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Published by: hitsragu on Jul 14, 2011
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amorphous ) structure and that exhibits a glass transition when heated towards the liquid state.e. . The term glass is usually defined in a much wider sense. including every solid that possesses a non-crystalline (i. Glasses are typically brittle .Glass It is a non-crystalline solid material. and often optically transparent.

Silica Tetrahedral structural unit of silica (SiO2). probably from a Germanic word for a transparent. that the late-Latin term glesum originated. lustrous substance. . the basic building block of common glasses. It was in the Roman glassmaking center at Trier .History The history of creating glass can be traced back to 3500 BCE in Mesopotam The term glass developed in the late Roman Empire. now in modern Germany.

other substances are added to simplify processing. which is usually undesirable. so lime (calcium oxide (CaO).Glass ingredients Quartz sand (silica) is the main raw material in commercial glass production While fused quartz is used for some special applications. some magnesium oxide (MgO) and aluminium oxide (Al2O3) are added to provide for a better chemical durability. Normally. However. . the soda makes the glass water soluble. generally obtained from limestone). it is not very common due to its elevated glass transition temperature of over 2300 °C. which lowers the glass transition to about 1500 °C. One is sodium carbonate (Na2CO3).

SAFETY GLASS : 8.The resulting glass contains about 70 to 74% silica by weight and is called a soda-lime glass. PYREX GLASS : 5. Soda-lime glasses account for about 90% of manufactured glass. Types of glasses: 1. SODA GLASS 2. HARD GLASS : 3. OPTICAL GLASS : 6. GLASS FIBRES 9. PHOTOCHROMIC GLASS : 7. LEAD CRYSTAL GLASS : 4. COLOURED GLASS .

HARD GLASS : it is obtained by fusing potassium carbonate & limestone . borax (Na2B4O7. it is easily attacked by chemicals . it is used for making hard glass apparatus. it is also called soft glass.10H2O) & alkali. it is familiar with oven ware. common glassware etc. mirrors. .TYPES OF GLASS & ITS USES SODA GLASS : o It is the cheapest & most common glass. PYREX GLASS : it is made by fusing a mixture odd sand. o It cracks when subjected to sudden changes of temperature . soda glass is used for the manufacture of window glass. o It fuses at comparatively low temperatures. pharmaceutical containers. lime. it has good chemical laboratory apparatus. 3. carbonates. in home. ampoules. 2. the major disadvantage of using this glass is that it is brittle & breaks easily. it is more resistant to the action of acids.

different additions may produce differenct coloured glasses. automobiles. such as metallic oxides.4. & that is why is is known as safety glass. bulletproof glass etc. . 5. the 3 layers are joined together by the action of heat & pressure. COLOURED GLASS : these are obtained by adding certain colouring material. to the molten mass. the glass does not break easily under ordinary impact. SAFETY GLASS : it is prepared by placing a layer of transparent plastic between the two layers of glass by means of suitable adhesive. it is used in making wind screens of aeroplanes.


The hot end handles the manufacture proper . .or fuel oil-fired. beginning when the batch is fed into the furnace at a slow.  and forming machines The cold end handles the product-inspection and -packaging equipment. Hot end Batch feed (doghouse) of a glass furnace The hot end of a glassworks is where the molten glass is formed into glass products. modern glass container factories are three-part operations: The batch house handles the raw materials. The furnaces are natural gas .575°C.the furnaces. and operate at temperatures up to 1. annealing ovens.Glass container factories Broadly. The temperature is limited only by the quality of the furnace¶s superstructure material and by the glass composition. controlled rate.

method used for narrow neck containers only The press and blow -method used for jars and narrow neck containers. The Narrow Neck Press and Blow-production of light weight glass container s The following process are given below Gob Formation In both cases a stream of molten glass. called a gob.Forming process Two primary methods of making a glass container: The blow and blow. A gob is a specific amount of molten glass. which is eventually formed into a glass container . at its plastic temperature (1050°C-1200°C) is cut with a shearing blade to form a cylinder of glass.

. Container Formation Blow and Blow Process ‡The compressed air blows a cavity into the molten gob in the blank mold of the forming machine thereby creating a perform shape known as a parison.Parison ‡A parison is a hollow and partially formed container that will be blown up like a balloon in the blow mold to form a bottle. ‡From there the parison is transferred to the blow mold where compressed air is used to blow the bottle into its final shape.



‡ This process is used to manufacture containers with narrow finish diameters (38mm and smaller). ‡The introduction of this process has enabled glass manufacturers to increase overall productivity. ‡Reduce weight and variations in the thickness distribution of beer and beverage bottles. .Narrow Neck Press and Blow Process ‡The Narrow Neck Press and Blow process is similar to the wide mouth press and blow except the metal plunger in the blank mold is much smaller in diameter.


There are five major areas of the process which made the NNPB process can be claimed as success These are: ‡Glass composition control ‡Glass conditioning control ‡Machine performance ‡Plunger design and material(Advancing NNPB plunger technology) . Significant reduction in glass weight of up to 33% without adversely affecting the mechanical performance of the container.TECHNOLOGY ADVANCEMENT The narrow neck press and blow process was introduced to gain better control over glass distribution in the container.

Cold end The role of the cold end is to inspect the containers for defects.Annealing As glass cools it shrinks and solidifies. An annealing oven (known in the industry as a Lehr) heats the container to about 580°C then cools it. package the containers for shipment and label the containers. .  Uneven cooling causes weak glass due to stress. over a 20 ± 6000 minute period. depending on the glass thickness.  Even cooling is achieved by annealing.


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