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Published by: hitsragu on Jul 14, 2011
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e. Glasses are typically brittle .Glass It is a non-crystalline solid material. and often optically transparent. . including every solid that possesses a non-crystalline (i. amorphous ) structure and that exhibits a glass transition when heated towards the liquid state. The term glass is usually defined in a much wider sense.

probably from a Germanic word for a transparent.History The history of creating glass can be traced back to 3500 BCE in Mesopotam The term glass developed in the late Roman Empire. now in modern Germany. . lustrous substance. the basic building block of common glasses. Silica Tetrahedral structural unit of silica (SiO2). that the late-Latin term glesum originated. It was in the Roman glassmaking center at Trier .

so lime (calcium oxide (CaO). the soda makes the glass water soluble. Normally. . generally obtained from limestone). which lowers the glass transition to about 1500 °C. which is usually undesirable. it is not very common due to its elevated glass transition temperature of over 2300 °C. other substances are added to simplify processing. One is sodium carbonate (Na2CO3). some magnesium oxide (MgO) and aluminium oxide (Al2O3) are added to provide for a better chemical durability. However.Glass ingredients Quartz sand (silica) is the main raw material in commercial glass production While fused quartz is used for some special applications.

HARD GLASS : 3. Soda-lime glasses account for about 90% of manufactured glass. GLASS FIBRES 9.The resulting glass contains about 70 to 74% silica by weight and is called a soda-lime glass. SAFETY GLASS : 8. COLOURED GLASS . Types of glasses: 1. SODA GLASS 2. OPTICAL GLASS : 6. PHOTOCHROMIC GLASS : 7. LEAD CRYSTAL GLASS : 4. PYREX GLASS : 5.

mirrors. ampoules. soda glass is used for the manufacture of window glass. it is familiar with oven ware. HARD GLASS : it is obtained by fusing potassium carbonate & limestone . lime. . pharmaceutical containers. it is more resistant to the action of acids. borax (Na2B4O7.10H2O) & alkali. the major disadvantage of using this glass is that it is brittle & breaks easily. it is used for making hard glass apparatus. PYREX GLASS : it is made by fusing a mixture odd sand.TYPES OF GLASS & ITS USES SODA GLASS : o It is the cheapest & most common glass. it is easily attacked by chemicals . common glassware etc. in home. o It cracks when subjected to sudden changes of temperature . o It fuses at comparatively low temperatures. 2. carbonates. it is also called soft glass. 3. it has good chemical laboratory apparatus.

it is used in making wind screens of aeroplanes. such as metallic oxides.4. to the molten mass. automobiles. bulletproof glass etc. 5. different additions may produce differenct coloured glasses. the 3 layers are joined together by the action of heat & pressure. . SAFETY GLASS : it is prepared by placing a layer of transparent plastic between the two layers of glass by means of suitable adhesive. & that is why is is known as safety glass. COLOURED GLASS : these are obtained by adding certain colouring material. the glass does not break easily under ordinary impact.


and operate at temperatures up to 1.575°C.Glass container factories Broadly. The temperature is limited only by the quality of the furnace¶s superstructure material and by the glass composition.  and forming machines The cold end handles the product-inspection and -packaging equipment. The hot end handles the manufacture proper . beginning when the batch is fed into the furnace at a slow. The furnaces are natural gas .the furnaces. controlled rate. Hot end Batch feed (doghouse) of a glass furnace The hot end of a glassworks is where the molten glass is formed into glass products. .or fuel oil-fired. annealing ovens. modern glass container factories are three-part operations: The batch house handles the raw materials.

called a gob. at its plastic temperature (1050°C-1200°C) is cut with a shearing blade to form a cylinder of glass.method used for narrow neck containers only The press and blow -method used for jars and narrow neck containers. A gob is a specific amount of molten glass. which is eventually formed into a glass container . The Narrow Neck Press and Blow-production of light weight glass container s The following process are given below Gob Formation In both cases a stream of molten glass.Forming process Two primary methods of making a glass container: The blow and blow.

‡From there the parison is transferred to the blow mold where compressed air is used to blow the bottle into its final shape. .Parison ‡A parison is a hollow and partially formed container that will be blown up like a balloon in the blow mold to form a bottle. Container Formation Blow and Blow Process ‡The compressed air blows a cavity into the molten gob in the blank mold of the forming machine thereby creating a perform shape known as a parison.



Narrow Neck Press and Blow Process ‡The Narrow Neck Press and Blow process is similar to the wide mouth press and blow except the metal plunger in the blank mold is much smaller in diameter. ‡Reduce weight and variations in the thickness distribution of beer and beverage bottles. ‡ This process is used to manufacture containers with narrow finish diameters (38mm and smaller). ‡The introduction of this process has enabled glass manufacturers to increase overall productivity. .


Significant reduction in glass weight of up to 33% without adversely affecting the mechanical performance of the container. There are five major areas of the process which made the NNPB process can be claimed as success These are: ‡Glass composition control ‡Glass conditioning control ‡Machine performance ‡Plunger design and material(Advancing NNPB plunger technology) .TECHNOLOGY ADVANCEMENT The narrow neck press and blow process was introduced to gain better control over glass distribution in the container.

 Uneven cooling causes weak glass due to stress. depending on the glass thickness.Annealing As glass cools it shrinks and solidifies. An annealing oven (known in the industry as a Lehr) heats the container to about 580°C then cools it.  Even cooling is achieved by annealing. Cold end The role of the cold end is to inspect the containers for defects. over a 20 ± 6000 minute period. package the containers for shipment and label the containers. .


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