Case Tl


As Marsha "Marty" Johnson Evans American Red Cross on August 5, with the challenge of restoring the . . During the past 24 of negative

endeavors.generosity. in excess of 6 million pints of blood. Stevvardship: We act respgnsibly. living well programs.Itmust carryon its humanitarian work throughout its territory. 1111~f)~if)lity:ltrnakesno discrimination asto nationality. Disaster Services. www.found. must allNaysmaintain their autonomy so that they may be able atall times to act in accordance with the principles of the Movement. and maintain competencies andthe.The National Societies.000 volunteers help disaster victims by providing food.allhandto ensure respectforthe human being. and openly share ideas and i_nformationwith each other. Source: American Red Cross.andappreciation. financial assistance. prepare for.ievethe suffering of individuals. ~~lpingOthers:Weareattentive and responsive tothose we serve. and youth.~utrality: In order to continue to enjoy the confidence of all. and so forth."_--'-" f)(hibit 1 Principles ofIntemational Red Cross • • • • • • • Hurilanity:ThelnternationalBed Cross and Red Crescent Movement. cooperation. hUIllanitari an services of their governments and subject tothe laws of theirrespective.redcross. always listening totlieirneeds and lookingforways to serve through existing or new initiatives. The American Red Cross supplies 3.eacknowledge. and support the rights and diversity of each person in our organization a?dinthecommunities we serve. Each year worldwide. mental health counseling. and lasting peace amongst all peoples. Int~grity:Weact with honesty. seniors. racial. Help for the homeless. effectively. always tpimprove. Unity: There can be only one Red Cross or one Red Crescent Society in anyone country. or ideological nature. demonstrate courage and accountability under pressure. Swimming and lifeguard classes. religious. HIV/AIDS education. inits internati.countries. > Ej(hibit 2 Values of the American Red Cross • • • • • • • Humanitarianism: We existto serve others in need.the. Universality: The International Hed Cross and Red Crescent Movement. providing fer victims of disasters andh_elpingpeople e72 Case 11:: American Red Cross . In~ependence: The Movement isindependent.rning:We seek. and so Health and Safety Services. the Movementmay not fake sides in or engage atany time in controversies of a political.esin.III~tal'Y.000 hospitals with about half of the blood used in the United States.redcross. Its purpose is to protect life and he.eavors rel. while auxiliari.en~.ithoutdiscrimination to the wounded on the battlefield.~~irit:Asafamilvofdonors. obtain.respect. Community Services. ". born of a desire tobring assistance IN. shelter. and without discrimination. collectively and individually. Source:www. race.onal. It promotes mutual understanding. andstaff we search for ways to provide hope to servewhileidemonstratingcompassion. class. . Educational services to prepare for disasters.~ndnational capacity.orpoliticafopinions. being guided solely by their needs.religious beliefs. awareness required for exceptional service. Itmust be opento all. transportation. prevent and alleviate human suffering WQereit may be. ~~spect: Vv. food and nutrition information.volunteeJs. and to give priority to to lT1?sturgentcases of distress. Voluntary Service:ltis a voluntary relief movement not prompted in any manner by desireJorgain. to identify.l1lJou~lea. friendship. in which all Societies have equal status and share equal responsibilities and duties in helping eachother. "~. and efficiently with resources entrusted to us.independently. and respond to emergencies.

Financial Overview In fiscal year 2001-2002 the American Red Cross had operating revenues of $4. the American Red Cross supplies over 3. administer funds.570 billion (see Exhibits 3. Products and services: Fees for products. Volunteering. expenses in blood. The Red Cross is able to provide long-term aid and education to those in need. and 5). grants. Total operating expenses for the fiscal year 2001-2002 were $3. In 1999 the American Red Cross joined the Federal Emergency Management Agency for "TOPOFF.C. Total operating expenses for the 2000-2001 fiscal year were $2. Biomedical services: Facility maintenance." a service that enables blood drive sponsors to use their intranets to recruit donors and allows hospital customers to order blood products online. and major expenses included:" can Red Cross in Washington. fees from collecting. and obtain information about donating and volunteering. strengthen public health. Helping kids. Each year more than 12 million Americans take advantage of lifesaving courses offered by the Red Cross. As a result of recent research and development. there were costs associated with a Web site that many nonprofit groups did not realize.. "The Internet has definitely changed how the whole organization thinks. Coinstar machines were located within two miles of 130 million Americans. to collect Red Cross donations for disaster relief efforts. The Red Cross has routinely published the latest public health information. find relatives in a disaster area. In the near future. John Clizbe. "Some of them think this is going to be a kind of panacea for doing fund-raising. Investment income and other income: Investment income from endowments and reserve funds and income from contracts to provide various programs. and so forth.v'? However. 13 In February 2001 the American Red Cross teamed up with Coinstar. vice president of Disaster Services at the American Red Cross. online media manager for the Ameri- . 4. indicated that "If every American near a Coinstar machine would donate a handful • • Disaster costs: Assistance to victims. Student nurses. Total operating revenues for fiscal year 2000-2001 were $2. and diarrhea in poor countries and to support primary health care. Russ Finkelstein."? Archer worked on developing a Web site where visitors could enter a zip code and quickly find information. and improve response time to local disasters. Three main funding sources for the American Red Cross were:" • • Contributions: Fund-raising efforts by the United Way & Combined Federal Campaign. Also. keep up with breaking news. and so on. and the use of new technology will make this information available online. A donation to the World Hemophilia Foundation of plasma product is used to treat hemophilia. other monetary and in-kind contributions. primary health care programs. In addition. For Cindee Archer. and young adults. plasma. D. testing. The Web site helps visitors locate local Red Cross shelters. and distributing blood and tissue. Cindy Archer also believed that "more and more people are coming onlinethis isn't going to go away." a nationwide disaster simulation to help prepare for acts of terrorism.000 hospitals with blood donations. and it's not necessarily that.1 Technology and Operations Technology has helped the American Red Cross better coordinate its efforts among its 1. Emergency disaster response. and courses.712 billion. it may be possible for the American Red Cross to offer an online shopping network to generate additional resources. You feel this sense of urgency whenever there's a disaster-e-you want that information up as quickly as you can get it. it's only going to get more pervasive."!' About 12 million Americans enroll in Red Cross courses each year. materials. It is now possible to make these courses available online. Massachusetts General Hospital and the American Red Cross jointly own a patent for a protein associated with the underlying cause of Alzheimer's disease. Consumers could drop loose change into the Coinstar machines located in local supermarkets.• and so forth. staff expenses at disaster sites. These "click" sites appeal to a newer and often younger audience for the nonprofits. Wireless communication allows the American Red Cross to make faster damage assessment at the scene.P Strategic Alliances The American Red Cross has established a number of alliances with other organizations. 8 The Internet provides information about nonprofit organizations and can provide "click-to-donate" sites for those individuals who are willing to help out with contributions while they are online. Red Cross delegates help local citizens rebuild infrastructure.400 chapters and to expand its reach across America. Recruiting and organizing volunteers. Geneva Conventions. Archer stated. It works with the World Health Organization to alleviate malnutrition. Funding disaster services: Expenses to solicit donations..117 billion. and tissue services. International Services. teens. Nursing. In 2000 it launched "iGiveLife. Jane Delano Society. Youth Involvement. lack of pure water. the Internet serves as a vital source of information to the American public and as a new way to collect donations. The communication network allows it to locate family members during crises more efficiently.743 billion. and so on. director of outreach at Action Without Borders has stated. feeding programs. Inc. legacies.

680 (-'elnsieln and postretirement liabilities benefits 357.626 1. June 30..556 379.826 823..lles.525.654 183 29.653 366.825 319.892 1.547 986.575.569 11.750 in 2002 and $6.913 548.293 63 63 23.894 18.421 1.602..541 35.801 126.386 12.894 18.633 4.924 liabilities 20. net of allowance for obsolescence of $7.149 2.162 585. 9.823 950.209 823.924 2. net of allowance for doubtful accounts of $19.385 6.. •.964 325.238 2.066 $380.042 92.587 mitl11ents and contingencies L.543 16.704 380.050 $ 1._ ~jhibit 3 (ill thousands) Consolidated Statement of Financial Position.840 12.662 39.029.619 $771.453 120.374. 2002 (with summarized information as of June 30.180 13. Annual Report. 2001) $146.92 22.272 $3.437.541 11.514 15.604 in 2002 and $19..164.525.354 2.'c· _~.473 7.385 American.0.209 39. $2. and other property.036 357.137 liabilities and netassets Cross..570 15.103 56 15.374 203.293 3.626 1.301 in 2001: Trade Contributions.784 in 2001 Other assets Total current assets Investments Contributions receivable Prepaid pension costs Land. current portion Other Inventories.798 1.825 197.374.Red .buildings.544 155.258 110.411 $439.674 28.042 93..252 12.402 3.149 287.243 15. 2002. net 304.453 296.57.453 120.913 Receival.623 936.247 309.092 20 83 380.545 34.089 2.500 771.

978 203. Annual Report.222 67~175 36.876) 2.077 137.931 61.236 213.901 174.208 $2.649 $ 757.848 136.016 22.410) 420.745 96.195) 411.915 906 58.086 $380.069 2.727 (2.071 ) 2.756 284.970 337.960 108.728 76.736 3.901 174.699.4 Consolidated Statement of Activities.822 1.742.900) (28.931 420.117.614 152.619 22.066 546.513 308.570.060 6.083 3. 2002 (with summarized information for the year ended 30.289' 1.549 84.097 (in thousands) $ 205.261 1.747) 19.351 230.488 58.182 311.570.272 65.614 152.171 81.463 51.587 .924.259.182 311.259.437.727 115.022 705 Armed Forces Emergency Services Disaster services liberty disaster relief-Sept.845 1.238 2.960 1.175 81. Year ended June 30.089 1.156 11 617.712.980 360.135 2.967 213.736 3.616 154.034 21.902 32.448.171 82.394 49.035.410 3.967 213.513 308.085 (131.844 2.090 121)24 50.330 (135.342 2.848 136.302 30.960 1.601 989.594 49.137 in net assets from operations gains (losses) effect of accounting change in net assets beginning of year end of year Red Cross.924. 103.906 61.674.118 22.902 32.058 150.156 617.726 263.083 3. 2002.405 40.5.575.402 $1.686.815) 1.137 $2.518 (548) 419.466.077 136.108 45.201 (31.604 (63.872. response Biomedical services Health and safety services Community services International services program services Supporting services: Fund raising Management and general 61.18 22.008 (1.

..) 'C C'C E .....- N cD M 0 00 N IZl '"0 Q) a Q) Q) (..S '-' ..) (.... LC') ....... '"0 .5 .0 0 M L.C'i' N 0 0 .t::: in CIJ C'C . <C en <C ... ... c: c: Q) Q) c: C'C c: C'C Q) (...:tLC') C') 00 00 oo . M 0 cq_ N~ .. N M ....- ~ 0 r- =...L.:tN <C ...:t-~ 0 .. M C')~ L.. ..:t-~ <C ""'" '+-< 0 § ~ ~ ~ ~ 0 M ....:t...:t- 0 N .s Q) I-< N LC') 5 ta M~ .- ..:tLC') N LC') .C'i' N LC') C') r- 00 00 0 0 N .:t-~ <C LC') .......... C') oo q M ..- LC') LC')~ N N <C C') ...:t-~ N 0 0 N 0" C"l Q) C') M '"0 .:t- .....~ ...s '"0 ..-...~ ......:t-~ 0 00 .......0 .: .- .- C') . ...- <C M N 0 ] '"0 " 00 M~ ...S .J c: C'C c: C'C ~ °C C'C ..M ...- LC') C') 0 ..~ ~ r--:..0 . a) .... C'C E .....) "C C'C U E "C "'/>1:'....C'i' 00 C') LC') .- 00 M~ . CIJ ::l ~ c: en . 0 C"l <C N LC') oct ...~ ~ . N LC') ......... 00 M M cO C') .s... C') LC') . C'C C'C Q) Q) en CI.l '...._ c... . C'C C'C c: Q) (... > 's "C ..:t-~ ....s ~ """ <C ta Q) ".:t....p C'C c: (.."...:t- 00 N LC') M .= c...r\ C'1....ii_ ... '" a .J 0 '._ Q) UJ C'C U u: c: en '(ij c.....:t...C'i' .-~ M M~ M... 0 .0 C'C ::l c...... W -= :... ... c...J :sl '0 ~ '" 0 ...M '" :€ ~ ~ . Cl C76 Case 11:: American Red Cross . N~ .c ~ ~ o '" 5 § 00 0 N .::l '" ." Q) c.....s ..oo 0 M ~ .. c: C'C c: co t) ee 0 en E C'C c: "C Q) en = c: '(3 C'C C'C ..N LC') C') ..:t- . Md C') C') N """ 0 LC') ..-. 0 o~ L...- .. CI....... c: Q) E "C C'C .J Q) .. <C N M LC') 0 ....s '......c: Q) Q) c: .......g ~ N o~ N s E Q) 0 <C 00 <C LC') .


and Coral Blood Services alleged the Red Cross had cost them more than $25 million in lost business. counseling.of change on their next supermarket visit."!" Masterfoods USA. based on Healy'S policy of using donations for a "long period of C78 Case 11:: Amer lean Red Cr ass .5 million. and other items to relief workers and volunteers. 2001. declarations. and increasing health benefit costs. The workers were unhappy about long hours. "You no longer need a credit card or checkbook to provide financial support to those in need.' stated Skip Seitz. If all Americans donate the change in their wallet or pocket. the Red Cross set up family assistance centers to provide counseling. stated. They further alleged that the American Red Cross priced some blood products (e. Because of the large dollar amount of donations from the American people. thousands of blood donations. 15 One hundred percent of all profits from the sales of these M&Ms were donated to the American Red Cross Disaster Relief Fund. the plaintiffs alleged the Red Cross violated Section 2 of the Sherman Antitrust Act. the Red Cross had annual sales of more than $1. In the lawsuit. the new M&Ms' captured the heart of America. Funds were used for travel. child care. Within 15 days of the September 11. white. Bernadine Healy. said in a written statement.g. sleeping quarters." In January 2001 a California blood supplier filed an antitrust suit against the American Red Cross claiming the organization used its clout to eliminate competitors. food. a Red Cross spokesperson. COO of Coinstar. American Red Cross Growth and Integrated Development.. victims' families. the American Red Cross rose to the challenge of providing the most extensive relief operation in its 120-year history. The lawsuit also charged tortuous interference. or rescue workers. In January 2002 Masterfoods USA presented a check to the Red Cross in the amount of$3. created a special package of red. a Red Cross spokeswoman. which prohibits monopolization. "We believe the American Red Cross has done nothing inappropriate regarding HemaCare's claims to unfair business practices and we were surprised by this lawsuit. and creative displays in stores across the country. Less than 50 percent of the money raised was targeted for victims. We just want them to play by the rules that are reasonable and fair and compete on a level playing field. radio and newspapers. HemaCare's chief executive officer. stated. and we will vigorously defend this lawsuit. "Everything is happening at such a fast pace. She indicated that organization officials earmarked $100 million from the fund to provide short-term financial assistance to families of victims. The national campaign theme used for this promotion was "Taking Care of America Everyday. platelets) below production costs to drive out competitors while it charged higher prices for the same products in markets where there is no competition. their families. lodging. the American Red Cross released a spending plan for the first $300 million in the Liberty Fund.2001. and at the Pentagon to provide meals. frequent schedule changes. The remainder was earmarked to help the Red Cross improve its own organization and expand into new aid programs that might be needed in the event of future terrorist attacks. MD.'? Unfair Trade Practices Lawsuit The Red Cross derived 60 percent of its revenues from the sale of blood. unfair trade practices. and help from a myriad of volunteers contributed to Red Cross efforts to provide aid to survivors. Pennsylvania. HemaCare Corp. "We believe that's unfair and illegal. said in a written statement. said. The ASAE provides the Red Cross with demographic information about associations and assistance with identifying organizations they wish to contact during times of need."? Blythe Kubina. the Red Cross created the Liberty Disaster Relief Fund to be used exclusively to meet the needs of people directly affected by the September 11 tragedy. and transportation were provided to families of missing foreign nationals. In response to the tragedy. the Red Cross had collected $202 million in donations. William Nicely. Right now we are just trying to keep up with responses/'" Goldburg stated that the entire amount raised by the Red Cross since the disaster would go into the newly created Liberty Fund. In August 2001 the American Red Cross and the American Society of Association Executives (ASAE) signed an agreement under which the two organizations will share data regarding disasters. and meals for volunteers and staff working on-site."20 Recent Problems Events between 2000 and 2002 provided the American Red Cross with a number of challenges. In providing more than half the nation's blood. and will explore efforts in joint training exercises. financial assistance. and changes in legislation. attack. and blue M&Ms specifically to benefit the Red Cross. and Liberty Disaster Relief Fund After the terrorist attacks on September 11. senior vice president.3 billion. Financial assistance." Rich Stillman. Deborah Goldburg. a Mars Incorporated Company. The American Red Cross has a heavy burden-to live up to the inspiration and memory of those lost." unfair competition under the California Business and Professional Code. the Red Cross would be that much better prepared to respond to disaster immediately. Worker Strike In June 2000 Red Cross workers who collected blood donations and delivered them to hospitals went on strike after rejecting a contract offer by the American Red Cross. and we must respond in an extraordinary way. It is with great humility and pride that we carry out this noble obligation/'P On October 12. Millions of dollars. Respite centers were set up in New York City.P This planned distribution of funds. those handfuls will make a huge difference in our capacity to help others thisyear. and relief workers. "What has taken place is extraordinary. Somerset County." "Through appearances on television. The Red Cross is a fine organization. We have been in full compliance with the law. the president and chief executive officer of the Red Cross. and other services to victims' families and others affected.

claiming that the organization's board had pushed her OUt. announced changes adopted by the American Red Cross Board of Governors to meet the immediate and long-term needs of people affected by the September 11 terrorist attacks. Mike Wallace reported.000people $169 270 94 3.'! BBB Wise Giving Alliance On February 16. $ millions gir~Gt. "The people of this country have given the Red Cross their hard-earned dollars.~ssistanceto 51. president of the alliance. Chapters must meet specific national guidelines to maintain their charters. "I had no choice. Art Taylor." caused a huge uproar. hire an additiona1200 caseworkers.i" The donors blasted Healy because they expected their donations to be helping September 11 disaster victims now.000people. Wallace reported. H. the Better Business Bureau Wise Giving Alliance removed the American Red Cross from its "give. The trouble is. Healy was confronted with allegations of "panicking the public into wasteful donations of blood. Given the recent activities of the American Red Cross. allegedly because the American Red Cross did not provide a timely report to the alliance. 2002.000families of displaced workers and disaster workers Provision for 14million meals.P In a congressional hearing." she said. By November 2001 about 10 percent of the red blood cells collected on September 11 and 12 had expired. The Red Cross would provide increased financial support to families." Deborah Daley responded that chapters are accountable in a number of Web site. David T. fires. on the CBS news show 60 Minutes. In his letter Decker requested a public retraction of Taylor's statements and that the Better Business Bureau's current report on the Red Cross be restored to the give.assistanceto 3. Wallace reported. 2. "In the West Virginia flood ad.P 60 Minutes Program 1."28 In addition to donating money. Regrettably. the American public donated blood for the disaster victims. mental he. it was determined that such a report could not be provided by the due date. In addition. A letter from Harold Decker to the Wise Giving Alliance explained that a request by the alliance for an updated report from the Red Cross was received in January 2002. News & World Report. 2002. In a comment about advertising practices.'dE)ceasedand seriously injured . and donors who responded to September 11th."?" In an article in U. David McLaughlin stated. the "this and other disasters" language appears in the same font and size as the rest of the body copy appealing for support. and health services for 129. interim president.26 On November 14." Harold Decker. "As oflast week. These donations were given in response to Healy'S "Together. "They also decided to put a disclaimer in their ads saying that donations will be used for this and other disasters.uncertainty and recovery. . It appears to have contained some inaccuracies concerning floods. McLaughlin. the American Red Cross saluted the staff and volunteers who provided assistance to the more than 54. "Donors charged the organization with abuse of their good intentions. COO of the alliance. Deborah Daley. agreed to a March 30 deadline for the updated report. we can save a life" public service announcement. In fact. "If we don't subject ourselves to public scrutiny. David McLaughlin stated. made some unsupported public statements regarding the Red Cross that were reported in the Philadelphia Inquirer. interim CEO and president of the Red Cross. The Red Cross does regular audits of chapters.500 families affected by the attacks." Healy finally responded with her announcement of" Web site. and the financial accountability of Red Cross chapters. a spokesperson for the Red Cross. participate in a database to be shared among relief agencies. sent a letter to CBS News indicating the errors and an explanation. All chapters must have an independent annual review. chairman of the American Red Cross Board of Governors.. Harold Decker. CFO of the Red Cross. The largest 126 chapters must send quarterly financial reports to the national Red Cross." In response.32 Another onslaught of negative publicity for the American Red Cross occurred March 10. there is so little accountability that local chapters-and there are more than one thousand of them-aren't even required to submit financial reports to Red Cross headquarters in Washington. and very clear direction for our September 11 relief effort. The attorney general of New York State threatened legal action. Deborah Daley reported. we will never have public truSt. announced that the American Red Cross received $930 million in contributions and this money was used to provide the following.S. Jack Campbell." The Lancet reported. their trust.P? On March 7. it took us too long to hear their message. 2001. She stated that Wallace's claim that chapters "are not even required to submit financial reports" is completely false. "Today we are recognizing the work of our staff. volunteers. 2002. and Bennett Weiner. As for the Alpine fire in Southern California. Experts questioned the wisdom of calling for blood donations when there were very few blood recipients. 14 months after the fire. Chapters that have over $100.000 in annual expenses must have an external audit conducted by an independent CPA. and extend the use of toll-free telephone lines. it's in small print.266families of . stated.althservices for 232. "Outside audits of local Red Cross chapters are rare.

Johnson Evans was named president and CEO of the American Red Cross on June 27. 33.. December 9. October 1: 8. 2000. 2001. U. Ibid. politics. Charity olympics. Cinda. 18. 53(8): 12. 16. The timely and capable response day-in and day-out to these disasters speaks volumes about the character of the volunteers and staff. Fund Raising Management.000 in the months since last September. PR Newswire. and the American Red Cross. 32. A torrent of donations. 9. Navy. Red Cross faces antitrust lawsuit." Deborah Daley responded that the chapter has provided up-to-date financial information on its response to the Alpine fire three times since November. 2002. January 1: 20. 2002. Modern Healthcare 31. March 7. 2001. Press release. 24. 22(25): 37. American Red Cross. their talent. www. Samantha. Charity olympics. Association Management. Ibid. How should she proceed? Endnotes 1. Taylor. 20. 2001-2002. February 2001. Modern Healthcare 31. Mark. 2002. Nonprofits reap rewards of the Web-Internet proves to be a great fund-raising tool for charities. Daniel S. 2001. Tyrangiel. Red Cross workers on strike. Annual Report. David McLaughlin. February 16. 26. Red Cross announces major changes in Liberty Fund. 22. 200 I. 35. "Marty's unique style of leadership along with her experience as established administrator will bring new vigor to the American Red Cross. 2002. 2001. she is well poised to guide our organization as we continue to provide vital services in a world faced by new challenges. politics. Blood. Marsha. and most especially their dedication. 21. American Red Cross. Blood.. Reports. 2000-2001. 2000. Evans has served as national executive director of the Girl Scouts of the USA for the past four years. Ibid. 23. Greenberg. American 4. 2000. 31(4): 33. and the American Red Cross. 2002. 2001. 17. 25. 15. and the American Red Cross. American Red Cross letter to Better Business Bureau's Wise Giving Alliance. American Red Cross. Annual Report. 13. Ibid. Stephanie. 2002. Sanborn. Ibid. With great insight into our mission. chairman of the Board of Governors of the American Red Cross. Americans want to know: Is that money helping? Time. November 24: 1789. Ibid. 7. but there are costs. 19. ASAE and American Red Cross formalize partnership agreement. Press release. 27. Annual Cross. 2001. 2001.S. 10. American 5. Red Cross faces antitrust lawsuit. Levine. In his announcement. prior to which she had a 29-year career in the U. Reports. June 27.S. American 2. Cross. 2002. politics. Josh. American 3. February 1. my observation is that the Red Cross never lost sight of its responsibility to every community and every victim of the other disasters that occurred. Newsweek: Former Red Cross head says her fundraising message was clear . Lancet." As she begins to guide the organization. some 45. 34. 8."?" Evans remarked that: In the midst of responding to the extraordinary demands of 9/11 and a lot of criticism about these efforts. 28. American Red Cross and Coinstar to launch new fundraising technology to prepare for disasters.San Diego was still waiting for a full accounting of how the money donated for the fire victims has been and will be spent. 12.redcross. 11. Greenberg.. said. November 19. November 5: 75. Becker. November 14. American Red Cross. US Newswire. Ibid. Red Cross announces major changes in Liberty Fund: Fund solely used for people affected by September 11 tragedy. Press release. 29. Red Crossroads. 30. US Newswire. PR Newswire. charities wrestle with how best to spend money pouring in since attacks. Taylor. Tyrangiel. where she earned the rank of rear admiral. American Red Cross. The charity olympics: After weeks of record giving. Red Red Red Red Red Cross. Tyrangiel. Greenberg. Press release. Cross. February 12. Annual June 27. Blood. Ibid. Infoworld. Looking to the Future After a five-month search. News & WorldReport. American 6. 31. 2000. C80 Case 11:: American Red CI ass . 14. Cross. Marsha Johnson Evans must confront the many issues faced by the American Red Cross. Press release.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful