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HACETTEPE UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

OMU 332 VEHICLE COMPONENT DESIGN

PROJECT NO

:2

PROJECT TITLE GROUP NAME PREPARED BY

: NORSTER 600R BRAKE DESIGN : EGG : Gkhan YAZAR Gizem ZEL Erkin Bar BLG

DATE

: 07.06.2011

1. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The problem is to design a front brake system for Norster 600R according to following considerations: Brake force distribution Brake distance Max. brake temperature requirements

2. INTRODUCTION

Missions of the front brake system design are given below: Selection of friction material Foundation brake design Heat transfer analysis

At this project, we will design a disc brake for front brake system. To design a disc brake, we must calculate the following system parameters: Number of pistons Brake cylinder area Brake rotor/Brake pad dimensions Lining friction material and friction coefficient Brake factors Front brake line pressure

After all these calculations, disc brake design will be completed with the heat transfer analysis.

BRAKE DESIGN Required Data Empty and loaded vehicle weight Static weight distribution: lightly and fully laden Wheelbase Center of gravity height: lightly and fully load Tire and wheel size Max. speed Standards

Steps of Design Selection of Brake Force Distribution Hydraulics Design of Foundation Brake Pedal Assembly Disc Brake Drum Brakes

SCHEDULE Date Submission 1 Submission 2 Submission 3 Submission 4

13.05.11 Selection of Friction Material 20.05.11 27.05.11 07.06.11 Foundation Brake Design Heat Transfer Analysis Technical Drawings

THEORETICAL KNOWLEDGE General uses of the brakes can be formulated in terms of three basic functions a braking system must provide:

1. Decelerate a vehicle including stopping. 2. Maintain vehicle speed during downhill operation. 3. Hold a vehicle stationary on a grade. Deceleration involves the change of the kinetic and potential energy (if any) of a vehicle into thermal energy. Important factors a brake design engineer must consider include braking stability, brake force distribution, tire/road friction utilization, braking while turning, pedal force modulation, stopping distance, in-stop fade and brake wear.

Maintaining vehicle speed on a hill involves the transfer of potential into thermal energy. Important considerations are brake temperature, lining fade, brake fluid vaporization in hydraulic brakes and brake adjustment of air brakes.

Holding a vehicle stationary on a grade with the parking brake is mainly a problem of force transmission between the application lever and the tire. However, since a parking brake may be used for vehicle deceleration in an emergency, both thermal and vehicle dynamic factors must be considered by the design engineer.

DISC BRAKES The disc brake is the best brake we have found so far. Disc brakes are used to stop everything from cars to locomotives and jumbo jets. Disc brakes wear longer, are less affected by water, are self adjusting, self cleaning, less prone to grabbing or pulling and stop better than any other system around. The main components of a disc brake are:

The brake pads The caliper, which contains a piston The rotor, which is mounted to the hub

Disc Brake Components

Brake Pads: There are two brake pads on each caliper. They are constructed of a metal "shoe" with the lining riveted or bonded to it. The pads are mounted in the caliper, one on each side of the rotor. Brake linings used to be made primarily of asbestos because of its heat absorbing properties and quiet operation; however, due to health risks, asbestos has been outlawed, so new materials are now being used.
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Brake pads wear out with use and must be replaced periodically. There are many types and qualities of pads available. The main differences between these types are brake life (how long the new pads will last) and noise (how quiet they are when you step on the brake). Harder linings tend to last longer and stop better under heavy use but they may produce an irritating squeal when they are applied.

Brake Pads

If the lining wears down until to the metal brake shoe, then there will be a "Metal-to-Metal" condition where the shoe rubs directly against the rotor causing severe damage and loss of braking efficiency. Some brake pads come with a "brake warning sensor" that will emit a squealing noise when the pads are worn to a point where they should be changed. This noise will usually be heard when your foot is off the brake and disappear when you step on the brake. If you hear this noise, have your brakes checked as soon as possible.

Calipers: There are two main types of calipers: Floating calipers and fixed calipers. There are other configurations but these are the most popular. Calipers must be rebuilt or replaced if they show signs of leaking brake fluid.

Single piston floating calipers are the most popular and also least costly to manufacture and service. A floating caliper "floats" or moves in a track in its support so that it can center itself over the rotor. As you apply brake pressure, the hydraulic fluid pushes in two directions. It forces the piston against the inner pad which in turn pushes against the rotor. It also pushes the caliper in the opposite direction against the outer pad, pressing it against the other side of the rotor. Floating calipers are also available on some vehicles with two pistons mounted on the same side. Two piston floating calipers are found on more expensive cars and can provide an improved braking "feel".

Brake Caliper

Four Piston Fixed Calipers are mounted rigidly to the support and are not allowed to move. Instead, there are two pistons on each side that press the pads against the rotor. Four piston calipers have a better feel and are more efficient, but are more expensive to produce and cost more to service. This type of caliper is usually found on more expensive luxury and high performance cars. Rotor: The disc rotor is made of iron with highly machined surfaces where the brake pads contact it. Just as the brake pads wear out over time, the rotor also undergoes some wear, usually in the form of ridges and groves where the brake pad rubs against it. This wear pattern exactly matches the wear pattern of the pads as they seat themselves to the rotor.

When the pads are replaced, the rotor must be machined smooth to allow the new pads to have an even contact surface to work with. Only a small amount of material can be machined off of a rotor before it becomes unusable and must be replaced. A minimum thickness measurement is stamped on every rotor and the technician doing the brake job will measure the rotor before and after machining it to make sure it does not go below the legal minimum. If a rotor is cut below the minimum thickness, it will not be able to handle the high heat that brakes normally generate. This will cause the brakes to "fade," greatly reducing their effectiveness to a point where you may not be able to stop!

Rotor

DRUM BRAKES The main reason why drum brakes are still used, is cost. While all vehicles produced for many years have disk brakes on the front, drum brakes are cheaper to produce for the rear wheels. The other reason is the parking brake system. On drum brakes, adding a parking brake is the simple addition of a lever, while on disk brakes, we need a complete mechanism, in some cases, a complete mechanical drum brake assembly inside the disk brake rotor! Parking brakes must be a separate system that does not use hydraulics.

Drum brakes consist of a backing plate, brake shoes, brake drum, wheel cylinder, return springs and an automatic or self-adjusting system. When you apply the brakes, brake fluid is forced, under pressure, into the wheel cylinder which, in turn, pushes the brake shoes into contact with the machined surface on the inside of the Drum. When the pressure is released, return springs pull the shoes back to their rest position. As the brake linings wear, the shoes must travel a greater distance to reach the drum. When the distance reaches a certain point, a self-adjusting mechanism automatically reacts by adjusting the rest position of the shoes so that they are closer to the drum

Drum Brake Components

OTHER UNITS Master Cylinder is located in the engine compartment on the firewall, directly in front of the drivers seat. A typical master cylinder is actually two completely separate master cylinders in one housing, each handling two wheels. This way if one side fails, you will still be able to stop the car. The brake warning light on the dash will light if either side fails, alerting you to the problem. Master cylinders have become very reliable and rarely malfunction (fault); however, the most common problem that they experience is an internal leak. This will cause the brake pedal to slowly sink to the floor when your foot applies steady pressure. Letting go of the pedal and immediately stepping on it again brings the pedal back to normal height.

Master Cylinder

Brake Fluid is special oil that has specific properties. It is designed to withstand cold temperatures without thickening as well as very high temperatures without boiling. (If the brake fluid should boil, it will cause you to have a spongy pedal and the car will be hard to stop.) Brake fluid must meet standards that are set by the Department of Transportation (DOT). Each standard (DOT-3, DOT-4 vs.) has different boiling point. For instance, DOT-3 has a dry boiling point 205C and wet boiling point 140C.

The brake fluid reservoir is on top of the master cylinder. Most cars today have a transparent reservoir so that you can see the level without opening the cover. The brake fluid level will drop slightly as the brake pads wear. This is a normal condition and no cause for concern. If the level drops noticeably over a short period of time or goes down to about two thirds full, brakes should be checked as soon as possible. Brake fluid must maintain a very high boiling point .Exposure to air will cause the fluid to absorb moisture which will lower that boiling point.

Brake Lines: The brake fluid travels from the master cylinder to the wheels through a series of steel tubes and reinforced rubber hoses. Rubber hoses are only used in places that require flexibility, such as at the front wheels, which move up and down as well as steer. The rest of the system uses non-corrosive seamless steel tubing with special fittings at all attachment points. If a steel line requires a repair, the best procedure is to replace the complete line. If this is not practical, a line can be repaired using special splice fittings that are made for brake system repair. Usage of the brass compression fittings or copper tubing to repair a brake system is dangerous and illegal.

Proportional Valve: These valves are mounted between the master cylinder and the rear wheels. They are designed to adjust the pressure between the fronts and rear brakes depending on how hard you are stopping. The shorter you stop, the more of the vehicle's weight is transferred to the front wheels, in some cases, causing the rear to lift and the front to dive. These valves are designed to direct more pressure to the front and less pressure to the rear the harder you stop. This minimizes the chance of premature lockup at the rear wheels. Pressure Differential Valve: This valve is usually mounted just below the master cylinder and is responsible for turning the brake warning light on when it detects a malfunction. It measures the pressure from the two sections of the master cylinder and compares them. Since it is mounted ahead of the proportioning or equalizer valve, the two pressures it detects should be equal. If it detects a difference, it means that there is probably a brake fluid leak somewhere in the system.
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Combination valve: It is simply a proportioning valve and a pressure differential valve that is combined into one unit.

Combination Valve (Sliding Caliper)

The power brake booster is mounted on the firewall directly behind the master cylinder and, along with the master cylinder, is directly connected with the brake pedal. Its purpose is to amplify the available foot pressure applied to the brake pedal so that the amount of foot pressure required to stop even the largest vehicle is minimal. Power for the booster comes from engine vacuum. The automobile engine produces vacuum as a byproduct of normal operation and is freely available for use in powering accessories such as the power brake booster. Vacuum enters the booster through a check valve on the booster. The check valve is connected to the engine with a rubber hose and acts as a one-way valve that allows vacuum to enter the booster but does not let it escape. The booster is an empty shell that is divided into two chambers by a rubber diaphragm. There is a valve in the diaphragm that remains open while your foot is off the brake pedal so that vacuum is allowed to fill both chambers. When you step on the brake pedal, the valve in the diaphragm closes, separating the two chambers and another valve opens to allow air in the chamber on the brake pedal side. This is what provides the power assist.
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Power Brake Booster

Power boosters are very reliable and cause few problems of their own; however, other things can contribute to a loss of power assist. In order to have power assist, the engine must be running. If the engine stalls or shuts off while you are driving, you will have a small reserve of power assist for two or three pedal applications but, after that, the brakes will be extremely hard to apply and you must put as much pressure as you can to bring the vehicle to a stop.

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3. DESIGN CALCULATIONS
Total Braking Distance Total braking distance for the case of the maximum speed of the vehicle is assumed 120 m and to provide that a deceleration value is calculated. The total travelled distance during braking is calculated by formulas on below;

Where;

Calculations are made in Matlab and the result is; 4.1785 m/s2

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Actuating Force, Braking Torque, Normal Pressure, Effective Radius, Force Location

Material

Friction Coefficient(f)

Maximum Pressure(Pmax ,MPa)

Max. Instantaneous Max. Continuous Temp.(C) Temp.(C)

Rigid Molded Asbestos 0.31-0.49 5.2 500-750 230-350

Normal Force to the Pads

Brake Torque

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Equivalent(effective) Radius

Force Location

Where; ri=inner diameter of the pad ro=outer diameter of the pad 1, 2=caliper angles f =friction coefficient Uniform wear assumption

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Thermal Analysis Absorbed energy by the brake assembly;

Where; m=vehicle mass V1=vehicle maximum speed k= correction factor of rotating masses and (R=wheel radius) equals to:

Mass of Brake Disc

Where; =density of the disc material rdisc =disc radius t=thickness of the rotor

The temperature rise of the brake assembly

Where; E=absorbed energy by the brake assembly Cp=specific heat capacity m=mass of the brake parts
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Overall coefficient of heat transfer

hCR = hr + fv hc Where; hr = radiation component of hCR hc = convective component of hCR fv = ventilation factor

Tmax =

Maximum temperature of brake assembly + Where;

A=Lateral surface area and equals to: A=4 ** rdisc2 T=disc temperature =ambient temperature Tmax=Temperature Rise

W= mdisc t1=3600/24=150s (assumption is made according to example 16.5 from Shigley) At the calculation of the maximum temperature rise for the brake assembly the equations which are above, were used. According to results (see 4.RESULTS part) maximum temperature rise is about 135-140 C which is very below of the critical temperature of the selected material, and so required conditions for thermal considerations are satisfied.

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4. RESULTS
Notation

h_max: Max. Height of the Vehicle mu: Coefficient of Friction Between Tires and Road g: Gravitational Coefficient f_r: Rolling Resistance Coefficient i_t_1: First Gear Ratio i_d: Differential Ratio NRD: Nominal Rim Diameter NSW: Nominal Section Width PHI: Aspect Ratio K: Dimensionless Constant, 0.96 for Radial Automobile Tires m_unl: Unladen Mass gama: Rotating Mass Factor m_eq_unl: Equivalent Mass m_pass: Passenger Mass v_tank: Fuel Tank Volume ro_RON95: Density of RON95 m_fuel_max: Fuel Mass (Full Tank) m_lug: Mass of Additional Luggage m_add: Total Mass of Additional Factors m_tot: Total Mass i: Brake Force Distribution Factor W: Weight of the Vehicle-Laden dmax: Maximum Deceleration d: Dimensionless Deceleration F_f: Front Braking Force THETA: Caliper Angle Difference R_w: Tire Rolling Radius T_bf: Front Braking Torque T: Braking Torque on One Side of the Wheel
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MU: Coefficient of Friction for Rigid Molded Asbestos Pads R_r: Rotor Radius for 14 in Rim Diameter R_o: Outer Radius of Pad R_i: Inner Radius of Pad R_eff: Effective Radius F: Actuating Force P_a: Largest Normal Pressure Tot_Area: Total Piston Area Pis_Area: Allowable Piston Area for Ro-Ri=35 mm Pis_Num: Piston Number k: Correction Factor for Rotating Masses V1: Initial Velocity m: Laden Mass of Vehicle Eb: Energy Absorbed by Brake ro_disc: Density of Disc Material R_disc: Radius of Brake Disc t: Thickness of Brake Disc m_disc: Mass of the Brake Disc Cp: Specific Heat Capacity delta_T: Temperature Rise Tamb: Temperature of Ambient t1: Brake was used 24 times per hour hr: Radiation Component of Heat Transfer Coefficient hc: Convective Component of Heat Transfer Coefficient MAS: Mean Air Speed fv: Multiplying Factor hcr: Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient A: Lateral Surface Area Tmax: Maximum Temperature Temp_Rise: Calculated Temperature Rise

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Matlab Output

-Total Braking Distance and Maximum Deceleration


dmax =4.1785 dtot =120.0011

We made our calculations according to dmax=4.0000 -Actuating Force, Braking Torque, Normal Pressure, Equivalent Radius, Force Location (Output data is tabulated)
Assumptions: R(rotor) (mm) 122.5 125 127.5 130 132.5 135 P_hyd= 9000 kPa Piston Number =2 R_o=R_r(rotor)-20 mm R_o R_i = 35 mm Theta =600 R(outer) R(inner) R(effective) (mm) (mm) (mm) 102.5 105 107.5 110 112.5 115 67.5 70 72.5 75 77.5 80 85 87.5 90 92.5 95 97.5 Fd (N) F(normal) (N) 8031.8 7802.3 7585.6 7380.6 7186.3 7002.1 Pa (MPa) 1.9479 1.8246 1.7128 1.6110 1.5180 1.4328 Piston Area (mm^2) 446.2103 433.4615 421.4209 410.0311 399.2408 389.0039 # of Piston 2 2 2 2 2 2 Piston Radii (mm) 11.9178 11.7463 11.5820 11.4244 11.2731 11.1276

6425.4 6241.8 6068.5 5904.4 5749.1 5601.7

We decided to use red colored dimensions and values.

-Thermal Considerations, Temperature Rise


m_tot =1.5353e+003 F_f = 4.1151e+003 R_w =265.4400 T_bf =546.1615 T =273.0807

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k =1.1500 V1 =26.3889 m = 1.5353e+003 Eb = 6.1475e+005 ro_disc = 7800 R_disc = 130 t = 30 m_disc =12.4237 Cp =500 delta_T =98.9630 Tamb = 25 t1 = 150 hcr = 53.6000 A =0.2124 W = 12.4237 beta =0.0018 Tmax = 155.2711 Temp_Rise =130.2711

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5. DISCUSSION
This project presents the outline of the front brake design for Norster 600R. It is concluded that hydraulic brake system in all car are same with little different in components structure like pad materials and rotor material. The researches on brake pad materials stated that commercial composition of the pad cannot be concluded whether is preferable to contain organic or semi metallic brake pads contain more copper. Both organic and semimetallic may contain copper although specific amounts will depend on the manufacturer. Found that contact areas also increase as wear develops. This corresponds to the reduction of roughness values of the pad surface. For the dimensions of the brake system components general assumptions are made according to Brake Design and Safety (R.Limpert).The most important criteria for the rotor and inherently for the other parts is the rim diameter of the wheel. Reducing the rotor width and a ventilated design achieve reduce in weight and also improvement of cooling characteristics. After the specifications of the dimensions of the brake assembly parts, actuating force, braking torque, equivalent radius and force location values were calculated and there is no critical values are observed for the selected material. And then, thermal analysis was done for the brake system and the maximum temperature rise in case of a hard braking condition was calculated. Results show that, there is no risk of overheating and possibility of hazardous condition with respect to material properties. Finally, engineering drawings were made by using Catia for the parts which were designed. In engineering drawing, was not entered into details and the other parts such as bolts, pistons etc. were not shown. Drawings of the main components which are rotor, caliper and pads were done and general dimensions of the part were indicated in the drawings.

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6. APPENDIX
Matlab Input Codes

-Total Braking Distance and Maximum Deceleration


tr=1.2; ta=0.1; tb=0.18; vo=95/3.6; dt=120; dtot=0; dmax=10.0; %dmax(max. %reaction time %application time %deceleration rise %max. velocity %total braking distance

deceleration) when total braking distance=120 m

while(dtot<120) d1=vo*(tr+ta); d2=vo*tb-(dmax/6)*(tb^2); d3=(vo^2)/(2*dmax)-vo*tb/2+dmax*(tb^2)/8; dtot=d1+d2+d3; %total braking distance dmax=dmax-0.0001; end % dmax and corresponding total braking distance dmax dtot

-Actuating Force, Braking Torque, Normal Pressure, Equivalent Radius, Force Location
h_max = 1.4; %[m] Max. Height of the Vehicle(ASSUMPTION) mu = 0.85; %[] Coefficient of Friction Between Tires and Road(ASSUMPTION) g = 9.81; %[m/s^2] Gravitational Coefficient f_r = 0.055; %[] Rolling Resistance Coefficient(ASSUMPTION) i_t_1 = 3.818; %[] First Gear Ratio i_d = 4.412; %[] Differential Ratio NRD=14*24.5; %[mm] Nominal Rim Diameter NSW=175; %[mm] Nominal Section Width PHI=0.60; %[] Aspect Ratio K=0.96; %[] Dimensionless Constant,0.96 for Radial Automobile Tires m_unl = 532; %[kg] Unladen Mass gama = 1.03+0.0016*(i_t_1*i_d)^2; %[] Rotating Mass Factor(ASSUMPTION) m_eq_unl = m_unl*(1+gama); %[] Equivalent Mass m_pass = 80*2; %[kg] Passenger Masw(95%Percentile(ASSUMPTION) v_tank = 32; %[l] Fuel Tank Volume ro_RON95 = 0.7431; %[kg/l] Density of RON95 [THUMMADETSAK] m_fuel_max = v_tank*ro_RON95; %[kg] Fuel Mass (Full Tank)(ASSUMPTION) m_lug = 30; %[kg] Mass of Additional Luggage(ASSUMPTION) m_add = m_pass+m_fuel_max+m_lug; %[kg] Tot.Mass of Add. Factors(ASSUMPTION) m_tot=m_eq_unl+m_add; %[kg] Total Mass i=0.6701; %[] Brake Force Distribution Factor W=m_tot*g; %[N] Weight of the Vehicle-Laden dmax=-4; %[m/s^2] Maximum Deceleration d=-(dmax/g); %[] Dimensionless Deceleration F_f=i*W*d %[N] Front Braking Force THETA=60*pi/180; %[rad] Caliper Angle Difference R_w=K*((NRD/2)+PHI*NSW) %[mm] Tire Rolling Radius

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T_bf=(F_f*R_w/1000)/2 %[Nm] Front Braking Torque T=T_bf/2 %[Nm] Braking Torque on One Side of the Wheel MU=0.40; %[]Coefficient of Friction for Rigid Molded Asbestos Pads (ASSUMPTION) for 0.31-0.49 for R_r=122.5:2.5:135 %[mm] Rotor Radius for 14 in Rim Diameter R_o=R_r-20 %[mm] Outer Radius of Pad! 20mm(ASSUMPTION) R_i=R_o-35 %[mm] Inner Radius of Pad! 40mm(ASSUMPTION) R_eff=(R_o+R_i)/2 %[mm] Effective Radius F_d=(2*T)/(R_eff/1000) %[N] F=T/(MU*(R_eff/1000)) %[N] Actuating Force P_a=F/(THETA*(R_o-R_i)*R_i) %[MPa] Largest Normal Pressure P_hyd=9000*10^3 %[Pa] Hydraulic Pressure Pis_Num=2 %[] Piston Number Tot_Area=(F/P_hyd)*10^6 %[mm^2] Total Piston Area Pis_Area=Tot_Area/2 %[mm^2] Allowable Piston Area for Ro-Ri=35 mm R_pis=sqrt(Pis_Area/pi) %[mm] Piston Radius end

-Thermal Considerations, Temperature Rise (rest part of the code)


%% Thermal Analysis k=1.15 %[] Correction Factor for Rotating Masses (Assumption)(1.05-1.15 for passenger cars in high gears) V1=95/3.6 %[m/s] Initial Velocity m=m_tot %[kg] Laden Mass of Vehicle Eb=(k*m*V1^2)/2 %[J] Energy Absorbed by Brake ro_disc=7800 %[kg/m^3] Density of Disc Mat.(Steel(Assumption(7750-8050) R_disc=130 %[mm] Radius of Brake Disc (Assumption) t=30 %[mm] Thickness of Brake Disc (Assumption)(Minimum value of the thickness is 28.1mm for ventilation brakes) m_disc=ro_disc*pi*R_disc^2*t*10^-9 %[kg] Mass of the Brake Disc Cp=500 %[J/kg*C] Specific Heat Capacity delta_T=Eb/(m_disc*Cp) %[C] Temperature Rise Tamb=25 %[C] Temperature of Ambient

%% Tmax-Tamb=300 t1=60^2/24; hr=27.5;

%[C] First Assumption for Temperature Rise %[s] Brake was used 24 times per hour (Assumption) %[W/m^2*C] Radiation Component of Heat Transfer Coefficient(Shigley Figure 16.24a) hc=7.5; %[W/m^2*C] Convective Component of Heat Transfer Coefficient(Shigley Figure 16.24a) MAS=12; %[m/s] Mean Air Speed !!!Assumption fv=6; %[] Multiplying Factor(Shigley Figure 16.24b) hcr=hr+fv*hc; %[W/m^2*C] Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient A=4*pi*R_disc^2*10^-6; %[m^2] Lateral Surface Area W=m_disc; %[kg] Mass of the Brake Disc beta=(hcr*A)/(W*Cp); %[1/s] Tmax=Tamb+(delta_T/exp(-beta*t1)); %[C] Maximum Temperature Temp_Rise=Tmax-Tamb; %[C] Calculated Temperature Rise % First Assumption is not valid

%% Tmax-Tamb=143.5295 t1=60^2/24; hr=12;

%[C] Second Assumption for Temperature Rise %[s] Brake was used 24 times per hour (Assumption) %[W/m^2*C] Radiation Component of Heat Transfer Coefficient(Shigley Figure 16.24a)

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hc=7.2;

%[W/m^2*C] Convective Component of Heat Transfer Coefficient(Shigley Figure 16.24a) MAS=12; %[m/s] Mean Air Speed (Assumption)(Shigley Example 16.5) fv=6; %[] Multiplying Factor(Shigley Figure 16.24b) hcr=hr+fv*hc; %[W/m^2*C] Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient A=4*pi*R_disc^2*10^-6; %[m^2] Lateral Surface Area W=m_disc; %[kg] Mass of the Brake Disc beta=(hcr*A)/(W*Cp); %[1/s] Tmax=Tamb+(delta_T/exp(-beta*t1)); %[C] Maximum Temperature Temp_Rise=Tmax-Tamb; %[C] Calculated Temperature Rise %Second Assumption is not valid

%% Tmax-Tamb=131.3444 %[C] Third Assumption for Temperature Rise t1=60^2/24; %[s] Brake was used 24 times per hour(Assumption) hr=11.1; %[W/m^2*C] Radiation Component of Heat Transfer Coefficient(Shigley Figure 16.24a) hc=7.1; %[W/m^2*C] Convective Component of Heat Transfer Coefficient(Shigley Figure 16.24a) MAS=12; %[m/s] Mean Air Speed (Assumption)(Shigley Example 16.5) fv=6; %[] Multiplying Factor(Shigley Figure 16.24b) hcr=hr+fv*hc; %[W/m^2*C] Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient A=4*pi*R_disc^2*10^-6; %[m^2] Lateral Surface Area W=m_disc; %[kg] Mass of the Brake Disc beta=(hcr*A)/(W*Cp); %[1/s] Tmax=Tamb+(delta_T/exp(-beta*t1)); %[C] Maximum Temperature Temp_Rise=Tmax-Tamb; %[C] Calculated Temperature Rise %Third Assumption is not valid

%% Tmax-Tamb=130.3379 t1=60^2/24 hr=11;

%[C] Fourth Assumption for Temperature Rise %[s] Brake was used 24 times per hour(Assumption) %[W/m^2*C] Radiation Component of Heat Transfer Coefficient(Shigley Figure 16.24a) hc=7.1; %[W/m^2*C] Convective Component of Heat Transfer Coefficient(Shigley Figure 16.24a) MAS=12; %[m/s] Mean Air Speed !!!Assumption(Shigley Example 16.5) fv=6; %[] Multiplying Factor(Shigley Figure 16.24b) hcr=hr+fv*hc %[W/m^2*C] Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient A=4*pi*R_disc^2*10^-6 %[m^2] Lateral Surface Area W=m_disc %[kg] Mass of the Brake Disc beta=(hcr*A)/(W*Cp) %[1/s] Tmax=Tamb+(delta_T/exp(-beta*t1)) %[C] Maximum Temperature Temp_Rise=Tmax-Tamb %[C] Calculated Temperature Rise %Fourth Assumption is valid because the assumption and the calculated temperature rise is close enough to each other. %Actual temperature rise=130.2711

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7. REFERENCES
Shigley's Mechanical Engineering Design 8th Edition (R.G.Budynas, J.K.Nisbett) Brake Design and Safety 2nd Edition (Rudolf Limpert) OM-332 Lecture Notes Performance of Road Vehicles (Prof. Dr. Y.Samim nlsoy)

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CAT DRAWINGS

Disc

Caliper

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Brake Pad

Brake Assembly

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