Você está na página 1de 43

FYBMS Environmental Management Notes.

Chapter 1 : BASICS OF ENVIRONMENT


The dictionary meaning of the term environment is surroundings - the region surrounding or circumstances in which anything exists, everything external to the organisms. Environment therefore, refers to the sum of total conditions that surround man at a given point in space and time. The term environment was introduced in Ecology by biologist Jacob Van Uerkul (1864-1944) to denote these aspects of the world surroundings, with reference to organisms. The field of environment involves an understanding of the scientific principles, economic influences and political actions attending these aspects. TYPES OF ENVIRONMENT The environmental can be divided into physical biological and cultural environment. On the basis of the structure the environment may be divided into fundamental types The Abiotic or Physical environment consisting of air, water and soil/sediment. The Biotic or Biological environment consisting of flora, fauna and micro-organism al Environment is further subdivided into three broad categories: A Lithosphere (sphere of rock /soil/sediment) B Hydrosphere (sphere of water) C Atmosphere (sphere of gas) The biotic components of the environment consist of plant(flora), animal(fauna), including man as an important component and micro-organism. Thus, the biological/biotic environment can be further subdivided into: A Flora / Plant Environment B Fauna /Animal Environment C Microbial Environment ELEMENTS OF THE ENVIRONMENT A. Biotic Components: The Abiotic components comprise the inorganic substances (carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen, sulphur, phosphorus, etc), and come mainly from the lithosphere, atmosphere and hydrosphere. Lithosphere : The oceanic and the continental crust and the rigid upper portion of the mantle of the earth constitute the lithosphere. The economically useful elements (minerals ,metals, rock, fossil fuels), essential for man are basically from the lithosphere. The lithosphere occupies 30% of the total Earths surface. Land formations like the mountains plateau and plain supply habitat for plants and animals. The type of the economy depends upon the topography of the area. Plains are suitable for agriculture and industrial activity.

Atmosphere : The multi-layered gaseous envelope surrounding the planet earth is atmosphere. The atmosphere is a significant component of the natural environment. All the necessary gasses (oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon-dioxide, and water vapour), sources for the sustenance of all the life forms in the biosphere are components of atmosphere. The atmosphere filters the incoming ultra-violet (UV) radiation and protects the earths surface from abnormal features such as cancer / mutation in organisms. Hydrosphere:

This is the sphere of water consisting of surface, ground and ocean water. Seventy-one % of the Earths surface is in water. Glaciers and ice caps cover additional areas. Water plays an immense role in the sustainable environment balance of the earth. Water is essential for the industry, transportation, power generation, food production and processing, and the manufacturing sectors of the modern world. Morever, 70% of the body of the organism is constituted by water. The balance of water is maintained through circulation of water in the biosphere is maintained through circulation of water among the atmosphere, lithosphere and hydrosphere by characteristic path ways. The circulation along the characteristic pathways is known as the hydrological cycle. B Biotic Component
Biotic or living components of the environment consist of flora (plant), fauna (animal), and micro-organisms. The biotic components are the drivers of the energy flow and the material cycles in the biosphere. On the basis of the relationship among nutrients, the biota can be divided into two groups Autotrophic or self-nourishing components (e.g. all green plants) and heterotrophic components (e.g. all animals). Autotrophic components: Green plants, algae and photosynthetic bacteria constitute the biotic Autotrophic component of the ecosystems are able to fix light energy and manufacture food from simple inorganic substances like water and carbon dioxide by photosynthesis. This group of organisms is also known as producers. Heterotrophic Components: Fungi, non-photosynthetic bacteria and other organisms and animals are the components of heterotrophic. Consumers are organism like herbivores, carnivores, and omnivores in the order of occurrence in the food chain. Herbivores feed on plants, carnivores feed on animal and omnivores feed on both plants and animals. Herbivores are also called as primary consumers and carnivores and omnivores are known as secondary and tertiary consumers, respectively. Decomposers are also known as sapotrophs and consist mainly bacteria and fungi. They break down complex compounds of the dead organisms, absorb some of the decomposed or breakdown products and release inorganic nutrients into the environment, thus making them available again to the autotrophs. RELATIONSHIP AT DIFFERENT LEVELS The biotic component is the functional kingdom of nature, because it is based on the type of nutrition and is the energy source of all biota of the biosphere. The biotic components are arranged following a systematic pattern where all organisms are connected step-wise to each other in the ecosystem according to their food habits. The steps or levels of the

ecosystem are known as trophic levels. All trophic levels are closely interrelated with each other from the view point of food transfer and supplements to the biosphere, which is further connected with the economic environment of humans. Relationship among the different levels can be better understood by analysis of the functional aspects (material cycle and energy flow) of the ecosystem. THE CARBON CYCLE The carbon cycle is one of the important cycles at the global levels. Carbon moves in the biosphere through various pathways. Human activities are making a significant impact on the global carbon cycle. The burning of fossil fuel, agro-industrial activity, deforestation etc. are increasing in the concentration in the atmosphere steadily. Flows between the atmosphere and the oceans were balanced until the onset of the industrial age. The atmospheric CO2 enters the plants at the time of photosynthesis. This is a process by which plants prepare their own food in the presence of sunlight. The carbon from CO2 is retained inside the plant and the oxygen is released into the environment. Animals eat plants and so the stored carbon enters their bodies. This carbon is then released back into the atmosphere by respiration. Sometimes trees, plants and animals get buried in the earths crust, and then due to immense pressure and heat this organic matter after thousands of years gets turned into fossil fuels. These fossil fuels are taken out of the ground by man and are burned, again releasing carbon back into the atmosphere. THE NITROGEN CYCLE Nitrogen is the most abundant element in the atmosphere. It is a vital element for all the living systems. It is the primary nutrient for all green plants, but it must be modified before it can be utilized by most living systems. Four processes participate in the cycling of nitrogen through biosphere Nitrogen Fixation Ammonification Nitrification Denitrification
NITROGEN FIXATION

First step in the N Cycle ---is the conversion of nitrogen gas (N2) into NH3 or organic nitrogen. Three processes are responsible for the most of the nitrogen fixation in the biosphere: Atmospheric fixation by lighting Industrial fixation by humans Biological fixation by certain microbes, alone or in a symbiotic relationship with plants.
AMMONIFICATION

This is the biochemical process whereby nitrogen is released from nitrogen containing organic compounds. Soil bacteria decompose organic nitrogen forms in soil to the ammonium form. This process is referred to as ammonification.
NITRIFICATION

Nitrification is the conversion of NH4 to NO3. This aerobic reaction is carried out by Autotrophic bacteria.
DENITRIFICATION

This involves conversion ofNO3 to N2 gas in the presence of low oxygen levels. THE HYDROLOGICAL CYCLE: Water is essential to life. Without it the biosphere that exists on the surface of the earth would not be possible. Nicknamed the water planet, earth is covered by one of our most precious resources. However almost 93% is locked in the ocean, toxic to humans and many plants and animals. The hydrologic cycle takes place in the hydrosphere, the region containing all the water in the atmosphere and on the surface of the earth. The cycle is the movement of the water through this hydrosphere. The components of the hydro cycle are: Condensation Infiltration Run off Evaporation Precipitation * This cycle should be explained in detail CLASSIFICATION OF ECOSYSTEM Ecosystems are classified as 1. Natural ecosystem 2. Artificial (man-engineered) ecosystem NATURAL ECOSYSTEMS It operates by themselves under natural condition without any major interference by man. On the basis of habitat, natural ecosystem are further divided as terrestrial, as forest grassland, desert, etc.and aquatic. Aquatic ecosystem are further distinguished as Freshwater that may be lotic (running water as a spring, stream, river) or lentic (standing water as a lake, pond, pool, puddle, ditch, swamp etc.) and marine, such deep as bodies as an ocean and shallow ones as a sea, estuary etc. ARTIFICIAL (MAN-ENGINEERED) ECOSYSTEMS This is maintained by man, by addition of energy and planned manipulation. For example croplands like wheat, rice fields etc. where man tries to control the biotic community as well as the physical-chemical environment, are artificial ecosystem. Ecosystems

Natural

Man made

Terrestrial

Aquatic

Marine

Freshwater

Lotic

Lentic

THE CONCEPT OF ECOBALANCE Ecological balance is the state of dynamic equilibrium within a community of organism. The ecological balance of an area can be evaluated assessing the consumptions of energy and raw material, generation of emission, waste and the cost. There are areas of eco-imbalance all over the world and this need to be addressed in a manner that mitigates the imbalances. REASONS FOR ECOLOGICAL IMBALANCE 1) Lack of cooperation, more competition There is lack of co-operation among the major nation, to help in resolution of current environmental problems. The problems are not addressed in a realistic way. Some of these nations, moreover, are the most offenders. Instead of co-operation, competition in the present practice. As a result, eco balance has been deteriorated drastically. 2) Uncontrolled exploitation and utilization of resources Uncontrolled exploitation of non-renewable resources and over- utilization of resources for economic growth without considering ecological viability is another important reason for ecoimbalance. 3) Environmental pollution Inefficient or backdated technologies are creating havoc with the pollutants leading to pollution loads in the atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere. therefore, normal functioning of the atmosphere is disrupted significantly, and causing global environmental problems like the green house effect, ozone holes, acid rains, global warming, climate change etc. 4) Inappropriate management of waste Wastes generated from industrial as well as agricultural activities are not managed properly. A huge amount of solid and hazardous waste are discarded or disposed to the environment without considering the health of the ecosystem. Major creeks have been used for dumping of the waste therefore causing imbalance in the oceanic environment. 5) Population explosion Population growth is the mother of all environment degradation. Over-populated areas are generally have the problem of deforestation, destruction of biodiversity, lack of resources, regeneration, etc. consequently, changes in the landscape. Ecological states and environmental pollution takes place and at any cost ethics for business come into play. Therefore, the ecological balance is again disrupted.

NEED FOR ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES The urgent need to protect the environment ,in order to maintain the quality of life, has now been identified globally. Environmental protection starts by creating awareness among people that it becomes a part of their style . the important features of the subject are: a) It is very important for each individual for self-fulfillment and social development. It helps in the maintenance of life and health, in self- preservation, and in the preservation of the human race. b) It helps to understand different food chains and the ecological balance in nature. c) It helps to understand and appreciates how the environment is used for making a living and for promoting a material culture d) It helps in appreciating and enjoying nature and society. e) It is concerned with the changing the environment in a systematic manner for the immediate as well as future welfare of mankind. f) It directs attention toward problems of population explosion, exhaustion of natural resources and pollution of the environment, and throws light on the methods of solution. OBJECTIVES The objectives of environmental education are to help social groups and individual to acquire: a) Awareness : acquire an awareness of the environment as a whole and it is allied problems and sensitivity b) Knowledge :gain a variety of experiences and acquire a basic understanding of the environment and its associated problems . c) Attitude : acquire a set of values and feeling of concern for the environment and the motivation for active participation in the environmental improvement and protection. d) Skill : acquire skill to identify and solve the environmental problems. e) Evaluation ability: develop the ability to evaluate environmental measures and education programme in terms of ecological, economic, social, and aesthetic factors. f) Participation: to provide an opportunity to be actively involved at all levels of working towards the solution of environmental problems. -------------------------------------------------

Chapter 2
CONSERVATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES Definition. Conservation is the wise management of the biosphere (lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere) for the benefit of all life, including human beings, in such a way that the natural ecosystems are maintained as well as utilized in a planned manner. This would yield sustainable benefit to the present generation and also maintain its potential to meet the needs and aspirations of the future generations. Resource means a source of supply or support generally held in reserve.

The natural resources are the various life supporting components of the biosphere, which can be drawn and utilized by the organisms from their environment. These resources include energy, air, water, land (soil), minerals, microorganisms, plants, animals, forests, forest products, fuels, etc. Threat of the ecological crisis. In every ecosystem, the biotic and abiotic components are closely interrelated and through their interactions, they naturally manage to maintain the ecological balance. Similarly, various organisms present in any given ecosystem live as components of their natural environment and abide by the laws of nature. In addition, for this reason, the natural, undisturbed ecosystems are able to maintain the equilibrium of nature. On the other hand, man has created his own ecosystem. Since man is the only animal who has understood the nature, he has always interfered and changed it as per as his needs and desire. In the process, he has destroyed the natural ecosystems. Indiscriminate and nonjudicious exploitation of nature and natural resources in an unplanned manner by man has disturbed the natures balance. This is creating a condition of ecological crisis all over the world. If this is not stopped with immediate effect, the present ecological crisis will lead to the point of no return resulting in total disintegration of the nature. The consequences will be disastrous and devastating not only for man but for the entire life on earth. Need for conservation. Thus, it is obvious that if we want to save the human race as well as the enormous diversity of life on earth, we must at once adapt and implement some distinct measures for conservation of nature and natural resources. This is to insure planned, judicious and controlled use of life-sustaining natural systems. Our late Prime Minister Smt. Indira Gandhi while launching the World Conservation Strategy in India on 6 March 1980 emphasized our ancient tradition of care, conservation and worship of trees and animals. In her, own words the interest in conservation is not sentimental one but the rediscovery of a truth well-known to our sages. The Indian tradition teaches us that all forms of life, human, animal and plants are so closely linked that disturbance in one gives rise to imbalance in the others. Aims of conservation. 1. To maintain essential ecological processes and life support systems. 2. To preserve biological diversity, and 3. To insure a continuous yield of useful plants, animals and materials by establishing a balanced cycle of harvest and renewal. Conservation is aimed at helping social and economic development. RENEWABLE AND NON-RENEWABLE RESOURCES More commonly, natural resources are classified as

1. 2.

Inexhaustible i.e. wind, tidal energy, precipitation, etc. and Exhaustible e.g. ground water, minerals, fuels, food, forests, etc.

Table showing renewable and non-renewable natural resources Inexhaustible etc. Natural Resources Exhaustible Biotic- (i) Crops, forests, other Renewable vegetations (ii) Wild and domestic animals. (iii) Microorganisms. Abiotic Water, soil, etc. Metals iron, zinc, copper, etc. NonFossil fuels coal, oil deposits, etc. Renewable Minerals and their salts phosphates, nitrates, carbonates, etc. Wind, tidal energy, precipitation,

The exhaustible resources are further classified into two categories.

a. Renewable resources.
The resources that can be regenerated artificially or naturally (such as from the biomass of living organisms) are called renewable resources. E.g. crops, forests and other vegetations, wild and domestic animals, microorganisms, water, land (soil), etc.

b. Non Renewable resources.


Non renewable resources are those natural resources which cannot be regenerated or replaced after use or which lack the ability for recycling. Resources with a very long recycling time are also considered non renewable e.g. fossil fuels (like coal, oil, natural gas) metals, minerals and ores, rocks, etc. The nature and importance of some of the natural resources is considered here.

A. Land (soil).
It is a renewable natural resource. Soil is the complex mixture of physical, chemical and biological components. It is an important abiotic factor of ecosystem as it provides water, nutrients and anchorage to plants (producers). The presence and nature of vegetation in any area largely depend on the quality of soil and the various edaphic factors. Degradation of soil. Misuse or improper use of soil results in degradation of soil. Such soil becomes unsuitable for plant growth. Degradation of soil causes loss of vegetation and this, in turn, adversely affects climate and the environment. Hence, conservation and proper management of soil is very important and essential.

B. Water.
Water is a vitally important renewable natural resource. All organisms need water for survival. Rivers, lakes, ponds, and ground water are the reservoirs of fresh water while oceans are the huge reservoirs of marine water. Rainwater is the natural source for the renewal/replenishment of the water in these reservoirs. Draught and floods are the two main natural factors responsible for the loss of natural water resources directly or indirectly. In addition, non-judicious use and undue wastage by man

also contribute towards the loss of available water. In addition, pollution of water renders it unsuitable for consumption as well as for existence of aquatic flora and fauna. Reduction in soil water or non-availability of water directly affects vegetation growth and disturbs the environment as a whole. Water can be conserved by holding the rainwater in catchments areas by constructing dams and then regulating the water supply through canals. Similarly, growing vegetation cover helps to retain soil water.

C. Forests.
Forests are the vast renewable natural resources. Forests are of immense biological and ecological significance. For example; (i) They are the source of forest products like fuel, timber, lumber, food, medicinal plants, fodder, etc. (ii) They provide ideal habitat for wild life. (iii) They provide vegetation cover to the soil and thus check surface evaporation, increase water-retaining capacity of soil and prevent floods and soil erosion by soil binding. (iv) They help in recycling of moisture in the nature and regulate rainfall. Indiscriminate deforestation reduces rainfall, groundwater level and makes the land barren. This alters the climate of the region. In addition, it disturbs and destroys the wild life. Hence, conservation of forest is essential. There should be proper balance between harvest of forest and its resources on the one hand and the afforestation on the other. D. Wildlife. In a broader sense, the term wildlife covers any or all organisms which are non-cultivated (e.g. wild plants) and non-domesticated (e.g. wild animals). It also includes microorganisms and all other lesser-known human beings. One important and essential characteristic feature of the wildlife is that they are very well adapted to their natural environmental conditions. Hence, they grow and survive in their natural habitat without the care of human beings. Existence of wildlife at all levels of the food chains in any ecosystem is essential for maintaining the ecological balance of that ecosystem. In addition, it must be saved and preserved to maintain the diversity of life. However, wildlife is often threatened with elimination from the region or extinction from the earth. Thus, to save the wildlife and preserve the diversity of life on earth, it is essential to take definite steps towards conservation of wildlife.

E. Food.
Terrestrial agriculture is the main source of food for human beings. However, the total land in the world under cultivation is not enough to provide adequate supply of food for the everincreasing human population. Hence, this creates a condition of food crisis resulting in starvation, malnutrition, etc. To deal with this crisis, modern agricultural practices are used. This involves industrialization of agriculture and to supplement the agricultural products, the aquaculture (fish farming) and mariculture (aquaculture in oceans) are proving to be of immense value. In fact,

oceans have an unlimited potential as source of protein-rich food and raw material, if judiciously used.

F. Minerals.
These are one of the non-renewable natural resources. Organisms need various minerals for normal metabolism and healthy growth. Besides this, huge quantities of minerals are constantly being used in industries and for technological and cultural purposes. The two main sources of minerals are: (i) The earths crust and the parent rocks for terrestrial minerals and (ii) The oceans for the marine minerals. The minerals largely used are of two types :(a) Metallic minerals (e.g. iron, copper, silver, gold, aluminum, lead, zinc, etc.) and (b) Non-metallic minerals (e.g. coal, sand, petroleum products, salts, sulphur, phosphorus, etc.)

G. Fuels and the energy crisis.


Energy is the capacity to do work. It is needed by all organisms for maintenance of life. Similarly, energy is needed constantly and on very large scale for domestic, industrial and technological purposes. In fact, the progress of human civilization and the economic growth of every country largely depend on the resource and supply of energy. The more commonly used conventional source of energy is the various kinds of fossil fuels. These include petroleum, natural gas (e.g. methane), coal, and synfuels (i.e. naturally occurring organic products which can be converted into synthetic petroleum) such as oil shale, tar sands, etc. These account for nearly 90% of the worlds production of commercial energy, the remaining 10% coming from the hydroelectric and nuclear power resources. This will be clear from the following figures. Oil - 39.5% Hydroelectric 6.7% Coal - 30.3% Nuclear power 3.9% Natural gas - 19.6% However, all the fossil fuels are the exhaustible non-renewable natural resources and shall be finished eventually. The realization of this fact is creating the fear of unavoidable energy crisis all over the world. Hence, much before the crisis is reached, it is imperative to (i) Adapt urgent measures to conserve and regulate the existing stock of non-renewable energy resources and (ii) To find some suitable inexhaustible and/or renewable alternative energy resources. In this regard, the following non-conventional renewable sources of energy hold considerable potential and promise, if investigated and exploited properly. These are Solar energy (i) Wind energy (ii) Tidal (ocean) energy (iii) Geothermal energy, etc. In addition, there are number of biomass-based renewable energy systems. These include energy sources such as (i) Fire wood

(ii) Petro plants (i.e. potential plant species, which can be the source of liquid hydrocarbons to be used as a substitute for liquid fuels. (iii) Biogas (iv) Electric energy, etc. ECOLOGICAL CRISIS Environment is the sum total of all conditions and influences that affect the development of life of organisms, while ecology is the overall study of the interactions and interrelationships of organisms and their environment. All natural ecosystems are capable of self-maintenance and are very delicately balanced. The over use, misuse, and abuse of natural resources by the modern man during the last couple of centuries have grossly disturbed the balance of most natural ecosystems of the world. Therefore, for the first time in his cultural history, man is faced with the most serious ecological problem i.e. the ecological crisis. ROLE OF MAN IN CHANGING ENVIRONMENT The condition of ecological crisis is reached because of the degradation of the ecosystems. This is the outcome of the over exploitation of natural resources by man. This was inevitable in view of the population explosion, technological advancement, industrialization, profit oriented capitalism, unplanned urbanization, modern agricultural practices, deforestation, etc. the cumulative effect of all these activities of man, especially during 19th and 20th centuries, is the induction of undesirable changes in the environment (soil, water, air) making it less suitable for organisms. This is called environmental pollution, which ultimately is responsible for the present ecological crisis. Some of the human activities responsible for changing environment and consequent ecological crisis are discussed here. Man and Farming. Agriculture involves intervention and modification of natural ecosystems. The demand of various agricultural products has been constantly increasing because of the ever-increasing human population. Therefore, man has been trying to extract more and more from the available land. This involved heavy use of synthetic chemical fertilizers, manipulation of soil conditions by tillage, control of soil moisture by irrigation and drainage, etc. On the one hand, this helped to increase the agricultural production while; on the other hand, these chemicals have caused considerable degradation of the environment over the years. For example; 1. Deforestation over the years for clearing the land for agriculture has destroyed flora and fauna of large number of ecosystems all over the world. 2. Intense cultivation without proper soil management leads to soil erosion, depletion of soil nutrients and desertification. 3. Irrigation without proper drainage leads to water logging, salination and degradation of the quality of soil. 4. Indiscriminate use of chemical fertilizers and crop protectants, especially of the non-biodegradable types, results in their accumulation in harmful

concentrations in soil, water, etc. They also accumulate in bodies of organisms causing various health problems. Industrialization: Industries provide all the essential as well as luxurious modern amenities. Their role in improving life styles and standards of human societies cannot be denied. Industries have become indispensable component of the modern age. However, industries have adversely affected and changed the environment e.g. 1. Land for setting up industries is acquired either by deforestation or by converting agricultural land. 2. Industries consume huge quantities of raw materials and energy. This results in over exploitation of natural resources and disturbs natural cycles and balance of nature. 3. The various poisonous gases, smoke, etc. released from industries pollute soil and water. Thus, industries are growth of industries is the main cause of unplanned urbanization leading to unequal distribution of human population. In addition, greater the population, greater is the pollution of the given environment. Thus, while industries have become an essential component of modern life, they are also the main factor of degradation of environment and ecosystems. Hence, industries may be described as the necessary evils of the modern age. Technological growth. Technology is closely linked with or is inseparable from science. The two are complementary to each other. The scientific knowledge is used to develop a technology and then the technology used for the advancement of science and benefit of mankind. The advancement in biotechnology during the past few decades has immensely helped in the field of cell and molecular biology, genetic engineering, medicines, medical application, etc. This has resulted in increasing longevity of life and reducing in death rate. Consequently, the global human population continued to increase at alarming rate resulting in the present population explosion. This is especially true for our own country. With the population growth, all kinds of ecological problems also came up leading towards the ecological crisis. Pollution. Pollution refers to any undesirable change in the physical, chemical or biological characteristic of our environment (air, water, soil) that may or will adversely affect human or other species and life-supporting systems of our biosphere directly or indirectly. A substance or factor whose presence can damage the usefulness of a resource is called the pollutant. Large quantities of various gaseous, liquid and solid waste generated by industry and other human activities act as pollutants. These are grouped into two main categories: 1. Biodegradable pollutants e.g. human and animal wastes, agro based residues and fertilizers, etc. However, these can be harmful if their input exceeds the decomposing capacity of the ecosystem.

2. Non-biodegradable pollutants e.g. heavy metals, D.D.T, pesticides, etc. These enter
the food chains and they may be magnified to dangerous levels in higher tropic organisms. The various categories of common pollutants may be listed as follows. 1. Deposited matter (e.g. soot, smoke, tan, dust, grit) 2. Gases (e.g. SO2 , CO, CO2, NO, H2 S, ammonia, fluorine, chlorine, etc.) 3. Chemical compounds (e.g. aldehydes, arsines, hydrogen, fluorides, phosphogens, detergents, etc.) 4. Metals (e.g. Pb, Fe, Zn, Hg, etc.) 5. Ecological poisons (e.g. various biocides) 6. Sewage 7. Radioactive substances 8. Noise 9. Heat. The pollution caused by these pollutants may be classified as air pollution, water pollution and soil pollution. ECOLOGICAL IMBALANCE & ITS CONSEQUENCES The ecological imbalance is created due to the environmental pollution. This adversely affects soil, water, air as well as climatic conditions like temperature, rainfall, etc.

Effect on Land. Land pollution is the by-product of rapid and unplanned industrial progress and over population. The land is polluted with the dumping of solid wastes generated in the household and industrial units. The common soil pollutants are Domestic wastes (e.g. kitchen garbage, household rubbish, bottles, tin cans, plastic materials, rags, waste paper, sewage, etc.) Industrial wastes (e.g. slag, fly-ash, lime sludge, metal scarps, plastics, chemical effluents, etc.) Pollutants washed down from the atmosphere Pesticides and other biocides Synthetic fertilizers Agricultural chemicals. Consequences of land pollution. 1. Loss of soil fertility due to the effect of acids, alkalies, insecticides, fungicides, etc. 2. The essential soil organisms may be killed. 3. Soil becomes toxic for plant growth. 4. Quality of agricultural soil is affected. Effect on water. A vitally important factor like water is also polluted because of various human activities. The main sources of water pollution are 2. Domestic sewage

3. Industrial effluents 4. Chemicals (e.g. fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides, etc; the surface runoffs from agricultural fields) 5. Mineral oils, etc. The water pollutants may be classified as follows. a) Biological Pathogens like viruses, bacteria, protozoa, worms, etc. b) Chemical (i) Inorganic e.g. nitrates, phosphates, chlorides and fluorides. (ii) Organic e.g. pesticides, dyes, chlorocompounds, phenols, paints, plastics, etc. (iii) Heavy metals e.g. soluble heavy metal ions like Hg, Pb, cadmium, Cu, Zn, and their organometallic compounds. c) Physical Heat from industries. Consequences of water pollution. 1. Decrease in the percentage of dissolved oxygen thereby affecting aquatic plants and animals. In addition, decomposition of organic waste in such water is done by anaerobic bacteria. This releases methane and other foul smelling gases. 2. Consumption of water containing various aquatic pathogens causes diseases in plants, animals and humans. 3. The nitrates and phosphates in polluted water cause algal blooms. These disrupt the balance of aquatic eco system. 4. Water polluted with domestic sewage can spread diseases like cholera, typhoid, dysentery, diarrhea and number of other water borne diseases. Effect on air. The industries, automobiles, forest fires and domestic combustion are the major sources of air pollution. The air pollutants discharged from industries and power houses include gases like SO2, CO, CO2, H2S, NO, NO2, etc. and traces of ethylene, acetylene and propylene. Smoke, smog, PAN (peroxy acetyl nitrate) is also the air pollutants from industries. The air pollutants released from automobile exhausts include carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide and hydrocarbons. The PCBs are released into atmosphere when synthetic rubber tyres rub against road. Consequences of air pollution. 1. Inhaling SO2 causes various respiratory disorders; oxides of nitrogen can cause internal bleeding, pneumonia, cancer, etc. Carbon monoxide is a highly poisonous and lethal gas. Similarly, ozone and PAN also cause dry throat, cough, etc. 2. Fumes of toxic metals are extremely harmful. Lead damages brain of young children and in adults; it affects blood, liver, kidney and nervous system. Mercury vapours can cause skin and neurological problems. Dust of coal, asbestos, etc. causes respiratory problems. 3. Gases like SO2, NO2, O3, PAN, etc. cause injury and damage to various economically important plants resulting in great economic loss. In general, air pollutants cause necrosis, premature leaf and fruit fall, affect various metabolic processes, etc. in different plants. 4. Mosses and lichens are highly sensitive to air pollution by SO2. These plants are killed even with slightest SO2 pollution of air. Hence, these act as bioindicators of air pollution. Effect on atmospheric temperature.

Air pollution has adverse effects not only on plants and animals but also on the ecosystem as a whole. One of the most significant effects of air pollution is seen on the rise in global temperature. Higher concentration of CO2 in atmosphere prevents the loss of heat by radiation. The CO2 layer acts like glass panels of the green house. It allows the sunrays to filter through but prevents the heat from radiating out into space. The radiation thus trapped causes rise in temperature. This phenomenon is described as the Green House Effect. CO2 concentration in the atmosphere has increased in the recent past and it is estimated to increase further in near future. If this happens, the global temperature will also rise. Consequence of increased temperature. 1. Rise in global temperature will cause polar ice caps to melt. As a result, there will be rise in sea level and the low lying coastal areas will be submerged. 2. This will also affect the drinking water. 3. The rise in temperature would affect regional climate and cause shift in climatic zones. 4. There will be appreciable decrease in the rainfall. 5. It will also cause death of forests and other vegetations. 6. With the loss of vegetation cover, the soil is exposed. This results in soil erosion, greater heating and evaporation from soil, etc. Effect on diversity of organisms. Origin of new species and extinction of some of the existing species is a part of the natural process of organic evolution. However, human activities are causing extinction at an unnatural or greater rate. Destruction or alteration of natural habitats, pollution of environment, degradation of ecosystem, hunting and poaching, over exploitation of economically important plant and animal species, etc pose great threat to the organisms, both plants and animals. The organisms of such ecosystem should adjust with the changed environment, migrate to some other region or else die. Thus, the original composition of the ecosystem is changed and the number of organisms is reduced. Consequences. As a consequence of above mentioned and some other factors, over the last few centuries many animal and plant species have become extinct and many more are facing the danger of extinction (endangered species). Once a species becomes extinct, it is permanently lost from the world and cannot be retrieved e.g., Cheetah from India and Dodo bird from Mauritius has become extinct. Whatever has happened in the past, now it is our responsibility to prevent the numerous endangered species from becoming extinct. Man alone can do this and help to preserve the diversity of life on earth. Effect on food chains and webs. The reduction in number of species at any food level in the ecosystem, due to migration, excessive killing or extinction, disturbs the food chains and food webs in that ecosystem. For example; over grazing or deforestation reduces/eliminates the vegetation (primary producers). As a result, the number of herbivores decreases (migration or death), this in turn, affects the carnivores in that region. Blooms. Sometimes, the pollution of water by compounds of nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus, etc favours growth of certain algae and causes there over population. This is described as algal

bloom. This sudden increase in the population of a particular species in water affects the aquatic ecosystem directly as well as indirectly. Over population of pest organisms. With tremendous increase in the agricultural crops all over the world, most favourable conditions are created for the pest organisms. Consequently, there is great increase in pest populations. To check these and protect the crop, heavy use of pesticides is in practice. The non-biodegradable chemicals in such pesticides pollute soil and water, and cause many serious health problems through bioaccumulation. Bioaccumulation. Normally, plants and animals have the ability to get rid of some poisons out of their systems. However, certain toxic chemicals like pesticides, insecticides, methyl mercury, heavy metals such as mercury, lead, cadmium, zinc, copper, etc. tend to accumulate and remain fro longer periods in the body of organisms. This is called bioaccumulation. Once bioaccumulated at any level of the food chain, their concentration goes on progressively increasing as they pass from organism to organism along the food chain. This is called biomagnifications. Thus, these chemicals tend to accumulate in quantities far higher than their concentration in the surrounding medium. The toxic methyl mercury present in pollute water can accumulate in fishes in concentration 1000 times greater than its concentration in the water. Consumption of such fish caused Minamata disease in Japan in 1952. Similarly, bioaccumulation of cadmium in liver, kidneys and pancreas caused a human disease called Itai-Itai in Japan. It is a bone disease and leads to cancer of liver and lungs. The bioaccumulation of poisonous substances is found to be very high in India. This is especially true of pesticide chemicals. This is due to the consumption of crop and vegetables treated with insecticides, contaminated water and drinks, etc. The fallouts of nuclear fission and various radioactive substances also enter and accumulate in organisms. These are passed on human through the food chains. This is harmful and causes various health hazards e.g. genetic misbalance, tumors, Leukemia, etc.

Chapter 3
Conservation Def : Simply put, Conservation means Wise Management of our resources so that they remain and can be utilized for a greater amount of time. Immediately after the Earth Summit (1992) India has taken several steps in the direction of conservation of environment and development in harmony with environment. The National Conservation Strategy and Policy Statement on Environment and Development is a step in that direction. It envisages the need for laying down the guidelines that will help to weave environmental considerations into the fabric of national life and development process. It is an expression of commitment for reorienting policies and action in unison with environmental perspective. National Conservation Development. Strategy and Policy Statement on Environment and

The guidelines state, that the survival and well-being of a nation depends on sustainable development. It is a process of social and economic betterment that satisfies the needs and values of all interest groups without foreclosing future options. To this end, we must ensure that the demand on the environment from which we derive our sustenance, does not exceed its carrying capacity for the present as well as future generations. Over the years, there has been progressive pressure on the environment and the natural resources, the alarming consequences of which are becoming evident in increasing proportions. These consequences detract from the gains of development and worsen the standard of living of the poor who are directly dependent on natural resources. It is in this context that we need to give a new thrust towards conservation and sustainable development. The task before us would be daunting if it were not for the many positive factors that are emerging: peoples movement to conserve their own environment, role of judiciary, greater public and media concern for environmental issues and spread of environmental awareness among children and youth.

It is up to us as State and Citizens to undertake development process in keeping with our heritage and the traditional conservation ethos in harmony with the environmental imperatives of this land.

Preservation Preservation is the best form of Conservation, consisting of preventive measures and action designed to forestall and prevent the processes that lead to alterations in the environment.

Sustainable Development Promotion of Sustainable Development


There are two categories of natural resources- non renewable and renewable. The first category includes those which are of geological origin and any amount consumes is gone forever for all practical purposes. The renewable are used or harvested and are replaced/replenishes by natural forces. Sustainability means that the rate of harvest does not exceed the rate of increment/regeneration. The Economic Survey Report says that a countrys environmental problems vary with its stage of development, technology and environment policies. While some problems are associated with the lack of economic development, others are aggravated by economic activities. It further gives glimpses of various factors that affect the environment and resources adversely. For example, while discussing the soil degradation, it says that most of the land in the country shows evidence of degradation, affecting the productive source of economy (out of the total geographical area of 329 million hectares, 175 million hectares are degraded) and the Governments strategy towards preventing such degradation includes such measures as: (a) Water shed development; (b) Treatment of affected areas; (c) Transfer of technology;

(d) Biomass Production; (e) Remote sensing for surveying affected areas. Likewise, the document discusses about deforestation, biodiversity, solid waste disposal and their relationship with economy and environment. The purpose of quoting this report and discussing the relationship between economy and environment is firstly to underscore the point that today the country needs to be on a strong economic and ecological footing. Secondly, is to point out that Governments till recently have been dealing with ecological sustainability and economic development as two separate entities whereas these are interrelated. The ecosystem supports the economic growth and if the former is ignored, Economic growth cannot continue. There is another aspect to sustainability. Sustainable development has to take into consideration not only inter generational equity i.e interest of future generation, but also equity among the nations of north and south. It may be reiterated that economic capital mostly consists of national environmental resources but for the last few decades the developing countries in particular. Have been facing depletion of this capital, thus landing themselves into economic crises. CERTAIN SPECIFIC DIRECTIONS TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND ENVIRONMENT The Government has undertaken certain important steps to prevent damage to the environment, these are: Afforestation National Afforestation and Eco-development Board has been set up to promote afforestation. During 1993, it is claimed that two million hectares of land was brought under afforestation. The Eco Task Force has been constituted to work in environmentally degraded areas. This scheme has been specially conceived to use the services of ex-servicemen. The Government is also hoping that once global funds become available to implement Agenda 21, new afforestation schemes can be initiated. Regulation Polluting Industries The Ministry of Environment and Forests has identified 17 most polluting industries and asked them to install pollution control equipment or face punitive action including closure. The 17 industries declared as most polluting are: sugar, fertilizer, cement, distillery, aluminium, petrochemicals, thermal power, caustic soda, oil refineries, tanneries, copper smelters, zinc smelters, iron and steel, pulp and paper, dye and dye intermediates, pesticides and pharmaceuticals. Public Liability Insurance Act, 1991 and Environment relief Funds. In the wake of the Oleum Gas Leak in which the Supreme Court awarded compensation to the victims of the Oleum Gas Leak from a Delhi Plant of the Delhi Cloth Mills, the Public Liability Insurance Act, 1991 was passed. The Act provides for Public Liability Insurance for the purpose of providing immediate relief to persons affected by accident occurring while handling any hazardous substance. The Act was amended in 1992 to enlarge the meaning of the accident.

The most important aspect of the amendment is the establishment of Environment Relief Fund by the Central Government. Water Cess The increase in the cess of those industries, which consume excess water for discharge of those effluents, which are in access of standards, has been stipulated. Vehicle Exhaust Automobiles are responsible for the greatest air and noise pollution in big cities. Now lead free petrol is used in vehicles plying in big cities. The manufactures of automobiles have been told to stop manufacturing two stroke engines. The compulsory pollution check on vehicles has seen introduced in Delhi and other big cities. The public buses would soon run on CNG, which is eco-friendly. Thermal Plants. Our thermal power plants are great sources of pollution. They produce fly ash and other particulate materials in the surrounding areas. We have been talking of making bricks out of fly ash for almost a decade but not much success has been achieved. Most plants have been asked to install treatment plants but only some have adopted system for collection of dry fly ash for its utilization. Measure For Abatement Of Pollution In Rivers The Government has come out with schemes for cleaning the Ganga, Yamuna and Gomti . For Ganga, this is stipulated as the second phase of the Ganga Action Plan. Under the Scheme, sewage and industrial effluent treatment plants are to be installed in 15 towns long these rivers. The Damodar river is yet another highly polluted river. A project for the cleaning that river is also in offing. The Government of India is visualizing a plan for making pollution free 18 under a comprehensive National River Action Plan Project Tiger Under the Wild Life Protection Act hunting of all wild species other than vermin and those damaging the habitat of wild animals has been prohibited and a Central Zoo Authority has been created. A review of Project Tiger was launched in 1972. It revealed that in 1972, there were about 268 tigers in reserves. In mid-eighties number rose to 1121 in 17 reserves and in 1993 the number was 1327 tigers in 79 reserves. According to a review of the Project Tiger 1993, what has happened is that on account of shortage of prey and harsh environment conditions the tiger would disappear and unless suitable measures are taken urgently it might disappear forever from the Sundarban, which is an ideal habitat for the tigers. Disappearance of the tiger would disturb the delicate ecosystem. Excessive felling of trees along the banks of the rivers has resulted in the shortage of food for the tigers. Public Policy Present system of decision making in many countries tends to separate economic, social and environmental factors at policy level and planning. This has great implications for sustainable development. Environmental policies have to be placed at the center of economic and political decision making if sustainable development is to be achieved. The

responsibility for developing a sound public policy for environment protection and resource conservation lies with the Government. The methods by which a public policy is formulated are: (a) Through legislation; (b) Through ordinance issued by the President of India; (c) Through the decisions handed down by the Supreme Court or High Courts. In our country a significant step was undertaken when the courts as a fundamental right of citizens permitted environmental litigation. Also, the concept of Public Interest Litigation (PIL) was introduced for the first time in the Supreme Court judgment against a municipality. The judgment recognized PIL as a constitutional obligation of the Courts. As a result the courts have been admitting large number of environmental cases. Some of the judges hearing such cases have given landmark judgments and have been called as green judges. Also, some of the lawyers have been called as Environmental activists. The first landmark judgment of the Supreme Court was delivered in 1985 when on the basis of a PIL, the Court directed the U.P Government to stop limestone quarrying in the sub-Himalayan hills of Dehradoon district.

GLOBAL WARMING

EFFECTS OF GLOBAL WARMING


Scientists predict the effects of greenhouse gases by constructing models using computers to assess climatic changes. Scientists agree that: (i) actual warming has been taking place during the last 100 years; (ii) warming would further increase the temperature of the earth by 3-50C if increase in CO2 doubles; (iii) if warming continues, coastal areas would see a rise in sea level. If temperature rises by further 3-50C, sea levels may rise by 0.5 ft. to 5.0 ft. because of melting of mountain glaciers and expansion of oceans. This would result in islands like Maldives getting submerged. HOW TO COMBAT GLOBAL WARMING At the Earth Summit held at Rio De Janeiro (1992) 153 nations signed the convention on climatic change and committed themselves to reduce emissions of CO2 and other greenhouse gases. Thus there is already agreement among nations that global warming is a serious problem and rather than to wait and watch, steps are being taken towards reducing consumption of fossil fuels by finding out alternative sources of renewable energy, better energy management system and reducing deforestation. Following steps have been suggested by experts: 1) Cleaning up of coal driven technology This can lead to lesser pollution. Also conversion of coal to gas is possible. This would further reduce pollution. 2) More use of natural gases than coal because natural gases contain only half the carbon of coal and no sulphur. 3) Renewable sources of energy would ultimately tackle the problem of CO2 emission and pollution. Wind power and solar energy are obvious choices. But there are other renewable sources like photo voltaic (photo voltaics convert sunlight directly into electricity). These sources produce little or no pollution and involve no safety risks. 4) Manufacturing fuel-efficient vehicles is another step.

5) Deforestation Reversal. This is a major step to reduce CO2 concentration. It is


possible to reclaim more land to plant trees but requires more land to plant more trees but requires more help from social, political and financial institutions. GREEN HOUSE GASES Carbon dioxide (CO2) Main greenhouse gas. Arising from burning of fossil fuels. Levels increase as a consequence of deforestation. Methane (CH4) About 20% of greenhouse effect is due to methane. Arises (i) rice paddies; (ii) wetlands; (iii) (iv) burning of wood; (v) landfills Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) Responsible for about 15% of the greenhouse effect. Thousand times more effective (heat absorbing) than CO2 Reach the atmosphere (i) (ii) air conditioning (iii) foam packing industries. Nitrous Oxide (NO2) Responsible for 5% of greenhouse effect. Arises from (i) coal (ii) biomass (iii) foam packing industries. OZONE DEPLETION Ozone depletion is another global problem. Ozone layer in the stratosphere forms a shield for earth against harmful ultraviolet radiation (UV-B) from outer space. Depletion of ozone results in the formation of holes in its shield. UV-B arising from sun would reach the earth if there are ozone holes. Harmful effects The sun emits light rays of varying wavelengths. These rays have varying effects on earths surface, on its living beings, on its ecosystem. The shorter the wavelength of rays, more damage these can do to plants and animals. Ultra violet (UV) rays are of short wave length. Ozone layer/shield as mentioned above acts as a barrier to UV; without this shield, the ecological balance of earth would change, and life would be paralysed. Though most of the plants and animals have some kind of protective mechanism from UV, a longer exposure to these rays result in their penetration to lower layer of body. This leads to skin cancer and damage to eyes in human beings. In plants, the process of photosynthesis - the process by which plant manufacture their food is affected.

from cattle;

from refrigeration; industry;

burning; burning;

The issue The first of recent conventions on environmental issues was the convention on ozone layer protection. Vienna convention as it is called, was held in Vienna in 1985. This was followed by Montreal Protocol. (1987) on substances that deplete ozone layer. It was signed by 24 countries and by 1988 signatories rose to 35. In 1990 delegates from 75 countries and by 75 countries met in London to sign an accord that strengthened the provision on Montreal Treaty. The Ozone Depleting Substances It was in 1974 that Mario Molina and Sherwood Rowland of University of California found that chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) destroy the ozone in the stratosphere. CFCs are inert substances and can remain intact for years. There is another family of compounds, called Halons, which contain bromine. These compounds are 100 times more potent in destroying ozone than CFCs. It may be worth mentioning that CFCs when first discovered proved useful substances especially to refrigeration industry because these are neither inflammable nor toxic. Besides refrigeration industry, these compounds are used as aerosol propellant, as solvents for grease or glues, as a component of foam packaging, etc. Ozone hole Ozone hole was first discovered by British Antarctic Survey in 1983 over Antarctica. It was found that levels of ozone were dropping very fast, though a small percentage was being replenished during fall season. But, by 1987 ozone had dropped by 50 percent. It was also found that ozone levels were dropping in other parts of the world too. Alarmed over such declining levels of ozone, United Nation Environment Programme (UNEP) called a meeting of few developed nations to consider the issue of ozone depletion vis--vis CFCs and phasing out use of ozone depleting compounds. Initially USA resisted but later agreed to 50% reduction in the use of these compounds. This formed the basis of Montreal Protocol (1987) on substances that deplete the ozone layer. TYPES OF WASTES Solid wastes arise from: (i) Domestic Source garbage. (ii) Sewage sludge. (iii) Agricultural source agricultural residues. (iv) Construction sites debris and unused material. (v) Power stations fly ash. (vi) Mining and quarrying. (vii) Industry both hazardous and non- hazardous wastes arise from industrial sources. Hazardous wastes are those wastes which are toxic and pose threat to humans as well as to environment. Examples of these wastes are pesticides, asbestos, polish, paints, stain removers, fluorescent lights, certain types of oils, solvents, etc. Non hazardous industrial wastes are substances like metal and glass pieces, plastic, rubber and sludge from waste treatment plants. (viii) Radio-active wastes from nuclear installations. So far as the radio-active wastes are concerned, there are international conventions relating to their disposal. Legally no country can dump these in the sea. These have to be disposed off or rendered harmless through established procedures.

Excepting certain industrialized countries, in other countries the wastes, garbage or rubbish is handled by agencies/municipal corporations. These are dumped or buried and no body cares what happens to these wastes. Mostly these wastes are burnt, though this practice is now discouraged in big cities. Dumping wastes whether hazardous in this manner results in: (i) health risk to humans (ii) environmental damage in the form of damage to soil, water and air because of leaching by which chemical and other harmful materials percolate into soil and ground water. Also as these wastes decompose, there is foul smell as well as production of methane gas. INTEGRATED SYSTEM FOR WASTE MANAGEMENT Agenda 21 addressed the problem of waste management stating that sound management of wastes is among the major environmental issues for maintaining the quality of Earths environment and achieving sustainable development. Accordingly, waste managemtn is done through following systems. (i) Minimum production of waste. (ii) Maximizing reuse of waste and recycling. (iii) Adopting environmentally sound waste disposal practices. (iv) Extending waste services. MANAGEMENT OF HAZARDOUS WASTES Till 1970s disposal of hazardous wastes did not attract much attention. Not much concern was shown then about the hazardous wastes leaking form dumping grounds into the adjoining areas causing land and water pollution. Since last decade increasing concern has been shown in regard to Hazardous Waste Management including its: (i) Control of generation. (ii) Storage. (iii) Transport. (iv) Reuse. (v) Recycling. (vi) Disposal. Hazardous Waste Management requires not only national but international efforts and cooperation because transboundry shipment of these wastes has now come under scrutiny and is covered under Besel Convention. The UN General Assembly in a resolution dated Dec. 22, 1984 requested regional commissions to prevent the illegal traffic of hazardous wastes. Human Resource Development efforts should be intensified to train the people in various organizations to reorient current waste management practices to include waste reuse and recycling. Promoting Environmentally Sound Waste Disposal Despite the fact that waste production is minimized and wastes are reused and recycled, some wastes still remain. Even after treatment, waste still remains and has impact on environment. Treatment of municipal wastes like garbage and fecal material should be given priority. Efforts should be:

To establish waste treatment and disposal quality criteria and standards based on assimilative capacity of the receiving environment. (ii) To establish mechanism for monitoring waste-related pollution. Various options for waste disposal are: (i) Recycling and reuse. (ii) Landfills. (iii) Composting. (iv) Incineration. Landfills: As mentioned above, earlier almost all the wastes were dumped at so called landfills and burnt releasing smoke and foul smell. These landfills are source of soil and water pollution. This dumping of waste is not environment friendly.

(i)

What is Reusing? The reuse of product means using same product over and over in its original form. Glass bottles or Cola bottles instead of cans are used again and again. Why not use glass material for beverages instead of cans or cardboard cartons. Similarly it is a good practice to carry lunch in steel boxes instead of containers of plastic material which is not biodegradable and reusable. Composting Municipal solid wastes, garbage from kitchens, food processing industry and degradable wastes from slaughterhouse can be composted in composting plants and sold as fertilizer. Household garbage can be composted at backyard o serve as useful nutrient material for vegetation. Incineration: incineration is another method of disposal especially of garbage. It is disposal of waste through burning. It can reduce both the volume and the weight of the wastes. It can render toxic wastes into less toxic substances. The case of Japan using incinerators is mentioned above. Desertification : Desertification is a widespread environmental problem that directly affects over 100 countries. It occurs when productive land in arid, semi-arid and/or sub-humid dryland regions is degraded by human activities and by climate variations like drought. Drylands cover around one third of the worlds land surface and are inhabited by more than one sixth of the worlds population. Global climate changes accelerates the process of desertification as higher temperatures increase evaporation or if there is decrease in rainfall. Human activity is the primary cause of desertification. There are four basic activities tat are responsible for desertification: Over cultivation: today the agricultural practices are more commercial than ever. There are a lot of higher levels of technological inputs, which most of the time do more damage than normal. Farmers feel the necessity to get more output for more gains. The use of improper methods and ever increasing demand for food has compounded the problem. The net result

is a gradual decline in the productivity of once fertile soil and which after some time is abandoned by farmers and termed as useless. Once abandoned natural forces quickly take over and the process of soil degradation sets in. Deforestation: When man requires land for agriculture the first thing he does is clear forest land, this leads to reduction in rainfall and also soil erosion of the top soil. This ends in the soil becoming useless after some years and the whole process is restarted. Improper irrigation: the thirst to produce more and sell more agricultural produce has pushed farmers to use improper irrigation methods. These methods are not monitored properly and most of the time end up increasing the salinity of the soil rendering it useless. Over grazing: This is another activity that has degraded land severely in certain areas. It has led to degradation of soil. About one third of the worlds ranges are severely degraded by over grazing, making this the largest cause for soil degradation. The first sign of improper range management is elimination of the most palatable grasses. As over grazing progresses, hungry animals strip the ground bare and their hooves pound the soil, hastening erosion. Global Action Programme for desertification eradication It has been estimated that the present global direct loss due to desertification amounts to about $42 billion per year. A worldwide programme to combat desertification effectively would lessen this loss considerably. The following are the steps that should be followed: a) Preventive measures. b) Corrective measures c) Rehabilitation programme. Consequences: Global food security will be unattainable if desertification is not stopped and reversed, as to provide for the worlds growing population and providing for adequate diets for all the worlds food production must increase by three times. Desertification reduces biological diversity, increases social strife and strains the resources of the country.

Chapter 4
INTRODUCTION Business and industry including Multinational Corporation (MNCs) play a crucial role in economic and social development of a country. All economic activities either affect or are affected by natural environment resources-extraction, processing, manufacture, transport, consumption and final disposal of the product are related to environment protection. Moreover economic activities affect the natural resources for future generations too. Study of the economic system therefore is crucial in so far as quantity and quality of natural resources is concerned. There are two important aspects of economic and environment linkage: (a) Promotion of sustainable development; (b) Implications on globalised economies. Some of the resources are not renewable and those, which are renewable do not get renewed at the same pace at they are consumed. We have also sent that the production processes result in producing not only the desired product but also the waste. How are the wastes going to be managed? It has therefore become imperative that resource conservation and environmental protection must become a part of overall management and Environmental Management System be adopted as a strategy for meeting the expectation of the society as well as sustainable growth. Not only must this but EMS take cognizance of nature, not infinitum but nature infinitum. The nature has been providing sustenance and protection to living creatures considering the fact that the world is now moving towards innovations and technology, which often denies legitimacy of environmental themes. To bring these under the ambit of the environmental consideration, the structure of the organizations will need to be changed to understand the ecological reality. In summary, it is fair to say that we have only begun to adopt EMS in a responsible way both in national and global perspectives, it is our hope that our relationships with nature and its nature would be perceived at every level, especially political and corporate, with a sense of urgency and acute sensitivity. Till 1970s the slogan was limit to growth which means environmental management to aim at resource conservation at local, community or national level during 1980s and 1990s the situation changed. The environmental issues became global; through they originate at local or national level. Added to this, is the belief that new technology, free trade and product innovation, environmental protection and regeneration of ecosystem are possible. According to this school of thought environmental and resource management is a problem of efficiency in energy used, substitutions of non-renewable or recycling technologies. In this way, more

could be produced but the question is that the more production is achieved without increase in raw materials or resource based. If the resource based raw materials is finite can be increased production. Environmental Management System Environmental aspects It means organizations activities, services and products which interact with the environment e.g. packaging is an aspect and the waste produced in the process of packaging is an impact. Environmental impacts A change in environment, wholly or partially resulting from an organizations activities, services or products (aspect) is referred to as Environmental Impact. Usually impacts are harmful; sometimes impacts can be beneficial as for example conservation programmes protect wild life. Those responsible for EMS, must be able to identify both existing as well as potential impacts. For identifying impacts, following environmental aspects must be known. 1. Emissions. 2. Effluent discharge. 3. Consumption of reuse of material. 4. Noise. Environmental policy It is a written statement that defines organizations mission, attitude and framework of actions towards environment. An environmental policy includes vision and core values of the organizations, compliance with legal and other requirements and commitment to environmental protection through actions like: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Prevention of pollution at source. Reductions of waste. Design and operational management. Minimum use of energy. Bringing awareness to employees.

There can be more actions. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) EIA refers to the review of potential impact of a project to be launched by an organization it includes: 1. Assessment of existing environmental status. 2. Analysis of various factors of Eco system like trees, ponds. 3. Analysis of adverse impact of the project to be started. 4. Impact on people in neighbourhoods.

Certification body It is an independent organisation, which verifies that a companys EMS conforms to specific standard such as ISO14001. Such a body is called certifier. If the system conforms to standard, the company will be awarded certificate. It is advisable to select a certification body, which has been accredited by government agency or other impartial organization with credibility. What is Environmental Audit? It as an objective and documented verification of processes to obtain evidence to determine whether EMS of an organization confirms to the criteria laid down by the organization. It is a detailed evaluation of organizations performance against set objectives. The keys words for EMS audit are: Documented, Periodic and Objective. The report of audit has to be conveyed to the management. If an audit for ISO14001 certification is carried out, it would provide the proof of following objectives: 1. Evidence of conformity of EMS. 2. Evidence of fulfilling legal/regulatory requirements. 3. Provide opportunities for further improvement of EMS. Eco Management and Audit Scheme (EMAS) It is an environmental audit scheme launched by the European Union. It differs from ISO14001 in following respects: 1. It requires an organization to provide the audit report to the public. 2. It applies to manufacturers. Organizations can upgrade from ISO14001 to EMAS through CEN* Very few organizations, so far have registered for EMAS. ISO 14000 (Series) - THE BASIC PRINCIPLES ISO 14000 was approved by European commission through the recommendation of CEN (committee de normalization) which is European Unions Standardization body. ISO 4001 is derived from ISO 9000 but it is broader in scope than quality standards because environmental issues are larger issues affecting the nations and the worlds resources and living conditions. Further, it requires organizations to be concerned with everything from raw material to end product as it reaches the consumer and its final disposal- a cradle to grave approach. ISO 14001 is not a guarantee of excellence in environmental issues. An organization may like to be upgrade from ISO 14001 to EMAS which is open to public. ISO 14000 enables an organizations EMS to: 1. Formulate and define policy and objectives in this regard. 2. To formulate a plan to implement the policy and objectives. 3. To develop the capacities and support to achieve the implementation of policy objectives. 4. To monitor and evaluate environmental performances. 5. To review the EMS for continued improvement. Environmental Policy A sound environmental policy reflects the commitment of management in matters relating to environmental issues. The policy has to be written as a document to be available to the concerned employees as well as external parties.

The policy is formulated by the top management who are signatories of the policy document. Environmental Policy should: 1. Be realistic taking into considerations the constraints and resources of the company aw well as the extent of impact that the organization has on the environment. While discussing the impacts, the document should embody life-cycle analysis, resource conservation, waste reduction and product design. In fact, the concept of sustainable development should be a part of the document. Rhetorics would not serve any purpose in the process of documenting the policy. 2. Be documented and available to all the employees and the eternal partiesstakeholders and public. 3. Be clear about commitment for continued improvement of EMS. 4. Be in conformity with the laws and rules and regulations. In other words, it must make a statement in regard of the compliance. 5. Lay down a framework of environmental objectives. The objectives take into consideration the vision, mission, and the core values of the organizations. The objectives are in fact indicators of performance. The indicators then become measurable. Examples of indicators are quality of a. Raw material used. b. Emissions. c. Other wastes. d. Energy. e. Recycling of waste. The EMS Auditor would be taking into consideration the objectives and all the above listed requirements while conducting the audit. Planning: Planning of EMS for audit requires that the system should be in form of written plan or manual giving details of work and procedures. When the work involves handling of hazardous materials or any other procedure involving safety measures, it has to be carefully written as plan document. Planning for EMS is an important function of an organization in the sense that it takes into consideration a proper schedule, resources, targets, successes as well as likely failures, contingencies and alternatives to mitigate the crisis if it occurs. The plan includes environmental aspects and impacts, thought there may be overlap in policy and planning in this regard. Planning takes into considerations, the processes, resources, responsibilities, skills, authority and coordination. Implementation: The next element of EMS specifications, ISO 14001 is its implementation. An organization should have support and capabilities for achieving objectives and targets set out in policy and plan. The process of implementation implies management skills. Implementation of ISO 14001 means: 1. Management of human, financial and natural resources. 2. Motivation for action. 3. Responsibilities. 4. Documentation 5. Communication with the organization. 6. Operation control.

7. Preparedness of emergency. 8. Records and management of informations. Successful implementation of EMS would need commitment of all the employees. EMS, in fact encompasses many other areas of management, particularly organizational change in one area that is key to successful implementation of EMS. It is important that the traditional management culture is changed to environmental organization culture which means discarding old practices and beliefs and learning new ones. Education and training provide the members of organization with requisite environmental skills and knowledge. Environmental awareness of the staff in general and environmental training for those involved in EMS brings benefits to the organization and helps in implementation of EMS. Of course for this to happen, commitment has to begin at the highest level of management. The top management has also to ensure that sufficient resources are provided for implementation of EMS. Monitoring and evaluation: EMS demands a mechanism for measuring performance and evaluation. After monitoring and evaluation, an organization can then review its action for improvements. Therefore a process has to be evolved that involves testing, and verification. Such a process must be an ongoing process to identify environmental performance indicators that are verifiable. Also for regular monitoring, the companies must establish a system and procedure for determining compliance and conformance with laws and rules and regulations. For conformance to all the above regulations, a periodic audit of EMS should be conducted either by internal or external auditors who are trained and qualified for the job. Review: An organization that has initiated the process of formulating Policy, Planning, Implementation and Monitoring of EMS has to adopt the last step namely, the Review of the system. At this Review stage, the organization has to think in terms of continual improvement of environmental performances. Review is very important because it undertakes an in-depth analysis of all the issues of environmental concern. Reviews must go beyond the stage of compliance. It must pay full attention to implementation of objectives set out by the organization. If the objectives have not been achieved or not achievable, these must be changed or modified. Issues to be discussed in this process of review are: 1. Suitability of environmental policy. 2. Recommendation of audit report. 3. New regulations. 4. Interest of stakeholders. 5. Public awareness and pressures. The review findings must be documented especially its recommendations in regard to safety measures, preventive measures and impacts on public health and living conditions. Accidents and incidents may occur suddenly. They result from failures of equipments, human errors or flaws in EMS itself. These have to be identified and compliances be restored. Human errors are most significant because it is something that can be corrected on the basis of deep analysis as to why a particular person makes a particular mistake. Anyways, it is the management which is blamed if the machine fails or processes become haphazard or when people make mistake. The responsible management reviews the EMS in the light of what is stated in the last sentence.

THE INDIAN SCENE In India today many companies have been certified for ISO 14001. Japan has maximum number of companies certified for ISO 14001 compared to any other country in the world. GLOBALIZATION India opened up its economy in early 1990s. Globalized not only deals with movement of elements like physical capital, (machinery and equipment) technology and labour but also financial capital (foreign direct investment). There is more international trade today band this trend is rising. One major impact of global economy is on environment and resources. The international trade alters the volume of production and consumption. As it is known, the consumption patterns of western countries are imitated by the developing countries (e.g. fast foods) and if this trend continues, its impacts on resources would be significant. Another trend is that poor countries are cash starved. They would tend to sell natural resources to earn foreign exchange. The issue that need immediate attention is whether liberalized trade leads to damage to environment. As mentioned above, global trade and environmental issues were kept separate and even in the initial rounds of talks and negotiations of Uruguay Round of General Agreement on Tariffs Trade(GATT) there was no attempt to resolve the issue of environment and trade. (Uruguay round led to setting cup of WTO in 1995 to administer the agreements on International Trade). However, the final Uruguay round did take into account the environmental issues and ensued that WTO takes up these issues on priority basis. Soft Technlogy Application of Soft Technology: It has now been realized worldwide that in the process of productivity and profit, tremendous damage is caused to the environment, if the technology procedures employed consumes large quantities of natural resources and leave behind a mass of pollutants. Businesses affect the environment in at least two ways, every working day they consume energy and other resources and create waste that must be disposed off. The truth is that no matter how environmentally responsible they may be few industrial factories will ever be truly good to the environment. The most one can hope for is that industrial units do the least damage in the pursuit of productivity and profits. One way to reduce environmental damage is by using soft technology. Soft technology means that technological procedure which is not harsh on the environment. Soft technology disturbs the eco-system to the least extent. It uses the minimum amount of natural resources. It gives time to nature to correct and replenish itself. It produces a low degree of pollutants. It takes steps to process the waste products, so they are converted to harmless products before they are discharged into the eco-system. Soft technology has certain drawbacks as far as the company is concerned, soft technology is less efficient, it gives lower yield (productivity) and hence lower profits. It is also much more expensive as more steps are required to be set up to safe guard the environment or to treat waste. It is increasingly felt that only technology that is suited and adapted to Indian conditions will succeed and be profitable. It has been experienced that foreign technologies made available to developing nations are those, which have become obsolete in their country of origin and are high-energy consumers or not environment friendly. There may be practical difficulties in the employment of soft technology. For example the substitute component may not be readily available at all times and as per specifications.

Every company is saddled with pressures from government, environmentalists customers and others to change its products and processes to more eco-friendly types. In the coming years the distinction between a green and un green company may become a critical factor in the way a stake holder views the company. Ultimately the eco-friendly or green company alone will be able to remain competitive in the coming age.

Measures taken by international community towards Environment Management INTRODUCTION: Mans awareness of resource depletion and degrading environment/ecosystem began after world war 2. But nothing tangible was done to control damage afflicted to environment. This attitude however changed in sixties. The Government in 1960s especially in developed countries were undergoing a social change; later such change also started in developing countries. The social change, raised aspirations and hopes of people for improvement in quality of human life, which in turn opened up numerous issues relating to development, sustainable development, economic growth and consumerism. And all the issues are linked to environment. Soon people recognized that environment was deteriorated and the natural resources were depleting due to developmental activities. Literature appeared that aimed at educating not only the people but also more so the policy makers and the politicians about the matters of environmental concerns. Protecting of environment and conservation of natural resources came to be realized at national and international levels and a concern for ecology become a watchword. As the concerns for environmental problems increased, the governments institutionalized the national and local levels and new through legislation and regulations. New laws were enacted at national and local levels and new agencies established to make sure the compliance of laws especially by business and industry. In the early decades industry, trade and business resisted efforts aimed at environmental protection and resource conservation because money spent on such efforts would diminish profit. However, the attitude is changing, not because of legal action only but also due to realization that cutting down on raw material waste etc. could be a financial gain.
It also became clear; in due course that environmental problems are not only local or national but must be viewed in international perspective. As for example, problems like ozone depletion or Global warming cannot be tackled at national level. Leaders politicians and people in general, therefore, started looking up organizations like UN for environmental issues of global concerns.

United Nations Conference on Human Environment, 1972 It was in the light of the above-mentioned scenario that the United Nations Conference on Human Environment was held at Stockholm. The following two strategies emerged in this conference. 1) The principle and human environment. action plan were evolved for controlling and regulating

2) Institutional and financial arrangements were proposed for achieving the goals for regulating human environment. This has been called as Magma Carter environment. It declares: (a) Human have the fundamental right to freedom, equality and adequate conditions of life in an environment of quality that permits a life of dignity and well-being. (b) Human beings have responsibility to protect and improve the environment for present and future generations. GENERAL ASSEMBLYS RESOLUTION OF DECEMBER, 1972. Stockholm conference was followed by the United Nations General Assembly resolution of December, 1972 emphasising the need of active cooperation among the states in this sphere of human environment. The resolution designated June 5 as The World Environmental Day and urged governments and organisations in the United Nations Systems to undertake on that day every year world wide activity reaffirming their concerns for the protections of the environments. Another resolution was passed which provided for institutional and financial arrangements for international cooperation of environments. Amongst other decisions provisions were made for establishing a governing councils for environmental programmes headquarters at Nairobi leading to establishment of environmental secretariat and environment funds. The governing council formulated long terms and short terms plans for the protection of environment particularly relating to development. UN Habitat Conference on human settlement of 1979, World Conference of 1977 and other conferences. The international efforts at the protections and preservation of the environment became vigorous in 1970s and 1980s. Most important efforts are the followings. 1) UN Habitat Conference on Human Settlements in Vancouver, Canada in 1976. 2) World Water Conference on Mardle Plata, Argentina in 1977. 3) The World Water Conference called upon the UN to establish the programme to provide clean drinking water and sanitation to all. 4) The UN Desertification Conference held in Nairobi in 1977. 5) Paris Conference held in n1986 called for saving trees and forest. The conference was attended by heads of state and government officials from 36 countries. EARTH SUMMIT, 1992 Introduction UN Convened a United Nation Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) at Rio-De-Janeiro in 1992. It is called Earth Summit; an 800- page document called Agenda 21 was issued at this conference. It contains comprehensive blue prints for the government and every thing from population strategy, management of hazardous waste, recycling energy conservation, renewable energy, and business strategy to role of women in the environment. While the guidelines and the principles proclaimed at Rio conference are not legally binded, they carry a strong moral force to ensure their adoption. The underline idea of Agenda 21 is that humanity has reached a point where present policies on development and economic growth have not been able to tackle the problems of poverty, hunger and loving conditions. They continue to cause continuing resource depletion and deterioration of ecosystem on which life on this planet depends. If human beings have been provided with decent living

conditions specially in developing countries, the management of eco system at local, national and global levels have to be undertaken on priority basis. Rio Declaration Having met at Rio de Janeiro from 3 to 14 June , 1992;

Reaffirming the declaration of the United nations Conference on the Human Environment, adopted at Stockholm on 16th June , 1972. and seeking to build upon it; With the goal of establishing a new and equitable global partnership through the creation of new levels of cooperation among States, key sectors of societies and people; Working towards international agreements which respect the interest of all and protect the integrity of the global environment and developmental system; Recognizing the integral and interdependent nature of the Earth, our home.

INDIAS EFFORT
INTRODUCTION India did recognize and visualize the significance of environmental protection and resource conservation before the first International meet on Environmental. The Stockholm Conference on Human Environment was convened by UN in 1972 whereas Indias Fourth Plan (1969-74) document clearly lays down the following: Planning for harmonious development recognizes the unity of nature and man. Such planning is possible only on the basis of a comprehensive appraisal of environmental issues. There are instances in which timely, specialized advice on environmental aspects could have helped in project design and in averting subsequent adverse effect on the environmental leading to loss of invested resources. It is necessary, therefore, to introduce the environmental aspect into our planning and development. CONSTITUTIONAL PROVISION Within five years of the Stockholm Conference, India amended its Constitution (The 42nd Constitutional amendment 1976) to include Environmental Protection as a constitutional obligation. Article 48A lays down: The State shall endeavor to protect and improve the environmental and to safeguard the forest and wildlife of the country. Article 51A relates to fundamental duty. This article runs: It shall be the duty of every citizen of India to protect and improve the natural environmental including forests, lakes, rivers and wildlife and to have compassion for living creatures. NATIONAL COMMITTEE ON ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING AND COORDINATION Soon after the Stockholm conference, India set up a National Committee on Environment Planning and Coordination (NCEPC). This committee was concerned with issues relating to appraisal of development projects, human settlements planning, survey of eco-systems, like wetland, and spread of environment education.

Environment Protection Act 1986 Till 1980s, emphasis seems to have been chiefly to prevent and control pollution. In 1986 the Government of India passed a comprehensive Environment Protection, Act, (1986) as an aftermath of Bhopal tragedy of 1984. The Environment Protection Act (1986) was passed for the protection of environment, regulation of discharge of pollutants, handling of hazardous substances, speedy response in the event of accidents threatening environment and deterrent punishment to those who endanger human environment, safety and health. The present Act was enacted to bridge the gaps in the existing legislation on this subject, since the existing laws generally focus on specific types of pollution or on specific categories of hazardous substances. Yet some major areas of environmental hazards are not covered. There are uncovered gaps in areas of major environmental hazards. There are inadequate linkages in handling matters of industrial and environmental safety. Control mechanisms to guard against build up of hazardous substances, especially new chemicals, in the environment, are weak. Because of a multiplicity of regulatory agencies, there is a need for an authority which can assume the lead role for studying, planning and implementing longterm requirements of environmental safety and to give direction to, and co-ordinate, a system of speedy and adequate response to emergency situation threatening the environment. If the authority contemplated by the Central Government continues to be the existing Pollution Boards then it is feared that the entire exercise may not yield results. This is so because the Pollution Control Boards (CPCB), till now seem to have adopted a soft line vis-vis the country and prefer to be persuasive rather than punitive. It may be pointed out that of late various agencies including CPCBs have become more stringent and have recommended strong actions against those who violate the act. THE SEVENTH AND EIGHTH PLAN Seventh Plan The seventh plan lays down well-defined strategy for environment protection. This strategy is the result of realization that environment and natural resources represent the most fundamental building blocks for national development and social well-being. The strategies that are laid down in the Seventh Plan, to achieve substantial development in harmony with environment are: Eight Plan Eighth Year Plan further strengthened the Environmental policies. In the Eighth Plan allocation of funds for the protection of environment were increased and a state-wise allocation was formulated. The Government of India set up a cell to ensure effective implementation of anti-pollution measures and measures for the protection of environment. India embarked in a big way in the direction of protection of environment in launching new programmes. Noteworthy are the projects for cleaning rivers of which biggest project relate to cleaning of Ganga and Jamuna. India has also embarked on the project of afforestation. India became signatory to Earth Summit 1992.

* Chapters 3 and 4 also have the case studies on Narmada bachao andolan, silent valley, chipko movement etc.- to be elaborated and studied from the class notes

Dear students, some of you from the Sion (W) college had requested me to provide some more points on the topic Man as a Resource Producer and Resource Consumer as I had not given these points in the class so, I am forwarding the same ( the Sion (E) students are welcome to use any points which might not have been covered in class ) this is part of the third chapter. Mans role in Resource Utilisation. Man is known for his skill, ability and intelligence. Man has been, from time immemorial, using his attributes to make his existence a more satisfying one. Today man is not only able to produce and sell many different goods, but if he so chooses he is also able to produce many resources. Therefore man is known as a resource producer, distributor and consumer. Man as a Resource Producer. Man is the most intelligent of species, with the most creative mind known. He has used his skill and intelligence to improve the techniques of production of natural resources i.e. he is able to extract and many times place back what is taken from the environment. Using planning and appropriate technology he is able to allocate resources as he wants and fulfil the needs of the society. Also, he is able to reshape the available natural resources to suit the current needs i.e. Man has the ability to modify the physical environment as he chooses and when he chooses. Therefore man is called as a Producer of resources. Man as a Resource Consumer. During ancient times i.e. during the development of human civilisations, man produced and consumed the available resources in proportion to his very basic needs. But as he flourished and developed his needs also grew, till todays era, which sees a high standard of living. In this age man has to produce more to meet the demands of society. The standard of living and mans ever-increasing demand has led to a large consumption of resources. Using better technology and science man is forever developing newer and better products for the consumption of society. Therefore man is called as a Consumer of resources.

Chapter 5

Watershed management
The necessity of conserving water and soil resources is universally recognized. While there are seven to eight months without water in a year when it is too dry, there is a period of four to five months during the monsoon, when everything is wet and drainage channels become overflowing fast moving rivers. The construction of small and cheap earthen dams to check the overflow of rainwater helps to use this vast water potential that can be used during the long hot and dry months. This simple idea is both water and soil conservation-effective and ecologically sound; was practiced by the people of India in the past, what we today know as the watershed technology. Amongst all the natural resources, water, with its availability, quality and cost-effective distribution have become serious problem, to both city- dwellers and people living in the rural areas. The scarcity availability of water is becoming a severe constraint in improving human food, health security. Water conflicts are likely to grow at local, regional and national levels. Conservation sustainable and the equitable use of water must receive high priority. This needs science-based knowledge of Hydrological cycle and the technical knowledge of Watershed management. What is a watershed? A watershed is defined as any spatial area from which rain or irrigation water is collected and drained through a common point. It is synonymous with a drainage basin or catchment area. There is no definite size for a watershed as it may vary from a few hectares to several hundred hectares. Size of watersheds depends upon the topography. Based on the size watersheds maybe classified as Micro, Mini or Macro. Given the general topography of the Peninsular India and farm size distribution patterns, the joint property of a group of 5 to 10 farmers usually adds up to a landscape unit, which suffices for creating a watershed. In natural landscape, such units generally co-exist in a serial continuum. Each watershed unit is a well-defined topographically delineated area with a distinct boundary. Each landscape watershed may constitute simple or complex agro-ecologies. It may be made up of an upland ecology or a combination of upland, lowland ecologies or in some cases, a toposequential complex of ecologies representing upland lowland and coastal ecosystem. Each ecosystem in such complex watershed has its distinct function and land use capacity. The upland part of the watershed generally represents dry land rain fed agro- ecology and acts as a catchment flow regular area for water to the lowlands. The lowlands, mainly used for the production of paddy or other high water requiring crops, are a net consumer of water while the coastal ecosystem functions as the main water resource system. In this way watershed framework provides the necessary inter-ecological linkages and is a logical unit for the integration of the sustainable use of land and water. It helps augment soil and groundwater resources. It is also benefited by the biological, social and economic inputs, which if properly managed, lead to diversified high agricultural production, control of environment degradation and provide a mechanism for recharging underground water aquifers.

Watershed management in this way, thus ensure water adequacy to crops and reduce the risks of yield loss due to water related tresses.

Basic Principles of Watershed Management


Since no package of practices of large-scale application of watershed technologies exists and there are no thumb rules, which can be universally applied to all kinds of landscapes some fine-tuning of watershed strategies is necessary.

The following are the important steps in watershed management. 1. The first step in watershed management is human resource development and creation of awareness at all levels. 2. The watershed is a geographic hydrologic landscape unit. It has to be surveyed by civil engineers, and the land has to be developed by the watershed farmers on contoured topographic setting. 3. Waterways have to be designed and marketed on the ground and built in harmony with the slope of the land and farmers have to plant their crops and prepare the seedbeds in wheel-leveled land. 4. Finally, tanks have to dug at proper locations and interlinked to achieve maximum water storage efficiency. Where watershed management programme has been applied in a holistic manner it has proven that farm management can be successfully sustained at higher levels. Ralegaon Siddhi village in Maharashtra has been quoted as a best model of watershed management. The adaptation of watershed management techniques has changed fortunes in Jadcherla village in the chronic drought prone Mahboobnagar district of Andhra Pradesh. Under the Rajiv Gandhi Watershed Mission, in Madhya Pradesh, 22 percent of the district lands in Jhabua, which were brought under watershed development, witnessed a remarkable ecological-economic change. The government of Andhra Pradesh has prepared an extensive watershed programme. The government proposes to take up 200 watersheds for development, where there is scarcity of potable water caused by steep fall in groundwater levels.

Land Management
Land has always been the preliminary requisite of economic development. With the changes inland use over time land has become more of a prime and crucial resource. Understanding of the basic fact that just 27% of the total earth surface has land, has made it necessary to understand the importance and limitation of land as a resource. It was therefore essential to manage the land in a more effective manner. The efficiency of Land management is a preliminary to sustainable development because sound land management is crucial to enhance land productivity. Land administration improvement is consistent with land and economic reforms. The use of computer technologies offers new prospects. Land management: a major factor of economic development. The efficiency of Land Administration a preliminary to sustainable development because sound land management is crucial to enhance land productivity; Urban Land Management and Governance : Why are cities involved in the process of economic growth? Cities are historically associated with economic expansion. The acceleration of the urbanization process is unprecented. Urban management and governance are key elements in urban development. The urban employment issue directly affects the economic growth. The urban policy objective is to contribute to the economic development.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Urban Land management and Governance are key elements in urban development Rapid urban population growth places an unprecedented logistical and financial burden on municipal authorities, especially when the urban growth is recent. City governments can do a lot to assist industry and commerce (including tourism) by good planning and physical development. Infact they are confronted with increasing difficulties in the management of land, infrastructure and services: 1. They face a widespread lack of competence in the administrative bodies in charge of town management. 2. They lack the resources to provide infrastructure and basic social services necessary to promote employment, health and economic growth. In that respect, urban management and governance enhancement is a current priority when there is a need to develop the spirit and ability of municipal authorities to plan and manage urban growth and environment and to develop and improve appropriate supporting institutions.

Coastal Zone Management


Coastlines are truly special places, sites of remarkable beauty in high demand for development. Over this past fifty years, our coastal watersheds and shorelines have seen intense pressures for all types of uses-often to the detriment of the very resources which attracted people in the first place. Since the passage of the federal Coastal Zone Management Act and the Clean Water act in the 1970s, government-planning activities have attempted to balance these potentially conflicting uses. Virtually all coastal states now have Coastal Management Plans and Programs, as do many countries and local communities. Amendments to these acts created National Estuary Programs. Non point pollution programs, and a watershed management focus to enhance estuarine and marine water quality, making decisions within this context requires exposures to a vast array of technical information and management tools. The coastal areas are one of the most prime areas as far as the environment is concerned. They form the boundary between the two spheres of the planet viz. Hydrosphere and the Lithosphere. The coasts support one of the natures most diverse and complex environment which perform a multifaceted role which is crucial in maintaining the ecological balance. The multifaceted role which is crucial in maintaining the ecological balance. The coastal areas have become environmental hotspot after it has come under scrutiny due to extensively damages brought about by development activities in these areas. Once upon a time these areas were considered as the wastelands but the developments in the field of environmental studies have changed the perspective towards these so-called wastelands. Considering the fact that about more than 50% of the worlds population lives within the 500 kms. Stretch of the coast, it becomes almost obvious that the human settlements and human activities are also concentrated within this zone. This further led to the step of disposing wastes in this fragile environment the best example around us which has led to severe damage is the area of Mahim creek which was one not long ago a paradise for the migratory as well as local birds. It has turned major feeding and breeding ground for these birds. It was a major feeding and breeding ground for these birds. Today it has turned into nothing more than a junkyard. Mangrove forests along the coast are mainly responsible for the protection of the coasts, prevent soil erosions and lessen the effects of natural disasters like cyclones, typhoons and tidal waves. This ecosystem also help in stabilizing the physical environment by buffering against the wave action and thus stabilizing the sediments which makes them into system supporting a large variety of like forms and a complex food chains and a food web. One of the world known mangroves are that of the

1. 2. 3.

Sunderbans in the Ganga delta. Such a diverse and ecological fragile environment is today under threat from various agencies. This threat is basically due to two reasons, Pollution from land Development projects such as ports, dams etc. Tourism, Deforestation, Overfishing, etc. This has led to a rapid destruction and degradation of the coastal habitats and resources. With the increase in the environmental degradation of coastal areas the Ministry of Environment and forests issued certain guidelines for the development of beaches in 1983. It proposed Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) procedures to gauge the effect of the activities that have direct impact on the coastal areas. In 1991 the ministry issued another notification under the environmental protection act 1986, declaring the coastal stretches as the Coastal Regulation Zones (CRZ), and regulating the activities within the area. The act defines the coastal stretches of seas, bays, estuaries, rivers and backwaters which are influenced by tidal action, in the land ward side up to 500 mts from the high tide line as a pan of the Coastal Regulation Zone.

Agricultural Management
With the ever increasing developments in the field of technology man has achieved unlimited advances to make his life more comfortable. The next result of these developments was an over all increase in the standard of living, and life expectancy. The death rates gradually began to fall but man forgot about the control of birth rates. This imbalance led to the problem of ever increasing population. It is estimated that today there are about a billion people being added to the human population every 12-13 years which requires an increase in the annual food grain production to 250 mn tones once in every 10 years. Till date there has been no acute shortage of food grains in real sense this was possible due to the four basic factors which are as follows; 1. Rapid advances in the technology particularly the breeding of varieties and high yielding seeds. 2. Improvised organization of production and distribution systems of seeds, fertilizers, irrigation etc. 3. Public policies in land reforms, infrastructure development. 4. Efforts of the people towards accepting the new technologies. The developments in the field of agriculture also added a new dimension to traditional agriculture and that was commercial outlook which aimed at maximum output from the farms with the use of most advanced technologies. The traditional farm products were replaced in many parts with industrial and cash corps. This gave rise to new agricultural society with profit as the main motive. This was achieved with the technology, services and government policies, This was later known as the GREEN REVOLUTION. This era started in 1968 and gave a tremendous boost to the agricultural production. Initially the fruits were very tasty but as the time passed the technology began to show its colors. The miracles of the 60s and 70s now are becoming nightmares of today.

The over use of fertilizers for increasing production, use of pesticides, weedicides etc. for crop protection. Over irrigation, destruction of natural gene banks etc. gave rise to serious problems. This raised many questions about the validity of the advances in agriculture. This exploitative agriculture did offer greater possibilities but intensive cultivation without proper soil conservation techniques led to destruction of soil fertility and structure which will lead to formation of deserts. Irrigation without proper drainage will lead to water logging resulting in soil getting alkaline and saline rendering them useless for farming. Extensive use of pesticides and fertilizers fungicides bring about changes in natural food chains which lead to cancer and other disease. Unscientific tapping of ground water will deplete the underground water which will paw away for desertification. Replacement of local species with high yielding varieties in large area will result in spread of diseases capable of wiping out the entire crop. Thus we can see that without proper understanding of the consequences of the changes brought about it has raised new issues and problems. This required a different approach not only to solve the existing problems but also to solve the problems in future. This is the where Agriculture Management techniques came into picture. In the subsequent years 1970 excessive use of fertilizers and chemical pesticides has caused soil degradation, ground water pollution and spread of pesticide resistant pests. This led to warnings of the is no option except to produce more food from less per capita land. In other words impending food crisis in the in coming millennium. Since land is shrinking resource for agriculture there it becomes necessary to produce more with the help of high yields per unit of land. It will be therefore necessary to see how science can be used to rake the productivity without ecological harm. It will be necessary for the emerging progress to be referred as evergreen revolution as the emphasis will be on the productivity which is sustainable overtime and is rooted in the principles of ecology, economics, and social issues. Fortunately in the recent past the revolution in the field of technology gave us three major weapons which will help us to increase our agricultural productivity keeping in view the environmental concerns. These three weapons are, 1. The genetic engineering. 2. The information and communication revolution. 3. The ecotechnology revolution. 1. The genetic engineering will help us in the understanding the genetic bases of living organisms which when used in a careful and rational manner will help to understand and develop newer processes to increase the productivity. 2. The developments in the fields of information and communication will enable us to access the vast store house of information assimilated from the different parts of the world. This information will be very useful for planning and minimizing the damages in agriculture as well as help to increase the productivity as the technical information relating to weather forecasts, agronomics choice of farming methods, fertilizers in proper proportions etc. will also be available. 3. Ecotechnology promotes the best of traditional knowledge and technology with leading technologies like the biotechnology, space (Remote sensing), new materials etc.

If these three weapons are used in combination with the improvements of management and governance, has a great potential for the integrated management of natural resources and ecosystems so as to get the best out of them. The Agricultural Management will now have to look into the problem with an integrated approach keeping a holistic view. Today what is known as precision Agriculture will be the only solution if there is need to increase the food grain production without seriously damaging or the destroying the natural resources required for agriculture. Precision requires an A. HILL AREA MANAGEMENT Problems of hill areas: The crucial environmental problems of the hills are deforestation and soil erosion, both leading to the drying up of water resources, flash floods and decline in the yield of food and cash crops, fodder, fuel and other minor forest produce. Poverty in the hills is directly related to storages of material for basic subsistence, specially where, under the traditional, land and water management systems, the capacity of land to support the population has already been exceeded. In many hill areas, intensive human and livestock pressure along with indiscriminate felling of trees for commercial purposes have already led to loss of soil and rapid depletion and destruction of the forest cover. Besides, the water retention capacity and productivity of land have been adversely affected. These factors have impaired the ecology significantly and also resulted in deterioration in the economic conditions of the hill people. Traditional agricultural practices, especially shifting cultivation, have also contributed to destruction of forests and soil erosion. Seemingly harmless activity as prolonged grazed by livestock, especially goats and sheeps, have further exposed many hill areas, serious ecological degradation. Developmental activities like construction of buildings, roads, dams, large and medium industries and mining, etc. have aggregated environmental problems. Consequently, perennial sources of water springs and small streams have dried up in many areas. The major challenge, therefore, locations specific solutions, so as to reverse the process and ensure sustainable development of the growing population and ecology of the hill areas. Classification of hill areas: The hill areas covered under the HAMP were the areas identified in 1965 by a committee of the National Development Council (NDC) and these recommended by the High level Committee for Western Ghats in 1972. The Hill areas of the country fall broadly in to the following two categories: 1. Areas which are coextensive with the boundaries of the state or Union Territory, namely Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Sikkim, Manipur, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Tripura, Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram. 2. Areas which form part of a state which are termed as Designated Hill Areas Viz; a) Two hill districts of Assam-north cacher and kabri angling. b) Eight districts of UP- Dheradhun, Pauri Garhwal, Tehri Garehwal, chamoli, Uttar kashi, Nainital, Almora, and Pithoragarg. c) Major parts of Darjeeling District of West Bengal. d) Nilgiris district of Tamil Nadu e) 163 talukas of Western Ghats areas comprising of Maharashtra (62 talukas). Karnataka (40 talukas). Kerela (29 talukas), Tamil nadu (29 talukas), and goa (3).

The basic objective of the HAMP has been socio economic development of the hills and the people living there in harmony with ecological development. The programmes implemented under the NPDP have, therefore, aimed at promoting the basic life support systems with sustainale use of the natural resources of the areas covered by the programme. The approach and the strategy of the HAMP has evolved over time. The programmes implemented during the 5th Plan period were mainly beneficiary oriented. While the emphasis shifted to eco development in the 6th Plan, the general tenor of the HAMP remained substantially the same as that of the normal state plan following the same sectoral approach. The 7th Plan laid particular emphasis on the development of ecology and environment as summed up in three phases, namely, eco restoration, eco preservation and eco development. It aimed at evolving plans and programmes to take care of the socio economic growth, development of infrastructure and promotion of the ecology of the areas covered by HAMP. The Special Central Assistance which is given for hill areas is 90% grant than 10%loan this is in addition to the Normal state Plan and is not meant to replace activities under the States normal plan. Hence, States receiving funds under HAMP are expected to prepare sub plans for designated hill areas indicating flows from both normal State Plan and the Special Central Assistance. This is to ensure that the schemes are properly dovetailed and integrated with State Plan Schemes.