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DESIGN OF MAT (RAFT) FOUNDATIONS

Design Steps and Equations


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3D View of Mat (Raft) Foundation

y L1 A Pu1 Column dimensions l i x bi B Pu2 ex Pu ey B D Pu4 Pu5 E Pu6 B2 Pu7 G Pu8 Pu9 I F x B1 L2 C Pu3

H L Top View of Mat (Raft) Foundation


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Foundation Engineering 2 Design of Mat (Raft) Footings Dr. Adnan A. Basma

STEP 1 CHECK SOIL PRESSURE FOR SELECTED DIMENTION Allowable load P = !Pi Ultimate load Ultimate ratio Piu = ! [1.4DLi + 1.7LLi] ru = Pu , Ultimate pressure qu = qa x ru P

Locate the resultant load Pu In x- direction: !My-axis = 0, ex &

"Pu3 $ Pu9 # L2
"Pu1 $ Pu3 # B1

% "Pu1 $ Pu7 # L1 Pu % "Pu7 $ Pu9 # B2 Pu

In y- direction:

!Mx-axis = 0,

ey &

,P My x Mx y ) ' Applied ultimate pressure, qu,applied = * u Iy Ix ' *A + ( Where A = Area = BL Mx = Pu ey Ix = ! B L


3

and and

My = Pu ex Iy = ! L B
3

For the mat shown in Top View, the following sign convention is used to estimate qu,applied x (%) A B x (+) C y (+)

y (%)

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Foundation Engineering 2 Design of Mat (Raft) Footings Dr. Adnan A. Basma

The following values for x and y along with the sign conventions are used to estimate qu,applied Point A x y L1 B1 B 0 B1 C L2 B1 D L1 0 E 0 0 F L2 0 G L1 B2 H 0 B2 I L2 B2

For the dimensions L and B to be adequate, qu,max . qu and qu,min / 0

STEP 2 DRAW SHEAR AND MOMENT DIAGRAMS (L - DIRECTION) The mat is divided into several strips in L-direction as shown below where B' = B/4. y L1 A B' J B' B D B' B2 L B' G
III II I

L2 B C

B1

H L

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Foundation Engineering 2 Design of Mat (Raft) Footings Dr. Adnan A. Basma

Calculations for Strip ABC: a) The average uniform soil reaction, quI = q uA $ quC 2

b) Total soil reaction Q = quI x (B1 x L) where B1 = B' c) Total Column loads Pu, ABC = Pu1 + Pu2 + Pu3 d) Average load Pu, avg(ABC) = Q $ Pu, 2 Pu,
avg( ABC ) ABC ABC

e) Load multiplying factor FABC =

Pu,

f) The modified loads on this strip P'ui = (FABC) x (Pui) , Pu, avg( ABC ) ) g) Modified Average soil pressure qu, modified = quI x * ' Q * ' + ( h) The pressure distribution along the length of the strip qu, L (ABC) =

0 P' ui
L

Note that the same can be done for strips DEF (B2 = 2B') and GHI (B3 = B') where: quII = quIII = q uD $ q uF 2 q uG $ q uI 2

Steps (b) to (h) are repeated as above

The shear and bending moment diagrams for strip ABC is shown below. Other strips will have similar plots.

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Foundation Engineering 2 Design of Mat (Raft) Footings Dr. Adnan A. Basma

P'u1 L1 A

P'u2 L2 B

P'u3

C qu, L (ABC)

+
V(kN)

Top Steel between Column 1 and 2

Top Steel between Column 2 and 3

%
M(kN.m)

+
Bottom Steel under Column 2

Moment drawn on tension side

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Foundation Engineering 2 Design of Mat (Raft) Footings Dr. Adnan A. Basma

Similar plots should be made for strips in B-direction as shown below A


I

B
II III

STEP 3 DEPTH OF CONCRETE, d' Estimate d' for: a) Column 1, 3, 7 and 9 by 2-way punching shear (p' = l + w). b) Column 2, 4, 6 and 8 by 3-way punching shear (p' = 2l + w). c) Column 5 by 4-way punching shear (p' = 2l + 2w). (Use Equations For Punching Shear or approximate d' by Structural Depth of Concrete table for punching shear failure). Select the largest d' from (a), (b) or (c)

STEP 4 REINFORCEMENT The calculations below are repeated for every strip in L and B direction. a) Select the appropriate moments for each strip (refer to moment diagram) and estimate the moment per meter by Mui/m = Mu/Bi or Li b) Using Mui/m, d', fc' and fy estimate the reinforcement As (refer to Equations for Reinforcement or the percent reinforcement can be obtained directly from Percent Steel Tables).

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Foundation Engineering 2 Design of Mat (Raft) Footings Dr. Adnan A. Basma