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BIBLIOTHEK
INDOGERMANISCHER GRAMMATIKEN
BEARBEITET VON

P.

BtJOHELEE, H. HUBSOHMANN, A. LESKIEN,


E.

G.

MEYEE,

SIEVERS, H. WEBEK, W. D. WHITNEY,

E.

WINDISOH.

BAND

II.

ANHANG II.

THE KOOTS, VERB-FORMS, AND PRIMARY DERITATIVES OF THE SANSKRIT LANGUAGE. A SirppLEMENT TO HIS SANSKRIT grammar; by William D wight Whitney.

-m

1 -

LEIPZIG,

DRUCK UND VERLAG VON BREITKOPF UND HARTEL.


1885.

THE

EOOTS, VEEB-FOEMS,
AND
*

*-

>

PRIMARY DERIVATtVES
OF THE

SANSKRIT LANGUAGE.
A SUPPLE]\IENT TO HIS SANSKRIT GRAMMAR,
BY

WILLIAM DWIGHT WHITNEY,


PROFESSOR OF SANSKRIT AND COMPARATIVE PHILOLOGY IN YALE COLLEGE.

THIS

WORK

IS COPYRIGHT.

LEIPZIG, BREITKOPF AND HARTEL.


LONDON, TRUBNER &
Co. 57

AND

59,

LUDGATE

HILL,

E. C.

8.

ENTD

STA. HALL.

1885.

' .

: ......
*

(The Right of Translation and Reproduction

is

reserved.)

JO^ /O

Printers: Lreitkopf

it

Kartel, Leipzig.

PREFACE.
ihis work
is

intended especially as a Supplement to


(Leipzig, 1879),

my

Sanskrit

Grammar

giving,

with a ful-

ness of detail that was not then practicable, nor admissible


as part of the

grammar

itself,

all

the quotable roots of the

language, with the tense and conjugation-systems

made from
and par-

them, and with the noun and adjective


ticipial)

(infinitival

formations that attach


;

themselves most closely to

the verb

and
if

further,

with the other derivative noun and

adjective-stems usually classed as primary: since these also

one would have a comprehensive view of the value of a given root in the language. And everything
are needed,

given
far

is

dated, with such accuracy as the information thus

hand allows throughout its whole


in

whether

found

in

the

language

history, or limited to a certain period.

My
ficent

leading authority has necessarily been that magniof

thesaurus

authentic

information

respecting

the

Sanskrit language of every

period,

the great St. Petersi

have gone carefully over excerpting all the material needed for my So far, indeed, as concerns the epic and claspurpose. sical literature, the Lexicon has been almost my sole source,
burg Lexicon of Bohtlingk and Roth,
,

This

since

my own
,

collections

for

verification
,

or

of additional

though not wholly wanting have yet been altogether insignificant as compared with it. But in the older language, of Veda and Brahman a and Upanishad and Sutra, I have, namely, I have done much more independent work.
material
1

With

its

abbreviation

and supplement

the minor lexicon of Boht-

lingk, so far as this has yet appeared: namely, in the

hody of the work,


of
1.

to

rajaka;

in the Additions

and Corrections,

to the

end

vi

Preface.

gone over all the texts of the earlier period accessible to me. including- (by the kindness of Professor Weber) the as yet unpublished Kausitaki-Brahmana and Kathaka, and by the kindness of the late Dr. Burnell) the immense Jaiminiya which has as yet hardly been or Talavakara - Brahmana and from them I have exaccessible to any one else cerpted all the noteworthy verl)al forms and (less completely)
, ;

the

primary derivatives;

thus

verifying

and occasionally
supplying chance
to

correcting the material of the Lexicon,

omissions, and especially filling in not a few details which


it

had not

lain

in

the design of that

work

present in

their entirety.

As a matter
can pretend
verbal

of course

no such work as the present


appearance.
exhaustive
of which

to completeness, especially at its first

The only important


nor
is it

texts

we have

indexes are the Kig-Veda and the Atharva-Veda.

known

that

any other
exist

is in

preparation: and only


all

where such indexes


the measure

can the inclusion of

that

text contains be assured.

But

I trust it will

be found that
is

of completeness

here attained

in

general
it

proportioned to the importance of the material: that


the

is

more

indifferent

forms and derivatives which,

having
glean-

been passed over by the Lexicon, have escaped


ing also.
I

my

expect to continue the work of verification and addition, and to make an eventual future edition perceptibly nearer to perfection in its details, and possessing such im-

provements in plan as
of others
1

my own
^

experience and the criticisms


is

may

suggest.

It

unnecessary to add that

The extant texts of which I have most painfully felt the lack are: The (Cashmere) Paippalada Atharva-Veda, which is in Professor PiOth's hands
alone; the latter half of the Maitrayaiii-Samhita, as yet -wanting in Schroder's
edition,

and the Kapisthala-Samhita; and the unpublished Sutras, as the Apastamha (every new number of Garhe's edition of which brings valuable
additional items of material) and the Qankhayana.
2

conspectus

of

the work

with specimens

and with invitation of


of the

criticisms and suggestions,

was published in the Proceedings

American
ff.);

Oriental Society for May, 1882 (Journ.

Am.

Or. Soc,

vol. xi..

pp. cxvii

and a leaf of specimens, with certain improvements, was sent out somewhat
later to

many

Sanskrit scholars; but nothing was received in return.

Preface.
corrections

vii

and aclditious of any kind will be welcomed by me. and dnly acknowledged. Of tlie verb-forms wliicli, tlioug-li not yet found and.
for the

most part, destined never


presentation
is

to

be found
the

in

recorded

use, are prescribed or authorized

by the Hindu grammarians,


different
roots:

liberal

made under

such material being always distinguished from the other by being put in square brackets. It is in no part given at
first

hand, but only as reported by Western authorities: the Lexicon Westergaard's Radices and the various Euro,
,

pean grammars:

all
:

of these supplement rather than con-

tradict one another

and

an}^ occasional
to

them

is

passed over, as relating


to

disagreement among a matter of too little

consequence

be worth reporting.
in

The periods

the

life

of the

language

which are

acknowledged and distinguished by appropriate notation are six: the Veda (marked with v.), the Brahmana (with b.), the earlier or more genuine Upanishads (with u.) the Sutras (with s.) the epics, Mahabharata and Ramaj^ana (with E.), and the classical or common Sanskrit (with c). This classification, however, is by no means an absolute one, and calls for certain explanations and limitations, as follows. Under 'Veda' (v.) are included only the indexed texts of the Rig-Veda. Sama-Veda. and Atharva-Veda. In strictness, certain passages of the Atharva-Veda should have been excluded, as being in prose and Brahmana-like and, what is of much more importance, the older and better part of
. .
;

the maw^ra-material in the various samliitaB of the Yajur-

Veda

in the

Brahmanas

and even

in the Siitras

is

quite

as good

Veda

as most of the Atharvan,

some of

it

even as
divisin

parts of the Rik.

In the present condition of things, how-

ever,

it

did not seem to

me
in

practicable to

draw the

ion-line

otherwise

than
it.

the

partly

arbitrary

way
is

wliich I have

drawn
be)
,

When
will

the mantra-msiterial
(as
it

col-

lected from all places

and compared

by

all

means

ought
ively

soon

to

it

be possible
is

to

use the term

Veda' in a more exact sense, both inclusively and exclus-

though between what

genuinely

old

and what

Vlll

Preface.

is

in

au

artificially

antique style a definite separation will

probably never admit of being made. It is further to be stated that in the following
nothing
is

lists

intended to be marked with simple


not occur
it

v.,

as 'Vedic',
is

that does

in

the Rig-Veda;

what
case

not Rig-

Vedic, though
is

may be
if is

found in both the other collections,


as the

marked

av., or sv.,

or both,

may

be.

On

the other hand,


the three

anything occurring only in the Rik among

found also in later periods, the fact that it does not chance to be met with in the Atharvan or Saman is too unimportant to notice, and (save perhaps in
exceptional cases)
it

Vedas

is

marked

v.b. or the like.

Between Brahmana, Aranyaka, and Upanishad, again, and perhaps the line of division is an evanescent one hardly worth the attempt at drawing. But I have followed the method of distinguishing by a u. the small number of these treatises that have an existence separate from Brahmana or Aranyaka, while not distinguishing the two
,

latter

from one another. The sign u. is the one of least importance and least frequency in the system adopted.

The
verses

division of Sutras

(s.)

is

a plainer one

except so

far as these treatises contain maw?'ra-material in their


(as

already

intimated)

quoted
of the of the

and brahmana -muteYinl


of
that

also in their quoted formulas.

The proper language


continuator

Sutras

themselves

is

true

Brahmanas.

As epic
course,

(e.)

are reckoned only the two great poems,

the Mahabharata and Ramayana.

And

in these

it

has.

of

been impossible to distinguish between the older and the more recent parts; although, beyond a question, a considerable

part

of both

is

in

no
,

manner

distinguishable

except by a degree of from the general later literature archaizing neglect of the strict requirements of the native

grammar. Everything

under the head of classical (c.) or of the language as written under the Here the domination of the native system of grammar. only subdivision which one is tempted to make is to mark
else that is

Sanskrit

falls

Preface.
separately
those

ix

and words whieli are foimd used only in the commentaries, and which are therefore open to a heightened suspicion of artificiality: but this I have not
forms
tried to do.

A
found

pins -sign
to occur

(+)

indicates that the

given formation

is

from the specified period onward, even

to

the latest or classical period.

Instead of a period,
referred to

an individual text is sometimes yet not upon any very definite and consistent
,

plan (except in the case of the Vedas

as explained above).

rv^) indicates the number of times yet this, again, only a word or form has been met with and not in the case of every in exceptional instances
'superior' figure
(e. g.

is

unique or very rare occurrence.

So far as the present -system many specimen-forms are given as

concerned,

only

so

suffice to

illustrate

the

mode

of formation.

It

would have been space and time

thrown away to instance in each case the various sub-forthat occur, since modes, participles, imperfect mations one form implies clearly enough the possible existence of The form taken as representative specimen is the rest. ordinarily the 3d singular, as being often more characterand that person is even occasionally istic than the 1st;

given

when

in

verbs of infrequent use

it

is

not itself

actually quotable.

Irregular or exceptional forms, whether


,

of the earlier or of the later language


parenthesis.

are then added in

Everywhere, an appended ^etc' means that other forms of the same make occur: yet I find on review that I have not used this sign consistently, and its absence must not be taken always as indicating more than that the
variety of forms quotable
is

comparatively small. The various


to

modes of present-formation are intended

be given in the to each is order of their relative regularity or frequency prefixed in brackets the number belonging to it in the order
;

of the conjugation-classes as given by the


rians

since

Hindu grammahowever meaningless and unworthy of rebe,


it

tention this

widely used, not only in the grammars, but even by general writers on language.
is still

may

Preface.
In the other tene-sy stems, while iu the main the same

method

is

followed,

the intention nevertheless

is

to give,

on account of their greater infrequency and irregularity, a conspectus of the various tense and mode -formations from
the same stem (not, of course
the
aorist).
,

the participles

except for
precative,

Thus,
it

for
,

example,
is

no

quotable

either
aorist

active or middle
to

designedly omitted under the


nor any
quotable conditional

which

belongs;
;

under the first future nor any pluperfect under the perfect. Moreover, in view of the rarity of the 2d sing, perfect active, and the useless prolixity of the native rules as to its formation,

every example of

it

is

given that has been found

to

occur.

The order

in

which the

aorists are presented is the

systematic one, without reference to their frequency of use.

Among
ticiple
,

the verbal adjectives and nouns are included

as belonging to the verbal conjugation only the passive par-

and the gerunds (along with that in -am, the distinction of which from an ordinary adverbially used accusative is not always easy to draw) the gerundives
the infinitives
,

are quite too loosely attached to the conjugation-system to

be worth treating as a part of


relegated to the
list

it,

and they are accordingly


only ex-

of derivatives.
or derivative conjugations
,

Of the secondary
,

amples enough are given to show the form of the stem unless, indeed some unusual or irregular forms are met with, in which case they are duly noted. To cite, for exconjugation
or

ample, the innumerable futures and verbals of the causative


,

even

its

perfects

all

of

them made upon

precisely the

same

pattern,
.

The

causative aorists

would have been wholly useless. however, since they are made diwith the other
hlbh-isas,

rectly

from the

root, are of course put along

aorists,

save in the exceptional cases where they actually


(as atisthipat,
etc.).

come from the causative stem

All the tertiary conjugations, not omitting even the

common

causative passives (any others are quite rare)


far as found.

are noted so

In the

lists

of derivatives are given not only those of

genuinely primary

character,

but

also

those which have

Preface.

xi

assume a primary aspect in the language even though of incontestably secondary origin: such as the gerundives in -tavya and Vedic -tva (from -tu) and -anrtja (from -ana] the nomina agentis in -in, and the various formations in ya (among vrhich hardly any. if any, are really primary). These are in general placed next after the forms from which they are presumably derived. Apart from this, the order of arrangement intended to be pursued is in the main the alphabetic order of the suffixes, the radical stems or those vrithout suffix standing at the head; but such an arrangement could not be very strictly carried out, nor does any particular importance belong to it. considering how easily the columns may be glanced over to verify the presence or absence of any given formation: and some inconto
,
,

come

sistencies will doubtless be found.

Reduplicated stems are

put after the others, and

last of all the ^wasi-primitive for-

mations from (secondary, or rarely primary or tertiary) conjugation-stems.


Notation of the
for

period of occurrence

is

hyphen put before a stem indicates that it has not been found quotable otherwise than as posterior member of a compound one following a stem much more rarely) shows it to occur
in the

made

same way as

the verb-forms.

only as prior

member

of a compound, or in derivative stems

or in denominative conjugation.

Throughout the whole work, accent-signs are applied only where the word is found actually so marked in accentuated texts.
It is,

of course, impossible to

between the derivatives of belong to it; since etymology


certainties

draw the line everywhere a root and words that do not


is

from beginning

to

end a

matter of balancing probabilities,

and chances of error. to err rather upon the side of liberality of inclusion than the opposite and certainly I have in not a few cases put under certain roots words as to whose connection with those roots I have great misgivings but doubtless also there are words omitted by oversight or by failure of judgment which ought to have been included. All such errors, it is hoped,

and thick-set with unIt has been my intention

Xll

Preface.
be

viewed with a reasonable degree of indnlgeuee, considering the novelty and the extreme laboriousness of Its main intent is to furnish the means the undertaking.
will

of examining in their

chronologic entirety the

groups of

words and forms that cluster about the so-called roots in Sanskrit, that they may be studied, and have their relations determined, with more complete understanding: and that intent will be gained in spite of minor omissions and Regarding it as primarily an assemblage of inaccuracies. materials for study, I have not hastened to anticipate the results of comparison by penetrating behind the aspect of things as shown in the Sanskrit language itself, or to reduce the materials to an' Indo-European basis and form of A few intimations as to the more obviously statement.
probable connections of certain roots are given in brief notes
at the

end of exposition of forms and derivatives. The representative form of the roots is naturally that adopted in the grammar to which this work is a supplement. Although loath to differ from the Petersburg lexicon upon such a point, I cannot regret having adopted the r
(e.

instead of the ar or ra-form


krap) of the

g. kr, krp.

instead of

Z-ar,

many

roots exhibiting

both

elements in their
of the Sanskrit

forms and derivatives.


root vid,

So long as

we speak

and not ved, so long it seems to follow that we ought to speak of the root vrt, and not vart, whatever may be the Indo-European value of the root in the one case or The meanings added after the roots by no in the other. means claim to be exhaustive they are in general intended
;

only to identify the root.

As a matter

of course,

not a few matters of doubtful

classification present

themselves in connection with the verbforms, of which the scope of the work does not allow a

Such are here and there noted by a questionmark. The classes of forms that contain the most puzzling problems are the reduplicated ones and the present stems ending in ya: upon these no new light has been thrown
discussion.
.

since the publication of the author's


difficulty of their

Grammar,

in

which the

treatment was noticed.

Preface.

xiii

lu the indexes of stems given at the end of the volume,

a classification
historical

is

adopted which

is

intended to

facilitate the

comprehension of the language, by distinguishing-

what belongs respectively to its older and to its later periods from that which forms a part of it throughout its whole
history.
It

may be added

that the manuscript left

the

author's

hands complete in July, 1884: the delay in its appearance is owing to his distance from the place of printing and
publication.
I desire to
.

express

my

obligation to Professor

Lanman

for

kindly aiding the accuracy of the work by giving the

proof-sheets an additional revision.

New Haven,

July,

1885.

W.

D.

W.

ABBREVIATIONS.
AA. Aitareya-Araiiyaka. AB. Aitareya-Brahmaiia.
ACS. Afvalayana-^rauta-Sutra.

KB. Kausitaki-Bralimaua.
Kcs. Katyayana-^rauta-Sutra.
Lcs. Latyayana-^rauta-Sutra.
M. Mahahharata.

AGS. A<;valayana-Grhya-Sutra.
AV. Atharva-Veda.

MS. Maitrayani-Samhita.

A\T.
B,

do.

Paippalada-Text.

Mu. Maitri-Upanisad.
PB. Paiicavii'iga-Brahmana.

Brahmanas.

BAU. Brhad-Aranyaka Upanisad.


Bo. Bohtlingk's minor Lexicon.

pu. Pra^na-Upanisad.
R.

Ramayana.
Sutras.

BR. BotMingk and Roth (Lexicon).


c.

Rv. Rig-Veda.
s.

Classical Sanskrit.

CB.
CCS.

^atapatha-Brahmana.
^ankhayana-^rauta-Sutra.

SB.
sv.

Sadvln^a-Brahmaua.

Sama-Veda.

CGS, ^'aiikliayana Grhya-Sutra.


E.

SVB.

Sama-Vidhana-Brahmana.

Epic Sanskrit.

TA. Taittiriya-Aranyaka.
TB. Taittiriya-Brahmaiia.
Ts. u.
V.

GB. opatha-Brahmana.

GGS. Gobhiliya-Grhya-Sutra.
JB.

Taittirlya-Samhita.

Jaiminiya-Brahmana.

Upanishads.
Vedas.
Vajasaneyi-Samhita.

JUB. Jaiminiya-Upanisad-Brahmana.
K. Kathaka.

vs.

For further explanations, see the Preface.

SANSKRIT ROOTS, VERB-FORMS, AND

PRIMARY DERIVATIVES.
y auh,
Such
a root is inferable

'be

narrow or

distressing'.
:

from the derivatives

anhati rv.
arLhasv. +

anhu

v.b.
b.s.

anghri?

b.

anliiyas

aghav.+

ahi v.+ ahi rv.

The verb-form anaha

rv'. is of wholly doubtful

meaning and connection.

y
Present. [1.]
Perfect,

aks,

'attain'.

aksat rvI., aksasefE'. [anaksa,] aksana? rvI.


aciksat.

Aorist. [3.

] 5.

aksisus rv*.

aksyati; aksita, asta.] [Verbal Adjectives and Nouns, asta; aksitva, astva.]
[Future, aksisyati,

[Secondary Conjugations: Passive,

aciksisa-. Causative, aksaya-.]


Derivatives
:

aksya-.

Intensive.

Desiderative,

aksistha

jb.

A
forms.
i.

secondary root-form from

aq,

ariij,

and occurring in a few isolated

Indra and Agni are called aksisthau

vahisthau devanam

at jb.

304.
]/ 2

aks, 'mutilate'.

Pres. [5.] Verb,

-aksnoti
v. b.s.

etc.

av. cb.

-asta

Only used with prefix nis ; does not appear


the preceding root.

to

have anything to do with

y
Pres. [1.]

ang, 'move'.

angatu

c'.
etc. etc.]

[Perf.

etc.

anaiiga

[Sec. Conj.: Caus.

angayati.]

g^A

single occurrence, doubtless artificial, in the Nalodaya.

y
Pres. [1.] Perf.

ae, ano, 'bend'.


b.
;

ancati

etc.

av.+, -te
jb.

acati

etc.

v.b.,

-te

etc.

av.b.s.

[ananea,] aeire
etc.

[Aor.
Verb,

aneit ; ancisyati, aneita.]


b.s.,

akna

acita

e.,
II.

aneita e.+ [akta]

-acya

v.b.

-acam
1

b.

Whitney, Supplement

ac]
Sec. Conj.: Pass,

Roots, Verb-forms,

Desid. ancicisa-.] acyate etc. v.+ [aneyate. Cans. ancayati etc. c. ankav.+ ancanav. + Deriv.: -anc v.+ anku- V.+ ankas ea'. -acana s.+ -anein n. aksua b.s. ev. -ancas

y
Pres. [1.] ajati -te etc. v.+
Perf.

aj, 'drive'.

ajus?
5.

rv'. [ajitha etc.]


lcs'.

Aor.

ajisus

[Fut. ajisyati, ajita.]

-ajya s. -aje rv. Desid. ajijisa-.] ajyate etc. rv. [ V.+ Deriu.: agra? ajaka c. ajman v. ajanav.+ -ajya v.b. dj V. ajirav. + -aja RV. ajra?Rv. ajma rv. ajvin s. aja V.+
Verb, -ajita? cb.
:
; ;

Sec. Conj.

Pass,

-ajaB.+
aji v.+

variant to av.

The form ajus only by very doubtful conjecture to rv. v. 6. 10; ajisus avisus; ajita in -prajita, possibly for prajita (or pra-jita,

y
Pres. [7.]

anj, 'anoint'.

Perf.

anakti ankte etc. v. + ananja b. anaja anajyat


(

[1.]

anjet

s'.

rv.),

Aor.
[Fut.

[1.

ajyat; anji.

anaje
] 5.

etc.

rv.

o.

anjijat.

anjis ta.
b.s.

Verb,

anksyati anjisyati, ankta anjita.] akta v. + anktva s., aktva k. [anjitvaj; -ajya
;

Sec. Conj.:
etc. s.

Pass,

ajyate

etc.

v.+

Desid. anjijisa-.]

Caus. anjayati

Deriv.

anga c. angya c.
aiijaka
c.

-ajya

c.

anjana

v.

akta

rv.

-aja e.+

anjasv. +
anji v.b.

-akti e.+

ajya v.+

aktu

v.b.

anjya

c.

y
Pres. [1.] atati -te etc.

at,

'wander.

e.+

[Perf. etc.

ata; atit.]
e. [

Fut.
Verb,
[Sec.

1.

atisyati
c.
;

2.

atita.]

atitva c. Conj.: atatya-; atitisa-; ataya-.]


c.
c.

atita

Deriv.: -ata

atavi?

c.

ata pb.+

atana
name.

atya

c.

Apparently a modern form of the following root; ata in pb.

is a

proper

AND PkIMAKY DERrV'ATITES.

[ay

y
Pres. [1.]

at, 'wander'
b.\*.

atasi atant
c.
;

atamana
s.

Verb, -atita

-atya

Deriv.

atasi Rv.
-ati?
B.V.

atithi ?

V.

atya

ev.b.

atithin rv.c.

y
Prcs. [2.] atti
etc.

ad,

'eat'.

(adat adan) v.+, adana kv.


jub.
[

[1.]

adasva

e.

[Perf.

ada, aditha.]

AoT.
Fut.
Verl.

1.

adyasam
atsyati
v. +,

1.

b.s. [

2.

3.

adidat.]

atta.J

attvun

-tave

v.,

-tos

b.;

attvaya

b.

Sec. Conj.: Pass,

adyate

etc.

b.+
b.

Cans, adayati b.+,

Deriv.: -kd\-.+

atti

attrin kv.
attrii^atri)

-ada AV.+

-adakaE.+ -adana b. + adaniya c.

attavya c. attrAv.+
attra rv. attra
v.

adayate etc. s. -advan v. v.+ -advara ce.

anna

v.

+
v.b.s.

adana
adin
v.

rv.

adman

-adya v.+

adya

av. +

y
Pres. [2.]

an, 'breathe'.

aniti
etc.

etc.

anant)
Perf.

(ananti anyat anit) v.+ av.b., -te jb. [6.] anati (3s.)

[1.]

anati (anet ana anat

av.

ana
5.
1.

v.

Aor. Fut.

Verb,

anisus av. 2. anita.] anisyati b. [ anita b. anitum b.; -anya

b.;

-anam

b.s.
etc.

Sec. Conj.: [Desid. aninisat-.


i)eriu.
;

Cans,

anayati

av.+, -te

e.

ana

b.u.

-anana -anatha

rv.
vs.

anila b.+

anav. +

anana
'injure'.
v.b.

e.

y
Pres.
[2.]
etc.

am,

amisi amiti amanti amit amate amisva


cb.

[1.]

ame

V.B.

Perf.

amire
3.

[emana] emusa?
etc. v.b.

rv.

(emusa

cb.)

Aor.

amamat
:

Verb, [anta,
Sec. Conj.

amita.]

Pass,

amy ate

ms

Caus. amayati

etc. v.b.

Deriv.

ama V.B.
amati v.b. amati v.b. amatra rv.

-amana 9B. amina rv. amiva v.+ amla v e. +

ama?v.+

-amajritnu

v.

amana ?

av.ms.

-araaya v.+ -amis v rv.


see

ay,

i.

arc]

Roots, Vebb-fokms,

y arc,
Pres. [1.]

re, 'shine, praise'.


nvi.

arcati

etc.

v.+,

area
v.,

arease
b.+,

(Is.) rvI.

Perf.

anarca

e. +,

anreiis

anarcus
cb.)

anrce

rv'.

[Aor. arcicat, areit.]

Put. arcisyati
Verb,

c.
;

(arksyant?
e.
;

arcita
:

e.

areitum
rcyate
e.)

Sec. Con).

Pass,

v. [

Desid. arcicisa-.]
arei
v.

arcitva

e.

-arcya

e.

rcase uv. Caus. arcayati -te


;

etc.

V.+ (arcyate
Deriv.
:

arc ev.

arcatra- uv.
arcatri ev.

+
e.

-rea av.+
-rcas EV.
-rkti? EV. (suv-)

arka

+ area b. + arcaka c. arcya e. +


v.

arein
arcitr
fc

ev.

arcana e. + arcaniyaE.+ arcananas v.


]/ arj, see

arcis v.+
v.

rkva EV. fkvan V.

rj, rnj.

y
y
Pres. [1.] Perf.

art, see

rt.

aril, 'deserve' etc.


etc. e.

arhati

etc.

v.+, -te

anrhiis
etc.

tsI.,

arhire

ev'.

[Aor.

arhyasam, arhi, arjihat, arhit; arhisyati, arhita.] arhase ev'. [Desid. arjihisa-. -See. Conj. ] Caus. arhayati etc. s. + Deriv. argha v. + -arha b. + arhana v. + -arghya c. arhana c. arhaniya c.
Verb,
:

av, 'favor'.

Pres. [1.]
Perf.

avati etc. v.+ Siva avitha etc. v. +

Aor.
Fut.
Verb,

1.
1.

avyas

-at v.b.s.
v.b.

avisyati
;

2.

5.

avit

etc.

(aviddhi
ev.

etc.

avisat

etc.) v.b.s.

avita
;

c.

-uta ev.
:

avitave

v.b.

-avya
v.b.s.
b.s.

Sec. Conj.

Caus.

avayas

-at v.b.u.

Deriv.

ava ev. avana c.


avas
V.B.

avitr

avi? V.+

-avitra

avistha

ev.

avis-'? EV.

Common

in v.

quite rare in later language.

5
Aor.
1.

AND PbIMABY DERIVATTVESf^'^'^


asta aQata asta
Ev.,
5.

[2

aS

v.b.,
[

a^yat
3.

aqita,

etc. v.b.,

ma
[

agemahi sv.

a9i9at.]

astuB.
b.,

[a<ji.]

2.

396-

4.

aksi
2.

aksat

rv. (cf. j/aks).

a9ista.]

Fut.
Verb,

1.

[a9isyate]
k.
;

a9nuvisyamahe
v.b.,
;

cb'.

a9ita, asta.]
e.
;

astiim
:

astave

astavai
b.

jb.s.

a9itvun

-asta

v.b.

[Sec. Conj.
;

ai^aq^a.v.

a9i9isa- ; a9aya-.]

Dew. an9a
Compare

+ asti V. +
]/ 1

a9ana
aks and
]/

a9i- vs*.
2

-a9nuva ags. -a9nuvin vs.


(to -which latter

-aqa

993.
v.

a9a

+
etc.

na9
v.

the forms||anat

are

here referred). Derivatives more doubtfully referable to this root are

a9an a9na

ev.
v.

a9inan
+
a9ri
v.

a9va
astra

v. v.

a9ani

+ +

+ +

ev.

a9ru

v.

a9ina

rv.

5,911 v. + a9iyas b. a9istha v.b.u.

y'

2 aq, 'eat'.
etc.

a9nati (a9ana) a9nite Perf. a9a v. + (-a9vans b.)


Pres. [9.]

v.+

[1.]

a9a

e'.

Aor.
Fut.
Verb.

[1.
1.

a9yat.
v.

3.

a9i9at.

a9isyati +
;

etc.

b.+

] 5.

a9it

etc.

v.+

2.

a9ita.]
;

a9ita
:

Sec. Conj.

Deriv.
:

a9ituin v.; a9itva b. + -a9ya b. Int. a9a9ya-.] Desid. a9i9isati etc. b. + a9yate av. + [ Caus. a9ayati b. + (a9ita ev.) a9apaya- mgs. a9na v. a9itavya b. + -aq av. 39! s. av. + v. + a9ni ta. a9ya av. ? + a9itr -a9ana a9itraB.+ -a9a e.+ a9istha b. a9ana B.TJ. -a9aka b. a9i9isu s. -a9aniya s. + a9usa rv. a9ayitavya b. -a9m B. +
Pass.

Doubtless ultimately the same with

a9.

y
Pres. [2.] asti

as, 'be'.

santi

etc.

(edhx)v.+ (sva +
v.

sma smahe asateii., syamahe ci.)


+
-asa (itiha-) av. +
sti v.b.

asa asitha Deriv. asu v. +


Perf.
:

etc. v.

asta

-asti

v.

y
Pres. [4.]

2 as, 'throw'.
etc.

asyati

etc. v. +,

asyate

rv.b.

[1.]

asati

etc.

evI. (?

asan)
[

e.

Perf.

Aor.

1.

asa etc. ev. +, ase ev'. asyat fii. asi ci.


;

asisat.

2.

asthat
asita.]
b.,

etc.

av'.kI.c.

(?

see

stha).

3.

5.

asista.l J
ev. +
[

Fut.
Verb,

asisyati

etc.

2.

asta v.+, asita e^.; astave -asyav. + -asam b.s.u.


;

-tavai

b.

asitvun

e1.

asitva

s.

Sec.

Conj.
etc. E.

Pass,

asyate

etc.

av.

Desid. asisisa-.]

Caus. asayati

2 as]
Deriv.: -as v.

Roots, Verb-forms,
asira evI.
v. + -asya b. + -asya e. + asra tb*.

astra

-asa Av. +
-asin AV. +

asana v.+ asana nv.


-asaniya
asi? V.+
c.

asistha
-asti
c.

v.

-astavya
astr
v.B.

c.

asya av. -asana c.

y ah,
Perf.

'say'.

aha

ahiis v.+, attha ahatus b.+

Deriv.
If

-aha? pbI. niraha is from


it.

this root

then perhaps

svaha

v.

is also to

be re-

ferred to

y
Pres. [1.]

auch,

'tear'.

anchati
c.

c.

Deriv.

auchana

Found only

in the Su^ruta, and doubtless artificial.

y
Pres. [5.]

ap, 'obtain'.

apnoti etc. av. +, apnute e. Perf. apa apitha etc. v. +, apire apana rv. Aor. 1. api b.+ 2. apat etc. v.+ (apeyam av.) 3. apipau cb. (apipi4. apsis e. pat BAu.) Put. 1. apsyati b.+, -te b.e. 2. apta b. Fer&. apta V. + aptuniB. + aptvaB. + -apyaB. Sec. Con,). : Pass, apyate etc. b. + Desid. Ipsati etc. av. +, ipsate etc. b.b. (aipsit etc. b.) Cans, apayati etc. b.+, -te etc. e. (apipayiset cb.) B. Deriv. : -apa b. + -apaniya s. + -aptr c. ipsa e. + -apaka e. + apaneya u'. apnana? ev.s. -ipsin u. V. + -apin u. + api -apayitavya u.c. ipsu s. + apya av.+ apti AV. + apayitr u. apipayisu e. apana v. + aptavya u. + To a more original form of the root (ap is perhaps a ap) doubtless

belong

also

apas

V.

apis

v.b.

apnas, apna-

ev.

-apta

(?

an-) ev.
root.

BR. regard apas

at ev. iii. 6.7 as a

verb-form from this simpler

y
Pres. [4.]
Verb,

ar, 'praise'

(?)

aryanti

ev2.

arita ev.
perhaps a form of a
is
-|- |/r,

Is

'resort to,

have recourse

to'

aryauti

in

both occurrences

accented as

if it

contained a preposition.

y
Pres. [2.]
E.

as,

'sit'.

aste
[4.]

etc.

(asina) v.+ (asand


etc. e.

ev2.),

asti

e.

[1.]

asati -te

etc.

asyati -te

7
Perf.

AND PkIMAEY DERrVATIVES.


asam cakre
5. 1.

[2i

etc. a. +,

asam cakara
[

e.

Aor.
Fat.
Fer6.

asista

etc. b.s. etc.

asisyate
b.

b.+, -yati ts.

2.

asita.]

asita
:

asitum
asyate

b.+,
e.

Sec. Conj.

Pass,
v.b.
u.

Desid. asisisa-.]
u.

astum

k.;

asitva

b.s.;

-asya c. Cans, asayati


-asti
c.

b.

Deriv.

asa

-asya
e.

-asa

+ asya e. +

-asaniya asitavya
-asitr
e.

c.

b.

-asaka

asana

av. +

y
Pres. [2.] eti
etc.

i,

1,

ay,
etc.

'go'.

yanti

etc.

Avi.?+

v.+, -ite -iyate

e.+

[4.]
v.b.,

iyate

etc. v.b.c.

[1.]

ayate
i.

etc.

v.+,

[5.] see ]/

ayati

iye Rvi. iyate


;

iyana v.+, lyati evI., -iyant cb.m. (imi taI. aitat Av'.; yariEv'.; iyana sv'.; iyamana cb. imalii c.) -ay am Perf. iyaya iyus etc. v.+ [iyayitha] (iyetha v.b., iyatha v.) e. + cakre Aor. 1. iyat etc. e. + (iyasam ggs.) [ 4. (adhy-) aista. 5. ayista.]
Ev'.,

imahe

Fat.

1.

esyati
V.

etc.

av. +, -te
c.
;

etc. b.

Verb. ita v.+, -ita

etum
c;
c.

b. +,

2. eta etc. b.+ + ayisyati etc. b.+ etave etavai v.b., etos v.b.s. itva b.u.
; ;

-itya

+,

-iya
iyate

-ayya

b.

ayase, ityai,

iyadhyai

ev.

-ayam
Sec. Conj.
ti.

v.b.

Pass,

Cans, (praty-)

Int. iyayate pu'. [Desid. ayiyisate, iyisaayayati etc. (-ayyate) c. (adhy-) apayati -te
;

etc. TA.E.

Deriv.

+ [apipat.] aya v. +

2i]
Deriv.
:

Roots, Verb-fokms,
ina
rv.c.

8
b.

-inva

v.b.

invaka
root.

enas

v.

Doubtless the same with the preceding

y
Pres. [1.]
Verh.

ing, 'stir.

ingati -te e.+


e.

ingita
:

Sec. Conj.

Cans,
E.

ingayati

etc. v.

+ (ingyate
s.+

cb.)
c.

Denv.

inga

ingana

ingya

injana

c.

Isolated forms as if from ifig, ink, inj are found in the Brahmanas.

y
A

ich, see

is.

T/it.

assumed hy BR. on account of the proper name itant in KB., and the doubtful and obscure itatas atRv.x. 171. 1 -which latter, however, is shown by its accent to be^^no participle.
root it, 'wander', is

A root
Ida
V.

id

is

perhaps to be assumed on account of the nouns id v.+ and

y
Pres. [1.]

idh, indh, 'kindle'.


cic.

inddhe indhate inttam ta.)

v.+ (indhate

rv.,

indhana

v.:

inksva

ab.

idhe idhire rv.cb. [ tndham cakre.] 1. idhate? rvI. idhimahi v., idhana v. 5. aindhista etc. b., indhisiya ts., idhisimahi s. Fut. 1. indhisyant s. [ 2. indhita.] Verb, iddha v. + -idhya s. + -idham, -idhe rv. Sec. Conj.: Pass, idhyate etc. v.+ [ Desid. indidhisa-.] Cans, indhita c. Deriv.: -idh y.+ edhav. + indha v.b. -idhya ts. -iddhifi. -idhra?v. + edhasAv.+ -indhaka e. idhma v. + -eddhr rv. indhana v. +
Perf.

Aor.

in, inv, see

i.

y
y

inaks, iyaks,

see

y
y y

2 nae.

see

yaj.
rj.

y
y

irajy, see
see

iradh,

radh.

AND Pkimary Derivatives.

[Iks

y
Pres. [6.] ilati etc.
[Per/", etc.
c.

il,

'be quiet'.

iyela, ailit, elisyati, elita.]


:

Sec. Conj.

Cans, ilayati

etc. av.b.s.

(^ailaylt av.

ilita cb.)

Deriv.: -ilaya b.s.

In

Ts.,

ilayanti

is

once read.

y
Pres. [6.]
E.

1 is,

ich, 'seek, desire'.


[1.]

iehati -te
[4.]

etc. e.

v.+

-esati -te

etc.

e.+

[6.]

-isa -isaut

-isyati

+
etc. b.

Perf.

iyesa isus, ise isire


[3.
1.

+
etc. b.v.

Aor.
Fut.
Fer6.

aisisat.

] 5.

aisit aisisus
-te b.
b.
[
,

esisyati
v. V.
:

etc. b.,

2.

esita, esta.]
cb.
,

ista

estum

-tavai

esitum

r.

[isitva, istva;]

-isya
Sec. Conj.

+
etc. e. +, -ti e. [

Pass, isyate

Desid. esisisa-.] Cans, esaya-

ti eic,

esita

c.

(ichayami

r1.)

Deriv.

-ichaka

e.

Iks]
Aor.
Fut.
1.
1.

Roots, Veeb-forms,
aiksi
c.

10
(aiksit
c. ?)

[3.

aiciksat.

] 5.

aiksisi

etc. b.

Fert.

Sec.

2. iksita.] iksisyate etc. b.+, -yati b. [ B. + iksitumE. + iksitvaB.; -iksyaB. + -iksam b.s. Caus. iksaDesid. iciksisa-(m d.). Conj.: Pass, iksyate etc. s. +

iksita

yati
Deriu.
:

etc. v. +,

-te av. (iksyate s.)

iksanaKv.? s.+ -iksitavya b. + iksitr c iksaniyaE. + -iksya E.+ iksaB.+ iciksisu c. iksenya rv. iksaka b.+ growing rapidly common. Active forms Only three occurrences in e.v., but
iksa
b.

iksinE.+

sporadic.

y inkh,
Pres. [1.]

'swing'.

Sec. Conj.

inkhati etc. c, -te aa. Caus. inkhayati -te etc. v. + -inkhana c. Deriv.: -i&kha v.+ The form enksva ab. is false.
:

-inkhaya uv.

y Ij,
y
Pres. [2.] itte

see

ej.

id, 'praise'.
v.b.

idate

etc.

(idisva)
[

[1.]

idamahe

v.,

idamana

s.

Perf.

ide
etc.

ev.,

idire e.+

c.

idam

cakre.]

[Aor.
Verb,

aidista; idisyate, idita.]


v.

idita
:

idituru

Sec. Conj.

Pass,

Deriv.

id nv.
a

idyate c. [ idya v. +

Desid. ididisa-.] Caus. aidayan


iditavya
b.

c.

idenya

v.b.

i<Jitf av.

Only

few sporadic occurrences in the

later language.

y Ir,
Pres. [2.] irte

'set in
b.")

motion'.
[1.]

irate

etc. v.b.
[

Perf. irire

v.

(erire uv.)

(irate iram cakre.]


eic.

airat

etc.

kv.,

irate

(3s.) av.

[Aor.
Verb,

etc.

airirat, airista; irisyate, irita.]


b.

irna

+
v.+, -te
rv.)
e(c. v.b.

Sec. Conj.:

Caus. irayati
m.
e.
;

(iryate

etc.

b.

irita

v.

iryant
Deriv.
:

irayadhyai
irya
b.

ira

irin

e.

irana

e.

+
c.

-iritr v.

irya c. -iraka c. The form iryayati, doubtless

-iraniya
false, is

irma

v.b.

found once in cb.

y irsy,
Pres. [I.] Verb,

'be jealous'.

irsyati
c.

etc. b.s.

irsyita
:

Deriv.

irsya av. +

irsyin

c. c.

irsyii av. +

irsyitavya

c.

irsyaka

c.

irsyalu

..

11

AND Primary derivatives.


Evidently a secondary
root,

[1

uks
Not

but of doubtful origin (BR., from irasy).

seldom written witbout tbe

in later works.

y
Pres. [2.] iste

ic, 'be master'.

i9ate

etc.

(2s. [1.]

iQidhve
Perf. i9ire
'?

Av.) v.+
[

ikse

rv.,

iqise rv.s.
v.e.u.

i^e

3s.

v.b., i<jite u.

i9ate i9ata

rv.

i(jam cakre.]
-te b.
[

[Aor. alQista.]

Fut.

1.

iQisyati

u.,

2.

i9ita.]

Verb, itjita u.

Deriv.

Iq

b.

iqa av. +

i9ana

u.
c.

i9itr u. +

i9vara

av.

193, B.

i9in

u.

i9itavya

-i9u

v.

y
Pres. [1.]

Is, es, 'move'.

isate

etc. v.b., -ti etc. v.b.u.


[

Perf. ise rv. (aiyes plpf. rv'.)

esati isam cakre.]


-esti
}/ 1
,

etc.

av.

[Aor.

etc.

aisista; isisyate; isita.]

Verb, -isita v.b.

Dcriu.

isa

'?

RV.

esa rv.

c.

estf

b.s.

Doubtless ultimately one with

2 is.

y
Pres, [1
.]

ih, 'be eager'

ihate
E.

etc. b. +, -ti e.

[Perf.
Fer6.

etc.

iham cakre;
+
;

aijihat, aihista; ihisyate, ihita.]


c.

ihita
:

ihitum.

[Sec. Conj.

Desid. ijihisa-.
c.

Caus. ihaya-.]

Deriv.: -iha

iha e.+

-ihana

e.

eha

av.

-ehasv.

u, 'proclaim'
[

Pres. [2.]

uve

rv*.

[5.]

vinoti rv'.

1.

avate.]

[Perf. etc. etc.

uve; austa; osyate, ota; usisa-, avaya-.]


root;

Extremely doubtful

uve

is

possibly interjection (Bo.);

vyunoti

is

perhaps for viyujioti; and the pple ota, put here by BR., doubtless belongs

to

va, 'weave'.

y
Pres. [6.]
[Perf.

uks,
v.+

'sprinkle'.

uksati

etc. v. +,

-te

etc.

uksam

cakara.]
etc. b.

Aor.
Fut.

5.
1.

auksisam
;

uksisyati etc. b.s. [ 2. uksita.] Verb, uksita v. + b. + -uksya Sec. Conj.: Pass, uksyate etc. b. + Caus. uksayati
;

etc.

s.+

uks]
:

Roots, Veeb-forms,

12

Deriv.

-uks rv. uksana av. + -uksitavya b.c. ustr rvI. -uksa B.s. uksaniya jb. ustr b.s. ustra v. + V.+ Tiksan Whether uksan and ustr etc. belong here, is very doubtful.

2 uks, vaks, 'grow',

see

"j/

vaks.

y
Pres. [4.]
Perf.

uc, 'be pleased'.


rv.

ueyati

etc. v.b.

uvoeitha uvoca, ucise

[Aor.
Verb,

etc. aucit; ucisyati, ucita.] ucita v.+ [ocitva.]


:

Deriv.

-oka

rv.

okya

rv.

okas

v.

+ okivans rvI. -ocana

v.

-ocara

av.

y uch,

see j/ 1

vas.

y
Pres. [6.]

ujh, 'forsake'.

ujhati
c.

etc. e.

Perf.

ujham cakara
5.

c.

Aor.

aujhit

[Fut. ujhisyati, ujhita.]


Tcrfe.

ujhita

Deriv.:

E. + ujhiturac. -ujhya c. -ujha s.+ ujhana c. ujhiti


;

pb.
etc.').

secondary

root,

coming from

ud

)/

ha

(_ujjaliami

y
Pres. [6
'?]

uneh,

'glean'.

unchati
c.

etc. s.

[Perf. etc.
Verb,
[(Sec.

uncham cakara;
;

aunchit; unchisyati, unehita.]


c.

unchitum
Conj.
: :

-unchya

Desid. uncichisa-.
s.

Cans,
c.

unchaya-.]

Deriv.

uncha

unchana

y
Pres. [7.]

ud, und,

'wet'.

unatti undanti
[

etc. v.b.s.,

undate

(Sp.) av.

[6.]

undati

etc. b.s.

Perf.

iidus av.

undam cakara.]
;
;

[.Aor. etc.

Verb,

aundidat, aundit undisyati, undita.] utta B., unna s.c. -udya b.s.
:

Sec. Conj.

Pass,

udyate
+

rv.

Desid. undidisa-. Caus. undaya-.]


c.

Denu.

ud RV. udaka

udani- rv.
v.

-uditr

-udrav. + utsa v. +

odati rv.

odana

v.

udan,udav.+

udman b.

undanas. +
'force'.

odman

b.

y
Pres. [6.]
jPer/". etc.

ubj,

ubjati

etc. v.b.s.

ubjam cakara;

aubjijat, aubjit; ubjisyati, ubjlta.]

13
Verb,
!

AND PkIMAKY DERIVAXIVJeS.


ubjita
:

[2

uh

av.b.

-ubjya

jb.

[Sec. Conj.

Desid. ubjijisa-.
'?

Caus. ubjaya-.]
-ubji- pb.
'confine'.

Der ju. ; -udga

B.

ubjaRv.?E.+

y ubh,
Pres. [9.]

umbh,

aubhnat ubhnas
(2p.) av.,

rv.

[7.]

unap

rv.,

aumbhan

ts.

[6.]

umbhata
[Perf. etc.

aumbhat

ms.[;

ubhati.]

uvobha, umbham cakara; aubhit, aumbhit; ubhisyati umbhisyati, ubhita umbhita.J


c.
;

ubdha rv.b., umbhita Deriv. -umbhana ts.


Verb,

-ubhya

s.

y
Pres. [1.]
Perf.

us, 'shine',

see

vas.

y
osati
cb.
etc. v.
[

us, 'burn'.
Rvi.

uvosa
5.
1.

Aor.
[Fut.
Fer&.

ausit

osam cakara.] osisyati. osita.]


etc. b.s.

[9.]

usnan, usnant

2.

usta

B.s.

[ositva;] -osya

ts.

-usasK.

Sec. Conj.: Pass,

usyate

etc. c. [

Desid. osisisa-. Caus. osaya-.]


+

osam

cb.

Deriv.

usa ? rv. usa c.

usna
-usni

v.

-usya

cb.
v.
e.

osa, -osa

v.

ta.

usman usman
*

+ +
see.

-osas rv.

osistha

b.

Apparently a differentiated form o{

y
see

vas, which
1

y
Pres. [1.]

urnu,
1

vr.

y
uhati
v.+, -te v.+
[Perf.
j

uh, 'remove'.

ubam
udha
:

cakara.]
cb.
;

Aor.
Verb,

1.

uhyat

B.+,
Sec. Conj.

5. auhit b. ohi c. [ 3. aujihat.] uhita c. iihitum e.+, odhum e.+, -ubitavai -uhya B. + -oham rv., -uham ms.

b.+,

b.

-uhya

Pass, av.

uhyate
c.

b. +,

uhyate
+
s.

c.

Caus. uliayati|c.
uhaniya s. + uhitavya c.

Deriv.

uha

iiliya b.

udlii

c.

-uhaka

uhana

-oha rv. -oghas ? RV.


in

Doubtless a differentiated form of

}/

vah, from which

some forms and

meanings

it is

hardly to be separated.

y
Pres. [1.]

uh,

'consider'.
[1.]

ohate (3p.) ohana Ghana rv. ohise -te rv'. uham cakre.] Perf. uhe Aor. aujihat. auhista
ohate
etc. v.

[2.]

uhati c,

E.

(Is.)

etc. v. [

[3.

] 5.

v.

2 tihl
[Fut.
Verb,

Roots, Vebb-fokms,

14

uhisyate, uhita.]
uliituin
:

c.

-uhya

c.

Sec. Conj.

[Desid. ujihisa-.

Caus.
c.

Deriv.: vih.a.B.+

uhana

uhya

c.

uhaniya

a.

uhayati etc. e. uhitavya c. 6ha- ? rv.

ohas Ev. ohasana


1

ev.

Probably 'bear in mind', and so originally identical witb

uh

and vah.

y
Pres. [6.]

r,

feh,

'go, send'.
;

rehati

etc.

(iyarsi) v.b.

v.+, -te etc. cb.e.


[5.]
,

archati
etc. v.

etc. u.e.

rnoti

etc.

rante ranta rv. ranti? sv. [9. rnati.] [2.] arti ts. aram cakara.] Perf. ara (aritha) arus etc. v. + anarchat m'. [ Aor. 1. arta arata etc. (aryat ts., arita ev.; arana rv.) v.b. etc. V.B. (aranta aramahi v.) [ 4. arsit.]
;

rnve

rnvati

[a.]
etc.

lyarti
rt.

etc.

[6.]

2.

arat

Fut.
Verb,

1.

arisyati

b.

2.

arta.]
b.;

rta v.+, arna c; artos


:

-rtva av.b.; -rtya av.; -aram ev.


etc.

Sec. Conj.

[Pass,

aryate.
v.

aririsa-.]
E.;

Caus. arpayati
+
;

Intens. alarti
etc. v. +,

ev. [araryate
c.

etc.

Desid.

-te

(arpipam
c.)

av.;

arpayita

arpita arpita
v.

-arpya

v.

arpyate

Deriv.

ara, ara

+
v.b. s.

arya, arya

arana
arani

v.

v.

arati rv.

arami

v.b.

ari V. +
aritr rv.
aritra, aritra V.+

arna v. + arnas rv. artha v. + -arman, arma v.+ arvan, -arva v.+ arvant v.b. arav.+
-arin
b.

arya
irina

v.

+ + + +

iras- rv.
v.

ratha v. + -arpaka c. -arpya c

xrya

v.

-rcha

u.

arpana v. + arpaniya c.
-arpitr
e.

rti, rti v.

+
cb.
c.

rtu

v. v.

-arpayitr

-rtha

-arpayitavya

aruka

ta.

rna
"j/

v.

ro, see

arc.

y
Pres. [7.]

rj, rnj, arj,


(Sp.) Rv.

'direct, stretch, attain'.

rnjate

rjyate ev.
Per/",

rnjase
5.

(Is.
?
)

[6.]

rnjati -ate
rv.

etc.

rv. aa.

rnjasana

[4.]

fjyant,

[1.]

arjati b.u.c.

[anai'jus] anrjus avI.


[3.

Aor.

arjijat.

arjista.]

[Fut. arjisyati, arjita.]


Verb,

rnjase
:

rvI.

Sec. Conj.

[Pass, rjyate.
c.

Desid. arjijisa-.
rjipya rv. rji9van rv.
rjipin rv.
rjisa RV.
rjCinas rv.

Caus. arjayati -te

etc.

s.e.+

Deriv.

arjaka
-arjya

rjiyas

v.

c.

rju

V.

arj ana e.+

raji Hv.

arjaniya
-arjayitr

c.

rajistha rv.b. rajiyas


jb.

c.

-rnga rv.

raji av. +

15
It

AND Primaky Derivatives.


seems impossible
rj or
to

[rdh

di-vide these

forms

(generally distributed to two

different roots) from one another.

The

root has three -well-marked stages of


later language.

development

rnj in rv., arj in Brah., and arjaya in the


from
it.

Compare

also >/raj, probably a deriTative

With

it is

related, further,

the anomalously formed stem irajya (irajyati -te


'direct, rule'.

etc. RV.,

and irajyii

RV.),

y
arjuna v.+

2 rj, 'shine'.
:

Inferable from the derivatives

-rjika v.

rjiti rv.

rjra rv.

|/ rt,

art, 'pursue'.

Aor.

5.

articLhvam pb^

Fut. artisye avI.

Deriv.:

artana

vs^.
;

-artitr

v'.

artuka

cbI.

very doubtful root

anvartisye and anvartitr apparent

contractions

for anu-vart-; and Bo. amends artidhvam to arthi- (but??). But artana and artuka seem to show that the thing had assumed the value of a root.

y
Pres. [6.]

yd, ard,

'stir,

dissolve'.

7. rdantu ardan rv. [1.] ardati etc. av.+ [ [Perf. etc. anarda; ardidat, ardit; ardisyati, ardita.] Verb, arnna? cb.
:

rnatti.]

Sec. Conj.

[Desid. ardidisa-.

Cans, ardayati

etc.

(^[ardayit]

ardyate

ardita) v.+
Deriv.:

-ardaka

c.

-ardin

c.

ardanaE.+

Of perplexing variety

of meanings.

y
Pres. [5.]

rdh,
[7.]

'thrive'.
v.

rdhnoti etc. v.+ rdhyate -ti v. + (Pass."*).

rnadhat rndhyam rndhant

[4.]

Perf.

Aor.

anrdhe rv.cb. rdhathe rv., rdhyam etc. 1. ardlima b.s.. Av.E.s. rdhimahi rv. rdhant rv. ardhi b.

anrdhus
,

av.,

v.b.s.,

2.

rdhyasam etc. rdhet rdhema

Av.cB.

Fut.
Verb,

1.

] 5. [3. ardidhat. 2. ardhita jb. ardhisyate cb. rddha av.+ [rddhva, ardliitva.]

[ardhit] ardhista ms.

Sec. Conj.: Pass,

rdhyate

etc.

v.+,

sit Deriv. :

etc.)

AV.CB. [ardidhisa-.]

Cans, ardhayati
-fdha
rv.

rdhyant

m.

Desid. irtsati
etc.

etc. (^airt-

av.+

ardha ? v. + ardha?v.+ ardhya RV.


Compare
roots

-ardhi rv.

rdhnuka
v.b.

ags.

ardhuka
-rdh
v.s.

b.s.

rdhat, rdhak?

-irtsa av.

rddhiAv.+

-ardhayitr

u.s.

vrdh

and radh.

r9]

Roots, Vebb-fokms,
>/r9(?), 'harm'.
Perhaps
ev.
to

16

be inferred from the derivatives

-arqa -argani rv.

arQas

vs.

+
ev.

rksa

ar9asana

+ -rksara v.
v.

rksika

av.b.

y
Pres. [1.] arsati etc. Perf.

rs, 'rush, push'.


v,b.

(arsase av.)

[6.]

rsati

etc. v.e.s.

anarsat
etc.

ta.

[Aor.
Verb,

arsit; arsisyati, arsita.]


v.b. [arsitva.]

rsta

{Sec. Con).: arsisisa-;

arsaya-.]

Deriu.

.-

-arsa

B.

-arsana B. arsani av.


Hardly
doubtful.
calls for the

-arsu ev. arstr b.

rsabha v.+ rsiv.+


rsii ev.

rsti v. +

rsva

v.b.

usual division into two roots.

Some

of the derivatives

y
Pres, [1.] ijate,
[Per/". etc.
-Sec.

ej, ij, 'stir'.


etc.

ijamana

rv.

ejati

v.+

ejam cakara;
av.

aijijat; ejisyati, ejita.]

Con).: [^Desid. ejijisa-.


:

Caus. ejayati cb., -te


v.

c.

Deriv.

ejathu

-ejaya

+
'thrive'.

y
Pres. [1.]

edh,
b.+

Perf.

edhate edhire c.

etc.

v.+, -ti

etc.

Aor.
[Put.
Verb,
Sec.

[3.

edham cakrire aididhat. edhisiya


] 5.
;

cb.,
etc.

edham babhuvire

c.

av.b.

edhisyate, edhita.] edhita e. + edhitum Conj. Desid. edidhisa: :

b.

(in d.).
v.b.

Caus. edhayati
-edhana
r.

etc. s.

Der jv.

-edha ?

B.s.

edhatu

edhas

s.e.

edidhisu-vs.

Perhaps related with rdh.

y
Pres. [1.]
;

katth,

'boast'.

katthate etc. e. +, -ti etc. e. [Perf. etc. cakatthe akatthista katthisyate, katthita.] katthitum e. Verb, katthita e. + Caus. katthayati e. Sec. Conj. Deriv. : -kattha e. katthaka c. -katthin e.+ katthana e.+ katthitavya
;
;

c.

secondary prakritized

root,

but of unclear derivation.

y
Only in the
deriv.

kad,

'destroy'.

kadana

e.+, and in

cakada kadanam

r.,

where

eakada

is a misreading for

eakara.

17

AND Primary Derivatives.

[kal

y kan,
Pres. [4.] Perf.

ka,

'be pleased, enjoy'.

kayamana

ev'.

eakana cakanas etc. cakanyat cakandhi etc. cakananta cakan cake eakana v.b.s. Aor. 5. akanisam kanisas rv. Deriv. kana rv. kanistha v.b. kanlna v. + kanya v. + kanaka? E.+ kanistha b.+ kaniyasv.+ -kati rv.
Rv.
;

-kayya
Doubtless the same with the following
account of
its accent, rather

rv.

root,

kam. The

stem cakan, on

perfect than intensive.

y
Perf.

kam,

'love'.

cakame
3.
1.

etc.

v.+

[aeakamata] aeikamata etc. b, [ 5. kamisista.] kamisyate etc. b. 2. kamita b. Verb. 'kamta, E. + [kamtva, kamitva ;] -karaass. -kamam cb. Sec. Conj.: [Intens. cankam-. Desid. cikamisa-. ] Caus. kamayate
Aor.
Put.

etc. V. +, -ti etc. e.

Dcriv.

kam ? V. +
kama- ?
v.
c.
c.

kamitr

c.

kamana

kamaniya

kamra c. kamav.+ kamin v. +

kamyav. + -kamya av. + -kaman rv'.

kamukaB.+
kamti e. + kamayitavya
c.

kamana

s.

Doubtless the same with the preceding.

y kamp,
Pres. [1.]

'tremble'.

Perf.

kampate cakampe etc.


etc.

etc.

u.+, -ti

etc. e.

e.
;

acakampat, akampista kampisyate, kampita.] Verb, kampita e. + [kapita] kampitum e., -tos b. -kampya s. + Sec. Conj.: [Int. cankamp-. Desid. cikampisa-. ] Caus. kampayati
[Aor.
;

etc. B. +,

-te

etc. u.
E.

+ (_kampyate c)

Z>eriv.

.-

kampa

kampinE.n-

kampanaE.+
-kampaniya
c.

kapana?
kapi? v.+ kepi v rv.

rv.

-kampaE. + -kampaka e.+

kampya e.+ kampana e. +

kampra

s.

y
[Pres. etc.

kal, 'drive, produce', etc.


etc.]
etc.

kalate, cakale,
Caus.

Sec. Conj.:

kalayati
-te

s.+, -te etc.

b.+ (kalyate

etc. s.

+)

c.
s.

ka-

layati
Deriu..

etc. e. +,

etc. c.

kala? E.+ -kalika c.

-kalya

c.
s.

-kalaniya
+
:

c.
c.

kalana

-kalayitr
2

-kalaka -kalana
'drive'
;

Divided by BR. and Bo. into two roots


(kalay), 'drive
etc. etc'
II.

kal [kalay),

and

kal

Whitney,

Supplement

kas]

Roots, Vekb-forms,

18

y
Pres. [1.]

kas,
etc.

'scratch'.

kasati

etc.

av. +, -te

e.+

[Perf. etc.

cakasa; akasit.]
ts. [

Fut.
Verb,

1.

kasisyati
c.
;

2.

kasita.]

kasita
:

Deriv.

kasa

e.

-kasam s. + kasana

c.

-kasa

b.

-kasin

c.

y
Pres. [1.]

kas, 'open'.

kasati
c.

etc. av.c.

Perf.

cakase
3.

Aor.

acikasat

c.

[Fut. kasisyati, kasita.]


Verb,

kasta

v.b.s.,

kasita

s.

Sec. Conj.: [Int,

canikas-.
c.

Desid. eikasisa-.

Caus.

kasayati

etc. c.

(kasyate

c.)

Dew. kasana?

-kasti

ts.
c.

-kasaE. +

-kasin s.+

-kasaniya

c.

-kasuka av.+ -kasvara

-kasaka

c.

-kasana

c.

ka,

see

kan.

y kanks,
Pres. [1.] Perf.

'desire'.

kanksati
e.

-te

etc.

b.+

cakanksa
etc.

aeakanksat, akanksit; kanksisyati, kanksita.] Verb, kanksita e. + Caus. kanDesid. eikaiiksisa-. ] Sec. Conj.: [Int. cakanksya-. ksayate e. -kanksana c. Deriv. -kanksa c. kanksin e. +
[Aor.

kanksa

e.

-kanksya

c.

kanisaniya
or

c. c.

-kanksitavya
Perhaps a desiderative formation from

y kan

kam.

y
Pres. [].]

kac, 'appear, make a show'.

e. + [ ka9aih eakre.] acakagat, aka9ista; ka9isyate, ka9ita.] [Aor. Verb. kaQita e. -kaQya b. Desid. eikasisa-.] Sec. Conj.: Int. caka9iti etc. v.b.u.. eaka^yate etc. b.s. [ Caus. kagayati av. +. -te r. + [kagyate e.") -ka9in e. + -ka9aniya c. Deriv. kaqa v. +

Perf.

ka9ate cakaqe etc.


;

etc. b. +, -ti etc. e.

etc.

-kagaka

e.

-kagya c. -ka9ana e+

-canka9a av. -ka9ayitavya

c.

19

AND Peimary Debivatives.

[kuth

y
Pres. [1.]
[Perf.etc.

kas, 'cough'.
akasista; kasisyate, kasita; cakas-,
av.
,

kasate

etc.

c. -ti

c.

kasam cakre; acakasat,


av.

cikasisa-, kasaya-.]
Deriv.
:

kas

kasa

av.c.

kasa

kasika

av.

-kasana

c.

Verb-forms only in the medical literature

and probably denominative,

from kas or kasa.

y
y
Pres. [1.]

ku,

see

ku.

kuc, kune,

'shrink, curl'.
etc. si.c.

Perf.

kuncate etc. c. [6.] kucati c. [cukunea.] cukoca


etc.

[Aor.
Verb,

akocit, akuncit
e. +,

kocisyati kvmcisyati, kocita kuncita.]

Sec.

kuncita e. + Conj. : Pass, kucyate c. [Int. cokucya-. Cans, kuncayati etc. e. + kocayati etc. e. +
kucita

Desid. cukuncisa-.
-kocaka
-kocin
c. e.

Deriv.

kuea

E.

kuncana
kunci c. koca e. +
as

c.

c.

-kucana c. -kuncaka c.
justification.

-kocana
,

Given by the grammarians

two distinct roots

and not without some

y
Pres. [1.]

kunj,

'rustle'.

kunjati
artificial

c.

single occurrence, in the Harsacarita.

If not a false reading, is pro-

bably an

word.

y
Sec. Conj.: Caus.

kutt, 'divide, crush'.

kuttayati etc. c. (kuttita c, -kuttya e. +) kuttana c. -kutta E.+ -kuttaka c. Perhaps a prakritized form of 1 krt. The forms avakutya and prakutya (BR. y 2 kut) are only the usual and permitted abbreviations of -kuttya,
Deriv.
;

y
kunthita c, and

kunth,

'dull'.
participle
occur.

Doubtless only a denominative from


the derivatives

kuntha e. +, 'dull'. The kunthaka e. +. -kunthana e.+,


'stink'.

y
Fcr&.

kuth,

kuthita
:

c.

Sec. Conj.

Caus.

Deriv.:

kotha

c.

Except the

kothayati etc. c. -kothaka b. n. pr. nikothaka, found

only in Sugruta

no proper root.

2*

kup]

Roots, Vekb-fokms,

20

y
Pres. [4.]
Perf.

kup,

'be angry'.

kupyati

etc. e. +,

-te

etc. e.

CTikopa etc. u^.e. 3. acukupat. akupat. ] 5. kopisthas e. [Put. kopisyati, kopita.] Verb, kupita bvI. e. + (kupta c'. ?) [Int. cokup-. Desid. cukupisa-, cukopisa-. Sec. Conj. ] Cans, kopayati etc. bv. 9B. e. +, -te e. (cukopayisa- in d.) kupayuAv.V kopmE.+ Deriu. kupa B.s. -kopitr e.
Aor.
[2.

kupana? c. kupaya b,v.

-kupya

e.

kopa

e.

kopya e. kopana e. +

kopayisnu b. cukopayisu e.

]/
Pres. [9.]

kus,

'tear'.

kusnati etc. c. [6.] kusati etc. c. [Perf. etc, cukosa; akosit, akukaat; kosisyati koksyati, kosita kosta cokus-, cukusisa- cukosisa-, kosaya-.] Verb, kusita c. -kusya ms. -kosana s.c. Deriv.: kosa (? n. pr.) cb.
;

The occurrence in

ms. hardly a genuine one.

y
Pres. [6.]
T'er&.

kti, 'design'.

kuvate
Av. +
v.
;

cb'.

-kuta
:

-kavam
kavi

ts.
v.

kaviyas sv. niskavam, the helongiug of which is douhtful (as is also that of kavi). rv. has -kava, kavatnii, kavarf , 'stingy', of questionable relationship. The grammarians set up roots 1 ku, 2 ku or kQ, 'shout',
Deriv.

-kuti

Used only with a, except in

giving them a full set of forms

and

Nir. once uses their intens.

kokiiyate.

y
Pres. [1.]

kuj, 'hum'.

Perf.

kujati etc. av.+, -te cukiija -je etc. c.

etc. e.

Aor.

1.

akuji

c.

[Put. kiijisyati, kujita.]


Verb,

kujita

e.

kujitva

c.

[Sec. Conj.: cokiij-, eukiijisa-,

kujaya-.]

Deriv. ;

kuj a E.+

kujanaE. +

kujitavya

e.

y
Sec.

kud, kul,
etc.

'burn'.

Conj.: Cans, kiidayati

rvI. ab^.h-,

kulayati

etc.

s.+ (kiilita c,

-kiidya

s.c.)

21

AND PkIMARY DeEIVAXIVES.

[ikr

y
Pres. [1.]

ktin, 'shrink'.

kunati
:

c'.

Sec. Conj.

Caus.

kunayati

etc. c.

y
Pres. [1.]

ktird, 'leap, exult'.

kurdati

-te

etc.

e.+

ciikurda etc. c. [-de.] [Aor. etc. akurdista; kurdisyate, kurdita.] Verb, kurdita c. Deriv. ; kurda s. kurdana c. -kroda?Ts. Compare ]/ gurd, which is douhtless the same with
Perf.

-krodin?
this.

ms.

y
Pres. [5.]

1 "kr

(skr), 'make'.

krnoti krnute etc. v.e.s. [8.] karoti kurute etc. b,v3.av.+ [2.] karsi av'., krthas krtha krse rv. [1.] karanti etc. kv. kurmi e. krse ^Is.) kv'. Perf. eakara cakre etc. (cakartha cakrse etc.') v. + (cakriyas aeakrat etc. acakriran rv.) Aor. 1. akaram akar akran etc. akri akrta akrata etc. v.e.s. (karati -te

kriyama RV., kriyasam -asma v.e.s. 'krdhietc. v.+, krsva etc. RV., krant krana rv. kranta rv. akat cb.) akari v. + 2. akarat etc. av. b.s. 3. acikarat c. 4. akarsit etc. e. +, akrsi
etc. V.B.S.,
, ;

etc. E.G.

Fut.
Verb.

1.

karisyati
;

etc. v. +,

-te

etc. e.c.

(akarisyat
v.b.,
;

etc.

b.+)

2.

krtav. +

kartumAv. +, -tave
;

-tavai

b.s.,

-tos

v.e.s.

karta s. krtva
;

AV. +, -tvi V.B.,


Sec. Conj.: Pass,

-tvaya e. -krtya v. + -karam b.+ Int. karikr- carikrkriyate etc. v. +

kirsati
Deriv.

etc.

av.+, -te etc. s.+ (acikirsis ce.;


etc. b.

Desid. eieikirsayati c). Caus.


v.e.

karayati -te kara v. +


:

karana rv. karana v. + karaniyaB.+ karman -karani? e. karvara


karas rv. karistha rv. -karisnu s.+

+ fkaryate kartr rv. kartr v. + kartra av.


v.+
v.

etc. e.

cikarayisab.+
rv.

in d.)

karuka
-krt
V.

-kurmi, -in
+
n. v.
a. v.

-krtya -krtya

+
+

-kara v.+

krtya
+ +
krti
v.

v.

-krtha bv. -kra RV. kratu V. + kriya kcs. e. + cakri ev. -karikra b.
-cikirs
c.

karaka
karin
.

e.

av.

karuna

v.b.

kartva v. kartavya

karya av. + karana s. +


c.

b.

+ -karaniya

karu

E.

krtu (-tvas) v. + krtvya rv. krtnu V. krtrima v. + krtvan v. kf tvari av.

ciklrsa

e.

cikirsu e. + karayitr b.e.

karayitavya e.+ eikarayisu c.


-ciskarayisu
e.

aor.

The root-form skr is found especially after nir askrta rv., and pple upaskrta e. +.

sam
In

and pari; but


v.

also the

occur only

samskrta

kr]
e.v. av.,

Roots, Veeb-forms,

22

and pariskrta

aud pariskrnvanti and -vant bv. (against sam.


e. on,

sk after sam are frequent, k; even such as sam askurvata, sam caskara, sam skarisyanti, samskarayam asa, samciskarayisu. Of the derivatives, there are found with sam only: skarana s.+, skartavya c, skartr e. +, skaraka e. +, skarya e. +, skrti b. + also skriya with sam c. and pari c. skara with sam s. +, pari e. +, and upa and skara with apa c, upa e.+, pari e., and vi (V) e. + finally, askra c.

akrnvan

etc. ev.).

But from

forms with

almost to the exclusion of those with simple

-,

RV.,

which

is

doubtful.

y
Pres. [6.]
Perf.

2 kr, kir, 'scatter'.


etc. v.

kirati

etc. v. +,

-te

eakara cakre
1.

Aor.
Fut.
Verb,

kiryat
b.

c.

e.

[cakarus.]

4.

akirsata

pb.

1.

karisyati
+
-,

etc. e.

[karisyati.

5.

karisat rv.
karita.]

2.

kirna
:

Sec. Conj.

Pass,

-kirya s. + kiryate etc.

b.

+ (kiryet

e.)

[Int.

cakar-, cekirya-.

Desid. cikarisa-.

Deriv.

kara v. ? -karaka
-karitr

b.
e.

] Cans, [karayati,] kirayet e. -kira c -kara s. + kirana v.+ -karaka c.


?

-kirya

c.

-kula?E.

b.

-kir

c.

-kiri
:

b.

One or two late forms occur with prefixed s apaskiramana, praticaskare; others are authorized by the grammarians; in derivatives, viskira s.

y
Pres.

3 kr, 'commemorate'.

cakrant ?
4.

rv.

Aor.

akarsam
Int.

Sec. Conj.:

akarisam akarit rv. carkarmi carkrdhi e<c. carkirama -ran earkrse


av.
5.

(3s.)

RV. av'. Deriv.


:

kara rv. karin rv.


is

karu

v.

kirti

v.

earkrti rv.

kiri, -in rv.

-keru

ev.

carkrtya

v.

Cakrant

anomalous and altogether questionable.

y
Pres. [6.]

krt,

'cut'.

krntati etc. v. +, -te etc. b.e. [1.] kartati etc. e. cakarta etc. (cakartitha, cakartus) v. +, cakartire e. Perf. Aor. 2. akrtas rv. (krtant- rv.) 3. acikrtas tb. [acakartat.]

5.

kartis
Fut.
Verb,
Sec.
1.

b.
;

kartsyati av. kartisyati c. [ 2. kartita.] krtta v. + -krtya v. + -kartam cb. Conj. Pass, krtyate etc. av. + [Int. carikrt-. ] Desid. cikartisaCaus. kartayati etc. s. +, krntayati lcs. (m d.) [cikrtsa-.]
; ;

23
Deriv.
:

AND Primary Derivatives.


karta v. + garta B.+ kartya c. kartana v. +
'.'

[krs

-kartin

c.

kfta
e.

ev.

krntana
krntatra
cikartisa

s.

karttavya
-karttrE. +

krti rv.
krtti? v.+

v.b.
c. c.

kartari

c.

-krnta

b.

cikartisu

Samskrtatra

v'. is

doubtless not referable to this root.

y
Pres. [7.]

2 krt, "spin'.

krnatti
:

etc. v.b.s.

Sec. Conj.

Caus. kartita
e.

kartya

c.

Deriv.

karttr

y
Pres. [1.]

krp, 'lament'.

krpate etc. v. Perf. cakrpanta rv. 5. akrapista rv. Aor. 1. akrpran v. Caus. krpayati etc. ev. (^krpayant Sec. Conj.

ev'.), -te etc. jb.

Deriv.

krpa

e.

krpana

v.

krpana

av.

y
Pres. [4.]

kr9, 'be

lean'.

krqyati
av.

cb.

Perf.

cakarga
etc.

akrgat; karqisyati, karqita.] Verb. kr9ita ab. [kr9itva, karqitva.] Caus. karQayati etc. v. + Sec. Conj. kra9iyas Deriv. kar9ana v. + krqa v. +
[Aor.
: :

c.

y
Pres. [1.]

krs, 'drag, plough'.


etc.

karsati

etc.

v.+, -te

b.+

[6.]

krsati -te

etc. v.

Perf.

Aor.

Fut.

cakarsa etc. (cakarsatus) b. + 4. akarksit, akraksit.] acikrsam rv. [acakarsat. sat etc. b. (akrksathas cb.) 1. kraksyant s., kraksyejB., [karksyati] karsisyant b. [
3.

7.

akrkkars-

2.

ta,^krasta.]
Verft.

krsta
:

AV.

krastumE. +
etc. b.

krstva

b.

Sec. Conj.

Pass,

Desid. cikrksa-.]
Deriv.
:

krsyate

-krsya
+
b.

s.

+
[earikrs-.

Int.

carkrsati
etc. e.

etc. v.b.

Caus.

karsayati

karsa s. + karsaka e. +
karsin,
-si

karsu b. + karsana e. + b. + karsaniya c.

karsi, -sin

krsya
krsti

s.

karsman
krsi
v.

rv.

v.

+
c.

krastavya
-krastr

c.

It does not seem worth while to divide this root, evidently one, into two

nearly related ones, as

is

often done.

kip]

Roots, Vekb-fokms,

24

y
Pres. [1.]

kip, 'be adapted'.

kalpate etc. v. + (kalpant? av.) Perf. caklpe etc. v., -pus av. (-pat v.) eaklpe c. 5. akalpista.] 4. aklpta. ] 3. aciklpat etc. v.+ [ Aor. [2. aklpat. 2. kalpita, kalpta.] Fut. 1. klapsyate ab., kalpisyate c. [kalpsyati. Verb, klpta v. +
;

Sec. Conj.

[Int.

calklp-, caliklp-.

Desid. eiklpsati, eikalpisate.


;

Caus.
Deriv.
:

kalpayati -te etc. \. + (kalpyate b. + cikalpayisati ab.) -kalpayitr cb. kalpitavya c. kalpa v. + kalpana v. + kalpayitavya kl'pti b. + kalpaka e. + kalpana e. + b.+ kalpyaE.Hkalpaniya u.+
.

"With this root are apparently related

krp

v.b.,

krpa

v.

y knu,
[Pres. etc.
Verb,

'wet'.

knuyate, eviknuye, aknuyit, knuyisyati, knuyita.]


9B.
:

-knuyam

Sec. Conj.

Caus.

[knopayati] (-knopam
c.

c.)

Deriv.

-knopana

y
Pres. [1.]

kraks,

'crash'.

kraksamana
evI.

evI.

Deriv.

-kraksa

-kraksin bxK
root.

Apparently an onomatopoetic

y
[Pres. etc.
:

krath, 'be jubilant'.

krathati etc.] Caus. krathayati tb^. Sec. Conj. Deriv. kratha e. + krathana b. +
:

kratha

very doubtful group of derivatives,

-krathin e. krathana in meaning and connection.


e.

c.

y
Pres. [1.]

krand, kland,

'cry out'.
ci.

krandati

etc.

v.+, -te etc. e.

Mandate
etc.

Perf.

Aor.

eakranda c, eakrade rv. (cakradat 2. kradas rv. 3. acikradat etc. v.b.

rv.)

4.

akran

v.b.

5.

akran-

dit
[Fut.
Verb,

c.

krandisyati, krandita.]

krandita
:

c.

kranditum

c.

Sec. Conj.

Desid. Deriv.
:

kanikrand-, kanikrad-, kanikradyaCaus. krandayati etc. v.+ eikrandisa-.]


Int.

v.b.

[cakrand-.
rv.

kranda

v.

+
c.

-krandin

krandya

v.b.

klanda av. krandana v.+ -krandaniya c.

krandanu
krandas v. kanikrada

b.

+ +

25

AND Pkimary Dekivatives.

[krxQl

y
Pres. [1.]

kram,

'stride'.

kramati

etc.

kramate

etc. v.

+ (^kramati

etc, uv.'i e.+,

kramate

etc. u.E.) [

4.

kramyati.]

Perf.

Aor.

eakrama cakramus etc., cakrame etc. v. + (cakramanta rv.) akran akramus etc. b,v. 2. akramat -man av.i!. [ 3. acikramat.] 4. akramsta -sata etc. v.b.s. (kramsate ev.) 5. akramit
1.

Put.

V.B.U., kramista (3.) bv. (akramini rv., akramit cb.-) kramsyati -te av.b.e.; kramiisyati -te b.+ (akramisyat r.) [ 2. kramita kramta.] Fer&. kramta Av. + kramitumE, + -toss., kramtum e. + kramitva E. +, kramtva b. + [kramtva]; -kramya v. + -krame ev.; -kramam
etc.

1.

AV. +
Sec. Conj.: Pass,

B.+
Deriv.

Desid. cikramisati
+;

kramyate

etc. s.+.

Int.

cankramc.)

etc.

b.u, [cikramsa-.]

Caus, kramayati
-kramtr
e.

v. +,

eankramyate

etc. B.
:

kramayati

etc.

b.+ (kramyate

krama

v.

-kraminE. +

kramya c. kramana V.+


The
aor.

-kramaniya e. + -kramitavya e. -krama b. -kramin av.b.


is

-kramya c. -kramana c. -kramuka b. -kramtiB.+


ykrandt

cankramaAv. eankramanas.+ -kramayitavya c.

akran

by some

ret'erred to

y
Pres. [9.] Perf.

kri, 'buy.

krinati krinite
s.

etc. v.

cikraya
1.

[cikriye.]

[Aor. akraisit, akresta.]

Put.

2. kreta.] kresyati -te etc. b.s. [ Verb, krita v. + kretum e. + kritva av. + -kriya Int. cekri-.] Sec. Conj.: Pass, kriyate etc. b.+ [ Caus. krapayati, aeikrapat.] [
;
;

b.

+
Desid. cikrisate
c.

e.+

Deriv.:

kraya av.+ -krayaka e.


-krayin
e.

krayyaB.+ krayanaB.+ krayaniya s.

-krayaka
-kriAv.+
-kriti b.

kretavyaE.+
kretrE.

kreya e.+

V
Pres. [1.]

y
\.+

krid, 'play.

kridati -te

etc.

Perf.

eikrida -de
1.

etc. b.

+
2.

[Aor. acikridat, akridit.]

Put.
Verb,

kridisyati
e.
;

c.

kridita.]
;

kridita
s.

Sec. Conj.: [Int.


etc.

+ kriditum c. -kridya e. eekrid-. ] Desid. cikridisa- (m

d.).

Caus. kridayati

+ (^kridapayati

e.")

krid]
Deriv.:

Roots, Vekb-fobms,
kridav. + krida e. +

26
eikridisa
c. c.

kridinv. +

kridi ev.b.
+ kriditr

kridana

e.

c.

cikridisu

kridu

Ev.

y
Such

kru, 'be rough or raw'


:

a root appears to be assuraalile for the derivatives

kravanauv. kravis, -viv. kravisnuv. kravya

v.+ -kru rv.

kruraAv.+

y
Pres. [4.]

krudh,
,

'be angry'.

krudhyati

etc.

av. +

-te

etc. e.

+
etc.

Perf.

Aor.
[Fut.
Verb,

eukrodha cukrudhus 2. krudhat etc. av. +

etc b. +
3.

acukrudhat
;

rv.

krotsyati, kroddha.]

kruddha
AV.

v.

Sec.

Conj.: [Int.
etc.

+ kroddlium e. kruddhva s. cokrudh-. Desid. cukrutsa-.


;

Cans, ki'odhayati

+ (krodhyate

ji.)

Deriv.

krudh c. krudhmi
\q^

rv. kr6dliaAv.+

krodhana e.+ krodhaniyaE.

kru9,

'cry out'.

kr69ati etc. v, +, -te etc. rv.e. Perf. CTikroga etc. e. [cukru9e.] Aor. 7. akrviksat etc. v.b. [Fut, kroksyati, krosta.] Verb, krusta b. + krostum e. -kru9ya e. + Sec. Conj.: Pass, krugyate e. [Int. cokru9-. Desid. cukruksa-. Caus. kro9ya e. + Deriv. -kro9a v. + -kro9in c. krostu c. kl69a rv. -kro9aka b. + -kro9ya s. kro9ana v. + krostr v. + -kro9ayitr
Pres. [1.]
;

c.

y krud,
Sec. Conj.: Caus.

'thicken'

(?).

akrudayat, krudyamana, cukrudayati

b.
,

All in a single passage of the Kathaka. Possible derivative

kroda

av.

y
Pres. [1.]

klath,

'turn'

(?)

klathan

b.
,

single occurrence

in vs.

no derivatives.

y
klamyati c. [caklama,] caklame
etc.

kland,

see ]/

krand.

y
Pres. [4.] Perf.

klam,
c.

'be w^eary'.

[Aor.

aklamit; klamisyati, klamita.]

]]

27
Verb,

AND Primary Derivatives.


klamta
:

[k^ad

e.

Sec. Conj.

Derjw.;

klamayati c. klamti + Compare y 9ram.


Cans,

klama

E.

c.

y
Verb,

klav, 'stammer'.
from viklava
e.

klavita

c.

Probably

artificial

and

false, inferred

viklavita

c.

y
Pres. [4.]

klid, 'be wet'.

klidyati -te

etc. e.

[1.]

klindant

ci.

[Perf.

etc.

eikleda; aklidat, aciklidat; kledisyati kletsyati, kledita


s.

kletta.]
Verb,

klinna
:

+ [kliditva, klittva.]
ceklid-.

Sec. Conj.

[Int.

Desid. cikledisa-, ciklidisa-, ciklitsa-.

Caus. Deriv.:

kledayati
av.
e.

etc. s.

-klmdu
kleda

-kledin -kledya

c.

kledana

c.

e.

-klediyas av.

y
Pres. [9.]

kli9, 'distress'.
[4.]

kllQnati

etc. e.

kliqyate

etc. e.

-ti etc. e.

+
kle9isyati

cikle9a etc. c. [Aor. etc. kli9yat akle9i, acikli9at, akle9it, akliksat; kleksyati, kle9ita klesta.]
Perf.
Verb,

klista e.+ [kli9ita];


Caus. kle9ayati

Sec. Conj.: [Int.

cekli9-.
etc. e.

klestum
+
c.

e.;

[kli9itva, klistva;] -kli9ya cb.+

Desid. cikle9isa-, cikli9isa-, cikliksa-.

Deriv.

kle9a

u.

-kle9aka

kle9iii

c.

kle9ana

c.

klestr

e.

y
Pres. [1.]

kvan,
;

'sound'.

kvanati
c.

c.
;

[Perf.
Verb,

etc.

eakvana
:

akvanit

kvanisyati kvanita.]
,

kvanita

Sec. Conj.

Caus.

kvanayati
c.

etc. c.

Deriv.

-kvanana

l/kvath,
Pres. [1.]

'boil'.

kvathati
c.

-te
;

[Perf. etc.
Fer&.

eakvatha

+ akvathit
etc. b.

kvathisyati , kvathita.]
s.+

kvathita
:

Sec. Conj.: Caws.

kvathayati
c.

etc. c.

Deriv.

kvatha

kvathana

(kvathyate etc. e. +) kvatha c. kvathayitavya


'divide'.

c.

y.ksad,
Pres. [1.]

Perf.

ksadate caksade etc.


:

etc.

v.b.

bv.

Deriv.

ksattf

v.

-ksad

rv.

ksadman

rv.

ksanl
^y

Roots, Veeb-fobms,

28

ksan, 'wound'.
+

Pres. [S.]

[Perf.

ksanoti ksanute caksana caksane.]

etc. b.

] 5. ksanisthas av. [aksanit.] aksata, ksanisyati -te, ksanita.] ksanitos cb, Verb, ksata v. + canksan- ciksanisa- ksanaya-.] [Sec. Conj. ksati e. + Deriv.: ksanana c.

Aor.

[1.

[Fut.

y
Pres. [1.]
Verb,

ksap,

'be abstinent'.
v.s.

ksapati

e.

ksapate

Deriv.

ksapitum c. ksapana e. + The -words ksap

v.,

ksapa

v.

+ do not appear

to

be connected with

this root.

y ksam,
Pres. [1.]

'endure'.

ksamate

etc. v.

-ti etc, e.

+ (ksamat

av.

?).

[4.]

ksamyate

etc. E.

+ [ksamyati.]
etc. b.

Perf.

+ (eaksamithas ev.) [Aor. aksamat, aeiksamat, aksamsta, aksamista.]

caksame

2. ksamta, ksamita.] ksamisyati b.+ [ ksamtum e. + Verb, ksamta e. +, ksamita e. [Int. canksam-. Desid. ciksamsa-, Pass, ksamyate e. + Sec. Conj. ksama] Cans, ksamayati etc. e.+ (^ksamaye m. ciksamisa-. paya- c.} ksamti e. + ksamtr e. ksamaniya e. Deriv. ksam, ksa v.

Fut.

1.

ksamsyati
:

etc. e.,

ksama ksama

av.+
e.

ksamtavya e.+ ksamitavya e.

ksamya e. ksaman v.
ksami
sv.

ksma

V.

+
kv.

eaksma?

ksamapanaci.

y
Pres. [1.]

ksar,

'flow'.

ksarati
c.

etc.

v.+, -te

etc. e.

Perf.

Aor.

caksara aksar (3s.")


ksarita
:

b,v.

[Fut. ksarisyati, ksarita.]


Verb,
b.
;

ksaradhyai
+

ev.
]

Sec. Conj.

[Int.

eaksar-.

Desid. ciksarisa-.
c.

Caus.
c.

Deriv.

ksara

v.

ksarana

ksarana

ksarayati etc. ksira v v. +

b.

I
Sec. Conj.:

ksal, 'wash'.
b.+ (^ksalapayita
e.

Caus.
e.

ksalayati

etc.

s.)

Deriv.

ksala

-ksalaka

-ksalya
root.

-ksalana

s.

Doubtless the same with the preceding

++

29

AND Pbimaky Dekivatives.

[ksip

y
Pres. [4.]
Verb,

ksa, 'burn'.

ksayati
b.s.

etc. b.s.

ksana?

Sec. Conj.:

Caus.

ksapayati

etc.

av. b.s.

Deriv.:

-ksana

e.

ksati rv.

ksamaB.+

ksaraE.

y
Pres. [2.]
[1.]

ksi, 'possess'.
ts.,

kseti

etc. v.b.

(ksyant

ksiyant

v.).

[6.]

ksiyati

etc.

av. b.

ksayati

etc. v.

[Perf.

ciksaya.]
rv. rv.

Aor.
Fut.

4. ksesat ksesyant

Sec. Conj.:
Zeriu.
;

Caus.
V.

ksaya

ksayaya rv., ksepayat rv. ksayana vs. -ksit


ksatra?v. +

v.+

ksa?v.
-ksas? RV.

ksiti v.+

-ksetr rv. ksetr a v. +

ksemav.

y
Pres, [9.]

2 ksi, ksi, 'destroy'.

ksinati etc. ksiyate etc. v.b.


ciksaya.]
1.

v.b.

[2.]

[5.] ksinoti ksidhi sv'.

etc.

av.+

[1.]

ksayati

e.

[4.]

[Perf.

Aor.
Fut.
Verb,

[ksiyat;] ksayi

b.s.

4.

ksesthas ksesta
r.
[

av.b.s.u.

1.

ksita

aksesyata (3s.) v. +, ksina

cb.

ksayisyami
-ksetos
b.

2.

kseta.]
ce.

av. +

[Int. ceksi-. ksiyate v. + ] Desid. ciksisati b. Caus. ksayayati etc. e. + ksapayati etc. e. + Deriv.: ksayaE.+ -ksapayitr c. -ksayana av. b.s. ksesnii b.

Sec. Conj.: Pass,

[ksitva;] -ksiya

ksayin e. -h ksayya b. +

ksayisnu
-ksit
b.

u.c.

ksapana

e.

+
c.

ksapitavya

ksapayisnu c. ksayayitavya e.

ksiti AV. +

y
Pres. [6.]

ksip, 'tkrow'.
etc.

ksipati

etc. v. +,

-te

e.+

ciksepa etc. e. +, eiksipe e. Aor. [1. ksipyat aksepi. ] 3. ciksipat etc. v. [ Fut. 1. ksepsyati etc. e.+, -te e. [ 2. ksepta.] Verb, ksipta v. +, ksipita s. kseptum e. +, -tos
Perf.
;

4.

aksaipsit, aksipta.]

b.

ksiptva

c.

-ksipya

E.

-ksepam
:

e.

ksipyate e. + (-y ant m.) (m d.). Caus. ksepayati etc. psaDeriv. ksip rv. ksipti c. -ksipa c. ksipra v. + ksipa RV. ksepa e. + ksipani rv. ksepaka e. + ksipanii rv. -ksepin c.
Sec. Conj.

Pass,

e.

[Int.

ceksip-.

Desid. ciksi-

ksepya c. ksepan b. ksepana s. +


ksepistha e. ksepiyas b. +

kseptavya
kseptr
e.

e.

ksepnu

rv.
c.

-ciksipsu

] ;

ku]

Roots, Verb-forms,

30

y ksu,
Pres. [2.]

'sneeze'.

ksauti ksuvanti
etc. b.,

etc. b.

Perf.

euksava
etc.

euksuve

c.

[Aor.
Verb,

aksavit; ksavisyati, ksavita.] ksuta e. + ksutva b. +


;

Sec. Conj.: Desid.


Deriu..-

cuksusati

jb.

Desid.-Caus. cuksavayisati.]
'crush'.

ksava

Av.

ksavathu

c.

y
Pres. [1.]

ksud,

ksodati
e.

-te rv.

7.

ksunatti ksuntte.]
-te, ksotta.]

Perf.

cuksudus
etc.

[Aor.
Verb,

aksudat, aksautsit aksutta; ksotsyati


e.
;

+ -ksudya c. Sec. Conj.: Cans, ksodayati etc. ev. Deriu. ksudra V. + ksodaE. + ksodya e.
;

ksunna

c.

ksodas

ev.

ksodistha b. ksodiyas b.+

y ksudh,
Pres. [4.]
[Perf.

'be hungry'.

ksudhyati
av.

etc. v.

ciiksodha.]

Aor.
[Fut.
Verb,

2.

ksudhat

ksotsyati, ksoddha.]

ksudhita

v.

+ [ksudhitva.]

Deriv..-

ksudh

V.+

ksudha

E.+

-ksudhya

av.

ksudhi
(?).

c.

ksodhuka

b.s.

-|/ksup, 'be
Pres. [6.]

startled'

Beriv.

aksupat e1. (^Aor. 2'?). ksupa e. + ksiimpa


root.

ev.
a single

Not a genuine

The only verbal form in

punning etymology.

]/
Pres. [4.]
JB. [

ksubh,
e.+

'quake'.

ksubhyati
9.

-te

etc.

[1.]

ksobhate

ui.

[5.]

ksubhnuyus

ksubhnati.]

Perf.

[Aor.

etc.

cuksobha c, cuksubhe av.+ ksubhyat aksobhi, aksubhat, aeuksubhat, aksobhit -bhista


-te,

ksobhisyati
Verb,

ksobhita.]
;

ksubdha b. +, ksubhita e. + -ksobdhos cb. [ksobhitum ksubdhva, ksubhitva.] Sec. Conj.: [Int. coksubh-. Desid. cuksubhisa- , cuksobhisa-. Caus. ksobhayati -te e. + (ksobhyate e. +, cuksobhayisa- in d.) Beriv. : ksubh rv. ksobhana v. + ksobha b. + -ksobhin c. ksubha e. + ksobhaka c. ksobhya e. + ksobhayitr c. cuksobhayisu e.
;

31

AND PRIMA.KY DERIVATIVES.

[khad

y ksnu,
Pres. [2.1

'whet'.

[Perf.
Verb,

ksnaumi rv., ksnauti s., ksnuvana av. etc. cuksnava aksnavit; ksnavisyati, ksnavita.]
;

ksnuta

Deriv.:

-ksnutya b. ksnotra -ksnut e.s.


e.
;

rv.

y ksma,
[Pres. etc.

'tremble'.

Sec,

ksmayate, caksmaye, etc.] Conj. Caus. ksmapayati c. No genuine root. The single example
:

In Nirukta.

y
Pres. [1.]
Verb,

ksvid, 'hum'.

Sec.

ksvedati etc. e.+ ksvedita e. + Conj.: Caus. ksvedayati


:

e.

Deriv.

ksveda

e.

ksvedana

e.

later

form of the root next following.

y
Pres. [1.]
Verb,

ksvid, 'hum'.

ksvinna c

ksvedati etc. b. -ksvidas


;

b.

Apparently onomatopoetic.

ksvel,

'play'

Pres. [1.]
Verb,

ksvelati ksvelita e. +
:

etc. e.

Deriv.

ksvelana

c.

ksveli

c.

y
Pres. [1.] Verb,

khac, 'show through'.

khacati khacita e. +

etc. c.

y
Pres. [1.]

khanj,

'limp'.

[Perf.

etc.

Deriv.:

khanj ati etc. c. eakhanja etc. etc.'] khanja c. khanjana

c.

y khad,
Pres.

'be hard'.

-khadant?
:

ce.
etc. etc.]

[Perf. etc.

Deriv.

cakhada khada s.

khadira
;

v.

Very doubtful

root

the occurrence in cb. perhaps a false reading.

khan]

Roots, Vekb-fobms,

32

y
Pres. [1.]

khan, kha,
av.
3.

'dig'.

khanati

-te

etc. v.

Perf.

cakhana cakhnus
[1.

etc.

+ [eakhne.]

Aor.

khanyat, khayat.
etc.

aeikhanat.
khanita.]
+
;

] 4.

khans.

b.

5.

akhanit,

akhanista.]
Fut.
Verb,
1.

khanisyati
v.
e.

b.+

2.

khata -khaya
:

+ +
;

khanitum -khanam s.
khayate
Desid.

b.

khanitva

c.

khatva
+
[

-tvl b.;

Sec. Conj.

Pass,

cakha-.

etc. b. +,

khanyate

etc. e.

cikhanisa-.]

Int.
etc.

eankhan-,
s.

Caus.

khanayati

+ (khas.

nayaDeWv..-

e. ?)

kha V. + kha V. + khana av. khanaka e.

khanana c. khananiya
khani
+ khanitr v. +
av.

khanitrav. +
c.

khanya

khara v. + khatr c.

khanaka

c.

khani c. -khu v. + -kheya c.

y
Pres. [I.]

kharj, 'creak'.
b.

Deriv.

kharj ati s. khargala v. +

kharjura

y
Pres. [1
Verb,
.]

khall, 'be relaxed'.

khallate
c.
c.
.

c.

khallita

Deriv.

khalla

y
Pres. [1.]

kha,

see ]/

khan.

y khad,
khadati
etc.

'chew'.

v.+

Perf.

+ [Aor. acakhadat; akhadit.]


etc. v.

cakhada
.

Fut.

2. khadita.] khadisyate e. [-ti. b. + khaditva b.u. Verb, khadita Int. cakhad-.] Desid, cikhadisati e. + Sec. Conj. Pass, khadyate c. [ Caus. khadayati etc. e.+ khadyaE.+ khadas- rv. eikhadisu e.+ Derii;. khada V. + khaditavya c. khadaka s. + khadana e. + khaditr c. khadin e. + khadaniya c.
1
;

y khid,
Pres. [6.]

'tear'.

7. khintte.] khidati etc. v. +. [ [4.]? see Pass. [Perf. etc. cikheda; aeikhidat, akhaitsit; khetsyati, khetta.] -khidyaB.s. -khidam av. Fer&. khinna E. +
;

Sec. Conj.

Pass,

cikhitsa-.

khidyate etc. e. +, -ti etc. e. + ] Caws, khadayati -te e.+

[Int.

cekhid-.

Desid.

33
Deriv.
:

AND Primary Derivatives.


-khida khidra
is.

[gad

kMdvans
kheda
v.

rv.

rv.

khedin c. khedana c,

kheditavya e. khedayitavya

c,

]/

khud,
s.

'futuere'.

Pres. [6.]

Sec. Conj.: Int.

khudati etc. v. eanikhudat


av.

(kanikhunat

tb.)

Deriv.

khodana

y
Pres. [1.]
Verb,

khel, 'stagger

khelati
c.

etc. e.

khelita
:

Sec. Conj.

Cans,
v.

khelayati
+

etc. c.

Deriv.

khela

khelana

c.

k!!;^eli c.

y khya,
Pres. [2.]

'see'.
e.

khyasi khyati khyahi khyata


etc. v.

Perf.

cakhyau cakhyus
[1.
etc. v.B.

Aor.

akhyayi; khyayat, kliyeyat.

2.

akhyat

etc. v.b.s.,

akhyata

4.

khyesam
;

b.s.

[khyasista.]

Fut.

1.

Verb,

khyasyati etc. b.+, -te e. + [ khyata av. + khyatum b. +


b.
:

2.

khyata.]
v.

-khyaya

-khyai

v.b.;

-khya-

yam
Sec. Conj.

Pass,

khyayate
c.
;

etc.

Desid.

eikhyasita
c.

b.+ (khyayisyate

b.)

[Int.

Cans,

khyapayati

-te

etc. b.

cakhya-. + (^[acikhyapat ;]

khyapyate etc. Deriv..- -khya B.+ -khya v. +

khyana

khyati B.+ -khyatavya E.+

av. + khyapana e. + khyapaka c. khyapaniya c. -khyayakaE. + khyapin c. -cikhyasu c. cikhyapayisa -khy ayin s. + khyapya e.
b.

cikhyapayisa- in d. c.) -khyatrv. + -khyeya


+

c.

gach,

see

gam.

y
Pres. [1.]

gad,

'say'.

gadati

etc. s.

jagada jagade etc. e.+ Aor. 1. agadi c. [ 5. agadit.] Fut. 1. gadisyate e. [ 2. gadita.] Verb, gadita e. + gaditum c. -gadya s. Int. jagadyate Sec. Conj.: Pass, gadyate etc. e. + Caus. gadayati s. sati e.
Perf.

c.

Desid. jigadi-

Deriv..-

gada B.+ gadya e. + vi gada in av.

gadanaB.+
gadi
(v. 22.
II.

-gadin

c.
c.

gadgada
vigada.
3

c.

c.

-gadya

6) is douttless a vocative,

Whitney,

Supplement

gadhj

Roots, Verb-Forms,

34

y gadh,
Verb,

'attach'

(?)

-gadhita

b.'v-.

Deriv.

gadhya

ev.

root of doubtful

meaning and

relations.

y gabh,

see

gah.

y gam,
Pres. [1.]

gach,

'go'.

gachati etc. v. +, -te etc. V. +. garaanti ev., -ntu v. [2.] gatha ev'. Perf. jagama (jagantha [jagamitha]") jagmus etc, jagme etc. v.+ (jagannia ev. jaganvans v. +. jagmivans b. + jagamyat etc. v.; aja;

ajagmiran v.) Aor. 1. agamam agan agraan etc. agata aganmahi agmata etc. v.b.s, (gamat etc. v.b., gamamahai ev. gamyat etc. v.b.s., gmiya b. gahi gantu etc. v.b.s.: gmant v.); agami ev., agami c. 2. agamat etc. B.+ [garnet etc. v.b.s., gamemahi v.s.) 3. ajigamat etc. v.b. 4. agamsi agamsmahi etc. s.+ (agasmahi etc. v.b.) [gamsista, gasista.] 5. gamistam ev., gmisiya vs. Fut. 1. gamisyati etc. av.+, -te etc. e. (agamisyat u.) 2. gamta etc. b. + Verb, gata v. + gamtum e. +, -tave v.b., -tavai v.. -tos v.b. gatva av.+,
etc.
;

gan

Sec.

-tvaya v.b., -tvi ev. -gatya v. +, -gamya u.s. + gamadhyai ev., -dhye ts. -gamas ms. Int. ganigara- v.b., jangam- (m d.), ConJ.: Pass, gamyate eic. av. + Desid. jigamisati -te etc. b. + jagam- av. ? jigamsati etc. av.+,
; ;

-te
Deriv.
:

etc. S.

+ Cans, gamayati
c.

etc.

v.+. -te

etc. s.

(gamaya

evI.)

gaeha -gama

gamisnu
+
c.

e.

v.

-gat

V. V.

-gatvan gatvara

ev.
c.

gamayitr b.+ gamayitavya


jagat
+
V.

b.c.

gamaka
-gamin

gati

+
s.

-gamin
B.+

e.+
e.

c.

-gamtva

-gamiika

jagmi

EV.
V.

gamya u. + gamana v.+


gamistha
v.s.

gamtavya gamtr v. +
v.b.

gma

ev.

jigatnu

gamaniya e.+ -gatha


gatnu

-gman ev. jma EV.

jangama v. + jangamana c.
-jigamisu
c.

av.

jman

v.

jigamsu

c.

y
Pres. [1.]

garj, 'roar.

garjati

etc. e. +,

-te

etc. e.

Perf.

jagarja
etc.

etc. e.

[Aor.
Verb,

agarjit; garjisyati, garjita.]


e.

garjita
:

garjitva

e.

-garjya

c.

Deriv.

gavja

c.

-garj in

c.

garjana e.+

garji

c.

35

AND Primary Dekivaiives.

[2

ga

y
Pres, [1.]

gard,

'exult'

(?)

Deriv.

agardat garda ts.

pb.

Perhaps the same with

]/

gurd.

y
Pres. [1.]

garh,

'chide'.

Perf.

garhate etc. ev.s.e. +, jagarha -he etc. e. +

-ti etc. e.

[Aor.
Verb,

etc. agarhista; garhisyate, garhita.] garhita s. + garhitum e. -garhya c.


; ;

Sec. Conj.: Pass,

[Int. jagarh-. garhyate etc. c. Desid. jigarhisa-. Caus. garhayati -te etc. u, + Deriv. garha E.+ garhya s.v+ garhana e.+ garhitavya garhin e. + garhaniya e. +
;

e.

y
Pres. [1.]

gal, 'drop'.

galati

etc. c.

[Perf. cc.
Verb,

jagala; agalit;
e.

etc.]

galita

+
galgalyate
c.
c.

Sec. Conj.: Int. galgallti vs.,

Caws, galayati

etc. c.

Deriv.

galana

c.

galana

y
Perf.

galbh,

'dare'.

galbhate etc. c. jagalbhe c. Deriv. -galbha b. + With pra, and doubtless


Pres. [1.]

in reality a denominative of

pragalbha.

y
Pres. [3.] jigati etc. v.b.
[

ga,

'go'.

2.

gate.]

jagayat rv.i, (adhi-) jage etc. e. + Aor. 1. agat agus etc. v.+ (gani gata etc. v.; agan 3j). c.l [agayi.] 3. (adhy-) agista agisata etc. b.+ [agasta] gesam -sma av.b.s. [Fut. gasyate, (adhy-) agisyata ; gata.] Verb, gatave ev^.
Perf.
;

See.

jegiya-. Caus. gapayati, ajigapat.] [jigasa-.


Conj.: [Pass, giyate.
Int.

Desid. jigisati

etc.

svi.c^.

Deriv.; -ga V.+

-ga

V.

+
V.B.

gatrav. + -gana ev.

gatu

-gaman

ev.

-gaya v. -gu ? b. gesna? u.

ganga?v.

y
Pres. [4.]

2 ga, 'sing'.

gayati

etc. v. +,

-te

etc. v.

[1.]

gati

ke*.,

ganti
3*

m.

gayise

(Is.) Evi.

2 ga]

Roots, Verb-forms,
etc.

36

Perf.

jagau
[1.

b.+,

jage

etc. c.
]

Aor.

geyat; agayi.
gasyati
v.
etc.

b.

4.

gasi

(Is.) rv.

2.

6.

agasit -sisus

etc. v.b.u,

(gasisat ev.)
Fut.
Verb,
1.

b.+ (agasyat

etc. b.tj.) [

gata.]
ab.,

gita

gatum

gitva

Sec. Conj.:

Pass,

[jaga-.]

giyate

etc.

+ -gaya v.+ (giyant m.)


b.
;

Desid. jigasati

etc.

b.

-glya
Int.

cb.c.
etc.
e.

jegiyate
etc.

Cans,

gapayati

b.+,

-te b.

[ajigapat]
Deriv.:

gayayeyus

jub.

-ga\.+
-ga Av. +

gayatrav. +

gayana

s.

-gaya

c.

-gayas ev.

gayakaE.+
-gayin
c.

gatu b,v. gatavya

gatrv.+ gatha v. + gatha v. + gana u.s.+

gitis.

githa

av.
b.

geya

+
ab.

-gesna

c.

-gaman

ev.

-jigitha, -ta b.u.

-gapana

s.

y
Pres. [1.]

gah

etc.,
e.

'plunge'.

Perf.

gahate etc. v. +, -ti etc. jagaha c. (jigahire sK)

[Aor.

ajigahat ; agacLha, agahista.] 2. gacLha, gahita.] Fut. 1. gahisyate e.+ [

Verb,

gadiia

s.

+,

gahita

e.

gahitum

Sec. Conj.: Pass,

gahyate

etc.

jigahisa-, jighaksa-.]
Deriv.
:

-gahya s. + e. + Int. jangahe v. [jagah-. Caws, gahayati etc. c.


e.

Desid.

gaha v. + gahana Ev.E. -gahin c. ganhmanB. -gahya E.+ gah-, gahana s. + gahvara av. + gahaniya c.
-gaha ev.

gambhan b. gambhara ev.


gambhistha b.
gabhira
v.

gabhvara
gadh.av.+

c.

gadhana

c.

+
v.

gambhira

+
beyond question.

The connection

of these derivatives is probable, but not

gir, gil, see

2 gr.

y
[Pres. etc.
Sec. Conj.:
7rii.

gu, 'sound'.

gavate; juguve; agosta; gosyate, gota; guta.]

Deriv.: -gut? ev.

joguve joguvana jogu ev.

v.b.

y
Pres. [1.]

gunj, 'hum'.

gunjati

etc. c.

[Perf. etc.
Verb,

jugunja ; agunjit ; gunjisyati, gunjita.]


-gunjin
c.

gunjita c. Deriu.; gunj a c.

37

AND Pbimaky Derivatives.

[gulph

y
Sec. Conj.
:

gunth, 'cover
etc. c.

up'.
e. +,

Caus.

gunthayati
c.

(gunthita

-gunthya

s.

+)

Deriv.

gunthana

Probably a denominative formation.

^<^>^ep

T
^

y
Pres. [1
.]

gup,

'protect'.

V^

-^^

"

^^^-^ ^

gopant? c'. ^*^::^4[|^^^^^ Perf. jugopa jugupus etc. v.+ Aor. 3. ajugupat etc. b.s. (ajugupa- b.) [ 4. agaupsit. 5. agopit.] av.+ [gopisyati. Fut. 1. gopsyati etc. 2. gopta, gopita.] Verb, gupita v., gupta av. +; goptum u., gopitum c. Int. jogup-.] Sec. Conj.: Pass, gupyate etc. b. [ Desid. jugupsate etc. B. +, -ti etc. E. +, jiigupisa- (m d.) [jugopisa-.] Caus. gopayati etc. E. +, -te etc. E. (gopyate e.) Deriv.; -gup E.+ gopyaE. + goptavya e. jugupsaE.+ gopanaAv. + jugupsus. -gupya B. goptr av.+ gopistha b. gupti AV. + -gopaniya c. jugupisu e.

Perhaps ultimately a denominative from gopa, but assuming the aspect


of a root even in the Veda.

y
Pres. [1.]
Verb,

guph, gumph,
c.

'twine'.

gumphati
:

etc. c.

gumphita, guphita
Caus.
:

Sec. Conj.

Deriv.

gumphayati etc. c. gumpha c. -gumphaka c.

gumphana
'greet'.

c.

y
Pres. [6.]

gur,

Perf. [jugure]

Aor.
[Fut.

1.

gurate etc. v. +, -ti etc. c. jugurat -ryas -ryat rv. [ 5. agurista.] gurta

rv.

gurisyate, gurita.]
Int.

Verb, giirta v.+,


Sec. Conj.
:

jargurana bv. Caws, giiraya- (m

gurna

s.

-gurya
c.

v. +,

-gurya -gorana

c. d.).

Deriv.

-gur

b.s.
c.

gurana

c.
c.

jugurvani

bv.

-gurana

giirti rv.

-gurayitr

Doubtless a secondary form of

gr.

y
Sec. Conj.: Caus.

giilph, 'bunch'.
s'.,

gulphayeyus

gulphita

s.

Deriv.

gulpha

av. +

very doubtful case.

guh]

Roots, Vekb-fobms,

38

y guh,
Pres. [1.]

'hide'.

guhati
c,

-te

etc. v.

juguhe juguhire e. Perf. Aor. [1. aguhi. ] 2. giihias guhant- gvLhamana kv. [ 5. aguhit, aguhista.] 7. aghuksat 4. agudha.

juguha

3.

ajugiihat.

etc. v.b.

[aghuk-

sata.]
[Fut.
Verb,

guhisyati -te, ghoksyati -te guhita, godha.] gudha v. + guhituniE. + [guhitva, gudhva,] gudhvi
;
;

kv.

-guhya

Sec.

-guhya ? E. Conj.: Pass, guhyate


E. +,

etc. v.

[jughuksa-.]
Deriv,
:

Cans, guhayati
'

Int.

joguh-.]

Desid. juguksati ev.


e.
c.

etc. s.

guh rv. guha E. + guha V. +

guhya
-gtiha

v.
c.

+
+

guhitavya
-gtihitr

goha v.b.s. -gohana kv.


-gohya
kv.s.

guhana

s.

y gurd,
Pres. [1.]

'exult' {?).

Deriv.

agurdan gurda b. +
roots

jb.

Compare

kurd, gard, and gurdh. See

J.A.O.S., vol. xi., p. cxlvii.

y
Sec. Conj.: Caus,

gurdh,
evI.

'exalt' (?).

gurdhaya

Perhaps the same with the preceding.

]/
Pres. [9.]

gr, 'sing'.
3s. v.,

grnati grnite
etc.

etc.

girate
Perf.

c, -ti

c.

grnise

v.+ (grne

grnata 2p.

av.)

[6.]

(sam-)

(Is.) v.

jagara
1.

ta.
;

[Aor. giryat

agarit.]
s.

Fut.
Verb,

garisyati
;]

[garisyati.
b.
;

2.

garita.]

[girna

-girya

grnisani ev.
b.s.

Deriv..-

-gara AV. +

-garitr

girv.+
-gira
c.

-girya

b.

-garana c. Compare roots gur and

2 jr.

j/ 2 gr, gir, gil, 'swallow'.


Pres. [6.] girati etc. av.+, -te etc.

e.+ (girami av^.); gilati

etc. b.

[9.]

grnati etc. av.s. Perf. jagara v. +


Aor.
1.

[or 2.)

garat -ran
b.c.

v.

[giryat.]

2.

3.

ajigar ev^.?

4.

agirsta.]

5.

garit ev.

Fut.

1.

garisyati

[garisyati.

garita.]

39
Verb,

AND Primary Derivatives.


girna
v.+. gilita
c.
:

[graht

giritum

c.

Sec. Conj.: Pass,

jegilya-.
Dcriv.;

Desid. jigarisa-.]
+
c.

giryate

etc. e.

-glrya av. +
rv.,

Int.

jargurana
Cau,^.

jalgulas ev. [jagr-,


[garayati.J

girayati

c.

gara

AT.

-garaE. +

-gilaAV.+

gargaravv.+
-jigarta'.'B.

galaE. + -garana
garas"?

-garinE.+
-gir v.b.s.

-girana c. gilana c.
-gra, -gri rv.

jigarti rv.

B.s.

-gira av.

y
Aor.
3.

3 gr, jagr, 'wake'.


rv.
etc.

ajigar rv.

jigrtam -ta

Sec. Conj.: Int.


etc.;

jagarti jagrati
Irreg., as

v.+ (jagarasi
;

etc.,

jagryat

etc.,

jagrhi
jaga-

jagrat; ajagar; jagaraetc.


etc.).

jagarisyati -te; jagarita; jaga:

rayati
X>eriy.

jagr: jagrmi m.

jagrati, -te

etc. s.e.,

rati M.; jajagara e.+,


;

jagara B.+ jagaraka c.

j agar

jagaram asa c: [jagaryat, ajagari, ajagarit.] jagaruka rv.c. jagrtavya e. ana b.+
jagartavya
e.

jagarisnu c

jagrviv.+

]/
Pres. [4.]

grdh,

'be greedy'.

grdhyati etc. v. + Perf. jagrdhus b.c. (jagrdhus rv.) Aor. 2. agrdhat etc. v.b.u. 2. gardhita.] Fut. 1. gardhisyati b. [ grddliva c. [grdhitva.] Verb, grddha e. +

[Sec. Conj.:

jarigrdh-; jigardhisa-; gardtiayati.]


v.b.

Deriu.

grtsa?

grdhna

e.

gardha c. gardhin v. +

grdlinuv.+

grdhya av. grdhya e. grdhyin e.

grdhrav.+

y
Pres. [9.]

grath, grantti,

'tie'.

grathnati

etc.

b.+

[7.]

grnatti? av.

1.

granthati, gra-

thati.]
[Perf.
etc.

jagrantha jagranthus grethus;

grathyat, ajagranthat,

agranthit.]
Fut.
Verb,
1.

grathita
B.

2. granthita.] granthisyati e. [ v. + [granthitva, grathitva;] -grathya


;

b.

-granDesid.

tham

Sec. Conj.: Pass,

grathyate

c.

[Int.

jagranth-, jagrathya-.

jigranthisa-.
Deriv.
:

Cans,

grathin rv. grathya c.

granthayate e., grathayati c. granthana s. + grathna s. grathana c. granthi v. + grantha e. + grathaniya c. c. granthin rv. grathitavya

j ]

grabh]

Roois, VEEB-roans,

40

y
Pres. [9.]

grabh, grab,
etc.

'seize'.

V.+

grbhnati grbhnite [1.] grhnati etc. e.

v.b.;

-te u.

grhnati grhnite etc. (grhana) grhithas e., -ita ms.c, -isva b,,
v.

(jagrbhraa jagrbhyat v., jagrbhrire Ev. ajagrabhara e<c. v.b.s.u.); jagraha jagrhus jagrhe etc. V, + (jagrhtna sv. jagrahatus m.). Aor. 1. agrabhara v.b., agrbhran ev. grabhat ab., grbhana ms. [grhyat; agrahi.] 2?. grhe [3s.) us., grhate (3p.) grhamahi ev. 3. ajims. (ajigrbham k.), ajigrahat c. grabhat [4. aghrksata. 5. agrabhit agrabhisus etc. agrabhista etc. v.b. (agrabhim ts.); agrahit etc. agrahlsta etc. av.+ (agrahaisam ab.) Fut. 1. grahisyati -te b.+ (agrahisyat etc. b.+ agrahaisyat b.u. grhi2. grahita e. syati, grahisyati e.) Verb, grbhita v.b.. grhita av. + grahitum b.+. -tavai b., -tosB. grbhitva AV., grhitva av. + -grbhya v., -grhya v. + -grabhe ev.,
etc.
;

agrhitam e. Perf. jagrabha jagrbhus jagrbhre

-,

grbhe

ev.,

-graham
grhyate
etc. b.
;

jb.;
etc.

grhaye
av.

k.

Sec. Conj.: Pass,

-graham

v,.+

[Int.

jagrah-, jarigrhya-.

jighrksati -te

jigrahisa- kb.

grbhayant ev. Deriv. grabha ev. grahav. +


:

-grahin

E.

garbha V.+ grabhana v.s. grahana av. + grahaniya e.


-grahi
b.

grahayati -te b. + -grahisnu s. grahitavyaB.+ grabhitr av.b. grahitrAv.+

(ajagrabhaisan? (grahyate etc. c.) grahya v. + gfbhi v. grhii ev. grahi v.


ab.)

Desid. Cans.
]

grahuka grbh v.b.


-grh
c.

b.

-grhiti b.+

grabha v.b.s. graha av. + grahaka e. +


grahin
e.

jighrksaE. jighrksu e. +

+
to tie

grbha ev. grha v. + grhya av. +


no good reason wliy the root should

Compare

]/

glah.

There seems

not he given as

grbh, grh.

y
Pres. [1.]

gras, 'devour.
v.b.

Perf.

grasati etc. e. +, grasate jagrasana jagrasita ev.


agrasit
c.
etc.

Aor.
Fut.
Verb,

5.
1.

grasisyati -te
ev.,

e.+
e.

[
;

2.

grasita.]
b.
;

grasita
Caws,

grasta

grasitva

-grasam

c.

Sec. Conj.: Pass,

[Int. jagras-. grasyate etc. e. grasayati etc. b.s. grasti c. grasistha v.b. Deriv.: grasya e. grastr c. grasisnu e. grasana c.

Desid. jigrasisa-.

grasa s.+ -grasaka

c.

y grab,

see

grabh.

41

AND Primary DERivAirvES.

[ghar

y
y
Pres. [1.]

glap,

see

gla.

glah, 'gamble'.

glahate etc. e. [Perf. etc. jaglahe; aglahista.] Fut. 1. aglahisyat e. [ 2. glaliita, gladha.] Der y. glaha AV.+ glaha av. glahana Doubtless from y grah.

av.

y gla,
Pres. [4.]
[Per/",

'be weary'.

glayati

etc.

av. +, -te

etc. s.e.

[2.]

glati

e.

jaglau.]

Aor.

[1.

glayat, gleyat.

m.)

4.

glaslsta.

6. (or 4.)

glasis

e.

[Fut. glasyati, glata.]


Verb,

glana b.+ (glanta


etc.

Sec. Conj.: [/n(. jagla-.

Desid. jiglasa-.
e.

Caus.

glapayati
b.

etc.

v.

glapayati
Dent>..-

e.+. -te

[ajiglapat] (glapet m1.)


vs.
s.

-gla? GB.

glani

E.

glavin glasnu

-glapana

glapana

c.

y
Pres. [1.]

ghat,

'strive'.

Perf.

ghatate jaghate c.

etc.

e.+, -ti e.+

[Aor. ajighatat, aghatista.]


Fut.
Verb,
1.

2. ghatita.] ghatisyate c. [ ghatita c. ghatitum c.


;

Sec. Conj.: Int.

jaghatiti
e. +,

c.
;

[Desid. jighatisa-.
ghatayati
c.

Caus.
e.

ghatayati

etc.

(ghatyate)
iJeriv
.

-te

c.

ghata E. + ghataka c. ghatana c.

ghatana

etc. (ghatyate) -ghatin c.

-ghati rv.

-ghata av. + -ghataka c.

-ghatana c. -ghataniya e. +

ghatayitavya

c.

y
[Pres.
Perf.
1.

ghattj 'rub'

etc.

ghattate.]
r.

jaghattire
ghattita
:

Fut. [1. ghattisyati.


Verb,
e.

] 2.

ghattita m.

Sec. Conj.

Caus.
e.

Deriv.

ghatta

ghattayati etc. e. + (ghattyate c.) ghattana -ghattin c. +

e.

ghattitr

e.

ghar,

see

ghr.

ghas]

Roots, Verb-forms,

42

y
[Pres.
1.

ghas,

'eat'.

ghasati.]

Perf.

Aor.

jaghasa jaksus jaksivans etc. v.b. (jaksiyat ev.) 1. aghas (_2, 3s.) aksan etc. v.b.s. (aghat 3s. e.s., aghastam 2d., aghasta 2p. b. ghasas -sat rv.s. ghastam imp?;, b.), gdha? ev^. 2. aghasat? jb. 3. ajighasat ms.
;

[Fut.
Verb,

ghatsyati, ghasta.]

-gdhaksii

ts.

Sec. Conj.: Desid.

jighatsati

etc.

av. +
e.

Deriv.

v.

ghasmara
ghasra c. ghasvara
ghasi
vs.
is a

ghasa

ghasaAv.+ ghasana c.
Compare
participle

c.

av, + -ghasin vs. -ghasya b. ghasi ev.

-gdhi b. jighatsa b.+

jighatsuAv.+

jaks. wbieh

reduplicated form of this.


iu sagdhi,

The anonialous

gdha

occurs only in

agdhad, and gdhi


ghut,
'turn'
(?1

y
[Pres. etc.

ghutati, ghotate; jughota jughute


-te,
c.

aghutat, aghotista;

ghotisyati
Verb,

ghutita ghotita.J ghutita c, ghotita e. -ghutya


;

Deriv.

ghota s. No proper root.

y ghus,
Pres. [1.]

'sound'.
.

ghosati -te
jb.

etc.

v.+

[4.]

ghusyant cK
3.

Perf.

jughosa
1.

Aor.
[Fut.
Verb,

ghosi

ev.

2.

aghusat.

ajiighusat.

5.

aghosit.]

ghosisyati, ghosita.]

ghusta e.+ [ghusita]; -ghiisya ev.c. Desid. jughusisa-; [Int. joghus-. Pass, ghusyate etc. e. + See. Conj. ] Cans, ghosayati etc. v.+ (ghosyate c.) jughosisa-. ghosi ev. ghosav. + ghosanaE. + Derir. -ghusa AV. ghostr b. ghusya e. -ghosaka c. ghosana c. AV. + ghosaniya c. ghosin One or two ev. forms (^including the anomalously accented ghosayas
:

are referred

by BR.

to a root 2

ghus,

-crush';

but hardly -with sufficient reason

y
Pres. [6, 1.] Perf.

ghurn,

'waver'.

ghiirnati -te e.+

[Aor.
Verb,

jughtirna -ne e. + etc. aghurnit; ghurnisyati, ghiirnita.] ghiirnita e. +


:

Sec. Conj.

Cans, ghiirnayati

etc.

(ghiirnyate)
c.

c.

Deriv.:

ghiirna s.+

ghiirnana

43

AND Pbimary Derivatives.

[cakas

y
Pres. [3.]
etc.

ghr, ghar,
[

'drip'.
1.

jigharti

etc. v.b.

[jiliarti s'.)

gharati.]

jaghara; agharsit; gharisyati, gharta.j [Perf. Fer6. ghrta V. + -ghar am gk. Caws, gharayati etc. Sec. Conj. Pass, aghriyata ms. -ghar ana s. gharmav. + Dertu. -ghara B.s. -gharin av. jaghri ev. ghrna rv.
;

av. +

(gharyate
rv.
v.

s.)

ghrna
ghrni
;

Gharma

etc. are referred to a

second root ghr, 'be hot'

but the two are

probably ultimately identical.

y
Pres. [1.]

ghrs,
etc. e.

'rub'.

gharsati
c.

etc. e. +,

-te

Perf.

jagharsa
etc.

[Aor.
Verb,

agharsit; gharsisyati, gharsita.]


e.

ghrsta

Sec. Conj.: Pass,

Deriu.;

ghrstva c. -ghrsya s.+ Caus. gharsita R. ghrsyate etc. c. (-ti etc. e.+) ghrsu rv. ghrsvi gharsana e.+ gharsa E.+ -ghrsti e. -ghrsva ta. -gharsin c.
+
; ;

rv.

The

relation to this root of the last three derivatives

is

doubtful.

y
Pres. [3.]

ghra,

'smell'.
c.

jighrati (3p.) av.ms., jighranaE., jighrati V.+, -te etc. s.E. [2.] ghrati kb.e.

[l.]jighrati
aghrasit.j

etc.

Perf.

jaghrau
1.

c.
s.

Aor.
[Fut.
Verb,

[aghrat,] ghrayat

[ghreyat, aghrayi.

6.

ghrasyati, ghrata.] ghrata b.+ [ghrana; ghratva,] jighritva c; -ghraya

s.+,

-jighrya

S.+;

-ghrayam

b.s.

Sec. Conj.: Pass,

Desid. jigh[Int. jaghra-, jeghriya-. ghrayate c. etc. e.+ [ajighrapat -ghripat.] rasa-. ] Caus. ghrapayati -jighraAv.+ ghratrB.+ ghrati b.+ Z>eriy. -ghra s. -jighrana s.+ ghratavya b.+ ghreya e.+ ghrana b.+ -ghrapana s.
.-

y
Pres. [1.]

eak, 'quake'.

Verb,

cakanti eakita c.

c'.

y
Pres. [2.]

cakas,

'shine'.

[Perf. etc.
Sec.

cakasti -sati etc. c. (caka9at c, eaka9ete'? e.) cakasam cakara; acacakasam, acicakasam.] Conj.: Caus. cakasayam asatus c.

oaks]

Roots, Verb-fokms,

44

y
Pres. [2.]
etc.

caks,

'see'.

caste eaksate etc. v.+, caksi caksus kv. Rv.E. +. caksati etc. e.
etc.
;

[1.]

caksate -sante

cacaksa rv. (aeacaksam ev.) Verb, eastum c. -caksya v. + -cakse ev., -caksi v.; caksase v. Sec. Conj.: Pass, caksyate etc. e.+ Cans, caksayati etc. v.e. Derii;. -caks EV. caksya v.b. caksani ev. caksus -caksa cb. caksan av. caksas v.b.s. -caksin ayt. caksana v. + eaksu v.tr.
Perf.

cacakse

e.+.

v.

y
Pres. [1.]

cane, 'dance'.
root (perhaps

cancati

g.

late

and doubtless derivative

from cancala?).

1/cat,
Pres. [1.]

'go'(?).

catati
c.
c.

etc. c.

Perf.
Verb,

cacata
catita

Sec. Conj.: Cans,

catayati

etc. c.

Deriv.:

-cata

c.

-catana
it.

c.

-cataniya

c. c.

Also a late root, perhaps a form of cat; cataka e.+, catu c, catu
probably have nothing to do -with

y
Pres. [1.]
[Per/",

cat, 'hide'

(?)

catant ev. cacata cete.]

Aor.

3.

acicatam
v.

-te ta.
;

5.

acatit, acatista.]

[Fut. catisyati -te


Verb,

catita.]

eatta

Sec. Conj.: Caus.

catayati -te

v.b.

Deriv.

.-

-eat EV.
-words

catm

ev.

The
belong

cataka c, catura c, eattra

-catana v. or cattra

-catnuka?
c.

ab.

probably do not

to this root.

y
Aor.
5.

can, 'be pleased'.

Derir..-

canistam ev., canisthat? ev. canistha canas V.B.

ev.
is

caruv.+

Compare

kan. The form canisthat

plainly corrupt.

y
Pres. [1.] Perf.

cand,

see

9eand.

y cam,
camati
b.

'sip'.

camanti
e.

etc. c. [

5.

camnoti.]

eacama cemus
etc.

[Aor.

acami, acamit; camisyati, camita.]

45
Verb,

AND Pkimary Derivatives.


camta
s.

[cal

-camya

b.+

Sec. Conj.: [Int.

B.+
Deriv.
:

caneam-. (-camayya cos'.)


pr. c.

Desid.

cicamisa-

Caus.

camayati

etc.

eamaka? n. -cama s.+

camana s.+ camasa v.+

camti? V.+ -camti c.

Always with prep, a, except in Nirukta.

y
Pres. [1.]

car, 'move'.

carati -te

etc.

v.+
c.)

Perf.

cacara (caeartha
3.

Aor.

acicarat
v

etc.

av.+

+
;

cerus
4.

etc.

ay. +,

cere
b.s.

c.

acarsam

5.

acarit

etc.

v.b.u.s.

(cacarit
Fut.
Verb,
1.

u.)
etc.

carisyati

b.+, -te b.
u.

(acarisyat
b.+,
m.,

m.)

2.
v.,

carita.]

carita V.+, cirna


e.

caritum
eartva
b.

-tave

-tavai

b.,

-tos
;

b.s.,

cartum
Bv.;
Sec.

caritva
;

b.+,

cirtva

m.;

-carya

b.

carase

caradhyai ev. -caram Conj.: Pass, caryate etc. b.+


V.+
etc.

Int.

carcariti

etc.

av.b.;

Desid. cicarisati

etc. cb.

cicarsati kb.

Caus.

carcuryacarayati -te

B.+ (caryate b.+)

Deriv.

eara v. + cara by.


caraJsa b.+

-carya av. + -carya s. + earatha bv.

-caraniya c. -earenya rv. caritavya ii.+ cartavya e.


-caritr
u.

earitra v.+

carana

v.

carani bv. Compare ]/ cal.

carisnu v.+ -carsana? bv.

carsani v. + cara av. + caraka e. + carin v. + -carya b.+ carana e. + caraniya c. -caruka b.

ceru BV. cacara bv. carcara bv.c. caracara v.b. -carayitavya


-carayitr
c.

c.

cicarisu

b.

y
Sec. Conj.: Caus.

care, 'repeat'.
e.
c.
c.

carcayati c, carcita

+
-carci
s.

Deriu.;

carca

c.

carcaka carcana

-carci

c.

Probably in reality a denominative of carca, and this a frequentative


formation, perhaps from

car.

y
[Pres. etc.
Verb,

carv, 'chew'.
c.

carvati etc.'] carvita c, ciirna

s.

carvitum
c.

Sec. Conj.: Pass,

Deriv.:

carvya

c.

carvyate etc. c. carvana

Caws, carvayati
carvana
c.

etc. c.

cumi

c.

y
Pres. [1.]

cal, 'stir.

calati

etc.

av.+, -te
etc.

etc. k.

Perf.

cacala celus

e.+

call
[Aor.
Fut.
Verb,

Roots, Vekb-fobms,

46

calyasam;
1.

acalit.]
[

calisyati e.+
e.

2.

calita.]

calita

calitum e.+
ealcaliti ms., cacalat av.
etc. c.
;

Sec. Conj.:

Int.

Desid. cicalisa- (in


e., -ti

d.').

Caus. calayati
Deriv.
:

cala e.+ -calaka c.

ealayati b.+, -te u. (calyate -cali AV.+ -calin c.


-calu
B.s.

m.)

-cacali bv.
caJQcala e.+

-calaka b.+ calana e.+

ealitavya cala c.

e.

calya e.+ calana e. + -cacala av.

calacala
cicalisu

v.e.
c.

later variation of

car.

y
Pres. [1.]

cay, 'note, observe'.

cayati
aa.

etc. b.,

Perf.

cikyus
5.

eayaraana nv. [eacaya -ye.] -cayam cakrus


av. [acayista.]

jb.

Aor.
[Fut.
Verb,

acayisam
b.
;

cayisyati -te; cayita.]


cita

Sec. Conj.:

cayitva av. -cayya Pass, eayyate ts.


;

v.b.u.

Deriv.:

eayaniya

c.

cayitr

c.

cayu
]/

ev.

-citi b.

form, but an early specialized one, of

2 ci.

The meanings

'reverence,

be in awe' are rare and secondary.

|/ 1 ci,

'gather.
(_3s.) c.

Pres. [5.]

cinoti cinute

etc.

v.+

cinvati

[2.]

ceti kv.

[1.]

cayat cayema ev. Perf. cikaya etc. cikye -yire etc. v.+ [cicaya cieetha, cieye.] Aor. 1. acet citana ciyantu ev. [ciyat.] 4. aeaisam etc. b. [acesta.]

5.

cayistam
+
;

ev.
etc.

Fut.

1.

cesyati -te

b.+
b.+,

2.

ceta
b.

etc. e.
;

Fcr5. cita V.

cetum
clyate
+
;

-tavai

citva

b.

cayitva

e.;

-citya c,

-ciya M.
Sec. Conj.: Pass,
etc.

b.+ (-ciyant m.)


c.

sate
Deriv.:

etc. b.

cieisati
e.

Caus. eayayate
eft B,

[Int. ceci-.
c.

Desid. ciki-

[capayati.]
citi AV.

kaya

vs.?

-eayistha ev.

caya s.+ cayana av.+ cayaniya c. cayitavya ms.


See

-caya b. -cay in e.+ -cayya b.

citya AV.B.
-citya B.+
citi B.+

cetavya
-cetr
B.
e.

b.

eeya

+
c.

-cicisa

2 ci.

y
Pres. [3.]

2 ci, 'note, observe'


av.,

cikesi

etc. v.b.

(cikihi
b.)

cikyat v., acikayus Perf. cikaya etc. v.+

ciketu

ts..

cikethe
e,

ev..

[5.]

cinoti cinute

[1.]

cikitam av., cayate etc. v.b,

47
Aor.
1.

AND PkIMAKY DeKIVATIVES.


ev.

[cint

aeet aeidhvam Fut. cesyati e.


Verb,

4.

acesta
e.

c.

cita
:

v.

cetum

e.

-citya

+
etc. v.b.s.

Sec. Conj.
I)eriv.:

eiyate -caya V.+ -cayinE. +


Pass,
etc. c.

Desid. eikisati -te

-cetavyaE. +
cetr
v.u.

-ceya

b.

-cayana

c.
c.

-cit kv.
citi b. +

-cira rv.

cayaka
Compare
}/

root;

cay, wliich appears to te an early specialized form of this The forms and derivatives of 2 ei are not everywhere well separable from those of 1 ci, and there is reason to suspei^t

cay (BR.

3 ci) is another.

the two roots of being ultimately one; words with the prefixes nis and vi, especially, are probably best referred to 1 ci, with the
so 'resolve, decide'.

meaning

'take apart',

and

y
Pres. [1.] cetati etc.

cit, 'perceive,

know,

appear'.

cetante rv.

Perf.

tat
Aor.
1.

ciketa cikitus etc. cikite -tre etc v.b.s. (ciketa; ciketati etc. cikeetc. cikiddhi aciket, acikitat, eikitas cikitrire) [ciceta.]
;

aceti cetiRv., cite?Rv., citanti?


acicitat.

rv.,

citana

v.b.

(-cetana rv.)

[3.

4.

acait ev.

5.

aeetit.]

[Fut. cetisyati, cetita.]


Verb, citta v.

Sec. Conj.: Int.

+ cite ? rv. citaye vs. cekite etc. -tat ev.c.


; ;

(acikitsis av., cikitsyate

etc.

e.+)

Desid. eikitsati

etc. v. etc.

-te e.+
etc.

Caus. citayati

-te

rv.

cetayati
Deriv.
:

etc.

-te

etc.

v.+

keta v.+ ketana e. +


ketii
cit V.
citi
c.

cetya rv. cetana v.+

cetya

rv.

cikitsa b.+

cikit rv.
cikiti sv.

V.

cetanaE.+
cetas
V.

+
v.b.

cikitu

v.

cikitsaka b.+ cikitsyaE.+ cikitsana e. +


-cikitsaniya
c.

cetistha

cikitvan ev.
cikitvit rv.

citti V. +
Cittl RV.

cetu
cettr

RV.

cikitsu av. +

-cetiina rv.
v.b.

-ciketas
cikita
s.

u.

cetayitavya u.+
cetayitr b.+

citra V.+

Compare roots 2 ci and cint. The grammarians give two separate roots, kit and cit, each with full sets of forms which are not all reported here.

y
Sec. Conj.: Caus.

oint, 'think'.
-te
etc.

cintayati

etc.

b.+ (Jacicintat ;] cintyate

etc.

u.+;

cintayita
Deriw
.

c.)

+ cintaka e.+
E.

cinta

-cintin

c.

cintya v.+

eintana e.+ cintaniya c.

-cintitr

e.
c.

cintayitavya

Perhaps the denominative of

a nasalized derivative of }/ cit.

eud]

Rooxs, Verb-fobms,

48

y
Pres. [1.]

cud,

'impel',

codati -te
e.

etc. v.

Aor.
Verb,

3.

acucudat
m.

5.

codis ev.
etc.

cudita

Sec. Conj.: Caus.

Deriv.:

coda Rv.c. coda Rv. codaka S.+

codayati etc. -te -codin c.

v.+ (eodyate

etc.

s.+}

codyaE.+ codanav. +

eodanas. + codaniya b. -codas ev.


coditr EV,

codistha ev. codayitavya c. eodayitr ev.c.

]/

cup,

'stir.

Pres. [1,]

copati

m'.

[Perf. etc.
Verb,

cucopa; acopit; copisyati, copita.] cupita c.

Deriv.

-cumpuna?

v.b.

y
Pres. [1.]

eumb,
c.

'kiss'.

cumbati

etc.

e.+, -te

Perf.

cucumba
etc.

etc. e.

+
c.

[Aor.
Verb,

acumbit; cumbisyati, emnbita.]


c.
;

cumbita
:

cumbitum

Sec, Conj.

Pass,
c,

cumbyate
c.

etc. c.

Desid. cueumbisati Caus. cumc.

-cumbya

c.

bayitum
Deriv. :

cumba

cumbaka

c.

cumbin
'steal',

c.

cumbana

c.

y
Aor.
3.

cur,

aeucurat

c.

Sec. Conj.:

corayati

etc.

e,+, -te e.+

(eoryate

c.)

Dew.; cora TA.+

coraka

c,

corayitavya
in'.

c.

y
A
to in

eulump, 'suck

single occurrence of a form from this bastard root, with

ud,

is referred

Bohtlingk's Lexicon, as found in the Mahaviracarita.

y
[Pres.
etc.

cus, 'draw, suck'.


aeucusat, actisit; cusisyati, cusita.]

ciisati; cuciisa;
:

Sec. Conj.

Pass.

cUsyate

c.

Caws, ciisayati

c.

Dew..- eusin

c.

ciisana

c.

etisya e.+

cosa c, cosya e.+

cosana

c,

y
Pres. [6.] crtati etc. v.b.s.
[

crt, 'bind'.
cartati.]

1,

Perf.

cacarta av.

49
[Aor.
Verb,
etc.

AND Pkimary Derivatives.

[chad

acicrtat, aeacartat, acartit; cartisyati, cartsyati, cartita.]


v.s.
;

crtta

-crtya

is.s.

-ertam
[

av.

Sec. Con}.:

Pass,

crtsa-.
Deriv.
:

crtyate Caus. eartayati.J


u.
is.

Int.

caricrt-.

Desid. cicartisa-, ci-

-eartya

-cartana

b.

-crt

v.

-crtya

b.

y
Pres. [1.]

eest,
b.+

'stir'.

cestati

etc.

av.+, -te

etc.

Perf.

eieesta
etc.

etc. e.

[Aor.
Verb,
-Sec.

cestita

acieestat aeacestat, acestit; cestisyati, cestita.] e. + cestitmn e. + cestitva b.


; ;

Conj.: Caus. eestayati


B. (a-)

etc.

b.+, -te etc. s.+

Derjv.; -eistuv

cesta

c.
s.

casta

cestana e.+ cestitavya e.

cestayitr

e.

y
Pres. [1.]
Perf.

eyu, 'move,

stir'.

cyavate

etc.

v.+, -ti etc ev.? e.+

Aor.

1.

eucyuve kv. (cicyuse ev.) cyavana? rv. 3. acucyavat -van -vus

v.b. (-vit

cyavat -virata cucyuviraahi


V.B.U.

ev.) [acicyavat.]

-vitana cu-

4.

acyosta

etc.

Fut.
Verb,

1.

cyosyate b. [ 2. cyota.] cyuta v. + cyavitum e., cyotos


;

cb.
]

cyavayati -te etc. V.+ [cicyavayisa-, cucyavayisa-] cyavayati pb'. Denv. -cyava V.+ -cyaviyas ev. -cyavnka b. cyautna
Sec. Conj.: [Int.

cocyu-.

Desid. cueytisa-.
;

Caus.

etc.

v.+,

rv.

cyavana

v.+

cyava

e.

-cynt v.+

cyavayisnii av.

-cyavas rv. cyavana e.+ cyuti v.+ The EV. forms here grouped under the reduplicated
and doubtful
classification.

cyavayitavya

b.

aorist are of difficult

y
Pres. [1.]

cyut,

'drip'.

cyotati

etc. s.c.

[Perf. etc.

Sec. Conj.: [Int.

cucyota; acyutat, aeucyutat, acyotit; cyotisyati, cyotita.] Desid. cucyotisa-, cucyutisa-. cocynt-. ] Caws, cyo-

tayati

a.

Only a blundering varia

lectio for

9cut, which

see.

y
[Pres.
Verb,
1.

chad,

'cover'.

chadati
b.+
Caus.

-te.]

channa

Sec. Conj.:

chadayati
II.

etc.

v.+, -te

etc.

e.+

(chadyate

etc.

s.+ [cicha-

dayisa-.])

Withney,

Supplement

chad]
Deriv.

Roots, Vekb-forms,
-chad
V.

50 chadya c. chadana s.+

+
c.
e.

chada

s.+

-chadin

chadi B.+ chadis v.+ chattra s.+


+

chalav e.+

chadana

chadman

s.+

-chada b.+ -chadaka c. -chadin c.

y
Pres. [2.]

chand, chad, 'seem,

please'.
^j

Perf.

chantsi -ntti rv.ms. cachanda rv. (eaehadyat

[1.]

chandati

b.e.

rv.)

Sec.

acachadat c. 4. aehan -ntta -ntsus rv. (chantsat rv.) Cans, chadayati etc. v.b. chandayati etc. b.+, -te etc. ev. (chandyate etc. e.+) Deriv. chandas v.+ chandya rv. -chad rv. chanda rv.
Aor.
3.

Conj.:

chanda

V.+

chandakaE.+
to

Of very questionable relationship


not separated by the

chandu rv. chandana c. y chad 'cover', although the two

are

Hindu grammarians.

y
Pres.

cha, 'cut up'.

ehyati

[Perf. etc.
Verb,

etc. av.b. chayati? tb. ehayet c. cachau; achat, achasit; chasyati, chata.] chata s., chita cb.c. chayitva c. -chaya cb.
; ;

Sec. Conj.: [Int. ti B.U.


DerJu..-

cacha-, cachi-.

c.

Desid. cichasa-.

Caus.

chayaya-

chavi -vi? B.+

-chana

y
Pres. [7.] Perf.

chid, 'cut
etc.

off".
c.
;

chinatti chindanti
etc.

v.+

chindeta
v.b.s.

achinam
etc.

m.)
:

cicheda cichide
1.

b.+

Aor.

chedma

rv.
e.

3.

acichidas

[ehidyat;] achedi
4.

2.

2.

achidat
etc.

av.+

etc.

achaitsit

etc.

b.+ (chetsit

b.+), chitsi

AV.+ (chetsi
Fut.
1.

etc. b.u.). etc.

chetsyati -te
V.

b.+ (achetsyat m.)


b.+, -ttavai b.s.

chetta.]
;

FerS.

chinna

chettum

chittvaE. +
etc. e.) etc.

-chidya av.h
cechid-.

Sec. Conj.: Pass,

chidyate
+

etc.

Desid. cichitsati -te jb.

Caws, chedayati

v.+ (chidyati

s.+

[Int.

Deriv.

-chid

v.

-chitti B.+

chida c. chidura

chidra V.+
c.

cheda av.+

-chedaka c. -chedin e.+ chedya e.+ chedana b.+

chedaniya chettavya
chettr b.+

c.

e.-

cichitsu

e.

y
Sec. Conj.:

chut, chud, 'wrench".


etc.

Caus.
c.

chedayati

c, chotita

c.

Deriv.

chotika

All very late and questionable forms.

51

AND Pkimary Derivatives.

[jafij

y
[Pres.
etc.

chur, 'scatter.
etc.]
e.

churati; cuchora; achorit;

See. Conj.: Caus.

churayati
c.

etc.

c, churita

chorayati

etc. c.

Deriv.

-churana

y
Pres. [7.]

chrd, 'spue,

eject'.

ehrnatti
c.

etc. b.

[chrntte.

1.

chardati.]

Perf.

eacharda
etc.

[-de.]

[Aor.

achrdat, acachardat aciehrdat, achardit, achrtta; chardisyati -te, chartsyati -te, chardita.] Verb, chrnna k. charditva, chrttva.]
[

Sec. Conj.:

[Int.

carichrd-.

Desid. ciehardisa-, cichrtsa-.

Cans.

chardayati -te etc. b. + [cichardayisa-.] Deriv.; char dana S.+ chardi s.+ ehardis chardaniya c.

c.

chardayitavya

c.

y
Pres. [2.] jaksiti
etc. u.c.

jaks,

'eat'.

jagdhi c, ajaksus

kb.,

jaksat

(jpple')

u.c.

[1.]

jaksati

[Perf. etc.
Verb,
[Sec.

jajaksa; ajajaksat, ajaksit; jaksisyati, jaksita-] jagdha v. + jagdhum c. jagdhva av.+, jagdhvaya rv. Conj.: jajaks-; jijaksisa-; jaksaya-.]
; ;

Deriv.

jagdhi b.+
form of

A reduplicated

ghas.

The present forms found

later only in

the Bhagavata-Purana.

y
Pres. [2.]

2 jaks, 'laugh'.

jaksat

(pple) bv.cb.

reduplicated form of

has.

]/
Pres. [5.]

jagh,

'eat,

devour.
jahnuyat;

jaghnuyat?
it 'offend'.

c.
(i.

Found only
he renders

in Vasistha

23); but Biihler appears to read

y jajh.
Pres.

jajhati nvK
This
is a

a-. Xef.

of doubtful character and

meanin

y janj.
Pres.

janjati ev'.
This
is of

the same character as the preceding.

jan]

Roots, Vekb-fobms,

52

|/ jan, ja, 'give birth, be born'.


Pres. [1.]

janati -te
Ev.B.
[

etc. y.e.

[4.]

jayate

etc.

v.+, -ti

etc. e.

ms va
Perf.

[2.] ja-

3.

jajanti.]

jajana jajniis etc. jajne etc. v.+ (jajaniis rv., jajanat b.) Aor. 1. ajan (3s.) s., ajnata (Sp.') e.; ajani jani v.b., jani rv. jayat 5. ajanista etc. v. +, janistam ev. E.+ 3. ajijanat -nata etc. v. + -sista -simahi v.b.s. janiseyam -ya k.; janisthat? sv.) (janisiya

Fut.

janisyati -te janita b.+


1.

etc.

v.+ (ajanisyata etcB.}, jasyati

etc.

e.

2.

Verb.
Sec.

jata
Conj.
cb.

v.
:

+ ; janitos
[Pass,

v.b.s.

janitvi rv.
Int.

janyate. Caus. janayati -te

janjan-, jaja-.

Desid. jijanisate

etc. v.

+ Qijanayiset

cb.)

Deriv.

gna

V.B.S.

53

AND Pkimary Derivatives.

[Iji

y jambh,
[Pres.
1.

jabh, 'chew up,

crush'.

jambhate, jabhate.] ajijabham av. [ajajambhat. ] 5. jambhisat bv. av. jabhitum c. Verb, jabdha Sec. Conj.: Int. janjabhana av.s., -bhat s. janjabhyate etc. b.+ Caus. jambhayati etc. v.u. i)eriu.; jambha V.+ jambhaka ii.+ jabhya? av. jambhana av. +
Aor.
3.

jambha

av.+

jar, see

jr.

y
Pres. [1.] Perf.

jalp, 'murmur, speak'.


c.

jalpati

etc.

b.+, -te etc.


c.)

jajalpa
etc.

etc. e.

(jalp ire

[Aor.
Verb,

ajalpit; jalpisyati, jalpita.]

jalpita e.+

Sec. Conj.: Pass,

Deriv.

jalpy ate c. jalpin e. jalpaka c. jalpya e.


jalpa E.+

-jalpana
jalpi
v.

c.

jalpitr

e.

-jarjalpa? vs.

Pres. [1.]

jasamana

kv.

y jas,
[4.]

'be exhausted'.
(ip.) bv.

jasyata

Perf. jajasa av.

Aor.

3.

ajijasata

(3s.) cb.

(jajastam
etc.

bv.)
e.)
j as

Sec. Conj.: Cdus.

jasayati

b.+ (jasyate

Deriv.;

jasu

BV.

jasuri Ev.

-jasra v.+

van

ev.

jah, see

ha.

y ja,
y
Pres. [1.]
1 ji,
[2.]

see

y Jan.

'conquer'.

jayati -te
etc.

etc. v.

jesi jitam. bv.


v.,

Perf.

jigaya
1.

(jigetha et.
c.

jigivans

jigivans b.+) jigye

etc.

v.+

v.+

-jay am asa
Aor.

[ajayi, jiyat] jajryat jub.m.

3.

ajijayat m.

4.

ajaisit

etc.

(ajais -ait
M.)

jesam
ts..

jes

jesma
;

v.e.s.,

jesat
jb.e.,
;

etc.

ev.), jjesi tb. (ajaislja

5.

ajayit
etc.
;

Fut. jesyati

v.+, -te

ajayisata (3p.) c. jayisyati etc. e.


-tave
e.+
;

-te

e.

2.

jeta
;

etc. b.e.

Verb, jita v. +
Sec.

jetum
etc. v.

b.+,

Conj.: Pass, jiyate

etc.

jigisati -te

b. jitva b. + Desid. Int. jejiya-.] (jiyeyam m.) [ Caws, japayati etc. b.s. (ajijapata -jipata b.)

-jitya av. +

jise ev.

Iji1
Deriv.

Roots, Vekb-fokms,
jaya v.+
jayin e.+
jiti V.

54
jayu RV. jayuka ms.
jigyu Bv.
jigisa V.+
-jigisin GB.E.

+
v.B.

jetr V.+

-jitvan

jayitr

b.e.

jayya
jayus
-ji AV,

b.

-jit vara c.

-jay ana e.+


Rv.

jina

c.

jeman jeman

rv.
b.

jisnii V. +

-jit

V.+
B.

-jitya

jasdsnu u.e. jetva v.B. jetavya e.+

jeya e.+ jesa v.B.s.


-jesin
B.

jigisu V.+

-japayitr

b.

jayin b.+

y
Pres. [5.]

ji,

jinv, 'quicken'.
jb.
,

jinosi

rv.ts.,

ajinot

jinve rv.

[1.]

jinvati

etc.

v.b.s.,

-te RV.
Perf.

jijinvathus rv.
1.

[Aor. ajinvit.] Fut.


Verb,

jinvisyati ab.
jira

2.

jinvita.]

jinvita av.
:

Deriv.

v.b.s.

jiri rv.

-jinva rv.

y jiv,
Pres. [1.] jivati etc. v.+, -te etc. e.+ Perf. jijiva etc. b.+,

'live'

-ve

r.

Aor.

1.

jivyasam -yasma
AV.
etc,
;

av.b.s.

3.

ajijivat, ajijivat.]

5.

ajivit

etc.

Fut.
Verb,

1.

jivisyati
jivita
v. +

b.+ (ajivisyam
,

u.),

-te m.
;

2.

jivita.]
jb.
;

jlvitum b.+
etc.

-tavai av.

jivitva

-jivya

e.

jivase
Sec. Conj.:

v.b.mi.

Pass,
c.
;

jivyate
etc. e.

b.+

Int.

jejivya-.]

B.+, -te

jujyiisati
;

etc. cb.

(jijyusita ab.)
in d.)

Desid. jijivisati Cans, jivayati


etc. v.

(jivapayati
Deriu..

+ jijivayisa-

jiva V.+

jivaka

S.+

jivin B.+

jivya e.+ jivanav.+ jivaniya av.+

jivas

v.b.e.

-jivitr

c.

jivatuv.+
jivatr
(in d.)
c. c.

jijivisa

E.
E.

jijivisu

jivitavya

-jijivayisu

e.

y jur,
jusate
v.+, -ti

see

jr.

1/ jus, 'enjoy'.
Pres. [6.]
etc.
etc.

bv.e.+

[2.]

josi

v.

jujosa etc. v.+, jujuse etc. v.c. (jujosati etc. jujosat etc. rv.; jujosate RV., jujosate sv.; jujustana v.; ajujosam k.) Aor. 1. ajusran rv. (josati josat josa rv. josase av. jusana v.b.c); 5. josisat rv. 3. ajtijusat.] jusyat c. [
Perf.

[Fut. josisyate, josita.]


Ferft.

justa

v.,

justa

V.

+ justvi RV.
;

55
Sec. Conj.
etc.
:

AKD PltlMABY DERIVATIVES.


[Int.

[2jr
]

jojus-.
E.

Desid. jujusisa-, jujosisa-


josav. + josya rv.
-josas
v.u.

Caus.

josayate
c.

V.+, -ti

Dmv.;

-jus V.+

josayitavya
josayitr
b.

-jusa
justi

B.

jostr

v.b.s.

V.

jo3anaB.+

y
Pres. [9.]

ju, -be swift'.


etc.

Perf.

junati etc. kv. [1.] javate jujuvus -vat -vans -vana rv.
3.

rv.b.

[Aor.
Verb,

ajijavat.]
v.,

juta

javita

Sec. Conj.: Cans,

e. + -javam ts. javayati c. [jijavayisa-.J

Beriv.:

Java v.+ javin V.+


]/

javana v.+
javas
V.

javistha v. javiyas rv.b.u.


]/ ji

juvas
ju
is

RV.

V.B.

juti V.B.U.
Related with
jiv, and perliaps with

jinv; javita

more prohahly

denominative from Java.

y
Pres. [1.]

jurv, 'consume'.

Aor.

5.

jurvati etc. jUrvit rv.

v.

Doubtless a secondary formation (u- or eiglith class) from

]/

jr jur.

y
Pres. [1.]

jr, jur,

'waste away'.

jarati
etc.

jiryati
Perf.

jajara av.
[1.

Aor.

jiryat.

jaranta rv. (jarant v.+) [6.] jurati av. +, -te etc. e. + juryati etc. rv. [jajarus, jerus]; jujurvans rv.
etc.
;

etc.

rv.

[4.]

2.

ajarat.

3.

ajijarat.

] 5.

jarisus ev.

[Fut. jarisyati, jarita.]


Verb,

jirna av.+, jurna rv. [jaritva.]


jiryate
etc. c.

Sec. Conj.: Pass,

[Int. jajr-,
etc.

jejirya-.

Desid. jijarisa-,

jijirsa-.
v.: Deriv.

Caus. jarayati -te

v.+ (jarayant rv.)

jara v.+

jrmbh]

Roots, Verb-forms,

56

y
Pres. [1.]

jrmbh,
etc. b.

'gape'.

Perf.

jfmbhate etc. jajrmbhe etc. e. +


etc.

v.+. -ti

[Aor.
Verb,

ajrmbhista; jrnibhisyate, jrmbhita.]


e.

jrmbhita
:

+ jrmbhitva
;

s.

Sec. Conj.: Int.

jarijrmbhate
E.
c.

c.

Caus. jrmbhayati
e.+

etc. c.

Derjv.

jrmbha jrmbha

jrmbhaka

-jrmbhin

c.

jrinbhanaE.+

y jeh,
Pres. [1.]

'loll,

pant'.

jehamana

v.

[Perf. etc. jijehe; ajijehat, ajehista;


If,

jehisyate, jehita; jehayati.]


ha.

as

seems probable,

jihma

v.+ belongs here, the root should be written


]/

jih.

It is

perhaps a secondary reduplicated formation from

*
]/

jna, 'know'.

Pres. [9.]
u.E.

jha

janati -nite
(2s.

etc.

\.+ (janima janithas m.)


c.

1.

janati -te

etc.

impv.)
etc.

Perf. jajhaii

jajne
v.

v.+

Aor.

1.

ajhayi

jnesam
Fut.
Verb,
1.

av.b.

jneyas rv. [jhayat.] 6. ajhasisam etc. av. +

4.

ajhasam ajnasthas

av.b.,

jhasyati -te etc. b.+ (ajnasyat m.) 2. jhata b. jnata v. + jhatum b. +, -tos b. jnatva b. + -jhaya
; ; ;

b.

+ -jnayam
;

b.

Sec. Conj.

P<iss.

jhayate

etc. v.h
B.,

[Int.

jajna-.
etc.

Desid. jijhasate

etc.

av.+,

-ti etc.

B.+ (jijhasisi

jijnasyate
,

e.+)

AT.

-te u. (ajijnipat ts.


;

ajijhapat
v.)

etc.

Caus. jhapayati eic. c; jhapta b.+ [jnapita],


etc. b. +,

jnaptum e. + jhapyate

cb. [jnipsa-]);

jhapayati

-te

etc.

e.+

(jhapyate etc. e. +. ajnapisyat? Deriv.: -janaka? e. jhatr V.+ -jna V. + jnatra e. jha E.+ -jhaya v.b. jhas E.V. jheya b.+

-jnapya c. -jhapana av. jhapti c.

-jhapayitavya
jijhasa b.+

c.

jnana

v.

+
u.

-jajhi V.B.

jnati V.+

jijhu

E.

jhatavya

jhapaka e. + jhapya e.+ jhapana c. jhapaniya c.

jijhasyaB.+ jijhasana c. -jijhasenya b.


-jijhasitavya
u.

jijhasu

E.

y
Pres. [9.]

JyS', ji,

'overpower, injure'.

jinati
B.

etc. v.b.s.

2.

4.

jiyate ev.cb.

P^ff-

jijyah
[1.
1.

Aor.
Fut.

jiyat.

] 6.

ajyasisam
b. [

etc. b.

jyasyati -te

jyata.]
Desid. jijyasati

Verb, jita AV. [jina;

Sec. Conj.: Pass,


etc. V.B. [

jajya-, jejiya-. jiyate av.ms. Caus. jyapayati, ajijyapat.]


[Int.

jitva; -jyaya.]

57
IDeriv. V
:

AND Primary Derivatiyes.


-jlti V.B.S.

[jhat

jhan]

Roots, Verb-forms,

58

y
A
single occurrence,

jhan, 'sound'.
(Bo.).

jhanati, in the Harsacarita

y
Pres. [1.]

jhar,
c.

'fair

Deriv.:

jharant jhara e.+

c^.

-jharana

very questionable root.

y
[Pres. etc.

tank,

'cover'

(?)

tankati, tatanka.]

Aor.
Verb,

1.

atanki c. tankita c.
:

Sec. Conj.

Cans,

tankayati

c.

Deriv.

tanka

e.+
rather.

Most probably a denominative of tanka,

y' tal, 'be confused'.


Pres. [1.] talati c.

single late occurrence, doubtless

artificial.

y
Pres. [1.]

tik,

'trip'.

tikate

c.

single late and doubtless artificial occurrence.

Bo. gives also uttlkita,

but without statement of authority.

A
'swell'.

tup,

Bo. suggests such a root as origin of (a-)

topa

e.+

||

y dam,
A

'sound'.

single doubtful (onomatopoetic?) occurrence,

damant

c.

y damb,
Pres. [1.]

'mock'.

dambate? c. Sec. Conj.: Caus. dambayati etc. c. (dambyate c.) Deriv.: -damba c. -dambaka c. -dambin c. -dambya
All forms only with prefix vi.

c.

-dambana

c.

y
Pres. [4.]

di,

'fly'.

diyate c? [1.] day ate c? [Perf. etc. didye; adidayat, adayista; dayisyate, dayita.] Verb, dina e. + -diya c. Sec. Conj.: Pass, diyate c. [Int. dedi-. Desid. didayisa-. ] Cans dayayati c. Z)mu.; -dayana c. -diyana e. ditara? cb. -diyana c.
;

A later

form of

]/

di, and rare, except in

dina.

59

AND Pkimaby Derivatives.

[taks

y
Sec. Conj.
iJeriv.
:

ql^al, 'mix'.

Caus.

dvalayati
c.

etc. c.

-dvalana

Only used by one scholiast; no proper

root.

y
Pres. [1.]

dhauk,

'approach'.

dhaukate
c.

etc. c.

Perf.

dudhauke
etc.

[Aor.
,

Verb,

adudhaukat, adhaukista; dhaukisyate, dhaukita.] dhaukita e.+


[Int.

Sec. Conj.:

dodhaiik-.

Desid.

dudhaukisa-.

Caus.

dhau-

kayati
I [

etc. c.
c.

Deriv. dliavikana

y tans,
[Pres. 1.

tas, 'shake'.

Perf.

tansati -te.] tatasre ev.

Aor.

2.

atasat

av.b.

3.

atatansatam
b.v.

kv.

Sec. Conj.: Int.

tantasaite

[tantasyate.]

Caus.

tansayati

vs.,

-te

Rv.
Deriv..-

(tansayadhyai
-tansa B.+

ev.)

tansu'?E.+

tasara

v.b.

-tantasasrya bv.
titaii? bv.s. +

-tansana

c.

-tasti? b.+

y tak,
Pres. [2.]

'rush'

takti atakta ev.


;

takati.]

[Perf.

tataka ; atakit takisyati, takita.] Verb, takta ev. -tankam av. takva takavana ev. Deriv. : -takaua c.
etc.
;

ev.
v.b.

-takvari

av.

taku

EV.
to

-takri? ev.
be separated from

takvan

Probably not
special meaning.

tac , which with prefix a has won

y
Pres. [2.] tasti ab.,
[1.]

taks, 'fashion'.
(3p.) etc. ev.

taksati

[5.]

taksnuvanti
tatakse
s.)

etc.

b.s.

taksati

etc.

v.+, -te etc. e.+

Perf.

tataksa

etc. v.

+ (taksathus taksus

v.b.),

etc. v.e.

Aor. [3. atataksat.


[Fut. taksisyati,
Verb,

tasta

[Sec. Conj.:

v. + taksya-; tataks-; titaksisa-, titaksa-; taksaya-.]


;

] 5. ataksisus ev. (taksisat taksyati taksita, tasta.] -taksya c.


;

Deriv.:

taksa S.+ taksaka av. +

taksya ev. taksan v. +

taksana

s.+

tasti

c.

tastr ev.

tanol

Roots, Vebb-forms,

60

y
Pres. [7.]

tane, tac, 'coagulate'.

[Perf.

tanakti etc. b.s. etc. tatanka; atanksit, atancit; tanksyati tancisyati, tankta
[taktva, taneitva;] -tacya
;

taneita.]
Verb, [takta;]
[Sec. Conj.
:

b.

tatane-, tatacya-

titanksa-, titancisa- ; tancaya-.]


b.s.

Deriv.:

-tanka E.+ -tankya b.s.


]/

-tancana

takman

av.

takran. +

See

tak. Only used with a.

y tat,

'clatter.

A single fonn, tatati, in Adbh. Brah., doubtless an onomatopoetic formation.

y tad,
Pres. [2.] Perf.

'beat'.

tadhi? tatada c.
3.

Rvi.

[Aor.

atitadat.]
Caus.

Sec. Conj.:

tadayati

etc.

e.+ (tadyate e.+)


e.+
c.

-Denu.; tadit V.+

tadaka
-tadin

tada AV.+

tadya e.+ tadana e.+

tadaniya
tadayitr

c. c.

]/ 1
Pres. [8.]

tan, ta, 'stretch'.

Perf.

tanoti tanute etc. v.+ tatana etc. v.+ (tatantha v.b. [tenitha]}, tenus etc. e.+ (tatanat etc. tatananta tatanyus et.); tene etc. av. + (tatane kv., tatne etc,
tate Rv.)
1.

v.,

Aor.

atan

e.v.,

atata

etc. B.V. [

B.

3.

2. atanat (atathas atnata) v.b.; atayi b. atitanat.] 4. atansit b. (atan v.), atasi atansmahi
etc.

5.

atanit ms. [atanit, atanista.]

Fut.
Verb,

1.

tata

tansyate b. [tanisyati -te.] v. + tantum e.; tatva


c.

e.,

2.

[tanita,] tayita
b.

c.

tatvaya
etc. c.

[tanitvaj; -tatya b.+,

-taya

Sec. Conj.: Pass,

tayate

etc.

v.+,

tanyate
b.+

[Int.

tantan-.

Desid.

titansa-, titanisa-.
Deriv.
:

Caus. taijayati av.c.

tan v. tana ev. tana av. tanaya v.+ tanas ev.


-tani
V.

taniman

tanti V.+

tanistha b.s. taniyas b.

tanu V.+ tanu V.+ tanus E.

Compare

y tay.

61

AND Primary Derivatives.

[tark

2 tan, 'roar'.
v.

Pres. [4.]

tanyati rv.
kv.

Deriv.:

tanyata
to

tanyatii

tanyii kv.
}/

tanayitnu

av.

Appears

be au abbreviated form of

stan.

y
Pres. [1.]

tand, 'be weary'.


tandri
av. +

Deriv. :

tandate rv'. (tandrat v rv'.) tandra v. + tandri e. +

y
Pres. [1.]

tap, 'heat'.
tapyati
etc.

tapati -te
sv.

etc.

v.+

[4.]

R.+, -te

etc.

b.+

Perf.

tatapa tape
1.

etc. v.
;

Aor.

tapana
atapsit

+ [tatapate rv.) atapi v.is. 3. atitapat

e.,

-pe rv. (titapasi av.)


tapisyati
ck.;
etc. e.

2.

4.

etc. v.b.s.,

Fut.

tapsyati etc. tapta E. Verb, tapta v. + tapita


1
.

atapthas? av. b. + (atapsyat m.), -te


c.

etc. e.

b.

taptum

e.

taptos

taptva

+;

-tapya
Sec.

v.

Conj.: Pass,

titapsa-.]
fut. e.)

tapyate etc. v.+ Caus. tapayati etc.

tatapyate etc. e.+ [ -te etc. AV.+ (tapyate b.e.


Itht.

Desid.

tapita

Deriv.

-tap

Rv.s.

tapu

RV.
V.
v.B.

tapa V.+ tapya e. tapana v.+


tapana,-niv.B.

tapus
tapusi
tapti

tapistha v. tapisnu e. tapiyas c.

-tapin B.+

-tapya

b.
e.

tapana
-tapitr?

c.

taptavya
taptr
E.

e.

tapas V.+

tapyatu v.b. tapa AV.+ -tapaka c.


'faint'.

E.
c.

tapayitr

tapayisnu

rv.

y tarn,
Pres. [4.]

tamyati
b.

etc.

b.+, -te etc. e.

Perf.

tatama
[1.

Aor.

atami.
b.

] 2.

tamat

etc.

rv.b.s.

[Fut. taniisyg,ti^
Verb,

tamita.]

tamta
:

Sec. Conj.

Deriv.

tamitos b.s. tamayati etc. b.s. tami c. tamaka c.


+
Caus.

tamana

s.

tamisici

v.

tamti c. -tameru
+

tama
vs.

c.

tamas v.+

tamisra

v.

tamra

rv.

-tamaka c. tami s. tamra av.+

y
Sec. Conj.: Caus.

tark, 'think'.
etc.
e.

tarkayati -te

e.+ (tarkyate

etc.

e.+)

Deriy.

tarka tarka

S.+
E.

tarkaka
tarkin
c.

-tarkyaB.+ tarkana e.+

tarkaniya e. tarkukav e.

Probably a denominative formation.

tarj]

Roots, Vekb-fokms,

62

y tarj,
Pres. [1.] tarjati etc. e.+, -te e.

'threaten',

[Perf.

etc.

tatarja; atarjit; tarjisyati, tarjita.]


;

Verb, tarjita e.

Sec.

+ -tarjya e. Con}.: Cans, tarjayati etc.

e.+, -te e.

(tarjyate

etc. e.)

X)riu.;

tarjaka

c.

tarj ana e.+

tarjanaE.+

tas, see

y y

tans.
tan.

y y
[Pres.
1.

ta, see

tay, 'stretch'.
jb.

tayate.]

Perf. [tataye]

tayam cakre?
tayyamana

[Aor.

etc.

atayi, atayista; tayisyate, tayita.]


vs.
jb.

Sec. Conj.: Pass,

Very questionable forms. The

manuscript reads

(iii.

177)

anusamta-

yayam cakre. Belongs probably in some way to y tan, ta. The BhagavataPurana has once tayita(periph. fut.), which is given above under y tan.

y
Pres. [1.]

tav.

tavati av.

Probably a false reading.

y
Pres. [5.] tinoti c'.

ti, 'crush'.

single occurrence, and most probably a false reading.

y
Pres. [1.]
Per/".?

tij,

'be sharp'.

tejate

etc.

bv.cb.

titigdhiB.s.
v.

Verb,

tikta

+
tetikte
m.)
etc. v.b.

Sec. Conj.:

Int.

(titiksmahe
Deriu.; -tikti
B,v.

Caus. tejayati
tiksna v.+ tega? vs.
teja
c.

Desid. titiksate etc, v,+, -ti


etc.

etc.

e.

e.+

tejana v.+
tejas v.+

tejiyas rv.c.

tigita Kv.

tigmav.H-

tejistha

v.b.s.

titiksaE.+ titiksu av.+

y
Pres. [4.]

tim, 'be quiet',

[Perf.
Verb,

timyant ci. [timyati.] etc. titema etc.:, tetimya-.]


k.

timita

Deriv.:

timi? e.+

timira? e.+
]/

Ap

parently related with

tam;

the participle, with that of

stim.

63

AND PkIMARY DeRIYATIVES.

[tur

y
Accepted by BR. in

tir, see

tr.

y
vs. xxiii.

til.
(ts. tb.

24 pratilami

prasulami); but

an unintelligible and probably false reading.

y
Pres. [2.] taviti rv. [tauti.]

tu, 'be strong'.

Perf.

tUtava

Ev. (tutos -ot rv.)

Sec. Conj.: Int.


Derii'..-

tavituat ev. tava-? Ev. tavas

v.

tavya tavya ts. tavas V.B. s.


EV.

tavisa

v.

tavyas ev. tivrav.+

tuvi-

v.vs.
v.b.

tuvis-

tavisi ev.

tumra?
turav.+

bv.

tuya

v.

taviyas

v.

tiituma?

ev.

y
A
tuc EV.

tuc, 'impel, generate'.

root or root-form (see

tuj) inferable from the following derivatives

-tuka? EV.

toka

v.

tokman, -ma

v.

y
Pres. [7.]

tuj, 'urge, thrust'.

tunjanti tunjate (3p.} etc. ev. [1.] tiinjamana ev. 1. tojati.] tujant tujete kv. [ Perf. tutujana (and tutujana) tutujyat ev. [tutoja.]

[6.]

[Aor.
Verb,

etc.

atojit; tojisyati, tojita.]


-tiije ev., tuj aye? v.

tujase ev.,
tuj v.

Sec. Conj.: Pass,

tujyate

etc.

ev.

Caus. tujayant
tugra
ev.

etc. v.

Deriv.

tuji ev.

tunga

'?

E.

tujya EV.

tunja

ev.

tugvan
sii.

ev.

tUtUJi EV.
For the

This and the preceding are probably two forms of the same root
connection of meaning, compare the roots su,

y
Pres. [6.]

tud, 'push, thrust'.

tudati etc. v. +, -te e. tu[7?] tundana av.. tundate ev. ( dayati av.) Perf. tutoda V. + [tutiide.] [Aor. etc. atutudat, atautsit atutta totsyati -te, totta.] Verb, tunna v. + [tuttva;] -tudya e. Sec. Conj.: Pass, tudyate etc. e. + Int. totudyate s. [ Desid. tututsa-.] Caus. todayati etc. e. + (todyate e. +) Deriv.: -tud s.e. -todinv.+ todana c. tunda? c. t6ttraB.+ -tudaAV.+ todav. + todya c.
;
;

tur, see

tr.

turv]

Roots, Vebb-fobms,

64

y
Pres. [1.]

turv, turv, 'overcome'.

turvati
bv.

etc.

ev.b.

Deriv.

turva

turvan
turvani

bv. bv.
to

turviti ev.

turvi bv.

specialized form of

tr,

tur,

which the derivatives might in part

with equal propriety he referred.

|/tul,
[Pres. 1. tolati.]
Sec.

'lift,

weigh'.

Conj.:
etc. E.

Cans, tolayati

etc.

e.+ (tolyate c); tulayati

etc.

e. +,

-te

Deriv

tula

c.

tulaB.+

tulya s. + tulana c.

tolaka c. tolya c.

tolana

e.

]/ tu9, 'drip'.
Pres. [1.]
Sec. Conj.

t09ate
:

etc. v.

(tOQe bv.)
bv.
to a

Cans.
bv.

Deriv.

to9a
refer

toQaya bv. -toQana

BR.

two or three of the forms

togas bv. root 2 tuq

= tus.

y tus,
Pres. [4.]

'be content'.

tusyati
etc.

etc. s.+,

-te

c.

Perf.

tutosa
etc.

e.+

[Aor.
Verb,

atusat, atiitusat; toksyati, testa.]


e.

tusta

tostum
totus-.
;

e.

Sec. Conj.:

[Int.
c.)

Desid.

-tusya c. tutuksa-.

Cans, tosayati

etc.

jb.+

(tosyate

Deriv.: tusti E.+

tusayanti bv. -tosaka c. tiisnim? V.+ tosinE,+ tosa E. + tosya e,

tosana e*+ tosaniya e.+ tostavya c.


see

tosayitavya
tosayitr
c.

e.

turv,

turv.

y ty,
Pres. [1.]

tir,

tur, 'pass'

tarati

etc.

etc. v.B.

v.+, -te

etc.

v.+

[6.]

tirati -te

etc. v.b.s.

[3.]

turyama

bv.

titarti
[4.]

etc.

bv.c. [tutorti.]
;

turati -te

[8.]

tiryati? av.

turya
e. +,

bv^.

tarusema
c.
;

tarute

bv'.

[2?]

-sante

-santa bv. Perf. tatara v. + (tatarusas bv.), terus BV. tuturyat -yama bv.
;

tatare

titirus titirvans

Aor.

1.

atari
atarit

v.B. [tiryat.]
etc. v.b.s.

3.

atitaras av.
bv.
;

4.

atarsit
tarita.]

etc.

s.+

5.

(atarima
-te

tarisat

etc. v.b.s.;

Fut.

tarisyati

etc. s. +,

etc. e.

+ [tarisyati.

tarisimahi

bv.)

2.

65
Verb,

AND Primary Derivatiyes.


tirna v.+. turta +
;

[tn>

cb..

turna

s.

tartum

e.+.

taritumE.+, taritum

E.

tirtva

Av.u.;

-tirya e.+. -turyaiiv.: -tiram -tire nv.; taradhyai

Kv.

tarisani rv.

Sec. Conj.: Pass.

tiryate?E.

Int.

tartr- rv.. taritr- rv.


etc. e..

[tatr-.]

v.,

tartvir- rv.

Desid. titirsati
etc.

etc.

e.+, -te
etc.

tutursati rv. [titarisa-.]


etc.

Cans, tarayati

av.+, -te

s.+ (tairyate

e.+);

turayant
av. +

Deriv.

-yante rv. tara v.+ tarin? av. tarya rv.


tari
E.

taras

v.

taras

sv.

tartavya e. taritavya s. +
-tarituv
-taritr
v.b.
v. v.

tara

taraka

e.+

tariyas kv. taruv RV.

tarin ev.e.+

tarana v. + taraniya e. +
tarani v.+ -taratha? c.
-tira Av.B.

taruna?v.+
tarus RV. tarusa v. tarusas rv.
tirasv v,+

tarutr

tarya av.e.+ tarana e. +


-taraniya
-tarayitr
titirsa
c.

tarutra

rv.
e.

-taritra?

n.

-tarman
tira b.+

rv.
c.

tirtha v.+
tiir RV.B.

titirsu E.+

turas- rv.
turi rv.

-turti v.b.

taturi

V.B.S.

tura

RV.

turana
Compare

rv.

turya

ts.

turni v.b. -turya v.b.s.

-tartura rv.

tuturvani

rv.

torana? e.+
roots

tur (oftener given

as a separate root),

turv, tvar, and tra.

y
Pres. [".] Perf.

trd,

'split, bore'.
cb.

trnatti

etc. v.b.u.,

trntte

(atrnam

kbu.)

1.

tardati.]

tatarda etc. v.c. (tatarditha rv.). tatrdana rv. Aor. 1. tardas rv., trdyus s. [ 3. atatardat, atitrdat.

5.

atardit.]

[Fut.
Verb,
Sec.

tardisyati

-te,
;

tartsyati -te
b.s.

tardita.]
v.
etc.

trnna

b.s.u.

-trdya

-tfdas

Conj.: [Int. taritrd-.


-te.]

Caus. tardayati

]
s.

Desid. titrtsati

v.b. [-te;

titardisati

Deriu.

tarda AV.+ trada rv. tardana v. +

-tardi"? e.

-trd rv.
av.b.s. -trtti b.

trdila rv.

tardman

trtsu? rv.
av.

tfnman?

y
Pres. [4.]

trp, 'be pleased'.


-te
etc.

trpyati

etc.

etc. c.)

av. +,

e.+

[6.]

trmpati
ts.

etc. v.b.s.

v.)

[1.]

[5.]

trpnoti
e.

etc.

v.b.

(trpnoti

tarpanti

Perf.

tatarpa
1.

etc. e.

(tatrpus -pana

Aor.

trpyasma

Fut.

-panta av. 1. atrapsyat


trapta.]

+ [atatarpat.
b.

2.

atarpit.] atarpsit, atrapsit. tarpita, tarpta, [tarpsyati, tarpisyati.


4.
5.

atrpat

etc. v.b.

(trpant rv.)
2.

3.

atitrpat

eic.

Verb,

trpta av.+.
II.

Whitney, Supplement

trp]
Sec. Conj.:
[Int.

Roots, Verb-forms,
taritrp-.
v.+, -te

66

Desid. titrpsati v. [titarpisa-.]

Cans.
b.s.)

Derir..-

tarpayati etc. -tarpaka c.


e.

etc.

v.+ (tarpyate

etc. e.

titarpayisati

-tarpya talpa? AV.+

tarpana av.+ tarpaniya u.


-trp Ev.
2 trp

-trpa rv.c. trpala rv.


trpti
v.b.

trpra? -trpsu

v.b.s.

ta.

tatrpi rv.
b.

trpti RV.

Some

accept

a,

'steal' for

asutrp

v.c.

tarpayitavya and paQUtrp rv.

y
Pres. [4.]

trs, 'be thirsty'.

tfsyati

etc. v.b.

Perf. tatrsus -sana tatrsana rv. Aor. 2. trsat etc. av.b., trsana rv.

3.

atitrsama
tarsitva.]

etc. v.b.

[Fut. tarsisyati, tarsita.]


Verb, trsita v. +,
Sec. Conj.:

trsta?

adj. v. [trsitva,
etc. b.

Cans, tarsayati

[tarsita e.+)

Deriu.; tarsa E.+

tarsya- RV.

tarsana c. tarsula e.

trsE. +

trsu rv.

trsa

c.

trsnav.+
trsnaj rv.

trsya

v.

y
Pres. [7.]

trh, 'crusli'.
etc. v.b.

trnedhi trnecLhu trnlianti

[trnehmi.

6.

trhati,

trnhati.]

tatarha av. Aor. [1. trhyat; atarhi.


Perf.
5.

atarhit.

] 2.

atrham

av.

3.

atatarhat, atitrhat.

7.

atrksat.]
;

[Fut. tarhisyati,
Verb,

tarksyati tarhita, tarctha.]

trdha

rv.

trdhva
trhyate
v.

av. [tarhitva];
etc.

-tarham

av.

Sec. Conj.: Pass,

av.

titrksa-.
Deriv.

Caus. tarhaya-.J

Int.

taritrh-.

Desid. titarhisa-,

tarhana

y tyaj,
Pres. [1.]

'forsake'.

tyajati

etc. s.+,

-te

etc.

e.+

Perf.

Aor.

tatyaja tatyaje etc. e.+ (tityaja rv., tityagdhi? k.) 3. atityajat. tyajyat; atyaji. ] 4. atyaksit etc. e.+ 2. tyakta.] Fut. 1. tyaksyati -te etc. e., tyajisyati -te etc. e. + [ Verb, tyakta .+, tyajita c tyaktu- e.; tyaktva e. + -tyajya b.+
[1.

Sec. Conj.: Pass,

Caus. tyajayati
;

tyajyate

etc. e.

Int. tatyaj-.]
c.)

Desid. tityaksa;

c.

etc. e.

+ (tyajyate

Deriv.

-tyaj V.+

tyaj ana avp. tyaj as rv.

tyaktavyaE.+
tyaktrE.+ tyaga v.+ tyagin e. +

-tyajaE.+

tyajaka c. tyajya e.+


-tyajana
c.

tyajya e.+

tyajas

v.

67

AND Primary Derivatives.

'^trut

y
Pres. [1.]

trap, 'be abashed'.

[Perf.

etc.

trapate etc. e.+, -ti etc. e. trepe; atrapta, atrapista; trapsyate trapisyate, trapta
tatrap-.

trapita.]
Sec. Conj.: [Int.

Desid. titrapsa-, titrapisa-.

Cans, tra-

DeWr.

payati trpra?
;

etc. c.

[trapayati.]

v.B.s.

trapaE.+ trapa e.+

-trapana c. -trapaniya

trapu.'AV.+
c.

y
Pres. [1.] Perf.

tras, -be terrified'.


etc. e.

trasati

etc.

v.+. -te

[4.]

trasyati

etc.

e.+. -te
I,

etc. c. e.

tatrasa tatrasvis etc. e.+, tresus e. + (^tresus 5. trasis cb. [atrasit.] Aor. 3. atitrasan av. 2. trasita.] Fut. 1. trasisyati e. [ Verb, trasta b. + -trasas k.

m^.

tatrasire

Sec. Conj.: Int.


etc.

tatrasyate
etc. e.

jb.

Desid.
e.)
c.

titrasisa-.]

Cans, trasayati

Av. +, -te

(trasyate

Deriv.

trasa v.+

trasara

trasana

s.

trasnu

b.

trasa av.+ trasaka c. trasin e.

trasana e. + trasaniya c.
-trasiika
b.

]/

tra, 'rescue'.
[2.]

Pres. [4.]
etc.

trayate
v.b.

etc.

v.+

trasva tradhvam

rv.,

trati trahi

E.+

Perf.

tatre
4.
li

Aor.
Fut.
Verb,

atrasmahi

9B.

(atrasatam

cb.,
2.

trasate trasathe -sitham rv.)

trasyate etc. b. +, -ti e. [ trata b.+ [trana]; tratum


:

e.

trata.]
;

tratva

c.

Sec. Conj.

Pass,
V.

trayate

etc. c.

Deriv.

tra

tvaks]

Roots, Verb-forms,

68

y
^Pres. [2.]

tvaks, 'fashion'.
1.

tvaksana

rv'.

tvaksati.]

tatvaksa; atvaksit; tvaksisyati, tvaksita tvasta.] X>em\ ; -tvaksana Ev. tvaksas ev. tvaksiyas ev. tvasti tvastr Compare ]/ taks.
[Perf. etc.

c.

V.

y
Pres. [1.]

tvang,

'leap'.

tvangati

etc. c.

Late and probably

artificial.

y
Such a
root is

tvac, 'cover'.
for

assumed by some

tvac v.+

'skin',

and atuc ev. 'dimness'.

y
Pres. [1.] Perf.

tvar, 'hasten'.
'

tvarate tatvare e. +
atitvarat

etc.

b.+, -ti etc. e.+

Aor.
[Fut.
Verb,

3.

e.

[atatvarat.

5.

atvarista.]

tvarisyate, tvarita.]

tvarita e.+
Conj.: [Int. tatvarya-, totur-.
etc.

Sec.

Desid.

titvarisa-.

Cdus. tva-

(tvaryate e.); tvaraya- c. Deriv. tvara c. tvara s. + tvarana av. tvaraniya e. A secondary root-form from y tr, tur, under which are here placed the
rayati
:

av.+, -te

etc. e.

derivatives with tur- (tHrta, turti, tiirna).

y
Pres. [2.]

tvis, 'be stirred up'.


[6.]

atvisus ev. tvesati -te.]


etc.

atvisanta ev.

[4.]

tvisyant

c*.

1.

Perf. titvise etc. ev.

(atitvisanta ev.) [titvisus.]

[Aor.
Verb,

atitvisat, atviksat -ksata; tveksyati -te, tvesta.]


:

tvisita ev.
:

tvise ev.
;

[Sec. Conj.

tetvis-

titviksa- ; tvesaya-.]
tvisi
v.b.s.

Deriv.: tvia Y.+

tvisa

c.

tvesa

v.b.

tvesin tvesya

ev. ev.

tvesatha ev. tvesas ev.

y tsar,
Pres. [1.]

'approach

stealthily'.

tsarati

etc. v.b.s.

Perf.

tatsara ev.
4.

Aor.

atsar ev.
cb.
c.

5.

atsarisam

cb.

[Fut. tsarisyati, tsarita.]


Verb,
Derit?.

-tsarya
;

tsara

tsaru v.+

-tsara v.+

tsarin

v.b.

69

AND Pkimary Derivatives.

[dan

y
Pres. [1.]

thurv

thurvant

ms!

Probably a false reading; the edition has turvant, with one of the manuscripts (and the parallel texts).

y
Pres. [l.J

danc, da9,
etc. e.

'bite'.
c'.

da9ati

etc.
b.

v.+, -te

danQati

Perf.

dadanqus
1.

(dadaqvans

rv.)

[Aor.
Fut.
Verb,

Sec. Conj.
[

danda9ana nv. (danda9ayitva Desid. didanksa-.] Caus. dan9ayati + (dan9ita +)


:

da9yat, adadariQat, adanksit.] 2. dansta.] daQisyati e. [danksyati. dasta av. + danstva js.; -da9ya e.

Pass.

da9yate

etc. e.

Int.

c.)

etc. s.

adj. e.
ii.+

Dcrii;.;

dan9a Av. + dan9aka c.


-dan9in
av.

dan9anaE.+ daneuka b.
danstf
av.

danstrS v.+

da9av

dan9nian

av.s.
b.

da9ana

e.+

danksnu

y
Sec. Conj.:

dans,

'be wondrous'.

Deriv.

dansayas bv'. dansas v.b. -dansa ev. dansana nv.s. dansistha rv.
Caus.

dansu ev. dasmant rv.

dasma
dasra

v.

v.

y
Pres. [1.]

daks,

'be able'.

Perf.

Aor.
Fut.

daksate etc. v.b., -ti ev. dadakse e. 5. adaksista.] 3. adadaksat b. f J L

daksisyate b. [ 2. daksita.] Sec. Conj.: Caus. daksayati etc. b. Deriv. daksa v. + daksas v.
1.
:

daksayya
to'.

ev.

daksina

v.

y dagh,
Pres. [5.]

'reacb

Aor.
Fut.

1. 1.

daghnuyat b. dhak dhaktam daghma daghyas

ev.

2? daghat
-daghvan

b.

daghisyante jub. -daghas b.. -daghos cb. Deriv. -dagh s. -daghna


Verb,
:

v.

v.b.

dad,

see

y
y

da.

y dadh,

see

dha.

y
Pres.

dan,

'straighten' {?).

dan danas

rv.

Very doubtful forms.

+ +

dabh]

Roots, Vebb-forms,

70

y
Pres. [1.]

dabh, dambh, 'harm'.

dabhati

etc. v.b.

[5.]

dabhnoti
av.

etc. v.b.

Perf.

dadabha debhus
].

ev.
3.

dadambha

Aor.
[Fut.
Verb,

dabhiis ev.
v.;

adadambhat.
b.
;

5.

(dadabhanta adambhit.]

ev.)

dambhisyati, dambhita.]

dabdha

dabdhum
dabhyate
v.b.
;

[dambhitva, dabdhva;] -dabhe


[

Sec. Conj.: Pass,

ev.

Int.

dadambh-, dadabh-.]

dipsati

etc.

dhipsati

jb.

[dhipsa-, didambhisa-.]

Desid. Cans.
v.

ev.

dambhayati etc. v.b. Deriv.: dabha v. dabdhi b.s. dabhya EV. -dabhna? av. dabhiti ev. dabhra v. + dabha v.b.

dabhyav.+
darabhaE.+

dambhinE. -dambhana
dipsu
v.

dambbaka

c.

y
Pres. [4.]

dam,

'contror.

damyati
b.

cb.

[Aor.
Verb,

adamlt.]

damta
;

+ +

[damtva,] damitva
etc. v.

e.

-damya

e.?

Sec. Conj.: Cans,

damayati

Deriv.

dam

V.

damakaE. +
dam.in
e.

-damatra

s.+

damav.+

damanav. +

damitr ev. damayitr e.

dama b.

-damya

e.

y day,
Pres. [1.]

'share'.
av.

dayate

etc.
c.

v.+.

dayamasi

Perf.

dayam asa
etc.

[Aor.

Verb,
Sec.

adayista; dayisyate, dayita.] dayita e. + Conj. [Int. dandayya-, dadayya-.


:
:

On(..

dayayet

c.

Deriv.

daya

v.

dayitnu
]/

s.

secondary form of

da

"divide",

from which

it

is

hardly worth

separating.

y
Pres. [1.]

daridra,

see

dra.

y
dalati
etc.

dal, 'burst'.

e.+

[Perf.

dadala.]
adalit
c.

Aor.
Fut.
Verb,

5.
1
.

[adalit.]
etc. c.

dalisyati -te
e.

(^adalisyat

c.)

dalita

+
dalayati
ec. c.
;

Sec. Conj.: Cans,

dalayati

eic.

e.

+ (dalyate c.

dalya-

te

c.)

71
Deriv.
:

AND Primary Derivatives.


dala
e.

[1

+
c.

dalana

-dala b. + -dalakaii.+

dalana
-dalya

c.
c.

dali

c.
c.

dalayitr

secondary root-form from

dr.

y
Pres. [4.]
Per/",

das, das, 'waste*.

dasyati

etc. v.b.s.

[1.]

dasati
ev.)

etc. v.u.s.

dadasvans
2.

rv. [dadasa.]

Aor.

dasat
b.

etc. v.b.s.

(dasamana?

5.

dasit ev.

[Fut. dasisyati,
Verb,

dasita; dasisyati, dasita.]

dasta

Sec. Conj.:

Deriv.:

Caus. dasaye ts.. -yanta rv. dasayati etc. av.b. dasa Rv. -dasvant ay. dasav.+ dasanu n. -dasya v.s. dasyu v.+ -dasins. + -dasvika b. Usually classed as two roots, das and das dasati etc. only with abhi.
;

y
Pres. [1.]

dah,
e.+

'burn'.

dahati

etc. v. +,

-te

etc.

[4.]

dahyati

e.

[2.]

dhaksi

rv.

Perf. dadaha etc. b. +, dehe c. 3. adidahat c. Aor. 1. dahyat m.v dhaksant daksant ev.)

4.

adhaksit

etc.

v,+ (adhak
m.);

v.b.s.,

Fut.

1.

dhaksyati
E.

etc. v.|+,

-te

etc.

s.+

(dhaksyet adhaksyam
;

dahi-

syati
/
Fcrft.

+
b.

2.
;

dagdha.]
b. +,

dagdha

V.
;

-dahas

dagdhum -daham c.
dahyate
etc.

-dhosB.

dagdhvaB. +
Int.

-dahyaB. +

Sec. Conj.: Pass,

av. +.

-ti etc. s.h

etc. e.+, dandaliyate etc. c. Caus. dahayati etc. e. + [dahyate u.) Derii).: dahy.s. -dagha av. daksi rv. daha av.+ dahati e. daksu rv.

CB.

Desid. didhaksati

dandahiti etc. c, -te etc. e. dhiksate


;

dahana e. dahuka b.s.


didhaksa e. + didhaksuE.+

dahana av. + -dagdhavya e. dagdhr v.+

dhaksu

rv.

dahaka
dahin

c.

daksiis rv.

s.+

dahya

e.+

y
Pres. [3.]
etc.

da, dad,
v.

'give'.

dadati datte

etc.

\.+ (dehi

daddhi
[!.]

v.)

[1.]

dadati -te
[2.J

V.+

(dadiyam
;

u.,

dadayant

u.)

dayamana
rv.
;

m.

dati

Perf.

RV. dadmi e. + dadau dade etc. v. + (dadatha dadrire AV., dadvans rv.) [dadade.]

datu

dadivans dadavans

Aor.

adat etc. v.+, deyam rv.; adi ms., adithas adita adimahi u.. 2. adat etc. v.b. [3. adidadat. disva B.; dayi v.b. [adadi.] 4. adisi adisata av.b.c. (dasat dasathas ev.; desam desma b.s.) 5. adadista sv. [dasista.]
1.

dal
1.

Roots, Vebb-forms,
dasyati
etc.

72
;

Put.

av.+ (adasyat
.

m.),

-te

etc. b.

dadisye

k.

2.

data

etc. B.E.

[dadita.]
,

Verb,

Sec.

-data bv. datta v. + -tta v. + -dita e.+ [dadita]; datum v.+, -tave v., -tavai rv., -tos v.b. dattva av. +, -tvaya kv. -daya v.+, -dadya a v. -dam b., ^dai b,v. davane ev, -day am b. + [Int. dada-, dediya-, Conj.: Pass, diyate etc. v. + dadyamana ev. Desid.- ditaati etc. -v. +, -te etc.c; didasant b.v., didadadad-.]
,

sitha
Deriv.
:

B.s.

[didadisa-.]
v.

Cans, dapayati

etc.

av.+ [adidapat.]

da, -da

dati

V.

-tti V.B.

datavya b.+
datr V. + datra? v.b.

daya v. + dayaka e. + dayin av. + -davan v.s. davan rv.

danu ?
-deya

V. n. v.b.

-di JB. + diya rv. destha rv. desna v. + -dad AV. -dada c.

dadi
ditsa

V.
c.

ditsu V. + diditsu M.

dana v. + danav rv.

datti

c.
'?

deya
-das

gdue. v. +

datra

v.

daman daman

ev.e.

-das? V.+
v.b.

dada

m.
vs.

dapin c. -dapya s.c. -dapana s. dapaniya c. dapayitavya


-dapayitr
b.

c.

rv.

daditr

y
Pres. [1.]

2 da, 'divide, share'.


etc. av.b.s.

dati

etc. v.b.s.

[6?] dyati
adimahi
data.J
b.

Perf.

dadire
1.
1.

b.

Aor.
Fut.
Verb,

[adat, deyat;]

(adimb.

vs.k.).

4.

disiya rv.

dasyati
v.b.,

s. [

2.

dina

dita c, [data,] -tta

Sec. CoThj.: Pass,

diyate

etc.

av. +
]

[Int.

+ -daya e.+, -ditya? c. Desid. ditsa-, dada-, dedi-.


;

didasa-, didansa-.
Deriv.: -tti b.

Cans,

datn RV. -datavya

datr rv.c. datra RV.


c.

dapayita s. -dana av.b.s. -daniya b.s.

daya?

rv.

diti? rv.

dana?
is

rv.

danu

v.

-deya c

form of this root

day, given above

separately.

y
Pres. [6
?]

3 da, di, 'bind'.

dyati
v.

etc. v.b.

[2 ?]

disva

vs.

Aor.
Verb,

5.

adisi

av.'?

dita

-daya

s.

Deriv.: -dati* rv.c.

-dariav. +

daman daman

v. +

-daya
-di av.

c.

diti?

v.

+ +

rv.

dina?

v.

Not recognized by the native grammarians as separate from the preceding,

and of somewhat doubtful

character.

y
Pres. [4 ?]

4 da,

'clear'.

[Perf.

etc.

dayamana cK dadau dayat,


;

adasit ; dasyati, data.]

73
Verb,

AND Pkimary Derivatives.


data
ta.e.

[dih

[Sec. Conj.:

daya-; dada-; didasa-; dapaya-.]


c.

Deriv.

-dana

of

Only with ava; certainly no separate root, and probably meaning of the participle of }/ 2 da.

a specialization

]/ Pres. [1.]

dae, 'make
[2.]

offering'.

da9ati

etc. v.

dasti ev.

[5.]
;

da9n6ti

rv.
kv.b.,

Perf.

dada9a
etc.

etc. v.

(dadaqati -Qas -gat rv.

dada9vans

da9van8

v.,

da9ivans

sv.)

[Aor.

Sec. Conj.: [Int.

ada9it; da9isyati, da9ita.] Desid. dida9isa-. dada9-.

Caus.

Deriv.

da9

v.

-da9a

av.

da9U
see ]/

v.

ada9ayat ck'. da9uri v.

y
y
No may be
to do.

das,

das.

div, 'play', see

div.
except so far as
it

root

y div

'shine' exists as such in the language,

inferable from the

noun div

or

dyii

v. +,

divit

ev.,

and the

(in that

case, secondary) root

dyut. With

all

these the root

div

'play'

has nothing

y
Pres. [6.]
etc.

di9, 'point'.
ev.e.

di9ati etc. didjsta ev.


etc.

v. +,

-te

etc.

[3.] {Perf.'i')

dide9ati didestu

[4.]

di9yati
c.

m'.

Perf.

dide9a
1.

av. +,

didi9e
-te
e.

^or. [3. adidi9at.


Fut.
Verb,

] 4.

adiksi adista rv.


c. [
;

7.

adiksat

cb.c.

deksyati
v.

etc. s.+,

2.

desta.]
b.

dista

destum
di9yate

-di9ya

-di9e rv.

Sec. Conj.: Pass.

di9yate
disti

av.vs.

Besid. didiksati
c.

etc.

e.+

Int.

dedi9at

dediste etc. rv., deCaus. de9ayati etc. e. +, -te c.


etc.

Deriv.: di9 v.+


V.

de9aka
+

c.

de9in

s.

+ +

de9a

av. +

de9ya

av.

-de9anaB.+ de9ana c. destavya e. +

destrv. destra ev.

-didiksa -didik^u

c.
c.

y
Pres. [2.]

dih, 'smear'.
etc. v.

degdlii dihanti adihan


e.

+ (dehat ev.) [digdhe.]

Perf.

didihe
[1.

[dideha.]

Aor.

adehi.

3.

adidihat.

4.

adigdha.

7.

adhiksus

jb.

[adhi-

[Fut.

ksat -sata.j dheksyati -te

Verb,

digdha

av. +

degdha.] -dihya s.+


;

+ ] ]

dih]
Sec. Conj.: Pass,

Roois, Verb-foems,
dihyate etc. c. dehayati -te e. + -degha -dih v.s.

74

b.

[Int.

dedih-.

Desid. didhiksa-.

Caus.

DcWv. :

deha

b.

dehl rv. dehika c.

-dehya
dehali

c.
s.

y
Pres. [4.]

dl,

'fly

diyati

Sec. Conj.: Int.

diyase dediyitavai cb.


etc. ev.,

sv.

Represented later by

di.

From

it

may

possibly come

didyu

v.b.

y
Pres.

2 dl, didi, 'shine'.

didyati (3p.) etc. adidet etc, didayante av.. didihi v.b.s., Perf. didaya v.b.s. (didaya cb.s. didayasi etc. didayat etc. v.b.
Derjy.; -diti EV.

didye

etc. v.b.s.
:

(didayat

ev..

didayat

didihi ev.

didyasam
:

b.s.)
;

didetha didiyus ev. didivans v.b. dididaya? acs.; dididasi didyasva s.


didi- ev.
of forms

-diditi ev.

didivi rv.
is

didhitis.

Compare
didhi.

dip.

Some confusion

made between didi and

y
Pres. [1.] Perf.

dTks, 'be consecrated'.

diksate etc. b.+ didikse etc. b., -sus pb.c. 5. adiksista etc. b. Aor. o. adidiksas b. 2. diksita.] Fut. 1. diksisyate etc. b.+ [ av. + diksitva b.u. -diksya s. Verb, diksita Caus. diksayati Sec. Conj.: Desid. didiksisate etc. b. (diksapaya e.) diksanas.+ DeWi'.; diksa AV.+ diksaka c. (n. 2>r.) BR. suggest a derivation from y daks.

etc.

b.+. -te

e.

diksayitr

b.

ly didhi,

see

dhl.

y
Pres. [4.]

dip, 'shine'.
etc. e.

Perf.

dipyate didipe c.
adipi.

etc.

AV.+. -ti

Aor.
[Fut.
Verb,

[1.

] 3.

adidipat

etc.

ev.c.

adidipat

etc. b.e. [

5.

adipista.]

dipisyate, dipita.]

dipta
:

u.

Sec. Conj.

Int.

dedipyate

etc. e.

+ (-yantim
etc. s.e.

e.)

[Desid. didipisa-.

Caus.
Derjy.
.

dipayati dipa U.S. +

etc. v. +.

-te

(^dipyate tb.e.)

dipaka
dipin
c.

e.+

dipana

s.+

diptis.

dipra

c.

Probably related with

2 di.

75

AND Primary Derivatives.

[dul

y
Pres. [4.]

div,

'play'.
etc.

divyati
av.

etc.

v.+, -te

etc. b.

+ (divyati

m.?)

Perf.

dideva
[3.
1.

Aor.
Fut.

adidivat. ] 5. adevit etc e, devisyati etc. e.+ '^adevisyat m.) [ 2. devita.] Verb, dyuta av. + [dyuna] devitum e. + f devitva, dyutva -dlvya hv. Sec. Conj.: [Int. dediv-. Desid. didevisa-, dudyusa- dudyusaya-.

Caus.

devayati

etc. c.

Deri y.

div,

dyu
v.
c.

V.

divitr?

-divan

-deva

b.
v.

devinAv.+ devitavya e.
+

devitrE.+ -dyutya ev.

divana
Proper form,
'shine',

devana

dm;

and

it

has nothing to do with the so-called root

div

which

is

diu.

y
Pres. [1.]
;

2 div (dev), 'lament'.

devati e.+ [-te.] [Perf. etc. dideva; adidevat, adevista; devisyate, devita.] Verb, dytina b. + devitum e. Sec. Conj.: Caus. devayati etc. e. +, -te e.+ Deriv.: -deva B. -devaka c. -devin e. -devana c. Only with pari (unless in adyuna) hence perhaps a peculiar specialization of meaning of y I div (paridyiina 'played out'?). At any rate, rather
;

div than div, on account

of the long ii in

dyiina.
'burn'.
m.

y
Pres. [5.]

du,

dii,

dunoti

etc.
;

av.+

dunvasva
;

[Perf.
Verb.

etc.

dudava
:

diiyat,

adausit dosyati, dota.]


c'.

dvLna av.+, duta aa.v


Pass, diiyate

Sec. Conj.

etc.

v.s. +.
c.
c.

-ti etc. e.

[Int.

dodu-.

Desid.

dudusa-.
Deriv.:

c.

Caus.

davayati

dava

davathu
b.s.

-davya

davaAV. + -davya av.b.


}/ 2

duyana

c.

doman
1

av.

For the form davisani ev., BR. assume a

du

div

"play".

y dudh,
dodhat v. Verb, dudhita RV. Deriv.: dudhi nv.
Pres.

'stir

up'.

dudhra

rv.

dodhaka v

c.

Prohably a reduplicated form of

dhu.
'raise'.

y
Sec. Conj.
:

dul,

Caus.
ts.

Deriv.

dula?

dolayati etc. c. dola e. +

Doubtless another form of

y tul

as verb,

denominative of dola.

dus]

Roots, Vebb-fokms,

76

y dus,
Pres. [4.]

'spoil'.

dusyati etc. b.+, -te etc. e.+ (dusyant ci.) [Perf. dudosa.] 3. adudusat etc.w. 5. dosistam cb. Aor. 2. dusat b. [Fut. doksyati, dosta.] Verb, dusta s. + Desid. duduksa-. ] Caus. dusayati etc. Sec. Conj.: [Int. dodus-. -te etc. E. + (dusyate etc. e. +) [dosayati.] dusinE.+ dosa u.s.+ dosya ms. Beriv.: dus- v.+ dusyaE.+ dosa v. + dosas av. diisti Av.c. -dusayitr ddsana av.+ dosin c. dusa E.+ e. + av. dusi dusaka

v. +,

c.

y
Pres.
[2.]

duh,

'milk, derive'.

dogdhi dulidnti etc. v.+, dugdhe duhate etc. v. + (diilie 3s. V.B., duhate kv., duhrate -hre v.b. duhana v., duhana diighana Ev. duham 3s. v.b., duhram duhratam 3j). av., dhungdhvain acs. dohat dohate eic. ev. duhiyat -yan ev. duhus ev., aduhan b., -hran av.b.) [6.] duhet etc. e.+, aduhat v.b.e. + [4.] duhyati etc.
; ;

-,

c, -te M.
Perf.

dudoha duduhe duduhus c.)


[1.

etc. v.

+ (dudohitha

v. +,

duduhre

v.b.,

-hrire

v.

Aor.

adohi.
etc.

3.

adudvihat
b.

etc. c.

7. adhuksat -sata duksata ev.) Fut. 1. dhoksyate c. [ 2. dogdha.] Verb, dugdha v. + dogdhum e., dogdhos b. dugdhva b.+; duhadhyai Rv. dohase ev. -doham c. Int. doduh-.] Desid. dudhuksati &ec. Conj.: Pass, duhyate etc. v.+ [ Caws, dohayati etc. b. +, -te s. (dohyate b.) c. (duduksati ev.) Deriv. : -duh v. + doha V. + dogdhavya b.e. dohaua b.+ dogha EV. -dugh s. dohana ev. dogdhr AV. + -duha E. -dohaka c. dohas v.B.s. dogdhra s. -dohin E. diigha V. dohas EV. dudhuksu e.

EV.,

dhuksimahi

4.

[advigdha,]
etc. v.

adhuksata (_3p.) + (dhuksasva aduk-

sat

duhitr

V.

dohya

c.

y
Another root

dti, see

du.

du seems

inferable from the derivatives:


v.b.

davistha

v.

daviyaa

duta

v.

+
split'.

dura

v.

dur?

CB.

y
Pres. [2.] Perf.

dr, 'pierce,

darsi adar dart rv. [9.] drniyat cb. dadara etc. v. + (dadrvans ev.) [dadaritha dadaratus dadratus],
s.+

dadre

77
Aor.
1.

AND Primary Derivatives.

[drbh

4.

dityat c. [ 2. adarat.] 3. adidarat ec. e.+ [adadarat.J darsasi darsat darsate darsista rv. [ 5. adarit.]

[Fut. darisyati, darita.]

drta r. -dirya b. + -daram c. Sec. Conj.: Pass, diryate etc. b. +. diryati etc. .+ Int. dardr- rv.ts. (dardirat adardirus bv.) dadrhi ev. [dedirya-. Besid. didarisa-, didirsa-.] Cans, darayati etc. b.+, -te etc. c. (daryate etc. f..+); darayati etc. rv.c. Beriv. dara v. + dartnii rv. darana e. + di'ti V. + s. + darana darman ev.s. -dari e. + drvan? vs. -daraniya c. darraa rv. daru RV. dra av. -dari rv.c. dara av. + darvinav b.+ -driya rv. dariman bv. -daraka e. + -dir CB. dadru c. darin v. + dartr rv. dura.' RV. -dardira rv. Compare y dal.
Verb,

dirna

b.+,

'.'

y
[Perf.

2 dr, 'heed'.

dadre.]

Aor.
[Fut.
Verb,

1.

adrthas
e.

etc. b.

[3.

adidarat.

] 4.

drdhvam

b.

darisyate, darta.]

drta

Sec. Conj.: Pass,

-drtya b.+ driyate etc.


c.

b.+, -ti

etc.

e.+

Desid. didarisa-.
Deriv.:

Caus. daraya-.]
-darana s.+ -daraniya c.

Int.

dardr-, dedriya-.

-dara u.'? -darin c.

-dartavya c. -dara v.b.s.

-duri rv.

-drtya

b.

Only with prefix a, and with passive present-system, suggesting a specialization from ]/
1

dr.

y
Pres. [4.]

drp,

'rave'.

drpyati etc. v.+ [1.] darpati s. [Perf. dadarpa.] 5. adarpit.] Aor. 2. adrpat b. [ 4. adrapsit, adarpsit. Fut. 1. drapsyati ce., darpisyati jb. [ 2. drapta, darpta, darpita.] Verb, drpta v. +, drpita rv. Sec. Conj. Caus. darpayati etc. e. + Deriv.: darpaE.+ darpaka c. darpin c. darpana e.+ -drpti rv.

y
Pres. [6.]
Verb,

drbh, 'bunch'.

drbhati etc. s. [1.] drbhmaa? b. b. + Sec. Conj. Caus. darbhita c. drbdhi? Deriv.: darbhav.Hdrbhika? ev.

drbdha
:

darbhana

s. ?

dr9]

Roots, Verb-forms,

78

y
Pres. [4.]

drc,

'see'.

paqyati etc., see ]/ pa9. Per/". d.adar9a dadr9e etc.y. + (dadrqe dadr9re dadr9aiia rv., dadr9ram dadr9ivans u. dar9ivans e. +) [dadar9itha daAv. -9rire tb.
, ,

drastha.]
Aor.
ts., adr9rQa je., adar9usB. adardar9at etc. v.b.), adr9ran v.b. (adr9rarQ 2. dr9an v., adr9an b., dr9ana dr9ana rv.), adar9i dar9i v. 3. adidr9at etc. b.+ [adadar9at.] 4. adraksit dr9eyarQ etc. v.b. B.+ (adrak b.), adrksata rv. (drksase ev.) [draksiran.j etc.
1.

adar9am
b.s.

e/c. B.

+ (adar9ma
etc. v.,

9as -9at

dar9ati

7.

drksam

k.

2. drasta etc. b. draksyati etc. b.+, -te etc. e.+ drastumAv. + drstva av.+, -tvayaRv. -dr9yav. + Verb, drstav. + dr9e v.b.; dr9aye v. -dar9am c. Int. daridr9yate c. -ti etc. e. + Pass. dr9yate etc. v. + Sec. Conj. Caus. dar9ayati etc. Desid. didrksate etc. v.+, -ti e. [dardr9-.]

Fut.

1.

AV.+, -te
Deriv.:

etc.

S.+ (didar9ayisa- s.+)

dar9a v.+ dar9a av. + dar9aka e.+


-dar9in e.+

dar9aniyaB.+ dr9iku b.s. dr9enya rv. df9 V.


-dr9a
v.

drastf AV.+

+ +

dr9ya
dr9i
v.

v.

dar9ya rv. dar9ata v.b. dar9ana v. +

dr9ati rv.
+
v.

dr9lka

-dre9ya u. drsti V. + didrksa e. + -dr9na ts. didrksu v.+ -dr9van c. didrkseya rv. -drksa b. + didrksenya v.b. b. + dar9ayitr e. + drastavya

y
Pres. [l.J
[4.]

drh, drnh, 'make


etc. v.b.

firm'.
rv.

drnhati

etc.

-te

[6.]

drfLhantam av., drnhethe


rv.

Perf.

1. darhati.] drhya drhyasva rv. [ [dadarha, dadrnhaj dadrhana adadrhanta

Aor.
\Fut.
Verb,

[3.

adadarhat, adidrhat.
v.

] 5.

adrnhit

etc. b.

[adarhit.]

darhisyati, darhita; drnhisyati, drnhita.]

drdha

Sec. Conj.: [Int.

daridrh-, dardrh-; daridrnli-, dardrnh-.

Desid. di-

darhisa-, didrnhisa-.
Deriv.
:

Caus. [darhaya-;]
av.
AV.E.s.

drnhayati

etc. v.s.

drh

e.

-drnha

drrLhana
which

drnhitr v.b. drahyat? rv.


roots,

dadrh
'lix',

v.

Divided ty the Hindu grammarians into two


'grow',

drnh
v.
v.b.,

and

drh
b.

from the

latter of
v.b.s.,

are then derived

dirgha

+ and the related

words draghiyas

draghistha

rv.,

draghman

draghiman

(draghuya

ts.).

]/

dev,

see ]/ 2

div.

79

AND Pbimary Derivatives.

[2

dra

y
Sayana has once

dyu,

'attack'.
artificial

pra dyauti,

apparently an

formation

on the

authority of the occurrence of a root

dyu

in the Dhatupatha.

y
Pres. [i
.]

dyut,

'shine'.

dyotate etc. v. +, -ti etc. e. Perf. didyute etc. v. +, didyota av., didyutus Aor. 1. dyntant- dyutana v.e.. dyutana rv. 4. adyaut dyaut 3. adidyutat etc. v.e.

ts.

2.

adyutat
5.

etc.

b.

v.b. [

Put.
Verb,

1.

dyotisyati
av.cb.

b. [

adyotista.]

2.

dyotita.]

dyutta

Sec. Conj.: Int.

Cans, dyotayati
Leriv.:

[dyutita; dyutitva, dyotitva;] -dyutya ab. davidyut- v.b. [dedyut-. Desid. didyutisa-, didyotisa-.J

dyTitv.+

+ (dyotyate c.) dyutayanta rv. av.+ dyotanav. + dyota -dyotraan rv.


etc. v.
;

-dyuta

E.

dyotaka
dyotin
c.

c.

dyotana
dyotani
dyotis
set off a
u.

rv.
v.

dyutiE.H-

didyut v.b. -dyotayitavya


to a ]/ 2

u.

dyotya
Compare
'hreak'.

c.

jyut and

j/

div. BR.

few of the forms

dyut

]/

dram, run
u.

[^Pres. etc.

dramati; dadrama; adramit; dramisyati, dramita.]


Int.

Sec.

Conj.:

dandramyate

[
dra.

Desid.

didramisa-.

Caus. dra-

mayati.]
Apparently another form of
}/ 1

y
Pres. [2.]

dra, 'run'.

drahi dratu drantu


etc.

v.

Perf.

dadrus

v.c,

dadrana

rv.

Aor. [1. drayat, dreyat.


[Put.
Verb,
-Sec.

] 4.

drasat

rv.

6.

adrasit.]

drasyati, drata.]

drana
:

u.

Caus. Desid. didrasa-.] daridrati etc. ts.c. [dadra-. cb.) drapayati cb. [[adidrapat] didrapayisati daridraB.+ drapi? b. Deriv.: dra? av. drak? c. Conj.
Int.

and dru. The intensive stem daridra is reckoned hy the Hindu grammarians as a root, and artificially furnished with a set of

Compare

roots

dram

verb-forms and primary derivatives.

y
Pres. [2.] Perf.

2 dra, 'sleep'.

drati
c.

etc.

b.+

b.

[4.]

drayate

etc.

e.+

dadrau
4. (or 6.)

Aor.

adrasit

2 dral
Fut.
Verb,

Roots, Verb-forms,
b.
c.

80

drasyati

drana
:

av.b.+, drita?

Sec. Conj.: Desid.

Beriv.

-dra

v.

didrasati c. -didrasu

c.

y
A

drad,

'split'.
c.

single doubtful occurrence,

uddradayan
dru,
e.+
'run'.

y
Pres. [1.]

dravati

etc. v. +,

-te

etc.

etc. b.+ [dudrotha, dudruma], dudruve etc. e. ] 3. adudruvat b.+ (adudrot dudravat ev.) druyat; adravi. Aor. [1. [adudravat, adidravat.] 2. drota.] Fut. 1. drosyati b. [ Verb, druta b. + drotum c. drutva b. -drutya b. + Desid. dudrusa-.] Cans, draSec. Conj.: Int. dodru- (dodrava xs.) [ etc. e. (dravyate e.) dravayanta ev. vayati etc. v. +, -te -druv. -drava vs. dravi ev. Deriv.: dravav.+ druti c. -dravin s.+ dravya?u.s. + dravitr ev. dravayitnu rv. -dravya e. dravanaB.+ dravitnii v. dravina etc.? v.+ dravana e. + dravara ev.

Perf.

dudrava

y
Pres. [4.]

druh,
etc.

'be hostile'.

druhyati

etc.

b.+, -te

e.+

(dudrohitha av.), dudruhe c. Perf. 3. adudruhat.] ] 2. druhas -ban v.e. [ Aor. [1. druhyat; adrohi. 7. adrviksas b. 4. drogdhas m. 2. drogdh.a, drodha, drohita.] Fut. 1. dhroksyati ms. [drohisyati. drogdhavai k. [drugdhva, drohitva, Verb, drugdha v.+ [drudha]

dudroha

etc. v.b.

druhitva;] -druliya
Sec.

ms.e.

Conj.: [Int. dodrvih.-.

Desid.

dudruksat

k.

[dudrohisa-

dub.

Cans, drohaya-.] druhisa-, dudhrvLksa-. dnihyu ev. drogha v. Deriv. druh v. + droha v. + druhya c. druhina c.
:

drogdhavya drogdhr e.+


dudhrtiksu

driihu Av.

druhvan

v.

drohin

e.

c.

y
Pres. [9.]

dru, 'hurr(?).
ev.
that in ms. does not appear connectible

drunati

ms.,

drunana
,

Only two occurrences


with

of

which

dru.

y
Such
EV.,
a root

dvar

perhaps
or

to

be recognized in +
'door'.

dvara

ev.,

dvarin

rv..

-dvaras?

and in dvar

dur

v.

81

AND Primary Derivatives.

[dhav

y dvis,
Pres. [2.]

iiate'.
etc.

dvesti dvisanti
-te
etc.

etc.

v.+,

dviste dvisate

av.+

[G.

dvisati

etc. M..

s.u.+
|

Perf.

didvesa
[1.

cb.

[didvise.
3.
;

Aor.
[Put.
Verb,

advesi.
v.

adidvisat.
dvesta.]
e..

7.

dviksat dviksata
ck.

(3s.) av.

dveksyati
dvista
+

-te

dvestum

Sec. Conj.: [Int.


/>eriy.
.-

dedvis-.

Desid. didviksa-.
c.

dvestos

Cms. dvesayati

c. c.

dvis V. + dvisa c. -dvisenya

-dviati
rv.

dvesin

e.+

dvesa v. + -dvesaka e.
|/

dvesya av. + dvesana v. +


run'.

dvesaniya dvesas v.b.


dvestr
e.

dhan,

[Pres.

'6.

dadhanti.

dhanati.

Perf.
-Sec.

Conj.

dadhanat dadhanyus dadhanvans rv. Caus. dhanayan -yante -yanta rv.


:

Leriv.

dhanistha
roots

rv.'

Compare

dhanv, dhav, dhav, dhu.

y dhanv,
Pres. [1.]

'run'.

dhanvati

etc. v.b.

(dhaniva

sv.")

Perf.

dadhanve
5.

-vire rv.
v.b.

Aor.

Deriv.

adhanvisus dhanutr rv.


to

Seems
as

be a secondary root- form, from the preceding.

Its

has vahie

in half the ev. cases (in the present-system).

]/
Pres. [1.]

dham, dhma,
etc. u.e.

'blow'.

dhamati

etc v. +, -te

[2.]

dhmant

c.

Perf.

dadhmau
1.

Aor. [1.
Fut.
Verb,

6. adhmasit 2. dhmata.J dhamisyati etc. e.+ [dhmasyati. dhamita rv., dhmata v. + -dhmaya b.+
; ;

etc. dadhmire e. dhmayat dhmeyat; adhmayi.]

c.

Sec. Conj.: Pass,

dhamyate etc. v.+, -ti e. dhmayate etc. b.+. -ti etc. cb.e.+ Caus. Desid. didhmasa-. Int. dadhmayate c [dedhmiya-. dhmapayati etc. e.+ (dhmapyate e.1 [adidhmapat.J dhmapana c. Deriv. -dhmaniya c. -dhama av. + dhamitra c. dhmatavya c. -dhamana c. -dhma 3!.+ dhmatr rv. dhamani v. + dhmana av. +

y
Pres. [1.]

dhav,

'flow'.

Deriv.

dhavate etc. dhaviyas rv.

rv.

Whitney, Supplement

II.

dhal

Roots, Verb-fokms,

82

y
Pres. [3.J

dha, dadh, 'put.

dadhati dhatte etc. v.+ [1.] dadhati -te etc. v. + ["i.J dhati iiv3. [4.] dhayeta mu., adhayata m. Perf^ dadhau dadhe etc. v.+ [dadhatha v.. dadhidhve -isva -idhvam Bv., dadhre rv.) dheyam -yus [-yasus] rv. Aor. 1. adhat adhus etc v.+ (adhitam iiv. dhatu etc. v.; dhetana rv.tk.), adhithas adhita etc v.+ (ahita hita AV.TA.; adhimahi dhimahi dhlmahe v.; dhamahe rv.; dhise dhire dhethe dhaithe rv. dhisva rv.); adhayi dhayiv. + 2. adhat 4. dhasus dhasathas -tha rv., adhisi -sata b.+ sv., dhat Rv. 5 v dhayis rv. (dhisiya e.s., dhesiya ms.) 2. dhata etc. b. Fut. 1. dhasyati -te etc. b.+ [adhasyat c.)

Verb,

hita

v. +,

-dhita
;

v.c.

dhatum

b.+,

-tave

v.b.,

-tavai

av.,

-tos
;

v.b.,

-dhitumc. dhitva n. [hitva|; -dhaya dhyai rv. [-dhayam.J


;

av.

-dham

av.

dhiya-

[Int. dedhiyate. ] Desid. dhitsati dhiyate etc. v. + + (dhitsyate c); didhisati etc. -te etc. rv. (didhiCaus. dhapayati etc. v. +, dliapayita s. (dhapyate c.) sana rv.) -dhi V. + -dadhus ms. dhaya s. Deriv.: -dha v.+

Sec. Conj.
etc.

Pass,

V.+, -te

etc. v.

-dhana

v. v.

-dhayaka
-dhayin
c.

c.

-dhiti

v.B.s.

dhana ?

-hiti V. +

-dhaniya c. dhatu V. + -dhatavya k. dhatr v. +

dhayya dhayu rv.


dhasi RV. -dhas V.+

e.s.

dheya b.+
-dheya n. v.+ dhestha v.b. -dadha b.s. dadhi v.b.
Slick

dadhisu av. didhisu v. + didhisayya


-dhitsa
-dliitsu
E.
s.

rv.

+ +

dhaman

v.+

-dhapana s. -dhapayitavya

c.

y
Pres. [4
'?]

dha,

dhayati
rv.
av.

etc. v.

Perf.

dadhus
1. 1.

Aor.
Fut.

adhat

[dheyat.
|

3.

adadhat.

6.

adhasit.J

2. dhata.] dhasyati e. dhita v.b.; dhatave v.; dhitva cb. -dhiya cb. [-dhaya.] Int. dadha-, dadhi-, dedhiya-. Sec. Conj.: [Pass, dhiyate. ] Caus. dhapayate etc. rv., -ti cb. [adidhapat. dhitsa-. dhena v. dharu av. Deriv.: -^lia,^'.+ -dhayin c. dhenuv.+ dhasi rv.s. dhayas v. -dhaya B.+

Verb,

Desid.

dhatu
Related

Rv.s.
|/

dhayu
dhi.

RV.

dhasyu
of

av.

dadhan, dadhi v.+


by uo

^vitli

The connection

sOme

of the derivatives

means beyond question.

y
Pres. [1.]

dhav, 'run

dhavati

etc -te etc v.

[Perf.

dadhava

-ve.]

83
Aor.
[1.

AND Primary Derivatives.


dhavyasam. J
3.

[dhuk?

adadhavat

rv.

[adidhavat.]

5.

adhavit

B.

[adhavista.]

dhavisyati c. [-te. 2. dhavita.] Verb, dhavita e. + dhavitva c. -dhavya c. [Jnt. dadhavya-. Desid. didhavisa-. Sec. Conj.
Fut.
1.
;

Caws,

dhavayati
dhara'.' v.+

etc.

V.+
K.

Dmy.: dhavaka
Compare
as filling
roots

dhavin c. dhavanaK. + dhavitr dhan, dhanv, dhav. It is reckoned by


of

e.

the grammarians

up the defective con.iugation

sr.

y
Pre.'. [1.]
j

2 dhav, 'rinse'.

dhavati etc. -te etc. v. Perf. dadhavaj dadhavire c. Aor. 5. adhavista {^-is.) bv.
Verb,

dhauta
:
.-

Sec. Conj.

Dem;.

+ dhautva? c. -dhavya s. Caus. dhavayati etc. dhavyate c. -dhavin c. dhauti kv. dhava c.
sv.
;

Pass,

-te

etc. b.

+
v.

dhara v

dhavaka
Perhaps rather

e.

dhavana b. + related with y dhu than

with

dhav.

y
Pres. [5.]

dhi, dhinv, 'nourish


b.

dhinoti dhinvanti etc. [Perf. didhinva.] Aor. 5. adhinvit pb. [Fut. dhinvisyati, dhinvita.]
Perhaps only another form of
derivatives given under

dha, with causative

value.

.Some of the

dha

might be put

as properly here.

y
Pres. [2.]

dhi, dldhi,

'think'.

dhimahi b.+ [3?] didhayas didhayan didhyat etc didhyat adidhet etc didhye didhyatham didhitham didhyana
adidhita
etc v.b.
sv.)

Perf.

didhaya -dhima (-mas

-dhiyus -dhyus didhire

v.b.

Verb, dhita v.+

Desid.'} dhlsamana rv'. dedhyat ts. dhiyasana rv. -didhayu rv. Berin.: dhi v.+ dhirav.+ didhitiv.+ dhivanAv. dhiti V.B. Compare y dhya. The form dhimahi belongs here only as tlius used

Sec. Conj.: Int.

later,

with a false apprehension of

its

proper meaning.

y
Pres. [1.]

dhuks,

'kindle"

[Perf.

dhuksate e'. dhuetc. dudhukse; adudhuksat, adhuksista; dhuksisyate,

ksita.]

dhuks]
Sec. Con}.: \lnt.
etc. E.

Roots, Verb-forms,
dodhuks-.
c.

84
]

Desid. dudhuksisa-.
sam.

Caus.

dhuksayati

+ (dhuksy ate
e.+

Deriv.

-dhuksana

Occurring only with the prefix

|/ dhti,
Pres. [5.J

dhu,
;

shake".

dhunoti dhunute etc. v. + dhunoti dhunute etc. je.s. + [2.] dhuvate (3j).) cb., dhuvana ts. [6.] dhuvati etc. av.b. (dhuvet k.) dhimet? m'. [9.] dhuniyat dhunana dhunana c. Perf. dudhava etc. e.+, dudhuve av. (dudhuvita dudhot kv.) 5. adhavit adhuvit, adhavista.] Aor. 4. adhusta -sata kv.s. [adhosta.

1.

Put.

dhavisyati
,

b.s.,

-te b. [dhosyati -te.


;

2.

dhavita, dhota.]
;

Verb,

Sec.

dhavitum ;] dhutva ab. dhuta e. + [dhuna dhuta v. + -dhuya av. + Int. dodhaviti etc. Conj.: Pass, dhuyate etc. av.+ (dhuyant m.) davidhu- rv. (daetc. e.+ (dodhuyat pple. e.+1; V.E., dodhtiyate [Desid. dudhusa-. ] Caus. dhunayati -te etc. e.+ vidhava nv.)

[dhavayati.]
Deriv.
:

-dhu v. -dhava

Rv.

-dhava b. dhavitavya

cb.

dhuvaka dhuvana
dhuti
rv.

jb.
b.s.

-dhuti

c.

dhuni'?v.B.

-dhavanaB.s. dhavitra Compare \/ 2 dhav.

b.s.

dhunana

e.+

y
[Perf.

dhtirv,

injure'.

dhurvati etc. dudhurva.] Aor. 5. adhurvit cb.


Pres. [l.J

v.b.

[Fut.
Verb,

dhurvisyati, dhurvita.]

dhurvitum

cb.

secondary root-form from

y dhvr dhur.
dhr,
+
'hold'.
r'.
;

y
Pres. [l.J
Perf.

dhareran
\.+
ay.;

acs'.

-,

adharam
jb.e.

dadharaeff. (dadhartha)

dadhara

v.b.

(dadhartha

rv.ta.);

Aor.

dadhre etc. 1. dhrthas

adhari

c.

3.

adidharat
4.

etc. v.b.s.

(didhar, didhr-

tam
Fut.
1.

-ta rv.), -rata

(3 s.) cb.

adharsit.]

2. dharta c. dharisyati etc. e.+, -te etc. av.+ Verb, dhrta v. + dhartum c. -tavai kb. dhrtva b. + -dhrtya b.; dhartari RV. -dlaaram s. Int. dardharsi adardhar Sec. Conj. Pass, dhriyate etc. v. +, -ti etc. e. + RV.; dadharti dadhrati dadhartu b. (dadhartu? avp.; dadharayati Desid. didhirsa- [in d.) [didharisate.J JB.) Caus. dharayati -te
; ;

etc. V.

+ ^^dharyate

b.

didharayisa-

s.c.)

85
Deriv.: dliara v.

AND Primary DERivATrvES.


dliarman
av. + ev.

[dhya
dhruvas rv. dhruvi v.n. dadhrvi rv.
drdlirav rv.
didliirsa
n.

dharman v. + -dharaniyac. dharma av. +


dharana
dharani
e.

-dhari c. dhira e.+

dharinaan

c.

dhur V. + dhura e. +
-dhrt
V.
E.

dharuna

v.n.

dhariman
dhariyas -dhara v.

rv.

+ +

-dhartu ev. -dharitu e,v. dhartr v.ii. dhartra b.s. dharitr p.. + dharnasi v.k. dharni rv.

n.s.

-dhrk

-didhirsu

c.

dhrti V.+
r.+

-dharaya
dharayii

v.

dharaka

dharin u.s. + dharya e. +

-dhrtvan u. -dhra v.+


-dhri?
V. v.

rv.

dharana

v.

+
c.

dhruva

-dharaniya

dharayitavya u.+ dharayitr n.+ dharayisnu c. -didharayisa c.

]/

dhrs,
[1.]

'dare".
etc.

Pres. [5.]

dhrsnoti

etc.

v.+

dharsati
av.

vs.r.

[2V]

dhrsant

rv.,

dhrsana av. Perf. dadharsa etc. v.b. (dadhrsus dadhrsate dadhrsanta av.
Aor.
2.
5.

dadharsat
[3.

-sati

dadharsit

rv.

adiirsas

cb.

(_dhrsamanaV
ta.

rv.)

b.

adidhrsat, adadharsat.

adharsisus
v. +.

[Put.
Verb,

dharsisyati, dharsita.]

dhrsta
B.+

dhrsita

v.

Sec. Conj.: \Jnt.


etc.

daridhrs-.

-dhrsya
Desid.

-dhrse

v.b.,

didharsisa-.

-dhrsas rv. Cans, dharsayati


rv.

Deriv.:

dharsa v.+

dharsana e.+ -dliarsakaE.+ dharsaniya E.+


-dhrs v. dhrsaj rv.

dhrstiB.+

dadhrsa

-dharsin c. -dharsya av.

dhrsnuv.+ dadhrsi v. dhrsya v. + dadhrsvani

rv.

-dharsayitavyac.

y dhma,
j/
Pres. [4.]

see

dham.

dhya,
etc.

'think'.
u.)

dhyayati etc. E.+ (dhyayat b.s.)

b.+, -te

e.+ (dhyayita

[2.]

dhyati

etc.

" Perf.

dadhyau
4.
1.

etc. b.

+
6.

Aor.
Put.

dhyasus

m.

2. dhyata jub. dhyasyati e. Verb, dhyata b. + dhyatva b. + -dhyaya e. + dhyayam c. Sec. Conj.: Pass, dhyayate c. ] Desid. didhyasate ok. [in/, dadhya-. Caus. dhyapayati.] [ -didhyasana c. Deriv.: dhya v. + dhyatr c. dhyana u.+
; ; ;

adhyasisam

cb.

-dhyayin
Compare

b.

dhyatavya

c.

dhyeya

e.+

-didhyasitavyas.

-didhyasu c

dhi, of which this

is a later

secondary form.

dhraj]

Roots, Verb-forms,

86

y
Pres. [l.J

dhraj, dhraj,
;

sweep'.
ms.

dhrajati

etc.

rv.

dhrajamana

Aor.

5.

dhrajisiya

ms.

Deriv.: -dhrajati rv.

dhraj as rv.
dhraji- rv.

dhraj ms. dhraj a ms.

dhraji

v.b.

dhraji ms.

y
Pres. [1.]

dhvans, dhvas,
etc.

'scatter'.

dhvansati

-te

b.

+
;

Perf.

Aor.
[Put.
Verb,

2.

dadhvahsus u.. dadhvansire e. dadhvase v.b. dhvasan rv. [ 3. adadhvahsat. 5. adhvansista.J

dhvansisyate, dhvansita.]

dhvasta

b.

Sec. Conj.: Pass,

-dhvasya e.+ dhvasyate c, -ti gb.


+
;

Desid. didhvahsisa-.]

Caus.

danidhvans- -dhvasya-. dhvansayati etc. b. + -te etc. jb.


Int.
,

dhvasayati
Deriv.

etc.

rv.

-dhvasa e.+

dhvasan n. pr. dhvasani v.

cb.

dhvasanti n. dhvasira rv. dhvasti c.

pr. rv.

dhvasman

dhvahsin e. + dhvasra rv.b. dhvans ana b.+ dhvansa av. + dhvansi s. -dhvansaka c.
rv.

y
Pres. [1.]
Perf.

dhvan,

'sound'.

dhvanati
c.

etc. c.

dadhvanus
[3.

Aor.
[Put.
Verb,

adidhvanat adadhvanat.

J 5.

adhvanit

rv.

dhvanisyati, dhvanita.]

Sec. Conj.:

c. dhvanta b.+ Cans, dhvanayati u. (dhvanayit dandhvan- [^in d.'). Bv.l; adhvanayat rv. (dhvanita c.) Deriv.: dhvana ta. dandhvana e. dhvani av.c. dhvanas.+ RV. v.b. dhvanya dhvanana s.+ dhuni v The RV. forms are set off by BR., perhaps rightly, to a separate y dhvaa

dhvanita
Int.

y
Pres. [1.]

dhvr, dhur, dhru,

injure'.

YPerf.

dhvarati dadhvara.]

etc. b.
'

Aor. 4. [adhvarsit,]
[Put.
Verb,

adhursata
;

(3p.) rv. [dhvrsista.

etc.

5.

dhvarisista.]

dhvarisyati, dhvarta.] dhiirta e. +, dhruta tb. dhurvane rv.

Sec. CoThj.: [Int.

dadhvarya-.

Desid.

dudhursati

av.cb.

Cans.

dhvarayati.]

87
Derio.:

AND Primary Derivatives.


dhur
cb.ms.

[nand
-dhvartavya
-dhvrt
uv.
ts.

dhurti RV.
-dliorana?
c.

-dhru -dhrut dhruti

rv.

kv.
rv.

dhvara ms. dhvaras rv.

Compare

dhtirv, which

is a

secondary form (u-class) of this root.

y'

nanc,

see i

na9.

y
Pres. [1.]

naks,

attain'.

naksati -te

etc. v.k.

Perf.

nanaksus
etc.

-kse rv.

[AoT.

anaksit; naksisyati, naksita.]

Deriv.:

naksatra? v.+
secondary form of
]/

naksya
2 nacj.

ev.
also

Compare

inaks, under y

2 nacj.

y
Pres. [l.J
Sec. Conj.
Z)er i u.
;

nat, 'dance, play'.

natati
:

c.

Cmis.
E.,t-

natayati

etc. c.

nata

natana c. nataniya

c.

nata c. nataka

c.

natin c. natayitavya

c.

prakritized formation from

nrt.

]/

nad,
etc. b.

'sound'.

Pres. [1.]
Perf.

nadati

etc.

av. +, -te
e. +,

nedire e. [Aor. etc. aninadat, anadit; nadisyati, nadita.] Verb, nadita c. -nadya e. + Sec. Conj.: Pass, nadyate e. Int. nanadati (3j5.) e<c. v.e., nanadyate etc. JB.E. [Desid. ninadisa-. ] Caus. nadayati -te etc. rv.e. nadayati -te etc. e. + (nadyate e. +)
;

nanada nedus

Deriv.

nada

v.+

nadi ? V. + -nadin e.
Compare the next

nadathu u. nadanu rv. nadaniman


root.

nada v.+ nadin av. +


av.

-nadana

e.
b.s.

nanada

nadi

s.

y nand,
Pres. [J. J Perf.

'rejoice'.

nandati

etc.

v.+, -te

etc.

e.+

+ [Aor. ananandat, anandit.]


etc. e.

nanandus

Fut.

Verb,
Sec.

nandisyate e. [-ti. 2. nandita.] e.4-; -nandya e.+ nandita [Int. nanand-. Conj. Pass, nandyate etc.c. Caus. nandayati -te etc. u. +
:

Desid. ninandisa-.

nandl
Deriv.
:

Roots, Verb-forms,

88

nanda v. + nandaka e.+ nandin ay. +


-nandya
c.

nandana

av. +
c.

-nandaniya nandi e.+ nanditr e.

nandathu b.+ nandana sv.u.


nandi
ev.e. +
c.

nauandrV v. -nandayitavya
-nandayitr
c.

u.+

nanduka
root.

Doubtless the same with the preceding

y
Pres. [1.]
[Perf. etc.

nabh,
9.

'burst'.

nabhate

etc. v. [

nabhnati.

4.

nabhyati.]

nanabha nebhe, etc.'] Sec. Conj.: Caus. anabhayan ab. nambhaya ts.s. Deriv. nabh ev. nabhanya nv. nabhaka nv.u. E.V. nabhanu, -u nabhasv.+ nabhya v.b.s.
;

nabh

rv.

nabhiv.+

The connection
ahle.

of part of the derivatives with this root is quite question-

y nam,
Pres. [1.]

'bend, bow'.

-te etc. v.+ (namana e.) (nanama nanamas liv."), neme ev. (^nanamire m.) Aor. 3. aninamat etc. ev.c. 4. anan k., anamsata (3p.) b. (namsai namsante ev.) 6. anamsit c.

namati
c.

Perf.

nemus

Put.
Verb,

1.

namsyati e., namisyati c. [ 2. namta.] nata v. + namtum c. namitum c. natva


-,

c.

-natya

e.,

-namya

E.

-,

Sec. Conj.: Pass,

namyate v. + Int. nannamiti ce. v.b. (nannamus b.), -mana (namnate anamnata rv.) nannamyate s. Deskl. ninamsa(m d.) Caus. namayati etc. v. + namayati etc. u.s.+ (namyate etc.

-namam -name

rv.

E.+, -ti etc. c.)

Deriv.

-nam

av.

nami?

rv.

nama rv. ? e. + namana c.


namaniya namas v.+ namasana
c.

nati AV. +

namtva ev. namtr c. namra v. +

-nama e.+ -namaka c. namin v.+

nemi v. -nannama

rv.

namya e.+ namana c.


-namuka
e.

-ninamsu c. namayitavya
-namayitr
c.

c.

v.

namayisnu

ev.

y
Pres. [1.]
Perf.

nard,
etc. e.

'bellow'.

nardati
e.

etc.

b.+, -te

nanarda

[Act.
Verb,

etc. anardit nardisyati, nardita.] nardita e. + -nardam e.


;
;

Sec. Conj.

Int.

nanardyamana
s.

c.

Caus.

-nardayati
c.

gb.

Deriv.

-narda

-nardin

v.

nardana

89

AND Primary Derivatives.

[nSth

y
Pres. [4.] Pcrf.

na9, 'be
etc. e.

lost'.

na^yati
v.e..

etc.

v.+, -te

[1.]

na9ati -te

etc. v.e.

nanaqa
2.
1.

Aor.
Fut.

neQus i5.+ ana9at e.+ 3. ane9at etc. v.n. aninatjat etc. v. + (nina9U8 e.) na9isyati av. + nanksyati -te etc e.+ (ananksyata m.) 2. na9-

ita
Verb,

E.

[nansta.]
v.

nasta

+ [nastum,

Sec, Conj.: [Int.

nana9-.

nanstum; nastva, nanstva.]


Desid. nina9isa-, ninaiiksa-.
iiv.
:

ayati

etc.

v.+. -te

etc.

e.+ (na9ayadliyai

Derir.: -na9 rv.b.

nasti b.+
+
k.

Caus. na9nina9ayisa- c.) na9ini!.+ nastra av.k.


]

-nan9in

v.s. b.

na9ana

iian9Xika

The forms from

the

na9vara c. na9a b. + na9aka e. + stem na9a are

na9yaE.+ na9ana av. +


na9tika
ts.

na9ayitr

vs.

perliaps to be classed as o^ aorist 2.

y
Pres. [1.]

2 nac,

nanc,

'attain

Aor.

1.

na9ati -te etc. v. anat v.b. (nat v.;


rv.)

anastam nak naksi

impv.

nanqi na9i-

mahi
Sec. Conj.
:

Verb. -113,96 Rv.vs.

Desid,

inaksati
is

etc.

rv. rv.
to |/

Deriv.:

nan9a

rv.

-nan9ana

-na9a
1

The form anat

by some referred

a9.

v. -na9a rv.s. Compare y iiaks.

y
Pres. [1.]

nas,

'unite'.

nasate

etc.

rv.

Aor.

nasimahi

rv.

y
Pres. [4.]

nah,

'ne'
)

[I .] nahet m. + (nahyus ae. [Per/", etc. nanaha (nanaddha nehithal nehe; aninahat, anatsit anaddha natsyati -te, naddha.] Verb, naddha v. + [naddhva;] -nahya e.+ CV;u. Desid. ninatsa-.] Int. nanah-. Sec. Conj.: Pa.$s. nahyate c. [

nahyati
;

-te

etc. v.

nahayati etc. s.+ Derio.: -nah (nadh) v. + nahus v.+ nahanav.+ -naddhi b.

nahaAv. + -nahya b.s.


e.

-nahana

c.

-nahuka.'AH.

nahas v

c.

-naddha vya

y nath,
Pres. [1.]
[Per/",

nadh,
;

'seek aid'

nathate etc. b.+, -ti etc. e. + nadhamana v. etc. nanatha, nanadhe; anathit, anadhista; nathisyati, nadhi;

syate nathita, nadhita.]

90
c.

nath]
Verb,

Roots, Verb-forms,
v.+,
;

Sec.
Z>cr j

nadhita rv. nathitum c; -nathya Con}.: Pass, nathyate c. y. natha V.+ nadhas rv. -nadha b.
nathita

y
Pres. [2.]

nins,

'kiss'.

[Perf.

etc.

Beriv.

ninsate ninsata ninsana rv. nininse; aninsista; ninsisyate, ninsita.J -ninsin c.

y
Pres. [1.]

niks,

'pierce'

[Perf.
Verb,

etc.

niksati etc. av. niniksa; aniksit; niksisyati, niksita.]


v.

-nikse
:

Der it).
Is

-niksana

c.

ntksanav

rv.

neksana

>

av.s.

perhaps a desiderative formation from

j/ 1

na9.

y
Pres. [2?]

nij, 'wash'.
[3.]

nije c, nijana rv.


av.s. [

3.

ninikta

^2^.) rv.

[Perf.

nineja, ninije.]

Aor.
[Put.
Verb,

2.

anijara -jan

aninijat.]

4.

anaiksit niksi

av.

neksyati -te, nekta.] nikta v. + niktva b. + -nijya


;

R.

-,

-nije rv.

Sec.

Conj.: Pass,

nijyate

etc.

e.

Int.

nenekti nenikte
b.+
c.

etc.

v.+

Desid. niniksa-.] Cans, nejayati


Beriv.: -nij
v.s.
c.

etc.

-nikti

-neka -nega
is

s.c.
n.s.

-neja

nejanav.+
c.

nejaka
-nejya

-nektr

s.

pb.

The intensive
this root.

regarded hy the grammarians as the present-stem of

y
Pres. [1
.]

nind, nid,

'revile'.

nindati etc. v.+, -te etc. e. + Perf. nininda e. + (nindima ninidiis rv.) Aor. 1. nindyat u., nidana rv. 5. anindisus rv.s. (nindisat av.) Fut. [1. nindisyati. ] 2. nindita e. Verb, nindita v. + -nindya e. Sec. Conj.: Pass, nidyate rv. nindyate c. Desid. ninitsati rv., -te Beriv. nid rv. ninditr rv. ninda av. + nmdya v. + nida kv. nindaka e. + nindana c. ninitsu rv. -nedya rv. nindin c. nindaniya c.

s.

y
Pres. [].]
[2.]

ni, 'lead'.
rv.,

[3v] ninithas niniyat nayati -te etc. v.+ nesi v.s., netha rv., anitam rv.

ninetu

ms.

91
Perf.

AND Pkimary Derivatives.


ninaya ninyus
etc.

iiiud
ts.).

v.+ [ninetha kv.,


e.

ninima

ninye .+

-nayam asa
Aor.

m.,

-nayam cakre

3. aninayat. J J. anaisit etc. v.+ [nais anait n.s. [1. anayi. nesati etc. ev., nesat v.u., nesa av.), anesta etc. v.n. 5. anajrit Av., anayista (2^-) s. anayisata (pas.) c. Fut. 1. nesyati etc. av.+, -te etc. b.+ (anesyathaa m.); nayisyati etc. jb.e.+ 2. neta e.. nayita e. (anayisyat jh.), -te etc. e. Verb, nita v. + netum .+, -tavai e.s., -tos b., nayitum . + nitva b.+, nayitva e. + -niya av. + nesani ev. -nayam jb.

-,

-See.

Conj.: Pass,

niyate
-te
etc.

etc.

sati

etc. V. +,

neniyate u.s.+ Cans, nayayati etc


v.+
Int.
V.

etc.

v.+

Desid. nini-

e.+. -te e.

Deriv.: -ni v.

naya

v.

+
e.

-nayya c. -nayana c.
+
niti

-nayin

netra av.+ nitha v. + nitha V.

nesa
nestr

rv.

v. + -neni rv.

nayana u.s.+ naya ev.c. nayaka e. +


-nayin
e.

netavya b. + nayitavya e. +
netr
v.

neman-?
-nlya
b.
s.

ev.

ninisa e.+ ninisu e. +

+
e.

neya

+
ev.

-ninisenya

b.

-nayitr

nayistha
'nest'.
v.

nid,
of

May be mentioned on account

nlda

au'l

nidi rv.

y
Pres. [2.J

nu, nu,

'praise'.
ev.)

nauti nuvanti
nuvati.]
c.

etc. v.

+ (anavan

[1.]

navate

-ti etc. v.

[
Perf.

6.

nunava
0.

4. [anausit,] anusi etc. v.b. [anunavat] anunot etc. ev. 5. [anavit anuvit,] anavista ev. [Fut. navisyati, nuvisyati navita, nuvita.J Verb, nuta c. [nuta; navitum, nuvitum;] -nutya s.; -navam b. Int. nonaviti nonumas etc. v.. noSec. Conj.: Pasf. nuyate etc. e.+ Desid. nvmunuvanta ev. (nonava nonnvus ev.) navinot ev. [ Caus. navayati (nunavayisa-).] sa-. nonuva c. nava ev. Derif. navana c. -nava B. + nuti c. ev. navisti navya ev.

Aor.

y
Pres. [1.]
Verb,

nu,
nauti

move'.
s.

navate

etc.

ev.

[2.]

ntita? pb.

Sec. Conj.: Caus.

navayati

etc.

]/

nud, push'
v.+

Pres. [6.]
Perf.

nudati
c,

-te

etc. v.

+
etc.

nunoda

nunude

nud]
Aor.
1.

Roots, Verb-forms,

92
eic. v.b.

nudyat

e.+

[3.

anunudat.
[

] 4.

[anautsit,] anutta

5.

nudisthas
notsyati
v. +,

av.

Fut.
Verb,

1.

e.,

-te b.e.

2.

notta.]
;

nutta
:

nimna sv.e. +, nudita m. -nudya


v. b.

s.

-nude

rv.,

-nudas

K.

-no dam

Sec. Con).: Int.

anonudyanta

Desid. nunutsanodya c. nodana c.


-nottavya

[in d.).

(aus. nodc.

ayati etc. v. + (nodyate e. +) nodav.+ Dmv..- -nud V.+ -nodaka c. -nudaE. +


nutti
B.

-nunutsu c. -nodayitavya
b.

-nodin

c.

I
Tci

nr, 'sporf.

be recognized with probability in the derivatives

naruna ta. narista av.vs. narisyant e. + narma vs. also in sunara v.b. and sUnr- (siinfta v.+). Compare also Y

narman
nrt.

e.

y
Pres. [4.]

nyt, 'dance'.
etc. e.

nrtyati

etc. v. +,

-te

+
rv.

Perf. nanarta nanrtus e. + Aor. 1. nrtus e,v. {^perf.i) tat.]


.

2.

nrtamana?

anartisus v. 2. nartita.] Fut. 1 nartisyati c [nartsyati. -nartam b. Verb, nrtta av. + nartituni~c.. narttum c. nartitva c. narinrtyate c. Int. narinartti etc. c. Conj.: Pass, nrtyate c. Sec. Caus. nartayati etc. Desid. ninartisa- in rf.) [ninrtsa-]. -ti? c.
5.

3.

aninrtat, ananar-

V.+, -te

etc. E.

Deriv.

nrt a v. nrtyau.H-narta e.+

-nartin

vs.

nrtii rv.

nartanas.+
nrtiv av.

nrtu

rv.
b.
c.

nartayitr ninartisa

e.

c.

-nrtti

nartaka
Compare

e.

nrti

v.

nartitavya

roots

nat and nr.

]/

ned,

'flow".

Pres. [1.]

[Perf.

nedati etc. b., -te u. etc. nineda, ninede ninide; anedit, -dista; nedisyati, -te;
ms.

nedita.]
Deriv.

-neda

y
Pres. [1.]

pae, 'cook'.

pacati -te

etc.

v.+ (pacana m.)

Perf.

papaea pecus

etc. v.b.

[4.] pacyate etc. rv.cb. [papaktha, pecitha], peee pecire etc. v.+

Aor.

[apeciran av.) [1. paeyat; apaci.

3.

apipacat.]

4.

[apaksit, apakta]

paksat

RV.

++

93
Fut.
Verb,
1.

AND Pkimary Derivatives.


paksyati
-te
etc. b.

[pan
u.

+ (apaksyat c.)
av.e.
m.

2.

pakta
Int.

(^pakva;!
Conj.:

Sec.

paktave av.b.; paktva Pass, pacyate etc. v. +, -ti

[Dejrf.

pipaksa-.
.

papacyate
uv.

etc.

c.

Caas.
-li'

pacayati
+
e.

-te

etc.

Deriv.:

pac? c. -paca B.+ -pacya ay.

pakti pakti
+

uv.
vs.

pakthin

...

n.+ (pacyate

iz.)

pacaka
-pacin

e.+

pakva
paka

V.

c.

paktavya

pacelima c
V.

pacana

v.

pacata v.b. pacatya rv

paktr Av. + paktrima c.

+
u.s.

pacya u. pacana e.
-pacayitr
c.

pakin

c.

paktha

rv.b.

pakya

y'

paj,
v.b.

'start'

(?).

papaje kvI. Z>erjt!. pajra v.s.


Perf.
.

pajas
of form

The connection
questionable.

and meaning among these words

is

altogether

y
Pres. [1.]

pat,

tear'.

patati
Caus.
e.

c'.

Sec. Conj.:

patayati

etc.

v.+, -te

etc. e.

(^patyate
c.

c.)

Deriv.

pata

pataka b.+

-patin

patya

c.

patana e.+ pataniya c.

]/
Pres. [I.]

path,
etc.

'read'.

pathati
c.

etc.

ta.+, -te

e.+

Perf.

papatha
etc.

apipathat, apathit pathisyati, pathita.] Verb, pathita s. + pathitva c. Int. papathiti Sec. Conj.: Pass, pathyate etc. e.+
{Aor.
;
;

c.

etc.

c,

papathyate
c.)

[^Desid.

pipathisa-.

Caus.

pathayati

etc. c.

(pathyate

I>erjv..-

pathaka E. pathana c pathaniya

pathitavya c
pathiti
c. c.

patha s.+ pathaka e. +


pathin
e.

pathyaE. pathana c.

y
Pres. [1.]

pan,
+

'bargain'.

panate
;

etc. b. +, -ti etc. e.

[Perf. etc. Verb,

pene apipanat, apanista panisyate,


;

panita.J

panitva s. Desid. pipanisa-. panyate etc. e. [ Int. pampan-. Caus. panayati etc. c. [panayati.] -pana av. panayya b. Deriv.: pana av. + pananaB.+ pani v. vanij ? V. + -panm c. pani v. +
e.
;

panita
:

Sec. Conj.

Pass,

.'

panya

b.

panitr

c.

panajritr

c.

pat]

Roots, Verb-forms,

94

y
Pres. [1. J

pat,

'fly,

fair.

patati
Av.)
b.

etc.

v. +, -te etc. e.
etc. v.

Perf.

papata petus
1.
1.

+ (paptima paptiis paptivans rv.;


etc.

papat-

yat
Aor.
Fat.
Verb,

apati

+
:

3.

apaptat
av. +, -te
b.

v.b.s.

apipatat
h. +)
;

patisyati
aa-.

etc.

e.
;

(apatisyat

patita

patitum
etc.

patitva

av.b.

patita m. -patya b. + -patam


2.
:

etc. v.

b.

+
av.

Sec. Conj.: Int.

papatiti

rt. [panipat-.]

Desid. pipatisati
etc.

etc.

CB.; pitsa- (in d.).


etc. E.

Deriv.

Caus. patayati etc. v. +, -te + ); patayati etc. v.b.s., -te rv. -pat rv. patman v.b. pata AV. + pataka s. + pata- v. + -patya b. patana v.+ patvan v.b.s. patin AV. + -ptuV MS. patara rv. patya e. +

e.

+ (patyate

-paptani rv.

patapata
pipatisu
-pitsu
c.

.s.

E.

pataka

s.+

pataru

rv.

-patitavya c. pattra v.+ patatra v.c.

patistha v.b. -patisnu b. + patiyas b.

patana s. + pataniya c. patuka B.E.

patayalii av.

patayisnu
patayitr
c.

v.

y
Pres. [4.]

2 pat, 'rule'.

patyate

etc. v.b.

Doubtless only a denominative of pati.

|/

path,

'go'

(?)

pathati etc. s. \^Perf. etc. papatha, apathit; pathisyati, pathita.] Sec. Conj. cms. pathayati b.s. Deriv. path pathi panthan v.+ pantha v. pathanPres. [1.]
: <

b.

pathas
;

v.

No

real root

the present forms doubtless bad readings for

pathis B. patati etc. the

causative a denominative of the stem path.

y
Pres. [4.]

pad,
ab.e.
etc.

'go".

padyate

etc.

v.+, -ti

etc.

[2v] padyam
b.+

r1.,

patsva

m1.

Perf.

papada pedus
1.

etc.

v.+,

pede

Aor.

apadraahi vs. -dran rv. (padati -dat v.; padista v.l; apadi 3. apipadat av.b. padi V. + 4. apatsi etc. v.b.u. (patthas av.) Fut. 1. patsyati etc. b.+ (patsyantu c), -te etc. v.+ [ 2. patta.] Fer6. panna AV. + pattuinB.+, -tave rv., -tosB. -padyav. + -padas

V.B.;

-padam
etc. v. +,

b.+
c.

Sec. Conj.: Int.

panipadyate
-te
etc.

Desid. pitsati
etc. b.
;

b..

-te

c.

Caus.
v..+]

pad-

ayati

av.+ (padyate

+ pipadayisati

95
Deriv.:

AND Primary Derivatives.


-pad v.+
patti av.+

[1

pS

pad Y.+ pada V. +


-padanaB.r.s.

-pattavya
-pattr
K.+
c.

K.

-padin c. + -padya n.+

-pitsa

c. c.

-pitsu

padanlya
-padi
Rv'.

-padva? c. -padaB.+ -padaka e. +

-padana e.+ -padaniya c.


padii
.'

rv.ms.
b.

-patsu c. -padayitavya -padayitr


(

c.

paduka

-pipadayisa -pipadayisu

c. v.

y
Pres. [1.]
Perf.

pan, 'admire".

pananta rv. papana papne rv.


panista (^3s.) panita rv.
RV.
rv.

Aor.
Verb,

5.

Sec. Conj.: Pass,


etc.

panyate

rv.

Int.

panipnat v.u.

Caus. panayati -te


sv.

X>ew..-

pana-

RV.

panas-

rv.

panistama
panisti
sv.

panya rv.k. panayya rv.ab.


The words panya
s.,

panu

rv. rv.

panitr

panistha v.n. paniyas v.


to

panyas uv. -panya sv. -panyu rv. panayayyasv.


root.

panayya cb. seem

belong in meaning to this

y
pardana].

pard,

'pedere
or

Not quotable either in verb -forms

derivatives

[parda, pardin,

y
Pres. [4.]

pac, spac,

'see".

paQyati

-te

etc.

v.+

Perf.

paspa^e
1.

etc. v.

Aor.
Verb,
Sec.

aspasta (pres.?) rv. [ spasta v.+ Conj.: Caus. spaqayate


:

3.

apaspaqat.]

etc. v.e., -ti s.

Deriv.

pa9

RV.

pa^yav.HThe stem pa9ya


is

paQyin c. pa9yata av.

-paqyana spaQ a.b.

c.

spaija k.+

-spa9ana

av.
c.

paspaQa
regarded as supplying the deficient present of
)

dr9.

y
Regarded as inferable from

pae,

'bind'.

pa9U
1

v. +,

pa9a

v.

y
Pres. [1.]

pa, 'drink'.

[3.] pipatu panti kv>.. pathas av'. v... pipana rv.. pipana av. K., pipite pipate pipiya apipita etc. v. Perf. papau etc. v.+ (papatha rv., papiyat rv.), papa Aor. 1. apat etc. v.+ (pahi patam pata pant v.): peyas (3s ) rv. apayi ] 4. pasta av. RV. [3. apipyat.

pibati -te

etc. v.

[2.]

pa]
1
.

Roots, Verb-forms,
pasyati -te
v.
etc. b.

96

Fut.
Verb,

2.

pata.]
v.b.,

pita
-tvi

+
;

patum
-paya

c,
av.

patave
s.

-tavai
e.

b.,

-tos kb.; pitva


rv.
;

v.b.s.,

Kv.

-piya

-pai ?

pibadhyai

nv,

[payam.]
Sec. Conj.: Pass,

Int. pepiyate etc. r.c. [papa-.] piyate etc. av.+ Cans, payayati Desid. pipasati etc. v. + pipisati etc. rv. (j/ pi'.') s. etc. V.+, -te c. (payyate pipayayiset k.) -pa v. panta rv. pitii? V.B. -piba Av.c. Deriv. e. v. + V.B.S. -payaka pitl pana papi RV. -payin b. + -pitha V. + pipasa B. + paniya e. + -payya rv.c. -peya v. + pipasu E. + patavya b. + pipisu RV. payana v. + patr V.+
;

patra v.+ Compare j/ 3 pa.

-pavan

v.b.

payayitavya

ms.

2 pa, 'protect'

Pres. [2.]

pati

etc. v.

+ (_pana rv'.)

[Perf. papavi.]

Aor.
[Fut.
Verb,
[/Sec.

4.

pasati etc. rv. pasyati, pata.]


[pata;]

e.

6.

apasit

c.

patum

Conj.:
:

Deriv.

-pa v.+

payate; papa-; pipasa- palayati.] pala V. + patr v.c. rv'. -pavan v.b. -panaAv.+ patra?
c.

pitf ? V.+
-piti RV.

patavya

payu

v.

pati V
rv.

V.

-pitha

V.

-payya

-pithy a rv.

y
BK.
able
the

3 pa, 'rise against'. from the reduplicated middle stem

refer to such a root certain forms

pipi with prefix ud.

Since, however, such forms occur with the unquestion-

meaning 'drink', and, on the other hand, forms from ut-piba (9B.) with meaning given to 3 pa, it seems probahle that we have here only a curiously
1

specialized use of y'

pa

+ ud.
y
PS'Yj 'cacare
.

Pres. [1.]

payate?
b.+

u.

Deriv.

payu

single very doubtful occurrence (see BR.).

Pres. [l.J

[SV] pipihi v.b., pipyatam etc. payate rv. [2?] piyana rv. pipayat etc. pipaya apipet etc. (-payat -pema -pyan pipayanta pipyana rv. [5.] pinvant -vati av., pinvire pinvana rv., pinvate apinvatam jb.
)

pi, pi, 'swell, fatten'.

97
Perf.

AND Primary Derivatives.


pipaya
etc.

[pi^

(_pipetha pipyathus -yus pipivans pipyua-

pipye

(pipyana) rv. Verb, pina av. + Derit).; -payav RV.

-pit rv.
pitii v.b.

payas

v.

of

-pyasa?AV. piyusav.+ The roots pinv and pya (_giveu for convenience this. The classification of the reduplicated forms is

piva ab. pivan v. + pivans m.


difflcult

pivaraE.+ pivas v.b.


pivistha
cjj.

separatelyj are extensions

and questionable.

y
Prea. [1.]

pinv,

'fatten'.

pinvati -te

etc. v.b.s.

Perf.

pipinvathus
etc.

rv.

[Aor.
Verb,

apinvit; pinvisyati, pinvita.] pinvita cb.


:

Sec. Conj.

Cans,

pinvayati

cb.
b.s.

Deriv.

-pinva

rv.

pinvana

secondary root-form, from stem

[5.]

pinu

of |/ pi, from

which stem

few regular forms are also made in the older language.

y
Pres. [1.]

pibd,

'be firm';?).

pibdamana
v,

v.b.

Deriv.

pibdana

y
Pres. [H.J pincjati -te etc. v.b.

pi9, 'adorn'.

Perf.

Aor.
[Fut.
Verb,

1.

pipega pipi9us pipi^e -9re v. pi9ana rv. [ 3. apipiQat.

5.

apeqit.]

pegisyati, pe9ita.]

pista
:

v.b.,

pi9ita av. +

Sec. Conj.

Pass.

pi9yate

av.

9i8a- pipe9isa-.
Deriv.: pi 9 v.

Int.

pepi9at -9ana

v.b.

Desid. pipi-

Cans. pe9aya-.]

pi9acav. +
pi9aci
RV.

pe9av.+
pe9iB.+

pe9as v.+
pe9itr
vs.

pi9a V. pi9angav. +

pi9una?v. +

pe9ana

v.

y
Pres. [7.]

pis, 'crush'.
v.+ (pinak
rv.),

pinse m. [6.] pinsa AV. ?, apinsat m. piseyam pisanti apisan e apisan av. Perf. pipesa pipise etc. v. + 7. apiksan cb. [apiksatam.J Aor. r? apistam (3d.) c'. 3. apipisat e.
pinasti pinsanti
;

etc.

Fut.
Verb,

1.

peksyati
pista
v.
b.

u. [
;

2.

pesta.]
b.

pestum
II.

-tavai

b.

pistva

b.;

-pisya

s.

+;

-pesam
Whitney,

+
7

Supplement

pis]
Sec. Con).

Roots, Veeb-fokms.
:

98

Pass,

pisyate
etc. s.

etc. a.

Int.

pepis-.

Desid. pipiksa-.]

ev.

pesayati Beriv.: pesaE. +


Caus.

pesya

c.

pesanas. +
pestr
for
c.

pestra'?Av.

pesaka

c.

pesi rv.

pipisvanf
(Bhag. Pur.).

Doubtless we are to read

apinstam
pis,

apistam

|/
Pres. [4.]

'stretcli' (?

pisyati
cb.

cb.

Perf.

pipisus

Deriv.

pesuka

cb.

pi, see

pi.

y
Perf.

2 pi, see

ply.

y
pipide
rv.
Sec. Conj.: Caus.

pid,

'press'.

pidayati etc. aa'.+, -te -pidaka c. Deriv.: -pida E.+ -pidin c. pidas. + pidana u. +

e.

(pidyate

etc. b.

-pidam

c.)

pidaniya e. pidayitavyaE.

-pilana c. pipilaVAv.+

y
Pres. [1.]

ply, 'abuse'.
av.

piyati

etc. v.b.

Deriv.

piyaru

v.

piyaka

piyatnu

ev.

piyii v.b.

y
Pres. [6.]

put,

'scale' etc.

putati
c.

c.

[Perf.
Verb,

etc.

pupota; apotit; potisyati, potita.]


:

putita?

Sec. Conj.

Pass,

putyate

c. [

Caus. putayati, potayati.]


c.

Deriv.:

puta b.+ -putaka c.


late

putana
root,

-pota

c. c.

-potana

c.

-potaka

and bastard

probably denominative of puta.

y
[Pres. etc.
Sec. Conj.: Caus.

puth,

'crush'.

puthyati; pupotha; apothit; pothisyati, pothita.] pothayati etc. e.+, -te e.+
e.

Deriv.

potha

pothaka

e.

y
Pres. [4.]

pus,
etc.

'thrive'.

pusyati posati ci.

e<c.

v.+. -te

t..+

[9.]

pusnati

etc.

e.+

[1.]

^9
Perf.

AND Primary Derivatives,


puposa etc. v.+ (pupusyas kv.) 1. pusyasam -sma b., -yat c. [aposi.] -ema v.is.s., pusa s.) [ apupusat.

[pGy

Aor.

\\.

5.

2.

[apusatj (puseyam

apoBit.J

\Ful. posisyati,
Verb,

poksyati; posita, posta.]

pusta
:

v.

+ pusyase rv.
;

Sec. Con).

popus-. Desid. pusisa-, pupviksa-. ] Cans, posayati etc. v. Deriv. -pus RV.C. pusa c. posa V. + pusan V.+ pusya V. + posaka e.+ pusana rv.e. puska- V. + posin RV.C.
Pass,
etc. c.

pusyate

[Int.

puposisa-, pu-

-poaas RV.

posuka

II.

puspa
pusti pUSti

V.

pusarya

rv.

V.

AV.

posya V. + posana e. + posaniya o.

postr R. + positr c.
posayitnii av.

posayisnu

av.

y
Pres. [9.]

pu,

'cleanse'.
sv.,

punati punite

etc. v.

+ (punahi

punate
c'.

etc. V.B..S.

Perf.

(pavamana v.+), pava rv'., pavant pupuvus b.s., -ve etc. b. fapupot rv.ms.)

rv.) punise

[1.]

pavate
[Is.) av'.

Aor.
[Fut.
Verb,

[3.

apipavat. ] 5. apavisus rv.. apavista etc. rv.ms, pavisyati -te pavita.] [pavitva,] putva ptita v. + [pavita, puna;] pavitum jb.
;
;

av.,

-puya B.s. -pavam s. Int. popu-. Desid. pupusa-, piSec.Conj.: Pass, puyate etc. v. + [ Caus. pavayati etc. b.s., -te aa. pavayati etc. b.+, -te e. pavisa-.] (pavyate etc. c.) -pava V.+ pavya rv. potr V.+ Deriv. -pu v.b. potra V. + pavaka v. + av. pavana v. + -pu
putvi
RV.;
;

-pva?

V.
c.

pava pava

puti B. + puti'ima

AV.

RV.

pavitr RV. pavitr AV. + pavitra v. +


.

pavana

e.

-puna E.+ pavayitr b.

y
Pres. [1.]

puj, 'reverence

Perf.

apujan? m'. pupujire m'.


apupujat.]

[Aor.

Sec. Conj.: Caus.

pujayati

etc. s. +,

-te

etc. e.

(pujyate

etc.

e.+)

Deny.

puj a s.+
ptijaka E.+

pujya

e.

pujanaRv.E.+ pujaniyaE.+

pujayitr e. pujayitavyac.

y
Pres. [1.]

ptiy, 'stink'.

puyati

etc. b.s. [-te.]

[Perf.
Verb,

etc.

pupuye; apupuyat, apuyista; puyisyate,


: ;

puyita.]

[puta,] puyita (caws,?) cb.

[Sec. Conj.

Deriv.;

popuy-, popu- ; pupuyisa- puyaya-.] puti av.+ puya B.+

pur]

Roots, Verb-forms,

100

pur,

see

pr.

y
Pre*. [3.]

pr, prn, pur,

'fill'.

piparti piprati
etc. v.b.s.

etc. v.c.

prnati
Perf.

[6.]

(apiprata 3s. prnati -te etc. v.b.

ev.

pipiprhi

c'.)
s'.

[5.]

prnuyat

[9.] [4.]

puryamana

rvI.

pupure -rire c. (pupuryas rv.J; [papara, paparus paprus] paprvans ? ms. 3, apupuram Aor. 1 purdhi rv. apuri c. priyasam av. [puryat.] CB. fpupurantu ev.) piparat rv*. 5. [aparit,] puristhas ta.
.
;
; ;

[Fut.
Fr6.

parisyati, parita.]

purna

V.
e.

+
+
;

-purya
pur-.
etc.

purtav. + prta s'. [purita]; puritum -puras k. prnadhyai rv. -puram s.


,

r.

[purtva;]
papr-, po-

See. Conj.: Pass,

Desid. piparisa-, pupursa-.

puryate
etc. e.

etc.

e.+, -ti

etc. e.

(orpres. 4.)
]

[Int.

Cans, [parayati

;]

purayati

AV. +, -te

Beriv.

pur

v.

+ (puryate parinas rv.

etc. e.

+)
e.

puraka
-purin -purya

-parana c. parus v. +

pariman pareman

rv.
sv.

e.

papri rv. papuri rv.

b.e.

pupuri

sv.

parvanv. +

puru
See also

V.

purisa?v. + purti v. +

puranaB.+ puraniya a
-prna
V.B.S.

piiraya? rv.

puraE.+

purayitr e. purayitavya

c.

pra, which

is a

secondary form of this root.

y
Pres. [3.]
[2.]
3.

2 pr, 'pass'.

piparti piprati

etc. v.b.s.c.

(piprhi

s'.c'.)

[1.]

para

vsi. ?

parsi rv. 4. parsati etc. apiparat etc. v.b. (piparat v.b., piparat rv'.) RV., parsat v.b., parsa v. 5. parisat rv. Verb, parsani rv. Sec. Conj.: Caus. parayati etc. v. +, -te etc. e.+ (paryate c.) Deriv.: -parana v. parsani rv. parana v. + pipru? v. RV. parsistha rv. paraniya e. + -paraya bv. partf perii v. parsa? RV. para v. + parayitr b. -parsin? CB. -parin ab. papri v. parayisnuv. The aorist stem pars has almost won the value of a secondary root.
Aor.

y
Pres. [5.]
Verb,

.3

pr, 'be busy'.


c'.

prnoti prta e. +
:

c'..

prnvana

Sec. Conj.

Pass,

Deriv.

-pra ?

priyate e. + Rv. -para

Cans, parayati
e.

etc. c.

101

AND Primary Derivatives.


Only with a and (especially)

[py5
a

vya
up

hence in

all probability

specialized
to

use of

or 2

pr

(1

pr

'be tilled

or occupied', or 2

pr

with vi-a, 'made

pass to and

fro,

kept in motion').

y
Pres. [7.]

pre, 'mix'.

prnakti prneanti etc. v.b., priikte etc. v.b. [1.] prnca pfn[3.] piprgdhi v.b., piprkta rv. Perf. paprcus b. paprcasi rv., -cyat etc. \.). paprcana rv. Aor. 1. parcas rv., prciya etc. bv.s., preana rv. 4. aprak av., aprksi
cati Av.

-kta
[Fut.
Verb,

etc. v.B.s. [

5.

aparcit, aparcista.J
rv'.;
etc.

parcisyati

-te, pareita.]

prkta

v. +,

Sec. Conj.: Pass,

Caus. parcaya-.]

-prgna? prcyate

-prce
[

rv.,
Int.

-prcas

v.b.s.

v.+

v.

pariprc-.

Desid. piparciaa-.

Deriv.: -pre v.b.

parka av.+
-parcana

prka rv. prksa' rv.


?

praksaVv.

y prn,

see

pr.

prt, 'fight'.

Inferable from the derivatives

pft

rv.,

prtana

v.

y
Under
this

pv9> pv?
a

(?)

heading may be grouped

tions, in part perhaps connected with

pf Qana rv. prQani rv.

pr9niv.+ prsant v. + prsataB.+

number of words spr9 prsta v.b.


Pysti
^'-b-

of doubtful rela-

par(juv.+

parqana

v.

prstha v.+

y
Pres. [4.]
Perf.

pya,

'fill

up'.

pyayate etc. v. + pipye? Rv. [papye.]


apyayi.

Aor.

[1.

4.

apyasam
;

aa.

5.

pyayisimahi

s.

6.

pyasi-

simahi
[Fut.
Verb,

av.b.s.

pyasyate, pyayisyate pyata, pyayita.]

pyata
ydte

ts.

[pyana.]

Sec. Conj.:

Caus.

pyayayati

etc.

av.+, -te

etc. c.

(pyayayisthas

r.

pyayb.

etc.

b.+)
c. c.

Dmi;.; -pyaya
Is a

-pyayya

e.

-pyayana b.+
pi.

-pyayayitr

-pyayin

secondary root-form from

prach]

Roots, Vekb-fokms,

102

y
Pres. [6.] Perf.

prach,
+

'ask'.

prchati -te

etc.

v.+
b.

papracha paprachu3
[3.

4. apraksit etc. v. + (aprat ev.), aprasta c. apaprachat. ] (prksase? bv.) 2. praata.] Fut. 1. praksyati etc. b.+ (apraksyat b.u.) [ v. +; prastum v. + pratva e.+ -prchya e. + -prcham Verb, prsta -che Rv. [Int. paripreh-. Sec. Conj.: Pass, prchyate etc. v.+ ] Desid. pipr[Caus. praehaya-.] chisa- (in d.). Deriv. prastr u.+ -prch rv. prchaka b.+ piprchisu c. prach- E.+ prchya rv.c. pra9na v.+ paprksenya ev. prastavya e. + -praqnya b. prcha c. The BV. form paprkse is also referred hither by BR.

Aor.

-,

y
Pres. [1.]

prath, 'spread'.

Perf.

Aor.

prathate etc. v.+, -ti etc. v. paprathe etc. v. +, -thatus c. 1. prathana ev. 3. (j>erf. ?) paprathat

etc.

-thanta rv.

5.

aprath-

ista
[Fut.
Verb,

etc.

EV.

prathisyate, prathita.]

prathita

e.

Sec. Conj.:

Qaus.

prathayati
prthi
v.B.

etc. v. +,

-te

etc. v.

(prathayi

tb.s.)

Deriv.

-prth? RV.

prtha B.+

prthuv.+
prthiviv. +
rv.

prthakv.+ prthavana

pratha

c.

prathana b.+ prathas v.b. prathuE. + prathiman rv.c.


pra,

prathistha v.b. prathiyas b.s.

prathasnu?
prathayitr

tb.
c.

|/

'fill'.

Pres. [2.] Perf.

prasi

rv.

paprau
1.

etc. v.

aprat etc. Verb, prata rv. I>eny.; -pra RV.


Aor.

v.b.

(papratha rv. aprayi av,


;

papra
4.

rv.),

papre

etc. v.

apras

(3^.) rv.b.

-pra av. b.s.

-prana
pr.

(api-) ev,

-pravan

ev.

secondary root-form, from

y
Pres. [9.]

pri, 'please'.

prinati -nite
r'.)

etc.

\.+

[4. (or pass.')]

priyate

etc.

u.+, -ti

etc.

e.+

(priyanti
Perf.

pipriye -yana
prihi RV.)
1.

rv.

apipres
etc. b.

etc.

b.s.

(piprayat

etc.

-ayasva pi-

Aor.

priyat

c.

4.

apraisit

(presat rv.) [apresta.J

103
iFut.
Verb,

AND Primary Derivatives.


presyati -te, preta.] prita v. + pritva cb.
;

[plu

Sec. Conj.

[Int.

pepri-.

Desid. piprisati rv.

Cans, prinayati
v.+

etc. s.+
e.

Dcriw. ; -pri v.B.s.

priti s.+

preman

piprisa

priya V.+

prayas
The

v.b.

pretr preni
is,

rv.s.
v.

preyas v.+ prestha v. +

pipri8UE.+ prinana e.+

so-called causative

of course, a deuominative, apparently of a pple

prina, not occurring independently.

y
Pres. [1.] Perf.

pru,

flow'.

pravate

etc. rv.b.s.

pupruve
4.

etc. b.

prosthas s. pruta bv. Deriw. prava RV.


Aor.
Verb,
:

side-form to the

pravana v. + -prut v.b. much more common y plu.


'.'

y
Pres. [1.]

pruth,

'snort'.

prothati

etc. v.b.,

-amana

rv.
-te,

[Perf. etc.

puprotha, -othe; aprothit, -thista; prothisyati


rv.,

pro-

thita.]

prothy a s. Sec. Conj.: Int. popruthat rv. Cans, prothayitva Deriv. protha b. + prothatha rv.
Verb,

-pruthya
:

s.

y
Pres. [5.]

prus,

'sprinkle'.
rv.
cb.

prusnuvanti -navat -nute RV., -sant? Av. [4.] aprusyat [Perf. etc. puprosa aprosit.J

[9.]

prusnant

b.

[d.]

prusa

prosisyant ts. prusita rv. Dcrjy..- -prus V.+ Compare y plus.


Fut.
1.

2.

prosita.]

Verb,

-prus

ts.

prusva

av.b.

prsvaV

ts.

pii

(?).

The isolated form vi pliyante occurs

qt svb.

iii. 9.

1.

y plu,
Pres.

'float'.

[L] plavate

etc.

v.+, -ti

etc. b.

[2?] pluvita
4.

s.,

apluvan

e.

Perf.

Aor.

-vus e.+ 3. [apuplavatj apiplavam cb. Fut. 1. plosyati -te etc. b. Verb, pluta av. + -plutya s. +, -pluya
b.+,
;

pupluve

aplosta

etc. b.

cb.k.

] ;

pluj
Sec. Conj.
:

Roots, Veeb-fokms,
Int.

104

popluyate
-te

etc.

b.

Desid. puplusa-.]

Caus. pla-

DeWv.

vayati etc. b.+, plava V.+


.-

plavaka

E.

-plavin c. Compare ]/ pru.

etc. e.+ (plavyate c); plavayati c'. plavanas. + plavaB.+ plavyaE. plavitr e. -plavaka c. plavana b.+ pluti s. + plavin b. + plavayitr e.

y
Pres. [1.]
[Per/", etc.

plus, 'burn".

plosati

c*.

[plusyati, plusnati.]

puplosa; aplosit; plosisyati, plosita.] plusta e.+ Sec. Conj.: Pass, plusyate c. Derji'. plosin c. pliisi v.b. plosa o. Compare y prus.
Verb,
.-

plosana

c.

y
Pres. [2.J

psa, 'devour".
psata.]

psati
b.

etc.
;

av.b.
;

[Per/", etc.

papsau psayat, pseyat, apsasit psasyati,


-psaya b. Pass, apsiyata
;

Verb,

psata

Sec. Conj.:

jb.

Int.

papsa*.

Desid. pipsasa-.

^ !

Cans, psapaya-.]
Deriv.

psaniya

c.

Doubtless a secondary root-form, from

bhas.

y phakk,
Pres. [l.J

'swell'

(?)

[Perf.

etc.

phakkant c'. paphakka; apaphakkat, aphakkit; phakkisy ati, phakkita

phakkyate, paphakk-, piphakkisa-, phakkaya-.]


The
single occurrence doubtless artificial.

y
Pres. [1.] [Perf. etc.

phan,

'spring'.

phanati

c.
;

paphana paphanus phenus

aphanit aphanit

phanisyati,

phanita.]
Sec. Conj.: Int.

[Desid. piphanisa-. paniphanat rv., pamphanat s. Caus. phanayati etc. bv.lcs. [phanayati.J phena?v. + Der ju. phana b. + phaiitaB.+
;

y
Sec. Conj.: Int.

phar,

'scatter' (?;.

Deriv.

parpharat rvI. pharvara -pharvi v.b.

b,v.

phariva

rv.

parpharika

rv.

All the derivatives of doubtful meaning and connection.

105

AND Peimary Derivatives.

[bandh

y
Pres. [1.]

phal,

'burst'.

phalati
e.

etc. e.

+
phalisyati, phalita.J

Perf.

paphala
etc.

[phelus.]
;

[Aor.
Verb,

apiphalat, aphalit phalita e. +


:

Sec. Conj.

Deriv.:

[Int. pamphul-. Desid. piphalisa-. phalin c. phalaka b.+ phala

v.+

Cam. phalayati etc. phulla e.+

p.-

See

phal. Tlie pple phullant

m1.

is

doubtless a denominative for-

mation from phulla.

y
Pres. [1.]

2 phal,
e.

'fruit'.

phalati

etc. e. +,

-te

Perf. phelire c. Fut. phalisyati


Verb,

etc. e.

phalita
:

e.

+
+

Deriv.

phala

v.

phalitavya

e.

Doubtless in reality a denominative of phala, which from

phal.

y banh,
[Pres. etc.
Verb,

'make

firm'.

banhate; babanhe; abanhista; banhisyate, banhita.J


v.

badha
:
.

Sec. Conj.

Cans,

banhayate

etc. b.

Dcriu.

bahala

c.

bahuv.+

banhistha v. + banhiyas ms.

bahu'' v.+

y
Pres. [9.]

bandh,

'bind'.

+ (badhana av. +. bandhana e., badhnihi c), -nite etc. a'.b.s. [1.] abandhat c, -dhata (3s.) e.. abadhnanta e. babandha av.+. bedhus av.. babandhus e. + bedhe -dhire etc. Perf.

badhnati

etc. v.

AV.

[Aor.
Fut.
Verb,

[babandhe.] badhyat, ababandhat, abhantsit.] 1. bhantsyati etc. b.s., bandhisyati -te e.+
:
;

2.

banddha.]
:

baddha v. + banddhum e. +, baddhum? e., bandhitum e. baddhva av. +, -dhvaya b. -badhya b. + -badhe av. -bandham c.
: :

JSec.

Conj.

Pass,

Desid. bibhaiitsa-.
Deriv.
:

badhyate

etc. v. +. -ti c.
]

[Int.

babandh-, babadhya-.
etc.

Cans,

bandhayati

b.+

bandha v. + bandhaka e.+ bandhin e. + bandhya e. +

bandhana v. + bandhaniya e. bandhu v. + -bandhuka b.

+-

-baddhavya c. -banddhr c. banddhra av.

badhira v. + bandhayitr c

bal]

Roots, Verb-forms,

106

y
Sec. Conj.: Int.
It is

bal, 'whirl'!?).

balbaliti

cbI.

not probable that this solitary verb-form has anything to do with the
derivatives (from a

common

y bal

'be strong)

bala

v. +.

baliyas

av. +, bal-

istha B.+.

baliman

u.,

bala?

s.+

y badh,
Pres. [1.]

'oppress'.

Perf.

badhate etc. v. +, -ti babadhe v.+. -dha? m.

etc.

e.+

] 5. badhista v. (badhithas ta.); badhistam ta. ababadhat. 2. badhita.] Fut. 1. badhisyati c, -te e. [ Verb, badhita a. + badhitum e. -badhya rv. badlie hv. Int. babadhe babadhana, Pass, badhyate etc. e.+ Sec. Conj.: Desid. bibhatsate etc. \. + bibadhisate badbadhe -dhana ev.b. Cans, badhayati etc. av. + cB. bibhatsas. badhaniya c. Dem'.: badh Rv. -badhin b.c. v.+ badhya b. + bibhatsa b. -badhas rv. badha, -a badhitavya e. + bibhatsu v. + badhaka e. + badhana e. + badhitr e.+ Compare y' vadh, badh. The reference of bibhatsa- to this root is not

Aor.

[3.

beyond question.

y budh,
Pres. [4.] Perf.

'know, wake'.
+

budhyate
etc.

etc.

\.+, -ti

etc. e.

[l.Jbodhati

etc. v. +,

-te

etc.

e.+

Aor.

bubodha e. (bubodhati etc. bubodhas rv.) abudhran -ram rv., budhana rv. abodhi V.+ 2. budhanta rv., budhemaAv. ? 3. abiibudhat v. 5. bodhisat rv., 4. abhutsi etc. v.b., abuddha c. [bhutsista.]
v.+,
1.

bubudhe
bodhi

(impr.) rv.

Fut.

abodhisata c. 1. bhotsyati b.,

-te

e. [

"i-boddha.]
e.

Ver^.

buddha
budhi
.-

v.

boddhum
c.

buddhva
bobudhiti

c.

-budhyas. +

-budhe

b.,

RV.

Sec. Conj.

Pass,

budhyate

Int.

etc. b.c.

Desid. bubhutv.+, -te b.

sati -te

etc. c.

[bubodhisa-.j

Caws, bodhayati

etc.

(bodh-

yate
Deri'-.:

e.,

bubodhayisa-

in d.)

-budh

V.B.

budha

B.+

-budhya rv. budhan- tb. bodhav. + bodhaka E.+

bodhin e. + bodhya e.+ bodhana v. + bodhaniya e.+


bodhiE. +
bodhit- rv.

buddhi s. + boddhavya l + bodhitavya c. boddhr e. + bubhutsa c. bubhutsu e.+


.

bodhayitavya c. bodhayitr rv.c. bodhayisnu e. bubodhayisu e. + bibodhayisu r'.

107

AND Primary Derivatives.

[bhak?

y
-Sec.

bul, 'submerge'.
commentary

Conj.

Caus.

bolayati

c.

The single occurrence in


]/

is

doubtless

artificial.

brnh, vrnh,

'roar', see

y vrnh.
strong'.
av.d.

y
Pres. [1.]

brh, 'make big or

brnhati

-te

etc. cb.

[6.]

brhati

etc.

Perf.
Verb,
Sec.

babarha av., babrhana rv. brdha ob., vrdha cii.c. Conj.: Int. barbrhat barbrhi
etc. {or

ev.

Caus.

barhaya

v.;

brnhayati

vrnh.-) e.+, -te

e.

Deriv.

brh- v. + -barha s. +

brhant
+

v.

-barhana

v.

barhana

ev.

-barhas v.b. barhistha v.+ -brhhin barhis ? v. +


root.

brahman v. + brahman v. +
c.

brnhana k. + brnhaniya c.

brnhayitavya

c.

Compare the following

y
The

brh, vrh, 'tear,


brh, and

see

y vrh.

relations of the two roots

the connection of some of their

derivatives, are not wholly clear.

y
Pres. [2.]

bru,

say'.

braviti bruvanti etc. briite bruvate etc. v. + (brumi e.. bravihiE.+, abriivan u., abravat? m.) [6.] abruvam u.e., bruva-

dhvam
Aor.
1.
:

m.,

bruvamana
m1.

c.

Deriv.

bruyasta -brava v.

-bruva

av. +

y
bhaksati abhaksi c.
*

bli, see

vli.

y bhaks,
Pres. [1.]

'partake of, eat'.

Aor.
Verb,

1.

ababhaksat bhaksitum e. + -bhaksam s.


3.
;

-te

etc. e.

+
cb.
*

Sec. Conj.: Desid.

Caus. bhaksayati bibhaksisati e.? B.+ (bhaksyate etc. b. + bibhaksayisati e.+)


;

etc.

v.+, -te

etc.

Deriv.

bhaksav.+ bhaksaka c. bhaksin s. +

bhaksitavya c. bhaksayitr e.+ bhaksya e. + bhaksayitavya b.+ bhaksitr e. bhaksana v. + bibhaksayisa c. bhaksaniya b.c. bhaksivan b.s.

bibhaksayisu
Secondary root-form, from
'causative' forms only sporadic.

k.

y bhaj

(as

denominative of bhaksa); the non-


bhaj]

Roots, Verb-fokms,

108

y
Pres. [1.]

bhaj, 'divide, share'.


v.+

bhajati -te
+
ce.

etc.

2.

bhaksi

ev.
fn.

Perf.

babhaja bhejus

etc.

v.+ (babhaktha

[bhejitha]), bheje -jire

etc. V.

Aor. 3.

Put.

abibhajus abhaksi -kta 1. bhaksyati


2.

4.

abhaksit

etc. v.

+ (abhak

v.b.,

bhaksat
etc. e.

e,v.),

etc. v.

+ (bhaksista

etc. v.b.s.,

-sita sv.)

-te

etc. n.

(abhaksyan

m.);

bhajisyati -te

bhakta.]
; ;

v. + bhaktum b.+, bhajitum e. bhaktva av. +, -tvaya -bhajya b. + -bhajam (m/".) b. [hit. babhaj-. Sec. Conj.: Pass, bhajyate etc. av.+ ] Desid. [bibhakCans, bhajayati etc. v. +, -te c. sa-;] bhiksa- (see y bhiksj. (bhajyate etc. av.b.) bhajaka c. Deriv.: bhaj v. + bhajaniya e. + bhagav. + bhajenya c. bhaj in v. + bhaga v. + bhagin b. + bhaktiv. + -bhagya s. bhajya c. bhaj in c. bhajitavya e. bhagiyas c. bhajanaB.+ -bhajya c. rv. s. bhajana c. bhaktr -bhaja bhajayu ev. Compare the derivative root -forms bhaks and bhiks compare also y bhahj.

Yerb.

bhakta
;

Rv.

y bhanj,
Pres. [7.]

'break',

Perf.

bhanakti babhanja etc.


+
s.+

etc.

v.+ (abhanas av.)

v. +, -jire c.

Aor.

1.

abhajic. [abhahji; bhajyat.

o.

ababhahjat.]

4.

abhahksit

etc. e.

Put.
Verb,

1.

bhanksyati
;

bhagfia

bhankta m. bhaiiktva e.+, bhaktva


e.

2.

e.

-bhajya
[

e.+

-bhahjam

c.

Sec. Conj.: Pass,

bhajya-.
Beriv.
:

Desid. bibhanksa-. Caus. bhanjaya-.]


v.

bhajyate
+

etc.

av.+, -ti

etc. b.

Jnt.

bambhahj-, bam-

bhanga

bhanginEv.c.

bhangi c. bhanj aka

c.

bhanjana av.+ -bhahj anu ev.


'hire'.
07ily a

bhanktr

c.

bhaiigurav.+

y
E. +.

bhat,

This so-called root (bhatayati

etc. c.) is

denominative of

bhata

doubtless a prakritized form of bhrta.

y bhau,
Pres. [1.]

'speak'.

bhanati
c.

etc. jb.c.

[babhanitha.] Aor. I. abhani c [ 3. abibhanat, ababhanat. [Put. bhanisyati, bhanita.]


Perf.

babhana

5.

abhanit.]

Verb,

bhanita

c.

bhanitva

c.

109
Sec. Conj.
:

AND Primary Derivatives.


Pass,

[bhas

bhanyate
c.

c.

Desid. bibhanisabhaniti
c.

(in d.)

Caug.

bhanc.

ayati.]
Deriv.
:

-bbana
later

bhanana c. bhananiya

c.

bhanaka

bhana

c.

bibhanisu

c.

form of

y bhan.

y
Pres. [1.]

bhan,

'speak'.

bhanati

etc.

Probably related

-nanta rv. with ]/ bha. Compare y bhan,

the later form.

y bhand,
Pres. [1.]

'be bright'.

bhandate
Caus.

etc.

rv.

[Sec. Conj.:
ij

bhandayati.]
v.B.

Denu.

.-

bhand^na

bhandistha

v.s.

bhadrav.+

y
Pres. [1.]

bharts,

'revile'.

bhartsati
Caus.

etc.

av. .'kb.e.
etc. e. +,

Sec. Conj.:

bhartsayati

-te

c'.

(bhartsyate

etc.

E.+)

Deriv.

Tlie form

bhartsana b.+ bhartsyami

av. is certainly a false reading.

y
Pres. [1.]

bharv, 'devour'.
rv.

Deriv.:

bharvati etc. -bharva? rv.

rv.

bharvara?

y
[Pres. etc.
Sec. Conj.
:

bhal, 'perceive'.
<

bhalate etc.] Caus. bhalayati -te

etc. u.c.

y bhas,
Pres. [1.]

'bark'.

bhasati

etc. e. +,
;

-te
;

etc. e.

[Perf. etc.

babhasa abhasit bhasisyati, bhasita.] Verb, bhasitum e. bhasana c Dcr bhasa vs. bhasaka c.
Jxj. ;
m

-bhas?AB.

y bhas,
Pres.
[3.]

'devour'.

babhasti bapsati etc. v.b. Cbabhasat rv., babdham c'.) bhasat bhasathas rv. [1 ?] Verb, bhasita c. babhaea u. -psu rv. i>eriv. bhas c. bhastra?B. + v. + -bhasa ? e. bhasman Compare the derived root psa. The nouns bhasad v.b.s., bhdnsas
;

v.

hardly belong here.

bha]

Roois, Verb-forms,

110

y
Pres. [2.] bliati Perf.
[ylor.
etc. v.

bha,

'shine'.

babhau
1.

etc. e.

bhayat, abhasit.] 2. bhata.] bhasyati b.+ [ Verb, bhata u. + Int. babha-. Desid. bibhasa-. Caus. [Sec. Conj.: Pass, bhayate. bhapaya-, abibhapat.] Deriv. : bha v, + bhaua e. + bhanu v. + -bha van -vari v. + bhati c. bhama v. bhas v. + bha s. + Compare roots bhan and bhas.
Fut.

y
[Pres. etc.
Yerh.
[Sec.

bham,

'be angry'.

bhamate; babhame; abhamista; bhamisyate, bhamita.] bhamita rv.ts. Caus. bhamaya-.] Conj.: Int. babhamya-.

Deriv.

bhama

v.b.

In reality,

the

solitary

form

bhamita

is

doubtless gwusi-pple from

bhama {y bha).

y
Pres. [1.]

bhas,
etc. e.

'speak'.

bhasate

etc.

b.+, -ti

Perf.

babhase
1.

etc. b.

Aor. [1. abhasi.


Fut.

3.

ababhasat, abibhasat.

2. bhasita.] bhasisyate c. [ bhasita e. + bhasitumu.+, bhastum e. bhasitvaE. -bhasyaE.+ [Int. babhas-. Desid, bibhasisa-. Sec. Conj. Pass, bhasyate etc. e.+ Caus. bhasayati etc e.+. -te etc. b.e. bhasanaE.+ bhasita vy a e. bhasaka c. -Deri u. -bhas AB. bhasitrB.+ bhasin e. -bhasaniya c. -bhasaE.H-

] 5.

abhasisi

c.

Verb,

bhasa

s.

bhasya

s.

Related with roots bha, bhas,

bhan.
'shine".

y
Pres. [1.]

bhas,
etc. e.

bhasati

etc.

av. +, -te

Perf.

[Aor.
Verb,

babhase etc. e. + bhasisyate, bhasita.] etc. ababhasat abibhasat, abhasista


;

bhasita
:

c.

Desid. bibhasisa-. ] Caus. bhasayati etc. babhas-. V. +, -te E. (bhasyate c) -bhasanaE. + bhasura e. X)erji;.; bhas B.+ bhasaka c. bhasvara b. + bhasas rv. b. + bhasin e. + bhasa
See. Conj.
[Int.

bhasya
Doubtless
a

c.

secondary root-form from


also

y bha,

perhaps through the noun

bhas. Compare

bhas.

Ill

A.ND

PkIMARY DeKIVATIVES.

[bhi

y bhik?,
Pres. [1.]
Perf.

'beg'.

bhiksate bibhikse b.u.

etc.

\.+, -ti

etc, e.

[Aor. abhiksista.]

bbiisisye e. [ 2. bhiksita.] bhiksita e. + bhiksittim e. bhiksitva c. Sec. Conj.: Cans, bhiksayati c. Beriv. bhiksa v. + bhiksana s. + bhiksitavya
Fut.
1.

Terb.

on.

bhiksin

e.

bhiksu c. bhiksuka

s.

desiderative formation from

bhaj.

y
Pres. [".] Perf.

bhid,
etc.

'split'.

bhinatti bhindanti
v. +,

v.+.

bhintte c. bhindana
ev..
3.

ev.

bibheda bibhidus
1.

Aor.

abhedam
b.e.

-et

etc.

bv.

abhedi
Fut.
Verb,
1
.

bibhide c. (^bhet bhedati bhidant

bhidyusv

2.

[abhidat]
ts.

bhideyam

av.

-,

abibidhat.]

ms.);
4.

[abhaitsit,] bhitthas

[bhitsista.J
etc. k.
,

bhetsyati

etc. s. +,

-ate

+ (_abhetsyat

u.) [

2.

bhetta.]
:

bhinnav. + bhettuinE. + bhettavai b.s. bh.ittvav. + -bhidya V. + Sec. Conj. Pass, bhidyate etc. b. +, -ti etc. e. [ Int. bebhid-.] Desid. Caus. bhedayati etc. e.+, -te e. (^bibhedayisabibhitsati etc. rv.e. in cL). bhidapaya- [in d.). Derh bhedaka s. + bhindii v.b. bhettr v. + bhid V.+ bibhitsa e. + -bhida e. + bhedin b.+ bhidura c bibhitsu e. + bhitta? c. bhida c. bhedya e.+ bibhedayisu e. bhitti B. + bhidya v. + bhedana s. + bhidapana c. bhettavya e. bheda v.+ bhedaniya e.
:

y
Pres. [2.]

bhisaj,

'heal'.

bhisakti ev. [7 ?] abhisnak ev. v.+ Beriv.: bhisaj bhesaja v.+ The use of bhisaj as a verbal root in rv. is very abnormal. The denominative bhisajyati etc. v.b., from the noun bhisaj, is qnite common.

y
Pres.
[3.]

bhi, bhis,

'fear'.

bibheti bibhyati etc. v.+ ([bibhitas etc.] bibhiyat c") bhayate etc. v. [1.] bibhyati -yanti etc. e.+ bibhayam bibhaya bibhyus etc. v. + (^bibhaya ^b.aa.), bibhye e. Perf.

Aor.

Fut.

eakara b. 1. bhes b.s.. bhemaRv., bhiyana rv. [abhayi.] + 4. abhaisit etc. v. + (bhais abibhayanta ev. 2. bheta.] 1 abhesyat cb. [
.

'-i-

bibhayat

v..

bhi]
Verb,

Roots, Verb-fokms,
bhita
v.

112

bhetum
bhiyate.
etc.
,

e.

Sec. Conj.: [Pass,

-bhiya
Int.

c.

bbiyase rv.

bebhi-.

Desid. bibhisa-.
etc.

Caus.
e.

bhayayati
(bibhisas
Deri V.
:

c.

ts.

-sathas rv.

bhi V.+

bhaya v. + bhayya B.
bhiyas
The
Compare
V.

(-bhayya b.); bhisayate bhisayant c) bhiyasana av. bheya e. bhiti c. bhiru v. +


;

b.

-ti etc.

bhisaE. bhisaka

e.

bhetavyaE.+
bliiinav.+
stem
is, of

-bhila

e.

bhisanav.+

bhls

v.b.u.

bhisma

b.+

'causative'
]/

course, a denominative from a derivative noun.

bhyas.

y
Pres. [6.]

bhuj,

bend'.

bhujati etc. v.+ Perf. [bubhoja] abubhojis rv. [AoT. etc. abhaviksit bhoksyati, bhokta.] Verb, bhugna s. + -bhujya s.+
;
;

Sec. Conj.

Pass,

bhvijyate
+

c.

Deriv.:

-bhuj

av.
E.

bhoga v.+

bhuji

rv.

bhujyu
rv.

v.b.

bhuj a

bhujman ?

y
Pres.
[7.]
etc.

bhuj,
etc.

'enjoy'.
rv.),

bhunkte bhunjate
etc.

v.+ (-jate

bhunakti bhunjanti
[1
?]

V.+ [bhunjiyat
etc. E.

s.+,

bhunjitam

e.)'

bhunjati
+

etc.

u.+,

-te
Per/",

Aor.

bubhuje etc. v. + (-jmahe -jrire bv.), bubhujus 1. bhojam, bhojate rv. [bhujyat; abhoji.]
[3.

e. 2.

abiibhujat, -jata.
B.s.

bhujema

rv.

4.

abhauksit, abhukta.

6v bhuksi-

siya
Put.
1.

bhoksyate etc. s. +, -ti etc. e. + 2. bhokta r. bhoktumE. + bhuktvas. +, bhunktvac. bhojase Fer&. bhukta e. + BV. bhiijam bhuje rv. Int. bobhujiti c, -jyate Sec. Conj.: Pass, bhujyate etc. b. +, -ti m.v Caus. bhojayati etc. av.+, c. Desid. bubhuksate etc. e. +, -ti e. -te c. bhunjapayati c
;

Deriv.

bhuj V.+
-bhoj- RV.

bhoja V. + bhojaka e.+ bhojin S.+ bhojya v. +

bhoga V.+ bhogin B. + bhogya av. + bhojana v. +


bhojaniya bhojas V.
is

bhuji RV. -bhogi RV.

bhujisya av.+
-bhujistha? av. bubhuksa e. +

-bhogaya ev. bhukti S.+


+

bubhuksu
bhojayitr

c.

b.

bhoktavya
bhoktr U.+

s.+

bhojayitavya e.+
c.

The word bhuaksita R^

perhaps an irregular formation from this

root.

113

AKD Primary Derivatives.

[bhu?

y
Pres. [6.]
Sec. Conj.
:

bhur,

'quiver'.
rv.

bhurantu -ranta -ramana


Int.
v.

jarbhuriti -rat -rana ev.

Deriv. :

bhurana

bhurvani

rv.
]/

Doubtless a specialized root-form from


tives such as

bhurni v. bhr all the


;

bhurij

.'

v. +

forms and deriva-

might come from

y bhr

cf.

tr.

y
The single form bhurajanta
'roast'.

bhuraj.
rv'. is regarded as

coming from

bhrjj

y
Pres. [1.]

bhu,
b.+

'be'.

bhavati

etc,

v.+, -te

etc.

Perf.

babhuva

etc.

v.+ (babhdtlia -uvitha

v.b.

babhuyas -yat ba;

bhiitu RV.)
Aor.
1. abhut -uvan etc. v.+ (bhtiyasara -sma etc. v.+, -yama v.b.u. 2? abhuvat etc. v. (bhiivat bodbi V.B., bhutu etc. v.); abhavi c. etc. V.B., bhuvani rv.) 3. abiibhuvas av. [abibhavat.] 5. bhavisat? AB. [abhavista, bhavisista.]

Put.

1.

bhavisyati
e.)
v.

etc. 2.

dhvam
Verb,

v.+, -te

etc.

e.+ (abhavisyat

etc.

v.+,

bhavisya-

bhavita

b.u.e.
; ; ;

Sec.

bhutvav.+, -tvi rv. -bhdya v.+ bhuve -bhuve v., -bhve rv. bhusaniRv. -bhuyamB., -bhavamcB. Conj.: Pass, bhuyate etc. e.+, -ti u. Jnt. bobhaviti etc. v. + e.+ Caus. bhavayati etc. av. +, Desid. bubhiisati etc. v. +, -te etc. -te c. (bhavitum a. bhavyate etc. e. +, bibhavayisati b.)
bhiita
;

+ bhavitum

b.+, -tosB.
;

Deriv.

bhu

v.+

-bhu V. + -bhva V.
bhiiva
B.

bhiivana v.+ -bhavas b.

bhuyas

v.

bhuvas
+
bhiiti
V.

B.

bhaviyas rv. bhuyistha v. +


-bhavistha rv.
bhtiri
V.

bhavya v. + bhavana e. + bhavaniya e.+ bhavuka b.+


bubhiisa b.+ bubhtisaka e. bubhiisitavya

bhava v. + bhava av.+ bhavaka c.


-bhavin
c.

bhavya v. + -bhvan v. bhavana e. + bhavaniya c.

bhuti bhavitva rv. bhavitavya b.+ bhavitr e. + bhavitra V.


RV.

+
v.b.
B.

-bhtivari

bhusnu

+
b.+

jb.

bhuman v.s. bhuman v. + bhumi V. +


]/

bhavisnu -bhuya av. + bhava u.s. + bhavaka e. + bhavin e. +

bubhusu

s.

+
b.+

bhavayitavya bhavayitr b. +
bhavajni
rv.

bhus,

'attend upon, adorn'.

Pres. [1.]
[Per/-, etc.

bhusati

etc. v.bI.

bubhusa; abubhusat, abhusit;


II.

bhiisisyati, bhusita.]

Whitney, Supplement

bhu?]
See. Conj.
:

Roots, VERB-roRMS,
Caua.

114

bhusayati

etc. e.

+, -te etc. e.

+
e.

JDcTO.

bhusa E.+ bhusya c.


roots
:

bhusanaE. +

-bhusenya uv. bhusayitavya bhusitavya jb.


The Vedic forms
2
are divided \)y
etc.,

secondary root-form, from


1

y bhu.
move'

BR.

between two

bhtis,

'te,

bhus,

'attend upon' etc.

y
Pres. [3.]

bhr, 'bear
v.b..

bibharti bibhrati
c.

etc.

bhrana
bharti
Perf.
V.B.,

bibharti

etc.

ev'.+,

[1.]

bibhramana

rv'.

bibhrsva
etc.

bharati

-te

v.+

bi[2.]

ev-.
etc.

babhara
-bhre

b.

+ (babhrima c), babhre -rana rv.

etc. v.

(jabhartha -bharat ajabhartana

nv.)

bibharam
;

jabhara

etc.

b., abhrta c. bhriyasam -yat b. abhari 4. abhai'sit etc. v.b. (abhar v.b. bibharas e. abharisam Av. bharsat b,v.} Fat. 1. bharisyati etc. v.+ (abharisyat rv.) 2. bharta ce. Verb, bhrta v. + bhartum v. +, -tave v., -tavai v.; -bhrtya v, + bharadhyai rt. Int. jarbhrtas rv., bhariSec. Conj.: Pass, bhriyate etc. v. +, -ti e. Desid. bubhursati etc. b.+ [bibharbhrati etc. rv., baribharti c. Caus. bharayati e. isa-.j Deriv. : -bhra ? v. + bhartr v. + bhara v.+ -bhrtra ev. -bhrtvan v. bhratr v. + bharin b.+ bhara v. + av. + -bhalav av.s. bharya bhrtha v. + bharitra ev. bharana v. + -bharnas ev. -bhrt v.+ -babhra b. e.+ bharman rv.c. bhrti V. + babhri v. bharaniya jar bhari rv. bharas v.b. bhariman rv. bhrti cb'. bharman rv. bhrtya gdve. b. + bambhari? b. -bhari rv.c. bharisa ? rv. bhrtya n. av. bubhiirsa s. bharu c. bhrtina v. + bhrtya v. bubhursu c. bharata v. + bhrtenya? av. bhartavya v. +
;

babhuva c. Aor. 1. bhartam bhrtara


V.B.

3.

'.'

y
Pres. [0.]

bhrjj,

'roast'.

bhrjyeyus? b. [Perf. etc. babharjja -je, babhrajja -je; ababharjjat ababhrajjat, abhraksit abharksit, abhrasta abharsta ; bhraksyati -te, bharksyati -te, bhrasta bharsta.J Verb, bhrsta s. + bhrstva c.
bhrjjati
etc. v.

[-te.J

[4.]

Sec. Conj.: Pass,

Desid. bi[Jnt. baribhrjjya-. bhrjjyate c, -ti e. bhraksa- bibharksa, bibhrajjisa- bibharjjisa-. ] Caws, [bhrajjayati;] bharjjayati etc. c. bhrastra b. bhrastra c. Derjv. bharjjana S.+ bhrjj ana b.

115

AND Primary Derivatives.

[bhraj

y
Pres. [1.]

bhyas,

'fear'

abhyasetam

[Perf.

etc.

rv., bhyasat sv. babhyase; abibhyasat, abhyasiata; bhyasisyati, bhyasita;

Deriv.

babhyas-, bibhyasisa-, bhyasaya-.J -bhyasa av. A derivative root-form, from y bhl (througli bhiyas?).

y
Pres. [1.]

bhran9, bhrae,

'fall'.

bhran9ate

etc.

b.+, -ti avI.?

[4. J

bhra9yate

etc. s.+. -ti etc.

e.+

[Perf.

babhran9a -a9us, babhran9e.]

bhra9at v.b. [ 3. ababhrari9at. 5. abhran9ista.J [Fut. bhran9isyati -te, bhran9ita.] Verb, bhrasta av. +, -bhrsta v. [Int. babh.ra9ya-, banibhra9ya-, banibhrari9-. Sec. Conj. bhrafi9i3a-. ] Caus. bbran9ayati etc. e.+ (^bliran9yate
Aor.
2.
:

De^id. bietc.
s.

+);

bhra9ayan ev. Der ju. bhran9a B. + bhran9ana av.+ bhrah9in b. + bhran9ath.u c


;

-bhran9uka

b.

bhra9ya

av.

y
Pres. [1.]

bhram,

'wander'.

bhramati etc, cb'. ? e. +, -te etc. e. + [4.] bhramyati etc. e. + Perf. babhrama babhramvis etc. e. +, bhrematus -nius c Aor. 1. bhramyat s. abhrami e. abibhraraat e. [ 5. abhramit.] Fut. 1. bhramisyati c. [ 2. bhramita.] Verb, bhramta e.+ bhramitum c bhram turn c. bhramitvaE., bbramtva c. -bhramya c, -bhramya c. -bhramam c. Sec. Conj.: Int. bambhramiti e(c. c, -myate etc. c. [ Desid. bibhramCaus. bhramayati etc. e.+, -te c. (bhramyate v.+); bhramisa-.] etc. s.+ (bhramyate c.) ayati bhramaka c. bhrami c. Deriv. bhrma v. bhrama v. + bhramti c. bhramin c. bhrmi bv. -bhramin c. bhrama c. bhramana c. bhramana e.+ bhrmi rv. bhrnga? av.+ bhramanlya c.
;

.3.

y
Pres. [1.]

bhraj, 'shine',
etc. v.

bhrajate

etc.

v.+, -ti

+
bv.

Perf.

Aor.

babhraja -ajatus e.+ [babhraje, bhreje.jj 1. abhrat bv. bhrajyasam av. abhraji
abibhrajat.

[3.

ababhrajat,

5.

abhrajista.]

Fut.

1.

Sec. Conj.: [Int.


etc. E.

2. bhrajita.] bhrajisyate e. [ Desid. bibhrajisa-. babhraj-.

Caus.

bhrajayati

8*

bhraj]
Deriv.
:

Roots, Vekb-fokms,
bhraj
v.

116
av.b.
v.

+
v.
b.

-bhraj ?

bharga
bhraja

+
+

v.

bhraj aka c. bhraj in c. bhraj ana c. bhraj as v.b.s.

bhrajas?

-bhrasti rv.

bhargas

bhrsti?

V.B.S.

bhraji ms. bhrajis- b.e. bhrgu? V.+

bhrajistha is.c. bhraj isnu e. +

y
Pres. [9.]
[Per/', etc.

bhri, consume'.

bhrinanti rv'. bibhraya; abhraisit; bhresyati, bhreta; bebhri-, bibhrisa-, bhrayaya-.]

y
Pres. [1.]

bhres,

'totter'.

[Perf.

etc.

Deriv.

bhresati b., -te rv. bibhresa -se etc. etc.] bhresa b. +

Doubtless related with

y bhranij.
'be great, be liberal, bestow'.
rv.m.,

y manh, mah,
Pres. [1.] Perf.

manhate

etc. v.b.

mahe

-heta -hema rv.


etc.

mamahe -hana
mamanhe.]
etc.

v.b.

(mamahanta

mamahas

rv.)

[mamaha,

[Aor.

amanhista, amahit; manhisyate mahisyati, manhita


b.

mahita.]
Verb,

mahita
:

mahitva

e.

mahe
rv.
;

v.b.

mahaye

rv.
+, -te etc. v.b.

Sec. Con).

Caus.

manhayam

etc.

mahayati

etc. v.

Deriv.

magha v.+ manhana rv.


manhaniya c. manhiyas rv. manhistha v.b.s.

makha? v.+ maj man? v.

mahana

c.

mahman av.
mahisrv.

maksu V rv. mahksu? c. manhayu rv.

mah V.+ maha n. e. + maha v. + maha v. +


mahya? e. mahan v.

mahaniya e. mahant v. + mahas v. + mahas v. + mahi v. + mahin rv.

mahisa v. + mahistha c. mahiyas b. +

mahiman

v.+

mahayya u. mahayya rv. mahayayya rv.

Generally divided into two (related) roots, but the forms and meanings are

not separable with distinctness.

y
Pres. [1.]

majj,

'sink'.

majjati etc. v. +, -te etc. e.+ (majjana c.) Per/", mamajj a E.+ 3. amamajjat. Aor. 1. majjyatcB.; amajji c. [ M. 5. majjis Put. 1. mahksyati etc. b.+, -te b. majjisyati e. [

2.

4.

amanksit.]

mankta.]

117
Verb,

AND Prim AKY Derivatives.

[math

magna
:

u.s.

majjitum

e.+

[manktum; manktva, maktva;)

-majjya av.+
8ec. Conj.
[Jnt.

mamankti, mamajjyate.
etc. e. +.

Desid.

mimanksa- (^in dX
b.+

c.
>!.

Cans,
Deriv.
:

majjayati

-te

etc. e. c.

majjan? v.+ majjana S.+

majjuka

madgu?
c.

mimanksu
majjayitf

manktavya

-majra?Rv.
(?)

y
[Pres.
etc.
:

mane,

'purify"

mancate; mamance; amancista; mancisyate, mancita.] Verb, -mancya ci. Deriv. manca? e. + -mancana c.
Doubtless
artificial.

y
Assumed
Sanskrit.
for

man,

'sound'.
occurring once or twice in late

the juosi -pple

manita,

y
Sec. Conj.
:

mant,

Cans,

mant&yet

tbI.

Probably a false reading.

y man4,
[Pres. etc.
:

'deck*.

mandati -te etc. etc.] Sec. Conj. Cans, mandayati etc. e. +, -te e. Z>eritJ.; manda u. + mandanas. + manditr

I

c.

y
Pre*. [9.]

math, manth,
-nite
etc. b.
etc.

'shake'.

mathnati
etc.

etc. v. +,
;

(mathnadhvam m.")
av.e.+, -te
etc. e.

[1.]

manth-

ati
Perf.

V.+, -te v.b.

mathati

mamatha
E.

av. +,

mamathus

c,

methus methireB.; mamantha


] 5.

-nthus
Aor. [3.

amimathat, amamanthat. amanthistam rv.


1.
; ;

mathit

etc. v.,

amathisata

jb.

2. mathita e. mathisyati -te etc. b. + manthisyati b.s. Verb, mathita v. + mathitvim e. + -tos b. mtothitavai ms. mathitva B.+ [manthitva]; -mathya b.+, -manthya e.?; -matham c. [Int. mamath-, mamSec. Conj. Pass, mathyate etc. v. +, -ti etc. e. + Desid. mimathisa-, mimanthisa-. J Cam. math-, mamanth-. mathayati etc. e. manthayati etc. s. + mathayati c. -manthani b.s. Deriv. -mathin e. + math v. + mathi ev. manthitavyaMs.s. v. + mantha -matha E.+ -mathi v. manthitr av.b. mantha v. -mathitr s. -mathya b.

Fut.

mathya b.+ mathna ev. mathra ev. mathan c. mathana u. + matha b.+

manthaka c. manthya b.s.

manthuv c. manthanaE. -manthanav.+ manmathaB.+

raadl

Roois, Vekb-fokms,

118

y mad, mand,
Pres. [1.]

'be exhilarated, exhilarate'.


-te
etc.,

madati
etc. etc.

etc. v.b.s.cI.,

etc.

av.b.

mandati
etc.,

-te

etc.

v.b.
v.

raamatsi

(mamattu
b.+, -te e.

madyati
Perf.

mamadat
s.);

amamadus)
etc.

[3.]
[4.]

2.

matsi -sva

v.
b,v.

mamada

v.b.

(mamadant ?

mamanda

(mamandat

rv. 3. amimadat etc. -danta v.b.u. 4. amatsus RT. amatta etc. v.b.s. (matsati etc. matsat rv.) 5. amadisus etc. V. + [madithas m.); araandit etc. raandista etc. (mandisimahi) v.b. [Fut. madisyati, mandisyate madita, mandita.] Verb, matta av. +, madita (caus.'i) v. + maditos b. mandadhyai rv. Sec. Conj.: Pass, madyamana rv. [/nf mamad-. Desid. mimadisa-.
,

amamandus e,v.) Aor. 1. mandus -dana

madayati etc. av. +, -te c. madayati -te etc. etc. RV. (madayadhyai mandayadhyai rv.) Deriv. -mad v.b. -madvara e. + -madya v. mada v.+ madistha v.b. madana v. +
Cans,
;

v.

mandayati

-manda s. mandin rv.

madin v.b. madya v. + madana v. +


-miaditavya
u.

m.adisnu

b.

+
+

matsara matsya

v.
v.

-maduka e. medin? v.

madamada
madayitr
m.adayitr
c. c.

u.

mandana v.b. mandi rv. mandara v. +


mandii
rv.
v.

madira rv. madra? b. +

maderu? rv. -mada v. +

mandra
v.

+
v.

madaka

c.

madayitnuRv. mandisthaRv.

madvan

rv.

-miadin e.+

madayisnu

mandasana
mandayii
roots,

rv.
of

Might well enough he divided into two different though related


kindred meaning. BR. refer a few of the forms
to a root 2

mad

'delay'.

y
Pres. [4.]

man,

'think',

etc. V.

Perf.

etc. v.+, -ti etc. v.+ (manyasai? cb.) + (manvate 3:p. rv.) [3.] mamandhi -nyat mene etc. b. + (mamnathe -ate rv.)

manyate

[8.]

manute
rv.

amaman

Aor.

1.

amata
[

rv.,

amanmahi
-sirata
[

v.b.

RV.)

3.

amimanat.]
etc.

(manamahe
;

etc.

mananta manana
,

mansista
Fut.
1
.

v.

4, amansta etc. v. + (mansate etc. v.b.; masiya rv. mansta av.ta. -stam ta.,

mandhvam
manita.]
Verb,

kb.)

mansyate

etc. b.

5. amanista.] + (_-syeran m.), -ti

e.

manisye v.b.

2.

manta,

Sec.

mata v.+ [manita]; mantum e. +, mantave rv., -tavai v.b., -tos matva u.+ [manitvaj; -matya b.+, -manya e.+ Conj.: Pass, manyate c. [ Int. manman-.] Desid. mimansate etc. AV. +, -ti etc. b.u. (amimansisthas cb. mimansyate av.+) [miB.;

mansa, mimanisa-.] yate E. + mimanayisa;

Caus. manayati
in d.)

etc.

av. +,

-te

etc. e.

+ (man-

119
Deriv.:

AND Primary Derivatives.


-mana?
ts.

[3

mfi

mati V.+

-taati v.b.

mana

rv.

manas
manisa

v.+
v.

mantu v. mantavya
manotr uv. mantr b. + mantra v. +

mana
n.+

v.

-manya v.+ -manyaka c.

-manaka c. manin i +
.

manu v.^+ manu v.


manus v.b. manana rv. manana rv.
Compare
2

manya e. + manana e. +
e.

mimansa + mimansaka c. mimansya u.s. +


ii.

manman v.b.s. mananiya


manyu
v.

-manuka b. muni? V.+


refer,

-mimanayisu + manayitr i;.+ manayitavya

e.

e.

y mna.

BR. and Gr.

perhaps with reason, the redupli'delay'

cated present forms to another root,


]/

meaning

(y

mad, mand

HIi.

man

Gr.).

y mah,

see

y manh.

y
Pres. [3.]

ma,

"'measure'.

mimite mimate etc. mimihi etc. v.(^mimet kb.)

v. +,

mimimas
mati
etc.

e.,

mimiyat

elc.

[2.]

etc.

v.+,

maava

rv..

mimatu mimahe

c. [

4.

mayate.]
etc.

Perf.

mame mamire
1.

v.+,

Aor.

[meyat;] amayi
amasit.]
;

v.

mamau
4.

rv.c.

amasi

av.

(masatai

av.)

[masista.

.6.

masyati -te mata.] Verb, mita v. + matum b. +, mitum c. mitva v. +, mitva s. -maya V. + -me -mai rv. Desid. [Int. mama-, memiya-. Sec. Conj.: Pass, miyate etc. e.+ J mitsati c. Caus. mapayati -te etc. v.s.+ [amimapat.] -mitsa c. Deric. maya v. + -matavya c. ma V.+ mapaka c. matrv. + mayu v. mana V.+ mas -mas v. + -mapy a c. mana ? rv. matr ? v. +
[Put.
;

miti

u.

matra

v.

meya

av. +

-mapana

e.

y
Pres.

ma,

'exchange'.

mayet
etc.

[Perf.
Verb,

may ante rv. mame; amasta; masyate,


>i.,

mata.]

-mitya
:

av.

[-maya.]

Sec. Conj.: Pass,

miyate c. [Int. etc. as y 1 ma.] Deriv. -matavya c. -maya s. + Doubtless a specialization of ]/lmain connection

with certain preposition*.

y
Pres. [3.]

ma,

'bellow'.
rv.
;

mimati

v.

(mimeti

sv.,

mimanti

mimiyat

k.)

Perf.

mimaya
3'!

v.b.
v.

Aor.

amimet

(mimayat

ev.)

maj
matavai
:

Roots, Vekb-foems,
v.

1^

Verb,

Sec. Conj.: Int.

memyat
v.+

rv.

Deriv.

mayu

mayii?

b.
root.

ma3nira?v.+

Apparently an onomatopoetic

y
Pres. [1.]

marg,

'chase'.

margati

-te
;

e<c.

E.+

[Perf.

etc.

mamarga
;

amargit.]

margisyati e. [ 2. margita.] Verb, margita e. + margitum e. margitva Sec. Conj. Caus. margayati etc. e. +
Fut.
1.
;

e.

Deriv.:

margaE. +

margin

e.

Really a denominative formation from

margana e.+ marga 'track'.

margitavya

b.

y mi,
Pres. [5.]

'fix'.

minoti etc. v. +, minute s. Per/", mimaya mimyiis ey. [mimye.] [Aor. meyat; amayi; amasit, amasta; masista.] Fut. 1. mesyant? ab. [masyati -te. 2. mata.] Verb, mita v.b.s.u. -mitya av.?ab. [-maya.] Pass, miyate etc. v. [ Sec. Conj. memi- mitsati -te mapayati.] Denv.; maya? e. + -meka?v.B. metr rv. mit v. -may ana b. miti v.

Doubtless a form of
later Sanskrit.

}/

ma,

with which

it

agrees also in

meaning

in

y
Pres. [3.]

mi, 'damage',

see ]/

ml.

y miks

(mi9), 'mix'.

mimiksva rv. [1.] mfmiksati etc. v.b.s. mimiksathus etc. -se -sire ev. Perf. Sec. Conj.: Caus. meksayati b.s. -miksa v.b.s. -miqla v.b. Deriv. mi9ra v. +
:

meksana mimiksu
referred

b.s.

rv.

Seems

a desiderative formation to a simpler ]/


to

mi^

hy the gram-

marians (and Gr.)

y mih.

y migh,
y
Pres. [1.]

see

mih.

mith,

'alternate, altercate'
rv.

methati
;

etc. v.b.s.,

methete

[6?]

mithati

rv.

Perf.
Verb,

mimetha
:

rv.

mithita rv. mithitva c. mithu v.b. Deriv. mithati rv. mithuna v. + mithas v. +

mithus b. mithya b. +

-methaka -methana

9B.
s.

121

AND Pbimaky Derivatives.

[ml

y mid, mind,

see

y med.

y mil,
Pre*. [6.]

'combine'.

milati
c.

etc. c.

Perf.

mimiluB
1.

[Aor. amelit, amelista.]


Fut.
Verb.

milisyati b.+

milita
:

See. Con).

militva c. Cans, melayati


c.
;

-milya
;

c.

etc. c.

melapaya- (m

d.).
c.

Deriv.

milana

c.

mela c. melaka

melana
c.

melapaka c. melapana? c

y
Pres. [6.]

mis, 'wink"

misati
c.

etc.

v.+, -te e.

Perf.

mimesa
3.
1.

Aor.
Fut.

amimisat
;

u. [

5.

amesit.]

[mesisyati] (misyanti? e.) [ 2. mesita.] misita c. -misya c. -misas ev. -mesam e. Deriv. -mis v. + -mesa v. + -mesana c.
Verb,
;

-memisa

b.

misa

V.+

y
Pres. [1.]

mih,

^mingere'

[Perf.

Aor.
Fut.
Verb,

mehati etc. v.+, -te etc. e.+ meghamana mimeha.] ] 7. amiksat cb. [3. amimihat. 1. meksyati etc. av.b.s. [ 2. medha.]

ev2.

midha
:

v. +

Sec. Conj.

Int.

mihe memihat
;

ev.
cb.

[Desid.
b.

mimiksa-,

see

miks.

Caus.

mehayati
Deriv.
:

etc.

ev.c.

mih

ev.
cb.

meha
v.+

+
c.

mehana

v.+
s.

-mihya

-mehin

-mehaniya

medhra av. + mendhra? c.


midha":
V.

megha
Compare

mehana

ev.

mehatnu

ev.

midhvanavv.+

y miks.

y
Pres. [9.]

mi, mi, 'damage'.

AV.)
Rv.,
Perf.

minati etc. v.b., aminanta minana ev. (minat -nan ev., minit [3.] mimitas? minati cb. [minite.] [5.] minoti etc. ev'.cI. -iyat? V.B. [4.] miyate etc. ev.b.+

c.

mimaya
1.

Aor.

[miyat;] amajdB.

etc.

ev.,

mimye
4.

(mimaya

av.)

[mamau, mame.]
etc.

[amasta, masista;] mesta

av.b.s.

6.

amasit.]
.

Fut.
Verb,

2. mata.] mesyase pb. [masyati, -te. mita v. + metos b.; [mitva; -miya, -maya;] -miyam -miye
;

bv.

ml]
Sec. Conj.
:

Roots, Verb-forms,
Pass,

122

Deriv.

Int. memyana ev. [- - Desid. mitsa-.] miyate etc, cb.ms. Cans, mapayati etc. e. + [amimapat.] -matavya e. -mayu b. -miya b. -mi- ? ev. av. mayuka av.b. -mapana e. + -mayu -mi Rv. -mapayitr c. -miti c. -may a b. +

y mil,
Pres. [1.]

"wink".

milati
c.

etc.

b.+. -te

s.

Perf.

mim.ila
3.

Aor.

amimilat
b.

c.

[amimilat.

5.

amilit.]

[Fut. m.ilisyati, milita.]

-milya v.+ milyate c. Caus. milayati b.+. -te e. milaka Deriv. -mila s. +
Verb,

milita

Sec.

Conj.:

Pass,

[Int.

memil-.

Desid.

mimilisa-.

c.

-milinlAv.c.

milana

e.

y miv,
Pres. [1.]
Verb,
;

m.u, 'push'.

mivati etc. av.b. mivita b.. -muta v.s, -mivya

b.

Deriv.:

-muv

c'.

mura
]/

ev'.

-mavisnu"?
'release'.
etc.

ev'.

-mota?

Av'.

mue, racks,
-te
etc.

Pres. [6.]

muncati

etc. v. +.

v.+

m.ucanti

mucasva etc.

(aor. 2?)

KV.TA.
Perf.

mocati
Aor.
etc. V.
etc. V.
;

mumoca mumuce etc. v. + (mumoktu etc. v.b., miunocat etc. mumumucas amum.uktam. ev.) 1. amok av. (^mogdhi ta.); mucista ev. amoei v.+ 2. araucat

amiumueat muksiya v.b.


3.
;

c.

+
;

4.

amatik

etc. b.

(moksis

c),

amuksi

Fut.
Verb,
-Sec.

i.

m.oksyati -te etc. p.+ mukta av. + moktum,

2.

mokta.]
b.

b.

m.Tiktva

-m^ucya

v.

mokam

b.

Conj.: Pass,

mueyate
1

momuc-.
Caus.

AV.

Desid.

Deriv.

moeayati -muc V.+


-muci

-te

etc. av. +, miicyase etc. v., -ti etc. u.e. + raumuksati -te e^c. v. + moksate e^c. etc. e.+ [moeyate c. mum.ocayisa- c.)
; ;

b.

[Int.

moeya e.+ mocana v.+

mucyu
-muksa

GB. ms.

mocaniya b. + -muca E. + v. + -m.iici b. moka, -ki -mokya av. -mucu e. + mukti AV. + moca E.+ moktavya e. + raoeaka c. -m.oein c. moktr B.+
The
desiderative formation

moksa

b.

+
e.

mumucu e. + mumuksa e.+ mumuksu v. +


+

m.oksaka

raocayitr

c.
c.

moksin e.+ moksya c. moksana e. + moksaniya e.

mocayitavya

mumoeayisu

e.
c.

moksayitavya moksayitr e. munioksayisu

e.

moks
has.

has nearly the same right to be treated

as a separate root that

y bhaks

123

AND Primary Derivatives.

(mtl

y
Pres. [1.]
:

mut,

'break'.

motate c'. Sec. Conj.: Caus. motayati c'. Deriv. motaka c. -motin

c.

motana
'be merry'.

c.

y mud,
Pres. [1.]

modate

etc.

v.+, -ti

etc.
etc.

e.+ e.+

Perf.

mumoda
1.

v.+,

mumude
rv.

Aor.
Put.
Verb,

mudimahi
raodisye
e.

2.

[3.

amumudat.
c.

1.

e. [

5.

modisisthas

av.

modita.]

mudita
:

-modam
etc.

Sec. Conj.

[Int.

momud-.
-te

modayati
Deriv.:

mud v.+
-mudaAV. +

mumudisa-, mumodisa-. J 'aus. k.+ (mumodayisati 91$.) modav. + modanaE. + mudra v. raodakaE. + modaniya u. + mudirav c.
Desid.
(

mudaE.+

raodinAv.+

-niudvinv

c.

y
Pres. [9.]

mus,

'steal'.
c.)

musnati
c.
c.

etc. v.

(musana

[1.]

mosatha

rvI.

[6.]

mus-

ati
Perf.

etc. E.

mumosa
1.

Aor.
\Fut.
Verb,

amosi

[3.

amumusat.
;

] 5.

mosis amosisus
;

v.u.

mosisyati, mosita.]

musta c. musitva 0. -musya v. + muse kv. Sec. Conj.: Pass, musyate etc. c. -yant e. [ Int. momus-. Desid. muCaus. [mosaya- ;] musayant ? c. musisa-.] -mosm B. + musti V. + Deriv. musaka c. -raus v. + mosya c. mosa -musi B. mus Rv. mosana s.c. -mosaka e. e. + musivan rv. rausa
musita
v.+,
;

'?

13.

]
<

muh,
etc. e.

'be crazed'.

Pres. [4.]

miihyati

etc.

v.+, -te

u.+

Perf.

mumoha
2.
1.

etc. b. +,
etc. b.

Aor.
Fut.
Verb,
Sec.

amuhat

mohisyati
v.+,
Int.

b.

[moksyati.

mumuhe
3.

amumuhat
2.
;

etc.

av.b.

mohita, mogdha, modha.]


i;.
;

mugdha
Conj.:

mudha av.s.u. + muhe rv. -moham momuhat s. momuhyate v. [Desid. mumohisa-,


,

mumuhisa-, mumuksa-. (mohyate c.)


'

Caus.

mohayati

etc.v.

-te

etc.

e.+

-J

Deriv.

-muh
miihu

AV.B.
v.b.

muhus

V.+

mudha? e.+ mogha v.b. m6haAV.+

-mohaka e. mohinE.+

mohuka h. momugha n.
mohayitr
e.

mohana
y miv.

e.+

y mu,

see

V'

OF THF

'^

UNIVERSITY J

murch]

Roots, Vebb-forms,

124

y
Pres. [1.]

murch, mur,
ay. +

'thicken'

1^

murchati
e.

etc.

Perf.

mumurcha
etc.

+
;

[Aor.
Verb,

amtirchit
e.+,

murchita
:

murchisyati, murchita.] murta b.+ [murtva.]


b. +,

Sec. Conj.

Caus.

murchayati

-te

e.

Derjv.;

mura?

v.B.

murkhaB.+

inurchaE.+

murchana

b.+

murti B.+

y
Pres. [1.]

1
etc.

mp,
rv.

'die'.

maranti

etc.

marate
etc.
;

(mara
3.

c'.)

Perf.

mamara mamrus
1.

v.+,

mamre
v.

etc. c.

Aor.

amrta

etc. T.B.s.

muriya
e.

amimarat

etc.

B.C.

4.

mr-

sista.] J

Fut.
Verb,

1.

marisyati
v.

etc.

av.+, -te
e. +, etc.

2.

marta.]
;

mrta

martum
mriyate
E.

-tave avp.
v.+, -ti
etc.

mrtva

b.

Sec. Conj.: Pass,

e.+

mr-, memriya-.]
etc.

-maram

e.

Int.

Desid.

mumursati
+
;

etc.

s.+

marimarti c. [marCaus. marayati

AV.+, -te

(maryate

etc. e.

mimarajdsa-

in d.)

Deriv.

mara v. + maraka c. marana b.+ maru? b.+


-m.ura? a v.

marayu

v.b.
v.

marta, -tya mrti c.

marman? v.+ mara v.+ maraka c.


marin
b.

maruka
-mamri

b.s.

ay.

martavya e. + mrtyu v. +
root is doubtless the

+
b.+

murmur a? b.+ mumursa e.+


m.umursu b.+ mimarayisu c.

marana
same with

The following

this.

y
Pres. [9.]

mr, mrn,
mrnati

'crush'.

mrnihi

etc. v.

[6.]

etc. v.b.

Perf. mumurat? ey. Aor. 1. mrnyus k.


Verb,

3.

amimrnan

ay.

5.

amarit.]

miirna

ay.b.

Sec. Conj.: Pass,

Deriv.:

mur
to

ry.

muryate cb. mura?


-muri

e.+
Ev.

-miaritr rv.

mallmluv

b.

-mrna

y.b.

Hardly

be separated from the preceding.

y mrks,
Pres. [6.]

'stroke'.
c.

Perf.

mrksa ry. mimrksus ry.


:

[1.]

mraksanti

Sec, Conj.: Caus.

Deriv.

mrksa

ry.

mraksaya- c, mrksayati e. -mraksa mrksin rv.

ev.

mraksana

c.

Doubtless a secondary root-form from

m.rj.

125

AND Primary Derivatives.


mrc,
'injure'.

[niy^

]/
Pres. [4.]

Aor.
Verb,

4.

mreyati? jb. mrksista by.


rv.

mrkta

Sec. Conj.:

Caus.
Rv.

marcayati

etc. v.b.s.

Deriv.:

mfc

marka

rv.

marka
'perish'.

b.s.

mrcaya

ab.

y
Pres.

mrch,

mrchante
Very

u.
\/ 1

likely a false reading; if not, a secondary root-from

mr.

y mrj,
Pres. [2.]

'wipe'.
,

marsti mrjanti [marjanti] etc. v.+ mrste mrjate etc. v.+ s.) [7.] mrnjata (3p.) rv., mrnajani gb., mrnjyat cb. [1.] marjati -te etc. e.+ [6.] mrjati -te etc. av'.s.c. Perf. mamarja mamrjus etc. v. + (mamarjusE., mamrjus rv.), mamrje Av. (^mamrje -jita rv.) Aor. [1. ainarji. ] '6. amimrjanta b. [amamarjat.] 4. amarksit etc. 7. amrksat etc. v.-b.s., amrksata etc. rv.e. B. 5. amarjit etc. b.
(marjita

Fut.

1.

mraksyate

b.

marksyate

b.s.

[marjisyati.]

2.

mrasta

jb.

[marsta, raarjita.] marstum c, marstum Verb, mrsta v.+, mrjita c, marjita (caus.'i) s. + c, marjitum e. + mrstva av., marjitva b. -mrjya av. +, -marjya -mrj as b. c. Int. marmrjma -janta etc. rv., Sec. Covj.: Pass, mrjyate etc. v. + Desid. mi-jyate etc. v.b.s. (^marmrjana rv.), marlmrjyate b. [ marjayati -te Caus. marjayati -te etc. v. marjisa-, mimrksa-.]
;
;

etc.

B.+ (marjyate c).

Deriv.

-rarja

c.

-marjakaE.+

mrjaE.+ marjya RV. -margaAv. +


Compare

marjana

v.+
k.

-marjaniya

-marguka

b.

marjara e.+ marjalya rv. mfstiB.+ marsti c.

marstavya c. -mrgra rv. -mrgvan av.

marmrjenya

rv.

y mrks.

y mrd,
Pres. [6.]

'be gracious'.

Perf.

[Aor.

mrdati etc. v.b.s., -ase b. [ 9. mrdnati.J [mamarda] (mamrdyus rv.) etc. amimrdat amamardat, amardit; mardisyati, mardita.]
[Int.

Sec. Conj.:
etc.

marimrd-.
c.

DesW. mimardisa-.
v.

Caus.

mrdayati
b.

v.b.c, -te

Deriv.

mrda b. + mrdana c,

mrdika

marditr rv. mrditr av.


-mrdaya
,

mrdayaku

rv.

mrn;

Roots, Veeb-forms,

126

y
mrdnati
nv.,

mrn,

see

mr.

M
mardati
+

y mrd, mrad,
Pres. [9.]
etc.
s.

'rub, crush'.
s.

mrdnita
e.

[1.]

-te

etc.

e.

mrada
Perf.

-date us.
b.s.

manaarda mamrdus
1.
1
.

Aor.
Fut.

mrdyasam
;

3.

(mamardus m.), mamrde amimrdat e. [amamardat.


+
;

e.

5.

amardit.j
b.

mradisyati mardisyate jb. Verb, mrdita av. marditum e. +, -tosB. -mrade b. -mardam. c.
;

mrditva

t,

-mfdya

Sec. Conj.: Pass,

mrdyate

etc.

b.+

Int.

marmarttu
etc.

rv.

[marimrd-.]

Desid.
c.
;

mimardisati

e.

raimardayisaV.+
s.
-t-

in d.)

mardayati mradayati ts.


Caws,

e.+, -te e.

(mardyate

Deriv.

mrd

-mrda

marda e. mardaka

c.

mardinE.+ mardanaB.+ mardaniya c. -mradas v.b.s.

mrttikaB.+ marditavya
-marditr
e.

mrdu
e.

av.+

mradiyas

b.

mrtsna b.+ mimardisu e. mimardayisu

e.

y mrdh,
Pres. [I.]

'neglect'.
rv.s.,

mardhati

etc.

ev.
2.

Aor.

1.

rardhyas

rv.

[6.]

mrdhati
s.

mrdhas

-asva

s.

5.

mardhis

etc.

rv.b.

(mardhi-

sat RV.)

mrddha ms. Deny. mrdh v.B.


Verb,
:

mrdhav.+

mrdhas rv. mardhuka jb.

mrdhra

rv.

y
Pres. [6.]

mr9,

'touch, feel'.

mrQati etc. v.+, -te etc. v. Perf. mamarcja mamrdus e. + (mamrqus rv.), mamr9e b.+ 7. amrksat etc. v.e. Aor. 4. [amarksit amraksit] mrksista? rv. [Fut. marksyati mraksyati, marsta mrasta.] Verb, mrsta v.+, mr9ita c. marstum e. + -mf^ya v. + -mf^ev.B.;

-mar9am
B.

b.s.

Sec, Covj.: Pass,

Deriv.:

Int. marmr^at etc. mrdyate etc. e.h mar9ayati etc. b.+ -mr9aB.+ mar9aB.+ -mar9inTJ.+ -m.r9yaB.+ mar9ana v.+ -mar9aka e.

v.b.,

m.arimr9yaav.

Caus.

inarimr9a

y
Pres. [4.]

mrs,
etc. e.

'not heed'.
e.+
[

mrsyate

etc.

v.+, -ti

1.

marsati

-te.]

Perf.

mamarsa

rv.e.,

mamrse

127
Aor.
1.

AND Pkimary Derivatives.


mrsthas
rv.
v.

[mrit

2.

amrsan
]

m..

[amamarsat.] 5. [amarsit,] marsisthas rv. [Fut. raarsisyati -te, marsita. Verb, [nirsita; mrsitva, niarsitva;] -mrsya k. -mrse rv. Int. mararsat s. Sec. Conj.: Pass, mrsyate e. Caws, marsayati
3.
;

mimrsas

mrsat

s.

(-sant? c), -santa nv.

etc.

E. +,

-te

etc.

E.+

Derjy.;
,

mrsa

V.

+
rv.

-inarsav.+

marsanar,. +

-marsi

e.

-mrsya

marsin

e.

marsaniya
fat'.

e.+

y med
Pres. [4.]
etc.

[mid], 'be

medyati etc. v.b. [6.] medatam rv. mimeda, mimide; amidat, amedista; medisyati-te, medita; [Perf. rainna, miditva meditva.] [Pass, midyate. Sec. Conj. ] Caus. [mindayati ;] medayati etc. v. + medinv. + Deriu. medana RT. medasv. + meduraR.+
:

medya

c.

y moks,

see

y muc.

y
manati etc. s.+, -te s. [Per/", mamnau.] Aor. [1. mnayat, mneyat. ]
Pres. [1.]

mna,

'note'.

[2.]

ranayus
c.

ci.

c.

(3.

amnasisus

[Fut.
Verb,

mnasyati, mnata.]

mnata
:

s.

Sec. Conj.

Pass,

mnayate

Int.

mamna-.
c.

Desid.

mimnasa-.

Caus.

Dew..-

-mnana

mnapaya-, amimnapat.] S.+ -mnatavya


a:

Only

vpith prefix

a secondary root-form

-mnaya s.+ from y man

to

which,

indeed, the forms from stem

mana-

more properly belong.

y
Pres.

myaks,

'be situated'

('?).

myaksa ev. Perf. mimyaksa mimiksus -ksire Aor. 1. amyak rv.-, amyaksi rv.
[L]
]/

rv.

mrad,

see

y mrd.
'dissolve'.

y
Pres. [4?]
Verb,

mrit, mlit,
ob.

mrityet -yeyU3 -mletya s.

Deriv.

-mretuka

pb.

Perhaps related with

y mrd.

mruc

Roots, Verb-forms,

128

y mruc, mluc, mlup,


Pres. [1.]

'set'.

mrocati

etc.

av.b.

mlocati

etc. b.

Perf.

mumloca
2.

cb.u.
jb. [

Aor.
[Fut.
Verb,

amrocit, amlocit.] mrocisyati, mrocita; ralocisyati, mlocita.]


5.

amrueat

mlukta bv., mlupta b.s. -mrueas malimlucaraahe s. Sec. Conj. -mrukti b. -mrocana c. Deriv.: -raruc v.b.

mrukta
:

b.+,

ev.

Int.

mroka
-raloea

av.
e.

-mlocana
-mloci
c.

c.

-mlukti

c.

malimluca av.+ malimluc s.

y
Pres. [1.]
Sec. Conj.

mred,
etc. e.

'gratify'

(?)

mrederan vK
:

Cans,
c.

mredayati

+ (mrelayati

s.)

Deriv.

-mreda

y
Pres. [4.]

mla,
etc.

'relax'.

mlayati

etc.

b.+, -te

e.+

2.

[2.]

mlanti

e.

Perf.

mamlau
[1.
1.

etc. e.

Aor.
Fut.
Verb,

mlayat, mleyat.

] 6'?

mlasis
u. [

e.

amlasyatam b., -yetam xalata rv., mlana b.+


:

ralata.]

Sec. Conj.

Deriv.

mlapayati av. + mlapayati c. -mlapana -mlayin c. -mlani c.


Cans,
;

c.

mlapin

c.

y
y

mluc,

see

mruc. mruc.

mlup,

see

y
Pres. [1.]

mlech., 'speak barbarously'.


b.+
,

mleehati

etc.

[Perf.

etc.

mimlecha; amlechit; mlechisyati

mleehita; mlechita,

mlista.]
Deriv.

inlechaB.+

y
Pres. [1.]
Verb,

yaks, 'press

on'

(?)

yaksati etc. bv^.b,*., -te evI. -yakse ev'^. yaksu ev. yaksya ev. Deriv. : yaksa v. + yaksin bv. The character of the root and the connection of its
doubtful.

yaksma v. + yaksman e. +
derivatives are very

yach,

see

yam.

++

129

AND Primary Dekivativbs.

[yabh

y
Pres. [1.]

yaj,
[2.]

'oflFer'.

yajati -te

etc.

v.+

yaksi

v.u.s.,

yaksva

ev.

yajase

(Is.) RV'.

Perf.

iyaja

etc. e. +,

ije

etc. v. +,

yeje av.?

[J. ijyat. 4. ayaksit etc. v.u.s. (ayas rv., ] 3. ayiyajat etc. b. ayat v.B.s. yaksat v.b.s. yaksatas -satam rv.), ayasta etc. v.b.s. (yaksate etc. v.b. yaksiya ms.) 7. ayaksata (Ss.) ags. 2. yasta b. Fut. 1. yaksyati etc. b.+, -ate etc. v. + Verft. ista V. + yastum b.+, -tave v.b., ijitum m. istva av. + [-ijya;] yajadhyai v., yajadhyai ts. -yajam av. Pass, ijyate etc. e. +, -yant e. Sec. Conj. Int. yayaj- (in d.). Desid. 3dyaksati -te e. lyaksati etc. v., -te etc. v.b. Cans, yajayati etc.

Aor.

.-

B. +,

-te

E.

Deriv.

-ij v.

yajas
+
yaj us

rv.

yaj

V.

-yaji rv.
V.

yajna yajyu

v.

-yajm b.+
yajya b.+ yajya b. +
yaj ana s.+

v.

yaja B. yaj a s. yajinB.+


-yajya rv.

yajata
yajati

v.

yajiyas v. yajistha v.
yaj van v.+
b.

isti V. +
s.

yajaniya
-yajvika

c.

-yajya
ijya
c.

v.b.s.

yastavya

ijya S.+

yajana av.+
Appears
to

yastr v. + yajatra v.b. yajatha v.

yajvin e.+ yajisnu e. -yaga e. +


-yaja v.+

b.

yayaj uka b.+

yiyaksu e.+
yajayitavyaB. yajayitr c.
to

yajaka
and

e.+

be related "with roots

yam

yach

and yat, and

niean

originally 'reach out, extend'.

y
Pres. [1.]

yat, 'stretch'.

yatate etc. v. +, -ti etc. v. yete etc. v.b.u. ] 5. ayatista b. Aor. 1. yatana, yatana rv. [3. ayiyatat. Fut. yatisyate etc. e. +, -ti etc. e. + -yatya b. Verb, yatta v.+, yatita e. yatitum b. Desid. jriyatisa-. [Int. yayat-. Pass, yatyate c. Sec. Conj. yatayati -te etc. v.+ (yatyate etc. b.+)
Perf.

Caus.

Deriv. :

-yat

+ -yatana av.+ yataniya c.


V.

yatti MS.

-yattavya yatitavya e.+


e.

-yataka e. + -yatya s. +

yatiina rv.

yayati

'?

v.

yatana

e.

yati V.+

yatna

e.

y
Pres. [1.]

yabh,

'futuere,

yabhati

etc.
;

av.b.

[Perf. etc.
I

yayabha

ayapsit.]
II.

Whitney,

STipplement

yabh]
Fut.
Verb,
1.

Roots, Verb-forms,
yapsyati
etc. b.s.

130

yabdhum
-yabhya

c.

yabhitum

c.

Sec. Conj.: Desid.

yiyapsate
av.

etc. s.
c.

Deriv.:

yabha

y yam, yach,
Prei. [1.]

'reach'.
:

yachati -te etc. y.+ yaraati -te etc. e. h [2.] yamsi rv. yamiti? jb. Perf. yayama yemiis etc. v.b. (yayamtha rv. yamatus -mus rv.\
;

yeme etc. v. + Aor. 1. ayamus etc. rv. (yamati yamat etc. v., yamate etc. v.; yamyas 3s. yamimahi rv. yamdhi etc. rv. ayami v.b. [3. ayiyamat. 4. ayamsam etc. v.b. (ayan rv. yamsat etc. v.b.s. yamsatas rv.),
;
)
;

etc. v.b. (ayamsi ab.. yamsate rv.) 5. yamista [3s.) rv. ayamsisam.J Fut. 1. yamsyati b.. yamisyati c. [ 2. yamta.] Verb, yata v. + yamtum b.+ -tave rv. yamitum c. yamitavai rv. yatva s., yamitva c. -yatya av.b.. -yamya s. + -yamam v.b. Desid. yiyamInt. yanyamiti rv. Sec. Conj.: Pass, yamyate etc. v.+ Caus. yamayati etc. v.e. +; yamayati etc. b.+. -te e. sati B. Dcrjy..- yama V.+ yamuna v.+ -yamin B.Hyati v.+ -yamiyas rv. -yaraana c. yama.'v. + -yamtu RV. -yamsenya rv. yamtavya b. + yamistha rv. -yamaka c. yamasana rv. -yachana e. yamtur rv. yamin b. +
[

ayamsta

6.

-yamya
Compare

E.+

yamana b. + y yaj and

yamtrv. + yamtra v. +
j/

yama v.+ yamaka b. +

yastiv b.+

yat.

y
Pres. [4.]

yas, yes, 'be heated'.


-h

yasyati

etc.

av.

[3.]

yayastu

rv.

[1.]

yesati

etc.

v.b.

[yasati.]
[Perf.

yayasa.]

Aor.

2.

ayasat

c. [

3.

ayiyasat.
b.c.

5.

ayasit.]

[Fut. yasisyati, yasita.]


Verb,
-Sec.

yasta

v.+,

yasita
e.)

Conj.: [Int. yayas-.


[-te.]

Desid. yiyasisa-.
-yasaka c
-yasin
c.

[yasitva, yastva.j

Caws,

yasayati

etc.

e.+

Deriv.:

(yasyate yas v.b.s.


-yasa
b.

-yasya v. + -yasana c.

yaska?B.+

y
Such
yahii rv.

yah.

a root, of questionable meaning, is assumable for the derivatives

yahva

v.

yabvant

rv.

131

AND Primary Derivatives.


ya,

yu

'go".
:

Pres. [2.]

yati

etc.

Perf.

yayaii
4.

etc.

(ayus i!.+ [ayan] yamaki \.+ (yayatha v.), yaye v.


v.+
etc. v.

= yami kb.),

yamahe
etc.

r.K

Aor.

ayasam

(yasat

v.b.

yesam

nv.)

6.

ayasisam

v.+

(yasisat rv.; yasisisthas


Fat.
Verb.

v.b.)

yasyati etc. av.+. -te etc. e. + 2. yata e.+ yata v. + yatum e. + yatave v.. -vai h.
; .

yatva

n.s.

-yaya

n.

+;

-yai

V.B.;

-yayam

s.

Sec. Conj.: Pass,

yasati
Deriv.

etc.

iyayate? yaya Caws, yapayati e.+ + [ayiyapat.]


yayate
e.

Int.

v..

(in d.).

Desid. yi-

etc. b.

-ya

V.B.

yu]
yuta
v.

Roots, Verb-Forms,
+
;

132

Verl.

-yuya

v.+,

-yutya
]

s.

Sec. Conj.: [Pass,

yuyate.

Int.

Dcriv.

yuyusati .yuB.+ -yava RV.

rv. [yiyavisa-.

rv. yoyuve yoyavat Caus. yavayati, yiyavayisati.]


av..
etc.

Desid*

yuti
+

c.

yuna
v. +

s.

y6s:'v.+

-yuti?

y6ni?v.+
+ yrivan yavisthav. +
? v.

yavana
-yut
v.B.

av.

yotra

e.

-yiivana S.+

yut]ia?v. +

yosana e<c.? -y ava e. + -yavana c.


yavayitr
c.

v.

yaviyas
and
]/

s.

Compare
tainty.

y ynj

yu

from the

latter,

in combination with pre-

fixes, the forms

and derivatives of

this root are not always separable

with cer-

y
Pres. [3.]

2 yu,

yuch,

'separate'.

yuyoti etc. v.b., yuyudhvam etc. v.b. [6.] ayuvanta etc. v.b.s. yuchati etc. v. [1.] Aor. 1. yuyat B., ytiyatam (3d.) b. (sruyas 3s. v.), yavanta rv. ayavi 4. ayausit etc. v.b. (yaus rv., yosati etc. v., 3. yuyot rv. B. 5. yavis rv. yosat RV. yosam etc. b.s., yQsam. av.), yosthas b.s. Verb, yuta rv. yotave -tavai -tos rv. -yavam av.b. Caus. yavayati etc. v. Int. yoyuvat etc. v.b. (yoyava ms.) Sec. Conj.

yavayati
Deriv.
:

etc. v.b.

yava
-yut

av.c.

-yuti rv.c.

-yavana
v.b.
|/
1

ms.

-yotr rv.

-yutvan rv. -yavan av.

-yavana av. yuyuvi rv.

Compare

ya.

y
Pres. [".]

yuj,

'join'.

yunakti ytinkte
etc.

etc.

v.+ (yunaiiksi? c, yunjiyat r.)


[2.]

yvinjati -te

u.e.+

[6?]

3mje

v.,

yujmahe yujata
niniyoja

(3p.) rv,,

yuksva
Perf.

v.
etc.

yuyoja yuyuje
1.

v.+

(yuyujma

-jre v.;

ae.

yuyo-

jate RV.)
Aor.

ayuji etc. v.b. (yojate yujana rv.), (yojam yoja yujyatam etc. o. ayiiynjat 2.? yujanta rv., ayujat -janta c. Kv.); ayoji v.c. [ayauksit] aynksi etc. v.+ (ayunks. 4, ayoksit etc. E.+

v.

smahi
Fut.
Verl.
1.

c.)
etc.
;

yoksyati
+
RV.

b.+, -te

etc.

av.+

2.

yokta
v.

b.

yukta

yoktum

b.

3ruktva
+

-tvaya

v.b.;

-yujya

e.

yuje

Sec. Conj.: Pass,

yujyate
e<c. e.

etc.

v.

-ti etc. e.+


etc.

e.

[Int.

yoyuj-.
etc. e.

Desid.

3ru3ruksati
etc. c.)

Caus.

yojayati

-te

+ (yojyate

133
Beriv

AND Primary Derivatives.


yuj V.+ -yuja v.s.

iranh

yujya

y.b.

yoga V. + yogya av. + yogya rv.


yogin s. + yojaka e.+ yojya e.+

yuga yugya

V.

+ +

e.

-yunga b. yunjaka e.+

yojana v.+ yojaniya c. yukti V.+ yoktavya n. yoktr B.+ yoktra v.+
yojitr
c.

yugma s.+ yugman u.


-yugvan
v.ii.s.
c.

yuyuksu
yojayitf

yojayitavya
s.c.

c.

V yudh,
.Pres. [4.]
[2.]

'fight:,.

yudhyate

etc. v.

-ti etc.

\.+

[1.]

yodhati

etc.

av.pb.

v.

yotsi Ev.

Perf.

Aor.

yuyodha jruyudhe etc. \.+ 1. yodhi, yodhat, yodhana rv., yudhana? 4. yotsis E., ayuddha v., yutsmahi av.
etc. ii.+

c.

3.

yuyudhas
ayodhit

m.

5.

etr.

(yodhisat rv.) Ful. 1. yotsyati -te


Verb,
;

c.

2.

yuddha v. + yoddhum e. JE., yudhe rv. yudhaye rv.


;

yoddha e. -y uddhvi
Int.

rv.

-yudhya

e.

yudham
(in d.l

Sec.

Conj.: Pass, Desid.

yudhyate
-te

yuyutsati (yodhyate e.)


:

etc.

v.+

rv.

[yoyudh-] yaviyudh-

Caus.

yodhayati

etc. v.

-te

etc. e.

Beriv.

yudh

v.

yudhma
v.+

rv.

-yudha
yudhi-

yiidhvan

AV.

-yudhya

rv.
v.

yodha v.+ yodhaka e.


yodhin e.+ yodhya v.+

yodhana e. + yodhanlya c. yodhuka jb.


yodhlyas rv. yoddhavyaE.+

yuyudhi rv. yuyudhi rv. yaviyudh ev. yuyutaa e.


-yutsav
c.

yudhenya

yoddhr
'obstruct'.

v.

yuyutsu

e.

y yup,
[Pres. 4.

yupyati.]
etc. b.

Perf.

Aor.
[Fut.
Verb,

[2.

yuyopa yuyopima v. ayupat. ] 3. ayuyupan


yopisyati, yopita.]

yupita

av.b.s.

Sec. Conj.:
I>eriw..

yoyupyate etc. b.s. yupa V.+ -yopana v.


Int.

Caus. yopayati
yoyupana
see ]/
c'.

etc. v.b.s.

y
I

yes,

yas.

ranh,

'hasten'.

Pres, [i.] Perf.

ranhate etc. rv., -ti rv. rarahana rv.b. [raranha.]


araranhat, aranhit rahhisyati, ranhita.] ranhita s.
etc.
;

[Aor.
Verb,

raixh]
Sec. Conj.

Roots, Verb-forms,
ranhayati -te etc. ranghas c. -ranha e. rahas? c. ranhya Kv. ranhi v.b. ranhas V.+
:

134

Caus.

rv.

Deriv.

rhant?

ev.

raghuY.+ laghuAv.+

raghiyas b. laghiyas av.+ laghistha jb.

Compare

}/

rah.

]/

raks,

'protect'.

Pres. [1.]

Perf.

raraksa
[1.

raksati -te etc. v.+ etc. v. + (raraksana

ev.)

Aor.

raksyat.

3.

araraksat.

araksit etc. b.s. (arat? ms.) Fut. 1. araksisyas m., raksye? ii'. 2. raksita Verb, raksita v. + raksitum e. + -raksya c.
RV.)?
;
,

4.

araksit

etc.

av.

+ (raksisat

etc.

e.c.

raksyate etc. v.+ etc. E. Caus. raksayati etc. c, Dcriv. raksa B. + raksya e.+
Sec. Conj.: Pass,

[Int.

raraks-.

Desid. riraksisati

-te b.

raksaE.H-

raksaka
raksin
The
s.

c.

raksanav.+ raksana c. raksaniya e. +


raksas -demon'
to

raksas v.+ raksas v.b. -raksi vs. raksitavya e.+


raksitr
v.

riraksa c. riraksu c. riraksisa c. riraksisu e. +


But raksis

relation of

to tliis root is questionable.

Av'. is too

weak evidence on which

accept &

raks

'harm'.

]/

rang,

'rock'.

Pres. [1.]

rangant

c'.

Doubtless

artificial.

y
Aor.
Fut.
1.

rac, 'produce'.
c.

araci

e.

3.

ariracat

1.

racisyati
:

c. ?

Sec. Covj.

Deriv.

racayati etc. e. + (^racyate c.) -ranca c. -ranei racana e. + -racana c -rancya c.


Caus.

c.

racayitr

c.

y
Pres. [4.]

raj, 'direct', see

yj.

y
rajyati -te
etc.

2 raj, ranj, 'color'.

av1.e.+

[1.]

ranjati

etc. ?

e.+ [rajati -te.]

[Perf.

raranja raranje; rajyat; araukta, raflksista ranksyati -te, rankta.] Verb, rakta b. + [raktva, ranktva ;] -rajya c. [Desid. riranksa-. Sec. Conj. Pass, rajyate c. Int. rarajiti v. Caus. rajayati av. ranjayati etc. e.+, -te e.
etc.
;
;

arirajat araraujat, arauksit

135
Deriv; ranga E.+

AND Primary Derivatives.


ranjanaE. + ranjaniya c. rajanaAv.+
raj

[I

ran

rajaniya
raj as
v v.

e.

rakti

ranjaka
-ranjya

E.4c.

raga t.+
-ragin b.+
rajayitp
vs.

rajiVav.

rajakaE.+

am e. y
ranch,
c.
:

rajatav.+

The forms with nasal belong

to the later language.

mark'.

Only in (ni-) -ranehana

compare

y lanch.

I
Pres. [1.]

rat, 'howl'.

ratati

etc. c.
;

[Perf. etc.
Verb,

rarata retus
c.

ariratat, aratit ; ratisyati, ratita.]


e.+
c.

ratita

Sec. Conj.: Int.

raratiti
c.

etc.

Deriv.

ratana

-rati

y
Pres. [1.]
Verb,

ranv,

'delight'.

ranva

etc. ts.

ran vita

rv.
\/

secondary formation from

ran, apparently through ranva.

y rad,
Pres. [1.]

'dig'.

radati

etc. v.b.,

-te av,

[2.]

ratsi rv.

Perf.

rarada
etc.

rv. [redus.]
;

[Aor.
Verb,

aradit radisyati, radita.] radita av.b.


:

Deriv.

rada

rv.c.

radana

c.

y
Pres. [4.]

radh, randh,

'be or

make

subject'.

radhyati etc. av.b. [2.] randdhi rv'. [rarandha rarandhima redhma] raradhiis rv. Aor. 2. radham etc. v. 3. riradhas etc. rv. (^riradha randhat.] ' 5. randhis rv. [Put. radhisyati, ratsyati radhita, raddha.
Perf.

Is.

rv.) [ara-

Verb,

raddha

rv.

[radhitum.J

[Desid. riradhisa-, riratraranddhiv rv. [raradh-.] ] Caus. randhayati etc. v. + sa-. radhrav rv. randhra bv. + Deriu. randhana RV.C. randdhi rv.
Sec. Conj.: Int.

'^

]/
Pres. [1.]

ran, 'take pleasure'.

ranati
rv.

etc.

rv.,

-anta rv.
etc.

[4.]

ranyati

etc.

Perf.

rarana
[3.

(raranas

Aor.

ariranat, araranat.

raran rarandhi etc. ] 5. aranisus hv. (ranistana

ranyathas araranus rv.b.j


rv.
i

rv'.)

rv.)

ran]

Roots, Verb-forms,

136

[Ful. ranisyati, ranita.]


Sec. Conj.: [Int.

ranran-.

Desid. riranisa-.

Cans,

ranayati

etc. v.,

-anta ev. [ranayati.]


Deriv.:

ran ev. rana v. +


]/

ranya ranya

v.

ranti?

v.

ranitr rv.

av.

rantya

v.

ranva v. ran van rv.

Compare

ram.

y
Pres. [1.]
Verb,

2 ran, 'ring'.

ranati ranita c.

etc. c.

Sec. Conj.: Caus.

ranayati

c.

Deriv.

-ranana

c.

A late

and probably

artificial formation.

y
Pres. [1.]
Sec. Conj.: Int.

rap, 'chatter'.

rapati etc. v.b. rarapiti

etc. v.

Deriv.

-rap rv.
variant of

-rapin av.

lap, which compare.

y
rap9ate etc. rarap9e rv. Deriv. -rapQa rv.
Pres. [1.]
Per/".
:

rape, 'be
rv.

full'.

v.,

rapqant-

-rap9in

v.b.

y
Perhaps
to

raph.
:

be seen in raphita rv'. 'miserable' (?)

compare

riph.

rabh, rambh, 'take


;

hold".

rabhate etc. v.+, -ti etc. s. + rambhati -te e.+ Perf. rebhe etc. v.+ (rarabhe rv.), rarabhma rv. ['6. ararambhat. ] 4. arabdha rv. Aor. 1. arambhi c. 2. rabdha.J Fut. 1. rapsyate etc. e.+, -ti e. [ -rabhya v. + -rabham ev., -rabhe v.b. Verb, rabdha v. + rabdhum e. [Int. rarabh-, rarambh-. Pass, rabhyate etc. e. + ] Desid. Sec. Conj.
Pre. [1.]

ripsate
Deriv.

etc. b.c.

Caus. rambhayati
v.s.
c.

etc.

b.+, -te e.

rabha

E.

rabliiv.+

-rabhya b.+ rabhas V.+

-rabhin -rabdhi
rabdhir

rabhistha v.b. rabhiyas b.s. rabhyas rv.


e.

rambhin v.+ -rambhana v. -rambhaniya


-ripsu
c.

b.s.

rabhasana
Compare

RV.

-rabdhavya
c.

rambhav. + rambhaka c.

y labh,

-which is the

same in another phonetic form.

137

AND Primary Deeitatives.

[ras

y ram,
Pres. [1.]

'be or

make

content".
etc. v.b.

Perf.

ramate -ti eic. v.+ [9.] ramnati rarama remus etc. e. +. reme etc. u. +
ranti? sv. [ramsisthas.]

Aor.

1.

3.

V.

ariramat
6.
[

etc.

rv.
sv.

4.

aramsitC, aramsta

etc.

ramsisam

Fut.
Verb,

1.

ramsyate
b.

etc.

b.+, -ti b.

2.

ramta.]

rata

ramtum

e.+. -tos n.,

ramitum
[Int.

e.

ratva

)!..

ramtva

c.

-ramya
(in d.)

s.+ [-ratya];

-ramam

s.

Sec. Conj.: Pass,

Caus.

ramyate etc. e.+ ramayati etc.


in d.)

v.

ranram-.
-te
etc. e.

iJesht.

riramsaetc.

ramayati

v.

(riramayisaDeriu..

rama E.+ ramya B.+ ramana B.+


ramaniyau.+

rati b.+

ramtiAv.+ ramati av.b. ramati av.b.

ramtavya ramtr rv.


ratri.'v.+

c.

ramana

e.

rama

v.

+
rv.

ramsu-v rv. riramsa e.+ riramsu o.


rirama3ri8u
c.

-ramin
Compare

ran

from which one or two of the derivatives here given

may perhaps come,

at least in part.

Compare

also

lam.

y
Pres. [1.]

ramb, 'hang down'.

Deriv.

rambate etc. -rambana b.u.


]/

rv.

Compare

lamb, from which

the verh-forms and derivatives mostly come.

y
Pres. [1.]

raxnbh,

.'roar'.

rambhati

-te

etc. c.

The

isolated occurrences probably artificial.

y rac.
Such
a root inferable

from the derivatives

ra9anav.+

raqman

rv.

ra9mi v.+

ra9i v.+

)/

ras, 'roar

Pres. [1.]

rasati -te

etc. b.

Perf.

rarasa resus
rasita
c.
;

etc. e.

+ +
;

[ylor. etc.

arirasat, arasit

rasisyati, rasita.]

Verb,

[Sec. Conj.

raras- rirasisac.

rasaya-.]
c.

Deriv.

rasana

rasitr

Compare y 1 ras. The root 2 ras 'taste'

is

only a denominative of rasa.

rah]

Roots, Verb-fobms,

138

]/
[Pres.
etc.
;

rah, 'desert'.
; ;

rahati raraha rehus arirahat, arahit rahisyati, rahita.] Verb, rahita e. + rahitum e. Caus. rahayati etc. s. + Sec. Conj. rahu-v bv. rahana c. rahas e.+ Deriv. raha Ev. +
;

-rahin

c.

rahasya, -yu b.+

y
Pres. [3.] ririhi
V.
b,v.,

ra, ras,
av.,

give'.
etc.

rarasva
ev.,

raridhvam
b.,

(rarate
[1.]

'3s.,

[2.]

rasi

ev.,

rati c, rate

rasva

v.b.s.

rarana)
etc. v.b.s.

rasate
ev.

Perf. rarima -ivans

rare
c.

etc.

rv.
;

Aor.

4.

arasma
v.
;

etc. v.b.

(rasat

etc. v.b.)

rasatham rasiya

Fut. [1. rasyati.


Verb,

] 2.

rata
c.

rata

+ ratave

Deriv.: -T&

c.

rai or ra?v.+

-raya

v.

rayi? v.+ rayistha b. ratna v v. +


is

raka?v. +
rati
v.

raravan
-raruv

ev.

+
v.b.

v.b.

ravan

The present-stem rasa

plainly an extension of the aorist-stem ras.

y
Pres. [4.]

2 ra, 'bark'.

rayati

etc. v.b.

[Perf.

etc.

Deriv.

rarau; arasit; rasyati, rata.] -ravan ? vs.

y
Perf.

raj, 'be kingly'.

Pres. [1.] rajati etc. v.+, -te etc. e.+

[2.]
m.,

rasti rat rv.


etc.

raraja rejus
1.

etc. e.+,

rarajatus
ararajat.j

reje

e.+ [raraje.]

Aor.

rajyasam

s. [

3.

5.

arajisus ev. [arajista.]

[Fut. rajisyati, rajita.]


Verb,

rajase ev.

Sec. Conj.: [Int. raraj-.


etc.

Desid. rirajisa-.
rajanv. + rajan ev.

Caus. rajayati

etc. b. +,

-te

av.e.

Dcrtv.

raj v.+

rajana b.+
-rajin ev.e.
'ruler',

rastri

v.b.s.

-rajav. +
Is
see.

rastrav.+
from }/rj, raj, which
it.

most probably an old denominative of raj

The anomalous stem irajya-

(see ib.) is related with

y radh,
Pres. [5.] Perf.

'succeed'.
etc.

radhnoti etc. b.+ raradha etc. v.b.

[4.]

radhyate

av. +. -ti

etc.

s.+

Aor.

1.

aradham
av.b.s.

b.

-sma
Av.B.s.

aradhi

(radhati -dhat etc. rv. -dhas 9B."); radhyasam v.b.u. 4. aratsit etc. 3. ariradhat etc. b.c.
,

5.

radhisi

etc.

av.b.u.


139
Fut.
Verb,
Sec.
1.

AND Pkimary Derivatives.


ratsyati
etc.

[ric

av.b.s.

2.
is.
;

raddha.]

raddlia
Conj.:

av. + ;

raddhva

-radhya

u.

Pass,

ritsa-.
Deriv.
:

radhyate c. Caus. radhayati


+
e.

etc.

\Int.

raradh-.

Desid.

riratsa-,

av. +

radha

v.

radhana av. +
+

-radhin

radhya
Ev'.,

v.

-radhaniya radhas v. +
kvI.,

c.

The form iradJianta

with the

(radhyate k. riradhayisati u. j -radhi av. -radhayitr c. raddhi av.b.s. -radhayisnu b. -raddhr c. inlln. iradhyai (tor iradhadhyai)

appears to belong to this root.

]/'

ras, 'roar

Pres. [1.]

rasati -te
c.

etc. e.

Perf.

rarase
etc.

[Aor.

arasista; rasisyate, rasita.]

Sec. Conj.: Int.

Deriv.:

rarasyate e. rasabha? b.+ rasa? c. Compare y ras and y 2 ra.

y
Pres. [9.]
6.

2 ras, see

ra,

y
rinati rinite
riyati.]
etc.

ri, ri,

'flow'.

etc. v.b.s.

[5.]

arinvan

ms.

[4.]

riyate

v.b.

[Perf.

riraya; arirayat, araisit; resyati, reta; reri-, ririsa-, rarit kv.

yaya-, repaya- ariripat,]


Deriv.

-raya E. Compare y li.


;

ritiv.+

retas v.+

renu v.+

y
Pre. [6.]

rikh,

'scratch'.

rikha
e.

rv'.

Deriv.

rekha

The usual form

of this root is likh,

which

see.

y
Pres. [1.]
etc.

rinkh, ring,

'creep'.

rinkhati etc. c; ringati -te ririnkha, riringa etc. etc.] [Perf. Sec. Conj.: Caus. ringayati c. ringin c. Deriv. rinkhana c.
;

etc. c.

ringi
'leave'.

c.

y rie,
Pres. [7.]

rinakti

etc. v.b.

[rinkte.]

2.

[4?] ricyate

e<c. ts., -ti e.

Perf.

rireca ririce
1.

etc. v.b.

(riricyat
v.b.s.

etc. v.,

ririkvans
c.

ev.. arirecit ev.)

Aor.

riktam?

ev.;

areei

aricat

3.

ariricat etc

m.s.

4.

Fut.

1.

araik ev., ariksi etc. v.b. reksyate b. [ 2. rekta.]

ric]
Verb,

Rooi's,

Vekb-forms,

140

rikta
Caus.

v.

+ [rikta.]
etc.

Sec.

Conj.: Pass, ricyate


etc. b.

v.+

+
c.

[Int. reric-.

c.

Desid. ririkaa-.

recayati Deriv.; -reka V.+ -rekin c.

+
c.

-reeya

-rincaE. +

-rikti

jb.
v.

recana

v.

-rincya

riktha

reeaB.+ recaka e. +
The accent ricyate

-recaniya
is

-rmciE.+ reku bv.


ts.,

reknas
-rikvan

bt.
bv.
cb.

quotable only fram

and ricyate only from

y rip,
Perf.
Verb,

'smear

riripus by.

ripta rv.
:

Deriv.

rip

v.

repas

v.

ripu
root,

v.

ripra

v.

Compare the other form of the


belongs.

lip, to which most of the formation

y
Pres. [6.]

riph,
[1.]

'snarl'.
b.

[Perf.
Verb,

riphant -ati etc. rirepha etc.


e.

av.b.
etc.]

rephant

riphita

Sec. Conj.: Pass,

riphyate
+

s.

Deriv.

repha

s.

y
Pres. [1.]

ribh,

'sing'.

rebhati etc. v.b.c'.? rirebha bv. [Aor. etc. arebhit rebhisyati, rebhita.] Sec. Conj. Pass, ribhyate bv.
Perf.
; :

Deriv.

rebha v.+

y
Pres. [6.]
Verb,

ri9, 'tear'.

riQant ricjate
v.u.

etc.

bv.

rista

Deriv. ri(ja av.

See the other form,

licj,

from which the forms mostly come.

y
Pres. [4.]

ris, 'be hurt'.


etc.

risyati

etc. v. +,

-te

e.+

[).]

resat resat

v.

[Perf. riresa.]

Aor.

1.

ridbvam
[

ta.

risant? by.)
BY.)

2.

arisan
etc. v.

etc.

v.b.s.

(risatha

etc.

rv.,

risant

3.

ririsat

+ (ririalsta bv.c, ririsista ririses

5.

aresit.]
;

[Fui. resisyati
Verb,

resita, reata.]

rista

v.

rise risas by.

141

AND Primary Derivatives.

mo

See. Conj.: [Int. reris-.

Caus. resayati
Deriv.:

etc. v.

Asv.
res?
B.

D.nd. ririksati etc. rv. [ririsisa-, riresisa-. + (risayadhyai uw) resa c. resana v. resman av.b.
]

-resins.

risti v.u.s.

ririksu rv.

-risa Av.

risana- rv.

risika?

c.

y
Pres. [2.]

Tih,

'lick'.
rv.,

Perf.
Verb,

redhi rihanti ririhvans rv. ridha rv.


:

etc. v.b.,

rihate

rihana

v.,

rihana

vs.

Sec. Conj.: Int. reriliat

-hana

etc. v.b.,

rerihyate

etc. v.b.

Deriv.

-rehana

av.

reriha

av.

The other verb-forms and

derivatives

made from

]/

lih, which see.

y y
Pres. [2.]

rl, see

ri.

ru,

'cry'.
s.,

rauti [raviti] ruvanti etc. b.+ (riiyat ruvati etc. v.+ [1.] ravati -te etc. jb.+

ravanav

s.)

[6.]

Perf.

rurava

e.,

ruruvire
j

b.
c.

Aor. [1. riiyat.

3.

artiruvat

[ariravat.]

5.

aravit

etc.

rv.

\Fut. ravisyati,
Verb,

ravita rota.]

ruta

av. + ;

rotum

c.

Sec. Conj.: Int.

roraviti

etc. v. +,

roruvana

b.;

roruyate
b.

etc. e. +. -ti e.

[Desid. ruriisa-.

Deriv.

rava ravana c. ruvana- RV.


v.

Caus. ravayati etc. s. + ruvatha -ravas v.+

ravitr

b.

ruma?
v.b.s.

rv.

ravatha

rava r.+ ravin e.+ ravanaE.+

y
Pres. [2.]

2 ru, 'break'
b.

Aor.
Verb,

5.

rudhi av.? ravisam etc.


v.b.

[1.]

ravat

v.b.

ruta
:

Sec. Conj.: Int.

roruvat
b.

rv.
b.

Deriv.

ravitr

-ravin

very few sporadic occurrences, and not unquestionable.

y rue,
Pres. [1.]

'shine'.

rocate

etc.

v.+, -ti
etc.

etc. e.

Perf.

rviroca ruruce
1.

v.+ (rurukvans rurucyas rurucanta rv.)


bv.; aroci rv.
4.

Aor.

ruciya

ta.,

rucana
b.

Ev.,
b.,

-cata (3s.) etc. rucisiya av.)

arukta

ta.

2.

arueat
arocista

c.

3.

arurucat

5.

etc.

b.+ (rocisiya

rue
Fut.
Verb,
1.

Roots, Vekb-forms,
rocisyate
e.
e. [

142

2.

rocita.]
;

rucita

Sec. Conj.: Int.

rocitum e. ruce rv. rorueana rv. Desid. rurueisate?


;

aa. [rurocisa-.]

Caus.

rocayati

etc.

v.+, -te

etc.
e.
c.

b.+ (rocyate

e.);

rucayanta

rv.

Deriv.:

nic v.+ ruea b. ruca E.

rocaka
-roein.

ruci AV. +
roci
f

rucira e.+

ruksa
V.

rv.

rucaka e.+ rucya c. roca Av. +

roka roka

V.

+
v.b.

rocis

+
>is.

Ev.

roeuka

-rokin
-rocaa

mkma v. +
rukmant
v.b.

roeana v.+
b.

rueisya c. rocisnu b.+ -ru9a? RV. ru9ant? v.

y
Pres. [6.]

ruj, 'break'.
e.+

rujati

etc. v. +,

-te

etc.

[2?]

rukte
4.

b.

Terf.

ruroja rurujus
1.

etc.

Aor.
]^Fut.

rok

vs.,

ruk
+
;

ms.

v.+ (rurojitha rv.)


3.

arurujat
-rujya
[Int.
b.

c.

arauksit.]

roksyati, rokta.]

Verb,

rugna

v.

ruktva
rujyate

b. e.

Sec. Conj.: Pass,

+ -ruje rv.
;

roruj-.

Lesid.

ruruksa-

(in d.)

rv.

[Caus. rojayati.]

Deriv.: TX>j 'V.+

rogav. +
loga?
V.B.

-ruj ana

c.

-rujatnu

rv.

ruja V.+
ruj a
E.

-rogana

av.

ruruksani

ruj ana rv.

y
Pres. [1.]

ruth, 'torment'

rothamana

r^.

Compare

luth.

y
Pres. [2.] roditi

rud, 'weep'.

rudanti
etc.

etc.

rudati -te
Perf.

s.+

2.

v.+ (rudimas rudihi c. arodit b.+)

[6.]

[1.]
e.,

rodati -te

etc.

s.+

ruroda rurudus etc. Aor. 2. arudat etc. av.u.


Fut.
Verb,
1.

rurude

e.

[3.

arurudat.

rodisyati
e.

c. [

5? araudisit

c.

rodita.]
c.
; ;

ruditva e.+, roditva e. -rudya c. Sec. Conj.: Pass, rudyate c. Int. rorudat e., rorudyate etc. e.+ Desid. rurudisa- (^in d.) Caus. rodayati etc. v. + Deriv. -TVid AX. rodas etc.? v.+ -roruda av. rodana e.+ -ruda? c. rudana c. roditavyaE. + rurudisu c. AV.U. roda rudra v v. +
+;

rudita

roditum

y
Pres. [1.]
Derir..-

rudh, 'grow'.
v.b.

rodhati rodhat rv. [6.] rudhant? rv'. -rudh V.+ -rodhaAv.+ -rodhana
to

Appeals

be another form of

ruh.

143

AND Primary Derivatives.

[nih

y
Pres. [7. J

rudh,

'obstruct'.

mas
Perf.

runaddtii rundhanti rtinddhe rundhate elc v.+ Av. etc. )i. + [1.] rodhati e. [6'.'J rundhati -te

[2.

rudh-

rurodha rurudhe
1.

etc.

v.+ (rurodhitha
ms.
[3.

ev.,

rurundhatue

e.)

Aor.

arodham rv.. arudhma


2.

Verb,

arudhat

etc.

v.+

(rudhant? rv.); rudhyatc. |arodhi.| arurudhat. ] 4. arautsit etc. n.+

(araut av., rotsis v.), arutsi aruddha 2. roddha. Fut. 1. rotsyati -te etc. b.+ [

etc. b.u.

(arautsi ah.)

ruddha

v.

roddhum
e.

e.

-dhos
+

d..

Sec.

-rudhya v.+, -nindhya Conj.: Pass, rudhyate


Desid. -te
etc.

-rudham
v.
.

av.k..

rodhitum e. ruddhva b. + -rundham h. -rodham h.


;
; ;

etc.

-ti etc.

e.+

Int.

rurutsate etc. b., -ti e. (-syamana? E.+ (rodhyate e.); rundhayati e.

b.s.)

rorudhas r. Caus. rodhayati


-ruddhi
b.

Deriv.: -rudh. v. +

rodhaka
rodliin
s.

e.+

-rudha

rv.

rodha

V.+

rodhya

e.+

rodhanav. + rodhana rv. r6dhasv.+


-rodliuka
b.

roddhavya roddhj b.+

e.+

I'

rup, 'break, ])am'

Pres. [4.]
[Per/",

riipyati

etc. b.

ruropa.]

Aor.
[Fut.
Verb,

[2.

arupat.

] 3.

arurupat

etc.

av.b.

ropisyati, ropita.]

rupita rv.
:

Sec. Conj.

Caus.

Deriv.

ropana

av.

ropayati b. ropi

av.

ropusi

rv.
it

Probably the same with

lup, though differentiated from

in meaning.

y
Pres. [1.]

rus, 'be vexed'.


rusyati -te
etc.

rosati rv.b.

[4.]

e.+

[0.|

rusati

etc.

8.+

[Perf. etc.
Verb,

rurosa; arusat, artirusat, arosit; rosisyati, rosita rosta.] rusita e.+. rusta e. + rusya e.
rorus-.

Sec. Conj.: [Int.

Desid. rurusisa-, rurosisa-.


e.+")

Caus. rosayati

-te
Deriv. :

etc.

E.+ (rosyate
e.

rosa e. + Occasionally written ru9 ; and here by BR.

rus

rosana

e.

part of the av. forms of ru(;ant are referred

y
Pres. [1.] Perf.

ruh, 'ascend'.
[6.]

rohati -te

etc.

v.+

ruhati -te
etc.

etc.

R.+
etc. c.

Aor.

ruroha ruruhus etc. 2. aruhat etc. v.+ [ruheyam

v.+ (rurohitha

av.^,

rurxihe

ruha riihana

v.b.s.)

7.

anikaat

etc. v.b.s.

ruhj
Fut.
Verb,
].

Roots, Verb-fokms,
roksyati
v.

144

b.+, -te
;

e.,

rohisye
b.
;

e. [

ts.

2. e.
;

rodha.]

rudha

rodhum
-ruham

rohitum
[Int.
,

-ruhya

ab.;

ev.

Sec. Conj.: Pass,

Cans,

ruhyate b. rohayati etc.


e.+,

v.

rohisyai
-te

rudhva -roham b.
;

av.

-riihya av. +,
v.+
e.

roruh-.
etc.

+
-,

B.

ruruksati ropayati etc. b. +


Desid.
e.

etr.
,

-te

(ropyate
Deriv.

aropi

c.)

ruh

v.

-ruha B.+ rohaAv. + roliakaE.+ rohin B.+ -rohya b.

rohana v. + rohaniya S.+


rohas rv.s. -rohuka k. rudhi b.+

-rodhavya

ropin

e.

-rodhr c. -ruruksuE. +

ropa e.+ ropaka e.+

ropya e.+ ropanaE. ropaniya

c.

ropayitrE. +

y
[Pres. etc.

rus, 'strew'.

rusati
e.

etc. etc.]

Verb,

rusita

Sec. Conj.:

Cans, [rusayati;]
c.

rosayati

etc. c.

Deriv.

.-

rtisana

ruksaVv.

y
Pres. [1.] rejati -te etc. v.b.

rej, 'tremble'.

Sec. Conj.: Cnus.

rejayati

etc.

rv.

y
Pres. [1.]

red, 'deceive'

(?).

-redant

b.s.

Only

in the phrase

aredata manasa. Of wholly douhtful

character.

rebh,

see

ribh.

y
Pres. [1.]
Sec.

laks, 'mark'.

laksate c, -ti e. Conj.: Caus. laksayati -te

etc.

e.+ (-laksita

b. +,

-laksya

s.

laks-

yate e.+) Deriv. laksa V.+ laksaka c.


;

laksya u.+ laksana b.+

laksaniya

c.

laksmiv.+
-laksayitavya
e.

laksmanv.+

Eeally a denominative formation from laksa, but having attained the


position and value of a secondary root.

y lag,
Pres. [1.] lagati efc. e.+

'attach'

[Perf.

etc.

lalaga; alagit.]
etc. c. [

Put.
Verb,

1.

lagisyati

2.

lagita.]
c.

lagna

b'.v e.

lagitva c; -lagya

145
Sec. Conj.:

AND Primary Derivatives.

[labh

Caui<. lagayati c. laganiya c. -lagana c. linga? u.+ The lateness of this root is strongly opposed to the laksa etc.

Deriv.:

derivation from

it

of

]/

langh,

'leap'.

Pre*. [1.]

[Perf.

langhati -te c. etc. lalangha -ghe;

alanghit,

alanghista;

langhisyati

-te,

langhita.]

langhayati etc. e.+ (langhita s. + langhyate c.) -langhin c. Derir. laiigliaka c. langhyaE.+ langhana s.+ langhaniya c. Doubtless related with y ranh.
Sec. Conj.: Cans,
.

y
Perf. lalajjire
c.

lajj,
etc.

'be ashamed'. e.+

Pres. [6.] lajjate etc. eI.e. +, -ti

[Aor.

etc.

alajjista; lajjisyate, lajjita.]


;

Verb, lajjita c.

lajjitum

e.
]

Sec. Conj.: [Int. lalajj-.

Desid. lilajjisa-.
y
lap//prate'.
etc. e.

Caus. lajjayati

etc. c.

Deriv. lajj a e.+

Prss. [1.]

lapati

etc.

av.e.+, -te

[4.]

lapyant

m.

lalapa lepus e.+ [Aor. alilapat, alalapat; alapit.]


Perf.

Fut.
Verb,

1.

lapisyati

etc.

e,+

2.

lapita.]
c.

lapita av.+, lapta

e.

lapitum
Int.
]

laptum
etc.

Sec. Conj.:
-ti E.

Pass, lapyate [Desid. lilapisa-.


c. c.

lalapiti

-lapya e.+ av.e.; lalapyate


e.
;

etc.

e.+,

Caus. lapayati

etc.

av.+. -te

etc. b.u.

Deriv.

-lap av.

-lapya

lapana c. lapaniya
-lapti
c.

c,

-lapitavya c. -lapaAv.+ -lapaka e. +

-lapin

e.

-lapya c. -lapana e. +

Compare the other root-form, rap.

y
Pres. [1.]

labh,

'take'.
;

labhate etc. av.+, -ti etc. av.? e. + lambhate etc. e. Perf. lalabha c, lebhe etc. v.+ ] 4. alabdha alapsata 3. alalambhat. Aor. [1. alambhi. lapsiya s. 2. labdha e. Fut. 1. lapsyate etc. b.+, -ti etc. b. + labhisyati c: av. + -labhya b. + -lambham k.s. Verb, labdba v. + labdbva

b.;

Sec. Conj.:

Pass,

labhyate
etc.
etc.
II.

etc.

b.+. -ti
etc. e.

c.
;

Int.

lalabh-, lalambh-.]
etc. b.s.

.Desid. lipsate

av.+, -ti

lipsate

(lipsyate

cb.)

Caus.

lambhayati

b.+, -te b.
!

Whitney, Supplement

labh]
Deriv.:

Roots, Vebb-foems,
-labha
s.+

146

labhana

c.

labhya labha B.+ -labhaka rv. labhin c.


B.+

-labhaniya labdhiE. +

c.

lambha b.+ lambhaka b.+

lambhuka b.u.
lipsa avp.e.+

labdhavya labdhr b.+

u.+

-lambhin e.+ lipsuE.+ -lambhya b.s. lipsitavya larabhanas.+ lipsitavya lambhaniyau.+

e. b.

Compare the other root-form, rabh.

y
Pres.

lam,

'take pleasure'.

lalama

ci.
s.

Deriv.

lamaka?

Sporadic variation of

y ram.

y
Pres. [1.]

lamb, 'hang down'.


etc.

+ [Aor. alalambat, alambista.]


Perf.
e.

lambate lalambe etc.

etc.

b.+, -ti

e.+

Fut.
Verb,
Sec.

1.

lambisyati e., alambisyata c. [2. lambita.] e. + lambita lambitum e. + -lambya e.+


;

Conj.: Pass,

lambyate
etc.

etc.

e.+

Caus. lam.bayati

etc.

e.

-te c,

(lambyate
Deriv.:

e.+)

lamba B.+ lambaka c.

Compare the other

lambinB. + lam.banaE.+ -lambya c. -lambuka b. root-form, ramb.

-lambitavya

c.

y
Pres. [1.] lalati -te etc.

lal, 'sport'.

e.+

Verb. lalita e.

+
lalayati
+
etc.

Sec. Conj.: Caus.

e.+, -te
c.
c.

c.

(lalyate c); lalayati

etc. c.

Deriv.

lalana
-lala
c.

e.

lalaka
-lalya

lalana

c. e.

lalayitavya
+

e.

lalaniya

y
Pres. [!.] lasati -te etc. e.+ [

las, 'desire'
4.

lasyati

-te.]

Perf.

lalasa lesus
lasisyati
e.

c.

[lese.]

[Aor. alilasat; alaslt, alasista.]


Fut.
Verb,
1.

c.

[-te.

2.

lasita.]

lasita

+
lasaya-.]
c.

[Sec. Conj.: lalas-; lilasisa-;

Deriv.: -lasya

c.

-lasaniya

-lasa

c.

-lasin
e.

c.

-lasaka
Hardly occurs, in verb-forms
or derivatives,

-lasvika

c.

except with abhi.

..

] ]

147

AND Primary Derivatives.

[lip

y las,
Pre.<. [1.]

'be lively'

lasati
c.

etc. e.+.

-te

etc. c.

Perf.

lalasa
etc.

[Aor.

alilasat, alasit; lasisyati, lasita.J


Caus. lasayati
c.

Verb, lasita e.+


Sec. Conj.
:

etc. e.

+ (laayate

c.)

Deriv.: -las

-lasa B.+
In meaning

-lasana c. lasana e. +

lasaE. +

-lasin e.+

lasaka e.+
to

lasya
and the two

e.

lalasa e.+
.

lalasa belongs distinctly


is

las

roots are

very possibly one in origin; alasa

the only pre-epic form.

y
Pres. [2.] lati
c.

la, 'grasp'.

[Perf.
Verb,

etc.

lalau; alasit; lasyati, lata.]


c.
artificial.

latva

few sporadic occurrences, probably

y
Only in lanchita
c.

lanch, 'mark'
c.
;

and lanehana

perhaps connected with

laks.

y likh,
Pres. [6.]

'scratch'.

likhati
etc.

etc.

av.+. -te b.s.

Perf.

lilekha
[1.
1.

b.+
] 3.

Aor.
Fut.
Verb,

alekhi.

likhisyati

c.

[lekhisyati.
alilikhat
jb.

5.

lekhis

b.s.

2.

lekhita.]
c.
;

likhita av. + [lekhitum, likhitum; lekhitva,] likhitva


b.

-li-

khya
Sec.

[Desid. lilikhisa-, lilekhisa-. likhyate etc. s.+ Caus. lekhayati etc. s. + likhapayati c. lekhana s. lekhakaE.+ i)erii'. likhya c. lekha s.+ lekhaniya lekhinE.+ likhana c. lekha b.+

Conj.: Pass,

lekhya
Compare the other root-form, rikh.

e.

y
Pres. [6.]

lip,

limp, 'smear'.
s.+

'

limpati
c.

etc.

av,+, -te

etc.

Perf. lilepa lilipus b.

+
alipat
c.

Aor.

1.

alepi

2.

lalipata.

3.

alilipat.]

4.

alipta c,

alipsata ev.
[Fut.
Verb,

lepsyati -te ; lepta.] lipta av. + -lipya b.+


;

Sec. Conj.

Pass,

lipyate

etc.
;

b.+, -ti e.

[Int. lelip-.

Desid. lilipsa-.

Caus^ lepayati

etc. e.

+ limpayati

s.

10*

lip]
Deriv.:

Roots, Verb-fokms,
lepa r.s.+ -lepaka c.
tlie

14S
s.+

lepinE.+ lepya c.

lepana
lipiE.+

-limpa av.b. limpi c'.

Compare

other root-form, rip.

y
Pres. [6.]

lie, 'tear.

liqate

etc. e.

{^licjana jb.) [

Perf. Iili9ire b.

Aor.
[Fut.

[3.

alili^at.

] 5.

ale9isi

b. [

4.

ligyate.]

7.

aliksata.]

leksyate, lesta.]
legaya-.]

Verb, lista b.s.


[Sec. Conj.: lelig-; liliksa-;

Derir.; (ku-)li9a? V.+

le9aB.+
ri9.

lestu e.+

Compare the other root-form,

yiih,
Pres. [2.]

'lick'.

ledhi

etc.

b.+,

lidhe

etc.

b.+

[6.]

lihati

etc.

e.+

[Perf.

etc.

lileha, lilihe.]

Aor.
[Fut.
Verb,

[1.

alehi.

3.

alilihat.

4.

alidha.

] 7.

aliksat

s.

[-ksata.]

leksyati

-te,

ledha.]
s.

lidha

e.

-lihya

Sec. Conj.: Pass,

lihyate

e.

Int.
c.

lelihat

etc.

e.+,

lelihana

e. +.

-hita

jb.,

lelihyate etc. B.+


Deriv.
:

etc. e. +,

-hyant

e.

[Desid. liliksa-.

Cans,

lehayati
s.+

-lih

c. c.

-liha

leha c. -lehaka

-lehin e.+

lehana

lehyaE. +

lelihaE.+

Compare the other root-form, rih.

y
Pres. [4.]
E.

11,

'cling".

liyate av.
9.

'?

b.+, -ti etc. v.c.

[1.]

layate

etc. v.b.

(ni-")layata

linati.]
b.+, lilyus b.+
cb. [alaisit.

Perf. lilye

etc.

(ni-)layam cakre cb.


6.

[lalau.]

Aor.

4.

alesta

alasit.]

[Fut. lesyati,
Verb,

lasyati; leta, lata.]


;

llna AV. +
:

-liya e.+, -laya

s.

Sec. Conj.

[Int. leli-.
;

-lay am av.b.

Desid. lilisa-.

Caus.

lapayati

etc. b.

+ (lap-

Deriv.:

yate c.) layayati etc. c. layaB.+ -liyana c. layanaAv.+ layav ev. layu? MS. -layaka vs.
Compare
]/ ri, ri.

-layya? ev. -layana c.


-leya v
c.

-lapya c. -lapana b.+ -lapayitavya

c.

149

AND Primary DERtvATivES.

flup

y
B.;

2 II, 'be unsteady'.

Sec. Conj.: Int. lelayati E.r.s..

alelayat
b.
;

v..

alelet
-

n..

lelayanti lelayatas
ms..

lelayate

etc. v.,

aleliyata

lelaya

cb..

lelaya

lelayat jh.

Deriv. lelacB.?jB.

Perhaps iutensive of the preceding.


quite anomalous.

The

variety of form and accent is

y
[Pres. Ivincati.]
Perf.

lunc,

'tear'.

luluncus
etc.

e.,

-nee

c.

[Aor.
Verb,

aluncit; luncisyati, luncita.]


c.
;

luneita

Deriv.: lvLk.1

c.

luncitva c [lucitva] -luneya e. -lunca vs. -luncaka c.


.

-luncanaE.+

y
Pres. [6.]

luth,

roll'.

luthati -te

etc. c.

Perf.

[Aor.
Verb,

lulotha c. etc. aluluthat alulothat, alothit alothista; lothisyati, lothita.]


luthita
:

c.

Sec. Conj.

Int.

loluthiti
c.

c.

Caus. lothayati
lunth,

c.

Deriv.

lothana?

)/ 2 luth,
Pres.

'rob'.

[l.Jlunthati

e'.

Fut.
Verb,

lunthisyati

c.

lunthitum
:

c.

Sec. Conj.: Caus.

lothayati
c.

etc. c.

lunthayati
c.

etc. c.

(lunthyate
e'.c.

c.l
c.

Deriv.

-luntha

lunthaka

lunthana
'stir up".

Ivinthi

y
l^Pres. etc.

lud,

lodati

etc. etc.]
;

Sec. Conj.: Caus.


;

lodayati etc. e. + lodita -lodya s.+ (lodyate etc. e.+) Deriv. -lodana E. + -lodayitr c. Compare }' lul. A form or two from y lunth appear to have the mean}/

ing of

Ivid.

y
Pres. [6.]
Perf.

lup, 'break'.
etc.

lumpati
etc.
s.

etc.

av.+. -te
e.

s.+

lulopa
1.

b.+,
[2.

Aor.

lopi

lulupe
alupat.

o.

alulupat

e.

[alulopat.]

4.

[alupta;]

[Fut.

lopsiya u. lopsyati -te, lopta.] Verb. luptaAV. + loptumc.


-lop am
s.

luptva

s.

-lupya

\y. +

-lumpam

ms.,

lup]
Sec. Conj.:

Roots, VERB-roKMS,
Pass,

150
-ti
] s.

lupyate
c.)

etc.

av.+ (lupyate

ts.),

-pyate
etc.

etc. v.-i-

[Desid. lulupsa-, lulopisa-.


lopaka
lopya
E.+

lolupat Cans, lopayati -te


Inf.

JB.E.+

(lopyate

Deriv.:

lup c -lupya c. lopaE. +

lopanaE. +
-lupti
b.
e. E.

lopin e.+
c.

-lumpakaE. + -lumpana e.
lolupa e.+

loptr

loptra

+
to

Compare the other root-form, rup. Xiolupa belongs in meaning

)/lubh.

y
Pres. [4.]

lubh, 'be

lustful'

6. lubhati.] lubhyati etc. av. + [ [1.] lobhase Perf. lulubhe s. + [lulobha.] 5. alobhit.] ] 3. alulubhat jb. [ Aor. [2. alubhat. {Put. lobhisyati lobdha, lobhita.]

ci.

Verb,

lubdha
:

e.

lobdhum

e.

[Desid. lulubhisa-, lulobhisa-. Int. lolubhyate c. ] Caus. lobhayati etc. v.+, -te etc. e.+ (lobby ate e. + lulobhayisati ab.") lobhaniya e.+ lobhin e.+ lobhana s. + Deriv.: lobhaE. + -lobhya c. -lobhaka c.
Sec. Conj.
-,

y
Pres. [1.] lolati etc. c.

ltd, 'be lively'.

Verb, lulita

e.

Sec. Conj.: Caus.

lolayati
lud.

etc.

e.+
c.

Deriv.

lola

e.

+
]/

lolana

The same with

y
Pres. [9.]

lu, 'cut'.
etc. b.s.

lunati
c.

etc.

b.+

[5.]

Ivmoti

Perf.

lulava
etc.

[Aor.

alavi, alilavat -vata, alavlt alavista; lavisyati -te, lavita.]

Verb, liina b.
[Sec. Conj.
:

-lavam c
;

lolii-

lulusa- ; lavaya-.]

Derio.:

lavaB.+

-lavya

c.

lavanas. +
'look'

lava

c.

lavaka

c^

y lok,
lokate etc. b'.c. luloke c. Perf. 3. alulokat. Aor. 1. aloki c. [
Pres. [1.]

5.

alokista.]

[Fut.
Verb,
.Sec.

lokisyate, lokita.]

lokitvim

c.

lokayati etc. e.+, -te etc. e.+ (lokyate etc. c.) -lokayitr c. -lokana c. -lokin s. + -loka e. + Deriv. -lokajritavya -lokaniya e. + -lokya e. + -lokaka e. + from y ruc, through a noun loka: compare also y loc. Doubtless
Conj.: Caus.
:

c.

151

AND PkiMARY DeRIYATIVES.

[vao

y
[Pres. locate.]

loc, "see, consider'.

Perf.

luloce
etc.

c'.

[AoT.

alulocat, alocista; locisyate, locita.]

Sec. Con}.: [Int. loloc-.

Desid. lulocisa-.
c.

Cuu<. locayati -te

etc.
c.

e.+

Deriv.

-loca

c.

-locya

locana

e.+

-locaniya

-iocaka c. The same root with the preceding.

vak,

see

vafic.

y
Pres. [1, 6.]

vaks, uks,

'increase'.

Perf.

Aor.
[Put.
Verb,

uksant xiksamana auksat rv. vavaksa vavakse etc. (vavaksitha) v. 3? vavaksat sv. 5. auksis ev.

vaksisyati, vaksita.]

uksita RV.
:

Sec. Conj.

Caus.

viksayanta rv.

vaksayam

rv.

Deriv.

vaksana uv. vaksana? v. vaksani

rv.

vaksatha

ry.

vaksas

.'

v.+

y
Pres. [3.]

vac, 'speak'.

vivakti

etc. v.

[2.]

vacmi vaksi vakti

e.

Perf.

RV.,

Acr.

uvaca ucus etc. v.+ (uvaktha av.), iice etc. v.+ (vavaea vivakvans vavakse rv.) 2. avocat -cata etc. v.+ (vocati -te 1. ucyasamE. avaci v.b.
;

vocet -ceta etc. v.b., vocatu etc. v.; vocati etc. v.b.s. 3. avivacat.] vocant c. avoci c.) [ 2. vakta b.+ Fut. 1. vaksyati etc. v. +, -te etc. e.+ (avaksyat etc. b.u.) Verb. ixkta v. + vaktum b.+, -tave rv., -tos b. uktva b. + -ucya b.+ Desid. vivaksati Int. avavaeit rv. Sec. Conj.: Pass, ucyate etc. v.+ -te etc. s. Caus. vacayati etc. b. + -te etc. B.+ (vivaksyate c.)
etc.

V.

(vaeyate
Deriv.

c.)

vac V.+
-vaca -ucya
E.

B.s. V.

vaka

+
u'.

vacana v.+ vacana rv. vacaniya s. + vacana v. +


-vacaniya vacas V.+ -vaeas v. -vaku AV.+
is
c.

ukti V. + vakti ui.

vagnu

V.B.

vakman'.' rv.

-vakin

vakya v. + vacaka e. +
vacin
c.

vaktva rv. vaktavya b. + vaktr V. + vaktra e.+ uktha V. + ucatha rv.

vakmya?

rv.

vagvana rv. vagvanu rv.


vivaksa b.+ vivaksu av. +
vacayitr c. vacayitavyas.

vacya

v.

The aorist-stem voca

treated quite as a secondary root-form.

vaj]

Roots, Vekb-fokms,

152

y
[Pres.
etr.

vaj, 'be strong'.

vajati

etc. etc.]
;

Cms. vajayati etc. v.b.s. (vajayant ev. vajayadhyai rv.) Deriv.: vajav. + ojas v.+ ojiyas v.b. ugrav.+ -vajana s. oja- rv. ojman v. vajrav.+
Sec. Conj.:

ojistha

V.B.

The verbal forms

are really denominative, from

vaja.

y
Pres. [1.]

vane, 'move crookedly'.

vaneati v.b.s., -te c'. [vavanca] vavakre rv. [Aor. etc. vaeyat. avavancat, avancit; vaneisyati, vancita; vancitva vacitva vaktva.] Int. [vanivanc-] avavacltv ev. Sec. Conj.: Pass, vacyate etc. v. + [Desid. vivancisa-. ] Cans, vancayati etc. v.+. -te etc. e.+ (vancyate e. +) Deriv. vakra av. + vancayitr c. vaneaka e. + vanku rv. vakva rv. vancana v. + vankri v. + vancayitavya e.+
Perf.

vancaniya
It is hardly

e.+

vakvan

rv.

necessary to assume a different root-form

vak

for a part of

these forms

since they are all such as sometimes

show

a guttural in place of a

palatal of the root.

y
[Pres. etc.

vant, 'divide'.

vantati
Pass,

etc. etc.] c.

Sec. Conj.:

vantyate

The

single occurrence is doubtless artificial. '6^

y
Pres. [1.]

vat, 'apprehend'.
av.

vatema vatantas
v.
:

Aor.

3.

avivatan
Cans,

Sec. Conj.

vatayati

etc.

ev.

Deriv.

-vata? rv.

Only with api.

y
Pres. [1.]

vad, 'speak'.
e.
;

vadati -te

etc.

v.+ (vadata -deyus

udeyam

av.)

Perf.

] 5. avadit etc. v.+ [3. avivadat. (vadisas av.. vadisma ab.). vadisthas b. (avadiran av.) Fut. 1. vadisyati etc. .s.v. +. -te b. Verb, udita v. + vadita e. + vaditum b. + vaditos e.s. uditva s. + -ude? av. -udya B.

Aor.

udima udus v.b.. ude etc. b.u. avadi c. 1. udyasam etc. b.s.
:

: :

153
Sec. Con).: Pass,

AXD Primary Derivatives.


udyate
etc. v.

vand

Desid.

vivadisati

etc.

b.s.

vavaditi etc. v.n., -dyate etc. n. Caus. vadayati -te etc. n.+ (vadyate
Int.

B.+. -ti E.)

Deriv.

-vada v. -vadya v. + -udya Av. +

vadya av.+ vadana e.+ vadana s. +


-vadaniya vaditavya vaditavya
s.+
ii.+
e.

vada V.+ vadaka e. +


vadin
Compare
v.

vaditr ii.+ vaditra r.s. + -vadisu s. -vadisnu s. vadistha u.

vadman

nv.
n.
s.

-vadavada vadavadin
-vadayitr

h.

vaduka

a.

y vand.
'slay.
vs.
l.
;

Pres. [1?]

y vadh, badh, vadha? vadheyam av., vadhet


-stis av.b.s..

Aor.

1.

badhyasam
+
;

vadhyat
;

etc. V.

(avadhim vadhim

v.b.

avadhi c. vadhisas ev.. badhis

5.

avadhit
[vadhi-

ta.)

sthas vadhisista.1 Fut. 1. vadhisyati -te etc. e. + Sec. Conj.: Pass, vadliyate etc.
Derii\

e.+, -ti etc. e.+

Caus. vadhayati

etc. b.

vadha, ba-v.+

vadhana

rv.

vadhaka av. + vadhya, ba- av. +

vadhatra rv. vadhar rv.

-vadhyaE. + -vadhra rv. vadhriv v.+

vadhasna
vadhasnii

rv.
v.

y
Pres. [8.]

van, va, Svin'.

vanoti vanute
v.b.

etc. v.b.s.

[1.]

vanati -te

etc. v.

[(3.]

vanati

vanema
Perf.

vavana vavanma etc. vavne (vavantha vavanas vavandhi) rv. 4. vansat etc. rv.. vansi (Is.) vansate Aor. 1. vanta? rv., vansva rv. V.B. vansimahi vasimahi rv. 5. vanisat av. vanisanta ts.

6. vansisiya (vanusanta rv.). vanisista 1. vanisyate s. [ 2. vanita.] Verb, -vata v.b., vanita e. + -vantave rv. Desid. vivasati Sec. Conj.: Int. vanivan- [m d.). vanayantu av.

rv.

av.

Fut.

-te

etc. v.

Ciw-.

Deriv.

-van?

B.s.

vandl
Aor,
[Fut.
Verb,
1.

Roots, Vekb-fobms,

154

vandi

rv.

5.

vandisimahi
;

kv.

vandisyate, vandita.]
;
;

vandita av. + vanditum e. + vanditva e. + -vandya e. + vandadhyai bv. Pass, vandyate etc. e. + Desid. vivandisa- (in d.). Caus. Sec. Conj. vandayati etc. e. vandaniya e.+ vanditavya e. + Deriv. -vanda v. vandin c. vandaru v. + vanditr v.b. vandya v. + vandana v. + vivandisu c. Doubtless the same with ]/ vad.
:

y
Pres. [1.]

vap,
s.)

'strew'.

vapati -te
iipus

etc. v.

+ (upet

Perf.

uvapa
1.

etc. v.

] 4. avapsit etc. b.+ [avapta.] [upyat;] vapi n. [3. avivapat. 2. vapta.] vapsyati etc. b.s. vapisyati etc. e. + [ e. + V. +, upita e'., vapta e1. uptva -upya v.+ Verb, upta [Int. vavap-. Desid, vivapsa-. Sec. Conj.: Pass, upyate etc. v. + Caus. vapayati etc. b. +

Aor.

+ (vavapa

e.),

upe

etc.

rv.

Fut.

1.

Deriv.

vapa vapa
vapa

B.

-vapaka
-vapin
c.

e.

v.B.s.
B.

-upya

B.+

vapya b. + vapana av. +


root.

vapaniya vapana c. vapi E. +


upti
c.

c.

vaptavya vaptr E. + vapra s.+


-vapistha -vapayitr

c.

b.

b.

Compare the following

y
Pres. [1.] Verb,

2 vap, 'shear'.

vapati
s.
;

-te

etc. v.b.s.
s.
;

-upya s. Sec. Conj.: Caus. vapayati etc. s., -yita s. vapana vapa c. Deriv. vapana B. +
upta
.-

uptva

s,+
off

vaptr
from
one'.

v.b.s.

Doubtless the same with the preceding root: 'scatter

y
Pres. [2.]

vara, 'vomit'.
v.+ (avamit v.b.,

vamiti vamanti
etc. e.

etc.

avamat

b.+)

[1.]

vamati
Perf.

vavama
[1.

Aor.
[Fut.
Verb,

avami.
b.

e. +,

vemus
3.

[vavamus] (uvama avivamat. ] 4. avan kb. [


c.

cb.)
5.

avamit.]

vamisyati, vamita.]

vamta
;

Sec. Conj.: [Int.


c.

vamitva vanvam-. vamayati etc. c.


+
-,

c.

Desid.

vivamisa-.

c.

Caus.

vamayati

etc.

Derjv.;

vami c. vamin b. +

vamana

c.

vamitavya

c.

vamra?

v.b,

vamaniya c.

vamathu

155

AND Primary Derivatives.

'1

vas

y
Pres. [1.]

val,

turn'.

valati -te
c.

etc. c.

Perf.

vavale
etc.

[Aor.
Verb,

valita
:

avivalat, avalista; valisyati, valita.] c. valitva c.


;

Sec. Conj.

Caus.

valayati

c.

Dcr ('.; valana


derivative.

c.

vali .'.+

valayaE.+

Evidently a secondary root- form, probably from

vr, through some

y
Pres. [1.]

valg, 'spring'.
etc.

valgati
avalgit
e.

etc.

av. +, -te

e.+

Perf.

vavalga
etc.

etc. e.
;

[Aor.
Verb,

valgisyati, valgita.]

valgita

Sec. Conj.: Caus.

Deriv.:

valgayati s. valga E.+ -valgin

c.

valgana

c.

valguv.+

y
Pres. [I.]
;

valh, 'challenge'.

valhati -te etc, b.s. Verb, valhita c. -valhya b. Deriv. -valha b.s. -valhaka
:

b.s.

]/

vac, 'be eager'.


v.+ (Qmasi rv.
,

Pres. [2.]

vasti u^anti
ev.,

etc.

Perf.

ava9at
[6.]

vaqa -qet
rv'.

at.?

vasta

sv.")

rv.,

[1.]

vacjanti
sv.

[3.]

vavaksi vivasti

vivastu

U9amana

vavacjus -qe -9ana rv. [uva9a Uijus.] 3. avivaQat. j 5. va9is e. [avacjit.] Aor. [1. UQyat. [Fut. etc. vaqisyati, vaqita; uqita.] Int. vava9-. Desid. vivaqisa-. ] Caus. .Sec. Conj.: [Pass. u(;yate. vaqayati c. vaqita? av. + vaBti rv. v&qi b. uqana, -nas v. + Dcrii'. vaqa V.+ UQi-vv. + va9itr c. RV. UQenya u(ja-'? RV. vaqiyas av. uqij v.B.e.

.'

y
Pres. [6.]

vas, us, uch, 'shine'.

uchati

etc. v.b.s.

[2.]

vastev
av.

cb'.

Perf.

Aor.
Fut.

uvasa usiis etc. ]. avasran ev.


1.

v.b.
4.

avatv

Verb,
Sec.

avatsyat cb. usta v.+, usita s.e. vastave Caus. vasayati etc. v.b. Conj.
;

rv,

-usi

v.b.

vas

157

AND Primary Derivatives.

[2

va

y
Pres. [1.]

vah,

'carry'.

vahati

-te

etc. v.

vodhvam udhvam
Perf.

+ [2.] vaksi lihana v.r.

vodham -dham

vihita

vaksva

Aor.

Fut.

uhe etc. v. (vavaha vavahatus e.+) avahi c. ixhyat s. [3. avivahat. ] 4. avaksit etc. v.u.s. {kva^ vat V.E.S.. vaksat etc. v.u.s., vaksati etc. v.) [avaksi,] I. vaksyati etc. av.+, -te e. vahisyati etc. e.+ 2. vodha v.
tihus
:

uvaha

etc.

v.+,

I.

Verb,

Sec.

vodha? k'.; vodhumv. + -dhave v.b.s., -dhavalB. udhva E.; -uhya av. + vahe rv. vahadhyai kv. Conj. Pa^s. uhyate etc. v.+, -yant e.+ Int. vavahiti c, vanlvah.

udhav. +
:

yate etc. b.s. E. + (vahyate Deriv -vah V. +

[Desid. vivaksa-.
etc. e.

Cans,

vahayati
e.

etc. ii.+,

-te

etc.

+)

vaha

AV.+
B.s.

vahin

vahya v.s. ogha V. + augha B. vaha V. + vahaka e.


vahin
Compare
roots

vahya s.+ vahana s.+ vahana v. + vahaniya c. vahat Ev.


vaghat?
-

vodhavya
vodhr
V.

-vahitavya
+

e.

vahiyas v.b. vahni v.+

-vahman
vaksas v
vaksi
.'

ev.

EV.

vahas v.b.s. udhi E. +


vahatii
,

vahitr e. -vahitr u. vahitra c. vahistha v. vahistha v.b.

v. v.

vaksana.'
EV.

vavahi rv. vivadhav b.+


-vahayitr
c.

av. +
1

v.b.

uh.
]/ 1 va, 'blow'.

Pres. [2.]

vati

etc. v.

[4.]

vayati

etc. v. +,

-te

etc. e.

Perf.

vavau
1.

etc. b,

Aor. 6? avasit
Fut.

b.

vasyati etc. c. Verb, vata s., vana c. vatum c. Caus. vapayati etc. v. + Sec. Conj. Deriv.: -va av.e. vata v. +
;

-vana
The forms

e.

vayu

v.

-vapaka -vapana

c. c.

-vapayitr

c.
c.

-vapayitavya

-vayya av. from pres.-stem vaya have


of the

mostly the sense 'be blown or ex-

hausted', and are generally referred to a different root, 2 va.

The two, however,


nor are the forms

seem evidently only two sides

same

original root

capable of being clearly divided between them.


]/ 2 va, vi, u, 'weave'.
Pres. [4.]

vayati

etc. v. +,

-te

etc.

b.+
etc.]

Perf.

livus RV. [vavau


1.

etc.,

6. avasit.] avasta, vasista. 2. vata.] Fut. 1. vayisyati ev. [-te; vasyati. Verb, uta v. +. uta s. otum rv., otave sv.. otavai

[Aor.

tiyat.

uvaya uyus

4.

v..

vatave

av.

2 val
Sec. Conj.: Pass,

Roots, Verb-forms,
uyate
etc. b.s. [

15S
vivasa-.

In',

vava-.

Desid.
c.

Caus.
|

vayaya-.]
Derjy.
;

-vaya

Rv.c.
c.

vayaka
-vayana

vanas. + vayuna?v. +
uti ?
c.

b.s.

otu v.b. -vatavya vayitr b.

vem?s.+

vema e. veman b. +

va (m vivasa-),

see

van.

y
Pres. [1.]

vanch,

'desire'.

vanchati
e.

etc.

\.+

[Perf.
Verb,

etc.

vavancha; avanchit; vanehisyati, vanchita.]


+
etc. c.

vanchita

Sec. Conj.: Pass,

vanchyate

Caus. vanchayati

e.

Deriv.

vancha

c.

y
Pres. [4.]

vac, 'bellow'.

vaqyate etc. av. +. -ti e. [1.] va9ati etc. ev.e.+, -te etc. e.+ etc. v.+ (vavaQre -qana avavaqitam avava9anta etc. rv.) Perf. vava9e 5. ava9isthas b. Aor. 3. avivaqat etc. avivaqanta ev. [avava^at.]

[Fut.
Verb.

va9isyate, va9ita.] va9ita e. + va9itva


;

Sec. Conj.: Pass.

va9yate

viva9isa-.
Xeni;..-

va9a? V.+ va9a v.s.

-va9ya c. Int. vava9at rv. vava9yate e. Caus. va9ayati etc. v.s. -va9ya s. va9rav. va9aka c. + c. va9inE. va9ana
c.
;

c.

[Desid.

y
Pres. [1.]

vah,

'press'.

vallate

etc. c.

[Perf.
Sec.

vavahe; avahista; vahisyate, vahita.] Conj.: Caus. vahayati c.


etc.

y
Pres. ['.]

vie,

'sift'.

Perf.

vinakti etc. v. + [,3.] viveksi viveca? av. (vivikvans rv.^

rv'.

[Aor. avivicat, avaiksit.]

Fut.

2. vekta.] veksyati c. [ Verb, vikta b. + vektum e. -vicya Pass, vicyate etc. av. + Sec. Conj.
1.
; ;

s.

-vecam

s. s.

Int.

vevekti

Caus.

vecayati
c.

etc. c.

Deri';..-

-veka U.+ -vekin c. -vekya c.

-vecaka -vecana

c.

-viktiB.+

-vektr
c.

e.

-vektavya

vivici

v.b.s.

159

A.ND

Primary Derivatives.

[2

vid

y
Pres. [G.]

2 Vic, see |/ vyac.

^ ^,

^^ ^.

UNIV
V
vijate
etc.

I'Y

vij, 'tremble".

v.+, -ti

etc.

k.+

2.

[1.]

vejate

e.

Perf.

vivije
1

etc. v.

Aor.
Fut.
Verb,

(4?).

vikthas
e.,

v.b.,

vikta

ev.

1.

vijisyati
ev.,

vejisyati
e.

c. [

;}.

vivijas rv.

5.

avijista.J

vijita.J

vikta

vigna

+ [vijitum.]
nv.,
e.
c.

Sec. Conj.: Int.

vevijyate
etc.

vevijanaRv.

[Desid. vivijiaa-.
c.

Caus.

vejayati

b.+, -te

Deriv.: vij u\.

-vejaka
-vejin
c.

-vejana

vevija

rv.

vegav.+

vigra.'Rv.

y
Pres. [2.]

vid, 'know'.

vetti vidanti
c(c. c.)

karotu
Perf.

etc. v. +,

vidmahe

b.

+ (avidus

b.,

[1.]

vedaE., vedate

u.

-dan

c.

vidam
;

[6.]

vidati-teetc. av.v.k. +

vindati -te

etc. e.
etc.

veda
B.U.S.
[1.

vidiis

v.+,

vidre

rv.

viveda
4.

etc. c.

vidam cakara
5.

etc.

Aor.

avedi.

3.

avividat.

avaitv

c.

avedit

etc.

b.+

vidam akran
Fut.
1.

b.

vedisyati -te etc. b.u. (avedisyat u.); vetsyati -te etc. e. + 2. vedita cb., vetta e. Verb, vidita av. + veditum b. +, -tos b., vettum e. viditva b.+ [Int. vevid-. ] Desid. vividisati etc. b. +. See. Conj. Pass, vidyate c. Caus. vedayate -ti etc. v.+ (vedyate etc. e. + vivitsati etc. c.
; ;

vivedayisaDeriv.: vid v. + -vida B.+

in d.)

vedana b. + vedaniya e. +
-vedi
B.

veda vedaka
vedin

V.+
e.

vidu(^sO RV.
vitti
c.

b.

vedya vedya
See

v.+
ev.c.

vettr U.+

veditr

v.

veditavya b. + vidatha v.b. vidya v. + vidmian v. vidura e. + vidvan av. vidvala v.

vivitsa

B.

vivitsu E. + vividisa c. vividisu c.

vedayitr c. vivedayisu

k.

2 vid.

y
Pres. [6.]

2 vid,
[2.]

'find'.
etc. v.b.

vidre v.b., vindyatv c. vidam 3s. av.b., vidanav.B., vidanav.); vindate (3p.) vividat rv.) vivide Perf. viveda vividus etc. v. + [viveditha rv.
vindati -te
etc.

v.+

vitte

(vide

3s. v.b.,
e..

etc. v.B.s.

Aor.

2. avidat -data avedi vedi rv. videt -deta etc. v.b.s., videsta av.)
1.

etc. v.b.s.

(vidasi

etc.

vidat
avitsi

etc.

[3.

avividat.

] 4.

v.b.

2 vid]

Roots, Verb-forms,

160

FuL
Verb.

1.

2. vetta.] vetsyati -te etc. b. + [vedisyati. vittaA. +, vinnaAv. + vettum e., vettave av.,
;

-tavai'.'TB., -tos

jB.

vittva

Av.B.

Sec. Conj.: Pass,

Rv.
Deriv.
:

Desid. vivitsati

-vidya vidyate etc.


;

b.

v.

+ +

vide

rv.

-ti etc. e.

Int.

vevidat -dana
etc. e.

etc.

etc. b.

Caw.*,

vedayati

-vid v.+

-vidya V. -veda V.+

-vedaka
-vedin
c.

c.

vedyas. + vedanav.+ -vedanlya c. vedas v.+

vittiAv.+

vidayya

kv.

veduka

b.

-vettavya c. -vettrE.+ vedistha kv. vediyas rv.


root.

-vindaB. -vindu t.b. -vindaka c.


-vivitsu?
e.

Doubtless originally the same with the preceding

In some of their

meanings, the two are so close together as hardly to he separable; and there are
instances, from the

Veda down,

of exchanges of form

between them.

y
Pres. [6.]

vidh, 'worship'.
etc.

Deriv.

vidhati etc. v.b.u.c, -te vedhas v. +

rv.

2 vidh, see

vyadh.

y vindh,
Pres. [6.]

'lack'.

vindhate
V.+

etc.

rv.

Derfy.;

vidhu

vidliavav.+

vidliviraE.+

body of forms of not unquestionable connection.

]/ vip,
Pres. [1.] Perf.

vep, 'tremble'.
+
etc.

vepate

etc.

v.+, -ti
.'

etc. e.

vivipre
1.

rv.,

vepus

c.

[vivepe.]
rv.

Aor.
[Fut.

vipana

rv.

3.

avivipat
etc. v.

5.

avepista
rv.

etc. b.s.

vepisyate, vepita.]

Sec. Conj.: Cans,

vepayati
rv.

vipayanti

Deriv.

vip v. vipana- ?
vipasV.

vepa
+

v.

+
c.

-vepin

vepana v. + vepas rv.

vepathu av.+
vepistha rv. vipra v. +

y
Pres. [6.]

vi9, 'enter'.

vi^ati -te

etc.

v.+ v.+ (vive9itha rv.. vivecjus rv.. vive9atus c,

Perf.

vive9a vivi9e

etc.

-vi9ivans av., vivi9yas v.. avive9is rv.) 4. aviks3. avivl9at c. [vi9yat;] ave9i c. Aor. 1. avi9ranRv. 7. aviksat -san b.c. [aviksata.] 5. ve9it rv. mahi etc. rv. 2. vesta m. Fut. 1. veksyati etc. b.+, -te etc. e. Verb, vista v. + vettum e. +. -tavai b. -vi9ya av. + vi9am rv.

161
Sec. Conj.
:

AND Primary Derivatives.


Pass.

[vT
etc.

E.+
i>er<(;.:

Cans. ve9ayati
V19 V.+

vi9yate

etc. c.
etc.

[Int.

v,+, -te etc av.+

-vi9aB.+

-vegaka c. ve9ins.+

] Desid. viviksati (ve^yate etc s. + ve(janav.+ vestavyaK.+ -ve9aniya c. -vestr c


)

veviq-.

ve9av.+
ve9i Rv.

ve9yav.+ vi9anaE.+

ve9anta v.k. ve9a8 av.


-visti
s.

ve9manv.+
viviksuE. + -ve9ayitavya
c.

y
Pres. [3. J

vis, 'be active'.

vivesti etc ev. (vives vivesas etc. rv.) [1.] vesati etc. rv.e. vivesa vivisus rv. (avivesis rv.) Aor. 1? viddhi av.b.s. [2. avisat. ] vesisas rv. [ 7. avikaat.J Fut. 1. veksyati -te etc. e. + [ 2. vesta.]
Perf.

;>.

Verb, Sec.

vista
Conj.:

v.

vistvi rv.

-visya
+

av.b.
Int.

Pass,

visyate

b.

vevisyate
Deriv.
:

jub.

-vise rv.
etc.

vevesti
{in d.).

v.n.,

-vis? Rv.

viviksavesaAV. +
Desid.

vevisana

rv.,

Caus.

visav.H-

-vesaka B.+
+

vesanav.+ vesana rv.


visay a
visti
v.
e.

veaayati etc b.+ -vestavya c. -ves^rAv. +

visa ?

V.

-vesin

c.

visnu

'?

v.

+
e.

-vesya

av.b.s.
roots.

-viviksu

Divided by Grassmann into two

y vist,
Pres. [1.]

vest, 'wrap'.

[Perf.

vestate etc. av. + etc. viveste avivestat avavestat, avestista


;

vestisyate, vest-

ita.]
Verb,
Sec.

vistita

v.b.

Conj.: [Int. vevest-.


AV. +, -te etc B.

Desid. vivestisa-.
etc. b.
s.

Caus.

vestayati

etc.

+ (vestyate

+)

Deriv.

vesta s. + vestaka s. +

vestana

+
c.

-vestitr

u.

-vestaniya

y
Pres.
[2.]

VI, 'enjoy' etc.


v.b.

veti vyanti
rv. rv.

etc.

(vihi rv.

viyantu

ts.

vema

vs.),

vyana
Perf.

vivaya vivye
etc.

[Aor.
Verb,

avivayat, avaisit; vesyati, veta.]


v.b.

vita

Sec. Conj.: Pass,

yate

rv.

veviran veveti Caus. vayayati, vapayati.] Desid. vivisa-.


viyate
etc.

av.b.

Int.

rv.,

ts..

vevi-

Deriv.: VI y.+

vaya

rv.

vayu?

v.b.

vayya?RV. vayas v. + -vaya av. Whitney, Supplement 11.


-viya RV.

vayuna
viti v.b.

v.+

vetrav k.+ viravv.+

11

VI]

Roots, Verb-fokms,

162
;

A very

perplexing root in

its

varieties of

meaning
aj.

divided into two or


It is treated

three roots (on different lines) by BR. and Grassmann.

by the

grammarians

as filling

up the conjugation of

}/

V
Pres. [1.] vijati
Perf.
etc. e. +,

vlj,

vyaj,

'fan'.
c.

-te

e.

vyajate?
e.+ (vijyate

vivyajus
vijana

e.
etc. e.

Sec. Conj.:

Cans, vijayati
c.

+)

Derju.;

vyaj ana e.+


>/

Perhaps from

aj

+ vi.
]/ vid,

'make strong.

Sec. Conj.

Cans,
v.b.

vidayati -te

etc. v.b.s.

Deriv.

vidu

y
Pres. [5.]

vr, 'cover',

vrnoti vrnute etc. \.+ (vrnvate rv.); iirnoti (urnvanti urnuvanti) iirnute (urnvita urnuvital etc. v.+ (lirnauti cb.s.) [9.] avrnldhvam av. [l.J varati -te etc. (aor. 1?) rv.c'. Perf. vavara vavrus vavre etc. v. + [vavartha rv. [vavaritha, vavrma

etc.].

Aor.

vavrivans vavavrusas rv.) [iirnunava.] avar avran etc. (vara? vartam rv., vrdhi rv.) [vriyat], avrta v. (vrana rv.); avari rv. 3. avivarat av., avavaritv rv. 4. var1.

sathas rv.
[Fut.
Verb,

5.

avarit
e.,

etc. b.

[avarista ; aurnavit.]
uv.,

varisyati, varita.]

vrta

v.

vartum

vartave

V.B.,

-tvi

RV.,

Sec. Conj.: Pass,

-tvaya vriyate e.

b.

vovur-, vevri-. (varyate etc. e. + Deriv. varv RV. vara v. +

-vrtya Int. avarivar


av.+,
b.)

varitum c. varitum urnutya c.


rv.,

c.

vrtva

Desid. vivarisa-.]

Cans,

varivrta ta. [varvr-, varayati -te etc. v. +

vivarayisate

uru
Vft
vrti

V.+
V.B.
V.

-varaka
v.ala
"?

e.

varna v.+ varuna v. + urna v.+

vara v. + varaka e. +
-varin
c.

V.

ura? vrav

RV.
V.

-vartu RV. vartr rv.


-varltr
variitr
c.

varman
variman

v.

v.b.s.

iirmi? v.+

varya v, + varana v. + -varanlya e. +


-ixrnavana
c'.

varana v. + varana av.+ varaniya c. urana v. +


varas rv. uras V.+
See the following
artificially

v.b.

vartra v.b.s. vrtra v. + varatra v.+


variitha
root.
v.

variyas v.b. varivas v.+ varistha v.+ ulba ? V, +

vavra

v.

Qrva

V.B.

vavri v. -varayisnu t,. vivarayisu e. varayitavyaE.


by the grammarians
or conjugation-

The present-stem
see under

urnu

is

provided with a complete set of forms, as


to

if a root

stem.

As

varsman

etc.,

vrs.

163

AND Primary Derivatives.

[vrj

y
Pres. [9.]
Perf.

2 vr, 'choose'.
etc. e.

vrnite
etc.

etc.

v.+.

vrnati

o.
)

vrnoti vrnute

etc. u.k.

vavre
1.

v.+ (vavrae

vavrmahe

rv.

Aor.

RV.

Fut.
Verb,

1.

etc. v. + (vurita v.n., urana rv.), varas etc. varanta avrsi -sata etc. av.k.u. [avrdhvam u.) [ 5. avaris^a.J varisyate b. [varisyate. 2. varita.]

avri avrta

4.

[varitum; varitva,] varitva .s.. vrtva 8. [Int. vevr-, varvr-, vovur-. Desid. vivarisa-, vovursa-. ] Cans, varayati -te etc k. + (varyate h.); varayati e. Deriv vara v. + -varya n. b. varenya v. + varya v. + vara v. + -vurya v.s. varas- rv. -varana e. + varaka s. varana s.+ vrtha, -thak v. varistha v. + varya e. + varaniya u.c. vara v. + variyas u.+ varayitavya b.
v. +
;

vrta

varltum

c.

Sec. Conj.

Pass,

vriyate

s.c.

Doubtless ultimately the same with the preceding; and the forms

a little

mixed up.

y
Pres. [1.]

vrnh, brnh,

'roar'.

vrnliati

etc. e.

Perf.
Verb,

vavrnhire c. vrnhita e. +

y
Pres. [".]

vrj, 'twist'.

vrnakti vrnkte etc. (vrktamv m1.) vavrjus etc. rv. (vavrjyiis vavrktam rv.. -varjusi av.1. vavrje ev. Perf. Aor. 1. vark etc. kv. (varktam avrjan varjati vrjyam etc. rv.. avrk .\v.), avarksis r., ] avrkta rv, (varjate rv.) [3. avavarjat. v.u. 7. avrksat etc. avrksmahi etc. v.b. Fut. 1. varksyati -te b. [varjisyati. 2. varjita.] yer6. vrkta V. + vrktviRv. -vfjyaB.s.; -vrje vrnjase vrjadhyai rv.

-J.

-vargam
Sec.

v.s.

Int. varivrjat rv. [varvrj-.J vrjyate etc. v.b.s. Desid. vivrksate e. Caws, varjayati etc. av.+, -te etc. E. + (varjyate etc. E. + varivarjayant av.)

Conj.: Pass,

Deriv.

-vrj v.
tirj etc.?

varjaka
V.+

e.

vrj ana

v.

vrnjana
vrjina
-vrkti
v.

s.+

varjin e.+

vrj ana rv.

varga v. + -vargya av. +


-varja s.+

varjya e.+ vraja v. + vraja v.


-vfjya
v.E.s.

vrjani

v.

v.K.
c.

varjana b.+ varjaniya b.+

varjayitavya
varjayitr
11
e.

vrt]

Roots, Vebb-forms,

164

y
Pres. [l.J

vrt, 'turn'.

vartate etc v.+. -ti etc. u. + [3.] vavartti vavrtyam etc. -tiya etc. -tsva etc. avavrtran -ranta vavartat -tati vavrtat v.b.
vartti rv'.

[2.]

vavarta vavrtus etc. v. + (vavarta -vrtus v.), vavrte etc. u.+ (vavrte v.) Aor. 1. avart etc. (^vartat vartta) ev. avrtran v.b. 2. avrtat etc. Av.B.c. 3. avivrtat etc. v. [avavartat.] 4. avrtsan c'., avrtsata v.B.s. 5. vartithas m. Fut. 1. vartsyati etc. av.+ [avartsyat b.), -te etc. e. +: vartisyati -te etc. E.+ 2. vartita b. Fer6. vrtta V. + vartitumE. + -vrtya v. + -vfteRv. -vrtasB.; -varPerf.


B.+
:

tam
Sec. Conj.
Kv.},

Int. varvartti etc. varvrtana v. varivartti etc. v.b. (avarivur Desid. vivrtsati etc. v., -tes. [vivartisa-.] varivrtyate b. Cans, vartayati -te etc. v. + (vartayadhyai rv. vartyate etc. b. +) Deriv. vrata v. + varti e.+ vratati v. + vrt v. + vrata av. vartis rv. vrta RV. vartman v. + -varta v. + vartana v. + vrtti b. + varivrta av. v. + vartaniya e. + varttu v. + vartaka -vivrtsu c. vartin v. + vartani v.b.u. -varttavya e. -vartayitavya e.+ -vartya e. + vartas vs. vartitavya e.+ -vartayitr c. -vartitr v. +
;

Contracted in one or two forms with

anu

to

anvart

see

rt

y
Pres. [1.]

vrdh, 'grow'.

vardhati

-te

etc. v. etc.

vavrdhe etc. v.; vavrdhati -dhithas -dhasva etc. rv., -dhete av., vavrdhant v.) Aor. 2. avrdhat etc. v.b.s. (vrdhatas vrdhatu b., vrdhant v., vrdhana
Perf.

vavardha vavrdhe

v.+ (vavrdhus

etc.

RV.)

3.

avivrdhat
c.
;

etc.

v.+,

-dhata

etc. v.b.s.

5.

avardhista

etc.

E.+ (vardhisimahi
Fut.
Fcr6.
1.

b.s.)

vartsyati

[vardhisyate.
;

2.

vardhita.]
v.,

vrddha v. + vardhitum c. [vardhitva, vrddhva;] vrdhe vrdhase rv., vavrdhadhyai rv.


:

Sec. Conj.

[^Int.

varivrdh-.
-te
etc.

Desid. vivrtsa-

vivardhisa-.

Caus.

vardhayati
Derio,
:

v.+ (vivardhayisa in

d.);

vardhapayati

c.

vf dh

V.

vrdha v. + vardha v. + -vardhaka c. vardhin e.+ vrddhi

vardhana v. + vardhaniya e. + vrdhas rv. vrdhika rv.


v.

vardhitr

rv.
c.

vardhisnu

c.

vardhman
varddhra?
iirdhva
v.

vavrdhenya

rv.

av.b.

+
rv.

vardhayitr c. vivardhayisu

e.

vrdhasana

vardhapana

c.

165
Compare
string) rests
]/

AND Primary Derivatives.


rdh.
a too

\QU.

The

asserted

vrdh
to

'cut'

(used only of the navel;

on

narrow foundation

be admitted

it is

probably a spe-

cialized application of this root.

y
Pres. [1.]

vrs, 'rain.
e.+

varsati

etc. v. +,

-te

etc.

[6.j

vraate

etc. rv.s..

vrsant-

av.

Perf.

vavarsa vavrsus etc. e.+ (vavarsus etc. E. (vavrsana -sasva rv.)


2.
1.

e..

vavarsvans

ms.),

vavrse

Aor.
Fut.

3. avivrsat etc. e. [avavarsat.] avrsat? ts. 5. avarsit etc. v.h. varsisyati etc. b.u., -te e. 2. vrasta ms. Vcr6. vrsta V. + varsitum c, -varstos n. [varsitva,] vrstva h., -tvl Rv. -vrsya c.

JSec.

Conj.: [Int. varivrs-.

Desid. vivarsisa- (_m

d.).

Ca..

varsa+ +
v.+

yati

etc. v.

Deriv.: -vrs v. +

vrsa-

v.B.s.

varsya v.b.s. varsanas. +


varsvika vrstiv.
of
b.

varsav. + varsins.+
The connection
that of

varstr b. varsitr c. vivarsisu

vrsan
vrsni
e.

v.

v.

vrsabha

which
etc.

vrsan etc. with this root is questionable and yet more varsiman vs., varsiyas v.+, varsistha v. +. all of may come from an aoristically extended form of }/ 1 vr (like parsistha
;

varsman
]/ 2

v. +,

from

pr).

y
Pres. [6.]

vrh, brh, 'tear.

vrhati brhati
[3.

etc. v.b.u.s.
v.

Perf.

vavarha babarha vavrhus


1.

Aor,

varhi bv.
etc. b.

avivrhat, avavarhat.

5.

barhis

-it rv.

7.

avrksat
[Fut.
7er&.

varksyati, varhisyati; vardha, varhita.] vrdha brdha B.s. [vrdhva, varhitva;] -vrhya
;

b.u.s.

-vrhasK.
vivrksa-,
v.+

-varham -barham
Sec.

b.
etc.

Conj.: Pass,

vrhyate

b.

[/nL varivrh-.
etc.

Desid.

vivarhisa-.
Deriv.
:

Caus.

barhayati

rv.

(varhita

c.)

-vrha + barha, va- av.+


s.

barhin, va-

e.

barhana, vaand

av.

barhis

.'

Compare

]/

brh. The confusion

of

goes back to the oldest time.

y
Pres. [1.]

ven,

'long'.

venati

etc. v.b.

[Perf.

etc.

vivena -ne; avivenat, avenit -nista; venisyati


v.b.

-te,

venita;

veven-, vivenisa-, venaya-.]


Deriv.
:

vena

venya

rv.

veil]

Roots, Vekb-forms,

166

y
Pres. [l.J vellati etc.
Verb,
c.

veil, 'stagger.

vellita

e.

+
c.

Beriv.

vellana

vest, see

vist.

y vyae,
Pres. [3.]

vie, 'extend'.
etc.

viviktas vivyacat avivyak aviviktam avivyacus


rv.
[

vi-

viveca? av. [vivicus.] [Aor. etc. vicyat avyaci, avivyacat, avyacit; vyacisyati, vyacita vicita; vicita, vicitva; vevic- vavyae-, vivyacisa-, vyacaya-.] Deriv.: vyacas v.b.s. vyacistha v.b. vici? v.
v.b.,

vyacanta Perf. vivyaca

6.

vicati.]
kv.
;

vivyaktha

Has

a very suspicious likeness to

anc, ac

+ vi.

y
y
Pres. [1.]
Perf.

vyaj,

see y' vlj.

vyath, 'waver'.

Aor.

vyathate etc. v.+, -ti etc. e.+ vivyathe e. +, -thus e. ] 3. vivyathas b. [1. avyathi.

5.

vyathisi

etc.

av.+,

vyathi-

sat
[Fut.

B.

vyathisyate, vyathita.] Verb, vyathita av. + vyathisyai b.s. Desid. vivyathisa-. [Int. vavyath-. ] Cans, vyathayati Sec. Conj. vyathyate c.) etc. V. + (vyathayis av. vyathanaE.+ Deriv..- vyatha b.+ vyathis ev. vyathayitr c. vyathi v. -vyatha b. vyathaka c. vithura v.b.s. -vyathya V.B. vyathi ?av.
;

y
Pres. [4.]
Per/",

vyadh, vidh,
e.
e.,

'pierce'.

vidhyati
B.

etc.
,

v,+, -te

vivyadha vyadhe e.
[1.
1.

vivyadhus

vividhus

u.,

vividhvans

rv.

vi-

Aor.
Fut.
Verb,
Sec.

vidhyat. vetsyati -te


v.

] 3.

e.

[vyatsyati.]
e.
;

avividhat

viddha
Conj.:

veddhum
vidhyate

Pass,
B.

vivyatsati
etc. e.

Caus.

vavyadh-, vevidh-. ] Desid. vyadhayati b. vyadhayati c. vedhayati


e.

vyatsis b. 2. veddha e. [vyaddha.] viddhva e. -vidhya e. + -vidhe rv.


e.

[avivyadhat.]

4.

-,

[Int.

167
Deriv.
.

A.ND

Primary Derivatives.
k.

ivran

-vidh

v.

+
E.

vedhin

-vidhya

vedha e. + vedhaka t..+

vedhya c. vyadha c. vyadhya c.

vyadha av. + vyadhin av.h. -vyadhya av. vedhana e. + vyadhana av.c.

veddhavya
veddhrE. + -vedhima
c-.

v.

vyadhvara.'

av.

y
Pres. [1.]

vyay, 'expend'.
etc. etc.]

vyayati
c.

-te

etc. c.

[Perf.
Verb,

etc.

vavyaya vavyaye

vyayita

Is only a conjugation of }/ i -f- vi, or

denominative of vyaya.

y
Pres. [4?] Perf.

vya, VI, 'envelop'.

Aor.

sista.
1.

vyayati -te etc. v. vivyathus ev., vivye etc. rv. [vivyaya vivyayitha etc.\; -vyayam cakara cb. 4. avyasta, vya] 2. avyat etc. rv., avyata etc. v. [ [1. viyat.

6.

avyasit.]

Fut.
Verb,

Sec.

2. vyata.] [vyasyati -te;] vyayisye s. [ V. +; -viya e.s.c. [-vyaya.] Int. vavya-, vevi-. Conj.: Pass, viyate b. [ Cans, vyayaya-.]

vita

Desid. vivyasa-.

Deriv.: -vi y.+

-vyaya

b.s.

-vyana

c.

-vyayana

b.s.

'

y
vrajati
etc.

vraj, 'proceed'.
c.

Pres. [1.] Perf.

v.+, -te

vavraja
1.

etc. v. etc. b.u. etc. b.

Aor. 5. avrajit
Fut.
Verb,

vrajisyati
b.

c.

2.
e.

vrajita.]

vrajita
d.).

vrajitum

Sec. Corhj.: Pass,

Caus. vrajayati
-vrajya E.+

vrajyate

vrajitva
[Int.

s.

-vrajya

b.

-vrajam

s.

vavraj-.

Desid. vivrajisa- (in

etc.

b.+ (vrajyate

e.)

Deriv.: -vraj E.+

vrajya e.+
-vrajav. +

-vrajaka e.+ -vrajinB.+

vrajana v.+ -vrajana e.


-vivrajisu
c.

y
Pres. [1.]

vrad, vrand, 'weaken'.

Deriv,

avradanta vrandin ev.

rv'.

y
Pres. [1.]

vran, "sound'

(?).

vranati
e.

c.

Deriv.

vrana

No

real root; the single occurrence artificial.

vra9c]

Roots, Verb-fokms,

168

]/
Pres. [6.] vrijcati etc. v.b.s.c.

vra9e, 'cut up'.

[1.]

vra9cati?

c.

[vavragca vavraQCUs] vavrktam? ev. 5. avraqcit.] ] 4. [avraksit] vrksi b.s. [ Aor. [3. avivra9cat. 2. vraqcita, vrasta.] Fut. 1. vraksyant cb.? [vraqcisyati. [vraQcitva,] vrstva av., vrktvi rv. -vrcjcya s.c; Verb, vrkna v. + -vra9cain b.s. Int. varivrQC-. Sec. Conj.: Pass, vrqcy ate etc. v.b. (vrqcate av.) [
Perf.

Desid. vivraqcisa-, vivraksa-.

Caus. vra^caya-.]
-vraskya
s.

Derjy.;

vfka? V.+
vrqcikav. +

-vraqca -vraska

b.
v.b.s.

vra9canav.+
vrksavv. +

y
Pres. [1.]

vradh,
ev.

'stir

up'.

vradhanta vradhant

y
Pre.'. [1.]

vrld, 'be abashed'.

[Perf.
Verb,

vridate etc. e.+ [4. vridyati.] etc. vivrida; avridit; vridisyati, vridita.J
vridayati
+
c.

vridita e.+

Sec. Conj.: Caus.

Deriv.

vrida

e.

vridana

c.

y vrud,
[Pres. etc.

sink'.

vrudati etc. etc.] Verb, vrudita c. The occurrence or two are doubtless

artificial.

y
Verb,

vlag, vlang, 'pursue'

(?)

Deriv.

-vlagya kv-. -vlanga ev.


]/

Only with abhi. Perhaps related with

valg.

y
Pres. [9.]
[Perf.

vli, bli, 'crush'.


etc. cb.

vlinati

etc. b.

vlinati

vivlaya.J
vlesis
s.

Aor.
Fut.
Fer6.

4.
1.

vlesyati
b.,

b. [

1
2.

vleta.j
;

vlina

Sec. Conj.:

Pass,

blina av. -vliya b. vliyate etc. b.u. (bliya-

Deriv.:

vliyanta b. [ -vlaya b.s.

avevliyeran Caus. vlepayati, avivlipat.] Desid. vivlisa-.


k..

ab.)

Int.

vlayana

b.

vrayas?

ev.

169

AND Primaky Derivatives.

9ak

y
Pres. [1.]

9ans,

'praise'.

Qansati -te
-se
(2;).)

etc.

Perf.

9a9ansa
1.

etc. a.

v.+ (9ansiyat c'.) + (gansus -sire e.1

Aor.

gasta

rv..

gastat

a.

agansit etc. v.+ (^gansisat etc. v.b.) Fut. 1. gansisyati is.s. [ 2. gansita.] Ver&. gasta v. + gansita e. + gansitum k. gastva
sat.
] 5.

[gasyat;] gaiisi

iiv,

B.
;

\'-i.

agagafi-

-gasya
Detfid.

s.

+,

-gansya

e.

-gase rv.

-gansam

n.s.

gasyate etc. v.+ [Int. gagas-, gagans-. sisa-. ] Cans, gansayati etc. v.+, -te c. Deriv. V.B. -gas v.b, gansa v. + gansaniya c. V. -gas gansa b. + -gansu s. -gasa b. -gansaka e. -gansuka b. gasa rv. gansin v.+ gasti V. + gasya v. + gansya v.+ -gastenya n.
Sec. Conj.: Pass,

gigane.

-gastavya
gansitr
e.

gafistr v.b.

gastra

b.

+
s.

gansatha

gansana
Compare the
related

e.

ganstavya

k.e.

gasman

rv.

gas.

y
Pres. [5.]
Perf.

9ak, 'be
v.+

able'.

gaknoti -nuvanti
etc. v.

etc.

gagaka gekus
1.

Aor.

gagdhi gaktam gakat


etc. v.b.s.,

etc.

gakyam v.
[


c.
;

2.

agakat

etc.

v.+ (gake-

yam
Fut.
Verb,
1.

gakemahi
;

u.)

gaksyati -te etc. b.+ [ 2. gakta.] gakta e. +, gakita e. + -gaktave rv.

3.

aglgakat.]

Sec. Conj.: Pass,

gakyate
etc. v.

etc.

e.+,

-ti etc. e.
e.
;

[Int.

gagak-.

Desid.

giksati -te
Deriv.

+ (giksana
Caus.

gigiksa

giksyate

etc. c.

giksa-

yati -te etc e.+)


.

gakayati.
v.

-gaka

rv.

gakti

+
rv.
rv.

gikva

av.
v.b.s.

giksaka
-giksin

e.

gakya u.s.+ gaka v. gaka rv.


gaki? RV. gaci V. + gaei? rv.

gakti rv.

gakvan
gikvan

c.

gakman gakman
-gikman

v.b.

ms.

gagma
gakra

v.b.s.

v.

+
a so

gikvas rv. gacistha v.b.s. giksa v.+ giksa B.+

giksana c. giksaniya c. giksenya s. giksu rv. giksuka gb.


it

The desiderative giks has won


might well enough have been treated
divide

independent use and value that

(like

bhaks

etc.) as a

separate root.
'help',

BR.

gak

(and giks) into two

roots,

the second

meaning

but favor

their nltimate identity.

There are other groups of words, not connectable with


verbal root:
thus,

this or

any other

gakvma, gakuni, gakunta, gakunti


v.+,

v.

gaka, gakan,

gakrt

v.

ganku

gakti (spear') e.+

^ank]

Roots, Verb-forms,

170

y
Pres. [1.]

9ank,

'doubt'.

9ankate

etc. n. +,

-ti etc. b.

[Perf. 9a9anke.] Aor.-6. Qankis gankisthas e.+ (qankithas

e.)

qankisyate, 9ankita.] Verb, qankita e. + (jankitum e. + -qaiikya c. Cans. 9ankayati Pass, (jankyate etc. c. Sec. Conj. QankanaE.? -Qankyas.+ Deriv. (jankaB.+
[Fut.
;

c.

9ankitavya
+

e.

9ankin

e.

9ankaniya

e.

y
Sec. Conj,
;

cat, 'cut in pieces'.


etc.
c.

Caus. 9atayati
c.

av. +, -te b.

Deriv.:

9ata

9atin

9atana

e.

9atayitr

c.

Called by the grammarians the causative of

}/

2 9ad.

y
Perf.

cad,
etc.

'prevail'.

9a9adus

uv.

9a9admahe

(9a9adana)

v.

Derio. 9atru'.' v.+

y
Perf.

2 9ad, 'fair.

9a9ada 9edus
1.

e.

[Aor. 2. a9adat.]
Fut.
Verb.

9atsyati av.
s.

2.

9atta.]

9anna
:

[Sec. Conj.: Int.

9a9ad-.

Desid. 9i9atsa-.
v.b.

Caus. 9adaya-.J
c.

Deriv.

9ada
and

av.b.s.
]/
1

9ada

9adana
its

Compare
sative,

9at, assigned by the grammarians


91, regarded by them as

to this root as another cau-

present-system.

y
Pres. [1.]
Perf.

9ap, 'curse'.
b.+
[

9apati

etc.

v.+, -te

etc.

4.

9apyati

-te.]

9a9apa 9epus

av.+,
] 4.

Aor. [3. a9i9apat.


Fut.
1.

9apisye 9apta b.+, 9apita e. 9apituinE., 9aptuinE. [9aptva,] 9apitvaE. Desid. 9i9apsa-. [Int. 9a9ap-, 9an9ap-. Sec. Conj. Pass. 9apyate c. Caus. 9apayati etc. av.+ 9apatha v. + Deriv. 9aptr av. 9apana av. 9apa e. +
e.

[9apsyati -te.

9epe etc. 9apta (2p.)

v.+
b.s.
2.

[a9apta.]

9apta.]

Verb.

9apana

cb.


171

AND Primaky Derivatives.


|/

[qa.<f

cam, 9im,
b.;

'labor'.
h.s.

Pres. [1.]

gamant sv. qamniae -isva


etc. b.

v.b.

[2.]

9ami8va 9amisva 9amidhvam


qcaninan
rv.)
iiv.?

-ithas

etc.

[9.J
b.,

[4. J

(jamyati

(jimyati
Perf.

9a9ame -mana
5.

(9a9amate

Aor.
Verb.

a9amisthas 9amita e.
:

rv.

Deriv.

qkinsi rv.

9ima

b.

9ainitr

v.b.

9amistha

s.

9ami

V.B.

9iini b.
roots.

Compare the two following

y
Pres. [4.]
Perf.

9am,

'be quiet'.

9amyati

etc.

b.+, -te etc. b.+


b.

[1.]

9ainet

e.

9a9ama 9emus
[1. 5.

Aor.

9amyat; a9ami.

2.

a9amat

b.

3.

a9i9amat

etc.

av.+

a9ainit.]

[Fut.
Verb.

9amisyati; 9aiaita.] 9amta av. + [9amitva, 9aihtva.]

Desid. 9i9aniisa-. 9an9ain-. ] Caus. 9ainayati av.+, + 9aniayati etc. e. + (9aniyate e.+} Deriv.: 9ani?v.+ -9amaka c. 9amti- av. 9ainatha c.
Sec. Conj.: [Int.

-te

etc. B.

9ainaB.+

9amin

c.

9amyaE.+ 9amana av. + 9amaniya s. +

9airiti av.+

9amitr

e.

9amayitavya 9amayitr s. +

s.

Protatly ultimately the same with the preceding.

y
Perf.
Verb.

3 earn, 'note'.

9emuBiv
-9aihta

c.
;

s.

-9amya

e.+
etc.
e.

Sec. Conj.: Pass.

-9arQyate
s.

Caus. -9ainayati

etc.

e.+ (-9am-

Deriv.

yate e.) -9ainana


:

-9amaya

c.

Only with prefix ni-, except in the strange


specialization from

-9amayitavya c. 9emu8l; hence


'settle

obviously a
or

the preceding root,

meaning

in

one's mind',

the like.

y
Pres. [l.J

9al, 'leap'.

-9alant

c.

[Perf. etc. qele, a9alista,


Verb. -9alita c.

9alisyate 9alita.J

Only with prefix ud, and prohably from

qri, qr.

y
Pres. [1.]

9a9,

'leap'.

9a9ati

etc. c.

[Perf.

etc.

9a9a9a 9a9a9us, a9a9it, 9a9iByati

9a9ita.]

9a9]
Verb.

Roots, Verb-forms,
ga9ita
c.

172

Deriv.

qaqa v.+

Doubtless a denominative formation from qaqk. Only two or three occurrences.

y
Pres. [2.]
[].]

eas, eas,
e.s.,

'cut'.
(3f>.) b.,

Qasta

(2p.) rv.

gasti
b.,

qasati -atu
c.

agat

(3s.) b.

Perf.

gasatha s., gasanti gaqasa [gagasus] e.

agasat

Fut.
Verb,

1.

gasisyati b. [ 2. cjasita.] gasta e. -gasya e. -gasas b.


; ;

Sec. Conj.: Pass,

gasyate

etc. b.

Desid. gigasisant
+

s.

Deriv.

-gas

b.

qasana

v.

gastr

v.

-gastr

b.s.
b.

9asa

Av.B.s.

9asitrB.+

gastraB. +

-giqasisu

y
Pres. [3.] gigati
etc. V.B.S.,

ea,

ci,

'sharpen'.

giQimasi gigite
b.s.

etc.

v.+ (Qiganti -ntu

s.)

[6?]

gyati

qyana

Perf. [qaqaxL]

-gagana

av.

Aor.

1.

agita? rv. [aqat; gayat.


v. +,

6.

agasit.]

[Fm. gasyati, gata.J


Verb,
[Sec.

qita

+ -qaya v. Conj.: Pass. gaya-. Int. gaga-.


e.
;

gata

Desid. giqasa-, qlqanaa-.

Cans, gayaya-.]
Deriv.
:

-gana

b.s.

Qana?

c.

-giti v.b.
roots,

qiqaya, rv.

Divided by BR. into two separate

with identical forms.

y
Pres. [2.]

eas, cis, 'order'.


etc.]

gasti gasati

etc.

([gistas

gastana
+

bv.,

gisyat

etc. u.s.

B.+) V.+, gaste gasita


Perf.

gasana

etc. v.

aqsLt

[1.]

gasati

etc.

e.+, -te e.

qaqasa qaqasua
2.

etc.

v.+ (gagadhi qaqaa rv.)

Aor.

aQisat

e<c.

v.b.u.

(Qisant rv.), (jisamahi rv. (-he sv.av.)


b.+

3.

aqaqasat.]
Fut.
Verb.
1.

qasisyati -te

etc.

2.

gasita.]
;

9istav.+, gasta
c.
;

s.+,

9asitaE. +

9asitva
Sec. Conj.
:

-gisya

b.u.,

9astuni -9asya e.+

s.+,

9asituinE. +

[9istva,]

Pass.

9asyate

Desid. 9i9asisa-.

+ 9isyate Caws. 9asaya-.]


etc. e.

etc. c.

[Int. 93.93.8-, 9e9is-.

Deriv.: 933 rv.

9393

rv.
c.

-9is

V.

-9asaJi3

9asa 9asa

V.

RV.

9asin c. 9asya v.+ 9isy3 K. +


related root

gasanav. + 93S3niya c. 9asus rv.


9asti
c.

-9isti v.b.s.

9asitr

e.

+
+

gastrv.

9astra

v.

Compare the apparently

9ans.

173

ANB Primary DERivATiviis.

[1

ni

2 9as, 'cut', see

938.

eiks, see y 9ak.

y
The occurrences
less artificial. ot

9ingh,

'snuflF'.

ucehinghana

and

upaQinhana

in uvr. are doubt-

y
Pres. [2.] 9ifikte
[Perf.
etc.

9inj, 'twang,

qinjate

etc. v. +,

Qinjant

c.

9i9mje; a9mjista; 9injisyate,


:

9injita.|

Verb. 9injita e.+


Sec. Conj.

Caus.
c.

9mjayati

etc. b.s.

Deriv.: 9injin

9mjara'.' nv. (n. pr.)


root.

Probably an imitative

y
Such a
root

9ip, 'be smooth'

(?).

may possibly be inferred from 9ipi

v.+,

9ipra

av., 9ipita cb.

cim,

see

9am.

Pres. [7.]

9inasti

etc.

b.+

[6?] 9ifisati

2.

9is, 'leave'.
etc. b.s.

[1.]

9esant

c'.

Perf. 9i9ise

etc. b.

[9i9esa.]

Aor.

1.
[

9esi av.b.s. [9isyat.]


3.

a9isat

etc. v.b.

(-qisat ev.). 9isatai av.

a9i9isat.]
b. [

Fut.
Verb.

1.

9eksyati -te
v.

s.

2.
;

9esta.]
b.

9ista

-9istva

-9isya

Sec. Conj.:

Pass.

9isyate

etc.

av.+
-te
e.

-9esain

s.

[Int.

96918-.
c.)
c. c.

DesUl. 9i9iksa-.

Caus. 9esayati
Deriv.: -9isa
c.

etc. e. +,

(9esyate

9esaB.+ -9esakaE. +

-9esiii

9esanaAv.
(jesas v.

9esya

y
Pres. [4?]

91, 'fair.
cb'.)

9iyate
c.

etc. av.b.u.s.

(9iyante?

Deriv.

-9ayana

Reckoned by the grammarians as present-system to ^ 2 9ad and this is curiously supported by jb., which has (ii. 81) upa9iyate tasmad upa9adam, and (ii. 82) ava9iyante tasmac chadah. So far as the meaning is concerned,
;

it

might well be

a specialization of

2 91.

2 91]

Roots, Verb-foems,

174

y
Pres. [2.]

2 91,

'lie'.
3s.

qete qerate
3s. av.,

etc. v.

+ (9aye

9ayam
yat
Aor.
Fut.
[1.

V.B.")

a9ayatam -yata
;

a9eran

v.b.)

v.

[1.]

9ere 3j). 9ayate etc. v.+,


v.b..

av.b..

9ayire

c.

-ti etc.

e.+ (a9a-

(3s.) rv.

Perf. qi(}ye -yire b. +

9a9ayana
;

5. a9ayista etc. \.+ a9ayi. ] 3. a9i9ayat e. 4. 9esan kv'. 9ayisyate -ti b. + 9esyate -ti e. 2. 9ayita u.c. (-tase cb.) Verb. 9ayita e. + 9ayitum e. 9ayitva u. + -9ayya c. 9ayadhyai rv. [Int. 9691-, 9a9ay-. Sec. Conj.: Pass. [9ayyate;J 9iyant m'. ] Desid.
1.

9i9ayisate
Deriv.: -91 v.b.

c.

Cans. 9ayayati
9ayya b.+ -9ayaka c.
-9ayins. +

etc. s.+.

-te

e.

-9aVB.+ -9ayav. + 9aya rv. 9ayin c.

-9ayana c. 9ayu v. 9ayitavya


c.

c.

-9ima v.b.s. -9eyya v. 9ayalu c.


-9ivan v.b. 9i9ayisu c.

9ayana -9ayaniya

av. +

9ayath.a rv.

-9itha

e.

^
Pres. [1.] Perf.

)/

9UC, 'gleam'.
v.+

96cati

etc.

v.+, -te

etc.

[4.]

9ucyati

b'.

[2.]

90cimi

e'.

9U96ca
1.

etc.

v.

(9U9ukvans

rv..

9U9ugdhi
etc.

v.).

9U9ueana
v..

rv.

(-eita RV.)

Aor.

[9ucyasara;] a90ci rv.


rv.)

raana
Fut.
Verl.
1.

2.

a9ucat

v.

(9ucant

3.

9U9ucat
+

etc.

av.b.
2.

9uca-

5.

90013
m.

b.

90cisyati

etc.

e.+, -te e.
;

90cita.]

9ukta?
Conj.:

{adj.') b.

9ocitum

e. +,

9oktum

9ocitva

e.

[9ucitvaj;

9ucadliyai rv.

969ucan etc. 969ucana etc. v.b. Desid. [9U9UCisa-, Caus. 90cayati etc. v.+ (9ocyate c); 9U90cisa- ;] 9U9uksa- (m d.) 9ueayant rv. -9ukvan rv. 96ka V. + 90CI V. Deriv. 9UC v. + RV.C. 96cistha rv. 9ucis9oka AV. 9uea Rv.c. 9U9ukvaiia rv. 9uka? V.+ -96eana av.+ 90CIS V. + 9U9ukvani rv. 9ukti s. + AV. c. 90caniya -9oea
Sec.
Int.

-90ciii

c.

90cya

e.

-9okas RV. 9uci V. +

9oeitavya

e.

9ukra v.+ 9ukla AV.+

-9U9uksani -9oeayisnu

kv.
av.

y
Sec. Conj.
:

9uj, 'swell'

(?).

Int.

9U9ujana

rv.

y
Pres. [1.]
[2.]

9udh, 9undh,

'purify'.
etc.

9undliati -te

etc. v.b.s.

[4.]

9udhyati

b.+. -te

etc.

e.+

9und(ihi ags.

175
[Perf.
etc.

AND Primary Derivatives.

[^H

9U9odha, 9U9undha; a9udhat, a9U9udhat, a9undhit; 901-

syati 9undhisyati, 9od(iha 9undhita.] Verb. 9uddha v.+


Sec. Conj.
B.

+ (9odhyate
;

DeWv.

909udh-. ] DesUl. 9U9Utsat s. e. +) 9undliayati v.ii. -9odlia c. 9odliya c. 9odhanas.+


:

[Int.

c.

Cans.

9odhayati
v.b.

etc.

9undhyu

9odhakaE.+ 9odhin c.

9undhana

b.

9odhaniya
9uddlii
b.

9odhayitavya

c.

y
Pres. [1.]

9Ubh, cumtoh,
v.+ [96bhe

'beautify'.
-ti etc. e.

96bhate

etc.

3s. rv.),

etc. [6.] 9umbhati etc. v.c, 9U9obha 9U9ubhe e.+ [9U9umbha.] Aor. ]. a9obhi c 9urabhana 9ubhana rv. [2. a9ubhat. 9ubhan rv., -bhanta b. [ 5. a9obhista, a9umbhit.]

9uinbhati

av,

9umbhase -amana rv.c.


+
;

etc. v.,

Perf.

-,

3.

a9u-

Fut.
Verb.

1.

9obhisyati
b.,

e.

[9unibhisyati.

2.

9obhita, 9umbhita.

9ubhita
:

Sec. Conj.

Int.

9umbhita av. 9ubhe rv., 9obhase rv. Desid. 9U9obhisate c. [9U9ubhisa-. 909ubhyate e.

Caus.
Deriv.
:

9obhayati

etc.

av. +

9ubhayati
e.+
e.

-te

etc. v.e.

9ubh v.b. 9ubha E.+ 9obha c.


9obh.a
B.

9umbha
96bhana 9obhana
+

9umbhu

b.

9ubhvan

rv.
rv.
c.

-9unibhaka
v.

+ +

+
e.

b.

9obhatha sv. 9ubhra v. + 9ubhri rv.

96bhistha 90bhayitr

-9obhin
This root
is,

9umbhana av.+
and

with considerable plausibility, divided by BR, into two:

9ubh

'glide along',

9ubh
1

'beautify'; the former only in v.e.

y
Pres. [4.]
etc.

cus,
e.+

'dry'.

9usyati

etc.

v.+, -te

etc.

9U90sa; a9usat, a9U9usat; 9oksyati, 90sta.] [Perf. Verb. -9USya b.


Sec. Conj.: [Int.

909US-.
c.)

Desid.

9U9uksa-.

Caus.

90sayati

etc.

av.+,

-te e. (9osyate Dew..- 9usa.' V.

9osmE.+
-9osyaE.+

90saE.+ 90saka c.

9osana e.+ 9osaniya c. 96suka b.

9uskav.+ 9usna? v.n.s.


9osayitr
0.

y
Pres. [1?]

2 9US, 'blow', see

cvas.

ou, cva, 9vi,

'swell'.

9vayati etc. V.B. 9U9uyama) Perf. [9U9ava, 9i9vaya] quqnvusetc (9U9uvat 9U9avama 9ti9uve 9ii9uvana rv. a9i9vayat. ] 2. a9vat b. [ 3. a9i9viyat, a9U9uvat, Aor. [1. 9uyat.

5.

a9vayit.]

qiva

V.

177

ANB Pkimaky Derivatives.

[qrath

y
[Pres. etc.

9oand, cand,
etc. etc.]

'shine'.

candati, caceinda

Sec. Conj.: Int.

cani^cadat

rv'.

Deriv..

The

candana? E.+ 9candrav.+ fuller form qcandra survives after v.

candrav.
only in the n. pr.

hari9candra.

y
The
single doubtful form

9cam.
rv. was entered above under

9camnan

y 9am.
1

y
Pres. [1.]

9cut,

'drip'.

9c6tati

etc.

v.+
3.

Perf.

cu9Cota
[2.

b.s.

Aor.
[Fut.
Verb.

a9cutat.

acu9cutat

s, [

5.

a9eotit.]

9cotisyati; 9cotita.]

9cutita B.+
Conj.:
[Int.

Sec.

C09eut-.

Desid. eu9eotisa-, cu9cuti8a-.


9B.)

Caut.

9COtayati
The forms
with cyu.

etc. b.s.

(-9cotayitavai

Deriv.: -9cut v.

+
,

-9cotana

c.

are often

especially later, vrritten with

9cyu

and sometimes

y
Pres. [2.] 9nath.ilii

9nath,
[

'pierce'.

9nathat

ev.

1.

9nathati.]

[Perf.

Aor.
[Fut.
Verb.

3.

9a9natha.] a9i9nat 9i9nathat

etc.

rv.

5.

9nathistam -tana

rv.

9nathisyati; 9natliita.]

Sec. Conj.:

9nathita rv. -9nathas rv. 9nathayati -te etc. rv.


;

Deriv.

9nathana

rv.

9natliitr rv.

9i9natha

rv.

y
Pres. [4?]
etc.

9ya, 91, 'coagulate'.

9yayati b., -te c. qsi(^ye; a9yasta; 9yasyate, 9yata.] [Perf. Verb. 9ita v. +, 9ina vs., 9yana c. [9yata.] [Int. qaqya-. Sec. Conj.: Pass, qlykte etc. b. 9yayayati gb. Cans. [9yapaya-;]

Desid. 9i9ya3a-.

Deriv.;

9ya

Ts.c.

-9yayaE.+

9i9ira'?Av.+

y
Pres. [9.]

9rath, 9lath, 'slacken'.


rv.,

[9rathati 9ranthate;] 9lathati -te etc. c. Perf. 9a9rathe rv. [9a9rantha 9a9ranthus 9rethus.]
[1.]

a9rathnan 9rathnas

9ratlmite

etc. v.

[6

.']

9rnthati

ts'.

Whitney, Supplement

II.

12

9rath]
Aor.
3.

Roots, Verb-forms,
9i9rathat
etc. v.e.

178
5.

[qiqrathantu

ev.)

a^ranthit -thista.]

[Fut. (jranthisyati, 9ranthita.]


Verb.
Sec.

9rthita rv., 9lathita c; [9rathitva, 9ranthitva ;] -9ratliya c. 9lathayati c. (9lathyate Conj.: Cans. 9rathayati etc. v.ii., -te rv.

c) [9rathayati, 9ranthayati.] 9rathar- rv. Deriv.: 9ratha- r.

9latha e.+

y
[Pres. etc.

9ran,

'give'.

9ranati

etc. etc.]
etc.

Sec. Conj.: Cans.

9rariayati
c.

s.+ [a9i9ranat, a9a9rariat; 9ranayati.]


c.

Deriv.

-9ranana

-9ranika

Only with prefix vi.

y
Pres. [4.]

9ram,

'be weary'.

9ramati -te etc. e. + Perf. 9a9raina 9a9ranius v.+ (9remus ke.), 9a9ramana rv. 5. 9ramisnia rv.b. ] 2. a9ramat etc. v. Aor. [1. a9rami. Fut. [1. 9raniisyati. ] 2. 9ramita m. Verb. 9ramta v. + -9ramya b.+ Desid. 9i9rainisa- (m d.). Sec. Conj.; Pass. 9ramyate e.+
9rarayati
etc.

v.+

[1.]

Caus.

9rainayati
Deriv.
:

etc. s.

9raraayati
r.

etc. e.

(^9r

amy ate
e.

e.+)

+ -9rama e. +
v.

9rama

9raniana

9ramti

-9i9raniisu

c.

-9ramana

v.+

-9raniistha rv.

y
Pres. [1.]

9rambh,

'trust'.

9rainbhate

etc. e.
;

[Perf. etc.

9a9rambhe a9rabhat, a9rambhista; 9rambhisyate,9rambhe.

ita.]
Verb.

9rabdha
: :

Sec. Conj.

Deriv.

+; -9rabhya c. 9rambhayati etc. -9rainbha -9rmbha rv. Caus.

s.

e.

+ +

-91'ambhin

c.

-9rambhana c. -9rambhaniya c.

-9rabdhi

c.

y
Pre*. [4?]

9ra, 2 9ri, 2 9r,

'boil'.

9rayati
v.b.s.

[Perf.
Verb.

etc.

2. 9rati.] [9.] 9rmati etc. v.b. [ 9a9rau 9rayat 9reyat, a9rasit 9rasyati, 9rata.]
etc. v.b.
;

9rata
-te

9rta v.+ [9rana.]


etc. b.

Sec. Conj.: [Jnt.


etc. E.

9a9ra-.

Desid. 9i9rasa-.
;

Caus.

9rapayati

etc.

av. +,

(a9i9rapat

Deriv.

9ira? rv.

9rapyate etc. b. +) 9aras'? e. -9rapa b. 9rapin s.

91'apana

b.

91'apayitr

b.

179

AND Primary Derivatives.


y
cri, 3 9y, 'resort'.

[pru

Pre. [l.J
Per/".

i4or.

9rayati etc. av.+, -te etc. v.+ 9i9raya Qicjriye e<c. v. + 1. a9ret -riyan etc. kv.; [qriyat;] a<jrayi rv. (aqiqret y.b., -Qrema s., -^rayus rv. -qriyus

e.,

.'{.

acjiqriyat
c.
;

etc. .\v.+

RV.)
Fut.
Verb.
1.

4.

a9rait av.

-9riyan

9i9rita?

5.
[

a9rayista.

9rayisyati -te
9rita
v.
b.

etc.

b.+

e,
,

2.

9rayita.]

-9ritya

+ +

9rayitum
etc.

-tavai

b.s.

9rayitva e.+ |9ritvaJ;

Sec. Conj.: Pass.

9riyate

b.+ (9riyate
J

etc. b.s.)

[Int.

9e9ri-.

Desid.
e.

9i9rayisa-, 9i9risa-.
yat.]
Deriv.: -9ri B.u.

Cans.

9rapayati

vs'.

[9rayayati, a9i9ra9retr

-9ara av.

9aranav.+

rate

-9rayaAV. + 9alaAv. + -9ritv.+ 9rayana b.+ 9riti rv.c. -9rayin c. 9rayaniya c. 9rayav. + -9rayitavya c. The derivatives from the root-form 9r are probably best root 9r or 9ar, 9al, meaning 'cover' or the like.

9reniv. +

9arman

v.

9arira.'v.+
referred to a sepa-

9ris, see

^lis.

y
Pres. [9.]
Per/".

cri, cr, 'mix'.

9rinati 9rirLite
v.

etc. v.b.

9i9riye
3.

Aor.
Verb.

a9i9rayu8
-qir y.B.s.

rv.

9rita rv., 9irta rv.


:

Deriv.

-9ira
a

s.

+
9ri
,

-9riv.

9rayana
it is at

s.

Is

probably only

form of

from which

some points hardly


,

separable.

The

interrelations of the roots 9r, 9ra, 9ri, 9ri are intricate

and

not yet fully worked out.

Especially doubtful
'fortune',

is it

what

is

the connection with


rv.,

them

noun qrl v.+ 9restha v. +, 9reinan b.


of the

and the related 9riyas

9reyas

v. +,

2 cri, see

913..

y
Pres. [5.]

9ru,

'hear'.

9rn6ti

etc.

v.

9rnute

etc.

v.+ (9rnvise -vire hv.)

[2.]

9r6si RV.

9U9rava 9U9ruve etc. v,+ {9U9ninias u. + 9U9ravat 9U9ruya3 -yatam a9U9ravi rv.) Aor. 1. a9ravain -rot -ravan v.b. (9ravat -vathas etc. v.b.s. 9ruya8am 2 ? 9ruvam ta. 9rudhi 9r6tu etc. v.b.) a9ravi 9ravi v.c. etc. v.c. 4. a9rau8it etc. k. + 3. a9U9ruvat b., -ravus rv. [a9i9ravat.]
Perf.
;
;

12'

9ru]
Fat.
1.

Roots, Verb-forms,
Qrosyati
;

180

qrota m. Verb, qruta v. + qrotum e. + ^rutva v. + -Qrutya av. + -Qravam s.c. [Int. Qocjru-. ] Desul. quSec. Conj.: Pass. Qruyate etc. v.+, -ti etc. e. Caus. (jravayati ^rusate etc. \.+, -ti etc. e.+ (9U9rusyate etc. e. +) 9ravayati etc. rv. cfc. V. +, -te etc. E. + (qravyate etc. e. +)
etc.

b.+. -te

e.
;

2.

Deriv.

-Qru

B.
b.

(jrava

gravya e. + gravayya rv. qrava v.+ ^ravaka c 9ravin c. gravya e.+ Qravana v. 9ravaniya b.+
Compare

-9ravana b.s. 9ravaniya e. + 9ravas v. + 9l6ka V. +


-9rut 9ruti
V.

9r6tra v. + 9ravitr e.
9rudh.i- kv.

9U9rusaka
9U9rusiii
e.

e.+

-9ruria rv.

+
+

9r6mata

rv.

9U9rusya e. + 9U9rusana e. + 9U9rusenya b.s.


9u9ru.su B.+

V.

9rutya v.+
-9r6tu Rv.

9ravistha av.+ 9rausat v.b.


-9U9ruka'?
e.

9U9rusitr

e.
e.

9U9ruaitavya
-9ravayitr
u.

9rotavya
9rotr V.+
;

b.

9U9i^s E. 9U9rusa s.+


]/

9ravayitavya

c.

9ru3

for

9ru, see

sru.

y
Pres. [1.]

crus, 'hear
v.,

9rosan

bv,,

9roaantu

9r6sainana

rv.
v.b.
|/

Deriv.

9rusti rv.

9rusti av.

9rausti

secondary root, growing out of the s-aorist-stem of

9ru.

y
Pres. [4.]

9lath,

see y"

crath.

y
9layati
jb.

cla, 'dissolve'

(?).

jb.
.

Only in the passage taamat

vi 'va 9layanti tarunam iva hi tarhi


a variant to

reto bhavati

ii.

23.

Probably

9ra.

y
Perf.

clagh,

'extol'.

Pres. [1.] 9lagh.ate etc. cb1.e.+, -ti e.

[Aor.

9a9laghire c. etc. a9a9laghat, a9laghista; 9laghisyate, 9laghita.]


c.

Verb. 9lagh.ita
Sec. Conj.:

Pass.

Deriv.

9lagh.a

b.

9laghyate etc. e.+ + 9laghiii e. + 9laghya e. +

Caws.

9laghayati

etc. e.

+
b.

9laghana e. + 9laghanlya e. +

9laghistha

y
Perf.

clis, 9ris, 'clasp'.

Pre*. [4.] 9l{syati etc. b.+, -te u.

[1.]

9resama

rv.

(y

qri'l)

9i9lesa b.+
2.

Aor.

a9lisat e.+, 9risat rv.

3.

a9i9lisat.

7.

a9liksat.]

181
[Fut.

AND Primary Derivatives.


9leksyati, 9lesta.j

[stl^iv

Verb. 9lista b.

Qlestum c; qlistva
etc.
c.

c.

Sec.

Conj.: Pass, ^lisyate


{^in

d.yi

Cans. 9lesayati
av.b.

-qlisya

e.

-Qrisas
Deaid.

v.

[Int.

969168-.
c.

9i9lik8a-

etc.

b.+, -te

Deriv.

-9ris av.
-9liSB.c.

-9r6sina av. 9lesaAv.+

9le8in

b.c.

-9le8anaB.+

-9re8man av. 9l68man b,+


-9i9lik8u'' av.

-9resa

9lesaka

c.

y
Pres. [1.]

9 vane, 'spread'.
ta.)

9vancate etc. v. (9maneAor. 3? 9a9vacai b,v. Sec. Conj.: Caus. 9vancayas b,v. Derii\ -9vanka b.

y
Pres. [2.]

cvas, 9US, 'blow'.


;

9vasiti

etc.

v.+ (9vasihi av. +


kv.

antam 9use 9usana


Perf.

a9vasit

b.+,
etc.

a9va8at

e.

+j;

9U8-

[1.]

9vasati -t6
c.

av.+

9a9vasa
1.

etc. e.

+
]

Aor. [3. a9i9vasat.


Fut.
Verb.

5 (or

pres.').

9vasis

9vasisyati e. [ 2. 9vasita.] 9vasita b.+, 9vasta e. + 9vasituin


:

Sec. Conj.
etc.

Int.

9a9vasat

rv.

e.

-9va8ya

s. ]

-9vaBas rv.

[Desid. 9i9vasisa-.

Caus. 9vasayati

V.+ (9vasayati

ci.?)

Deriv.:

-9vasa av.

9usa

v.b.s.

9vasa V.+ 9vasinB.+


-9vasya
e.

96sa?vs.

-9vasanaE. + -9vasaniya c.
9vasi- ev.
c.

9va8atha v.b. 9usraa v.b.


9usinaiL
c.

9vasanav.+
+

-9vasaniya

-9vasitavya

b.+

cva, cvi,

see

qu.

y
[Pres. etc.

9vit, 'be bright'.

Aor.

1.

9vetate 9i9vite.] a9vitan 9vitana rv.


;

3.

a9i9vitat rv.

4.

a9vait

rv.

5.

a9V6tista.]
[Fut.
etc.

Deriv.: -9vit v.c.

9vetisyate, 9vetita; 9vitta.] 9viti- Rv. 9V6tav. +

9vitna
9vitra

rv.
v.

9vetana

rv.

y
Pres. [1.]

sthiv, 'spew'.
4.

sthivati

etc.

av. +

sthivyati.]

Perf.

tisth6va
5.

b. [tisth.6va.]

Aor.
[Fut.

asthavisam?

gb.s. [aBth6Vit.]

sthevisyati, sthevita.]

sthiv]
Verb,

Roots, Vekb-fokms,
b. +.

182
c.

sthyuta

sthivita c; sthutva?

s.

-sthivya

[Sec. Conj.: Int.

testhiv-, testhiv-.

Desid. tisthivisa- tis-, tusthjrusasaks.

tus-.

Caus. sthevayati.]

]/

For the participle saksant, see

sah.

y
Pres. [5.]
[Perf.

sagh, 'be equal

to',

asaghnos
rv.

rv.

sasagha.]
1.

Aor.

saghat

saghyasam
;

b.s.

3.

asisaghat.

5.

asagh.it.]

[Fut. etc.

saghisyati, saghita
b.

sasagh-, sisaghisa-, saghaya-.]


sah.

Deriv.

saghan

Doubtless another form of

]/

y
Pres. [1.]

sac, 'accompany'.

sacate etc. v.b.. saQcata (3p.) rv.

-ti rv'.
[1.]

[3.]

sisakti

etc.

rv.

sa9eati(3p.) rv.,

Perf. seeire av.

sa9cinia
rv.

v.b.,

Aor.

J.

saeana

4.

etc. sa9ee rv. saeeus etc. rv., sa^cire rv. asaksata etc. (saksat -simahil

sagcasi

rv.

5.

asaeista.l
[Fut.
Verb,

sacisyate, sacita.]

sacadhyai
v.s.

rv.

Deriv.: -sac

saksani? kv. sacya Rv.

saei?

V.B.

-saca

V.B.

saeana

rv.

saca

Kv.B.
b.

-sacin

saeas- rv. saci v. +

sakhi? V.+ sacatha rv.

-sakra rv. saksani rv. saqcat v.

sakman, -mya rv.

sacaya

cb.

y
Pres. [1.] sajati etc. v.+, -te

saj, sanj, 'hang'.


s.

sasanja b.+ ([sasajus] sasanjus c, sasajjatusv m., sejus cb.") 4. sanksit etc. v.+. asak3. asasanjat.] Aor. 1. asanji b. [sajyat. thas -ta V.B. [Fut. sanksyati, sankta.J -sajya b. + -sangam b.s. Verb, sakta v. + saktvim e., sanktos b. e.; sajjate etc. t..+, -ti etc. e.+ Sec. Conj.: Pass, sajyate etc. b.+, -ti Caus. J Desid. sisanksati cb. [sisaiiksa-.] [Int. sasaj-, sasanj-.
Perf.

sanjayati
Deriv.: -saj V.

etc. e.

sajjayati

etc. e. +,

-te

e.

saiigav.+
saiigin AV.+
c.
c.
,

-sanjanaB. +
-saiijaniya
c.

sakti

V.

-saja Bv.

-sajya
-sanj a

-saiigya

b.s.

sajjana

c.

saktu V V. + -saktavya c. -sanktavya

o.

183

AND Primary Derivatives.

san

y
Pres. [l.J

sad,

'sit'.

sidati
rv.

etc.

v.+, -te etc rv1.k.+

[2.j
;

satsi

v.

Perf.

sasada sedus etc.\.+ (sasattha


sedire 1. asadi sadi kv.

uv.

sasadyat sadathas
4.

av.

sidatus

k.),

AoT.

3.

2.

asadat

etc. v.

uv..

aadas
.").

etc. v. +,

sadeyam
AV.,

e<c.v.B.s.,

sadat- rv.)

sadatue^e. sadatamv.K.s., sadantuv.,

asisadat
sidisyati

etc. a.

2.

aadantam
asadit ta.
+

satsat uv.
|

Fut.
Verb,

1.

satsyati

etc. b.s.;

c. [

satta.
e.
;

sanna

av.+, satta v.; sattvim


v.b.
;

b.,

siditum

-sadya

v.

-sadam
]

Bv.,

-sade

-sadam
b.

i?.

Sec. Conj.:

Pass,

sadyate
-te

[Int.

sasad-.

Desid. sisatsa-.
etc. b.
e.

t'(iu>.

sadayati
Deriv.
:

etc. v. +.

etc.

v.+ (sadyate

sisadayisa-

in d.)

sad v.+ sada B.+ -sadya v.b.s -sadya n. V.B. -sadya CB. sada V.+ -sadakaE.+

sadin av. + -sadya e.+ sadanav. + sadanav. + -sadaniyaE.+ sadas v. +


-sadi av.

sadi
sedi

sanni
av.b.s.
e.

c.

av.b.s.

-sandi? sediika
sattr

sadman sadman

v.

rv.

sattiv.+
v.b.u.
v.

-sadvan v.s. -sadvara b.s.


-satsnu Rv. sadayitavya e. -sisadayisu e.
-i-

sattra

The stem sada,

so far as accented

sada,

is

perhaps rather

a present-stem.

Pres. [8.]

sanoti
rv.

etc.

y v.b.s.

san, 2 sa,
[Ivj
v.,

'gain'.

Perf.

sasana
[1.

(sasavans

sanat etc. sanema sana sanant sasanusi b.s.) [sene.]


] 2.

rv.

Aor.

asata; sanyat, sayat. [3. asisanat. sanem b.s.)

4v

asanam etc. v.b. (saneyam etc b.s. sesam set b. 5. asanisam rv.
,

(sanisat etc

v.,

sanisantu

sv.),

[asanistaj (sanisamahe sanisan-

ta RV.)
Fut.
Verb,
1.

sanisyati
v.b.

v.b. [

2.

sanita.]

sata
:

Sec. Conj.
E,v.

[Pass,

sanyate, sayate.
etc. v.b.

Desid. sisasati

[sansan-, sasa-,] sanisnata Cans, sanayati.j [sisanisa-.


]

Int.

Deriv

-san RV.

+
sap]

Roots, Vekb-forms,

184

y
Pres. [1.] Perf.

sap,

'serve'.

sapati -te

etc.

v.b.

Aor.
[Fut.

3.

sepus Ev. sisapanta

ev.

sapisyati, sapita.]

Sec. Conj.:

Cam. sapayant?
EV.

e.

DeWv.

-sap

sapa

b.s.

sapar- v.+

saptiv.

-sapin EV.

The

relations of part of these forms are very donbtfol.

y
Pres. [1.]

sarj, 'creak'.

sarjati

etc. v.b.

Does not appear

to

admit of connection with

srj.

sa9e,

see

sac.

y
Pres. [2.] sasti etc.

sas, 'sleep'.

(sastas sasant etc.) v. [3.] sasasti ts., sasasti vs., sasat ci. [Perf. etc. sasasa; asisasat, asasit; sasisyati, sasita; sasas-, sisasisa-,
sasaya-.]
Deriv.

sasa ? ev. The single later occurrence

is

doubtless

artificial.

y
Pres. [1.]
[4.]

sah,
etc.

'prevail'.
etc.

sahate

etc.

v.+, -ti

sahyami

m1.

e.+ (sahant ev.); sahati

ev'.e'.

[2.]
;

saksi saksva saksva ev.


;

Perf.

[sehe] (sehana ev. sasahe av. sasahe etc. v. sasahana v., sasahisthas ev.), sehima -bus e. (sasaha v.; sasahat etc v., sasahyama etc. ev., sasalivans ev,, sasahvans ta., sahvans ev.)
;

Aor.

1.

sahana

ev.

sahyama
ev.
,

v.,

sahyas
b.

etc.

ev.

[3.

asisahat.

Fut.
1.

4. asaksi saksi asaksmalii (saksate ev. saksiya etc. av.b.), saksit GB. (saksati av., saksat ev., saksama ev., saksat pple. ev.)

asahista ev., sahisimahi etc. v. saksyati etc. e., -te b., saksye? av.
5.

sodha e.+ [sahita.] Verb, sadlia v.+, sodha c. sodhum e.+, sahitvun -sahya v. + -saham b. sahadhyai ev.k.
isyat
E.)
2.
;

sahisyati -te
e.

etc.

e.+ (asah-

[sadhva, sahitva;]
etc.

Sec. Conj.

Pass,

sahyate

etc. c.

[Int. sasah.-.
etc. e.

Bv.Ts. [sisahisa-.]

Caus. sahayati

Desid. siksati -te

185
Deriv.
:

AND Pkimaby Derivatives.


-sah v.+

sadh
sahyu
uv,

saha v.B. saha V. + sahaka c. -sahya sv,+ -sahya n. ev. saha V. + -saha Rv,
-sahin -sahya
c.

-sabha? e.+ sinha? v.

sehuv sadhi

Av.K.
MS.
c.

sahianu R.+

sahanv uv. sahana c. sahaniya e. + -sahana e.+ sahantya v.n. sahas v. + sahasana rv.
-sahi
c.

sodhavya

sahvan
saksa
h.

h.s.

v,

sahitavya e. sadhr rv. sodhr E. sahuri v. sahiyas v. + sahyas rv. sahistha v.d.

-saksin

nv.

saksana

rv,

saksani v. sasahi v.

y
Pres. [6?]
JR.,

sa, si, 'bind'.


[9.]
etc. v.b.u.

syati

etc.

v.+, -te etc v. +


rv.
?

Perf.

sasau
1.

Aor.

sayat.
1.

-sinvant c. sisaya rv. (siset v rv.) [sisye.J asat etc. v.b. (sahi sitam rv., simahi
;

sinati [Iv] sami santi seyam set m,


rv.ts.?) [seyat.
6.

[5,]

asinot

4.

asaisit, asesta.

3.

asi-

asasit.]

Fut.

[sasyati] sisyati m. [sesyati -te.


+
; ;

2.

sata, seta.]
c.
;

Verb, sita v.

satum

jr.,

setave
e.+

av.,

-situm

sitvas.

8ayav.+,

-sya

E. +

-sai ev.

Sec. Conj.:

Pass,

siyate
Caus.

etc.

[Int.

sasa-, sesi-.

Desid. sisasa-,

sisisa-.

Deriv.: -sa'?Rv.+

-saya E.+ -sayin b.+


It is

sayayati etc. b.+ -sya e. -seya c. -sitiv. ?c. -sanav. + setu v.+ -satr rv.c.
its

setavya
setr ev.

c.

-sinva".' ev.
Its

not practicable to separate the two forms of this root.

prevailing

use with

ava

has led to

reduction to mere s in some of the forms

made

from

it.

y y
Pres. [1.]

2 sa, see

san.

sadh, sadh, 'succeed'.


ev.

sadhati -te

etc.

[5.]

sadhnoti

etc. jb.

[sadhnoti.

4.

sadhyati.]
[Perf.

sasadha.]
sisadhati -dhas etc. satsyati, saddha.]

Aor.
[Fut.
Verb,

3.

-dhema -dhatu

v.b.

4.

asatsit.]

sadhitum
etc. E.

(cans.

'?)

c.

Sec. Conj.: [Int.

sasadh-.

Desid.
etc. e.

sisatsa-.
;

Caus.
etc.

sadhayati
sisadhc.)

etc.

v,+,

-te
Deriv.
.

+ (sadhyate
rv.

sisadhayisati

-sadh

sadha rv. sadhaka e.+


sadhin
c.

sadhuv.+ sadhyav.+ v. + sadhu rv. sadhana sadhaniya e.+ saddhi jb.


sadhas
v.

sadhayitavya

c.

sadhiyas i;.+ sadhistha rv.u.

sadhayitr c. sisadhayisa c sisadhayisu s.+

si]

Roots, Vekb-fokms,

186

y
From
as

si, 'bind', see

sa.
derivatives,
v.

a root or roots si or si appear to


e. +,

come sundry doubtful


av.
+.

sayaka

sena

v. +,

sita v.

+.

siman -mant -ma

sira

sic, 'pour out".

v.+ [1.] seeate evI. siseca sisiee etc. v.+ (sisicus nv., sisice ev.c.) Perf. 2. asicat Aor. 1. sieyat b. (sincyat? acs.); aseei r..s.
Fres. [6.] sificati etc. v.+, -te etc.

etc.

v.+, -cata

etc.

v.B.

(sicamahe
etc.

v.b.)
b.e.

[3.

asisicat, asisieat.

4.

asikta.]

Fut. 1.
Terft.

seksyati -te
V.

sikta
AV. +
;

sektum e., -tavai -secam s., -sekam s.


+
;

b.;

siktvaB.+, sincitvac.
[Int. sesic-.
s.

-sicya

Sec. Conj.: Pass,

sicyate
]

etc.

v.+, -ti e.

Desid. sisiksa-,
e'.

sisiksa-.
Z)eriu.
;

Caus.

sic v.B.s.

-sicya
-sicya

B. n. b.

sekav.+

secayati etc -sekin c. -sekya B.+ -secaka e. -secya e.

s.+, -te

sineayati
b.

secanav.+
-secaniya
sikti v.b.

sektrY.+
-secitr
e.
c.

siktha
c.

sektavya

y
Pres. [1.]

sidh,
s.+

'repel'.

Perf.

sedhati sisedha etc.


.

etc. v. +,

-te

etc.

v.+,

sisidhe

k.

Aor.
Fut.
Verb,

asedlii

c.

[3.

asisidhat.
c. [

1.

setsyati
b.

e.,

sedhisyati
etc.

4.
2.

asaitsit.

] 5.

asedhis

etc.

ev.k.

seddha, sedhita.]
sesidhat
rv.
etc.

siddha

seddhum

b.+; -sidhya av.+

Sec. Conj.: Pass,

sidhyate

e.+

Jnt.

[Desid. sisedhs.+

isa-, sisidhisa-, sisitsa-.

Caus.

sedhayati
c.

Deriv.

sedhaAv.+
-sedliakaE.+ -sedhin c.

-sedhya c. -sedhanaE.+ -sedhaniya c.


root.

-siddhi

-seddhavya
-seddhr b.+

e.+

-seddhra b. sidhma, -man? b.+


-sedhayitr
c.

See the following

y
Pres. [4.]

2 sidh, 'succeed'.
etc.

sidhyati

etc.

rv1.u.s.+, -te

b,+

Perf.

sisedha uvi?
[1.

Aor.

sidhyasam; asedhi.
c'.

2.

asidhat.

3.

asisidhat.

4.

sait-

sit

Fut.
Verb,

1.

setsyati -te etc e.+ [ 2. seddha.] siddha b^.e. + [sedhitva, sidhitva, siddhva.j

[See. Conj.:

sesidh-; sisitsa-; sedhaya-.J

87
;

AND Primary Derivatives.


-sidh Rv.
to

[sul

Z>mv.

siddhi u.+

sidlima rv. sidhra rv.


>/

-sidhvan

nv.

Appears
siders
1

be a weakened form of
2

sadli.

sidh and

sidh

as one root,

and there

are

Grassmami, however, coniti fact some difficulties In

their separation.

y
y
Pres. [4.]
[Per/", etc.

SI, see

si.

siv, syu, 'sew'.

sivyati

etc. v. +.

-te v.

Ver6.

siseva; asisivat, asevit; sevisyati, sevita.J syuta v, + syutva s. -sivya av.


; ;

Sec. Conj.

[Int.
c.

sesiv-,

Desid. sisevisa-, susyusa-.


seva b. sevanaB.+ sivana b.+
sevitavya sutra .\.v.+
sfina v.b.s.
out' is a
c.

Caus. sevayati;]
\

sivayati
Derlv.:

syu b. sivaka
sivya
c.

syilman

v.b.

c.

syona'.' v.b.s.

The noun sucl

(of

which sucay 'point

denominative) can hardly

be connected with this

root.

y
Pres. [5.J

su, 'press out'.


etc.

svmoti

etc.

\.+.

sunute

v.+ [sunvire rv.)


e.

[.'i.]

susvati

(3p.) RV.

Perf.

susava susuma
1.

etc. v.e.,

AoT.

sotu sutam
[asusavat.

etc.

rv.,

susvana rv. suvana svana v. asavi


;

rv.

3.

AB.
Put. 1.
Verb,

4.

asausit, asosta.
cb.

asusavus

5.

asavit, asavista.]

sosyati
V.

kcs.,

savisyati
rv.,
etc.

2.

sota

ab.
b.

suta

Sec. Conj.: Pass,

sotave suyate

-tos
v.+

v.b.

-sutya
sosu-.

-suya

v.

[Int.

Desid. sususa-.
soman
suya
k.

Caus.

Leriv.:

savayati -siw a

s.

h.

savana
-sut V.+
-suti v.

sava sava

V.B.S.

sotu rv. sotva rv.


sotr rv.

rv.

RV.

sura.v. +
v.

-savin rv.

-savyas.+

sutya s.+ sutya b.s.


]/

sutvan

-sunva
susvi

ev.

soma

v.

rv.

Doubtless the same with

an, and the forms and uses

of the two not al-

ways clearly distinguishable.

>/sul(?).
Only in the single form pra svdami ts.tb.,
tilami: see
for

which

vs.

has

pra

til.


subh]
Roots, Verb-fokms,

188

y
Pres. [9.]

subh, sumbh, 'smother'

(?).

Verb,

asubhnan subdha ts.


sobhari?
v.

ts.

[6?]

sumbhan

k.

Deriv.

y
Pres. [2.]

su, su, 'generate, enliven, impel'.

sute suvate etc. v. + (suvana svana? kv.), sauti b. +, sQhi s. [4.] suyate [6.] suvati etc. v.b.u. (sva av.ta.), suvate etc. b. b1. +, -ti etc. e. + savati etc. e.+ etc. [1.] Perf. susava etc, e. +, susuve etc. a\.+ (sasuva v.) 4. [asausit,] 3. [asusavat,] asusot ms., -savus tb. Aor. [1. asavi.] asosta U.+ 5. asavit etc. y.b. (savisat v.b.) [asavista.] Put. 1. sosyati -te etc. b.+ (susyant rv^.c'.), savisyati -te etc. e.+ [

2.

seta, savita.]

Verb. sutav.H-,

suta

b.

+ [suna]
;

[sotum,] sutave
e.

v.

-tavai .w., savi-

Sec. Conj.

tave Av.; siitva b. + -suya Pass, suyate etc. v.+


:

+ -sutya
;

cb.

Int.

sosaviti rv.
sutri AV.
stri? V.+

[Desid. sususa-.
-suya AV.+ sura? V.
c.

Cans, savaya-.]
Deriv.

su V.+

-savas
suti
rv.
V.

b.s.

sava + savy a ? n. pr.


V.

-SUti RV.

-savin

SUtU

AV.
v.

savatha ? -suna S.+


+

surf? V.+

saviman
-suvan V. susa AV.

v.b.s.

savana v.+ - suvana av.

savitr

-savitr rv.

sunu V. + -suma V.
su
'impel',

stisana? av.
Usually divided into two roots
,

and 2 su

'give birth' (the

verb-forms of the former, with three or four sporadic exceptions, limited to the
older language); but their forms of successful separation.

and meanings

are

mixed beyond the

possibility

y
[Pres. siidate.]

stid, 'put in order'.

Perf.

[susude,] susiidima rv. (susudati

etc.

susudat

etc.

rv., susiid-

ata AV.)
Aor.
3.

asusudanta
[Int.

ts.

[Fut. siidisyati, siidita.]


Sec. Conj.:

sosud-.

Desid.

susHdisa-.

Cans,

sudayati

etc.

v.+,

-te
Z>eriy.
;

etc. E. + -sud RV,

suda

V.

-sudakaE.Hsudin b.

sudanav. +

sudayitnu

rv.

189

AND Primary Deuivatives.

[bW

y
Pres. [1.]
[Perf. etc.

surk?,

'heed'.

surksati

etc. b.s.

Deriv.

susurksa; asurksit; surksisyati, surksita-J surksya b.

y
Pres. [3.] sisarti

sr, 'flow'.

sisrat

etc. rv.,

sisrate (3p.)

etc. v.

fsisratus ev'.)

[1.]

sarati
Perf.

etc.

s'.e.+, -te etc. e.


etc. v.
(

+
cb.,

sasara sasre
bv.)
1.

+ sasrva

sasrvans
etc.

v. +,

sasrana

uv.

sasr-

mana
Aor.

asari

b. [sriyat.]

2.

asarat
sarta.]

v.b. (sarat etc.

sira rv.)

4.

[asarsit,] sarsat av.


Fut.
Ferft.
1.

sarisyati
;

etc.

v.+

2.

sartum -saram b. B. +
srtd, B. +
;

c, sartave bv.. -tavai rv.

srtvan. +

-srtya

Sec. Con}.: Int.

sarsre
rv.

etc.

bv.

(sarsrana

v.)

Desid. sisirsati

etc. b.

Caus. sarayati -te

etc.

v.+ (^saryate
v.
c.

etc. b.

sisarayiaa-

in d.);

sardyante Deriv. sara v. saraka


:

sarana
e.

-sf tya AV.

sarani

-srtya

jb.

sarin? bv. sara v. + saraka e. + sarin b. + -sarya


sira
V.
c.

sarana b.+
-saraniya saras v.+ sant V. + saru ? AV.
-srt
V.
c.

-sartu RV.

saramav v.+ srmara b. + sarayu v. +


b.c.

-sartavya
sartr
b.

sarira
salila

b.

V.

+
e.

srtvan

v.b.
c.

sarala?

-srtvara

sasra

bv.

sira BV.

srti AV. +

sarma bv. -sarman bv. sariman bv.

sasri bv.

-sisarayiau

c.

y
A
root

srk, 'be pointed'

(?',

srk

or

arc inferable with plausibility from the derivatives

srka

v.b.

srakt{

v.b.s.

srkva c. srakva rv.

8rkvanv.+
srkvi
e.

y
Pres. [6.] srjati -te etc.

syj, 'send forth'.


[1.]

v.+

sarjatas

av..

-anti

c.

[aarajant bvI?)

+ (sasarktha c. [sasarjitha sasrasthaj. sasrjmahe -jrire rv., sasrgmahe sv.; sasrjyat asasrgram av.) srjana rv. [3. asisrjat, asaAor. 1. asrgran -ram bv.; asarji v.b.
Perf.

sasarja sasrje

etc. v.

Fut.

asraksit etc. sraksat b.), asrksi asrsta etc. v.b. 2. srasta? pb. 1. sraksyati -te etc. b.+
sarjat.
]

4.

v.+ (asrak

v.b.c'.

asrat

b..

sras

av.

] ]

syj
Verb,

Roots, Verb-forms,
srsta
v.

190
-sfjya
b.

srastum
srjyate
ci.),

e.

srstva
[Int.

b.u.

-sargam

b.,

-sarjam.

b.

Sec. Conj.: Pass,

etc.

B.+ (sisrkamas
Deriv.
;

sarisrj-. Desid. sisrksati Cans, sarjayati -te b.+ -te gb.


v.+
]

etc.

etc.

-srj V.

-sargin s.+

srstiv.+
srsti cbI.

sraj V.+

sarjaB.+
-sarjya
e.

srjyaB.+
sargav.H-

sarjana v.+

srastavya srastrv.+

c.

srjaya -ya sisrksa c. sisrksuE.

b.

sarjayitavya

u.+

y
Pres. [1.]

srp, 'creep'.
e.+

sarpati

etc. v. +,

-te

etc.

Perf.

AoT.

sasarpa etc. b.+ 4. [asarpsit, 3. asisrpat b. [asasarpat.] asrpat etc. av.b. asrapsit ;] asrpta b.s. 2. sarpta, srapta.] Put. 1. srapsyati etc. b.+, sarpsyati b. [ e. + srptva b. -srpya av.b.s. -srpas b. sarpitum Verb, srpta b. +
2.

-sarpam
Sec.

b.s.

sarisrpant c, -pyate b. Cans, sarpayati etc. s.+ Desid. sisrpsati etc. v.+ sarpi b. srpra rv. -sarpaka s. Dcriv..- -srp b.s. sasarpari rv. sarpis v. + -sarpin b. + -srpya c. sarisrpav.+ -srpti c. sarpanav.+ sarpav.+
Conj.:
Pass,

srpyate

etc.

b.

Int.

y
Pre?. [1.]

sev, 'attend upon'.


etc. ev'.e.

Perf.

sevate siseve etc.

etc.

v.+, -ti

e. +,

-va

c.

[Aor. asisevat, asevista.]


Fut.
Verb,
1.

sevisyati
e.

e. [-te.

2.
c.
;

sevita.]

sevita

sevitum

sevitva
+

e.

Sec. Conj.: Pass,

sevyate Cans, sevayati c. [sisevayisasevinE.+ Deriv.: sevaE. +


etc. e.

-sevya

c.

[Int.

sesev-.

Desid. sisevisa-.

b.

in d.)

sevaka

E.+

sevya e.+

sevanaE.+ sevaniya c.

sevitavya
sevitr e.+

sisevayisu

c,

y
Pres. [1.]
Perf.

skand,
c.

'leap'.

skandati

etc. v. +,

-te

Acr.

caskanda v. +, -de e. + askan skan v.b. [skadyat.] [2. askadat. 4. askantsit b. (^askan skan b.s.)
1.

3.

acaskandat.

b.
;

Fut.
Verb,

1.

skantsyati
v.

b.

2.

skantta.]
;

skanna

[skanditum skanttva;] -skandya


rv.

b.+,

-skadya

-skade -skadas

-skandam

av.b.

191
Sec. Ccnj.: [Pass,

AND Pkimary Derivatives.

[stan
rv.

ciskantsa-.
/)eri(>.;

skadyate. ] Int. kaniskan caniskadat Cans, skandayati etc h. + J

{Defid.

skanda V.+ skandinB.+

-skandya

h.

-skadvari

h.

skandana

n.+

skandha av.+ skandhas? t.h.

y
Pres. [9.]
1.

skambh, skabh,
v.b.

'prop'.

skabhnati skambhate.]
c'.

etc.

(skabhana

n.)

[5.]

skabhnuvant
rv.).

Perf.

easkambha
etc.

(caskambha skambhathus -bhus


av.

[caskam-

bhe] caskabhana
[Aor.
Verb,

acaskambhat, askambhit; skambhisyati, skambhita.


v.
;

skabhita
:

[skambhitum ;J skabhitvi
)

rv.

-skabhe
v.r.

rv.

Sec. Conj.:

Cans,

[skambhayati (skambhita
v.n.
v.

c")

Lervi.

skabha-

skambha

-skambhaka -skambhin e. +

c.

skambhana

skabhiyas

rv.

y
Pres.
[2.]

sku,

'tear'.

skauti

cr.

[5.]

sk\inoti av. [skunute.

!).

skunati,

skunite.]
[Perf. etc.

cuskava euskuve acuskavat, askausit askosta


;

skosyati

-te, skota.]
Verb,
Sec.

ms. Caus. skavayati.] skusa-.

skuta

rv.

-skavam

e.

Conj.:

Pass,

skuyate

Int.

coskuyate

etc.

rv.

Desid.

cu-

Derli\:

-skavana s. -skava av. The doubtful form skuptva in Ap. Dh.


compare dantaskavana
ib. ii. 5. 9.

S. (i. 31.

24) perhaps belongs

here

skr,

see

kr.

y
Pres. [1.]
Perf.

skhal, 'stumble'.
+

skhalati

etc. e. +,

-te ab.
e.

caskhala caskhalus
etc.

[Aor.
Verb,

askhalit; skhalisyati, skhalita.]


b.

skhalita
:

+
etc. c.

Sec. Conj.

Caus. skhalayati
b.

[skhalayati.]
e.

Deriv.

skhala

skhalana

y
Pres. [2.]

Stan, 'thunder'.
[1.]

stanihi stan rv.

stanati

etc. av.e.h-,

-se

c'.

[Perf.

tastana tastanus.]
atistanat.

Aor.

[2.

] 5.

astanit av

[Fut. stanisyati, stanita.

Stan]
Verb,

Roots, Vebb-fobms,
stanita
:

192

s.

Sec. Conj.

Int.

+ stanitva c. tanstanihi ay.


;

Desid. tistanisa-.
c.

Cans,

stanayati

+ Deriv.: -stana v.e. -stanaka? c. Compare y 2 tan.


etc. V,

stanana

stanauv av.

stanatha stanathu

kv.

istani? rv.

av.

stanayitnu v.+

y
Prea. [9.]
[1.]

stambh, stabh,
+ (stabhana

'prop'.

stabhnati

etc. v.

v.b.)
;

[5.]

stabhnoti

etc. b.

b.+

Perf.

stambhant c, stambhate etc. c. stabhamana aa. tastambha tastabhus etc. v. (tastambhat rv.), tastambhe
v.b.)
.

etc.

(tastabhana 3. atastambhat. 1 [stabhyat ;] astambhi c. [2. astabhat. 4. astarapsit tb. astambhit stambhit ev. 5. [Fut. stambhisyati, stambhita.] Veri. stabhitav., stabdhan. + stabdhum c. stabdhva av.e., stambhitva E. -stabhya b. + -stambham b. Desid. tistambhisa-. [Int. tastabh-. Sec. Conj. : Pass, stabhyate c. Caus. stambhayati -te etc. e.+ (stambhayisa? in d.)
Aor.

Deriv,

stanabha

stambhana b. + stabha- bv. stambhaniya e. + stambhaka E.+ -stabhya c stambhin e. + stabhu- ev. -stabdhi b. + Compare tte parallel and equivalent root skambh.
v.

-stambhayitr c. -stambhayisu e.

]/ sta, 'be stealthy'.


Is inferable

from the derivatives:

stay at av.gb.
stayat
jb.

GB. reads

steya v. + stenav. tayii? v. stayan; jb. has na stayad bhavati


vs.

stayu

staman?
ii.

av.

24

(ter).

y
Pres. [5.]

stigh, 'mount'.
[stighnute.]

stighnoti -nuyat
ms.

ms.

[Perf.
Verb,

etc.

tistighe; atistighat, asteghista; steghisyate, steghita.]


tistighisati ms. [tistighisa-, tiste-

-stigham

Sec. Conj.: [Int. testigh.-.

Desid. Cans, steghayati.] ghisa-.


]
:

These forms are somewhat amended from the MSS. (which have stinnoti
etc.}

see Schroder in

ZDMG.
]/

xxxiii. 195.
'^be stiff'.
etc. etc.]

stim, stim,

[Pres.
Verb,

etc.

stimyati; tistema, tistima;


e.
]/

stimita
Compare

+ sty a.

193

AND Pbimahy Derivativks.

[six

y
Pres. [2. J

stu, 'praise'.
v. +,

stauti stuvanti etc

stute stuvate

etc.

stavana v., stavana iiv.) [l.J stavate etc. (stave 3s.) rv. [6?] astuvat e., stuvate etc. av.b. [J.j stunvanti etc. u.c, stunvana u. stuse (!,3.) v. Perf. tustava tustuvus etc. v. + [tustuva -ma], tustuve etc. v. + Aor. 1. [stuyat;J astavi rv. 3. atustavam rv., -tuvam .ik. (tustavat
stosi Rv.,
v.,

stuvana

v.+ (stavimi

c'..

Bv.)

Ful.
1.

4.

astausit

etc.

b.+ (stosat

etc.

stosani
-te

bv.),

astos^a

etc. v.n.

5.

astavit

etc. b.s.

stosyati

etc.

b.+ (astosyat

etc. b.u.),

etc. b.

etc. V. [

stavisyati -te

2.
;

stota.]
; ;

stuta v. + stotum b.+, stotave rv. stutva av. + -stiitya b. +. -stuya E. + stavadhyai rv. [Int. tostu-. ] Desid. tustusita c. Sec. Conj. Pass, stuyate etc. v. h Cans, stavayati etc. b.+, -te c. stavayati c'. -stavya s, -stu BV. stut v.s. stotrav. Derjv. stavana S.+ stuti v. + stavav. + stavatha rv. -stavaniya s. stutya v. + stoma v. + stavya e. stotavyaB.+ -stavana E.+ stavan'.' rv. stava b. + stotr v. stuseyya ev. stavaka c
Verb,
;

t-

j/ 2 stu,

'drip'.

Such

a root is

with probability inferable from the derivatives

-stu RV.

-stava av.

stuka stoka

v.b..s. V.

stupa stupa

av.b.
v.

|/
Pres. [1
.]

stubh,

'praise'.

[Perf.
Veri.

stobhati v.b.s. [-te]. [2.] stobdhi (3s.) jb., stubhana rv. etc. tustubhe; atustubhat, astobhista; stobhisyate, stobhita.]
b.s.

stubdha
.

Sec. Conj.:

Deriu.

stobhayati n\.cK -stobha b.+ stiibh V.+


Cans,

stubha
Seems

E.

stobhana c. stobdhavya

stubhvan
jb.

rv.

related with

stu.

y
Pres. [9.]

str, 'strew'.

strnati strnite
etc. e.

etc.

v.+

[5.]

strnoti strnute

etc.

v.+

[l.J

+ starati Perf. tastara tastarus -rana bv.) Aor. 1. astar star


astari rv.
5.

b.

tastare -rire

c.

(tastrire av.

tistire 3.

rv.,
[3.

astrta ab. (starate staramahe

rv.); [staryat;]
b.;

atastarat.

4.

[astarsit] astrsi

strsiya

w.

astaris av. [astarista, starisista.]


Supplement
II.

Whitney,

13

sty]

Roots, Vekb-forms,
1.

194
f

Fut.
Verl.

starisyati -te
v. +,

b.c. [
v.

; ;

2.

starta.]

startave e., -tavai b., staritavai b., staritave AV.B., -staritavai b. strtva b.s., stirtva b.s. -strtya e., -stirya b. + -stire rv. strnisani by.
strta

stirna

Sec. Conj.: Pass,

stiryate

etc. s.+, -ti

m.?; striyate en. [staryate.


;

Int.

testirya-, tastarya-.
Caus. starayati
etc. e.

Desid. tistirsate jb.

tustursate

b.u.s.

DcWu.; stf ? ET.


-stir
E.V.

starya
-starya

B. b.

-starin av.+

-staritu rv.
-staritr
c.

starana
strtiB.+

v.

-stur Ev.

-stara v.+

-starav.+ -staraka c.

stariman
-strna
c.

ev.

strtya

b.

y
Pres. [6.]

strh, 'crush'.

[Perf. etc.

strhant s'. tastarha etc. etc.] Seems to be a variant of

]/

trh.

y
Pres. [4.]
;

stya, sti,

'stiffen'.

styayate etc. b.c. [Perf. etc. tastyau sty ay at styey at, astyasit styasyati, styata.] Verb, styana c. [stita, stima] -styaya e. -styaya c, -styayana c. stima av. Derju..- stiy a RV. -stimin av.b. The last two derivatives perhaps rather from ]/ stim (or this from them).
;
;

y
[Pres. etc.

sthag, 'cover'.
;

sthagati tasthaga
; :

asthagit
c.

sthagisyati, sthagita.]

Sec. Conj.

Caus.

sthagayati
c.

etc. c.

Deriv.:

sthagaka

sthagana

y
Perf.

stha, 'stand'.
+ (tisthasam ? ggs.)

Pres. [1.] tisthati etc. v. +, -te etc. v.

Aor.

tasthau tasthe etc. v. + asthat etc. \.+ (sthati sthathas stheyama sthant rv. asthithas 2? asthat av.k. -ita V. +, asthiran v.b. [stheyasam;] asthayi c.
1.
),

Fut.
Verb,
1.

4.

[sthasista:!

sthesam
e.+

e.,
2.

-sus? av.

sthita

sthasyati -te v. + sthatum


etc.
;

5.

asthisi -sata b.+

sthata
-tos

etc. e.

+
r.
;

e.+,
v.b.

e.s.,

-sthitum
c'.)
.'

sthitva

e.

-sthaya
ya-.
etc.

v.

+ -sthayam
;

Sec. Conj.: Pass,

sthiyate
etc.

etc.

b.+ (asthayisi
etc. b.

[Int.

tastha-, testhi-

Desid. tisthasati

+ (tisthaset
etc. v.b.-,

ce.)

Caus. sthapayati
e.
:

V.+, -te

v.+ (atisthipat
r,.^

-sthapam

sthapyate

etc. B.

-sthapayisati

195
Deriv.
:

AND Primary Derivatives.

[snu

stha V. + -stha V. +
-sthin Av. +

-sthu
-sthr

V.

+
i..

B.

sthaman stheman
stheyas
sthira
v.

v.c.

tisthasa

c.
c.
k.

b.+

tisthasu

sthayuka
sthiti B.+
c.

v.

sthapaka

-sthaya

e.

-sthayaka

sthiti cb'.

sthala, -li? V.+

St hay in .+

sthana

V.

sthatavya e.+ sthatur rv.


sthatr
stlianu
V.

-sthi Ev.

+
+

stheya b. + -stheya n. b. A number of sthura v.b. sthula AV.+

sthatra

v. V.

-sthavan v.b. sthavara b.+ sthasnu s. + tasthu c. made from


a root

sthapin c. sthapya b. + sthapana k. + sthapaniya ii.+


sthapitr
c. e.

sthapayitavya sthapayitr e, +

derivatives are also

sthu, which appears

to

he only a form of stha. They are

sthavira v. + sthavira rv. -sthava b.

sthuna
sthdri
.'

v.

sthaviman

v.b.

sthaviyas b. + sthavistha k. +

y
Pres. [2.]

sna, 'bathe'.
e.

snati
c.

etc. v. +,

snayita

c. [

[4.]

snayate

etc. e.

Perf.

sasnus
1.
1
.

Aor.
Fat.
Verb,

[snayat, sneyat;] asnayi

6.

asnasit.]

2. snata.] snasyati -te etc. e. + [ snata av. + snatum b. + snatva av. + -snaya
;
; ;

v.b.

Sec. Conj.:

[Int.

sasna-.
;

Desid. sisnasa- iin d.).


av. +

Caus.

snapayati

etc. Rv.s. +,

-te gb.

Deriv.:

-sna

v.c.

-snaE.+
sna3rinE.+

snapayati etc. sneya e.+ snanaAv. +


-snatr
v.c.

snatva v.b. snatavyaE.+


sisnasu
e.

snapaka e. + snapanaE. snapana av.+

y
Pres. [4.]
[Perf. etc.

snih, 'be sticky'.

snihyati etc. e. +, -te etc. e. + sisneha; asnihat, asisnihat; snehisyati, snekayati, snehita snegdha snedha.J Verb, snigdha e. + [snidha; snehitva, snihitva, snigdhva, snidhva.J
sesnih-.
etc.

Sec. Conj.: [Int.

Desid. sisnehisa-, sisnihisa-, sisniksa-.

Caus.
Deriv.
:

snehayati snih ta.

rv.c.

snehaB.+ snehaka c.

snehin c. snehya c.

snihan b. snehanaE. +

snihiti

v.

snehiti rv.

snehayitavya

c.

y
Pres. [2.]

snu,

'distil'.

snauti

etc. b.

+ [snute.]

[Perf. etc.

susnava susnuve; asnavi, asnosta, asnavit; snavisyati


13*

snosyate, snavita snota.]

snu]
Verb,

Roots, VERB-rouMS,
snuta
:

196

[Sec. Conj.:

Deriv.

s.? e. + sosnu-; susntisa-; snavaya-.] -snavin -snava e. + -snu Rv.

c.

y
Pres. [1.]
etc.

spand,

'quiver'

spandate etc. v. +, -ti etc. e. + paspande; aspandista; spandisyate, spandita.] [Perf. spanditum c. Verb, spandita c. [Desid. pispandisa-. ] Caus. spandSec. Conj. Int. panispad- (m d.).
;

c.

ayati -te
Deriv.:

etc.

b.+ +

spanda

e.

spandin

spandana

av.+

panispada

av.

]/

spac,

see

pac.

spurdh,

see ]/

sprdh.

y
Pres. [5.]

spr,

win'.

sprnoti sprnute
v.

etc. v.b.u.s.

(sprnvate
etc.

ev.

[9.]

sprnati
rv.

jub.

Perf.

Aor.

paspara b. 1. aspar etc.


sprta
;

(sparat

v.,

sprdhi

rv.)

4.

asparsam

[Fut. sparisyati, sparta.]


Verb,
v.b.
;

Deriv.

spara

B.

sprtva b. sparase sparana av.b.


;

rv.

spft

v.b.
b.s.

-spartr rv.

sprti

y
Pres. [1.]

sprdh, spurdh, 'contend'.

spardhate etc. v.+, -ti etc. e.+ [6.] spurdhan rvI. Perf. pasprdhe etc. v.b. (apasprdhetham v.), paspardha e.+ 5. aspardhista.] Aor. 1. asprdhran sprdhana rv. [

[Fut. spardhisyate, spardhita.] -spfdhya rv. Verb, spardhita e. + spardhitum av.b. pasprdh- ; pispardhisa- spardhaya-.] [Sec. Conj.
; ;

spurdhase

rv.

Deriu.

spardhinE.+ sprdh RV. spardha B.+ spardhya e.

spardhaniya

c.

-spardhasv. +

y
Pres. [6.]

spr^, 'touch'.
etc.

sprqati

etc.

v.+, -te

av.+ (sprqana

e.~)

[!.]

asparQat
etc.

c'.

Perf.

Aor.

1.

[asparksit.]
1.

paspr9us -96 spr9yat e.


spraksyati

etc. e.

'.

.3.

+ (paspar9us'? u.; paspar9at 4. aspraksam pispr9as -9ati rv.


rv.)

b.e.

asprksat

etc.

av.b.

Fut.

etc. e.

[sparksyati.

2.

sprasta, sparsta.]

197
Verb,
:

AND Primary Derivatives.


;
;

[sphut
;

Sec.

sprsta av. + sprastum e. + sprstva n.+ -spr9yaK. + -spyge iiv.. -sprqas b. Conj.: Pass. spr9yate etc. e.+ [Int. parispr9-. ] Desid. pisprksaCans. spar9ayati etc. b. +, -te kv. (m d.).

Deriv.

+ -spr9aE.+ spr9ya E. +
-spr9
V.

spar9a av. + spar9in S.+ spar9ana u.s.+ spar9aniya e. +

spr9i

c.

8par9itr

e.

spratiB. +

sprastavya b.+
sprastr
b.

pisprksuE. + spar9ayitavya
may with

u.

+
consider-

Compare

Tpvq,

prs;

a part of the words there given

able plausibility be connected with this root.

y
Pres. [6.]
Sec. Conj.
:

sprh, 'be eager'.

sprhanti s. Cans, sprhayati etc. v. +, -te etc. e. + sprhayalu e + sprhana e. sparha v. + Deriv.: -sprh v. sprhaniya e. + sprhayayya rv. sprha E. + The non-causative form only in Ap. Dh. S. i. 31. 9 (^perhaps an error?).

y
Sec. Conj.:

sphat,

'split'.

Deriv.

Cans, sphatita c. sphatika r.+ No proper root; the participle probably

denominative formation.

sphar,

see

sphr.

y
Sec. Conj.
:

sphal,
etc. ta.c.

'strike'.

Cans,

Deriv.

sphalana

sphalayati e. +

y
[Pres. etc.
;

spha,
;

'fatten'.
;

sphayate pasphaye apisphavat, asphayista sphayisyate,


e.

sphayita.]
Verb,

sphita
:

Sec. Conj.: Pass,

Deriv.

Caus. sphavaya- ^in sphiyate e. sphira rv. sphati v.b.s. -sphaka av.
v.c.

d.).

sphavayitr

ab.

-sphana

sphiti

c.

y
Pres. [6.]

sphut,
[1.]

'burst'.
e.e.

sphutati
c.

etc. b.

sphotati

Perf.

pusphota

[Aor.

apusphutat, asphotit.]

aphut]
Fut.
1.

Roots, Veeb-forms,

198

2. sphutita.] sphutisyati etc. e. [ Verb, sphutita e. + sphutitva c. Sec. Conj.: Caus. sphotayati etc. e.+ sphutana sphota e. + sphuta e. + Deriv.
;

c.

sphotana

e.

y
sphurj ati

sphur, sphul,

see

sphr.

y
Pres. [1.]
[Per/", etc.
etc.

sphurj, 'rumble'.

av. +

pusphurja; apusphurjat, asphurjit; sphurjisyati, sphurje.

ita.]

-sphurjya e.? Desid. pusphurjisa-. Sec. Conj.: [Int. posphurj-. yati etc. v. + -sphurjathu -sphurjana c. sphurja c. Deriv. sphurj aka b.+
Verb,

sphurjita

Caw. sphurja-sphurji
c.

c.

y
Pres. [6.]

sphr, sphar, sphur, sphul,

'jerk' etc.

sphurati etc. v. +, -te etc. b.+ [Perf. pusphora pusphure.] 3. apusphurat. Aor. [1. sphuryat.

5.

spharis rv. [asphorit.]

[Fut. sphurisyati, sphurita.]

sphulita c'. spharitva c. Desid. pusphurisa-. ] Caus. spharayati Sec. Conj.: [Int. posphur-. etc. E. + sphurayati c. [sphorayati.] sphuranas. + -sphulmga v.+ -spharaE. + Der jr.; -sphur RV.
Verb,

sphurita

e. +.

-sphura

v.

sphur ti

c.

Does not seem worth the attempt

to divide into

different roots, as the

whole considerahle range of meanings appears in the forms of sphur.

y
Pres. [1.] Perf.

smi,

'smile'.

smayate
etc.

etc. v. +, -ti etc. e.

+
e.

sismiye asa E
[1.

v.b.-,

sismiye

etc.

sismaya

etc.

e.

-smayam
e.

Aor.
[Fut.
Verb,

asraayi.

3.

asismayam.

4.

asmesta.
e.

] 5.

asmayisthas

smesyate, smeta.] smita e. + smitva c. -smayitva


;

Sec. Conj.: [Int.

sesmi-.

-smitya

e.

Desid. sismayisa-.

Caus.

smapayati

etc.

E.+ (sismapayisa- in d.);


Deriv.

smayayati
+

c.

smayaE. + smayaka ta.

smayana

s.

smera

rv.c.

smaya

c.

-smayaniya e. + smetavya ta.

-sraapaka c. -sm^apanas. +

-smapaniya c. -smapayaniya
-sisruapayisu

e.

e.

199

AND Primary DERivAin-ES.

[srans

y
Pres. [1.]
Perf.

smr, 'remember.
etc. v.

smarati

etc.

v.+, -te
e.

sasmara sasmarus
[1.
1
.

Aor.
Fut.
Verb,

smaryat, asmari. ;i. asasmarat. smarisyati e. 2. smarta e.

4.

asmarsus
3:.:

m.

smrta
:

v.

smartum

e.

smrtva

s.+.

smaritva

-smrtya

s.

smaram
f^ec.

c.

Conj.

Pass,

Deriv.:

Cans,

smaryate etc. b. + smarayati etc. e. +, -te

[Int.

sasmr-.

Desid. susmursa-.
etc. e.

etc. e.

+ (smaryate

+)

smara-

yati

etc. c.

smara Av. + smarya c. smara B.+

smaraka c. smarin c. smaranaE.+

smararLaE.+ smaraniya e + -smrt c.

smrtiAv.

smartavya smartr c

b.+

]/
Pres. [1.]
Perf.

syand, syad, 'move

on'.

Aor.

syandate etc. v.+, -ti etc. e. + sisyanda sisyadus -de av.b. sasyande c. [-dimahe -dmahe.] 1. syandi cb. ] 3. asisyadat -danta v. [2. asyadat. 4. asyan
;

5. asyandista.] [ syantsyati b. [syandisyate. 2. syantta, syandita.J Verb, syanna v. + syanttvim b. syanttva b.. syattva b. -syadya a. -syade rv. Int. sanisyadat v.b. Pass, syandyate c. Sec. Conj. iBesid. sisyan-

Rv.
1.

Fut.

disa-, sisyantsa-.
Deriv.
:

-syad

X.

syada b. syandaB.+

] Cans, syandayati etc. b. + (syandayadhyai rv.) syandakaE. + syandanav. + syandra rv. syedu av. sasyad rv. syandin s. + syanttr rv. sanisyada av. syandya b.s.

y
Pres. [1.]

sraixs, sras,
etc. e.
c.

'fall'.

Perf.

sransate etc. b.+, -ti sasransus b., sransire ?


asrat
b.

Aor.

1.

AV.B.

2.

asrasat
e.

etc.

v.+ (srasema rv.)

3.

asisrasat

etc.

5.

asransisata

[Fut.
Verb,

sransisyate, sransita.] srasta av. + [sransitva, srastva;] -sransya


;

b.s.,

-sx'asya

s.

-srasas
sisa-.
Z)erii;.
.

v.b.u.
] srasyate. Caws, sransayati

Sec. Conj.: [Pass,

Int.
etc.

sanisras- (in d.). av.+ (sransyate e.")

[Desid. sisran-

-sras V.B.

-srasya

b.

-srasa

B.s.

sransa av.+

-sransaka sransin c.

b.

sransana
sanisrasa

e.+
av.

sridh

Roots, Vekb-forms,

200

y
Pres. [1.]

sridh, 'blunder

(?)

sredhati
v.

etc.

rv.
rv.

Aor. 2. sridhat
Deriv.

sridhana

sridh

y
Pres. [4.]

sriv, 'fair.

srivyanti
sisreva;
[Int.

b1.

[Perf.

etc.

asrevit;

srevisyati, srevita;

sruta, srevitva
Cans, sreva-

srutva.]
Sec. Conj.
:

sesriv-.

Desid. sisrevisa-, svisrusa-.


witli
(j

yant

rv., (jrivayati av.

Deriv.: -srivi? b.

-sremanVRv.
for s.

Sometimes found written

y
Pres. [1.]

sru, 'flow'.
+
;

gruvat rv. Perf. susrava susruvus av.+ [susruma], susruve etc. e. + Aor. 3. asusrot etc. v.b. [asusruvat asusravat asisravat.]
sravati
etc.

v.+, -te

etc. e.

5.

asra-

vis
Fut.
Verb,
1.

JB.
etc. e.

sravisyati
av.+,
[Int.
;

[srosyati.
av.
;

2.

srota.]

sruta
:

9ruta

Sec. Conj.

sosru-.

Desid. susrusa-.
c.

sravitave

rv.,

-tavai rv.
]

Cans,

sravayati
srotas

etc.

av. +,

-te

etc. B.

sravayati

Deriv.

sru RV.

sravm

b.+

sruva V.+ srava v.+


-sravin c. -srava av. +
even in

sravya e. + sravana v.+ sravana av. +


-sravas
e.

sravat v. srue ? V. + -srut V. + srutya b.


sruti V.+

V. + srotya v.b. sravatha rv. sravayitavya

ms.

Apparent forms and derivatives of


initial q,
v.
;

this root are occasionally

found with

and BR. recognize a root 2 9ru, equivalent in meaning

with sru.

y
Pres. [1.] JPerf.

svaj, svanj, 'embrace'.


rv1.e.+

svajate

etc. v. +, -ti etc.

(svajana

e.)

sasvaje etc. v.+, -jus c. [sasvanje.] asasvajat (plpf.'i') rv. [ 4. asvaiiksi.] Fut. 1. svajisyate e. [svafiksyate. 2. svankta.] Verb, svakta b. + svaktura e. svajitva e. -svajya e. + -svdje v. [Sec. Conj.: svajya-; sasvahj-, sasvajya-; sisvaiiksa-; svanjaya-.] Deriv. svaja av.b. -svanga e. + -svajana c. -svahjalya e. -svahgin c. -svajya -svajiyas av.
Aor.
3.

av.

201

AND Primary Dkrivatives.

[svar

y
Pres. [1.]

svad, svad, 'sweeten'.


+ svadate
;

svadati -te
c.

etc. v.

kvI.

Perf.

sasvade
3.

[sasvade.]

Aor.
[Fut.
Verh.

asisvadat etc. v.b. svadisyate, svadita.] svatta v.b. -Slide rv.


;

Sec. Conj.

[Int.
,

sasvad-.

-svadam

s.

Desid. sisvadisa-.

Cans,

svadayati -te

etc. V.B.

Deriw.

svadayati etc. e. + (svadyate c. svada-? RV. -svadya k. + svaduv.+


c.

svada c. -svadaka svadin c.


Compare
y"

svadana rv.c. svadaniya e.


-svadas
is

svadiya8v.+ svadisthav.+

svadman svadman
svadiman
svadayitr

iiv.

ev.
c.
h.

rv.

sud, which

perhaps related.

y
Pres. [1.]

svan, 'sound'.
[2'.']

svanati
rv.

-te

etc. e.

asvanit

rv.

Perf.

sasvana sasvanus e.+ [svenus.]


1.

Aor.
[Fut.
Verb,

[3. asisvanat. svanisyati, svanita.]

svaniv

] 5.

svanit

rv.

svanita rv. Sec. Conj. Int. sanisvanat rv. [sansvan-. Desid. sisvanisa-.] svanayati etc. rv.c. Deriv. : -svan Rv. svana v. + -svanas rv. svanaya svana v. + svanin rv. svani rv.
:

Caus.
rv.

y
Pres. [2.]
[1.]

svap,

"sleep'.
av.),

svapiti -panti
etc.

etc. v.

+ (svapihi c, svaptu +

svapita

e.


2.

svapati

v.+, -te

etc. e.

Perf.

Aor.

susvapa susupus etc. v.+, susupana rv. (susupthas ^s.s. 3. sisvapas sisvap rv. [asusupat.J 1. supyat s. asvapi c.
i

4.

asvapsam

etc.

s.+
,
.

1. svapsyati etc. . + -te u. -te etc. e. +; svapisyati av. svapta M. Verb, supta AV. + svaptum b. + sviptva av. + -svapam rv. Int. sasvap-, sosup-.] Sec, Conj. Pass, supyate etc. e. + [ (in d.). Caus. svapayati etc. v. +; svapayati c'. susupsasvaptavya b.+ susupsa Deriv. svapana b.c. -sup rv. susupsu svapitr c. svapana S.+ svapa E.+

Fut.

Desid.

e.

n.+

-svapin

c.

supti

c.

svapna

v.+

y
Pres. [1.]
Perf.
(

svar, 'sound'.

svarati etc. v.B.u.fe. [sasvara sasvarus] sasvar ? rv.)

svar]
Aor.
[3.

Roots, Vebb-forms,
asisvarat.
jb.

202

] 4.

asvar asvarstam
s.

rv.

5.

asvaris

jb.

\Fui. svarisyati,
Ytrh.

svarta svarita.]
;

svaritos
:

8tc. Conj.

[Int.

sasvar-. Desid. sisvarisa-, susvursa-.


c")

-svaram

Cans, svar-

ayati av. + (svaryate


Deriv.
:

[svarayati.

-svar

b,v.

svara svara
Hardly
to

Av.E.
v.

svarya rv. svarav.+ -svarya c

svarana

bv.

svaritr rv.

-svaras rv. s vari ? av.

svaru?
dical sense of 'brightness': namely,

v.B.s.

-svartr rv. svariyas c. svarayitavya

c.

be separated from this root are the derivatives showing the ra-

svarv.+
-svara
u.c.

sura
suri
.'

v.B.
v.

3uryav.+

surta?

v.

]/

svad,
I

see

svad.

svid, 'sweat'.
c.

Fres. [1.]
Ferf.

sisvide
1.

AoT.
[/ut.
Verb,

svedate b.u. [4.J svidyati etc. e. +, -te etc. e. -dana rv. [sisveda.] 3. asisvidat.] 2. asvidat. svidyat s. [

svetsyati, svetta.]

svinna
:

av.

-svedam

b.
]

Sec. Conj.

[Int.

sesvid-.

Desid. sisvitsa-.
svedya
c.

Caus.

Deriv.:

sveda v.+

svedinE.+

svedana

svedayati etc. b. + c. svedu- v kv


.

y
Fres. [1.]

had,

'cacare'.

[Ferf. etc.
Verb,

hadati c. [-te.] jahade; ahatta; hatsyate, hatta.]


c.

hanna
:

[Sec. Conj.:

Deriv.

jahad-; jihatsa-; hadaya-.] -hadana c. -hada e. +

y
Fres. [2.]

han,

'smite'.

hanti hatas ghnanti ghniya -ita b.c'., hanita


AB.)
(2p.)

etc. v. +,
etc. b.
;

hate ghnate

etc. v.

(hanma
;

e.

hanami ta., ahanat -nan b. + [6''] E. + aghnanta ghnamana e. [8.] hanomi


[1 .]
,
;

jaha v.+, handhi

ahata '6p. aghnam e., ghnata


ta.

pgs.

[1.] ji-

ghnate etc. rv.b.. -ti etc. b. jaghnant e. jaghana jaghnus etc. v.+ (jaghantha v. jaghanvans v.b., jaghnivans B.+; jaghanat rv.), jaghne etc. b.+ 4. ghan? s. [ahasta.] 3. ajighanat etc. e.+ Aor. [1. aghani.]
Ferf.
;

5.

Fat.

1.

ahanit jb. hanisyati

etc.v.+, -te

etc.

b.

+ (ahanisyat

e.

+)

hansyati

e.

2.

hanta

e.

203
Verb,

AND Primary Derivatives.


I

has
-tos

hata

v.

ghata
c'.;
;

a.

hantum
,

v.
.

-tave
,

v.ii..

-tavai

v.i;.s..

Sec.

hatva v. + -tvi uv. -tvaya v.; -hatya v. +, -hanya e. + -ghatam b.+ Conj.: Pass, hanyate etc. v.+, -ti e, Jnt. janghanti etc. -ananta v.n.. jaiiglianyate u. ghanighnat rv jijahiVE. [jeghniya-.J Deitid.
V.B.,

hanitum

jighansati
etc. B. +,

etc. v.

-te

etc. e.

+ (ajighansis cb 0, -te etc. E.+ + (aghatayithas E.) [ajighatat.]

Caus.

ghatayati

Derk

-han V. + -ha V. + -hana v. + -gha V. +

-hanasV

v.b.

hanu ?

V.

hantr hatha
hatnii
+

v.

jighatnii uv.

rv.
v.

-hat RV.

hati V.+

hanman
+

v.b.
];.

ghana

v,

-hatya

n. v.
v.

-ghna V. + -ghnya v.+


-ghni -ghni
Av,
v.B.

hatya
-hanti

b.

haniyas hanistha jaghanav


jaghni

jighanaa e.+ jighansu b.+ -hata c. ghata B. +

rv.
v.

ghataka
v.+

e.+

hanana

av.+

-hantu V. + hantva v.b. hantavya e. +

ghanaghana
v.s.

ghatin av. + ghatya c.

ghataua
ghatiika

e.

jangha v.+

av.b.

y
Pres. [4.]

har, 'be

gratified'.

haryati -te etc v.b. {Perf. etc. jaharya; ajaharyat, aharyit; haryisyati, haryita; jaharya-, jiharyisa-, haryaya-.J JDeriv. haryata v.b.
Perhaps a derivative from

hr.

A
yellow'
:

conspicuous group of words show an inferable root


thus,

har

or

hir

-be

hariv.+ haritv.+

haritav.+ harinav. +

hariman

v.

hiranya v.+
hiri- rv.

y
Pres. [1.]

has, 'laugh'.
e.+
c.

hasati

etc.

b.+, -te

etc.

jahasa jahasus e.+, jahase 3. ajihasat. Aor. 1. ahasi c. [


Perf.

5.

ahasit.

Flit.

hasisyati
E.

e.

2.

hasita.]
e.
:

Verb,

hasita
Conj.
:

hasitum

hasitva
c.

e.

hasyate ] Cans, hasayati etc. c. isa-. hasa B.+ Deriv.: has- rv. hasaka e. hasa V.+ hasin av. + hasa AV. hasya e. + -hasya av.
Sec.

Pass,

etc.

Int.

+ -hasya e.+ jahasyate


:

r..

[Desid. jihas-

hasana rv. hasana e.+ hasaniya c.

hasana

c.

hasra uv -hasvan rv.

Compare the derivative

root 2 jaks.

ha]

Roots, Verb-fokms,

204

y
Pres. [3.]

ha,

'leave'.
c.

jahati jahati

etc. etc.

v.+ (jahitam -ita -itat av., jahihi

[jahilii,

jahahi], jahimas
[1.]

jahitam ajahitam
+

at.b.,

jahyat

etc.

av.+)

jahat

AB.. -hati etc. e.

Perf. jahau jahus etc. v.+ (jaha Rv.?), jahe e. Aor. 1. ahat b.c. ahayi av.b. [heyat.] 3. ajijahat ahasma hasus etc. v.e., ahasi -sthas etc. av.b.
;

c.

6.
[

4.

ahas
2.
;

3s.")

rv.,

hasisam

etc.

v.+

Fut.
Teri.

1.

hasyati
V. +,

etc.

av.+, -te

etc. n.

jahisyati
;

etc. e.

hata.]

hlna
:

-tvi RV.,
Sec. Conj.

hata c, hana ab., jahita v. + hatum b.+ -tvaya rv. [hitva]; -haya b. + -hlyam ts.
;

hitva
e.

v. +,

Pass,

hiyate

etc.

v.

+ (hiyate

etc.

ts.cb.)

jaha-, jehiya-.
-te
Deriv.:
c.

Desid. jihasati

etc. c.

c.

hiyanti

c. c.

[Int.

Caus.

hapayati
jihasa jihasu

etc. e. +,

(jihipas rv. [ajihapat.])

-ha v.b. -haE. +

-hayya
e.

b.

-hi?

hanaB.+
-hayas
v.

heya
+

c.

hayaka
hayin

-havari

ms.
c.

jb.

hatavya e. + hani u.s. +


root.

hapana

jahaka jahana
c.

b.
c.

-hapaniya

Compare the next

Two

or three of the forms

given ahove show the

establishment of a secondary root-form

jah.

y
Pres. [3.] jihite

2 ha, 'go forth'.

jihate

etc.

v.+ (jihitham cb.)

Perf.

jahire av.
4.
1.

Aor.
Fut.
Verb,

Sec.

hata.] hana hatum [hatva;] -haya v.+ Conj.: [Pass, hayate. jaha-. Desid. jihisate
[

ahasta etc. v. + hasyate etc. b.e.


b.
;

2.

b.e.

Int.

av.

Caus.

hapayati
This
is

etc. av.b. [ajihapat.


1

only the middle conjugation of

ha, with the

signification slightly

weakened
separated
,

or generalized.

The forms

of the

two cannot everywhere he distinctly


1

and one or two of the derivatives given under

ha

have an equal or
secondary form

better claim to be placed here.


of

Compare

also

y has,

which

is a

ha

(doubtless through the aorist-stem).

y
Pres. [1.]
Sec. Conj.

has, 'go emulously'.

hasate
:

etc. v.

Caus.

hasayanti

rv.

secondary form of

]/ 1, 2

ha (hasante

av. iv. 36. 5 is omitted in the

Atharva-Veda Index).

205

AND Primary Derivatives.

[hi?4

y
Fres. [5.]

hi, 'impel'.
.

hinoti hinvanti etc. v. + hinve hinvati etc. v.+ jighyati -tu ab.

etc.

v.

(hinvire av.)
rv.ts.

hayant

hi^e

2.

[l.|

(Is.) RV.

Perf.

jighaya jighyus b.+

Aor.

ahema ahetana ahyan heta ahyamv av. [3. ajihayat. J


1. 1.

rv.

hiyana
n.

rv.s. [hiyat.J

1.

Fat.
Verb,

hesyati
v.

etc.

e.+

c.

ahaisit

(_ahait av.).

ahesata

rv.

2.

heta.]

hita

Sec. Conj.: Pass,

-hye rv. hiyate

/n<.

jeghlya-.

Desid. jighisa-.

rv.

Cau.^.

hayaya-.]
Deriv.
:

ha,yav.+

-heya
-hit
B.

Av.B.

hetiv. + hetiiv. +

hetr rv.

hinvd
v.i;.

-heman

-hiti RV.

hetva rv. hetavya c.


}/

heman
hitvan

rv.
rv.

hesasv rv. -hayya w.

Probably another form of


equivalent with those of
to

y ha, with causative value. Some of its uses are ha; and the stem jighya perhaps belongs direi^tly

the

latter.

y
Pres. [7.]

bins, 'injure'.
v.+ (hinsyat
etc. b.

hinasti hinsanti

etc.

2s. E.),

hmste

etc. v.b.

ahinat

3s. b.

hinsi

[1.]

hinsati -te
)

etc.

b.+

Perf.

jihinsa -sima
[3.
1.

av.b.s. (jihinsis av.


] 5.

Aor.
Fut.
]'erb.

ajihinsat.

ahiiisit

etc.

v.+

hinsisyati -te
E.

etc.

b.+

b.

2.

hinsita.]

hinsita AV. +

hinsitum

hihsitos

b.

hinsitva

av.b.

-hins-

ya

Sec. Conj.: Pass,

[Int. jehins-. hinsyate v.+ ] Desid. jihinsisati Cans, hinsayati e. Deriv. hinsa b. + hinsaka e. + hinsana i:. + hinsitavya hinsaniya t..+ hinsra v. + hinsya s.+ Probably an abbreviated desiderative of y han.

cu.

av.

y
Pres. [1.]

hikk,

'sob'

[Perf.

etc.

hikkati -te etc. c. jihikka -ke; ajihikkat, ahikkit ahikkista; hikkisyati


jehikk-.

-te,

hikkita.]
See. Conj.: [Int.

Desid. jihikkisa-. J Cans, hikkayati c


hikkin
c.

Leriv.

hikka

e.

^-C^"^
V"

TTTT
TIJJ-

OF

y
Pres. [1.]

hind, 'be empty'

(?).

11

UNIVERSIT
^^^^il
I

ahindanta
;

ci.

FO RN^^

[Perf. etc.

jihinde ahindista ; hindisyate, hindita.]

hugi4]
Deriv. ;

Roots, Verb-fokms,

206

-hindaka

E.+

-hindukaE. +

The

single occurrence is probably artificial.

Pres.

[1.]

y hid, hel, hedant rv., hedamana


av.),

'be hostile'.
rv.,

helamana

e.,

hidamana

b.

Perf.

ahidat? ge. jihida rv. (jihida


3.

jihide

etc.

v.b.

Aor.
[Put.
Verb,

ajihidat av. [ajihedat.]

5.

hidisatam

ta.

hedisyate, hedita.l hidita v.b.


Cans,

Sec. Conj.:

hedayant

rv.

(helayam asa
v.

Derjy.:

hida?

RV.

hela e.+

heda

v.

-hedana

helayate e. helanaE. + hedas v.b. helaniya c. helitavya


c.},

e.

y
Pres. [3.]

hu,
+
,

'sacrifice'.

juhoti juhvati
E.

etc. v.

juhvant Perf. juhava jiihuvus e., juhavam cakara etc. b.u. 3. ajuhavat.] Aor. 1. ahavi rv. [huyat.
+
,

ajuhavus

juhute juhvate etc. v.+ (^jvihudhl b.s., -huvus cb.?) [2.] hosi rv'. jvihuve e.. juhvire b. (juhve juhure rv.);
v.b.,

4.

ahausit
2.
;

etc.

b.+

Fut.
\'erb.

1.

hosyati
v.

etc.

av. +. -te e.
b.s.,

(ahosyat
b.s.,

b.)

hota.]

Sec. Conj.: Pass,

Desid. juhtisati johaviti + Caus. havayati + S.+ (juhuset? GGs.)


huyate
etc. v.

huta

hotum

-tavai

-tos

b.s.

hutva b.+

Int.

c.

etc.

etc. s.

X>erii?.;

-hava E.+

havisv.+
-hut
-huti
v.b.s.

havya
-hava

v.

RV.
V.B.S.

v.b.

h6tr?v.+ hotra v. + hotra v. +

homan
juhuv. juhusu

rv.

-hosa rv.
c.

havana

hotavyaB.+

homaAv. +

Y hur,
y
Pres. [4?]

see

hvr.

hu, hva,

call'.
e.)

hvayati
etc. v.b.

-te

etc. v.

+ (hvayana

rv.

[l.J

havate
v.b.
;

etc. v.b.

[6?J
hvakcs.,

huve

mahe
hiite
Ptrf.

vs.),

K.,

humahe rv.
v.+,

(huveya etc. ahuve etc. huvana huvat -vema -vant rv. [2.] homa

hve

av.,

rv.,

-hvati
b.

[3.]

jiihumasi

juhava juhuvus

juhve juhure

rv.,

juhuve

-vire

hvayam

asa E., hvayam cakre e. 2. ahvat etc. v.b., Aor. 1. ahvi av., ahiimahi rv. [huyat; ahvayi.] etc. v.b. [3. ajiihavat. ] 4. ahusata kv. [ahvasta.] ahvata 6V ahvasit ge. 2. hvata.] Fut. 1. hvayisyati -te e., hvasyate s. [ rv.. hvayitum b., -tavai b.s., hvatum c. havitave Verb, huta v. + hutva c. -huya b. + huvadhyai rv. -havam v.s.

207
Sec.

AND Primary Derivatives.


Conj.:
Pass,

[2hr
elc.

huyate

johuvana
Deriv.

v.b.

v.+ johaviti v.c, Desid. juhusati Caus. hvayayaetc.

Int.
n.

johuvanta
(in d.).
k.

-hu V. + -huya V.B.

huvana- rv. havana v. +


havas
rv.

hotra

V.

+
rv.

-hvayana

homan

hvana

i;.+
c.

hava V. + havin av.b. havya v. + havya rv.


-hava
B.

haviman

rv.

hvatavya

huti V.+ -havitu RV.

-hutavya hotr V. +

c'.

havistha V c. -hva c. -hva Av.c. -hvaya b. +

-hvayaka

c.

-hvayitavya k. hvatr E. + jihvav V. + johutra uv. -hvayayitavya

c.

y hurch,
Fres. [1.]

'fall

away'.

[Perf.

etc.

hurchati etc. b.u. juhurcha; ahurehit; hurchisyati, hurchita; hurchita


:

hurna.]
Sec. Conj.

Caus.

hurchayati
(/

b.

Probatly related with

hvr.

y
Pres. [1.]
Per/",

hr, 'take'.

harati

etc.

v.+, -te

etc. v.

[2.]

harmi
:

rvI.

[3.J

jiharti

s".

jahara jahrus etc. av.+ (jahartha b. + jaharus? av.), jahre etc. u.+ Aor. 1. ahrthas jb. ahari c. [hriyat. ajlharat.j 4. aharslt elc. v.B.u.s.E. (ahar av.b.; harisit s'.), ahrsata rv. [hrsista.] Fut. 1. harisyati -te etc. b.+ [aharisyat etc. b.u.j 2. harta h.e. Verb, hrta v. + hartum b.+, -tave c'.. -tavai b.s., -tos k s.. haritum r'. hrtva B.s. -hrtya av. + -harara ii.+
;

.i.

Sec. Conj.: Pass,

hriyate

etc.

\v.+. -ti

etc. e.

jehriya-.]
etc.

V.

Int.

jariharti

c.

|jarhr-,

Desid. jihirsati

etc.

av.+ (-syate
e.+);

c.)

Caus.

harayati

B.+, -te etc. b.s.

(haryate

etc.

harayanta
+

rv'.

Deriv.

-hara

u.s.

harana

av. +
e.

-hrt

jihirsa e.+

hara v. + -haraka e. harin e. + harya av. +


language,
it

-haraniya -harana c. haras v. +

hrti K.+

jihirsu
+

e.

+
c.

-hrtya

u. e.

-harayitavya

haruka
to

b.

hartavy a hartr b.+

Apparently a variant

y bhr;

making a very small

figure in the

oMcBt

gains rapidly in use, and becomes extremely common.

y
Pres. [9.]

2 hr,

be angry'.

hrnite

etc. v.

(ahrnat
v.

kb. ?)

Deriv.

hrnay- hrniy-

Compare the

y bhur

beside

bhr.

hrs]

Roots, VEKB-roRMS,

208

y
Pres. [4.J

hrs, "be excited'.


etc. e.

[1.] harsate etc. v.c'., harsant ev'. jaharsa jahrsus e. +, jahrse -sire e.+ (jahraana rv.) 3. ajihrsat, ajaharsat.] Aor. 2. ahrsat e. [

hrsyati etc. v'.b. +, -te

Perf.

[Fut.
Verb,

harsisyati, harsita.]

-hrsya e. + Sec. Conj.: Int. jarhrsanta rv.. jarhrsana v.b. [jarihrs-. isa-.] Cans, harsayati etc. v. +, -te v.e. Z)nv..- harsa B.+ harsana av. + harsii- rv.e.+
hrsita
v. +,
e.

hrsta

Desid. jiharsghrsu rv. ghf svi rv.

harsakaE. + harsin v. +

hrsi- rv.e.+

hrsti

c.

harsi rv.

heth.
(or

The apparent
misreading
for

vi-hethaka -daka; and vi-hetha c-i. a


derivative

-taka)

m>. is

probably

oi ly

like case or artificial.

y bed,
y
Pres. [1.]

hel,

see

hid.

hes, 'whinney'.
etc.

hesati
c.

etc.

v.+, -te

e.+

Perf.

jihesire
etc.

[Aor.
Verb,

ahesista hesisyate, hesita.]


;

hesita

e.

+
EV.

Deriv.;

hesa-?

hesa

t.

hesas?Rv.

y
Pres. [2.]

hnu,

'hide'.
rv..

hnute etc. v.+, hnauti (hnoti?) e., hnutas [1.] hnave b.s., hnavanti e'. [Perf. etc. juhnuve ahnosta; hnosyate, hnota.] -hnutya c. Verb, hnuta av. + hnotum c.
;
;

hnuyat

c.

[Sec. Conj.:

johnu-; juhnusa-; hnavaya-.]

Deriv.:

-hnava B.+

-hnavana s.+ -hnuvana s.

-hnuti -hnotr

c. c.

-hnavayya

rv.

y hras,
Pres. [1.]

'shorten'.

hrasati -te

etc.

s.+

etc. jahrasa; ajihrasat, ahrasit; hrasisyati, hrasita.] hrasta s., hrasita c. Desid. jihrasisa-. ] Caus. hrasayati etc. s.+ Sec. Conj.: [Int. jahras-. hrasistha b. hrasva b. + Deriv. hrasa s. + hrasana c. hrasiyas b. + hrasaniya c.

[Perf.
Verb,

209

AND Primary Derivatives.

hval

y hrad, 'make a noise'. hradate etc. s.+ [Perf. etc. jahrade; ahradista hradisyate, hradita.J Verb, hradita c. Sec. Conj.: Caus. hradayati etc. B.+ Derio. hrada B. + liradmE.+ -hradanaB.+
Pres. [1.]
; ;

-hradi

i.n.

I hri, 'be ashamed'.


Pres. [3.]

jihreti
c.

etc.

b.+ (jihriyat ms.)

Perf.

jihraya
1.

Aor.
[Fut.
Verb,

[jihrayam asa.J -hrayana? rv. [hriyat.


e. +,

4.

ahraisit.j

hresyati, hreta.]

hrita

hrina

e.
c.

Sec. Conj.: Int.

jehriyate

[Desid. jihrisa-.
Rv.

Cans,

hrepayati

etc. c.

[ajihripat.]
Deriv.: hvin.-i-hi'i RV.

-hraya

hriti

e.

hrepana

c.

}/

hru,

see

y hvr.

y
Pres. [1.]

hres, 'neigh'.

[Perf. etc.
Verb,

hresati -te etc. e.+ jihrese; ahresista; hresisyate, hresita.J hresita e. +


:

Sec. Conj.

Caus.
e.

hresayati

etc. e.

Deriv.:

hresin

hresuka

e.

y Mad,
Pres. [1.]

'refresh'.

hladate etc. c. eic. jahlade; ajihladat, ahladista; hladisyate, hladita [Perf. hlanua.J Sec. Conj.: Caus. hladayati -te etc. ta1.e.+ (ahladayisata v.)
;

J^eriv.

hradkv.+
hlada U.+

hladaka

v.c.

hladiika
hladiini

ta.
c.

-hladayitr

c.

hladinE. + hladanaE. +

hraduni
tlic

v.b.u.
;

Only one or two late sporadic forms outside


the proper form of the root seems to be

causative conjugation

and

hlad

(or

hrad).

y
Pres. [J.]

hval, 'go wrong'.


e.

hvalati

etc.

cb.e.+, -te

jahvala: ajihvalat, ahvalit; hvalisyati, hvalita.J Verb. hvalitaE. + hvalitos ob. -hvalam cb.s. Sec. Conj. Caus. hvalayati cb. [hvalayati. hvala T)erh\: -hvala e.+ -hvalin c. hvala cb.
[Perf. etc.
;
:

s.

Is

only a specialized form of the fojlowing root


II.

Whitney, Supplement

14

I
hvrj

Roots, Vekb-forms, and Primary Derivatives.

210

y
Pres. [l.J

hvr, hru, hur, 'be or make crooked'.

-hvarant hvarate rv. [3v] [!).] hrvinati rv. [hvrnati.J juhuras rv., jiihurthas juhuranta -rana ev. \VtTf. jahvara jahvartha jahvarus.] AoT. [1. hvaryat; ahvari. ] 3. jihvaras v.. -ratam vs. (jihv- ts.ta.J 4. hvarsit etc. b. (hvar b.. hvarisus k.") Fut. 1. hvadisyati ta. [ 2. hvarta.] Ytrh. hvrta rv., [hvarita,] hruta v.+ -See. Con^.: \Paii. hvaryate. /n^ jahvr-, jarihvr-. Desid. juhvursa-. ] Caus. hvarayati etc. b. Deriv -hurya rv. -hvrti v. + hvara v. -hvrt rv. -livara v.+ -hruti v.c.'? huras rv. hrut v.b. hvaraka c. hvaras v.b.
'?

INDEXES
OF

TENSEThe foUo-wing

AND CONJUGATION-STEMS.
among which
more
the so-called prccclearly the ,histor}-

give the stems of the various tense- and conjugation-systems, each mode of formation by itself. Mode-stems are not added,
lists

except in the case of the aorist-optatives,


atives are included.

For the sake of

illustrating

of the language,
divisions.

the stems of each formation are presented in three


only in the earlier language (of Veda
in both the earlier

A. Stems found
Upanishad, Sutra)

Brahmana,

B. Stems found C. Stems found

and the later language and classical) language only. In these divisions the stems follow one another not alphabetically,
;

in the later (epic

but in the order of the roots as presented above. The references to periods are in an abbreviated form only the five principal periods are noted
:

namely Veda Brahmana Sutra epos classics (the Vedas are not separated, and Upanishad is included in Brahmana); and, in each division, all references are omitted if the stem is found through the whole division in (that is, in A. is omitted the specification of V.B.S. in B., that of v.+
, ,
,

C,

that of E. +1.

Also, all accents, question-marks, variety of stem-forms,


for such details,

and the

like, are left out;

when

desired, the

body of the

work may be

consulted.
lists are

Further particulars as to some of the


rent heads below.

given under the diffe-

I.

PRESENT- STEMS,

[use.]
.

Root-class

ad-class, second class'

[143.]

am

v.B.

kr
1

v.
v.B.
v.

chand

v.n.

id v.B.
ir v.B.

ksi ksi

2 jaks v.b. jan v.b. ji V.

u V. uh V.
r
B.

ksnu

taks v.b. tad v. tu v. tur v.

gam
ei
V.

v.

jus

v. v.

tvaks
tvis
14*
v.

v.

tak

212
dan V. dah V. da V. 2 da
1

di

B.

da9 V. dr V.

drbh
1

B.
V.

dra

dha V. dhu B.
dhrs V. nins V. ni v.s.

ad

I.

Present-Stems.
sisr
V. V.

213
jihr
s.

VIVIS

V.

sisae

V. V.

vavrt v.B. vivyac v.

SUSU

juhu

juhur

V.

B.
jighra
titr v.c.
1

Earlier aiul Later Language.


v.c.

[16.

pipr pipr

bibhr

dada
dadlia

babhas
bibhi

v.b.c.

214
5.

Indexes.

u-class (tan-class, eighth class).

[%.]

The stems

of this olass are too few to he worth dividing

hy periods.
v.B.s.
s.

kuru ksanu

V.+
e.

tanu
+

V.
V.

manu
vanu

v.

sanu

taru

v.B.s.

hanu
[53.]

6.

na-class (kri-class, ninth class).

A.
ini

Earlier Language.

[31.]

V.

jina

ramna
rina

v.b.

2 (jrina v.b.

isna iibhna

drni e

sina

v.b.

v.

driina

v.b.

usna

V.

ksina v.b. 2 grna v.s.

prna prusna
bhrina

vrni v. vlina b.
1

subhna b. skabhna v.b.


sprna b. hrna v.b.

b. v.

^amnl

b.

(jcamni

v.
v.

grbhna juna V.

v.b.

mma v.b.
mrna
B.
v.

qrathna
1

hruna

v.

orina

v.b.

Earlier and Later Language.

[I7.j

2 acjna

jana

krina 1 grna grathna grhna

puna
prina
b.

mathna musna mrdna s. +


lunaK.+
[5.]

vrna

9V^^ stabhna
strna

badhna

C. Later Language.
1

aQni

E.

I.

Present-Stems.

21

dasa

216

I.

Presknt-Stkms.

21

kunca

c.

218

II.

Perfect-Stems.

21'.>

220

II.

Perfect-Stems.

221

tatr, ter

222
cachrd
jajalp
c. e.

Indexes.
nanrt
raraj, rej

vavrnh
vivyath

c.

jajap, jep
E.

papath c. pupuj E.

raras

c.

rurud
lalajj

e.
c.

(ji^iks desid.
a qeva. c.

c.

jajrmbh

pupur
c

c.

dudhauk
tatad tutus
tatyaj
c.

paphal phel c.

E.

lalap, lep

tatras, tres

tutrut c. tatvar didih E. didip c.


2

babhan c. lalas, les babha lalas c. babhas babhram, bhrem lulunc


babhraj
luluth
lulu
c.
c. c.

lalam c. lalamb

QaQas e. 9U9ubli
9a9lagli
c.
c.

qaQvas
sasa s. sisev caskhal

c.

mamajj

sasna

c.

mamanth
c.

lulok
luloc

dadra

mimil

c.

dadhma

e.

dadhav c. dadhvan c. nanad, ned nanand nanard e.

mimis c. mimil c. miumus c. m^umurch

vavap

E.

vaval c. vavalg E.

pusphut c. sasmr e. sasyand c. sasvad c.


sasvaii

vavah
1 vivid c. vivyaj e.

jahas
jihes
jihri
c. c.

mamrd
mamla
raras, res

nunu

c.

III.

AORIST-STEMS.
1.

[737.]

From stems with

p. added, only optative or precative forms occur.

Root-aorist.
The

[140.]

Simply the root

is

given.

passive-aorist third persons will be found

further on, under VII.

A.

Earlier Language. [112.]

ad

p. B.

III.

AORIST-SXKMS.

22H

yam

v.

224
B.
Pearlier

Indexes.
and Later Language.
[IS.]

astha

apa krudha

dyutaB.+ druha v.e.

ruha voca
vrta

9uca sada
sica

mrsa
yuja
v.c.

gama
chida

9aka

srasa

rudha
C. Later Language.
[7.]

na9a yasa

rica
c.

c.
c.

lipa

c.

hrsa

E.

ruea
3.

qlisa

Reduplicated Aorist.
A.
Earlier Language.
V.
v.b.

[154.]

'lOl.]
v.b.

amama
apipa
cikrta
B.

v.b.

dudusa
didyuta
dudrii

mumuha
mimrna

9U9ubha

v.b.

v.

cikama

b.

V.
v.

B.

dadhav
didhara
didlir
V.

mimrja b. mimrsa v.
yiyaja
b.

cu9cuta s. 9i9nath v. 9i9ratha v.b.


9191-1 V.

cikrsa v. cikrada v.b.

eukrudha
ciksipa
v.

v.

neq

v.b.
V.
V.

yuyu V. yuyupa
1

9U9rviva
b.
v.

v.b.
v.

9a9vaca
9i9vita

nuim

i-iradha
v.

v.

jigama jugupa
1

v.b.
B.s.

pipata papta

rirama
ririca

b.s.

sisada sisapa
SllSU
B.

e.

v.

jigr V.
jigr V.

pipada

v.b.

pupura
1

V.B.

ruruca v.b. rurupa v.b.


lilikha
b. E.
v.

sisadha

v.b.

jigrabha b. jighasa B.
cicata
b.

cucyava eueyu v.
jijabha
jijasa B.

v.b.

pipara v. 2 pipara v.b. papratha v. piplava b.

lulvibha

susu B. susuda
sisrpa

B.

vavaksa
vivata vivas a viva^a
vivija
V.
B.
V.

B.

bubudha
babhaksa
bibhaj
b.

v.
b.

v.

tustava pispr9a sisyada


sisrasa

V.B.
v. v.

V.
V.

v.b.

jajas

V. v.

bibhaya
bibhisa

v.

tatansa
titara
v.

v.e. v.

vivipa vivara

v.

bubhuva

vavr

V.

titrsa V.B.

titrasa

v.
b.

mimada v.b. mimi v.


mimisa
b.

vivrta

v.
b.

susru V.B. sasvaja v. sisvada v.b. sisvap V.


jihida
v.

vivyatha

dadaksa
didiksa
ciklpa cicara
jijana

9u.(juca V.B.

jihvara

v.b.

b.

titapa
titrpa

v.E.

B. Earlier and Later Language. [17.] didipa v.c. ninama v.c. didipa b.e. ninaQa didrQa b. + mimara b.c. dudruva k.+ 2 riradha b.c.

ririsa

vivrdha 9i9ama
9i9riya

in. Aorisx-Stems.

225

C. Later Language.

^:\0.]

cikasa c. cikara c. jigraha c.

titvara

e.

mumuca
mimrda
yuyuja
yujrudha
riraca
e.
c.

c. e.

lulupa
vivicja

K.
c".

didaha

c.
c.

duduha

cucuda E. cucura c. cachada c.


cichida
e.

didara pipisa E. bibhara e.

e.

ruruva
ruruja
aorists

c. c.

vivysa R. vividha e. 9i9aya k. jighana


jijaha
c.

jijaya e. Here appended are the reduplicated

bibhrama mimila c.

from causative stems


b.

in p.
v.

arpipa

v.
e.

jijnapa, jijnipa
B.C.

9i9rapa
tisthipa

jihipa

jijapa, jijipa

v.b.

226

III.

Aorist-Stems.

227
[21.

B.
a(jis

Earlier and Later Language.

22S

Indexes.

IV.
La.
If

FUTURE STEMS.

[347.]

Sibilant Future without

i.

[131.]

from any root

IV. Future Stems.

229
i.
is

lb.

Sibilant Future with


root

[isft.]

The prefixed

sign

+ shows that from the same


without
i.

also

made

a futurc-ct/^ra

A.
anisya avisya
b.

Earlier Language. [^4.]

v.b.

a9nuvisya b. indhisya s.
esisya i9isya
b.
b.

uksisya

b.s.

arisya b. artisya v.

ardhisya

b.
b.

kamisya

kasisya b. + karsisya . + khy ayisya n. 1 garisya s. gardhisya b. granthisya b. japisya b. jinvisya b. daksisya b. daghisya b. dadisya b. B.

+ darpisya

b.

dyotisya

b.
h.s.

dhavisya

vedisya b. varisya . vyayisya s.


(jansisya
b.h.

prosisya b. manthisyaB.s.
+

9a8i8ya
(jarisya

h.
h.

manisya v.b. mohisya b. mardisya b. mradisya b.


vanisya s. vayisya v.
43.]

sanisya v.b. 1 savisya n. + stavisya v.


+
+ hvayisya
b.

hvadisya

b.

Earlier and Later Language

aqisya b. + asisya asisya b.+ + ayisya b.+ iksisya b. + 1 karisya + kramisya b. + + ksamisya b. +

grahisya b. + carisya n.+ j anisya + jayisya b.e.


jivisya
b.

patisya

bhavisya bharisya mathisya


milisya
b.

vrajisya . + 9a8i8ya h. +
+ (jayisya b.+
b.

+
+

jvalisya

b.

marisya
yatisya b.+ yacisya b.+ lapisya b. +

tarisya s.+

khanisya gamisya
2

b.+

diksisya b. + dharisya
+ na9isya + nayisya
b.

vadisya
+

qrayisya b. + sarisya starisya h.c. + svapisya v.b. + hanisya hinsisya b.+ harisya b. +

garisya

b.c.

varsisya
[71.]

b.e

C. Later Language.

atisya
2

e.
c.

+ arcisya

karisya e. + kartisya c. + kalpisya c. kridisya c. + ksayisya e.

jvarisya e. + tapisya e. + tyajisya trasisya e.

+ bandhisya

rodisya
+ rohisya

c.
e.

badhisya
+ bhajisya
e.

lagisya

c.

khadisya e. gadisya e. gahisya


grasisya glahisya ghatisya calisya
e.
c.

dadisya e. dalisya c. + dahisya devisya

bhasisya o. bhiksisya e.

+ labhisya

c.

lambisya
lasisya
c.

bhramisya
bhrajisya + majjisya e.
c.

c.

e.

likhisya

c.
c.

lunthisya

dhamisya
dhavisya nandisya
+
e. c.
c.

margisya e. modisya e. yamisya c.


b.

vadhisya + vapisya
+ vasisya
+
k.

namisya
nartisya phalisya

+ raksisya

vahisya
vijisya, vej-

racisya

c. e.

rocisya

+ varti^ya

230
9apisya
(jocisya
b.

Indexes.
+ sidisya c. + sahisya + sedhisya c. + 2 savisya

sevisya e. sphutisya

e.
e.

gobhisya b. 9vasisya b.

smarisya
sravisya

avajisya hasisya jahisya

e.

e.

2.

Periphrastic Future,

[ss.]

A. apta B. ardhita

Earlier Language. [18.]

b. b.

kamita
jnata
b.

dhyata b. pakta B. bharta b. mrasta v.


yasta
i

yuvita b. yokta b.

vartita

b.

vodha
vedita

b. b.

vrasta b. sota B. srasta b.

dhata

b.

B.
eta B.+

Earlier and Later Language.

[10.

janitaB. +
+

karta

s.

jeta

k.e. b.e.

bhavita vaktaB.

b.e.

Qayita

b.c.

harta

b.e.

gamta

b.+

data

C. Later Language.

[30.]
e.

avita c. grahita e. ghattita e.


ceta e. tayita
c.

na9ita e. nindita e. neta, nayita patita E.

yoddha
e.

9ramita
9rota
E.

e.

raksita rata c.

sodha
b.

labdha
vetta vesta
E. E.

sthata

tapta E. drasta e. dharta c.


bhankta e. bhokta E. mathita e.


yata

veddha

e.

smarta e. svapta E. hanta e.

V.

SECONDA.RY CONJUGATION-STEMS.
1.

[115.3.I

Passive Stems.
etc.,

[259.]

For causative passives

see under VI.


[37.]

A.
1

Earlier Language.

ajya

v.

V. Secokdary Conjugation-Stems.

231

232
1

Indexes.
c.

bhujya
c.

rajya

c.

bhrjjya

rabhya

vanchya c vaqya c.
c.

9ramya
9laghya
9liBya
c.
c.

manya
1

ramya
radhya
rujya
e.
c. e.
c.

miya miya

vidya vi9ya c.
1
1

c.

sahya
e.

c.

vriya

siya

milya
inr9ya

c.

musya
mrsya
xtinaya
ijya
e.
c.

rudya ruhya
lapya
lihya

vidhya
vrajya

e.
c.

lambya
e.

9akya 9ankya c. 9apya c.


c.

sidhya srpya sevya stabhya spr9ya

c.

vantya
c.

yatya

yaya e. yacya

vadhya vandya usya


2,

(jamya 9asya 1 9isya c. 1 9iya e.

syandya supya hasya c.


2

c.

hiya

c.

yudhya
Intensive Stems.
is

[i67.]

+ prefixed shows that there

another stem from the same root in another


division.

lyay
alar

b.

A. Earlier Language [105.] totudya s. babadh , badtartr ,


taritr

v.

tartur,
v.
b.

badli

V.B.
v.
v.

2 roru v. roruc V.

caka9, -9ya karikr, carikr


V.B.

barbrh

+ lalap
leli B.s.

V.B.

tatrasya

jarbhiu'
v.b.
1

danda9

v.

+ jarbhr, bhari-

carkr v. carkrs v.b. kanikrand, -kradya v.b.

dedi9, -9ya

bhr

V.

vavae v. vavad, -dya v.b.


vinivan v. + vanivahya b.s. + vava9 v.

dedi B. dardr, dadr

v.b.

davidyut

v.b.

memi v. memih b. 2 memi v.


momiih marmrj,
+
s.

canikhud s. kanikhun b. + ganigam v.b. + jagam v.


+ galgal
B.

dandramya b.
dodru
B.

vevic

s.

-jya,

vevij, -jya

v.

dedhi B. + davidhu
dardlir,
V.B.

marimrjya
v.

vevid

v.

marmrd

v.

vevis, -sya v.b.


vevi, -iya
v.b.

dadhr

jangah v, jOgU V.B.


jargur v. 2 jargur, jalgul V. + earcar v.b.
1

marmr9, marimr9ya v.b.

varivr

v.b.

nannam, -mya navinu, nonu v. nonudya b.


papat panipan
V.

mamrs

s.

v.b.

malimlue s. yanyam. v. 1 yoyu v. 2 yoyu v.b.


yaviyTidh
v.

varivrj v, varvrt, varivrt,


-tya
V.B.
b.

vevliya

9O9UC

V.B.

ealcal, cacalv.B.

pepi9

V.B.

janjapya b. + janjabh v.s.


tantas
tavitu
v.

popruth V. paniphan, para-

yoyupya
raraj
v.

b.s.

phan
balbal

v.s.

rarandh
rarap
v.

v.

tetij V.B.
V.

parphar
b.

v.

rerih, -hya v.b.

9U9UJ V. cani9cad v. 9a9vas v. sanisan v. sesidh v. SOSU V.

V. Secondary CoNjrGATiox-STEMS.
sarsr
v. b.

2;n

coskuya
tanstan

v. v.

sanisras

v.
v.

ghanighan
jarhya
nya
v.n.

v.

+ sarisrpya

kaniskand, eaniskad v.

panispad v. sanisyad v.u.


B.

sanisvan janghan
v.u.

Earlier and Later Language.


n.c. v.E.

[21.]

cankram, -mya
+

daridra
+

jaugam

b.

dodhu

pepiya m.c. popluya b. +

y&yS H.+
+
1

roru
II.

jagr
+ carcurya

nanad, -dya
nenij
v.c.

bobudh bobhu

u.c.

+ lelih

+
B.

lolup, -pya

cekit
+

neniya

yayaj b.+

johu

janjabhya b.+
C. Later Language.
[41.]

jagadya
jegiya jaghat

c.

+ galgalya

dadhmaya c. + dodhuya dandhvan e.


nanardya
c.

bambhram, -mya c.
+

loluth
b.

c.

lolubhya
+

c.

momuhya

c.

marlmr
c.

c.

vavah c. + vavaqya
90(jubhya
+ sarisrp
c.

k. e.

jajam e. jarijrmbh

narinrt, -tya
c.

rarat

papacya

c. c.

jajval, -lya

papath, -thya

tatapya dandah, -hya dedipya daridr9ya c.

panipadya
c.

c. c.

rarasya e. + roruya rorud, -dya

jahasya johu c.
jarihr
c.

e.

bobhuj, -jya + baribhr c.

rorudh

e.

+ lalapya + lelihya

jehriya

c.

3.

Desiderative Stems.
stem of the other

[i62.]

prefixed

+ in

either class indicates that from the


class.

same

root is

made

also a

a.

Stems without
A.
Pearlier

i.

[122.]
[4S.]

Language.

irtsa

V.B.
B.

titrpsa
dip-,

V.
v.b.

mimiksa
iyaksa v.b. yiyapsa s.

(juquksa
(ju9ut8a
(ji9lik8a

v.
s.

cuksusa
jigasa
B.

juguksa

V.

dhipsa dhlksa b. didasa


didhisa dhisa V.
v.

v. b.

yiyamsa
yuyiisa
ririkaa
v.

h.

sisafiksa

+ clear sa
2 cikisa

b.

v,

sisasa

v.b.

siksa
v.

V.B.
b.

ciksisa

B.
b.

didhyasa

b.

cichitsa
jijyasa

+jujyusa,jijy-B.
v.b.
v.

tutursa

titrtsa V.B.

dudhiirsa v.b. inaksa v. ninitsa v.s. pipisa V. piprisa V.

ruruksa vivasa v.
1

sisirsa
tistirsa

b.
U.S.

vivatsa vivrksa b, vivrtsa v.h. vivyatsa b.


b.

tustur^a
jihisa
1

V.
s.

jvihiiBa

juhusa

H.

234
B.
Ipsa
cikirsa

Indexes.

Earlier and Later Language.

[4 4.]

titirsa B.+

ditsa

bibhitsa v.e. bubhiisa

lipsa

vivaksa
+
2

+ jigamsa
1

duduksa

du-

bubhursa

b.

+ vivitsa B. +
b.

jigisa

v.c.

+ jugupsa B.+ + jighrksa b.+

dhu- v.c. didrksa

mimansa

(jiksa

mumuksa

9U9inisa

dudruksa
dh.ru- B.C.

du-

moksa

b.

+
s.+

sisrksa
sisrpsa

b.

+ +

jighatsa
1

cikisa

b.

cikitsa
2 jigisa

dhitsa ninisa 2 pitsa

mumxirsa yuyutsa
ripsa
b.c.

tisthasa

b.

susupsa B.+
+

B.C.

rurutsa
2

b.

jighansa
jihirsa

jijnasa
titiksa

pipasa + bibhatsa

ruruksa

C. Later Language.

[30.]

cikrisa

c.
c. c.

ciksipsa

didrasa c. didhirsa c.

bubhuksa mimanksa
mitsa c. yiyaksa yiyasa
e.

+
c.
1

vivitsa

c.

cikhyasa
cieisa
c. c.

ninamsa c. nunutsa c.
+
1

titansa

pitsa

c.

tityaksa

c.

didhaksa
didiksa
c.

pupiisa c. + piprksa

yuyuksa
c. c.

riramsa

viviksa viviksa tustusa c. sisnasa e. pisprksa jihasa c.


2

e.

bubhutsa

b.

Stems with

i.

[40.]

A.
edidhisa b. eikramisa e. + jigrahisa b.

Earlier Language.
b.

[12.]
v.b.

+ cicarisa jijanisa b.
didiksisa

+ pipatisa

9i9asisa
jihinsisa

s.

b.

rurucisa vivadisa

b.

tistighisa

b.

b.s.

b.

B.
a9i9isa b.+
+ jigaraisa b.+

Earlier and Later Language.

[5.]

+ jijivisa b.+

+ bibadhisa

b.c.

+ vividisa

b.

C. Later Language.
esisisa
c.
c. c.

[23.
c.

+ jugupisa

e.

bibhanisa
riraksisa

vivrajisa
9i9ayisa
9i9arisa

c.

iciksisa

cicalisa

c.

mimardisa
b.

e.

c.
c.

cikartisa cikridisa

c.

cikhadisa
jigadisa
b.

eucurabisa c. ninartisa c. + piprchisa c.

9U9obh.isa
c.

bibhaksisa

e.

rurudisa c. vivandisa c. vivarsisa e.

9i9raniisa

c.

For desideratives from causatives, see telow, under VI.

V. Secondary CoyjvGh/rvj^r&^uk.
X-.
-7^

ry

23:)

4.

Causative Stems. ^Ifs^^Earlier Laugaage.


fioo.]

A.

amaya

v.b.

avaya v.b. 2 asaya b.


ilaya
v.b.s.

isaya

rv.
s.

krntaya

tujaya v. to9aya v. tusaya v. turaya v. tardaya s. dans ay a v.

banhaya n. barhaya v. bhra9aya v.

valgaya s. 1 vasaya v.u.

krpaya v.b. krathaya b. krudaya b. 1 ksayaya v. gadaya s. gayaya b. gulphaya s. gurdhaya v. grbhaya v.
grasaya b.s. eaksaya v.b. 2 cataya v.b.
citaya
v.

daksaya

b.

manhaya v. mantaya b. mandaya v. meksaya b.s.


v.b.

va9aya v.s. vipaya v. vidaya barhaya v.


9injaya
b.h.
v.

dambhaya
dasaya v.b. da9aya b. drnhaya dyutaya v.

mai'caya

9ucaya

mradaya b. y&vaya v.b. yopaya


ranhaya
raj ay a v.
1

9iindhaya

v.u.

9ubhaya
9C0taya

v.u.
n.s.

v.

dhanaya v. dhvasaya v. dhvanaya v.b. nabhaya b.

ranaya
v.

v.

risaya

nambhaya

b.s.

rucaya v. 1 ropaya b.
rejaya v. limp ay a s.

chadaya chayaya

v.b.
b.

nardaya b. navaya b. pathaya b.s. panaya v.


spaqaya pinvaya b. prothaya s.

9nathaya v. 9yayaya u. 9rathaya v.u. 9vancaya v. sapaya b. savaya s. sphavaya u. srevaya v.


9rivaya
v.

uksaya v. vaksaya v.
vajaya vataya
v.

jambhaya

v.b.

2 hasaya v. hedaya v.

jyotaya v. tansaya v.b.

hiirchaya

n.

tamaya

b.s.

phanaya
B.

vanaya v. 2 vapaya s.
[231.

hvalaya n. hvaraya n.

Earlier and Later Language.


b.c.

anjaya

s.+
b.

ejaya

kridaya

s.

adaya anaya
arc ay a

edhaya

s.+

krodhaya
kledaya
s.

kamaya kampaya
ka9aya kopaya kudaya
kiilaya
s.

car ay a b. + cetaya cintaya n. +

b.+

arhaya s. + a9aya e.+ 1 apaya b. + ingaya iksaya inkhaya


iraya

kalaya b.+

kvathaya s.+ ksaraya b. +


ksalaya
)i.+

codaya
cestaya
h.

ksodaya khanaya gamaya

v.c.
s.

uksaya

s.+

arjaya s.+

ardaya ardhaya

karaya b.+ 1 kartaya s. + kar9aya kalpaya krandaya

garhaya b. + guhaya 3.+ grahaya b.+ ghosaya gharaya

cyavaya chadaya chandaya chedaya s. + chardaya + j anaya


>;.

kramay a

b.

camaya

n.

jasaya jivaya josaya jaraya

b.

236
jvalaya b.+

Indexes.

tanaya v.c. tapaya tosaya b. +


taraya tarpaya tarsaya b.+ trasaya tvSraya

puraya 1 par ay pyayaya prathaya


prinaya plSvaya
s.+
b.

rajaya

radhaya
reeaya b. + resaya ravaya s. + rocaya

908aya 9ardhaya v.c. 9ranaya s. +

9ramaya s. + 9rambhaya s. +
9ravaya
9lesaya
b.

+
b.+

dan9aya

s.+

bandhaya badhaya bodhaya bhaksaya

rodaya rohaya 2 ropaya 1 lapaya

b.

+ +

damaya
diksaya dip ay a dusaya
b.

bhajaya bhalaya b.c. bhasaya b.+ bhasaya b. +

lambhaya

b.

dohaya b.+ daraya dar9aya dyotaya dravaya

bhayaya

b.c.

lekhaya s.+ lehaya b. + lopaya b. + lobhaya

9vasaya sadaya sayaya b.+ sadhaya v. + secaya s.+ sedhaya s. + sudaya saraya
sarjaya

bhisaya b.+ bhojaya

bhavaya bhramaya

s.+

dhavaya 2 dhavaya dharaya


1

mahaya
b.+

majjaya

b.

+
s.

manthaya

vacaya b.+ vaneaya b. + vadaya b. + 1 vapaya b. + 2 vasaya 3 vasaya 1 vahaya b.+


vejaya b.+

sarpaya

s.

+
b.

skandaya

stanaya stavaya b. + stobhaya v.c. snehaya v.c.

dharsaya b.+

dhvansaya b. + dhvanaya v.c. nadaya v.e. nandaya e.+

madaya manaya mehaya v.c.


milaya b.+

vedaya vepaya ve9aya


1

spandaya spar9aya sprhaya

b.

namaya
na9aya nahaya
s.

modaya b.+ mohaya v.+ murchaya b.+ maraya


marjaya

vestaya 1 varaya varjaya vartaya

nejaya b.+

nodaya
nartaya

b.+

mrdaya
inar9aya
b.

pacaya b. + pataya b.+ pataya padaya payaya pesaya s. + pidaya posaya pavaya b.+ pujaya s.

medaya
yajaya yataya
b.

vardhaya varsaya vyathaya vyadhaya

sphalaya b.c sphurjaya syandaya aransaya sravaya svadaya

b.c.

yamaya
yacaya yodhaya raksaya b.c. randhaya v. +

vrajaya b.+ 9ansaya 9ataya 9apaya


1

9amaya

ramaya
rahaya
s.+

9ayaya s.+ 90caya 9odhaya b. + 9obhaya

svanaya v.c. s vapaya svaraya s vedaya b. + ghataya b. + havaya s. + haraya harsaya hrasaya s. + hradaya b. + hladaya b. +

V. Secondary Conjugation-Stems.
C. Later Language.
fl'jO.]

237

ancaya c. 1 asaya e. + ay ay a c. indhaya c.


1 esaya c. ichaya e. 2 esaya e. + idaya c.

ghattaya

e.

ghurnaya

c.

gharsaya e. cakasaya c. cataya c. carcaya e. + carvaya c.


calaya e. + cay ay a c.

darbhaya c. dvesaya c. dhuksaya

laksaya l&gaya c. langhaya


lajjaya c

dhunaya
nataya
c.

lambaya
l&laya

uhaya uhaya

c.

e.

cumbaya

c.

nadaya nayaya pathaya c. panaya c. pothaya


par ay a c. phalaya e. bolaya c. brnhaya bhartsaya bhiksaya c.
2

katthaya e. kalaya e. + kasaya c.

coraya e. + cusaya c. cyotaya c.

lasaya lepaya layaya c. 1 lothaya 2 lothaya

c. c.

lunthaya lodaya
lolaya

c.

kanksaya e. kuncaya e.+ kocaya e.+


kuttaya c. kothaya c.

chodaya c. churaya e.+ choraya c. javaya c. jrmbhaya c.


jvaraya
taflkaya
c. c.

lokaya locaya

kunaya

c.

bhedaya bhusaya bharaya

vadhaya vandaya
e.
c.

e.
e. c.

vamaya
valaya

kiraya e. 2 kartaya c. karsaya e. +

bhai'jjaya

c.

dambaya
dayaya
c.

c.

bhran9aya
bhrajaya

kro9aya

dvalaya
c.

c.

klamaya

dhaukaya

c.

mandaya mathaya
margaya melaya c. mocaya motaya c. musaya c. mraksaya c. mrksaya e. mardaya marsaya mredaya
yasaya yojaya racaya
ranjaya
2

kle9aya e.+

kvanaya c. ksamaya e. +
ksayaya e. + ksepaya e.+ ksobhaya e. + ksvedaya e. khadaya e. + khedaya e. + khelaya c.
2

tadaya e. + tarkaya e. +
tarjaya e.+

va9aya c. vanchaya e. 2 vahaya c. vecaya c 2 vedaya e. vesaya


vijaya

tejaya e.+ todaya e. +

tolaya e.+ tulaya e. + tyajaya e.+

varaya vedhaya e. vridaya c. 9ankaya c. 2 9 am ay a


2

trapaya
trotaya

c. c. c.

galaya

c.

dayaya
dalaya

gahaya c. gunthaya c. gopaya e.+

9esaya 9lathaya 9laghaya sanjaya


sajjaya

c.

gumphaya
guraya
giraya
c.
c.

c.

granthaya e. grathaya c. ghataya e. +

dahaya de9aya dehaya 1 devaya c. 2 devaya davaya c.


dolaya
c.

sahaya
c. c.

ranaya

ringaya

sincaya e. sivaya c.

rodhaya rundhaya
1

sevaya c
e.

darpaya

rosaya rosaya

skambhaya skhalaya c
stambhaya

c.

c.

238
staraya sthagaya

Indexes.

c.
c.

spharaya sphuraya

c. c.

sphataya sphotaya

smayaya smaraya

hasaya c. hinsaya e. hikkaya c.


1

helaya

hvayaya
hresaya

c.

e.

The causative stems showing

added

to a final

vowel may be given by

themselves, as follows (with headings of divisions omitted): [33.]

ksapaya ksepaya v. gapaya b. +


apaya b.+ arpaya khyapaya b. +
2

apaya b.s. dapaya s.

drapaya b. 2 dhapaya v.b.

qrapaya
2

b.

hapaya

v.b.

glapaya

ghrapaya b.+ jnapaya 1 dapaya 1 dhapaya

mapaya

b.+

vapaya
qrapaya sthapaya snapaya
1 hapaya hrepaya c.

mlapaya yapaya b,+


2

lapaya

b.

knopaya ksapaya

c.

ksmapaya c. dhmapaya

2 mapaya smapaya

Finally, the bastard stems with

ap added
[11.]

(as in Prakrit) to a final

consonant:

a9apaya

s.

ksalapaya
e.

s.

kridapaya
jivapaya

ksamapaya

diksapaya e. bhidapaya c.

bhunj apaya melapaya c.

c.

likhapaya

c.
c.

vardhapaya

VI.

TERTIARY
la.

(derivative

from secondary)
[202.]
[ii.]

CONJU-

GATION-STEMS.
cikitsyaE.+ jijnasyaE. + jnipsya c.

Passives from Desideratives.


dhitsya
c.

lipsya
v.

b.
c.

<ju9rusya e.+
jiliirsya
c.

mimansya
rurutsya

vivaksya
9ik8ya
c.

b.s.

lb. Passives

from Causatives.
[9.]

[u?.]

A.
iiigya
b.

Earlier Language.

VI. Tkrtiaky Conjugation-Stkms.

239

240

Indexes.

3a.

Causatives from Intensives.


c.

jagaraya

b.

danda(jaya

dadharaya

b.

varivarjaya

v.

3b. Causatives

from Desideratives.

cikirsaya

c.

qiksaya e.+

VII.
1
.

SUNDRIES.
.

Passive Aorists (third persons singular)


is

[92.]

The unaugmented form

given, if the

augmented does not

occur.

A.
ardhi ksayi ghosi
aceti
b.

Earlier

b.s.
V.
V.

achedi
ajani
v.b.
b.

atayi

atapi
atari

V.B.

v.b.

dayi v.b. adarQl v. apati B.

api B.+ akari

agami

v.c.

asi

c.

aiksi

c.

ohi

c. c.
c,

akiiji

agadi

ataiiki

c.

adhari c. apuri c, abhaksi c.

VTT. SirNDRTES.

211

2.

Aorist Optatives (includius Precatives)


acitual pre(;ativ(:

[iis."|

Those stems from wliich


sign and ending) are

forms (with

sihilaiit

between modesibilant.

made

arc to be recognized by their

lliial

The

optatives of the a-aorist (2d form) are not included (excepting videsta). The aorist-stems here instanced have all been given above in the aorist-lists, whether

other than optative-forms are


a.

made from them


[i,.!.]

or not.

Active Stems,

A.

Earlier Language. [ls.|

adyas

b.

242
vanisis vansisi

Indexes.
v.
v.

vandisi

V.

vides v. vuri v.b. vardhisi

saksi saksi

v.

sasahis
strsi
v.

v.

v.b.
v.

b.s.

sahisi

B.
ririsis v.c.

Earlier

and Later Language.

[1.]

Here may be added the problematical optatives in es from


namely,

roots in a:

khyes b.s., ges


v.B.s. (}/ji).

v.n.s.,

jnes

v.b.,

des

b.s.,

yes

v.,

ses

n.,

sthes

v.b.;

and jes

3.

Periphrastic Perfects (primary conjugation)


perfects of secondary conjugation (very

The periphrastic
are not given.

numerous

for the

cau-

sative, quite rare for the desiderative,

With

vidam

are

unknown for the intensive, except y jagr) made also a periphrastic aorist (b.) and
of the divisions are omitted.

present

(c.).

The headings

cayam kr

b.

vasam kr b. vyayam kr b. vidam kr b.s. juhavam kr b. edham kr, bhu b.c. nayam as, kr e. smayam as e. bibharam bhu c. hvay am as, kr e.

grnise

stuse
hise

punise
yajase

+ + +

INDEX OF ROOTS.
Arranged
The designation
but
it

in reversed iilphiil)eUcHl order.


Uoots liavinp
by ]ieriods;

of periods is according to the verb-forms only.


left

no such forms are

undesignated. It seemed better not


that of the
2(10

to classify

may be added

more than

80(( roots

here recorded as niakinir

forms of conjugation, nearly

occur only in the earlier language, nearly 5lMi


tiic later

in both earlier and later, and less tliau 150 only in

language.
si

ka v.D.s. kha (khan


ga V. + ga V.+ cha V. +
1

jya

v.n.s.

psa
1

v.B.

sti (stya)
1

sty a

H.c.

dhya . + pya V. + vya V. +


9ya V.+
ra 2 ra
1

2
1

ha ha
1

V.+
V.

di

v.B.

V.+

2 di V.B.s. didi (2 di)

2
1

i v.L.

ja V.+ jna V.+ ta


(
I

ci V. +

V.

+
+

2 ci V.+
1

dhi V. + didhi (dhi) ni V.+


1

u V. 2 u 2 va ku (ku) sku V gu v.B.


1
(

li.

iirnu

vr)

tan)
V.

v.B.
V.

ji V.+

pi (pi)
pi (piy)
V.
V.

ksnu
tu
1

v.B.s.

sta

ghra
+

2 ji v.B.
ti c.

V.

stha
1

tra
1

V.

bhi
da)

stu

V.

2 i

4
1

da V. + da V.+ da V.+ da B.+ dha V. + dha V. +


s.

dra V. + dra v. + daridra


2
(1

di

(;5

mi

2 stu

dhi B.+
pi V.+

ri (ri)

kri V.+
pri
V.

du V.+ dhu (dhu)


1

dra)
v.B.

pra
la
c.

9ra V.+
gla
9la
1

mi V. + 2 mi (mi) smi V. +
1

bhri
1

V.

nu V. + nu v.B.s.
u.

9ri v.B.

snu
1

mna
1

ri v.B.s.

2 9ri (9ra)

sna V.+

V.

+
+

jri V.

hri
+
1

V.

+ +

pa V. + 2 pa V. spha B bha V. +
.

mla

V.

9ri

V.

li V.

hnu v.+ yu v. + 2 yu v.B.s.


cyu
v.
c.

B.

vi

(2
(

va)

2 li B.s.

+
+

2
.5

ma V. ma V. + ma

v.ii.

va V.+ 2 va V. + 3 va (van) 9va (9u) hva (hu)

9vi 9U)
9i (9a)
1

pli

B.

dyu
1

bli (vli)

ksi v.B. ksi V.+


V.

vli
1

v.B.s.

ru ru

v.

v. 11.

vi
91

v.B.

si (1 sa)

2
1

vi (vya)
V.li.S.

dhma(dham) 9a V.+ ksa v.B.s. ksma c. sa V.+ ya V.+ 2 sa (san) khya v. +


1

hi

2 91 V.+
ji (jya) 3 9i

kmi dru V. + dhru (dhvr pru v.B.s.


1

(9ya)
(2 kai)

di E.+

ksi

9ru V. + 9ru (aru)

16'

244
sru V.+

Index of Roots.

++

+ +

Inpex of Roots,
put c. sphut

245
radii V.+

bhan
ii.+

b.c.
c.

man

puth K. + pruth v.ii.s.


katth
E.

khud V.I1..S. cud V.+


tud
V. V. V.

mut
trut

c.
c.

kvan c. kun c.
prn
(1
(2

+ +

vrudh V. sadh V. +
idli V.+

manth
mr)
(math) granth
(grath)

nud

ghatt E. + kutt E. +

pr)
+

mud

sridh
1

V.

mrn

mant
vant
vist
V. V.

u. u.

ghiirn at V.+ cat


1

e.

+ +

v.B.
V.

cest

vest (vist)

path B. + ruth E.
1

pat + pat v.B. yat V. + vat V.


2
(jat V.

ad V.+ kad E. khad n. gad s. + 1 chad V.+ 2 chad


(chandl

rud V. ksud V. + sud V.+


rd V. chrd
trd
V.
B.

vidh V. + vidh (vyadh)


sidh
V.

2 sidh V.+

luth luth
c.

c.

E.

cit V.

+
B.s.

heth anth

mrit
9vit
9 cut

mlit (mritl
V.
V.

dad nad pad

da)
+
+
1

V.

V.+
V.

kunth c. gunth S.+


lunth (luth tad V.+ lad c.

mad
+

dudh V. budh V.+ ned B. yudh V. + med V. + rudh V. v. + 2 rudh V. +, skand cand(9candl krudh V. + 9cand v. 9udh V.+ chand v. + ksudh V. +
+

mrd

V.+

cyut s.c. jyut B. + dyut V.+


rt v.B.
1

syad (sy and rad V B. mrad (mrd vrad V.

tand

V.

nand v. + spand V.+ bhand v.

rdh V.+ grdh V. + sprdh V. +

mrdh

v.n.s.

drad
id

c.

vad
V.

V.

mand

v.ji.

krt krt
V.

ksvid

E.

V.

id

V.

ert

v.B.s.

nid pid V. + krid V. + vrid E. + vid v.B.s. hid V. +

nrt prt

svad V. + 1 qad V. 2 q&d v.B.s. ksad v.B. sad V. +

syand v. + krand v. + kland v.

vrdh V. + 9rdh V. + edh V.+

bandh
(

v.

+
I

vand
nind

V.+
v.

vrt V.+
cint
B.

art (rt)

had c. khad v,+ yad v.


hrad b. + hlad B.+ svad (svad) khid V. +
chid V.+ nid (nind)

vmd

(ud)

chud vrud
lud
s.

c.
c.

qnath v. path B.s.

math
vyath krath

V.

+ +

pibd v.B. ard (rd) gard B. nard b.+ pard c.

randh radii indh idh) vindh V. 9undh 9udh gurdh v. spurdh


(

(sprdh)

an V.+

+ +
B.

V.
b.

kud

V.

krud

mrd
red

V.+
+ +

B.s. b.
e.

mred

grath V. + prath V. + 9rath v.+ klath b.


qlath
c.

bhid

V.

mid (med)
klid s.+

mand
hind jhan

c. c.

pan phan

B.+
V.

kvath B.+ nath v. + mith V.+ kuth c.

vid V. + 2 vid V. + ksvid B.C. svid V.+


1

kurd E. + gurd B. gadh V. dadh (1 dha) badh (vadh) vyadh v. + radh v. + vadh V.+
sadh (sadh)

kan V. khan v.
can V. jan V.
tan V.+ tan V. Stan V. +
1

ud

V.+

nadh badh

(nath)
V.

dan V. dhan v. pan v.B. bhan v.

246

Index of Roots.
v.+

man
1

vep

(vip)

ran v.u. ran c. vran c. qran s.+


2

kamp
limp
jalp

B.+

umbh (ubh) ghar (ghr) 9umbh car V. +


(9ubh)

9al

c.

ksal
il

B.

(lip)
c.

jhar

c.

V.+

culump
B.

sumbh
(subh)

phar V. sphar (sphr)


+

gil (2 gr)
til B.

van V. + dhvan v.+


svan V.+ ksan V. + san v.B.s.

raph
riph

V.
V.

jrmbh
galbh

v.
c.

jvar tvar

B.

+ +

V.

mil B.+ mil V.+


tul
E.

guph

c.

gumph
(guph)

am v.B. kam V.+


gam cam
V.
B.

dvar
svar V.+ ksar V. +
tsar
1

+
+

han
ven
jap tap

V.+
v.B.
]i.+ V.

in(2i)

gulph dam.b

s.

v.B.s.

dul c. sphul (sphr) bul c.


lul
E.

c.

+ +

ramb v. lamb B. + cumb E. +


skabh (skambh) gabh (gah)
jabli(jambh)

9cam V. jam E.

har
V.

v.B.

2 har, hir

SUl

B.

dam
tam

c.

ar

V.+

kir

(2

kr

rap

v.B.
E.

trap

lap V.+ 1 vap V.+

dam B.+ dham v. + nam v. + yam v. +


ram v. + kram v. + dram bhram b.+ 9ram v. +
it.

gir (2 gr)
tir (tr)

kul S.+ khel E. + ksvel E. +


hel (hid)

ir V. +

khall
veil

c.

vap v.u.s. svap V.+


2

stabh (stambh)

gur V. + cur E. + chur E.+


jur
tvir
(1 jr)
(

E.

av

V.
V.
c.

dhav
klav
tav
V.

9ap V. + ksap V. +
sap
v.B.

dabh nabh yabh

v.B.
v.b.s.
v.

tr)

ap
rip
lip

V.

V. V.

rabh v. + grabh v.b.s.


+ +

lam c. klam E.+

vip
9ip

V.

labh ribh

V. V.

vam
1

V.+

ubh
V.

V.

ksip V.+
dip
+
+

stubh V. + lubh V. +

kup
gup cup
tup

V.

V.

E.+

9ubh V. + ksubh V.+ subh B. drbh B. +


rebh (ribh)

9am v.B.s. 2 9am V.+ 3 9am S.+ ksam V. + bham v.b.


tim E.+ stim E.+ 9im (1 9am) ay (i)
cay
(2 ei)

dhur (dhvr) 1 dhav V. + sphur (sphr) 2 dhav V. + bhur V. div hur (hvr) jiv V. + pur (1 pr) sthiv V.+
miir(miirch) 1 div V. + kal B.+ 2 div B.+ skhal B. + miv v.B.s. gal B.+ 9riv (sriv)
cal
tal
V.
c.

+ +

sriv siv

v.B.

V.

dal
1

E.

dev
sev

(2
V.

div)

yup
rup

v.B.s.

v.B.

lup V.+

skambh v. + jambh v.
stambh
v.

mlup

Cinluc)

day V. + vyay c.
cay
tay
V.B.
B. B.

ksup E. krp v.B.


trp
V.

dambh
(dabh)
1

phal E. + 2 phal E. + sphal B.C. bal B. bhal B.C.


lal
E.
c.

+
v.b.

ranv

dhanv

v.b.

inv (2 i) jinv v.B.s.

+ +

+ +

rambh
(rabh)

pay
piy

val
jval

drp

V.

v.B.
B.s.

B.

srp V. + kip V.+

2 rambh c. grambh s. +

puy

irsy B.+

dval c. hval B.+

dhinv (dhi) pinv v.B.s. carv s.+ bharv v.


jurv
V.

++

) )

++

Index of Roots.
turv v.R. thurv B.

247
(

bhas
las
E.

K.

+ +

+
B.

vrs V.+ hrs V. +


es
(is)

tas tans

dhurv
1

v.ii.

bhas
1

a(j V.

is V. +

aq

V.

2 is V.+

datj
1

(danQ) na9 V. +
V.+

pis

+ mis V.+
V.

2 nacj v.B.
1

ris V.+

pa9 pa9

9ris

9lis)

clis V. +

spa9 (pa9)
ra9

vis

V.

tvis

v.c.

bhra9 (bhran9) va9 V. +


9a9
c.

dvis V.+
1

yes(ya8) bhres v.b. hres E.+ hes V. + 1 aks v.E. 2 aks v.B.s. caks V.+ 1 jaks V. + 2 jaks V.B. taks V, +

das V. + nas V. bhas V. + yas V.+

dah nah

V.

V.

mah (manh)
yah
rail
.S.+
(

bhyas
ras
tras
I!.

v.

grah grabh)
glah
K.

+ + +

gras

V. V.

vah
sah

V.+
V.

sras (srans

hras
las
1

,s.+

gah vah

V.
(..

E.

+
V.

9is

V.

2 9is (9as)

is v.B.

kag
da9 va9
di9

V.

+
+

bhis (hhi)
1

v.B.
V.

us us

V.

(1

vas)

V.
V.

pi9
ri9

kuS B.C. ghus V. +


jus
V.

daks v.B. naks v.B. bhaks v. + yaks v.E. my aks v. raks V.+ kraks v.
laks
B.

2 3

vas vas vas

+
+

dih V. + snih V. +

V.
V.

mih
rih
lih

V.

V.B.8.
)t.

dhvas
(dhvans) 9vas V. +
9as
sas
V.

+ + +

ih B.+

+
+

guh duh

V.
V.

V.

muh

V.

has

B.+

nii9 (miks)
v.B.

+ +

vaks

V.

asiv.+

tus
+

V.

Ii9 B.s.

kli9

B.

dus V.+ pus V.+

vi9

V.

mus

V.

tvaks V. saks (sah) niks V. bhiks V. +

kas c. eakas e. + das (das bhas V.+


1

ruh V.+ druh V. + uh V.+


1

uh

V.+

trh

v.jt.

strh

s.

19 V.

tu9 V. ru9 (rus)

kru9 V.+
F
B.

kr9 V.+ dr9 V. +


spr9 V.+
nir9 V.+

rus V. + prus v.B. 9rus V. plus E. + 1 9US V. + 2 9US (9vas)


eiis
c.

miks

v.B.s.

ras 9as

E.

+
+

9iks (9ak) iks V.+

2
1

ras (ra)
V.

diks
1

V.

9as (9as)

bhiis
rs

V.

uks V.+ has V. 2 uks (vaks) pis B. dhuks E.+ tans v.B. V.+ mrks dans V.
m.oks (muc)
srahs
v.

drh V.+ sprh V. + brh V. + 2 brh (vTh vrh V. +


1

jeh

V.

anh banh
+

v.+
v.

rus E.+
v.B.s.

manh
ranh
driili

kanks
surks
1

);.

dhvans

v.+

v.n.s.

an9

(]

a9)

dari9 v.+

krs V.+ ghrs +


.s.

B.s.

as

V. V.

+
+

nan9 (2 na9) trs V.+ bhran9 v. + dhrs V. +


rap9 V. kas V.+
Prs tpr9

as

kas V.+ ghas V. +


jas V.+

mrs

V.

9ans V. nins V. hins V.+ bharts v. + ah V.+ jah (ha)

(drh)
+

bmh (vrnh)
vrnh
E.

arh V. garh V. + valh +


II.

ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS.


Of the following emendanda, some
are corrections of discovered oversights,
,

some

are the results of continued collection


(to

and a large part are gleanings

from the last-issued portion

end of

1) of

Bohtlingk's minor dictionary.

few obvious misprints are passed unnoticed.


rial

The modifications and new mate-

here given are included in the Indexes.


p. 1, }/
1.

ac,
1

1.

2, 2,
2, 2,

read aeyate read add atatya y at


etc. v.b.

read ancati
etc. v.b.

etc.

av.k.

}/ aj,

1.

to deriv.

c.
:

bottom

add

anth,

'visit'

pres.

anthati

c.

verb,

anthita

c.

(Bo.)
-

4,
5, 6,

1.

7 read (areyate read aQita apyasam y ap, 3 read

are,

1.

u.e.").

etc. v.b.s.
1.

1.

aa.

api;

1.

12.

col.

read

apayitr
-

u.c.

7,
9,

9,

- 14,

- 16,
- 20, -

26,

- 29,
- 34,

- 38,
- 40,

6 read iyat + add -apin add -esisisu 2 is add -esitr 8 read rtva av.b.u. y perhaps arQat 4) belongs here. add kauti ku, y y krudh, 8 read krudhmi rv. + y ksip, 2 read ciksepa add -jigamisa |/gam, 4 add jagmyatam rv. and add grnadhyai aa. 6 read -glrya gr, y read agrabhisata; agrabhista y grabh, 10
}/
1

i,

1.

etc. b.

to deriv.

c.

]/

is

to deriv.

c.

}/

to deriv.

c.

r,

1.

]/ 1*9,

vs. (xl.
c.

1.

[2.]

1.

1.

etc. u.e.
;

1.

to deriv.

c.

1.

b.s..

1.

for

etc.

to

deriv.

add grahayitavya
1.

c.

- 45,

- 46,
-

1.
1.

47,
47,

- 50,
-

50,

- 54,
- 55,

- 56,

y eit, 7 add acite rv. y chand, 1 dele ms. (Bo.) y chut to deriv. add ehotana c. add jujusan rv. y jus, 2 y I jr, 2 read -te etc. b. + to deriv. add -jarisnu c. 14, col. 3 read jnapana av.b. y jna, 1 1 add jnipsyate c.
1.
1.

read -camya + 5 read ealayati s.+ 4 read ceya


1

b.

5, col.

s.e.

1.

1.

1.

1.

Additions and Corrections.


p. 56,
-

249

}/ }/
]/

jya,

1.

60, 61, 63,

tan,
tap,
tuj,

1.

last
1.

read jiyate. add -titansu 16 read tanitr read tapaka


c.
;

c.

1.

c.

63,
65, 70,
72,
82,

y y
1.

read tuj

v.c.
s.e.c.

tud, 1.8
19, col.
1

y dabh,
1.

1.

IT, col. 3

tura dambhisak read dada k.+


read
v. adil

read -tud

s.

84,

87, 88,
91, 92, 94.
B.

read dhurti ev. ms. nam, 10 read namayati -te 8 read -tavai -tos read nedati. y ned, pat, 4 read patayalu av.c.
1.

y y

dha, dhu,

1.
1.

7
7

read dhiraahe read dhutva b.u.


n..

v.h.

1.

16

add adhitsisam a a.

1.

etc. v. +,

c.

1.

u.s.

1.

1.

14,

col.

1.

16, col. 3

read
etc.

patuka
-

94,

95, 95,
96,
99,

101,

101,
102,
c.

read Aor. apadi 3 read paduka now quotable pard pardate y read -tavai 2 now quotable y pu, S pupusati 4 read praksa? v.aa. y pre, dele apyasam aa. y pya, add praq av. (see J.A.O.S., y prach
y
pad,
1.

cb. (3s. pass, ?),

apadmahi

1.

6, col.

b.c.

c'. is

(Bo.).

1,

k.s.

1.

c'. is

(Bo.).

1.

10, col.
3

1.

4.

to deriv.

vol. xiii., p. xlii.),

piprksu
-

103, 103,

1.

- 106,

add prinayitr 5 read -plutya u.s.+ y y badh, 8 read bibadhisate


6
c.

plu,

1.

1.

cb.c.

-,

to deriv.

add

badh-

ayitr
-

c.

107,

bru,

1.

2
1. 1. 1.

- 107, - Ill,
-

y bhaks,

add bravithas -ita 5 read bibhaksayisati


u.

s.

112,

- 118,
-

119,
125,

125,
126,

129,
135,

- 137,

- 140, - 140, - 141,


-

1.

141,

9 add m.ananiya read mrkta rv.aa. y mrc, 11 read mrstva mrj, y add -mrdya y mrd ayaksata 6 dele yaj, y read ratati. rat. y read remus + y ram, read -ati riph, y add rebhin y ribh read resa add rehana rih, y
1.

y y 2 bhuj, y mad
bhiks,
1.

5 9

read bhuktva
add
c.

read

bhiksitva

u.c.
k.

+
c.

to deriv.

mandayitr

1.

av.s.
c.

to deriv.

1.

7.

(Zs.) ags.

1.

1.

etc. b.

1.

av.b.s.

to deriv.

c.

3, col. 2
1.

b.c.

s.

250
p. 141,
|/ 1

Additions and Correctioxs.

142,
142, 143,

143,
144, 145, 145, 145, 14G,
147,

148, 148,
148, 149, 150,
150,

150,
151,
151,

add ravan read ruce add ruei add rurudisa rud add rurutsu y rudh add rosin rus y add runsita rus, 1.2 read linga CB.r.+ add y lad 'move ladati y 4 read lapana e.+ y lap, add lalin lal y add likhitr y likh 2 read lepaka c, and add lipti add leham y 6 add letum c. and -laya read lopam y lup, add lubhita y lubh, read lolati -te y add lavitavya 4 add lutva y
ru
to deriv.
b.
1.

v.

1.

ms.

}/

to deriv.

c.

to deriv.

c.

to deric.

c.

}/

1.

c.

after

lajj
1.

about'

pres.

c'.

(Bo.)

10, col.

to deriv.

c.

to deriv.

c.

1.

c.

lih,

1.

s.

}/ 1 li,

1.

read

b.s.

1.

s.c.

1.

s.

lul,

1.

etc.

lu,

1.

s.

to deriv.
c.

c.

y y
1.

loC;

1. 1.

6, col.

153,

156,
159, 163,

166,
168, 169, 173,

179,
183,

185,
187,

189,
190,
193, 194,

200,
207,

add -vivadisu read vasya + y vas, add vijitavya y add end) v.+ vrj, y add -vyathin y vyath read y 4 read cjansitr b.+ y gans, read 9inasti. y y 9ri, 4 add 9ritva read sedire y sad; read sodhr + read sunute. y su, 4 read asarji y read srjya b.+ and add in 4 read stuse stu, y dele y stha, 4 read sravayitavya y sru, read johiatra rv.aa. 4
8
c.

vac,
3

add -vace rv.


12, col. 2

read locaka

1.

b.

vij,

to deriv.

c.

1.

(at

to deriv.

c.

vli,

1.

cb.s.

1.

11, col.

Qis,
1

1,

1.

s.

1.

rv.

1.

6, col. 3
1.

e.

srj,

1.

v. b.s.

1,

7, col. 1
1.

(Is.),

1.

12

stuse

rv.

1.

5.

1.

12, col.

ms.s.

1.

9, col.

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