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https://pt.scribd.com/doc/61390861/Haskell98Report
08/01/2011
text
original
Simon Peyton Jones (editor)
Copyright notice. The authors and publisher intend this Report to belong to the entire Haskell community, and grant permission to copy and distribute it for any purpose, provided that it is reproduced in its entirety, including this Notice. Modiﬁed versions of this Report may also be copied and distributed for any purpose, provided that the modiﬁed version is clearly presented as such, and that it does not claim to be a deﬁnition of the language Haskell 98.
Contents
I The Haskell 98 Language
1 Introduction 1.1 Program Structure . 1.2 The Haskell Kernel 1.3 Values and Types . 1.4 Namespaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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3 3 4 4 5 7 7 8 9 9 11 12 13 15 17 17 19 19 20 21 21 22 22 23 23 24 25 26 27 27 28 29
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Lexical Structure 2.1 Notational Conventions . . . 2.2 Lexical Program Structure . 2.3 Comments . . . . . . . . . . 2.4 Identiﬁers and Operators . . 2.5 Numeric Literals . . . . . . 2.6 Character and String Literals 2.7 Layout . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Expressions 3.1 Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 Variables, Constructors, Operators, and Literals 3.3 Curried Applications and Lambda Abstractions 3.4 Operator Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5 Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.6 Conditionals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.7 Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.8 Tuples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.9 Unit Expressions and Parenthesized Expressions 3.10 Arithmetic Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.11 List Comprehensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.12 Let Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.13 Case Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.14 Do Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.15 Datatypes with Field Labels . . . . . . . . . . 3.15.1 Field Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.15.2 Construction Using Field Labels . . . . 3.15.3 Updates Using Field Labels . . . . . . i
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ii 3.16 Expression TypeSignatures . . . . . . . . . . 3.17 Pattern Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.17.1 Patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.17.2 Informal Semantics of Pattern Matching 3.17.3 Formal Semantics of Pattern Matching . 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CONTENTS
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Declarations and Bindings 4.1 Overview of Types and Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.1 Kinds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.2 Syntax of Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.3 Syntax of Class Assertions and Contexts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.4 Semantics of Types and Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2 UserDeﬁned Datatypes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.1 Algebraic Datatype Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.2 Type Synonym Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.3 Datatype Renamings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3 Type Classes and Overloading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.1 Class Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.2 Instance Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.3 Derived Instances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.4 Ambiguous Types, and Defaults for Overloaded Numeric Operations 4.4 Nested Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.1 Type Signatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.2 Fixity Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.3 Function and Pattern Bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.3.1 Function bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.3.2 Pattern bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5 Static Semantics of Function and Pattern Bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.1 Dependency Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.2 Generalization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.3 Context Reduction Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.4 Monomorphism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.5 The Monomorphism Restriction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.6 Kind Inference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Modules 5.1 Module Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2 Export Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3 Import Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.1 What is imported . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.2 Qualiﬁed import . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.3 Local aliases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.4 Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4 Importing and Exporting Instance Declarations 5.5 Name Clashes and Closure . . . . . . . . . . .
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CONTENTS
5.5.1 Qualiﬁed names . . . . . 5.5.2 Name clashes . . . . . . . 5.5.3 Closure . . . . . . . . . . Standard Prelude . . . . . . . . . 5.6.1 The Prelude Module . . 5.6.2 Shadowing Prelude Names Separate Compilation . . . . . . . Abstract Datatypes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
iii 72 72 74 74 75 75 76 76 79 79 79 79 80 80 81 81 81 81 81 82 82 84 85 86 87 88 89 89 90 90 91 92 93 93 95 95 97 98
5.6
5.7 5.8 6
Predeﬁned Types and Classes 6.1 Standard Haskell Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.1 Booleans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.2 Characters and Strings . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.3 Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.4 Tuples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.5 The Unit Datatype . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.6 Function Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.7 The IO and IOError Types . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.8 Other Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2 Strict Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3 Standard Haskell Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.1 The Eq Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.2 The Ord Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.3 The Read and Show Classes . . . . . . . . . 6.3.4 The Enum Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.5 The Functor Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.6 The Monad Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.7 The Bounded Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4 Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.1 Numeric Literals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.2 Arithmetic and NumberTheoretic Operations 6.4.3 Exponentiation and Logarithms . . . . . . . 6.4.4 Magnitude and Sign . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.5 Trigonometric Functions . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.6 Coercions and Component Extraction . . . .
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7
Basic Input/Output 7.1 Standard I/O Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2 Sequencing I/O Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3 Exception Handling in the I/O Monad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Standard Prelude 101 8.1 Prelude PreludeList . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 8.2 Prelude PreludeText . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 8.3 Prelude PreludeIO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Literate comments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Derived instances of Enum . . . . . . . 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 174 174 175 176 176 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Specialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Reading functions . . . . . . . . . 170 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Derived instances of Bounded . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Inlining . .4 Derived instances of Read and Show 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Lexical Syntax . . . . . .2 Incremental Array Updates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Derived instances of Eq and Ord . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Array Construction . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Derived Arrays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Deriving Instances of Ix . . . . . . . . 153 13 Complex Numbers 155 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . .1 Library Complex . .1 Library Ratio . . . . .3 Miscellaneous . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14. . . . . . . . .5 An Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Library Numeric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Indexing Operations 169 15. . . .2 Library Ix . . . . . CONTENTS 127 127 128 130 134 136 141 142 142 143 143 145 . . . . . . . . . . .5 ContextFree Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 11.1 Accumulated Arrays 16. . . . . . . . 16. . . . .3 Layout . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . 16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Showing functions 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 16 Arrays 16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 160 161 161 161 . . . . .4 Library Array . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 14 Numeric 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Compiler Pragmas 147 11. . . . . . . . . . 10. . .iv 9 Syntax Reference 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Notational Conventions 9. . 10 Speciﬁcation of Derived Instances 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . 147 II The Haskell 98 Libraries 149 12 Rational Numbers 151 12. . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17. . . . . .5 Detecting the End of Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20. . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . 194 19 Character Utilities 195 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Standard Handles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.1 Naming conventions 20. . . . . . . . . 197 20 Monad Utilities 20. . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Predicates . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 The “By” operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Class MonadPlus . . . . . .5 Text Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . 17. . . . . . . . . .2 “Set” operations . . 21 Input/Output 21. . . . . . . . . . . 201 203 203 204 206 209 212 213 213 214 214 214 214 215 215 215 215 217 217 217 217 218 218 218 218 219 219 219 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . .CONTENTS 17 List Utilities 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . .9. . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . 18 Maybe Utilities 193 18. . . . . . . 21. . . . 21. . . 21. . . v 179 182 182 183 183 184 184 185 185 186 . . . . . . . .1 I/O Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Opening Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Indexing lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 SemiClosed Handles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Repositioning Handles . . . . . .3 Reading Ahead . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Reading Input .3. . . . . . .9 Text Input and Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Library Monad . 21. . . . . .4 Determining the Size of a File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . .2 Closing Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Flushing Buffers . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17. . . . . . . . . . . 17. . . . . . . . . .3 File locking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Files and Handles . . . . . . . . .7 The “generic” operations 17. . . . . . . . . . .1 Library Maybe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 List transformations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17. . . . . . . . . . . .6 Buffering Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Reading The Entire Input . . . 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Checking for Input . . . . . .9 Library List . . . . . .2. . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Seeking to a new Position 21. . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Library Char .8 Handle Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Further “zip” operations . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Opening and Closing Files . . . . . . . . . . . .4 unfoldr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Revisiting an I/O Position 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . and the StdGen generator 27. . . . . 241 243 245 247 248 249 251 . . . . . .1 Library Time . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219 219 220 221 223 229 24 Dates and Times 231 24. . . 21. . . . . . . . . . .10Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27. . . . . . . . . . . . .10. . . . .vi 21. Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 The Random class . . . . . . .3 The global random number generator . . . . . 240 26 CPU Time 27 Random Numbers 27. . . .2 Copying Files . . . . . . . . . . 22 Directory Functions 23 System Functions . . . . . . . . . . .10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234 25 Locale 239 25. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 The RandomGen class.1 Library Locale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Summing Two Numbers 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . .11Library IO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1956 In September of 1987 a meeting was held at the conference on Functional Programming Languages and Computer Architecture (FPCA ’87) in Portland. 4. This document describes the result of that committee’s efforts: a purely functional programming language called Haskell. Thus fullness of exposition is necessary for accuracy. It should reduce unnecessary diversity in functional programming languages. It should be completely described via the publication of a formal syntax and semantics. . May 31. It should be suitable for teaching. a stable foundation for real applications development. and most of these. providing faster communication of new ideas. and excessive condensation would be false economy here. Curry whose work provides the logical basis for much of ours. Since some of our fellow sinners are among the most careful and competent logicians on the contemporary scene. to discuss an unfortunate situation in the functional programming community: there had come into being more than a dozen nonstrict. Curry and Robert Feys in the Preface to Combinatory Logic [2]. and a vehicle through which others would be encouraged to use functional languages. including building large systems. even more than it is ordinarily.PREFACE vii Preface “Some half dozen persons have written technically on combinatory logic. 5. research. 2. Oregon. Goals The committee’s primary goal was to design a language that satisﬁed these constraints: 1. It should be freely available. Anyone should be permitted to implement the language and distribute it to whomever they please. It should be based on ideas that enjoy a wide consensus. all similar in expressive power and semantic underpinnings. There was a strong consensus at this meeting that more widespread use of this class of functional languages was being hampered by the lack of a common language. It was decided that a committee should be formed to design such a language. purely functional programming languages. have published something erroneous. we regard this as evidence that the subject is refractory. named after the logician Haskell B. and applications. 3. including ourselves.” Haskell B.
it was decided that a stable variant of Haskell was needed. this stable language is the subject of this Report. The original Haskell Report covered only the language. with the following goals: Correct typographical errors. Clarify obscure passages. The Haskell 98 Language and Library Reports were published in February 1999. This task turned out to be much. As Haskell becomes more widely used. and removing some pitfalls for the unwary. and is called “Haskell 98”. A separate effort was therefore begun by a distinct (but overlapping) committee to ﬁx the Haskell 98 Libraries. and hoped that extensions or variants of the language would appear. If these program were to be portable. I took on the role of gathering and acting on these corrections. Haskell has indeed evolved continuously since its original publication. Resolve ambiguities. It is intended to be a “stable” language in sense the implementors are committed to supporting Haskell 98 exactly as speciﬁed. By the middle of 1997. make small changes to make the overall language more consistent.4. so every change was instead proposed to the entire Haskell mailing list. together with a standard library called the Prelude. incorporating experimental features. At the 1997 Haskell Workshop in Amsterdam. the Report has been scrutinised by more and more people. This document is the outcome of this process of reﬁnement. With reluctance. there had been four iterations of the language design (the latest at that point being Haskell 1. Revising the Haskell 98 Reports After a year or two. for the foreseeable future. and constitutes the ofﬁcial speciﬁcation of both. It is not a . much larger than I had anticipated. It includes both the Haskell 98 Language Report and the Libraries Report. Haskell 98 was conceived as a relatively minor tidyup of Haskell 1. By the time Haskell 98 was stabilised. it had become clear that many programs need access to a larger set of library functions (notably concerning input/output and simple interaction with the operating system).4). making some simpliﬁcations. The original committees ceased to exist when the original Haskell 98 Reports were published. many typographical errors and infelicities had been spotted. a set of libraries would have to be standardised too. and I have adopted hundreds of (mostly small) changes as a result of their feedback.viii PREFACE Haskell 98: language and libraries The committee intended that Haskell would serve as a basis for future research in language design.
at the time of writing there are Haskell implementations that support: Syntactic sugar. can do so in the knowledge that Haskell 98 will continue to exist. including: . and some familiarity with functional languages is assumed. Instead. lexically scoped type variables. existential types. exceptions.PREFACE ix tutorial on programming in Haskell such as the ‘Gentle Introduction’ [6]. local universal polymorphism and arbitrary ranktypes. concurrency. There is more besides. including: pattern guards. recursive donotation. The entire text of both Reports is available online (see “Haskell resources” below). it provides a stable point of reference. For example. going well beyond Haskell 98. Haskell 98 does not impede these developments. Control extensions. including: monadic state. or use Haskell for teaching. so that those who wish to write text books. Type system innovations. including: multiparameter type classes. functional dependencies. Haskell Resources The Haskell web site http://haskell. Extensions to Haskell 98 Haskell continues to evolve. metaprogramming facilities.org gives access to many useful resources.
Details of the Haskell mailing list. suggest improvements to. via the Haskell mailing list. Contributed Haskell tools and libraries. Here they are. University of Nottingham. Implementations of Haskell. and criticise the language or its presentation in the report. Applications of Haskell. Tutorial material on Haskell.x PREFACE Online versions of the language and library deﬁnitions. with their afﬁliation(s) for the relevant period: Arvind (MIT) Lennart Augustsson (Chalmers University) Dave Barton (Mitre Corp) Brian Boutel (Victoria University of Wellington) Warren Burton (Simon Fraser University) Jon Fairbairn (University of Cambridge) Joseph Fasel (Los Alamos National Laboratory) Andy Gordon (University of Cambridge) Maria Guzman (Yale University) Kevin Hammond (Uniiversity of Glasgow) Ralf Hinze (University of Bonn) Paul Hudak [editor] (Yale University) John Hughes [editor] (University of Glasgow. by an active community of researchers and application programmers. Oregon Graduate Institute) Erik Meijer (Utrecht University) Rishiyur Nikhil (MIT) John Peterson (Yale University) Simon Peyton Jones [editor] (University of Glasgow. You are welcome to comment on. including a complete list of all the differences between Haskell 98 as published in February 1999 and this revised version. Oregon Graduate Institute) Dick Kieburtz (Oregon Graduate Institute) John Launchbury (University of Glasgow. devoted a huge amount of time and energy to the language. Those who served on the Language and Library committees. Microsoft Research Ltd) . Chalmers University) Thomas Johnsson (Chalmers University) Mark Jones (Yale University. Building the language Haskell was created. in particular. and continues to be sustained.
Backus’s FP [1]. They are as follows: Kris Aerts. Richard Kelsey. Magnus Carlsson. Stef Joosten. Julian Seward. Jan Skibinski. Simon B. Thomas Hallgren. Malcolm Wallace. Matt Harden. Simon Marlow. Pat Fasel. Mark Carroll. Patrik Jansson. Ralf Hinze. Sten Anderson. Cordy Hall. Ross Paterson. Nick North. Although it is difﬁcult to pinpoint the origin of many ideas. Andy Moran. Orjan Johansen. Craig Dickson. Christian Maeder. Alexander Jacobson. Andy Gill. Stephen Price. Wolfram Kahl. Sisal. Tommy Thorn. Jim Mattson. Michael Marte. SiauCheng Khoo. Patrick Sansom. Dave Parrott. Graeme Moss. Klemens Hemm. Jerzy Karczmarczuk. In addition. Laura Dutton. Christian Sievers. Sergey Mechveliani. Ian Lynagh. Keith Wansbrough. dozens of other people made helpful contributions. Rinus Plasmeijer. Josef Svenningsson. John Meacham. Duke Briscoe. Libor Skarvada. Randy Hudson. Sven Panne. Paul Callaghan. Chris Okasaki. Satish Thatte. Andreas Rossberg. and others on the lambda calculus. Landin’s ISWIM. Lauren Smith. Paul Otto. Ian Poole. Mark Lillibridge. David Tweed. Without these forerunners Haskell would not have been possible. Tony Warnock. Hans Aberg. Rosser. Michael Schneider.PREFACE Mike Reeve (Imperial College) Alastair Reid (University of Glasgow) Colin Runciman (University of York) Philip Wadler [editor] (University of Glasgow) David Wise (Indiana University) Jonathan Young (Yale University) xi Those marked [editor] served as the coordinating editor for one or more revisions of the language. Curry. Mark Hall. Randy Michelsen. Id. Tom Thomson. 1 Miranda is a trademark of Research Software Ltd. Felix Schroeter. Mike Joy. Rick Mohr. Chris Dornan. Chris Clack. Michael Fryers. Ketil Malde. Henrik Nilsson. Franklin Chen. Nic Holt. Chris Fasel. Jones. Clean. Tom Blenko. some small but many substantial. Feliks Kluzniak. Tony Davie. Simon Thompson. Amir Kishon. . Dean Herington. Jan Kort. aside from the important foundational work laid by Church. Bob Hiromoto. Guy Cousineau. AnttiJuhani Kaijanaho. Nimish Shah. Bjorn Lisper. Stuart Wray. Mike Gunter. Sigbjorn Finne. it is right to acknowledge the inﬂuence of many noteworthy programming languages developed over the years. Kent Karlsson. Ian Holyer. and Bonnie Yantis. and Turner’s series of languages culminating in Miranda 1 . Finally. ML and Standard ML. Pablo Lopez. Ken Takusagawa. APL. Arthur Norman. Manuel Chakravarty. Fergus Henderson. Richard Bird. Raman Sundaresh. Gary Memovich. Larne Pekowsky. Bjarte M. Hope and Hope . Olaf Lubeck. Dylan Thurston. Jeff Lewis. Pradeep Varma. John Robson. the following languages were particularly inﬂuential: Lisp (and its modernday incarnations Common Lisp and Scheme). Carl Witty. George Russell. Michael Webber. Gofer. Jose Labra. Stefan Kahrs. Robert Jeschofnik. Marcin Kowalczyk. Østvold. Olaf Chitil. Mike Thyer. Mark Tullsen. Stephen Blott. Sandra Loosemore.
xii Simon Peyton Jones Cambridge. September 2002 PREFACE .
Part I The Haskell 98 Language 1 .
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as well as how it relates to the organization of the rest of the report. At the bottom level is Haskell’s lexical structure. Declarations deﬁne things such as ordinary values. a module system. expressions are at the heart of Haskell programming “in the small. and ﬂoatingpoint numbers. 3 .Chapter 1 Introduction Haskell is a general purpose. purely functional programming language incorporating many recent innovations in programming language design. 1. etc. interpreted. compiled. We leave as implementation dependent the ways in which Haskell programs are to be manipulated. and a rich set of primitive datatypes. of which there are several kinds.” 4. At the topmost level a Haskell program is a set of modules. nonstrict semantics. a monadic I/O system. and ﬁxity information. 2. userdeﬁned algebraic datatypes. type classes. datatypes. Modules provide a way to control namespaces and to reuse software in large programs. deﬁned in Chapter 2. 3.e. This includes such issues as the nature of programming environments and the error messages returned for undeﬁned programs (i. The lexical structure captures the concrete representation of Haskell programs in text ﬁles.1 Program Structure In this section. Haskell provides higherorder functions. all described in Chapter 4. including lists. arbitrary and ﬁxed precision integers. arrays. The top level of a module consists of a collection of declarations. described in Chapter 3. An expression denotes a value and has a static type. list comprehensions. static polymorphic typing. Haskell is both the culmination and solidiﬁcation of many years of research on nonstrict functional languages. At the next lower level are expressions. we describe the abstract syntactic and semantic structure of Haskell. This report deﬁnes the syntax for Haskell programs and an informal abstract semantics for the meaning of such programs. patternmatching. described in Chapter 5. programs that formally evaluate to ). 1.
Generally the italicized names are mnemonic. which discusses the I/O facility in Haskell (i. implementations will probably try to provide useful information about errors. and pragmas supported by most Haskell compilers. However. Also. for declarations. ¥ ¢ § £ ¤ ¡ ¢ ¦ 1. and Chapter 7. etc. so the language includes no mechanism for detecting or acting upon errors. In this Report. If these translations are applied exhaustively. See Section 3.2 The Haskell Kernel Haskell has adopted many of the convenient syntactic structures that have become popular in functional programming. 1. it is essentially a slightly sugared variant of the lambda calculus with a straightforward denotational semantics.e. Values and types are not mixed in Haskell. the result is a program written in a small subset of Haskell that we call the Haskell kernel. This modular design facilitates reasoning about Haskell programs and provides useful guidelines for implementors of the language. such as for expresin if sions. INTRODUCTION This report proceeds bottomup with respect to Haskell’s syntactic structure. Errors in Haskell are semantically equivalent to . the meaning of such syntactic sugar is given by translation into simpler constructs. they are not distinguishable from nontermination. the speciﬁcation of derived instances.1. and permits not only parametric polymorphism (using a traditional HindleyMilner type structure) but also ad hoc polymorphism. how Haskell programs communicate with the outside world). there are several chapters describing the Prelude. as then else . literate programming.3 Values and Types An expression evaluates to a value and has a static type. The translation of each syntactic structure into the kernel is given as the syntax is introduced. The chapters not mentioned above are Chapter 6. Although the kernel is not formally speciﬁed. Technically. the type system allows userdeﬁned datatypes of various sorts. the concrete syntax. which describes the standard builtin datatypes and classes in Haskell.4 CHAPTER 1. However. or overloading (using type classes). Examples of Haskell program fragments in running text are given in typewriter font: let x = 1 z = x+y in z+1 “Holes” in program fragments representing arbitrary pieces of Haskell code are written in italics. . for types.
class. and module names refer to modules. Names for variables and type variables are identiﬁers beginning with lowercase letters or underscore. and type classes refer to entities related to the type system. Int may simultaneously be the name of a module. These are the only constraints. 2. the other four kinds of names are identiﬁers beginning with uppercase letters. NAMESPACES 5 1.4 Namespaces There are six kinds of names in Haskell: those for variables and constructors denote values.4. An identiﬁer must not be used as the name of a type constructor and a class in the same scope. for example. There are two constraints on naming: 1. type constructors. and constructor within a single scope. . those for type variables.1.
6 CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION .
This syntax depends on properties of the Unicode characters as deﬁned by the Unicode consortium. Haskell compilers are expected to make use of new versions of Unicode as they are made available. with productions having the form: Care must be taken in distinguishing metalogical syntax such as and from concrete terminal syntax (given in typewriter font) such as  and [. there is no implicit space between juxtaposed symbols. 2. Haskell uses the Unicode [11] character set. we describe the lowlevel lexical structure of Haskell. BNFlike syntax is used throughout.1 Notational Conventions These notational conventions are used for presenting syntax: optional zero or more repetitions grouping choice difference—elements generated by except those generated by fibonacci terminal syntax in typewriter font Because the syntax in this section describes lexical syntax.. Most of the details may be skipped in a ﬁrst reading of the report. although usually the context makes the distinction clear. source programs are currently biased toward the ASCII character set used in earlier versions of Haskell. all whitespace is expressed explicitly. However.].Chapter 2 Lexical Structure In this chapter. 7 § ¢ £¡ ¨ ¥¥8 8 8 1 &§ ¢ £¡ A !§ 7 3¢ 8 8 8 @¥¥9 £ § )'% $ " 0(&§#!§ £§ ¢§ ¡ £¡ ¢ ¢ ¦ £¤ ¡ §¥ § § £¡ §¥ § § £ ¦¤ ¢ ¡ ¨ ¦¤ ¢ ¡ ©§¥ § § £ ¢ £ ¡ 7 3¢ ¡§ 7 3¢ 6 4¤ ¦ 2 5 § 3©¦ ..
[ ] ` { } ¤ ¤© ¤ ¥ § 2 " § ! ¢ §¢ © ¥¢ ¤ ¤ © ¦ 7 ¦ 43¤ 3§ ¢ 32 ¡ © ¢ § ¦ ¨¦¤ © § ¥ £ ¤¢ ¡ ¤¥ § ¦ § ¤ § § 7 3§ ¢ ¤ 7 4¦ ¢ ¡ ¢ 7 .2 Lexical Program Structure 8 ( ) .§§ § § ¦ £$ § § § © ¢ 6 6 7 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 §§ § t § 6 7 2 ' 4 3 ' ¦ £$ © ¦ ) 4 2 B2 © ¦§ 7 £ ¦ ¨ 3¦ ¢ )A 98 7 64 #"@¦"%5 3¦ ¢ ¦ 1§¤ 0 0 4 2 ¦ § ¨)§ § ¥ ( § ¦£$ ¦ ¥ 0% ¦ § §£%¢ ¤ % ¦ § 5¤ %§ ¤ ¦¤ $§ 0 ¦ $ ¦ 7 7 § © § ¤ ¤ ¦ § £ ¦ ¡ ' ¢ 7 4 '#4 ¢ 2 ¦ ¤§ ¢ 4 ¨32 ¤ ¦ 4 & $ © § ¥ %§ § ¨¦£ ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¥ ¢ & $ © § ¥ %§ § ¨¦£ ¦ ¦ § #¦ § ¢ ¤ ¤ © 2 4 © ¦ 332 ¡ 2.˜ any Unicode symbol or punctuation y B 2 4 3 t ¢ h h h h A v f 4 x"$ wg " 5 7 2 ' 4 3 t § ¦ £$ § 7 2 ' 4 3 t © ¢ A B Z any uppercase or titlecase Unicode letter _ : " ’ %¤ ¢ u 8 8 8 @¥¥9 ¦ £$ 2¤ ¢ u ¢ © 2 3© 4 7 ' § £$ 2¤ ¦ ¢u © %¤ ¢ ¢ u ¢7 %¤ S¢RQFP§ 4 32 ¦ © G E C ¦ 4 _ a b z any Unicode lowercase letter 77 !3¢ 4 t § 8 8 8 @¥¥9 ¦ £$ 4 © 77 03¢ ¢ t 4 § £$ ¦ 703¢ 7 4 t © 77 !3¢ §¢© t 4 77 !3¢ § #¥ ¡3 §¢ ¦ ¤ G E QFC © G E S¢RQFC ¢ © G E C 4 ¡ IHFD32 © ¥ © ¢ ¦ § ¦¥ 4 32 ¦ 4 4 2 B2 © 4 2 ¥ ¥2 ¦ 7 ¡ © ¥ © ¦ ¦ ¥ 4 4 ¢ 2 § § ¨)§ § ¥ ( ¦ £$ ' ¨¢ § © ¤ ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¥ ¢ & $ § © § ¥ %¤ § ¨¦£ ¢ ¤£¡ © § ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¤¢ ¡ 1§3¥0 0 4 ¤ 2 ¦ § ¥ ¤ ' #¢ ¢2 ¦ § 0 ¦ ¦¤ $§ §£%¢ ¤7 ¦§ £ ¦ 7 6 6 6 6 7 ¤ 3¢ ¥ § ¡ § 7 3¢ 7 © ¥ ¡ 4 ¢ 4 ¤ ¡&¤ 7 2 ¢ ¡ . / < = > ? \ ˆ  .{} a carriage return a line feed a vertical tab a form feed a space a horizontal tab any Unicode character deﬁned as whitespace CHAPTER 2. . LEXICAL STRUCTURE : " ’ 7 ¥ 4 §© § © § § § 2 43© 2¤ ¦ 7 ' 7 3¢ ¡ ¢ 7 § !3¢ ¤ 77 § © ¨¥ '¨ ¡ ¤ ¢ ¥ § ¨¢£¡ ¤ ¨¥ §¢ ¤ § ¥ ¨¦£ § ¢ ¡T ) cRasY`WXrpq7"9 g 24"9 A g hi7¡9 gA " 3¦db`XV GH§¢ C U f f 9 e c a Y W U E ¦ 2 ¡ ! # $ % & * + .
the longest possible lexeme satisfying the production is read. each “{” is matched by a corresponding occurrence of “}”. A nested comment begins with “{” and ends with “}”.4 Identiﬁers and Operators ) ¥ v ¥ £ f ¦f ¤¢24 f ¡ §§ 8 8 8 @¥¥9 § ¦ %¤ ¢7 8¥8¥8 § § § ¦ 8 8 8 @¥¥9 77 !3¢ 4 §© 77 !3¢ ¢ ¤£¡ 8 8 8 @¥¥9 4 §© 4 ¢ ¥ S 7 6 6 6 6 6 §§ § ¦ § §§ § § § S ¥ ¢ §§§ § ¤ 2 ¦ £$ ¢ © ¢ 0 1 9 any Unicode decimal digit 0 1 7 A F a f ’ . So. “>” or “” do not begin a comment. for example. although case is a reserved word.3. although = is reserved.3 Comments Comments are valid whitespace. Within a nested comment. are not valid in Haskell programs and should result in a lexing G E HTC Characters not in the category error.g. however “foo” does start a comment. hence. An ordinary comment begins with a sequence of two or more consecutive dashes (e. Nested comments may be nested to any depth: any occurrence of the string “{” within the nested comment starts a new nested comment. COMMENTS 9 Lexical analysis should use the “maximal munch” rule: at each point. a sequence of dashes has no special signiﬁcance. cases is not. Instead. and. The comment itself is not lexically analysed. 2.2. © § ¥ § ¨¦£ Any kind of is also a proper delimiter for lexemes. the character sequences “{” and “}” have no special signiﬁcance. the ﬁrst unmatched occurrence of the string “}” terminates the nested comment. == and ˜= are not. in a nested comment. In an ordinary comment. because both of these are legal lexemes. as explained in Chapter 11.or } within a string or within an endofline comment in that code will interfere with the nested comments. For example. terminated by “}”. If some code is commented out using a nested comment. The sequence of dashes must not form part of a legal lexeme. No legal lexeme starts with “{”. ) and extends to the following newline. “{” starts a nested comment despite the trailing dashes. then any occurrence of {. 2. Similarly. Nested comments are also used for compiler pragmas.
4): those that begin with a lowercase letter (variable identiﬁers) and those that begin with an uppercase letter (constructor identiﬁers).5). this makes its treatment uniform with other parts of list syntax.10 CHAPTER 2. digits. Identiﬁers are lexically distinguished into two namespaces (Section 1. and Name are three distinct identiﬁers (the ﬁrst two are variable identiﬁers. underscores. all operators are inﬁx. Other than the special syntax for preﬁx negation. Compilers that offer warnings for unused identiﬁers are encouraged to suppress such warnings for identiﬁers beginning with underscore. Notice that a colon by itself. and are lexically distinguished into two namespaces (Section 1. In the remainder of the report six different kinds of names will be used: variables constructors type variables type constructors type classes modules ) 4 f ¡$ 4 ¡ ¥ h " 9 f £ f 4 f S¥ X¤¢%w5 §§ ) " 9¡¦fX¤ f24w5¡§ 2 3© ¥ £ f 4 4 ©7 ' 2 4 © 7 ' § @ ¦ %¤ 7 2 ¢7 ' 77 !3¢ 4 §© ¦ ¤ § ¦32 ¦ ¦32 ¦ 32 ¦ ¦ 2¤ § § § ¢ ¢7 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 2 ¥¢ ¤ ¤ © ¡ ¦ 43¦ 2 © 4 S¤ © ¢ ¦ ¦ § ¥¢ ¤ © ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¤ § ¦ 72 3¥ %§ ¦ © § § § ¢¦ 2 ¤ ¦ 2 2 4 %§ ¢ %§ ¤ . is reserved solely for use as the Haskell list constructor. “_” all by itself is a reserved identiﬁer. “_”. Identiﬁers are case sensitive: name. naMe. An operator symbol starting with any other character is an ordinary identiﬁer. such as “[]” and “[a. the last is a constructor identiﬁer). “:”.b]”. as deﬁned above. and single quotes. This allows programmers to use “_foo” for a parameter that they expect to be unused. used as wild card in patterns. LEXICAL STRUCTURE ’ case class data default deriving do else if import in infix infixl infixr instance let module newtype of then type where _ An identiﬁer consists of a letter followed by zero or more letters. All of the standard inﬁx operators are just predeﬁned symbols and may be rebound.. However. is treated as a lowercase letter. and can occur wherever a lowercase letter can. : : : . Underscore.> @ ˜ => Operator symbols are formed from one or more symbol characters. although each inﬁx operator can be used in a section to yield partially applied operators (see Section 3. : :: = \  <.4): An operator symbol starting with a colon is a constructor.
F.5.’) F . constructor. Prelude. (two tokens) F. Sample lexical analyses are shown below. also. A name may optionally be qualiﬁed in certain circumstances by prepending them with a module identiﬁer. ¦ ¤ § `¨ Since a qualiﬁed name is a lexeme.4.g (qualiﬁed ‘g’) f . . Lexes as this f . the other four do not. type constructor and type class names. (two tokens) The qualiﬁer does not change the syntactic treatment of a name. Qualiﬁed names are discussed in detail in Chapter 5. no spaces are allowed between the qualiﬁer and the name.g f..5 Numeric Literals §§ § § 2 § § § 2 §§ § § § § § ¦ ¦ 6 7 ¢ ¦ ¢ § 2 73§ ¢ 4 4§ ¨ e E +  ¨ § 32 ¦ ¦ ¢ ¡ .4. ... NUMERIC LITERALS 11 Variables and type variables are represented by identiﬁers beginning with small letters. . . variables and constructors have inﬁx forms.. g (three tokens) F. 2. 4§ ¢ ¡ ¥ 0X 7 ¢ ¦ ¢ ¡ 7 3¢ 3¢ 7 § ¦ 32 ¡ ¦ ¢ 4§ ¦ 7 4 § ¡ 3¢ 4 § ¦ 7 3¢ ¦ § 7 ¢2 ¦ 4§ ¢ ¡ ¥ 0o 0x 0O 7 3¢ 43332 ¨ © ¦ 4 © 3¤ `¨ ¦ 72 3¥ %§ ¨ © § ¦ 32 ¨ ¢ %§ ¨ § § S ¢ . Namespaces are also discussed in Section 1. . for example. but not type variables or module names. and the other four by identiﬁers beginning with capitals.2). F.+ is an inﬁx operator with the same ﬁxity as the deﬁnition of + in the Prelude (Section 4. This f. ¦ ¢ ¦ ¢ § 2 7 ¢ 4§ 7 3¢ ¦ ¥ ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § § § ¡ ¥ ¢ 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 4§ 7 6 3¢ 6 6 § ¦ ¦ ¥ 32 4 4 © 3¤ ¤ § ¦ § © ¦ 32 ¦ ¤ ¦ 37 2 © ¦ § § § ¦ 32 ¢ ¢ %§ ¢ ¡ 2 ¢ S ¥ %§ ¢ ¡ ¦ ! . (qualiﬁed ‘.2.g F. This applies to variable.
4.1. A ﬂoating literal must contain digits both before and after the decimal point. “form feed” (\f). LEXICAL STRUCTURE There are two distinct kinds of numeric literals: integer and ﬂoating. Negative numeric literals are discussed in Section 3. numeric escape characters in strings consist of all consecutive digits and may be of arbitrary length. this ensures that a decimal point cannot be mistaken for another use of the dot character. octal (e. as in "Hello". “backspace” (\b). The escape character \& is provided as a “null character” to allow strings such as "\137\&9" and "\SO\&H" to be constructed (both of length two).2. and “vertical tab” (\v). similarly. Escape characters for the Unicode character set. For example. and strings between double quotes. as in ’a’. but must be escaped in a character. the one ambiguous ASCII escape code. Note that a single quote ’ may be used in a string. The typing of numeric literals is discussed in Section 6. are also provided. 2. Thus "\&" is equivalent to "" and the character ’\&’ is disallowed. “carriage return” (\r). Further equivalences of characters are deﬁned in Section 6. A string may include a “gap”—two backslants enclosing white characters—which is ignored. © 7 3¢ 4§ ¤ ¥ ¢ 4§ ¢¡ ¥ § 2 ¦ ¢ 7 3¢ ¦ 7 ¢ © © ¡5¢ ¡ 5¢ ¢ ¨£¡ ) © © ¡ 5¢ ¢ ¨£¡ § §#¥¦£ ¤ ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¥ © y ¢ 2¤ ¢ u ¢ ¤§ ¦ © © § ¨¥ § ¨¥ ¤ ¢ ¦ ¤ ¡§¢ ¤ ¡ §¢ 7 ¥ 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 § @§ © ¢ © ¤ ¥ ¢ © ¡ §¢ #¦ § ¤ § © 7 ¤ ¤ ¡ ¤ § 5¢¦ ¢ ¢ ¥ ¥ . Escape codes may be used in characters and strings to represent special characters. “horizontal tab” (\t).4. Consistent with the “maximal munch” rule. Floating literals are always decimal. \x37) representations are also allowed. including control characters such as \ˆX. octal (preﬁxed by 0o or 0O) or hexadecimal notation (preﬁxed by 0x or 0X). The category also includes portable representations for the characters “alert” (\a). but must be escaped in a string.g. Integer literals may be given in decimal (the default). a double quote " may be used in a character. This allows one to write long strings on more than one line by writing a backslant at the end of one line and at the start of the next. \ must always be escaped. Similarly.12 CHAPTER 2. “new line” (\n). Numeric escapes such as \137 are used to designate the character with decimal representation 137. \o137) and hexadecimal (e. is parsed as a string of length 1.1.g.6 Character and String Literals ’ ’ \ \& ’ " " " \ \ o x a b f n r t v \ " ’ & ˆ NUL SOH STX ETX EOT ENQ ACK BEL BS HT LF VT FF CR SO SI DLE DC1 DC2 DC3 DC4 NAK SYN ETB CAN EM SUB ESC FS GS RS US SP DEL [ \ ] ˆ _ \ \ ¢ ) h ) h §§ Character literals are written between single quotes. "\SOH".
where the . Because layout is not required. The layout (or “offside”) rule takes effect whenever the open brace is omitted after the keyword where. The layout rule matches only those open braces that it has inserted. a single newline may actually terminate several layout lists. if it contains only whitespace or is indented more.7 Layout Haskell permits the omission of the braces and semicolons used in several grammar productions. these rules permit: f x = let a = 1. and if it is indented less. If the indentation of the nonbrace lexeme immediately following a where. which can be freely mixed within one program.e. For each subsequent line. a close brace is inserted. Also. The meaning of this augmented program is now layout insensitive. that is. an explicit open brace must be matched by an explicit close brace. an empty list “{}” is inserted. by using layout to convey the same information. insert a semicolon or close brace). if an illegal lexeme is encountered at a point where a close brace would be legal. Note in particular: (a) the line beginning }}. the braces and semicolons are inserted as follows.3 gives a more precise deﬁnition of the layout rules. Given these rules." String literals are actually abbreviations for lists of characters (see Section 3. or of. Figure 2. even if a line is indented to the left of an earlier implicit open brace. then the layout list ends (a close brace is inserted). \ \a numeric escape character. and layout processing occurs for the current level (i. do or of is less than or equal to the current indentation level. if it is indented the same amount.7). then the previous item is continued (nothing is inserted). LAYOUT 13 "Here is a backslant \\ as well as \137. A close brace is also inserted whenever the syntactic category containing the layout list ends. let. b = 2 g y = exp2 in exp1 making a. then instead of starting a layout. the indentation of the next lexeme (whether or not on a new line) is remembered and the omitted open brace is inserted (the whitespace preceding the lexeme may include comments).7. Within these explicit open braces. Section 9. a control character.2 shows the result of applying the layout rule to it. and \ˆX. do. no layout processing is performed for constructs outside the braces.2. let. then a new item begins (a semicolon is inserted). Haskell programs can be straightforwardly produced by other programs. b and g all part of the same layout list.pop. Informally stated. This allows both layoutsensitive and layoutinsensitive styles of coding. The effect of layout on the meaning of a Haskell program can be completely speciﬁed by adding braces and semicolons in places determined by the layout. 2. When this happens.1 shows a (somewhat contrived) module and Figure 2. As an example.
LEXICAL STRUCTURE module AStack( Stack.1: A sample program module AStack( Stack. top.top (MkStack x s) = x } . push. pop.pop (MkStack x s) = (x. case s of {r > i r where {i x = x}}) .(top Empty) is an error Figure 2.(pop Empty) is an error top :: Stack a > a top (MkStack x s) = x . push. top.stkToLst (MkStack x s) = x:xs where {xs = stkToLst s }}.14 CHAPTER 2. inserted because of the column 0 indentation of the endofﬁle token. . inserted because the end of the tuple was detected.pop :: Stack a > (a. case s of r > i r where i x = x) .(pop Empty) is an error .size s = length (stkToLst s) where {stkToLst Empty = [] . corresponding to the depth (3) of the nested where clauses.push x s = MkStack x s . pop.2: Sample program with layout expanded termination of the previous line invokes three applications of the layout rule. and (c) the close brace at the very end. (b) the close braces in the where clause nested within the tuple and case expression.size :: Stack a > Int .top :: Stack a > a . size ) where {data Stack a = Empty  MkStack a (Stack a) . Stack a) . size ) where data Stack a = Empty  MkStack a (Stack a) push :: a > Stack a > Stack a push x s = MkStack x s size :: Stack a > Int size s = length (stkToLst s) where stkToLst Empty = [] stkToLst (MkStack x s) = x:xs where xs = stkToLst s pop :: Stack a > (a. Stack a) pop (MkStack x s) = (x.(top Empty) is an error Figure 2.push :: a > Stack a > Stack a .
the nonterminals . In the syntax that follows. A precedencelevel variable ranges from 0 to 9. For example. these translations preserve both the static and dynamic semantics. For example actually stands for 30 productions. Free variables and constructors used in these translations always refer to entities deﬁned by the Prelude. . and may have a double (written as a superscript). and (if it is in scope) what it is bound to. we describe the syntax and informal semantics of Haskell expressions.or nonassociativity and a precedence level. including their translations into the Haskell kernel.Chapter 3 Expressions In this chapter. ::  15 ¢ ¡ else } ¦ ¡ ¢ ¡ © @§ \ let in if then case of { ¢ S > lambda abstraction let expression conditional case expression ¡ ¡ v v ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ S ¡ ¨ ¡ %§ => expression type signature ¢ § ¡ p v §e ¢© v ¨ v 7 ¢ 3¢ S ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢¡ © ¦ A!¡ § 8¥8¥8 7 ¡ § ¢ £¡5¢ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¢¡ ¤ 2 ¡ £v §¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ p v §e ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¥¡ S ¡ ¡ 2 ¢ ¡ s § S § ¢ p v ¨§e ¢ ¦ ¡ ¦ 32 v 2 ¡ ¡ V 2 ¢ S ¡ v v v ¤ ¥¡ ¤ v ¡ 7 ¢ S ¤ ¡ S ¢ ¢ ¡ ( ) ¦ ¤ ¡ 2 ¦ ©32 ¡7 ¡ 2¤ ¢ ¢ ¡ 2 p v £!e ¢ $ ¡ ¡ v ¡ ¦ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ 7 ¤ 7 § 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 ¤ v ¡ v ¡ v ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ S ¡ ¡ ¡ ¤ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ 7 7 . with 10 substitutions for and 3 for . Except in the case of let expressions. right. Similarly. where appropriate. there are some families of nonterminals indexed by precedence levels . regardless of whether or not the identiﬁer “concatMap” is in scope where the list comprehension is used. “concatMap” used in the translation of list comprehensions (Section 3.11) means the concatMap deﬁned by the Prelude. or for left. an associativity variable varies over . index: a letter .
2)... The grammar is ambiguous regarding the extent of lambda abstractions. . .4. . ] ¢ £ . ) ] ¤ ¥ £ ¢ Q¢ ( ( [ [ [ ( ( ( ) . .(f x)) + y let { . For example.16 © @§ CHAPTER 3.4.. The ambiguity is resolved by the metarule that each of these constructs extends as far to the right as possible.. parentheses must be added around either “ ” or “ ” when unless or .. } in (x + y)) (f x y) :: Int \ x > ((a+b) :: Int) + g y x + y { . EXPRESSIONS Expressions involving inﬁx operators are disambiguated by the operator’s ﬁxity (see Section 4. let expressions..  parenthesized expression tuple list arithmetic sequence list comprehension left section left section right section variable general constructor function application 0 ¡ ¦§ 0 ) A 9 g © ¡ ¨ ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¦ ¦¡ 2 ¢ A ¦ § 0 8¥¥8 ' ¡ ¦ § 0 8 ¦ ¦ ' ' ¢ S ¤ ) 2 v ¡ p v ¢ ¡e ¡ ¢ S ) 2 ¡ v ¡ p v ¢ $0e ¡ 2 ¢ S v p v ¢ 5e A 2 ¡ ¡ v ¡ ¡ 7 ¢ p v £!e ¡ ¢ $ ¡ ¡ $ $ ¢ A ¥8¥8 8 ¡ 7 3¢ ¨ ¥ ¢¡ ¢ ¡¢ ¨ £ 7 ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ S ¢ 8¡ ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¡ 8 ¡¡ ¢S ¥8¥8 ¡¢ ¡ ¡ 8 ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ § § ¤ 7 3¢ ¦ 2 7 ¡ ¢ S 4§ ¢ © do { } do expression ¨ ¤ ¡ ¡ ¢ S¢0 ¢ ¢ S¢0 ' ¢ 6 6 ' ¡ ¡ ¢ S ¢ ¡ 0 ¢ ¢ . Consecutive unparenthesized operators with the same precedence must both be either left or right associative to avoid a syntax error. ¦ 2 ' . This f x . } in (x + y) z + (let { .operator deﬁned in the Prelude (see Section 4. ] . and conditionals. it has the same precedence as the inﬁx .1). Figure 4.. } ¦ § { ( )  right section labeled construction labeled update ) ) ) ¦ . Given an unparenthesized expression “ ”..f let z + f x \ x Parses as (f x) + (g y) (.2. . Expressions that involve the interaction of ﬁxities with the let/lambda metarule may be hard to parse. Sample parses are shown below. } ¦ . } in x + y y :: Int > a+b :: Int A note about parsing. } in x + y let { .. Negation is the only preﬁx operator in Haskell. the expression p ¢ 8 @e § 2 ¡ ¦ p v £!e ¢ $ ¡ 2 ¢ %e p 8 Q¢ ¡ 2 p v £!e ¢ $ A ¦ ¡ § { .
That is. When evaluated. all Haskell types include . Operators. errors cause immediate program termination and cannot be caught by the user. When undefined is used. ERRORS let x = True in x == x == True cannot possibly mean let x = True in (x == x == True) because (==) is a nonassociative operator. so they may well incorrectly deliver the former parse. the rest of this section shows the syntax of expressions without their precedences.1. are indistinguishable by a Haskell program from nontermination. 3.2 Variables. Constructors.1 Errors Errors during expression evaluation. The messages passed to the error function in these translations are only suggestions. when demanded. a value of any type may be bound to a computation that. For the sake of clarity. Since Haskell is a nonstrict language. implementations may well use a postparsing pass to deal with ﬁxities. 3.3. results in an error. Translations of Haskell expressions use error and undefined to explicitly indicate where execution time errors may occur. the error message is created by the compiler. and Literals ¤ ¢ ¤ § § 7 3¢ ¦ 2 7 6 ¡ ¢ S ¢ variable general constructor . denoted by . implementations may choose to display more or less information when an error occurs. The Prelude provides two functions to directly cause such errors: error :: String > a undefined :: a A call to error terminates execution of the program and returns an appropriate error indication to the operating system. Programmers are advised to avoid constructs whose parsing involves an interaction of (lack of) associativity with the let/lambda metarule. so the expression must parse thus: (let x = True in (x == x)) == True 17 However. The actual program behavior when an error occurs is up to the implementation. It should also display the string in some systemdependent manner.
2). For example. as found in the and . such as ` `. For example. or is an ordinary identiﬁer enclosed in grave accents (backquotes). one can write the inﬁx application x `op y. Translation: The integer literal is equivalent to fromInteger . such as + or $$. These are described in Section 6. where fromInteger is a method in class Num (see Section 6. (+) x y is equivalent to x + y. An operator is a function that can be applied using inﬁx syntax (Section 3. and foldr (*) 1 xs is equivalent to foldr (\x y > x*y) 1 xs. where fromRational is a method in class Fractional and Ratio.4. An operator is either an operator symbol. ) : Haskell provides special syntax to support inﬁx notation. The ﬂoating point literal is equivalent to fromRational ( Ratio. as deﬁned in the Ratio library. Similarly. EXPRESSIONS () [] (.1. Special syntax is used to name some constructors for some of the builtin types.% constructs a rational from two integers. instead of writing the preﬁx application op op x y. production for An integer literal represents the application of the function fromInteger to the appropriate value of type Integer.18 CHAPTER 3. If no ﬁxity declaration is given for `op ` ` then it defaults to highest precedence and left associativity (see Section 4. ¦ ¦ ¦ § ¦ ` ` ` ` ) ) ) ( ( ( ( ` ` ` ` ) 4 © ¦ 3332 2 ¦ ©32 2 ¤ ¡ ©¦ 2 ¡ &¤¢ 2 2 ¦ ¡ 4 ©¡ ¢ § 32 3¦ 2 ¦ ¦ 4 © ¦ § 32 33 2 ¦ 4 S¤ © § ¤ ¦ ¢ 4 © 3¤¢ § ¤ ¦ 4 32 ¢ § ¦ 2 ¢ © ¦ ¦ 4 © ¦ 3332 ¦ § 3 2 43¤ § ¦ ¤ © ¦ 4 © 3¢S¤ § ¤¢ ¦ ¢ ¢ § 7 3¢ 0 ¤ § § 7 ¦ 2 ¦ 2 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 0 4 32 © ¦ 2 ¡ 2 2 ¦ ©32 ¡ ¡ ©¦ 2 2 ¡ &¤ 2 ¡ 2 ¤¢ ¡ ¦32 ¢ ¦ 2 ¦ ¤ ¦ 32 ¡¦ ¤¢ ¢ variable qualiﬁed variable constructor qualiﬁed constructor variable operator qualiﬁed variable operator constructor operator qualiﬁed constructor operator operator qualiﬁed operator . . The integers and are chosen so that .4.4). Dually. a ﬂoating point literal stands for an application of fromRational to a value of type Rational (that is.5).1). Ratio Integer).% ). an operator symbol can be converted to an ordinary identiﬁer by enclosing it in parentheses. or partially applied using a section (Section 3.
An expression such Lambda abstractions are written \ as \x:xs>x is syntactically incorrect. Because e1e2 parses as an inﬁx application of the binary operator . ¡ A ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ £ ¡ Function application is written omitted in (f x) y. The set of patterns must be linear—no variable may appear more than once in the set. There is no link between the local meaning of the .3 Curried Applications and Lambda Abstractions > . unary . so the parentheses may be could be a data constructor. one must write e1(e2) for the alternative parsing.3. . The binary . £ ¤ ¡ 2 £ ¤ 2 3 ¡ ¢ The form is the inﬁx application of binary operator to expressions and ¡ ¡  2 ¦ ©32 ¡ ¢ ¡ 2 ¤ ¡ ¡¢ ¢ 2 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ 6 6 where the are new identiﬁers. v Translation: The following identity holds: Given this translation combined with the semantics of case expressions and pattern matching described in Section 3. .denotes preﬁx negation. Application associates to the left. Similarly. page 55). where the are patterns.will always refer to the negate function deﬁned in the Prelude. () is syntax for (\ x y > xy). . However. the only preﬁx operator in Haskell. it may be rebound by the module system.4 Operator Applications £ The special form . 3. CURRIED APPLICATIONS AND LAMBDA ABSTRACTIONS 19 3. as with any inﬁx operator. Because tors are allowed. Preﬁx negation has the same precedence as the inﬁx operator .operator does not necessarily refer to the deﬁnition of .in the Prelude. and is syntax for negate . preﬁx negation qualiﬁed operator . ¨ ££ ¥¦£ ¡ ¨ ££ ¥¦£ ¡ ¨ £££ ¡ ¦¥ ¨ £££ ¡ ©§¦¥¤¢ \ > \ > case ( .3. partial applications of data construc ) of ( .deﬁned in the Prelude (see Table 4.17. it may legally be written as \(x:xs)>x. ) > ¦ ¢ ¡ A !§ ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ § \ > ¡ ¢ ¡ £5¢ ¡ ¢ S ¢ ¢ ¡ ¢¢ ¨ £§S¢0 ¡ 6 6 ¡ ¡ ¡ function application lambda abstraction ¡ ¡ ¢ 2 ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ 0 . and does not denote (\ x > x)—one must use negate for that.1. then the result is .3. if the pattern fails to match.operator and unary negation.
the expression (let n = 10 in n + x) parses as (let n = 10 in (n + x)) rather than ((let n = 10 in n) + x) Because . However. by the let/lambda metarule (Section 3). ( )  right section ) ¡ 2 ¡ 2 ¡ 2 ¡ ¡ ¡ 2 ¢ ¡ ( ( ( ) ) left section left section right section is an expression. but an application of preﬁx negation. EXPRESSIONS 3. and similarly for ( ). The expression (+ ()) can serve the same purpose. () is not a section.  £ ¡ ¤ ¢ ( ) negate ¡ 2 £ ¤ ¡ 2 ¢ ¡ p v £!e ¢ $ ¡ ¡ 2 ) 2 p v ¢ ¡e ¡ ) 2 p v ¢ 0e ¡ $ 2 v S ¢ ¡ ¡ 7 ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ 2 v 6 ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ S ¢ . Because (+) is left associative. the expression (let n = 10 in n +) is invalid because. ¢ S ¡ 2 Sections are written as ( ) or ( ). the latter may legally be written as (+(a+b)). there is a subtract function deﬁned in the Prelude such that (subtract ) is equivalent to the disallowed section. where is a binary operator and Sections are a convenient syntax for partial application of binary operators. but (+a*b) and (*(a+b)) are valid. as described in the preceding section. ( ) is legal if and only if (x ) ( )). but (+a+b) is not. As another example.5 Sections ¢ S ¤ v ¡ ¢ S ¡ v ¡ p v ¢ A5e ¡ 2  Syntactic precedence rules apply to sections as follows.20 Translation: The following identities hold: CHAPTER 3. (a+b+) is syntactically correct. (*a+b) is synparses in the same way as (x tactically invalid. For example.is treated specially in the grammar.
¢ ¢ S 8 8 ¥¥8 4 © 3¦ 2 2 ©¦ 2 4 © ¦ 3¡ 32 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¦ 2 ¦ 2 ¢ ¡ [ . ¥ £ ¡ 3. denoted []. CONDITIONALS Translation: The following identities hold: 21 3.1). is a binary operator.1.6 Conditionals ¥ ¢ ¡ Translation: ¡ ¢ The following identity holds: ¥ ¢ £ ¢ ¡ ¤ where True and False are the two nullary constructors from the type Bool. and the empty list is Lists are written [ .7 Lists [] ( ) : . The type of type of the entire conditional expression. and Chapter 8 notably Section 8. where . if is False. £ ¡ £ ¢ S ¡ ¤ ¡ ¢ ¡ if then else ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¥ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 ¡ 2 where . and is a variable that does not occur free in ¢ ¡2 2 ¢ ¢ ¢ ¡ 2 2 ( ( ) ) \ \ > > ¡ ¡ ¡ 4 ¡ © ¦ 32 2 ¦ ©32 ¦ 32 ¦ 3¡2 ¡ ¢ S ¡ ¡ 2 ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ and returns the value of if the ¢ . The list constructor is :. and otherwise. Standard operations on lists are given in the Prelude (see Section 6. as deﬁned in the must be Bool. which is also the Prelude. and must have the same type.3.3. ].6. False > } £ ¥ A conditional expression has the form if then else value of is True. is an expression. ] ¢ ¡¡ £ ¥ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ 2 ¡¡ £ ¤ if then else case of { True > . .
and can be thought of as the “nullary tuple” (see Section 6.1. . The constructor “:” is reserved solely for list construction.1. and cannot be hidden or redeﬁned. ¢ ¡ ( () ) ¦ ¤ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡¦ § § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¤ ¢ ¡§ ¡§ 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¦ 2 ¢ ¡ ( . like []. . Thus (a. . then the type of the resulting tuple is ( .) a b c tuple is denoted by (. It is a rightassociative operator. If through are the types of through .4 and Chapter 8).22 Translation: The following identity holds: CHAPTER 3. The constructor for an commas. with precedence level 5 (Section 4. ) (see Section 4. It is the only member of that type apart from . as deﬁned in the Prelude (see Section 6. EXPRESSIONS where : and [] are constructors for lists.. where there are denote the same value.8 Tuples ¢ S (. ) for is an instance of a tuple as deﬁned in the Prelude.2).).9 Unit Expressions and Parenthesized Expressions ¡¦ 2 The form ( ) is simply a parenthesized expression. respectively.2). The types of through must all be the same (call it ).5). . . 3. The unit expression () has type () (see Section 4. Translation: ( ) is equivalent to . .3). ).4. ) ¤ ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 £ ¡ ¢ ¡¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¤ [ .c) and (.1. Standard operations on tuples are given in the Prelude (see Section 6. .b. .. and requires no translation.2).1. § 3. . and may be of arbitrary length . and the type of the overall expression is [ ] (see Section 4. ) Tuples are written ( . ] : ( : ( ( : []))) ¡ ¡ ¢ 6 6 6 6 ¡ ¦ 32 ¦ 32 ¡ ¡ § ¢ S ¢ S ¢ ¢ . Translation: ( . and is equivalent to . it is considered part of the language syntax.1.2).1.
.10 Arithmetic Sequences ¨ ¥ ¡ $ ¢ ¡ Translation: Arithmetic sequences satisfy these identities: ¡ where enumFrom. The semantics of arithmetic sequences therefore depends entirely on the instance declaration for the type . page 83). . .17) of type v ¦ A ¥ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ A list comprehension has the form [  . and is an instance of class Enum. and enumFromThenTo are class methods in the class Enum as deﬁned in the Prelude (see Figure 6. ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ £¡ ¢ ¡ 6 6 6 7 ¢ 3¢ S ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ S $ ¢ ] .10. § ¥ ¢ £ ¤ ¡ § § ¨ £ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ [ .1. ... ] .4 for more details of which Prelude types are in Enum and their semantics. ] enumFrom enumFromThen enumFromTo enumFromThenTo v The arithmetic sequence [ .. ] . where is a pattern (see Section 3. ] . depthﬁrst evaluation of the generators in the qualiﬁer list.. . enumFromTo. § generators of the form expression of type [ ] § <..11 List Comprehensions ¦ A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ guards. which are arbitrary expressions of type Bool local bindings that provide new deﬁnitions for use in the generated expression or subsequent guards and generators. where each of the has type . § 3.3. ] where the qualiﬁers are either and is an ¡ ¡ $ © ¢ ¡ 7 ¦ ¢ ¡ [  <let § .. Such a list comprehension returns the list of elements produced by evaluating in the successive environments created by the nested. See Section 6. . ARITHMETIC SEQUENCES 23 3. . ] list comprehension generator local declaration guard ¥¤ £ ¡ ¥ ¢ ¡ £ ¡ 7 3¢ ¥ ¢ 7 ¢ ¥ ¢ £ ¤ £ ¤ ¡¢ ¡¢ ¡¢ ¡ ¢ [ [ [ [ . ] denotes a list of values of type . enumFromThen.3.
] = 7 ] ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ ' 7 ¥ ¦ 7 ' ¡ [ [ [ [  True ]  ]  . over patterns. True ] if then [  let ok = [  ok _ = [] in concatMap ok let in [  [ x  x <.17).4). (3.4)].(3. For example. bindings in list comprehensions can shadow those in outer scopes. As usual.5. The function concatMap.y) = undefined in does not cause an executiontime error until x or y is evaluated. and introduce a nested. over listvalued expressions.12 Let Expressions ¢ ¡ © Let expressions have the general form let { . EXPRESSIONS Binding of variables occurs according to the normal pattern matching rules (see Section 3. = = = = [ ] [  . and boolean value True. are deﬁned in the Prelude. lexicallyscoped.are lambda bound and are thus monomorphic (see Section 4.x) <.2)] ]. mutuallyrecursive list of declarations (let is often called letrec in other languages).2).x. As indicated by the translation of list comprehensions. 3.2]. x <.x. over boolean over declaration lists. Pattern bindings are matched lazily. Declarations are described in Chapter 4. The scope of the declarations is the expression and the right hand side of the declarations.. it must evaluate to True for the previous pattern match to succeed. which may be used as a translation into the kernel: where ranges over expressions. ]  <. variables bound by let have fully polymorphic types while those deﬁned by <. ok is a fresh variable. over qualiﬁers.4). z <.[ [(1. expressions. A ¦ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¦ let in ' © 7 ¡ ¡ © 7 ¦ © 7 ¥ ¦ [  let . and if a match fails then that element of the list is simply skipped over. Thus: [ x  xs <. . } in . let (x. for example: Translation: List comprehensions satisfy these identities.24 CHAPTER 3.(3.y] ] else [] ] ] 6 ¡ ¢ ¡ . and over sequences of qualiﬁers. If a qualiﬁer is a guard.xs ] yields the list [4.x ] [ z  y <. [(5. an implicit ˜ makes these patterns irrefutable.
> ¦§ of { } .3. the “” is a terminal symbol. . An alternative of the form > where ¢ ¡  True > where © ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ § ¢ ¡ is treated as shorthand for: v ¨¥ § ¢ 4 v v ¡ © 7 ¥ ¦ ¤ v ¦7 v v © 7 ¥ ¦  > where ¤ ¥7 v ¡ v ¡ ¡v ¢ S 8 8 ¥¥8 v ¨¥ § § ¢ ¢ £¡ 4 ¦ v ¡ v © 7 ¦ 4 where each is of the general form  > A 4 A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¥ § 4 ¡ case v ¥ § of { . .3. .. where where ¡ £ ¡ 7 3¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¦ ¡ ¢ 6 6 6 6 6 let = in = ¨ ¡ ¡ ¥ ¡ ¢ ¨ © ¡ ¡ ¡ ¨ ¨ © ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¥ ¢ let { = let = ... The static semantics of the bindings in a let expression are described in Section 4.4. Note the use of the irrefutable patterns ˜ . CASE EXPRESSIONS Translation: The dynamic semantics of the expression let { 25 .13. .13 Case Expressions A case expression has the general form (Notice that in the syntax rule for . ) in case of ˜ > where no variable in appears free in let = fix ( \ ˜ > ) in ¡ ¢ ¨ ££ ¦¥£ ¡ § ¢ £¡ ¦ © @§ ¡ § 7 3¢ 7¡ 3 ¢ ¢ ¦ .. . which may be used as a translation into the kernel: ¡ where fix is the least ﬁxpoint operator. } in are captured by this translation: After removing all type signatures.) Each alternative consists of a pattern and its matches. Each match in turn consists of a sequence of pairs of guards and bodies (expressions). This translation does not preserve the static semantics because the use of case precludes a fully polymorphic typing of the bound variables. Once done. not the syntactic metasymbol for alternation.3.. followed by optional bindings ( ) that scope over all of the guards and expressions of the alternative. . ¥ § ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡  ¨ § ¢ ¡ > ¤ } 3 § § ¢ ¦¤ 5 § 7 3¢ %§ ¡ 4 ¦ ¨ © ¨ 5© 7 ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ © @§ ¢ £¡ ¦ ¡ A§ 7 3¢ £¡ ¦ ¢ ¢ £¡ ¢ ¡ § ¡ ¥8¥8 ¢ £¡ ¡§ 8 7 3¢ § ¢ S case . where and are patterns and expressions respectively. these identities hold. 3.4. using the translation in Section 4. . . in = } in = = let (˜ . each declaration is translated into an equation of the form = ..˜ ) = ( . .
It has a single unambiguous parse.getLine return (words l) § § § ¦ 4 ¢ © %§ ¡ 4 ¥ © . . The alternatives are tried sequentially. in the environment of the case expression extended ﬁrst by the bindings created during the matching of the in the where clause associated with that alternative. the result is . therefore. Pattern matching is described in Section 3. A note about parsing.26 CHAPTER 3. .3. the corresponding righthand side is evaluated in the same environment as the guard.14 Do Expressions A do expression provides a more conventional syntax for monadic programming. It allows an expression such as putStr "x: " >> getLine >>= \l > return (words l) to be written in a more traditional way as: do putStr "x: " l <._)  (let b = not a in b :: Bool) > a } However. The expression case x of { (a. ¦ ¨ ._)  let b = not a in b :: Bool > a } is tricky to parse correctly. EXPRESSIONS A case expression must have at least one alternative and each alternative must have at least one body. If matches the pattern in the alternative.17. If one of the pattern. Each body must have the same type. the phrase Bool > a is syntactically valid as a type. If all the guards evaluate to False. If no match succeeds. ¦ § ¡ 7 ¦ ¢ ¡ § ¡ ¢¡ £ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢S A § 4 §¤© 8¥8¥8 ¡ § 4 § © 4§ © © @§ do { } do expression v © 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ ¢ S 6 6 6 ¤ ¥¡ © @§ ¢ ¡ § ¡ 4§ 4§ © © ¢ ¡ . the guards for that alternative are tried sequentially from top to bottom. from top to bottom. namely case x of { (a. to avoid guards that end with a type signature — indeed that is why a contains an not an . and the type of the whole expression is that type. and parsers with limited lookahead may incorrectly commit to this choice. Programmers are advised. <let . and hence reject the program. A case expression is evaluated by pattern matching the expression against the individual alternatives. matching continues with the next alternative. and then by the guards evaluates to True. ¦ 3. with the formal semantics of case expressions in Section 3.17.
. To illustrate the last point. Selectors are top level bindings and so they may be shadowed by local variables but cannot conﬂict with other top level bindings of the same name.1 Field Selection ¤ ¢ Field labels are used as selector functions.2.15.2) and update (Section 3. however. >>=. A ﬁeld label can be used at most once in a constructor. select from. preferably giving some indication of the location of the patternmatch failure. Different datatypes cannot share common ﬁeld labels in the same scope.15. © @§ 4§ © © © @§ 4§ © © do {let . after eliminating empty : } . as deﬁned in the Prelude.1)." stands for a compilergenerated error message.. This shadowing only affects selector functions. which may be used as a translation into the kernel." >>= ok in do { } { ¡ 6 ¡ ¢ S ¢ .are lambda bound and are thus monomorphic. passed to fail. As indicated by the translation of do. DATATYPES WITH FIELD LABELS 27 Translation: Do expressions satisfy these identities. the functions >>.15. and update ﬁelds in a manner that is independent of the overall structure of the datatype. and fail are operations in the class Monad. 3. These ﬁeld labels can be used to construct.BAD Here S is legal but T is not. consider: data S = S1 { x :: Int }  S2 { x :: Int } data T = T1 { y :: Int }  T2 { y :: Bool } .3. do { < © @§ 4 ¤© § = = = ¦ 4 ¤© § } = do { } _ = fail ". Within a datatype. 3. ﬁeld labels cannot be confused with ordinary variables. © The ellipsis ".15.. a ﬁeld label can be used in more than one constructor provided the ﬁeld has the same typing in all constructors. variables bound by let have fully polymorphic types while those deﬁned by <.. and ok is a fresh identiﬁer. When used as a variable.3). because y is given inconsistent typings in the latter.OK . in record construction (Section 3.15 Datatypes with Field Labels A datatype declaration may optionally deﬁne ﬁeld labels (see Section 4. a ﬁeld label serves as a function that extracts the ﬁeld from an object. } = © @§ 4 ¤© § } © @§ 4 ¤© ¡ § >> do let ok ok in let 7 ¥ ¦ © @§ 4§ 7 © @§ do { } do { .
2. is legal whether or not F was declared with record syntax (provided F has no strict ﬁelds — see the third bullet above). (This is also true of ﬁeld updates and ﬁeld patterns. Strict ﬁelds are discussed in Section 4. and is y when some ﬁeld in has a label of or undefined otherwise. undefined A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¦ ¡§ ¢ ¡ 0 { = . is deﬁned as follows: has the ﬁeld label . The expression F {}. . these are not subject to layout. and if appears is . the ﬁeld labels .) Construction using ﬁeld labels is subject to the following constraints: Only ﬁeld labels declared with the speciﬁed constructor may be mentioned. EXPRESSIONS A ﬁeld label 0 ' introduces a selector function deﬁned as: 3. where is the arity of F. is y when labels the th component of or _ otherwise.1. © ' ¡ ¢ v § ¡ ¦ © ¡ ¢ v © ' § ¡ where is the arity of The auxiliary function § . 0 v v P ¡ A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¢ ¦ ¡ ' 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¡ = case x of { > .28 Translation: x 0 CHAPTER 3.15. Otherwise. the { and } characters must be explicit. . } labeled construction . ¦ § v ¦ v where are all the constructors of the datatype containing a ﬁeld labeled with . Fields not mentioned are initialized to A compiletime error occurs when any strict ﬁelds (ﬁelds whose declared types are preﬁxed by !) are omitted during construction.2 Construction Using Field Labels ¦ A ¦§ 0 A constructor with labeled ﬁelds may be used to construct a value in which the components are speciﬁed by name rather than by position. it denotes F . where F is a data constructor. 0 ¦ © ' ¡ ¢ v 0 § ¡ ¦ If the th component of a constructor in the binding list . A ¥¥8 ¡ A A 8 8 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ > } ¦ ' ¤ ¦ ¢2 A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ 0 ¦ 6 6 0 ¢ ¦ ¦ ¡ ¦§ ¢ S ' ¢ 0 . is the default © § 8 8 ¥¥8 © ¡ § © { } = undefined ' ¡ £¢ ¡ 0 ' ¡ ¢¢ 0 Translation: ' In the binding = . then value . Unlike the braces used in declaration lists. A ﬁeld label may not be mentioned more than once.
f3. No label may be mentioned more than once. v is the set of constructors containing all labels in . Translation: © Using the prior deﬁnition of Here are some examples using labeled ﬁelds: data T = C1 {f1. T© § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ T© ¡ ¡ § § ¡ > ¢ ' ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ' ¡ ¢ { } ¡ ¡ = case of ¢ £ ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¦§ 0 { .. Updates are restricted in the following ways: All labels must be taken from the same datatype. This example translates expressions using constructors in ﬁeldlabel notation into equivalent expressions using the same constructors without ﬁeld labels. f3 = ’B’} x {f1 = 1} The ﬁeld f1 is common to both constructors in T.3. A compiletime error will result if no single constructor deﬁnes the set of ﬁeld labels used in an update. v © ¥¥8 ¡ 8 8 where .. } labeled update . . An execution error occurs when the value being updated does not contain all of the speciﬁed labels.3 Updates Using Field Labels ¦ A ¦§ ¡ 0 § Values belonging to a datatype with ﬁeld labels may be nondestructively updated. At least one constructor must deﬁne all of the labels mentioned in the update. ¦ ' ¦ ' ) A9g© ¨ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ 6 ' ¡ ¢ S ¢ .15. f4 = ’A’.f2 :: Int}  C2 {f1 :: Int. DATATYPES WITH FIELD LABELS 29 3. f3 = ’x’}.f4 :: Char} Translation C1 3 undefined C2 1 ’B’ ’A’ case x of C1 _ f2 > C1 1 f2 C2 _ f3 f4 > C2 1 f3 f4 Expression C1 {f1 = 3} C2 {f1 = 1. such as x {f2 = 1. and is the arity of £ F© £ ¢ § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ > _ > error "Update error" T© ' £ ¡ ¢ ¡ ' ' £ ¡ ¢ . This creates a new value in which the speciﬁed ﬁeld values replace those in the existing value.15.
17 Pattern Matching Patterns appear in lambda abstractions. EXPRESSIONS 3. so deﬁning the semantics of pattern matching for case expressions is sufﬁcient.1). or not principal type derivable from comparable to.17. they are used to type an expression explicitly and may be used to resolve ambiguous typings due to overloading (see Section 4. the declared type may be more speciﬁc than the . Translation: 3. .3. However. and case expressions. where is an expression and is a type (Section 4. but it is an error to give a type that is more general than.30 CHAPTER 3. } ¦§ ¢ ¦ as pattern arity labeled pattern ¦ 32 ¦ 32 arity ¢ ¢  negative literal £¡ ¢ ¤ ¥ § ¦ § + § ¦ 2 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ § ¢ §¢ ¡ ¢£§¢ § ¡ ¢§ ¡ § 2 ©¦32 ¡ v £§¢ § ¤ ¡ v ¢ ¡ v £¡ p v §e ¡ ¢ ¢ ¢ § 2 ¡ ¥ § ¦ § £¡ ¤ ! § 2 ©¦32 s¢ ¡ v § § ¡ v © ¢ £¡ p v ¢§e ¡ ¢ ¡ v § £ 7¡ ¤ ¢ v £¡ ¢ § v ¢ ¨ ¡ v§ 2©32 ¡ v § £ 7¡ ¦ ¢ ¦ ¢£¡ p v ¨§e ¡ ¢ £¡ § ¢ ¤ £ ¡ ¢ § ¨§ § :: = let { :: .1 Patterns Patterns have this syntax: § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡§ 0 { . the principal type.4). do expressions.4. = } in successor pattern ¡ ¢ ¡ § § ¨ § S § ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¦ 32 :: => ¡ ¢ ¡ £§¢ ¢ £¡ V y ¤ § § 7 3¢ ¦ 2 7 ¤ ¦ 2 ¤ ¡ ¢ ¢ ¡ 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 v ¤ v § § ¡ £¡ ¢ ¤ § ¢£¡ § ¢£ 7¡ ¢ £ 7¡ v § ¢ ¡ £§¢ § § ¡ ¢ £¡ ¢ £¡ ¢ ¡ . list comprehensions. The value of the expression is just that of . the ﬁrst ﬁve of these ultimately translate into case expressions.2). 3. As with normal type signatures (see Section 4.1. pattern bindings.16 Expression TypeSignatures %§ 0 Expression typesignatures have the form :: . function deﬁnitions.
or it may diverge (i. For example. ¢ § . this deﬁnition is illegal: f (x. . All patterns must be linear —no variable may appear more than once. according to the following rules: ¤ ¤ 1. it may succeed. Pattern matching proceeds from left to right. PATTERN MATCHING 31 The arity of a constructor must match the number of subpatterns associated with it. ) ] ¤ ¢ £¡ ¢ § £¡ ¢ 8¥¥8 8 8 8 ¥¥8 ) .2 Informal Semantics of Pattern Matching Patterns are matched against values. returning a binding for each variable in the pattern. Matching the pattern against a value always succeeds and binds ¤ ¢ Patterns of the form @ are called aspatterns. It is as if an identiﬁer not used elsewhere were put in its place._. and allow one to use . return ).3. ¢ ¡ ¢ £¡ ¢ £¡ ¤ § ¢£§¢ ¡ ¡§ ¢£¡ ¡§ ¢£¡ ¢ £¡ § _ ( ( [ ˜ wildcard parenthesized pattern tuple pattern list pattern irrefutable pattern ¢ ¤ ¢ 6 § ¢ £¡ 0 .z] > if x==0 then True else False } > if x==0 then True else False } 3.x) = x . For example. one cannot match against a partiallyapplied constructor. For example. value being matched by § § ¢ ¢ § = as a name for the to . case e of { [x. .y. Attempting to match a pattern can have one of three results: it may fail. and outside to inside. x used twice in pattern case e of { xs@(x:rest) > if x==0 then rest else xs } is equivalent to: let { xs = e } in case xs of { (x:rest) > if x==0 then rest else xs } Patterns of the form _ are wildcards and are useful when some part of a pattern is not referenced on the righthandside.17._] is equivalent to: case e of { [x.17.e.ILLEGAL.
The interpretation of the literal integer literals are allowed. or string literal pattern against a value succeeds if == . so does the overall computation. the overloaded function fromInteger or fromRational is applied to an Integer or Rational literal (resp) to convert it to the appropriate type. Matching the wildcard pattern _ against any value always succeeds. . the functions >= and .2. the ﬁrst to fail or diverge causes the overall match to fail or diverge. 8. ﬁelds may not be named more than once. depends on the value: is a constructor deﬁned by is a constructor deﬁned ¢ ¡ £5¢ ¢ ¡ £§¢ § ¢ ¡ £§¢ ¢ £¡ § ¢ £¡ ¢ ¡ § ¦ 2 ¢ ¡ £5¢ § ¢ ¡ £§¢ ¢ ¦ ¢ ¡ £§¢ . Matching the pattern against a value. except that only ¢ ¢ ¢ ¦ ¢ ¢ ¦ ¢ ¢ ¢ If the value is . Matching an + pattern (where is a variable and is a positive integer literal) against a value succeeds if >= . if all matches succeed. At that point the entire pattern is matched against the value.) Operationally. § ¦ Q32 If the value is of the form . and no binding is done. respectively. . 3. Matching the pattern ˜ against a value always succeeds.32 CHAPTER 3. Matching the pattern by data. and fails otherwise. All ﬁelds listed must be declared by the constructor. subpatterns are matched lefttoright against the components of the data value. EXPRESSIONS 2. 7. The match diverges if this test diverges. The free variables in are bound to the appropriate values if matching against would otherwise succeed. depending on the type of the pattern. that is. is the same as in numeric literal patterns. The interpretation of numeric literals is exactly as described in Section 3. character. where == is overloaded based on the type of the pattern. Matching a numeric. Matching against a constructor using labeled ﬁelds is the same as matching ordinary constructor patterns except that the ﬁelds are matched in the order they are named in the ﬁeld list. The match diverges if the comparison diverges. ¦ 32 4. § § § That is. Again. where newtype.. 1 ¦ 2 ¦ 32 7 ¦ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ r1 32 If the value is of the form the match fails. depends on the value: against a value. If the value is of the form . resulting in the binding of to . constructors associated with newtype serve only to change the type of a value. the overall match succeeds. then is matched against . 6. and to if matching against fails or diverges. where is a different constructor to ¦ 32 A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ A !§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ § 5. (Binding does not imply evaluation. then is matched against . the match diverges. Fields not named by the pattern are ignored (matched against _). and if the match fails or diverges.are overloaded. this means that no matching is done on a ˜ pattern until one of the variables in is used. where ¢ £¡ ¦ 32 § ¢ £¡ ¦ 32 If the value is .
then Aside from the obvious static type constraints (for example.’b’] is matched against [ . and the result is a failed match. then ’a’ to match against ’x’. The irrefutable patterns are as follows: a variable.’x’]. attempting to match ’a’ against causes the match to 2. the following static class constraints hold: An integer literal pattern can only be matched against a value in the class Num. All other patterns are refutable. It is sometimes helpful to distinguish two kinds of patterns. A ﬂoating literal pattern can only be matched against a value in the class Fractional. Consider the following declarations: newtype N = N Bool data D = D !Bool (\ (x:xs) > x:x:xs) (\ ˜(x:xs) > x:x:xs) (\ ˜[x.b)] > x) [(0. An + pattern can only be matched against a value in the class Integral.1). ] (0.3). or of the form ˜ (whether or not (see Section 4.y) > 0) (\ ˜[x] > 0) [] (\ ˜[x] > x) [] 0 0 : : 3. These examples demonstrate refutable vs. If the pattern [’a’. Matching an aspattern augmented with the binding of so does the overall match. These patterns may be removed or changed in future versions of Haskell. ¢ ¡ £§¢ ¢ ¡ £§¢ E ¤ ¢ § ¢§ ¡ £§¢ ¢ ¡ £§¢ ¢ ¦ ¤ ¢E ¢ ¦ . to . If the match of against fails or diverges.1) § ¢ ¡ £5¢ § ¢ ¡ £§¢ © § 7 ¢ 0 § ¢ ¡ £§¢ %¥ § ¤ § ¢ §¢ ¡ ¦ § ¤ ¢ ¡ £§¢ § ¢ @ 9. it is a static error to match a character against a boolean).2. irrefutable matching: (\ ˜(x. a wildcard.3. ] (\ ˜[x.’b’] is matched against [’x’. (a. Many people feel that + patterns should not be used. ].˜(a.b)] > x) [(0. Matching an irrefutable pattern is nonstrict: the pattern matches even if the value to be matched is . Here are some examples: 1.1). where is a constructor deﬁned by newtype and is irrefutable @ where is irrefutable.17. is irrefutable). PATTERN MATCHING § 33 against a value is the result of matching against . then . But if [’a’. Matching a refutable pattern is strict: if the value to be matched is the match diverges.y) > 0) (\ (x.
EXPRESSIONS These examples illustrate the difference in pattern matching between types deﬁned by data and newtype: Additional examples may be found in Section 4. an otherwise irrefutable pattern may be evaluated because of a guard.z) [a]  (a == y) = 1 both a and y will be evaluated by == in the guard. and are patterns.1–3. The environment of the guard is the same as the righthandside of the caseexpression alternative.2. (q).2 involves the overloaded operator ==. in f :: (Int. and are booleanvalued expressions. In particular. and is a newtype constructor. in Figures 3. it is this rule that deﬁnes the meaning of pattern matching against overloaded constants. For example. The guard semantics have an obvious inﬂuence on the strictness characteristics of a function or case expression.17. and are expressions.4). 3. v ¥ § Rule (b) matches a general sourcelanguage case expression. The semantics of case expressions themselves are in turn given as a series of identities. function deﬁnition. since that would generate rather inefﬁcient code.3. and (s) use a lambda rather than a let. it is not expected that it will use them directly. Rule (h) in Figure 3. then True is substituted for the guards in the forms. These identities all preserve the static semantics. and it must be true for the overall pattern match to succeed.1–3. . or pattern binding to which it is attached. In Figures 3. A guard is a boolean expression that is evaluated only after all of the arguments have been successfully matched.1. and are algebraic datatype (data) constructors (including tuple constructors). and are variables. ¢ ¡ 4 v ¢ 3 v ¤ 1 (\ (N True) > True) (\ (D True) > True) (\ ˜(D True) > True) True E v v ¤¢ 1 ¢ v ¡ .Int.Int) > [Int] > Int f ˜(x.3 Formal Semantics of Pattern Matching The semantics of all pattern matching constructs other than case expressions are deﬁned by giving identities that relate those constructs to case expressions. Top level patterns in case expressions and the set of top level patterns in function or pattern bindings may have zero or more associated guards. (j). this indicates that variables bound by case are monomorphically typed (Section 4. Subsequent identities manipulate the resulting case expression into simpler and simpler forms.34 CHAPTER 3.2: . Any implementation should behave so that these identities hold. (e). . regardless of whether it actually includes guards—if no guards are written.2.y. Rules (d).
where { } } then 10 > where { # ¥ ¢ 32 ( & )' ¤# ( & )' ¤# % ££ ¦¥£ © & ¤# ¡ ! where each  > © & ¤# % has the form: . _ > } > ) (case of { > are all the variables in }) (case of { > A % ££ ¦¥£ case of { > (where is a new variable) case of { > let { } in if then _ > }} © ¥ ¢ 2 10 © % A B ¨ @ § A @ 6 _ else if ¥ ¢ 98 70 ££ ¥¦£ 6 © 4 © 1% 5% ¨ § (c) case of {   > > > . Part 1 G @ § (f) case of { _ > . . }) ¡ "£ § § £ ¡ (a) case of { } where is a new variable case of { case of { _ § (\ > case of { ¥ £ ¦¤¢ ¥ £ ¦¤¢ }) . . _ > } case of { > ( \ > ) .17. PATTERN MATCHING 35 . _ > } $C ¨ § ££ ¦¥£ © DC ¨ ¨ @ § ¨ $C¦E£¥¥¦FC ££E © ££ © ¥¦£ C C $3 § (d) case (\ where of { ˜ > . } } .1: Semantics of Case Expressions. Figure 3. > error "No match" } ¡ ! ¨ ££ ¥¦£ © £ ¡ © ¨ © ¡ © ¨ # $£ § § (b) .3.  } else ££ ¥¦£ _ £ ¡ ! § ¨ ££ ¥¥£ > case of { . _ > } @ § @ C ¨ ¨ C § § (e) case of { @ > .
¦" C E £££ ¥¦¥E © C 28 ¨ E £££ ¥¦¥E @ © ¨ _ > at least one of } is not a variable.36 CHAPTER 3. _ > } case of { > . _ > is a newtype constructor @ @ ¨ ¨ ¢ § § ¢ (k) case of { > . _ > } where is a newtype constructor ¢ } case § C C § (j) case of { > } ( \ > ) of { C § @ C § (i) case of { > . = . _ > } case of { > } > @ F ¡ § @ F ¡ § (h) ¡ case where of { > . _ > } where is if labels the th component of . _ > } . character. } > . _ > } A @ ££ ¥¥£ ££ ¦¥£ ¥ ¥ §¨ ¨ A ¥ ¤ ¥ ¦¤ © ¨ © ¤ A § © ¨ © 5¤ ££ ¥¥£ ¥ ¤ § @ § (m) case of { { = .2: Semantics of Case Expressions. _ > case of { > case of { { = } > case of { { = . _ otherwise case of { {} > . Part 2 @ ¡ § @ C ¡ C ¡ § § (s) case of { + > . _ > } if ( == ) then is a numeric. or string literal. _ > } @ @ © $C ££ ¥¦£ © C ££ ¦¥£ @ © 4 @ (p) @ @ ' ££ ¥¥£ § § (o) > . } > . _ > _ > }} where . are new variables else } } }. _ > } case of { _ _ > . _ > } case ( ) of { > . is a new variable © 7¤ A ¨ £ @ ¨ ¢ £ (l) ¢ case where of { > . ££ ¥¦£ @ ¨ C ££ ¦¥£ @ © C > case © ¨ of { > case _ > } @ ¨ ££ ¥¦£ © ¨ ¦ C ££ ¦¥£ © C § ¨ § (g) case of { case of { > . _ > } where and are distinct data constructors of arity and . . respectively @ @ ¨ ¨ ¤ ¨ ¤ ££ ¥¦£ § ¨ © ¨ § (n) case of { case of { # { = } > .) else where is a numeric literal ¡ £ @ © C ££ ¥¦£ © C £ (r) case where of { > . _ > } if >= then (\ > ) ( . _ > is a data constructor of arity } @ C ££ ¥¦£ © © C ££ ¥¦£ © ££ ¥¦£ C © ££ ¦¥£ (q) case ( ) of { (\ > ) where is a data constructor of arity © C > . are ﬁelds of constructor . EXPRESSIONS Figure 3. _ > } of { > .
} ¦ A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¦ $ ¥ £0 7 ¦ ¦ { . } } ¦ ¡ 7 $ ¥ ¦£0 7 ¦ ¦ { .¦ § 7 ¥ ¦ ¤ ¤ © ¥ £0 ¦ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ ¡ 7 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¤ ¤ ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¤ © ¥ © ¦ § A 7 ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ © © ¥ ¤ § ¦ ¢ £¡ 7 ¦ § ) 7 7 ¦ 7 ¦ ¦ 8 8 A %§ ¥¥8 ¡ %§ ¦ § ¡ ¡ ¨ © § § ©¦ § © %§ ¨ § ¡ § ¦ 2 © ¢ 7 7 ¦ ¨ 5© ¤ ¥ %§ © %§ ¨ § S § 32 © ¢ ¦ 7§ © ¦ ¦ 7§ © ¨ ¦ § § ¤ ¥ 332 £ ¦ %¢§¢ 4 ¥ x¨ ¤ § ¡ § 32 ¢ ¦ ¦ V ¨ #¦ § § ¥ ©¤ § ©332 ¡ 7©¡ %§ 4 § © ¨ ¤ ¦ § S § 32 ¢ ¦ ¦ ¡ 7© ¡ %§ %¢ § 4 § V © A ¡ 2 § ¡ ¥¥8 ©¡ ¡ 2 § 8 8 7 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 7 ¦ ¡ © 2§ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § © 7¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ © ¦ ' ¡ ¦ ¦ Declarations and Bindings Chapter 4 In this chapter. . } } © 2§ . . ¦ { . } = = where where empty A § ¦ 37 6 6 © ¥ § ¦ § © 7 ¦ 7 6 6 © 7¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ 6 6 © 7¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ 6 6 © 2§ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 2 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 6 6 2 ¦ ' 2 $ 7 ¦ 2 4 . type data newtype class instance default ( . . we describe the syntax and informal semantics of Haskell declarations. = => => => => . module where 2 ¨ ©§ ¤ 5@¤32 ¢ ¡ § 2 4 ¦ ' { { { . .
we divide the declarations into three groups: userdeﬁned datatypes.e.3. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS The declarations in the syntactic category are only allowed at the top level of a Haskell module (see Chapter 5). consisting of type. consisting of value bindings.3). using normal type and data declarations. deﬁned on it.1) introduces a new type class and the overloaded operations that must be supported by any type that is an instance of that class. © 4.1. those within a let or where construct). consisting of class.2). .simplified class declaration for Num .38 %§ CHAPTER 4. An instance declaration (Section 4. suppose we wish to overload the operations (+) and negate on types Int and Float.3. 5].” We may then declare Int and Float to be instances of this class: . and default declarations (Section 4. and nested declarations. and data declarations (Section 4. For exposition. but most “builtin” datatypes are deﬁned with normal Haskell code. instance. and ﬁxity declarations (Section 4. type classes and overloading. A class declaration (Section 4.1 Overview of Types and Classes Haskell uses a traditional HindleyMilner polymorphic type system to provide a static type semantics [3. For example. infixl infixr infix ¦ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 2§ ¨ :: => © ¡ © 7 ¥ ¦ A¤ 2 ¨ ¥ § ¦ § ¤ ¡ § S § 32 ¢ ¦ V A¢ 2 ¡ 8¥¥8 8 8 8 ¥¥8 %§ § ¢ ¡ © ¤ ¡ ¤ ¢ ¢ 2 ¡ 6 6 6 6 7 ¥ ¦ © S¤ © type signature ﬁxity declaration empty declaration %§ § ¢ ¦ ¥ ¢ 2 ¡ .4). but the type system has been extended with type classes (or just classes) that provide a structured way to introduce overloaded functions.(Num is defined in the Prelude) This declaration may be read “a type a is an instance of the class Num if there are class methods (+) and negate. . of the given types. . newtype. type signatures. whereas may be used either at the top level or in nested scopes (i.2) declares that a type is an instance of a class and includes the deﬁnitions of the overloaded operations—called class methods—instantiated on the named type. These “builtin” datatypes are described in detail in Section 6. We introduce a new type class called Num: class Num a where (+) :: a > a > a negate :: a > a . Haskell has several primitive datatypes that are “hardwired” (such as integers and ﬂoatingpoint numbers).
6.0 type system. is the kind of types that take a type of kind and return ¤ ¥¡ 6 6 6 ¢ £¡ ¡ ¡ %§ %§ ¡ %§ ' ¢ . There is no longer any reason to use two different terms: in this report. addFloat. and negateFloat are assumed in this case to be primitive functions. class methods) for (+) and negate. ) tuple type list type parenthesised constructor ¤ type application ¢ ©¡ ¢ ¤ ¡ ¨§6 ¦¡ ¢ ¡ If and are kinds. Kind inference is discussed in Section 4. 4.1. then a type of kind . ¡ ¡ ¢ ¨ ¤ ¡ B%§ ¦ 32 ¢ %§ ¡ ¤ ¡ ¡ %§ %§ ' ' The symbol represents the kind of all nullary type constructors. kinds are entirely implicit and are not a visible part of the language. ‘type class’ includes both the original Haskell type classes and the constructor classes introduced by Jones. 4. OVERVIEW OF TYPES AND CLASSES 39 instance Num Int where .simplified instance of Num Int x + y = addInt x y negate x = negateInt x instance Num Float where .1.4.2 Syntax of Types ¨ %§ > %§ function type %§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ ¡ ¡ %§ %§ %§ ( [ ( . type expressions are classiﬁed into different kinds.simplified instance of Num Float x + y = addFloat x y negate x = negateFloat x where addInt. The term ‘type class’ was used to describe the original Haskell 1.1. The ﬁrst declaration above may be read “Int is an instance of the class Num as witnessed by these deﬁnitions (i. However. negateInt. ] ) . but in general could be any userdeﬁned function. unlike types.e.” More examples of type classes can be found in the papers by Jones [7] or Wadler and Blott [12]. which take one of two possible forms: Kind inference checks the validity of type expressions in a similar way that type inference checks the validity of value expressions. ‘constructor class’ was used to describe an extension to the original type classes.1 Kinds To ensure that they are valid.
also written () (see Sections 3. IO.). Double and Bool are type constants with kind . the names of type constructors start with uppercase letters. For example. and so on. ) 6 2§ $ § © ¦ ¤ ¤32 ¡ %§ ¤ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¦ 32 6 %§ 6 6 6 ¦ 32 %§ unit type list constructor function constructor tupling constructors . type values are built from . having form ( ). 4. As with data constructors.. The kind of a variable is determined implicitly by the context in which it appears. is identical to the type . A parenthesized type. The function type is written as (>) and has kind .9 and 6. Unlike data constructors. or newtype T . and is a type of kind . . The declarations data T . a process of kind inference (see Section 4. and classes. Since the IO type constructor has kind . inﬁx type constructors are not allowed (other than (>)).. Their kinds are . Special syntax is provided to allow certain type expressions to be written in a more traditional style: § § ¤ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¤ ¡ 6 ¤ ¡ 6 ¢ ¡ 3. the type expression IO a can be understood as the application of a constant. Type variables. Integer. Just as data values are built using data constructors.. If is a type of kind type expression of kind . written as identiﬁers beginning with a lowercase letter. The tuple types are written as (. In general. add the type constructor T to the type vocabulary. and so on. Maybe and IO are unary type constructors. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS The syntax for Haskell type expressions is given above.). it follows that both the variable a and the whole expression. Int. Float.1.5).40 CHAPTER 4. . (.6) is needed to determine appropriate kinds for userdeﬁned datatypes.. © S¤ Special syntax is provided for certain builtin type constructors: The trivial type is written as () and has kind . and treated as types with kind . Type application. then is a 6 6 6 6 6 () [] (>) (. It denotes the “nullary tuple” type. IO a. to the variable a. and has exactly one value. type synonyms. Type constructors. The kind of T is determined by kind inference.. Most type constructors are written as an identiﬁer beginning with an uppercase letter. must have kind . Use of the (>) and [] constants is described in more detail below. 2. For example: Char. The list type is written as [] and has kind . The main forms of type expression are as follows: 1.
“gtycon”.4. (Hence the special production. For example. the second component of type . ) £§ ¢ 6 ¢ & 8 ¢ ¥ ¦ § § ¢ 6 ¤ ¢ 8 ¢ ¢ £ ¤ ¥ ¡ § ¡ ¢ § ¤ ¦ ¦¢ § 32 ¦ © %§ ¨ § 2 4 A 5 %§ 8¥8¥8 ¢ %§ 7¥ ¤ B%§ ¦ © ¦ %§ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¢ ¤ %§ © ¥ %§ 7 7 © 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ ¡ S© ¥ ¢ ¥ 7 £ ¤ § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¢ ¢ ¢7 ¤ ¡§ ¢ £ ¤ %§ © § 7 ¥ ¡ %§ ¢ § 6 ¡ ¡ © S© ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ 8 ¢ ¥ 7 ¢ ¥ ¡ ¢ 6 6 6 6 6 § ¡ § ¢ £§ © © ¤ 7 7 © © © ¥ ¢ 7 ¥ %§ ¡§ ¦ 2 %§ %§ ¢ ¥ 7 v %§ . If is the type of expression or pattern . A list type has the form [ ]. the type expression a > a .3 Syntax of Class Assertions and Contexts .3. Int > Int > Float means Int > (Int > Float). ¡§ £§ ¡§ v § 4. and indicates the membership of the type in the class . the scope of the extends as far to the right as possible. and has the general form A $ A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ ¡ ( ) ¤ ¢ %§ ¦ ( ) ¦ A © © ( . A context consists of zero or more class assertions. nor mentioned in import or export lists (Chapter 5). tuples. It denotes the type of lists with elements of type (see Sections 3. which is equivalent to the type (. means . OVERVIEW OF TYPES AND CLASSES £§ ¡§ 41 £§ ¡§ > . For clarity. A tuple type has the form ( . Notice that expressions and types have a consistent syntax.7 and 6. [ ]. . For example. A class assertion has form . ) where . and ). the preﬁx type constructors (>). the type variables in a Haskell type expression are all assumed to be universally quantiﬁed. It denotes the type of tuples with the ﬁrst component of type . 3. and lists. which is equivalent to the type [] . (. (). then the expressions (\ > ). they cannot be qualiﬁed. and so on (see Sections 3. When we write an explicitly quantiﬁed type.1.). always denote the builtin type constructors.. and so on. . A class identiﬁer begins with an uppercase letter.1. [ ]. however.1. regardless of what is in scope. for example. we often write quantiﬁcation explicitly when denotes the type discussing the types of Haskell programs. . their semantics is the same as the equivalent userdeﬁned algebraic data types.8 and 6.4). and ( ) have the types ( > ). A function type has the form Function arrows associate to the right. there is no explicit syntax for universal quantiﬁcation [3]. .1.) Although the list and tuple types have special syntax. .3). In a similar way.1)).) where there are commas between the parenthesis. which is equivalent to the type (>) . These special syntactic forms always denote the builtin type constructors for functions. 1. ( With one exception (that of the distinguished type variable in a class declaration (Section 4. above. 2. []. respectively.
that can be assigned to a particular expression (in a given environment) is called its principal type. " t ¡§ is identical to . £ ¢ 8 £ ¥ $ ¡§ t $ ¡ ¢ 8 t $ The type substitution ¥ is more general than the type whose domain is such that: if and only if there is a § A $ A ¢ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ ¢ ¡ $ ¢ ¢ v r$ $ § ¢ ¢ § ¢ A ¢ 8 $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ ¥ ¡ £§ ¦ . a type is of the form .42 CHAPTER 4.16 and 4. The outer parentheses may be omitted when .1).3.4. or the application of type variable to one or more types. and a class environment that declares which types are instances of which classes (a type becomes an instance of a class only via the presence of an instance declaration or a deriving clause). Haskell’s extended HindleyMilner type system can infer the principal type of all expressions. The type of an expression depends on a type environment that gives types for the free variables in . the most general type. may be instantiated at types holds. in more detail. £§ ¨ $ © ¢ © A value of type . Therefore. here are some valid types: Eq a => a > a (Eq a. Types are related by a generalization preorder (speciﬁed below). consider the function double: § if and only if the context ¡ ¢ ¢ 8 £ ¢ Whenever ¥ holds in the class environment. Functor f) => (a > b) > f a > f b > Bool In the third type. as described in Section 4. The context must only contain type variables referenced in .1. although in this case the concrete syntax contains no =>. any of that are free in must also be free in . explicit typings (called type signatures) are usually optional (see Sections 3. we use to denote a context and we write => to indicate the type restricted by the context .4). also holds. the constraint Eq (f a) cannot be made simpler because f is universally quantiﬁed. up to the equivalence induced by the generalization preorder. For convenience. including the proper use of overloaded class methods (although certain ambiguous overloadings could arise. (Wadler and Blott [12] and Jones [7] discuss type and constructor classes. In any such type. Eq b) => [a] > [b] > String (Eq (f a). In general.) The Haskell type system attributes a type to each expression in the program. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS where are class identiﬁers. Show a. In general. and each of the is either a type variable. where is a set of type variables . For example.4 Semantics of Types and Classes In this section.1.3. respectively. we provide informal details of the type system. we write => even if the context is empty. Furthermore. § § § 4. For example. the universallyquantiﬁed type variables the context must be of the form given above in Section 4.
These declarations may only appear at the top level of a module. } 3 %§ ¢ ¥ ¦ 7 ! ! ¡ ¢ 7 ¦ ¦ 7 %§ ¡ %§ ¡ ¡ 7 ¥ %§ ¦ ¦ 7 ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ %§ ! ! arity inﬁx ¦§ £ ¢ ¢ ¡ 3 %§ 8¡ 8 ¥¥8 ¢ 2 ¦ ©32 ' ¡ ¡ %§ ¨ 8 8 ¥¥8 A¢ § © ¦ §¤ ¤32 8 8 ¥¥¡8   ¦ ¦ § 2©¦ 2 ¡ ¦32 ¦ ¦ § ¢ ¤ ¥ © © ¦ ¤ § 332 %§ ¤ ¢ 4§ © ¨ %§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ § S § ¢ ¢ ¦ 32 data => = ¦ ¢ 6 ¢ ¢ ¡ 7 ©¡ 8 ¢ ¥ %§ © ¤ ¦ 3¢ 2 %§ ¨ ¡ 32¡ ¦ ' ¢ ¡ ¤ ¤32 § © ¦ ¢ V ¤ § 332 © ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ 32 %§ %§ 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ ¦ 7 § %¢ #¦ § § 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ © © ¤ § ¦ ¤ § ¦ 2 © © © 7 ©¡ ¢ 7¥ ¦ ¤ 4§ 2 2§ ¦ © . and type synonyms (type declarations). An algebraic datatype declaration has the form: where is a context.4. . in which case double may indeed be applied to a Char. 4. USERDEFINED DATATYPES double x = x + x 43 The most general type of double is Num . double may not normally be applied to values of type Char. because Char is not normally an instance of class Num.2. ! . 4. In this Report. ) ¦ § ¦ ¢ ¥ ¦ 7 A ¢ ¥ ¦ 7 { :: .2 UserDeﬁned Datatypes In this section. because Int is an instance of the class Num. renamed datatypes (newtype declarations). the unqualiﬁed term “constructor” always means “data constructor”. double may be applied to values of type Int (instantiating to Int).1 Algebraic Datatype Declarations ¨ #¦ § § The precedence for is the same as that for expressions—normal constructor application has higher precedence than inﬁx constructor application (thus a : Foo a parses as a : (Foo a)). since Num Int holds. we describe algebraic datatypes (data declarations). The types of the data constructors are given by: A § ¥¥8 ¡ !§ A A 8 8 $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ 6 ¡ ¡ ¢¢¡ ¤ v§ 6 ¢¢¡ ¡ ¡ ¡§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ § ¡ 6 ¡ @§ v A v ¢ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ 8 ¡ $ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ Q¥ §¦v ¥¥ ¢ data ¢ => =   £ ¤ A © S© ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 © ¡ S© © S© deriving © ( . This declaration introduces a new type constructor with one or more constituent data constructors . The user may choose to declare such an instance.2. However.
A constructor deﬁnition in a data declaration may assign labels to the ﬁelds of the constructor. This allows For large datatypes it is useful to assign a speciﬁc ﬁeld to be referenced independently of its location within the constructor.8.. The type variables through must be distinct and may appear in and the . The arguments to the positional constructor occur in the same order as the labeled ﬁelds.f2 :: Int. using the record syntax (C { . the declaration data Eq a => Set a = NilSet  ConsSet a (Set a) In the example given. The optional deriving part of a data declaration has to do with derived instances.3. Labelled Fields A data constructor of arity creates an object with components. Pattern matching against ConsSet also gives rise to an Eq a constraint.e. to the components of a data object.6. For example. These components are normally accessed positionally as arguments to the constructor in expressions or patterns. This means that may be used in type expressions with anywhere between and arguments. and constructors NilSet and ConsSet with v § ¢ v I¡ ¢ ¢ 6 ¡ ¦ 6 ¥¥8 8 8 ¢ 6 $ 7 ¦7 ¢ 6 ¢ ¡ 8 8 ¢ ¢ ¥ §¥ ¥ ¥ §¥ ¥ ¡ $ ¤ v§ v $ where 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ @§ v . and is described in Section 4. the “abstractness” of the datatype) outside of the module in which the datatype is deﬁned is controlled by the form of the datatype’s name in the export list as described in Section 5. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS is the largest subset of that constrains only those type variables free in the types . For example: f (ConsSet a s) = a the function f has inferred type Eq a => Set a > a. }). it is a static error for any other type variable to appear in or on the righthandside. features using labels are simply a shorthand for operations using an underlying positional constructor. The new type constant has a kind of the form where the kinds of the argument variables are determined by kind inference as described in Section 4. A constructor with associated ﬁeld labels may still be used as an ordinary constructor. The context in the data declaration has no other effect whatsoever. the overloaded type for ConsSet ensures that ConsSet can only be applied to values whose type is an instance of the class Eq.. Constructors using ﬁeld labels may be freely mixed with constructors without them. f3 :: Bool } deﬁnes a type and constructor identical to the one produced by © ¢ 6 Set Set ¢ ¢ 6 ¢ 7 ' ¨¢ ¢ introduces a type constructor Set of kind types NilSet Set ConsSet Eq . For example.44 ¢ v ¢ CHAPTER 4. The visibility of a datatype’s constructors (i.3. the declaration data C = F { f1.
replaces every occurrence of 8 8 ¥¥8 A 8 8 §© ¥¥8 ¡ © 8 8 ¥¥8 $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ ¢ data => =   in an expression is the strict apply is not affected by 2 ¤ ¤ © ¡ ¦ 6 6 8 8 ¥¥8 %¢ § 4§ © 7 ©¡ 2 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ ¡ 2 ¡ $ ¡ # ¡ § § § . and function $! (see Section 6. Field names share the top level namespace with ordinary variables and class methods and must not conﬂict with other top level names in scope. It has the form § $ which introduces a new type constructor. . The kind of the new type constructor is of the form where the kinds of the arguments and of the right hand side are determined by kind inference as described in Section 4. Lexically. each argument to the constructor is evaluated if and only if the corresponding type in the algebraic datatype declaration has a strictness ﬂag. it is a static error for any other type variable to appear in . “!”. The type is equivalent to the type .6. Translation: A declaration of the form 4. The type variables through must be distinct and are scoped only over . USERDEFINED DATATYPES data C = F Int Int Bool 45 Operations using ﬁeld labels are described in Section 3.15. whether or not F was declared with record syntax.2.2) if is of the form ! . v 2§ v © v © v ¢ £ 2 ¡ ¢ ¡ 2 ¤ %§ ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ %§ 32 8 8 ¦ ¢%§ %¢ ¢ 4 § © § ¡ ¡ ©¡ 7 A 8 8 3¢ ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ 6 ¡ ¢ (\ > 2 v %§ ¡ 3¢ A 2 ¥¥8 £ A 8 8 ¡ ¡ ¡ v @§ & v 2§ 6 ¥¥8 8 8 ¨ $ # § 6 ¢ ¡ v © where each by is either of the form ! or . Pattern matching on strictness ﬂags. the following deﬁnition can be used to provide an alternative way of writing the list type constructor: § ¡ v $ § ¥¥8 ¡ § 8 8 § v I¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ $ type = ¦ § ¢ ¡ $ type %§ = v where is the nonstrict apply function $ if is of the form .4. “!” is an ordinary varsym not a .2. denoted by an exclamation point. Strictness Flags Whenever a data constructor is applied. A label cannot be shared by more than one type in scope.2 Type Synonym Declarations A type synonym declaration introduces a new type that is equivalent to an old type. it has special signiﬁcance only in the context of the argument types of a data declaration. A data declaration may use the same ﬁeld label in multiple constructors as long as the typing of the ﬁeld is the same in all cases after type synonym expansion. For example. The pattern F {} matches any value built with constructor F.
The type ( ) renames the datatype . type Rec a = [Rec a] is not allowed. this is not so for type synonyms.3. 4.46 type List = [] CHAPTER 4. unlike type synonyms.invalid = = [Circ a] Tag [Rec a] is not.2. A synonym and its deﬁnition are completely interchangeable. the newtype constructor is unlifted. except in the instance type of an instance declaration (Section 4. type Rec a data Circ a is allowed. For example. newtype does not change the underlying representation of an object. newtype may be used to deﬁne recursive types. Although recursive and mutually recursive datatypes are allowed. New instances (see Section 4. so that is the same as .3.2) can be deﬁned for a type deﬁned by newtype but may not be deﬁned for a type synonym.invalid . A type created by newtype differs from an algebraic datatype in that the representation of an algebraic datatype has an extra level of indirection. It differs from a type synonym in that it creates a distinct type that must be explicitly coerced to or from the original type. The constructor in an expression coerces a value from type to type ( ). Unlike algebraic datatypes. but strictly syntactic.2). Similarly. mechanism to make type signatures more readable. The difference is reﬂected in different rules for pattern matching (see Section 3. Type synonyms are a convenient. unless an algebraic datatype intervenes. E $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ § § $ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ § E $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ E ¢ newtype => A declaration of the form = ¦ § ¢ ¤ ¢ %§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ %§ ¢¤ %§ { :: } ¤ ¤ § 332 © ¦ £ ¦ § %¢ 4 § x¨ © § ¡ § ¢ ¡ ¦ 32 newtype => = ¦ ¡ 7 ©¡ V ¢ ¡ %§ E ¢ ¦ 32 § ¦32 ¦ 32 %§ E 6 6 6 $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ ¤32 § © ¦ ¡ § %¢ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 7 ©¡ $ £ 4§ © 2§ ¦ . These coercions may be implemented without execution time overhead. whereas type Rec a type Circ a = = [Circ a] [Rec a] . This difference may make access to the representation less efﬁcient. Using in a pattern coerces a value from type ( ) to type . it is a static error to use without the full number of arguments.3 Datatype Renamings ¨ ¦§ § introduces a new type whose representation is the same as an existing type. Also.17). DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS Type constructor symbols introduced by type synonym declarations cannot be partially applied.
3. © ¥ } ¦ § ¦ A© §S© 4§ © 7 8 8 ¥¥8 ¦ ( .4. In particular. whereas ( n ). TYPE CLASSES AND OVERLOADING 47 The following examples clarify the differences between data (algebraic datatypes). A newtype declaration may use ﬁeldnaming syntax. A class declaration has the general form: © $ ¢ class => where ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ A { . and newtype (renaming types.3. The optional deriving part of a newtype declaration is treated in the same way as the deriving component of a data declaration. see Section 4. . ( d1 ( D1 ) ) and ( s ) are all equivalent to 42. ( N ) is equivalent to while ( D1 ) is not equivalent to .3.) Given the declarations data D1 = D1 Int data D2 = D2 !Int type S = Int newtype N = N Int d1 (D1 i) = 42 d2 (D2 i) = 42 s i = 42 n (N i) = 42 the expressions ( d1 ). type (type synonyms). ( n ( N ) ).3.3 Type Classes and Overloading 4. ) ¦ § ¢7 ¤ %§ © 7 ©¡ %§ ¨ § S § ¢ class => where 7 ¥ ¦ ¢ 7 ¥ ¤ ¤ © ¥ £0 ¦ $ ¢ 7 ¦ 7 ¦ ¡ 8¥¥8 8 7 ¦ ¤ %§ ¥ © %§ ¢ ¥ § © 74 ¡ S© © ¢ ¥ © ¡ 4 § © 7 7 © S© 7 ¦ 32 © ¢ ¥ 7 ¡ 6 6 6 6 6 © © 7 ¥ © 7 ¥ ¢ ¥ ©¡ 7 7 § S § ¢ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ ¦ 32 4§ ¦ ¦ 2§ © © . though of course there may only be one ﬁeld.1 Class Declarations ¨ 5© A class declaration introduces a new class and the operations (class methods) on it. . ( d2 ) and (d2 (D2 ) ) are all equivalent to . Thus: newtype Age = Age { unAge :: Int } brings into scope both a constructor and a deconstructor: Age :: Int > Age unAge :: Age > Int 4.
in particular. since class methods declare toplevel values.48 CHAPTER 4.2). whose scope extends outside the class declaration. Show a) => Textual a Other than these cases. except that the left hand side may only be a variable or function deﬁnition. i. or another class method. the may contain a default class method for any of the .3. 6 7 ¥ ¦ 6 Foo Num 8 ¥ Here the type of op is © ¢ ' ¡ ¡ ¡ £ £ ¥ ¡ ¤¥ §¥ ¢ 8 ¨ © § ¥ ¦ ¢ ' ¢ ' ¢ 7 ¥ ¦ v 7 ¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ The part of a class declaration contains three kinds of declarations: is: $ ¢ ¢ 7 ¦ . For example: class (Read a. The may constrain only . it must form a directed acyclic graph. they must not conﬂict with other top level bindings in scope. as described below. .e. the may not constrain . the ﬁxity declaration for a class method may alternatively appear at top level. it may mention type variables other than .. For example: class Foo a where op1. The class methods of a class declaration are precisely the for which there is an explicit type signature :: => in . the only type variable that may be referred to in is . because the left hand side of the default declaration is a pattern. The default method declaration is a normal value deﬁnition. a class method can not have the same name as a top level deﬁnition. Lastly. The default class method for is used if no binding for it is given in a particular instance declaration (see Section 4. is not permitted. However. That is. The superclass relation must not be cyclic. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS $ This introduces a new class name . © v © A class declaration with no where part may be useful for combining a collection of classes into a larger one that inherits all of the class methods in the original ones. in which case the type of is polymorphic in both and .. the type variable is scoped only over the class method signatures in the class body. no other declarations are permitted in . op2 :: a > a (op1. For example: class Foo a where op :: Num b => a > b > a v #¢ £ $ £ v ¨¢ £ $ $ $ v§ v The may also contain a ﬁxity declaration for any of the class methods (but for no other values). Class methods share the top level namespace with variable bindings and ﬁeld names. © The class declaration introduces new class methods . The context speciﬁes the superclasses of . a ﬁeld name. outside the class declaration. v B v # v v @§ v ¢ v © The type of the toplevel class method The must mention . op2) = .
. (This rule is identical to that used for subordinate names in export lists — Section 5..Ix T where range = . It is illegal to give a binding for a class method that is not in scope. The declarations may contain bindings only for the class methods of . it may be a qualiﬁed name. ) ) & & ( ( [ ( { ) ¦ ¦£©¨¦§¥££ ¤ B%§ £¡ ¤ %§ ¢ ¤ ¢ ¢ © §¢ ¦¥©¨§¦¥¤£¡S¤ %§ ¤ ¢ ¢ © ¦ ¢ ¢ © ¥©¨§¦¥¤£¡S¤ ¢¢ %§ § ¢¢ ¦ ¦ ' © ¥ ¤ ¤ © ¥ £0 ¦ $ A § ¥¥8 ¢ ¡ 7 § 8 8 7 ¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ £ ¤ %§ ¡ ¤ %§ ¢ ¤ ¢ %§ ¢ ¤ %§ ¥¥8 8 8 ¡ ¤ %§ ¤ B%§ ¢ ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ %§ ¦ 2 ¢ %§ 8 8 ¢ ¢ ¨ § ¡ § ¢ ¦ 2 © instance => where 7 § ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ 32 8 8 ¥¥8 %§ ¦ ¡ $ 6 6 6 6 ¦ § ¢ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ © 7 7 § ¦ § © 2§ § ¦ § ¦ . must take the form of a type constructor applied to simple . instance C (Int..) For example.2.4.. 4. in particular. The declarations may not contain any type signatures or ﬁxity declarations.. module A where import qualified Ix instance Ix.. must not be a type synonym. . since these have already v x$ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ $ where . The general form of the corresponding instance declaration is: This prohibits instance declarations such as: instance C (a. } ..range..3. ] > .a) where . and the must all be $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ 1 ¢ instance => where { ¦ 2 ¢ class => where { } £%§ ¡ 4 ¦ .a) where . even though range is in scope only with the qualiﬁed name Ix. instance C [[a]] where . but the name under which it is in scope is immaterial. it is not automatically an instance of the subclass. The type type variables distinct. if a type is an instance of all superclasses. furthermore.2 Instance Declarations ¨ © } § ¦ § © © %§ $ An instance declaration introduces an instance of a class. TYPE CLASSES AND OVERLOADING 49 In such a case.3. this is legal. Let be a class declaration. The instance declaration must be given explicitly with no where part. even though the subclass has no immediate class methods.
Since Foo is a superclass of Bar. the method declarations must take the form of a variable or function deﬁnition. The second instance declaration is valid only if [a] is an ¨ $ # $ 8 8 ¥¥8 1. because Eq and Show are superclasses of Num.. The ﬁrst instance declaration does indeed say that [a] is an instance of Foo under this assumption.3. The class and type must have the same kind. instance (Eq a. the following two conditions must also be satisﬁed: 2. As in the case of default class methods (Section 4. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS been given in the class declaration. Show a) => Foo [a] where . Show a) => Bar [a] where . then the program would be invalid. instance Num a => Bar [a] where ....6. Under this assumption. if such a default does not exist then the class method of this instance is bound to undefined and no compiletime error results. except in pathological cases it is possible to infer from the instance declaration the most general instance context satisfying the above two constraints. must be an instance of each of . the second instance declaration is only valid if [a] is an instance of Foo under the assumption Num a. this can be determined using kind inference as described in Section 4. In fact.. but it is nevertheless mandatory to write an explicit instance context.. The following example illustrates the restrictions imposed by superclass instances: class Foo a => Bar a where .. Any constraints on the type variables in the instance type that are required for the class method declarations in to be welltyped must also be satisﬁed.. The constraints expressed by the superclass context be satisﬁed. This example is valid Haskell.. A type may not be declared as an instance of a particular class more than once in the program.50 CHAPTER 4. Assume that the type variables in the instance type satisfy the constraints in the instance context .. contexts of all superclass instances must be implied by $ of must ’s superclasses and the ¢ An instance declaration that makes the type to be an instance of class instance declaration and is subject to these static restrictions: is called a CT $ 1 ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¢ $ 1 ¢ ¦ 1 ¢ . If the two instance declarations instead read like this: instance Num a => Foo [a] where . If no binding is given for some class method then the corresponding default class method in the class declaration is used (if present).1). In other words. instance (Eq a.
These instances are subject to the same restrictions as userdeﬁned instances.4. For example. and Defaults for Overloaded Numeric Operations ¦ A %§ A problem inherent with Haskellstyle overloading is the possibility of an ambiguous type.2. It is also a static error to give an explicit instance declaration for a class that is also derived. and supposing that just Int and Bool are members of Read and Show. If the form is included. TYPE CLASSES AND OVERLOADING 51 instance of Foo under the assumptions (Eq a. page 83. Ord.1. .invalid is ambiguous. Further examples of instance declarations may be found in Chapter 8. The precise details of how the derived instances are generated for each of these classes are provided in Chapter 10. But this does not hold. not all datatypes can properly support class methods in Enum. including a speciﬁcation of when such derived instances are possible. omitting a deriving form is equivalent to including an empty deriving form: deriving (). If the deriving form is omitted from a data or newtype declaration. Show. data and newtype declarations contain an optional deriving form." in show x . For example. When deriving a class for a type . For example.1. and Read. The only classes in the Prelude for which derived instances are allowed are Eq...3. Bounded. Enum. all mentioned in Figure 6. Classes deﬁned by the standard libraries may also be derivable. since [a] is only an instance of Foo under the stronger assumption Num a. 4. instances for all superclasses of must exist for . derived instances for datatypes in the class Eq deﬁne the operations == and /=. A static error results if it is not possible to derive an instance declaration over a class named in a deriving form. ) ¦ § ¡ ¡ 6 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 2§ . ¢ 6 6 ¢ 8 ¢ 8 ¥ §¥ ¥ ¥ §¥ ¥ show read Show Read String String ¢ ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ ¡ ¢ %§ default ( . then the expression let x = read ". because the types for show and read.4 Ambiguous Types.3. then derived instance declarations are automatically generated for the datatype in each of the named classes. then no instance declarations are derived for that datatype. that is. freeing the programmer from the need to deﬁne them. 4. Show a). using the read and show functions deﬁned in Chapter 10. Derived instances provide convenient commonlyused operations for userdeﬁned datatypes. either via an explicit instance declaration or by including the superclass in the deriving clause.3.3 Derived Instances As mentioned in Section 4.
" in show (x::Bool) which disambiguates the type.. default ().) Ambiguities in the class Num are most common. but and are forced to have the same type. or Bool. (that is. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS could be satisﬁed by instantiating a as either Int in both cases. and each must be a type for which Num holds. and all of these classes are deﬁned in the Prelude or a standard library (Figures 6. approxSqrt x = encodeFloat 1 (exponent x ‘div‘ 2) ‘asTypeOf‘ x (See Section 6. an ambiguous type variable.. Only one default declaration is permitted per module. Occasionally.) Each defaultable variable is replaced by the ﬁrst type in the default list that is an instance of all the ambiguous variable’s classes. ) where .2–6. One way is through the use of expression typesignatures as described in Section 3. . § ¢ . where is a class. is Ambiguous types can only be circumvented by input from the user. For example. . for the ambiguous expression given earlier. an otherwise ambiguous expression needs to be made the same type as some variable. turns off all defaults in a module. so Haskell provides another way to resolve them— with a default declaration: default ( .1. Double) The empty default declaration.16. Such expressions are considered illtyped.52 CHAPTER 4. page 83. the earlier expression involving show and read has an ambiguous type since its type Show Read String. Num or a subclass of Num). This is the purpose of the function asTypeOf (Chapter 8): ‘asTypeOf‘ has the value of . is defaultable if: ¢ ¢ at least one of these classes is a numeric class. For example. and Figure 6. pages 91– 92 show the numeric classes. and 8 $ ¥ We say that an expression e has an ambiguous type if. there is a type A !§ v § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡§ ¢ v 2§ ¢ $ ¦ $ ¦ 8 ¢ ¥ . in its type variable in that occurs in but not in . a static error.4. If no default declaration is given in a module then it assumed to be: default (Integer. § ¢ ¢ For example. and its effect is limited to that module. rather than being given a ﬁxed type with an expression typesignature. It is a static error if no such type is found. shows the classes deﬁned in the Prelude.3. Such types are invalid. appears only in constraints of the form . In situations where an ambiguous type is discovered.6 for a description of encodeFloat and exponent. one could write: let x = read ".
and hence the scope of a type variable is limited to the type signature that contains it. For example. these declarations contain a static error. %§ ¨ § S § ¢ ¢ 8 ¦ 32 ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¥ :: . the deﬁning occurrence. such as ¦ ¦ § ¢ § 6 ¢ ¢ A ¢ § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ 8 ¡ ¢ ¥ §¥ ¥ A §¤ v ¢ .5. if we deﬁne sqr x = x*x 0 0 0 0 0 0 then the principal type is sqr Num . it is invalid to give more than one type signature for one variable. (The type of x is dependent on the type of f. However.4 Nested Declarations The following declarations may be used in any declaration list. It is a static error if the same type cannot also be inferred for the deﬁning occurrence of . in the following declarations f :: a > a f x = x :: a v B the a’s in the two type signatures are quite distinct. For example. this is explained in Section 4.1 Type Signatures . . including the top level of a module.4. If a variable is deﬁned without providing a corresponding type signature declaration.5) is treated as having the corresponding inferred. A type signature has the form: :: => which is equivalent to asserting :: => for each from to .4. to ensure that type inference is still possible. every type variable appearing in a signature is universally quantiﬁed over that signature. NESTED DECLARATIONS 53 4. It is also valid to declare a more speciﬁc type.1.1. 4. Indeed. it is invalid to give a type signature for a variable bound in an outer scope. even if the signatures are identical. As mentioned in Section 4.invalid A type signature speciﬁes types for variables.2).4. then each use of is treated as having the declared type. and all uses of within its declaration group must have the same monomorphic type (from which the principal type is obtained by generalization.2. which allows applications such as sqr 5 or sqr 0. ¡ => ¡ V © ¤ ¤ ¢ ¢ 6 6 7 ¥ ¦ © S¤ ¦ ¥ ¢ .) If a given program includes a signature for a variable .5. as described in Section 4. or principal type . Moreover. Each must have a value binding in the same declaration list that contains the type signature. i. possibly with respect to a context. there is currently since x does not have type no way in Haskell to specify a signature for a variable with a dependent type.e. then each use of outside its own declaration group (see Section 4.4.
T a > a. and at most one ﬁxity declaration may be given for any operator. . level 9 is assumed. Any operator lacking a ﬁxity declaration is assumed to be infixl 9 (See Section 3 for more on the use of ﬁxities). DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS but now applications such as sqr 0.) There are three kinds of ﬁxity. and ten precedence levels.invalid .54 sqr :: Int > Int CHAPTER 4.invalid are invalid. Type signatures such as sqr :: (Num a. For example: §§ § ¦ ¤ § ¦ § ¦ infixl infixr infix . If the is omitted. non. Fixity is a property of a particular entity (constructor or variable). 4. left. 0 to 9 inclusive (level 0 binds least tightly. declares a property of a particular operator. and infixr. Polymorphic recursion allows the user to supply the more general type signature. The following deﬁnition is pathological. their ﬁxity declarations can occur either in the class declaration itself or at top level. the type of f will be inferred as T Int > Int due to the ﬁrst recursive call for which the argument to f is T Int. just like its type.1 lists the ﬁxities and precedences of the operators deﬁned in the Prelude. (Class methods are a minor exception. Type signatures can also be used to support polymorphic recursion. A ﬁxity declaration may appear anywhere that a type signature appears and. Num b) => a > b sqr :: a > a . and level 9 binds most tightly). but illustrates how a type signature can be used to specify a type more general than the one that would be inferred: data T a = K (T Int) (T a) f :: T a > a f (K x y) = if f x == 1 then f y else undefined If we remove the signature declaration. a ﬁxity declaration can only occur in the same sequence of declarations as the declaration of the operator itself. ¦ ¡ 2 ©¦ 2 &¤ 2 A 2 ¡ ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¢ 2 8 8 ¡ ¡ 2 ¨ ¥ § ¦ § %§ § ¢ ¤ 6 6 6 6 7 ¥ ¦ © %§ § ¢ ¦ ¥ ¡ ¡2 2 . respectively).2 Fixity Declarations © A ﬁxity declaration gives the ﬁxity and binding precedence of one or more operators. The in a ﬁxity declaration must be in the range to . as they are more general than the principal type of sqr.1 are invalid.and rightassociativity (infix.4. Also like a type signature. infixl. like a type signature. Table 4. ﬁxity is not a property of that entity’s name.
. >>= $.op‘ b) + 1 f x = let p ‘op‘ q = (p ‘Foo. ‘Foo. /.op‘ is infix 3. ‘notElem‘ &&  >>. ‘elem‘. ‘div‘.. module Foo where import qualified Bar infix 3 ‘op‘ a ‘op‘ b = (a ‘Bar. >. ** :. >=. (It would also be possible to give a ﬁxity to the nested deﬁnition of ‘op‘ with a nested ﬁxity declaration. NESTED DECLARATIONS 55 Precedence 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Left associative operators !! *. /=. and the nested deﬁnition of op in f’s righthand side has the default ﬁxity of infixl 9.  Nonassociative operators Right associative operators .4. ˆˆ. ‘seq‘ Table 4.op‘ is infixr 7. <. Here. <=.. $!.1: Precedences and ﬁxities of prelude operators module Bar( op ) where infixr 7 ‘op‘ op = . ++ ==.4.3 Function and Pattern Bindings © ¥ § ¤ 2 v ¢£¡ § p v ¢ §e ¡ ¡ v © ¢ £¡ p v ¢ §e 2 § ¡ v £¡ p v ¢ 0e $ ¢ § ¡ ¢ ¡ £5¢ ¤ § ¤ ¢ £¡ ¤ ¡ v ¢ 2¢ &¤ v § £¡ ¢ ¤ ¡ ¢ ¡ v § £ 7¡ ¢ ¢ ¤ £ ¡ ¢ § ¢ ¡ £5¢ © ¥ 7 ¦ $ £0 § 6 6 © ¥ 7 ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ $ 0 .4.op‘ q) * 2 in . ‘quot‘ +. ‘rem‘. ˆ. ‘Bar.) 4.. ‘mod‘.
. The set of patterns corresponding to each match must be linear—no variable is allowed to appear more than once in the entire set. and the number of patterns in each clause must be the same. The general form of a function binding for variable is: ¡ ¥ § ¥ § or ¡ v ¡v   = Note that all clauses deﬁning a function must be contiguous. otherwise. Either binding may appear at the toplevel of a module or within a where or let construct. the binding is called a function binding.4. The former is treated as shorthand for a particular case of } v © 7 ¦ = where { ¤ ¥7 v v © ¤ ¦7 v v = where { 7 ¦ 8 8 ¥¥8 § ¡ v where each is a pattern.3. Alternative syntax is provided for binding functional values to inﬁx operators. and where each is of the general form: } } A ¢ ¢ 4 4 v ¥ § 4 ¢ A ¥¥8 ¡ A 8 8 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ ¢ ¢ ¡  ¨ © ¥ ¤ ¢ ¡ = ¦ ¦ ¡ ¤ © ¥ ¡ ¢ ¡ = ¦ where where 9§ ¨© ¨ 7 © ¥ 7 ¥ ¦ § © ¥ ¡ ¦ $ £0 ¤ ( ) ¢ §¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ £5¢ 7 ¦ 6 6 ¡ ¦ ¢ 6 © ¥ ¤ § © ¥ ¦ ¦ ¢ £¡ ¤ . these three function deﬁnitions are all equivalent: plus x y z = x+y+z x `plus y = \ z > x+y+z ` (x ` plus y) z = x+y+z ` v © v  True = where { 7 ¥ ¦ v 4 ¦ and where .1 Function bindings A function binding binds a variable to a function value. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS We distinguish two cases within this syntax: a pattern binding occurs when the left hand side is a . the latter.56 CHAPTER 4. namely: . For example. ¤ 4.
but the existence of n+k patterns sometimes confuses the issue. ) of ( ) ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ .e.3.2 Pattern bindings A pattern binding binds variables to values. It is usually straightforward to tell whether a binding is a pattern binding or a function binding.4.12. A 4 ¡ A ( ) ¥ § ¢ 4 A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ 8 8 ¥¡ ¥8 ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¢ ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¢ = \ ¢ > case ( . The pattern is matched “lazily” as an irrefutable pattern. A simple pattern binding has form . .4. a pattern binding is: is the same structure as for ¡ ¥ § ¢ ¥ § ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 4 ¡ ¡ 888 v ¢ where the are new identiﬁers. as if there were an implicit ˜ in front of it. where a function bindings above. simple pattern binding): ¡ ¥ § 57 4. in other words. See the translation in Section 3. Here are four examples: 7 7 if then £ ¤ ¡ ¢ © £ ¡ = let if if in then then 7 ¦ Translation: ing: The pattern binding above is semantically equivalent to this simple pattern bind else else else error "Unmatched pattern" © 7 ¥ ¦ 7  = where { 7 £ ¡ ¢ £ ¡   = = } 4 The general form of a pattern binding is .4. A note about syntax. NESTED DECLARATIONS Translation: The general binding form for functions is semantically equivalent to the equation (i.
58 x + 1 = ... (x + 1) = ... (x + 1) * y = ... (x + 1) y = ...
CHAPTER 4. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS
 Function binding, defines (+)  Equivalent to (+) x 1 = ...  Pattern binding, defines x  Function binding, defines (*)  Equivalent to (*) (x+1) y = ...  Function binding, defines (+)  Equivalent to (+) x 1 y = ...
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4.5 Static Semantics of Function and Pattern Bindings
The static semantics of the function and pattern bindings of a let expression or where clause are discussed in this section.
4.5.1 Dependency Analysis
In general the static semantics are given by the normal HindleyMilner inference rules. A dependency analysis transformation is ﬁrst performed to increase polymorphism. Two variables bound by value declarations are in the same declaration group if either 1. they are bound by the same pattern binding, or 2. their bindings are mutually recursive (perhaps via some other declarations that are also part of the group). Application of the following rules causes each let or where construct (including the where deﬁning the top level bindings in a module) to bind only the variables of a single declaration group, thus capturing the required dependency analysis: 1 1. The order of declarations in where/let constructs is irrelevant.
£
} in = let { } in (let { 2. let { ; (when no identiﬁer bound in appears free in )
1
} in
A similar transformation is described in Peyton Jones’ book [10].
§
The ﬁrst two can be distinguished because a pattern binding has a — the former cannot be an unparenthesised n+k pattern.
§
¢ £¡
on the left hand side, not a
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¡
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4.5. STATIC SEMANTICS OF FUNCTION AND PATTERN BINDINGS
59
4.5.2 Generalization
The HindleyMilner type system assigns types to a letexpression in two stages. First, the righthand side of the declaration is typed, giving a type with no universal quantiﬁcation. Second, all type variables that occur in this type are universally quantiﬁed unless they are associated with bound variables in the type environment; this is called generalization. Finally, the body of the letexpression is typed. For example, consider the declaration f x = let g y = (y,y) in ...
The type of g’s deﬁnition is . The generalization step attributes to g the polymorphic type , after which the typing of the “...” part can proceed. When typing overloaded deﬁnitions, all the overloading constraints from a single declaration group are collected together, to form the context for the type of each variable declared in the group. For example, in the deﬁnition: f x = let g1 x y = if x>y then show x else g2 y x g2 p q = g1 q p in ... String, and the accumulated The types of the deﬁnitions of g1 and g2 are both constraints are Ord (arising from the use of >), and Show (arising from the use of show). The type variables appearing in this collection of constraints are called the constrained type variables. The generalization step attributes to both g1 and g2 the type
Notice that g2 is overloaded in the same way as g1 even though the occurrences of > and show are in the deﬁnition of g1. If the programmer supplies explicit type signatures for more than one variable in a declaration group, the contexts of these signatures must be identical up to renaming of the type variables.
4.5.3 Context Reduction Errors
As mentioned in Section 4.1.4, the context of a type may constrain only a type variable, or the application of a type variable to one or more types. Hence, types produced by generalization must be expressed in a form in which all context constraints have be reduced to this “head normal form”. Consider, for example, the deﬁnition: f xs y = xs == [y]
6
6
Ord
Show
6 ¢
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6
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CHAPTER 4. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS
f :: Eq a => [a] > a > Bool and not f :: Eq [a] => [a] > a > Bool Even though the equality is taken at the list type, the context must be simpliﬁed, using the instance declaration for Eq on lists, before generalization. If no such instance is in scope, a static error occurs. Here is an example that shows the need for a constraint of the form where m is one of the type variables being generalized; that is, where the class applies to a type expression that is not a type variable or a type constructor. Consider: f :: (Monad m, Eq (m a)) => a > m a > Bool f x y = return x == y The type of return is Monad m => a > m a; the type of (==) is Eq a => a > a > Bool. The type of f should be therefore (Monad m, Eq (m a)) => a > m a > Bool, and the context cannot be simpliﬁed further. The instance declaration derived from a data type deriving clause (see Section 4.3.3) must, like , any instance declaration, have a simple context; that is, all the constraints must be of the form where is a type variable. For example, in the type data Apply a b = App (a b) deriving Show
the derived Show instance will produce a context Show (a b), which cannot be reduced and is not simple; thus a static error results.
4.5.4 Monomorphism
Sometimes it is not possible to generalize over all the type variables used in the type of the deﬁnition. For example, consider the declaration f x = let g y z = ([x,y], z) in ... In an environment where x has type , the type of g’s deﬁnition is ([ ] ). The ([ ] ); only can be universally generalization step attributes to g the type quantiﬁed because occurs in the type environment. We say that the type of g is monomorphic in the type variable . The effect of such monomorphism is that the ﬁrst argument of all applications of g must be of a single type. For example, it would be valid for the “...” to be
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It is worth noting that the explicit type signatures provided by Haskell are not powerful enough to express types that include monomorphic type variables. For example, we cannot write f x = let g :: a > b > ([a],b) g y z = ([x,y], z) in ... because that would claim that g was polymorphic in both a and b (Section 4.4.1). In this program, g can only be given a type signature if its ﬁrst argument is restricted to a type not involving type variables; for example g :: Int > b > ([Int],b) This signature would also cause x to have type Int.
4.5.5 The Monomorphism Restriction
Haskell places certain extra restrictions on the generalization step, beyond the standard HindleyMilner restriction described above, which further reduces polymorphism in particular cases. The monomorphism restriction depends on the binding syntax of a variable. Recall that a variable is bound by either a function binding or a pattern binding, and that a simple pattern binding is a pattern binding in which the pattern consists of only a single variable (Section 4.4.3). The following two rules deﬁne the monomorphism restriction:
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CHAPTER 4. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS
Rule 1. We say that a given declaration group is unrestricted if and only if: (a): every variable in the group is bound by a function binding or a simple pattern binding (Section 4.4.3.2), and (b): an explicit type signature is given for every variable in the group that is bound by simple pattern binding. The usual HindleyMilner restriction on polymorphism is that only type variables that do not occur free in the environment may be generalized. In addition, the constrained type variables of a restricted declaration group may not be generalized in the generalization step for that group. (Recall that a type variable is constrained if it must belong to some type class; see Section 4.5.2.) Rule 2. Any monomorphic type variables that remain when type inference for an entire module is complete, are considered ambiguous, and are resolved to particular types using the defaulting rules (Section 4.3.4).
Motivation
Rule 1 is required for two reasons, both of which are fairly subtle.
Rule 1 prevents computations from being unexpectedly repeated. For example, genericLength is a standard function (in library List) whose type is given by genericLength :: Num a => [b] > a Now consider the following expression: let { len = genericLength xs } in (len, len) It looks as if len should be computed only once, but without Rule 1 it might be computed twice, once at each of two different overloadings. If the programmer does actually wish the computation to be repeated, an explicit type signature may be added: let { len :: Num a => a; len = genericLength xs } in (len, len)
Rule 1 prevents ambiguity. For example, consider the declaration group
[(n,s)] = reads t Recall that reads is a standard function whose type is given by the signature reads :: (Read a) => String > [(a,String)] Without Rule 1, n would be assigned the type Read and s the type Read String. The latter is an invalid type, because it is inherently ambiguous. It is not possible to determine at what overloading to use s, nor can this be solved by adding a type signature for s. Hence, when nonsimple pattern bindings are used (Section 4.4.3.2), the types inferred are always monomorphic in their constrained type variables, irrespective of whether a type signature is provided. In this case, both n and s are monomorphic in .
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5. For example. Rule 2 now states that the monomorphic type variable a is ambiguous. STATIC SEMANTICS OF FUNCTION AND PATTERN BINDINGS The same constraint applies to patternbound functions. a type signature on len1 would solve the problem. Many functions are most naturally deﬁned using simple pattern bindings. Consequences The monomorphism rule has a number of consequences for the programmer. and its use in len2 is typeincorrect.4. except by performing type inference on modules outside the current module. and must be resolved using the defaulting rules of Section 4. (If the above code is actually what is wanted. module M1(len1) where default( Int. len1 gets type Int. Hence. the user must be careful to afﬁx these with type signatures to retain full overloading.g) = ((+). Rule 2 states that the exact types of all the variables bound in a module must be determined by that module alone. and not by any modules that import it.()) both f and g are monomorphic regardless of any type signatures supplied for f or g. However. because their entire scope is visible to the compiler. Anything deﬁned with function syntax usually generalizes as a function is expected to. 63 Rule 2 is required because there is no way to enforce monomorphic use of an exported binding. len1 has the monomorphic type Num a => a (by Rule 1).) This issue does not arise for nested bindings. the same function deﬁned with pattern syntax: f = \x > \y > x+y requires a type signature if f is to be fully overloaded. Thus in f x y = x+y the function f may be used at any overloading in class Num. There is no danger of recomputation here.3. Consider module M where len1 = genericLength "Hello" len2 = (2*len1) :: Rational . in (f.4. The standard prelude contains many examples of this: sum sum :: (Num a) => [a] > a = foldl (+) 0 Rule 1 applies to both toplevel and nested deﬁnitions. Double ) len1 = genericLength "Hello" module M2 where import M1(len1) len2 = (2*len1) :: Rational When type inference on module M1 is complete.
and class deﬁnitions into dependency groups. . the parameter a appears as an argument of the function constructor (>) in the type of bar and hence must have kind . to calculate a suitable kind for each type constructor and class appearing in a given program. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS Here. For example. and classes within each group are determined using standard techniques of type inference and kindpreserving uniﬁcation [7]. type inference ﬁnds that len1 has the monomorphic type (Num a => a). It follows that both D and S must have kind and that every instance of class C must have kind . for instance). For example. a synonym S and a class C.invalid This is important because it ensures that each constructor and class are used consistently with the same kind whenever they are in scope. For example. a default of is assumed. using the default binding . synonym. in the deﬁnitions above. 4. respectively. The ﬁrst step in the kind inference process is to arrange the set of datatype.5. This can be achieved in much the same way as the dependency analysis for value declarations that was described in Section 4. we could assume an arbitrary kind for the a parameter in each of the following examples: data App f a = A (f a) data Tree a = Leaf  Fork (Tree a) (Tree a) This would give kinds and for App and Tree. For example. does not match the kind that is expected for an argument of Tree: type FunnyTree = Tree [] . the actual kinds for these two constructors are and . adding the following deﬁnition to those above does not inﬂuence the kind inferred for Tree (by changing it to . constructors. in such cases. Defaults are applied to each dependency group without consideration of the ways in which particular type constructor constants or classes are used in later dependency groups or elsewhere in the program. and the type variable a is resolved to Rational when performing type inference on len2.6 Kind Inference This section describes the rules that are used to perform kind inference. Instead. all of which would be included in the same dependency group: data C a => D a = Foo (S a) type S a = [D a] class C a where bar :: a > D a > Bool The kinds of variables. respectively. and instead generates a static error because the kind of []. the following program fragment includes the deﬁnition of a datatype constructor D.e.64 CHAPTER 4. for any kind . 6 6 6 6 9 6 6 ¡ 6 6 6 ¡ 6 9 6 6 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ . It is possible that some parts of an inferred kind may not be fully determined by the corresponding deﬁnitions. and would require an extension to allow polymorphic kinds. i.
f >> B. here is a threemodule program: module Main where import A import B main = A. (see Chapter 4). which must be a computation of type IO for some type (see Chapter 7). It exports some of these resources. Modules may be mutually recursive. type synonyms. datatypes. and then concatenating all the module bodies1 . imported into. one of which. When the program is executed.f module A where f = . default declarations scope over a single module (Section 4.4). by convention. First. Second.5) is affected by module boundaries. Rule 2 of the monomorphism restriction (Section 4. making them available to other modules..5.. the computation main is performed.. We use the term entity to refer to a value. Modules are used for namespace control. 1 65 .Chapter 5 Modules A module deﬁnes a collection of values.3. changing all occurrences to refer to the appropriate unique name. in an environment created by a set of imports (resources brought into scope from other modules). must be called Main and must export the value main. For example. and its result (of type ) is discarded. A multimodule Haskell program can be converted into a singlemodule program by giving each entity a unique name. Modules may reference other modules via explicit import declarations.. module B where f = . A Haskell program is a collection of modules. type. It is equivalent to the following singlemodule program: There are two minor exceptions to this statement. etc. classes. and are not ﬁrst class values. or perhaps exported from a module. or class deﬁned in. The value of the program is the value of the identiﬁer main in module Main. each giving the name of a module to be imported and specifying its entities to be imported.
There is one distinguished module. 7 ¦ © ¡ 2§ © © 4§ ¡ 2§ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ § ¡ 32 ¦ 2§ ¦ ¡ 4§ ¦ ¡ 4§ { { { . (see Chapter 4).6). Prelude. The header is followed by a possiblyempty list of import declarations ( . then the layout rule applies for the top level of the module.2 Export Lists ¦ ¨ A§ ¤ !¤32 ¢ S 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤32 § ¤ ¢ ¡ ( . type synonyms. ). The namespace for modules themselves is ﬂat. If the ﬁrst lexeme in the abbreviated module is not a {. bf = .. . modules allow a program to be partitioned freely without regard to dependencies. etc. ) ¦ § ¦ ¦ A 2§ 7 A ¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 . . Section 5..3) that specify modules to be imported. . } } } 2 ¨ ©§ ¤ 5@¤32 7 ¢ ¡ ¦ ¡ § 2 4 module ¦ where 2 4 ¦ ' ¡ ¦ ¦ 7 ¥ © 7¥ 7 ¥ ¡ ¦ ¡ ¦ ' 2 6 6 6 6 6 6 © © 2§ 7¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § © ¦ ¡ § 2 4 ¦ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 7 ©§ ¤ @¤32 $ 7 ¦ ¦ ' ¡ 2 4 2§ 2 ¢ ¡ . A module begins with a header: the keyword module. If this is used.e. consisting only of the module body. CHAPTER 5. This is followed by a possiblyempty list of toplevel declarations . ¦ ¦ § 5.66 module Main where main = af >> bf af = . data types.1 Module Structure A module deﬁnes a mutually recursive scope containing declarations for value bindings. is permitted. the module name. which is imported into all modules by default (see Section 5. Chapter 4). MODULES Because they are allowed to be mutually recursive. with each module being associated with a unique module name (which are Haskell identiﬁers beginning with a capital letter. and a list of entities (enclosed in round parentheses) to be exported. © 5. ( An abbreviated form of module. classes... i. the header is assumed to be ‘module Main(main) where’. optionally restricting the imported bindings. plus a set of standard library modules that may be imported as required (see Part II). . .
A value. all values.2. A type synonym is in scope.Maybe( Nothing. where ¨ ¦ § ¨ A ¤ ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ 8 8 ¢ ¥¥8 ¢ A 5 4 ¦ ¡ ¢ 4 ¦ 8 8 ¤ ¢ ¤ ¦ § (. which must be in scope. A module implementation may only export an entity that it declares.. because they cannot otherwise be distinguished from type constructors.. the (possiblyqualiﬁed) type constructor and ﬁeld names in the second form are unqualiﬁed. or that it imports from some other module. . types and classes deﬁned in the module are exported. EXPORT LISTS 67 . Entities in an export list may be named as follows: 1. names the type and some or all of its constructors and ﬁeld declared in a class declaration may be named in one . but not those that are imported.8). the following is legal module A( Mb. should be enclosed in parentheses to turn them into 2. ) An export list identiﬁes the entities to be exported by a module declaration. and (b) the constructor or ﬁeld is in scope in the module body regardless of whether it is in scope under a qualiﬁed or unqualiﬁed name. A class with operations of three ways: 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ The form names. ( . The abbreviated form (. must be in scope. . one of these subordinate names is legal if and only if (a) it names a constructor or ﬁeld of . or class method. For example. Operators be named by giving the name of the value as a s.) names the type and all its constructors and ﬁeld names that are currently in scope (whether qualiﬁed or not). ) ¦ ¦§ ¦ ¦ § ¢ ¢ ¢ ¡ ¢¨ ¦ ¦ § 2 4 ¦ 2 ¤ 3¥ %§ ¦ 72 ¨ © ¡ ¨ ¤ ¢ ¢ %§ 6 6 § ¤ ¤32 4 ¦ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ . may . ). Just ) ) where import qualified Maybe as Mb Data constructors cannot be named in export lists except as subordinate names.. . whether declared in the module body or imported. ﬁeld name. 3.5. The constructor In all cases. The ability to export a type without its constructors allows the construction of abstract datatypes (see Section 5. If the export list is omitted. ¦ declared by a type declaration may be named by the form ¡ £ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ £ 4. An algebraic datatype of three ways: declared by a data or newtype declaration may be named in one The form names the type but not the constructors or ﬁeld names.) ( module .) ( (.
.. and (b) the class method is in scope in the module body regardless of whether it is in scope under a qualiﬁed or unqualiﬁed name. ¡ ¦ The form names the class but not the class methods. Exports lists are cumulative: the set of entities exported by an export list is the union of the entities exported by the individual items of the list. item (2)). or as an implicitlynamed member (T(.1). module Mod2 ) where import Mod2 import Mod3 Here module Mod1 exports all local deﬁnitions as well as those imported from Mod2 but not those imported from Mod3. dequeue ) where import Stack . The unqualiﬁed names of the entities exported by a module must all be distinct (within their respective namespace). a ﬁeld name f from data type T may be exported individually (f. 5. Here the module Queue uses the module name Stack in its export list to abbreviate all the entities imported from Stack.f.an invalid module There are no name clashes within module A itself. This set may be empty. item (5)).5. For example: module Queue( module Stack. g. For example module A ( C. In the second form. The form “module M” names the set of all entities that are in scope with both an unqualiﬁed name “e” and a qualiﬁed name “M. C.68 CHAPTER 5. A module can name its own local deﬁnitions in its export list using its own name in the “module M” syntax. module B ) where import B(f) import qualified C(f..e”. MODULES The abbreviated form (. For example. one of the (unqualiﬁed) subordinate names is legal if and only if (a) it names a class method of .. ¡ £ . must be in scope.g.g) g = f True . item(2)). It is an error to use module M in an export list unless M is the module bearing the export list. ). or by exporting an entire module (module M. or as an explicitlynamed member of its data type (T(f). because a local declaration brings into scope both a qualiﬁed and unqualiﬁed name (Section 5. enqueue. In all cases.). item (1) above). but there are name clashes in the export list ¦ £ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ £ The form ( . For example: module Mod1( module Mod1. names the class and some or all of its methods..) names the class and all its methods that are in scope (whether qualiﬁed or not). It makes no difference to an importing module how an entity was exported. or M is imported by at least one import declaration (qualiﬁed or unqualiﬁed).
the terminal symbols “as”. they may also be used as variables.3 Import Declarations § The entities exported by a module may be brought into scope in another module with an import declaration at the beginning of the module. They have special signiﬁcance only in the context of an import declaration. ¨¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 A§ ¤ 2 4§ ¢ ¡ §¤¤32 4 § 8 8¡ ¥¥8 ¡§ ¤ 2 ( ..1 What is imported Exactly which entities are to be imported can be speciﬁed in one of the following three ways: 1. modules can import each other recursively). The list must name only entities exported by the imported module. in which case nothing except the instances is imported. 5. IMPORT DECLARATIONS 69 between C. The list may be empty.g and g are different entities – remember. the (. The imported entities can be speciﬁed explicitly by listing them in parentheses. § 5.) form of import is used for a type or class. When the (. Items in the list have the same form as those in export lists.f are different entities). . 2 4 ¨ import qualified as . methods.) ( (. Imported names serve as top level declarations: they scope over the entire body of the module but may be shadowed by local nontoplevel bindings. The import declaration names the module to be imported and optionally speciﬁes the entities to be imported. or ﬁeld names exported from the module. A single module may be imported by more than one import declaration.f (assuming B. hiding ( . . . and between module B and C.) ( .) refers to all of the constructors. The ordering of import declarations is irrelevant.f and C. ) ¨ ¨ A 5 4 ¦ ¢¥¥8 8 8 ¡ ¢ ¡ ¤ 4 ¦ ¢ (. ) ¦ ¦§ ¦ ¦ § ¢ 2 4§ . The effect of multiple import declarations is strictly cumulative: an entity is in scope if it is imported by any of the import declarations in a module. ) ¦ ¦ ¡ ¦ 2 ¤ 37 2 ¦ ¡ © 4§ ¤ ¢ ¢ %§ %§ 2 4 6 6 6 6 ¦ ¦ § ¤ © 7 § © ¤ 32 ¡ ¡ 4 ¦ ¢ ¡ ¤ ¦ ¡ 4§ 4§ 4§ ..5. ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¤ ¢ A¤ 8 8 ¥¥8 .g and g (assuming C.3. ) ¦ ¨ A !§ ¤ ¦ § ¦ ¦§ ¦ 2 § § ¤ %§ 4 ¢ ¢ ¥ ¦ 7 ¨¡ © 4 § ¨ § 2 4 ¡ ¡ ¦ ¦ . rather than Lexically.3. “qualified” and “hiding” are each a a . except qualiﬁers are not permitted and the ‘module ’ entity is not permitted...
’.2 Qualiﬁed import For each entity imported under the rules of Section 5. exported by the imported module. The ability to exclude the unqualiﬁed names allows full programmer control of the unqualiﬁed namespace: a locally deﬁned entity can share the same name as a qualiﬁed import: module Ring where import qualified Prelude import List( nub ) l1 + l2 = l1 Prelude. Entities can be excluded by using the form hiding( . Finally.3.This * differs from the one in the Prelude 5.’ as a qualiﬁer instead of ‘VeryLongModuleName. the qualiﬁer is not necessarily the name of the module in which the entity was originally declared. or type named C is excluded. ). using C in an import list names only a class or type. is omitted then all the entities exported by the speciﬁed module are im A !§ ¤ 2 ¡ 4§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ 4§ ¡ ¡ . Hence.70 ¡ ¤32 § ¤ CHAPTER 5. only the qualiﬁed name of the entity is brought into scope. if ported. If the qualified keyword is omitted. This also allows a different module to be substituted for VeryLongModuleName without changing the 4§ 3. in fact.3. Section 5.3. the toplevel environment is extended. MODULES 2. class. which speciﬁes that all entities exported by the named module should be imported except for those named in the list. . in import M hiding (C) any constructor. The qualiﬁer on the imported name is either the name of the imported module.3. or the local alias given in the as clause (Section 5.1. then both the qualiﬁed and unqualiﬁed name of the entity is brought into scope.3 Local aliases Imported modules may be assigned a local alias in the importing module using the as clause.1 describes qualiﬁed names in more detail.+ 1) .5.All Prelude names must be qualified . For example. In contrast. If the import declaration used the qualified keyword.This + differs from the one in the Prelude .3) on the import statement. Thus. © 5.++ l2 l1 * l2 = nub (l1 + l2) succ = (Prelude. It is an error to hide an entity that is not. in import qualified VeryLongModuleName as C entities must be referenced using ‘C. Data constructors may be named directly in hiding lists without being preﬁxed by the associated type.
A.4.x.y y. An as clause may also be used on an unqualified import statement: import Foo as A(f) This declaration brings into scope f and A.x.y (nothing) A. For example: module M where import qualified Foo as A import qualified Baz as A x = A.y A.4 Importing and Exporting Instance Declarations Instance declarations cannot be explicitly named on import or export lists. 5.x.x A. B. B. A.x B.4). provided that all names can still be resolved unambiguously. all instance declarations in scope in module A are imported (Section 5.y A. A. A. y. Then this table shows what names are brought into scope by the speciﬁed import statement: Import declaration import A import A() import A(x) import qualified A import qualified A() import qualified A(x) import A hiding () import A hiding (x) import qualified A hiding () import qualified A hiding (x) import A as B import A as B(x) import qualified A as B Names brought into scope x.f. A. 5. B. y. All instances in scope within a module are always exported and any import brings all instances in from the imported .3. A.y x. B.y In all cases. It is legal for more than one module in scope to use the same qualiﬁer. IMPORTING AND EXPORTING INSTANCE DECLARATIONS 71 qualiﬁers used for the imported module. A. A. suppose the module A exports x and y.4 Examples To clarify the above import rules.5.x x.y x. y.x.f This module is legal provided only that Foo and Baz do not both export f.y (nothing) x.x.x.
1 Qualiﬁed names § By a top level declaration. but does bring in any instances visible in M. 4 ¦ ¢ ¦ ¦ (Section 2. it is illegal to write module M where M. Thus. A module whose only purpose is to provide instance declarations can have an empty export list.3). g x = M. A toplevel declaration brings into scope both the unqualiﬁed and the qualiﬁed name of the entity being deﬁned.4).. .5 Name Clashes and Closure 5.. For example module MyInstances() where instance Show (a > b) where show fn = "<<function>>" instance Show (IO a) where show io = "<<IO action>>" 5. For example. 2 4 A qualiﬁed name is written as . MODULES module. An import declaration.f x = .f respectively. always brings into scope the qualiﬁed name of the imported entity (Section 5.. that is. 5. an instance declaration is in scope if and only if a chain of import declarations leads to the module containing the instance declaration. A qualiﬁed name is brought into scope: .ILLEGAL g x = let M... The deﬁning occurrence must mention the unqualiﬁed name. Thus: module M where f x = . therefore.y = x+1 in .5.2 Name clashes If a module contains a bound occurrence of a name. there must be only one binding for f or A. import M() does not bring any new names in scope from module M. it must be possible unambiguously to resolve which entity is thereby referred to.. such as f or A. .f x x is legal.f. This allows a qualiﬁed import to be replaced with an unqualiﬁed one without forcing changes in the references to the imported names.5.72 CHAPTER 5. whether qualified or not.ILLEGAL By an import declaration.
5..x.. An error is only reported if y is actually mentioned.. module D( d ) where d = .sin (F. x. b = .. For example: module A where import B import C tup = (b. x. the following module is legal: module F where sin :: Float > Float sin x = (x::Float) f x = Prelude.d. and C. . and can be referred to in A by the names d. provided that the program does not mention those names. y ) where import D x = ...5.x or C.sin x) The local declaration for sin is legal. y ) where import D x = . There is no reference to y. or x declared in C. d.2). so it is not erroneous that distinct entities called y are exported by both B and C. In this case the same entity is brought into scope by two routes (the import of B and the import of C). b. Consider the deﬁnition of tup. The reference to d is unambiguously resolved to d declared in D. module C( d. c. NAME CLASHES AND CLOSURE 73 It is not an error for there to exist names that cannot be so resolved.d. The reference to x is ambiguous: it could mean x declared in B.. For example. The ambiguity could be ﬁxed by replacing the reference to x by B.. x) module B( d. The name occurring in a type signature or ﬁxity declarations is always unqualiﬁed. y = . B. The references to b and c can be unambiguously resolved to b declared in B..4... even though the Prelude function sin is implicitly in scope. and unambiguously refers to another declaration in the same declaration list (except that the ﬁxity declaration for a class method can occur at top level — Section 4.. and c declared in C respectively.. y = . c = .. c.
in module M(x) where type T = Int x :: T x = 1 the type of x is both T and Int. Whether or not T is explicitly exported. That is. The Haskell compilation system is responsible for ﬁnding any information needed for compilation without the help of the programmer. 5. That is. The only reason to export T is to allow other modules to refer it by name. module M2 knows enough about T to correctly type check the program.sin and F.5. The Haskell system silently imports any information that must accompany an entity for type checking or any other purposes. the type checker ﬁnds the deﬁnition of T if needed whether or not it is exported. The type of an exported entity is unaffected by nonexported type synonyms. the unqualiﬁed name sin in the type signature in the ﬁrst line of F unambiguously refers to the local declaration for sin.74 CHAPTER 5. there is no way to supply an explicit type signature for y since T is not in scope.” In Haskell. MODULES The references to Prelude.sin must both be qualiﬁed to make it unambiguous which sin is meant. and functions. entities that the compiler requires for type checking or other compile time analysis need not be imported if they are not mentioned by name. the Prelude is contained in the . these are interchangeable even when T is not in scope. However. For example. every name explicitly mentioned by the source code must be either deﬁned locally or imported from another module. However.3 Closure Every module in a Haskell program must be closed. 5. That is. the import of a variable x does not require that the datatypes and classes in the signature of x be brought into the module along with x unless these entities are referenced by name in the user program.6 Standard Prelude Many of the features of Haskell are deﬁned in Haskell itself as a library of standard datatypes. classes. called the “Standard Prelude. the deﬁnition of T is available to any module that encounters it whether or not the name T is in scope. Such entities need not even be explicitly exported: the following program is valid even though T does not escape M1: module M1(x) where data T = T x = T module M2 where import M1(x) y = x In this example.
This means. Prelude and library modules differ from other modules in that their semantics (but not their implementation) are a ﬁxed part of the Haskell language deﬁnition. if and only if it is not imported with an explicit import declaration. and so on. They are simply there to help explain the structure of the Prelude module. nonNull :: Int > Bool null x = x == 0 nonNull x = not (null x) Module A redeﬁnes null. every module that does so must have an import declaration that makes this nonstandard usage explicit. for example. 5. given in Chapter 8. Since the treatment of such entities depends on the implementation. For example. allowing it to be more easily assimilated. complex numberss. and increasing the space of useful names available to the programmer. and they cannot be imported separately. These modules are not part of Haskell 98. These are deﬁned in Part II Separating libraries from the Prelude has the advantage of reducing the size and complexity of the Prelude. STANDARD PRELUDE 75 module Prelude. they should be considered part of its implementation. This provision for explicit import allows entities deﬁned in the Prelude to be selectively imported. 5.6. arrays. but the implementation only gives a scheme. not part of the language deﬁnition. For example: module A( null. just like those from any other module. Chapter 8 deﬁnes the module Prelude using several other modules: PreludeList. The implementation of Prelude is also incomplete in its treatment of tuples: there should be an inﬁnite family of tuples and their instance declarations.1 The Prelude Module The Prelude module is imported automatically into all modules as if by the statement ‘import Prelude’. that a compiler may optimize calls to functions in the Prelude without consulting the source code of the Prelude. they are not formally deﬁned in Chapter 8. which provide less frequently used functions and types.5. however. The latter would be ambiguous without the hiding(null) on the .6. The semantics of the entities in Prelude is speciﬁed by a reference implementation of Prelude written in Haskell.6. and contains an unqualiﬁed reference to null on the right hand side of nonNull. nonNull ) where import Prelude hiding( null ) null. and most of the input/output are all part of the standard libraries.2 Shadowing Prelude Names The rules about the Prelude have been cast so that it is possible to use Prelude names for nonstandard purposes. Some datatypes (such as Int) and functions (such as Int addition) cannot be speciﬁed directly in Haskell. PreludeIO. There are also many predeﬁned library modules.
it is special only in that some objects in the Prelude are referenced by special syntactic constructs. 5.x) g x = (.76 CHAPTER 5.7 Separate Compilation Depending on the Haskell implementation used.8 Abstract Datatypes The ability to export a datatype without its constructors allows the construction of abstract datatypes (ADTs). The precise details of separate compilation are not deﬁned by this report.) x x h x = [x] ++ [] the explicit import Prelude() declaration prevents the automatic import of Prelude. Thus there is little danger of accidentally shadowing Prelude names. in module B where import Prelude() import MyPrelude f x = (x. an ADT for stacks could be deﬁned as: module Stack( StkType. there is no way to redeﬁne the meaning of [x]. For example. Explicit type signatures for all exported values may be necessary to deal with mutual recursion. the Prelude is an ordinary Haskell module. It is not possible.)) and lists (such as [x] and []) continues to refer to the tuples and lists deﬁned by the standard Prelude. Every module that imports A unqualiﬁed. It is possible to construct and use a different module to serve in place of the Prelude. to hide instance declarations in the Prelude. Redeﬁning names used by the Prelude does not affect the meaning of these special constructs. empty ) where data StkType a = EmptyStk  Stk a (StkType a) push x s = Stk x s pop (Stk _ s) = s empty = EmptyStk . For example. The special syntax for tuples (such as (x. 5. and then makes an unqualiﬁed reference to null must also resolve the ambiguous use of null just as A does. however. while the declaration import MyPrelude brings the nonstandard prelude into scope. For example. push. pop. for example.x) and (. separate compilation of mutually recursive modules may require that imported modules contain additional information so that they may be referenced before they are compiled. On the other hand. so it refers to ++ imported from MyPrelude. MODULES import Prelude statement. one cannot deﬁne a new instance for Show Char. the use of ++ is not special syntax. in terms of a different implementation of lists. Other than the fact that it is implicitly imported.
and empty to construct such values.8. push. they must use push. empty ) where newtype StkType a = Stk [a] push x (Stk s) = Stk (x:s) pop (Stk (_:s)) = Stk s empty = Stk [] . For example. pop. ABSTRACT DATATYPES 77 Modules importing Stack cannot construct values of type StkType because they do not have access to the constructors of the type. pop.5. Instead. stacks can be deﬁned with lists: module Stack( StkType. It is also possible to build an ADT on top of an existing type by using a newtype declaration.
78 CHAPTER 5. MODULES .
and 79 . Most functions are not described in detail here as they can easily be understood from their deﬁnitions as given in Chapter 8. Enum. and not. types.1.4. The lexical syntax for characters is deﬁned in Section 2.1 Standard Haskell Types These types are deﬁned by the Haskell Prelude. 6. Type Char is an instance of the classes Read.Chapter 6 Predeﬁned Types and Classes The Haskell Prelude contains predeﬁned classes.  (or). 6. complex numbers. Bounded) The boolean type Bool is an enumeration. Ord. character literals are nullary constructors in the datatype Char. In this chapter. When appropriate. the Haskell deﬁnition of the type is given. The basic boolean functions are && (and).6.2 Characters and Strings The character type Char is an enumeration whose values represent Unicode characters [11]. Ord. we describe the types and classes found in the Prelude. Some deﬁnitions may not be completely valid on syntactic grounds but they faithfully convey the meaning of the underlying type.1. Eq. Other predeﬁned types such as arrays. Show. Show. Eq. and rationals are deﬁned in Part II. Enum. Numeric types are described in Section 6. and functions that are implicitly imported into every Haskell program. The name otherwise is deﬁned as True to make guarded expressions more readable. 6.1 Booleans data Bool = False  True deriving (Read.
’ ’.6.’t’. and the \ˆ notation. as deﬁned in Section 3.. and \n and \LF. standard functions from class Enum. Functor. and MonadPlus.1. but some Haskell implementations may restrict the size of tuples. Each tuple type has a single constructor. The module PreludeList (see Section 8. Read. and Show.11.Int) and (.80 CHAPTER 6.’s’. thus. Show. For example. ASCII mnemonic escapes.10 and 3. curry. and Show (provided. together with the instances for Eq. Similar functions are not predeﬁned for larger tuples. However. are described in Sections 3. Ord. \t and \HT. 6. Monad. Lists are an instance of classes Read. Ord. The toEnum and fromEnum functions.8.) x y produce the same value. In addition. respectively. The following functions are deﬁned for pairs (2tuples): fst. . \v and \VT. Ord) Lists are an algebraic datatype of two constructors. The same holds for tuple type constructors.4 Tuples Tuples are algebraic datatypes with special syntax. thus (x. ’i’.1. two convenient syntaxes for special kinds of lists. The ﬁrst constructor is the null list. Bounded.1) deﬁnes many standard list functions.’r’. The Prelude and libraries deﬁne tuple functions such as zip for tuples up to a size of 7. of course. "A string" abbreviates [ ’A’. and limit the instances associated with larger tuples. every Haskell implementation must support tuples up to size 15. Eq. Note that ASCII control characters each have several representations in character literals: numeric escapes.7.Bool. snd.3 Lists data [a] = []  a : [a] deriving (Eq. Ord. There is no upper bound on the size of a tuple. \b and \BS.y) and (.’g’] 6.’n’. written ‘[]’ (“nil”). that all their component types are). Read. Arithmetic sequences and list comprehensions. map characters to and from the Int type. and uncurry. there are the following equivalences: \a and \BEL. A string is a list of characters: type String = [Char] Strings may be abbreviated using the lexical syntax described in Section 2. (Int. although with special syntax. The constructor for a tuple is written by omitting the expressions surrounding the commas. \f and \FF.) Int Bool Int denote the same type. \r and \CR. and the second is ‘:’ (“cons”). Bounded. as described in Section 3. All tuples are instances of Eq. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES Bounded.
Enum. that is. Read. const.1.6 Function Types Functions are an abstract type: no constructors directly create functional values. using the seq function: seq :: a > b > b . Show) member. Show) The Maybe type is an instance of classes Functor. Enum. Read. 6. Chapter 7 describes I/O operations. Sometimes it is desirable to force the evaluation of a value. IOError is an abstract type representing errors raised by I/O operations. Values of this type are constructed by the various I/O functions and are not presented in any further detail in this report. Read. and until.8 Other Types data data data Maybe a Either a b Ordering = = = Nothing  Just a deriving (Eq.1.). the nullary constructor (). STRICT EVALUATION 81 6. The Ordering type is used by compare in the class Ord.7 The IO and IOError Types The IO type serves as a tag for operations (actions) that interact with the outside world. Ord. Ord. The functions maybe and either are found in the Prelude. 6. Monad. See also Section 3. Show) LT  EQ  GT deriving (Eq. Ord. Bounded. It is an instance of Show and Eq. flip.3). Bounded.1. Show) Left a  Right b deriving (Eq. ($).2 Strict Evaluation Function application in Haskell is nonstrict.6. a function argument is evaluated only when required. The IO type is abstract: no constructors are visible to the user. and Part II contains many more. IO is an instance of the Monad and Functor classes. The unit datatype () has one non 6. 6. and MonadPlus. (. Read.9. Ord.2.1.5 The Unit Datatype data () = () deriving (Eq. The Prelude contains a few I/O functions (deﬁned in Section 8. The following simple functions are found in the Prelude: id.
3 Standard Haskell Classes Figure 6. since seq can be used to distinguish them. because it is available at every type. provide a reasonable deﬁnition for all the class methods. . and is deﬁned in terms of seq.1 The Eq Class class Eq a where (==). 6. The operator $! is strict (callbyvalue) application. $! ($). (/=) :: x /= y x == y a > a > Bool = not (x == y) = not (x /= y) ¡¢ 0§ ' ' ¢ seq seq ' . infixr 0 $.3. However. The Prelude also deﬁnes the $ operator to perform nonstrict application. rightassociative binding precedence. the not the same as \x > existence of seq weakens Haskell’s parametricity properties. for example: f $ g $ h x = f (g (h x)) It is also useful in higherorder situations. since ordinary application (f x) means the same as (f $ x). together with the default declarations. Strict datatypes (see Section 4. If there is no such comment. ($!) :: (a > b) > a > b f $ x = f x f $! x = x ‘seq‘ f x The nonstrict application operator $ may appear redundant.82 CHAPTER 6.1) are deﬁned in terms of the $! operator.3) are provided for many of the methods in standard classes. A comment with each class declaration in Chapter 8 speciﬁes the smallest collection of method deﬁnitions that. so it sometimes allows parentheses to be omitted.2. or zipWith ($) fs xs. As a consequence. However. such as map ($ 0) xs. For the same reason. $ has low. then all class methods must be given to fully specify an instance. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES The function seq is deﬁned by the equations: seq is usually introduced to improve performance by avoiding unneeded laziness. the provision of seq has is important semantic consequences. Default class method declarations (Section 4.1 shows the hierarchy of Haskell classes deﬁned in the Prelude and the Prelude types that are instances of these classes. 6.
Int. Double Real Int. Double Bounded Int. Float. Char. Double Floating Float. Maybe Figure 6. Float. Integer. tuples Enum (). []. Bool.1: Standard Haskell Classes . Double Integral Int. IOError Num Int.3. (>) Ord All except (>) IO. []. Double Monad IO. (>) Show All except IO. Float.6. Integer. Double RealFloat Float. Char. Double Fractional Float. (>) Read All except IO. Bool. () Ordering. Integer RealFrac Float. Integer. Ordering. Maybe Functor IO. STANDARD HASKELL CLASSES 83 Eq All except IO.
(<=). If an instance declaration for Eq deﬁnes neither == nor /=. This declaration gives default method declarations for both /= and ==.3. 6. min :: a > a > a compare x y  x == y = EQ  x <= y = LT  otherwise = GT x x x x <= < >= > y y y y = = = = compare compare compare compare x x x x y y y y /= == /= == GT LT LT GT . and IOError. All basic datatypes except for functions and IO are instances of this class. All basic datatypes except for functions. The Ordering datatype allows a single comparison to determine the precise ordering of two objects. each being deﬁned in terms of the other. The declared order of the constructors in the data declaration determines the ordering in derived Ord instances. are instances of this class.x) y x x y The Ord class is used for totally ordered datatypes. IO. Instances of Eq can be derived for any userdeﬁned datatype whose constituents are also instances of Eq. = = = = max x y) = (x. .Note that (min x max x y  x <= y  otherwise min x y  x <= y  otherwise y. The default declarations allow a user to create an Ord instance either with a typespeciﬁc compare function or with typespeciﬁc == and <= functions. (>=).y) or (y.84 CHAPTER 6. If both are deﬁned. neither default method is used. Instances of Ord can be derived for any userdeﬁned datatype whose constituent types are in Ord. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES The Eq class provides equality (==) and inequality (/=) methods.2 The Ord Class class (Eq a) => Ord a where compare :: a > a > Ordering (<). the default method for the other will make use of the one that is deﬁned. (>) :: a > a > Bool max. If one is deﬁned. then both will loop.
(If desired.3. showsPrec and showList return a StringtoString function. which uses precedence context zero. the Prelude provides the following auxiliary functions: reads reads shows shows read read s :: (Read a) => ReadS a = readsPrec 0 :: (Show a) => a > ShowS = showsPrec 0 :: (Read a) => String > a = case [x  (x.) For convenience. Strings produced by showsPrec are usually readable by readsPrec. The Int argument to showsPrec and readsPrec gives the operator precedence of the enclosing context (see Section 10.. are instances of Show and Read. rather than between square brackets.reads s. is also provided.read: ambiguous parse" . Derived instances of Read and Show replicate the style in which a constructor is declared: inﬁx constructors and ﬁeld names are used on input and output. This is particularly useful for the Char type..3 The Read and Show Classes type type ReadS a = String > [(a."") <.. default decl for showList given in Prelude The Read and Show classes are used to convert values to or from strings.. to allow constanttime concatenation of its results using function composition. ("". except function types and IO types.. show. A specialised variant.String)] ShowS = String > String class Read a where readsPrec :: Int > ReadS a readList :: ReadS [a] . The method showList is provided to allow the programmer to give a specialised way of showing lists of values..read: no parse" _ > error "PreludeText. a programmer can easily make functions and IO types into (vacuous) instances of Show. where values of type String should be shown in double quotes.lex t] of [x] > x [] > error "PreludeText. STANDARD HASKELL CLASSES 85 6.t) <. All Prelude types.3.6. and returns an ordinary String. default decl for readList given in Prelude class Show a where showsPrec :: Int > a > ShowS show :: a > String showList :: [a] > ShowS showsPrec _ x s = show x ++ s show x = showsPrec 0 x "" .4). by providing an instance declaration.
of a value..n’. For example. respectively. lex returns a single successful “lexeme” consisting of the empty string. thus: enumFrom x = enumFromTo x maxBound enumFromThen x y = enumFromThenTo x y bound where bound  fromEnum y >= fromEnum x = maxBound  otherwise = minBound The following Prelude types are instances of Enum: .) If there is no legal lexeme at the beginning of the input string.m] [n. 6. is also part of the Prelude. toEnum 7 :: Bool is an error. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES shows and reads use a default precedence of 0. lex fails (i.86 CHAPTER 6. (Thus lex "" = [("".. used by read. the following should hold: The calls succ maxBound and pred minBound should result in a runtime error. If the input string contains only white space.3.. pred :: toEnum :: fromEnum :: enumFrom :: enumFromThen :: enumFromTo :: enumFromThenTo :: a > a Int > a a > Int a > [a] a > a > [a] a > a > [a] a > a > a > [a]  [n. It reads a single lexeme from the input.10). The functions succ and pred return the successor and predecessor. discarding initial white space.Default declarations given in Prelude Class Enum deﬁnes operations on sequentially ordered types.. methods are used when translating arithmetic sequences (Section 3. which must be completely consumed by the input process. The read function reads input from a string. The enumFrom.4 The Enum Class class Enum a where succ. returns []). Instances of Enum may be derived for any enumeration type (types whose constructors have no ﬁelds). The function lex :: ReadS String. enumFrom and enumFromThen should be deﬁned with an implicit bound.e. fromEnum and toEnum should give a runtime error if the result value is not representable in the result type."")]. see Chapter 10. For any type that is an instance of class Bounded as well as Enum.] [n. and returning the characters that constitute the lexeme..] [n. The functions fromEnum and toEnum map values from a type in Enum to and from Int..m] .n’.
For the types Int and Integer. or when they become less than for negative ..GT]. where the increment. . . the enumeration functions have the following meaning: The sequence enumFromThen is the list [ . Char: the instance is given in Chapter 8. ¤ . . . The conversions fromEnum and toEnum convert between the type and Int. Numeric types: Int. In the case of Float and Double. 8 8 ¥¥8 ¤ § § ¢¥ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¤ ¥ ¥ ¢ ¡ ¢¢ £ ¥¡ § ¡ ¡¤ ¡ ¡¢ § ¡ ¡ ¢¤ ¡ ¢ ¤ § ¥ ¤ £ ¡ ¥ ¡¥ ¥ ¤ ¡ The sequence enumFromTo .3. It is implementationdependent what fromEnum returns when applied to a value that is too large to ﬁt in an Int. [LT. is .6. and Maybe are in this class. Bool. and Ordering. 8 8 ¥¥8 § ¤ ¤ ¡ ¡¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 § ¢¢ ¡ ¡ ¡¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡¢ ¡ £ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¤ The sequence enumFrom is the list [ . IO. STANDARD HASKELL CLASSES 87 Enumeration types: (). For example. For example. The list is ¥ § ¦ § . £ ¡ ¥ ¤ § £ £ ¤¡ § ]. . The semantics of these instances is given next. where the increment. based on the primitive functions that convert between a Char and an Int. ¥ ¢ The sequence enumFromThenTo is the list [ . ]. Lists. .5 The Functor Class class Functor f where fmap :: (a > b) > f a > f b The Functor class is used for types that can be mapped over. . For all four numeric types. empty if is the list [ . . ¥ ¢ For Float and Double. all the list elements are the same. Float. all of the enumFrom family of functions are strict in all their arguments. except that the list terminates when the elements become greater than for positive increment . 6.3. Double. . and pred subtracts 1.EQ. The increment may be zero or negative. the list is empty if negative. the digits after the decimal point may be lost. If the increment is positive or zero. enumFromTo ’a’ ’z’ denotes the list of lowercase letters in alphabetical order. If the increment is the next element would be greater than . is . ]. Integer. ]. the list terminates when . the list terminates when the next element would be less than . If the increment is zero. succ adds 1. The semantics of these instances is given by Chapter 10. the list is empty if . For all four of these Prelude numeric types.] is the list [LT. the semantics of the enumFrom family is given by the rules for Int above.
and for IO raises a user exception in the IO monad (see Section 7. for Maybe returns Nothing. See Chapter 7 for more information about monads. The fail method for lists returns the empty list []. The Prelude provides the following auxiliary functions: sequence sequence_ mapM mapM_ (=<<) :: :: :: :: :: Monad Monad Monad Monad Monad m m m m m => => => => => [m [m (a (a (a a] a] > > > > m > m m b) m b) m b) [a] () > [a] > m [b] > [a] > m () > m a > m b fmap f xs xs >>= return . PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES Instances of Functor should satisfy the following laws: All instances of Functor deﬁned in the Prelude satisfy these laws. g) id fmap f . Instances of Monad should satisfy the following laws: Instances of both Monad and Functor should additionally satisfy the law: All instances of Monad deﬁned in the Prelude satisfy these laws. f return a >>= k m >>= return m >>= (\x > k x >>= h) fmap id fmap (f .3. fmap g k a m (m >>= k) >>= h . Maybe.88 CHAPTER 6. and IO are all instances of Monad.3).6 The Monad Class class Monad m (>>=) :: (>>) :: return :: fail :: m >> k fail s where m a > m a > a > m String (a > m b) > m b m b > m b a > m a = m >>= \_ > k = error s The Monad class deﬁnes the basic operations over a monad.14). 6. In the Prelude. lists. “do” expressions provide a convenient syntax for writing monadic expressions (see Section 3. The fail method is invoked on patternmatch failure in a do expression.
both real and complex. These standards require considerably more complexity in the numeric structure and have thus been relegated to a library. the type Rational is a ratio of two Integer values. The ﬁniteprecision integer type Int covers at . The default ﬂoating point operations deﬁned by the Haskell Prelude do not conform to current language independent arithmetic (LIA) standards.1. Other numeric types such as rationals and complex numbers are deﬁned in libraries. In particular. The class Num of numeric types is a subclass of Eq. The types Int. since all numbers may be compared for equality. minBound is the ﬁrst constructor listed in the data declaration and maxBound is the last. The standard numeric classes and other numeric functions deﬁned in the Prelude are shown in Figures 6. Double should cover IEEE doubleprecision. and double precision ﬂoating (Double). Bool. maxBound :: a The Bounded class is used to name the upper and lower limits of a type. indeﬁnite. aspects of the IEEE ﬂoating point standard have been accounted for in Prelude class RealFloat. Ordering. and all tuples are instances of Bounded. The results of exceptional conditions (such as overﬂow or underﬂow) on the ﬁxedprecision numeric types are undeﬁned.3. 6. since the other comparison operations apply to all but complex numbers (deﬁned in the Complex library). Similarly. (). its subclass Real is also a subclass of Ord. page 83. and the class Floating contains all ﬂoatingpoint types. Float is implementationdeﬁned.4. Ord is not a superclass of Bounded since types that are not totally ordered may also have upper and lower bounds. Some. an implementation may choose error ( . As Int is an instance of the Bounded class. the class Fractional contains all nonintegral types. the numeric types and the operations upon them have been heavily inﬂuenced by Common Lisp and Scheme. but not all. The Bounded class may be derived for any enumeration type. etc. single precision ﬂoating (Float). Char. using several type classes with an inclusion relation shown in Figure 6. a truncated value. Bounded may also be derived for singleconstructor datatypes whose constituent types are in Bounded. The Prelude deﬁnes only the most basic numeric types: ﬁxed sized integers (Int).6. as deﬁned in the Ratio library.3. Numeric function names and operators are usually overloaded.7 The Bounded Class class Bounded a where minBound. arbitrary precision integers (Integer). The class Integral contains integers of both limited and unlimited range. ¨ ¡£ ¤ ¡£ ¤ . semantically). NUMBERS 89 6.1. Figure 6.1 shows the class dependencies and builtin types that are instances of the numeric classes.4 Numbers Haskell provides several kinds of numbers. maxBound and least the range minBound can be used to determine the exact Int range deﬁned by an implementation. The standard numeric types are listed in Table 6. or a special value such as inﬁnity.2–6. it is desirable that this type be at least equal in range and precision to the IEEE singleprecision type.
remainder) pair. rem. x ` ` y) ` rem (x `div y. The quotRem class method takes a dividend and a divisor as arguments and returns a (quotient. single precision Real ﬂoatingpoint. and mod apply only to integral numbers.4 for a discussion of overloading ambiguity. div. div. Similarly.90 CHAPTER 6. (*). respectively. The class methods quot.1: Standard Numeric Types 6. while the result of ‘div‘ is truncated toward negative inﬁnity.4. ().4) apply to all numbers. See Section 4. 6. while the class method (/) applies only to fractional ones. even . divMod is deﬁned similarly: quotRem x y divMod x y = = (x `quot y. An integer literal represents the application of the function fromInteger to the appropriate value of type Integer. and the unary function negate (which can also be written as a preﬁx minus sign. x `mod y) ` ` Also available on integral numbers are the even and odd predicates: even x = odd = x ` ` 2 == 0 rem not .1 Numeric Literals The syntax of numeric literals is given in Section 2.4. Ratio Integer). a ﬂoating literal stands for an application of fromRational to a value of type Rational (that is. rem. The quot. see section 3.5. and mod class methods satisfy these laws if y is nonzero: (x ` quot y)*y + (x ` ` y) == x ` rem (x ` ` y)*y + (x ` ` y) == x div mod ‘quot‘ is integer division truncated toward zero. double precision Complex ﬂoatingpoint Table 6.3. Numeric literals are deﬁned in this indirect way so that they may be interpreted as values of any appropriate numeric type.2 Arithmetic and NumberTheoretic Operations The inﬁx class methods (+). PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES Type Integer Int (Integral a) => Ratio a Float Double (RealFloat a) => Complex a Class Integral Integral RealFrac RealFloat RealFloat Floating Description Arbitraryprecision integers Fixedprecision integers Rational numbers Real ﬂoatingpoint. Given the typings: fromInteger :: (Num a) => Integer > a fromRational :: (Fractional a) => Rational > a integer and ﬂoating literals have the typings (Num a) => a and (Fractional a) => a.
Ord a) => Real a where toRational :: a > Rational class (Real a. signum fromInteger a) :: :: :: :: => Num a where a > a > a a > a a > a Integer > a 91 class (Num a. tan :: a > a asin.3 Exponentiation and Logarithms The oneargument exponential function exp and the logarithm function log act on ﬂoatingpoint numbers and use base . (ˆˆ) raises a fractional number to any integer power. div.2: Standard Numeric Classes and Related Operations. cos. for example gcd (3) 6 = 3. including zero. log. (). and (**) takes two ﬂoatingpoint arguments. mod quotRem. acos.a) a > Integer class (Num a) => Fractional a where (/) :: a > a > a recip :: a > a fromRational :: Rational > a class (Fractional a) => Floating a where pi :: a exp. logBase :: a > a > a sin. There are three twoargument exponentiation operations: (ˆ) raises any number to a nonnegative integer power. ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ . The value of ˆ0 or ˆˆ0 is 1 for any . Enum a) quot. atan :: a > a sinh. NUMBERS class (Eq a. logBase returns the logarithm of in base . gcd (3) (6) = 3.4. gcd 0 4 = 4. gcd is the greatest (positive) integer that divides both and . Part 1 Finally. (*) negate abs. 6. divMod toInteger => :: :: :: Integral a where a > a > a a > a > (a. rem.6. atanh :: a > a Figure 6.4. ¢ )¢ lcm is the smallest positive integer that both and divide. Show (+). gcd 0 0 raises a runtime error. sqrt returns the principal square root of a ﬂoatingpoint number. cosh. there are the greatest common divisor and least common multiple functions. tanh :: a > a asinh. acosh. sqrt :: a > a (**). 0** is undeﬁned.
PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES a > > > where (b. Floating a) => RealFloat a where floatRadix :: a > Integer floatDigits :: a > Int floatRange :: a > (Int.Int) decodeFloat :: a > (Integer. Fractional b) => a > b Figure 6. Num b) => a > b realToFrac :: (Real a.3: Standard Numeric Classes and Related Operations. isIEEE :: a > Bool atan2 :: a > a > a gcd. Integral b) => a > b > a fromIntegral :: (Integral a. these functions are deﬁned by: abs x  x >= 0  x < 0 = x = x = 1 = 0 = 1 signum x  x > 0  x == 0  x < 0 .92 CHAPTER 6. round :: (Integral b) => a ceiling. Part 2 6.4 Magnitude and Sign A number has a magnitude and a sign. isInfinite. The functions abs and signum apply to any number and satisfy the law: abs x * signum x == x For real numbers. floor :: (Integral b) => a class (RealFrac a. isDenormalized. isNegativeZero.4. Fractional a) => RealFrac properFraction :: (Integral b) => a truncate. Integral b) => a > b > a (ˆˆ) :: (Fractional a. lcm :: (Integral a) => a > a> a (ˆ) :: (Num a.a) b b class (Real a.Int) encodeFloat :: Integer > Int > a exponent :: a > Int significand :: a > a scaleFloat :: Int > a > a isNaN.
Every real interval contains a unique simplest rational.6 Coercions and Component Extraction The ceiling.4. The precise deﬁnition of the above functions is as in Common Lisp. truncate. but implementors can provide a more accurate implementation. the number of digits of this radix in the signiﬁcand. If decodeFloat x yields ( . and furthermore. which in turn follows Penﬁeld’s proposal for APL [9]. encodeFloat performs the inverse of this transformation. For real ﬂoating and . The ceiling. should return the same value as atan . but implementors are free to provide more accurate implementations. The functions floatRadix. A default deﬁnition of atan2 is provided. the greatest integer not greater than . floor. The class methods of class RealFloat allow efﬁcient. It follows the Common Lisp semantics for the origin when signed zeroes are supported.4. Two functions convert numbers to type Rational: toRational returns the rational equivalent of its real argument with full precision. atan2 1. and round functions can be deﬁned in terms of properFraction. where a rational in reduced form is simpler than another if and . **.4. The function properFraction takes a real fractional number and returns a pair such that . inclusive. floor. discontinuities. approxRational takes two real fractional arguments and and returns the simplest rational number within of . pi]. logBase. tanh. and floatRange give the parameters of a ﬂoatingpoint type: the radix of the representation. then x is equal in value to . and floor . truncate yields the integer nearest between and . atan2 computes the angle (from the positive xaxis) of the vector from the origin to the point . cosine. note that is the simplest rational of all. in particular. with in a type that is RealFloat. ceiling returns the least integer not less than .6. and with absolute value less than 1. where is the value radix. Class RealFloat provides a version of arctangent taking two real ﬂoatingpoint arguments. and round functions each take a real fractional argument and return an integral result. See these references for discussions of branch cuts. respectively. atan2 returns a value in the range [pi. The functions ¦ ' ¥ ¢ ¢ ¢ 0 ¦ ¦ 0 ¢ ¢ £ ¡ ¢ ' 0 ¦ ¢ 4 A ¢ ' ¢ 4 ¡ ¦¥ ' ¥ ¢ ¢ 1 ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ 1 ¡ ¦ ¢ ¦ £ ¡ ¤ 4 4 1 £ 1 ¡ ¢ £ ¢ ¦ ¢ ¢ 0 ¢ ¦ ¢ . the even integer if is equidistant between two integers. where is the ﬂoatingpoint . The function decodeFloat applied to a real ﬂoatingpoint number returns the signiﬁcand expressed as an Integer and an appropriately scaled exponent (an Int). and sqrt are provided. round returns the nearest integer to .5 Trigonometric Functions Class Floating provides the circular and hyperbolic sine. either and are both zero or else of floatDigits x. and tangent functions and their inverses. ¢ ¢ 6. Default implementations of tan. and: is an integral number with the same sign as . floatDigits. and is a fraction with the same type and sign as . and implementation. NUMBERS 93 6. machineindependent access to the components of a ﬂoatingpoint number. truncate. and the lowest and highest values the exponent may assume. ).
scaleFloat multiplies a ﬂoatingpoint number by an integer power of the radix. isInfinite. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES significand and exponent together provide the same information as decodeFloat. isDenormalized. but rather than an Integer. isNegativeZero.94 CHAPTER 6. scaled to lie in the open interval . Fractional b) => a > b . Num b) => a > b realToFrac :: (Real a. For nonIEEE ﬂoating point numbers. these may all return false. exponent 0 is zero. and isIEEE all support numbers represented using the IEEE standard. significand x yields a value of the same type as x. The functions isNaN. Also available are the following coercion functions: fromIntegral :: (Integral a.
yet has all of the expressive power found in conventional programming languages. Haskell’s I/O monad provides the user with a way to specify the sequential chaining of actions. however. see Section 6. may read as a single newline character. two characters of input. In the case of the I/O monad. © ¦ 332 § § ¤¢ © $ 7. natural to a functional language and The I/O monad used by Haskell mediates between the the that characterize I/O operations and imperative programming in general. the abstract values are the mentioned above. The order of evaluation of expressions in Haskell is constrained only by data dependencies. To achieve this. Special operations (methods in the class Monad. In the following. return and linefeed.1.6) sequentially compose actions. For example. must be ordered in a welldeﬁned manner for program execution – and I/O in particular – to be meaningful. corresponding to sequencing operators (such as the semicolon) in imperative languages.Chapter 7 Basic Input/Output The I/O system in Haskell is purely functional. and which are described in this section. it is best to think of a monad as an abstract datatype. however. Haskell uses a to integrate I/O operations into a purely functional context.3. as deﬁned in the IO library. corresponding to conventional I/O operations. The term comes from a branch of mathematics known as category theory. and an implementation is obliged to preserve this order. Some operations are primitive actions. recall that String is a synonym for [Char] (Section 6.1 Standard I/O Functions Although Haskell provides fairly sophisticated I/O facilities. The treatment of the newline character will vary on different systems. These functions cannot be used portably for binary I/O. From the perspective of a Haskell programmer. 95 ¦ ¢ ¦ 32 4 7 3¢ ¦ ¢ ¦ 32 4 © ¦ 332 § § ¤¢ . Actions. All I/O functions deﬁned here are character oriented. an implementation has a great deal of freedom in choosing this order.2). it is possible to write many Haskell programs using only the few simple functions that are exported from the Prelude.
the read operation from class Read is used to convert the string to a value. The readIO function is similar to read except that it signals parse failure to the I/O monad instead of terminating the program.19]]) Input Functions terminal).. The interact function takes a function of type String>String as its argument. (The isAscii function is deﬁned in a library. a predicate isEOFError that identiﬁes this exception is deﬁned in the IO library. These functions read input from the standard input device (normally the user’s :: :: :: :: :: :: IO Char IO String IO String (String > String) > IO () Read a => String > IO a Read a => IO a getChar getLine getContents interact readIO readLn The getChar operation raises an exception (Section 7. Printable types are those that are instances of class Show. which is read lazily as it is needed. a program to print the ﬁrst 20 integers and their powers of 2 could be written as: main = print ([(n. The getContents operation returns all user input as a single string.) main = interact (filter isAscii) . The entire input from the standard input device is passed to this function as its argument. putChar putStr putStrLn print :: :: :: :: Char > IO () String > IO () String > IO () . The readLn function combines getLine and readIO.3) on endofﬁle. Typically. print converts values to strings for output using the show operation and adds a newline. The following program simply removes all nonASCII characters from its standard input and echoes the result on its standard output. For example. and the resulting string is output on the standard output device. The getLine operation raises an exception under the same circumstances as hGetLine. 2ˆn)  n <. BASIC INPUT/OUTPUT Output Functions These functions write to the standard output device (this is normally the user’s terminal).adds a newline Show a => a > IO () The print function outputs a value of any printable type to the standard output device.96 CHAPTER 7. deﬁned the IO library.[0.
2]]) 7. for example when it is (). their second argument.x*x)  x <. The >> function is used where the result of the ﬁrst operation is uninteresting. A message is printed on the standard output before the program completes.1.[0. SEQUENCING I/O OPERATIONS 97 Files These functions operate on ﬁles of characters. their ﬁrst argument..2. The do notation allows programming in a more imperative syntactic style. methods in the Monad class. as with getContents. main = readFile "inputfile" writeFile "outputfile" (filter isAscii s) putStr "Filtering successful\n" >>= \ s > >> is similar to the previous example using interact. The ﬁle is read lazily. on demand. The readFile function reads a ﬁle and returns the contents of the ﬁle as a string. The >>= operation passes the result of the ﬁrst operation as an argument to the second operation. (>>=) :: IO a > (a > IO b) > IO b (>>) :: IO a > IO b > IO b For example. type FilePath = String writeFile :: FilePath > String > IO () appendFile :: FilePath > String > IO () readFile :: FilePath > IO String Note that writeFile and appendFile write a literal string to a ﬁle. A slightly more elaborate version of the previous example would be: . To write a value of any printable type.7. main = appendFile "squares" (show [(x. The two monadic binding functions. use the show function to convert the value to a string ﬁrst. but takes its input from "inputfile" and writes its output to "outputfile". as with print.0. are used to compose a series of I/O operations. The writeFile and appendFile functions write or append the string. to the ﬁle.2 Sequencing I/O Operations The type constructor IO is an instance of the Monad class. Files are named by strings using some implementationspeciﬁc method to resolve strings as ﬁle names.
readFile ifile writeFile ofile (filter isAscii s) putStr "Filtering successful\n" The return function is used to deﬁne the result of an I/O operation. Exceptions in the I/O monad are represented by values of type IOError.getLine return (c:s) 7. getLine is deﬁned in terms of getChar. The only Prelude function that creates an IOError value is userError. the catch function establishes a handler that receives any exception raised in the action protected by catch. The isEOFError function is part of IO library. These handlers are not selective: all exceptions are caught. BASIC INPUT/OUTPUT main = do putStr "Input file: " ifile <. User error values include a string describing the error. . For example. the exception is propagated to the next outer handler. using return to deﬁne the result: getLine :: IO String getLine = do c <. Exception propagation must be explicitly provided in a handler by reraising any unwanted exceptions. The IO library deﬁnes functions that construct and examine IOError values. userError :: String > IOError Exceptions are raised and caught using the following functions: ioError :: IOError > IO a catch :: IO a > (IOError > IO a) > IO a The ioError function raises an exception.getLine s <. otherwise.98 CHAPTER 7.isEOFError e then return [] else ioError e) the function f returns [] when an endofﬁle exception occurs in g. in f = catch g (\e > if IO. An exception is caught by the most recent handler established by catch. Any I/O operation may raise an exception instead of returning a result. This is an abstract type: its constructors are hidden from the user.getChar if c == ’\n’ then return "" else do s <. For example.getLine putStr "Output file: " ofile <.3 Exception Handling in the I/O Monad The I/O monad includes a simple exception handling system.
EXCEPTION HANDLING IN THE I/O MONAD 99 When an exception propagates outside the main program.3.. The fail method of the IO instance of the Monad class (Section 6. (>>=).3.. thus: instance Monad IO where . the Haskell system prints the associated IOError value and exits the program.6) raises a userError.bindings for return. (>>) fail s = ioError (userError s) The exceptions raised by the I/O functions in the Prelude are deﬁned in Chapter 21.7. .
100 CHAPTER 7. BASIC INPUT/OUTPUT .
part of the speciﬁcation of the Prelude. such as Char. The Prelude shown here is organized into a root module. indicated by names starting with “prim”. To take one particular example. It constitutes a speciﬁcation for the Prelude.Chapter 8 Standard Prelude In this chapter the entire Haskell Prelude is given. such as Integral a or Num a.” is often used in places where the remainder of a deﬁnition cannot be given in Haskell. as it pleases.. and PreludeIO. are deﬁned in a system dependent manner in module PreludeBuiltin and are not shown here. Prelude. nor are these three modules available for import separately. IO. Declarations for special types such as Integer. They do not constitute a speciﬁcation of the meaning of the method in all instances. and it is not required that the speciﬁcation be implemented as shown here. given with class declarations. or less. To reduce the occurrence of unexpected ambiguity errors. Only the exports of module Prelude are signiﬁcant. length. and three submodules. Monad. Some of the more verbose instances with obvious functionality have been left out for the sake of brevity. drop. These imports are not. PreludeText. This structure is purely presentational. and to improve efﬁciency. An ellipsis “. the default method for enumFrom in class Enum will not work properly for types whose range exceeds that of Int (because fromEnum cannot map all values in the type to distinct Int values). That is. These functions are: take. The default method deﬁnitions. or () are included in the Prelude for completeness even though the declaration may be incomplete or syntactically invalid. of course. PreludeList. These modules are described fully in Part II.. a number of commonlyused functions over lists use the Int type rather than using a more general numeric type. Instance declarations that simply bind primitives to class methods are omitted. an implementation is free to import more. and Numeric. of the Library modules. Some of these modules import Library modules. 101 . !!. constitute a speciﬁcation only of the default method. An implementation is not required to use this organisation for the Prelude. Many of the deﬁnitions are written with clarity rather than efﬁciency in mind. Primitives that are not deﬁnable in Haskell.
. with the preﬁx “generic”. and replicate. STANDARD PRELUDE splitAt. for example genericLength.102 CHAPTER 8. The more general versions are given in the List library.
module PreludeIO. subtract. min). flip. signum. exp. pred. Ord(compare. EQ. Char. max. enumFromThenTo). error. sequence. toInteger). isIEEE. cosh. seq. atan. sequence_. atan2). even. round. logBase. Trivial type: ()(()) Functions: (>) Eq((==). asin. Bool(False. isDenormalized. truncate. decodeFloat. encodeFloat. Just). (). Enum(succ. enumFromTo. Fractional((/). fromInteger). cos. atanh). fromIntegral. floor). ($!) ) where import import import import import import PreludeBuiltin UnicodePrims( primUnicodeMaxChar ) PreludeList PreludeText PreludeIO Ratio( Rational ) . tan. return. tanh. (ˆ). (/=)). Float. maybe. (&&). sin. undefined. Monad((>>=). (ˆˆ). maxBound). floatRange. div. either. Either(Left. (>>).)). Maybe(Nothing. fromEnum. abs. until. String. Integer. Functor(fmap). floatDigits. (**). ceiling. recip. (<). enumFromThen.Unicode primitives .. fail). (). sinh. isInfinite. True). Floating(pi. (>=). lcm. curry. fromRational). odd. (*). not. exponent. but are denoted by builtin syntax. and cannot legally appear in an export list. otherwise. fst.)((. These builtin types are defined in the Prelude. gcd. RealFloat(floatRadix.)). divMod. toEnum.)((. (. (=<<).Contains all ‘prim’ values . Real(toRational). IO.). asTypeOf. significand. isNaN. Ordering(LT.103 module Prelude ( module PreludeList. id. asinh. quotRem. List type: []((:). GT).. Double. negate. enumFrom. mod. ($). log. acosh. const. isNegativeZero. mapM_. mapM. Integral(quot. Rational. RealFrac(properFraction. module PreludeText. realToFrac. scaleFloat. (<=). Right). etc. (>). Int. snd. Num((+). Bounded(minBound. (. uncurry. sqrt. acos. rem. []) Tuple types: (.
/.note that (min x y. (>) :: a > a > Bool max. ‘quot‘. (<=). classes. ˆˆ.Using compare can be more efficient for complex types. and cannot legally be given . ‘seq‘ . max x y) = (x. min :: a > a > a . $!.y) or (y.The (:) operator is builtin syntax.Standard types. ‘div‘. <=. STANDARD PRELUDE . /=.Minimal complete definition: (==) or (/=) x /= y = not (x == y) x == y = not (x /= y) class (Eq a) => Ord a where compare :: a > a > Ordering (<). > &&  >>.a fixity declaration. <. (/=) :: a > a > Bool . instances and related functions . (>=).x) max x y  x <= y = y  otherwise = x min x y  x <= y = x  otherwise = y .  .Minimal complete definition: (<=) or compare . >=. ** *. compare x y  x == y = EQ  x <= y = LT  otherwise = GT x x x x <= < >= > y y y y = = = = compare compare compare compare x x x x y y y y /= == /= == GT LT LT GT . ‘mod‘ +.104 infixr infixr infixl infixl 9 8 7 6 CHAPTER 8. ‘rem‘. ˆ.Equality and Ordered classes class Eq a where (==). >>= =<< $. but its fixity is given by: infixr 5 : infix infixr infixr infixl infixr infixr 4 3 2 1 1 0 ==.
Numeric classes class (Eq a. ().Minimal complete All. succ = toEnum .. fromEnum z] class Bounded a minBound maxBound where :: a :: a .n’. fromEnum pred = toEnum ...105 .. fromEnum enumFrom x = map toEnum [fromEnum x . (+1) . Ord a) => Real a where toRational :: a > Rational .n’. fromEnum .m] [n.] [n...Minimal complete definition: toEnum.Enumeration and Bounded classes class Enum a where succ.] [n.] enumFromThenTo x y z = map toEnum [fromEnum x. except x . fromEnum y] enumFromThen x y = map toEnum [fromEnum x.m] . pred toEnum fromEnum enumFrom enumFromThen enumFromTo enumFromThenTo :: :: :: :: :: :: :: a > a Int > a a > Int a > [a] a > a > [a] a > a > [a] a > a > a > [a]  [n. Show a) => Num a where (+). fromEnum y . signum :: a > a fromInteger :: Integer > a ..NOTE: these default methods only make sense for types that map injectively into Int using fromEnum and toEnum..] enumFromTo x y = map toEnum [fromEnum x . fromEnum y . (subtract 1) . (*) :: a > a > a negate :: a > a abs.y = x + negate x = 0 definition: negate or () negate y x class (Num a.
acosh. r+d) else qr quotRem n d . atanh :: a > a . sqrt :: a > a (**).r) = divMod n d = if signum r == where qr@(q. atanh x ** y = exp (log x * y) logBase x y = log y / log x sqrt x = x ** 0. atan asinh.106 class (Real a. cos.r) = n ‘mod‘ d = r where (q. acos. sin.r) = n ‘div‘ d = q where (q.r) = class (Num a) => Fractional a where (/) :: a > a > a recip :: a > a fromRational :: Rational > a quotRem n d quotRem n d divMod n d divMod n d signum d then (q1. toInteger n ‘quot‘ d = q where (q. sinh. acosh. STANDARD PRELUDE => Integral a where a > a > a a > a > a a > a > (a.Minimal complete definition: quotRem.Minimal complete definition: fromRational and (recip or (/)) recip x = 1 / x x / y = x * recip y class (Fractional a) => Floating a where pi :: a exp. tan :: a > a asin. divMod toInteger a) :: :: :: :: CHAPTER 8. mod quotRem. exp. rem div. cosh. acos.a) a > Integer . log.5 tan x = sin x / cos x tanh x = sinh x / cosh x . Enum quot. cos. atan :: a > a sinh.Minimal complete definition: pi. tanh :: a > a asinh. cosh asin.r) = n ‘rem‘ d = r where (q. log. logBase :: a > a > a sin.
a) b b .5) of 1 > n 0 > if even n then n else m 1 > m if r > 0 then n + 1 else n where (n. round :: (Integral b) => a ceiling.1 else n where (n. floor :: (Integral b) => a a > > > where (b._) = properFraction x round x = let (n. Fractional a) => RealFrac properFraction :: (Integral b) => a truncate.0.1 else n + 1 in case signum (abs r .r) = properFraction x ceiling x floor x = = .107 class (Real a.r) = properFraction x if r < 0 then n .Minimal complete definition: properFraction truncate x = m where (m.r) = properFraction x m = if r < 0 then n .
must be after the other double zero tests  otherwise = x + y .n) = decodeFloat x significand x scaleFloat k x = = encodeFloat m (.x or y is a NaN.n) = decodeFloat x atan2 y x  x>0 = atan (y/x)  x==0 && y>0 = pi/2  x<0 && y>0 = pi + atan (y/x) (x<=0 && y<0)  (x<0 && isNegativeZero y)  (isNegativeZero x && isNegativeZero y) = atan2 (y) x  y==0 && (x<0  isNegativeZero x) = pi .gcd: gcd 0 0 is undefined" = gcd’ (abs x) (abs y) where gcd’ x 0 = x gcd’ x y = gcd’ y (x ‘rem‘ y) ._) = decodeFloat x encodeFloat m (n+k) where (m. isDenormalized. isIEEE :: a > Bool atan2 :: a > a > a . atan2 exponent x = if m == 0 then 0 else n + floatDigits x where (m.floatDigits x) where (m. even :: (Integral a) => a > a > a = error "Prelude. Floating a) => RealFloat a where floatRadix :: a > Integer floatDigits :: a > Int floatRange :: a > (Int. isInfinite. STANDARD PRELUDE class (RealFrac a.108 CHAPTER 8. scaleFloat.Numeric functions subtract subtract even. isNegativeZero. odd even n odd gcd gcd 0 0 gcd x y :: (Num a) => a > a > a = flip () :: (Integral a) => a > Bool = n ‘rem‘ 2 == 0 = not . significand.must be after the previous test on zero y  x==0 && y==0 = y .Int) decodeFloat :: a > (Integer. return a NaN (via +) .Minimal complete definition: All except exponent.Int) encodeFloat :: Integer > Int > a exponent :: a > Int significand :: a > a scaleFloat :: Int > a > a isNaN.
list element to a monad type mapM :: Monad m => (a > m b) > [a] > m [b] mapM f as = sequence (map f as) mapM_ mapM_ f as (=<<) f =<< x :: Monad m => (a > m b) > [a] > m () = sequence_ (map f as) :: Monad m => (a > m b) > m a > m b = x >>= f . Integral b) => a > b > a = if n >= 0 then xˆn else recip (xˆ(n)) :: (Integral a. toRational . return m >> k = m >>= \_ > k fail s = error s sequence sequence sequence_ sequence_ :: Monad m => [m a] > m [a] = foldr mcons (return []) where mcons p q = p >>= \x > q >>= \y > return (x:y) :: Monad m => [m a] > m () = foldr (>>) (return ()) . Fractional b) => a > b = fromRational .Monadic classes class Functor f fmap where :: (a > b) > f a > f b class Monad m where (>>=) :: m a > (a > m b) > m b (>>) :: m a > m b > m b return :: a > m a fail :: String > m a . but lift the function or . toInteger :: (Real a.Minimal complete definition: (>>=). Integral b) => a > b > a = 1 = f x (n1) x where f _ 0 y = y f x n y = g x n where g x n  even n = g (x*x) (n ‘quot‘ 2)  otherwise = f x (n1) (x*y) = error "Prelude.The xxxM functions take list arguments.109 lcm lcm _ 0 lcm 0 _ lcm x y (ˆ) x ˆ 0 x ˆ n  n > 0 :: = = = (Integral a) => a > a > a 0 0 abs ((x ‘quot‘ (gcd x y)) * y) _ ˆ _ (ˆˆ) x ˆˆ n fromIntegral fromIntegral realToFrac realToFrac :: (Num a.ˆ: negative exponent" :: (Fractional a. Num b) => a > b = fromInteger .
Trivial type data () CHAPTER 8.Character type data Char = . ’a’  ’b’ ..rightassociating infix application operators . for illustration only .identity function id :: a > a id x = x . Ord.Boolean functions (&&). True False True False () && x && _  _  x :: = = = = Bool > Bool > Bool x False True x not not True not False otherwise otherwise :: Bool > Bool = False = True :: Bool = True .function composition (. Read.Function type .Unicode values instance Eq Char c == c’ where = fromEnum c == fromEnum c’ .. Show. . Bounded) . STANDARD PRELUDE = () deriving (Eq. flip :: (a > b > c) > b > a > c flip f x y = f y x seq :: a > b > b seq = . g = \ x > f (g x) . Bounded) .Boolean type data Bool = False  True deriving (Eq... Enum.Not legal Haskell. Ord.flip f takes its (first) two arguments in the reverse order of f. Enum.110 ..constant function const :: a > b > a const x _ = x .Primitive .) :: (b > c) > (a > b) > a > c f .(useful in continuationpassing style) ($).. . ($!) :: (a > b) > a > b f $ x = f x f $! x = x ‘seq‘ f x .
. fromEnum (maxBound::Char)] enumFromThen c c’ = map toEnum [fromEnum c... fail s = ioError (userError s) .. return = .111 instance Ord Char c <= c’ where = fromEnum c <= fromEnum c’ instance Enum Char where toEnum = primIntToChar fromEnum = primCharToInt enumFrom c = map toEnum [fromEnum c . Ord. fromEnum c’ ... Read.abstract instance Functor IO where fmap f x = x >>= (return .Maybe type data Maybe a = Nothing  Just a deriving (Eq... fromEnum lastChar] where lastChar :: Char lastChar  c’ < c = minBound  otherwise = maxBound instance Bounded Char where minBound = ’\0’ maxBound = primUnicodeMaxChar type String = [Char] . Ord. Show) either :: (a > c) > (b > c) > Either a b > c either f g (Left x) = f x either f g (Right y) = g y . Read. Show) maybe :: b > (a > b) > Maybe a > b maybe n f Nothing = n maybe n f (Just x) = f x instance Functor Maybe fmap f Nothing = fmap f (Just x) = where Nothing Just (f x) instance Monad Maybe where (Just x) >>= k = k x Nothing >>= k = Nothing return = Just fail s = Nothing . f) instance Monad IO where (>>=) = ..IO type data IO a = .Either type data Either a b = Left a  Right b deriving (Eq.
.... .. . instance Integral Integer where .... instance Real Integer where . instance Enum Integer where . data Int instance instance instance instance instance instance instance = minBound . ..... data Integer = ... ..far too large....Ordering type data CHAPTER 8. .. STANDARD PRELUDE Ordering = LT  EQ  GT deriving (Eq... .. . Ord......be expressed directly in Haskell since the constructor lists would be . instance Ord Integer where .Standard numeric types...112 . .. instance Num Integer where . instance Eq Integer where . . where where where where where where where where ... ..... . Enum. The data declarations for these types cannot .... .... maxBound .. data Float instance Eq instance Ord instance Num instance Real instance Fractional instance Floating instance RealFrac instance RealFloat data Double instance Eq instance Ord instance Num instance Real instance Fractional instance Floating instance RealFrac instance RealFloat Float Float Float Float Float Float Float Float Double Double Double Double Double Double Double Double where where where where where where where where .. . ..... Show... 1  0  1 . .. .. Read... .. Bounded) ......... ... . . . 1 Eq Int where Ord Int where Num Int where Real Int where Integral Int where Enum Int where Bounded Int where  0  1 ..
Ord a) => a > a > [a] (Fractional a.may overflow instance Enum Double where succ x = x+1 pred x = x1 toEnum = fromIntegral fromEnum = fromInteger .may overflow (Fractional a) => a > [a] (Fractional a) => a > a > [a] (Fractional a.Lists data [a] = []  a : [a] deriving (Eq. truncate = numericEnumFrom = numericEnumFromThen = numericEnumFromTo = numericEnumFromThenTo instance Enum Float succ x pred x toEnum fromEnum enumFrom enumFromThen enumFromTo enumFromThenTo .1 is represented. where = x+1 = x1 = fromIntegral = fromInteger ..95]. The definitions of enumFrom and enumFromThen allow floats to be used in arithmetic series: [0. The ‘toEnum’ function truncates numbers to Int. Ord) . for illustration only instance Functor [] where fmap = map instance Monad [] m >>= k return x fail s where = concat (map k m) = [x] = [] . Ord a) => a > a > a > [a] iterate (+1) iterate (+(mn)) n takeWhile (<= m+1/2) (numericEnumFrom n) m = takeWhile p (numericEnumFromThen n n’) where p  n’ >= n = (<= m + (n’n)/2)  otherwise = (>= m + (n’n)/2) .1 . This example may have either 10 or 11 elements. roundoff errors make these somewhat dubious.Not legal Haskell. depending on how 0.0.113 The Enum instances for Floats and Doubles are slightly unusual. However. truncate enumFrom = numericEnumFrom enumFromThen = numericEnumFromThen enumFromTo = numericEnumFromTo enumFromThenTo = numericEnumFromThenTo numericEnumFrom :: numericEnumFromThen :: numericEnumFromTo :: numericEnumFromThenTo :: numericEnumFrom = numericEnumFromThen n m = numericEnumFromTo n m = numericEnumFromThenTo n n’ . 0.
error stops execution and displays an error message error error :: String > a = primError .as an infix operator.b. It is usually used .It is expected that compilers will recognize this and insert error .messages that are more appropriate to the context in which undefined .uncurry converts a curried function to a function on pairs. and its typing forces its first argument .b) > a fst (x. asTypeOf :: a > a > a asTypeOf = const .until p f yields the result of applying f until p holds.c) = (a. STANDARD PRELUDE (a.undefined" .b.component projections for pairs: . Bounded) (a. for illustration only . quadruples.appears. until :: (a > Bool) > (a > a) > a > a until p f x  p x = x  otherwise = until p f (f x) .asTypeOf is a typerestricted version of const.(which is usually overloaded) to have the same type as the second. b) > c) > a > b > c curry f x y = f (x.b) > b = y . etc. undefined undefined :: a = error "Prelude. curry :: ((a.c) deriving (Eq.) fst :: (a.(NB: not provided for triples.114 . .b) = (a.b) deriving (Eq.curry converts an uncurried function to a curried function. b) > c) = f (fst p) (snd p) . Ord.y) = x snd snd (x.Tuples data data CHAPTER 8. y) uncurry uncurry f p :: (a > b > c) > ((a.Misc functions . Ord. Bounded) .Not legal Haskell.y) :: (a.
last and init are the dual functions working from the end of a finite list. elem. zipWith3. span. lines. splitAt. iterate. unwords. rather than the beginning. scanr1. minimum. all. and. ‘notElem‘ . repeat. foldr. maximum. reverse.Map and append map :: (a > b) > [a] > [b] map f [] = [] map f (x:xs) = f x : map f xs (++) :: [a] > [a] > [a] [] ++ ys = ys (x:xs) ++ ys = x : (xs ++ ys) filter :: (a > Bool) > [a] > [a] filter p [] = [] filter p (x:xs)  p x = x : filter p xs  otherwise = filter p xs concat :: [[a]] > [a] concat xss = foldr (++) [] xss concatMap :: (a > [b]) > [a] > [b] concatMap f = concat . concatMap.Standard list functions module PreludeList ( map. cycle. init. :: [a] > a = x = error "Prelude. zip.8. filter.tail: empty list" head head (x:_) head [] tail tail (_:xs) tail [] . or. takeWhile. scanl. scanl1. zip3. scanr. foldr1. any. concat.1 Prelude PreludeList . drop. PRELUDE PRELUDELIST 115 8. unzip. words. unzip3) where import qualified Char(isSpace) infixl 9 infixr 5 infix 4 !! ++ ‘elem‘. product. lookup. dropWhile. map f head and tail extract the first element and remaining elements. zipWith. sum. replicate. last. foldl. head. respectively. of a list. foldl1. which must be nonempty. (++). length. (!!). notElem. tail. break. unlines. take.head: empty list" :: [a] > [a] = xs = error "Prelude. null.1.
x2.] == [z.List index (subscript) operator....!!: negative index" [] !! _ = error "Prelude.. xn] == (.last: empty list" [a] > [a] [] x : init xs error "Prelude. x2.116 last last [x] last (_:xs) last [] init init [x] init (x:xs) init [] null null [] null (_:_) :: = = = :: = = = CHAPTER 8. and thus must be applied to nonempty lists.((z ‘f‘ x1) ‘f‘ x2) ‘f‘. reduces the list using the binary operator. and a list. z ‘f‘ x1.length returns the length of a finite list as an Int.foldl1: empty list" :: (a > b > a) > a > [b] > [a] = q : (case xs of [] > [] x:xs > scanl f (f q x) xs) :: (a > a > a) > [a] > [a] = scanl f x xs = [] scanl1 scanl1 f (x:xs) scanl1 _ [] .. 0origin (!!) :: [a] > Int > a xs !! n  n < 0 = error "Prelude... scanl is similar to foldl.init: empty list" :: [a] > Bool = True = False .] Note that last (scanl f z xs) == foldl f z xs. . . again without the starting element: scanl1 f [x1.) ‘f‘ xn foldl1 is a variant that has no starting value argument.... ... but returns a list of successive reduced values from the left: scanl f z [x1.. a starting value (typically the leftidentity of the operator). . length :: [a] > Int length [] = 0 length (_:l) = 1 + length l . from left to right: foldl f z [x1.] foldl :: (a > b > a) > a > [b] > a foldl f z [] = z foldl f z (x:xs) = foldl f (f z x) xs foldl1 foldl1 f (x:xs) foldl1 _ [] scanl scanl f q xs :: (a > a > a) > [a] > a = foldl f x xs = error "Prelude.. STANDARD PRELUDE [a] > a x last xs error "Prelude.. x1 ‘f‘ x2. applied to a binary operator.] == [x1. scanl1 is similar. (z ‘f‘ x1) ‘f‘ x2. . x2.!!: index too large" (x:_) !! 0 = x (_:xs) !! n = xs !! (n1) foldl.
] iterate :: (a > a) > a > [a] iterate f x = x : iterate f (f x) . and scanr1 are the righttoleft duals of the .iterate f x returns an infinite list of repeated applications of f to x: . foldr :: (a > b > b) > b > [a] > b foldr f z [] = z foldr f z (x:xs) = f x (foldr f z xs) foldr1 foldr1 f [x] foldr1 f (x:xs) foldr1 _ [] :: = = = (a > a > a) > [a] > a x f x (foldr1 f xs) error "Prelude.the infinite repetition of the original list.cycle: empty list" = xs’ where xs’ = xs ++ xs’ take n.repeat x is an infinite list. or equivalently. with x the value of every element.foldr1: empty list" scanr :: (a > b > b) > b > [a] > [b] scanr f q0 [] = [q0] scanr f q0 (x:xs) = f x q : qs where qs@(q:_) = scanr f q0 xs scanr1 scanr1 f [] scanr1 f [x] scanr1 f (x:xs) :: = = = (a > a > a) > [a] > [a] [] [x] f x q : qs where qs@(q:_) = scanr1 f xs ... applied to a list xs.foldr. or xs itself if n > length xs. drop n xs returns the suffix of xs after the first n elements. cycle cycle [] cycle xs :: [a] > [a] = error "Prelude.replicate n x is a list of length n with x the value of every element replicate :: Int > a > [a] replicate n x = take n (repeat x) .cycle ties a finite list into a circular one. . f (f x).8. drop n xs).on infinite lists. It is the identity . Int > [a] > [a] [] [] x : take (n1) xs take :: take n _  n <= 0 = take _ [] = take n (x:xs) = . PRELUDE PRELUDELIST 117 .above functions. returns the prefix of xs of length n.1. foldr1. . repeat :: a > [a] repeat x = xs where xs = x:xs . f x. splitAt n xs is equivalent to (take n xs. scanr.iterate f x == [x. or [] if n > length xs.
applied to a predicate p and a list xs. s’’) = break Char. dropWhile p xs). unlines and unwords are the inverse operations.[]) span p xs@(x:xs’)  p x = (x:ys.[a]) span p [] = ([].xs) where (ys. unlines joins lines with terminating newlines.isSpace s of "" > [] s’ > w : words s’’ where (w. STANDARD PRELUDE Int > [a] > [a] xs [] drop (n1) xs :: Int > [a] > ([a]. returns the longest prefix (possibly empty) of xs of elements that satisfy p. p) lines breaks a string up into a list of strings at newline characters. :: String > [String] = [] = let (l.118 drop :: drop n xs  n <= 0 = drop _ [] = drop n (_:xs) = splitAt splitAt n xs  CHAPTER 8.zs)  otherwise = ([]. span p xs is equivalent to (takeWhile p xs. The resulting strings do not contain newlines. :: (a > Bool) > [a] > [a] = [] = = x : takeWhile p xs [] takeWhile takeWhile p [] takeWhile p (x:xs)  p x  otherwise dropWhile dropWhile p [] dropWhile p xs@(x:xs’)  p x  otherwise :: (a > Bool) > [a] > [a] = [] = = dropWhile p xs’ xs span. Similary. words breaks a string up into a list of words. while break p uses the negation of p. break :: (a > Bool) > [a] > ([a]. and unwords joins words with separating spaces.[a]) = (take n xs.isSpace s’ lines lines "" lines s words words s . s’) = break (== ’\n’) s in l : case s’ of [] > [] (_:s’’) > lines s’’ :: String > [String] = case dropWhile Char. dropWhile p xs returns the remaining suffix. which were delimited by white space. drop n xs) takeWhile.zs) = span p xs’ break p = span (not .
lookup :: (Eq a) => a > [(a.maximum and minimum return the maximum or minimum value from a list. any. . for all. map p . or :: [Bool] > Bool and = foldr (&&) True or = foldr () False . elem. x ‘elem‘ xs.lookup key assocs looks up a key in an association list. or is the .value at a finite index of a finite or infinite list. PRELUDE PRELUDELIST unlines unlines unwords unwords [] unwords ws :: [String] > String = concatMap (++ "\n") :: [String] > String = "" = foldr1 (\w s > w ++ ’ ’:s) ws 119 . For the result to be .elem is the list membership predicate. .and returns the conjunction of a Boolean list. and. reverse :: [a] > [a] reverse = foldl (flip (:)) [] xs must be finite.True.reverse xs returns the elements of xs in reverse order.Applied to a predicate and a list.8.minimum: empty list" foldl1 min xs . . product :: (Num a) => [a] > a sum = foldl (+) 0 product = foldl (*) 1 .of the list satisfies the predicate. minimum :: (Ord a) => [a] > a maximum [] = error "Prelude. False. maximum. and of an ordered type. however.b)] > Maybe b lookup key [] = Nothing lookup key ((x.sum and product compute the sum or product of a finite list of numbers. the list must be finite. results from a False . any determines if any element .g. usually written in infix form. map p all p = and . Similarly.1. finite. notElem :: (Eq a) => a > [a] > Bool elem x = any (== x) notElem x = all (/= x) .y):xys)  key == x = Just y  otherwise = lookup key xys . all :: (a > Bool) > [a] > Bool any p = or . sum.disjunctive dual of and. notElem is the negation.maximum: empty list" maximum xs = foldl1 max xs minimum [] minimum xs = = error "Prelude.e..which must be nonempty.
b.unzip transforms a list of pairs into a pair of lists. Zips for larger tuples are in the List library :: [a] > [b] > [(a. If one input list is short.) zip zip zip3 zip3  The zipWith family generalises the zip family by zipping with the function given as the first argument.[b].b. zip3 takes three lists and returns a list of triples..c:cs)) ([]. STANDARD PRELUDE zip takes two lists and returns a list of corresponding pairs.b:bs. excess elements of the longer list are discarded.c) ˜(as.[c]) = foldr (\(a.b) ˜(as.[].[]) :: [(a. zipWith :: (a>b>c) > [a]>[b]>[c] zipWith z (a:as) (b:bs) = z a b : zipWith z as bs zipWith _ _ _ = [] zipWith3 :: (a>b>c>d) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d] zipWith3 z (a:as) (b:bs) (c:cs) = z a b c : zipWith3 z as bs cs zipWith3 _ _ _ _ = [] .[]) .120  CHAPTER 8.) :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [(a. For example.[b]) = foldr (\(a.b:bs)) ([].b)] > ([a].b.c)] = zipWith3 (.b)] = zipWith (. unzip unzip unzip3 unzip3 :: [(a. instead of a tupling function.bs.bs) > (a:as.c)] > ([a]. zipWith (+) is applied to two lists to produce the list of corresponding sums.cs) > (a:as.
readSigned.The instances of Read and Show for Bool. showFloat. showString.u) (xs. lex. showParen ) where .are done via "deriving" clauses in Prelude. showl xs . readFloat. showLitChar.8.u)  (x. showChar. show. readLitChar.u) readl’ s = [([]. read. showInt.Minimal complete definition: readsPrec readList = readParen False (\r > [pr  ("[".t) (xs. lexDigits) type type ReadS a ShowS = String > [(a.t) [(x:xs.2 Prelude PreludeText module PreludeText ( ReadS. isAlphaNum.s) pr where readl s = [([]. showl xs where showl [] = showChar ’]’ showl (x:xs) = showChar ’.2. PRELUDE PRELUDETEXT 121 8. showList). Maybe. reads. ShowS. reads t. shows x . readl s]) lex s] ++ reads s.".t)  ("]". readl’ t] lex s] ++ lex s.Mimimal complete definition: show or showsPrec showsPrec _ x s = show x ++ s show x showList [] showList (x:xs) = showsPrec 0 x "" = showString "[]" = showChar ’[’ . readDec.hs import Char(isSpace. readParen.v) class Show a showsPrec show showList where :: Int > a > ShowS :: a > String :: [a] > ShowS <<<<<<<<< lex r.t)  ("]". lexLitChar) import Numeric(showSigned.v)  (". shows. readList). Show(showsPrec.t) (x. shows x . Ordering .t) [(x:xs. isDigit. isAlpha. Either.’ .String)] = String > String where :: Int > ReadS a :: ReadS [a] class Read a readsPrec readList . readl’ u] . Read(readsPrec.
lexLitChar s. ch /= "’" ] [(’"’:str."")] = = = lex (dropWhile isSpace s) [(’\’’:ch++"’".lex r.’\’’:t) <. p .lexStrItem s.lex t ] .t) <.Current limitations: Qualified names are not handled properly Octal and hexidecimal numerics are not recognized as a single token Comments are not treated properly lex lex "" lex (c:s)  isSpace c lex (’\’’:s) lex (’"’:s) :: ReadS String = [("".t)  ’\\’:t <[dropWhile isSpace s]] lexStrItem s = lexLitChar s .This lexer is not completely faithful to the Haskell lexical syntax.reads s.lexString t ] lexStrItem (’\\’:’&’:s) = [("\\&"."") <. (str.u) <. showChar ’)’ else p :: Bool > ReadS a > ReadS a = if b then mandatory else optional where optional r = g r ++ mandatory mandatory r = [(x. <.s) (x.t) <. <.t) (")".122 reads reads shows shows read read s :: (Read a) => ReadS a = readsPrec 0 :: (Show a) => a > ShowS = showsPrec 0 CHAPTER 8.t) <. t)  (ch. u)  (ch.s)] lexStrItem (’\\’:c:s)  isSpace c = [("\\&".read: ambiguous parse" :: Char > ShowS = (:) :: String > ShowS = (++) :: Bool > ShowS > ShowS = if b then showChar ’(’ . STANDARD PRELUDE :: (Read a) => String > a = case [x  (x.u) showChar showChar showString showString showParen showParen b p readParen readParen b g r <.lex t] of [x] > x [] > error "Prelude.u)  ("(". t)  (str.lexString s] where lexString (’"’:s) = [("\"". .read: no parse" _ > error "Prelude.optional s. ("".s)] lexString s = [(ch++str.
t) <. c ‘elem‘ "+".Converting to Integer avoids .u) <. toInteger .[span isDigit s].lexExp t] lexFracExp s = lexExp s lexExp (e:s)  e ‘elem‘ "eE" = [(e:c:ds.t) <.u)  (ds.s) <.t) 123  otherwise = [] where isSingle c = c ‘elem‘ ".[span isSym s]]  (nam..u)  (c:t) [(e:ds.s)] [(c:sym. (e.readsPrec p r] .u) <.t) lexExp s = [("".t) <.Reading at the Integer type avoids .t) <.lexDigits t] ++  (ds.t) <.t) <.()[]{}_‘" isSym c = c ‘elem‘ "!@#$%&*+.lexDigits (c:cs).possible difficulty with minInt instance Show Integer showsPrec instance Read Integer readsPrec p instance Show Float showsPrec p instance Read Float readsPrec p instance Show Double showsPrec p instance Read Double readsPrec p where = showSigned showInt where = readSigned readDec where = showFloat where = readSigned readFloat where = showFloat where = readSigned readFloat instance Show () where showsPrec p () = showString "()" .8.possible difficulty with minInt instance Read Int where readsPrec p r = [(fromInteger i.’:ds++e.lexDigits s] instance Show Int where showsPrec n = showsPrec n .[span isIdChar s]]  (ds.bad character lexFracExp (’. PRELUDE PRELUDETEXT lex (c:s)     isSingle c isSym c isAlpha c isDigit c = = = = [([c].s)] <./<=>?\\ˆ:˜" isIdChar c = isAlphaNum c  c ‘elem‘ "_’"  (sym. (ds.[s].t) [(c:nam.t) [(c:ds++fe.2.’:c:cs)  isDigit c = [(’. (fe.lexFracExp s ] . t)  (i.
shows x .y) = showChar ’(’ .lex s ] ) instance Show Char where showsPrec p ’\’’ = showString "’\\’’" showsPrec p c = showChar ’\’’ .u) <.lex r.’ . showChar ’\’’ showList cs = showChar ’"’ .w) . showl cs showl (c:cs) = showLitChar c . (")".t)<. showl cs instance Read Char readsPrec p where = readParen False (\r > [(c.124 CHAPTER 8. showl cs where showl "" = showChar ’"’ showl (’"’:cs) = showString "\\\"" .u) (y. (c.t) <. shows y .y).readl t ] instance (Show a) => Show [a] where showsPrec p = showList instance (Read a) => Read [a] where readsPrec p = readList . Read b) => Read (a. showLitChar c . (l.lex r.Tuples instance (Show a. reads s._) <.t)  ("(".".readl s ]) where readl (’"’:s) = [("". lex t.t) (".b) where showsPrec p (x. Show b) => Show (a.s) <. reads u.b) where readsPrec p = readParen False (\r > [((x.Other tuples have similar Read and Show instances <<<<< lex r. STANDARD PRELUDE instance Read () where readsPrec p = readParen False (\r > [((). showChar ’)’ instance (Read a.v) (")".t)  (’"’:s.readLitChar s. w)  ("("."\’") <. showChar ’.lex r.u)  (c .t)  (’\’’:s.s)] readl (’\\’:’&’:s) = readl s readl s = [(c:cs. t) <. lex v ] ) .readLitChar s]) readList = readParen False (\r > [(l.t) <. (cs.s) (x.
3. putStrLn.getLine return (c:s) getContents :: IO String getContents = primGetContents . userError. readLn ) where import PreludeBuiltin type FilePath = String .. Eq IOError where .. putStr. IOError.The internals of this type are system dependent data IOError instance instance ioError ioError userError userError catch catch putChar putChar putStr putStr s Show IOError where . appendFile. catch.getChar if c == ’\n’ then return "" else do s <. getLine. :: = :: = :: = IOError > IO a primIOError String > IOError primUserError IO a > (IOError > IO a) > IO a primCatch :: Char > IO () = primPutChar :: String > IO () = mapM_ putChar s putStrLn :: String > IO () putStrLn s = do putStr s putStr "\n" print print x getChar getChar getLine getLine :: Show a => a > IO () = putStrLn (show x) :: IO Char = primGetChar :: IO String = do c <..3 Prelude PreludeIO module PreludeIO ( FilePath. PRELUDE PRELUDEIO 125 8. readFile.8. writeFile. readIO. putChar. print.. ioError. getChar. interact. getContents.
lex t] of [x] > return x [] > ioError (userError "Prelude.126 CHAPTER 8.The hSetBuffering ensures the expected interactive behaviour interact f = do hSetBuffering stdin NoBuffering hSetBuffering stdout NoBuffering s <.t) <.readIO: ambiguous parse") readLn :: Read a => IO a readLn = do l <.reads s. ("". STANDARD PRELUDE interact :: (String > String) > IO () .readIO: no parse") _ > ioError (userError "Prelude.getLine r <.getContents putStr (f s) readFile readFile writeFile writeFile :: FilePath > IO String = primReadFile :: FilePath > String > IO () = primWriteFile appendFile :: FilePath > String > IO () appendFile = primAppendFile .raises an exception instead of an error readIO :: Read a => String > IO a readIO s = case [x  (x.readIO l return r ."") <.
with productions having the form: There are some families of nonterminals indexed by precedence levels (written as a superscript). Similarly. resolving shift/reduce conﬂicts by shifting). and may have a double index: a letter . . with 10 substitutions for and 3 for . this is the “maximal munch” rule. and lambda abstractions extend to the right as far as possible. the nonterminals .1 Notational Conventions These notational conventions are used for presenting syntax: optional zero or more repetitions grouping choice difference—elements generated by except those generated by fibonacci terminal syntax in typewriter font BNFlike syntax is used throughout. A precedencelevel variable ranges from 0 to 9.or nonassociativity and a precedence level. proceeding from left to right (in shiftreduce parsing. right. . this means that conditionals. there are some ambiguities that are to be resolved by making grammatical phrases as long as possible. In the lexical syntax. Thus. letexpressions. an associativity variable varies over .Chapter 9 Syntax Reference 9. 127 § ¢ 2 ¢ ¡ ( ) ¦ ¤ 7 § § ¢ £¡ 1§ ¢ £¡ ¦ ¡ 2 ©¦ 2 ¤ ¡7 A !§ 7 3¢ ¡ p v £!e ¢ $ 2 &¤ 8 8 8 @¥¥9 £ § ¢ )'% $ " 0(&§# § ¢§ £§ ¡ £¡ ¢ ¢ ¦ £¤ ¡ §¥ § § £¡ §¥ § § £ ¦¤ ¢ ¡ ¨ ¦¤ ¢ ¡ ©§¥ § § £ ¢ £ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ 2 ¡ 7 3¢ v ¡§ ¡ 7 3¢ 6 6 4¤ ¦ 2 5 § 3©¦ ¡ ¢ S ¢ . In both the lexical and the contextfree syntax. for example actually stands for 30 productions. or for left. In the contextfree syntax.
. / < = > ? \ ˆ  .§§ § § ¦ £$ § § § © ¢ 6 6 7 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 §§ § t § 6 7 2 ' 4 3 ' ¦ £$ © ¦ ) 4 2 B2 © ¦§ 7 £ ¦ ¨ 3¦ ¢ )A 98 7 64 #"@¦"%5 3¦ ¢ ¦ 1§¤ 0 0 4 2 ¦ § ¨)§ § ¥ ( § ¦£$ ¦ ¥ 0% ¦ § §£%¢ ¤ % ¦ § 5¤ %§ ¤ ¦¤ $§ 0 ¦ $ ¦ 7 7 § © § ¤ ¤ ¦ § £ ¦ ¡ ' ¢ 7 4 '#4 ¢ 2 ¦ ¤§ ¢ 4 ¨32 ¤ ¦ 4 & $ © § ¥ %§ § ¨¦£ ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¥ ¢ & $ © § ¥ %§ § ¨¦£ ¦ ¦ § #¦ § ¢ ¤ ¤ © 2 4 © ¦ 332 ¡ 9.˜ any Unicode symbol or punctuation y B 2 4 3 t ¢ h h h h A v f 4 x"$ wg " 5 7 2 ' 4 3 t § ¦ £$ § 7 2 ' 4 3 t © ¢ A B Z any uppercase or titlecase Unicode letter _ : " ’ %¤ ¢ u 8 8 8 @¥¥9 ¦ £$ 2¤ ¢ u ¢ © 2 3© 4 7 ' § £$ 2¤ ¦ ¢u © %¤ ¢ ¢ u ¢7 %¤ S¢RQFP§ 4 32 ¦ © G E C ¦ 4 _ a b z any Unicode lowercase letter 77 !3¢ 4 t § 8 8 8 @¥¥9 ¦ £$ 4 © 77 03¢ ¢ t 4 § £$ ¦ 703¢ 7 4 t © 77 !3¢ §¢© t 4 77 !3¢ § #¥ ¡3 §¢ ¦ ¤ G E QFC © G E S¢RQFC ¢ © G E C 4 ¡ IHFD32 © ¥ © ¢ ¦ § ¦¥ 4 32 ¦ 4 4 2 B2 © 4 2 ¥ ¥2 ¦ 7 ¡ © ¥ © ¦ ¦ ¥ 4 4 ¢ 2 § § ¨)§ § ¥ ( ¦ £$ ' ¨¢ § © ¤ ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¥ ¢ & $ § © § ¥ %¤ § ¨¦£ ¢ ¤£¡ © § ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¤¢ ¡ 1§3¥0 0 4 ¤ 2 ¦ § ¥ ¤ ' #¢ ¢2 ¦ § 0 ¦ ¦¤ $§ §£%¢ ¤7 ¦§ £ ¦ 7 6 6 6 6 7 ¤ 3¢ ¥ § ¡ § 7 3¢ 7 © ¥ ¡ 4 ¢ 4 ¤ ¡&¤ 7 2 ¢ ¡ .2 Lexical Syntax 128 ( ) . [ ] ` { } ¤ ¤© ¤ ¥ § 2 " § ! ¢ §¢ © ¥¢ ¤ ¤ © ¦ 7 ¦ 43¤ 3§ ¢ 32 ¡ © ¢ § ¦ ¨¦¤ © § ¥ £ ¤¢ ¡ ¤¥ § ¦ § ¤ § § 7 3§ ¢ ¤ 7 4¦ ¢ ¡ ¢ 7 . SYNTAX REFERENCE : " ’ 7 ¥ 4 §© § © § § § 2 43© 2¤ ¦ 7 ' 7 3¢ ¡ ¢ 7 § !3¢ ¤ 77 § © ¨¥ '¨ ¡ ¤ ¢ ¥ § ¨¢£¡ ¤ ¨¥ §¢ ¤ § ¥ ¨¦£ § ¢ ¡T ) cRasY`WXrpq7"9 g 24"9 A g hi7¡9 gA " 3¦db`XV GH§¢ C U f f 9 e c a Y W U E ¦ 2 ¡ ! # $ % & * + .{} a carriage return a line feed a vertical tab a form feed a space a horizontal tab any Unicode character deﬁned as whitespace CHAPTER 9.
. 0O ’ \ " \ 0X ’ 129 " x 7 3¢ 4§ ¦ ¢ ¢ ¡ ¥ © § ¨¥ § ¨¥ ¤ ¥ 6 6 6 6 6 6 § © ¡ §¢ #¦ § ¤ § © ¤ ¢ ¡ ¢ 2 ¥ ¢ ¡ ¦ ¦ ¥ 32 § ! ¤ § ¦ § 6 4§ 7 6 3¢ 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 ¦ ¦ ¦ ¢ § 2 73§ ¢ 4 ¢ S ¥ 7 ¢ 4 ¦ © ¦ 32 © 4 © 3¤ ¦ 37 2 § § § ¢ %§ ¦ 32 ¤ ¢ %§ 6 ¦ ¦ © 2 4 %§ %§ ¢ ¤ ¦ ¦ 72 3¥ %§ § ¢¦ 2 § ¦ ¤ ¢ 6 6 6 6 6 6 2 ¥¢ ¤ ¤ © ¡ ¦ 43¦ 2 © 4 S¤ © ¢ ¦ ¦ § ¥¢ ¤ © ¦ ¦ § § ¦ 2 ¢ ¤ ¤ 6 6 6 6 §§ § §§ § § § S ¥ ¢ §§§ § 2 ¦ £$ © ¢ .4§ §§ © § 2 7 ¢ 7 3¢ ¦ ¢ © © ) h ¡ 5)¢ ¡ 5¢ ¢ ¨£¡ © © ) h ¡ 5¢ ¢ ¨£¡ o \& ¢ ¦ ¤ ¡ §¢ ¤ ¡ §¢ 4§ ¨ 7 3¢ § ¦ ¦ ¦32 ¢¡ 4 § 7 ¨ § ¦32 ¡ ¦ ¢ 4 § ¡ 3¢ 4 § ¦ ¦ ¦ 7 ¢ 4 § ¢¡ ¡ ¥ 73 ¢ 4 § 3¢ ¡ ¥ 7 ¢ ¦ ¢ 7 ¢ ¦ ¢ § 2 § 2 7 ¢ 4§ 7 3¢ ¦ 7 3¢ § § S ¢ ¥ § § ¡ ¥ ¢ §§ § § 2 § § § 2 §§ § § § § § ¦ ¦ § 43¦ 2 ¨ © 4 S¤ `¨ © © ¢ %§ ¨ `¨ ¦ 72 3¥ %§ ¨ ¦ ¦ § § ¦ 2 ¨ ¢ ¦ ˜ => ¥ h 9 f £ f 4 f S¥ X¤¢%w5 4 ) " 9¡¦fX¤ f24w5¡ 2 3© ¥ £ f 4 ©7 ' 2 4 © 7 ' : ) 4 f ¡$ 4 ¡ " 9.> 0 1 9 any Unicode decimal digit 0 1 7 A F a f variables constructors type variables type constructors type classes modules y @ 7 2 ' 8 8 8 @¥¥9 8¥8¥8 § § § ¦ 8 8 8 @¥¥9 8 8 8 @¥¥9 .2. . . . LEXICAL SYNTAX ’ ’ case class data default deriving do else if import in infix infixl infixr instance let module newtype of then type where _ ) ¥ v ¥ £ f ¦f ¤¢24 f ¡ § § § %¤ 4 §© 2¤ ¦ 77 4 4 § § § %¤ ¢ 7 !3¢ §© §© ¢ 7 ¦ ¢ 7 !3¢ 77 77 !3¢ : : . : :: = \  <.. . ¤ ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 § ¦32 ¦ § ¦32 ¦ ¦ 32 § ¦ § ¤ ’ " \ 0o 0x e E +  .
3 Layout Section 2. preceded by may span multiple lines – Section 2. – A positive integer. or if the end of ﬁle has been reached. where is the indentation of the next lexeme if there is one. the programmer supplied the opening brace. where. This section deﬁnes it more precisely. The meaning of a Haskell program may depend on its layout. The effect of layout on its meaning can be completely described by adding braces and semicolons in places determined by the layout. this lexeme is preceded by where is the indentation of the lexeme. The input to is: A stream of lexemes as speciﬁed by the lexical syntax in the Haskell report.7 gives an informal discussion of the layout rule. in which each element is either: – Zero. as a consequence of the ﬁrst two rules.130 CHAPTER 9. If the innermost context is 0. then no layout tokens will be inserted until either the enclosing context ends or a new context is pushed. "Jake") There is no inserted before the \Bill.e. the token is inserted after the keyword. The effect of layout is speciﬁed in this section by describing how to add braces and semicolons to a laidout program. where ¦ ¦ ¤ ¥ § §#¥¦£ ¤ ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¥ © ¢ y ¢ 2¤ ¢ u ¢ ¤§ ¦ ¦ ¦ £ ¦ ¦ £ ¦ ¦ 7 ¦ 6 6 6 6 © 7 § @§ ¤ ¡ ¤ § 5¢¦ ¢ © ¥ a b f n r t v \ " ’ & ˆ NUL SOH STX ETX EOT ENQ ACK BEL BS HT LF VT FF CR SO SI DLE DC1 DC2 DC3 DC4 NAK SYN ETB CAN EM SUB ESC FS GS RS US SP DEL [ \ ] ˆ _ \ \ ¢ . which is the indentation column of the enclosing layout context. with the following additional tokens: – If a let. So in the fragment f = ("Hello \ \Bill". The meaning of this augmented program is now layout insensitive. then it is preceded by is the indentation of the lexeme. or of keyword is not followed by the lexeme {. (NB: a string literal it is not. because it is not the beginning of a complete lexeme.. indicating that the enclosing context is explicit (i. u u – Where the start of a lexeme is preceded only by white space on the same line.6.) A stack of “layout contexts”. provided that . SYNTAX REFERENCE 9. because it is not preceded only by white space. The speciﬁcation takes the form of a function that performs the translation. nor before the . do. ¦ ¦ – If the ﬁrst lexeme of a module is not { or module.
Unicode characters in a source program are considered to be of the same. where we use “ ” as a stream construction operator. ﬁxed. Tab stops are 8 characters apart.9. . and “ ” for the empty stream. LAYOUT 131 The “indentation” of a lexeme is the column number of the ﬁrst character of that lexeme. assume a ﬁxedwidth font with the following conventions: 1§3¥0 0 4 ¤ 2 © The ﬁrst column is designated column 1. § § ¥ © § © © © ¨© § § ¡ ¡ § § § ¥ ¥ ¡ ¡ ¡ £ £ ¥ ¥ ¥ § ¡ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¦ ¦ ¡ . } ¡ if if ¥ © ¨ © ¦ ¥ ¢ 2§ ¨ § § ¥ £ ¡ ¨¦¤¢ ¢ © © ¦ ¥ © ¡ ¢ The application ¢2 0 § 2§ ¡ ¦§ ¦¤ $ §£%§ ¤ ¦ § § £ ¥ § © ¥ ¦ © The characters . all start a new line. delivers a layoutinsensitive translation of .3. However. For the purposes of the layout rule. and ¦ ¦ 7 7 . the indentation of a line is the indentation of its leftmost lexeme. To determine the column number. . where is the result of lexically analysing a module and adding columnnumber indicators to it as described above. to avoid visual confusion. width as an ASCII character. A tab character causes the insertion of enough spaces to align the current position with the next tab stop. u ¤ ¨ ¥ } ¡ if !£ ¡ ¤ £ ¡ ¡ © § § ¥ © § © ¡ ¥ } ¥ ¡ ¡ if and parseerror © & § © ¥ ¤ § ¡ ¡ ¥ ¨ § © ¥ § § © © © ¥ § § ¡ ¡ ¨ © ¨ ¨ ¥ { ¥ ¡ { £ £ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ § © § ¡ ¥ ¥ ¤ § § © © § § ¡ ¡ ¥ ¥ } } } parseerror £ ¡ ¡ ¥ £ § © § ¡ ¥ } £ £ £ ¡ ¡ £ £ ¤ £ ¡ ¡ ¥ § & § ¡ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¦ ! ¨ ¥ § ¡ ¥ ¥ ¥ { { { ¡ if if £ ¡ © © ¦ ¥ ¥ § § © & © § ¡ ¥ © ¥ £ ¥ ¥ ¦ § ¡ § © § ¥ ¥ . not 0. The deﬁnition of is as follows. programmers should avoid writing programs in which the meaning of implicit layout depends on the width of nonspace characters.
This is a difference between this formulation and Haskell 1. so empty braces are inserted. Note 3. Note 2. y = x } in e’ The close brace is inserted due to the parse error rule above.4.15). although they could be: for example let }. By matching against 0 for the current layout context. Note 4. Some error conditions are not detected by the algorithm. For example let x = e. ¤ ¥ Note 6. to mimic the situation if the empty braces had been explicit. and the compiler should indicate a layout error. The token is replaced by . For example. and a nonlayout context is active. because it translates to let { x = e.e. the deﬁnition of p is indented less than the indentation of the enclosing context. y = x in e’ is valid. then parseerror is true. An example is: § § &§ u © u £ ¥ ¦ . A nested context must be further indented than the enclosing context ( fails. The parseerror rule is hard to implement in its full generality. If none of the rules given above matches. since the close brace is missing. then the algorithm fails. which is set in this case by the deﬁnition of h. At the end of the input. any pending closebraces are inserted. It can fail for instance when the end of the input is reached. we ensure that an explicit close brace can only match an explicit open brace. SYNTAX REFERENCE ). It is an error at this point to be within a nonlayout context (i. then the block must be empty. Note 5. A parse error results if an explicit close brace matches an implicit open brace. Note 1 implements the feature that layout processing can be stopped prematurely by a parse error. The side condition parseerror is to be interpreted as follows: if the tokens generated so far by together with the next token represent an invalid preﬁx of the Haskell grammar. checks that an implicitlyadded closing brace would match an implicit open 4 £ ¦ Note 1. This clause means that all brace pairs are treated as explicit layout contexts. because doing so involves ﬁxities. ). If the ﬁrst token after a where (say) is not indented more than the enclosing layout context. u f x = let h y = let p z = z in p in h Here. If not.132 CHAPTER 9. and the tokens generated so far by followed by the token “}” represent a valid preﬁx of the Haskell grammar. the expression ¦ 4 The test brace. including labelled construction and update (Section 3.
LAYOUT do a == b == c has a single unambiguous (albeit probably typeincorrect) parse.9. Programmers are therefore advised to avoid writing code that requires the parser to insert a closing brace in such situations.3. . namely (do { a == b }) == c 133 because (==) is nonassociative.
and replacing the leading “>” with a space. with “. though it may be stylistically desirable. The program text is recovered by taking only those lines beginning with “>”. of course). the style of comment is indicated by the ﬁle extension. where a line is taken as blank if it consists only of whitespace. > fact :: Integer > Integer > fact 0 = 1 > fact n = n * fact (n1) An alternative style of literate programming is particularly suitable for use with the LaTeX text processing system. is an alternative style for encoding Haskell source code.4 Literate comments The “literate comment” convention. SYNTAX REFERENCE 9. Using this style. A line in which “>” is the ﬁrst character is treated as part of the program. More precisely: Program code begins on the ﬁrst line following a line that begins \begin{code}. By convention. ﬁrst developed by Richard Bird and Philip Wadler for Orwell.134 CHAPTER 9. For example. and inspired in turn by Donald Knuth’s “literate programming”.hs” indicating a usual Haskell ﬁle and “. a simple factorial program would be: This literate program prompts the user for a number and prints the factorial of that number: > main :: IO () > main = do putStr "Enter a number: " > l <. Layout and comments apply exactly as described in Chapter 9 in the resulting text. 8 8 ¥¥8 . all other lines are comment. Program code ends just before a subsequent line that begins \end{code} (ignoring string literals. In this convention.readLine > putStr "n!= " > print (fact (read l)) This is the factorial function. all other lines are comment. To capture some cases where one omits an “>” by mistake. only those parts of the literate program that are entirely enclosed between \begin{code} \end{code} delimiters are treated as program text. The literate style encourages comments by making them the default. it is an error for a program line to appear adjacent to a nonblank comment line.lhs” indicating a literate Haskell ﬁle. It is not necessary to insert additional blank lines before or after these delimiters.
product [1. . It is not advisable to mix these two styles in the same ﬁle.4.9.n])  n <..20]] \end{code} \end{document} This style uses the same ﬁle extension. LITERATE COMMENTS \documentstyle{article} \begin{document} \section{Introduction} 135 This is a trivial program that prints the first 20 factorials.[1. \begin{code} main :: IO () main = print [ (n..
.) ( (. as .) ( .) ( (. ) ¨¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 A !§ ¤ 2 . ) ¨ A§ ¤ 2 4§ 4§ ¡ §¤¤32 4 § ¡§ ¤ 2 8 8¡ ¥¥8 (. hiding ( . 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¢ import qualified 2 4 ¨ ¦ ¦ § ¡ ¤ 4 ¢¦ 8 8 ¥¥8 ( . } } © 2§ . . } = ) = where where ) ) ) ¦ A 8 8 ¥¥8 7¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ 6 6 © 2§ 7¥ ¦ ¡ 2 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ ¢ %§ %§ 6 6 § 4 ¦ ¢ ¤ 32 ¡ © 4§ 4§ 4§ ¡ 6 ¡ ¡ 6 7 ¦ 6 6 § ¤ ¤32 ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ©§ ¤ @¤32 ¢ ¡ 4§ 6 6 6 © 7 ¦ ¡ 4§ ¦ ' 2 $ 7 ¦ 2 4 CHAPTER 9. 4§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ ( . A §¤ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ 4 ¦ ¢ 2 4 . ... 6 6 © ¦ § 7 ¦ ¦ 7 ¡ ¦ 7 ¦ 7 ¦ ¦ A %§ ¡ ¢ %§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¦ § ¡ ¡ ¨ © § § ©¦ § © %§ ¨ § ¡ § ¦ 2 © ¢ 7 5© ¦ 7 ¨ ¤ ¥ %§ © %§ ¨ § S § 32 © ¢ ¦ 7§ © ¦ ¦ 7§ © ¨ ¦ § § ¤ ¥ 332 £ ¦ %¢§¢ 4 ¥ x¨ ¤ § ¡ § 32 ¢ ¦ V ¨ ¦ #¦ § § ¥ ©¤ § ©332 ¡ 7©¡ %§ 4 § © ¨ ¤ ¦ § S § 32 ¢ ¦ ¦ ¡ 7© ¡ %§ %¢ § 4 § V © A ¡ 2 § ¡ ¥¥8 ©¡ ¡ 2 § 8 8 7 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ ¦ § ¦ ¦§ ¦ ¦ § ¨ ¢ ¢ ¦ ¦§ ¦ ¦ § empty declaration § ¡ ¨ © 4 § ¨ § 2 4 ¡ ¡ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦§ ¦ ¦ § ¨ ¢ ¢ ¦ § ¦ A ¡ ¡ 7 ¦ ¡ 7 ¦ ¡ © 2§ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § © 7¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 2 © ¦ ' ¡ ¦ ¦ 9. } .) ( module . . ) ¦ ¨ A§ ¤ !¤32 ¢ S (. = => => => => . .. SYNTAX REFERENCE .. . . . ¦ ¦ 2 ¤ © 37 2 ¦ ¤ ¢ 4§ ¡ © %§ 3¥ %§ ¦ 72 ¤ ¢ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¤32 § ¤ { type data newtype class instance default ( . . . . ¨ §¤ A A 5 4 ¦ ¢ ) 8 8 ¥¥8 .5 ContextFree Syntax 136 module where 2 ¨ ©§ ¤ 5@¤32 ¢ ¡ § 2 4 ¦ ' { { { . ¨ A 5 4 ¦ ¢¥¥8 8 8 ¡ ¢ .
. . } ¦ ¡ 7 ¦ $ ¥ £0 7 ¦ ¦ { . . . } empty ¦ A § :: => type signature ﬁxity declaration empty declaration . ¦ § ¢ ¤ ¢ %§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ ¢ %§ ¦ 32 %§ 6 ¡ § %¢ 7 ©¡ 4§ © 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 © © ¦ § ¦ ¦ ¦ § ¢7 ¤ %§ © %§ ¢ ¥ § © 74 4 § © ¥8¥8 8 ¡ ©S© ¢ 7 7©¡ ¢ ¥ ©¡ 4 § © 7 7 ©S© A 5 %§ 8¥¥8 ¡¢ %§ ¤ B%§ ¢ 7¥ 7 © ¡ %§ 8 ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¢ ¤ %§ © ¥ %§ 7 A ©© 8¥¥8 ¢ ¡ ©S© 7¥ 8 ¢ ¥ 7 ¢ ¥ 7 ( . infixl infixr infix ¦ A §¤ ¦ A¢ 2 ¡ 8¥¥8 8 8 8 ¥¥8 © ¨ > function type type application ¨ ¡ %§ %§ ¢ ¨ ¡ %§ ' %§ ¡ ¡ ¤ ¡ %§ § ¢ © ¤ ( [ ( . ) tuple type list type parenthesized constructor %§ 8 8 ¥¥8 () [] (>) (. . . . ) unit type list constructor function constructor tupling constructors ¦ 32 %§ ¡ ¡ %§ %§ %§ ¡ ¤ ( ( ) ) ) ¦ A © S© ¢ ¥ ©¡ 7 7 § S § ¢ 4§ © © ¦ 32 © © ¢ ¥ 7 ¦ 2 § ¡ § ¢ ¦ 32 %§ ¡ %§ ¢ ' %§ ' ¡ %§ 6 ¡ 6 6 6 6 6 6 © %§ § ¢ © S¤ © ¢ 2 ¡ ¢ 2 ¡ ¢ 7 ¥ ¦ ¦ ¥ § ¦ § 7 ¦ 7 6 6 © 7¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ 137 . . ] ) .5. . %§ © S© ¤ ¢ ¡ ¤ ¡ B%§ ¦ 32 ¢ %§ ¡ ¡ 2 ¨ ¥ § ¦ § ¤ ¡ § S § 32 ¢ ¦ V © ¥ ¦ § 7 ¥ ¦ ¤ ¤ © ¥ £0 ¦ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ ¡ 7 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¤ ¤ ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¤ © ¥ © ¦ § A 7 ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ © ¥ © ¥ ¤ § ¢ £¡ 7 ¦ $ £0 9. CONTEXTFREE SYNTAX { .
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. . 4 © ¦ 3332 2 ¦ ©32 2 ¤ ¡ ©¦ 2 ¡ &¤¢ 2 2 ¦ ¡ 4 ©¡ ¢ § 32 3¦ 2 ¦ ¦ 4 © ¦ § 32 33 2 ¦ 4 S¤ © § ¤ ¦ ¢ 4 © 3¤¢ § ¤ ¦ 4 32 ¢ § ¦ 2 ¢ © ¦ ¦ ¦ 4 © ¦ 3332 § 3 2 ¦ 43¤ § ¤ © 4 © 3¢S¤ ¦ § ¤¢ ¦ ¢ ¢ ( ( ( ( ` ` ` ` ¢ £¡ ¦ § ¢ ¦ ¦ 32 ¢ ¢ ¢ £¡ ¡ 2©¦32 ¡ § ¦ 2 8 ¥8¥8 ¡ § ¢ §¢ ¡ ¢£¡§¢ § ¢ ¡ £§¢ ¡ v§ v§ ¤ v 2 ©¦32 § ¢ ¡ ¢£¡ p ¢ § §e 2 ¡ !¡ ¤¥ ¡ § ¦ v § £¡ ¢ § 2 ©¦32 s¢ ¡ v § § ¡ v © ¢ £¡ p v ¢ §e ¡ ¢ ¡ v £ 7¡ ¤ ¢ § v £¡ ¢ § v ¢£ 7¡ ¨ ¡ v§ § v ¢£¡ p v ¢ §e ¦ ¢ £¡ ¤ § 140  CHAPTER 9. ) ) variable qualiﬁed variable constructor qualiﬁed constructor variable operator qualiﬁed variable operator constructor operator qualiﬁed constructor operator operator qualiﬁed operator ) ) ) ` ` ` ` 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 ¦ 2 ¤ ¢ § ¢£§¢ ¡ ¡§ ¢£¡ ¡§ ¢£¡ ¢ £¡ § : 4 32 © ¦ 2 ¡ 2 2 ¦ ©32 ¡ ¡ ©¦ 2 2 ¡ &¤ 2 ¡ 2 ¤¢ ¡ ¦32 ¢ ¦ 2 ¤ ¤¢ ¢ ¦ 32 6 § ¢ £¡ 0 ¢ 6 § ¢ ¡ £§¢ 6 6 6 6 6 § ¢ ¤ ¤ ¡ £¡ § v ¢£¡ § ¢£ 7¡ ¢ £ 7¡ v § v § ¢ £¡ . SYNTAX REFERENCE negative literal arity as pattern arity labeled pattern £¡ ¢ ¢ £¡ ¢ ¡ £§¢ ¨§ ¦ 32 { . . ¤ ¢ £¡ ¢ § £¡ ¢ . } § 0 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡§ 0 ¤ § § 7 3¢ ¦ 2 7 ¦ 2 ¤ y _ ( ( [ ˜ wildcard parenthesized pattern tuple pattern list pattern irrefutable pattern ) . . ) ] ¢ § 8¥¥8 8 8 8 ¥¥8 = § () [] (.
Chapter 10
Speciﬁcation of Derived Instances
A derived instance is an instance declaration that is generated automatically in conjunction with a data or newtype declaration. The body of a derived instance declaration is derived syntactically from the deﬁnition of the associated type. Derived instances are possible only for classes known to the compiler: those deﬁned in either the Prelude or a standard library. In this chapter, we describe the derivation of classes deﬁned by the Prelude.
If
is an algebraic datatype declared by:
3. If is Bounded, the type must be either an enumeration (all constructors must be nullary) or have only one constructor.
5. There must be no explicit instance declaration elsewhere in the program that makes an instance of . For the purposes of derived instances, a newtype declaration is treated as a data declaration with a single constructor. If the deriving form is present, an instance declaration is automatically generated for over each class . If the derived instance declaration is impossible for any of the
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is Enum, the type must be an enumeration.
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4
(where and the parentheses may be omitted if possible for a class if these conditions hold:
) then a derived instance declaration is
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CHAPTER 10. SPECIFICATION OF DERIVED INSTANCES
then a static error results. If no derived instances are required, the deriving form may be omitted or the form deriving () may be used. Each derived instance declaration will have the form:
The context is the smallest context satisfying point (2) above. For mutually recusive data types, the compiler may need to perform a ﬁxpoint calculation to compute it. The remaining details of the derived instances for each of the derivable Prelude classes are now given. Free variables and constructors used in these translations always refer to entities deﬁned by the Prelude.
10.1 Derived instances of Eq and Ord
The class methods automatically introduced by derived instances of Eq and Ord are (==), (/=), compare, (<), (<=), (>), (>=), max, and min. The latter seven operators are deﬁned so as to compare their arguments lexicographically with respect to the constructor set given, with earlier constructors in the datatype declaration counting as smaller than later ones. For example, for the Bool datatype, we have that (True > False) == True. Derived comparisons always traverse constructors from left to right. These examples illustrate this property:
(1,undefined) == (2,undefined) (undefined,1) == (undefined,2)
False
All derived operations of class Eq and Ord are strict in both arguments. For example, False <= is , even though False is the ﬁrst constructor of the Bool type.
10.2 Derived instances of Enum
Derived instance declarations for the class Enum are only possible for enumerations (data types with only nullary constructors). The nullary constructors are assumed to be numbered lefttoright with the indices 0 through . The succ and pred operators give the successor and predecessor respectively of a value, under this numbering scheme. It is an error to apply succ to the maximum element, or pred to the minimum element.
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where is derived automatically depending on described in the remainder of this section).
and the data type declaration for
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10.3. DERIVED INSTANCES OF BOUNDED
143
The toEnum and fromEnum operators map enumerated values to and from the Int type; toEnum raises a runtime error if the Int argument is not the index of one of the constructors. The deﬁnitions of the remaining methods are
enumFrom x enumFromThen x y = enumFromTo x lastCon = enumFromThenTo x y bound where bound  fromEnum y >= fromEnum x =  otherwise = enumFromTo x y = map toEnum [fromEnum x .. fromEnum enumFromThenTo x y z = map toEnum [fromEnum x, fromEnum y
lastCon firstCon y] .. fromEnum z]
where firstCon and lastCon are respectively the ﬁrst and last constructors listed in the data declaration. For example, given the datatype: data we would have: [Orange ..] fromEnum Yellow == == [Orange, Yellow, Green] 2 Color = Red  Orange  Yellow  Green deriving (Enum)
10.3 Derived instances of Bounded
The Bounded class introduces the class methods minBound and maxBound, which deﬁne the minimal and maximal elements of the type. For an enumeration, the ﬁrst and last constructors listed in the data declaration are the bounds. For a type with a single constructor, the constructor is applied to the bounds for the constituent types. For example, the following datatype: data Pair a b = Pair a b deriving Bounded
would generate the following Bounded instance: instance (Bounded a,Bounded b) => Bounded (Pair a b) where minBound = Pair minBound minBound maxBound = Pair maxBound maxBound
10.4 Derived instances of Read and Show
The class methods automatically introduced by derived instances of Read and Show are showsPrec, readsPrec, showList, and readList. They are used to coerce values into strings and parse strings into values.
144
CHAPTER 10. SPECIFICATION OF DERIVED INSTANCES
The function showsPrec d x r accepts a precedence level d (a number from 0 to 11), a value x, and a string r. It returns a string representing x concatenated to r. showsPrec satisﬁes the law: showsPrec d x r ++ s == showsPrec d x (r ++ s) The representation will be enclosed in parentheses if the precedence of the toplevel constructor in x is less than d. Thus, if d is 0 then the result is never surrounded in parentheses; if d is 11 it is always surrounded in parentheses, unless it is an atomic expression (recall that function application has precedence 10). The extra parameter r is essential if treelike structures are to be printed in linear time rather than time quadratic in the size of the tree. The function readsPrec d s accepts a precedence level d (a number from 0 to 10) and a string s, and attempts to parse a value from the front of the string, returning a list of (parsed value, remaining string) pairs. If there is no successful parse, the returned list is empty. Parsing of an unparenthesised inﬁx operator application succeeds only if the precedence of the operator is greater than or equal to d. It should be the case that (x,"") is an element of (readsPrec d (showsPrec d x "")) That is, readsPrec should be able to parse the string produced by showsPrec, and should deliver the value that showsPrec started with. showList and readList allow lists of objects to be represented using nonstandard denotations. This is especially useful for strings (lists of Char). readsPrec will parse any valid representation of the standard types apart from strings, for which only quoted strings are accepted, and other lists, for which only the bracketed form [. . . ] is accepted. See Chapter 8 for full details. The result of show is a syntactically correct Haskell expression containing only constants, given the ﬁxity declarations in force at the point where the type is declared. It contains only the constructor names deﬁned in the data type, parentheses, and spaces. When labelled constructor ﬁelds are used, braces, commas, ﬁeld names, and equal signs are also used. Parentheses are only added where needed, ignoring associativity. No line breaks are added. The result of show is readable by read if all component types are readable. (This is true for all instances deﬁned in the Prelude but may not be true for userdeﬁned instances.) Derived instances of Read make the following assumptions, which derived instances of Show obey: If the constructor is deﬁned to be an inﬁx operator, then the derived Read instance will parse only inﬁx applications of the constructor (not the preﬁx form).
Associativity is not used to reduce the occurrence of parentheses, although precedence may be. For example, given
10.5. AN EXAMPLE
infixr 4 :$ data T = Int :$ T then: – show (1 :$ 2 :$ NT) produces the string "1 :$ (2 :$ NT)". – read "1 :$ (2 :$ NT)" succeeds, with the obvious result. – read "1 :$ 2 :$ NT" fails.
145

NT
If the constructor is deﬁned using record syntax, the derived Read will parse only the recordsyntax form, and furthermore, the ﬁelds must be given in the same order as the original declaration.
The derived Read instance allows arbitrary Haskell whitespace between tokens of the input string. Extra parentheses are also allowed.
The derived Read and Show instances may be unsuitable for some uses. Some problems include: Circular structures cannot be printed or read by these instances. The printer loses shared substructure; the printed representation of an object may be much larger than necessary. The parsing techniques used by the reader are very inefﬁcient; reading a large structure may be quite slow. There is no user control over the printing of types deﬁned in the Prelude. For example, there is no way to change the formatting of ﬂoating point numbers.
10.5 An Example
As a complete example, consider a tree datatype: data Tree a = Leaf a  Tree a :ˆ: Tree a deriving (Eq, Ord, Read, Show) Automatic derivation of instance declarations for Bounded and Enum are not possible, as Tree is not an enumeration or singleconstructor datatype. The complete instance declarations for Tree are shown in Figure 10.1, Note the implicit use of default class method deﬁnitions—for example, only <= is deﬁned for Ord, with the other class methods (<, >, >=, max, and min) being deﬁned by the defaults given in the class declaration shown in Figure 6.1 (page 83).
t) <.t)  ("Leaf".146 CHAPTER 10. (m.the most tightlybinding operator Figure 10.t) <. SPECIFICATION OF DERIVED INSTANCES infixr 5 :ˆ: data Tree a = Leaf a  Tree a :ˆ: Tree a instance (Eq a) => Eq (Tree a) where Leaf m == Leaf n = m==n u:ˆ:v == x:ˆ:y = u==x && v==y _ == _ = False instance (Ord a) => Ord (Tree a) where Leaf m <= Leaf n = m<=n Leaf m <= x:ˆ:y = True u:ˆ:v <= Leaf n = False u:ˆ:v <= x:ˆ:y = u<x  u==x && v<=y instance (Show a) => Show (Tree a) where showsPrec d (Leaf m) = showParen (d > app_prec) showStr where showStr = showString "Leaf " .readsPrec (up_prec+1) t]) r > up_prec) showStr u .Application has precedence one more than .s) <.readsPrec (up_prec+1) r. . v of :ˆ: ignored ++ readParen (d > app_prec) (\r > [(Leaf m.w) <.lex r.lex s.readsPrec (app_prec+1) s]) r up_prec = 5 app_prec = 10 .1: Example of Derived Instances .Precedence of :ˆ: . (v. (":ˆ:".w)  (u.s) <.Note: rightassociativity instance (Read a) => Read (Tree a) where readsPrec d r = readParen (d > up_prec) (\r > [(u:ˆ:v. showsPrec (app_prec+1) m showsPrec d (u :ˆ: v) = showParen (d where showStr = showsPrec (up_prec+1) showString " :ˆ: " showsPrec (up_prec+1) .
Lexically. 11. #} ¢ ¡ © S¤ ¡ {# INLINE {# NOINLINE ¢ ¡ %§ ¥ §¥ © ¤ ¢ 6 6 6 6 7¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ #} #} © . pragmas appear as comments. except that the enclosing syntax is {# #}. For example. which are used to give additional instructions or hints to the compiler.1 Inlining ¢ ¤ © © The INLINE pragma instructs the compiler to inline the speciﬁed variables at their use sites.Chapter 11 Compiler Pragmas Some compiler implementations support compiler pragmas. This chapter summarizes this existing practice. but which do not form part of the Haskell language proper and do not change a program’s semantics.2 Specialization © Specialization is used to avoid inefﬁciencies involved in dispatching overloaded functions. . in 147 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ {# SPECIALIZE . 11. Compilers will often automatically inline simple expressions. but the pragma should be ignored if an implementation is not prepared to handle it. An implementation is not required to respect any pragma. This may be prevented by the NOINLINE pragma.
. COMPILER PRAGMAS factorial :: Num a => a > a factorial 0 = 0 factorial n = n * factorial (n1) {# SPECIALIZE factorial :: Int > Int.148 CHAPTER 11. factorial :: Integer > Integer #} calls to factorial in which the compiler can detect that the parameter is either Int or Integer will use specialized versions of factorial which do not involve overloaded numeric operations.
Part II The Haskell 98 Libraries 149 .
.
RealFrac. Num (Ratio a) where . for example Ratio Int may give rise to integer overﬂow even for rational numbers of small absolute size..... Ord.. Ratio Integer (Integral a) => a > a > Ratio a (Integral a) => Ratio a > a (RealFrac a) => a > a > Rational Eq (Ratio a) where . Ratio is an instance of classes Eq. the instance for Ratio simply “lifts” the corresponding operations over . For example. a) => Read (Ratio a) where .. numerator. Enum (Ratio a) where . The operator (%) forms the ratio of two integral numbers.. Ratio is an abstract type. Num. denominator.. Real (Ratio a) where .. In each case.Chapter 12 Rational Numbers module Ratio ( Ratio. reducing the fraction to terms with no common factor and such that the denominator is positive.. Enum. Fractional (Ratio a) where . Ord (Ratio a) where . denominator :: approxRational :: instance (Integral a) => instance (Integral a) => instance (Integral a) => instance (Integral a) => instance (Integral a) => instance (Integral a) => instance (Integral a) => instance (Read a. Fractional. For each Integral type .. Real. there is a type Ratio of rational pairs with components of type . (%). approxRational ) where infixl 7 % data (Integral a) => type Rational = (%) :: numerator. RealFrac (Ratio a) where .. Read. 151 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ . Show (Ratio a) where . If is a bounded type..... these are in reduced form with a positive denominator.. 12 % 8 is reduced to 3/2 and 12 % (8) is reduced to (3)/2. The type name Rational is a synonym for Ratio Integer.. and Show.. The functions numerator and denominator extract the components of a ratio.Integral instance (Integral a) => Ratio a = . the results may be unpredictable.. Rational.
returns the simplest rational number within the open interval x epsilon x epsilon . Note that it can be proved that any real interval contains a unique simplest rational. A rational number in reduced form is said to be simpler than another if and . RATIONAL NUMBERS The approxRational function.152 CHAPTER 12. applied to two real fractional numbers x and epsilon. 1 ¦ ¦ 1 ¦ ¦ 1 1 ¦ ¦ ¦ ¡¦ .
12.. denominator. approxRational ) where infixl 7 % ratPrec = 7 :: Int data type (Integral a) Rational => Ratio a = !a :% !a = Ratio Integer deriving (Eq) (%) numerator. It normalises a ratio by dividing both numerator and denominator by their greatest common divisor. denominator approxRational  :: (Integral a) => a > a > Ratio a :: (Integral a) => Ratio a > a :: (RealFrac a) => a > a > Rational "reduce" is a subsidiary function used only in this module.g. LIBRARY RATIO 153 12. Rational.% : zero denominator" (x ‘quot‘ d) :% (y ‘quot‘ d) where d = gcd x y reduce (x * signum y) (abs y) x y => Ord (Ratio a) where = x * y’ <= x’ * y = x * y’ < x’ * y => = = = = = = Num (Ratio a) where reduce (x*y’ + x’*y) (y*y’) reduce (x * x’) (y * y’) (x) :% y abs x :% y signum x :% 1 fromInteger x :% 1 => Real (Ratio a) where = toInteger x :% toInteger y => = = = Fractional (Ratio a) where (x*y’) % (y*x’) y % x fromInteger x :% fromInteger y .Standard functions on rational numbers module Ratio ( Ratio. E. numerator. 12 ‘reduce‘ 8 == 12 ‘reduce‘ (8) == = = = = = 3 :% 2 3 :% (2) reduce _ 0 reduce x y x % y numerator (x :% _) denominator (_ :% y) instance (Integral a) (x:%y) <= (x’:%y’) (x:%y) < (x’:%y’) instance (Integral a) (x:%y) + (x’:%y’) (x:%y) * (x’:%y’) negate (x:%y) abs (x:%y) signum (x:%y) fromInteger x instance (Integral a) toRational (x:%y) instance (Integral a) (x:%y) / (x’:%y’) recip (x:%y) fromRational (x:%y) error "Ratio.1. (%).1 Library Ratio .
simplest’ (n’) d’ (n) d  otherwise = 0 :% 1 where xr@(n:%d) = toRational x (n’:%d’) = toRational y simplest’ n    d n’ d’ r == 0 q /= q’ otherwise .154 CHAPTER 12.t) <.r) = quotRem n d (q’.s) <.hs but not exported from it! instance (Read a. showsPrec (ratPrec+1) y) approxRational x eps = simplest (xeps) (x+eps) where simplest x y  y < x = simplest y x  x == y = xr  x > 0 = simplest’ n d n’ d’  y < 0 = . Integral a) => Read (Ratio a) where readsPrec p = readParen (p > ratPrec) (\r > [(x%y.readsPrec (ratPrec+1) t ]) instance (Integral a) showsPrec p (x:%y) => Show (Ratio a) where = showParen (p > ratPrec) (showsPrec (ratPrec+1) x .u) <.u)  (x. showString " % " . truncate numericEnumFrom numericEnumFromThen numericEnumFromTo numericEnumFromThenTo May overflow These numericEnumXXX functions are as defined in Prelude.lex s.readsPrec (ratPrec+1) r. ("%". r:%y) where (q.r) = quotRem x y instance (Integral a) succ x = pred x = toEnum = fromEnum = enumFrom = enumFromThen = enumFromTo = enumFromThenTo = => Enum (Ratio a) where x+1 x1 fromIntegral fromInteger .r’) = quotRem n’ d’ (n’’:%d’’) = simplest’ d’ r’ d r . RATIONAL NUMBERS instance (Integral a) => RealFrac (Ratio a) where properFraction (x:%y) = (fromIntegral q. (y.assumes 0 < n%d < n’%d’ = q :% 1 = (q+1) :% 1 = (q*n’’+d’’) :% n’’ where (q.
155 § ¨ § ¡¤ § . magnitude. (RealFloat a) realPart.... phase instance instance instance instance instance instance (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (Complex (Complex (Complex (Complex (Complex (Complex Complex numbers are an algebraic type. then so is the phase. . realPart. conjugate.. . in the range . imagPart conjugate mkPolar cis polar magnitude. The function cis produces a complex number from an angle ..Chapter 13 Complex Numbers module Complex ( Complex((:+)).. imagPart... The constructor (:+) forms a complex number from its real and imaginary rectangular components. cis. mkPolar.a) Complex a > a a) a) a) a) a) a) where where where where where where . cis is a complex value with magnitude and phase (modulo ). phase ) where infix data 6 :+ => Complex a = !a :+ !a :: :: :: :: :: :: a) a) a) a) a) a) => => => => => => (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat Eq Read Show Num Fractional Floating a) a) a) a) a) a) => => => => => => Complex a > a Complex a > Complex a a > a > Complex a a > Complex a Complex a > (a. phase) pair in canonical form: The magnitude is nonnegative. A complex number may also be formed from polar components of magnitude and phase by the function mkPolar.. . This constructor is strict: if either the real part or the imaginary part of the number is . . if the magnitude is zero. and the phase.. Put another way. polar... the entire number is . . The function polar takes a complex number and returns a (magnitude.
13.Show) (RealFloat a) realPart.Read. cis. imagPart :: (RealFloat a) => Complex a > a realPart (x:+y) = x imagPart (x:+y) = y conjugate :: (RealFloat a) => Complex a > Complex a conjugate (x:+y) = x :+ (y) mkPolar mkPolar r theta cis cis theta polar polar z :: (RealFloat a) => a > a > Complex a = r * cos theta :+ r * sin theta :: (RealFloat a) => a > Complex a = cos theta :+ sin theta :: (RealFloat a) => Complex a > (a.a) = (magnitude z.156 CHAPTER 13. mkPolar. realPart. The magnitude and sign of a complex number are deﬁned as follows: abs z signum 0 signum z@(x:+y) = = = magnitude z :+ 0 0 x/r :+ y/r where r = magnitude z That is. phase) where infix data 6 :+ => Complex a = !a :+ !a deriving (Eq. phase z) magnitude :: (RealFloat a) => Complex a > a magnitude (x:+y) = scaleFloat k (sqrt ((scaleFloat mk x)ˆ2 + (scaleFloat mk y)ˆ2)) where k = max (exponent x) (exponent y) mk = . The function conjugate computes the conjugate of a complex number in the usual way.k phase :: (RealFloat a) => Complex a > a phase (0 :+ 0) = 0 phase (x :+ y) = atan2 y x . imagPart. COMPLEX NUMBERS The functions realPart and imagPart extract the rectangular components of a complex number and the functions magnitude and phase extract the polar components of a complex number.1 Library Complex module Complex(Complex((:+)). abs is a number with the magnitude of . magnitude. conjugate. whereas signum has the phase of . but unit magnitude. polar. but oriented in the positive real direction.
1.max (exponent x’) (exponent y’) d = x’*x’’ + y’*y’’ fromRational a = fromRational a :+ 0 .13. LIBRARY COMPLEX instance (RealFloat a) (x:+y) + (x’:+y’) (x:+y) .(x’:+y’) (x:+y) * (x’:+y’) negate (x:+y) abs z signum 0 signum z@(x:+y) fromInteger n => = = = = = = = = Num (Complex a) where (x+x’) :+ (y+y’) (xx’) :+ (yy’) (x*x’y*y’) :+ (x*y’+y*x’) negate x :+ negate y magnitude z :+ 0 0 x/r :+ y/r where r = magnitude z fromInteger n :+ 0 157 instance (RealFloat a) => Fractional (Complex a) where (x:+y) / (x’:+y’) = (x*x’’+y*y’’) / d :+ (y*x’’x*y’’) / d where x’’ = scaleFloat k x’ y’’ = scaleFloat k y’ k = .
z*z)) y’’:+(x’’) where (x’’:+y’’) = log (z + ((y’):+x’)) (x’:+y’) = sqrt (1 .u’) else (u’. COMPLEX NUMBERS instance (RealFloat a) => Floating (Complex a) where pi = pi :+ 0 exp (x:+y) = expx * cos y :+ expx * sin y where expx = exp x log z = log (magnitude z) :+ phase z sqrt 0 sqrt z@(x:+y) = = 0 u :+ (if y < 0 then v else v) where (u.v’) v’ = abs y / (u’*2) u’ = sqrt ((magnitude z + abs x) / 2) sin x * cosh y :+ cos x * sinh y cos x * cosh y :+ (.z*z) y’:+(x’) where (x’:+y’) = log (((1y):+x) / sqrt (1+z*z)) log (z + sqrt (1+z*z)) log (z + (z+1) * sqrt ((z1)/(z+1))) log ((1+z) / sqrt (1z*z)) sin (x:+y) cos (x:+y) tan (x:+y) = = = sinh (x:+y) cosh (x:+y) tanh (x:+y) = = = asin z@(x:+y) acos z@(x:+y) = = atan z@(x:+y) asinh z acosh z atanh z = = = = .158 CHAPTER 13.v) = if x < 0 then (v’.sin x * sinh y) (sinx*coshy:+cosx*sinhy)/(cosx*coshy:+(sinx*sinhy)) where sinx = sin x cosx = cos x sinhy = sinh y coshy = cosh y cos y * sinh x :+ sin y * cosh x cos y * cosh x :+ sin y * sinh x (cosy*sinhx:+siny*coshx)/(cosy*coshx:+siny*sinhx) where siny = sin y cosy = cos y sinhx = sinh x coshx = cosh x y’:+(x’) where (x’:+y’) = log (((y):+x) + sqrt (1 .
readOct. showOct. readSigned. floatToDigits. readDec.Chapter 14 Numeric module Numeric(fromRat. readInt. showIntAtBase. showFFloat. lexDigits) where fromRat showSigned showIntAtBase showInt showOct showHex readSigned readInt readDec readOct readHex showEFloat showFFloat showGFloat showFloat floatToDigits readFloat lexDigits :: (RealFloat a) => Rational > a :: :: :: :: :: (Real a) Integral Integral Integral Integral => (a > ShowS) > Int > a > ShowS a => a > (Int > Char) > a > ShowS a => a > ShowS a => a > ShowS a => a > ShowS :: (Real a) => ReadS a > ReadS a :: (Integral a) => a > (Char > Bool) > (Char > Int) > ReadS a :: (Integral a) => ReadS a :: (Integral a) => ReadS a :: (Integral a) => ReadS a :: :: :: :: (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat a) a) a) a) => => => => Maybe Int > a > ShowS Maybe Int > a > ShowS Maybe Int > a > ShowS a > ShowS :: (RealFloat a) => Integer > a > ([Int]. showFloat. showHex. showInt. showEFloat. Int) :: (RealFrac a) => ReadS a :: ReadS String 159 . showGFloat. readFloat. showSigned. readHex.
2.g. In the call showSigned . then at most digits after the decimal point are shown. if is Nothing. 1.999. showIntAtBase :: Integral a => a > (Int > Char) > a > ShowS shows a nonnegative Integral number using the base speciﬁed by the ﬁrst argument. and is a function that can show unsigned values. is the value to show. 0.g. showInt.999. – showEFloat uses scientiﬁc (exponential) notation (e. Exactly the same applies to the argument of the other two functions. plus an exponent. many of which are used in the standard Prelude.1 Showing functions showSigned :: (Real a) => (a > ShowS) > Int > a > ShowS converts a possiblynegative Real value of type a to a string. NUMERIC This library contains assorted numeric functions. if © § then the following properties hold: £ £ ¤ – ¤ £ ¡ ¤ – (when ¥ ¤ ¢ ¨£ – £ 888 ¤ £ ¢ £8 ¤ – ¥ ) £888 ¤ £ ¢ £ floatToDigits ([ ].160 CHAPTER 14.45e2.5e3). More speciﬁcally. showHex :: Integral a => a > ShowS show nonnegative Integral numbers in base 10. floatToDigits :: (RealFloat a) => Integer > a > ([Int]. and scientiﬁc notation otherwise.String)] 14. showFFloat. – showGFloat uses standard decimal notation for arguments whose absolute value lies between 0. showOct. is the precedence of the enclosing context. if is Just .1 and 9.0015). showEFloat. the value is shown to full preciIn the call showEFloat sion. In what follows. 8. £ ¤ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¦ 7 3¢ ¦ 7 3¢ 7 3¢ © § ¦ ¤ ¥ £ 2 ¤ ¥ © ¡ © § ¦ ¡ £ ¦ 2 ¥ © © § ¦ ¡ ) . and 16 respectively. recall the following type deﬁnitions from the Prelude: type ShowS = String > String type ReadS = String > [(a. and the character representation speciﬁed by the second. . 245000. showGFloat :: (RealFloat a) => Maybe Int > a > ShowS These three functions all show signed RealFloat values: – showFFloat uses standard decimal notation (e. Int) converts a base and a value to the representation of the value in digits.
readFloat. showFloat. denominator ) (!). showHex. expressed in decimal scientiﬁc notation. showEFloat. ( ( isDigit. and readDec is the “dual” of showInt. showIntAtBase.2. § (NB: readInt is the “dual” of showIntAtBase. readInt :: (Integral a) => a > (Char>Bool) > (Char>Int) > ReadS a reads an unsigned Integral value in an arbitrary base. readDec. array ) ¦ ©§ ¢© ¢ ' § ¤ ¦ § ¦ ©§ § ¤ ¦ ¢© ¢ ' . lexDigits) where import Char import Ratio import Array ( . readInt. and converts a valid digit character to an Int. 14. numerator. readFloat :: (RealFrac a) => ReadS a reads an unsigned RealFrac value.) 14. readOct. readHex :: (Integral a) => ReadS a each read an unsigned number.4 Library Numeric module Numeric(fromRat. READING FUNCTIONS 161 14. Array. in decimal.14. readDec. octal. and hexadecimal notation respectively. given a reader for an unsigned value. In the hexadecimal case.2 Reading functions readSigned :: (Real a) => ReadS a > ReadS a reads a signed Real value. showFFloat. showInt. showOct. showSigned. showGFloat. floatToDigits. isHexDigit digitToInt. isOctDigit. The inconsistent naming is a historical accident. is the base. lexDigits :: ReadS String reads a nonempty string of decimal digits. readOct. In the call readInt . readHex. both upper or lower case letters are allowed. intToDigit ) (%). readSigned.3 Miscellaneous fromRat :: (RealFloat a) => Rational > a converts a Rational value into any type in class RealFloat. is a predicate distinguishing valid digits in this base.
or p (the exponent) <= minExp.first.Handle exceptional cases .To speed up the scaling process we compute the log2 of the number to get .Exponentiation with a cache for the most common numbers. .Fractional instances of Float and Double.Scale the rational number by the RealFloat base until .the real minimum exponent xMin = toRational (expt b (p1)) xMax = toRational (expt b p) p0 = (integerLogBase b (numerator x) integerLogBase b (denominator x) .fromRat’ (x) else fromRat’ x . This should be used in the .it lies in the range of the mantissa (as used by decodeFloat/encodeFloat). p) else if x >= xMax then scaleRat b minExp xMin xMax (p+1) (x/b) else if x < xMin then scaleRat b minExp xMin xMax (p1) (x*b) else (x. p) . _) = floatRange r minExp = minExp0 .that we got from the scaling.p . . p’) = scaleRat (toRational b) minExp xMin xMax p0 (x / f) r = encodeFloat (round x’) p’ .162 CHAPTER 14. .p) ‘max‘ minExp f = if p0 < 0 then 1 % expt b (p0) else expt b p0 % 1 (x’. minExpt = 0::Int maxExpt = 1100::Int expt :: Integer > Int > Integer expt base n = if base == 2 && n >= minExpt && n <= maxExpt then expts!n else baseˆn .Scale x until xMin <= x < xMax.Conversion process: .Then round the rational to an Integer and encode it with the exponent .This converts a rational to a floating. scaleRat :: Rational > Int > Rational > Rational > Int > Rational > (Rational. Int) scaleRat b minExp xMin xMax p x = if p <= minExp then (x. fromRat’ :: (RealFloat a) => Rational > a fromRat’ x = r where b = floatRadix r p = floatDigits r (minExp0. NUMERIC . fromRat :: (RealFloat a) => Rational > a fromRat x = if x == 0 then encodeFloat 0 0 else if x < 0 then .a first guess of the exponent.
maxExpt]] 163 .s) (x.showIntAtBase: can’t show negative numbers"  n’ == 0 = rest’  otherwise = showIntAtBase base intToDig n’ rest’ where (n’."") <<<< lex r.showInt.2ˆn)  n <. LIBRARY NUMERIC expts :: Array Int Integer expts = array (minExpt.d) = quotRem n base rest’ = intToDig (fromIntegral d) : rest readSigned :: (Real a) => ReadS a > ReadS a readSigned readPos = readParen False read’ where read’ r = read’’ r ++ [(x. showOct. .. showPos (x))  otherwise = showPos x .14.but that would be very slow! We are just slightly more clever.Compute the (floor of the) log of i in base b. showHex are used for positive numbers only showInt. .4.t) read’’ r = [(n.Simplest way would be just divide i by b until it’s smaller then b. read’’ s] lex r.digit to char > a .base > (Int > Char) . let l = 2 * integerLogBase (b*b) i doDiv :: Integer > Int > Int doDiv i l = if i < b then l else doDiv (i ‘div‘ b) (l+1) in doDiv (i ‘div‘ (bˆl)) l .maxExpt) [(n. integerLogBase :: Integer > Integer > Int integerLogBase b i = if i < b then 0 else .Try squaring the base first to cut down the number of divisions.Misc utilities to show integers and floats showSigned :: Real a => (a > ShowS) > Int > a > ShowS showSigned showPos p x  x < 0 = showParen (p > 6) (showChar ’’ . showHex :: Integral a => a > ShowS showOct = showIntAtBase 8 intToDigit showInt = showIntAtBase 10 intToDigit showHex = showIntAtBase 16 intToDigit showIntAtBase :: Integral a => a .t)  ("".[minExpt .s)  (str.s) (n.number to show > ShowS showIntAtBase base intToDig n rest  n < 0 = error "Numeric. showOct. readPos str] .
readInt :: (Integral a) => a > (Char > Bool) > (Char > Int) > ReadS a readInt radix isDig digToInt s = [(foldl1 (\n d > n * radix + d) (map (fromIntegral . r)  (ds. data FFFormat = FFExponent  FFFixed  FFGeneric .Leading minus signs must be handled elsewhere.r) <.These are the format types. . . readOct. digToInt) ds).164 CHAPTER 14.readInt reads a string of digits using an arbitrary base. NUMERIC .nonnull isDig s ] .Unsigned readers for various bases readDec. readHex :: (Integral a) => ReadS a readDec = readInt 10 isDigit digitToInt readOct = readInt 8 isOctDigit digitToInt readHex = readInt 16 isHexDigit digitToInt showEFloat showFFloat showGFloat showFloat :: :: :: :: (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat showString showString showString showGFloat a) a) a) a) => => => => Maybe Int > a > ShowS Maybe Int > a > ShowS Maybe Int > a > ShowS a > ShowS showEFloat d x = showFFloat d x = showGFloat d x = showFloat = (formatRealFloat FFExponent d x) (formatRealFloat FFFixed d x) (formatRealFloat FFGeneric d x) Nothing This type is not exported.
’:take dec’ (repeat ’0’) ++ "e0" _ > let (ei. e) = let ds = map intToDigit is in case fmt of FFGeneric > doFmt (if e < 0  e > 7 then FFExponent else FFFixed) (is. LIBRARY NUMERIC 165 formatRealFloat :: (RealFloat a) => FFFormat > Maybe Int > a > String formatRealFloat fmt decs x = s where base = 10 s = if isNaN x then "NaN" else if isInfinite x then if x < 0 then "Infinity" else "Infinity" else if x < 0  isNegativeZero x then ’’ : doFmt fmt (floatToDigits (toInteger base) (x)) else doFmt fmt (floatToDigits (toInteger base) x) doFmt fmt (is.4.’ : ds ++ ’e’:show (e1) Just dec > let dec’ = max dec 1 in case is of [] > ’0’:’. is’) = roundTo base (dec’+1) is d:ds = map intToDigit (if ei > 0 then init is’ else is’) in d:’.’:ds ++ "e" ++ show (e1+ei) FFFixed > case decs of Nothing .0e0" [d] > d : ".14. e) FFExponent > case decs of Nothing > case ds of [] > "0.Always prints a decimal point  e > 0 > take e (ds ++ repeat ’0’) .0e" ++ show (e1) d:ds > d : ’.
then r = 0. replicate n 0) f 0 (i:_) = (if i >= b2 then 1 else 0.’ : s . not 34. is) (1.Print 34. Dybvig. rs) = splitAt (e+ei) (map intToDigit is’) in mk0 ls ++ mkdot0 rs else let (ei.when the format specifies no .base1]) . 1 : is) where b2 = base ‘div‘ 2 f n [] = (0.and an exponent.z * baseˆe floatToDigits :: (RealFloat a) => Integer > a > ([Int].Print decimal point iff dec > 0 let dec’ = max dec 0 in if e >= 0 then let (ei. is) > (1. The version here uses a much slower logarithm estimator. []) f d (i:is) = let (c. Int) . [Int]) roundTo base d is = case f d is of (0.. 0:ds) else (0.. z]. . .ab. e) . in PLDI 96. K.166 CHAPTER 14. In general.G.. It should be improved. NUMERIC ++ ’. is) > (0.. b. ds) = f (d1) is i’ = c + i in if i’ == base then (1. i’:ds) Based on "Printing FloatingPoint Numbers Quickly and Accurately" by R. is’) = roundTo base dec’ (replicate (e) 0 ++ is) d : ds = map intToDigit (if ei > 0 then is’ else 0:is’) in d : mkdot0 ds where mk0 "" = "0" .’ : mk0 (drop e ds)  otherwise > "0.This function returns a nonempty list of digits (Ints in [0.digits after the decimal point roundTo :: Int > Int > [Int] > (Int. if floatToDigits r = ([a. is’) = roundTo base (dec’ + e) is (ls." ++ mk0 (replicate (e) ’0’ ++ ds) Just dec > .34 mk0 s = s mkdot0 "" = "" mkdot0 s = ’. not . .34.Print 0. Burger and R.
logBase 10 2 is slightly bigger than 3/10 so . be*b.e0 in if n > 0 then (f0 ‘div‘ (bˆn). s.the real minimum exponent . be) else if e > minExp && f == bˆ(p1) then (f*b*2. e) = let n = minExp . bˆ(e)*2. LIBRARY NUMERIC floatToDigits _ 0 = ([]. _) = floatRange x p = floatDigits x b = floatRadix x minExp = minExp0 . mUp. e0) = decodeFloat x (minExp0. be. 2. 1) else (f*2. e0) (r. 2*b.4.1 + e0) * 3 ‘div‘ 10 else ceiling ((log (fromInteger (f+1)) + fromIntegral e * log (fromInteger b)) / log (fromInteger base)) fixup n = if n >= 0 then if r + mUp <= expt base n * s then n else fixup (n+1) else if expt base (n) * (r + mUp) <= s then n .p 167 . Ignoring . f :: Integer e :: Int (f. b) else (f*be*2. 1) k = let k0 = if b==2 && base==10 then .the fraction will make it err even more. bˆ(e+1)*2. .the following will err on the low side. e0+n) else (f0.Haskell requires that f be adjusted so denormalized numbers . Adjust for this. 1.14.will have an impossibly low exponent.Haskell promises that p1 <= logBase b f < p. (p . 0) floatToDigits base x = let (f0. mDn) = if e >= 0 then let be = bˆe in if f == bˆ(p1) then (f*be*b*2. b.
True) > if rn’ * 2 < sN then dn : ds else dn+1 : ds (False. k) in .lexDigits r.lexFrac d ] lexFrac (’.t)  (n.lex r] where readFix r = [(read (ds++ds’). rn’) = (rn * base) ‘divMod‘ sN mUpN’ = mUpN * base mDnN’ = mDnN * base in case (rn’ < mDnN’. False) > dn : ds (False.t) <.readFix r.d.readDec s] readExp’ (’+’:s) = readDec s readExp’ s = readDec s lexDigits lexDigits nonnull nonnull p s :: ReadS String = nonnull isDigit :: (Char > Bool) > ReadS String = [(cs. False) > gen (dn:ds) rn’ sN mUpN’ mDnN’ rds = if k >= 0 then gen [] r (s * expt base k) mUp mDn else let bk = expt base (k) in gen [] (r * bk) s (mUp * bk) (mDn * bk) (map fromIntegral (reverse rds). readFloat readFloat r :: (RealFrac a) => ReadS a = [(fromRational ((n%1)*10ˆˆ(kd)).t)  (k. (k.t) <.point than the Haskell lexer. NUMERIC else fixup (n+1) in fixup k0 gen ds rn sN mUpN mDnN = let (dn. The ‘.168 CHAPTER 14.t) <.[span p s]] . (ds’. True) > dn+1 : ds (True.t)  (cs@(_:_).s)] readExp (e:s)  e ‘elem‘ "eE" = readExp’ s readExp s = [(0. length ds’.lex r] ++ [ (1/0.t) <. t)  ("NaN".’ is optional.s) <.t) <.readExp s] ++ [ (0/0.d) <. t)  ("Infinity".This floating point reader uses a less restrictive syntax for floating .t) <. rn’ + mUpN’ > sN) of (True.s)] readExp’ (’’:s) = [(k. t)  (ds.’:ds) = lexDigits ds lexFrac s = [("".
rangeSize (l..u)] 169 ..et cetera instance instance Ix Ix Ix => Ix Ix Bool Ix Ordering where . the inRange operation tells whether a particular subscript lies in the range deﬁned by a bounding pair.u) i == i .when i is in range inRange (l.Chapter 15 Indexing Operations module Ix ( Ix(range. and inRange.b) where where where where ... .a) > (a. ..a) > (a.u) map index (range (l. The Ix class is used to map a contiguous subrange of values in a type onto integers. The range operation enumerates all subscripts.u) i == i ‘elem‘ range (l.. index. An implementation is entitled to assume the following laws about these operations: range (l...u)) == [0. to an integer. Ix b) . It is used primarily for array indexing (see Chapter 16). The index operation maps a bounding pair. and a subscript. . instance instance instance instance (Ix a.u) !! index (l.. which deﬁnes the lower and upper bounds of the range.a) > [a] a > Int a > Bool Int Char Int Integer (a.. where ...a) > (a. rangeSize) ) where class Ord a => range index inRange rangeSize Ix :: :: :: :: a where (a. index.. The Ix class contains the methods range. inRange.
Blue] 1 False .Blue) Red For singleconstructor datatypes. given the datatype: data Colour = Red  Orange  Yellow  Green  Blue  Indigo  Violet we would have: range (Yellow. using a deriving clause on a data declaration (Section 4.3.3). whose constituent types are instances of Ix.1. For an enumeration.e. the nullary constructors are assumed to be numbered lefttoright with the indices being to inclusive. For example. This is the same numbering deﬁned by the Enum class.170 CHAPTER 15.Blue) index (Yellow.1 Deriving Instances of Ix It is possible to derive an instance of Ix automatically. INDEXING OPERATIONS 15.Blue) Green inRange (Yellow.Green. the derived instance declarations are as shown for tuples in Figure 15. Such derived instance declarations for the class Ix are only possible for enumerations (i. £ ¥ ¤ == == == [Yellow. datatypes having only nullary constructors) and singleconstructor datatypes. A Haskell implementation must provide Ix instances for tuples up to at least size 15.
ak) where range ((l1.u).u1) i1 && inRange (l2.range (l..u2) i2 && . i’ <.uk)) (i1..Instances for other tuples are obtained from this scheme: ..uk)] index ((l1....range (l2.instance (Ix a1.l2...lk)...u’) i’ . Ix ak) => Ix (a1. ik <.... .i’) = inRange (l..i’)  i <.u’) + index (l’.a2...l2.uk) * ( index (lk1..15.uk1) * ( .uk)) = [(i1.range (l’....lk)..u’)) = [(i. ... && inRange (lk.uk) ik Figure 15.i’) = index (l.i2. .u2)...i2. i2 <..(u.uk1) ik1 + rangeSize (lk1.uk) ik + rangeSize (lk..u2.uk)) (i1..l’). Ix a2. Ix b) => Ix (a.u) i && inRange (l’.l’).(u1.1: Derivation of Ix instances .u1)..1.lk).u’)) (i.u1))) inRange ((l1. DERIVING INSTANCES OF IX 171 instance (Ix a....l2.u’)) (i.ik) = inRange (l1..ik)  i1 <..(u...range (l1.ik) = index (lk.u’)] index ((l.... index (l1..l’)..(u1.(u.range (lk.u2...(u1..i2.b) where range ((l..u2...u’) i’ inRange ((l.u) i * rangeSize (l’.
n) index b@(m.NB: replacing "null (range b)" by "not (l <= h)" .n) = [m. inRange.c’) i = c <= i && i <= c’ instance Ix Int where range (m. For example.1)) = [] instance Ix Char where range (m.n) = [m.c’) ci  inRange b ci = fromEnum ci ." inRange (c.index: Index out of range.n] index b@(c.a) > a > Int inRange :: (a.2 Library Ix module Ix ( Ix(range. b) ..as derived. index.2).m)  otherwise = error "Ix.172 CHAPTER 15.as derived Ix Ordering .as derived Ix () .fromEnum c  otherwise = error "Ix..a) > a > Bool rangeSize :: (a.a) > [a] index :: (a.2) <= (2. (1.(2.n] index b@(m.1) .n) i  inRange b i = fromInteger (i .but the range is nevertheless empty range ((1.n) i  inRange b i  otherwise inRange (m.a) > Int rangeSize b@(l. INDEXING OPERATIONS 15.as derived ." m <= i && i <= n instance Ix Integer where range (m.h)  null (range b) = 0  otherwise = index b h + 1 .m error "Ix. for all tuples Ix Bool .index: Index out of range. rangeSize) ) where class Ord a => Ix a where range :: (a.fails if the bounds are tuples.n] = = = i ..n) i = m <= i && i <= n instance instance instance instance (Ix a.n) i = [m.Ix b) => Ix (a.index: Index out of range." inRange (m.
Ix b) => (a..b)] > Array a b :: (Ix a) => (b > c > b) > Array a b > [(a. accumArray. .c)] > Array a b :: (Ix a) => Array a b > [(a. .b)] > Array a b (a. a. (//).. .. array..Abstract (Ix a) array listArray (!) bounds indices elems assocs accumArray (//) accum ixmap instance instance instance instance instance (a. elems. a.. assocs. Read b) => => => => Functor (Array a) Eq (Array a b) Ord (Array a b) Show (Array a b) Read (Array a b) where where where where where ...b)] (b > c > b) > b > (a. ixmap ) where import Ix infixl 9 data !..a) > [(a.export all of Ix for convenience Array. listArray. .a) > [(a. a. (!). indices. .a) > [b] > Array a b Array a b > a > b Array a b > (a. accum. Show b) Read a. :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: (Ix (Ix (Ix (Ix (Ix (Ix (Ix (Ix a) a) a) a) a) a) a) a) => => => => => => => => .a) Array a b > [a] Array a b > [b] Array a b > [(a. 173 . (Ix (Ix (Ix (Ix a.Chapter 16 Arrays module Array ( module Ix.... // => Array a b = .a) > (a > b) > Array b c > Array a c Eq b) Ord b) Show a. bounds.c)] > Array a b :: (Ix a..
An array may be constructed from a pair of bounds and a list of values in index order using the function listArray.e.1 Array Construction If a is an index type and b is any type. using an accumulating function which combines the values of associations with the same index. in particular. not as general functions. ARRAYS Haskell provides indexable arrays.(10. Typically. An array may be created by the function array. ). accumArray. Since most array functions involve the class Ix. 16. To ensure the possibility of such an implementation. Figure 16. Thus. 16. The (!) operator denotes array subscripting. when applied to an array. . in any dimension. If any two associations in the list have the same index. which may be thought of as functions whose domains are isomorphic to contiguous subsets of the integers. The functions indices. a programmer may reasonably expect rapid access to the components. the lower bound is greater than the upper bound. If. array is strict in the bounds argument and in the indices of the association list. The ﬁrst argument of array is a pair of bounds. in that order. For example.[2.. ) if any index in the list is out of bounds. this module is exported from Array so that modules need not import both Array and Ix. An association (i. ).174 CHAPTER 16. then the array is legal. and assocs.e. Indexing an empty array always gives an arraybounds error. Functions restricted in this way can be implemented efﬁciently. each of the index type of the array. relaxes the restriction that a given index may appear at most once in the association list. this The second argument of array is a list of associations of the form ( list will be expressed as a comprehension. The array is undeﬁned (i. recurrences such as the following are possible: a = array (1. Because the indices must be checked for these errors. but nonstrict in the values. arrays are treated as data. The ﬁrst argument of accumArray is the accumulating £ £ ¤¢ £ ¡ £ £ ¥ . respectively. the type of arrays with indices in a and elements in b is written Array a b. elements. but the values associated with indices that do not appear will be undeﬁned (i. elems. i * a!(i1))  i <. or associations.1). in index order.10)). the value at that index is undeﬁned (i. a oneorigin vector of length 10 has bounds (1.1 shows some examples that use the array constructor. but bounds still yields the bounds with which the array was constructed.e.10).1 Accumulated Arrays Another array creation function.100]]) Not every index within the bounds of the array need appear in the association list.1) : [(i. return lists of the indices. x) deﬁnes the value of the array at index i to be x. ).1. These bounds are the lowest and highest indices in the array. and a oneorigin 10 by 10 matrix has bounds ((1.100) ((1. The bounds function applied to an array returns its bounds. but empty.
as well as the indices.range b] where b = bounds a ..2 Incremental Array Updates The operator (//) takes an array and a list of pairs and returns an array identical to the left argument except that it has been updated by the associations in the right argument. then m//[((i.) For example. (As with the array function.a) > [a] > Array a b hist bnds is = accumArray (+) 0 bnds [(i. the remaining two arguments are a bounds pair and an association list. Num b) => (a. Ix scale x a = array b where b of numbers by a given number: b) => a > Array b a > Array b a [(i. Num b) => Array a b > Array a b > b inner v w = if b == bounds w then sum [v!i * w!i  i <. 1)  i<is. as for the array function. then accumArray is strict in the values. unlike ordinary arrays.The inner product of two vectors inner :: (Ix a.n]] is the same matrix.range b] = bounds a 175 . For example.1: Array examples function. n by n matrix. i)  i <. inRange bnds i] If the accumulating function is strict. given a list of values of some index type. except with the diagonal zeroed.i).[1. 0)  i <. 16. hist produces a histogram of the number of occurrences of each index within a speciﬁed range: hist :: (Ix a.Scaling an array scale :: (Num a.16. accum takes an array and an association list and accumulates pairs from the list into the array with the accumulating function .2. Thus accumArray can be deﬁned using accum: accumArray f z b = accum f (array b [(i. the second is an initial value. a!i * x)  i <. in the association list.range b]) 0 0 . if m is a 1origin.Inverting an array that holds a permutation of its indices invPerm :: (Ix a) => Array a a > Array a a invPerm a = array b [(a!i.range b] else error "inconformable arrays for inner product" where b = bounds v Figure 16. accumulated arrays should not in general be recursive. z)  i <. INCREMENTAL ARRAY UPDATES . the indices in the association list must be unique for the updated elements to be deﬁned. Thus.
Figure 16. Ix b) => a > Array (a. indices.l’). (!).(u. ARRAYS .j)) x where ((_.2: Derived array examples 16. (//).y)>x) Figure 16. array.2 shows some examples.export all of Ix Array. with the mapping that the original array embodies.u’)) = bounds x . .3 Derived Arrays The two functions fmap and ixmap derive new arrays from existing ones.A rectangular subarray subArray :: (Ix a) => (a.176 CHAPTER 16. respectively.u) (\i>(i. accumArray. assocs. bounds.4 Library Array module Array ( module Ix.u’) (\j>(i.a) (a > b) deriving () .a) b > Array a b diag x = ixmap (l._)) = bounds x .A row of a matrix row :: (Ix a.(_._).i)) x where ((l. 16.a) > Array a b > Array a b subArray bnds = ixmap bnds (\i>i) . they may be thought of as providing function composition on the left and right. elems. ixmap ) where import Ix import List( (\\) ) infixl 9 !. The fmap function transforms the array values while ixmap allows for transformations on array indices. listArray. // data (Ix a) => Array a b = MkArray (a.Diagonal of a matrix (assumed to be square) diag :: (Ix a) => Array (a.b) c > Array b c row i x = ixmap (l’.Projection of first components of an array of pairs firstArray :: (Ix a) => Array a (b.c) > Array a b firstArray = fmap (\(x. accum.
range b] accum accum f accumArray accumArray f z b ixmap ixmap b f a instance (Ix a) => Functor (Array a) where fmap fn (MkArray b f) = MkArray b (fn ._) <. Eq b) => Eq (Array a b) a == a’ = assocs a == assocs a’ where . i == j] of [v] > v [] > error "Array.b)] > Array a b = array (bounds a) (old_ivs ++ new_ivs) where old_ivs = [(i.a) > [(a. bounds :: (Ix a) => Array a b > [b] = [a!i  i <.!: \ \undefined array element" _ > error "Array.indices a] :: (Ix a) => Array a b > [(a.v) > a // [(i.z)  i <.a) > [(a.a) = b :: (Ix a) => Array a b > [a] = range .b)) (range b) vs) :: (Ix a) => Array a b > a > b = f :: (Ix a) => Array a b > (a. i ‘notElem‘ new_is] new_is = [i  (i.c)] > Array a b = accum f (array b [(i.16._) <.indices a] :: (Ix a) => Array a b > [(a.ivs.a) > (a > b) > Array b c > Array a c = array b [(i.array: outofrange array association" listArray listArray b vs (!) (!) (MkArray _ f) bounds bounds (MkArray b _) indices indices elems elems a assocs assocs a (//) a // new_ivs :: (Ix a) => (a.indices a.v) <. f) instance (Ix a. LIBRARY ARRAY 177 array :: (Ix a) => (a.range b]) :: (Ix a.!: \ \multiply defined array element") else error "Array.c)] > Array a b = foldl (\a (i. Ix b) => (a.4.b)] > Array a b array b ivs = if and [inRange b i  (i.new_ivs] :: (Ix a) => (b > c > b) > Array a b > [(a. a!i)  i <. a ! f i)  i <.b)] = [(i.f (a!i) v)]) :: (Ix a) => (b > c > b) > b > (a.a!i)  i <.a) > [b] > Array a b = array b (zipWith (\ a b > (a.ivs] then MkArray b (\j > case [v  (i.
Show a.s) <.lex r.u) <. showsPrec (arrPrec+1) (bounds a) .178 instance (Ix a.readsPrec (arrPrec+1) t ]) . Show b) => Show (Array a b) where showsPrec p a = showParen (p > arrPrec) ( showString "array " . showChar ’ ’ . showsPrec (arrPrec+1) (assocs a) ) instance (Ix a.Precedence of the ’array’ function is that of application itself arrPrec = 10 . (b. ARRAYS instance (Ix a. Ord b) => Ord (Array a b) a <= a’ = assocs a <= assocs a’ where CHAPTER 16.t) <. (as. u)  ("array". Read b) => Read (Array a b) where readsPrec p = readParen (p > arrPrec) (\r > [ (array b as. Read a.readsPrec (arrPrec+1) s.
179 .
scanr.. reverse. . unfoldr. foldr. scanl1. intersectBy. and. iterate. last.. zipWith5. tail. . zipWith4. zip. intersect. concat. lookup. minimum. union. inits. tails. unzip4. findIndex. span. takeWhile. repeat. zipWith6.180 CHAPTER 17. drop. nubBy. scanl. foldr1. deleteBy. take. genericReplicate. (\\). minimumBy. unzip. lines. cycle. zip5. isPrefixOf. break. genericDrop. find. (!!). insertBy. []). deleteFirstsBy. notElem. insert. all. unzip7. mapAccumR. genericSplitAt. LIST UTILITIES Chapter 17 List Utilities module List ( elemIndex. unzip6. splitAt. null. any. zip6. group. genericIndex. zipWith7. elem. unzip5. maximumBy. partition. maximum. nub. genericTake. unzip3 ) where infix 5 \\ elemIndex elemIndices find findIndex findIndices nub nubBy delete deleteBy (\\) deleteFirstsBy union unionBy :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Eq Eq (a (a (a Eq (a Eq (a Eq (a Eq (a a => a > [a] > Maybe Int a => a > [a] > [Int] > Bool) > [a] > Maybe a > Bool) > [a] > Maybe Int > Bool) > [a] > [Int] a => [a] > [a] > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] a => a > [a] > [a] > a > Bool) > a > [a] > [a] a => [a] > [a] > [a] > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] > [a] a => [a] > [a] > [a] > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] > [a] .. (++).[]((:). replicate. foldl. product. words. groupBy. filter. zip3. findIndices. genericLength. zip4.This is builtin syntax map. mapAccumL. intersperse. length. transpose. zipWith3. concatMap. or. isSuffixOf. sortBy. zip7. sum.and what the Prelude exports . dropWhile. unwords. sort. unionBy. head. delete. zipWith. scanr1. unlines. elemIndices. init. foldl1.
e.d.e. c)) > a > [b] > (a.e)] :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [e] > [f] > [(a.b. [c]) (a > b > (a.b.d.[e]) :: [(a.b.e. [c]) (b > Maybe (a.[f].b.b)) > b > [a] Ord a => [a] > [a] (a > a > Ordering) > [a] > [a] Ord a => a > [a] > [a] (a > a > Ordering) > a > [a] > [a] (a > a > Ordering) > [a] > a (a > a > Ordering) > [a] > a Integral a => [b] > a Integral a => a > [b] > [b] Integral a => a > [b] > [b] Integral a => a > [b] > ([b].[f]) :: [(a.c.[d].[c].e.g)] > ([a].e)] > ([a]. .b. c)) > a > [b] > (a.c.f.[e].d.c.b.[b].f)] :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [e] > [f] > [g] > [(a.d.[d].[b].[c].c.[b].d)] :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [e] > [(a.c.[a]) Eq a => [a] > [[a]] (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [[a]] [a] > [[a]] [a] > [[a]] Eq a => [a] > [a] > Bool Eq a => [a] > [a] > Bool (a > b > (a.c.[c].f)] > ([a].[b]) Integral a => [b] > a > b Integral a => a > b > [b] :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [(a.d.f.c.[g]) This library deﬁnes some lesserused operations over lists.[c].g)] :: (a>b>c>d>e) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e] :: (a>b>c>d>e>f) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e]>[f] :: (a>b>c>d>e>f>g) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e]>[f]>[g] :: (a>b>c>d>e>f>g>h) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e]>[f]>[g]>[h] :: [(a.b.[b].c.[d].181 intersect intersectBy intersperse transpose partition group groupBy inits tails isPrefixOf isSuffixOf mapAccumL mapAccumR unfoldr sort sortBy insert insertBy maximumBy minimumBy genericLength genericTake genericDrop genericSplitAt genericIndex genericReplicate zip4 zip5 zip6 zip7 zipWith4 zipWith5 zipWith6 zipWith7 unzip4 unzip5 unzip6 unzip7 :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Eq a => [a] > [a] > [a] (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] > [a] a > [a] > [a] [[a]] > [[a]] (a > Bool) > [a] > ([a].d.d)] > ([a].[d]) :: [(a.b.[e].
LIST UTILITIES 17. giving the occurrences of val in list. nub (meaning “essence”) removes duplicates elements from a list. if any. findIndex returns the corresponding index.g.2 “Set” operations There are a number of “set” operations deﬁned over the List type. delete ’a’ "banana" == "bnana" (\\) is list difference (nonassociative).3.4] ‘intersect‘ [2. if there is no such element. findIndices returns a list of all such indices. For example: nub [1. 17. Nothing is returned if not (val ‘elem‘ list).. the ﬁrst occurrence of each element of ys in turn (if any) has been removed from xs.4] . e. Thus. union is list union.4] delete x removes the ﬁrst occurrence of x from its list argument. e. e. In the result of xs \\ ys..4.6. nub removes duplicate elements from a list. provided that their ﬁrst argument contains no duplicates. union and intersect (and their By variants) preserve the invariant that their result does not contain duplicates. "dog" ‘union‘ "cow" == "dogcw" intersect is list intersection..3. elemIndices val list returns an inorder list of indices. (\\). delete.2. find returns the ﬁrst element of a list that satisﬁes a predicate.1 Indexing lists elemIndex val list returns the index of the ﬁrst occurrence.g.3. of val in list as Just index.g. or Nothing. [1.3] = [1. (xs ++ ys) \\ xs == ys.3.182 CHAPTER 17.8] == [2.1.4.
[2. unfoldr builds a list from a seed value."a". e. inits "abc" == ["".4]. "bc". insert inserts a new element into an ordered list (arranged in increasing order).6]] == [[1. tails "abc" == ["abc". mapAccumR is similar to mapAccumL except that the list is processed from righttoleft rather than lefttoright."pp".5]."i". shortest ﬁrst..5."abc"] tails returns the list of all ﬁnal segments of its argument list.2. longest ﬁrst. filter (not .[3. adjacent elements."ss". LIST TRANSFORMATIONS 183 17."ab".3]."ss".g."i". partition p xs == (filter p xs.17.d. intersperse ’. transpose [[1. p) xs) sort implement a stable sorting algorithm. 17.3 List transformations intersperse sep inserts sep between the elements of its list argument. which inserts objects into a list according to the speciﬁed ordering relation. "c"."i"] inits returns the list of initial segments of its argument list.b. here speciﬁed in terms of the insertBy function. respectively. For example: . group splits its list argument into a list of lists of equal."i".4 unfoldr The unfoldr function is a “dual” to foldr: while foldr reduces a list to a summary value. i.c. e. For example group "Mississippi" == ["M"..""] mapAccumL f s l applies f to an accumulating “state” parameter s and to each element of l in turn.6]] partition takes a predicate and a list and returns a pair of lists: those elements of the argument list that do and do not satisfy the predicate.g.e.[4.’ "abcde" == "a.e" transpose transposes the rows and columns of its argument..3.
The function: nubBy nubBy eq [] nubBy eq (x:xs) :: (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] = [] = x : nubBy eq (filter (\y > not (eq x y)) xs) allows the programmer to supply their own equality test. insertBy. When the “By” function replaces an Eq context by a binary predicate. . isSuffixOf) were not considered important enough to have “By” variants.5 Predicates isPrefixOf and isSuffixOf check whether the ﬁrst argument is a preﬁx (resp. The “By” variants are as follows: nubBy. intersectBy. groupBy. deleteBy. deleteFirstsBy (the By variant of \\). overloaded functions have a nonoverloaded counterpart whose name is sufﬁxed with “By”. sufﬁx) of the second argument. The library does not provide elemBy. unionBy. the predicate is assumed to deﬁne a total ordering. unfoldr can undo a foldr operation: unfoldr f’ (foldr f z xs) == xs if the following holds: f’ (f x y) = Just (x. A handful of overloaded functions (elemIndex. isPrefixOf.6 The “By” operations By convention. the equality method may not be appropriate in all situations. For example.y) f’ z = Nothing 17.184 CHAPTER 17. 17. sortBy. because any (eq x) does the same job as elemBy eq x would. maximumBy. minimumBy. the predicate is assumed to deﬁne an equivalence. elemIndices. the function nub could be deﬁned as follows: nub nub [] nub (x:xs) :: (Eq a) => [a] > [a] = [] = x : nub (filter (\y > not (x == y)) xs) However. f x)) In some cases. LIST UTILITIES iterate f == unfoldr (\x > Just (x. when the “By” function replaces an Ord context by a binary predicate.
and 7 arguments. :: Integral a => [b] > a 17. . The “generic” operations are as follows: genericLength. unzip3. genericIndex (the generic version of !!). For example.7.7 The “generic” operations The preﬁx “generic” indicates an overloaded function that is a generalised version of a Prelude function. 6. genericDrop. genericSplitAt. unzip. genericReplicate. The List library provides these same three operations for 4. zipWith. genericLength is a generalised version of length. genericTake.17. zip3. 5. THE “GENERIC” OPERATIONS 185 17.8 Further “zip” operations The Prelude provides zip. and zipWith3.
or.186 CHAPTER 17. unwords. zipWith4. foldr1. unzip4. lines.. init. notElem. genericReplicate. sortBy. zipWith5. . find. unzip5. zip.i) <. sort. take. concatMap. zip7.. genericLength. . group. filter p :: (a > Bool) > [a] > Maybe Int = listToMaybe . zipWith3. dropWhile.. intersperse. minimum. length. insertBy. delete. product. unzip6. minimumBy. all. transpose.9 Library List module List ( elemIndex. inits. unionBy. scanr1. unzip. break. mapAccumR. intersectBy. words. unzip7. zipWith7. scanr. head. findIndex. LIST UTILITIES 17. iterate. unzip3 ) where import Maybe( listToMaybe ) infix 5 \\ elemIndex elemIndex x elemIndices elemIndices x find find p findIndex findIndex p findIndices findIndices p xs nub nub :: Eq a => a > [a] > Maybe Int = findIndex (x ==) :: Eq a => a > [a] > [Int] = findIndices (x ==) :: (a > Bool) > [a] > Maybe a = listToMaybe . nubBy. reverse. scanl. nub. insert. foldr. findIndices p :: (a > Bool) > [a] > [Int] = [ i  (x. and. concat. foldl. genericDrop. intersect. splitAt. genericSplitAt.and what the Prelude exports . groupBy. zip6. genericTake.]. zipWith6.[]((:). zip5. zipWith. isSuffixOf. deleteBy. unfoldr. (\\). repeat. genericIndex. elem.. takeWhile. tails. maximumBy. null. sum. lookup. p x ] :: Eq a => [a] > [a] = nubBy (==) . tail. (++).This is builtin syntax map. scanl1. span. zip3. elemIndices. isPrefixOf. findIndices. unlines. (!!). deleteFirstsBy. mapAccumL. foldl1. last. any. replicate. partition. union. cycle.zip xs [0. filter. drop. []). maximum. zip4.
9.group splits its list argument into a list of lists of equal.3]."ss". .[a]) = (filter p xs. e.5].group "Mississippi" == ["M". p) xs) . any (eq x) ys] :: = = = a > [a] > [a] [] [x] x : sep : intersperse sep xs ."pp".[2."i".[]] = [[1."i".xss]) : transpose (xs : [t  (h:t) <.g..2]."i"] group :: Eq a => [a] > [[a]] group = groupBy (==) . transpose [[1.xss]) partition partition p xs :: (a > Bool) > [a] > ([a].[5]] .xs."i". filter (not .For example.17.transpose is lazy in both rows and columns."ss". and works for nonrectangular ’matrices’ .4.Note that [h  (h:t) <.elements. adjacent . LIBRARY LIST nubBy nubBy eq [] nubBy eq (x:xs) delete delete deleteBy deleteBy eq x [] deleteBy eq x (y:ys) (\\) (\\) deleteFirstsBy deleteFirstsBy eq union union unionBy unionBy eq xs ys intersect intersect intersectBy intersectBy eq xs ys intersperse intersperse sep [] intersperse sep [x] intersperse sep (x:xs) 187 :: (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] = [] = x : nubBy eq (filter (\y > not (eq x y)) xs) :: Eq a => a > [a] > [a] = deleteBy (==) :: (a > a > Bool) > a > [a] > [a] = [] = if x ‘eq‘ y then ys else y : deleteBy eq x ys :: Eq a => [a] > [a] > [a] = foldl (flip delete) :: (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] > [a] = foldl (flip (deleteBy eq)) :: Eq a => [a] > [a] > [a] = unionBy (==) :: (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] > [a] = xs ++ deleteFirstsBy eq (nubBy eq ys) xs :: Eq a => [a] > [a] > [a] = intersectBy (==) :: (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] > [a] = [x  x <.xss] is not the same as (map head xss) because the former discards empty sublists inside xss transpose :: [[a]] > [[a]] transpose [] = [] transpose ([] : xss) = transpose xss transpose ((x:xs) : xss) = (x : [h  (h:t) <.[3.4].
y ) = f s x (s’’. "bc". []) = (s’’. inits "abc" == inits inits [] inits (x:xs) .. []) = (s’’.y:ys) where (s’. longest first.e. tails "abc" == tails tails [] tails xxs@(_:xs) CHAPTER 17. "c".188 groupBy groupBy eq [] groupBy eq (x:xs) . ["abc".b) > a : unfoldr f b :: (Ord a) => [a] > [a] = sortBy compare :: (a > a > Ordering) > [a] > [a] = foldr (insertBy cmp) [] :: (Ord a) => a > [a] > [a] = insertBy compare mapAccumR mapAccumR f s [] mapAccumR f s (x:xs) unfoldr unfoldr f b sort sort sortBy sortBy cmp insert insert .g.. [c]) = (s.zs) = span (eq x) xs list of initial segments of xs. ["".""] :: [a] > [[a]] = [[]] = xxs : tails xs :: = = = Eq a => [a] > [a] > Bool True False x == y && isPrefixOf xs ys isPrefixOf isPrefixOf [] _ isPrefixOf _ [] isPrefixOf (x:xs) (y:ys) isSuffixOf isSuffixOf x y mapAccumL mapAccumL f s [] mapAccumL f s (x:xs) :: Eq a => [a] > [a] > Bool = reverse x ‘isPrefixOf‘ reverse y :: (a > b > (a."a".inits xs returns the . y:ys) where (s’’. LIST UTILITIES :: (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [[a]] = [] = (x:ys) : groupBy eq zs where (ys.b)) > b > [a] = case f b of Nothing > [] Just (a.y ) = f s’ x (s’. [c]) = (s. ys) = mapAccumR f s xs :: (b > Maybe (a."abc"] :: [a] > [[a]] = [[]] = [[]] ++ map (x:) (inits xs) list of all final segments of xs. c)) > a > [b] > (a. shortest first. c)) > a > [b] > (a.e.tails xs returns the .g.ys) = mapAccumL f s’ xs :: (a > b > (a."ab".
maximumBy: empty list" = foldl1 max xs where max x y = case cmp x y of GT > x _ > y :: (a > a > Ordering) > [a] > a = error "List.xs’’) :: (Integral a) => a > [b] > [b] = xs = [] = = genericDrop (n1) xs error "List.genericTake: negative argument" minimumBy minimumBy cmp [] minimumBy cmp xs genericLength genericLength [] genericLength (x:xs) genericTake genericTake _ [] genericTake 0 _ genericTake n (x:xs)  n > 0  otherwise genericDrop genericDrop 0 xs genericDrop _ [] genericDrop n (_:xs)  n > 0  otherwise genericSplitAt genericSplitAt 0 xs genericSplitAt _ [] genericSplitAt n (x:xs)  n > 0  otherwise where (xs’.[]) = = = (x:xs’.[b]) = ([].minimumBy: empty list" = foldl1 min xs where min x y = case cmp x y of GT > y _ > x :: (Integral a) => [b] > a = 0 = 1 + genericLength xs :: (Integral a) => a > [b] > [b] = [] = [] = = x : genericTake (n1) xs error "List.genericDrop: negative argument" :: (Integral a) => a > [b] > ([b].17.9.xs’’) error "List. LIBRARY LIST insertBy :: (a > a > insertBy cmp x [] = [x] insertBy cmp x ys@(y:ys’) = case cmp x GT > _ > maximumBy maximumBy cmp [] maximumBy cmp xs Ordering) > a > [a] > [a] 189 y of y : insertBy cmp x ys’ x : ys :: (a > a > Ordering) > [a] > a = error "List.genericSplitAt: negative argument" genericSplitAt (n1) xs .xs) = ([].
bs.d.f.) :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [e] > [(a.d:ds)) ([].d..) :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [e] > [f] > [g] > [(a.c.b.[].b.g)] = zipWith7 (.c.c:cs...d)] = zipWith4 (.[]) zipWith7 zipWith6 .c..b.[b]...cs..genericIndex: negative argument" error "List..e..b.genericIndex: index too large" :: (Integral a) => a > b > [b] = genericTake n (repeat x) :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [(a.b:bs.) zipWith4 :: (a>b>c>d>e) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e] zipWith4 z (a:as) (b:bs) (c:cs) (d:ds) = z a b c d : zipWith4 z as bs cs ds zipWith4 _ _ _ _ _ = [] zipWith5 :: (a>b>c>d>e>f) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e]>[f] zipWith5 z (a:as) (b:bs) (c:cs) (d:ds) (e:es) = z a b c d e : zipWith5 z as bs cs ds es zipWith5 _ _ _ _ _ _ = [] :: (a>b>c>d>e>f>g) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e]>[f]>[g] zipWith6 z (a:as) (b:bs) (c:cs) (d:ds) (e:es) (f:fs) = z a b c d e f : zipWith6 z as bs cs ds es fs zipWith6 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ = [] :: (a>b>c>d>e>f>g>h) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e]>[f]>[g]>[h] zipWith7 z (a:as) (b:bs) (c:cs) (d:ds) (e:es) (f:fs) (g:gs) = z a b c d e f g : zipWith7 z as bs cs ds es fs gs zipWith7 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ = [] unzip4 unzip4 :: [(a.[c].ds) > (a:as... LIST UTILITIES :: (Integral a) => [b] > a > b = x = = = genericIndex xs (n1) error "List.d.d) ˜(as.c.c.f)] = zipWith6 (.e)] = zipWith5 (.d)] > ([a].b..b.[d]) = foldr (\(a.) :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [e] > [f] > [(a.e..[].c..190 genericIndex genericIndex (x:_) 0 genericIndex (_:xs) n  n > 0  otherwise genericIndex _ _ genericReplicate genericReplicate n x zip4 zip4 zip5 zip5 zip6 zip6 zip7 zip7 CHAPTER 17.
e.c.c.b.[e].[f]) = foldr (\(a.gs) > (a:as.f.c.c.e)] > ([a].d.[].es) > (a:as.f)] > ([a].[]) :: [(a.e.[].[e]) = foldr (\(a.f) ˜(as.g)] > ([a].[].fs) > (a:as.[].[d].d:ds.[d].e:es.17.c. LIBRARY LIST unzip5 unzip5 :: [(a.d.[b].b:bs.[c].[b].g) ˜(as.[c].[f].[].[d].[]) 191 unzip6 unzip6 :: [(a.g:gs)) ([].e.c:cs.e:es.fs.c:cs.d.[e].cs.b.f:fs)) ([].bs.9.d.[c].bs.[]) unzip7 unzip7 .cs.c.f.d:ds.[b].b.b.ds.ds.[].e) ˜(as.[].c:cs.[].b:bs.[g]) = foldr (\(a.b.[].d.d.e:es)) ([].[].[].es.es.cs.bs.e.f:fs.b:bs.d:ds.b.[].ds.
192 CHAPTER 17. LIST UTILITIES .
.Chapter 18 Maybe Utilities module Maybe( isJust. mapMaybe.. 193 .. isNothing fromJust fromMaybe listToMaybe maybeToList catMaybes mapMaybe :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Maybe a > Bool Maybe a > a a > Maybe a > a [a] > Maybe a Maybe a > [a] [Maybe a] > [a] (a > Maybe b) > [a] > [b] The type constructor Maybe is deﬁned in Prelude as data Maybe a = Nothing  Just a The purpose of the Maybe type is to provide a method of dealing with illegal or optional values without terminating the program. listToMaybe. as would happen if error were used.and what the Prelude exports Maybe(Nothing. fromJust. maybeToList. an incorrect result is returned as Nothing. Just). Other operations on Maybe are provided as part of the monadic classes in the Prelude. A correct result is encapsulated by wrapping it in Just. fromMaybe. maybe ) where isJust. isNothing. catMaybes. and without using IOError from the IO monad. which would cause the expression to become monadic. .
. mapMaybe.ms ] :: (a > Maybe b) > [a] > [b] = catMaybes . map f .and what the Prelude exports Maybe(Nothing.194 CHAPTER 18. maybe ) where isJust isJust (Just a) isJust Nothing isNothing isNothing fromJust fromJust (Just a) fromJust Nothing fromMaybe fromMaybe d Nothing fromMaybe d (Just a) maybeToList maybeToList Nothing maybeToList (Just a) listToMaybe listToMaybe [] listToMaybe (a:_) catMaybes catMaybes ms mapMaybe mapMaybe f :: Maybe a > Bool = True = False :: Maybe a > Bool = not . . isNothing. catMaybes.1 Library Maybe module Maybe( isJust.. Just). fromJust.. listToMaybe.fromJust: Nothing" :: a > Maybe a > a = d = a :: Maybe a > [a] = [] = [a] :: [a] > Maybe a = Nothing = Just a :: [Maybe a] > [a] = [ m  Just m <. MAYBE UTILITIES 18. fromMaybe. isJust :: Maybe a > a = a = error "Maybe. maybeToList.
digitToInt. numeric digits. with the next 128 entries comes the remainder of the Latin1 character set. isAlpha. toLower. showLitChar. readLitChar.. chr. isDigit. isAlpha. lexLitChar. and other printable characters. isSpace. isHexDigit. isLatin1. isLower. Unicode characters may be divided into ﬁve general categories: nonprinting. isUpper.Chapter 19 Character Utilities module Char ( isAscii. isLower. isAlphaNum :: Char > Bool toUpper. The ﬁrst 128 entries of this character set are identical to the ASCII set. the full set of Unicode character attributes is not accessible in this library.. isPrint. isOctDigit. isControl. isAlphaNum. toLower :: Char > Char digitToInt :: Char > Int intToDigit :: Int > Char ord chr :: Char > Int :: Int > Char lexLitChar :: ReadS String readLitChar :: ReadS Char showLitChar :: Char > ShowS This library provides a limited set of operations on the Unicode character set.and what the Prelude exports Char. For the purposes of Haskell. . isControl. This module offers only a limited view of the full Unicode character set. other alphabetic. toUpper. intToDigit. ord. isSpace. isLatin1. isDigit. String ) where isAscii. isPrint. isHexDigit. any 195 . lower case alphabetic. isOctDigit.. isUpper.
Numeric digits may be part of identiﬁers but digits outside the ASCII range are not used by the reader to represent numbers.. The ord and chr functions are fromEnum and toEnum restricted to the type Char.. and isHexDigit functions select only ASCII characters. Any Unicode letter which has an uppercase equivalent is transformed. lower. Similarly. ’0’. "Hello")] [(’\n’. using Haskell sourcelanguage escape conventions. For example: showLitChar ’\n’ s lexLitChar "\\nHello" readLitChar "\\nHello" = = = "\\n" ++ s [("\\n". returning the sequence of characters that encode the character. .15. The function lexLitChar does the reverse.’f’.’9’.’F’). digitToInt operates fails unless its argument satisﬁes isHexDigit. and generates lowercase hexadecimal digits. leaving any other character unchanged. ’A’. "Hello")] Function toUpper converts a letter to the corresponding uppercase letter. toLower converts a letter to the corresponding lowercase letter. here are the predicates which return True: Character Type Lower Case Alphabetic Other Alphabetic Digits Other Printable Nonprinting Predicates isPrint isPrint isPrint isPrint isAlphaNum isAlphaNum isAlphaNum isAlpha isAlpha isLower isUpper The isDigit.e. but in addition converts the to the character that it encodes... and title). ’a’. CHARACTER UTILITIES alphabetic character which is not lower case is treated as upper case (Unicode actually has three cases: upper. The isSpace function recognizes only white characters in the Latin1 range. For each sort of Unicode character. intToDigit fails unless its argument is in the range 0. intToDigit and digitToInt convert between a single digit Char and the corresponding Int. but recognises both upper and lowercase hexadecimal digits (i. isOctDigit. The function showLitChar converts a character to a string using only printable characters.196 CHAPTER 19. leaving any other character unchanged. The function readLitChar does the same.
’Z’ .Source of primitive Unicode functions. . isAlphaNum. import Numeric (readDec.. isLower. isUpper..’a’.19.Used for character name table. String ) where import Array .Charactertesting operations isAscii. readLitChar. isLatin1.and what the Prelude exports Char. isSpace. isSpace.fromEnum ’A’ + 10  otherwise = error "Char. isHexDigit. isOctDigit. isHexDigit. isPrint. showLitChar. intToDigit.digitToInt: not a digit" .. isLower. lexLitChar. isOctDigit.’z’ isUpper c  isLower c c >= ’0’ && c <= ’9’ c >= ’0’ && c <= ’7’ isDigit c  c >= ’A’ && c <= ’F’  c >= ’a’ && c <= ’f’ primUnicodeIsAlphaNum .Only Latin1 spaces recognized isUpper isLower isAlpha c isDigit c isOctDigit c isHexDigit c isAlphaNum = = = = = = = primUnicodeIsUpper primUnicodeIsLower . readHex) import UnicodePrims . isAlpha.. lexDigits.’A’. toUpper.. isUpper.1. isLatin1.Digit conversion operations digitToInt :: Char > Int digitToInt c  isDigit c = fromEnum c . isAlphaNum :: Char > Bool isAscii c isLatin1 c isControl c isPrint = = = = c < ’\x80’ c <= ’\xff’ c < ’ ’  c >= ’\DEL’ && c <= ’\x9f’ primUnicodeIsPrint isSpace c = c ‘elem‘ " \t\n\r\f\v\xA0" . LIBRARY CHAR 197 19.1 Library Char module Char ( isAscii.fromEnum ’a’ + 10  c >= ’A’ && c <= ’F’ = fromEnum c . isControl. isDigit. isAlpha. isControl. toLower. chr. readOct. . ord. digitToInt.fromEnum ’0’  c >= ’a’ && c <= ’f’ = fromEnum c . isPrint. isDigit.
s)] s@(d:_)  isDigit d = [(chr n.10) error "Char.s)] (’\’’:s) = [(’\’’. CHARACTER UTILITIES toEnum (fromEnum ’0’ + i) toEnum (fromEnum ’a’ + i .ord ’@’).[a]) = match xs ys = (xs.s)] (’r’:s) = [(’\r’.s)] readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc :: ReadS Char (’a’:s) = [(’\a’.intToDigit: not a digit" .s)] (’"’:s) = [(’"’.s)] (’f’:s) = [(’\f’.s)] (’b’:s) = [(’\b’.s)] (’v’:s) = [(’\v’. t)  (n.198 intToDigit :: Int > Char intToDigit i  i >= 0 && i <= 9 =  i >= 10 && i <= 15 =  otherwise = CHAPTER 19.s’)  (c. t)  (n.readDec s] (’o’:s) = [(chr n. ([].s)] (’\\’:s) = [(’\\’.Character code functions ord :: Char > Int ord = fromEnum chr chr :: Int > Char = toEnum .readOct s] (’x’:s) = [(chr n.t) <. t)  (n.s)] (’t’:s) = [(’\t’.t) <. mne) <.[match mne s]] of (pr:_) > [pr] [] > [] _ = [] :: (Eq a) => [a] > [a] > ([a].Casechanging operations toUpper :: Char > Char toUpper = primUnicodeToUpper toLower :: Char > Char toLower = primUnicodeToLower .table.s)] (’ˆ’:c:s)  c >= ’@’ && c <= ’_’ = [(chr (ord c .t) <.s’) <.s)] (’n’:s) = [(’\n’.readHex s] s@(c:_)  isUpper c = let table = (’\DEL’.ys) readEsc match match (x:xs) (y:ys)  x == y match xs ys . "DEL") : assocs asciiTab in case [(c.Text functions readLitChar :: ReadS Char readLitChar (’\\’:s) = readEsc s readLitChar (c:s) = [(c.
"DC1".s) = (c:t. "SUB". ’ ’) ["NUL". "ENQ". "NAK". "BEL".s)] [] .s)] . "SP"] s@(c:_)  p c = "\\&" ++ s s = s "EOT".s)] lexEsc (’ˆ’:c:s)  c >= ’@’ && c <= ’_’ = [([’ˆ’. lexEsc s@(c:_)  isUpper c = [span isCharName s] lexEsc _ = [] isCharName c = isUpper c  isDigit c prefix c (t. "EM". "SI". "CAN". "LF". "FF". "RS". protectEsc isDigit (shows (ord c)) showLitChar ’\DEL’ = showString "\\DEL" showLitChar ’\\’ = showString "\\\\" showLitChar c  c >= ’ ’ = showChar c showLitChar ’\a’ = showString "\\a" showLitChar ’\b’ = showString "\\b" showLitChar ’\f’ = showString "\\f" showLitChar ’\n’ = showString "\\n" showLitChar ’\r’ = showString "\\r" showLitChar ’\t’ = showString "\\t" showLitChar ’\v’ = showString "\\v" showLitChar ’\SO’ = protectEsc (== ’H’) (showString "\\SO") showLitChar c = showString (’\\’ : asciiTab!c) protectEsc p f = f . "HT". "DC3". "ETX". "VT". "FS". s) lexLitChar (c:s) lexLitChar "" = = [([c]. "STX".1.19. "ESC". "BS". 199 lexLitChar :: ReadS String lexLitChar (’\\’:s) = map (prefix ’\\’) (lexEsc s) where lexEsc (c:s)  c ‘elem‘ "abfnrtv\\\"’" = [([c]. "CR".Numeric escapes lexEsc (’o’:s) = [prefix ’o’ (span isOctDigit s)] lexEsc (’x’:s) = [prefix ’x’ (span isHexDigit s)] lexEsc s@(d:_)  isDigit d = [span isDigit s] . "DC4". "DLE". "GS". cont where cont cont asciiTab = listArray (’\NUL’. "ACK". "SYN". LIBRARY CHAR showLitChar :: Char > ShowS showLitChar c  c > ’\DEL’ = showChar ’\\’ . "SOH".c]. "US". "DC2".Very crude approximation to \XYZ. "SO". "ETB".
200 CHAPTER 19. CHARACTER UTILITIES .
201 .
zipWithM.and what the Prelude exports Monad((>>=). return. liftM.. unless. (>>). ap. mapAndUnzipM. mapM_. (=<<).c)) > [a] > m ([b]. liftM4.202 CHAPTER 20. MONAD UTILITIES Chapter 20 Monad Utilities module Monad ( MonadPlus(mzero. > m c) > [a] > [b] > > m c) > [a] > [b] > > m a) > a > [b] > m Bool) > [a] > m [a] [c]) m [c] m () a :: MonadPlus m => [m a] > m a :: Monad m => (a > b) > (m a > m b) :: Monad m => (a > b > c) > (m a > m b :: Monad m => (a > b > c > d) > (m a > m b > m c > m d) :: Monad m => (a > b > c > d > e) > (m a > m b > m c > m d > :: Monad m => (a > b > c > d > e > f) (m a > m b > m c > m d > > m c) m e) > m e > m f) .. when. Functor(fmap). sequence_. mapM. liftM5. foldM. join. mplus). zipWithM_. ) where class Monad m => MonadPlus m where mzero :: m a mplus :: m a > m a > m a join guard when unless ap mapAndUnzipM zipWithM zipWithM_ foldM filterM msum liftM liftM2 liftM3 liftM4 liftM5 :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Monad m => m (m a) > m a MonadPlus m => Bool > m () Monad m => Bool > m () > m () Monad m => Bool > m () > m () Monad m => m (a > b) > m a > m b Monad Monad Monad Monad Monad m m m m m => => => => => (a (a (a (a (a > > > > > m b b b m (b. liftM3. . fail). msum.. liftM2. filterM. sequence. guard.
for example: sum :: Num a => [a] > a msum :: MonadPlus m => [m a] > m a 20.2 Class MonadPlus The MonadPlus class is deﬁned as follows: class Monad m => MonadPlus m where mzero :: m a mplus :: m a > m a > m a The class methods mzero and mplus are the zero and plus of the monad. 20. Lists and the Maybe type are instances of MonadPlus.1 Naming conventions The functions in this library use the following naming conventions: A postﬁx “M” always stands for a function in the Kleisli category: m is added to function results (modulo currying) and nowhere else. and provides some useful operations on monads. for example. filter :: (a > Bool) > [a] > [a] filterM :: Monad m => (a > m Bool) > [a] > m [a] A postﬁx “_” changes the result type from (m a) to (m ()).20. Thus (in the Prelude): sequence :: Monad m => [m a] > m [a] sequence_ :: Monad m => [m a] > m () A preﬁx “m” generalises an existing function to a monadic form. NAMING CONVENTIONS 203 The Monad library deﬁnes the MonadPlus class. So.1. Thus. thus: instance MonadPlus Maybe where mzero = Nothing Nothing ‘mplus‘ ys = ys xs ‘mplus‘ ys = xs instance MonadPlus [] mzero = [] mplus = (++) where .
x2. listFile :: String > IO () listFile nm = do cts <. It is used to remove one level of monadic structure. This could be an issue where (>>) and the “folded function” are not commutative.f a1 x1 a3 <.f a2 x2 .] (lines cts) The foldM function is analogous to foldl..2. the liftM operations can be replaced by uses of ap. . projecting its bound argument into the outer level. For instance the following function displays a ﬁle.3] liftM2 (+) (Just 1) Nothing = Nothing In many situations. and otherwise do nothing. The monadic lifting operators promote a function to a monad. which promotes function application. putStr ": ". preﬁxing each line with its line number...3 Functions The join function is the conventional monad join operator. The mapAndUnzipM function maps its ﬁrst argument over a list.. foldM f a1 [x1. putStrLn line) [1. except that its result is encapsulated in a monad. MONAD UTILITIES 20. liftM2 (+) [0.readFile nm zipWithM_ (\i line > do putStr (show i). The function arguments are scanned left to right.1] [0.. when debug (putStr "Debugging\n") will output the string "Debugging\n" if the Boolean value debug is True..2] = [0.1. For example. The zipWithM function generalises zipWith to arbitrary monads. The when and unless functions provide conditional execution of monadic expressions. the input list should be reversed. . Note that foldM works from lefttoright over the list arguments.204 CHAPTER 20. returning the result as a pair of lists. This function is mainly used with complicated data structures or a statetransforming monad. For example. f am xm If righttoleft evaluation is required. xm ] == do a2 <.
.. ‘ap‘ xn is equivalent to liftMn f x1 x2 .. FUNCTIONS return f ‘ap‘ x1 ‘ap‘ .. xn 205 .3.20.
The MonadPlus class definition class (Monad m) => MonadPlus m mzero :: m a mplus :: m a > m a > m a . sequence. (>>). join... unless.. filterM. unzip . Functor(fmap). [c]) mapAndUnzipM f xs = sequence (map f xs) >>= return . sequence_. return. zipWithM. liftM3. liftM2. liftM5.c)) > [a] > m ([b].4 Library Monad module Monad ( MonadPlus(mzero. guard. zipWithM_.206 CHAPTER 20. foldM. msum. liftM4. mplus). ap. mapM_. mapM. ) where . mapAndUnzipM.Functions msum msum xs join join x when when p s unless unless p s ap ap guard guard p :: MonadPlus m => [m a] > m a = foldr mplus mzero xs :: (Monad m) => m (m a) > m a = x >>= id :: (Monad m) => Bool > m () > m () = if p then s else return () :: (Monad m) => Bool > m () > m () = when (not p) s :: (Monad m) => m (a > b) > m a > m b = liftM2 ($) :: MonadPlus m => Bool > m () = if p then return () else mzero = = ys xs where where mapAndUnzipM :: (Monad m) => (a > m (b. (=<<). MONAD UTILITIES 20. fail). when.Instances of MonadPlus instance MonadPlus Maybe where mzero = Nothing Nothing ‘mplus‘ ys xs ‘mplus‘ ys instance MonadPlus [] mzero = [] mplus = (++) . liftM. .and what the Prelude exports Monad((>>=).
return (f a’ b’ c’ d’ e’) } .c. LIBRARY MONAD 207 zipWithM :: (Monad m) => (a > b > m c) > [a] > [b] > m [c] zipWithM f xs ys = sequence (zipWith f xs ys) zipWithM_ :: (Monad m) => (a > b > m c) > [a] > [b] > m () zipWithM_ f xs ys = sequence_ (zipWith f xs ys) foldM :: (Monad m) => (a > b > m a) > a > [b] > m a foldM f a [] = return a foldM f a (x:xs) = f a x >>= \ y > foldM f y xs filterM :: Monad m => (a > m Bool) > [a] > m [a] filterM p [] = return [] filterM p (x:xs) = do { b <. b’ <.d.a.a.b.a. c’ <. b’ <.c. e’ <.a. d’ <. b’ <.e. return (f a’ b’ c’) } :: (Monad m) => (a > b > c > d > e) > (m a > m b > m c > m d > m e) = \a b c d > do { a’ <.b. d’ <.a. c’ <.d. return (f a’ b’ c’ d’) } :: (Monad m) => (a > b > c > d > e > f) > (m a > m b > m c > m d > m e > m f) = \a b c d e > do { a’ <.filterM p xs.4.b.b. return (if b then (x:ys) else ys) } liftM liftM f liftM2 liftM2 f liftM3 liftM3 f liftM4 liftM4 f liftM5 liftM5 f :: (Monad m) => (a > b) > (m a > m b) = \a > do { a’ <. ys <.c. b’ <. return (f a’) } :: (Monad m) => (a > b > c) > (m a > m b > m c) = \a b > do { a’ <. c’ <.20. return (f a’ b’) } :: (Monad m) => (a > b > c > d) > (m a > m b > m c > m d) = \a b c > do { a’ <.p x.
208 CHAPTER 20. MONAD UTILITIES .
209 .
... Ix. hGetLine. Show) NoBuffering  LineBuffering BlockBuffering (Maybe Int) deriving (Eq. getChar.implementationdependent . hGetPosn. ioError. ioeGetHandle.WriteMode. Ord. hFileSize. bracket_. readIO.. IOMode(ReadMode. writeFile. putStrLn. Read. hClose. hIsClosed.SeekFromEnd). Enum. isDoesNotExistError. hGetBuffering. isPermissionError. SeekMode(AbsoluteSeek. isIllegalOperation. isUserError.RelativeSeek.. hReady. ioeGetErrorString.. hFlush.implementationdependent . isEOFError. try. interact. userError.. . hLookAhead.. FilePath. putChar. hGetChar. ioeGetFileName. Bounded. hSetBuffering. hPrint.210 CHAPTER 21. Show) stdin.implementationdependent data SeekMode ReadMode  WriteMode  AppendMode  ReadWriteMode deriving (Eq.implementationdependent . instance Show Handle where . IOError. stdout.. Read. hIsSeekable.. hWaitForInput. INPUT/OUTPUT Chapter 21 Input/Output module IO ( Handle. getLine. BufferMode(NoBuffering. stdin. hIsWritable.. stderr :: Handle openFile hClose :: FilePath > IOMode > IO Handle :: Handle > IO () . isAlreadyExistsError. readLn ) where import Ix(Ix) data Handle = . Ord. data HandlePosn = . hGetContents. isAlreadyInUseError. putStr.LineBuffering.AppendMode. isFullError. Ord. hIsEOF. readFile. stdout. hIsReadable. hSeek.ReadWriteMode). hPutStr.and what the Prelude exports IO. Enum. Read. Ix. instance Eq Handle where .. hPutChar. hPutStrLn. isEOF. appendFile. hIsOpen. instance Eq HandlePosn where . Show) AbsoluteSeek  RelativeSeek  SeekFromEnd deriving (Eq. hSetPosn. print. Bounded. openFile. HandlePosn. getContents. catch.BlockBuffering). stderr. instance Show HandlePosn where data IOMode data BufferMode = =  = . bracket.
211 hFileSize hIsEOF isEOF isEOF hSetBuffering hGetBuffering hFlush hGetPosn hSetPosn hSeek hWaitForInput hReady hReady h hGetChar hGetLine hLookAhead hGetContents hPutChar hPutStr hPutStrLn hPrint hIsOpen hIsClosed hIsReadable hIsWritable hIsSeekable isAlreadyExistsError isDoesNotExistError isAlreadyInUseError isFullError isEOFError isIllegalOperation isPermissionError isUserError ioeGetErrorString ioeGetHandle ioeGetFileName try bracket bracket_ :: :: :: = :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: = :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Handle > IO Integer Handle > IO Bool IO Bool hIsEOF stdin Handle > BufferMode > IO () Handle > IO BufferMode Handle > IO () Handle > IO HandlePosn HandlePosn > IO () Handle > SeekMode > Integer > IO () Handle > Int > IO Bool Handle > IO Bool hWaitForInput h 0 Handle > IO Char Handle > IO String Handle > IO Char Handle > IO String Handle > Char > IO () Handle > String > IO () Handle > String > IO () Show a => Handle > a > IO () Handle Handle Handle Handle Handle > > > > > IO IO IO IO IO Bool Bool Bool Bool Bool IOError IOError IOError IOError IOError IOError IOError IOError > > > > > > > > Bool Bool Bool Bool Bool Bool Bool Bool :: IOError > String :: IOError > Maybe Handle :: IOError > Maybe FilePath :: IO a > IO (Either IOError a) :: IO a > (a > IO b) > (a > IO c) > IO c :: IO a > (a > IO b) > IO c > IO c The monadic I/O system used in Haskell is described by the Haskell language report. Some related operations on ﬁle systems . Commonly used I/O functions such as print are part of the standard prelude and need not be explicitly imported. This library contain more advanced I/O features.
In some cases. isUserError – a programmerdeﬁned error value has been raised using fail. The try function returns an error in a computation explicitly using the Either type. which is already being used (for example. the string returned by ioeGetErrorString is the argument that was passed to fail. the library provides functions to interrogate and construct values in IOError: isAlreadyExistsError – the operation failed because one of its arguments already exists. ioeGetFileName which returns Just if the error value refers to ﬁle . CHAPTER 21. This is an abstract type. The bracket function captures a common allocate. isDoesNotExistError – the operation failed because one of its arguments does not exist.1 I/O Errors Errors of type IOError are used by the I/O monad. isPermissionError – the operation failed because the user does not have sufﬁcient operating system privilege to perform that operation. isFullError – the operation failed because the device is full. isEOFError – the operation failed because the end of ﬁle has been reached. for all other errors. Additional errors which could be raised by an implementation are listed after the corresponding operation. isAlreadyInUseError – the operation failed because one of its arguments is a singleuse resource. an implementation will not be able to distinguish between the possible error causes. deallocate idiom in which the deallocation step must occur even in the case of an error during computation. In this case it should return isIllegalOperation. This is similar to trycatchﬁnally in Java. and Nothing otherwise. opening the same ﬁle twice for writing might give this error). Any computation which returns an IO result may fail with isIllegalOperation. and False otherwise. and ioeGetErrorString which returns a string. 4 ¦ ¢ 7 ¦ ¥ 4 ¦ ¢ 7 ¦ ¥ .212 are contained in the Directory library. which is True if its argument is the corresponding kind of error. isIllegalOperation – the operation is not possible. All these functions return a Bool. For “user” errors (those which are raised using fail). These are ioeGetHandle which returns Just if the error value refers to handle and Nothing otherwise. Three additional functions are provided to obtain information about an error value. the string is implementationdependent. INPUT/OUTPUT 21. compute.
or any other object recognised by the operating system.2 Files and Handles Haskell interfaces to the external world through an abstract ﬁle system.1 Standard Handles Three handles are allocated during program initialisation. likewise.2. Files can be opened. 21. directories may themselves be ﬁle system objects and could be entries in other directories. and normally reside on disk. it is writable if it manages only output or both input and output. In some implementations. FILES AND HANDLES 213 21. whether buffering is disabled. Handles are in the Show and Eq classes. whether it is open. A handle is open when ﬁrst allocated.2. any nondirectory ﬁle system object is termed a ﬁle. Most handles will also have a current I/O position indicating where the next input or output operation will occur. ordered ﬁles. A handle is equal according to == only to itself. no attempt is made to compare the internal state of different handles for equality. . Once it is closed it can no longer be used for either input or output. The third (stderr) manages output to the standard error channel.21. closed or semiclosed. Each value of this type is a handle: a record used by the Haskell runtime system to manage I/O with ﬁle system objects. it should include enough information to identify the handle for debugging. a buffer (whose length may be zero). For simplicity. whose precise meaning is operating system dependent. These handles are initially open. represented by values of type Handle. whether the object is seekable. though an implementation cannot reuse its storage while references remain to it. The string produced by showing a handle is system dependent. Haskell deﬁnes operations to read and write characters from and to ﬁles. yielding a handle which can then be used to operate on the contents of that ﬁle. This ﬁle system is a collection of named ﬁle system objects. A handle is readable if it manages only input or both input and output. or enabled on a line or block basis. File and directory names are values of type String. Physical ﬁles are persistent. which may be organised in directories (see Directory). The ﬁrst two (stdin and stdout) manage input or output from the Haskell program’s standard input or output channel respectively. although it could in fact be a communication channel. A handle has at least the following properties: whether it manages input or output or both.
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21.2.2 SemiClosed Handles
The operation hGetContents (Section 21.9.4) puts a handle into an intermediate state, semiclosed. In this state, is effectively closed, but items are read from on demand and accumulated in a special list returned by hGetContents . Any operation that fails because a handle is closed, also fails if a handle is semiclosed. The only exception is hClose. A semiclosed handle becomes closed: if hClose is applied to it;
if an I/O error occurs when reading an item from the handle;
or once the entire contents of the handle has been read.
Once a semiclosed handle becomes closed, the contents of the associated list becomes ﬁxed. The contents of this ﬁnal list is only partially speciﬁed: it will contain at least all the items of the stream that were evaluated prior to the handle becoming closed. Any I/O errors encountered while a handle is semiclosed are simply discarded.
21.2.3 File locking
Implementations should enforce as far as possible, at least locally to the Haskell process, multiplereader singlewriter locking on ﬁles. That is, there may either be many handles on the same ﬁle which manage input, or just one handle on the ﬁle which manages output. If any open or semiclosed handle is managing a ﬁle for output, no new handle can be allocated for that ﬁle. If any open or semiclosed handle is managing a ﬁle for input, new handles can only be allocated if they do not manage output. Whether two ﬁles are the same is implementationdependent, but they should normally be the same if they have the same absolute path name and neither has been renamed, for example. Warning: the readFile operation (Section 7.1) holds a semiclosed handle on the ﬁle until the entire contents of the ﬁle have been consumed. It follows that an attempt to write to a ﬁle (using writeFile, for example) that was earlier opened by readFile will usually result in failure with isAlreadyInUseError.
21.3 Opening and Closing Files
21.3.1 Opening Files
Computation openFile allocates and returns a new, open handle to manage the ﬁle . It manages input if is ReadMode, output if is WriteMode or AppendMode, and both input and output if mode is ReadWriteMode.
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is If the ﬁle does not exist and it is opened for output, it should be created as a new ﬁle. If WriteMode and the ﬁle already exists, then it should be truncated to zero length. Some operating systems delete empty ﬁles, so there is no guarantee that the ﬁle will exist following an openFile with WriteMode unless it is subsequently written to successfully. The handle is positioned at the end of the ﬁle if is AppendMode, and otherwise at the beginning (in which case its internal I/O position is 0). The initial buffer mode is implementationdependent. If openFile fails on a ﬁle opened for output, the ﬁle may still have been created if it did not already exist. Error reporting: the openFile computation may fail with isAlreadyInUseError if the ﬁle is already open and cannot be reopened; isDoesNotExistError if the ﬁle does not exist; or isPermissionError if the user does not have permission to open the ﬁle.
21.3.2 Closing Files
makes handle closed. Before the computation ﬁnishes, if is Computation hClose writable its buffer is ﬂushed as for hFlush. Performing hClose on a handle that has already been closed has no effect; doing so not an error. All other operations on a closed handle will fail. If hClose fails for any reason, any further operations (apart from hClose) on the handle will still fail as if had been successfully closed.
¥ ¥ ¥
21.4 Determining the Size of a File
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For a handle in 8bit bytes (
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returns the size of that ﬁle
21.5 Detecting the End of Input
For a readable handle , computation hIsEOF returns True if no further input can be taken ; for a handle attached to a physical ﬁle this means that the current I/O position is equal from to the length of the ﬁle. Otherwise, it returns False. The computation isEOF is identical, except that it works only on stdin.
¥ ¥
21.6 Buffering Operations
Three kinds of buffering are supported: linebuffering, blockbuffering or nobuffering. These modes have the following effects. For output, items are written out, or ﬂushed, from the internal buffer according to the buffer mode:
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linebuffering: the entire buffer is ﬂushed whenever a newline is output, the buffer overﬂows, a hFlush is issued, or the handle is closed. blockbuffering: the entire buffer is written out whenever it overﬂows, a hFlush is issued, or the handle is closed.
nobuffering: output is written immediately, and never stored in the buffer.
An implementation is free to ﬂush the buffer more frequently, but not less frequently, than speciﬁed above. The buffer is emptied as soon as it has been written out.
¥
Similarly, input occurs according to the buffer mode for handle
linebuffering: when the buffer for is not empty, the next item is obtained from the buffer; otherwise, when the buffer is empty, characters are read into the buffer until the next newline character is encountered or the buffer is full. No characters are available until the newline character is available or the buffer is full.
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blockbuffering: when the buffer for the buffer.
becomes empty, the next block of data is read into
nobuffering: the next input item is read and returned. The hLookAhead operation (Section 21.9.3) implies that even a nobuffered handle may require a onecharacter buffer.
For most implementations, physical ﬁles will normally be blockbuffered and terminals will normally be linebuffered.
¥
If is BlockBuffering , then blockbuffering is enabled if possible. The size of the buffer is items if is Just and is otherwise implementationdependent.
If the buffer mode is changed from BlockBuffering or LineBuffering to NoBuffering, then
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if
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if
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is NoBuffering, then buffering is disabled if possible.
is writable, the buffer is ﬂushed as for hFlush; is not writable, the contents of the buffer is discarded.
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Computation hSetBuffering reads and writes.
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21.7. REPOSITIONING HANDLES
217
Error reporting: the hSetBuffering computation may fail with isPermissionError if the handle has already been used for reading or writing and the implementation does not allow the buffering mode to be changed.
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Computation hGetBuffering
returns the current buffering mode for
The default buffering mode when a handle is opened is implementationdependent and may depend on the ﬁle system object which is attached to that handle.
21.6.1 Flushing Buffers
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Computation hFlush to the operating system.
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causes any items buffered for output in handle
to be sent immediately
Error reporting: the hFlush computation may fail with: isFullError if the device is full; isPermissionError if a system resource limit would be exceeded. It is unspeciﬁed whether the characters in the buffer are discarded or retained under these circumstances.
21.7 Repositioning Handles
21.7.1 Revisiting an I/O Position
returns the current I/O position of as a value of the abstract type Computation hGetPosn HandlePosn. If a call to hGetPosn returns a position , then computation hSetPosn sets the position of to the position it held at the time of the call to hGetPosn. Error reporting: the hSetPosn computation may fail with: isPermissionError if a system resource limit would be exceeded.
21.7.2 Seeking to a new Position
The offset is given in terms of 8bit bytes. If is block or linebuffered, then seeking to a position which is not in the current buffer will ﬁrst cause any items in the output buffer to be written to the device, and then cause the input buffer
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SeekFromEnd: the position of
is set to offset from the end of the ﬁle.
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is set to offset from the current position.
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is set to .
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Computation hSeek
sets the position of handle
depending on
. If
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CHAPTER 21. INPUT/OUTPUT
to be discarded. Some handles may not be seekable (see hIsSeekable), or only support a subset of the possible positioning operations (for instance, it may only be possible to seek to the end of a tape, or to a positive offset from the beginning or current position). It is not possible to set a negative I/O position, or for a physical ﬁle, an I/O position beyond the current endofﬁle. Error reporting: the hSeek computation may fail with: isPermissionError if a system resource limit would be exceeded.
21.8 Handle Properties
The functions hIsOpen, hIsClosed, hIsReadable, hIsWritable and hIsSeekable return information about the properties of a handle. Each of these returns True if the handle has the speciﬁed property, and False otherwise.
21.9 Text Input and Output
Here we deﬁne a standard set of input operations for reading characters and strings from text ﬁles, using handles. Many of these functions are generalizations of Prelude functions. I/O in the Prelude generally uses stdin and stdout; here, handles are explicitly speciﬁed by the I/O operation.
21.9.1 Checking for Input
Computation hWaitForInput waits until input is available on handle . It returns True as soon as input is available on , or False if no input is available within milliseconds.
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Computation hReady .
indicates whether at least one item is available for input from handle
Error reporting: the hWaitForInput and hReady computations fail with isEOFError if the end of ﬁle has been reached.
21.9.2 Reading Input
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Computation hGetChar
reads a character from the ﬁle or channel managed by
Error reporting: the hGetChar computation fails with isEOFError if the end of ﬁle has been reached. The hGetLine computation fails with isEOFError if the end of ﬁle is encountered when reading the ﬁrst character of the line. If hGetLine encounters endofﬁle at any other point while reading in a line, it is treated as a line terminator and the (partial) line is returned.
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Computation hGetLine reads a line from the ﬁle or channel managed by getLine is a shorthand for hGetLine stdin.
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9.1 Summing Two Numbers This program reads and sums two Integers. which is made semiclosed. blocking until a character is available.10.10. Char 7 ¦ 7 ¦ ¥ .10 Examples Here are some simple examples to illustrate Haskell I/O.21. EXAMPLES 219 21. 7 ¦ 7 ¦ 7 ¦ 7 ¦ ¥ 7 ¦ ¥ 7 ¦ 7 ¦ ¥ without removing it 7 ¦ § . the ﬁle or channel managed by given by the shows function to Error reporting: the hPutChar.9. or isPermissionError if another system resource limit would be exceeded. Computation hPrint writes the string representation of and appends a newline.4 Reading The Entire Input 7 ¦ Computation hGetContents of the channel or ﬁle managed by ¥ returns the list of characters corresponding to the unread portion . Error reporting: the hGetContents computation may fail with: isEOFError if the end of ﬁle has been reached.5 Text Output ¥ writes the character to the ﬁle or channel managed by Computation hPutChar acters may be buffered if buffering is enabled for . 21.9. 21. ¥ © © ¥ Computation hPutStr ¥ writes the string to the ﬁle or channel managed by § . hPutStr and hPrint computations may fail with: isFullError if the device is full.3 Reading Ahead ¥ Computation hLookAhead returns the next character from handle from the input buffer. ¥ Error reporting: the hLookAhead computation may fail with: isEOFError if the end of ﬁle has been reached. 21. 21.
x2 readNum = readLn 21.10. INPUT/OUTPUT main = do hSetBuffering stdout NoBuffering putStr "Enter an integer: " x1 <.f2] <.220 import IO CHAPTER 21.getArgs h1 <. using string I/O is: . with all lowercase characters translated to uppercase.readNum putStr "Enter another integer: " x2 <. This program will not allow a ﬁle to be copied to itself.readNum putStr ("Their sum is " ++ show (x1+x2) ++ "\n") where readNum :: IO Integer .openFile f1 ReadMode h2 <. This version uses characterlevel I/O.the defaulting rule to fix the type of x1.2 Copying Files A simple program to create a copy of a ﬁle. Note that exactly two arguments must be supplied to the program.hIsEOF h1 if eof then return () else do c <.Providing a type signature avoids reliance on .hGetChar h1 hPutChar h2 (toUpper c) copyFile h1 h2 An equivalent but much shorter version. import IO import System import Char( toUpper ) main = do [f1.openFile f2 WriteMode copyFile h1 h2 hClose h1 hClose h2 copyFile h1 h2 = do eof <.
11.actions that IO exports.getArgs s <.export list omitted } where .f return (Right r)) (return . try try f :: IO a > IO (Either IOError a) = catch (do r <.variant of the above where middle computation doesn’t want x bracket_ :: IO a > (a > IO b) > IO c > IO c bracket_ before after m = do x <. LIBRARY IO import System import Char( toUpper ) main = do [f1.before rs <. Left) bracket :: IO a > (a > IO b) > (a > IO c) > IO c bracket before after m = do x <.try m after x case rs of Right r > return r Left e > ioError e .f2] <.Just provide an implementation of the systemindependent .try (m x) after x case rs of Right r > return r Left e > ioError e .before rs <.21.11 Library IO module IO {.readFile f1 writeFile f2 (map toUpper s) 221 21.
222 CHAPTER 21. INPUT/OUTPUT .
223 .
readable. searchable :: Bool } instance instance instance instance Eq Ord Read Show Permissions Permissions Permissions Permissions where where where where . writable. . renameFile. .... getCurrentDirectory. doesDirectoryExist. getDirectoryContents. removeDirectory. DIRECTORY FUNCTIONS Chapter 22 Directory Functions module Directory ( Permissions( Permissions. getModificationTime ) where import Time ( ClockTime ) data Permissions = Permissions { readable... doesFileExist. setPermissions.224 CHAPTER 22. getPermissions. renameDirectory. executable. setCurrentDirectory.. searchable )... writable. . removeFile. createDirectory. executable. > > > > > IO () IO () IO () FilePath > IO () FilePath > IO () createDirectory removeDirectory removeFile renameDirectory renameFile getDirectoryContents getCurrentDirectory setCurrentDirectory doesFileExist doesDirectoryExist getPermissions setPermissions getModificationTime :: :: :: :: :: FilePath FilePath FilePath FilePath FilePath :: FilePath > IO [FilePath] :: IO FilePath :: FilePath > IO () :: FilePath > IO Bool :: FilePath > IO Bool :: FilePath > IO Permissions :: FilePath > Permissions > IO () :: FilePath > IO ClockTime .
The implementation may specify additional constraints which must be satisﬁed before a ﬁle can be removed (for instance. If the object already exists. inaccessible. Error reporting. “. There is normally at least one absolute path to each ﬁle system object.225 These functions operate on directories in the ﬁle system. Error reporting.” under POSIX). or across different physical devices). however. or isDoesNotExistError if the ﬁle/directory does not exist. Some entries may be hidden. the ﬁle may not be in use by other processes). or isDoesNotExistError if the new directory’s parent does not exist. In some operating systems. Entries in subdirectories are not. removal of the root directory). but all such entries are considered to form part of the directory contents. The removeDirectory and removeFile computations may fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to remove the ﬁle/directory. or may not be in use by other processes). Neither path ¦ ¦ 7 7 2 2 7 7 ¦ 7 2 ¦ 7 ¤§ 2 ¦ ¤§ creates a new directory Computation createDirectory near to empty as the operating system allows. or as £ ¦ ¦ ¦ 7 7 7 2 2 £ £ ¦ ¦ £ £ ¦ ¦ £ ¦ . as described in Section 21.). it may also be possible to have paths which are relative to the current directory. Although there may be ﬁle system objects other than ﬁles and directories. but the constraints must be documented. where is Computation removeFile not itself a directory. A conformant implementation need not support directory removal in all situations (for instance. Computation renameDirectory changes the name of an existing directory from to . this library does not distinguish between physical ﬁles and other nondirectory objects. it is removed as if by removeDirectory. if an implementation does not support an operation it should raise an isIllegalOperation. it is atomically replaced by the object. A conformant implementation need not support renaming directories in all situations (for instance. If the directory is neither the directory nor an alias of the directory.. renaming to an existing directory. Note that. considered to form part of the directory contents. Each ﬁle system object is referenced by a path. All such objects should therefore be treated as if they are ﬁles. each of which is a named reference to a ﬁle system object (ﬁle. removes the directory entry for an existing ﬁle . in particular. A directory contains a series of entries. or have some administrative function (for instance. isAlreadyExistsError if the directory already exists. ¦ ¦ 7 2 £ ¦ ¤§ ¦ ¤§ 7 ¦ 2 ¦ which is initially empty. directory etc. Any Directory operation could raise an isIllegalOperation. The createDirectory computation may fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to create the directory. Computation renameFile changes the name of an existing ﬁle system object from to .1. If the directory already exists. The implementation Computation removeDirectory may specify additional constraints which must be satisﬁed before a directory can be removed (for instance. all other permissible errors are described below. it is atomically replaced by the directory. removes an existing directory .” or “. the directory has to be empty. It is not legal for an implementation to partially remove a directory unless the entire directory is removed.
getPermissions f setPermissions f (p {readable = True}) The operation doesDirectoryExist returns True if the argument ﬁle exists and is a directory. Permissions apply both to ﬁles and directories. or isDoesNotExistError if the ﬁle/directory ¤§ If the operating system has a notion of current directories. ¦ ¦ . but not all permissions. not as an absolute path. or if either argument to renameFile is a directory. but not to examine the directory contents. or isDoesNotExistError if the directory does not exist. Error reporting.226 CHAPTER 22. The operation doesFileExist returns True if the argument ﬁle exists and is not a directory. The renameDirectory and renameFile computations may fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to rename the ﬁle/directory. and False otherwise. the executable ﬁeld will be False. A conformant implementation need not support renaming ﬁles in all situations (for instance. If the operating system has a notion of current directories. The getDirectoryContents and getCurrentDirectory computations may fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to access the directory. get(set)Permissions. Error reporting. renaming across different physical devices). and for ﬁles the searchable ﬁeld will be False. The Permissions type is used to record whether certain operations are permissible on a ﬁle/directory. setCurrentDirectory may fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to change directory to that speciﬁed. setCurrentDirectory the current directory of the calling process to . Error reporting. or isDoesNotExistError if the ﬁle/directory does not exist. Error reporting. and getModificationTime may fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to access the appropriate information. respectively. but the constraints must be documented. Each entry in the changes . Note that directories may be searchable without being readable. getPermissions and setPermissions get and set these permissions. if permission has been given to use them as part of a path. ¦ ¤§ ¤§ ¤§ ¤§ ¦ ¦ Computation getDirectoryContents returned list is named relative to the directory returns a list of all entries in . The getModificationTime operation returns the clock time at which the ﬁle/directory was last modiﬁed. makeReadable f = do p <. or isDoesNotExistError if the directory does not exist. DIRECTORY FUNCTIONS may refer to an existing directory. and False otherwise. getCurrentDirectory returns an absolute path to the current directory of the calling process. For directories. doesFile(Directory)Exist. Note that to change some. a construct on the following lines must be used.
The setPermissions computation may also fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to change the permission for the speciﬁed ﬁle or directory.227 does not exist. or isDoesNotExistError if the ﬁle/directory does not exist. .
DIRECTORY FUNCTIONS .228 CHAPTER 22.
The ExitCode type deﬁnes the exit codes that a program can return. some values of may be prohibited (for instance. exitFailure ) where data ExitCode = ExitSuccess  ExitFailure Int deriving (Eq. If variable is undeﬁned. exitWith. all other permissible errors are described below.Chapter 23 System Functions module System ( ExitCode(ExitSuccess. and ExitFailure indicates program failure with value . Read. the isDoesNotExistError exception is raised. getEnv. 229 ¤ ¢ ¦ ¦ 2 2 ¤ ¢ ¦ 2 ¤ ¢ ¦ 2 . getArgs. ExitSuccess indicates successful termination. getProgName. Computation getProgName returns the name of the program as it was invoked.ExitFailure). if an implementation does not support an operation it must raise an isIllegalOperation. in particular. Ord. 0 on a POSIXcompliant system). system. In particular. Computation getArgs returns a list of the program’s command line arguments (not including the program name). Any System operation could raise an isIllegalOperation. Show) getArgs getProgName getEnv system exitWith exitFailure :: :: :: :: :: :: IO [String] IO String String > IO String String > IO ExitCode ExitCode > IO a IO a This library describes the interaction of the program with the operating system.1. as described in Section 21. Note that. The exact interpretation of is operatingsystem dependent. Computation getEnv returns the value of the environment variable .
The caller may interpret the return code as it wishes. and ExitFailure to mean that the program encountered a problem from which it ). returning to the program’s caller. SYSTEM FUNCTIONS ¦ ¦ Computation exitWith terminates the program. Otherwise. if any program terminates without calling exitWith explicitly. The value exitFailure is equal to exitWith (ExitFailure where is implementationdependent. any open or semiclosed handles are ﬁrst closed. If a program terminates as a result of calling error or because its value is otherwise determined to be . ¦ returns the exit code produced when the operating system processes 4 7 ¢ § 0 § § S ¢ ¡ ¡ . Before the program terminates. it is treated identically to the computation ( >> exitWith ExitSuccess) ‘catch‘ \ _ > exitFailure 7 ¢ § 0 § § S ¢ ¦ 2 ¦ 2 4 Computation system the command . then it is treated identically to the computation exitFailure. exitWith bypasses the error handling in the I/O monad and cannot be intercepted by catch. but the program should return ExitSuccess to mean normal completion.230 CHAPTER 23. could not recover.
231 .
toUTCTime.Saturday).Implementationdependent data Month = January  February  March  April  May  June  July  August  September  October  November  December deriving (Eq. Enum. Ord.May. ctMin. Bool data CalendarTime = CalendarTime { ctYear ctMonth ctDay. DATES AND TIMES Chapter 24 Dates and Times module Time ( ClockTime. instance Ord ClockTime where . tdPicosec :: Integer } deriving (Eq.September.Monday. Show) data Day = Sunday  Monday  Tuesday  Wednesday  Thursday  Friday  Saturday deriving (Eq. Read. ctMin.232 CHAPTER 24. Show) . ctYDay.Thursday.December).June. tdDay.Tuesday. Ord. tdPicosec). addToClockTime. Enum. Ord. tdDay. Int. ctSec ctPicosec ctWDay ctYDay ctTZName ctTZ ctIsDST } deriving (Eq. tdMin. ctYear. Ix. ctTZName. ctHour. ctDay. ctWDay. calendarTimeToString.February.. tdMonth.October.. ctPicosec. Day(Sunday. Bounded. tdSec. Day. Bounded. tdYear. Integer. .August. tdHour. CalendarTime(CalendarTime. Ix. Int.Friday. Ord. Read. tdSec :: Int..April. ctMonth.November. diffClockTimes.Wednesday. Show) :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Int. formatCalendarTime ) where import Ix(Ix) data ClockTime = . String.. Month. ctTZ. getClockTime. toCalendarTime. Read. tdHour. tdMonth. Read.March. Show) data TimeDiff = TimeDiff { tdYear. toClockTime. instance Eq ClockTime where . ctIsDST). TimeDiff(TimeDiff. tdMin. ctSec. Int.. July. Month(January.. ctHour.
ClockTime is an abstract type. including timezone information. Function toCalendarTime converts to a local time.233 . Because of this dependence on the local environment. Clock times may be compared directly or converted to a calendar time CalendarTime for I/O or other manipulations. Value ctYear maxInt ctDay 1 ctHour 0 ctMin 0 ctSec 0 ctPicosec 0 ctYDay 0 ctTZ 89999 Range maxInt 31 23 59 61 365 89999 £ Comments PreGregorian dates are inaccurate The ﬁeld is the name of the time zone. toCalendarTime is in the IO monad. The expression addToClockTime adds a time difference and a clock time to yield a new clock time. The expression diffClockTimes the difference between two clock times and as a TimeDiff. The returns difference may be either positive or negative. Function getClockTime returns the current time in its internal representation.Functions on times getClockTime :: IO ClockTime addToClockTime diffClockTimes toCalendarTime toUTCTime toClockTime calendarTimeToString formatCalendarTime :: TimeDiff > ClockTime > ClockTime :: ClockTime > ClockTime > TimeDiff :: :: :: :: :: ClockTime > IO CalendarTime ClockTime > CalendarTime CalendarTime > ClockTime CalendarTime > String TimeLocale > String > CalendarTime > String The Time library provides standard functionality for clock times. CalendarTime is a userreadable and manipulable representation of the internal ClockTime type. The TimeDiff type records the difference between two clock times in a userreadable way. § § © S§ ¤ § § § t ¢ £ ¦ ¤ § 8¥¥8 8 8¥¥8 8 ¤ ¢ ¤ £ 8¥¥8 8 8¥¥8 8 8¥¥8 8 8¥¥8 8 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 Allows for two Leap Seconds 364 in nonLeap years Variation from UTC in seconds § § ¦ 4 ¢ ¦ E ¡ § . The numeric ﬁelds have the following ranges. modiﬁed by the timezone and daylight savings time settings in force at the time of conversion. and False otherwise. It follows RFC 1129 in its use of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). used for the system’s internal clock time. The ﬁeld is True if Daylight Savings Time would be in effect.
tdHour. Ix.. Read. Ord.May.defaultTimeLocale) import Char ( intToDigit ) data ClockTime = .. Ord.Monday. Function calendarTimeToString formats calendar times using local conventions and a formatting string.Saturday).1 Library Time module Time ( ClockTime. calendarTimeToString. ctTZName. .234 § CHAPTER 24. Bounded. t © S§ 24.October. addToClockTime.Implementationdependent data Month = January  February  March  April  May  June  July  August  September  October  November  December deriving (Eq. ctTZ. tdSec. DATES AND TIMES Function toUTCTime converts into a CalendarTime in standard UTC format. July. ctYDay. toClockTime. ctIsDST). instance Ord ClockTime where . and ﬁelds.Friday. diffClockTimes. ctMin.. ctWDay.December). CalendarTime(CalendarTime.March. TimeDiff(TimeDiff. instance Eq ClockTime where . toCalendarTime.. Enum. toClockTime converts into the corresponding internal ClockTime ignoring the contents of the . tdMin. tdYear. ctHour.Thursday..September. ctPicosec. getClockTime.Tuesday. formatCalendarTime ) where import Ix(Ix) import Locale(TimeLocale(.April.). tdDay. Ix. . ctSec.February. tdPicosec). Day(Sunday.August. Enum. Month(January. . toUTCTime.. Bounded. ctDay. Read. ctMonth.Wednesday.. Show) ¢ £ 4 ¢ E ¡ 7 § § ¢ G § 7 ¢ ( § .November. ctYear.June. Show) data Day = Sunday  Monday  Tuesday  Wednesday  Thursday  Friday  Saturday deriving (Eq. tdMonth.
:: ClockTime = .Implementationdependent > CalendarTime .Implementationdependent > ClockTime > TimeDiff . > ClockTime > ClockTime ..Implementationdependent :: TimeDiff = .. ctSec ctPicosec ctWDay ctYDay ctTZName ctTZ ctIsDST } deriving (Eq. tdPicosec :: Integer } deriving (Eq. Show) 235 :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Int. .. Read. String. tdHour.. Int.Implementationdependent :: CalendarTime > ClockTime = ... tdMin. Read... :: ClockTime = . ctMin. tdDay. tdMonth. :: ClockTime = . Integer..1. .. Bool data TimeDiff = TimeDiff { tdYear. Int. Show) getClockTime getClockTime addToClockTime addToClockTime td ct diffClockTimes diffClockTimes ct1 ct2 toCalendarTime toCalendarTime ct toUTCTime toUTCTime ct toClockTime toClockTime cal calendarTimeToString calendarTimeToString :: IO ClockTime = . tdSec :: Int. Month. Day. Int. LIBRARY TIME data CalendarTime = CalendarTime { ctYear ctMonth ctDay..Implementationdependent > IO CalendarTime .. ctHour.24.Implementationdependent :: CalendarTime > String = formatCalendarTime defaultTimeLocale "%c" . Ord. Ord.
days) = (yday + 7 ..1 else 6) ‘divMod‘ 7 in show2 (if days >= 4 then . .fromEnum wday) ‘div‘ 7) show (let n = fromEnum wday in if n == 0 then 7 else n) decode ’V’ = let (week.Implementationdependent show2 ((yday + 7 . DATES AND TIMES formatCalendarTime :: TimeLocale > String > CalendarTime > String formatCalendarTime l fmt ct@(CalendarTime year mon day hour min sec sdec wday yday tzname _ _) = doFmt fmt where doFmt (’%’:c:cs) = decode c ++ doFmt cs doFmt (c:cs) = c : doFmt cs doFmt "" = "" to12 :: Int > Int to12 h = let h’ = h ‘mod‘ 12 in if h’ == 0 then 12 else h’ decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode ’A’ ’a’ ’B’ ’b’ ’h’ ’C’ ’c’ ’D’ ’d’ ’e’ ’H’ ’I’ ’j’ ’k’ ’l’ ’M’ ’m’ ’n’ ’p’ ’R’ ’r’ ’T’ ’t’ ’S’ ’s’ ’U’ ’u’ = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = fst (wDays l !! fromEnum wday) snd (wDays l !! fromEnum wday) fst (months l !! fromEnum mon) snd (months l !! fromEnum mon) snd (months l !! fromEnum mon) show2 (year ‘quot‘ 100) doFmt (dateTimeFmt l) doFmt "%m/%d/%y" show2 day show2’ day show2 hour show2 (to12 hour) show3 yday show2’ hour show2’ (to12 hour) show2 min show2 (fromEnum mon+1) "\n" (if hour < 12 then fst else snd) (amPm l) doFmt "%H:%M" doFmt (time12Fmt l) doFmt "%H:%M:%S" "\t" show2 sec .if fromEnum wday > 0 then fromEnum wday .236 CHAPTER 24..
1 else 6) ‘div‘ 7) decode ’w’ = show (fromEnum wday) decode ’X’ = doFmt (timeFmt l) decode ’x’ = doFmt (dateFmt l) decode ’Y’ = show year decode ’y’ = show2 (year ‘rem‘ 100) decode ’Z’ = tzname decode ’%’ = "%" decode c = [c] show2. show2’.if fromEnum wday > 0 then fromEnum wday . LIBRARY TIME week+1 else if week == 0 then 53 else week) decode ’W’ = show2 ((yday + 7 . show3 :: Int > String show2 x = [intToDigit (x ‘quot‘ 10). intToDigit x] else show2 x show3 x = intToDigit (x ‘quot‘ 100) : show2 (x ‘rem‘ 100) 237 . intToDigit (x ‘rem‘ 10)] show2’ x = if x < 10 then [ ’ ’.1.24.
238 CHAPTER 24. DATES AND TIMES .
String)]. timeFmt. dateFmt. time12Fmt :: String } deriving (Eq. Ord.). String). amPm :: (String. defaultTimeLocale) where data TimeLocale = TimeLocale { wDays :: [(String.Chapter 25 Locale module Locale(TimeLocale(. String)]. months :: [(String.. Show) defaultTimeLocale :: TimeLocale full and abbreviated week days full and abbreviated months AM/PM symbols formatting strings The Locale library provides the ability to adapt to local conventions. At present. 239 . it supports only time and date information as used by calendarTimeToString from the Time library. dateTimeFmt.
240
CHAPTER 25. LOCALE
25.1 Library Locale
module Locale(TimeLocale(..), defaultTimeLocale) where data TimeLocale = TimeLocale { wDays :: [(String, String)], months :: [(String, String)], amPm :: (String, String), dateTimeFmt, dateFmt, timeFmt, time12Fmt :: String } deriving (Eq, Ord, Show) full and abbreviated week days full and abbreviated months AM/PM symbols formatting strings
defaultTimeLocale :: TimeLocale defaultTimeLocale = TimeLocale { wDays = [("Sunday", "Sun"), ("Monday", "Mon"), ("Tuesday", "Tue"), ("Wednesday", "Wed"), ("Thursday", "Thu"), ("Friday", "Fri"), ("Saturday", "Sat")], months = [("January", ("March", ("May", ("July", ("September", ("November", "Jan"), "Mar"), "May"), "Jul"), "Sep"), "Nov"), ("February", ("April", ("June", ("August", ("October", ("December", "Feb"), "Apr"), "Jun"), "Aug"), "Oct"), "Dec")],
amPm = ("AM", "PM"), dateTimeFmt = "%a %b %e %H:%M:%S %Z %Y", dateFmt = "%m/%d/%y", timeFmt = "%H:%M:%S", time12Fmt = "%I:%M:%S %p" }
Chapter 26
CPU Time
module CPUTime ( getCPUTime, cpuTimePrecision ) where getCPUTime cpuTimePrecision :: IO Integer :: Integer
Computation getCPUTime returns the number of picoseconds of CPU time used by the current program. The precision of this result is given by cpuTimePrecision. This is the smallest measurable difference in CPU time that the implementation can record, and is given as an integral number of picoseconds.
241
242
CHAPTER 26. CPU TIME
243
244
CHAPTER 27. RANDOM NUMBERS
Chapter 27
Random Numbers
module Random ( RandomGen(next, split, genRange), StdGen, mkStdGen, Random( random, randomR, randoms, randomRs, randomIO, randomRIO ), getStdRandom, getStdGen, setStdGen, newStdGen ) where  The RandomGen class class RandomGen genRange :: g next :: g split :: g g where > (Int, Int) > (Int, g) > (g, g)
 A standard instance of RandomGen data StdGen = ...  Abstract instance RandomGen StdGen where ... instance Read StdGen where ... instance Show StdGen where ... mkStdGen :: Int > StdGen  The Random class class Random a where randomR :: RandomGen g => (a, a) > g > (a, g) random :: RandomGen g => g > (a, g) randomRs :: RandomGen g => (a, a) > g > [a] randoms :: RandomGen g => g > [a] randomRIO :: (a,a) > IO a randomIO :: IO a instance instance instance instance instance instance Random Random Random Random Random Random Int Integer Float Double Bool Char where where where where where where ... ... ... ... ... ...
 The global random generator newStdGen :: IO StdGen setStdGen :: StdGen > IO () getStdGen :: IO StdGen getStdRandom :: (StdGen > (a, StdGen)) > IO a
27. The library is split into two layers: A core random number generator provides a supply of bits.1. For example. 27. g) split :: g > (g. without being concerned that the generator returned by (say) next might have a different range to the generator passed to next. when passing a random number generator down to recursive calls). by starting with a speciﬁed initial random number generator. and hence the value it returns can be determined only by the instance of RandomGen. or by supplying a seed from some other source.Default method genRange g = (minBound. and the StdGen generator The class RandomGen provides a common interface to random number generators. AND THE STDGEN GENERATOR 245 The Random library deals with the common task of pseudorandom number generation. – genRange – If genRange . That in turn allows an implementation to make a single call to genRange to establish a generator’s range.4] are the only examples we know of). . This is very useful in functional programs (for example. The split operation allows one to obtain two independent random number generators. but very little work has been done on statistically robust implementations of split ([1. and a new generator.maxBound) The genRange operation yields the range of values returned by the generator.1 The RandomGen class. g) . The class Random provides a way to extract particular values from a random number generator. then . or to get different results on each run by using the systeminitialised generator. THE RANDOMGEN CLASS. The class RandomGen provides a common interface to such generators. the Float instance of Random allows one to generate random values of type Float. It is required that: The second condition ensures that genRange cannot examine its argument. The library makes it possible to generate repeatable results. ¦ ¡ ¡ . class RandomGen g where genRange :: g > (Int. The next operation returns an Int that is uniformly distributed in the range returned by genRange (including both end points).Int) next :: g > (Int.
distinct arguments should be likely to produce distinct generators. Programmers may.. instance Show StdGen where ... It guarantees to consume only a ﬁnite portion of the string. .. Again.Abstract instance RandomGen StdGen where . The result of repeatedly using next should be at least as statistically robust as the “Minimal Standard Random Number Generator” described by [2. Implementations of the above form do not meet the speciﬁcation. A superﬁcially attractive implementation of split is instance RandomGen MyGen where . . In general. In addition. mkStdGen :: Int > StdGen The StgGen instance of RandomGen has a genRange of at least 30 bits. variantOf g) Here. But now consider these two apparentlyindependent generators: g1 = snd (split g) g2 = snd (split (fst (split g))) If split genuinely delivers independent generators (as speciﬁed)... all we require is that split deliver generators that are (a) not identical and (b) independently robust in the sense just given. but in fact they are both equal to variantOf g. instance Read StdGen where . split returns g itself and a new generator derived from g. Implementation warning. Different argument strings are likely to result in different results. then g1 and g2 should be independent.. the read instance of StdGen has the following properties: It guarantees to succeed on any string.. of course. split g = (g. RANDOM NUMBERS The Random library provides one instance of RandomGen... by mapping an Int into a generator. It is required that read (show g) == g. read may be used to map an arbitrary string (not necessarily one produced by show) onto a value of type StdGen.246 CHAPTER 27. Until more is known about implementations of split. supply their own instances of RandomGen. the abstract data type StdGen: data StdGen = . The function mkStdGen provides an alternative way of producing an initial generator. The Show/Read instances of StdGen provide a primitive way to save the state of a random number generator.3].
randomIO = getStdRandom random randomRIO range = getStdRandom (randomR range) instance instance instance instance instance instance Random Random Random Random Random Random Int Integer Float Double Bool Char where where where where where where . THE RANDOM CLASS 247 27.. For continuous types there is no requirement that the values and are ever produced. the range is (arbitrarily) the range of Int. together with a new generator.2 The Random class With a source of random number supply in hand.. the range is normally the whole type. g) randomRs :: RandomGen g => (a.Default methods randoms g = x : randoms g’ where (x... The plural versions. depending on the implementation and the interval. – For Integer..27. such as Char). but they may be... random does the same as randomR. . g) random :: RandomGen g => g > (a.g’) = random g randomRs = . . produce an inﬁnite list of random values. – For fractional types.. randomR takes a range and a random number generator . a) > g > (a. . . a) > g > [a] randoms :: RandomGen g => g > [a] randomRIO :: (a.similar. It is unspeciﬁed what happens if . . and do not return a new generator. the Random class allows the programmer to extract random values of a variety of types: class Random a where randomR :: RandomGen g => (a. randomRs and randoms.. the range is normally the semiclosed interval ¦ ¨ § ¨¥ 2 7 § ¨¥ £ § ¨¥ 2 7 2 7 § ¨¥ 2 7 ... but does not take a range..2.... – For bounded types (instances of Bounded. . and returns a random value uniformly distributed in the closed interval ..a) > IO a randomIO :: IO a .
RANDOM NUMBERS The IO versions.6)) References [1] FW Burton and RL Page. It is initialised automatically in some systemdependent fashion. 2(2):203212.3 The global random number generator There is a single. updates it with one of the results. getStdRandom uses the supplied function to get a value from the current global random generator.good ones are hard to ﬁnd”. The Web site http://random.3). [3] DG Carta. implicit. Jan 1990. held in some global variable maintained by the IO monad. 27. pp8289. “Two fast implementations of the minimal standard random number generator”. pp8788. Journal of Functional Programming. randomRIO and randomIO. respectively. global random number generator of type StdGen. newStdGen applies split to the current global random generator. ACM SIGSIM Simulation Digest 28(1). and KW Miller.248 CHAPTER 27. StdGen)) > IO a getStdGen and setStdGen get and set the global random number generator. “Distributed random number generation”. 33(1). and updates the global generator with the new generator returned by the function. and returns the other. for example. by using the time of day. For example.at/ is a great source of information. rollDice gets a random integer between 1 and 6: rollDice :: IO Int rollDice = getStdRandom (randomR (1. Comm ACM. April 1992. pp11921201.mat. Oct 1988. July 1998. . “Don’t trust parallel Monte Carlo”. To get deterministic behaviour.ac. [2] SK Park. or Linux’s kernel random number generator. Comm ACM 31(10). “Random number generators .sbg. [4] P Hellekalek. use the global random number generator (see Section 27. use setStdGen. setStdGen getStdGen newStdGen getStdRandom :: :: :: :: StdGen > IO () IO StdGen IO StdGen (StdGen > (a.
New Jersey. Peterson. e [5] J. Yale University. Wadler and S.. A gentle introduction to Haskell. How to make ad hoc polymorphism less ad hoc. Version 3. 2000. Journal of Functional Programming. PrenticeHall International. pages 207–212. Amsterdam. Curry and R. [7] Mark P. Transactions of the American Mathematical Society. Austin. Peyton Jones.L. N. In Proceedings of the 9th ACM Symposium on Principles of Programming Languages. In APL ’81 Conference Proceedings. Reading. Englewood Cliffs. January 1989. The Implementation of Functional Programming Languages. Paris. MA. and J. Typing Haskell in Haskell. Texas. J. 1987. In Proceedings of the 16th ACM Symposium on Principles of Programming Languages. [8] Mark P. Blott. Albuquerque. [6] P. [11] Unicode Consortium. Penﬁeld. December 1969. Principal values and branch cuts in complex APL. [2] H.B. January 1995. A system of constructor classes: overloading and implicit higherorder polymorphism. 2002. Jones. The Unicode Standard. 5(1). Backus. [12] P. Damas and R. Hudak. 21(8):613–641. August 1978. Fasel. 249 . pages 248–256. 1958. May 1996. Combinatory Logic. September 1981. Addison Wesley. NorthHolland Pub. Fax´ n A static semantics for Haskell Journal of Functional Programming. Milner. Technical Report YALEU/DCS/RR901.. Principal type schemes for functional programs. The principal type scheme of an object in combinatory logic. Feys. Jones. CACM. Haskell Workshop. [4] KF. San Francisco.0. [3] L.M. Can programming be liberated from the von Neumann style? A functional style and its algebra of programs. January 1982. Co.R. October 1999. [10] S. [9] P. Hindley.Bibliography [1] J. pages 60–76. 146:29–60. Jr.
250 BIBLIOGRAPHY .
97. 90. see wildcard pattern . 55. 156 ::. 16. 43. 104. 109 >>=. 81. 140 appendFile. 175–177 /=. 84.. 80 \\. 91. 110 ˜. 155. 31. see function application operator. 109 ˆˆ. Code Index entries that refer to nonterminals in the Haskell syntax are shown in an entities are shown in typewriter font. 76 accum. 104. 45. 104. 9. 151. 104. 91. 55. 176. 80 :+. 173. 104. 9. 182 \a. see also + pattern ++. 180. 153 &&. 82. 90. 92. 55. 12 \v. 25. 233. 92. 55. 82. 91. 104. 106 addToClockTime. 142 <=. 79. 55. 151. 12 \n. 177 acos. 12 \b. 55. 115 . 142 :. 173. 104. 129 any. 104. 80 (. 119 ANY. 97. 12 . 104. 104. 51. 55. 84. 91. see lambda abstraction \&.). 84. see aspattern [] (nil). 19 function. 93. 110 $!. 80 ().Index font. 104. 119 ANYseq. 173. 91.). 81. 55. 67. 44. 55. 92. 116 $. 142 >>. 235 aexp. 230 ˆ. 90. 97.. 110 (. 109 ==. 88. Ordinary index entries are shown in a roman font. 173. 55. 110 %. 66 abs. 174. !. 177 !!. 104. 55. 88. 129 any. 109 @. 55. 79. 104. see irrefutable pattern abbreviated module. 105. 139 algebraic datatype. 187 \. 115. 88. 206 apat. 104. 139 ambiguous type. 139 alts. 55. 104. 109 _. 9. 106 acosh. 175. 91. 12 \\. see operator application approxRational. 153 251 § 7 3¢ §§ ¢ ¦ . 91. 142 >=. 105. 84. 90. 104. 126 AppendMode. 142 =<<. 119 alt. 55. 12 \f. 55. 12 \t. 104. 55. 110 /. 62 and. 105 AbsoluteSeek. 12 \r. 186. see also negation . 105 **. 25. 91. 104. 55. 17. 55. 214 application. 55. 92. 91. 217 abstract datatype. 106 +. 104. see trivial type and unit expression *. 129 ap. 55. 55. 106 //. 20–23. 104. 30 <. 174. 91. 177 accumArray. 141 all. 142 >. 202. 81. 55. 104.
79. 104. 174. 197. 137 cdecls. 48. 18. 90 arithmetic sequence. 9. 80 Array (datatype). 226 Char (datatype). 51. 210 CalendarTime (datatype). 115 conditional expression. 156 class. 173. 140 . 129 compare. 38. 41. 176. 74 cname. 38. 38. 156 con. 155. 130 coercion. 98. 48 class environment. 137 BufferMode (datatype). 155. 47. 137 ceiling. 38. 69. 125. 106 assocs. 107 changing the directory. 108 atanh. 17. 42 class method. 194 cdecl. 129 asin. 137 class assertion. 130 conjugate. 9. 233. 173. 9 comment. 17. 235 calendarTimeToString. 111 bounds. 211. 106 atan2. 47. 105 derived instance. 93. 93 comment. 234 closecom. 95 binding. 174 derived. 21 conid. 195. 221 break. 129 closing a ﬁle. 174. 232. 121. 174. 129 ascSymbol. 173. 129 ascii. 195. 211. 215 closure. 177 bracket. 176 array. 11. 130 character. 161. see function binding pattern. 67 with an empty where part. see pattern binding simple pattern. 174 Array (module). 93. 12. 136 Bool (datatype). 31. 49 clock time. 130 ASCII character set. 110 Char (module). 232. 47 class. 137 basic input/output. see transparent character set charesc. 33 ascDigit. 161. 18. 136 cntrl. 198 cis. 106 asinh. 91. 9. 114 atan. 106 atype. 129 ascSmall. 92. 110 boolean. 37 function. 173. 9. 91. 91. 221 bracket_. 143 instance for Char. 142 Complex (module). 9. 41 class declaration. 115 concatMap. 232 ClockTime (datatype). 12 character set ASCII. 23. 79 Bounded (class). 173 accumulated. 177 asTypeOf. 155. 47. 7 ascLarge. 92. 9. 9 endofline. 66. 91. 197 array. 156 conop. 10. 230 catMaybes. 84. 234 char. 12. 140 concat. see simple pattern binding body. see ASCII character set transparent. 12. 12. 235 case expression. 40. 118 btype. 25 INDEX catch. 79. 193. 40.252 arithmetic operator. 177 aspattern (@). 89. 9 nested. 79 literal syntax. 130 chr. 39.
182. 182. 38 constructor expression. 40 consym. 180. 27. 232. 186 elemIndices. 38. see instance declaration within a class declaration. 43. 130 decl. 97 doDiv. 180. 239. 89. 43 datatype. 9. 115. 43 data declaration. 47 within a let expression. 37 class. 235 digit. 213. 93. 137 context reduction. see recursive datatype renaming. 91. 241 CPUTime (module). 187 deleteFirstsBy. 137 declaration. see data declaration default. 56.. 58 decls. 226 curry. 225 denominator. see newtype declaration dateFmt. 184. 224 div. 111 either. 174. 10. 112 drop. 92. 117 dashes. 81. 224. 92. 241 cpuTimePrecision. 234 dclass. 187 deleteBy. 184. 49 declaration group. 153 dependency analysis. 110 constr. 43. 232. 138 decimal. 108 . 141. 58 derived instance. 80. 225 creating a ﬁle. see also instance declaration deriving. 81. 129 digitToInt. 111 elem. 91. 59 cos. 41.INDEX const. 106 do expression. 38. 50. 90. 235 ctIsDST. 114 Curry. 145 default declaration. 119 elemIndex. 11. 239. see import declaration instance. 106 cosine. 235 ctHour. 232. 233. 91. 235 current directory. 197 directories. 138 diffClockTimes. 118 e. 195. vii cycle. Haskell B. 24 within an instance declaration. 130 context. 173. see abstract datatype algebraic. 91. 186 elems. 106 divMod. 239. 180. 138 constrs. 9. 41 context. 106 cosh. see default declaration 253 ﬁxity. 232. 137 decodeFloat. 26. 163 doesDirectoryExist. 43 abstract. 48. 180. 177 encodeFloat. see algebraic datatype declaration. 180. 81. 108 default class method. 51. 43. 118 dropWhile. 240 Day (datatype). 224 Directory (module). 93 CPU time. 167 Either (datatype). 93. 129 data constructor. 104. see class declaration datatype. 187 deleting directories. 138 constructor class. 241 createDirectory. 55. 224 doesFileExist. 51 defaultTimeLocale. 55. 182. 232. 235 ctMin. 240 dateTimeFmt. 92. 224 Double (datatype). 240 delete. 43. see data declaration recursive. see ﬁxity declaration import. 225 deleting ﬁles. 214 ctDay. 151.
104 derived instance. 136 v INDEX expression. 54. 212 False. 202. 167 fail. 66 exports. 49. 15 case. 112 ﬂoat. 115 filterM. see conditional expression let. 81. 215 ﬁle system. 51. 186 findIndices. see unit expression expression typesignature. 163 f. 67. 16. 229 ExitSuccess. 27 update. 28. 207 find. 81 Eq (class). 51. 17. 29 ﬁelddecl. 224 execution time. 67. 30. 229 ExitFailure. 93. 180. 180. 142 instance for Char. 182. 105 enumFromTo. 43. 229 EQ. 91. 113 instance for Ratio. 79 fbind. see case expression conditional. 38. 170 enumFrom. see class environment type. 166 ¡ ¢ ¡ . 28 selection. 82. 130 even. 186 ﬁxity. see type expression unit. 138 ﬁle. 18 ﬁxity. 125 filter. 88. 142 instance for Array. 108 Floating (class). 139 FFFormat (datatype). 16. 52 expt.254 end of ﬁle. 108 floatRange. 158 superclass of RealFloat. 104 error. 106 enumeration. see type environment environment variables. 92. 105 enumFromThen. 12 floatDigits. 139 exp. 4. 108 exception handling. 19. 98 executable. 139 fexp. 93. 33 floatRadix. 139 exp. 92. 86. 180. 105 enumFromThenTo. 65 Enum (class). 105 superclass of Ord. 30. 111 instance for Double. 110 superclass of Num. 92. 54 flip. 110 Float (datatype). 89. 106 instance for Complex. 108 exponentiation. 86. 12. see label. 106 exponent. 89. 108 ﬂoating literal pattern. 229 exitWith. 93. 137 ﬁxity declaration. 186 findIndex. 86. 4. 91 export. 230 escape. see simple case expression type. 17 error. 241 ExitCode (datatype). 164 ﬁeld label. 16. 215 entity. 159. 94. 229 exitFailure. 91. 48. 114. 86. 105 environment class. 89. 213 ﬁle buffering. 229 . 97. 92. 19. 91. 105 derived instance. 21. 99. 136 export list. 51. 44 construction. 24–26. 108 floatToDigits. 213 FilePath (type synonym). 177 instance for Char. 86. 162 expts. 109. 154 superclass of Integral. see let expression simple case. 113 instance for Float. 92.
80. 18. vii. 190 genericLength. 18. 81 function binding. 184. 9. vii Functor (class). 42 generator. 25. 109 fromJust. 125 getClockTime. 202. 54. 23. 162 fromRat’. 181. 90. 9. 92. 202. 40. 89. 207 foldr. 183. 181. 189 genericIndex. 193. 157 instance for Ratio. 18. 241 getCurrentDirectory. 96. 233. 87 funlhs. 129 group. 181. 91. 139 gdrhs. 117 foldr1. 153 superclass of Floating. 31. 114 function. 229 getStdGen. 137 generalization. 93. 235 getContents. 189 genericTake. 138 gendecl. 224 getProgName. 206 Handle (datatype). 137 guard. 18. 115 hexadecimal. 224 getPermissions. 193. 106 superclass of RealFrac. 90. 56. 105 fromIntegral. 111 instance for Maybe. 244. 109 instance for []. 244. 245 get the contents of a ﬁle. 86. 40. 233. 210. 162 fromRational. 125 getModificationTime. 91. 87. 41 functional language. 236 formatRealFloat. 248 getStdRandom. 23 genericDrop. 165 formfeed. 25. 81 gtycon. 138 gap. 229 getLine. 59 generalization preorder. 225 getDirectoryContents. 3 Haskell kernel. 91. 116 foldl1. 3 formatCalendarTime. 224. 140 Fractional (class). 188 GT. 194 fromMaybe. 138 gdpat. 106 instance for Complex. 181. 49. 176 foldl. 129 255 . 140 gconsym. 38. 189 genRange. 92. 113 instance for Array. 107 ﬂushing a ﬁle buffer. 248 graphic. 130 hexit. 189 genericReplicate. 181. 96. 91. 229 getChar. 125 getCPUTime. 18 gd. 109. 106 fst. 92. 187 groupBy. 140 fpats. 34 guard. 215 head. 210 HandlePosn (datatype). 117 formal semantics. 210 handles. 105 fromInteger. 108 gcon. 213 Haskell. 129 fpat. 9. 107 fromEnum. 87. 181. 25. 11.INDEX floor. 111 functor. 219 getArgs. 12. 56. 55. 31. 116 foldM. 244. 96. 159. 130 gcd. 217 fmap. 4 hClose. 190 genericSplitAt. 194 fromRat. 47. 181. 56 function type. 225 getEnv. 177 instance for IO. 181. 94. 224.
216. 195. 136 impdecls. 218 hIsEOF. 66. 210. 49. 218 hGetPosn. 219 inRange. 181. 211. 211. 81. 169. 38. 183. 215 hFlush. 211. 96. 69. 181. 34. 116 inits. 69. 89. 49. 219 hPutChar. 211. 219 hPrint.256 hFileSize. 126 intersect. 71 with an empty where part. 156 impdecl. 69. 218 hIsWritable. 211. 218 hIsSeekable. 112 Integer (datatype). 195. 136 index. 193. 137 idecls. 211 hReady. 215 hIsOpen. 221 ioeGetErrorString. 125 IOMode (datatype). 33. 188 inlining. 81. 218 hLookAhead. 212 ioeGetHandle. 181. 211. 184. 212 isFullError. see conditional expression imagPart. 58 hIsClosed. 217 hGetChar. 70 HindleyMilner type system. 49. 217 hiding. 212 isHexDigit. 169. 187 intersectBy. 138 instance declaration. 183. 212. 50. 181. 212 IOError (datatype). 211. 33 integerLogBase. 187 intToDigit. 136 import. 210. 125. 211. 174. 211. 211. 216 hSetPosn. 173. 177 init. 188 insertBy. 215 isEOF. 219 hPutStr. 4. 211. 211. 212 id. 212 isJust. 182. 38. 163 Integral (class). 183. 215 isEOFError. 89. 211. 112 integer. 137 identiﬁer. 195. 172 indices. 211. 49 Int (datatype). 211. 211. 210 I/O errors. 172 insert. 218 hSeek. 212 ioeGetFileName. 211. 218 I/O. 12 integer literal pattern. 136 import declaration. 181. 9 ifthenelse expression. see also derived instance importing and exporting. 147 INDEX input/output. 211. 57 isAlpha. 92. 181. 111 IO (module). 212 ioError. 211. 184. 197 isControl. 197 isDoesNotExistError. 92. 189 inst. 187 intersperse. 197 isAlphaNum. 212. 171. 211. 217 hGetBuffering. 214 irrefutable pattern. 211. 211. 197 isDigit. 211. 155. 211. 195. 211. 215 isAscii. 219 hPutStrLn. 211. 194 . 195. 69 impspec. 110 idecl. 197 isAlreadyExistsError. 212 isAlreadyInUseError. 214. 24. 171. 38. 211. 195. 211. 49. 211. 197 isIllegalOperation. 211. 210 IO (datatype). 211. 195. 106 interact. 217 hWaitForInput. 211. 219 hGetLine. 217 hSetBuffering. 218 hGetContents. 91. 218 hIsReadable. 198 IO. 210 input/output examples. 81. 98.
116 layout. 91. 117 Ix (class). 119 . 189 Maybe (datatype). 9. 109 match. 202. 31. 176. 195. 215 isPrefixOf. 81 magnitude. 172 Ix (module). 64 kind inference. 9. 65 main. 186 list. 142 maxBound. 44. 173. 202. 81 kind. 44. 19. 105. 177 listToMaybe. 26 in list comprehensions. 122 lexDigits. 176. 234 ixmap. 207 v 257 liftM2. 64 label. 194 isOctDigit. 129 last. 89. 65 making directories. 206 Just. 172 instance for Integer. 172. 202. 188 isPrint. 188 mapAccumR. 195. 193. 39. 212. 181. 173. 118 List (module). 170 instance for Char. 50. 156 Main (module).INDEX isLatin1. 183. 234. 91. 23 lex. 168 lexeme. 183. 45. 88. 129 lexical structure. 56 lines. 40. 239 log. 106 lookahead. 84. 9. 197 isUserError. 40. 169. 130. 80 list type. 7 lexLitChar. 177 join. 181. 115 mapAccumL. 197 isSpace. 91 logBase. 92. 197 isNothing. 188 mapAndUnzipM. 202. 211. 45. 169. 232. see also offside rule lcm. 195. 16. 19 large. 119 maximumBy. 13. 195. 155. 181. 210. 184. 140 LT. 109 mapMaybe. 80 list comprehension. 207 liftM3. 206 mapM. 193. 225 map. 159. 109 Left. 219 lookup. 24 in do expressions. 202. 171. 180. 21. 41 listArray. 207 liftM4. 207 linear pattern. 207 liftM5. 134 Locale (module). 27 lambda abstraction. 143 maximal munch rule. 172 instance for Int. 139 libraries. 56 linearity. 81 length. 9. 212 iterate. 239. 92 magnitude. 240 locale. 50. 174. 88. 32 literate comments. 199 . 195. 181. 176. 91. 195. 111 v § ¢ £ 7¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ 7 . 104. 211. 31. 202. 181. 194 mapM_. 86. 195. 19. 40. 194 literal. 129 literal pattern. 23. 197 isSuffixOf. 173. 198 max. 127 maximum. 193. 106 logarithm. 188 isUpper. 74 liftM. 197 isPermissionError. 81. 197 isLower. 12. 202. 116 let expression. 172 derived instance. 31.
206 instance for []. 46 INDEX next. 184. 27. 90. 245 nonnull. see class method min. 110 notElem. 11 translation of literals. 180. 202. 66. 104. 89. 157 instance for Ratio. 142 instance for Array. 232. 105 number. 11. 54. 186 nubBy. 206 monad. 206 instance for Maybe. 136 module. 89 literal syntax. 90 numericEnumFrom. 105 negation. 89. 55. 202. 189 mkPolar. 81. 9. 19. 225 mplus. 202. 13. 19 operator application. 151. 214 operating system commands. 161. 115. 119 minimumBy. 9. 88. 137 or. 119 Ord (class). 51. 244. 136 Monad (class). 18 numerator. 178 instance for Char. 88. 52. 248 newtype declaration. 61 Month (datatype). 246 mod. 180. 129 odd. 104. see special name namespaces. 111 maybeToList. 105 ord. 26. 184. 234 moving directories. 54. 187 null. 130 octit. 198 Ordering (datatype). 193.258 Maybe (module). 109 instance for []. 113 numericEnumFromThen. 5. 168 not. 206 + pattern. 244. 210. 121. 182. 19. 214 opening a ﬁle. 91. 111 superclass of MonadPlus. 206 msum. see qualiﬁed name special. 206 Monad (module). 119 Nothing. 19 ops. 206 monomorphic type variable. 195. 138 newline. 89. 79. 194 method. 153 superclass of Real. 129 openFile. 113 instance for IO. 90. 181. 11. 32. 197 numeric type. 112 ¢ ¦ . 143 minimum. 84. 65 module. 140 opencom. 81 nub. 91. 106 superclass of Real. see also layout op. 113 numericEnumFromTo. 206 mzero. 230 operator. 159. 18. 194 maybe. 153 Numeric (module). 9. 17. 91. 33. 61 monomorphism restriction. 186. 66. 156 mkStdGen. 129 negate. 9. 129 newStdGen. 111 instance for Maybe. 57 name qualiﬁed. 10. 34. 20 newconstr. 60. 104 derived instance. 38. 32–34. 153 superclass of Fractional. 10 ncomment. 95 MonadPlus (class). 155. 9. 225 moving ﬁles. 202. 105 instance for Complex. 193. 142 minBound. 130. 113 numericEnumFromThenTo. 91. 16. 111 instance for Ratio. 46. 116 Num (class). 202. 81. 105. 84. 55. 106 modid. 244. 113 octal. 108 offside rule.
245 randomIO. 244. 140 path. 247 range. 130 qtycon. 140 qconsym. 169. 140 qconid. 54 polymorphism. 247 randoms. 229 program name. 244. 125 putStrLn. 155. 247 random access ﬁles. see also ﬁxity pred. 18. 96. 130 Random (class). 129 v 259 program arguments. 125 putStr. 110 overloaded functions. 244. 23 quantiﬁcation. 91. see refutable pattern pattern binding. 11. 18. 155. see constructed pattern ﬂoating. 11. 224 phase. 103. 72 qualiﬁer. 181. 247 Random (module). 225 pattern. 244. 161 Rational (type synonym). 105 Prelude implicit import of. 106 qvar. 119 program. 30 @. 217 RandomGen. 139 qualiﬁed name. 244. 130 qop. 75 Prelude (module). 213 pi. 244 random. 51 partition. see integer literal pattern irrefutable. see patternmatching overloading. 42. 247 randomRs. 172 Ratio (datatype). 187 . 153. 18. 103. 115 PreludeText (module). 4 pragmas. 143 instance for [a]. 103. 104. 11. 169. 229 program structure. 9. 25. 70. 171. 75. 183. 53 print. 140 qvarid. 107 putChar. see + pattern refutable. 31. 93. 11. 247 randomRIO. 31. 18. 41 quot. 125 PreludeIO (module). 57 patternmatching. see ﬂoating literal pattern integer. 23. 92. see irrefutable pattern linear. 55. 3 properFraction. 51. see wildcard pattern constructed. 96. 121 principal type. 156 polling a handle for input. 79. 30 overloaded constant. 147 precedence. 106 polar. 153 rational numbers. 125 PreludeList (module). 121 derived instance. 91. 218 polymorphic recursion. 96. 43. 11. 18. 125 qcon. 178 ¢ ¦ ¢ ¦ § ¢ £¡ . 140 qvarsym. 38 overloaded pattern. 156 physical ﬁle. 11. see aspattern _. 247 randomR. 11. 151. 124 instance for Array. 140 qtycls. 151. 171. 103 PreludeBuiltin (module).INDEX otherwise. 103. see linear pattern + . 90. 130 qconop. 130 qvarop. 103. 106 quotRem. 19. 172 rangeSize. 151 Ratio (module). 47 defaults. 140 pat. 151 Read (class). 130 qual. 34 Permissions (datatype). 125 product. 96. 85. 91. 244.
224. 92. 123 instance for Ratio. 117 replicate. 107 instance for Ratio. 88. 164 readParen. 156 realToFrac. 168 readHex. 218 readInt. 116 scanl1. 121 derived instance. 198 readFile. 143 ReadWriteMode. 214 Real (class). 224. 108 realPart. 96. 143 readLitChar. 117 scontext. 137 searchable. 81. 88. 198 readLn. 96. 85. 106 superclass of RealFrac. 217 semantics formal. 214 readOct. 124 v v § ¡ ¢ £¡ ¢ ¡ ¤ ¤ . 224. 91. 85. 164 readIO. 126 readList. 130 return. 163 readsPrec. 224. 106 removeDirectory. 119 . 86. 105 instance for Ratio. 104. 159. 224 setStdGen. 88. 126. 121. 109 sequence_. 123 instance for Int. 121 reads. 89. 55. 51. 107 RealFloat (class). 92. 109 reverse. 124 instance for Double. 159. 217 SeekMode (datatype). 225 renaming ﬁles. 91. 166 . 109 setCurrentDirectory. 217 seeking a ﬁle. 214 readFloat. 225 removeFile. 56. 86. 248 setting the directory. 226 Show (class). 92. 10. 123 instance for Float. see also operator application SeekFromEnd. 92. 225 removing directories. 16. 122 ReadS (type synonym). 104. 225 repeat. 195. 210. 121. 85. 81 round. 117 scanr1. 224 readDec. 85. 110 sequence. 97. 117 reservedid. 10. 93. 122 readSigned. 116 scanr. 154 read. 91. 159. 93. 224 section. see formal semantics semiclosed handles. 106 recursive datatype. 214 separate compilation. 225 removing ﬁles. 109 recip. 108 RealFrac (class). 159. 123 instance for Integer. 153 superclass of Integral. 154 superclass of RealFloat. 138 Right. 130 reservedop. 31. 85. 85. 20. 226 reading from a ﬁle. 164 readEsc. 94. 33 RelativeSeek. 159. 217 rem. 225 renameDirectory. 162 scanl. 225 renaming directories. 159.260 instance for Char. 225 setPermissions. 122 readable. 90. 92. 46 refutable pattern. 244. 107 roundTo. 224. 76 seq. 126 ReadMode. 10. 164 reading a directory. 143 instance for [a]. 108 scaleRat. 225 renameFile. 140 INDEX scaleFloat. 155. 139 rhs.
92. 106 tangent. 93 sinh. 235 tdHour. 138 sin. 129 split. 12 transparent. 195. 46. 127 System (module). 188 space. 106 size of ﬁle. 91. 94. 9. 129 tail. 48. 85. 105 show. 163 showList. 244. 9. 235 tdMonth. 164 showFFloat. 82 String (type synonym). 178 instance for Char. 119 superclass.INDEX instance for Array. 232. 237 showChar. 213 stmt. 121. 93 tanh. 124 instance for Double. see type synonym syntax. 85. 184. 159. 163 showIntAtBase. 91. 114 sort. 210. 159. 118 sqrt. 57. 105 simple pattern binding. 246 stdin. 91. 92 signature. 129. 80. 53 significand. 235 261 . 213 StdGen (datatype). 164 showFloat. 121 shows. 213 stdout. 121 show2. 80. 86. 92. 79 literal syntax. 159. 199 showOct. 181. 139 stmts. 143 showString. 213 standard prelude. 229 system. see type signature signdecl. 123 instance for Float. 210. 232. 232. 118 special. 244. 9. 105 sum. 108 signum. 245 splitAt. 26. 91. 86. 188 sortBy. 106 tdDay. 183. 159. 91. 181. 143 showLitChar. 62 simpleclass. 9. 232. 129 span. 49 symbol. 106 sine. 215 small. 237 show3. 12. 41. 229 tab. 159. 45. 108 succ. see transparent string string. 159. 232. 159. 130 subtract. 210. 188 take. 164 showGFloat. 122 showSigned. 123 instance for HandlePosn. 237 show2’. 163 showInt. 210 instance for Integer. 130 synonym. 45 strictness ﬂags. see also Prelude stderr. 122 showEFloat. 9. 183. 154 superclass of Num. 118 tan. 235 tdMin. 111 string. 181. 159. 129 snd. 43. 74. 91. 163 showParen. 26. 159. 122 sign. 163 showsPrec. 115 tails. 85. 117 takeWhile. 139 strictness ﬂag. 123 instance for Ratio. 106 standard handles. 137 simpletype. 121. 85. 123 instance for Int. 85. 122 ShowS (type synonym). 164 showHex. 235 tdPicosec.
180. 181. 22. 236 toCalendarTime. 11. 197 uniDigit. 129 unless. 22. 184. 40. 130 tycon. 47 topdecl (data). 22 uniWhite. 41. see monomorphic type numeric. 233. 239. 235 toClockTime. 232 time12Fmt. 80 tuple type. 86. 191 unzip6. 38. 4. see trivial type unit expression. 129 unit datatype. 81 True. 206 unlines. 17. 40. 114 unfoldr. 191 unzip7. 182. 120 unzip4. 114 undefined. 181. 195. 120 unzip3. 240 TimeLocale (datatype). 125 valdefs. 80. 232. 91. 107 try. 188 Unicode character set. see constructed type function. 233. see principal type INDEX trivial. 7. 66. 51 topdecl (instance). 49 value. 11. 103. 234 time. 181. 235 terminating a program. see numeric type principal. 235 transpose. 11. 190 unzip5. 198 topdecl (class). 67. 232. 187 uniSmall. 119 unzip. 136 toRational. 79 truncate. 239. 45 topdecl. 129 uniSymbol. 81. 49 topdecl (newtype). 136 topdecls. 130 uncurry. 230 the ﬁle system. 42 type expression. 221 tuple. 235 toEnum. see class type constructor. 9. 53 for an expression. 129 union. 9. 114 unwords. 105 toInteger. 38. see list type monomorphic. 11. 46 tyvar. 4. 92. 12 UnicodePrims (module). 140 varid. 41 tycls. 240 TimeDiff (datatype). 119 until. see expression typesignature type synonym. 106 toLower. 98. 187 trigonometric function. see function type list. 235 timeFmt. 181. 43 type environment. 239. 187 unionBy. 49. 224 Time (module). 198 toUTCTime. 17. 130 type. 233. 39. 41. 181. 93. 42 ambiguous. 232 time of day. see ambiguous type constructed. 9. 137 type class. 45. 202. 185.262 tdYear. 18. 191 userError. 42. 4 var. 18. 129 uniLarge. 93 trivial type. 49. see tuple type type. 183. 9. 43 topdecl (default). 130 varop. 10. 40 type renaming. 40. 140 . 180. see also datatype recursive. 195. see newtype declaration type signature. 224. 17. 46 topdecl (type). 38. 105 toUpper. 211. 181. see trivial type tuple. 240 to12. 9. 232. 93.
31 words. 185. 126. 181. 118 writable. 120 zipWith4. 181. 214 zip. 181. 181. 181. 181. 129 when. 97. 190 zipWithM. 120 zip3. 190 zip5. 202. 190 zipWith5. 190 zip6. 120 zip4. 207 zipWithM_. 129 wildcard pattern (_). 9. 181. 190 zip7. 129 whitestuff. 207 263 . 202. 190 zipWith. 190 zipWith6.INDEX vars. 130 vertab. 206 whitechar. 202. 9. 9. 53. 190 zipWith7. 185. 120 zipWith3. 137 varsym. 181. 129 whitespace. 214 WriteMode. 9. 224 writeFile. 10. 38. 80.
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