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General Certificate of Education Ordinary Level For Centres in Southern Africa

GEOGRAPHY 2223

For examination in November 2009

Syllabus

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Africa

GEOGRAPHY

CENTRES IN LESOTHO (AND OTHER CENTRES IN SOUTHERN AFRICA)

GCE ORDINARY LEVEL

(Syllabus 2223)

Available in the November examination only

CONTENTS

Page

INTRODUCTION

1

AIMS

2

FORM OF EXAMINATION

2

CURRICULUM CONTENT

3

NOTES FOR GUIDANCE

6

Exclusions

This syllabus must not be offered in the same session with any of the following syllabuses:

0460

Geography

2217

Geography

2230

Geography (Brunei)

GEOGRAPHY 2223 O LEVEL 2009

INTRODUCTION

In this syllabus emphasis is placed on making candidates aware of principles and concepts. These ideas should be applied to a systematic study of the topics listed in the syllabus content but should not be studied along traditional regional lines. These topics must be related to the ‘home’ area (Lesotho, Botswana and Swaziland) and the ‘wider’ region (Africa, south of the Sahara) which are shown on the map below.

south of the Sahara) which are shown on the map below. To give guidance to possible

To give guidance to possible approaches, some notes are provided after the syllabus content. The examples suggested in the notes could be used to illustrate principles and concepts but they are in no way meant to be exhaustive and exclusive, and teachers may use their own examples if they wish. Examination questions will be framed to encourage this.

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GEOGRAPHY 2223 O LEVEL 2009

AIMS

The syllabus will provide the opportunity for a course of study which will allow the candidate to obtain a knowledge and understanding of:

(i)

the basic geographical character of the locality in which he/she lives;

(ii)

the systematic geography of the ‘home’ area as a part of a more general study of the ‘wider’ region of which the ‘home' area forms a part;

(iii)

major problems of a geographical nature arising from the relationship of people with their environment.

FORM OF EXAMINATION

Paper 1 (1¼ hrs). 30% of the total marks for the subject. Candidates must attempt all questions. The paper will consist of a multiple-choice test of 40 questions which will be constructed as follows:

Syllabus Section

Number of Questions

Syllabus Section A Mapwork

14

Basic Techniques and Skills

of

which

12

will

be

based

on

a

topographical map

Syllabus Section B Physical Geography

10

Syllabus Section E Settlement

8

Syllabus Section F Population

8

Total

40

Paper 2 (2¼ hrs). 70% of the total marks for the subject. Candidates must answer 4 questions, which may be chosen from any part of the paper. One question will be set on each of Sections E and F, and two questions will be set on each of Sections B, C and D. At least three other questions will be set and these may be based on two or more of the syllabus Sections A, B, C, D, E and F.

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GEOGRAPHY 2223 O LEVEL 2009

CURRICULUM CONTENT

SECTION A -

Basic Techniques and Skills

(i)

The interpretation of topographical maps on a scale of either 1:50 000 or 1:25 000 to be based on tropical areas. Grid references, conventional signs, gradients, measurement of distance, direction. Description of relief, drainage, land use, settlement patterns and communications, and the inter-relationships between these features.

(ii)

The simple interpretation of sources of information such as photographs, diagrams, maps and statistics. (In appropriate cases these may be related to work on topographical maps.)

(iii)

The use of sketch-maps and diagrams to illustrate the geography of an area or to illustrate a principle.

SECTION B -

Elements of the Physical Background of Geography

(i)

Landforms resulting from folding, faulting and volcanic activity.

(ii)

Weathering in tropical and temperate conditions.

(iii)

River processes (erosion, transportation and deposition) and resulting landforms.

(iv)

Marine processes (erosion, transportation and deposition) and associated landforms. Coral reefs.

(v)

Weather study based on local observation and the use of simple instruments. Relief, convectional and frontal rainfall. Tropical storms.

(vi)

Chief characteristics of the climates and natural vegetation within the ‘home’ area and ‘wider’ region.

SECTION C -

Agriculture, Mining, Processing and Manufacturing Industries with reference ONLY to Botswana, Lesotho and Swaziland

Studies of Agriculture

(a)

Agricultural Systems

(i)

small-scale subsistence farming,

(ii)

small-scale cash crop farming,

(iii)

pastoral farming.

These studies should consider the inputs, outputs and processes in relation to the scale of the agricultural system, and the physical and economic conditions in which the systems operate.

(b)

Methods and uses of irrigation; soil erosion and conservation.

Mining

The mining of diamonds, copper and coal.

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GEOGRAPHY 2223 O LEVEL 2009

Processing and Manufacturing Industries

Factors affecting the location and development of the following industries:

(i)

factories processing agricultural and forest products,

(ii)

industrial estates and small-scale industries, including craft industries.

The studies should include reference to raw materials, markets, transport, power, labour and capital.

SECTION D - Agriculture, Forestry, Mining, Power Production, Processing and Manufacturing Industries and Tourism with reference ONLY to the ‘wider’ region of Africa, south of the Sahara

Studies of Agriculture

(a)

Agricultural Systems

(i)

large-scale plantations (estates),

(ii)

large-scale cereal production (extensive).

These studies should consider the inputs, outputs and processes in relation to the scale of the agricultural system, and the physical and economic conditions in which the systems operate.

(b)

The development of land for agriculture: clearance and preparation of land; methods and uses of irrigation; problems associated with developing land for agriculture.

Forests and Forestry

Factors influencing the exploitation of forests; methods of extracting forest products. Uses of forests and/or forest products. Markets for timber and other forest products. Environmental effects of forest exploitation.

Mining

The mining or extraction of iron ore, gold, petroleum and natural gas.

Power Production

Factors affecting the location and development of power stations for:

(i)

thermal power,

(ii)

hydro-electric power,

(iii)

nuclear power.

Processing and Manufacturing Industries

Factors affecting the location and development of the following:

iron and steel plants,

petroleum refineries,

motor-vehicle assembly plants.

The studies should include reference to raw materials, markets, transport, power, labour and capital.

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GEOGRAPHY 2223 O LEVEL 2009

Tourism

Factors affecting its development and importance.

SECTION E - Settlement Studies

Rural Settlement

The layout of rural settlements and surrounding land use. Patterns of rural settlement and factors which affect them.

Urban Settlement

(i)

Location and growth,

(ii)

functions,

(iii)

internal structure (urban morphology),

(iv)

problems of urban life (traffic congestion, water supplies, pollution, social problems). Possible solutions.

SECTION F - Population Studies

The growth, structure (age and sex), broad distribution and density of population and the factors which influence them. Movements of population. Causes and consequences of the movements of population. Associated problems of over-population and under-population.

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GEOGRAPHY 2223 O LEVEL 2009

NOTES FOR GUIDANCE

SECTION A - Basic Techniques and Skills

(i)

The study of large-scale maps of the ‘home' area is especially important and familiarity with maps of other tropical regions is recommended. The maps chosen for examination purposes will be on a scale of either 1:25 000 or 1:50 000 and will always contain a full key. Techniques should be practised for describing and for analysing topographical maps. Candidates should be able to give grid references and direction (both compass and bearings from grid north), to measure distances and calculate gradients with reasonable speed and accuracy. Cross sections may be set for interpretation but candidates will not be asked to construct them.

Candidates are also advised to practise dividing a map into broad areas of markedly differing relief such as low river valleys, well drained plateaux, steep-sided (perhaps deeply eroded) uplands and to give brief descriptions of each using appropriate geographical terms (such as ridge, plateau, scarp, flood plain) and simple adjectives showing an appreciation of their nature (such as broad, flat, steep sided, deeply-cut, gently sloping). To interpret these maps candidates should be able to recognise essential differences in density of drainage, pattern of streams, gradients or sizes of streams in relation to the relief. Likewise, practice in describing land use variations in association with differing types of relief should be part of the preparation for the examination. The interpretation of ‘human’ features would also require candidates to recognise and analyse patterns of settlement (dispersed linear and nucleated) and candidates should be able to draw and interpret sketch maps illustrating these patterns. Candidates should be able to interpret and describe features of urban morphology as represented on large-scale maps.

Explanations should be based clearly on map evidence showing the interaction between humans and their physical environment e.g. differences in land use between upland and lowland; differences in land use within a town and with increasing distance away from a town; differences between dense settlement, say on river plains, and sparse settlement on steep upland slopes; differences between nucleated villages where water supplies occur in generally dry areas and dispersed settlement where water is evidently more easily available; dispersed linear patterns of settlement along roads or irrigation canals.

Communications: networks should be recognised in terms of their type and density in relation to physical and human features. Careful studies need to be made of communications in urban areas in terms of their type and density.

(ii)

Practice in describing landforms, natural vegetation, land use and settlement shown on photographs is essential. Attention should be given to drawing simple annotated sketches to illustrate the features recognised and described from photographs. The varied size and scale of topographic features should be noted. Simple descriptions only are required by the examiners but candidates may be required to explain the features recognised, for example the processes at present at work and those responsible for their formation. It should be stressed that these processes have operated over a considerable time scale and present landforms are often the product of processes in the past.

Diagrams, maps and statistics should be regarded as important ways of representing data. They may be used to illustrate a basic principle and it is essential that candidates should be directed towards their interpretation. For example, a population pyramid may be used to illustrate the age and sex structure of a country or an individual town. With such a resource the candidate may be required to describe the broad features of the population structure and to attempt to explain them. A mere repetition of the information given in the population pyramid would be of little value but an analysis of say, ‘working’ and ‘non-working’ population or ‘male’ and ‘female’ or ‘school’ and ‘retired’ age groups would show that some analysis had been attempted.

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GEOGRAPHY 2223 O LEVEL 2009

(iii)

Sketch maps or sketch sections should always be closely related to the text in order to explain or to locate features mentioned in the text, or to add further information to the text of an answer. Similarly, diagrams of a physical feature or a climatic graph need to be annotated and referred to in the text so that they add to and explain with greater exactness the feature described or discussed in the text. The use of local named examples is encouraged but diagrams must be well labelled and often a scale is essential to give exactness to the example.

(iv)

Direction is drawn to the value of outdoor field studies and, although direct questions will not be set on field work, credit will be given for evidence of field studies in answers to questions on the ‘home’ area. For example, answers on landforms, river channels and flow, weather and climate, land use and farming types, rural settlement, urban land use and urban problems may all gain credit for well explained examples based on local field studies. Field studies are therefore not mandatory and candidates who do not undertake them will not be penalised, though their value and importance in geography is emphasised.

SECTION B - Elements of the Physical Background of Geography

(i)

Landforms resulting from folding, faulting and volcanic activity

An outline knowledge of the causes of instability in the earth's crust which give rise

to folding, faulting and volcanic activity. of plate tectonics.

Candidates should have a basic knowledge

An appreciation of the world distribution of fold mountains, rift valleys, volcanoes and areas affected by earthquakes will give candidates an idea of the scale of these movements. More detailed studies should be made of these landforms within the ‘home’ area and ‘wider’ region. These studies should include both descriptions of the landforms and explanations of their formation.

(ii)

Weathering in tropical and temperate conditions

Weathering involves the breakdown of rock in situ, and as such must be distinguished from erosion. A simple knowledge of the processes involved in chemical, mechanical (physical) and biological weathering will be required. A distinction should be made between the processes in temperate and in tropical regions, together with an explanation of their more rapid action in tropical regions.

(iii)

River processes (erosion, transportation and deposition) and resulting landforms

Reference should be made to the work of the river in eroding, transporting and depositing. This work rate will vary according to the volume and velocity of the running water and the nature of the load. These may vary according to season and in relation to the nature of the load (boulders, pebbles, sand, silt) which in turn will be affected by the bedrock along the course of the river.

Landforms which arise from the work of the river in developing its channel and its valley should be studied from two points of view: candidates must be able to describe the shape, and appreciate the scale of the landforms, and they should also be able to relate these descriptions to the processes which have led to their formation. A study of the following should be made: forms of river valleys, waterfalls, gorges, meanders, ox-bow lakes, flood plains, levées, flooding, deltas.

(iv)

Marine processes (erosion, transportation and deposition) and associated coastal landforms. Coral reefs

The work of waves in eroding a coastline and re-sorting and depositing materials removed through erosion. The transport of material through the action of longshore drift. The importance of rock type and structure as influences on coastal landforms should be stressed.

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GEOGRAPHY 2223 O LEVEL 2009

Other influences on coastlines should be recognised e.g. the action of rivers in forming deltas; the action of wind in shaping coastal sand dunes.

A study of the following should be made: cliffs, arches, stacks, abrasion (wave-cut)

platforms, spits, bars, beaches, coastal marshes. Candidates must be able to describe the shape and appreciate the scale of the landforms and they should also be able to relate these descriptions to the processes which have led to their formation.

Description of coral reefs: fringing reefs, barrier reefs and atolls.

conditions which favour their formation.

at this level of study.

A study of the

Various theories of origin are not required

(v)

Weather study based on local observation and the use of simple instruments. Relief, convectional and frontal rainfall. Tropical storms

Candidates should be able to draw, describe and explain the use and siting of instruments: rain gauge, maximum-minimum thermometer, wet and dry bulb thermometer, barometer, anemometer and wind vane. Candidates should be able to describe and explain the characteristics, siting and use of the Stevenson Screen. Recognition of basic cloud types and the weather associated with them will be expected. Simple explanations of weather based on weather maps.

Rainfall types as listed should be analysed in relation to the way in which warm moist air is cooled.

The development of tropical storms and the weather associated with them.

(vi)

Chief characteristics of the climates and natural vegetation of the ‘home area’ and ‘wider region’

Candidates should be able to describe and explain the different climates.

Candidates should be able to describe the characteristics of the natural vegetation and its relationship with the climate. Adaptations of plants to natural conditions (such as climate and soil) should also be studied. The large-scale modification of natural vegetation through human interference should be recognised e.g. the reduction in the area of tropical rain forest and the encroachment of desert into savannas.

SECTION C -

Agriculture, Mining, Processing and Manufacturing Industries with reference ONLY to Botswana, Lesotho and Swaziland

Agriculture

(a) Agricultural Systems

A study of agriculture as a system of inputs, processes and outputs.

Studies should include consideration of the physical (including relief, climate and soil) and human conditions (such as economic, social, government) which affect the kind of crops grown, the type of animals reared, the scale of production and the methods of organisation. Consideration should be given to farming processes and the outputs, including their uses and importance.

The following should be studied:

(i)

Small-scale subsistence farming e.g. small-scale subsistence crop farming in Lesotho, growing of maize on a subsistence basis in Swaziland, growing of maize and sorghum on subsistence farms in Botswana.

(ii)

Intensive cash crop farming e.g. in irrigated areas in Botswana and Lesotho; commercial farming in Swaziland.

(iii)

Pastoral farming e.g. cattle rearing in Botswana, the rearing of sheep and goats in Lesotho, cattle farming in Swaziland.

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GEOGRAPHY 2223 O LEVEL 2009

(b) Methods of irrigation and its uses in Botswana, Lesotho and Swaziland. Causes and consequences of soil erosion; methods of reducing soil erosion and conserving the soil. Methods used to increase agricultural output. Precise local examples should be studied wherever possible.

Mining

Each study should consider the factors which affect the exploitation of the mineral (geological occurrence, accessibility of deposits, mining costs, transport costs, local and distant demand) and the nature of mining operations and organisation. The uses of the mineral and the importance of mining to the country in which it is carried on should be considered.

Processing and Manufacturing Industries

Candidates will be expected to have an understanding of the principles involved in the siting of a factory.

Possible examples might include industries based on the processing of cattle products in Botswana, sugar cane and woodpulp processing in Swaziland, knitwear and building material industries in Lesotho.

The study should include reference to raw materials, transport, power, labour, capital and other relevant factors.

In all cases markets for the products of the processing and manufacturing industries should be considered, both local and distant, and the uses to which the products are put. Candidates should also consider the importance of manufacturing and processing industries to the countries in which they are found.

Candidates will be expected to have studied recent industrial development in Botswana, Lesotho and Swaziland, including the development and growth of industrial estates. They should have studied the reasons for the choice of site and the types of industry being developed on these estates. Other small-scale industries, including craft industries, should also be studied and candidates should be aware of their nature, the reasons for their development and their importance to the countries in which they are found. A study of the effect of government policy on industrial development and the advantages and disadvantages of Botswana, Lesotho and Swaziland for industrial growth should be undertaken.

SECTION D - Agriculture, Forestry, Mining, Power Production, Processing and Manufacturing Industries and Tourism with reference ONLY to the ‘wider’ region of Africa, south of the Sahara

Studies of Agriculture

(a) Agricultural Systems

Studies should include consideration of the physical (including relief, climate and soil) and economic conditions which affect the kind of crops grown, the scale of production and methods of organisation; consideration of the character of the type of agriculture associated with cultivated crops and tree crops; consideration should be given to the farming processes and the outputs, including their uses and importance. Examples of the different types of agricultural systems include:

(i)

Large-scale plantations e.g. cultivation of sugar cane in Natal; citrus orchards in the Transvaal or Zimbabwe; large tea estates in Kenya; rubber estates in Nigeria; cotton cultivation in the Gezira area of the Sudan.

(ii)

Large-scale cereal production e.g. maize in the Orange Free State, wheat in the Cape Province and Orange Free State.

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GEOGRAPHY 2223 O LEVEL 2009

(b) The development of land for agriculture: clearance and preparation of land for both traditional and modern methods of farming; clearance of forest and woodland for shifting cultivation e.g. in Zambia, Uganda or Nigeria; terracing of steep slopes e.g. in southern Uganda. The methods and uses of irrigation; primitive methods along the Nile in the Sudan; modern irrigation developments such as those based on the Blue Nile, Orange and on rivers in the Transvaal. Problems both physical and economic such as those associated with the main climatic types in Africa, south of the Sahara. Diseases and pests e.g. malaria, tsetse fly and locusts and the measures used to overcome them.

Forests and Forestry

Factors influencing the exploitation of forests; accessibility; demand for timber and other forest products; composition of forest (structure of forest as a whole; tree types of economic value); quality of timber; availability of capital. Problems associated with exploitation: diseases and insects; remoteness; lack of communications. Methods of extraction. Products other than timber. Processing of the timber. Markets. Development of commercial forests e.g. in the rain forest area of southern Nigeria. Role of forests in the conservation of soil and of water. Candidates should study the consequences of deforestation (e.g. the Greenhouse effect).

Mining

Each study should consider the factors which affect the exploitation of the mineral (geological occurrence, accessibility of deposits, mining costs, transport costs, local and distant demand)

Suitable studies

the method of mining and of mine organisation and the uses of the mineral. include:

(i)

iron-ore mining: the Republic of South Africa or Zimbabwe;

(ii)

gold-mining: the Republic of South Africa;

(iii)

petroleum and natural gas extraction: Nigeria.

Power Production

A general study of the geographical background to the production of electricity should be

illustrated by sample studies of thermal power stations (coal-fired and oil-fired), hydro-electric

power stations and nuclear power stations. A study of one major hydro-electric power scheme e.g. Owen Falls, Kainji or the Orange River Project. A study of a major thermal power station such as Klip near Vereeniging or Lagos (Ijora) in Nigeria. Development of nuclear power in the Republic of South Africa. Candidates should be aware of the reasons for the great potential for

hydro-electric power generation in Africa, south of the Sahara, and for the limited development

of this potential.

Consideration of the importance of uses of coal, oil and natural gas besides the generation of electricity, e.g. use for transport.

A study of the factors affecting the location and development of power production i.e. a study of the power policy adopted by any one country in the ‘wider’ region of Africa, south of the Sahara.

Processing and Manufacturing Industries

Candidates will be expected to have an understanding of the principles involved in the siting of a factory and of a major industrial complex.

Suitable examples of industries are:

iron and steel plants: the Transvaal or Zimbabwe;

petroleum

refineries:

coastal

petroleum

refineries

(e.g.

Durban,

Mombasa

or

Port

Harcourt);

inland

refineries

(e.g.

Umtali

or

Sasolburg);

importance

of

pipelines

in

transporting oil;

motor-vehicle assembly: Republic of South Africa or Nigeria.

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GEOGRAPHY 2223 O LEVEL 2009

The study should include reference to raw materials, transport, power, labour, capital and other relevant factors.

In all cases, markets for the products of the processing and manufacturing industries should be considered, both local and distant, and the uses to which the products are put.

The best choice of a major industrial complex would possibly be the southern Transvaal and northern Orange Free State.

Tourism

Geographical background to the tourist possibilities of the ‘wider’ region.

Tourism in a major National Park e.g. Kafue Park in Zambia. Coastal tourism in the Republic of South Africa.

Origin of tourists and their mode of travel. tourists.

Impact of tourism on the areas, which receive

The efforts of governments to increase the tourist trade. The advantages and disadvantages of developing a tourist industry.

SECTION E - Settlement Studies

(a)

Rural settlement

Studies should be made to show how the sites and patterns of rural settlements are influenced by physical conditions such as relief, soil and water supply; by the land use in surrounding areas and, in some cases, by historical factors. The influence of economic factors in the growth of rural settlement, e.g. the presence of local mineral deposits and accessibility to markets. The use of large-scale maps in the study of settlement would be helpful. A study should be made of the spacing of settlements in rural areas and the pattern of their distribution so as to bring out the influence of physical, social and economic factors, e.g. study of individual rural settlements in Botswana, Lesotho and Swaziland would be a suitable start to consideration of this part of the syllabus. This study of a few individual local settlements could be followed by a study of the pattern of rural settlement in the country as a whole.

(b)

Urban Settlement

(i)

Factors influencing the site, position and growth of urban settlements should be studied with reference to examples in both the ‘home' area and ‘wider' region.

A

study should be made of the development of a settlement from a village into a

town. An appreciation of the scale of settlements will be expected. The sites of

several towns as examples of contrasting locations.

Development of urban settlement in Africa, south of the Sahara in the twentieth century. Reasons for the increase in the number of towns and for the growth in size of existing towns. (For example, increase in overall population, development of trade and industry, population migration).

(ii)

Attention should be paid to the functions performed by towns, e.g. marketing, administrative and manufacturing. Selected studies of towns should be made to illustrate a range of urban functions.

Examples should include Gaborone, Maseru or Mbabane; in the wider region

studies should be made of selected towns or cities illustrating a range of functions, e.g. a market town (an example could be selected from many of the smaller towns

in Kenya, Zimbabwe or the Orange Free State), a major port (Mombasa, Lagos or

Cape Town), a capital city (Harare, Pretoria or Nairobi), a major industrial town (Johannesburg or Jinja), a route focus (e.g. Bulawayo), a regional centre (e.g. Kano).

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GEOGRAPHY 2223 O LEVEL 2009

Consideration of relationships between a town and its surrounding area, particularly in connection with market towns and regional centres.

(iii)

The major divisions of a town according to urban land use and age and type of buildings. A study should be made of the CBD (Central Business District), the location of industrial areas, the different types of residential areas, transport routes within the urban area and the provision of open space. Candidates should show an understanding of the reasons for the pattern of urban morphology and the changes which may have taken place through time.

(iv)

Problems of urban life could be illustrated by a study of a few large towns, e.g. Lagos, Johannesburg, Nairobi. These might include problems associated with employment, the development of squatter settlement, pollution, the lack of housing, public facilities, transport and urban sprawl. Social problems should be studied. Candidates should be able to suggest possible solutions to the problems they have studied.

SECTION F - Population Studies

The general consideration of the factors such as physical, social and economic which influence the growth, structure, distribution and density of population. Studies should be made of these factors as they affect the population of Botswana, Lesotho and Swaziland, and of one other country in Africa, south of the Sahara e.g. the Republic of South Africa, Nigeria. Candidates should be familiar with age/sex pyramids as a technique for showing the structure of the population and to be able to appreciate the significance of age/sex pyramids of different shape. Candidates should be able to use and to draw conclusions from relevant statistics, maps and diagrams, including age/sex pyramids and graphs of birth and death rates.

Studies should be made of the causes and effects of the main types of population movement in the ‘home’ area and ‘wider’ region. Reference should be made to rural depopulation and the associated movements of people into towns as well as to migrations between regional areas and countries.

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