be able to maintain 3 kg /cm.sq pressure with this rate of leakage, which simulates approx. the full load consumption by the engine. In the event of drop in pressure the rate of leakage would also be less indicating some defect in the system reducing its efficiency to meet the full requirement of fuel during peak load. The above test is easy, reliable and also saves time.

CALIBRATION OF FUEL INJECTION PUMPS

4

Each fuel injection pump is subject to test and calibration after repair or overhaul to ensure that they deliver the same and stipulated amount of fuel at a particular rack position. Every pump must deliver regulated and equal quantity of fuel at the same time so that the engine output is optimum and at the same time running is smooth with minimum vibration.

The calibration and testing of fuel pumps are done on a specially designed machine. The machine has a 5 HP reversible motor to drive a cam shaft through V belt. The blended test oil of recommended viscosity under controlled temperature is circulated through a pump at a specified pressure for feeding the pump under test. It is very much necessary to follow the laid down standard procedure of testing to obtain standard test results. The pump under test is fixed on top of the cam box and its rack set at a particular position to find out the quantum of fuel delivery at that position. The machine is then switched on and the cam starts making delivery strokes. A revolution counter attached to it is set to trip at 300 RPM or 100 RPM as required. With the cam making strokes, if the pump delivers any oil, it returns back to the reservoir in normal state. A manually operated solenoid switch is switched on and the oil is diverted to a measure glass till 300 strokes are completed after operation of the solenoid switch. Thus the oil discharged at 300 working strokes of the pump is measured which should normally be within the stipulated limit. The purpose of measuring the output in 300 strokes is to take an average to avoid errors. The pump is tested at idling and full fuel positions to make sure that they deliver the correct amount of fuel for maintaining the idling speed and so also deliver full HP at full load. A counter check of the result at idling is done on the reverse position of the motor which simulates slow running of the engine.

If the test results are not within the stipulated limits as indicated by the makers then adjustment of the fuel rack position may be required by moving the rack pointer, by addition or removal of shims behind it. The thickness of shims used should be punched on the pump body. The adjustment of rack is done at the full fuel position to ensure that the engine would deliver full horse power. Once the adjustment is done at full fuel position other adjustment should come automatically. In the event of inconsistency in results between full fuel and idling fuel, it may call for change of plunger and barrel assembly.

The calibration value

of fuel injection pump of WDM2 engines as supplied by the

makers is as follows at 300 working strokes:

9 mm

(Idling)

34 cc +1/-5

30 mm

(Full load)

351 cc +5/-10

The calibration values for YDM4 engines are as under.

9 mm

28 mm (full load)

(idling )

45 cc +1/-5 401 cc +4/-11

Errors are likely to develop on the calibration machine in course of time and it is necessary to check the machine at times with master pumps supplied by the makers. These pumps are perfectly calibrated and meant for use as reference to test the

5

calibration machine itself. Two master pumps, one for full fuel and the other for idling fuel are there and they have to be very carefully preserved only for the said purpose.

PHASING OF FUEL INJECTION PUMPS

Every fuel injection pump after repair / overhauling and testing needs phasing while fitting on the engine. In course of working the drive mechanism of the FIP suffers from wear and causes loss of motion. This may also cause shorter length of plunger stroke and lesser fuel delivery. The pump lifter is adjusted individually for all the FIPs. An adjustment is provided in the valve lifter mechanism to adjust the markings between the guide cup and the sight window so that they coincide with each other after positioning the engine. This adjustment is known as phasing of the pump to make up the wear loses.

FUEL INJECTION NOZZLE TEST The criteria for good nozzle is good atomization, correct spray pattern and no leakage or dribbling. Before a nozzle is put to test the assembly must be rinsed in fuel oil, nozzle holes cleaned with wire brush and spray holes cleaned with steel wire of correct thickness.

The fuel injection nozzles are tested on a specially designed test stand, where the following tests are conducted.

SPRAY PATTERN

Spray of fuel should take place through all the holes uniformly and properly atomized. While the atomization can be seen through the glass jar, an impression taken on a sheet of blotting paper at a distance of 1 to 1 1/2 inch also gives a clear impression of the spray pattern.

SPRAY PRESSURE

The stipulated correct pressure at which the spray should take place 3900-4050 psi for new and 3700-3800 psi for reconditioned nozzles. If the pressure is down to 3600 psi the nozzle needs replacement. The spray pressure is indicated in the gauge provided in the test machine. Shims are being used to increase or decrease the tension of nozzle spring which increases or decreases the spray pressure

DRIBBLING

There should be no loose drops of fuel coming out of the nozzle before or after the injections. In fact the nozzle tip of a good nozzle should always remain dry. The process of checking dribbling during testing is by having injections manually done couple of times quickly and check the nozzle tip whether leaky. Raising the pressure within 100 psi of set injection pressure and holding it for about 10 seconds may also give a clear idea of the

6

The reasons of nozzle dribbling are 1) Improper pressure setting 2) Dirt stuck up between the valve and the valve seat 3) Improper contact between the valve and valve seat 4) Valve sticking inside the valve body.

NOZZLE CHATTER

The chattering sound is a sort of cracking noise created due to free movement of the nozzle valve inside the valve body. If is not proper then chances are that the valve is not moving freely inside the nozzle.

NOZZLE LEAK OFF RATE

A very minute portion of the oil inside the nozzle passes clearance between the valve and the valve body for the purpose of lubrication. Excess clearance between them may cause excess leak off, thus reducing the amount of fuel actually injected.

The process of checking the leak off rate is by creating pressure in the nozzle up to 3500 psi and holds the pressure till it drops to 1000 psi. The drop of pressure is due to the leak off and higher the leak off rate the pressure drop is quicker. In the event of the leak off time recorded below stipulation the nozzle valve and the valve body have to be changed for excessive wear and clearance between them.

CHECKING OF NOZZLE VALVE LIFT

The valve and the valve seat are surface hardened components. Any attempt to work them beyond the hardened surface is restricted. The amount of wear on the valve face and the seat is measured with the help of a dial gauge and the process is known as checking of valve lift. FUEL EFFICIENT KIT Certain modifications carried out on WDM2 locomotive engine to improve specific fuel

consumption by over 6%, ruduction in existing exhaust gas temperature by over 100 deg.-

C and reduction in lube oil consumption. These modifications are fuel efficient kit. Modifications are given below:

Water inlet of the after cooler is

considered as

1. Modified water connection to after cooler: -

connected from outlet of the radiator, to provide water at minimum possible temperature into the after cooler. Previously it was connected from water pump

discharge side.

2. 17 mm fuel injection pump:-

15 mm pumps are being replaced by 17 mm

pumps, to have sharper fuel injection. For this, modified fuel pump support with wider fuel cam roller, shall be used on fuel efficient engine. The maximum rack opening with 17 mm pump is restricted to 28+_ 0.25 mm instead of existing 29.5+-0.25 mm. Changes will have to be made in the lever/ linkage of the governor for this.

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3.

Modified cam shaft with 140 degree over lap:-

The cam shaft has been

modified to increase the over lap from 123 degree to 140 degree to improve the scavenging.

4. Large After Cooler: Large After Cooler with higher effectiveness has been introduced to provide cooled air to engine. For this Turbo mounting bracket and certain pipe line connections will need to be changed.

5. Steel capped pistons: In the fuel efficient engine, peak firing pressure likely to exceed 1800 psi and thus steel cap pistons are required to be used. Use of steel cap pistons will also result in lower lube oil consumption.

6. High efficiency Turbo Charger: Existing 720 turbo chargers being replaced by high efficiency ABB VTC 304/ NAPIER NA 295 turbo chargers having capacity to develop 2.2kg/cm2 air pressure/ booster pressure.

SUMMARY

Fuel Feed System is responsible for supply of clean oil with adequate quantity at required pressure to Fuel Injection System, to meet the requirement of fuel oil of the engine at rated output. In Fuel Feed System, Fuel tank acts as reservoir of HSD oil of the engine; Primary and Secondary filters maintain cleanliness of oil in the system. Fuel Booster Pump works for generating pressure and maintaining adequate supply of fuel in the system; Relief and Regulating Valves maintain constant pressure in the feed system. Fuel Injection System comprises of mainly two components (a) Fuel Injection Pump (b) Fuel Injection Nozzle. Fuel Injection Pump is a plunger type Pump having constant stroke with variable delivery. The quantity of fuel delivered is decided by the position of the helix groove, that varies with the twisting of the plunger according to the fuel rack position. Hence it is responsible for supplying correct quantity of pressurized fuel upto the nozzle. Nozzle is responsible for delivering pressurized fuel in atomized form into the combustion chamber. The breaking pressure i.e. the final pressure at which fuel is released into the combustion chamber is decided by the setting of Nozzle Valve Spring pressure.

SELF ASSESSMENT

1. What are the functions of Relief Valve and Regulating Valve in fuel feed system?

2. Draw a neat sketch of the Fuel Feed System of WDM2 type locomotive and label it

3. How quantity of fuel delivery varies in Fuel Injection Pump?

4. What are the functions of Fuel Injection Nozzle?

5. Describe the function of fuel injection nozzle.

6. How can you check the efficiency of the fuel feed system under full load condition?

7. What is fuel-efficient kit?

8

CHARGE AIR SYSTEM

OBJECTIVE

The objective of this unit is to make you understand about :-

the need for supercharging

various methods of supercharging

Turbo Supercharging as applied in WDM2 type Locomotive

various components of Turbo Supercharger and their duties.

Lubricating, Cooling and Air Cushioning of Turbo Supercharger Components.

Cooling of supercharged air

STRUCTURE

1. Introduction

2. Advantage of supercharging

3. Turbo Supercharger and its working principle

4. Main components of Turbo Supercharger

5. Lubricating, Cooling and Air Cushioning

6. After cooling of Charge Air

7. Summary

8. Self Assessment

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INTRODUCTION

The diesel engine produces mechanical energy by converting heat energy derived from burning of fuel inside the cylinder. For efficient burning of fuel, availability of sufficient air in proper ratio is a prerequisite.

In a naturally aspirated engine, during the suction stroke, air is being sucked into the

cylinder from the atmosphere. The volume of air thus drawn into the cylinder through restricted inlet valve passage, within a limited time would also be limited and at a pressure slightly less than the atmosphere. The availability of less quantity of air of low density inside the cylinder would limit the scope of burning of fuel. Hence mechanical power

produced in the cylinder is also limited. An improvement in the naturally aspirated engines is the super-charged or pressure charged engines. During the suction stroke, pressurised stroke of high density is being charged into the cylinder through the open suction valve. Air of higher density containing more oxygen will make it possible to inject more fuel into the \same size of cylinder and produce more power,, by effectively burning it. ADVANTAGES OF SUPER CHARGED ENGINES.

A super charged engine of given bore and stroke dimensions can produce 50 percent or

more power than a naturally aspirated engine. The power to weight ratio in such a case is much more favourable. Charging of air during the suction stroke causes better scavenging in the cylinders. This ensures carbon free cylinders and valves, and better health for the engine also. Higher heat developed in a super charged engine due to the burning of more fuel, calls for better cooling of the components. The cool air charged into the cylinders has better cooling effect on the cylinders, piston, cylinder head, and valves, and save them from failure due to thermal stresses. Better ignition due to higher temperature developed by higher compression in the cylinder. Better fuel efficiency due to complete combustion of fuel by ensuring availability of matching quantity of air or oxygen. METHOD OF SUPERCHARGING Different methods of pressurising air for supercharging in engines are adopted. Using a reciprocating type of air compressor. These are unsuitable for locomotive engines, because of their large size, and higher power demand. Moreover, The system does not maintain proper air to fuel ratio. Specially designed roots blower or centrifugal blowers. These have the same drawbacks as the reciprocating compressors. Most efficient and economical method of supercharging is by a centrifugal blower run by the exhaust gas driven turbine. In the system, energy left over in the exhaust gas, which would otherwise have been wasted, is used to drive the gas turbine in the turbo super charger. The turbine in turn drives the centrifugal blower, which sucks air from atmosphere and pressurises it. This does away with the need for an additional power required for driving the blower, thus saving energy. Moreover, this system can maintain more favourable air and fuel ratio at all speed and load conditions of the engine than any other system.

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TURBO SUPERCHARGER AND ITS WORKING PRINCIPLE

The exhaust gas discharge from all the cylinders accumulate in the common exhaust manifold at the end of which, turbo- supercharger is fitted. The gas under pressure there after enters the turbo- supercharger through the torpedo shaped bell mouth connector and then passes through the fixed nozzle ring. Then it is directed on the turbine blades at increased pressure and at the most suitable angle to achieve rotary motion of the turbine at maximum efficiency. After rotating the turbine, the exhaust gas goes out to the atmosphere through the exhaust chimney. The turbine has a centrifugal blower mounted at the other end of the same shaft and the rotation of the turbine drives the blower at the same speed. The blower connected to the atmosphere through a set of oil bath filters, sucks air from atmosphere, and delivers at higher velocity. The air then passes through the diffuser inside the turbo- supercharger, where the velocity is diffused to increase the pressure of air before it is delivered from the turbo- supercharger. Pressurising air increases its density, but due to compression heat develops. It causes expansion and reduces the density. This effects supply of high-density air to the engine. To take care of this, air is passed through a heat exchanger known as after cooler. The after cooler is a radiator, where cooling water of lower temperature is circulated through the tubes and around the tubes air passes. The heat in the air is thus transferred to the cooling water and air regains its lost density. From the after cooler air goes to a common inlet manifold connected to each cylinder head. In the suction stroke as soon as the inlet valve opens the booster air of higher pressure density rushes into the cylinder completing the process of super charging. The engine initially starts as naturally aspirated engine. With the increased quantity of fuel injection increases the exhaust gas pressure on the turbine. Thus the self-adjusting system maintains a proper air and fuel ratio under all speed and load conditions of the engine on its own. The maximum rotational speed of the turbine is 18000 rpm for the 720A model Turbo supercharger and creates 1.8 kg/cm2 air pressure in air manifold of diesel engine, known as booster pressure. Low booster pressure causes black smoke due to incomplete combustion of fuel. High exhaust gas temperature due to after burning of fuel may result in considerable damage to the turbo supercharger and other component in the engine.

MAIN COMPONENTS OF TURBO-SUPERCHARGER

Turbo- supercharger consists of following main components.

Gas inlet casing.

Turbine casing.

Intermediate casing

Blower casing with diffuser

Rotor assembly with turbine and rotor on the same shaft.

GAS INLET CASING The inlet casing of the latest type of turbo are of CH 20 stainless steel which is highly heat resistant. The function of this casing is to take hot gases from the exhaust manifold and pass them through the nozzle ring, which is bolted to the casing face. This assembly is fitted on the turbine casing with cap screws.

TURBINE CASING

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The turbine casing houses the turbine inside it, and is cored to have circulation of water through it for cooling purposes. It has an oval shaped gas outlet passage at the top. It is fitted in between the inlet casing and the intermediate casing. It is made of alloy cast iron or fabricated. INTERMEDIATE CASING This casing is also water-cooled and have cored passage for water circulation and is made of alloy cast iron or fabricated like the turbine casing. It is placed between turbine casing and the blower casing. It separated the exhaust and the airside and also supports the turbine rotor on the two tri-metal bearings, which are interference-fit in the intermediate casing. BLOWER HOUSING ASSEMBLY This houses the blower and is in two parts, namely the blower inlet, and the blower housing. Air enters through the blower inlet axially, and discharged radially from the blower through the vane diffuser. The vane diffuser is a precision alluminium casting and screwed on the blower casing. ROTOR ASSEMBLY The rotor assembly consists of rotor shaft, rotor blades, thrust collar, impeller, inducer, centre studs, nosepiece, locknut etc. assembled together. The rotor blades are fitted into fir tree slots, and locked by tab lock washers. This is a dynamically balanced component, as this has a very high rotational speed.

LUBRICATING, COOLING AND AIR CUSHIONING

LUBRICATING SYSTEM One branch line from the lubricating system of the engine is connected to the turbo- supercharger. Oil from the lube oils system circulated through the turbo- supercharger for lubrication of its bearings. After the lubrication is over, the oil returns back to the lube oil system through a return pipe. Oil seals are provided on both the turbine and blower ends of the bearings to prevent oil leakage to the blower or the turbine housing. COOLING SYSTEM The cooling system is integral to the water cooling system of the engine. Circulation of water takes place through the intermediate casing and the turbine casing, which are in contact with hot exhaust gases. The cooling water after being circulated through the turbo- supercharger returns back again to the cooling system of the locomotive. AIR CUSHIONING There is an arrangement for air cushioning between the rotor disc and the intermediate casing face to reduce thrust load on the thrust face of the bearing which also solve the following purposes.

it prevents hot gases from coming in contact with the lube oil.

it prevents leakage of lube oil through oil seals.

it cools the hot turbine disc.

Pressurised air from the blower casing is taken through a pipe inserted in the turbo- supercharger to the space between the rotor disc and the intermediate casing. It serves the purpose as described above. TURBO RUN –DOWN TEST

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Turbo run-down test is a very common type of test done to check the free running time of turbo rotor. It indicates whether there is any abnormal sound in the turbo, seizer/ partial seizer of bearing, physical damages to the turbine, or any other abnormality inside it. The engine is started and warmed up to normal working temperature and running at fourth notch speed. Engine is then shut down through the over speed trip machanism. When the rotation of the crank shaft stops, the free running time of the turbine is watched through the chimney and recorded by a stop watch. THE minimum time allowed for free running is90 seconds and maximum 180 seconds. Low or high turbo run down time are both considered to be harmful for the engine. AFTER COOLER It is a simple radiator, which cools the air to increase its density. Scales formation on the tubes, both internally and externally, or choking of the tubes can reduce heat transfer

capacity. This can also reduce the flow of air through it. This reduces the efficiency of the diesel engine. This is evident from black exhaust smoke emissions and a fall in booster pressure. Fitments of higher capacity turbosupercharger- following new generation turbosuperchargers have been identified by RDSO for 2600/3100HP diesel engine.

ABB VTC 304, SUIZA HS 5800 NGT,

NAPIER NA-295, ABB TPL61

GE 7S1716,

HISPANO

SUMMARY

Supercharging is the method of pressurizing the induced air to increase the efficiency and performance of the engine. This can be achieved by any of the methods, like, engine crankshaft driven Centrifugal / Roots Blower, exhaust gas driven Turbo Supercharger etc. Exhaust gas driven Turbo Supercharger being more economical and scientific, it is applied in WDM2 Locomotive Engine. In this system, the streamlined exhaust manifold collects the exhaust gas of all cylinders and directs it to Turbine through a Fixed Nozzle Ring. The Rotor Shaft comprises of Turbine and Compressor unit integral on it, which is supported by two Nos. Trimetal Bearings, housed in the intermediate casing. Thus exhaust gas driven turbine drives the compressor, being the integral part of the rotor shaft. The discharge of the compressor gets pressurized at diffuser and finally the hot compressed air after getting cooled at Aftercooler is stored in the Inlet Manifold of the engine, which in turn goes into the cylinder as per the working cycle.

SELF ASSESSMENT

1. What are the advantages of supercharging?

2. What are the various methods of supercharging? Which method is considered to be more scientific and why?

3. What is the importance of air cushioning? How is it done?

4. Describe the wdm2 loco charge air system with neat sketch.

14

LUBE

OIL

OBJECTIVE

SYSTEM

To understand about: -

the function of lubrication system in diesel engine

the lube oil system of WDM2 locomotive engine

the function of Relief & Regulating valve

the purpose of by passing arrangement of lube oil

the factors affect the low lube oil pressure & contamination in lube oil

the factors affect high lube oil consumption

STRUCTURE

1.

Introduction

2.

Lube Oil system of WDM2 Locomotive

3.

Problems in lube oil system

4.

Lube oil quality observation by laboratory

5.

Summary

6.

Self assessment

INTRODUCTION

The lubricating system in a diesel engine is of vital importance. The lubricating oil provides a film of soft slippery oil in between two frictional surfaces to reduce friction and wear. It also serves the following purposes.

1. Cooling of bearing, pistons etc.

2. Protection of metal surfaces from corrosion, rust, surface damages and wear.

3. Keep the components clean and free from carbon, lacquer deposits and

prevent damage due to deposits. The importance of lube oil system is comparable to the blood circulation system in the human body. Safety of the engine, its components, and their life span will largely depend upon the correct quality of oil in correct quantity and pressure to

various location of diesel engine.

LUBE OIL SYSTEM OF WDM2 LOCO

The diesel engine of WDM2 class locomotives has full flow filtration lube oil system with bypass protection. The system essentially consists of the following components.

1. Gear type lube oil pump driven by the engine crankshaft.

2. Spring loaded relief valve, adjusted to 7.5 kg/cm 2 .

3. Lube oil filter tank accommodating eight nos. of filter elements.

4. Differential bypass valve set at 1.4 kg/cm 2 differential pressure across the filter tank.

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5.

Lube oil cooler, which has a bunch of element tubes through which cooling water circulates and circulation of lube oil takes place around the tubes.

6. Regulating valve, which is a spring loaded valve adjusted to 4kg/cm 2 .

7. Lube oil strainer, which is a wire mesh type filter reusable after cleaning.

8. Oil pressure switch (OPS), which is meant to automatically shut down the engine in case of a drop in lube oil pressure below 1.3 kg/cm 2 .

9. Oil pressure gauge, which indicates the main oil header pressure.

10. Oil sump having capacity 1260 lt. RR606 multigrade oil.

The lube oil pump on the free end of the engine is driven by the engine crankshaft through suitable gears and keeps it running along with the engine. When the engine is started the pump draws oil from the engine oil sump and delivers it. The delivery pressure of the pump has to be controlled as the pump is driven by an engine of variable speed and would often have higher delivery pressure or load on it than actually required. This would mean loss of more power from the engine for driving the pump. Higher pressure may also endanger the safety of the filters and the pipelines and its joints. The relief valve releases the delivery pressure above its setting and bypasses it back to the oil sump. Oil then flows to a filter tank containing eight nos. of paper type filter elements. The filter has a bypass valve across it set a differential pressure of 1.4 kg/cm2. Due to the choking of the filter elements, if the pressure differential between the inlet and the outlet of the tank is more than 1.4 kg/cm2, then the differential bypass valve opens up to bypass a part of oil without filtration, and thus reduces the pressure on the filters. Although allowing unfiltered oil into the engine is not advisable, but there is another filter at later stage through which oil has to pass before entering the engine. Moreover, higher pressure on the filters may cause damage to the filters, and cause greater damage to the engines. After the filtration, the oil passes to the coolers, gets cooled by transferring heat to water, and regains its lost viscosity. At he discharge side of the cooler, a regulating valve adjusted at 4 kg/cm2 is provided to regulate the pressure. Excess pressure is regulated by passing the oil back to the engine oil sump. The oil then finds its way to the main oil header after another stage of filtration in the strainer type filter from which it is distributed for lubrication to different places as required. Direct individual connections are taken from the main oil header to all the main bearings. Oil thus passes through the main bearings supporting the crankshaft on the engine block, passes through the crank pin to lubricate the connecting rod big end bearing and the crank pin journals. It reaches the small end through rifle drilled hole and after lubricating the gudgeon pin and bearings enters into the pistons. The Aluminium alloy pistons are provide with spiral oil passage inside them for internal circulation of lube oil. This is done with the purpose of cooling the pistons, which are highly thermally loaded components. After circulation through the pistons, the oil returns back to the oil sump, but in this process, a part of the oil hits the running connecting rod and splashes on the cylinder liners for their lubrication. The actual lube oil pressure is a function of lube oil pump, temperature of oil, engine speed and regulating valve setting. A line from the main oil header is connected to a gauge in the driver's cabin to indicate the pressure level. If lube oil pressure drops to less than 1.3 kg/cm2, engine will automatically shut down through a safety device (OPS) to protect it from damage due to insufficient lubrication. From the main oil header, two branch lines are taken to the right and left side secondary headers to lubricate the components on both banks of the V shape engine. Each branch

16

line of the secondary header lubricates the camshaft bearings, fuel pump lifters, valve lever mechanisms, and spray oil to lubricate the gears for camshaft drive. A separate connection is taken to the turbo super charger from the right side header for lubrication of its bearings. After circulation to all the points of lubrication, the oil returns back to the sump for recirculation through the same circuit.

Problems in lube oil system

There are four factors, which effect the lube oil system pressure directly that is lube oil pump discharge capacity, diesel engine temperature, pressure setting value of Relief & Regulating valve and quality of lube oil. Some other factors like choking of filters / strainer, low oil level in c/case, contaminated lube oil, low idling speed and excessive wear/ clearance in bearings also effect the system pressure. During running of diesel engine it is observed that lube oil contaminated with water and oil level in c/case is increasing, which indicates water leakage inside the c/case. The sources are leakage of cylinder liner bottom gasket & sleeve, cracked cylinder liner, cracked cylinder head etc. Sometimes it is observed that lube oil contaminated with fuel oil, which indicates nozzles dribbling or fuel leak off gallery cracked. It is also observed that some engines consume high rate of lube oil, which indicates clearance between valve and valve guide is more, engine piston rings worn out or turbo oil seal damaged.

Lube oil quality observation by laboratory

To maintain sound health of the engine, control on quality of oil is as much necessary as the pressure. Every maintenance depot/diesel shed is equipped with a laboratory, which keeps strict watch on the quality of lube oil of each individual loco. Contamination in any form i .e. by fuel oil, cooling water, soot, dirt etc. in service is immediately reported for corrective action in maintenance. Change in other properties like viscosity, PH value, TBNE etc. are also watched at regular intervals. Lube oil changing in locos are normally done on condition basis. Spectrographic analysis at regular schedule is also done to ascertain the extent of concentration of wear metal particles in the oil. This can indicate the wear pattern of the engine components or ensure longer service life.

SUMMARY

The Diesel Engine of WDM 2 Locomotive has full flow filtration lube oil system with bypass protection. RR-407 is the Lube oil used in the system. Engine crankshaft driven, gear type lube oil pump sucks oil from the engine sump and delivers it into the system. A relief valve, set at 110 psi, is fitted just after the pump to save the pump from excess loading. Pumped oil then passes through filter tank, containing 8 Nos. of filter elements,

for filtration. A bypass valve, set at 20 psi differential pressure, is fitted across the filter

tank to maintain the continuity of flow, in case the filter gets choked

fitted in the system maintain operating temperature of lube oil, by dissipating excess heat through water, circulating around it. Regulating valve, set at 75 psi, maintains the pressure of the whole system. The oil then passes through a strainer and finally gets stored into main and secondary headers, from where it is distributed to various components of the engine for lubrication. Cooling of Piston is done by circulation of lube oil through it. For this, lube oil from main header reaches to main bearing through S-pipes. Again from main bearing, through internal drill passages of crankshaft and con.rod, oil reaches to piston. After circulating inside the piston, the oil flows down to sump through an opening provided in the piston. While flowing down the oil gets splashed by crankshaft for

Lube oil cooler

17

lubricating liners. Finally the oil drops down to sump after lubricating all the components of the engine.

SELF ASSESSMENT

1. What are the various factors that affect the low lube oil system pressure?

2. Draw a neat sketch of WDM2 engine Lube Oil system and label it.

3. What are the various factors that affect the high lube oil consumption?

4. What are the sources for fuel contamination in lube oil?

5. What are the sources for water contamination in lube oil?

18

COOLING SYSTEM

OBJECTIVE

To understand about

the need for cooling system in a diesel engine

the benefit of water cooling system

harmful effects of natural water in cooling system

the method of water treatment and the quality of treated water

the water cooling system of WDM2 Locomotive

STRUCTURE

1. Introduction

2. Cooling water and its treatment

3. Cooling water system of wdm2 locomotive engine

4. Water pump

5. Modifications in cooling system

6. Summary

7. Self assessment

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INTRODUCTION

After combustion of fuel in the engine, about 25-30 % of heat produced inside the cylinder is absorbed by the components surrounding the combustion chamber like piston, cylinder, cylinder head etc. Unless the heat is taken away from them and dispersed elsewhere, the components are likely to fail under thermal stresses. All internal combustion engines are provided with a cooling system designed to cool the excessively hot components, distribute the heat to the other surrounding components to maintain uniform temperature throughout the engine, and finally dissipate the excess heat to atmosphere to keep the engine temperature within suitable limits. Different cooling systems, like air cooling, water cooling are adopted, depending on the engine design,

working conditions and service etc

that it maintains a uniform level of temperature throughout the engine and by controlling the water temperature, the engine temperature can be controlled effectively.

COOLING WATER AND ITS TREATMENT

Although natural water can meet the basic requirement, its use is prohibited for the cooling of the engine because it contains many dissolved solids and corrosive elements. Some of the dissolved solids may form scales on the heat exchanger surface and reduce the heat transfer coefficient. It also accelerates corrosion. Other minerals get collected in the form off sludge at an elevated temperature. This sludge may get deposited at the low- pressure zone and choke the passage of circulation. The insulation caused by the scale deposits results in unequal expansion and localized stress, which may eventually rupture the engine block, cylinder block, cylinder heads etc. to eliminate all of these, distilled or de-mineralized water is used in the cooling system of the diesel locomotive. The water sample is tested for chromate concentration, hardness, pH value, and chloride content. In case Chromate concentration is found lower than the required quantity, mixture is added. Water is changed if hardness and chloride is higher than the recommended limit. Water is also changed if found contaminated with oil etc. When water is changed due to contamination etc. the system is cleaned by adding Tri- Sodium Phosphate, and circulating water for 45min, this water is drained out, and fresh distilled water with chromate mixture is filled in the locomotive.

The advantage of having a water cooling system is

COOLING WATER SYSTEM

The WDM2 class locomotives have a closed circuit non-pressurised water cooling system for the engine. The system is filled in by 1210 ltrs. Of distilled water or demineralised

water treated with nonchromate corrosion inhibitor (Borate nitrite treatment) to maintain a concentration of 4000 PPM. The pH value is '8.5-9.5'. The water circuit has two storage tanks in two segments known as expansion tanks on top of the locomotive. Apart from supplementing in case of shortage in the system, these interconnected tanks have some empty space left at the top to provide expansion to the water when it is hot. A centrifugal pump driven by the engine crankshaft through a gear sucks water from the system and delivers it through outlet under pressure. The outlet of the pump has three branch lines from a three-way elbow. The branching off leads water to the different places as follows-

1. To the turbo-supercharger through a flexible pipe to cool the intermediate casing,

bearings on both sides of the rotor and the turbine casing. After cooling the components in the turbo-supercharger, water return to the inlet side of the pump through a bubble collector. The bubble collector with a vent line is a means to collect air bubbles formed

20

due to evaporation and pass it onto the expansion tank, so that thy cannot cause air lock in the water circulatory system.

2. The second line leads to the left bank of the cylinder block and water enter the

engine block and circulates around the cylinder liners, cylinder heads on the left bank of the engine, and then passes onto the water outlet header. Individual inlet connections with water jumper pipes and outlet water riser pipes are provided to each cylinder head for entry and outlet of water from cylinder head to the water outlet header. Cooling of

cylinder liners, piston rings, cylinder heads, valves, and fuel injection nozzles are done in this process. Water then proceeds the left side radiator for circulation through it, and releases its heat into the atmosphere to cool itself down before recirculation through the engine once again.

3. The third connection from the three-way elbow leads to the right side of the

cylinder block. After cooling the cylinder liners, heads etc. on the Right Bank the water reaches the right side radiator for cooling itself. Before it enters the radiator, a connection is taken to the water temperature manifold where a thermometer is fitted to indicate the water temperature. Four other temperature switches are also provided here, out of which T1 is for starting the movement of radiator fan at 60 O C slowly through the eddy current clutch. The second switch T2 picks up at a water temperature of 64 O C and accelerates the radiator fan to full speed. The third switch is the ETS3 (Engine Temperature Switch),set at 90 degree calcius protection against hot engine, which gives bell alarm and red lamp indication. The fourth switch is ETS4 (set at 95 degree calcius) which brings the engine back to the idling speed and power cutoff also takes place to reduce load on the engine. In this situation the GF switch is cut off and engine is notched up to full notch. It helps in bringing down the cooling water temperature quickly with the radiator fan moving at full speed. Water temperature is controlled by controlling the movement of the radiator fan. Cooling water from the left side radiator passes through the lube oil cooler, where water circulates inside a bunch of element tubes and lube oil circulates around the tubes. Thus passing through the lube oil cooler and cooling the lube oil, it unites with the suction pipe for recirculation through the cooling circuit. Cooling water from right side radiator passes through after cooler, where water circulates inside a bunch of element tubes and cooling the charge air, it unites with the suction pipe for recirculation. Apart from hot engine protection, another safety is also provided by way of low water switch (LWS). In the event of cooling water level falling below one inch from the bottom of the tank, the LWS shuts down the engine through the governor with warning bell and alarm indication to ensure the safety of the engine. Vent lines are provided from the after cooler, lube oil cooler, radiators. Turbo-supercharger vent box and bubble collectors etc. are provided to maintain uninterrupted circulation of cooling water by eliminating the hazards of air locks in the system. Cooling water is subjected to laboratory tests at regular intervals for quality controls.

Contamination, chloride contents, and hardness etc

scaling. The concentration of anti-corrosive mixture is also checked and laboratory advises corrective action in case of contamination. Proper quality control of cooling water and use of proper quantity of nonchromate corrosion inhivitor prevents scaling and corrosion in the system, and ensures longer life of the components. Normally 8.2kg is added for new water in WDM2 locomotive.

WATER PUMP

are checked to reduce corrosion and

21

MODIFICATIONS PERTAINING TO COOLING WATER SYSTEM OF WDM2 LOOMOTIVE Louvred fin radiator: - The radiator core has been redesigned by providing louvred fins thereby increasing the cooling capacity by 14% due to improved air flow pattern through the radiator. High efficiency turbochargers:- High efficiency turbochargers has been provided on the fuel efficient version of wdm2 locos. This has resulted in lowering of the exhaust gas temperature by around 15% with modified after cooler. Large after cooler & water connection:- Large after cooler & water connection has been provided on the fuel efficient locos. This has reduced the heat input to the cooling system. Revision of ETS setting :- The setting of ETS3 is raised to 90 deg.C from 85 deg.C in order to avoid frequent hot engine alarms. Subsequently, with the introduction of pressurised cooling water system, one more ETS is added with the idea of providing only hot engine alarm through ETS3 at 90 deg. C and bringing the engine to idle by ETS4 at 95 deg. C. This change not only reduces the occurrences of hot engine alarm but also increases the heat transfer potential of the radiator at high temperature. Revised setting of OPS:- The setting of low lube oil pressure switch on WDM2 locos used to be 1.8 kg/ cm2 with a view to obviate the problem of engine shutting down due to operation of OPS while suddenly easing throttle from higher notches to idle, particularly during summer season, the OPS setting has been revised to 1.3 kg/ cm2. Pressurisation of cooling water system:- The cooling water circuit has been pressurised upto 7 psi thereby increasing the boiling point by 11 deg. C. This has not only increased the margin before the cooling water gets converted to steam but has also increased the temperature differential acrossed the radiators at peak engine temperature, thereby increasing the rate of cooling in radiators. This has been achieved by providing a pressure cap assembly on the water tank. Flexible water inlet elbow:- Rubber hose type flexible water inlet elbow has been developed in place of the rigid one piece metallic water inlet elbow for obtaining better leakproofness even in face of mislignments between the engine block and the cylinder head. Digital water temperature indicator cum switch:- This has been developed to replace the existing water temperature gauge as well as the four engine temperature switches whose performance was quite unreliable. This aims at ensuring operation of radiator fan and alarm at proper temperature. Electronic water level indicator cum switch:- This has been developed to replaced the existing water level gauge as well as the low water switch. This indicator shall give precise and reliable information regarding the water level to the driver in the cab itself. Improved type pipe joints:- This has been improved to replace the existing pipe joints viz. dressers victaulics by superior rubber hoses along with double wire stainless steel clamps and by stainless steel bellows.

SUMMARY

In the process of combustion, about 25% to 30% of the total heat developed is absorbed by the components of the engine forming the combustion chamber. Hence an effective cooling system is essential to dissipate the accumulated heat. Amongst the various

22

methods of cooling the water cooling system is the most effective method of cooling, as it maintains the uniformity of temperature through out the engine. In WDM2 type engine water cooling system is being used with 1200 ltrs system capacity. Dimeneralised water treated with chromium compound is used as coolant water. In this system a centrifugal pump, driven by engine crankshaft is being used to deliver water into the system with pressure. The outlet of the pump is being divided into main three heads- one for cooling turbo charger and after-cooler and the other two for cooling the engine components situated at left and right bank of the engine. Finally the water gets collected at headers and sent to radiator for cooling. An induced draft radiator fan is used to blow air through the radiators for cooling. The radiator fan takes drive from the engine crankshaft through ECC (EDDY CURRENT CLUTCH). A temperature switch controls the clutching effect of ECC and hence radiator fan rpm. Safety devices are provided both for hot engine and low water conditions of the engine.

SELF ASSESSMENT

1. What type of water is used in cooling water system of locomotive? How water

treatment is done?

2. What are the harmful effects of using natural water in cooling system?

3. Draw a neat sketch of the cooling water system and label it.

4. How does Radiator Fan get drive? How its rpm is controlled?

5. What is the purpose of providing vent box and bubble collector in cooling water

circuit?

6. What are the modifications carried out in cooling water system?

23

UNIT M2- DIESEL ENGINE COMPONENTS

OBJECTIVE

The objective of this block is to make you understand about the major components of the Diesel Engine as per the following details:

Construction

Manufacturing process

Salient features and required dimensional accuracy in the key areas

Assembling technique and their inspection procedure.

Failure analysis of components

STRUCTURE

Introduction

Engine base

Engine Block

Crankshaft

Camshaft

Cylinder Head and valves

Liner

Piston, Piston Rings & Con Rod

Failure analysis of components & Failure investigation.

Summary

1

Key words

Self-assessment

INTRODUCTION

This unit contains, in brief, the essential details in respect of design, construction, working principle and maintenance procedure of the Diesel Engine components. The discussion has been kept confined to standard locomotives of Indian Railways that is

WDM2

The Diesel engines consists of following major components & assemblies: -

1.Engine base

2.Engine block

3.Crank

4.Cam shaft

 
 

shaft

5.Cylinder

head

6. Liner

7.Piston,

Piston

rings

and

and Valves

Connecting rods.

 

ENGINE BASE :-

When diesel engines were of low speed and low horse power the engine base and blocks were made of heavy cast iron casting. In older types engines one of the main functions of the base was to take the crank shaft. In the modern engines the crank shaft is underhung from the engine block.

With the development in diesel engines and with the change in design, fabricated engine blocks and bases are finding favour though in some small horse power engines cast iron blocks are still in use. The engine ;base of ALCO Locos WDM2, WDM4 are made from weldable quality steel to specification IS-2062 with 0.2% of carbon.

The engine bases of ALCO Locos have It has to -

following functions.

a) Support the engine block

b) Serve as oil sump

c) Accommodate lube oil mainheader

d) Take lub oil pump and water pump at the free end

e) Allow openings for crank case inspection

f) Take fitment of crank case explosion cover

2

g) Foundation pads are provided for transmitting load to the chassis and also to take lower blots of the main generator magnet frame.

A perforated screen is fitted to the base to prevent foreign matter like pieces of metal

etc. getting access to the sump. The top face of the base which takes the engine block

is machined smooth and a sealing compound is applied before fitting the block to make

the crank case air tight so that crank case vacuum can be maintained.

Except for the size and sump capacity the engine base of YDM4 Locos is same as that of WDM2 in respect of material and manufacturing technique.

In case of WDS4B Engines there is no separate base. The function of oil sump is performed by fabricated steel sheet fitted at the bottom of the block with gasket in between.

ENGINE BLOCK

The engine block is the most important and very highly stressed structure on which are fitted a number of important fittings like crank shaft, cam shaft, cylinder heads, cylinder liners, pistons, Con. Rods, fuel injection pumps and cross-head, turbo support, governor etc to form a complete Power pack.

Manufacturing Process

This structure is fabricated from low carbon steel to specification IS-2062. The

saddle, however, is a forging out of steel to specification IS-1875. The fabrication is done

in a definite sequence to minimize distortion and build up of stresses. In order to ensure

that best quality of fabrication is done in all cases down hand welding is resorted to. For this purpose extensive use of positioners are made. Wherever possible, continuous welding is done in the process of automatic submerged arc welding. To make sure that there is no defect in the welding, X-ray testing of welding is done liberally.

After fabrication by welding stress relieving and shot blasting is done and then hydraulic test of water chamber is done so that no water leakage can take place. Finally the block is taken to the marking table for marking and then machining. After marking, the engine blocks are placed on the planning machine for machining the sides and the top faces, all the faces being machined at a time. While setting up for machining, it is ensured that the side faces are at right angle to the end face. The bottom face and the saddle faces are also machined in the same machine.

The blocks are then taken for serration milling of saddle faces. In continuation with serration of saddle faces the serration milling of bearings caps are done. This is to avoid error caused due to wear and tear to the milling cutter. Each bearing cap is marked for the location so that the bearing cap cannot be pooled about or wrongly fitted. After the milling operation the depth of serration, and distance between two consecutive pitches are

3

measured with the help of special dial gauges.

After the inspection the bearing caps are assembled and they are tightened to the specified torque value. Subsequent to fitting of the caps to the block the engine block is placed on the horizontal boring cum milling machine. On this machine, end face milling is done and boring of main bearing housing and camshaft bearing is done in one setting with the help of a fixture. This is done to ensure that the distance between crankshaft to camshaft is exactly equal throughout and the central line is perfectly parallel to each other. The maximum possible misalignment permitted in main bearing housing bore are as follows: -

Horizontal misalignment:

1. Between adjacent bores. 0.002"

2. Between any to any bore. 0.004"

Vertical misalignment:

1. Between adjacent bore 0.0015"

2. Between any to any bore. 0.003"

This sort of misalignment can be checked with the help of mandrel and feeler gauge. But this is considered to be rather crude method. It is advisable to make such checks with the help of optical instruments like collimators to give accurate results.

After the boring of crank and camshaft bearing housing, the work of machining top & middle decks of cylinder liners is taken up. The two bores, the chamfers and facing of the top face are all done simultaneously with the help of machine with two boring bars fixed at an angle of 45 O .

The engine blocks have been found to show signs of distortion after a life of 12 to 15 years or as an after effect of crankshaft seizure or major accident. In order to cope with such defects, capacity has been created in DLW for reclamation of blocks.

The method of construction, manufacture, inspection and maintenance of YDM4/WDS6 engines base and block is almost the same as WDM2 block except for dimensional difference and except for the fact that WDM2 are 16 cylinder "VEE" blocks and YDM4 are with 6 cylinder in line engine blocks.

Maintenance & Inspection

Schedule: POH

Details of Inspection:

Visual Inspection: To check about the physical damages in the block and take decision about its reuse or reclamation.

Examination of threads and renewals of threads, if essential.

4

Measurement of top and bottom deck to select liner as well as to change liner sleeve, if necessary.

Measure cam bearing dimension and change bearing, if necessary.

Main Bearing Inspection:

1. Check serration of saddle and M/ Bearing cap by serration gauge.

2. Fit main bearing cap and elongate properly upto .040" as per laid down procedure.

3. Measure each bore at two different planes ½" away from both sides and in each plane at 3 different locations, vertical and at 45°angular position at both sides of it.

Difference in readings at a particular plane gives the value of ovality (limit 0.003")

Difference in vertical readings gives the value of vertical taper (limit 0.001"}.

*Difference in angular readings gives value of angular taper (limit

0.003")

Concentricity of Main Bearing bore should be maintained within the following limit:

Horizontal misalignment: 1) between adjacent bores: 0.002"

 

2) Between any to any:

0.004"

Vertical misalignment:

1)Adjacent

0.0015"

2)Between any to any

0.003"

Misalignment is checked with the help of Mandrel and filler gauge.

While assembling, block and base should be perfectly aligned within the limit (Gen end: 0.000", side ways: 0,002" max).

Hydraulic test: Hydraulic test conducted at 2.5 kg/cm² at normal temperature to check whether any leakage exists between block and liner. If so, liner O-rings are changed or other corrective measures are taken accordingly. This is done after assembling liners during assembly stage.

CRANKSHAFT

The engine crankshaft is probably the singular costliest item in the diesel engine. It is the medium of transforming reciprocating motion to rotary motion. The crankshaft may be assembled type or two pieces bolted type or may be single piece forging. Balance weights can be either bolted up or welded. The standard Locomotives of Indian Railways

5

are with single-piece crankshaft with welded counter weights. In case of CLW/MAK engines the counter weights are bolted.

The ALCO crankshafts are manufactured from chrome-molybdenum steel equivalent to SAE 4140. The process of forging is such that continuous grain is maintained. In manufacture of crankshaft, following sequence of operation is generally followed: -

a) Forging and forming operation

b) Rough machining

c) Drill of oil holes.

d) Ultrasonic & Mechanical testing

e) Welding of counter weights & their X-ray test.

f) Stress relieving & shot blasting

g) Final machining & for giving fillet radius at crank journal corners and making oil holes.

h) Nitriding

i) Grinding Lapping

j) Static & dynamic balancing

k) Final inspection

There are two processes of surface hardening with details given below:-

Method of hardening

Hardness

Depth of hardness

Induction hardening

C-40

0.124"

Nitriding

C-60

0.012 to 0.015"

Generally for low HP engines the first process is preferred, as depth of case is more and the crank journals and man bearing journals can be ground down to next step size. In case of high HP and high-speed engines, the preference is for the second process as it gives long life, the rate of wear being negligible.

Maintenance & Inspection

Schedule: POH

Procedure: After cleaning thoroughly, Dye penetration / Magnaflux test is conducted to detect surface crack. Measure the following dimensions:

Crank pin: Positioning it vertically check dimension at two locations just beside two oil holes (at two right angular planes in each location) to check ovality and taperness.

Nominal Dia: 6", Limit upto 5.996"

6

Ovality: .002"(max) Taperness: .001"(max)

Main journal: Position the crankshaft, keeping No 1 crankpin in vertical location, measure the dimension as that of crank pin.

Nominal Dia: 8.5", Limit upto 8.496"

Ovality:002" (max) Taperness: .001" (max)

Fillet Radius: Checked through a special gadget. (.0005" filler gauge should not pass between the gadget and the fillet)

Eccentricity checking: Eccentricity is checked between any three consecutive main journals (1,2,3) is given by the distance between the center points of journal 2 and the mid point of the line joining the center points of journals 1 & 3. The limit of eccentricity is .001". Eccentricity is checked by the following way:

Place the crankshaft horizontally on a "V" block supported at No3 and No 7 Main Journals, keeping No 1 crank pin in vertical position.

Mark Dial of a clock at the free end flange in this position, to understand angular location of the maximum deviated zone.

Record the readings of maximum deviation of every main journal along with their angular location.

An example of calculating the eccentricity (For No 1,2,3 Main Journals) is given below:

- Highest total indicator reading (TIR) for:

No 1 M.J.0.0015" at 3 o'clock location.

No 2 M.J. 0.004" at twelve o'clock

No 3 M.J. 0.0015 at 1-30 o'clock

- Plot the graph according to deflection and o'clock location, with suitable scale.

- Connect TIR position of No1 and No3 with a straight line.

- Mark the midpoint of the above straight line and connect it with the TIR of No 2. This is the relative runout of No 1,2,and 3 main journals.

- Divide the runout by 2. This is the eccentricity and must not exceed .001". (This case it is .00175" and not acceptable.)

- Repeat the above case for each group of three consecutive main journals

7

2 3 1
2
3
1

.0035 TIR

12 0'CLOCK

3 O'CLOCK

Crank web deflection: Checking of crank web deflection is one of the major works while assembling engine.

Main generator is coupled at one end of the crankshaft, whose other end is supported on a bearing housed at the magnet frame. As such, due to mislocation of magnet frame, if axis of armature does not completely align with the axis of the crankshaft, the unbalanced mass of armature will cause uneven loading on crank web at different angular positions during rotation. This causes deflection on crank web, which will be changing at various positions of crankshaft during rotation. Such kind of continuous cyclic variation of load leads to main bearing seizure and breakage of crankshaft.

The crank web deflection can be measured by fitting a deflection gauge at the located punch mark on the 8 th crank web, nearer to TG and rotating the crankshaft in both the directions

The permissible limit of deflection on each side is ±. 0008", TIR ±. 0016".

Correction is made by adding or subtracting shims at the mountings of magnet frame with engine block. The magnet frame is mounted at two locations with the engine block and at two locations at the base. Adjustable shims are provided at the mountings of the magnet frame with the block. The shims of the magnet frame with the base are fixed and normally not disturbed during crankshaft deflection.

CAM SHAFT

In diesel engine the cam shaft performs the vital role of opening and closing inlet and exhaust valves and allowing timely injection of fuel inside the cylinder. Usual practice is to provide 3 cams for each cylinder the two outer cams being for exhaust and inlet valves and the central cam being for fuel injection.

Like most of the Diesel engine manufacturers, ALCO engines have cams integral with camshaft. Each camshaft section takes care of two cylinders. After profile milling of the cam lobes the cams are given for induction hardening. Subsequent to this the cams are put on profile grinding machine. The individual camshafts are joined together by bolting.

8

The location of dowel hole is of importance as it determines the relative angular position of one camshaft section with respect to the adjacent one.

In order to avoid wrong assembly respective catalogue Nos. of camshaft sections are punched onto the shaft. Care has to be taken to see that the correct section is fitted in correct location. The rifle hole is made in the center of the shaft for lubrication of cam bearings. Lubrication to cam lobes is provided by oil coming from valve lever mechanism via the push rod.

Material composition: The ALCO camshafts are made from AISI specification 1050 with following metallurgical composition.

Carbon 0.48 to 0.53%

Manganese 0.60 to 0.90%

Chromium 0.15 to 0.30% Max.

Phosphorus 0.025% Max.

Sulphur 0.025% max.

Assembly & Inspection

Schedule: POH

Inspection: Check cam profile through profile gauge.( If damaged or worn out the cam segment is changed.)

Setting of Cam shaft & Valve/ FIP timing:

(a)Timing Mark & Pointer

Timing Marks are provided on Timing Disc (Main Generator fan) fitted with Main Generator armature, mounted on crankshaft. (Relation between crank shaft, armature and armature fan are maintained through dowels, provided)

TDC, INJ Pointer is mounted on the block to read the relative position of cylinder corresponding to pointer and timing disc. (Pointer needs to be calibrated during engine overhauling by finding TDC with the help of dial indicator or trammel gauge.)

(b) Setting of cam shaft

Assemble the cam segments as per correct sequence and order (Part Number indicates the sequence and dowels fix their angular relation). Thus left and right side camshafts are formed.

Position the crankshaft to 1R TDC. Match both side cam gears with crankshaft gear in such way that cut marks (line mark) on cam gear should perfectly match with block edges.

9

Now fit both camshafts matching with the key holes of cam gears.

Secure the camshafts finally on cam gear by tightening it properly through locknut.

(c) Valve Timing

Rotate the crankshaft and bring the corresponding cylinder to compression stroke (ensure compression stroke by feeling free rotation of push rods.)

Check the gap between the valve stem and yoke. It should be 0.034". If not adjust it through valve lever adjustment nut and yoke adjustment nut.

(d) FIP Timing

Rotate the engine to bring the injection point against the corresponding cylinder.

Match the body cut mark of FIP at inspection window with the given line mark on guide cup .If not, adjust it through timing allenscrew provided at the bottom of the FP lifter.

CYLINDER HEAD

The cylinder head is held on to the cylinder liner by seven hold down studs or bolts provided on the cylinder block. It is subjected to high shock stress and combustion temperature at the lower face, which forms a part of combustion chamber. It is a complicated casting where cooling passages are cored for holding water for cooling the cylinder head. In addition to this provision is made for providing passage of inlet air and exhaust gas. Further, space has been provided for holding fuel injection nozzles, valve guides and valve seat inserts also.

In cylinder heads valve seat inserts with lock rings are used as replaceable wearing part. The inserts are made of stellite or weltite. To provide interference fit, inserts are frozen in ice and cylinder head is heated to bring about a temperature differential of 250°F and the insert is pushed into recess in cylinder head. The valve seat inserts are ground to an angle of 44.5° whereas the valve is ground to 45° to ensure line contact. (In the latest engines the inlet valves are ground at 30° and seats are ground at 29.5°). Each cylinder has 2 exhaust and 2 inlet valves of 2.85" in dia. The valves have stem of alloy steel and valve head of austenitic stainless steel, butt-welded together into a composite unit. The valve head material being austenitic steel has high level of stretch resistance and is capable of hardening above Rockwell –34 to resist deformation due to continuous pounding action.

The valve guides are interference fit to the cylinder head with an interference of 0.0008" to 0.0018". After attention to the cylinder heads the same is hydraulically tested at 70 psi and 190°F. The fitment of cylinder heads is done in ALCO engines with a torque value of

10

550 Ft.lbs. The cylinder head is a metal-to-metal joint on to cylinder.

The cylinder head castings are made from special alloy cast iron as per specification given below: -

Material composition:

Total carbon 3.00 to 3.40%

Silicon 1.80 to 2.20%.

Sulphur 0.12% to 0.8%.

Phosphorous 0.15 Max

Manganese 0.65% to 90%

Chromium 0.20% to 0.40%

Nickel 1% Min.

Molybdenum 0.35% to 0.45%

ALCO 251+ cylinder heads are the latest generation cylinder heads, used in uprated engines, with the following feature:

-Fire deck thickness reduced for better heat transmission.

-Middle deck modified by increasing number of ribs (supports) to increase its mechanical strength. The flying buttress fashion of middle deck improves the flow pattern of water eliminating water stagnation at the corners inside cylinder head.

-Water holding capacity increased by increasing number of cores (14 instead of 11)

-Use of frost core plugs instead of threaded plugs, arrest tendency of leakage.

-Made lighter by 8 kgs (Al spacer is used to make good the gap between rubber grommet and cylinder head.)

-Retaining rings of valve seat inserts eliminated.

Benefits:-

-Better heat dissipation

-Failure reduced by reducing crack and eliminating sagging effect of fire deck area.

Maintenance and Inspection

Schedule: Yearly

Cleaning: By dipping in a tank containing caustic solution or ORION-355

11

solution with water (1:5) supported by air agitation and heating.

Crack Inspection: Check face cracks and insert cracks by dye penetration test.

Hydraulic Test: Conduct hyd. test (at 70 psi, 200°F) for checking water leakage at nozzle sleeve, ferrule, core plugs and combustion face.

Dimensional checks :

(a)

Face seat thickness: within 0.005" to 0.020"

(b)

Interference:

I. Valve seat insert to housing: 0.0015" to 0.0035" (Stellite)

0.003" to 0.005" (Weltite)

II. Valve Guide: 0.0008" to 0.0018"

III. Yoke Guide: 0.0015"

(c)

Projected Height:

I. Valve Guide: 2.25"

II. Yoke Guide: 3.210" to 3.272"

(d)

Clearance between valve and guide: 0.004" to 0.007"

(e)

Thickness of valve disc & Insert: 5/32" (new) 3/32" (min)

(f)

Straightness of valve stem: Runout should not exceed 0.0005"

(g)

Free & Compressed height (at 118 lbs.) of springs: 3 13/16" & 4 13/16"

Checks during overhauling:

(a)

Ground the valve seat insert to 44.5°/29.5°, maintain run out of insert within 0.002" with respect to valve guide while grinding.

(b)

Grind the valves to 45°/30° and ensure continuous hair line contact with valve guide by checking colour match.

(c)

Ensure no crack has developed to inserts after grinding, checked by dye penetration test.

(d)

Make pairing of springs and check proper draw on valve locks and proper condition of groove and locks while assembling of valves.

(e)

Lap the face joint to ensure leak proof joint with liner.

(f)

Blow by test:

I. On bench blow by test is conducted to ensure the sealing effect of cylinder head.

12

II.

Blow by test is also conducted to check the sealing efficiency of the combustion chamber on a running engine, as per the following procedure:

a) Run the engine to attain normal operating temperature (65°C)

b) Stop running after attaining normal operating temperature.

c) Bring the piston of the corresponding cylinder at TDC in compression stroke.

d) Fit blow-by gadget (Consists of compressed air line with the provision of a pressure gauge and stopcock) removing decompression plug.

e) Charge the combustion chamber with compressed air.

f) Cut off air supply at 70 psi. through stop cock and record the time when it comes down to zero.

g) 7 to 10 secs is OK., if less check the leakage.

h) To check leakage, charge continuously at 70 psi

-Leakage through TSC indicates head defective.

-Leakage through Sump indicates defect in Piston or Liner.

(g) Tale-tell hole checks: Tale tell hole in cylinder head tells about the condition of cylinder heads in running condition as per the following:

I. No leakage: OK

II. Fuel droplets: Upto 2 drops/min OK.

If more, Nozzle leak off rate is high.

III. Fuel Mist: Nozzle seat defective.

IV. Water leakage: Nozzle Sleeve cracked.

V. L/Oil leakage: Rubber ring on Nozzle perished.

LINERS

Liner forms the wall of the combustion chamber as well as it also guides the movement of piston inside it. Liners are mainly of two types i.e. (a) Dry liner (b) Wet liner.

(a) Dry liners are those, which does not come in direct contact with coolant but fits in as a sleeve inside an already complete cylinder. The temperature of the inside surface of dry liner is higher than corresponding wet liner. Dry liners are in use in only very small engines.

(b) Wet liners are those, which not only form the cylinder wall, but also form a part of the

13

water jacket. ALCO Locomotives are fitted with wet liners, which have slight interference fit on upper and lower decks. In addition to this, synthetic rubber seals of suitable qualities are to be used, one on the upper deck groove and two on middle deck. Lack of interference or defect in gaskets may result in water leakage causing water contamination of crank case oil. The liner bore has chrome-plated surface and is honey combed by electrolytic process. ALCO liners have no step size in the bore. It has got only one standard size permitting a wear of 0.009 inch.

The General Motor cylinder liners are fabricated type embodying the water jacket. In General Motor Locomotives, instead of liner bore being chrome plated the piston rings are chrome plated.

The ALCO cylinder liners are made of high strength close-grained alloy cast iron heat- treated to relieve stresses. The liner metal composition of a typical ALCO engine is given below: -

COMPOSITION

(Unalloyed cast iron grade 17)

Carbon 3.00 -0 3.50%

Silicon 1.70 to 2.30%

Sulphur 0.12% Max (mandatory)

Phosphorus 0.15% Max (mandatory)

Manganese 0.60 to 0.90%

Chromium 0.25 to 0.60 %

Molybdenum 0.35 to 0.70% (mandatory)

Maintenance & Inspection: Yearly inspection, 3 yearly & POH renewal

The cylinder liners suffer from the following major defects:

(a) Wear in the bore (Nominal bore 9”.Max allowed 9.009”)

Max ovality: .003”(max) Max taperness: .002”(max)

(b) Loss of interference in the top & bottom decks.

In the bottom deck portion, in between Liner and block a sleeve is used, made of spheroidal cast iron. Hence in case of losing interference or any other defect the sleeve is renewed.

Interference between block to sleeve: .004” to .008”

Int. between sleeve to liner: .0005”to .0015”

As the liners form water jacket with the engine block, hence for proper sealing one rubber

14

ring of Si- rubber and two rubber rings of Viton rubber are used at the top and bottom deck respectively. It is essential to change the rubber rings while renewing or removing liners.

(c)Cavitation erosion of outside circumference particularly near the location of fuel injection pump side and also opposite to fuel injection pump side.

The cylinder liners can be reclaimed by re-chrome-plating in case of wear in the bore up to a certain limit. In case of cavitation and erosion, if the cavity is more than 1/8" deep then the liner has to be taken out of use.

PISTONS, PISTON RINGS AND CONNECTING ROD

PISTON

The piston is the most important component in the diesel engine as it takes direct part in transmission of power. It is, therefore, necessary that the designers and users must know the essential details about the piston. The combustion of fuel results in large amount of heat being developed. Out of this about 18% of the heat is absorbed by piston only.

The functions of the piston are: -

(a) It compresses the air to required pressure & temperature.

(b) It receives the thrust of expanding gases and transmits the force through connecting rod (for rotating crankshaft).

(c) It forms the crosshead through which side thrust due to angularity of connecting rod is

transmitted to the cylinder wall.

(d) With the help of piston rings it prevents leakage of gas from combustion chamber to

crank case.

Guiding factors for dimensions are as follows: -

(a) The top portion of the piston is in contact with direct heat of combustion. Inspite of

cooling arrangement, it takes up more expansion and as such the need for more clearance

at this location.

(b) Relief has to be provided at the piston pin located area to prevent seizure of piston due

to bulging of material at this location in course of working.

Ring Grove Insert

The top most ring bears the maximum burnt of high pressure hot gases. This result in heavy wears in the upper ring groove. In order to over come this problem, Ni-resist ring insert is fitted in the uppermost ring groove. Ni-resist rings apart from being dove tailed in Aluminium casting/forging, are molecularly bounded to the Aluminium body by AI-FIN- process.

15

Piston material:

In many ways cast iron is best-suited material for manufacture of piston. The reasons are as follows: -

(a) Co-efficient of expansion matches with cylinder liner whereas Aluminium has got

twice the co-efficient of cast iron.

(b) Heat conductivity is 3 times better than Aluminium.

(c) Compression strength is much more than Aluminium at high temperature.

(d) Wear is less than Aluminium.

But the two main disadvantages with cast iron piston are: -

(a) Weight of Aluminium is 0.097 1bs. per cubic inch in place of cast from which is 0.284 1bs. per cubic inch. Thus cast iron pistons are about 3 times heavier than Aluminium piston in weight.

(b) Possibilities of cylinder liner being scored are more in case of cast iron piston.

The factor of weight has become more over riding in view of the high speed of the modern diesel engines and hence Aluminium alloy pistons are favoured. ALCO 251 engines pistons are of Aluminium alloy with composition given below-

COMPOSITION

Copper 5.8 to 6.8%

Zinc 0.10% max.

Manganese 0.20 to 0.40

Titanium 0.02 to 0.10

Vanadium 0.05 to 0.15 %

Zirconium 0.10 to 0.25 %

Silicon 0.20% Max.

Iron 0.30% Max.

Magnesium 0.02% Max.

Other 0.15% TOTAL

Aluminium - remainder

These pistons are in two parts i.e. the piston body (or skirt) and the ring carrier having interference fit. The joint between the ring carrier and piston is welded at the crown by inert gas welding.

Mahle has developed single cast Al alloy piston, reducing the chances of dislodging of ring carrier during working.

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Steel cap pistons are used in Fuel efficient and upgraded engines.

PISTON RINGS

The main functions of piston rings are: -