This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Simon Peyton Jones (editor)
Copyright notice. The authors and publisher intend this Report to belong to the entire Haskell community, and grant permission to copy and distribute it for any purpose, provided that it is reproduced in its entirety, including this Notice. Modiﬁed versions of this Report may also be copied and distributed for any purpose, provided that the modiﬁed version is clearly presented as such, and that it does not claim to be a deﬁnition of the language Haskell 98.
Contents
I The Haskell 98 Language
1 Introduction 1.1 Program Structure . 1.2 The Haskell Kernel 1.3 Values and Types . 1.4 Namespaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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3 3 4 4 5 7 7 8 9 9 11 12 13 15 17 17 19 19 20 21 21 22 22 23 23 24 25 26 27 27 28 29
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Lexical Structure 2.1 Notational Conventions . . . 2.2 Lexical Program Structure . 2.3 Comments . . . . . . . . . . 2.4 Identiﬁers and Operators . . 2.5 Numeric Literals . . . . . . 2.6 Character and String Literals 2.7 Layout . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Expressions 3.1 Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 Variables, Constructors, Operators, and Literals 3.3 Curried Applications and Lambda Abstractions 3.4 Operator Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5 Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.6 Conditionals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.7 Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.8 Tuples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.9 Unit Expressions and Parenthesized Expressions 3.10 Arithmetic Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.11 List Comprehensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.12 Let Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.13 Case Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.14 Do Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.15 Datatypes with Field Labels . . . . . . . . . . 3.15.1 Field Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.15.2 Construction Using Field Labels . . . . 3.15.3 Updates Using Field Labels . . . . . . i
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ii 3.16 Expression TypeSignatures . . . . . . . . . . 3.17 Pattern Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.17.1 Patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.17.2 Informal Semantics of Pattern Matching 3.17.3 Formal Semantics of Pattern Matching . 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CONTENTS
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Declarations and Bindings 4.1 Overview of Types and Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.1 Kinds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.2 Syntax of Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.3 Syntax of Class Assertions and Contexts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.4 Semantics of Types and Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2 UserDeﬁned Datatypes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.1 Algebraic Datatype Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.2 Type Synonym Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.3 Datatype Renamings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3 Type Classes and Overloading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.1 Class Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.2 Instance Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.3 Derived Instances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.4 Ambiguous Types, and Defaults for Overloaded Numeric Operations 4.4 Nested Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.1 Type Signatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.2 Fixity Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.3 Function and Pattern Bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.3.1 Function bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.3.2 Pattern bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5 Static Semantics of Function and Pattern Bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.1 Dependency Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.2 Generalization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.3 Context Reduction Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.4 Monomorphism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.5 The Monomorphism Restriction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.6 Kind Inference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Modules 5.1 Module Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2 Export Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3 Import Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.1 What is imported . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.2 Qualiﬁed import . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.3 Local aliases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.4 Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4 Importing and Exporting Instance Declarations 5.5 Name Clashes and Closure . . . . . . . . . . .
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CONTENTS
5.5.1 Qualiﬁed names . . . . . 5.5.2 Name clashes . . . . . . . 5.5.3 Closure . . . . . . . . . . Standard Prelude . . . . . . . . . 5.6.1 The Prelude Module . . 5.6.2 Shadowing Prelude Names Separate Compilation . . . . . . . Abstract Datatypes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
iii 72 72 74 74 75 75 76 76 79 79 79 79 80 80 81 81 81 81 81 82 82 84 85 86 87 88 89 89 90 90 91 92 93 93 95 95 97 98
5.6
5.7 5.8 6
Predeﬁned Types and Classes 6.1 Standard Haskell Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.1 Booleans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.2 Characters and Strings . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.3 Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.4 Tuples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.5 The Unit Datatype . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.6 Function Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.7 The IO and IOError Types . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.8 Other Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2 Strict Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3 Standard Haskell Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.1 The Eq Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.2 The Ord Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.3 The Read and Show Classes . . . . . . . . . 6.3.4 The Enum Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.5 The Functor Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.6 The Monad Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.7 The Bounded Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4 Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.1 Numeric Literals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.2 Arithmetic and NumberTheoretic Operations 6.4.3 Exponentiation and Logarithms . . . . . . . 6.4.4 Magnitude and Sign . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.5 Trigonometric Functions . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.6 Coercions and Component Extraction . . . .
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7
Basic Input/Output 7.1 Standard I/O Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2 Sequencing I/O Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3 Exception Handling in the I/O Monad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Standard Prelude 101 8.1 Prelude PreludeList . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 8.2 Prelude PreludeText . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 8.3 Prelude PreludeIO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
. . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Library Complex . .1 Notational Conventions 9. .3 Miscellaneous . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Derived instances of Bounded . . . . . . . .2 Incremental Array Updates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . .2 Specialization . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . 10. . . . . . . . . . .iv 9 Syntax Reference 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 14 Numeric 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Library Ix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14. .1. . . . .5 An Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16. .4 Derived instances of Read and Show 10. . . 153 13 Complex Numbers 155 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 ContextFree Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Indexing Operations 169 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Reading functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Showing functions 14. . . CONTENTS 127 127 128 130 134 136 141 142 142 143 143 145 . . . . 173 174 174 175 176 176 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Literate comments . . . . 16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 16 Arrays 16.1 Inlining . . . . . . .1 Derived instances of Eq and Ord . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Lexical Syntax . . . . . . . . 16. . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Array Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . 170 15. . .1 Library Ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Library Array . . . . . 159 160 161 161 161 . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Derived instances of Enum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 II The Haskell 98 Libraries 149 12 Rational Numbers 151 12. . . . . . . . . . . .3 Derived Arrays . . . . . . . . .4 Library Numeric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Deriving Instances of Ix . . . . . . . . 10 Speciﬁcation of Derived Instances 10.1 Accumulated Arrays 16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Compiler Pragmas 147 11. . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 19 Character Utilities 195 19. .7 Repositioning Handles . . . . . 21. . . . . . .3 Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 The “generic” operations 17. . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . .5 Detecting the End of Input .1 Library Char . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . .4 Library Monad . . . . . . 21. . 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17.5 Predicates . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Flushing Buffers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . .1 Revisiting an I/O Position 21. . . . . . . . . . .6 Buffering Operations . . . . . . . .9. . . . 20. . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Library List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Reading The Entire Input . . . . . .3 Opening and Closing Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Further “zip” operations . . . . .1 Standard Handles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Determining the Size of a File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Reading Input . .9 Text Input and Output . . .2 Files and Handles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . .1 I/O Errors . . . . . . . . . .1 Indexing lists . . . .4 unfoldr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Handle Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . .1 Opening Files . .3 List transformations . . . 17. 201 203 203 204 206 209 212 213 213 214 214 214 214 215 215 215 215 217 217 217 217 218 218 218 218 219 219 219 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . .1 Naming conventions 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 20 Monad Utilities 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v 179 182 182 183 183 184 184 185 185 186 . . . . . .3 File locking . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . .3 Reading Ahead . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20. . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . 21 Input/Output 21. . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.1 Library Maybe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Closing Files . . . . .2 “Set” operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Seeking to a new Position 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Maybe Utilities 193 18. . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . .5 Text Output . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 SemiClosed Handles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.CONTENTS 17 List Utilities 17. . . . . . . . . . . 17. . . . . .2 Class MonadPlus . . . 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 The “By” operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Checking for Input . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10Examples . . . . . . .1 The RandomGen class. . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Library Locale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234 25 Locale 239 25. . . . . . . . . . . . . and the StdGen generator 27. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 The global random number generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240 26 CPU Time 27 Random Numbers 27. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Summing Two Numbers 21. . . . .10. . . . . . . . . . . . . Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Copying Files . . . . . . . References .1 Library Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .vi 21. . . . . . . . .11Library IO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 The Random class . . 22 Directory Functions 23 System Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241 243 245 247 248 249 251 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219 219 220 221 223 229 24 Dates and Times 231 24. . . . . . . . . . . . CONTENTS . . . .10. .
” Haskell B. It should be based on ideas that enjoy a wide consensus. a stable foundation for real applications development. purely functional programming languages. Goals The committee’s primary goal was to design a language that satisﬁed these constraints: 1. 4. Anyone should be permitted to implement the language and distribute it to whomever they please. have published something erroneous. including ourselves.PREFACE vii Preface “Some half dozen persons have written technically on combinatory logic. 3. and most of these. There was a strong consensus at this meeting that more widespread use of this class of functional languages was being hampered by the lack of a common language. Thus fullness of exposition is necessary for accuracy. It should reduce unnecessary diversity in functional programming languages. . including building large systems. May 31. Oregon. Curry and Robert Feys in the Preface to Combinatory Logic [2]. even more than it is ordinarily. providing faster communication of new ideas. It was decided that a committee should be formed to design such a language. It should be freely available. and excessive condensation would be false economy here. It should be completely described via the publication of a formal syntax and semantics. and a vehicle through which others would be encouraged to use functional languages. This document describes the result of that committee’s efforts: a purely functional programming language called Haskell. Since some of our fellow sinners are among the most careful and competent logicians on the contemporary scene. all similar in expressive power and semantic underpinnings. and applications. named after the logician Haskell B. It should be suitable for teaching. to discuss an unfortunate situation in the functional programming community: there had come into being more than a dozen nonstrict. 1956 In September of 1987 a meeting was held at the conference on Functional Programming Languages and Computer Architecture (FPCA ’87) in Portland. research. 2. Curry whose work provides the logical basis for much of ours. we regard this as evidence that the subject is refractory. 5.
This task turned out to be much. I took on the role of gathering and acting on these corrections. and constitutes the ofﬁcial speciﬁcation of both. and I have adopted hundreds of (mostly small) changes as a result of their feedback. and removing some pitfalls for the unwary. It is intended to be a “stable” language in sense the implementors are committed to supporting Haskell 98 exactly as speciﬁed.4). a set of libraries would have to be standardised too. incorporating experimental features. the Report has been scrutinised by more and more people. Revising the Haskell 98 Reports After a year or two. and hoped that extensions or variants of the language would appear. This document is the outcome of this process of reﬁnement. The Haskell 98 Language and Library Reports were published in February 1999. much larger than I had anticipated. it was decided that a stable variant of Haskell was needed.4. It is not a . As Haskell becomes more widely used. The original Haskell Report covered only the language. Clarify obscure passages.viii PREFACE Haskell 98: language and libraries The committee intended that Haskell would serve as a basis for future research in language design. Resolve ambiguities. If these program were to be portable. make small changes to make the overall language more consistent. making some simpliﬁcations. for the foreseeable future. Haskell has indeed evolved continuously since its original publication. At the 1997 Haskell Workshop in Amsterdam. By the time Haskell 98 was stabilised. A separate effort was therefore begun by a distinct (but overlapping) committee to ﬁx the Haskell 98 Libraries. there had been four iterations of the language design (the latest at that point being Haskell 1. By the middle of 1997. with the following goals: Correct typographical errors. together with a standard library called the Prelude. Haskell 98 was conceived as a relatively minor tidyup of Haskell 1. With reluctance. The original committees ceased to exist when the original Haskell 98 Reports were published. and is called “Haskell 98”. many typographical errors and infelicities had been spotted. It includes both the Haskell 98 Language Report and the Libraries Report. this stable language is the subject of this Report. so every change was instead proposed to the entire Haskell mailing list. it had become clear that many programs need access to a larger set of library functions (notably concerning input/output and simple interaction with the operating system).
exceptions. Control extensions. concurrency. local universal polymorphism and arbitrary ranktypes. functional dependencies. including: multiparameter type classes. lexically scoped type variables. Extensions to Haskell 98 Haskell continues to evolve. including: monadic state. There is more besides.org gives access to many useful resources. existential types. so that those who wish to write text books. at the time of writing there are Haskell implementations that support: Syntactic sugar. including: . including: pattern guards. recursive donotation. or use Haskell for teaching. it provides a stable point of reference. Haskell Resources The Haskell web site http://haskell. The entire text of both Reports is available online (see “Haskell resources” below). can do so in the knowledge that Haskell 98 will continue to exist. Haskell 98 does not impede these developments. Type system innovations. and some familiarity with functional languages is assumed.PREFACE ix tutorial on programming in Haskell such as the ‘Gentle Introduction’ [6]. Instead. going well beyond Haskell 98. metaprogramming facilities. For example.
You are welcome to comment on. University of Nottingham. and continues to be sustained. in particular. Implementations of Haskell. by an active community of researchers and application programmers. Details of the Haskell mailing list. Applications of Haskell. via the Haskell mailing list. Building the language Haskell was created. devoted a huge amount of time and energy to the language. Oregon Graduate Institute) Dick Kieburtz (Oregon Graduate Institute) John Launchbury (University of Glasgow. Microsoft Research Ltd) . Chalmers University) Thomas Johnsson (Chalmers University) Mark Jones (Yale University. suggest improvements to.x PREFACE Online versions of the language and library deﬁnitions. and criticise the language or its presentation in the report. Those who served on the Language and Library committees. Contributed Haskell tools and libraries. including a complete list of all the differences between Haskell 98 as published in February 1999 and this revised version. Oregon Graduate Institute) Erik Meijer (Utrecht University) Rishiyur Nikhil (MIT) John Peterson (Yale University) Simon Peyton Jones [editor] (University of Glasgow. Here they are. Tutorial material on Haskell. with their afﬁliation(s) for the relevant period: Arvind (MIT) Lennart Augustsson (Chalmers University) Dave Barton (Mitre Corp) Brian Boutel (Victoria University of Wellington) Warren Burton (Simon Fraser University) Jon Fairbairn (University of Cambridge) Joseph Fasel (Los Alamos National Laboratory) Andy Gordon (University of Cambridge) Maria Guzman (Yale University) Kevin Hammond (Uniiversity of Glasgow) Ralf Hinze (University of Bonn) Paul Hudak [editor] (Yale University) John Hughes [editor] (University of Glasgow.
Finally. Wolfram Kahl. Richard Kelsey. Tony Warnock. Ketil Malde. John Robson. Bob Hiromoto. 1 Miranda is a trademark of Research Software Ltd. Matt Harden. Chris Clack.PREFACE Mike Reeve (Imperial College) Alastair Reid (University of Glasgow) Colin Runciman (University of York) Philip Wadler [editor] (University of Glasgow) David Wise (Indiana University) Jonathan Young (Yale University) xi Those marked [editor] served as the coordinating editor for one or more revisions of the language. Kent Karlsson. Backus’s FP [1]. aside from the important foundational work laid by Church. Rick Mohr. Gary Memovich. Amir Kishon. Tommy Thorn. Paul Otto. Christian Sievers. Rosser. Clean. Pradeep Varma. Stephen Blott. Rinus Plasmeijer. David Tweed. Hope and Hope . Mark Hall. Feliks Kluzniak. Sergey Mechveliani. Richard Bird. Laura Dutton. Ian Holyer. Gofer. APL. Mike Gunter. the following languages were particularly inﬂuential: Lisp (and its modernday incarnations Common Lisp and Scheme). Ken Takusagawa. Mike Thyer. Sven Panne. Lauren Smith. Mark Tullsen. George Russell. Jerzy Karczmarczuk. Nimish Shah. Stefan Kahrs. Tom Thomson. Tom Blenko. Ian Poole. Stef Joosten. Felix Schroeter. Østvold. Larne Pekowsky. Michael Marte. Jones. and Turner’s series of languages culminating in Miranda 1 . Graeme Moss. Carl Witty. Jim Mattson. Ross Paterson. Simon B. AnttiJuhani Kaijanaho. Jan Kort. Michael Webber. dozens of other people made helpful contributions. Thomas Hallgren. Duke Briscoe. Pat Fasel. and Bonnie Yantis. Klemens Hemm. Bjorn Lisper. Libor Skarvada. Without these forerunners Haskell would not have been possible. Sisal. Olaf Lubeck. Id. Alexander Jacobson. Henrik Nilsson. Jeff Lewis. Pablo Lopez. Michael Fryers. Patrik Jansson. Paul Callaghan. Dean Herington. Mark Lillibridge. Cordy Hall. John Meacham. Olaf Chitil. In addition. Chris Fasel. Sten Anderson. Patrick Sansom. Andreas Rossberg. Jose Labra. Sigbjorn Finne. Orjan Johansen. Ralf Hinze. Tony Davie. Guy Cousineau. Bjarte M. Simon Thompson. Randy Michelsen. Landin’s ISWIM. Chris Okasaki. Hans Aberg. Marcin Kowalczyk. Julian Seward. some small but many substantial. Dylan Thurston. Chris Dornan. Keith Wansbrough. Manuel Chakravarty. Sandra Loosemore. Christian Maeder. Dave Parrott. and others on the lambda calculus. Raman Sundaresh. Curry. Although it is difﬁcult to pinpoint the origin of many ideas. Fergus Henderson. Malcolm Wallace. Nick North. They are as follows: Kris Aerts. Andy Moran. Satish Thatte. Arthur Norman. Josef Svenningsson. Ian Lynagh. . it is right to acknowledge the inﬂuence of many noteworthy programming languages developed over the years. Stephen Price. Andy Gill. Simon Marlow. Michael Schneider. Craig Dickson. SiauCheng Khoo. Randy Hudson. ML and Standard ML. Franklin Chen. Mark Carroll. Stuart Wray. Mike Joy. Jan Skibinski. Magnus Carlsson. Robert Jeschofnik. Nic Holt.
September 2002 PREFACE .xii Simon Peyton Jones Cambridge.
Part I The Haskell 98 Language 1 .
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Haskell provides higherorder functions. purely functional programming language incorporating many recent innovations in programming language design. This includes such issues as the nature of programming environments and the error messages returned for undeﬁned programs (i. interpreted. all described in Chapter 4. list comprehensions. We leave as implementation dependent the ways in which Haskell programs are to be manipulated. nonstrict semantics. 2. 3. patternmatching. userdeﬁned algebraic datatypes. 3 . type classes. Declarations deﬁne things such as ordinary values. At the bottom level is Haskell’s lexical structure. as well as how it relates to the organization of the rest of the report. a module system. Haskell is both the culmination and solidiﬁcation of many years of research on nonstrict functional languages.1 Program Structure In this section. a monadic I/O system. deﬁned in Chapter 2. The top level of a module consists of a collection of declarations. At the topmost level a Haskell program is a set of modules. and a rich set of primitive datatypes. described in Chapter 3. and ﬁxity information. and ﬂoatingpoint numbers. At the next lower level are expressions. 1. datatypes.e. arrays. Modules provide a way to control namespaces and to reuse software in large programs. etc. arbitrary and ﬁxed precision integers. An expression denotes a value and has a static type. including lists. we describe the abstract syntactic and semantic structure of Haskell. 1. described in Chapter 5. The lexical structure captures the concrete representation of Haskell programs in text ﬁles. This report deﬁnes the syntax for Haskell programs and an informal abstract semantics for the meaning of such programs.Chapter 1 Introduction Haskell is a general purpose. programs that formally evaluate to ). compiled.” 4. of which there are several kinds. expressions are at the heart of Haskell programming “in the small. static polymorphic typing.
4 CHAPTER 1. implementations will probably try to provide useful information about errors. they are not distinguishable from nontermination. Errors in Haskell are semantically equivalent to . However.2 The Haskell Kernel Haskell has adopted many of the convenient syntactic structures that have become popular in functional programming. literate programming. The chapters not mentioned above are Chapter 6. However. and pragmas supported by most Haskell compilers. so the language includes no mechanism for detecting or acting upon errors. or overloading (using type classes). See Section 3.e. . and Chapter 7. Examples of Haskell program fragments in running text are given in typewriter font: let x = 1 z = x+y in z+1 “Holes” in program fragments representing arbitrary pieces of Haskell code are written in italics. ¥ ¢ § £ ¤ ¡ ¢ ¦ 1. The translation of each syntactic structure into the kernel is given as the syntax is introduced.3 Values and Types An expression evaluates to a value and has a static type. for types. it is essentially a slightly sugared variant of the lambda calculus with a straightforward denotational semantics. 1. as then else . there are several chapters describing the Prelude. which discusses the I/O facility in Haskell (i. Generally the italicized names are mnemonic. This modular design facilitates reasoning about Haskell programs and provides useful guidelines for implementors of the language. the concrete syntax. Also. INTRODUCTION This report proceeds bottomup with respect to Haskell’s syntactic structure. Technically.1. etc. In this Report. such as for expresin if sions. the meaning of such syntactic sugar is given by translation into simpler constructs. Values and types are not mixed in Haskell. the speciﬁcation of derived instances. for declarations. how Haskell programs communicate with the outside world). the type system allows userdeﬁned datatypes of various sorts. and permits not only parametric polymorphism (using a traditional HindleyMilner type structure) but also ad hoc polymorphism. If these translations are applied exhaustively. the result is a program written in a small subset of Haskell that we call the Haskell kernel. which describes the standard builtin datatypes and classes in Haskell. Although the kernel is not formally speciﬁed.
and type classes refer to entities related to the type system. for example. type constructors. An identiﬁer must not be used as the name of a type constructor and a class in the same scope. These are the only constraints. the other four kinds of names are identiﬁers beginning with uppercase letters. Int may simultaneously be the name of a module. 2.1. . There are two constraints on naming: 1. those for type variables.4. and constructor within a single scope. NAMESPACES 5 1. Names for variables and type variables are identiﬁers beginning with lowercase letters or underscore. class. and module names refer to modules.4 Namespaces There are six kinds of names in Haskell: those for variables and constructors denote values.
6 CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION .
2. although usually the context makes the distinction clear. source programs are currently biased toward the ASCII character set used in earlier versions of Haskell. BNFlike syntax is used throughout.Chapter 2 Lexical Structure In this chapter. 7 § ¢ £¡ ¨ ¥¥8 8 8 1 &§ ¢ £¡ A !§ 7 3¢ 8 8 8 @¥¥9 £ § )'% $ " 0(&§#!§ £§ ¢§ ¡ £¡ ¢ ¢ ¦ £¤ ¡ §¥ § § £¡ §¥ § § £ ¦¤ ¢ ¡ ¨ ¦¤ ¢ ¡ ©§¥ § § £ ¢ £ ¡ 7 3¢ ¡§ 7 3¢ 6 4¤ ¦ 2 5 § 3©¦ . However. we describe the lowlevel lexical structure of Haskell.]. Most of the details may be skipped in a ﬁrst reading of the report..1 Notational Conventions These notational conventions are used for presenting syntax: optional zero or more repetitions grouping choice difference—elements generated by except those generated by fibonacci terminal syntax in typewriter font Because the syntax in this section describes lexical syntax. all whitespace is expressed explicitly.. with productions having the form: Care must be taken in distinguishing metalogical syntax such as and from concrete terminal syntax (given in typewriter font) such as  and [. This syntax depends on properties of the Unicode characters as deﬁned by the Unicode consortium. Haskell uses the Unicode [11] character set. there is no implicit space between juxtaposed symbols. Haskell compilers are expected to make use of new versions of Unicode as they are made available.
2 Lexical Program Structure 8 ( ) .˜ any Unicode symbol or punctuation y B 2 4 3 t ¢ h h h h A v f 4 x"$ wg " 5 7 2 ' 4 3 t § ¦ £$ § 7 2 ' 4 3 t © ¢ A B Z any uppercase or titlecase Unicode letter _ : " ’ %¤ ¢ u 8 8 8 @¥¥9 ¦ £$ 2¤ ¢ u ¢ © 2 3© 4 7 ' § £$ 2¤ ¦ ¢u © %¤ ¢ ¢ u ¢7 %¤ S¢RQFP§ 4 32 ¦ © G E C ¦ 4 _ a b z any Unicode lowercase letter 77 !3¢ 4 t § 8 8 8 @¥¥9 ¦ £$ 4 © 77 03¢ ¢ t 4 § £$ ¦ 703¢ 7 4 t © 77 !3¢ §¢© t 4 77 !3¢ § #¥ ¡3 §¢ ¦ ¤ G E QFC © G E S¢RQFC ¢ © G E C 4 ¡ IHFD32 © ¥ © ¢ ¦ § ¦¥ 4 32 ¦ 4 4 2 B2 © 4 2 ¥ ¥2 ¦ 7 ¡ © ¥ © ¦ ¦ ¥ 4 4 ¢ 2 § § ¨)§ § ¥ ( ¦ £$ ' ¨¢ § © ¤ ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¥ ¢ & $ § © § ¥ %¤ § ¨¦£ ¢ ¤£¡ © § ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¤¢ ¡ 1§3¥0 0 4 ¤ 2 ¦ § ¥ ¤ ' #¢ ¢2 ¦ § 0 ¦ ¦¤ $§ §£%¢ ¤7 ¦§ £ ¦ 7 6 6 6 6 7 ¤ 3¢ ¥ § ¡ § 7 3¢ 7 © ¥ ¡ 4 ¢ 4 ¤ ¡&¤ 7 2 ¢ ¡ .{} a carriage return a line feed a vertical tab a form feed a space a horizontal tab any Unicode character deﬁned as whitespace CHAPTER 2. LEXICAL STRUCTURE : " ’ 7 ¥ 4 §© § © § § § 2 43© 2¤ ¦ 7 ' 7 3¢ ¡ ¢ 7 § !3¢ ¤ 77 § © ¨¥ '¨ ¡ ¤ ¢ ¥ § ¨¢£¡ ¤ ¨¥ §¢ ¤ § ¥ ¨¦£ § ¢ ¡T ) cRasY`WXrpq7"9 g 24"9 A g hi7¡9 gA " 3¦db`XV GH§¢ C U f f 9 e c a Y W U E ¦ 2 ¡ ! # $ % & * + . / < = > ? \ ˆ  .§§ § § ¦ £$ § § § © ¢ 6 6 7 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 §§ § t § 6 7 2 ' 4 3 ' ¦ £$ © ¦ ) 4 2 B2 © ¦§ 7 £ ¦ ¨ 3¦ ¢ )A 98 7 64 #"@¦"%5 3¦ ¢ ¦ 1§¤ 0 0 4 2 ¦ § ¨)§ § ¥ ( § ¦£$ ¦ ¥ 0% ¦ § §£%¢ ¤ % ¦ § 5¤ %§ ¤ ¦¤ $§ 0 ¦ $ ¦ 7 7 § © § ¤ ¤ ¦ § £ ¦ ¡ ' ¢ 7 4 '#4 ¢ 2 ¦ ¤§ ¢ 4 ¨32 ¤ ¦ 4 & $ © § ¥ %§ § ¨¦£ ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¥ ¢ & $ © § ¥ %§ § ¨¦£ ¦ ¦ § #¦ § ¢ ¤ ¤ © 2 4 © ¦ 332 ¡ 2. [ ] ` { } ¤ ¤© ¤ ¥ § 2 " § ! ¢ §¢ © ¥¢ ¤ ¤ © ¦ 7 ¦ 43¤ 3§ ¢ 32 ¡ © ¢ § ¦ ¨¦¤ © § ¥ £ ¤¢ ¡ ¤¥ § ¦ § ¤ § § 7 3§ ¢ ¤ 7 4¦ ¢ ¡ ¢ 7 . .
4 Identiﬁers and Operators ) ¥ v ¥ £ f ¦f ¤¢24 f ¡ §§ 8 8 8 @¥¥9 § ¦ %¤ ¢7 8¥8¥8 § § § ¦ 8 8 8 @¥¥9 77 !3¢ 4 §© 77 !3¢ ¢ ¤£¡ 8 8 8 @¥¥9 4 §© 4 ¢ ¥ S 7 6 6 6 6 6 §§ § ¦ § §§ § § § S ¥ ¢ §§§ § ¤ 2 ¦ £$ ¢ © ¢ 0 1 9 any Unicode decimal digit 0 1 7 A F a f ’ . are not valid in Haskell programs and should result in a lexing G E HTC Characters not in the category error. Instead. © § ¥ § ¨¦£ Any kind of is also a proper delimiter for lexemes. “>” or “” do not begin a comment. a sequence of dashes has no special signiﬁcance. Similarly.3 Comments Comments are valid whitespace.or } within a string or within an endofline comment in that code will interfere with the nested comments. hence. 2.2. ) and extends to the following newline. and. although case is a reserved word. A nested comment begins with “{” and ends with “}”. for example. No legal lexeme starts with “{”. terminated by “}”. the ﬁrst unmatched occurrence of the string “}” terminates the nested comment. COMMENTS 9 Lexical analysis should use the “maximal munch” rule: at each point. The sequence of dashes must not form part of a legal lexeme. however “foo” does start a comment. If some code is commented out using a nested comment. in a nested comment. Nested comments may be nested to any depth: any occurrence of the string “{” within the nested comment starts a new nested comment. then any occurrence of {. because both of these are legal lexemes. 2. So. the character sequences “{” and “}” have no special signiﬁcance. although = is reserved. In an ordinary comment. the longest possible lexeme satisfying the production is read. as explained in Chapter 11. each “{” is matched by a corresponding occurrence of “}”.g. For example. An ordinary comment begins with a sequence of two or more consecutive dashes (e. “{” starts a nested comment despite the trailing dashes. == and ˜= are not. The comment itself is not lexically analysed. Nested comments are also used for compiler pragmas. Within a nested comment.3. cases is not.
digits. : : : .b]”. An operator symbol starting with any other character is an ordinary identiﬁer. : :: = \  <. used as wild card in patterns. all operators are inﬁx.. “:”. All of the standard inﬁx operators are just predeﬁned symbols and may be rebound.4): those that begin with a lowercase letter (variable identiﬁers) and those that begin with an uppercase letter (constructor identiﬁers).5). Identiﬁers are case sensitive: name. as deﬁned above. This allows programmers to use “_foo” for a parameter that they expect to be unused. naMe. Notice that a colon by itself. is treated as a lowercase letter. although each inﬁx operator can be used in a section to yield partially applied operators (see Section 3. such as “[]” and “[a. Compilers that offer warnings for unused identiﬁers are encouraged to suppress such warnings for identiﬁers beginning with underscore. and single quotes. Underscore. the last is a constructor identiﬁer). However. In the remainder of the report six different kinds of names will be used: variables constructors type variables type constructors type classes modules ) 4 f ¡$ 4 ¡ ¥ h " 9 f £ f 4 f S¥ X¤¢%w5 §§ ) " 9¡¦fX¤ f24w5¡§ 2 3© ¥ £ f 4 4 ©7 ' 2 4 © 7 ' § @ ¦ %¤ 7 2 ¢7 ' 77 !3¢ 4 §© ¦ ¤ § ¦32 ¦ ¦32 ¦ 32 ¦ ¦ 2¤ § § § ¢ ¢7 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 2 ¥¢ ¤ ¤ © ¡ ¦ 43¦ 2 © 4 S¤ © ¢ ¦ ¦ § ¥¢ ¤ © ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¤ § ¦ 72 3¥ %§ ¦ © § § § ¢¦ 2 ¤ ¦ 2 2 4 %§ ¢ %§ ¤ . is reserved solely for use as the Haskell list constructor. and can occur wherever a lowercase letter can.4): An operator symbol starting with a colon is a constructor. Identiﬁers are lexically distinguished into two namespaces (Section 1.10 CHAPTER 2.> @ ˜ => Operator symbols are formed from one or more symbol characters. this makes its treatment uniform with other parts of list syntax. and Name are three distinct identiﬁers (the ﬁrst two are variable identiﬁers. Other than the special syntax for preﬁx negation. and are lexically distinguished into two namespaces (Section 1. LEXICAL STRUCTURE ’ case class data default deriving do else if import in infix infixl infixr instance let module newtype of then type where _ An identiﬁer consists of a letter followed by zero or more letters. underscores. “_”. “_” all by itself is a reserved identiﬁer.
2).5.. 4§ ¢ ¡ ¥ 0X 7 ¢ ¦ ¢ ¡ 7 3¢ 3¢ 7 § ¦ 32 ¡ ¦ ¢ 4§ ¦ 7 4 § ¡ 3¢ 4 § ¦ 7 3¢ ¦ § 7 ¢2 ¦ 4§ ¢ ¡ ¥ 0o 0x 0O 7 3¢ 43332 ¨ © ¦ 4 © 3¤ `¨ ¦ 72 3¥ %§ ¨ © § ¦ 32 ¨ ¢ %§ ¨ § § S ¢ .5 Numeric Literals §§ § § 2 § § § 2 §§ § § § § § ¦ ¦ 6 7 ¢ ¦ ¢ § 2 73§ ¢ 4 4§ ¨ e E +  ¨ § 32 ¦ ¦ ¢ ¡ . Namespaces are also discussed in Section 1. 2. variables and constructors have inﬁx forms. . .g f. Prelude.. but not type variables or module names. Sample lexical analyses are shown below. (two tokens) The qualiﬁer does not change the syntactic treatment of a name. constructor.g F.’) F . This applies to variable. (qualiﬁed ‘.4. . F. also.2.. .. NUMERIC LITERALS 11 Variables and type variables are represented by identiﬁers beginning with small letters. (two tokens) F. ¦ ¢ ¦ ¢ § 2 7 ¢ 4§ 7 3¢ ¦ ¥ ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § § § ¡ ¥ ¢ 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 4§ 7 6 3¢ 6 6 § ¦ ¦ ¥ 32 4 4 © 3¤ ¤ § ¦ § © ¦ 32 ¦ ¤ ¦ 37 2 © ¦ § § § ¦ 32 ¢ ¢ %§ ¢ ¡ 2 ¢ S ¥ %§ ¢ ¡ ¦ ! . Lexes as this f . the other four do not. ¦ ¤ § `¨ Since a qualiﬁed name is a lexeme. Qualiﬁed names are discussed in detail in Chapter 5. no spaces are allowed between the qualiﬁer and the name. for example.4. type constructor and type class names. This f. and the other four by identiﬁers beginning with capitals. g (three tokens) F.+ is an inﬁx operator with the same ﬁxity as the deﬁnition of + in the Prelude (Section 4. A name may optionally be qualiﬁed in certain circumstances by prepending them with a module identiﬁer.g (qualiﬁed ‘g’) f . F. .
Integer literals may be given in decimal (the default). Further equivalences of characters are deﬁned in Section 6. 2. A string may include a “gap”—two backslants enclosing white characters—which is ignored. This allows one to write long strings on more than one line by writing a backslant at the end of one line and at the start of the next.12 CHAPTER 2. and “vertical tab” (\v). similarly.1. Numeric escapes such as \137 are used to designate the character with decimal representation 137. “form feed” (\f). Escape characters for the Unicode character set. "\SOH". Thus "\&" is equivalent to "" and the character ’\&’ is disallowed. The escape character \& is provided as a “null character” to allow strings such as "\137\&9" and "\SO\&H" to be constructed (both of length two). including control characters such as \ˆX.2.4. The typing of numeric literals is discussed in Section 6. Note that a single quote ’ may be used in a string. a double quote " may be used in a character. octal (e. Similarly. Negative numeric literals are discussed in Section 3.g. Consistent with the “maximal munch” rule. “backspace” (\b). Escape codes may be used in characters and strings to represent special characters. “new line” (\n). \o137) and hexadecimal (e. this ensures that a decimal point cannot be mistaken for another use of the dot character. the one ambiguous ASCII escape code.4. For example. © 7 3¢ 4§ ¤ ¥ ¢ 4§ ¢¡ ¥ § 2 ¦ ¢ 7 3¢ ¦ 7 ¢ © © ¡5¢ ¡ 5¢ ¢ ¨£¡ ) © © ¡ 5¢ ¢ ¨£¡ § §#¥¦£ ¤ ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¥ © y ¢ 2¤ ¢ u ¢ ¤§ ¦ © © § ¨¥ § ¨¥ ¤ ¢ ¦ ¤ ¡§¢ ¤ ¡ §¢ 7 ¥ 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 § @§ © ¢ © ¤ ¥ ¢ © ¡ §¢ #¦ § ¤ § © 7 ¤ ¤ ¡ ¤ § 5¢¦ ¢ ¢ ¥ ¥ . “carriage return” (\r). A ﬂoating literal must contain digits both before and after the decimal point. The category also includes portable representations for the characters “alert” (\a). and strings between double quotes.g. are also provided. “horizontal tab” (\t). numeric escape characters in strings consist of all consecutive digits and may be of arbitrary length.6 Character and String Literals ’ ’ \ \& ’ " " " \ \ o x a b f n r t v \ " ’ & ˆ NUL SOH STX ETX EOT ENQ ACK BEL BS HT LF VT FF CR SO SI DLE DC1 DC2 DC3 DC4 NAK SYN ETB CAN EM SUB ESC FS GS RS US SP DEL [ \ ] ˆ _ \ \ ¢ ) h ) h §§ Character literals are written between single quotes. \ must always be escaped. LEXICAL STRUCTURE There are two distinct kinds of numeric literals: integer and ﬂoating. but must be escaped in a character. as in "Hello". as in ’a’. Floating literals are always decimal.1. is parsed as a string of length 1. but must be escaped in a string. \x37) representations are also allowed. octal (preﬁxed by 0o or 0O) or hexadecimal notation (preﬁxed by 0x or 0X).
b = 2 g y = exp2 in exp1 making a. \ \a numeric escape character. Section 9.1 shows a (somewhat contrived) module and Figure 2. let.2.7 Layout Haskell permits the omission of the braces and semicolons used in several grammar productions. a close brace is inserted. A close brace is also inserted whenever the syntactic category containing the layout list ends. do.e. even if a line is indented to the left of an earlier implicit open brace. The meaning of this augmented program is now layout insensitive. The layout rule matches only those open braces that it has inserted. the indentation of the next lexeme (whether or not on a new line) is remembered and the omitted open brace is inserted (the whitespace preceding the lexeme may include comments). Because layout is not required.2 shows the result of applying the layout rule to it. let. When this happens. and layout processing occurs for the current level (i. The effect of layout on the meaning of a Haskell program can be completely speciﬁed by adding braces and semicolons in places determined by the layout. the braces and semicolons are inserted as follows. a control character.7. if it contains only whitespace or is indented more. these rules permit: f x = let a = 1. 2.3 gives a more precise deﬁnition of the layout rules.7). then a new item begins (a semicolon is inserted). The layout (or “offside”) rule takes effect whenever the open brace is omitted after the keyword where. no layout processing is performed for constructs outside the braces. This allows both layoutsensitive and layoutinsensitive styles of coding. where the . and \ˆX. As an example. LAYOUT 13 "Here is a backslant \\ as well as \137. an empty list “{}” is inserted. an explicit open brace must be matched by an explicit close brace. or of. do or of is less than or equal to the current indentation level. If the indentation of the nonbrace lexeme immediately following a where. and if it is indented less. b and g all part of the same layout list. For each subsequent line. by using layout to convey the same information. then the layout list ends (a close brace is inserted). which can be freely mixed within one program. then instead of starting a layout. if it is indented the same amount. then the previous item is continued (nothing is inserted). if an illegal lexeme is encountered at a point where a close brace would be legal. a single newline may actually terminate several layout lists. Given these rules. Figure 2. insert a semicolon or close brace). that is. Also.pop. Note in particular: (a) the line beginning }}. Informally stated." String literals are actually abbreviations for lists of characters (see Section 3. Haskell programs can be straightforwardly produced by other programs. Within these explicit open braces.
pop.top :: Stack a > a . top.(top Empty) is an error Figure 2. corresponding to the depth (3) of the nested where clauses. size ) where {data Stack a = Empty  MkStack a (Stack a) . . size ) where data Stack a = Empty  MkStack a (Stack a) push :: a > Stack a > Stack a push x s = MkStack x s size :: Stack a > Int size s = length (stkToLst s) where stkToLst Empty = [] stkToLst (MkStack x s) = x:xs where xs = stkToLst s pop :: Stack a > (a.size s = length (stkToLst s) where {stkToLst Empty = [] . (b) the close braces in the where clause nested within the tuple and case expression. LEXICAL STRUCTURE module AStack( Stack.top (MkStack x s) = x } . and (c) the close brace at the very end. Stack a) pop (MkStack x s) = (x.14 CHAPTER 2.pop :: Stack a > (a. Stack a) .push :: a > Stack a > Stack a . case s of {r > i r where {i x = x}}) .(pop Empty) is an error . pop.stkToLst (MkStack x s) = x:xs where {xs = stkToLst s }}. top.(top Empty) is an error Figure 2. inserted because of the column 0 indentation of the endofﬁle token.pop (MkStack x s) = (x.1: A sample program module AStack( Stack.size :: Stack a > Int .(pop Empty) is an error top :: Stack a > a top (MkStack x s) = x . push.2: Sample program with layout expanded termination of the previous line invokes three applications of the layout rule. case s of r > i r where i x = x) . push.push x s = MkStack x s . inserted because the end of the tuple was detected.
. these translations preserve both the static and dynamic semantics. Free variables and constructors used in these translations always refer to entities deﬁned by the Prelude. with 10 substitutions for and 3 for . where appropriate. In the syntax that follows. ::  15 ¢ ¡ else } ¦ ¡ ¢ ¡ © @§ \ let in if then case of { ¢ S > lambda abstraction let expression conditional case expression ¡ ¡ v v ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ S ¡ ¨ ¡ %§ => expression type signature ¢ § ¡ p v §e ¢© v ¨ v 7 ¢ 3¢ S ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢¡ © ¦ A!¡ § 8¥8¥8 7 ¡ § ¢ £¡5¢ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¢¡ ¤ 2 ¡ £v §¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ p v §e ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¥¡ S ¡ ¡ 2 ¢ ¡ s § S § ¢ p v ¨§e ¢ ¦ ¡ ¦ 32 v 2 ¡ ¡ V 2 ¢ S ¡ v v v ¤ ¥¡ ¤ v ¡ 7 ¢ S ¤ ¡ S ¢ ¢ ¡ ( ) ¦ ¤ ¡ 2 ¦ ©32 ¡7 ¡ 2¤ ¢ ¢ ¡ 2 p v £!e ¢ $ ¡ ¡ v ¡ ¦ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ 7 ¤ 7 § 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 ¤ v ¡ v ¡ v ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ S ¡ ¡ ¡ ¤ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ 7 7 . index: a letter . “concatMap” used in the translation of list comprehensions (Section 3. there are some families of nonterminals indexed by precedence levels . the nonterminals .11) means the concatMap deﬁned by the Prelude. we describe the syntax and informal semantics of Haskell expressions. or for left. Except in the case of let expressions. A precedencelevel variable ranges from 0 to 9. an associativity variable varies over .or nonassociativity and a precedence level. regardless of whether or not the identiﬁer “concatMap” is in scope where the list comprehension is used. right.Chapter 3 Expressions In this chapter. For example actually stands for 30 productions. For example. and (if it is in scope) what it is bound to. Similarly. and may have a double (written as a superscript). including their translations into the Haskell kernel.
} in (x + y) z + (let { . the expression p ¢ 8 @e § 2 ¡ ¦ p v £!e ¢ $ ¡ 2 ¢ %e p 8 Q¢ ¡ 2 p v £!e ¢ $ A ¦ ¡ § { .4.operator deﬁned in the Prelude (see Section 4. Consecutive unparenthesized operators with the same precedence must both be either left or right associative to avoid a syntax error. Sample parses are shown below. } in x + y let { . The ambiguity is resolved by the metarule that each of these constructs extends as far to the right as possible.2. Expressions that involve the interaction of ﬁxities with the let/lambda metarule may be hard to parse.. ] . .  parenthesized expression tuple list arithmetic sequence list comprehension left section left section right section variable general constructor function application 0 ¡ ¦§ 0 ) A 9 g © ¡ ¨ ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¦ ¦¡ 2 ¢ A ¦ § 0 8¥¥8 ' ¡ ¦ § 0 8 ¦ ¦ ' ' ¢ S ¤ ) 2 v ¡ p v ¢ ¡e ¡ ¢ S ) 2 ¡ v ¡ p v ¢ $0e ¡ 2 ¢ S v p v ¢ 5e A 2 ¡ ¡ v ¡ ¡ 7 ¢ p v £!e ¡ ¢ $ ¡ ¡ $ $ ¢ A ¥8¥8 8 ¡ 7 3¢ ¨ ¥ ¢¡ ¢ ¡¢ ¨ £ 7 ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ S ¢ 8¡ ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¡ 8 ¡¡ ¢S ¥8¥8 ¡¢ ¡ ¡ 8 ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ § § ¤ 7 3¢ ¦ 2 7 ¡ ¢ S 4§ ¢ © do { } do expression ¨ ¤ ¡ ¡ ¢ S¢0 ¢ ¢ S¢0 ' ¢ 6 6 ' ¡ ¡ ¢ S ¢ ¡ 0 ¢ ¢ ..16 © @§ CHAPTER 3. ] ¢ £ . EXPRESSIONS Expressions involving inﬁx operators are disambiguated by the operator’s ﬁxity (see Section 4. . . } in (x + y)) (f x y) :: Int \ x > ((a+b) :: Int) + g y x + y { . } ¦ .. . The grammar is ambiguous regarding the extent of lambda abstractions. For example. Figure 4.1). Negation is the only preﬁx operator in Haskell... } ¦ § { ( )  right section labeled construction labeled update ) ) ) ¦ . Given an unparenthesized expression “ ”..4. let expressions. it has the same precedence as the inﬁx .2).. and conditionals. . This f x .. ) ] ¤ ¥ £ ¢ Q¢ ( ( [ [ [ ( ( ( ) .(f x)) + y let { .. } in x + y y :: Int > a+b :: Int A note about parsing.f let z + f x \ x Parses as (f x) + (g y) (. parentheses must be added around either “ ” or “ ” when unless or . ¦ 2 ' .
when demanded. It should also display the string in some systemdependent manner. When evaluated. the rest of this section shows the syntax of expressions without their precedences. The messages passed to the error function in these translations are only suggestions. denoted by . 3. a value of any type may be bound to a computation that. are indistinguishable by a Haskell program from nontermination. The actual program behavior when an error occurs is up to the implementation. all Haskell types include . implementations may well use a postparsing pass to deal with ﬁxities. Translations of Haskell expressions use error and undefined to explicitly indicate where execution time errors may occur.3. the error message is created by the compiler. Operators. so they may well incorrectly deliver the former parse. 3.1. When undefined is used. Constructors.2 Variables. Since Haskell is a nonstrict language. implementations may choose to display more or less information when an error occurs. That is. and Literals ¤ ¢ ¤ § § 7 3¢ ¦ 2 7 6 ¡ ¢ S ¢ variable general constructor . so the expression must parse thus: (let x = True in (x == x)) == True 17 However. For the sake of clarity. results in an error.1 Errors Errors during expression evaluation. The Prelude provides two functions to directly cause such errors: error :: String > a undefined :: a A call to error terminates execution of the program and returns an appropriate error indication to the operating system. Programmers are advised to avoid constructs whose parsing involves an interaction of (lack of) associativity with the let/lambda metarule. ERRORS let x = True in x == x == True cannot possibly mean let x = True in (x == x == True) because (==) is a nonassociative operator. errors cause immediate program termination and cannot be caught by the user.
4). production for An integer literal represents the application of the function fromInteger to the appropriate value of type Integer. where fromRational is a method in class Fractional and Ratio.18 CHAPTER 3. An operator is either an operator symbol. a ﬂoating point literal stands for an application of fromRational to a value of type Rational (that is. .1).4. or is an ordinary identiﬁer enclosed in grave accents (backquotes). such as ` `.% ). (+) x y is equivalent to x + y. such as + or $$. one can write the inﬁx application x `op y.1. Dually. Ratio Integer). instead of writing the preﬁx application op op x y. Similarly. as found in the and . These are described in Section 6.5).% constructs a rational from two integers.2). EXPRESSIONS () [] (. Special syntax is used to name some constructors for some of the builtin types. where fromInteger is a method in class Num (see Section 6. an operator symbol can be converted to an ordinary identiﬁer by enclosing it in parentheses. An operator is a function that can be applied using inﬁx syntax (Section 3. For example. Translation: The integer literal is equivalent to fromInteger . The ﬂoating point literal is equivalent to fromRational ( Ratio. For example. as deﬁned in the Ratio library. and foldr (*) 1 xs is equivalent to foldr (\x y > x*y) 1 xs. The integers and are chosen so that .4. If no ﬁxity declaration is given for `op ` ` then it defaults to highest precedence and left associativity (see Section 4. ¦ ¦ ¦ § ¦ ` ` ` ` ) ) ) ( ( ( ( ` ` ` ` ) 4 © ¦ 3332 2 ¦ ©32 2 ¤ ¡ ©¦ 2 ¡ &¤¢ 2 2 ¦ ¡ 4 ©¡ ¢ § 32 3¦ 2 ¦ ¦ 4 © ¦ § 32 33 2 ¦ 4 S¤ © § ¤ ¦ ¢ 4 © 3¤¢ § ¤ ¦ 4 32 ¢ § ¦ 2 ¢ © ¦ ¦ 4 © ¦ 3332 ¦ § 3 2 43¤ § ¦ ¤ © ¦ 4 © 3¢S¤ § ¤¢ ¦ ¢ ¢ § 7 3¢ 0 ¤ § § 7 ¦ 2 ¦ 2 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 0 4 32 © ¦ 2 ¡ 2 2 ¦ ©32 ¡ ¡ ©¦ 2 2 ¡ &¤ 2 ¡ 2 ¤¢ ¡ ¦32 ¢ ¦ 2 ¦ ¤ ¦ 32 ¡¦ ¤¢ ¢ variable qualiﬁed variable constructor qualiﬁed constructor variable operator qualiﬁed variable operator constructor operator qualiﬁed constructor operator operator qualiﬁed operator . or partially applied using a section (Section 3. ) : Haskell provides special syntax to support inﬁx notation.
where the are patterns. Preﬁx negation has the same precedence as the inﬁx operator . There is no link between the local meaning of the . However. The binary . ¡ A ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ £ ¡ Function application is written omitted in (f x) y. it may legally be written as \(x:xs)>x. An expression such Lambda abstractions are written \ as \x:xs>x is syntactically incorrect. the only preﬁx operator in Haskell. Because tors are allowed. page 55). Because e1e2 parses as an inﬁx application of the binary operator .will always refer to the negate function deﬁned in the Prelude. £ ¤ ¡ 2 £ ¤ 2 3 ¡ ¢ The form is the inﬁx application of binary operator to expressions and ¡ ¡  2 ¦ ©32 ¡ ¢ ¡ 2 ¤ ¡ ¡¢ ¢ 2 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ 6 6 where the are new identiﬁers.denotes preﬁx negation.4 Operator Applications £ The special form . CURRIED APPLICATIONS AND LAMBDA ABSTRACTIONS 19 3.deﬁned in the Prelude (see Table 4.17. 3. ¨ ££ ¥¦£ ¡ ¨ ££ ¥¦£ ¡ ¨ £££ ¡ ¦¥ ¨ £££ ¡ ©§¦¥¤¢ \ > \ > case ( . unary . partial applications of data construc ) of ( .3. it may be rebound by the module system.3. Application associates to the left. ) > ¦ ¢ ¡ A !§ ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ § \ > ¡ ¢ ¡ £5¢ ¡ ¢ S ¢ ¢ ¡ ¢¢ ¨ £§S¢0 ¡ 6 6 ¡ ¡ ¡ function application lambda abstraction ¡ ¡ ¢ 2 ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ 0 .3. and is syntax for negate .3 Curried Applications and Lambda Abstractions > . The set of patterns must be linear—no variable may appear more than once in the set. and does not denote (\ x > x)—one must use negate for that. then the result is . Similarly.operator does not necessarily refer to the deﬁnition of . .operator and unary negation. . one must write e1(e2) for the alternative parsing. as with any inﬁx operator. . if the pattern fails to match. so the parentheses may be could be a data constructor.in the Prelude. () is syntax for (\ x y > xy).1. preﬁx negation qualiﬁed operator . v Translation: The following identity holds: Given this translation combined with the semantics of case expressions and pattern matching described in Section 3.
but (+a+b) is not. ¢ S ¡ 2 Sections are written as ( ) or ( ). but an application of preﬁx negation. the expression (let n = 10 in n + x) parses as (let n = 10 in (n + x)) rather than ((let n = 10 in n) + x) Because . (a+b+) is syntactically correct. there is a subtract function deﬁned in the Prelude such that (subtract ) is equivalent to the disallowed section. ( )  right section ) ¡ 2 ¡ 2 ¡ 2 ¡ ¡ ¡ 2 ¢ ¡ ( ( ( ) ) left section left section right section is an expression.20 Translation: The following identities hold: CHAPTER 3.  £ ¡ ¤ ¢ ( ) negate ¡ 2 £ ¤ ¡ 2 ¢ ¡ p v £!e ¢ $ ¡ ¡ 2 ) 2 p v ¢ ¡e ¡ ) 2 p v ¢ 0e ¡ $ 2 v S ¢ ¡ ¡ 7 ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ 2 v 6 ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ S ¢ .5 Sections ¢ S ¤ v ¡ ¢ S ¡ v ¡ p v ¢ A5e ¡ 2  Syntactic precedence rules apply to sections as follows. where is a binary operator and Sections are a convenient syntax for partial application of binary operators. Because (+) is left associative. but (+a*b) and (*(a+b)) are valid. () is not a section. the latter may legally be written as (+(a+b)). the expression (let n = 10 in n +) is invalid because. ( ) is legal if and only if (x ) ( )). For example. as described in the preceding section.is treated specially in the grammar. EXPRESSIONS 3. The expression (+ ()) can serve the same purpose. However. by the let/lambda metarule (Section 3). (*a+b) is synparses in the same way as (x tactically invalid. and similarly for ( ). As another example.
and must have the same type. . £ ¡ £ ¢ S ¡ ¤ ¡ ¢ ¡ if then else ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¥ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 ¡ 2 where .3. and otherwise. denoted []. and the empty list is Lists are written [ . is an expression. as deﬁned in the must be Bool. ¥ £ ¡ 3. and is a variable that does not occur free in ¢ ¡2 2 ¢ ¢ ¢ ¡ 2 2 ( ( ) ) \ \ > > ¡ ¡ ¡ 4 ¡ © ¦ 32 2 ¦ ©32 ¦ 32 ¦ 3¡2 ¡ ¢ S ¡ ¡ 2 ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ and returns the value of if the ¢ .1. The list constructor is :. CONDITIONALS Translation: The following identities hold: 21 3. ¢ ¢ S 8 8 ¥¥8 4 © 3¦ 2 2 ©¦ 2 4 © ¦ 3¡ 32 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¦ 2 ¦ 2 ¢ ¡ [ .7 Lists [] ( ) : . The type of type of the entire conditional expression.6. if is False. ]. Standard operations on lists are given in the Prelude (see Section 6. is a binary operator.3. False > } £ ¥ A conditional expression has the form if then else value of is True.6 Conditionals ¥ ¢ ¡ Translation: ¡ ¢ The following identity holds: ¥ ¢ £ ¢ ¡ ¤ where True and False are the two nullary constructors from the type Bool. where . and Chapter 8 notably Section 8. which is also the Prelude.1). ] ¢ ¡¡ £ ¥ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ 2 ¡¡ £ ¤ if then else case of { True > .
) Tuples are written ( . .2). If through are the types of through . Translation: ( .2). ) (see Section 4.1. and can be thought of as the “nullary tuple” (see Section 6.b.2). ] : ( : ( ( : []))) ¡ ¡ ¢ 6 6 6 6 ¡ ¦ 32 ¦ 32 ¡ ¡ § ¢ S ¢ S ¢ ¢ .5).1. with precedence level 5 (Section 4. .4 and Chapter 8). Thus (a. EXPRESSIONS where : and [] are constructors for lists. .9 Unit Expressions and Parenthesized Expressions ¡¦ 2 The form ( ) is simply a parenthesized expression.1. The constructor “:” is reserved solely for list construction.. . The types of through must all be the same (call it ). it is considered part of the language syntax. . then the type of the resulting tuple is ( . respectively. .2). The unit expression () has type () (see Section 4. .). ) for is an instance of a tuple as deﬁned in the Prelude. as deﬁned in the Prelude (see Section 6.. and cannot be hidden or redeﬁned. ) ¤ ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 £ ¡ ¢ ¡¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¤ [ . where there are denote the same value. Standard operations on tuples are given in the Prelude (see Section 6.) a b c tuple is denoted by (. and is equivalent to . The constructor for an commas. Translation: ( ) is equivalent to . 3.1. It is a rightassociative operator. and may be of arbitrary length .22 Translation: The following identity holds: CHAPTER 3.4.c) and (. and the type of the overall expression is [ ] (see Section 4.3). ). and requires no translation.8 Tuples ¢ S (. like []. . ¢ ¡ ( () ) ¦ ¤ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡¦ § § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¤ ¢ ¡§ ¡§ 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¦ 2 ¢ ¡ ( . It is the only member of that type apart from . .1. § 3.1.
10 Arithmetic Sequences ¨ ¥ ¡ $ ¢ ¡ Translation: Arithmetic sequences satisfy these identities: ¡ where enumFrom..1. ] denotes a list of values of type . § 3. . depthﬁrst evaluation of the generators in the qualiﬁer list. § ¥ ¢ £ ¤ ¡ § § ¨ £ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ [ .3. The semantics of arithmetic sequences therefore depends entirely on the instance declaration for the type .. . page 83). ] . ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ £¡ ¢ ¡ 6 6 6 7 ¢ 3¢ S ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ S $ ¢ ] . enumFromThen.. See Section 6. and enumFromThenTo are class methods in the class Enum as deﬁned in the Prelude (see Figure 6. ] enumFrom enumFromThen enumFromTo enumFromThenTo v The arithmetic sequence [ . enumFromTo. § generators of the form expression of type [ ] § <. which are arbitrary expressions of type Bool local bindings that provide new deﬁnitions for use in the generated expression or subsequent guards and generators.4 for more details of which Prelude types are in Enum and their semantics. Such a list comprehension returns the list of elements produced by evaluating in the successive environments created by the nested.. ] where the qualiﬁers are either and is an ¡ ¡ $ © ¢ ¡ 7 ¦ ¢ ¡ [  <let § .17) of type v ¦ A ¥ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ A list comprehension has the form [  . where each of the has type . ARITHMETIC SEQUENCES 23 3. ] list comprehension generator local declaration guard ¥¤ £ ¡ ¥ ¢ ¡ £ ¡ 7 3¢ ¥ ¢ 7 ¢ ¥ ¢ £ ¤ £ ¤ ¡¢ ¡¢ ¡¢ ¡ ¢ [ [ [ [ . and is an instance of class Enum.11 List Comprehensions ¦ A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ guards. ] .10.3. ... . where is a pattern (see Section 3.. ] . . .
are deﬁned in the Prelude.4). The scope of the declarations is the expression and the right hand side of the declarations.(3.(3. x <.. and introduce a nested.4). 3. which may be used as a translation into the kernel: where ranges over expressions. A ¦ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¦ let in ' © 7 ¡ ¡ © 7 ¦ © 7 ¥ ¦ [  let . over listvalued expressions. [(5.y) = undefined in does not cause an executiontime error until x or y is evaluated. and over sequences of qualiﬁers. ] = 7 ] ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ ' 7 ¥ ¦ 7 ' ¡ [ [ [ [  True ]  ]  . } in . Thus: [ x  xs <.x. ok is a fresh variable.2].5. and boolean value True. The function concatMap. As usual. for example: Translation: List comprehensions satisfy these identities.2)] ].x.17). Declarations are described in Chapter 4. mutuallyrecursive list of declarations (let is often called letrec in other languages). and if a match fails then that element of the list is simply skipped over.[ [(1. variables bound by let have fully polymorphic types while those deﬁned by <.xs ] yields the list [4. If a qualiﬁer is a guard. it must evaluate to True for the previous pattern match to succeed. bindings in list comprehensions can shadow those in outer scopes. over patterns.x) <. z <. EXPRESSIONS Binding of variables occurs according to the normal pattern matching rules (see Section 3.4)].2).12 Let Expressions ¢ ¡ © Let expressions have the general form let { . let (x. lexicallyscoped.x ] [ z  y <.24 CHAPTER 3. (3. True ] if then [  let ok = [  ok _ = [] in concatMap ok let in [  [ x  x <.y] ] else [] ] ] 6 ¡ ¢ ¡ . expressions. over qualiﬁers. = = = = [ ] [  . an implicit ˜ makes these patterns irrefutable. For example. As indicated by the translation of list comprehensions. . Pattern bindings are matched lazily.are lambda bound and are thus monomorphic (see Section 4. ]  <. over boolean over declaration lists.
each declaration is translated into an equation of the form = ... in = } in = = let (˜ . using the translation in Section 4. 3. . Each match in turn consists of a sequence of pairs of guards and bodies (expressions).4. Note the use of the irrefutable patterns ˜ . } in are captured by this translation: After removing all type signatures..13 Case Expressions A case expression has the general form (Notice that in the syntax rule for . . the “” is a terminal symbol.. The static semantics of the bindings in a let expression are described in Section 4. . CASE EXPRESSIONS Translation: The dynamic semantics of the expression let { 25 . . . these identities hold.3. > ¦§ of { } . not the syntactic metasymbol for alternation.. . . This translation does not preserve the static semantics because the use of case precludes a fully polymorphic typing of the bound variables.13. followed by optional bindings ( ) that scope over all of the guards and expressions of the alternative. .) Each alternative consists of a pattern and its matches. ) in case of ˜ > where no variable in appears free in let = fix ( \ ˜ > ) in ¡ ¢ ¨ ££ ¦¥£ ¡ § ¢ £¡ ¦ © @§ ¡ § 7 3¢ 7¡ 3 ¢ ¢ ¦ .˜ ) = ( . An alternative of the form > where ¢ ¡  True > where © ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ § ¢ ¡ is treated as shorthand for: v ¨¥ § ¢ 4 v v ¡ © 7 ¥ ¦ ¤ v ¦7 v v © 7 ¥ ¦  > where ¤ ¥7 v ¡ v ¡ ¡v ¢ S 8 8 ¥¥8 v ¨¥ § § ¢ ¢ £¡ 4 ¦ v ¡ v © 7 ¦ 4 where each is of the general form  > A 4 A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¥ § 4 ¡ case v ¥ § of { .3.3. where where ¡ £ ¡ 7 3¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¦ ¡ ¢ 6 6 6 6 6 let = in = ¨ ¡ ¡ ¥ ¡ ¢ ¨ © ¡ ¡ ¡ ¨ ¨ © ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¥ ¢ let { = let = . ¥ § ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡  ¨ § ¢ ¡ > ¤ } 3 § § ¢ ¦¤ 5 § 7 3¢ %§ ¡ 4 ¦ ¨ © ¨ 5© 7 ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ © @§ ¢ £¡ ¦ ¡ A§ 7 3¢ £¡ ¦ ¢ ¢ £¡ ¢ ¡ § ¡ ¥8¥8 ¢ £¡ ¡§ 8 7 3¢ § ¢ S case . where and are patterns and expressions respectively.4. .. which may be used as a translation into the kernel: ¡ where fix is the least ﬁxpoint operator. Once done.
and hence reject the program. with the formal semantics of case expressions in Section 3. and parsers with limited lookahead may incorrectly commit to this choice. the corresponding righthand side is evaluated in the same environment as the guard. the result is . The expression case x of { (a. It allows an expression such as putStr "x: " >> getLine >>= \l > return (words l) to be written in a more traditional way as: do putStr "x: " l <. ¦ 3. matching continues with the next alternative. from top to bottom. ¦ § ¡ 7 ¦ ¢ ¡ § ¡ ¢¡ £ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢S A § 4 §¤© 8¥8¥8 ¡ § 4 § © 4§ © © @§ do { } do expression v © 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ ¢ S 6 6 6 ¤ ¥¡ © @§ ¢ ¡ § ¡ 4§ 4§ © © ¢ ¡ .14 Do Expressions A do expression provides a more conventional syntax for monadic programming. namely case x of { (a. and then by the guards evaluates to True. If matches the pattern in the alternative. It has a single unambiguous parse. to avoid guards that end with a type signature — indeed that is why a contains an not an . A note about parsing.3. EXPRESSIONS A case expression must have at least one alternative and each alternative must have at least one body. If no match succeeds. in the environment of the case expression extended ﬁrst by the bindings created during the matching of the in the where clause associated with that alternative. and the type of the whole expression is that type. therefore.26 CHAPTER 3.getLine return (words l) § § § ¦ 4 ¢ © %§ ¡ 4 ¥ © . the guards for that alternative are tried sequentially from top to bottom. Each body must have the same type. the phrase Bool > a is syntactically valid as a type. ¦ ¨ ._)  (let b = not a in b :: Bool) > a } However. If all the guards evaluate to False. Pattern matching is described in Section 3.17. . <let . A case expression is evaluated by pattern matching the expression against the individual alternatives. Programmers are advised. If one of the pattern.17._)  let b = not a in b :: Bool > a } is tricky to parse correctly. . The alternatives are tried sequentially.
preferably giving some indication of the location of the patternmatch failure. because y is given inconsistent typings in the latter.15. select from. When used as a variable. and ok is a fresh identiﬁer." stands for a compilergenerated error message..BAD Here S is legal but T is not. a ﬁeld label can be used in more than one constructor provided the ﬁeld has the same typing in all constructors.3)..3.1 Field Selection ¤ ¢ Field labels are used as selector functions. and update ﬁelds in a manner that is independent of the overall structure of the datatype.are lambda bound and are thus monomorphic.15. do { < © @§ 4 ¤© § = = = ¦ 4 ¤© § } = do { } _ = fail ".2) and update (Section 3. DATATYPES WITH FIELD LABELS 27 Translation: Do expressions satisfy these identities. 3. This shadowing only affects selector functions. 3.15.2. A ﬁeld label can be used at most once in a constructor.. Selectors are top level bindings and so they may be shadowed by local variables but cannot conﬂict with other top level bindings of the same name.15. ﬁeld labels cannot be confused with ordinary variables. in record construction (Section 3. >>=.1). after eliminating empty : } . which may be used as a translation into the kernel. as deﬁned in the Prelude. and fail are operations in the class Monad. © @§ 4§ © © © @§ 4§ © © do {let . however. As indicated by the translation of do. passed to fail. } = © @§ 4 ¤© § } © @§ 4 ¤© ¡ § >> do let ok ok in let 7 ¥ ¦ © @§ 4§ 7 © @§ do { } do { . the functions >>. To illustrate the last point. Within a datatype." >>= ok in do { } { ¡ 6 ¡ ¢ S ¢ . These ﬁeld labels can be used to construct. Different datatypes cannot share common ﬁeld labels in the same scope.15 Datatypes with Field Labels A datatype declaration may optionally deﬁne ﬁeld labels (see Section 4. a ﬁeld label serves as a function that extracts the ﬁeld from an object. © The ellipsis ". consider: data S = S1 { x :: Int }  S2 { x :: Int } data T = T1 { y :: Int }  T2 { y :: Bool } .OK .. variables bound by let have fully polymorphic types while those deﬁned by <.
0 v v P ¡ A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¢ ¦ ¡ ' 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¡ = case x of { > . undefined A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¦ ¡§ ¢ ¡ 0 { = . A ¥¥8 ¡ A A 8 8 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ > } ¦ ' ¤ ¦ ¢2 A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ 0 ¦ 6 6 0 ¢ ¦ ¦ ¡ ¦§ ¢ S ' ¢ 0 . the { and } characters must be explicit. Fields not mentioned are initialized to A compiletime error occurs when any strict ﬁelds (ﬁelds whose declared types are preﬁxed by !) are omitted during construction. where F is a data constructor. A ﬁeld label may not be mentioned more than once. and is y when some ﬁeld in has a label of or undefined otherwise. Unlike the braces used in declaration lists. is y when labels the th component of or _ otherwise. where is the arity of F. 0 ¦ © ' ¡ ¢ v 0 § ¡ ¦ If the th component of a constructor in the binding list . ¦ § v ¦ v where are all the constructors of the datatype containing a ﬁeld labeled with .15.2.2 Construction Using Field Labels ¦ A ¦§ 0 A constructor with labeled ﬁelds may be used to construct a value in which the components are speciﬁed by name rather than by position. Strict ﬁelds are discussed in Section 4. © ' ¡ ¢ v § ¡ ¦ © ¡ ¢ v © ' § ¡ where is the arity of The auxiliary function § . The expression F {}. . EXPRESSIONS A ﬁeld label 0 ' introduces a selector function deﬁned as: 3. } labeled construction .1. these are not subject to layout. . is deﬁned as follows: has the ﬁeld label . it denotes F . the ﬁeld labels . is the default © § 8 8 ¥¥8 © ¡ § © { } = undefined ' ¡ £¢ ¡ 0 ' ¡ ¢¢ 0 Translation: ' In the binding = . and if appears is . then value .28 Translation: x 0 CHAPTER 3.) Construction using ﬁeld labels is subject to the following constraints: Only ﬁeld labels declared with the speciﬁed constructor may be mentioned. is legal whether or not F was declared with record syntax (provided F has no strict ﬁelds — see the third bullet above). Otherwise. (This is also true of ﬁeld updates and ﬁeld patterns.
No label may be mentioned more than once. f3.3 Updates Using Field Labels ¦ A ¦§ ¡ 0 § Values belonging to a datatype with ﬁeld labels may be nondestructively updated. such as x {f2 = 1. At least one constructor must deﬁne all of the labels mentioned in the update. .15. Updates are restricted in the following ways: All labels must be taken from the same datatype.f2 :: Int}  C2 {f1 :: Int. } labeled update . This example translates expressions using constructors in ﬁeldlabel notation into equivalent expressions using the same constructors without ﬁeld labels. T© § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ T© ¡ ¡ § § ¡ > ¢ ' ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ' ¡ ¢ { } ¡ ¡ = case of ¢ £ ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¦§ 0 { . v © ¥¥8 ¡ 8 8 where . v is the set of constructors containing all labels in . f3 = ’x’}.f4 :: Char} Translation C1 3 undefined C2 1 ’B’ ’A’ case x of C1 _ f2 > C1 1 f2 C2 _ f3 f4 > C2 1 f3 f4 Expression C1 {f1 = 3} C2 {f1 = 1. ¦ ' ¦ ' ) A9g© ¨ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ 6 ' ¡ ¢ S ¢ . f3 = ’B’} x {f1 = 1} The ﬁeld f1 is common to both constructors in T. This creates a new value in which the speciﬁed ﬁeld values replace those in the existing value.15..3. A compiletime error will result if no single constructor deﬁnes the set of ﬁeld labels used in an update. An execution error occurs when the value being updated does not contain all of the speciﬁed labels. DATATYPES WITH FIELD LABELS 29 3. and is the arity of £ F© £ ¢ § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ > _ > error "Update error" T© ' £ ¡ ¢ ¡ ' ' £ ¡ ¢ . Translation: © Using the prior deﬁnition of Here are some examples using labeled ﬁelds: data T = C1 {f1. f4 = ’A’..
1. the principal type. or not principal type derivable from comparable to. pattern bindings. they are used to type an expression explicitly and may be used to resolve ambiguous typings due to overloading (see Section 4. Translation: 3. As with normal type signatures (see Section 4.2). the ﬁrst ﬁve of these ultimately translate into case expressions. However.1 Patterns Patterns have this syntax: § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡§ 0 { . and case expressions. but it is an error to give a type that is more general than.16 Expression TypeSignatures %§ 0 Expression typesignatures have the form :: .17 Pattern Matching Patterns appear in lambda abstractions. = } in successor pattern ¡ ¢ ¡ § § ¨ § S § ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¦ 32 :: => ¡ ¢ ¡ £§¢ ¢ £¡ V y ¤ § § 7 3¢ ¦ 2 7 ¤ ¦ 2 ¤ ¡ ¢ ¢ ¡ 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 v ¤ v § § ¡ £¡ ¢ ¤ § ¢£¡ § ¢£ 7¡ ¢ £ 7¡ v § ¢ ¡ £§¢ § § ¡ ¢ £¡ ¢ £¡ ¢ ¡ . The value of the expression is just that of . } ¦§ ¢ ¦ as pattern arity labeled pattern ¦ 32 ¦ 32 arity ¢ ¢  negative literal £¡ ¢ ¤ ¥ § ¦ § + § ¦ 2 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ § ¢ §¢ ¡ ¢£§¢ § ¡ ¢§ ¡ § 2 ©¦32 ¡ v £§¢ § ¤ ¡ v ¢ ¡ v £¡ p v §e ¡ ¢ ¢ ¢ § 2 ¡ ¥ § ¦ § £¡ ¤ ! § 2 ©¦32 s¢ ¡ v § § ¡ v © ¢ £¡ p v ¢§e ¡ ¢ ¡ v § £ 7¡ ¤ ¢ v £¡ ¢ § v ¢ ¨ ¡ v§ 2©32 ¡ v § £ 7¡ ¦ ¢ ¦ ¢£¡ p v ¨§e ¡ ¢ £¡ § ¢ ¤ £ ¡ ¢ § ¨§ § :: = let { :: .3.30 CHAPTER 3.17. the declared type may be more speciﬁc than the . function deﬁnitions. do expressions.1).4. so deﬁning the semantics of pattern matching for case expressions is sufﬁcient. EXPRESSIONS 3. .4). where is an expression and is a type (Section 4. 3. list comprehensions.
_] is equivalent to: case e of { [x. For example. return ). Attempting to match a pattern can have one of three results: it may fail. . case e of { [x.2 Informal Semantics of Pattern Matching Patterns are matched against values.17. this deﬁnition is illegal: f (x.z] > if x==0 then True else False } > if x==0 then True else False } 3. Pattern matching proceeds from left to right. For example.x) = x . one cannot match against a partiallyapplied constructor. and outside to inside. For example. ¢ § . it may succeed. It is as if an identiﬁer not used elsewhere were put in its place. or it may diverge (i.17. according to the following rules: ¤ ¤ 1. ) ] ¤ ¢ £¡ ¢ § £¡ ¢ 8¥¥8 8 8 8 ¥¥8 ) .3. .e.ILLEGAL. x used twice in pattern case e of { xs@(x:rest) > if x==0 then rest else xs } is equivalent to: let { xs = e } in case xs of { (x:rest) > if x==0 then rest else xs } Patterns of the form _ are wildcards and are useful when some part of a pattern is not referenced on the righthandside. Matching the pattern against a value always succeeds and binds ¤ ¢ Patterns of the form @ are called aspatterns.y. ¢ ¡ ¢ £¡ ¢ £¡ ¤ § ¢£§¢ ¡ ¡§ ¢£¡ ¡§ ¢£¡ ¢ £¡ § _ ( ( [ ˜ wildcard parenthesized pattern tuple pattern list pattern irrefutable pattern ¢ ¤ ¢ 6 § ¢ £¡ 0 . PATTERN MATCHING 31 The arity of a constructor must match the number of subpatterns associated with it. All patterns must be linear —no variable may appear more than once. value being matched by § § ¢ ¢ § = as a name for the to . and allow one to use . returning a binding for each variable in the pattern._.
then is matched against . The interpretation of the literal integer literals are allowed. and fails otherwise. so does the overall computation. depending on the type of the pattern. The interpretation of numeric literals is exactly as described in Section 3.. the ﬁrst to fail or diverge causes the overall match to fail or diverge. (Binding does not imply evaluation. constructors associated with newtype serve only to change the type of a value. if all matches succeed. Matching the pattern against a value. or string literal pattern against a value succeeds if == . and to if matching against fails or diverges. except that only ¢ ¢ ¢ ¦ ¢ ¢ ¦ ¢ ¢ ¢ If the value is .are overloaded. subpatterns are matched lefttoright against the components of the data value. Matching the pattern ˜ against a value always succeeds. depends on the value: is a constructor deﬁned by is a constructor deﬁned ¢ ¡ £5¢ ¢ ¡ £§¢ § ¢ ¡ £§¢ ¢ £¡ § ¢ £¡ ¢ ¡ § ¦ 2 ¢ ¡ £5¢ § ¢ ¡ £§¢ ¢ ¦ ¢ ¡ £§¢ . The free variables in are bound to the appropriate values if matching against would otherwise succeed. where == is overloaded based on the type of the pattern. § ¦ Q32 If the value is of the form . 6. Again. the match diverges. Fields not named by the pattern are ignored (matched against _). . then is matched against .32 CHAPTER 3. and no binding is done. the overloaded function fromInteger or fromRational is applied to an Integer or Rational literal (resp) to convert it to the appropriate type. the overall match succeeds.2. where newtype.) Operationally. . this means that no matching is done on a ˜ pattern until one of the variables in is used. The match diverges if this test diverges. Matching a numeric. At that point the entire pattern is matched against the value. and if the match fails or diverges. 3. depends on the value: against a value. The match diverges if the comparison diverges. If the value is of the form . EXPRESSIONS 2. ¦ 32 4. Matching an + pattern (where is a variable and is a positive integer literal) against a value succeeds if >= . is the same as in numeric literal patterns. 8. Matching against a constructor using labeled ﬁelds is the same as matching ordinary constructor patterns except that the ﬁelds are matched in the order they are named in the ﬁeld list. 1 ¦ 2 ¦ 32 7 ¦ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ r1 32 If the value is of the form the match fails. where ¢ £¡ ¦ 32 § ¢ £¡ ¦ 32 If the value is . Matching the pattern by data. the functions >= and . where is a different constructor to ¦ 32 A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ A !§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ § 5. that is. 7. § § § That is. All ﬁelds listed must be declared by the constructor. ﬁelds may not be named more than once. resulting in the binding of to . respectively. character. Matching the wildcard pattern _ against any value always succeeds.
y) > 0) (\ (x.b)] > x) [(0. where is a constructor deﬁned by newtype and is irrefutable @ where is irrefutable. then Aside from the obvious static type constraints (for example. ] (\ ˜[x. attempting to match ’a’ against causes the match to 2. Matching an irrefutable pattern is nonstrict: the pattern matches even if the value to be matched is . is irrefutable). Consider the following declarations: newtype N = N Bool data D = D !Bool (\ (x:xs) > x:x:xs) (\ ˜(x:xs) > x:x:xs) (\ ˜[x. the following static class constraints hold: An integer literal pattern can only be matched against a value in the class Num.b)] > x) [(0.2. An + pattern can only be matched against a value in the class Integral.3. These examples demonstrate refutable vs. Here are some examples: 1.˜(a. Matching a refutable pattern is strict: if the value to be matched is the match diverges. The irrefutable patterns are as follows: a variable.1). or of the form ˜ (whether or not (see Section 4. irrefutable matching: (\ ˜(x. All other patterns are refutable. to .’b’] is matched against [’x’.17.1) § ¢ ¡ £5¢ § ¢ ¡ £§¢ © § 7 ¢ 0 § ¢ ¡ £§¢ %¥ § ¤ § ¢ §¢ ¡ ¦ § ¤ ¢ ¡ £§¢ § ¢ @ 9. If the pattern [’a’. and the result is a failed match.3). It is sometimes helpful to distinguish two kinds of patterns. Many people feel that + patterns should not be used. then ’a’ to match against ’x’. If the match of against fails or diverges. ] (0. a wildcard.’x’]. Matching an aspattern augmented with the binding of so does the overall match.1). A ﬂoating literal pattern can only be matched against a value in the class Fractional.y) > 0) (\ ˜[x] > 0) [] (\ ˜[x] > x) [] 0 0 : : 3. These patterns may be removed or changed in future versions of Haskell. But if [’a’. then .’b’] is matched against [ . ¢ ¡ £§¢ ¢ ¡ £§¢ E ¤ ¢ § ¢§ ¡ £§¢ ¢ ¡ £§¢ ¢ ¦ ¤ ¢E ¢ ¦ . it is a static error to match a character against a boolean). (a. ]. PATTERN MATCHING § 33 against a value is the result of matching against .
For example.1–3.17. function deﬁnition.1–3. Any implementation should behave so that these identities hold. this indicates that variables bound by case are monomorphically typed (Section 4. and are algebraic datatype (data) constructors (including tuple constructors). in Figures 3. EXPRESSIONS These examples illustrate the difference in pattern matching between types deﬁned by data and newtype: Additional examples may be found in Section 4. In particular.2: . A guard is a boolean expression that is evaluated only after all of the arguments have been successfully matched. .1. regardless of whether it actually includes guards—if no guards are written.Int. or pattern binding to which it is attached. an otherwise irrefutable pattern may be evaluated because of a guard. and are patterns. since that would generate rather inefﬁcient code. and it must be true for the overall pattern match to succeed.2 involves the overloaded operator ==. Top level patterns in case expressions and the set of top level patterns in function or pattern bindings may have zero or more associated guards.2. The semantics of case expressions themselves are in turn given as a series of identities.3. (e). it is not expected that it will use them directly. (j). Rule (h) in Figure 3. and are variables. and are booleanvalued expressions. it is this rule that deﬁnes the meaning of pattern matching against overloaded constants. Rules (d).z) [a]  (a == y) = 1 both a and y will be evaluated by == in the guard. These identities all preserve the static semantics. ¢ ¡ 4 v ¢ 3 v ¤ 1 (\ (N True) > True) (\ (D True) > True) (\ ˜(D True) > True) True E v v ¤¢ 1 ¢ v ¡ . The environment of the guard is the same as the righthandside of the caseexpression alternative. v ¥ § Rule (b) matches a general sourcelanguage case expression. then True is substituted for the guards in the forms. Subsequent identities manipulate the resulting case expression into simpler and simpler forms.4).Int) > [Int] > Int f ˜(x.y.34 CHAPTER 3. and (s) use a lambda rather than a let. 3. In Figures 3. and is a newtype constructor.3 Formal Semantics of Pattern Matching The semantics of all pattern matching constructs other than case expressions are deﬁned by giving identities that relate those constructs to case expressions. (q). and are expressions. . in f :: (Int. The guard semantics have an obvious inﬂuence on the strictness characteristics of a function or case expression.2.
> error "No match" } ¡ ! ¨ ££ ¥¦£ © £ ¡ © ¨ © ¡ © ¨ # $£ § § (b) . _ > } > ) (case of { > are all the variables in }) (case of { > A % ££ ¦¥£ case of { > (where is a new variable) case of { > let { } in if then _ > }} © ¥ ¢ 2 10 © % A B ¨ @ § A @ 6 _ else if ¥ ¢ 98 70 ££ ¥¦£ 6 © 4 © 1% 5% ¨ § (c) case of {   > > > . _ > } $C ¨ § ££ ¦¥£ © DC ¨ ¨ @ § ¨ $C¦E£¥¥¦FC ££E © ££ © ¥¦£ C C $3 § (d) case (\ where of { ˜ > . . PATTERN MATCHING 35 .1: Semantics of Case Expressions.  } else ££ ¥¦£ _ £ ¡ ! § ¨ ££ ¥¥£ > case of { . }) ¡ "£ § § £ ¡ (a) case of { } where is a new variable case of { case of { _ § (\ > case of { ¥ £ ¦¤¢ ¥ £ ¦¤¢ }) . } } . Part 1 G @ § (f) case of { _ > . _ > } case of { > ( \ > ) . where { } } then 10 > where { # ¥ ¢ 32 ( & )' ¤# ( & )' ¤# % ££ ¦¥£ © & ¤# ¡ ! where each  > © & ¤# % has the form: .3.17. Figure 3. _ > } @ § @ C ¨ ¨ C § § (e) case of { @ > . .
_ otherwise case of { {} > . = . character. are new variables else } } }. _ > } case of { > . _ > } @ @ © $C ££ ¥¦£ © C ££ ¦¥£ @ © 4 @ (p) @ @ ' ££ ¥¥£ § § (o) > . EXPRESSIONS Figure 3. _ > } if ( == ) then is a numeric. _ > } case ( ) of { > . _ > is a newtype constructor @ @ ¨ ¨ ¢ § § ¢ (k) case of { > . . _ > case of { > case of { { = } > case of { { = . _ > } if >= then (\ > ) ( . _ > } of { > . or string literal. _ > } A @ ££ ¥¥£ ££ ¦¥£ ¥ ¥ §¨ ¨ A ¥ ¤ ¥ ¦¤ © ¨ © ¤ A § © ¨ © 5¤ ££ ¥¥£ ¥ ¤ § @ § (m) case of { { = . _ > } where is a newtype constructor ¢ } case § C C § (j) case of { > } ( \ > ) of { C § @ C § (i) case of { > . ££ ¥¦£ @ ¨ C ££ ¦¥£ @ © C > case © ¨ of { > case _ > } @ ¨ ££ ¥¦£ © ¨ ¦ C ££ ¦¥£ © C § ¨ § (g) case of { case of { > . } > . are ﬁelds of constructor . _ > _ > }} where . ¦" C E £££ ¥¦¥E © C 28 ¨ E £££ ¥¦¥E @ © ¨ _ > at least one of } is not a variable. } > . _ > is a data constructor of arity } @ C ££ ¥¦£ © © C ££ ¥¦£ © ££ ¥¦£ C © ££ ¦¥£ (q) case ( ) of { (\ > ) where is a data constructor of arity © C > . respectively @ @ ¨ ¨ ¤ ¨ ¤ ££ ¥¦£ § ¨ © ¨ § (n) case of { case of { # { = } > . is a new variable © 7¤ A ¨ £ @ ¨ ¢ £ (l) ¢ case where of { > . _ > } case of { > } > @ F ¡ § @ F ¡ § (h) ¡ case where of { > .) else where is a numeric literal ¡ £ @ © C ££ ¥¦£ © C £ (r) case where of { > . _ > } . _ > } case of { _ _ > . _ > } where and are distinct data constructors of arity and . Part 2 @ ¡ § @ C ¡ C ¡ § § (s) case of { + > .2: Semantics of Case Expressions.36 CHAPTER 3. _ > } where is if labels the th component of .
} } © 2§ . . } = = where where empty A § ¦ 37 6 6 © ¥ § ¦ § © 7 ¦ 7 6 6 © 7¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ 6 6 © 7¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ 6 6 © 2§ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 2 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 6 6 2 ¦ ' 2 $ 7 ¦ 2 4 . .¦ § 7 ¥ ¦ ¤ ¤ © ¥ £0 ¦ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ ¡ 7 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¤ ¤ ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¤ © ¥ © ¦ § A 7 ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ © © ¥ ¤ § ¦ ¢ £¡ 7 ¦ § ) 7 7 ¦ 7 ¦ ¦ 8 8 A %§ ¥¥8 ¡ %§ ¦ § ¡ ¡ ¨ © § § ©¦ § © %§ ¨ § ¡ § ¦ 2 © ¢ 7 7 ¦ ¨ 5© ¤ ¥ %§ © %§ ¨ § S § 32 © ¢ ¦ 7§ © ¦ ¦ 7§ © ¨ ¦ § § ¤ ¥ 332 £ ¦ %¢§¢ 4 ¥ x¨ ¤ § ¡ § 32 ¢ ¦ ¦ V ¨ #¦ § § ¥ ©¤ § ©332 ¡ 7©¡ %§ 4 § © ¨ ¤ ¦ § S § 32 ¢ ¦ ¦ ¡ 7© ¡ %§ %¢ § 4 § V © A ¡ 2 § ¡ ¥¥8 ©¡ ¡ 2 § 8 8 7 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 7 ¦ ¡ © 2§ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § © 7¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ © ¦ ' ¡ ¦ ¦ Declarations and Bindings Chapter 4 In this chapter. . = => => => => . we describe the syntax and informal semantics of Haskell declarations. } ¦ A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¦ $ ¥ £0 7 ¦ ¦ { . } } ¦ ¡ 7 $ ¥ ¦£0 7 ¦ ¦ { . . module where 2 ¨ ©§ ¤ 5@¤32 ¢ ¡ § 2 4 ¦ ' { { { . type data newtype class instance default ( . ¦ { .
suppose we wish to overload the operations (+) and negate on types Int and Float.3). and data declarations (Section 4. deﬁned on it. and default declarations (Section 4. but the type system has been extended with type classes (or just classes) that provide a structured way to introduce overloaded functions. . type signatures.4). consisting of class. For example. consisting of type. 5]. but most “builtin” datatypes are deﬁned with normal Haskell code. and ﬁxity declarations (Section 4. A class declaration (Section 4.1 Overview of Types and Classes Haskell uses a traditional HindleyMilner polymorphic type system to provide a static type semantics [3. infixl infixr infix ¦ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 2§ ¨ :: => © ¡ © 7 ¥ ¦ A¤ 2 ¨ ¥ § ¦ § ¤ ¡ § S § 32 ¢ ¦ V A¢ 2 ¡ 8¥¥8 8 8 8 ¥¥8 %§ § ¢ ¡ © ¤ ¡ ¤ ¢ ¢ 2 ¡ 6 6 6 6 7 ¥ ¦ © S¤ © type signature ﬁxity declaration empty declaration %§ § ¢ ¦ ¥ ¢ 2 ¡ .simplified class declaration for Num . newtype. For exposition. .3. using normal type and data declarations.2).3.1. Haskell has several primitive datatypes that are “hardwired” (such as integers and ﬂoatingpoint numbers).(Num is defined in the Prelude) This declaration may be read “a type a is an instance of the class Num if there are class methods (+) and negate. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS The declarations in the syntactic category are only allowed at the top level of a Haskell module (see Chapter 5). We introduce a new type class called Num: class Num a where (+) :: a > a > a negate :: a > a . of the given types.1) introduces a new type class and the overloaded operations that must be supported by any type that is an instance of that class. whereas may be used either at the top level or in nested scopes (i. instance. we divide the declarations into three groups: userdeﬁned datatypes. © 4.2) declares that a type is an instance of a class and includes the deﬁnitions of the overloaded operations—called class methods—instantiated on the named type.” We may then declare Int and Float to be instances of this class: . .e. and nested declarations.38 %§ CHAPTER 4. type classes and overloading. An instance declaration (Section 4. those within a let or where construct). These “builtin” datatypes are described in detail in Section 6. consisting of value bindings.
but in general could be any userdeﬁned function. kinds are entirely implicit and are not a visible part of the language. ¡ ¡ ¢ ¨ ¤ ¡ B%§ ¦ 32 ¢ %§ ¡ ¤ ¡ ¡ %§ %§ ' ' The symbol represents the kind of all nullary type constructors. Kind inference is discussed in Section 4. ) tuple type list type parenthesised constructor ¤ type application ¢ ©¡ ¢ ¤ ¡ ¨§6 ¦¡ ¢ ¡ If and are kinds. class methods) for (+) and negate. then a type of kind . The ﬁrst declaration above may be read “Int is an instance of the class Num as witnessed by these deﬁnitions (i. There is no longer any reason to use two different terms: in this report. type expressions are classiﬁed into different kinds.1.4.e. is the kind of types that take a type of kind and return ¤ ¥¡ 6 6 6 ¢ £¡ ¡ ¡ %§ %§ ¡ %§ ' ¢ .6. and negateFloat are assumed in this case to be primitive functions. unlike types. which take one of two possible forms: Kind inference checks the validity of type expressions in a similar way that type inference checks the validity of value expressions.1. 4. negateInt. However. 4. OVERVIEW OF TYPES AND CLASSES 39 instance Num Int where . ‘constructor class’ was used to describe an extension to the original type classes.0 type system. ‘type class’ includes both the original Haskell type classes and the constructor classes introduced by Jones.1.” More examples of type classes can be found in the papers by Jones [7] or Wadler and Blott [12]. The term ‘type class’ was used to describe the original Haskell 1.simplified instance of Num Int x + y = addInt x y negate x = negateInt x instance Num Float where . ] ) .simplified instance of Num Float x + y = addFloat x y negate x = negateFloat x where addInt.2 Syntax of Types ¨ %§ > %§ function type %§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ ¡ ¡ %§ %§ %§ ( [ ( . addFloat.1 Kinds To ensure that they are valid.
Type application. The declarations data T . or newtype T . type values are built from . 2. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS The syntax for Haskell type expressions is given above. Their kinds are . Just as data values are built using data constructors. Use of the (>) and [] constants is described in more detail below. Int.. Integer. For example: Char.6) is needed to determine appropriate kinds for userdeﬁned datatypes. Type variables. Type constructors.). must have kind . written as identiﬁers beginning with a lowercase letter.9 and 6. A parenthesized type. If is a type of kind type expression of kind . IO a.. and so on. the names of type constructors start with uppercase letters. It denotes the “nullary tuple” type. Special syntax is provided to allow certain type expressions to be written in a more traditional style: § § ¤ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¤ ¡ 6 ¤ ¡ 6 ¢ ¡ 3. Maybe and IO are unary type constructors. ) 6 2§ $ § © ¦ ¤ ¤32 ¡ %§ ¤ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¦ 32 6 %§ 6 6 6 ¦ 32 %§ unit type list constructor function constructor tupling constructors . and has exactly one value. add the type constructor T to the type vocabulary. and treated as types with kind . a process of kind inference (see Section 4. Double and Bool are type constants with kind . type synonyms. Unlike data constructors. The kind of a variable is determined implicitly by the context in which it appears.. 4. and classes. IO. Since the IO type constructor has kind . and is a type of kind . having form ( ). . (. The list type is written as [] and has kind . it follows that both the variable a and the whole expression. inﬁx type constructors are not allowed (other than (>)). The main forms of type expression are as follows: 1. and so on. As with data constructors.1. then is a 6 6 6 6 6 () [] (>) (. The function type is written as (>) and has kind . also written () (see Sections 3..40 CHAPTER 4. In general.. For example. Float. the type expression IO a can be understood as the application of a constant. The tuple types are written as (.5). © S¤ Special syntax is provided for certain builtin type constructors: The trivial type is written as () and has kind . to the variable a. . The kind of T is determined by kind inference. is identical to the type .). Most type constructors are written as an identiﬁer beginning with an uppercase letter.
(). ) where .7 and 6..1. and ( ) have the types ( > ). and so on. 1.1. and indicates the membership of the type in the class . above.3). there is no explicit syntax for universal quantiﬁcation [3]. which is equivalent to the type [] . A context consists of zero or more class assertions. they cannot be qualiﬁed. A list type has the form [ ].1. OVERVIEW OF TYPES AND CLASSES £§ ¡§ 41 £§ ¡§ > . For example. always denote the builtin type constructors. [ ]. . It denotes the type of tuples with the ﬁrst component of type .4. however. A class identiﬁer begins with an uppercase letter. the preﬁx type constructors (>). When we write an explicitly quantiﬁed type.1. Notice that expressions and types have a consistent syntax. If is the type of expression or pattern . means . respectively. A tuple type has the form ( . then the expressions (\ > ). It denotes the type of lists with elements of type (see Sections 3. which is equivalent to the type (. [ ]. tuples. A class assertion has form . the scope of the extends as far to the right as possible.8 and 6.4). which is equivalent to the type (>) . These special syntactic forms always denote the builtin type constructors for functions.) Although the list and tuple types have special syntax. regardless of what is in scope. []. and lists. (. for example. and so on (see Sections 3. Int > Int > Float means Int > (Int > Float). “gtycon”. the type expression a > a . their semantics is the same as the equivalent userdeﬁned algebraic data types. we often write quantiﬁcation explicitly when denotes the type discussing the types of Haskell programs. the second component of type . . 2. .). . and has the general form A $ A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ ¡ ( ) ¤ ¢ %§ ¦ ( ) ¦ A © © ( . and ). For example. For clarity.) where there are commas between the parenthesis.3.3 Syntax of Class Assertions and Contexts . the type variables in a Haskell type expression are all assumed to be universally quantiﬁed.1)). . 3. A function type has the form Function arrows associate to the right. nor mentioned in import or export lists (Chapter 5). ¡§ £§ ¡§ v § 4. ( With one exception (that of the distinguished type variable in a class declaration (Section 4. In a similar way. (Hence the special production. ) £§ ¢ 6 ¢ & 8 ¢ ¥ ¦ § § ¢ 6 ¤ ¢ 8 ¢ ¢ £ ¤ ¥ ¡ § ¡ ¢ § ¤ ¦ ¦¢ § 32 ¦ © %§ ¨ § 2 4 A 5 %§ 8¥8¥8 ¢ %§ 7¥ ¤ B%§ ¦ © ¦ %§ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¢ ¤ %§ © ¥ %§ 7 7 © 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ ¡ S© ¥ ¢ ¥ 7 £ ¤ § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¢ ¢ ¢7 ¤ ¡§ ¢ £ ¤ %§ © § 7 ¥ ¡ %§ ¢ § 6 ¡ ¡ © S© ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ 8 ¢ ¥ 7 ¢ ¥ ¡ ¢ 6 6 6 6 6 § ¡ § ¢ £§ © © ¤ 7 7 © © © ¥ ¢ 7 ¥ %§ ¡§ ¦ 2 %§ %§ ¢ ¥ 7 v %§ .
In general. up to the equivalence induced by the generalization preorder.1. consider the function double: § if and only if the context ¡ ¢ ¢ 8 £ ¢ Whenever ¥ holds in the class environment. (Wadler and Blott [12] and Jones [7] discuss type and constructor classes.3.4).) The Haskell type system attributes a type to each expression in the program. and each of the is either a type variable. including the proper use of overloaded class methods (although certain ambiguous overloadings could arise. may be instantiated at types holds. The context must only contain type variables referenced in . £§ ¨ $ © ¢ © A value of type . The outer parentheses may be omitted when .16 and 4. The type of an expression depends on a type environment that gives types for the free variables in .3. we use to denote a context and we write => to indicate the type restricted by the context . £ ¢ 8 £ ¥ $ ¡§ t $ ¡ ¢ 8 t $ The type substitution ¥ is more general than the type whose domain is such that: if and only if there is a § A $ A ¢ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ ¢ ¡ $ ¢ ¢ v r$ $ § ¢ ¢ § ¢ A ¢ 8 $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ ¥ ¡ £§ ¦ . in more detail. we write => even if the context is empty. For example. also holds. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS where are class identiﬁers. In general. Show a. here are some valid types: Eq a => a > a (Eq a. For example. § § § 4. a type is of the form . the universallyquantiﬁed type variables the context must be of the form given above in Section 4. Haskell’s extended HindleyMilner type system can infer the principal type of all expressions. any of that are free in must also be free in . Therefore. as described in Section 4.42 CHAPTER 4. respectively. Furthermore. although in this case the concrete syntax contains no =>.4 Semantics of Types and Classes In this section. that can be assigned to a particular expression (in a given environment) is called its principal type. In any such type. the constraint Eq (f a) cannot be made simpler because f is universally quantiﬁed. and a class environment that declares which types are instances of which classes (a type becomes an instance of a class only via the presence of an instance declaration or a deriving clause). where is a set of type variables . Eq b) => [a] > [b] > String (Eq (f a). " t ¡§ is identical to .1. For convenience.1). the most general type. explicit typings (called type signatures) are usually optional (see Sections 3. Types are related by a generalization preorder (speciﬁed below). Functor f) => (a > b) > f a > f b > Bool In the third type.4. we provide informal details of the type system. or the application of type variable to one or more types.
However.2. This declaration introduces a new type constructor with one or more constituent data constructors . An algebraic datatype declaration has the form: where is a context. 4.2. renamed datatypes (newtype declarations). double may be applied to values of type Int (instantiating to Int). ! . and type synonyms (type declarations). . double may not normally be applied to values of type Char. The user may choose to declare such an instance. ) ¦ § ¦ ¢ ¥ ¦ 7 A ¢ ¥ ¦ 7 { :: . because Int is an instance of the class Num.2 UserDeﬁned Datatypes In this section.1 Algebraic Datatype Declarations ¨ #¦ § § The precedence for is the same as that for expressions—normal constructor application has higher precedence than inﬁx constructor application (thus a : Foo a parses as a : (Foo a)). in which case double may indeed be applied to a Char. The types of the data constructors are given by: A § ¥¥8 ¡ !§ A A 8 8 $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ 6 ¡ ¡ ¢¢¡ ¤ v§ 6 ¢¢¡ ¡ ¡ ¡§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ § ¡ 6 ¡ @§ v A v ¢ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ 8 ¡ $ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ Q¥ §¦v ¥¥ ¢ data ¢ => =   £ ¤ A © S© ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 © ¡ S© © S© deriving © ( . In this Report. These declarations may only appear at the top level of a module.4. we describe algebraic datatypes (data declarations). USERDEFINED DATATYPES double x = x + x 43 The most general type of double is Num . because Char is not normally an instance of class Num. since Num Int holds. the unqualiﬁed term “constructor” always means “data constructor”. } 3 %§ ¢ ¥ ¦ 7 ! ! ¡ ¢ 7 ¦ ¦ 7 %§ ¡ %§ ¡ ¡ 7 ¥ %§ ¦ ¦ 7 ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ %§ ! ! arity inﬁx ¦§ £ ¢ ¢ ¡ 3 %§ 8¡ 8 ¥¥8 ¢ 2 ¦ ©32 ' ¡ ¡ %§ ¨ 8 8 ¥¥8 A¢ § © ¦ §¤ ¤32 8 8 ¥¥¡8   ¦ ¦ § 2©¦ 2 ¡ ¦32 ¦ ¦ § ¢ ¤ ¥ © © ¦ ¤ § 332 %§ ¤ ¢ 4§ © ¨ %§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ § S § ¢ ¢ ¦ 32 data => = ¦ ¢ 6 ¢ ¢ ¡ 7 ©¡ 8 ¢ ¥ %§ © ¤ ¦ 3¢ 2 %§ ¨ ¡ 32¡ ¦ ' ¢ ¡ ¤ ¤32 § © ¦ ¢ V ¤ § 332 © ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ 32 %§ %§ 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ ¦ 7 § %¢ #¦ § § 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ © © ¤ § ¦ ¤ § ¦ 2 © © © 7 ©¡ ¢ 7¥ ¦ ¤ 4§ 2 2§ ¦ © . 4.
For example. the overloaded type for ConsSet ensures that ConsSet can only be applied to values whose type is an instance of the class Eq. The optional deriving part of a data declaration has to do with derived instances.3.44 ¢ v ¢ CHAPTER 4. A constructor with associated ﬁeld labels may still be used as an ordinary constructor. Labelled Fields A data constructor of arity creates an object with components. f3 :: Bool } deﬁnes a type and constructor identical to the one produced by © ¢ 6 Set Set ¢ ¢ 6 ¢ 7 ' ¨¢ ¢ introduces a type constructor Set of kind types NilSet Set ConsSet Eq . Constructors using ﬁeld labels may be freely mixed with constructors without them.8.. the declaration data Eq a => Set a = NilSet  ConsSet a (Set a) In the example given. }). For example. For example: f (ConsSet a s) = a the function f has inferred type Eq a => Set a > a. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS is the largest subset of that constrains only those type variables free in the types . Pattern matching against ConsSet also gives rise to an Eq a constraint. the declaration data C = F { f1. The context in the data declaration has no other effect whatsoever. features using labels are simply a shorthand for operations using an underlying positional constructor.e. A constructor deﬁnition in a data declaration may assign labels to the ﬁelds of the constructor. The arguments to the positional constructor occur in the same order as the labeled ﬁelds. it is a static error for any other type variable to appear in or on the righthandside. The new type constant has a kind of the form where the kinds of the argument variables are determined by kind inference as described in Section 4. This means that may be used in type expressions with anywhere between and arguments.f2 :: Int.3. The type variables through must be distinct and may appear in and the . the “abstractness” of the datatype) outside of the module in which the datatype is deﬁned is controlled by the form of the datatype’s name in the export list as described in Section 5. This allows For large datatypes it is useful to assign a speciﬁc ﬁeld to be referenced independently of its location within the constructor. The visibility of a datatype’s constructors (i. and is described in Section 4.. using the record syntax (C { . to the components of a data object.6. These components are normally accessed positionally as arguments to the constructor in expressions or patterns. and constructors NilSet and ConsSet with v § ¢ v I¡ ¢ ¢ 6 ¡ ¦ 6 ¥¥8 8 8 ¢ 6 $ 7 ¦7 ¢ 6 ¢ ¡ 8 8 ¢ ¢ ¥ §¥ ¥ ¥ §¥ ¥ ¡ $ ¤ v§ v $ where 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ @§ v .
2) if is of the form ! . replaces every occurrence of 8 8 ¥¥8 A 8 8 §© ¥¥8 ¡ © 8 8 ¥¥8 $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ ¢ data => =   in an expression is the strict apply is not affected by 2 ¤ ¤ © ¡ ¦ 6 6 8 8 ¥¥8 %¢ § 4§ © 7 ©¡ 2 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ ¡ 2 ¡ $ ¡ # ¡ § § § . Pattern matching on strictness ﬂags. . each argument to the constructor is evaluated if and only if the corresponding type in the algebraic datatype declaration has a strictness ﬂag. Strictness Flags Whenever a data constructor is applied.2 Type Synonym Declarations A type synonym declaration introduces a new type that is equivalent to an old type. v 2§ v © v © v ¢ £ 2 ¡ ¢ ¡ 2 ¤ %§ ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ %§ 32 8 8 ¦ ¢%§ %¢ ¢ 4 § © § ¡ ¡ ©¡ 7 A 8 8 3¢ ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ 6 ¡ ¢ (\ > 2 v %§ ¡ 3¢ A 2 ¥¥8 £ A 8 8 ¡ ¡ ¡ v @§ & v 2§ 6 ¥¥8 8 8 ¨ $ # § 6 ¢ ¡ v © where each by is either of the form ! or . and function $! (see Section 6. whether or not F was declared with record syntax. A label cannot be shared by more than one type in scope. it has special signiﬁcance only in the context of the argument types of a data declaration.15.6. The pattern F {} matches any value built with constructor F. The kind of the new type constructor is of the form where the kinds of the arguments and of the right hand side are determined by kind inference as described in Section 4. A data declaration may use the same ﬁeld label in multiple constructors as long as the typing of the ﬁeld is the same in all cases after type synonym expansion. Lexically. The type is equivalent to the type . Translation: A declaration of the form 4. it is a static error for any other type variable to appear in . It has the form § $ which introduces a new type constructor. USERDEFINED DATATYPES data C = F Int Int Bool 45 Operations using ﬁeld labels are described in Section 3. denoted by an exclamation point.4.2. “!”. the following deﬁnition can be used to provide an alternative way of writing the list type constructor: § ¡ v $ § ¥¥8 ¡ § 8 8 § v I¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ $ type = ¦ § ¢ ¡ $ type %§ = v where is the nonstrict apply function $ if is of the form . The type variables through must be distinct and are scoped only over . “!” is an ordinary varsym not a . For example.2. Field names share the top level namespace with ordinary variables and class methods and must not conﬂict with other top level names in scope.
For example.2). but strictly syntactic. Similarly. it is a static error to use without the full number of arguments. These coercions may be implemented without execution time overhead.invalid . so that is the same as . New instances (see Section 4.3 Datatype Renamings ¨ ¦§ § introduces a new type whose representation is the same as an existing type.invalid = = [Circ a] Tag [Rec a] is not. Unlike algebraic datatypes.17). 4. this is not so for type synonyms. unless an algebraic datatype intervenes.46 type List = [] CHAPTER 4.3. type Rec a = [Rec a] is not allowed. The constructor in an expression coerces a value from type to type ( ). Type synonyms are a convenient. the newtype constructor is unlifted.2. It differs from a type synonym in that it creates a distinct type that must be explicitly coerced to or from the original type. whereas type Rec a type Circ a = = [Circ a] [Rec a] . This difference may make access to the representation less efﬁcient.3. Using in a pattern coerces a value from type ( ) to type . The type ( ) renames the datatype . Although recursive and mutually recursive datatypes are allowed. newtype does not change the underlying representation of an object. Also. A type created by newtype differs from an algebraic datatype in that the representation of an algebraic datatype has an extra level of indirection. newtype may be used to deﬁne recursive types. except in the instance type of an instance declaration (Section 4. E $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ § § $ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ § E $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ E ¢ newtype => A declaration of the form = ¦ § ¢ ¤ ¢ %§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ %§ ¢¤ %§ { :: } ¤ ¤ § 332 © ¦ £ ¦ § %¢ 4 § x¨ © § ¡ § ¢ ¡ ¦ 32 newtype => = ¦ ¡ 7 ©¡ V ¢ ¡ %§ E ¢ ¦ 32 § ¦32 ¦ 32 %§ E 6 6 6 $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ ¤32 § © ¦ ¡ § %¢ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 7 ©¡ $ £ 4§ © 2§ ¦ . DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS Type constructor symbols introduced by type synonym declarations cannot be partially applied.2) can be deﬁned for a type deﬁned by newtype but may not be deﬁned for a type synonym. A synonym and its deﬁnition are completely interchangeable. unlike type synonyms. mechanism to make type signatures more readable. type Rec a data Circ a is allowed. The difference is reﬂected in different rules for pattern matching (see Section 3.
( d1 ( D1 ) ) and ( s ) are all equivalent to 42. . ( d2 ) and (d2 (D2 ) ) are all equivalent to . In particular.3. ( n ( N ) ).3 Type Classes and Overloading 4. ( N ) is equivalent to while ( D1 ) is not equivalent to . © ¥ } ¦ § ¦ A© §S© 4§ © 7 8 8 ¥¥8 ¦ ( . A class declaration has the general form: © $ ¢ class => where ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ A { . A newtype declaration may use ﬁeldnaming syntax.3. The optional deriving part of a newtype declaration is treated in the same way as the deriving component of a data declaration. ) ¦ § ¢7 ¤ %§ © 7 ©¡ %§ ¨ § S § ¢ class => where 7 ¥ ¦ ¢ 7 ¥ ¤ ¤ © ¥ £0 ¦ $ ¢ 7 ¦ 7 ¦ ¡ 8¥¥8 8 7 ¦ ¤ %§ ¥ © %§ ¢ ¥ § © 74 ¡ S© © ¢ ¥ © ¡ 4 § © 7 7 © S© 7 ¦ 32 © ¢ ¥ 7 ¡ 6 6 6 6 6 © © 7 ¥ © 7 ¥ ¢ ¥ ©¡ 7 7 § S § ¢ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ ¦ 32 4§ ¦ ¦ 2§ © © . whereas ( n ).4. see Section 4. and newtype (renaming types. Thus: newtype Age = Age { unAge :: Int } brings into scope both a constructor and a deconstructor: Age :: Int > Age unAge :: Age > Int 4.1 Class Declarations ¨ 5© A class declaration introduces a new class and the operations (class methods) on it.3. .3. though of course there may only be one ﬁeld. TYPE CLASSES AND OVERLOADING 47 The following examples clarify the differences between data (algebraic datatypes).) Given the declarations data D1 = D1 Int data D2 = D2 !Int type S = Int newtype N = N Int d1 (D1 i) = 42 d2 (D2 i) = 42 s i = 42 n (N i) = 42 the expressions ( d1 ). type (type synonyms).
a ﬁeld name. . op2) = . is not permitted. 6 7 ¥ ¦ 6 Foo Num 8 ¥ Here the type of op is © ¢ ' ¡ ¡ ¡ £ £ ¥ ¡ ¤¥ §¥ ¢ 8 ¨ © § ¥ ¦ ¢ ' ¢ ' ¢ 7 ¥ ¦ v 7 ¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ The part of a class declaration contains three kinds of declarations: is: $ ¢ ¢ 7 ¦ . The class methods of a class declaration are precisely the for which there is an explicit type signature :: => in .2). © The class declaration introduces new class methods .. That is. Class methods share the top level namespace with variable bindings and ﬁeld names. The may constrain only . v B v # v v @§ v ¢ v © The type of the toplevel class method The must mention . The context speciﬁes the superclasses of . However. Lastly. whose scope extends outside the class declaration. the only type variable that may be referred to in is . it must form a directed acyclic graph. they must not conﬂict with other top level bindings in scope. a class method can not have the same name as a top level deﬁnition. in which case the type of is polymorphic in both and . it may mention type variables other than . as described below. For example: class Foo a where op1. For example: class (Read a. © v © A class declaration with no where part may be useful for combining a collection of classes into a larger one that inherits all of the class methods in the original ones. For example: class Foo a where op :: Num b => a > b > a v #¢ £ $ £ v ¨¢ £ $ $ $ v§ v The may also contain a ﬁxity declaration for any of the class methods (but for no other values). outside the class declaration. the ﬁxity declaration for a class method may alternatively appear at top level.e. since class methods declare toplevel values. The default method declaration is a normal value deﬁnition.3. or another class method. The superclass relation must not be cyclic. in particular. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS $ This introduces a new class name . no other declarations are permitted in .. the type variable is scoped only over the class method signatures in the class body. i. the may contain a default class method for any of the . the may not constrain . Show a) => Textual a Other than these cases.48 CHAPTER 4. because the left hand side of the default declaration is a pattern. The default class method for is used if no binding for it is given in a particular instance declaration (see Section 4. except that the left hand side may only be a variable or function deﬁnition. op2 :: a > a (op1.
but the name under which it is in scope is immaterial.a) where . ) ) & & ( ( [ ( { ) ¦ ¦£©¨¦§¥££ ¤ B%§ £¡ ¤ %§ ¢ ¤ ¢ ¢ © §¢ ¦¥©¨§¦¥¤£¡S¤ %§ ¤ ¢ ¢ © ¦ ¢ ¢ © ¥©¨§¦¥¤£¡S¤ ¢¢ %§ § ¢¢ ¦ ¦ ' © ¥ ¤ ¤ © ¥ £0 ¦ $ A § ¥¥8 ¢ ¡ 7 § 8 8 7 ¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ £ ¤ %§ ¡ ¤ %§ ¢ ¤ ¢ %§ ¢ ¤ %§ ¥¥8 8 8 ¡ ¤ %§ ¤ B%§ ¢ ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ %§ ¦ 2 ¢ %§ 8 8 ¢ ¢ ¨ § ¡ § ¢ ¦ 2 © instance => where 7 § ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ 32 8 8 ¥¥8 %§ ¦ ¡ $ 6 6 6 6 ¦ § ¢ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ © 7 7 § ¦ § © 2§ § ¦ § ¦ .. The declarations may contain bindings only for the class methods of . It is illegal to give a binding for a class method that is not in scope. 4.3. in particular.. The general form of the corresponding instance declaration is: This prohibits instance declarations such as: instance C (a.. since these have already v x$ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ $ where . The instance declaration must be given explicitly with no where part..2.2 Instance Declarations ¨ © } § ¦ § © © %§ $ An instance declaration introduces an instance of a class. } . must not be a type synonym. must take the form of a type constructor applied to simple .. instance C [[a]] where . The declarations may not contain any type signatures or ﬁxity declarations.Ix T where range = . Let be a class declaration. module A where import qualified Ix instance Ix. and the must all be $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ 1 ¢ instance => where { ¦ 2 ¢ class => where { } £%§ ¡ 4 ¦ . furthermore.3. (This rule is identical to that used for subordinate names in export lists — Section 5.. The type type variables distinct.4.range.. instance C (Int. this is legal.. TYPE CLASSES AND OVERLOADING 49 In such a case.a) where . even though the subclass has no immediate class methods. it may be a qualiﬁed name. even though range is in scope only with the qualiﬁed name Ix. ] > . it is not automatically an instance of the subclass. if a type is an instance of all superclasses. .) For example.
instance (Eq a.1). If no binding is given for some class method then the corresponding default class method in the class declaration is used (if present). The constraints expressed by the superclass context be satisﬁed.. The ﬁrst instance declaration does indeed say that [a] is an instance of Foo under this assumption.6.. the method declarations must take the form of a variable or function deﬁnition. but it is nevertheless mandatory to write an explicit instance context. then the program would be invalid. Any constraints on the type variables in the instance type that are required for the class method declarations in to be welltyped must also be satisﬁed. In fact. A type may not be declared as an instance of a particular class more than once in the program. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS been given in the class declaration..3. The following example illustrates the restrictions imposed by superclass instances: class Foo a => Bar a where . The second instance declaration is valid only if [a] is an ¨ $ # $ 8 8 ¥¥8 1. except in pathological cases it is possible to infer from the instance declaration the most general instance context satisfying the above two constraints. because Eq and Show are superclasses of Num... the following two conditions must also be satisﬁed: 2. contexts of all superclass instances must be implied by $ of must ’s superclasses and the ¢ An instance declaration that makes the type to be an instance of class instance declaration and is subject to these static restrictions: is called a CT $ 1 ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¢ $ 1 ¢ ¦ 1 ¢ .50 CHAPTER 4. this can be determined using kind inference as described in Section 4.. Assume that the type variables in the instance type satisfy the constraints in the instance context . Since Foo is a superclass of Bar. must be an instance of each of . The class and type must have the same kind. Show a) => Foo [a] where . if such a default does not exist then the class method of this instance is bound to undefined and no compiletime error results. Under this assumption.. instance Num a => Bar [a] where . As in the case of default class methods (Section 4.. This example is valid Haskell.. If the two instance declarations instead read like this: instance Num a => Foo [a] where . the second instance declaration is only valid if [a] is an instance of Foo under the assumption Num a. In other words. instance (Eq a.. Show a) => Bar [a] where .
and Read. For example. Derived instances provide convenient commonlyused operations for userdeﬁned datatypes. When deriving a class for a type ..invalid is ambiguous. Ord. that is. not all datatypes can properly support class methods in Enum. omitting a deriving form is equivalent to including an empty deriving form: deriving (). derived instances for datatypes in the class Eq deﬁne the operations == and /=. If the form is included.4. instances for all superclasses of must exist for . . including a speciﬁcation of when such derived instances are possible. For example. ) ¦ § ¡ ¡ 6 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 2§ . Classes deﬁned by the standard libraries may also be derivable. Enum. data and newtype declarations contain an optional deriving form. because the types for show and read. using the read and show functions deﬁned in Chapter 10.1. It is also a static error to give an explicit instance declaration for a class that is also derived.. These instances are subject to the same restrictions as userdeﬁned instances. Further examples of instance declarations may be found in Chapter 8. and supposing that just Int and Bool are members of Read and Show. then derived instance declarations are automatically generated for the datatype in each of the named classes.3.3. all mentioned in Figure 6. 4. page 83.2. Show. The only classes in the Prelude for which derived instances are allowed are Eq. since [a] is only an instance of Foo under the stronger assumption Num a." in show x .4 Ambiguous Types. A static error results if it is not possible to derive an instance declaration over a class named in a deriving form. then the expression let x = read ". For example. Show a).3.1. TYPE CLASSES AND OVERLOADING 51 instance of Foo under the assumptions (Eq a. If the deriving form is omitted from a data or newtype declaration. But this does not hold. ¢ 6 6 ¢ 8 ¢ 8 ¥ §¥ ¥ ¥ §¥ ¥ show read Show Read String String ¢ ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ ¡ ¢ %§ default ( . either via an explicit instance declaration or by including the superclass in the deriving clause. Bounded. then no instance declarations are derived for that datatype. The precise details of how the derived instances are generated for each of these classes are provided in Chapter 10. and Defaults for Overloaded Numeric Operations ¦ A %§ A problem inherent with Haskellstyle overloading is the possibility of an ambiguous type. freeing the programmer from the need to deﬁne them.3 Derived Instances As mentioned in Section 4. 4.
Such types are invalid. is Ambiguous types can only be circumvented by input from the user. and Figure 6.16. ) where . In situations where an ambiguous type is discovered. It is a static error if no such type is found. an ambiguous type variable. and 8 $ ¥ We say that an expression e has an ambiguous type if. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS could be satisﬁed by instantiating a as either Int in both cases. Only one default declaration is permitted per module. One way is through the use of expression typesignatures as described in Section 3. This is the purpose of the function asTypeOf (Chapter 8): ‘asTypeOf‘ has the value of . is defaultable if: ¢ ¢ at least one of these classes is a numeric class. the earlier expression involving show and read has an ambiguous type since its type Show Read String.6 for a description of encodeFloat and exponent. an otherwise ambiguous expression needs to be made the same type as some variable. For example. one could write: let x = read ". § ¢ . (that is.) Ambiguities in the class Num are most common. but and are forced to have the same type.) Each defaultable variable is replaced by the ﬁrst type in the default list that is an instance of all the ambiguous variable’s classes. Such expressions are considered illtyped. Num or a subclass of Num).3. or Bool. For example. and its effect is limited to that module. a static error. page 83. there is a type A !§ v § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡§ ¢ v 2§ ¢ $ ¦ $ ¦ 8 ¢ ¥ .. rather than being given a ﬁxed type with an expression typesignature.2–6. turns off all defaults in a module. in its type variable in that occurs in but not in . If no default declaration is given in a module then it assumed to be: default (Integer. so Haskell provides another way to resolve them— with a default declaration: default ( ." in show (x::Bool) which disambiguates the type.52 CHAPTER 4. pages 91– 92 show the numeric classes. and all of these classes are deﬁned in the Prelude or a standard library (Figures 6.. § ¢ ¢ For example. approxSqrt x = encodeFloat 1 (exponent x ‘div‘ 2) ‘asTypeOf‘ x (See Section 6. Occasionally. and each must be a type for which Num holds. . shows the classes deﬁned in the Prelude. appears only in constraints of the form .1. . where is a class. default ().4. Double) The empty default declaration. for the ambiguous expression given earlier.
. as described in Section 4. the deﬁning occurrence. then each use of is treated as having the declared type. NESTED DECLARATIONS 53 4.4. even if the signatures are identical.1.1. (The type of x is dependent on the type of f.1 Type Signatures . For example. Indeed.2). ¡ => ¡ V © ¤ ¤ ¢ ¢ 6 6 7 ¥ ¦ © S¤ ¦ ¥ ¢ . Each must have a value binding in the same declaration list that contains the type signature.5) is treated as having the corresponding inferred. possibly with respect to a context. such as ¦ ¦ § ¢ § 6 ¢ ¢ A ¢ § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ 8 ¡ ¢ ¥ §¥ ¥ A §¤ v ¢ . this is explained in Section 4. Moreover. every type variable appearing in a signature is universally quantiﬁed over that signature. As mentioned in Section 4.4.4. in the following declarations f :: a > a f x = x :: a v B the a’s in the two type signatures are quite distinct. and all uses of within its declaration group must have the same monomorphic type (from which the principal type is obtained by generalization. it is invalid to give a type signature for a variable bound in an outer scope. then each use of outside its own declaration group (see Section 4. A type signature has the form: :: => which is equivalent to asserting :: => for each from to .5. 4. %§ ¨ § S § ¢ ¢ 8 ¦ 32 ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¥ :: .2. or principal type . i.) If a given program includes a signature for a variable . if we deﬁne sqr x = x*x 0 0 0 0 0 0 then the principal type is sqr Num .4 Nested Declarations The following declarations may be used in any declaration list. which allows applications such as sqr 5 or sqr 0. to ensure that type inference is still possible. For example. It is a static error if the same type cannot also be inferred for the deﬁning occurrence of . If a variable is deﬁned without providing a corresponding type signature declaration. It is also valid to declare a more speciﬁc type. and hence the scope of a type variable is limited to the type signature that contains it. it is invalid to give more than one type signature for one variable. these declarations contain a static error.invalid A type signature speciﬁes types for variables.5. there is currently since x does not have type no way in Haskell to specify a signature for a variable with a dependent type.4. including the top level of a module. However.e.
1 lists the ﬁxities and precedences of the operators deﬁned in the Prelude. Also like a type signature.and rightassociativity (infix. For example: §§ § ¦ ¤ § ¦ § ¦ infixl infixr infix . ¦ ¡ 2 ©¦ 2 &¤ 2 A 2 ¡ ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¢ 2 8 8 ¡ ¡ 2 ¨ ¥ § ¦ § %§ § ¢ ¤ 6 6 6 6 7 ¥ ¦ © %§ § ¢ ¦ ¥ ¡ ¡2 2 .invalid . infixl. ﬁxity is not a property of that entity’s name. Polymorphic recursion allows the user to supply the more general type signature.4. The following deﬁnition is pathological. a ﬁxity declaration can only occur in the same sequence of declarations as the declaration of the operator itself. Num b) => a > b sqr :: a > a . just like its type. level 9 is assumed. . but illustrates how a type signature can be used to specify a type more general than the one that would be inferred: data T a = K (T Int) (T a) f :: T a > a f (K x y) = if f x == 1 then f y else undefined If we remove the signature declaration. (Class methods are a minor exception. Table 4. 0 to 9 inclusive (level 0 binds least tightly. and at most one ﬁxity declaration may be given for any operator. and ten precedence levels. Type signatures can also be used to support polymorphic recursion. and infixr. 4. non. Fixity is a property of a particular entity (constructor or variable).invalid are invalid. as they are more general than the principal type of sqr. Type signatures such as sqr :: (Num a. left.2 Fixity Declarations © A ﬁxity declaration gives the ﬁxity and binding precedence of one or more operators. If the is omitted. declares a property of a particular operator.54 sqr :: Int > Int CHAPTER 4. their ﬁxity declarations can occur either in the class declaration itself or at top level. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS but now applications such as sqr 0. like a type signature. the type of f will be inferred as T Int > Int due to the ﬁrst recursive call for which the argument to f is T Int. T a > a. A ﬁxity declaration may appear anywhere that a type signature appears and. The in a ﬁxity declaration must be in the range to . and level 9 binds most tightly). respectively).) There are three kinds of ﬁxity.1 are invalid. Any operator lacking a ﬁxity declaration is assumed to be infixl 9 (See Section 3 for more on the use of ﬁxities).
‘Bar.4. ˆˆ. ++ ==. module Foo where import qualified Bar infix 3 ‘op‘ a ‘op‘ b = (a ‘Bar. Here. >.op‘ is infix 3. <=. /. $!.1: Precedences and ﬁxities of prelude operators module Bar( op ) where infixr 7 ‘op‘ op = . ‘quot‘ +.op‘ is infixr 7.3 Function and Pattern Bindings © ¥ § ¤ 2 v ¢£¡ § p v ¢ §e ¡ ¡ v © ¢ £¡ p v ¢ §e 2 § ¡ v £¡ p v ¢ 0e $ ¢ § ¡ ¢ ¡ £5¢ ¤ § ¤ ¢ £¡ ¤ ¡ v ¢ 2¢ &¤ v § £¡ ¢ ¤ ¡ ¢ ¡ v § £ 7¡ ¢ ¢ ¤ £ ¡ ¢ § ¢ ¡ £5¢ © ¥ 7 ¦ $ £0 § 6 6 © ¥ 7 ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ $ 0 . <. ‘mod‘..) 4. ‘Foo. /=. >=.. ‘elem‘.op‘ q) * 2 in . ‘seq‘ Table 4. (It would also be possible to give a ﬁxity to the nested deﬁnition of ‘op‘ with a nested ﬁxity declaration.4. ‘div‘. ˆ.. and the nested deﬁnition of op in f’s righthand side has the default ﬁxity of infixl 9. ‘notElem‘ &&  >>.4.op‘ b) + 1 f x = let p ‘op‘ q = (p ‘Foo.  Nonassociative operators Right associative operators . ** :. NESTED DECLARATIONS 55 Precedence 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Left associative operators !! *. ‘rem‘. >>= $..
1 Function bindings A function binding binds a variable to a function value. ¤ 4. The set of patterns corresponding to each match must be linear—no variable is allowed to appear more than once in the entire set. the latter. and where each is of the general form: } } A ¢ ¢ 4 4 v ¥ § 4 ¢ A ¥¥8 ¡ A 8 8 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ ¢ ¢ ¡  ¨ © ¥ ¤ ¢ ¡ = ¦ ¦ ¡ ¤ © ¥ ¡ ¢ ¡ = ¦ where where 9§ ¨© ¨ 7 © ¥ 7 ¥ ¦ § © ¥ ¡ ¦ $ £0 ¤ ( ) ¢ §¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ £5¢ 7 ¦ 6 6 ¡ ¦ ¢ 6 © ¥ ¤ § © ¥ ¦ ¦ ¢ £¡ ¤ . DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS We distinguish two cases within this syntax: a pattern binding occurs when the left hand side is a . The general form of a function binding for variable is: ¡ ¥ § ¥ § or ¡ v ¡v   = Note that all clauses deﬁning a function must be contiguous. The former is treated as shorthand for a particular case of } v © 7 ¦ = where { ¤ ¥7 v v © ¤ ¦7 v v = where { 7 ¦ 8 8 ¥¥8 § ¡ v where each is a pattern.4.3. Alternative syntax is provided for binding functional values to inﬁx operators. Either binding may appear at the toplevel of a module or within a where or let construct.56 CHAPTER 4. namely: . otherwise. these three function deﬁnitions are all equivalent: plus x y z = x+y+z x `plus y = \ z > x+y+z ` (x ` plus y) z = x+y+z ` v © v  True = where { 7 ¥ ¦ v 4 ¦ and where . and the number of patterns in each clause must be the same. . the binding is called a function binding. For example.
as if there were an implicit ˜ in front of it.3. NESTED DECLARATIONS Translation: The general binding form for functions is semantically equivalent to the equation (i. where a function bindings above. ) of ( ) ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ . A 4 ¡ A ( ) ¥ § ¢ 4 A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ 8 8 ¥¡ ¥8 ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¢ ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¢ = \ ¢ > case ( . The pattern is matched “lazily” as an irrefutable pattern. A simple pattern binding has form .2 Pattern bindings A pattern binding binds variables to values.e. in other words.4. a pattern binding is: is the same structure as for ¡ ¥ § ¢ ¥ § ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 4 ¡ ¡ 888 v ¢ where the are new identiﬁers.4. See the translation in Section 3. Here are four examples: 7 7 if then £ ¤ ¡ ¢ © £ ¡ = let if if in then then 7 ¦ Translation: ing: The pattern binding above is semantically equivalent to this simple pattern bind else else else error "Unmatched pattern" © 7 ¥ ¦ 7  = where { 7 £ ¡ ¢ £ ¡   = = } 4 The general form of a pattern binding is . .4. A note about syntax. simple pattern binding): ¡ ¥ § 57 4.12. It is usually straightforward to tell whether a binding is a pattern binding or a function binding. but the existence of n+k patterns sometimes confuses the issue.
58 x + 1 = ... (x + 1) = ... (x + 1) * y = ... (x + 1) y = ...
CHAPTER 4. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS
 Function binding, defines (+)  Equivalent to (+) x 1 = ...  Pattern binding, defines x  Function binding, defines (*)  Equivalent to (*) (x+1) y = ...  Function binding, defines (+)  Equivalent to (+) x 1 y = ...
¤
4.5 Static Semantics of Function and Pattern Bindings
The static semantics of the function and pattern bindings of a let expression or where clause are discussed in this section.
4.5.1 Dependency Analysis
In general the static semantics are given by the normal HindleyMilner inference rules. A dependency analysis transformation is ﬁrst performed to increase polymorphism. Two variables bound by value declarations are in the same declaration group if either 1. they are bound by the same pattern binding, or 2. their bindings are mutually recursive (perhaps via some other declarations that are also part of the group). Application of the following rules causes each let or where construct (including the where deﬁning the top level bindings in a module) to bind only the variables of a single declaration group, thus capturing the required dependency analysis: 1 1. The order of declarations in where/let constructs is irrelevant.
£
} in = let { } in (let { 2. let { ; (when no identiﬁer bound in appears free in )
1
} in
A similar transformation is described in Peyton Jones’ book [10].
§
The ﬁrst two can be distinguished because a pattern binding has a — the former cannot be an unparenthesised n+k pattern.
§
¢ £¡
on the left hand side, not a
¦
¡
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¡
¦
£
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£
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4.5. STATIC SEMANTICS OF FUNCTION AND PATTERN BINDINGS
59
4.5.2 Generalization
The HindleyMilner type system assigns types to a letexpression in two stages. First, the righthand side of the declaration is typed, giving a type with no universal quantiﬁcation. Second, all type variables that occur in this type are universally quantiﬁed unless they are associated with bound variables in the type environment; this is called generalization. Finally, the body of the letexpression is typed. For example, consider the declaration f x = let g y = (y,y) in ...
The type of g’s deﬁnition is . The generalization step attributes to g the polymorphic type , after which the typing of the “...” part can proceed. When typing overloaded deﬁnitions, all the overloading constraints from a single declaration group are collected together, to form the context for the type of each variable declared in the group. For example, in the deﬁnition: f x = let g1 x y = if x>y then show x else g2 y x g2 p q = g1 q p in ... String, and the accumulated The types of the deﬁnitions of g1 and g2 are both constraints are Ord (arising from the use of >), and Show (arising from the use of show). The type variables appearing in this collection of constraints are called the constrained type variables. The generalization step attributes to both g1 and g2 the type
Notice that g2 is overloaded in the same way as g1 even though the occurrences of > and show are in the deﬁnition of g1. If the programmer supplies explicit type signatures for more than one variable in a declaration group, the contexts of these signatures must be identical up to renaming of the type variables.
4.5.3 Context Reduction Errors
As mentioned in Section 4.1.4, the context of a type may constrain only a type variable, or the application of a type variable to one or more types. Hence, types produced by generalization must be expressed in a form in which all context constraints have be reduced to this “head normal form”. Consider, for example, the deﬁnition: f xs y = xs == [y]
6
6
Ord
Show
6 ¢
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6
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¢ & ¢
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6
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CHAPTER 4. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS
f :: Eq a => [a] > a > Bool and not f :: Eq [a] => [a] > a > Bool Even though the equality is taken at the list type, the context must be simpliﬁed, using the instance declaration for Eq on lists, before generalization. If no such instance is in scope, a static error occurs. Here is an example that shows the need for a constraint of the form where m is one of the type variables being generalized; that is, where the class applies to a type expression that is not a type variable or a type constructor. Consider: f :: (Monad m, Eq (m a)) => a > m a > Bool f x y = return x == y The type of return is Monad m => a > m a; the type of (==) is Eq a => a > a > Bool. The type of f should be therefore (Monad m, Eq (m a)) => a > m a > Bool, and the context cannot be simpliﬁed further. The instance declaration derived from a data type deriving clause (see Section 4.3.3) must, like , any instance declaration, have a simple context; that is, all the constraints must be of the form where is a type variable. For example, in the type data Apply a b = App (a b) deriving Show
the derived Show instance will produce a context Show (a b), which cannot be reduced and is not simple; thus a static error results.
4.5.4 Monomorphism
Sometimes it is not possible to generalize over all the type variables used in the type of the deﬁnition. For example, consider the declaration f x = let g y z = ([x,y], z) in ... In an environment where x has type , the type of g’s deﬁnition is ([ ] ). The ([ ] ); only can be universally generalization step attributes to g the type quantiﬁed because occurs in the type environment. We say that the type of g is monomorphic in the type variable . The effect of such monomorphism is that the ﬁrst argument of all applications of g must be of a single type. For example, it would be valid for the “...” to be
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It is worth noting that the explicit type signatures provided by Haskell are not powerful enough to express types that include monomorphic type variables. For example, we cannot write f x = let g :: a > b > ([a],b) g y z = ([x,y], z) in ... because that would claim that g was polymorphic in both a and b (Section 4.4.1). In this program, g can only be given a type signature if its ﬁrst argument is restricted to a type not involving type variables; for example g :: Int > b > ([Int],b) This signature would also cause x to have type Int.
4.5.5 The Monomorphism Restriction
Haskell places certain extra restrictions on the generalization step, beyond the standard HindleyMilner restriction described above, which further reduces polymorphism in particular cases. The monomorphism restriction depends on the binding syntax of a variable. Recall that a variable is bound by either a function binding or a pattern binding, and that a simple pattern binding is a pattern binding in which the pattern consists of only a single variable (Section 4.4.3). The following two rules deﬁne the monomorphism restriction:
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CHAPTER 4. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS
Rule 1. We say that a given declaration group is unrestricted if and only if: (a): every variable in the group is bound by a function binding or a simple pattern binding (Section 4.4.3.2), and (b): an explicit type signature is given for every variable in the group that is bound by simple pattern binding. The usual HindleyMilner restriction on polymorphism is that only type variables that do not occur free in the environment may be generalized. In addition, the constrained type variables of a restricted declaration group may not be generalized in the generalization step for that group. (Recall that a type variable is constrained if it must belong to some type class; see Section 4.5.2.) Rule 2. Any monomorphic type variables that remain when type inference for an entire module is complete, are considered ambiguous, and are resolved to particular types using the defaulting rules (Section 4.3.4).
Motivation
Rule 1 is required for two reasons, both of which are fairly subtle.
Rule 1 prevents computations from being unexpectedly repeated. For example, genericLength is a standard function (in library List) whose type is given by genericLength :: Num a => [b] > a Now consider the following expression: let { len = genericLength xs } in (len, len) It looks as if len should be computed only once, but without Rule 1 it might be computed twice, once at each of two different overloadings. If the programmer does actually wish the computation to be repeated, an explicit type signature may be added: let { len :: Num a => a; len = genericLength xs } in (len, len)
Rule 1 prevents ambiguity. For example, consider the declaration group
[(n,s)] = reads t Recall that reads is a standard function whose type is given by the signature reads :: (Read a) => String > [(a,String)] Without Rule 1, n would be assigned the type Read and s the type Read String. The latter is an invalid type, because it is inherently ambiguous. It is not possible to determine at what overloading to use s, nor can this be solved by adding a type signature for s. Hence, when nonsimple pattern bindings are used (Section 4.4.3.2), the types inferred are always monomorphic in their constrained type variables, irrespective of whether a type signature is provided. In this case, both n and s are monomorphic in .
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There is no danger of recomputation here. len1 has the monomorphic type Num a => a (by Rule 1).4. and its use in len2 is typeincorrect. Rule 2 states that the exact types of all the variables bound in a module must be determined by that module alone. the user must be careful to afﬁx these with type signatures to retain full overloading.) This issue does not arise for nested bindings. the same function deﬁned with pattern syntax: f = \x > \y > x+y requires a type signature if f is to be fully overloaded. However. Double ) len1 = genericLength "Hello" module M2 where import M1(len1) len2 = (2*len1) :: Rational When type inference on module M1 is complete.4. Thus in f x y = x+y the function f may be used at any overloading in class Num. a type signature on len1 would solve the problem. Anything deﬁned with function syntax usually generalizes as a function is expected to. 63 Rule 2 is required because there is no way to enforce monomorphic use of an exported binding. STATIC SEMANTICS OF FUNCTION AND PATTERN BINDINGS The same constraint applies to patternbound functions. in (f. because their entire scope is visible to the compiler. len1 gets type Int. The standard prelude contains many examples of this: sum sum :: (Num a) => [a] > a = foldl (+) 0 Rule 1 applies to both toplevel and nested deﬁnitions. except by performing type inference on modules outside the current module.g) = ((+). Consider module M where len1 = genericLength "Hello" len2 = (2*len1) :: Rational . and not by any modules that import it. For example.()) both f and g are monomorphic regardless of any type signatures supplied for f or g. Many functions are most naturally deﬁned using simple pattern bindings. Rule 2 now states that the monomorphic type variable a is ambiguous. Consequences The monomorphism rule has a number of consequences for the programmer. (If the above code is actually what is wanted.5.3. and must be resolved using the defaulting rules of Section 4. module M1(len1) where default( Int. Hence.
synonym. and instead generates a static error because the kind of []. . 4. a synonym S and a class C.invalid This is important because it ensures that each constructor and class are used consistently with the same kind whenever they are in scope. in such cases. we could assume an arbitrary kind for the a parameter in each of the following examples: data App f a = A (f a) data Tree a = Leaf  Fork (Tree a) (Tree a) This would give kinds and for App and Tree. for any kind .64 CHAPTER 4. For example. This can be achieved in much the same way as the dependency analysis for value declarations that was described in Section 4. respectively. i. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS Here. It is possible that some parts of an inferred kind may not be fully determined by the corresponding deﬁnitions. and the type variable a is resolved to Rational when performing type inference on len2. and classes within each group are determined using standard techniques of type inference and kindpreserving uniﬁcation [7]. all of which would be included in the same dependency group: data C a => D a = Foo (S a) type S a = [D a] class C a where bar :: a > D a > Bool The kinds of variables.6 Kind Inference This section describes the rules that are used to perform kind inference. the parameter a appears as an argument of the function constructor (>) in the type of bar and hence must have kind .5. does not match the kind that is expected for an argument of Tree: type FunnyTree = Tree [] . constructors. and class deﬁnitions into dependency groups.e. the following program fragment includes the deﬁnition of a datatype constructor D. adding the following deﬁnition to those above does not inﬂuence the kind inferred for Tree (by changing it to . For example. 6 6 6 6 9 6 6 ¡ 6 6 6 ¡ 6 9 6 6 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ . to calculate a suitable kind for each type constructor and class appearing in a given program. the actual kinds for these two constructors are and . and would require an extension to allow polymorphic kinds. The ﬁrst step in the kind inference process is to arrange the set of datatype. respectively. For example. It follows that both D and S must have kind and that every instance of class C must have kind . Defaults are applied to each dependency group without consideration of the ways in which particular type constructor constants or classes are used in later dependency groups or elsewhere in the program. in the deﬁnitions above. For example. a default of is assumed. for instance). type inference ﬁnds that len1 has the monomorphic type (Num a => a). Instead. using the default binding .
Rule 2 of the monomorphism restriction (Section 4.. etc..Chapter 5 Modules A module deﬁnes a collection of values. must be called Main and must export the value main. Second.f >> B. It exports some of these resources. Modules may reference other modules via explicit import declarations. We use the term entity to refer to a value. A multimodule Haskell program can be converted into a singlemodule program by giving each entity a unique name.4). and its result (of type ) is discarded. Modules are used for namespace control. in an environment created by a set of imports (resources brought into scope from other modules). classes.3.f module A where f = . First. module B where f = . or perhaps exported from a module.. datatypes. A Haskell program is a collection of modules. or class deﬁned in. For example. imported into. When the program is executed. one of which. Modules may be mutually recursive. making them available to other modules. each giving the name of a module to be imported and specifying its entities to be imported.5. type synonyms. The value of the program is the value of the identiﬁer main in module Main.5) is affected by module boundaries. and then concatenating all the module bodies1 . It is equivalent to the following singlemodule program: There are two minor exceptions to this statement. here is a threemodule program: module Main where import A import B main = A. (see Chapter 4). by convention. changing all occurrences to refer to the appropriate unique name. which must be a computation of type IO for some type (see Chapter 7). type. default declarations scope over a single module (Section 4.. 1 65 . and are not ﬁrst class values. the computation main is performed.
modules allow a program to be partitioned freely without regard to dependencies. bf = . data types. the module name. Chapter 4).6). If this is used.. with each module being associated with a unique module name (which are Haskell identiﬁers beginning with a capital letter. Prelude. There is one distinguished module. consisting only of the module body.1 Module Structure A module deﬁnes a mutually recursive scope containing declarations for value bindings. } } } 2 ¨ ©§ ¤ 5@¤32 7 ¢ ¡ ¦ ¡ § 2 4 module ¦ where 2 4 ¦ ' ¡ ¦ ¦ 7 ¥ © 7¥ 7 ¥ ¡ ¦ ¡ ¦ ' 2 6 6 6 6 6 6 © © 2§ 7¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § © ¦ ¡ § 2 4 ¦ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 7 ©§ ¤ @¤32 $ 7 ¦ ¦ ' ¡ 2 4 2§ 2 ¢ ¡ . etc. )..2 Export Lists ¦ ¨ A§ ¤ !¤32 ¢ S 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤32 § ¤ ¢ ¡ ( . .3) that specify modules to be imported. The namespace for modules themselves is ﬂat. (see Chapter 4). The header is followed by a possiblyempty list of import declarations ( . then the layout rule applies for the top level of the module. and a list of entities (enclosed in round parentheses) to be exported. MODULES Because they are allowed to be mutually recursive. plus a set of standard library modules that may be imported as required (see Part II). Section 5. A module begins with a header: the keyword module. . This is followed by a possiblyempty list of toplevel declarations .. . ) ¦ § ¦ ¦ A 2§ 7 A ¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 . 7 ¦ © ¡ 2§ © © 4§ ¡ 2§ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ § ¡ 32 ¦ 2§ ¦ ¡ 4§ ¦ ¡ 4§ { { { .. type synonyms. © 5. is permitted. classes.66 module Main where main = af >> bf af = . If the ﬁrst lexeme in the abbreviated module is not a {. optionally restricting the imported bindings. the header is assumed to be ‘module Main(main) where’. ( An abbreviated form of module. . i. . ¦ ¦ § 5. CHAPTER 5.e. which is imported into all modules by default (see Section 5.
) names the type and all its constructors and ﬁeld names that are currently in scope (whether qualiﬁed or not). where ¨ ¦ § ¨ A ¤ ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ 8 8 ¢ ¥¥8 ¢ A 5 4 ¦ ¡ ¢ 4 ¦ 8 8 ¤ ¢ ¤ ¦ § (. the following is legal module A( Mb.. A value. If the export list is omitted. ) ¦ ¦§ ¦ ¦ § ¢ ¢ ¢ ¡ ¢¨ ¦ ¦ § 2 4 ¦ 2 ¤ 3¥ %§ ¦ 72 ¨ © ¡ ¨ ¤ ¢ ¢ %§ 6 6 § ¤ ¤32 4 ¦ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ . or class method. . . but not those that are imported. The abbreviated form (. ( . ﬁeld name. For example. should be enclosed in parentheses to turn them into 2.Maybe( Nothing. The constructor In all cases. one of these subordinate names is legal if and only if (a) it names a constructor or ﬁeld of . all values.5. and (b) the constructor or ﬁeld is in scope in the module body regardless of whether it is in scope under a qualiﬁed or unqualiﬁed name. Operators be named by giving the name of the value as a s. A class with operations of three ways: 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ The form names. whether declared in the module body or imported. must be in scope. Entities in an export list may be named as follows: 1. which must be in scope...) ( (. the (possiblyqualiﬁed) type constructor and ﬁeld names in the second form are unqualiﬁed. A type synonym is in scope. An algebraic datatype of three ways: declared by a data or newtype declaration may be named in one The form names the type but not the constructors or ﬁeld names. A module implementation may only export an entity that it declares.) ( module . may . or that it imports from some other module. ) An export list identiﬁes the entities to be exported by a module declaration.8). Just ) ) where import qualified Maybe as Mb Data constructors cannot be named in export lists except as subordinate names.2. . 3. ). EXPORT LISTS 67 . ¦ declared by a type declaration may be named by the form ¡ £ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ £ 4. names the type and some or all of its constructors and ﬁeld declared in a class declaration may be named in one . The ability to export a type without its constructors allows the construction of abstract datatypes (see Section 5. types and classes deﬁned in the module are exported. because they cannot otherwise be distinguished from type constructors.
item(2)). The unqualiﬁed names of the entities exported by a module must all be distinct (within their respective namespace). ). enqueue. For example.g. must be in scope. but there are name clashes in the export list ¦ £ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ £ The form ( . or by exporting an entire module (module M. item (5)). For example: module Mod1( module Mod1.68 CHAPTER 5. dequeue ) where import Stack .1).an invalid module There are no name clashes within module A itself. In all cases. The form “module M” names the set of all entities that are in scope with both an unqualiﬁed name “e” and a qualiﬁed name “M. It makes no difference to an importing module how an entity was exported. Exports lists are cumulative: the set of entities exported by an export list is the union of the entities exported by the individual items of the list.5. 5... ¡ ¦ The form names the class but not the class methods.. item (1) above). This set may be empty. MODULES The abbreviated form (. module Mod2 ) where import Mod2 import Mod3 Here module Mod1 exports all local deﬁnitions as well as those imported from Mod2 but not those imported from Mod3.).) names the class and all its methods that are in scope (whether qualiﬁed or not). and (b) the class method is in scope in the module body regardless of whether it is in scope under a qualiﬁed or unqualiﬁed name. ¡ £ . or as an explicitlynamed member of its data type (T(f).. . In the second form. C. g. names the class and some or all of its methods.f. a ﬁeld name f from data type T may be exported individually (f. It is an error to use module M in an export list unless M is the module bearing the export list.g) g = f True . one of the (unqualiﬁed) subordinate names is legal if and only if (a) it names a class method of . For example: module Queue( module Stack. or M is imported by at least one import declaration (qualiﬁed or unqualiﬁed). module B ) where import B(f) import qualified C(f. Here the module Queue uses the module name Stack in its export list to abbreviate all the entities imported from Stack. or as an implicitlynamed member (T(. because a local declaration brings into scope both a qualiﬁed and unqualiﬁed name (Section 5. For example module A ( C. item (2)). A module can name its own local deﬁnitions in its export list using its own name in the “module M” syntax.e”.
The ordering of import declarations is irrelevant.3. the (. they may also be used as variables. . the terminal symbols “as”. except qualiﬁers are not permitted and the ‘module ’ entity is not permitted.5. ) ¦ ¦§ ¦ ¦ § ¢ 2 4§ . methods. They have special signiﬁcance only in the context of an import declaration. ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¤ ¢ A¤ 8 8 ¥¥8 .) ( .1 What is imported Exactly which entities are to be imported can be speciﬁed in one of the following three ways: 1. A single module may be imported by more than one import declaration. The list must name only entities exported by the imported module.g and g (assuming C. . ) ¦ ¦ ¡ ¦ 2 ¤ 37 2 ¦ ¡ © 4§ ¤ ¢ ¢ %§ %§ 2 4 6 6 6 6 ¦ ¦ § ¤ © 7 § © ¤ 32 ¡ ¡ 4 ¦ ¢ ¡ ¤ ¦ ¡ 4§ 4§ 4§ .f (assuming B. 5.. Imported names serve as top level declarations: they scope over the entire body of the module but may be shadowed by local nontoplevel bindings.f and C.g and g are different entities – remember. “qualified” and “hiding” are each a a .) refers to all of the constructors. in which case nothing except the instances is imported. § 5. The import declaration names the module to be imported and optionally speciﬁes the entities to be imported. When the (.. ) ¦ ¨ A !§ ¤ ¦ § ¦ ¦§ ¦ 2 § § ¤ %§ 4 ¢ ¢ ¥ ¦ 7 ¨¡ © 4 § ¨ § 2 4 ¡ ¡ ¦ ¦ . IMPORT DECLARATIONS 69 between C. The list may be empty. The effect of multiple import declarations is strictly cumulative: an entity is in scope if it is imported by any of the import declarations in a module.3 Import Declarations § The entities exported by a module may be brought into scope in another module with an import declaration at the beginning of the module.3. ) ¨ ¨ A 5 4 ¦ ¢¥¥8 8 8 ¡ ¢ ¡ ¤ 4 ¦ ¢ (. and between module B and C.f are different entities). 2 4 ¨ import qualified as . rather than Lexically. Items in the list have the same form as those in export lists. . or ﬁeld names exported from the module.) ( (. hiding ( . ¨¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 A§ ¤ 2 4§ ¢ ¡ §¤¤32 4 § 8 8¡ ¥¥8 ¡§ ¤ 2 ( ... modules can import each other recursively).) form of import is used for a type or class. The imported entities can be speciﬁed explicitly by listing them in parentheses.
the qualiﬁer is not necessarily the name of the module in which the entity was originally declared. the toplevel environment is extended. ). in import M hiding (C) any constructor. Finally. For example. Section 5. is omitted then all the entities exported by the speciﬁed module are im A !§ ¤ 2 ¡ 4§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ 4§ ¡ ¡ . .’. in fact. MODULES 2. in import qualified VeryLongModuleName as C entities must be referenced using ‘C. Hence. if ported. If the import declaration used the qualified keyword. or type named C is excluded.All Prelude names must be qualified .This * differs from the one in the Prelude 5.+ 1) . © 5. Entities can be excluded by using the form hiding( .3. then both the qualiﬁed and unqualiﬁed name of the entity is brought into scope. Thus.’ as a qualiﬁer instead of ‘VeryLongModuleName. If the qualified keyword is omitted. This also allows a different module to be substituted for VeryLongModuleName without changing the 4§ 3.1.5. It is an error to hide an entity that is not.3 Local aliases Imported modules may be assigned a local alias in the importing module using the as clause.3) on the import statement. which speciﬁes that all entities exported by the named module should be imported except for those named in the list.2 Qualiﬁed import For each entity imported under the rules of Section 5.++ l2 l1 * l2 = nub (l1 + l2) succ = (Prelude. or the local alias given in the as clause (Section 5. exported by the imported module. In contrast. using C in an import list names only a class or type.3. The qualiﬁer on the imported name is either the name of the imported module.1 describes qualiﬁed names in more detail. only the qualiﬁed name of the entity is brought into scope.3. Data constructors may be named directly in hiding lists without being preﬁxed by the associated type.70 ¡ ¤32 § ¤ CHAPTER 5. class. The ability to exclude the unqualiﬁed names allows full programmer control of the unqualiﬁed namespace: a locally deﬁned entity can share the same name as a qualiﬁed import: module Ring where import qualified Prelude import List( nub ) l1 + l2 = l1 Prelude.This + differs from the one in the Prelude .3.
3.4 Examples To clarify the above import rules. y. suppose the module A exports x and y. A. 5.x B. IMPORTING AND EXPORTING INSTANCE DECLARATIONS 71 qualiﬁers used for the imported module. all instance declarations in scope in module A are imported (Section 5. A.x. A. For example: module M where import qualified Foo as A import qualified Baz as A x = A. A.y In all cases.y A. y.f This module is legal provided only that Foo and Baz do not both export f. Then this table shows what names are brought into scope by the speciﬁed import statement: Import declaration import A import A() import A(x) import qualified A import qualified A() import qualified A(x) import A hiding () import A hiding (x) import qualified A hiding () import qualified A hiding (x) import A as B import A as B(x) import qualified A as B Names brought into scope x. y.x. B. A.x. 5.x. B. An as clause may also be used on an unqualified import statement: import Foo as A(f) This declaration brings into scope f and A. B.y y.f.x A. provided that all names can still be resolved unambiguously.4).y (nothing) A.x.5. A.x.y A. A.4 Importing and Exporting Instance Declarations Instance declarations cannot be explicitly named on import or export lists. All instances in scope within a module are always exported and any import brings all instances in from the imported .y (nothing) x. B.y x. It is legal for more than one module in scope to use the same qualiﬁer. A.4.y x.x x.
ILLEGAL By an import declaration. but does bring in any instances visible in M. that is.f x = . . . 2 4 A qualiﬁed name is written as .5. an instance declaration is in scope if and only if a chain of import declarations leads to the module containing the instance declaration.2 Name clashes If a module contains a bound occurrence of a name. MODULES module. Thus: module M where f x = .1 Qualiﬁed names § By a top level declaration. An import declaration.f respectively. 5. whether qualified or not.4). The deﬁning occurrence must mention the unqualiﬁed name.f x x is legal. g x = M.f.ILLEGAL g x = let M.. it must be possible unambiguously to resolve which entity is thereby referred to.. This allows a qualiﬁed import to be replaced with an unqualiﬁed one without forcing changes in the references to the imported names... Thus.72 CHAPTER 5. A toplevel declaration brings into scope both the unqualiﬁed and the qualiﬁed name of the entity being deﬁned.5. always brings into scope the qualiﬁed name of the imported entity (Section 5. it is illegal to write module M where M. therefore.3). For example. such as f or A. A module whose only purpose is to provide instance declarations can have an empty export list. 4 ¦ ¢ ¦ ¦ (Section 2. For example module MyInstances() where instance Show (a > b) where show fn = "<<function>>" instance Show (IO a) where show io = "<<IO action>>" 5...5 Name Clashes and Closure 5.y = x+1 in . import M() does not bring any new names in scope from module M. A qualiﬁed name is brought into scope: . there must be only one binding for f or A.
The reference to x is ambiguous: it could mean x declared in B. The ambiguity could be ﬁxed by replacing the reference to x by B. c.sin (F. provided that the program does not mention those names. y ) where import D x = . y = .sin x) The local declaration for sin is legal.d.2). x.. B. b = . d. the following module is legal: module F where sin :: Float > Float sin x = (x::Float) f x = Prelude. module C( d. and can be referred to in A by the names d.... and C. even though the Prelude function sin is implicitly in scope.5. or x declared in C. y ) where import D x = .x or C. module D( d ) where d = . b.. An error is only reported if y is actually mentioned. x) module B( d.5.. Consider the deﬁnition of tup. and unambiguously refers to another declaration in the same declaration list (except that the ﬁxity declaration for a class method can occur at top level — Section 4.d..... For example. c = ... c. y = . so it is not erroneous that distinct entities called y are exported by both B and C. NAME CLASHES AND CLOSURE 73 It is not an error for there to exist names that cannot be so resolved.4. x. The references to b and c can be unambiguously resolved to b declared in B... For example: module A where import B import C tup = (b. In this case the same entity is brought into scope by two routes (the import of B and the import of C). . The name occurring in a type signature or ﬁxity declarations is always unqualiﬁed.x. The reference to d is unambiguously resolved to d declared in D. and c declared in C respectively. There is no reference to y.
classes.74 CHAPTER 5. entities that the compiler requires for type checking or other compile time analysis need not be imported if they are not mentioned by name. in module M(x) where type T = Int x :: T x = 1 the type of x is both T and Int. Whether or not T is explicitly exported. Such entities need not even be explicitly exported: the following program is valid even though T does not escape M1: module M1(x) where data T = T x = T module M2 where import M1(x) y = x In this example. The Haskell compilation system is responsible for ﬁnding any information needed for compilation without the help of the programmer. The Haskell system silently imports any information that must accompany an entity for type checking or any other purposes. every name explicitly mentioned by the source code must be either deﬁned locally or imported from another module. and functions. the unqualiﬁed name sin in the type signature in the ﬁrst line of F unambiguously refers to the local declaration for sin. called the “Standard Prelude.sin and F. 5. the Prelude is contained in the . the import of a variable x does not require that the datatypes and classes in the signature of x be brought into the module along with x unless these entities are referenced by name in the user program. MODULES The references to Prelude. 5. the type checker ﬁnds the deﬁnition of T if needed whether or not it is exported. That is.5.” In Haskell.sin must both be qualiﬁed to make it unambiguous which sin is meant. For example. The only reason to export T is to allow other modules to refer it by name. module M2 knows enough about T to correctly type check the program. The type of an exported entity is unaffected by nonexported type synonyms. However. However.3 Closure Every module in a Haskell program must be closed. the deﬁnition of T is available to any module that encounters it whether or not the name T is in scope. these are interchangeable even when T is not in scope. there is no way to supply an explicit type signature for y since T is not in scope.6 Standard Prelude Many of the features of Haskell are deﬁned in Haskell itself as a library of standard datatypes. That is. That is.
This provision for explicit import allows entities deﬁned in the Prelude to be selectively imported. STANDARD PRELUDE 75 module Prelude. and most of the input/output are all part of the standard libraries.2 Shadowing Prelude Names The rules about the Prelude have been cast so that it is possible to use Prelude names for nonstandard purposes. nonNull ) where import Prelude hiding( null ) null. These are deﬁned in Part II Separating libraries from the Prelude has the advantage of reducing the size and complexity of the Prelude. just like those from any other module. which provide less frequently used functions and types. for example. if and only if it is not imported with an explicit import declaration. There are also many predeﬁned library modules. they should be considered part of its implementation.1 The Prelude Module The Prelude module is imported automatically into all modules as if by the statement ‘import Prelude’. PreludeIO.6. The semantics of the entities in Prelude is speciﬁed by a reference implementation of Prelude written in Haskell. Since the treatment of such entities depends on the implementation. Some datatypes (such as Int) and functions (such as Int addition) cannot be speciﬁed directly in Haskell. Chapter 8 deﬁnes the module Prelude using several other modules: PreludeList. given in Chapter 8.5. not part of the language deﬁnition. they are not formally deﬁned in Chapter 8. and increasing the space of useful names available to the programmer.6. The implementation of Prelude is also incomplete in its treatment of tuples: there should be an inﬁnite family of tuples and their instance declarations. The latter would be ambiguous without the hiding(null) on the . They are simply there to help explain the structure of the Prelude module. and so on. and contains an unqualiﬁed reference to null on the right hand side of nonNull. These modules are not part of Haskell 98. 5. For example. complex numberss. however. but the implementation only gives a scheme. This means. allowing it to be more easily assimilated. that a compiler may optimize calls to functions in the Prelude without consulting the source code of the Prelude. every module that does so must have an import declaration that makes this nonstandard usage explicit. nonNull :: Int > Bool null x = x == 0 nonNull x = not (null x) Module A redeﬁnes null.6. and they cannot be imported separately. arrays. For example: module A( null. 5. Prelude and library modules differ from other modules in that their semantics (but not their implementation) are a ﬁxed part of the Haskell language deﬁnition.
5.8 Abstract Datatypes The ability to export a datatype without its constructors allows the construction of abstract datatypes (ADTs). so it refers to ++ imported from MyPrelude. while the declaration import MyPrelude brings the nonstandard prelude into scope. one cannot deﬁne a new instance for Show Char. The precise details of separate compilation are not deﬁned by this report. It is not possible. For example. push.x) g x = (. for example. Every module that imports A unqualiﬁed.x) and (. it is special only in that some objects in the Prelude are referenced by special syntactic constructs. Explicit type signatures for all exported values may be necessary to deal with mutual recursion. On the other hand. empty ) where data StkType a = EmptyStk  Stk a (StkType a) push x s = Stk x s pop (Stk _ s) = s empty = EmptyStk . in terms of a different implementation of lists. in module B where import Prelude() import MyPrelude f x = (x. It is possible to construct and use a different module to serve in place of the Prelude. the use of ++ is not special syntax. The special syntax for tuples (such as (x. For example. and then makes an unqualiﬁed reference to null must also resolve the ambiguous use of null just as A does.) x x h x = [x] ++ [] the explicit import Prelude() declaration prevents the automatic import of Prelude. pop. there is no way to redeﬁne the meaning of [x].)) and lists (such as [x] and []) continues to refer to the tuples and lists deﬁned by the standard Prelude. however. Redeﬁning names used by the Prelude does not affect the meaning of these special constructs. 5. an ADT for stacks could be deﬁned as: module Stack( StkType.7 Separate Compilation Depending on the Haskell implementation used.76 CHAPTER 5. the Prelude is an ordinary Haskell module. For example. MODULES import Prelude statement. to hide instance declarations in the Prelude. Other than the fact that it is implicitly imported. Thus there is little danger of accidentally shadowing Prelude names. separate compilation of mutually recursive modules may require that imported modules contain additional information so that they may be referenced before they are compiled.
5. pop. ABSTRACT DATATYPES 77 Modules importing Stack cannot construct values of type StkType because they do not have access to the constructors of the type. push. they must use push. empty ) where newtype StkType a = Stk [a] push x (Stk s) = Stk (x:s) pop (Stk (_:s)) = Stk s empty = Stk [] . Instead.8. and empty to construct such values. stacks can be deﬁned with lists: module Stack( StkType. It is also possible to build an ADT on top of an existing type by using a newtype declaration. For example. pop.
MODULES .78 CHAPTER 5.
Type Char is an instance of the classes Read. Bounded) The boolean type Bool is an enumeration. the Haskell deﬁnition of the type is given.  (or). The lexical syntax for characters is deﬁned in Section 2. Numeric types are described in Section 6. and not. Ord.1. Some deﬁnitions may not be completely valid on syntactic grounds but they faithfully convey the meaning of the underlying type. Enum. Show. and functions that are implicitly imported into every Haskell program. Eq. The name otherwise is deﬁned as True to make guarded expressions more readable. we describe the types and classes found in the Prelude. Enum.2 Characters and Strings The character type Char is an enumeration whose values represent Unicode characters [11]. Eq. complex numbers. In this chapter. Other predeﬁned types such as arrays. Show.Chapter 6 Predeﬁned Types and Classes The Haskell Prelude contains predeﬁned classes. and rationals are deﬁned in Part II. types. 6.1 Standard Haskell Types These types are deﬁned by the Haskell Prelude.4. When appropriate.1.1 Booleans data Bool = False  True deriving (Read. Most functions are not described in detail here as they can easily be understood from their deﬁnitions as given in Chapter 8.6. 6. Ord. and 79 . The basic boolean functions are && (and). 6. character literals are nullary constructors in the datatype Char.
Arithmetic sequences and list comprehensions. Each tuple type has a single constructor.Bool. For example.. and Show.’t’. . there are the following equivalences: \a and \BEL. 6. Bounded. Eq. ’i’.3 Lists data [a] = []  a : [a] deriving (Eq. thus (x.1) deﬁnes many standard list functions. Read. Monad. are described in Sections 3.’ ’. Bounded. However. Ord.1. \t and \HT. Note that ASCII control characters each have several representations in character literals: numeric escapes. All tuples are instances of Eq. and MonadPlus.4 Tuples Tuples are algebraic datatypes with special syntax. \v and \VT. The constructor for a tuple is written by omitting the expressions surrounding the commas. There is no upper bound on the size of a tuple. The ﬁrst constructor is the null list. map characters to and from the Int type. of course. (Int. Ord. and the \ˆ notation. and uncurry. and \n and \LF. The module PreludeList (see Section 8. thus.) Int Bool Int denote the same type.’s’. A string is a list of characters: type String = [Char] Strings may be abbreviated using the lexical syntax described in Section 2. but some Haskell implementations may restrict the size of tuples.’n’.8.10 and 3. although with special syntax. snd. The Prelude and libraries deﬁne tuple functions such as zip for tuples up to a size of 7. written ‘[]’ (“nil”). Similar functions are not predeﬁned for larger tuples. The toEnum and fromEnum functions.) x y produce the same value. together with the instances for Eq. curry. In addition.11.’r’. that all their component types are). every Haskell implementation must support tuples up to size 15. Show.80 CHAPTER 6. Ord) Lists are an algebraic datatype of two constructors. two convenient syntaxes for special kinds of lists.7.6.1. and the second is ‘:’ (“cons”). and Show (provided. \f and \FF. standard functions from class Enum.y) and (. Ord. The same holds for tuple type constructors.Int) and (. Functor. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES Bounded. Lists are an instance of classes Read. and limit the instances associated with larger tuples. respectively. "A string" abbreviates [ ’A’. ASCII mnemonic escapes. \b and \BS. \r and \CR. The following functions are deﬁned for pairs (2tuples): fst. Read. as described in Section 3. as deﬁned in Section 3.’g’] 6.
and Part II contains many more. The functions maybe and either are found in the Prelude. Read.2 Strict Evaluation Function application in Haskell is nonstrict. (. It is an instance of Show and Eq. and MonadPlus. IOError is an abstract type representing errors raised by I/O operations.1. Enum. Bounded. a function argument is evaluated only when required. 6.5 The Unit Datatype data () = () deriving (Eq. Bounded. Ord. Sometimes it is desirable to force the evaluation of a value.3).6 Function Types Functions are an abstract type: no constructors directly create functional values. IO is an instance of the Monad and Functor classes. 6.1. STRICT EVALUATION 81 6. See also Section 3.1. the nullary constructor (). Read.6. Enum. The Prelude contains a few I/O functions (deﬁned in Section 8. Read. Values of this type are constructed by the various I/O functions and are not presented in any further detail in this report. The IO type is abstract: no constructors are visible to the user. Show) The Maybe type is an instance of classes Functor. The unit datatype () has one non 6.).1.2. Ord. Show) LT  EQ  GT deriving (Eq. using the seq function: seq :: a > b > b . The Ordering type is used by compare in the class Ord.8 Other Types data data data Maybe a Either a b Ordering = = = Nothing  Just a deriving (Eq. Monad. ($). The following simple functions are found in the Prelude: id. Chapter 7 describes I/O operations. Read. flip. Show) member. Ord. 6. const. Ord. that is. and until.9.7 The IO and IOError Types The IO type serves as a tag for operations (actions) that interact with the outside world. Show) Left a  Right b deriving (Eq.
The Prelude also deﬁnes the $ operator to perform nonstrict application. ($!) :: (a > b) > a > b f $ x = f x f $! x = x ‘seq‘ f x The nonstrict application operator $ may appear redundant. Strict datatypes (see Section 4. then all class methods must be given to fully specify an instance. so it sometimes allows parentheses to be omitted.3) are provided for many of the methods in standard classes. infixr 0 $. and is deﬁned in terms of seq. The operator $! is strict (callbyvalue) application. rightassociative binding precedence.82 CHAPTER 6. $! ($). since seq can be used to distinguish them. As a consequence. (/=) :: x /= y x == y a > a > Bool = not (x == y) = not (x /= y) ¡¢ 0§ ' ' ¢ seq seq ' . provide a reasonable deﬁnition for all the class methods. However. the provision of seq has is important semantic consequences. If there is no such comment. or zipWith ($) fs xs. A comment with each class declaration in Chapter 8 speciﬁes the smallest collection of method deﬁnitions that. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES The function seq is deﬁned by the equations: seq is usually introduced to improve performance by avoiding unneeded laziness. For the same reason. because it is available at every type.1) are deﬁned in terms of the $! operator.1 shows the hierarchy of Haskell classes deﬁned in the Prelude and the Prelude types that are instances of these classes. 6.3.3 Standard Haskell Classes Figure 6. together with the default declarations.1 The Eq Class class Eq a where (==). Default class method declarations (Section 4. since ordinary application (f x) means the same as (f $ x). However. such as map ($ 0) xs. for example: f $ g $ h x = f (g (h x)) It is also useful in higherorder situations.2. the not the same as \x > existence of seq weakens Haskell’s parametricity properties. . 6. $ has low.
(>) Read All except IO. () Ordering. Float. Double Fractional Float. IOError Num Int.6. Char. Float. Ordering. Maybe Figure 6. Int. Double Real Int. Double Floating Float. Double Bounded Int. Integer. Bool. Float. Maybe Functor IO. Double Integral Int. Bool. []. Double Monad IO. Double RealFloat Float. STANDARD HASKELL CLASSES 83 Eq All except IO. Integer.1: Standard Haskell Classes . []. (>) Ord All except (>) IO. Integer RealFrac Float. Char.3. Integer. (>) Show All except IO. tuples Enum ().
If one is deﬁned. All basic datatypes except for functions and IO are instances of this class.3. (<=). then both will loop.Note that (min x max x y  x <= y  otherwise min x y  x <= y  otherwise y. IO. This declaration gives default method declarations for both /= and ==. Instances of Ord can be derived for any userdeﬁned datatype whose constituent types are in Ord. If both are deﬁned. 6. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES The Eq class provides equality (==) and inequality (/=) methods. each being deﬁned in terms of the other.y) or (y.x) y x x y The Ord class is used for totally ordered datatypes. are instances of this class. (>=). .84 CHAPTER 6. min :: a > a > a compare x y  x == y = EQ  x <= y = LT  otherwise = GT x x x x <= < >= > y y y y = = = = compare compare compare compare x x x x y y y y /= == /= == GT LT LT GT .2 The Ord Class class (Eq a) => Ord a where compare :: a > a > Ordering (<). and IOError. The declared order of the constructors in the data declaration determines the ordering in derived Ord instances. Instances of Eq can be derived for any userdeﬁned datatype whose constituents are also instances of Eq. = = = = max x y) = (x. the default method for the other will make use of the one that is deﬁned. The Ordering datatype allows a single comparison to determine the precise ordering of two objects. All basic datatypes except for functions. (>) :: a > a > Bool max. If an instance declaration for Eq deﬁnes neither == nor /=. neither default method is used. The default declarations allow a user to create an Ord instance either with a typespeciﬁc compare function or with typespeciﬁc == and <= functions.
This is particularly useful for the Char type. Strings produced by showsPrec are usually readable by readsPrec. is also provided.3. show..3 The Read and Show Classes type type ReadS a = String > [(a. are instances of Show and Read. showsPrec and showList return a StringtoString function. (If desired.String)] ShowS = String > String class Read a where readsPrec :: Int > ReadS a readList :: ReadS [a] . a programmer can easily make functions and IO types into (vacuous) instances of Show.reads s.. default decl for showList given in Prelude The Read and Show classes are used to convert values to or from strings..lex t] of [x] > x [] > error "PreludeText. Derived instances of Read and Show replicate the style in which a constructor is declared: inﬁx constructors and ﬁeld names are used on input and output. A specialised variant. default decl for readList given in Prelude class Show a where showsPrec :: Int > a > ShowS show :: a > String showList :: [a] > ShowS showsPrec _ x s = show x ++ s show x = showsPrec 0 x "" . and returns an ordinary String. where values of type String should be shown in double quotes. All Prelude types.3. which uses precedence context zero.4).read: no parse" _ > error "PreludeText.. rather than between square brackets. except function types and IO types. by providing an instance declaration..."") <. The method showList is provided to allow the programmer to give a specialised way of showing lists of values. to allow constanttime concatenation of its results using function composition. the Prelude provides the following auxiliary functions: reads reads shows shows read read s :: (Read a) => ReadS a = readsPrec 0 :: (Show a) => a > ShowS = showsPrec 0 :: (Read a) => String > a = case [x  (x.read: ambiguous parse" .6. ("". STANDARD HASKELL CLASSES 85 6. The Int argument to showsPrec and readsPrec gives the operator precedence of the enclosing context (see Section 10.) For convenience.t) <.
The functions fromEnum and toEnum map values from a type in Enum to and from Int. The enumFrom. enumFrom and enumFromThen should be deﬁned with an implicit bound. of a value.m] [n. For any type that is an instance of class Bounded as well as Enum. which must be completely consumed by the input process.] [n.86 CHAPTER 6. is also part of the Prelude. For example. If the input string contains only white space. The read function reads input from a string.n’.m] . thus: enumFrom x = enumFromTo x maxBound enumFromThen x y = enumFromThenTo x y bound where bound  fromEnum y >= fromEnum x = maxBound  otherwise = minBound The following Prelude types are instances of Enum: .10). pred :: toEnum :: fromEnum :: enumFrom :: enumFromThen :: enumFromTo :: enumFromThenTo :: a > a Int > a a > Int a > [a] a > a > [a] a > a > [a] a > a > a > [a]  [n. returns []). The function lex :: ReadS String. The functions succ and pred return the successor and predecessor.e. discarding initial white space. lex returns a single successful “lexeme” consisting of the empty string. fromEnum and toEnum should give a runtime error if the result value is not representable in the result type..Default declarations given in Prelude Class Enum deﬁnes operations on sequentially ordered types. respectively. toEnum 7 :: Bool is an error.... PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES shows and reads use a default precedence of 0. lex fails (i. (Thus lex "" = [("". the following should hold: The calls succ maxBound and pred minBound should result in a runtime error. see Chapter 10..] [n. It reads a single lexeme from the input. methods are used when translating arithmetic sequences (Section 3.3.4 The Enum Class class Enum a where succ..n’. and returning the characters that constitute the lexeme."")]. used by read. 6. Instances of Enum may be derived for any enumeration type (types whose constructors have no ﬁelds).) If there is no legal lexeme at the beginning of the input string.
The semantics of these instances is given by Chapter 10. Lists. £ ¡ ¥ ¤ § £ £ ¤¡ § ]. .GT]. . Numeric types: Int. . In the case of Float and Double. the list is empty if negative. . . 8 8 ¥¥8 ¤ § § ¢¥ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¤ ¥ ¥ ¢ ¡ ¢¢ £ ¥¡ § ¡ ¡¤ ¡ ¡¢ § ¡ ¡ ¢¤ ¡ ¢ ¤ § ¥ ¤ £ ¡ ¥ ¡¥ ¥ ¤ ¡ The sequence enumFromTo . For example.3. If the increment is the next element would be greater than . The list is ¥ § ¦ § . The semantics of these instances is given next.] is the list [LT. . ¤ . the enumeration functions have the following meaning: The sequence enumFromThen is the list [ . For example. 8 8 ¥¥8 § ¤ ¤ ¡ ¡¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 § ¢¢ ¡ ¡ ¡¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡¢ ¡ £ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¤ The sequence enumFrom is the list [ . ]. and pred subtracts 1. IO. is .3. and Maybe are in this class. ]. ¥ ¢ For Float and Double.5 The Functor Class class Functor f where fmap :: (a > b) > f a > f b The Functor class is used for types that can be mapped over. . For the types Int and Integer. or when they become less than for negative . Float. except that the list terminates when the elements become greater than for positive increment . Char: the instance is given in Chapter 8. and Ordering. For all four numeric types. It is implementationdependent what fromEnum returns when applied to a value that is too large to ﬁt in an Int. enumFromTo ’a’ ’z’ denotes the list of lowercase letters in alphabetical order. the list terminates when . empty if is the list [ . For all four of these Prelude numeric types. If the increment is zero. . based on the primitive functions that convert between a Char and an Int. Double. is . all the list elements are the same. Bool. where the increment. The increment may be zero or negative. The conversions fromEnum and toEnum convert between the type and Int.6.EQ. the semantics of the enumFrom family is given by the rules for Int above. ]. If the increment is positive or zero. the digits after the decimal point may be lost. Integer. where the increment. 6. [LT. all of the enumFrom family of functions are strict in all their arguments. the list terminates when the next element would be less than .. STANDARD HASKELL CLASSES 87 Enumeration types: (). . ¥ ¢ The sequence enumFromThenTo is the list [ . succ adds 1. the list is empty if .
f return a >>= k m >>= return m >>= (\x > k x >>= h) fmap id fmap (f . 6. for Maybe returns Nothing.3. “do” expressions provide a convenient syntax for writing monadic expressions (see Section 3. Instances of Monad should satisfy the following laws: Instances of both Monad and Functor should additionally satisfy the law: All instances of Monad deﬁned in the Prelude satisfy these laws. See Chapter 7 for more information about monads. In the Prelude.6 The Monad Class class Monad m (>>=) :: (>>) :: return :: fail :: m >> k fail s where m a > m a > a > m String (a > m b) > m b m b > m b a > m a = m >>= \_ > k = error s The Monad class deﬁnes the basic operations over a monad. Maybe.14). The Prelude provides the following auxiliary functions: sequence sequence_ mapM mapM_ (=<<) :: :: :: :: :: Monad Monad Monad Monad Monad m m m m m => => => => => [m [m (a (a (a a] a] > > > > m > m m b) m b) m b) [a] () > [a] > m [b] > [a] > m () > m a > m b fmap f xs xs >>= return .88 CHAPTER 6. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES Instances of Functor should satisfy the following laws: All instances of Functor deﬁned in the Prelude satisfy these laws. The fail method for lists returns the empty list [].3). g) id fmap f . lists. and IO are all instances of Monad. and for IO raises a user exception in the IO monad (see Section 7. The fail method is invoked on patternmatch failure in a do expression. fmap g k a m (m >>= k) >>= h .
single precision ﬂoating (Float). semantically). the class Fractional contains all nonintegral types. etc. The Prelude deﬁnes only the most basic numeric types: ﬁxed sized integers (Int). The results of exceptional conditions (such as overﬂow or underﬂow) on the ﬁxedprecision numeric types are undeﬁned. Bounded may also be derived for singleconstructor datatypes whose constituent types are in Bounded. arbitrary precision integers (Integer). and double precision ﬂoating (Double). since all numbers may be compared for equality.1.1. Float is implementationdeﬁned. Some. The Bounded class may be derived for any enumeration type. and the class Floating contains all ﬂoatingpoint types. The types Int. As Int is an instance of the Bounded class. using several type classes with an inclusion relation shown in Figure 6. it is desirable that this type be at least equal in range and precision to the IEEE singleprecision type. the type Rational is a ratio of two Integer values.4 Numbers Haskell provides several kinds of numbers.3. (). its subclass Real is also a subclass of Ord. The default ﬂoating point operations deﬁned by the Haskell Prelude do not conform to current language independent arithmetic (LIA) standards. Bool.3. Numeric function names and operators are usually overloaded.1 shows the class dependencies and builtin types that are instances of the numeric classes. as deﬁned in the Ratio library. minBound is the ﬁrst constructor listed in the data declaration and maxBound is the last.2–6. ¨ ¡£ ¤ ¡£ ¤ . aspects of the IEEE ﬂoating point standard have been accounted for in Prelude class RealFloat. Char. a truncated value. since the other comparison operations apply to all but complex numbers (deﬁned in the Complex library). the numeric types and the operations upon them have been heavily inﬂuenced by Common Lisp and Scheme. Ord is not a superclass of Bounded since types that are not totally ordered may also have upper and lower bounds. maxBound and least the range minBound can be used to determine the exact Int range deﬁned by an implementation. or a special value such as inﬁnity. Other numeric types such as rationals and complex numbers are deﬁned in libraries. The class Integral contains integers of both limited and unlimited range. an implementation may choose error ( . indeﬁnite. NUMBERS 89 6. The ﬁniteprecision integer type Int covers at . 6. Similarly. page 83. and all tuples are instances of Bounded. Double should cover IEEE doubleprecision. These standards require considerably more complexity in the numeric structure and have thus been relegated to a library. both real and complex. but not all. Ordering. Figure 6. maxBound :: a The Bounded class is used to name the upper and lower limits of a type.6.7 The Bounded Class class Bounded a where minBound. The standard numeric classes and other numeric functions deﬁned in the Prelude are shown in Figures 6. In particular. The class Num of numeric types is a subclass of Eq.4. The standard numeric types are listed in Table 6.
PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES Type Integer Int (Integral a) => Ratio a Float Double (RealFloat a) => Complex a Class Integral Integral RealFrac RealFloat RealFloat Floating Description Arbitraryprecision integers Fixedprecision integers Rational numbers Real ﬂoatingpoint. divMod is deﬁned similarly: quotRem x y divMod x y = = (x `quot y. respectively. x `mod y) ` ` Also available on integral numbers are the even and odd predicates: even x = odd = x ` ` 2 == 0 rem not . Given the typings: fromInteger :: (Num a) => Integer > a fromRational :: (Fractional a) => Rational > a integer and ﬂoating literals have the typings (Num a) => a and (Fractional a) => a. and mod apply only to integral numbers. An integer literal represents the application of the function fromInteger to the appropriate value of type Integer. Numeric literals are deﬁned in this indirect way so that they may be interpreted as values of any appropriate numeric type.4. The class methods quot. and the unary function negate (which can also be written as a preﬁx minus sign. 6. while the class method (/) applies only to fractional ones. even . while the result of ‘div‘ is truncated toward negative inﬁnity.2 Arithmetic and NumberTheoretic Operations The inﬁx class methods (+).90 CHAPTER 6.4) apply to all numbers. remainder) pair. a ﬂoating literal stands for an application of fromRational to a value of type Rational (that is.4. Ratio Integer). rem. The quot. single precision Real ﬂoatingpoint.1: Standard Numeric Types 6. The quotRem class method takes a dividend and a divisor as arguments and returns a (quotient. x ` ` y) ` rem (x `div y. div.4 for a discussion of overloading ambiguity.5. ().3. double precision Complex ﬂoatingpoint Table 6. rem. Similarly. div. and mod class methods satisfy these laws if y is nonzero: (x ` quot y)*y + (x ` ` y) == x ` rem (x ` ` y)*y + (x ` ` y) == x div mod ‘quot‘ is integer division truncated toward zero. see section 3. See Section 4.1 Numeric Literals The syntax of numeric literals is given in Section 2. (*).
0** is undeﬁned. gcd 0 4 = 4. acos. cosh. Ord a) => Real a where toRational :: a > Rational class (Real a. (*) negate abs. Enum a) quot. rem. ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ . gcd 0 0 raises a runtime error. for example gcd (3) 6 = 3. NUMBERS class (Eq a.4. including zero. gcd is the greatest (positive) integer that divides both and . atanh :: a > a Figure 6. there are the greatest common divisor and least common multiple functions. sqrt :: a > a (**). logBase returns the logarithm of in base . tanh :: a > a asinh. mod quotRem. logBase :: a > a > a sin.2: Standard Numeric Classes and Related Operations. div. ¢ )¢ lcm is the smallest positive integer that both and divide. log. 6. Part 1 Finally. cos. There are three twoargument exponentiation operations: (ˆ) raises any number to a nonnegative integer power. tan :: a > a asin. and (**) takes two ﬂoatingpoint arguments.3 Exponentiation and Logarithms The oneargument exponential function exp and the logarithm function log act on ﬂoatingpoint numbers and use base . sqrt returns the principal square root of a ﬂoatingpoint number. gcd (3) (6) = 3.a) a > Integer class (Num a) => Fractional a where (/) :: a > a > a recip :: a > a fromRational :: Rational > a class (Fractional a) => Floating a where pi :: a exp. (ˆˆ) raises a fractional number to any integer power. Show (+).4. (). signum fromInteger a) :: :: :: :: => Num a where a > a > a a > a a > a Integer > a 91 class (Num a. The value of ˆ0 or ˆˆ0 is 1 for any .6. acosh. atan :: a > a sinh. divMod toInteger => :: :: :: Integral a where a > a > a a > a > (a.
4. Part 2 6.92 CHAPTER 6.3: Standard Numeric Classes and Related Operations. Integral b) => a > b > a (ˆˆ) :: (Fractional a. isInfinite.Int) decodeFloat :: a > (Integer. isNegativeZero. these functions are deﬁned by: abs x  x >= 0  x < 0 = x = x = 1 = 0 = 1 signum x  x > 0  x == 0  x < 0 . Floating a) => RealFloat a where floatRadix :: a > Integer floatDigits :: a > Int floatRange :: a > (Int. Fractional a) => RealFrac properFraction :: (Integral b) => a truncate.4 Magnitude and Sign A number has a magnitude and a sign. Num b) => a > b realToFrac :: (Real a. round :: (Integral b) => a ceiling. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES a > > > where (b. isDenormalized.Int) encodeFloat :: Integer > Int > a exponent :: a > Int significand :: a > a scaleFloat :: Int > a > a isNaN. Fractional b) => a > b Figure 6. The functions abs and signum apply to any number and satisfy the law: abs x * signum x == x For real numbers. Integral b) => a > b > a fromIntegral :: (Integral a. lcm :: (Integral a) => a > a> a (ˆ) :: (Num a. isIEEE :: a > Bool atan2 :: a > a > a gcd. floor :: (Integral b) => a class (RealFrac a.a) b b class (Real a.
atan2 returns a value in the range [pi. and round functions can be deﬁned in terms of properFraction. either and are both zero or else of floatDigits x. and: is an integral number with the same sign as . atan2 computes the angle (from the positive xaxis) of the vector from the origin to the point . See these references for discussions of branch cuts. The function properFraction takes a real fractional number and returns a pair such that . A default deﬁnition of atan2 is provided. but implementors are free to provide more accurate implementations. ceiling returns the least integer not less than . atan2 1. the even integer if is equidistant between two integers. approxRational takes two real fractional arguments and and returns the simplest rational number within of . ). The ceiling. should return the same value as atan .4. round returns the nearest integer to . and with absolute value less than 1. For real ﬂoating and .6 Coercions and Component Extraction The ceiling. The functions ¦ ' ¥ ¢ ¢ ¢ 0 ¦ ¦ 0 ¢ ¢ £ ¡ ¢ ' 0 ¦ ¢ 4 A ¢ ' ¢ 4 ¡ ¦¥ ' ¥ ¢ ¢ 1 ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ 1 ¡ ¦ ¢ ¦ £ ¡ ¤ 4 4 1 £ 1 ¡ ¢ £ ¢ ¦ ¢ ¢ 0 ¢ ¦ ¢ . and floor . floor. floor. where is the value radix.6. logBase. **. and round functions each take a real fractional argument and return an integral result. The class methods of class RealFloat allow efﬁcient. The function decodeFloat applied to a real ﬂoatingpoint number returns the signiﬁcand expressed as an Integer and an appropriately scaled exponent (an Int). where is the ﬂoatingpoint . discontinuities. truncate.4. in particular. The precise deﬁnition of the above functions is as in Common Lisp. the number of digits of this radix in the signiﬁcand. and implementation. NUMBERS 93 6. and the lowest and highest values the exponent may assume. inclusive.4. where a rational in reduced form is simpler than another if and . pi]. the greatest integer not greater than . and tangent functions and their inverses. but implementors can provide a more accurate implementation. with in a type that is RealFloat. and floatRange give the parameters of a ﬂoatingpoint type: the radix of the representation. If decodeFloat x yields ( . Class RealFloat provides a version of arctangent taking two real ﬂoatingpoint arguments. Every real interval contains a unique simplest rational. cosine. floatDigits. ¢ ¢ 6. tanh. encodeFloat performs the inverse of this transformation. respectively.5 Trigonometric Functions Class Floating provides the circular and hyperbolic sine. Two functions convert numbers to type Rational: toRational returns the rational equivalent of its real argument with full precision. The functions floatRadix. and is a fraction with the same type and sign as . and furthermore. machineindependent access to the components of a ﬂoatingpoint number. Default implementations of tan. truncate yields the integer nearest between and . note that is the simplest rational of all. truncate. then x is equal in value to . and sqrt are provided. It follows the Common Lisp semantics for the origin when signed zeroes are supported. which in turn follows Penﬁeld’s proposal for APL [9].
isDenormalized. scaleFloat multiplies a ﬂoatingpoint number by an integer power of the radix. these may all return false. isInfinite. scaled to lie in the open interval . For nonIEEE ﬂoating point numbers. but rather than an Integer. The functions isNaN. and isIEEE all support numbers represented using the IEEE standard. significand x yields a value of the same type as x. Num b) => a > b realToFrac :: (Real a. exponent 0 is zero. Fractional b) => a > b .94 CHAPTER 6. isNegativeZero. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES significand and exponent together provide the same information as decodeFloat. Also available are the following coercion functions: fromIntegral :: (Integral a.
yet has all of the expressive power found in conventional programming languages. and an implementation is obliged to preserve this order.Chapter 7 Basic Input/Output The I/O system in Haskell is purely functional. must be ordered in a welldeﬁned manner for program execution – and I/O in particular – to be meaningful. it is possible to write many Haskell programs using only the few simple functions that are exported from the Prelude. however.1. recall that String is a synonym for [Char] (Section 6.6) sequentially compose actions. Haskell’s I/O monad provides the user with a way to specify the sequential chaining of actions. however. as deﬁned in the IO library. In the following. Haskell uses a to integrate I/O operations into a purely functional context. The order of evaluation of expressions in Haskell is constrained only by data dependencies. Actions. two characters of input.2). In the case of the I/O monad. The term comes from a branch of mathematics known as category theory. an implementation has a great deal of freedom in choosing this order. may read as a single newline character. return and linefeed.3. see Section 6. © ¦ 332 § § ¤¢ © $ 7. From the perspective of a Haskell programmer. Special operations (methods in the class Monad. 95 ¦ ¢ ¦ 32 4 7 3¢ ¦ ¢ ¦ 32 4 © ¦ 332 § § ¤¢ . For example. the abstract values are the mentioned above. To achieve this. corresponding to sequencing operators (such as the semicolon) in imperative languages. The treatment of the newline character will vary on different systems. it is best to think of a monad as an abstract datatype.1 Standard I/O Functions Although Haskell provides fairly sophisticated I/O facilities. All I/O functions deﬁned here are character oriented. corresponding to conventional I/O operations. Some operations are primitive actions. natural to a functional language and The I/O monad used by Haskell mediates between the the that characterize I/O operations and imperative programming in general. These functions cannot be used portably for binary I/O. and which are described in this section.
Printable types are those that are instances of class Show. a program to print the ﬁrst 20 integers and their powers of 2 could be written as: main = print ([(n. print converts values to strings for output using the show operation and adds a newline.19]]) Input Functions terminal). and the resulting string is output on the standard output device. These functions read input from the standard input device (normally the user’s :: :: :: :: :: :: IO Char IO String IO String (String > String) > IO () Read a => String > IO a Read a => IO a getChar getLine getContents interact readIO readLn The getChar operation raises an exception (Section 7.[0. the read operation from class Read is used to convert the string to a value.adds a newline Show a => a > IO () The print function outputs a value of any printable type to the standard output device. (The isAscii function is deﬁned in a library. The readLn function combines getLine and readIO. The entire input from the standard input device is passed to this function as its argument. The interact function takes a function of type String>String as its argument. putChar putStr putStrLn print :: :: :: :: Char > IO () String > IO () String > IO () . The getLine operation raises an exception under the same circumstances as hGetLine. a predicate isEOFError that identiﬁes this exception is deﬁned in the IO library. BASIC INPUT/OUTPUT Output Functions These functions write to the standard output device (this is normally the user’s terminal).) main = interact (filter isAscii) . which is read lazily as it is needed. 2ˆn)  n <. Typically. The following program simply removes all nonASCII characters from its standard input and echoes the result on its standard output.96 CHAPTER 7.3) on endofﬁle.. deﬁned the IO library. The getContents operation returns all user input as a single string. The readIO function is similar to read except that it signals parse failure to the I/O monad instead of terminating the program. For example.
To write a value of any printable type.7. as with print.0. SEQUENCING I/O OPERATIONS 97 Files These functions operate on ﬁles of characters. for example when it is (). The readFile function reads a ﬁle and returns the contents of the ﬁle as a string.2]]) 7. The do notation allows programming in a more imperative syntactic style. type FilePath = String writeFile :: FilePath > String > IO () appendFile :: FilePath > String > IO () readFile :: FilePath > IO String Note that writeFile and appendFile write a literal string to a ﬁle. as with getContents. The >>= operation passes the result of the ﬁrst operation as an argument to the second operation. their ﬁrst argument. use the show function to convert the value to a string ﬁrst. on demand.x*x)  x <. to the ﬁle. methods in the Monad class.1. A message is printed on the standard output before the program completes. The writeFile and appendFile functions write or append the string. but takes its input from "inputfile" and writes its output to "outputfile". main = readFile "inputfile" writeFile "outputfile" (filter isAscii s) putStr "Filtering successful\n" >>= \ s > >> is similar to the previous example using interact. main = appendFile "squares" (show [(x.2 Sequencing I/O Operations The type constructor IO is an instance of the Monad class. (>>=) :: IO a > (a > IO b) > IO b (>>) :: IO a > IO b > IO b For example. are used to compose a series of I/O operations. The ﬁle is read lazily. The two monadic binding functions. A slightly more elaborate version of the previous example would be: . their second argument. Files are named by strings using some implementationspeciﬁc method to resolve strings as ﬁle names..2.[0. The >> function is used where the result of the ﬁrst operation is uninteresting.
For example. . getLine is deﬁned in terms of getChar.98 CHAPTER 7.isEOFError e then return [] else ioError e) the function f returns [] when an endofﬁle exception occurs in g. otherwise. using return to deﬁne the result: getLine :: IO String getLine = do c <. Exceptions in the I/O monad are represented by values of type IOError. Exception propagation must be explicitly provided in a handler by reraising any unwanted exceptions. Any I/O operation may raise an exception instead of returning a result.3 Exception Handling in the I/O Monad The I/O monad includes a simple exception handling system.readFile ifile writeFile ofile (filter isAscii s) putStr "Filtering successful\n" The return function is used to deﬁne the result of an I/O operation. the exception is propagated to the next outer handler.getLine putStr "Output file: " ofile <. BASIC INPUT/OUTPUT main = do putStr "Input file: " ifile <. userError :: String > IOError Exceptions are raised and caught using the following functions: ioError :: IOError > IO a catch :: IO a > (IOError > IO a) > IO a The ioError function raises an exception. This is an abstract type: its constructors are hidden from the user.getLine return (c:s) 7. User error values include a string describing the error. The IO library deﬁnes functions that construct and examine IOError values.getChar if c == ’\n’ then return "" else do s <. The only Prelude function that creates an IOError value is userError. An exception is caught by the most recent handler established by catch.getLine s <. For example. the catch function establishes a handler that receives any exception raised in the action protected by catch. in f = catch g (\e > if IO. These handlers are not selective: all exceptions are caught. The isEOFError function is part of IO library.
3. (>>=)...bindings for return. The fail method of the IO instance of the Monad class (Section 6.6) raises a userError. (>>) fail s = ioError (userError s) The exceptions raised by the I/O functions in the Prelude are deﬁned in Chapter 21. . EXCEPTION HANDLING IN THE I/O MONAD 99 When an exception propagates outside the main program.7. thus: instance Monad IO where . the Haskell system prints the associated IOError value and exits the program.3.
100 CHAPTER 7. BASIC INPUT/OUTPUT .
. Many of the deﬁnitions are written with clarity rather than efﬁciency in mind. of course. constitute a speciﬁcation only of the default method. They do not constitute a speciﬁcation of the meaning of the method in all instances. !!. Some of these modules import Library modules. and three submodules. Primitives that are not deﬁnable in Haskell. Prelude. and Numeric.. the default method for enumFrom in class Enum will not work properly for types whose range exceeds that of Int (because fromEnum cannot map all values in the type to distinct Int values). These functions are: take. such as Integral a or Num a. PreludeList. and to improve efﬁciency.” is often used in places where the remainder of a deﬁnition cannot be given in Haskell. These imports are not. To take one particular example. an implementation is free to import more.Chapter 8 Standard Prelude In this chapter the entire Haskell Prelude is given. The Prelude shown here is organized into a root module. indicated by names starting with “prim”. An ellipsis “. are deﬁned in a system dependent manner in module PreludeBuiltin and are not shown here. drop. part of the speciﬁcation of the Prelude. as it pleases. An implementation is not required to use this organisation for the Prelude. and it is not required that the speciﬁcation be implemented as shown here. Monad. To reduce the occurrence of unexpected ambiguity errors. 101 . or () are included in the Prelude for completeness even though the declaration may be incomplete or syntactically invalid. That is. nor are these three modules available for import separately. a number of commonlyused functions over lists use the Int type rather than using a more general numeric type. such as Char. It constitutes a speciﬁcation for the Prelude. of the Library modules. This structure is purely presentational. IO. and PreludeIO. Some of the more verbose instances with obvious functionality have been left out for the sake of brevity. PreludeText. given with class declarations. Instance declarations that simply bind primitives to class methods are omitted. or less. These modules are described fully in Part II. Declarations for special types such as Integer. The default method deﬁnitions. length. Only the exports of module Prelude are signiﬁcant.
. with the preﬁx “generic”.102 CHAPTER 8. and replicate. for example genericLength. The more general versions are given in the List library. STANDARD PRELUDE splitAt.
gcd.. sequence. floatRange. (/=)). Enum(succ. ().)). encodeFloat. mod. asTypeOf. (**). enumFromThen. significand. fromEnum. either. negate. fst. log. sinh. enumFrom. error. mapM_. (ˆ). exp. IO. toEnum. Either(Left. isInfinite. asin. Right). True). RealFloat(floatRadix. floor). maybe. even. isNegativeZero. isIEEE. RealFrac(properFraction. exponent. Float. Floating(pi. floatDigits.Unicode primitives . lcm. round. (<=). tan. etc. Int. ceiling. sequence_. logBase. acosh. Num((+). (>). recip. (. seq. (). (<). GT). flip. These builtin types are defined in the Prelude. min). String. otherwise. quotRem. scaleFloat. but are denoted by builtin syntax. cos. []) Tuple types: (.103 module Prelude ( module PreludeList. (. return. until. cosh. atanh). (ˆˆ). (>>). div. truncate.). Rational. ($!) ) where import import import import import import PreludeBuiltin UnicodePrims( primUnicodeMaxChar ) PreludeList PreludeText PreludeIO Ratio( Rational ) . maxBound). mapM. asinh. Fractional((/). uncurry. Just). const. realToFrac. rem. Ord(compare. Char. divMod. abs. undefined. decodeFloat.)((. Bounded(minBound. List type: []((:). and cannot legally appear in an export list. sin. acos. atan2). atan. enumFromTo. signum. id. max. Monad((>>=). fromInteger). not. (>=). Double.)).)((. snd. (&&). Bool(False. EQ. Ordering(LT. subtract. toInteger). Functor(fmap). enumFromThenTo).Contains all ‘prim’ values . Integral(quot. fromIntegral. Maybe(Nothing. (=<<). Real(toRational). pred. module PreludeText.. Trivial type: ()(()) Functions: (>) Eq((==). isDenormalized. fromRational). module PreludeIO. sqrt. isNaN. (*). odd. tanh. fail). ($). Integer. curry.
instances and related functions . ** *. ˆ. STANDARD PRELUDE .note that (min x y. but its fixity is given by: infixr 5 : infix infixr infixr infixl infixr infixr 4 3 2 1 1 0 ==. ‘rem‘. > &&  >>.The (:) operator is builtin syntax. <. ‘div‘.a fixity declaration. (/=) :: a > a > Bool . compare x y  x == y = EQ  x <= y = LT  otherwise = GT x x x x <= < >= > y y y y = = = = compare compare compare compare x x x x y y y y /= == /= == GT LT LT GT . ˆˆ.y) or (y.Equality and Ordered classes class Eq a where (==).x) max x y  x <= y = y  otherwise = x min x y  x <= y = x  otherwise = y .Standard types. >>= =<< $.Using compare can be more efficient for complex types. /. (>) :: a > a > Bool max. and cannot legally be given . classes. ‘quot‘.Minimal complete definition: (<=) or compare .  .Minimal complete definition: (==) or (/=) x /= y = not (x == y) x == y = not (x /= y) class (Eq a) => Ord a where compare :: a > a > Ordering (<). min :: a > a > a . max x y) = (x. /=. ‘mod‘ +. ‘seq‘ .104 infixr infixr infixl infixl 9 8 7 6 CHAPTER 8. (>=). $!. (<=). >=. <=.
105 .m] . fromEnum z] class Bounded a minBound maxBound where :: a :: a . (*) :: a > a > a negate :: a > a abs. fromEnum y .Numeric classes class (Eq a.Enumeration and Bounded classes class Enum a where succ. signum :: a > a fromInteger :: Integer > a .] [n..n’.n’.] [n.. fromEnum . fromEnum y] enumFromThen x y = map toEnum [fromEnum x.. Ord a) => Real a where toRational :: a > Rational .Minimal complete All. fromEnum enumFrom x = map toEnum [fromEnum x .y = x + negate x = 0 definition: negate or () negate y x class (Num a.] enumFromTo x y = map toEnum [fromEnum x . succ = toEnum . pred toEnum fromEnum enumFrom enumFromThen enumFromTo enumFromThenTo :: :: :: :: :: :: :: a > a Int > a a > Int a > [a] a > a > [a] a > a > [a] a > a > a > [a]  [n. (subtract 1) .NOTE: these default methods only make sense for types that map injectively into Int using fromEnum and toEnum.m] [n..] enumFromThenTo x y z = map toEnum [fromEnum x.. except x . fromEnum y .Minimal complete definition: toEnum.. Show a) => Num a where (+). (). fromEnum pred = toEnum .. (+1) ..
logBase :: a > a > a sin.Minimal complete definition: pi.r) = n ‘div‘ d = q where (q. cosh asin. toInteger n ‘quot‘ d = q where (q. acosh. acos.r) = n ‘rem‘ d = r where (q. STANDARD PRELUDE => Integral a where a > a > a a > a > a a > a > (a. atanh x ** y = exp (log x * y) logBase x y = log y / log x sqrt x = x ** 0. atan asinh. exp. atanh :: a > a . divMod toInteger a) :: :: :: :: CHAPTER 8.r) = n ‘mod‘ d = r where (q. sinh. r+d) else qr quotRem n d . tanh :: a > a asinh.Minimal complete definition: fromRational and (recip or (/)) recip x = 1 / x x / y = x * recip y class (Fractional a) => Floating a where pi :: a exp.106 class (Real a.r) = class (Num a) => Fractional a where (/) :: a > a > a recip :: a > a fromRational :: Rational > a quotRem n d quotRem n d divMod n d divMod n d signum d then (q1. sqrt :: a > a (**).5 tan x = sin x / cos x tanh x = sinh x / cosh x . acosh.a) a > Integer . rem div. cos. mod quotRem.Minimal complete definition: quotRem. sin. acos. cos. log. atan :: a > a sinh. Enum quot. cosh. tan :: a > a asin. log.r) = divMod n d = if signum r == where qr@(q.
_) = properFraction x round x = let (n.5) of 1 > n 0 > if even n then n else m 1 > m if r > 0 then n + 1 else n where (n.1 else n + 1 in case signum (abs r . floor :: (Integral b) => a a > > > where (b.1 else n where (n.r) = properFraction x m = if r < 0 then n .r) = properFraction x ceiling x floor x = = .0.107 class (Real a.Minimal complete definition: properFraction truncate x = m where (m.a) b b . Fractional a) => RealFrac properFraction :: (Integral b) => a truncate. round :: (Integral b) => a ceiling.r) = properFraction x if r < 0 then n .
floatDigits x) where (m.n) = decodeFloat x significand x scaleFloat k x = = encodeFloat m (. isNegativeZero. atan2 exponent x = if m == 0 then 0 else n + floatDigits x where (m.Int) decodeFloat :: a > (Integer. isIEEE :: a > Bool atan2 :: a > a > a .n) = decodeFloat x atan2 y x  x>0 = atan (y/x)  x==0 && y>0 = pi/2  x<0 && y>0 = pi + atan (y/x) (x<=0 && y<0)  (x<0 && isNegativeZero y)  (isNegativeZero x && isNegativeZero y) = atan2 (y) x  y==0 && (x<0  isNegativeZero x) = pi .x or y is a NaN. isInfinite.must be after the previous test on zero y  x==0 && y==0 = y ._) = decodeFloat x encodeFloat m (n+k) where (m.108 CHAPTER 8.Int) encodeFloat :: Integer > Int > a exponent :: a > Int significand :: a > a scaleFloat :: Int > a > a isNaN. isDenormalized. even :: (Integral a) => a > a > a = error "Prelude. return a NaN (via +) . Floating a) => RealFloat a where floatRadix :: a > Integer floatDigits :: a > Int floatRange :: a > (Int.Numeric functions subtract subtract even. STANDARD PRELUDE class (RealFrac a.gcd: gcd 0 0 is undefined" = gcd’ (abs x) (abs y) where gcd’ x 0 = x gcd’ x y = gcd’ y (x ‘rem‘ y) .must be after the other double zero tests  otherwise = x + y . significand. odd even n odd gcd gcd 0 0 gcd x y :: (Num a) => a > a > a = flip () :: (Integral a) => a > Bool = n ‘rem‘ 2 == 0 = not .Minimal complete definition: All except exponent. scaleFloat.
ˆ: negative exponent" :: (Fractional a. toRational .Minimal complete definition: (>>=). toInteger :: (Real a. but lift the function or .The xxxM functions take list arguments.list element to a monad type mapM :: Monad m => (a > m b) > [a] > m [b] mapM f as = sequence (map f as) mapM_ mapM_ f as (=<<) f =<< x :: Monad m => (a > m b) > [a] > m () = sequence_ (map f as) :: Monad m => (a > m b) > m a > m b = x >>= f . Num b) => a > b = fromInteger . Integral b) => a > b > a = if n >= 0 then xˆn else recip (xˆ(n)) :: (Integral a. Integral b) => a > b > a = 1 = f x (n1) x where f _ 0 y = y f x n y = g x n where g x n  even n = g (x*x) (n ‘quot‘ 2)  otherwise = f x (n1) (x*y) = error "Prelude.109 lcm lcm _ 0 lcm 0 _ lcm x y (ˆ) x ˆ 0 x ˆ n  n > 0 :: = = = (Integral a) => a > a > a 0 0 abs ((x ‘quot‘ (gcd x y)) * y) _ ˆ _ (ˆˆ) x ˆˆ n fromIntegral fromIntegral realToFrac realToFrac :: (Num a.Monadic classes class Functor f fmap where :: (a > b) > f a > f b class Monad m where (>>=) :: m a > (a > m b) > m b (>>) :: m a > m b > m b return :: a > m a fail :: String > m a . Fractional b) => a > b = fromRational . return m >> k = m >>= \_ > k fail s = error s sequence sequence sequence_ sequence_ :: Monad m => [m a] > m [a] = foldr mcons (return []) where mcons p q = p >>= \x > q >>= \y > return (x:y) :: Monad m => [m a] > m () = foldr (>>) (return ()) .
Read. for illustration only . .110 . STANDARD PRELUDE = () deriving (Eq.Boolean type data Bool = False  True deriving (Eq. flip :: (a > b > c) > b > a > c flip f x y = f y x seq :: a > b > b seq = . g = \ x > f (g x) . True False True False () && x && _  _  x :: = = = = Bool > Bool > Bool x False True x not not True not False otherwise otherwise :: Bool > Bool = False = True :: Bool = True .Not legal Haskell. Ord.constant function const :: a > b > a const x _ = x . Bounded) .Trivial type data () CHAPTER 8. .function composition (. ’a’  ’b’ .Unicode values instance Eq Char c == c’ where = fromEnum c == fromEnum c’ .Boolean functions (&&). Bounded) . ($!) :: (a > b) > a > b f $ x = f x f $! x = x ‘seq‘ f x .. Ord... Show.Function type .identity function id :: a > a id x = x .(useful in continuationpassing style) ($).Primitive ..Character type data Char = ... Enum.rightassociating infix application operators .) :: (b > c) > (a > b) > a > c f . Enum.flip f takes its (first) two arguments in the reverse order of f.
..Maybe type data Maybe a = Nothing  Just a deriving (Eq. Ord...abstract instance Functor IO where fmap f x = x >>= (return . fromEnum c’ . Show) either :: (a > c) > (b > c) > Either a b > c either f g (Left x) = f x either f g (Right y) = g y .... Read. fromEnum lastChar] where lastChar :: Char lastChar  c’ < c = minBound  otherwise = maxBound instance Bounded Char where minBound = ’\0’ maxBound = primUnicodeMaxChar type String = [Char] .IO type data IO a = . Read. return = .Either type data Either a b = Left a  Right b deriving (Eq.. Ord. fromEnum (maxBound::Char)] enumFromThen c c’ = map toEnum [fromEnum c.111 instance Ord Char c <= c’ where = fromEnum c <= fromEnum c’ instance Enum Char where toEnum = primIntToChar fromEnum = primCharToInt enumFrom c = map toEnum [fromEnum c . f) instance Monad IO where (>>=) = . Show) maybe :: b > (a > b) > Maybe a > b maybe n f Nothing = n maybe n f (Just x) = f x instance Functor Maybe fmap f Nothing = fmap f (Just x) = where Nothing Just (f x) instance Monad Maybe where (Just x) >>= k = k x Nothing >>= k = Nothing return = Just fail s = Nothing . fail s = ioError (userError s) . .
. .. ........ .. instance Real Integer where ... 1 Eq Int where Ord Int where Num Int where Real Int where Integral Int where Enum Int where Bounded Int where  0  1 .... The data declarations for these types cannot . .. Read. Bounded) .. ..... 1  0  1 .... instance Num Integer where . .. Enum.. ... instance Enum Integer where .. where where where where where where where where . instance Ord Integer where . instance Eq Integer where .. ... ..Standard numeric types...... ... . . .far too large. Show... maxBound .. .. . .112 ....... Ord.. data Integer = . instance Integral Integer where . . STANDARD PRELUDE Ordering = LT  EQ  GT deriving (Eq.Ordering type data CHAPTER 8...... . ...be expressed directly in Haskell since the constructor lists would be .... data Float instance Eq instance Ord instance Num instance Real instance Fractional instance Floating instance RealFrac instance RealFloat data Double instance Eq instance Ord instance Num instance Real instance Fractional instance Floating instance RealFrac instance RealFloat Float Float Float Float Float Float Float Float Double Double Double Double Double Double Double Double where where where where where where where where .. data Int instance instance instance instance instance instance instance = minBound . .... ..
The ‘toEnum’ function truncates numbers to Int. The definitions of enumFrom and enumFromThen allow floats to be used in arithmetic series: [0. 0. depending on how 0.may overflow instance Enum Double where succ x = x+1 pred x = x1 toEnum = fromIntegral fromEnum = fromInteger .1 is represented. where = x+1 = x1 = fromIntegral = fromInteger . Ord a) => a > a > [a] (Fractional a.Lists data [a] = []  a : [a] deriving (Eq.113 The Enum instances for Floats and Doubles are slightly unusual. roundoff errors make these somewhat dubious. for illustration only instance Functor [] where fmap = map instance Monad [] m >>= k return x fail s where = concat (map k m) = [x] = [] . truncate = numericEnumFrom = numericEnumFromThen = numericEnumFromTo = numericEnumFromThenTo instance Enum Float succ x pred x toEnum fromEnum enumFrom enumFromThen enumFromTo enumFromThenTo . This example may have either 10 or 11 elements.Not legal Haskell. Ord a) => a > a > a > [a] iterate (+1) iterate (+(mn)) n takeWhile (<= m+1/2) (numericEnumFrom n) m = takeWhile p (numericEnumFromThen n n’) where p  n’ >= n = (<= m + (n’n)/2)  otherwise = (>= m + (n’n)/2) .may overflow (Fractional a) => a > [a] (Fractional a) => a > a > [a] (Fractional a. truncate enumFrom = numericEnumFrom enumFromThen = numericEnumFromThen enumFromTo = numericEnumFromTo enumFromThenTo = numericEnumFromThenTo numericEnumFrom :: numericEnumFromThen :: numericEnumFromTo :: numericEnumFromThenTo :: numericEnumFrom = numericEnumFromThen n m = numericEnumFromTo n m = numericEnumFromThenTo n n’ ..1 .95].0. Ord) . However.
c) = (a.c) deriving (Eq.asTypeOf is a typerestricted version of const. STANDARD PRELUDE (a.) fst :: (a. curry :: ((a.error stops execution and displays an error message error error :: String > a = primError . etc. Ord.until p f yields the result of applying f until p holds.(which is usually overloaded) to have the same type as the second. .b) > a fst (x.(NB: not provided for triples. b) > c) = f (fst p) (snd p) . It is usually used .b.114 .It is expected that compilers will recognize this and insert error . for illustration only .as an infix operator. Bounded) . quadruples. b) > c) > a > b > c curry f x y = f (x. Bounded) (a.appears.uncurry converts a curried function to a function on pairs.component projections for pairs: .undefined" .Tuples data data CHAPTER 8.y) :: (a.Misc functions .y) = x snd snd (x. undefined undefined :: a = error "Prelude.b) > b = y .messages that are more appropriate to the context in which undefined .b.curry converts an uncurried function to a curried function. y) uncurry uncurry f p :: (a > b > c) > ((a.b) deriving (Eq. asTypeOf :: a > a > a asTypeOf = const . and its typing forces its first argument .b) = (a.Not legal Haskell. until :: (a > Bool) > (a > a) > a > a until p f x  p x = x  otherwise = until p f (f x) . Ord.
unzip. unzip3) where import qualified Char(isSpace) infixl 9 infixr 5 infix 4 !! ++ ‘elem‘. concat.Map and append map :: (a > b) > [a] > [b] map f [] = [] map f (x:xs) = f x : map f xs (++) :: [a] > [a] > [a] [] ++ ys = ys (x:xs) ++ ys = x : (xs ++ ys) filter :: (a > Bool) > [a] > [a] filter p [] = [] filter p (x:xs)  p x = x : filter p xs  otherwise = filter p xs concat :: [[a]] > [a] concat xss = foldr (++) [] xss concatMap :: (a > [b]) > [a] > [b] concatMap f = concat . unlines.tail: empty list" head head (x:_) head [] tail tail (_:xs) tail [] . foldr1. map f head and tail extract the first element and remaining elements. reverse. which must be nonempty.1. drop. ‘notElem‘ . words. product. minimum. takeWhile. maximum.1 Prelude PreludeList . lookup. zipWith. span. break. scanl1. tail. foldl1. lines. of a list. repeat. last and init are the dual functions working from the end of a finite list. take.8. foldl. rather than the beginning. head. respectively. splitAt. (!!). unwords. filter. all. last. scanr1. concatMap. zip3. notElem. :: [a] > a = x = error "Prelude. (++). and. any.head: empty list" :: [a] > [a] = xs = error "Prelude. zipWith3. cycle. zip. iterate. null. dropWhile.Standard list functions module PreludeList ( map. scanr. replicate. elem. PRELUDE PRELUDELIST 115 8. foldr. length. scanl. or. init. sum.
..] foldl :: (a > b > a) > a > [b] > a foldl f z [] = z foldl f z (x:xs) = foldl f (f z x) xs foldl1 foldl1 f (x:xs) foldl1 _ [] scanl scanl f q xs :: (a > a > a) > [a] > a = foldl f x xs = error "Prelude.. but returns a list of successive reduced values from the left: scanl f z [x1..!!: negative index" [] !! _ = error "Prelude. and thus must be applied to nonempty lists. (z ‘f‘ x1) ‘f‘ x2.116 last last [x] last (_:xs) last [] init init [x] init (x:xs) init [] null null [] null (_:_) :: = = = :: = = = CHAPTER 8. from left to right: foldl f z [x1..] == [z. scanl is similar to foldl. xn] == (.init: empty list" :: [a] > Bool = True = False . STANDARD PRELUDE [a] > a x last xs error "Prelude.!!: index too large" (x:_) !! 0 = x (_:xs) !! n = xs !! (n1) foldl. scanl1 is similar. 0origin (!!) :: [a] > Int > a xs !! n  n < 0 = error "Prelude. reduces the list using the binary operator.length returns the length of a finite list as an Int. .. applied to a binary operator.] Note that last (scanl f z xs) == foldl f z xs. . x2.((z ‘f‘ x1) ‘f‘ x2) ‘f‘. x1 ‘f‘ x2.....) ‘f‘ xn foldl1 is a variant that has no starting value argument.. x2.. x2.List index (subscript) operator. length :: [a] > Int length [] = 0 length (_:l) = 1 + length l . again without the starting element: scanl1 f [x1.last: empty list" [a] > [a] [] x : init xs error "Prelude. ... a starting value (typically the leftidentity of the operator)..] == [x1. z ‘f‘ x1. . and a list.foldl1: empty list" :: (a > b > a) > a > [b] > [a] = q : (case xs of [] > [] x:xs > scanl f (f q x) xs) :: (a > a > a) > [a] > [a] = scanl f x xs = [] scanl1 scanl1 f (x:xs) scanl1 _ [] ..
repeat x is an infinite list.. foldr :: (a > b > b) > b > [a] > b foldr f z [] = z foldr f z (x:xs) = f x (foldr f z xs) foldr1 foldr1 f [x] foldr1 f (x:xs) foldr1 _ [] :: = = = (a > a > a) > [a] > a x f x (foldr1 f xs) error "Prelude. scanr. and scanr1 are the righttoleft duals of the . PRELUDE PRELUDELIST 117 . or equivalently.8.cycle: empty list" = xs’ where xs’ = xs ++ xs’ take n. f x.1.iterate f x returns an infinite list of repeated applications of f to x: . applied to a list xs.on infinite lists.above functions. or xs itself if n > length xs.] iterate :: (a > a) > a > [a] iterate f x = x : iterate f (f x) .cycle ties a finite list into a circular one. Int > [a] > [a] [] [] x : take (n1) xs take :: take n _  n <= 0 = take _ [] = take n (x:xs) = .the infinite repetition of the original list. It is the identity .iterate f x == [x. f (f x). cycle cycle [] cycle xs :: [a] > [a] = error "Prelude. . or [] if n > length xs. drop n xs). splitAt n xs is equivalent to (take n xs. drop n xs returns the suffix of xs after the first n elements.. foldr1.foldr1: empty list" scanr :: (a > b > b) > b > [a] > [b] scanr f q0 [] = [q0] scanr f q0 (x:xs) = f x q : qs where qs@(q:_) = scanr f q0 xs scanr1 scanr1 f [] scanr1 f [x] scanr1 f (x:xs) :: = = = (a > a > a) > [a] > [a] [] [x] f x q : qs where qs@(q:_) = scanr1 f xs . . returns the prefix of xs of length n.replicate n x is a list of length n with x the value of every element replicate :: Int > a > [a] replicate n x = take n (repeat x) . with x the value of every element. repeat :: a > [a] repeat x = xs where xs = x:xs .foldr.
zs)  otherwise = ([]. unlines joins lines with terminating newlines. applied to a predicate p and a list xs. break :: (a > Bool) > [a] > ([a]. which were delimited by white space. unlines and unwords are the inverse operations. :: (a > Bool) > [a] > [a] = [] = = x : takeWhile p xs [] takeWhile takeWhile p [] takeWhile p (x:xs)  p x  otherwise dropWhile dropWhile p [] dropWhile p xs@(x:xs’)  p x  otherwise :: (a > Bool) > [a] > [a] = [] = = dropWhile p xs’ xs span. drop n xs) takeWhile. span p xs is equivalent to (takeWhile p xs. STANDARD PRELUDE Int > [a] > [a] xs [] drop (n1) xs :: Int > [a] > ([a].[a]) = (take n xs. :: String > [String] = [] = let (l.118 drop :: drop n xs  n <= 0 = drop _ [] = drop n (_:xs) = splitAt splitAt n xs  CHAPTER 8. while break p uses the negation of p. s’’) = break Char. s’) = break (== ’\n’) s in l : case s’ of [] > [] (_:s’’) > lines s’’ :: String > [String] = case dropWhile Char. dropWhile p xs returns the remaining suffix.[]) span p xs@(x:xs’)  p x = (x:ys. returns the longest prefix (possibly empty) of xs of elements that satisfy p. dropWhile p xs). words breaks a string up into a list of words. and unwords joins words with separating spaces.isSpace s of "" > [] s’ > w : words s’’ where (w.[a]) span p [] = ([]. Similary.zs) = span p xs’ break p = span (not .isSpace s’ lines lines "" lines s words words s . The resulting strings do not contain newlines.xs) where (ys. p) lines breaks a string up into a list of strings at newline characters.
results from a False .maximum and minimum return the maximum or minimum value from a list. map p .True.sum and product compute the sum or product of a finite list of numbers.. reverse :: [a] > [a] reverse = foldl (flip (:)) [] xs must be finite. lookup :: (Eq a) => a > [(a. minimum :: (Ord a) => [a] > a maximum [] = error "Prelude. Similarly. notElem :: (Eq a) => a > [a] > Bool elem x = any (== x) notElem x = all (/= x) .minimum: empty list" foldl1 min xs .elem is the list membership predicate. For the result to be .8.disjunctive dual of and.g. . x ‘elem‘ xs.of the list satisfies the predicate. usually written in infix form. PRELUDE PRELUDELIST unlines unlines unwords unwords [] unwords ws :: [String] > String = concatMap (++ "\n") :: [String] > String = "" = foldr1 (\w s > w ++ ’ ’:s) ws 119 . finite. map p all p = and .b)] > Maybe b lookup key [] = Nothing lookup key ((x.lookup key assocs looks up a key in an association list. elem. sum. product :: (Num a) => [a] > a sum = foldl (+) 0 product = foldl (*) 1 .y):xys)  key == x = Just y  otherwise = lookup key xys . or is the . False.reverse xs returns the elements of xs in reverse order. .1. maximum. however. and of an ordered type.value at a finite index of a finite or infinite list. .Applied to a predicate and a list. notElem is the negation. all :: (a > Bool) > [a] > Bool any p = or .and returns the conjunction of a Boolean list. any. any determines if any element .e. for all. and.which must be nonempty.maximum: empty list" maximum xs = foldl1 max xs minimum [] minimum xs = = error "Prelude. the list must be finite. or :: [Bool] > Bool and = foldr (&&) True or = foldr () False .
b:bs)) ([].b.b)] = zipWith (.b.bs) > (a:as.c)] > ([a].unzip transforms a list of pairs into a pair of lists.) :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [(a. zipWith (+) is applied to two lists to produce the list of corresponding sums.c:cs)) ([].[c]) = foldr (\(a. STANDARD PRELUDE zip takes two lists and returns a list of corresponding pairs.[]) ..) zip zip zip3 zip3  The zipWith family generalises the zip family by zipping with the function given as the first argument. zipWith :: (a>b>c) > [a]>[b]>[c] zipWith z (a:as) (b:bs) = z a b : zipWith z as bs zipWith _ _ _ = [] zipWith3 :: (a>b>c>d) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d] zipWith3 z (a:as) (b:bs) (c:cs) = z a b c : zipWith3 z as bs cs zipWith3 _ _ _ _ = [] . instead of a tupling function. zip3 takes three lists and returns a list of triples. If one input list is short.b. excess elements of the longer list are discarded.cs) > (a:as.bs.[].120  CHAPTER 8.b) ˜(as.c) ˜(as. For example.c)] = zipWith3 (.[]) :: [(a.[b]) = foldr (\(a.b:bs. unzip unzip unzip3 unzip3 :: [(a.b)] > ([a]. Zips for larger tuples are in the List library :: [a] > [b] > [(a.[b].
t)  ("]". showl xs where showl [] = showChar ’]’ showl (x:xs) = showChar ’. readDec. isAlpha.String)] = String > String where :: Int > ReadS a :: ReadS [a] class Read a readsPrec readList . read. readList).s) pr where readl s = [([]. showl xs .t) [(x:xs. reads t. showInt. shows x . shows.t)  ("]". lexLitChar) import Numeric(showSigned. ShowS.8. showParen ) where .Mimimal complete definition: show or showsPrec showsPrec _ x s = show x ++ s show x showList [] showList (x:xs) = showsPrec 0 x "" = showString "[]" = showChar ’[’ . lexDigits) type type ReadS a ShowS = String > [(a. showLitChar. PRELUDE PRELUDETEXT 121 8.u) readl’ s = [([].t) (xs.t) [(x:xs.v) class Show a showsPrec show showList where :: Int > a > ShowS :: a > String :: [a] > ShowS <<<<<<<<< lex r. shows x .u)  (x. reads. Either. readParen.v)  (". readl s]) lex s] ++ reads s. Read(readsPrec. readFloat. Show(showsPrec. Ordering .2 Prelude PreludeText module PreludeText ( ReadS.’ . showString.hs import Char(isSpace.are done via "deriving" clauses in Prelude.The instances of Read and Show for Bool. readSigned. showChar.". lex.u) (xs. Maybe. readLitChar. readl’ t] lex s] ++ lex s. showList). show.2. isAlphaNum.t) (x.Minimal complete definition: readsPrec readList = readParen False (\r > [pr  ("[". showFloat. readl’ u] . isDigit.
u) <.’\’’:t) <. showChar ’)’ else p :: Bool > ReadS a > ReadS a = if b then mandatory else optional where optional r = g r ++ mandatory mandatory r = [(x.t) <.lexString s] where lexString (’"’:s) = [("\"". u)  (ch.lex t ] . STANDARD PRELUDE :: (Read a) => String > a = case [x  (x.read: ambiguous parse" :: Char > ShowS = (:) :: String > ShowS = (++) :: Bool > ShowS > ShowS = if b then showChar ’(’ .s)] lexStrItem (’\\’:c:s)  isSpace c = [("\\&".t)  ’\\’:t <[dropWhile isSpace s]] lexStrItem s = lexLitChar s . t)  (str."") <.This lexer is not completely faithful to the Haskell lexical syntax.reads s. (str.lexStrItem s.lex t] of [x] > x [] > error "Prelude.t) <.Current limitations: Qualified names are not handled properly Octal and hexidecimal numerics are not recognized as a single token Comments are not treated properly lex lex "" lex (c:s)  isSpace c lex (’\’’:s) lex (’"’:s) :: ReadS String = [("".s) (x.lexLitChar s. t)  (ch.s)] lexString s = [(ch++str.u) showChar showChar showString showString showParen showParen b p readParen readParen b g r <. .u)  ("(". p . ch /= "’" ] [(’"’:str."")] = = = lex (dropWhile isSpace s) [(’\’’:ch++"’".read: no parse" _ > error "Prelude.t) (")". <.lex r.lexString t ] lexStrItem (’\\’:’&’:s) = [("\\&". ("".optional s. <.t) <.122 reads reads shows shows read read s :: (Read a) => ReadS a = readsPrec 0 :: (Show a) => a > ShowS = showsPrec 0 CHAPTER 8.
t) 123  otherwise = [] where isSingle c = c ‘elem‘ ". PRELUDE PRELUDETEXT lex (c:s)     isSingle c isSym c isAlpha c isDigit c = = = = [([c].s)] <.t) <.t) <.readsPrec p r] .t) <. (fe.u) <.t) [(c:nam.[span isIdChar s]]  (ds.lexDigits t] ++  (ds.’:ds++e.lexDigits (c:cs).[span isDigit s].[span isSym s]]  (nam.8.lexExp t] lexFracExp s = lexExp s lexExp (e:s)  e ‘elem‘ "eE" = [(e:c:ds.lexFracExp s ] .t) [(c:ds++fe.()[]{}_‘" isSym c = c ‘elem‘ "!@#$%&*+. (e.t) lexExp s = [("".’:c:cs)  isDigit c = [(’.possible difficulty with minInt instance Read Int where readsPrec p r = [(fromInteger i.bad character lexFracExp (’.t) <.[s].u)  (c:t) [(e:ds.Converting to Integer avoids .possible difficulty with minInt instance Show Integer showsPrec instance Read Integer readsPrec p instance Show Float showsPrec p instance Read Float readsPrec p instance Show Double showsPrec p instance Read Double readsPrec p where = showSigned showInt where = readSigned readDec where = showFloat where = readSigned readFloat where = showFloat where = readSigned readFloat instance Show () where showsPrec p () = showString "()" .Reading at the Integer type avoids .u) <. toInteger .s)] [(c:sym./<=>?\\ˆ:˜" isIdChar c = isAlphaNum c  c ‘elem‘ "_’"  (sym. c ‘elem‘ "+". t)  (i.lexDigits s] instance Show Int where showsPrec n = showsPrec n . (ds.t) <.u)  (ds.t) <.s) <..2.
t)  (’\’’:s. lex v ] ) . Read b) => Read (a. showChar ’.y) = showChar ’(’ .t) <. showl cs showl (c:cs) = showLitChar c .t) <. w)  ("(".readl t ] instance (Show a) => Show [a] where showsPrec p = showList instance (Read a) => Read [a] where readsPrec p = readList . STANDARD PRELUDE instance Read () where readsPrec p = readParen False (\r > [(().readLitChar s. Show b) => Show (a. (")".lex s ] ) instance Show Char where showsPrec p ’\’’ = showString "’\\’’" showsPrec p c = showChar ’\’’ ._) <.s)] readl (’\\’:’&’:s) = readl s readl s = [(c:cs. showl cs where showl "" = showChar ’"’ showl (’"’:cs) = showString "\\\"" .Tuples instance (Show a. t) <. (l. shows y . shows x . showChar ’)’ instance (Read a."\’") <.w) .t)  (’"’:s.readLitChar s]) readList = readParen False (\r > [(l. lex t.s) (x.u)  (c .lex r.y). (c.s) <. showChar ’\’’ showList cs = showChar ’"’ .lex r. reads u.b) where readsPrec p = readParen False (\r > [((x.v) (")".t)<. reads s. showl cs instance Read Char readsPrec p where = readParen False (\r > [(c.u) <.lex r.Other tuples have similar Read and Show instances <<<<< lex r.". showLitChar c .readl s ]) where readl (’"’:s) = [("".u) (y. (cs.124 CHAPTER 8.’ .t) (".b) where showsPrec p (x.t)  ("(".
writeFile.The internals of this type are system dependent data IOError instance instance ioError ioError userError userError catch catch putChar putChar putStr putStr s Show IOError where . putStrLn.. IOError.3 Prelude PreludeIO module PreludeIO ( FilePath. getContents. appendFile. catch... Eq IOError where . interact. :: = :: = :: = IOError > IO a primIOError String > IOError primUserError IO a > (IOError > IO a) > IO a primCatch :: Char > IO () = primPutChar :: String > IO () = mapM_ putChar s putStrLn :: String > IO () putStrLn s = do putStr s putStr "\n" print print x getChar getChar getLine getLine :: Show a => a > IO () = putStrLn (show x) :: IO Char = primGetChar :: IO String = do c <. userError. putStr. ioError. readLn ) where import PreludeBuiltin type FilePath = String .8.getLine return (c:s) getContents :: IO String getContents = primGetContents . PRELUDE PRELUDEIO 125 8. print.getChar if c == ’\n’ then return "" else do s <. readIO. getLine. readFile.3. putChar. getChar..
STANDARD PRELUDE interact :: (String > String) > IO () .readIO l return r .readIO: ambiguous parse") readLn :: Read a => IO a readLn = do l <.The hSetBuffering ensures the expected interactive behaviour interact f = do hSetBuffering stdin NoBuffering hSetBuffering stdout NoBuffering s <.readIO: no parse") _ > ioError (userError "Prelude.getContents putStr (f s) readFile readFile writeFile writeFile :: FilePath > IO String = primReadFile :: FilePath > String > IO () = primWriteFile appendFile :: FilePath > String > IO () appendFile = primAppendFile . ("".126 CHAPTER 8.raises an exception instead of an error readIO :: Read a => String > IO a readIO s = case [x  (x.t) <.getLine r <.reads s.lex t] of [x] > return x [] > ioError (userError "Prelude."") <.
proceeding from left to right (in shiftreduce parsing. Thus.1 Notational Conventions These notational conventions are used for presenting syntax: optional zero or more repetitions grouping choice difference—elements generated by except those generated by fibonacci terminal syntax in typewriter font BNFlike syntax is used throughout. A precedencelevel variable ranges from 0 to 9. an associativity variable varies over . resolving shift/reduce conﬂicts by shifting). or for left. 127 § ¢ 2 ¢ ¡ ( ) ¦ ¤ 7 § § ¢ £¡ 1§ ¢ £¡ ¦ ¡ 2 ©¦ 2 ¤ ¡7 A !§ 7 3¢ ¡ p v £!e ¢ $ 2 &¤ 8 8 8 @¥¥9 £ § ¢ )'% $ " 0(&§# § ¢§ £§ ¡ £¡ ¢ ¢ ¦ £¤ ¡ §¥ § § £¡ §¥ § § £ ¦¤ ¢ ¡ ¨ ¦¤ ¢ ¡ ©§¥ § § £ ¢ £ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ 2 ¡ 7 3¢ v ¡§ ¡ 7 3¢ 6 6 4¤ ¦ 2 5 § 3©¦ ¡ ¢ S ¢ . the nonterminals . . . right. with productions having the form: There are some families of nonterminals indexed by precedence levels (written as a superscript). this means that conditionals. In the lexical syntax.or nonassociativity and a precedence level. letexpressions. with 10 substitutions for and 3 for . there are some ambiguities that are to be resolved by making grammatical phrases as long as possible. Similarly. for example actually stands for 30 productions. In the contextfree syntax. and lambda abstractions extend to the right as far as possible. and may have a double index: a letter . In both the lexical and the contextfree syntax.Chapter 9 Syntax Reference 9. this is the “maximal munch” rule.
{} a carriage return a line feed a vertical tab a form feed a space a horizontal tab any Unicode character deﬁned as whitespace CHAPTER 9. . / < = > ? \ ˆ  .2 Lexical Syntax 128 ( ) . SYNTAX REFERENCE : " ’ 7 ¥ 4 §© § © § § § 2 43© 2¤ ¦ 7 ' 7 3¢ ¡ ¢ 7 § !3¢ ¤ 77 § © ¨¥ '¨ ¡ ¤ ¢ ¥ § ¨¢£¡ ¤ ¨¥ §¢ ¤ § ¥ ¨¦£ § ¢ ¡T ) cRasY`WXrpq7"9 g 24"9 A g hi7¡9 gA " 3¦db`XV GH§¢ C U f f 9 e c a Y W U E ¦ 2 ¡ ! # $ % & * + .§§ § § ¦ £$ § § § © ¢ 6 6 7 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 §§ § t § 6 7 2 ' 4 3 ' ¦ £$ © ¦ ) 4 2 B2 © ¦§ 7 £ ¦ ¨ 3¦ ¢ )A 98 7 64 #"@¦"%5 3¦ ¢ ¦ 1§¤ 0 0 4 2 ¦ § ¨)§ § ¥ ( § ¦£$ ¦ ¥ 0% ¦ § §£%¢ ¤ % ¦ § 5¤ %§ ¤ ¦¤ $§ 0 ¦ $ ¦ 7 7 § © § ¤ ¤ ¦ § £ ¦ ¡ ' ¢ 7 4 '#4 ¢ 2 ¦ ¤§ ¢ 4 ¨32 ¤ ¦ 4 & $ © § ¥ %§ § ¨¦£ ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¥ ¢ & $ © § ¥ %§ § ¨¦£ ¦ ¦ § #¦ § ¢ ¤ ¤ © 2 4 © ¦ 332 ¡ 9. [ ] ` { } ¤ ¤© ¤ ¥ § 2 " § ! ¢ §¢ © ¥¢ ¤ ¤ © ¦ 7 ¦ 43¤ 3§ ¢ 32 ¡ © ¢ § ¦ ¨¦¤ © § ¥ £ ¤¢ ¡ ¤¥ § ¦ § ¤ § § 7 3§ ¢ ¤ 7 4¦ ¢ ¡ ¢ 7 .˜ any Unicode symbol or punctuation y B 2 4 3 t ¢ h h h h A v f 4 x"$ wg " 5 7 2 ' 4 3 t § ¦ £$ § 7 2 ' 4 3 t © ¢ A B Z any uppercase or titlecase Unicode letter _ : " ’ %¤ ¢ u 8 8 8 @¥¥9 ¦ £$ 2¤ ¢ u ¢ © 2 3© 4 7 ' § £$ 2¤ ¦ ¢u © %¤ ¢ ¢ u ¢7 %¤ S¢RQFP§ 4 32 ¦ © G E C ¦ 4 _ a b z any Unicode lowercase letter 77 !3¢ 4 t § 8 8 8 @¥¥9 ¦ £$ 4 © 77 03¢ ¢ t 4 § £$ ¦ 703¢ 7 4 t © 77 !3¢ §¢© t 4 77 !3¢ § #¥ ¡3 §¢ ¦ ¤ G E QFC © G E S¢RQFC ¢ © G E C 4 ¡ IHFD32 © ¥ © ¢ ¦ § ¦¥ 4 32 ¦ 4 4 2 B2 © 4 2 ¥ ¥2 ¦ 7 ¡ © ¥ © ¦ ¦ ¥ 4 4 ¢ 2 § § ¨)§ § ¥ ( ¦ £$ ' ¨¢ § © ¤ ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¥ ¢ & $ § © § ¥ %¤ § ¨¦£ ¢ ¤£¡ © § ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¤¢ ¡ 1§3¥0 0 4 ¤ 2 ¦ § ¥ ¤ ' #¢ ¢2 ¦ § 0 ¦ ¦¤ $§ §£%¢ ¤7 ¦§ £ ¦ 7 6 6 6 6 7 ¤ 3¢ ¥ § ¡ § 7 3¢ 7 © ¥ ¡ 4 ¢ 4 ¤ ¡&¤ 7 2 ¢ ¡ .
. ¤ ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 § ¦32 ¦ § ¦32 ¦ ¦ 32 § ¦ § ¤ ’ " \ 0o 0x e E +  . : :: = \  <.> 0 1 9 any Unicode decimal digit 0 1 7 A F a f variables constructors type variables type constructors type classes modules y @ 7 2 ' 8 8 8 @¥¥9 8¥8¥8 § § § ¦ 8 8 8 @¥¥9 8 8 8 @¥¥9 . . . 0O ’ \ " \ 0X ’ 129 " x 7 3¢ 4§ ¦ ¢ ¢ ¡ ¥ © § ¨¥ § ¨¥ ¤ ¥ 6 6 6 6 6 6 § © ¡ §¢ #¦ § ¤ § © ¤ ¢ ¡ ¢ 2 ¥ ¢ ¡ ¦ ¦ ¥ 32 § ! ¤ § ¦ § 6 4§ 7 6 3¢ 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 ¦ ¦ ¦ ¢ § 2 73§ ¢ 4 ¢ S ¥ 7 ¢ 4 ¦ © ¦ 32 © 4 © 3¤ ¦ 37 2 § § § ¢ %§ ¦ 32 ¤ ¢ %§ 6 ¦ ¦ © 2 4 %§ %§ ¢ ¤ ¦ ¦ 72 3¥ %§ § ¢¦ 2 § ¦ ¤ ¢ 6 6 6 6 6 6 2 ¥¢ ¤ ¤ © ¡ ¦ 43¦ 2 © 4 S¤ © ¢ ¦ ¦ § ¥¢ ¤ © ¦ ¦ § § ¦ 2 ¢ ¤ ¤ 6 6 6 6 §§ § §§ § § § S ¥ ¢ §§§ § 2 ¦ £$ © ¢ . LEXICAL SYNTAX ’ ’ case class data default deriving do else if import in infix infixl infixr instance let module newtype of then type where _ ) ¥ v ¥ £ f ¦f ¤¢24 f ¡ § § § %¤ 4 §© 2¤ ¦ 77 4 4 § § § %¤ ¢ 7 !3¢ §© §© ¢ 7 ¦ ¢ 7 !3¢ 77 77 !3¢ : : .2. . ..4§ §§ © § 2 7 ¢ 7 3¢ ¦ ¢ © © ) h ¡ 5)¢ ¡ 5¢ ¢ ¨£¡ © © ) h ¡ 5¢ ¢ ¨£¡ o \& ¢ ¦ ¤ ¡ §¢ ¤ ¡ §¢ 4§ ¨ 7 3¢ § ¦ ¦ ¦32 ¢¡ 4 § 7 ¨ § ¦32 ¡ ¦ ¢ 4 § ¡ 3¢ 4 § ¦ ¦ ¦ 7 ¢ 4 § ¢¡ ¡ ¥ 73 ¢ 4 § 3¢ ¡ ¥ 7 ¢ ¦ ¢ 7 ¢ ¦ ¢ § 2 § 2 7 ¢ 4§ 7 3¢ ¦ 7 3¢ § § S ¢ ¥ § § ¡ ¥ ¢ §§ § § 2 § § § 2 §§ § § § § § ¦ ¦ § 43¦ 2 ¨ © 4 S¤ `¨ © © ¢ %§ ¨ `¨ ¦ 72 3¥ %§ ¨ ¦ ¦ § § ¦ 2 ¨ ¢ ¦ ˜ => ¥ h 9 f £ f 4 f S¥ X¤¢%w5 4 ) " 9¡¦fX¤ f24w5¡ 2 3© ¥ £ f 4 ©7 ' 2 4 © 7 ' : ) 4 f ¡$ 4 ¡ " 9.
in which each element is either: – Zero. ¦ ¦ – If the ﬁrst lexeme of a module is not { or module. because it is not preceded only by white space. If the innermost context is 0. The meaning of a Haskell program may depend on its layout.3 Layout Section 2. This section deﬁnes it more precisely. The effect of layout on its meaning can be completely described by adding braces and semicolons in places determined by the layout.7 gives an informal discussion of the layout rule. as a consequence of the ﬁrst two rules. which is the indentation column of the enclosing layout context. u u – Where the start of a lexeme is preceded only by white space on the same line. where ¦ ¦ ¤ ¥ § §#¥¦£ ¤ ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¥ © ¢ y ¢ 2¤ ¢ u ¢ ¤§ ¦ ¦ ¦ £ ¦ ¦ £ ¦ ¦ 7 ¦ 6 6 6 6 © 7 § @§ ¤ ¡ ¤ § 5¢¦ ¢ © ¥ a b f n r t v \ " ’ & ˆ NUL SOH STX ETX EOT ENQ ACK BEL BS HT LF VT FF CR SO SI DLE DC1 DC2 DC3 DC4 NAK SYN ETB CAN EM SUB ESC FS GS RS US SP DEL [ \ ] ˆ _ \ \ ¢ . "Jake") There is no inserted before the \Bill.e. The meaning of this augmented program is now layout insensitive. So in the fragment f = ("Hello \ \Bill". this lexeme is preceded by where is the indentation of the lexeme. indicating that the enclosing context is explicit (i. The speciﬁcation takes the form of a function that performs the translation. where is the indentation of the next lexeme if there is one. the token is inserted after the keyword. then it is preceded by is the indentation of the lexeme. nor before the .) A stack of “layout contexts”. or if the end of ﬁle has been reached. the programmer supplied the opening brace.130 CHAPTER 9. because it is not the beginning of a complete lexeme. The effect of layout is speciﬁed in this section by describing how to add braces and semicolons to a laidout program. where. (NB: a string literal it is not.6. provided that .. The input to is: A stream of lexemes as speciﬁed by the lexical syntax in the Haskell report. with the following additional tokens: – If a let. do. or of keyword is not followed by the lexeme {. preceded by may span multiple lines – Section 2. SYNTAX REFERENCE 9. then no layout tokens will be inserted until either the enclosing context ends or a new context is pushed. – A positive integer.
9. To determine the column number. § § ¥ © § © © © ¨© § § ¡ ¡ § § § ¥ ¥ ¡ ¡ ¡ £ £ ¥ ¥ ¥ § ¡ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¦ ¦ ¡ . all start a new line. to avoid visual confusion. where is the result of lexically analysing a module and adding columnnumber indicators to it as described above. . For the purposes of the layout rule. where we use “ ” as a stream construction operator. ﬁxed. Tab stops are 8 characters apart. the indentation of a line is the indentation of its leftmost lexeme. However.3. The deﬁnition of is as follows. } ¡ if if ¥ © ¨ © ¦ ¥ ¢ 2§ ¨ § § ¥ £ ¡ ¨¦¤¢ ¢ © © ¦ ¥ © ¡ ¢ The application ¢2 0 § 2§ ¡ ¦§ ¦¤ $ §£%§ ¤ ¦ § § £ ¥ § © ¥ ¦ © The characters . width as an ASCII character. delivers a layoutinsensitive translation of . and “ ” for the empty stream. programmers should avoid writing programs in which the meaning of implicit layout depends on the width of nonspace characters. Unicode characters in a source program are considered to be of the same. not 0. assume a ﬁxedwidth font with the following conventions: 1§3¥0 0 4 ¤ 2 © The ﬁrst column is designated column 1. and ¦ ¦ 7 7 . LAYOUT 131 The “indentation” of a lexeme is the column number of the ﬁrst character of that lexeme. A tab character causes the insertion of enough spaces to align the current position with the next tab stop. . u ¤ ¨ ¥ } ¡ if !£ ¡ ¤ £ ¡ ¡ © § § ¥ © § © ¡ ¥ } ¥ ¡ ¡ if and parseerror © & § © ¥ ¤ § ¡ ¡ ¥ ¨ § © ¥ § § © © © ¥ § § ¡ ¡ ¨ © ¨ ¨ ¥ { ¥ ¡ { £ £ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ § © § ¡ ¥ ¥ ¤ § § © © § § ¡ ¡ ¥ ¥ } } } parseerror £ ¡ ¡ ¥ £ § © § ¡ ¥ } £ £ £ ¡ ¡ £ £ ¤ £ ¡ ¡ ¥ § & § ¡ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¦ ! ¨ ¥ § ¡ ¥ ¥ ¥ { { { ¡ if if £ ¡ © © ¦ ¥ ¥ § § © & © § ¡ ¥ © ¥ £ ¥ ¥ ¦ § ¡ § © § ¥ ¥ .
the deﬁnition of p is indented less than the indentation of the enclosing context. For example let x = e. because doing so involves ﬁxities.e. Note 2. y = x in e’ is valid. If none of the rules given above matches. For example. The token is replaced by . The side condition parseerror is to be interpreted as follows: if the tokens generated so far by together with the next token represent an invalid preﬁx of the Haskell grammar. Note 5. then the algorithm fails. The parseerror rule is hard to implement in its full generality. and the compiler should indicate a layout error.15). At the end of the input. then the block must be empty. to mimic the situation if the empty braces had been explicit. ). Some error conditions are not detected by the algorithm. An example is: § § &§ u © u £ ¥ ¦ . so empty braces are inserted. This clause means that all brace pairs are treated as explicit layout contexts. It is an error at this point to be within a nonlayout context (i. This is a difference between this formulation and Haskell 1. Note 3. If not.4.132 CHAPTER 9. It can fail for instance when the end of the input is reached. Note 1 implements the feature that layout processing can be stopped prematurely by a parse error. By matching against 0 for the current layout context. A parse error results if an explicit close brace matches an implicit open brace. because it translates to let { x = e. any pending closebraces are inserted. including labelled construction and update (Section 3. then parseerror is true. A nested context must be further indented than the enclosing context ( fails. Note 4. although they could be: for example let }. the expression ¦ 4 The test brace. and a nonlayout context is active. y = x } in e’ The close brace is inserted due to the parse error rule above. we ensure that an explicit close brace can only match an explicit open brace. which is set in this case by the deﬁnition of h. SYNTAX REFERENCE ). If the ﬁrst token after a where (say) is not indented more than the enclosing layout context. ¤ ¥ Note 6. checks that an implicitlyadded closing brace would match an implicit open 4 £ ¦ Note 1. and the tokens generated so far by followed by the token “}” represent a valid preﬁx of the Haskell grammar. since the close brace is missing. u f x = let h y = let p z = z in p in h Here.
Programmers are therefore advised to avoid writing code that requires the parser to insert a closing brace in such situations. namely (do { a == b }) == c 133 because (==) is nonassociative.3. .9. LAYOUT do a == b == c has a single unambiguous (albeit probably typeincorrect) parse.
readLine > putStr "n!= " > print (fact (read l)) This is the factorial function. is an alternative style for encoding Haskell source code.134 CHAPTER 9. the style of comment is indicated by the ﬁle extension.hs” indicating a usual Haskell ﬁle and “. SYNTAX REFERENCE 9. More precisely: Program code begins on the ﬁrst line following a line that begins \begin{code}. all other lines are comment. ﬁrst developed by Richard Bird and Philip Wadler for Orwell. For example.lhs” indicating a literate Haskell ﬁle. and replacing the leading “>” with a space. By convention. with “. The program text is recovered by taking only those lines beginning with “>”. all other lines are comment. Using this style. To capture some cases where one omits an “>” by mistake. In this convention. It is not necessary to insert additional blank lines before or after these delimiters. and inspired in turn by Donald Knuth’s “literate programming”. it is an error for a program line to appear adjacent to a nonblank comment line. though it may be stylistically desirable.4 Literate comments The “literate comment” convention. Program code ends just before a subsequent line that begins \end{code} (ignoring string literals. Layout and comments apply exactly as described in Chapter 9 in the resulting text. of course). > fact :: Integer > Integer > fact 0 = 1 > fact n = n * fact (n1) An alternative style of literate programming is particularly suitable for use with the LaTeX text processing system. 8 8 ¥¥8 . a simple factorial program would be: This literate program prompts the user for a number and prints the factorial of that number: > main :: IO () > main = do putStr "Enter a number: " > l <. The literate style encourages comments by making them the default. A line in which “>” is the ﬁrst character is treated as part of the program. only those parts of the literate program that are entirely enclosed between \begin{code} \end{code} delimiters are treated as program text. where a line is taken as blank if it consists only of whitespace.
9. .20]] \end{code} \end{document} This style uses the same ﬁle extension.4. It is not advisable to mix these two styles in the same ﬁle.n])  n <. LITERATE COMMENTS \documentstyle{article} \begin{document} \section{Introduction} 135 This is a trivial program that prints the first 20 factorials...[1. product [1. \begin{code} main :: IO () main = print [ (n.
8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¢ import qualified 2 4 ¨ ¦ ¦ § ¡ ¤ 4 ¢¦ 8 8 ¥¥8 ( . } . SYNTAX REFERENCE . . } = ) = where where ) ) ) ¦ A 8 8 ¥¥8 7¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ 6 6 © 2§ 7¥ ¦ ¡ 2 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ ¢ %§ %§ 6 6 § 4 ¦ ¢ ¤ 32 ¡ © 4§ 4§ 4§ ¡ 6 ¡ ¡ 6 7 ¦ 6 6 § ¤ ¤32 ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ©§ ¤ @¤32 ¢ ¡ 4§ 6 6 6 © 7 ¦ ¡ 4§ ¦ ' 2 $ 7 ¦ 2 4 CHAPTER 9. . .. A §¤ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ 4 ¦ ¢ 2 4 . hiding ( . ¨ §¤ A A 5 4 ¦ ¢ ) 8 8 ¥¥8 . as . . ... .5 ContextFree Syntax 136 module where 2 ¨ ©§ ¤ 5@¤32 ¢ ¡ § 2 4 ¦ ' { { { . ) ¦ ¨ A§ ¤ !¤32 ¢ S (. ) ¨ A§ ¤ 2 4§ 4§ ¡ §¤¤32 4 § ¡§ ¤ 2 8 8¡ ¥¥8 (. . . } } © 2§ . ¦ ¦ 2 ¤ © 37 2 ¦ ¤ ¢ 4§ ¡ © %§ 3¥ %§ ¦ 72 ¤ ¢ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¤32 § ¤ { type data newtype class instance default ( . . = => => => => .. ¨ A 5 4 ¦ ¢¥¥8 8 8 ¡ ¢ . . . ) ¨¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 A !§ ¤ 2 . 6 6 © ¦ § 7 ¦ ¦ 7 ¡ ¦ 7 ¦ 7 ¦ ¦ A %§ ¡ ¢ %§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¦ § ¡ ¡ ¨ © § § ©¦ § © %§ ¨ § ¡ § ¦ 2 © ¢ 7 5© ¦ 7 ¨ ¤ ¥ %§ © %§ ¨ § S § 32 © ¢ ¦ 7§ © ¦ ¦ 7§ © ¨ ¦ § § ¤ ¥ 332 £ ¦ %¢§¢ 4 ¥ x¨ ¤ § ¡ § 32 ¢ ¦ V ¨ ¦ #¦ § § ¥ ©¤ § ©332 ¡ 7©¡ %§ 4 § © ¨ ¤ ¦ § S § 32 ¢ ¦ ¦ ¡ 7© ¡ %§ %¢ § 4 § V © A ¡ 2 § ¡ ¥¥8 ©¡ ¡ 2 § 8 8 7 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ ¦ § ¦ ¦§ ¦ ¦ § ¨ ¢ ¢ ¦ ¦§ ¦ ¦ § empty declaration § ¡ ¨ © 4 § ¨ § 2 4 ¡ ¡ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦§ ¦ ¦ § ¨ ¢ ¢ ¦ § ¦ A ¡ ¡ 7 ¦ ¡ 7 ¦ ¡ © 2§ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § © 7¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 2 © ¦ ' ¡ ¦ ¦ 9.) ( module .) ( . 4§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ ( .) ( (.) ( (.
) unit type list constructor function constructor tupling constructors ¦ 32 %§ ¡ ¡ %§ %§ %§ ¡ ¤ ( ( ) ) ) ¦ A © S© ¢ ¥ ©¡ 7 7 § S § ¢ 4§ © © ¦ 32 © © ¢ ¥ 7 ¦ 2 § ¡ § ¢ ¦ 32 %§ ¡ %§ ¢ ' %§ ' ¡ %§ 6 ¡ 6 6 6 6 6 6 © %§ § ¢ © S¤ © ¢ 2 ¡ ¢ 2 ¡ ¢ 7 ¥ ¦ ¦ ¥ § ¦ § 7 ¦ 7 6 6 © 7¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ 137 . . ¦ § ¢ ¤ ¢ %§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ ¢ %§ ¦ 32 %§ 6 ¡ § %¢ 7 ©¡ 4§ © 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 © © ¦ § ¦ ¦ ¦ § ¢7 ¤ %§ © %§ ¢ ¥ § © 74 4 § © ¥8¥8 8 ¡ ©S© ¢ 7 7©¡ ¢ ¥ ©¡ 4 § © 7 7 ©S© A 5 %§ 8¥¥8 ¡¢ %§ ¤ B%§ ¢ 7¥ 7 © ¡ %§ 8 ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¢ ¤ %§ © ¥ %§ 7 A ©© 8¥¥8 ¢ ¡ ©S© 7¥ 8 ¢ ¥ 7 ¢ ¥ 7 ( .5. . . %§ © S© ¤ ¢ ¡ ¤ ¡ B%§ ¦ 32 ¢ %§ ¡ ¡ 2 ¨ ¥ § ¦ § ¤ ¡ § S § 32 ¢ ¦ V © ¥ ¦ § 7 ¥ ¦ ¤ ¤ © ¥ £0 ¦ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ ¡ 7 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¤ ¤ ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¤ © ¥ © ¦ § A 7 ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ © ¥ © ¥ ¤ § ¢ £¡ 7 ¦ $ £0 9. . CONTEXTFREE SYNTAX { . . } ¦ ¡ 7 ¦ $ ¥ £0 7 ¦ ¦ { . . } empty ¦ A § :: => type signature ﬁxity declaration empty declaration . ) tuple type list type parenthesized constructor %§ 8 8 ¥¥8 () [] (>) (. . . ] ) . infixl infixr infix ¦ A §¤ ¦ A¢ 2 ¡ 8¥¥8 8 8 8 ¥¥8 © ¨ > function type type application ¨ ¡ %§ %§ ¢ ¨ ¡ %§ ' %§ ¡ ¡ ¤ ¡ %§ § ¢ © ¤ ( [ ( . .
SYNTAX REFERENCE ) ¦ A© §S© 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ © ¤S© © S© 7 ¥ %§ ¢ 7¥ 3 ¦ ¡ %§ ¢ ¢ 7¥ ¦ ¡ %§ ¡ %§ ¤ ¡ ( ( [ ( ) distinct distinct © S¤ ¢ %§ . ) © S¤ %§ ) and £ ¤ B%§ ¡ ¤ %§ = ( = ¨ © ¥ ¤ ¢ ¡ ¤ ¢ ¡  :: where where ) => %§ ¨ § S § ¢ \ let in if then case of { ¢ ¡ © ¡ v ¡ 2 ¢ S ¥¡ v ¢ S v v v ¡ 7 ¢ S ¤ ¡ S ¢ 7 ¡ ¤ p v ¢ §e ¦ ¡ ¦ 32 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¤ ¥¡ ¢ ¡  > lambda abstraction let expression conditional case expression ¦ else } ¢ ¡ © @§ ¢ ¡ 7 ¢ 3¢ S ¡ ¡ ¢ S 6 6 6 6 6 v ¤ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ v v ¡ ¡ ¡ ¤ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ 7 7 ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ 6 6 ¦ ¦ ¦ 6 6 6 © ¥ ¤ ¦ © ¥ ¤ © ¥ 7 ¦ $ 0 distinct 6 § ¦ § © 6 6 6 6 6 6 #¦ § § © © ¢ 7¥ ¤ ¦ £ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ ¦ 7 ¤ ¤32 § © ¦ ¦ © © ¤ § ¦ ¤ § ¦ 2 © 2 . . CHAPTER 9. { :: } :: ! deriving ( . ! } . ¡ ¡ v v ¢ S ¡ ¡ ¡ v ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ v A!¡ § 8 8 ¥¥8 7 ¡ § ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¤ £5¢ 2 ¡ £v §¢ ¡ p v §e ¢ ¦ ¢ ¡ 2 ¢ ¡ s ¡ p v §e ¢© ¨ ¡ expression type signature ¡ ¡ V ¤ ¡ ¦ ¡ ¦ © ¥ ¨© ¨ 7 © ¥ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 9§ § ¢ §¢ ¤ £5¢ 2 ¡ ¢ ¡ § v ¢£¡ p v ¢ §e ¡ § ¡ v © ¢ £¡ p v ¢ §e § 2 ¡ v ¢£¡ p v ¢ 0e $ § ¡ ¢ ¡ £5¢ © ¥ £0 ¦ $ ¤ ¡7 v § ¢ 2¢ &¤ § £¡ ¡ ¢ v £ 7¡ ¢ ¤ ¡ v§ ¢ ¢ ¤ £ ¡ ¢ § ¢ ¡ £5¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¤ ¢ ¦ § ¢ £ ¤ %§ ¡ ¤ %§ ¢ ¤ ¢ %§ ¢ ¤ %§ ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ %§ 8 8 ¤ B%§ ¢ ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ %§ ¦ 2 ¢ %§ 8 8 ¢ ¢ %§ ¦ 32 © ¦ § ¢ ¥ ¦ 7 ¦ ¦ § 2©¦ 2 ¡ ¦32 ¦ arity inﬁx 138   ¦ § £ ¢ ¢ A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¦ ¦ 3 %§ 7 7 %§ 2 ¦ ©32 ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ' %§ ¨ 8 8 ¥¥8 A¢ § © ¦ §¤ ¤32 ¡ 8 8 ¥¥¡8 © ¤ ¦ 3¢ 2 ¢ %§ ¦ 32 ¡ ¢ 32 ¦ %§ ¨ ¡ 32¡ ¦ ' ¢ ¡ ¤ ¤32 § © ¦ ! ! 7¥ ¦ ¦ 7 %§ ¡ ¢ ¢ %§ ¡ { ! . ] > .
CONTEXTFREE SYNTAX do { } do expression function application variable general constructor ¤ ¢ ¡ © @§ ¢ S ¢ 4§ © ¨ ¡ ¢ S¢0 139 ¡ ¢ S¢0 ( ( [ [ [ ( ( ( ) . ] ¦ ) ) )  ( ) right section labeled construction labeled update { ¦ § . .. ] . .  parenthesized expression tuple list arithmetic sequence list comprehension left section left section right section ¤ ¥ £ ¢ . . ) ] ¢ £ . .5. ¢ ¡ ¨ § . ¡ § § § ¦ 4 ¢ © %§ ¡ 4 ¥ © ¦ § ¢ £¡ ¦ ¡ § 3 § § ¢ ¦¤ 5 § 7 3¢ %§ ¡ 4 ¦ 7 3¢ £¡ ¦ ¢ ¢ £¡ ¢ ¡ § ¡ ¥¥8 ¢ £¡ ¡§ 8 8 7 3¢ © A ¦§ ¦ ' ¡ 0 ¡ ¦§ 0 8 8 ¥¥8 ) A 9 g © ¡ ¨ ¢ ¦ A ¦ § 0 8¥¥8 ' ¡ ¦ § 0 ¦¡ 2 ¢ 8 ¦ ¦ ' ' ¢ S ¤ ) 2 v ¡ p v ¢ ¡e ¡ ¢ S ) 2 ¡ v ¡ p v ¢ $0e ¡ 2 v S ¢ p v ¢ 5e ¡ A ¡ ¡ 7 2 ¢ ¡ v ¡ p v £!e ¡ ¢ $ A ¥8¥8 $ ¡ $ ¢ ¡ 8 7 3¢ ¨ ¥ ¢¡ ¢ ¡¢ ¨ £ 7 ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ S ¢ 8¡ ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¡ 8 ¡¡ ¡¢ ¢S ¡ ¡ 8 ¥8¥8 ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ § § ¤ 7 3¢ ¦ 2 7 9. = ¢ ¡ + successor pattern ¤ ¥ § ¦ § ¤ ¢ 6 § ¢ £¡ ¤ ¢ 6 ¦ ¦§ ' 0 6 6 6 § § © @§ © © 4§ 4§ ¢ £¡ ¦ ¦ 6 § © @§ ¦§ 6 6 7 3¢ 7 3¢ ¦ ¡ ¢ ¡ § ¢ £¡ 7 3¢ $ 6 ¡ 6 ¡ ¢ S ¢ ¢ ¡ 0 . <let . . > . } ¦ <let generator local declaration guard ¢ ¡ 7 . . . ¦ ¨ ¡ ¢ S 7 ¦ § ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢¡ £ ¡ ¢ A § 8 8 !§ 4 ¤© ¥¥8 ¡ § ¡ 4 § © . ¨ © ¦ ¨5© 7 7 ¥ ¦ A§ > where where . } ¦ { .
. . ¤ ¢ £¡ ¢ § £¡ ¢ . } § 0 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡§ 0 ¤ § § 7 3¢ ¦ 2 7 ¦ 2 ¤ y _ ( ( [ ˜ wildcard parenthesized pattern tuple pattern list pattern irrefutable pattern ) . 4 © ¦ 3332 2 ¦ ©32 2 ¤ ¡ ©¦ 2 ¡ &¤¢ 2 2 ¦ ¡ 4 ©¡ ¢ § 32 3¦ 2 ¦ ¦ 4 © ¦ § 32 33 2 ¦ 4 S¤ © § ¤ ¦ ¢ 4 © 3¤¢ § ¤ ¦ 4 32 ¢ § ¦ 2 ¢ © ¦ ¦ ¦ 4 © ¦ 3332 § 3 2 ¦ 43¤ § ¤ © 4 © 3¢S¤ ¦ § ¤¢ ¦ ¢ ¢ ( ( ( ( ` ` ` ` ¢ £¡ ¦ § ¢ ¦ ¦ 32 ¢ ¢ ¢ £¡ ¡ 2©¦32 ¡ § ¦ 2 8 ¥8¥8 ¡ § ¢ §¢ ¡ ¢£¡§¢ § ¢ ¡ £§¢ ¡ v§ v§ ¤ v 2 ©¦32 § ¢ ¡ ¢£¡ p ¢ § §e 2 ¡ !¡ ¤¥ ¡ § ¦ v § £¡ ¢ § 2 ©¦32 s¢ ¡ v § § ¡ v © ¢ £¡ p v ¢ §e ¡ ¢ ¡ v £ 7¡ ¤ ¢ § v £¡ ¢ § v ¢£ 7¡ ¨ ¡ v§ § v ¢£¡ p v ¢ §e ¦ ¢ £¡ ¤ § 140  CHAPTER 9. . ) ) variable qualiﬁed variable constructor qualiﬁed constructor variable operator qualiﬁed variable operator constructor operator qualiﬁed constructor operator operator qualiﬁed operator ) ) ) ` ` ` ` 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 ¦ 2 ¤ ¢ § ¢£§¢ ¡ ¡§ ¢£¡ ¡§ ¢£¡ ¢ £¡ § : 4 32 © ¦ 2 ¡ 2 2 ¦ ©32 ¡ ¡ ©¦ 2 2 ¡ &¤ 2 ¡ 2 ¤¢ ¡ ¦32 ¢ ¦ 2 ¤ ¤¢ ¢ ¦ 32 6 § ¢ £¡ 0 ¢ 6 § ¢ ¡ £§¢ 6 6 6 6 6 § ¢ ¤ ¤ ¡ £¡ § v ¢£¡ § ¢£ 7¡ ¢ £ 7¡ v § v § ¢ £¡ . ) ] ¢ § 8¥¥8 8 8 8 ¥¥8 = § () [] (. . SYNTAX REFERENCE negative literal arity as pattern arity labeled pattern £¡ ¢ ¢ £¡ ¢ ¡ £§¢ ¨§ ¦ 32 { .
Chapter 10
Speciﬁcation of Derived Instances
A derived instance is an instance declaration that is generated automatically in conjunction with a data or newtype declaration. The body of a derived instance declaration is derived syntactically from the deﬁnition of the associated type. Derived instances are possible only for classes known to the compiler: those deﬁned in either the Prelude or a standard library. In this chapter, we describe the derivation of classes deﬁned by the Prelude.
If
is an algebraic datatype declared by:
3. If is Bounded, the type must be either an enumeration (all constructors must be nullary) or have only one constructor.
5. There must be no explicit instance declaration elsewhere in the program that makes an instance of . For the purposes of derived instances, a newtype declaration is treated as a data declaration with a single constructor. If the deriving form is present, an instance declaration is automatically generated for over each class . If the derived instance declaration is impossible for any of the
v ¦
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4. If
is Enum, the type must be an enumeration.
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such that
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is one of Eq, Ord, Enum, Bounded, Show, or Read. holds for each of the constituent types .
4
(where and the parentheses may be omitted if possible for a class if these conditions hold:
) then a derived instance declaration is
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deriving (
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142
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CHAPTER 10. SPECIFICATION OF DERIVED INSTANCES
then a static error results. If no derived instances are required, the deriving form may be omitted or the form deriving () may be used. Each derived instance declaration will have the form:
The context is the smallest context satisfying point (2) above. For mutually recusive data types, the compiler may need to perform a ﬁxpoint calculation to compute it. The remaining details of the derived instances for each of the derivable Prelude classes are now given. Free variables and constructors used in these translations always refer to entities deﬁned by the Prelude.
10.1 Derived instances of Eq and Ord
The class methods automatically introduced by derived instances of Eq and Ord are (==), (/=), compare, (<), (<=), (>), (>=), max, and min. The latter seven operators are deﬁned so as to compare their arguments lexicographically with respect to the constructor set given, with earlier constructors in the datatype declaration counting as smaller than later ones. For example, for the Bool datatype, we have that (True > False) == True. Derived comparisons always traverse constructors from left to right. These examples illustrate this property:
(1,undefined) == (2,undefined) (undefined,1) == (undefined,2)
False
All derived operations of class Eq and Ord are strict in both arguments. For example, False <= is , even though False is the ﬁrst constructor of the Bool type.
10.2 Derived instances of Enum
Derived instance declarations for the class Enum are only possible for enumerations (data types with only nullary constructors). The nullary constructors are assumed to be numbered lefttoright with the indices 0 through . The succ and pred operators give the successor and predecessor respectively of a value, under this numbering scheme. It is an error to apply succ to the maximum element, or pred to the minimum element.
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where is derived automatically depending on described in the remainder of this section).
and the data type declaration for
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instance (
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) =>
where {
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10.3. DERIVED INSTANCES OF BOUNDED
143
The toEnum and fromEnum operators map enumerated values to and from the Int type; toEnum raises a runtime error if the Int argument is not the index of one of the constructors. The deﬁnitions of the remaining methods are
enumFrom x enumFromThen x y = enumFromTo x lastCon = enumFromThenTo x y bound where bound  fromEnum y >= fromEnum x =  otherwise = enumFromTo x y = map toEnum [fromEnum x .. fromEnum enumFromThenTo x y z = map toEnum [fromEnum x, fromEnum y
lastCon firstCon y] .. fromEnum z]
where firstCon and lastCon are respectively the ﬁrst and last constructors listed in the data declaration. For example, given the datatype: data we would have: [Orange ..] fromEnum Yellow == == [Orange, Yellow, Green] 2 Color = Red  Orange  Yellow  Green deriving (Enum)
10.3 Derived instances of Bounded
The Bounded class introduces the class methods minBound and maxBound, which deﬁne the minimal and maximal elements of the type. For an enumeration, the ﬁrst and last constructors listed in the data declaration are the bounds. For a type with a single constructor, the constructor is applied to the bounds for the constituent types. For example, the following datatype: data Pair a b = Pair a b deriving Bounded
would generate the following Bounded instance: instance (Bounded a,Bounded b) => Bounded (Pair a b) where minBound = Pair minBound minBound maxBound = Pair maxBound maxBound
10.4 Derived instances of Read and Show
The class methods automatically introduced by derived instances of Read and Show are showsPrec, readsPrec, showList, and readList. They are used to coerce values into strings and parse strings into values.
144
CHAPTER 10. SPECIFICATION OF DERIVED INSTANCES
The function showsPrec d x r accepts a precedence level d (a number from 0 to 11), a value x, and a string r. It returns a string representing x concatenated to r. showsPrec satisﬁes the law: showsPrec d x r ++ s == showsPrec d x (r ++ s) The representation will be enclosed in parentheses if the precedence of the toplevel constructor in x is less than d. Thus, if d is 0 then the result is never surrounded in parentheses; if d is 11 it is always surrounded in parentheses, unless it is an atomic expression (recall that function application has precedence 10). The extra parameter r is essential if treelike structures are to be printed in linear time rather than time quadratic in the size of the tree. The function readsPrec d s accepts a precedence level d (a number from 0 to 10) and a string s, and attempts to parse a value from the front of the string, returning a list of (parsed value, remaining string) pairs. If there is no successful parse, the returned list is empty. Parsing of an unparenthesised inﬁx operator application succeeds only if the precedence of the operator is greater than or equal to d. It should be the case that (x,"") is an element of (readsPrec d (showsPrec d x "")) That is, readsPrec should be able to parse the string produced by showsPrec, and should deliver the value that showsPrec started with. showList and readList allow lists of objects to be represented using nonstandard denotations. This is especially useful for strings (lists of Char). readsPrec will parse any valid representation of the standard types apart from strings, for which only quoted strings are accepted, and other lists, for which only the bracketed form [. . . ] is accepted. See Chapter 8 for full details. The result of show is a syntactically correct Haskell expression containing only constants, given the ﬁxity declarations in force at the point where the type is declared. It contains only the constructor names deﬁned in the data type, parentheses, and spaces. When labelled constructor ﬁelds are used, braces, commas, ﬁeld names, and equal signs are also used. Parentheses are only added where needed, ignoring associativity. No line breaks are added. The result of show is readable by read if all component types are readable. (This is true for all instances deﬁned in the Prelude but may not be true for userdeﬁned instances.) Derived instances of Read make the following assumptions, which derived instances of Show obey: If the constructor is deﬁned to be an inﬁx operator, then the derived Read instance will parse only inﬁx applications of the constructor (not the preﬁx form).
Associativity is not used to reduce the occurrence of parentheses, although precedence may be. For example, given
10.5. AN EXAMPLE
infixr 4 :$ data T = Int :$ T then: – show (1 :$ 2 :$ NT) produces the string "1 :$ (2 :$ NT)". – read "1 :$ (2 :$ NT)" succeeds, with the obvious result. – read "1 :$ 2 :$ NT" fails.
145

NT
If the constructor is deﬁned using record syntax, the derived Read will parse only the recordsyntax form, and furthermore, the ﬁelds must be given in the same order as the original declaration.
The derived Read instance allows arbitrary Haskell whitespace between tokens of the input string. Extra parentheses are also allowed.
The derived Read and Show instances may be unsuitable for some uses. Some problems include: Circular structures cannot be printed or read by these instances. The printer loses shared substructure; the printed representation of an object may be much larger than necessary. The parsing techniques used by the reader are very inefﬁcient; reading a large structure may be quite slow. There is no user control over the printing of types deﬁned in the Prelude. For example, there is no way to change the formatting of ﬂoating point numbers.
10.5 An Example
As a complete example, consider a tree datatype: data Tree a = Leaf a  Tree a :ˆ: Tree a deriving (Eq, Ord, Read, Show) Automatic derivation of instance declarations for Bounded and Enum are not possible, as Tree is not an enumeration or singleconstructor datatype. The complete instance declarations for Tree are shown in Figure 10.1, Note the implicit use of default class method deﬁnitions—for example, only <= is deﬁned for Ord, with the other class methods (<, >, >=, max, and min) being deﬁned by the defaults given in the class declaration shown in Figure 6.1 (page 83).
s) <. SPECIFICATION OF DERIVED INSTANCES infixr 5 :ˆ: data Tree a = Leaf a  Tree a :ˆ: Tree a instance (Eq a) => Eq (Tree a) where Leaf m == Leaf n = m==n u:ˆ:v == x:ˆ:y = u==x && v==y _ == _ = False instance (Ord a) => Ord (Tree a) where Leaf m <= Leaf n = m<=n Leaf m <= x:ˆ:y = True u:ˆ:v <= Leaf n = False u:ˆ:v <= x:ˆ:y = u<x  u==x && v<=y instance (Show a) => Show (Tree a) where showsPrec d (Leaf m) = showParen (d > app_prec) showStr where showStr = showString "Leaf " . .w)  (u.t) <.readsPrec (app_prec+1) s]) r up_prec = 5 app_prec = 10 . (":ˆ:".Precedence of :ˆ: .s) <.the most tightlybinding operator Figure 10. (v.t)  ("Leaf".Note: rightassociativity instance (Read a) => Read (Tree a) where readsPrec d r = readParen (d > up_prec) (\r > [(u:ˆ:v. v of :ˆ: ignored ++ readParen (d > app_prec) (\r > [(Leaf m.t) <. showsPrec (app_prec+1) m showsPrec d (u :ˆ: v) = showParen (d where showStr = showsPrec (up_prec+1) showString " :ˆ: " showsPrec (up_prec+1) .readsPrec (up_prec+1) r.Application has precedence one more than .146 CHAPTER 10.lex r. (m.1: Example of Derived Instances .lex s.w) <.readsPrec (up_prec+1) t]) r > up_prec) showStr u .
This chapter summarizes this existing practice. #} ¢ ¡ © S¤ ¡ {# INLINE {# NOINLINE ¢ ¡ %§ ¥ §¥ © ¤ ¢ 6 6 6 6 7¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ #} #} © . 11. except that the enclosing syntax is {# #}. 11. Lexically. For example. pragmas appear as comments.1 Inlining ¢ ¤ © © The INLINE pragma instructs the compiler to inline the speciﬁed variables at their use sites. but the pragma should be ignored if an implementation is not prepared to handle it. which are used to give additional instructions or hints to the compiler.2 Specialization © Specialization is used to avoid inefﬁciencies involved in dispatching overloaded functions. . but which do not form part of the Haskell language proper and do not change a program’s semantics. Compilers will often automatically inline simple expressions. An implementation is not required to respect any pragma.Chapter 11 Compiler Pragmas Some compiler implementations support compiler pragmas. This may be prevented by the NOINLINE pragma. in 147 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ {# SPECIALIZE .
148 CHAPTER 11. . COMPILER PRAGMAS factorial :: Num a => a > a factorial 0 = 0 factorial n = n * factorial (n1) {# SPECIALIZE factorial :: Int > Int. factorial :: Integer > Integer #} calls to factorial in which the compiler can detect that the parameter is either Int or Integer will use specialized versions of factorial which do not involve overloaded numeric operations.
Part II The Haskell 98 Libraries 149 .
.
and Show. Ratio is an instance of classes Eq... Read. 151 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ .. Real (Ratio a) where .. denominator :: approxRational :: instance (Integral a) => instance (Integral a) => instance (Integral a) => instance (Integral a) => instance (Integral a) => instance (Integral a) => instance (Integral a) => instance (Read a. Num (Ratio a) where . for example Ratio Int may give rise to integer overﬂow even for rational numbers of small absolute size. 12 % 8 is reduced to 3/2 and 12 % (8) is reduced to (3)/2. If is a bounded type. Num.. these are in reduced form with a positive denominator. the results may be unpredictable. (%).... Show (Ratio a) where . The functions numerator and denominator extract the components of a ratio. RealFrac (Ratio a) where .. there is a type Ratio of rational pairs with components of type . Enum.Integral instance (Integral a) => Ratio a = .. approxRational ) where infixl 7 % data (Integral a) => type Rational = (%) :: numerator.. For each Integral type . Ratio is an abstract type. Enum (Ratio a) where .. reducing the fraction to terms with no common factor and such that the denominator is positive. Rational. the instance for Ratio simply “lifts” the corresponding operations over . For example. numerator. Ord (Ratio a) where . Fractional. RealFrac.. In each case. The type name Rational is a synonym for Ratio Integer. Fractional (Ratio a) where .. Ord... Real.. The operator (%) forms the ratio of two integral numbers...Chapter 12 Rational Numbers module Ratio ( Ratio.. Ratio Integer (Integral a) => a > a > Ratio a (Integral a) => Ratio a > a (RealFrac a) => a > a > Rational Eq (Ratio a) where . a) => Read (Ratio a) where . denominator.
returns the simplest rational number within the open interval x epsilon x epsilon . 1 ¦ ¦ 1 ¦ ¦ 1 1 ¦ ¦ ¦ ¡¦ . RATIONAL NUMBERS The approxRational function. Note that it can be proved that any real interval contains a unique simplest rational. applied to two real fractional numbers x and epsilon. A rational number in reduced form is said to be simpler than another if and .152 CHAPTER 12.
denominator approxRational  :: (Integral a) => a > a > Ratio a :: (Integral a) => Ratio a > a :: (RealFrac a) => a > a > Rational "reduce" is a subsidiary function used only in this module. LIBRARY RATIO 153 12. 12 ‘reduce‘ 8 == 12 ‘reduce‘ (8) == = = = = = 3 :% 2 3 :% (2) reduce _ 0 reduce x y x % y numerator (x :% _) denominator (_ :% y) instance (Integral a) (x:%y) <= (x’:%y’) (x:%y) < (x’:%y’) instance (Integral a) (x:%y) + (x’:%y’) (x:%y) * (x’:%y’) negate (x:%y) abs (x:%y) signum (x:%y) fromInteger x instance (Integral a) toRational (x:%y) instance (Integral a) (x:%y) / (x’:%y’) recip (x:%y) fromRational (x:%y) error "Ratio. denominator.% : zero denominator" (x ‘quot‘ d) :% (y ‘quot‘ d) where d = gcd x y reduce (x * signum y) (abs y) x y => Ord (Ratio a) where = x * y’ <= x’ * y = x * y’ < x’ * y => = = = = = = Num (Ratio a) where reduce (x*y’ + x’*y) (y*y’) reduce (x * x’) (y * y’) (x) :% y abs x :% y signum x :% 1 fromInteger x :% 1 => Real (Ratio a) where = toInteger x :% toInteger y => = = = Fractional (Ratio a) where (x*y’) % (y*x’) y % x fromInteger x :% fromInteger y .12. (%). E..Standard functions on rational numbers module Ratio ( Ratio. Rational. It normalises a ratio by dividing both numerator and denominator by their greatest common divisor. approxRational ) where infixl 7 % ratPrec = 7 :: Int data type (Integral a) Rational => Ratio a = !a :% !a = Ratio Integer deriving (Eq) (%) numerator.1. numerator.g.1 Library Ratio .
simplest’ (n’) d’ (n) d  otherwise = 0 :% 1 where xr@(n:%d) = toRational x (n’:%d’) = toRational y simplest’ n    d n’ d’ r == 0 q /= q’ otherwise . RATIONAL NUMBERS instance (Integral a) => RealFrac (Ratio a) where properFraction (x:%y) = (fromIntegral q.readsPrec (ratPrec+1) t ]) instance (Integral a) showsPrec p (x:%y) => Show (Ratio a) where = showParen (p > ratPrec) (showsPrec (ratPrec+1) x . showsPrec (ratPrec+1) y) approxRational x eps = simplest (xeps) (x+eps) where simplest x y  y < x = simplest y x  x == y = xr  x > 0 = simplest’ n d n’ d’  y < 0 = .r) = quotRem n d (q’.lex s.u)  (x.readsPrec (ratPrec+1) r. showString " % " . (y.s) <.154 CHAPTER 12. r:%y) where (q.hs but not exported from it! instance (Read a.t) <.r) = quotRem x y instance (Integral a) succ x = pred x = toEnum = fromEnum = enumFrom = enumFromThen = enumFromTo = enumFromThenTo = => Enum (Ratio a) where x+1 x1 fromIntegral fromInteger .assumes 0 < n%d < n’%d’ = q :% 1 = (q+1) :% 1 = (q*n’’+d’’) :% n’’ where (q. ("%".r’) = quotRem n’ d’ (n’’:%d’’) = simplest’ d’ r’ d r . truncate numericEnumFrom numericEnumFromThen numericEnumFromTo numericEnumFromThenTo May overflow These numericEnumXXX functions are as defined in Prelude. Integral a) => Read (Ratio a) where readsPrec p = readParen (p > ratPrec) (\r > [(x%y.u) <.
cis. The constructor (:+) forms a complex number from its real and imaginary rectangular components.. . conjugate...Chapter 13 Complex Numbers module Complex ( Complex((:+)).. phase) pair in canonical form: The magnitude is nonnegative. . . This constructor is strict: if either the real part or the imaginary part of the number is .. The function cis produces a complex number from an angle . mkPolar... polar. magnitude. 155 § ¨ § ¡¤ § ... A complex number may also be formed from polar components of magnitude and phase by the function mkPolar.a) Complex a > a a) a) a) a) a) a) where where where where where where . cis is a complex value with magnitude and phase (modulo ). imagPart. The function polar takes a complex number and returns a (magnitude. and the phase. realPart. Put another way.. . phase ) where infix data 6 :+ => Complex a = !a :+ !a :: :: :: :: :: :: a) a) a) a) a) a) => => => => => => (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat Eq Read Show Num Fractional Floating a) a) a) a) a) a) => => => => => => Complex a > a Complex a > Complex a a > a > Complex a a > Complex a Complex a > (a. then so is the phase. (RealFloat a) realPart.. in the range . if the magnitude is zero. imagPart conjugate mkPolar cis polar magnitude. the entire number is . phase instance instance instance instance instance instance (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (Complex (Complex (Complex (Complex (Complex (Complex Complex numbers are an algebraic type. ..
realPart.Read. abs is a number with the magnitude of . but unit magnitude. imagPart.1 Library Complex module Complex(Complex((:+)). COMPLEX NUMBERS The functions realPart and imagPart extract the rectangular components of a complex number and the functions magnitude and phase extract the polar components of a complex number. magnitude. whereas signum has the phase of .a) = (magnitude z. phase) where infix data 6 :+ => Complex a = !a :+ !a deriving (Eq.Show) (RealFloat a) realPart. The magnitude and sign of a complex number are deﬁned as follows: abs z signum 0 signum z@(x:+y) = = = magnitude z :+ 0 0 x/r :+ y/r where r = magnitude z That is. polar. The function conjugate computes the conjugate of a complex number in the usual way. imagPart :: (RealFloat a) => Complex a > a realPart (x:+y) = x imagPart (x:+y) = y conjugate :: (RealFloat a) => Complex a > Complex a conjugate (x:+y) = x :+ (y) mkPolar mkPolar r theta cis cis theta polar polar z :: (RealFloat a) => a > a > Complex a = r * cos theta :+ r * sin theta :: (RealFloat a) => a > Complex a = cos theta :+ sin theta :: (RealFloat a) => Complex a > (a.156 CHAPTER 13. but oriented in the positive real direction.k phase :: (RealFloat a) => Complex a > a phase (0 :+ 0) = 0 phase (x :+ y) = atan2 y x . mkPolar. cis. phase z) magnitude :: (RealFloat a) => Complex a > a magnitude (x:+y) = scaleFloat k (sqrt ((scaleFloat mk x)ˆ2 + (scaleFloat mk y)ˆ2)) where k = max (exponent x) (exponent y) mk = . conjugate. 13.
max (exponent x’) (exponent y’) d = x’*x’’ + y’*y’’ fromRational a = fromRational a :+ 0 . LIBRARY COMPLEX instance (RealFloat a) (x:+y) + (x’:+y’) (x:+y) .(x’:+y’) (x:+y) * (x’:+y’) negate (x:+y) abs z signum 0 signum z@(x:+y) fromInteger n => = = = = = = = = Num (Complex a) where (x+x’) :+ (y+y’) (xx’) :+ (yy’) (x*x’y*y’) :+ (x*y’+y*x’) negate x :+ negate y magnitude z :+ 0 0 x/r :+ y/r where r = magnitude z fromInteger n :+ 0 157 instance (RealFloat a) => Fractional (Complex a) where (x:+y) / (x’:+y’) = (x*x’’+y*y’’) / d :+ (y*x’’x*y’’) / d where x’’ = scaleFloat k x’ y’’ = scaleFloat k y’ k = .13.1.
v’) v’ = abs y / (u’*2) u’ = sqrt ((magnitude z + abs x) / 2) sin x * cosh y :+ cos x * sinh y cos x * cosh y :+ (. COMPLEX NUMBERS instance (RealFloat a) => Floating (Complex a) where pi = pi :+ 0 exp (x:+y) = expx * cos y :+ expx * sin y where expx = exp x log z = log (magnitude z) :+ phase z sqrt 0 sqrt z@(x:+y) = = 0 u :+ (if y < 0 then v else v) where (u.sin x * sinh y) (sinx*coshy:+cosx*sinhy)/(cosx*coshy:+(sinx*sinhy)) where sinx = sin x cosx = cos x sinhy = sinh y coshy = cosh y cos y * sinh x :+ sin y * cosh x cos y * cosh x :+ sin y * sinh x (cosy*sinhx:+siny*coshx)/(cosy*coshx:+siny*sinhx) where siny = sin y cosy = cos y sinhx = sinh x coshx = cosh x y’:+(x’) where (x’:+y’) = log (((y):+x) + sqrt (1 .158 CHAPTER 13.v) = if x < 0 then (v’.z*z) y’:+(x’) where (x’:+y’) = log (((1y):+x) / sqrt (1+z*z)) log (z + sqrt (1+z*z)) log (z + (z+1) * sqrt ((z1)/(z+1))) log ((1+z) / sqrt (1z*z)) sin (x:+y) cos (x:+y) tan (x:+y) = = = sinh (x:+y) cosh (x:+y) tanh (x:+y) = = = asin z@(x:+y) acos z@(x:+y) = = atan z@(x:+y) asinh z acosh z atanh z = = = = .u’) else (u’.z*z)) y’’:+(x’’) where (x’’:+y’’) = log (z + ((y’):+x’)) (x’:+y’) = sqrt (1 .
showIntAtBase. showHex. readHex. showFFloat. floatToDigits. readSigned. showEFloat. showInt. showFloat. readOct. readDec. readInt.Chapter 14 Numeric module Numeric(fromRat. Int) :: (RealFrac a) => ReadS a :: ReadS String 159 . showSigned. readFloat. showGFloat. showOct. lexDigits) where fromRat showSigned showIntAtBase showInt showOct showHex readSigned readInt readDec readOct readHex showEFloat showFFloat showGFloat showFloat floatToDigits readFloat lexDigits :: (RealFloat a) => Rational > a :: :: :: :: :: (Real a) Integral Integral Integral Integral => (a > ShowS) > Int > a > ShowS a => a > (Int > Char) > a > ShowS a => a > ShowS a => a > ShowS a => a > ShowS :: (Real a) => ReadS a > ReadS a :: (Integral a) => a > (Char > Bool) > (Char > Int) > ReadS a :: (Integral a) => ReadS a :: (Integral a) => ReadS a :: (Integral a) => ReadS a :: :: :: :: (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat a) a) a) a) => => => => Maybe Int > a > ShowS Maybe Int > a > ShowS Maybe Int > a > ShowS a > ShowS :: (RealFloat a) => Integer > a > ([Int].
999. showEFloat. the value is shown to full preciIn the call showEFloat sion. and scientiﬁc notation otherwise. 1. and is a function that can show unsigned values. 8.String)] 14. floatToDigits :: (RealFloat a) => Integer > a > ([Int].160 CHAPTER 14. 245000. and the character representation speciﬁed by the second.g. 0. showIntAtBase :: Integral a => a > (Int > Char) > a > ShowS shows a nonnegative Integral number using the base speciﬁed by the ﬁrst argument. . Exactly the same applies to the argument of the other two functions. showOct.0015). and 16 respectively. is the precedence of the enclosing context.1 and 9. NUMERIC This library contains assorted numeric functions. £ ¤ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¦ 7 3¢ ¦ 7 3¢ 7 3¢ © § ¦ ¤ ¥ £ 2 ¤ ¥ © ¡ © § ¦ ¡ £ ¦ 2 ¥ © © § ¦ ¡ ) .g. Int) converts a base and a value to the representation of the value in digits. – showGFloat uses standard decimal notation for arguments whose absolute value lies between 0. if © § then the following properties hold: £ £ ¤ – ¤ £ ¡ ¤ – (when ¥ ¤ ¢ ¨£ – £ 888 ¤ £ ¢ £8 ¤ – ¥ ) £888 ¤ £ ¢ £ floatToDigits ([ ]. is the value to show. if is Nothing. showGFloat :: (RealFloat a) => Maybe Int > a > ShowS These three functions all show signed RealFloat values: – showFFloat uses standard decimal notation (e. showInt. – showEFloat uses scientiﬁc (exponential) notation (e. showFFloat.5e3). 2. recall the following type deﬁnitions from the Prelude: type ShowS = String > String type ReadS = String > [(a. plus an exponent. In the call showSigned . In what follows. many of which are used in the standard Prelude.1 Showing functions showSigned :: (Real a) => (a > ShowS) > Int > a > ShowS converts a possiblynegative Real value of type a to a string.45e2. if is Just .999. showHex :: Integral a => a > ShowS show nonnegative Integral numbers in base 10. More speciﬁcally. then at most digits after the decimal point are shown.
readFloat.3 Miscellaneous fromRat :: (RealFloat a) => Rational > a converts a Rational value into any type in class RealFloat. showGFloat. readHex. showEFloat. is the base. isOctDigit. numerator. array ) ¦ ©§ ¢© ¢ ' § ¤ ¦ § ¦ ©§ § ¤ ¦ ¢© ¢ ' . octal. readDec. isHexDigit digitToInt. In the hexadecimal case.14. intToDigit ) (%). denominator ) (!). is a predicate distinguishing valid digits in this base. showHex. given a reader for an unsigned value. ( ( isDigit. readHex :: (Integral a) => ReadS a each read an unsigned number. The inconsistent naming is a historical accident. READING FUNCTIONS 161 14. readFloat :: (RealFrac a) => ReadS a reads an unsigned RealFrac value.2. both upper or lower case letters are allowed.4 Library Numeric module Numeric(fromRat. In the call readInt . readInt. 14. Array. showFFloat. floatToDigits. readOct. lexDigits) where import Char import Ratio import Array ( . readDec. in decimal.2 Reading functions readSigned :: (Real a) => ReadS a > ReadS a reads a signed Real value. § (NB: readInt is the “dual” of showIntAtBase. showSigned. showFloat. expressed in decimal scientiﬁc notation. readSigned. and hexadecimal notation respectively. showInt. lexDigits :: ReadS String reads a nonempty string of decimal digits. and converts a valid digit character to an Int.) 14. readInt :: (Integral a) => a > (Char>Bool) > (Char>Int) > ReadS a reads an unsigned Integral value in an arbitrary base. and readDec is the “dual” of showInt. readOct. showOct. showIntAtBase.
Handle exceptional cases . p’) = scaleRat (toRational b) minExp xMin xMax p0 (x / f) r = encodeFloat (round x’) p’ . Int) scaleRat b minExp xMin xMax p x = if p <= minExp then (x. _) = floatRange r minExp = minExp0 .Then round the rational to an Integer and encode it with the exponent .p) ‘max‘ minExp f = if p0 < 0 then 1 % expt b (p0) else expt b p0 % 1 (x’. fromRat’ :: (RealFloat a) => Rational > a fromRat’ x = r where b = floatRadix r p = floatDigits r (minExp0.Scale x until xMin <= x < xMax.that we got from the scaling.This converts a rational to a floating. NUMERIC .it lies in the range of the mantissa (as used by decodeFloat/encodeFloat). .Exponentiation with a cache for the most common numbers. p) else if x >= xMax then scaleRat b minExp xMin xMax (p+1) (x/b) else if x < xMin then scaleRat b minExp xMin xMax (p1) (x*b) else (x. . . fromRat :: (RealFloat a) => Rational > a fromRat x = if x == 0 then encodeFloat 0 0 else if x < 0 then .first.Fractional instances of Float and Double.Conversion process: .To speed up the scaling process we compute the log2 of the number to get . or p (the exponent) <= minExp. This should be used in the .fromRat’ (x) else fromRat’ x .Scale the rational number by the RealFloat base until .the real minimum exponent xMin = toRational (expt b (p1)) xMax = toRational (expt b p) p0 = (integerLogBase b (numerator x) integerLogBase b (denominator x) . minExpt = 0::Int maxExpt = 1100::Int expt :: Integer > Int > Integer expt base n = if base == 2 && n >= minExpt && n <= maxExpt then expts!n else baseˆn . p) .a first guess of the exponent.p .162 CHAPTER 14. scaleRat :: Rational > Int > Rational > Rational > Int > Rational > (Rational.
but that would be very slow! We are just slightly more clever. integerLogBase :: Integer > Integer > Int integerLogBase b i = if i < b then 0 else .[minExpt . showHex are used for positive numbers only showInt. ..Simplest way would be just divide i by b until it’s smaller then b.2ˆn)  n <.t)  ("". LIBRARY NUMERIC expts :: Array Int Integer expts = array (minExpt.s) (x.maxExpt) [(n.t) read’’ r = [(n.digit to char > a . showHex :: Integral a => a > ShowS showOct = showIntAtBase 8 intToDigit showInt = showIntAtBase 10 intToDigit showHex = showIntAtBase 16 intToDigit showIntAtBase :: Integral a => a .4. readPos str] .number to show > ShowS showIntAtBase base intToDig n rest  n < 0 = error "Numeric. showOct. showPos (x))  otherwise = showPos x .Misc utilities to show integers and floats showSigned :: Real a => (a > ShowS) > Int > a > ShowS showSigned showPos p x  x < 0 = showParen (p > 6) (showChar ’’ .s) (n.s)  (str. let l = 2 * integerLogBase (b*b) i doDiv :: Integer > Int > Int doDiv i l = if i < b then l else doDiv (i ‘div‘ b) (l+1) in doDiv (i ‘div‘ (bˆl)) l . .d) = quotRem n base rest’ = intToDig (fromIntegral d) : rest readSigned :: (Real a) => ReadS a > ReadS a readSigned readPos = readParen False read’ where read’ r = read’’ r ++ [(x.showIntAtBase: can’t show negative numbers"  n’ == 0 = rest’  otherwise = showIntAtBase base intToDig n’ rest’ where (n’."") <<<< lex r.showInt.Compute the (floor of the) log of i in base b.base > (Int > Char) . maxExpt]] 163 .Try squaring the base first to cut down the number of divisions. showOct.14. read’’ s] lex r.
Unsigned readers for various bases readDec.nonnull isDig s ] . data FFFormat = FFExponent  FFFixed  FFGeneric . readHex :: (Integral a) => ReadS a readDec = readInt 10 isDigit digitToInt readOct = readInt 8 isOctDigit digitToInt readHex = readInt 16 isHexDigit digitToInt showEFloat showFFloat showGFloat showFloat :: :: :: :: (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat showString showString showString showGFloat a) a) a) a) => => => => Maybe Int > a > ShowS Maybe Int > a > ShowS Maybe Int > a > ShowS a > ShowS showEFloat d x = showFFloat d x = showGFloat d x = showFloat = (formatRealFloat FFExponent d x) (formatRealFloat FFFixed d x) (formatRealFloat FFGeneric d x) Nothing This type is not exported.These are the format types. .164 CHAPTER 14. readInt :: (Integral a) => a > (Char > Bool) > (Char > Int) > ReadS a readInt radix isDig digToInt s = [(foldl1 (\n d > n * radix + d) (map (fromIntegral . digToInt) ds). . r)  (ds.r) <. readOct.Leading minus signs must be handled elsewhere.readInt reads a string of digits using an arbitrary base. NUMERIC .
’:take dec’ (repeat ’0’) ++ "e0" _ > let (ei. is’) = roundTo base (dec’+1) is d:ds = map intToDigit (if ei > 0 then init is’ else is’) in d:’.Always prints a decimal point  e > 0 > take e (ds ++ repeat ’0’) .0e0" [d] > d : ".’ : ds ++ ’e’:show (e1) Just dec > let dec’ = max dec 1 in case is of [] > ’0’:’.4. LIBRARY NUMERIC 165 formatRealFloat :: (RealFloat a) => FFFormat > Maybe Int > a > String formatRealFloat fmt decs x = s where base = 10 s = if isNaN x then "NaN" else if isInfinite x then if x < 0 then "Infinity" else "Infinity" else if x < 0  isNegativeZero x then ’’ : doFmt fmt (floatToDigits (toInteger base) (x)) else doFmt fmt (floatToDigits (toInteger base) x) doFmt fmt (is.14. e) FFExponent > case decs of Nothing > case ds of [] > "0.0e" ++ show (e1) d:ds > d : ’.’:ds ++ "e" ++ show (e1+ei) FFFixed > case decs of Nothing . e) = let ds = map intToDigit is in case fmt of FFGeneric > doFmt (if e < 0  e > 7 then FFExponent else FFFixed) (is.
Print 0.. b..ab. replicate n 0) f 0 (i:_) = (if i >= b2 then 1 else 0.Print decimal point iff dec > 0 let dec’ = max dec 0 in if e >= 0 then let (ei. []) f d (i:is) = let (c. ds) = f (d1) is i’ = c + i in if i’ == base then (1. . NUMERIC ++ ’...then r = 0. rs) = splitAt (e+ei) (map intToDigit is’) in mk0 ls ++ mkdot0 rs else let (ei.34. not .when the format specifies no . is) > (0. is) > (1. It should be improved.’ : mk0 (drop e ds)  otherwise > "0.G.’ : s .digits after the decimal point roundTo :: Int > Int > [Int] > (Int. K.34 mk0 s = s mkdot0 "" = "" mkdot0 s = ’. Dybvig. Int) . z]. . 0:ds) else (0.This function returns a nonempty list of digits (Ints in [0. not 34. The version here uses a much slower logarithm estimator. i’:ds) Based on "Printing FloatingPoint Numbers Quickly and Accurately" by R.base1]) . is’) = roundTo base (dec’ + e) is (ls. [Int]) roundTo base d is = case f d is of (0. Burger and R." ++ mk0 (replicate (e) ’0’ ++ ds) Just dec > .Print 34. In general.z * baseˆe floatToDigits :: (RealFloat a) => Integer > a > ([Int]. . is’) = roundTo base dec’ (replicate (e) 0 ++ is) d : ds = map intToDigit (if ei > 0 then is’ else 0:is’) in d : mkdot0 ds where mk0 "" = "0" .and an exponent.166 CHAPTER 14. 1 : is) where b2 = base ‘div‘ 2 f n [] = (0. if floatToDigits r = ([a. is) (1. in PLDI 96. e) .
4. e0+n) else (f0. bˆ(e)*2. e) = let n = minExp . LIBRARY NUMERIC floatToDigits _ 0 = ([]. _) = floatRange x p = floatDigits x b = floatRadix x minExp = minExp0 . be) else if e > minExp && f == bˆ(p1) then (f*b*2. 0) floatToDigits base x = let (f0.14.the following will err on the low side. 1) k = let k0 = if b==2 && base==10 then . s. 2*b. 2.e0 in if n > 0 then (f0 ‘div‘ (bˆn). mDn) = if e >= 0 then let be = bˆe in if f == bˆ(p1) then (f*be*b*2. f :: Integer e :: Int (f. mUp.the fraction will make it err even more. b.Haskell promises that p1 <= logBase b f < p. bˆ(e+1)*2.1 + e0) * 3 ‘div‘ 10 else ceiling ((log (fromInteger (f+1)) + fromIntegral e * log (fromInteger b)) / log (fromInteger base)) fixup n = if n >= 0 then if r + mUp <= expt base n * s then n else fixup (n+1) else if expt base (n) * (r + mUp) <= s then n .logBase 10 2 is slightly bigger than 3/10 so . be. 1) else (f*2. Adjust for this. e0) = decodeFloat x (minExp0. be*b. 1. (p . e0) (r.Haskell requires that f be adjusted so denormalized numbers . Ignoring . b) else (f*be*2.will have an impossibly low exponent.the real minimum exponent . .p 167 .
k) in .s) <.t) <.t) <.This floating point reader uses a less restrictive syntax for floating .readDec s] readExp’ (’+’:s) = readDec s readExp’ s = readDec s lexDigits lexDigits nonnull nonnull p s :: ReadS String = nonnull isDigit :: (Char > Bool) > ReadS String = [(cs.lex r] where readFix r = [(read (ds++ds’).t) <. (ds’.d) <. NUMERIC else fixup (n+1) in fixup k0 gen ds rn sN mUpN mDnN = let (dn.lex r] ++ [ (1/0. readFloat readFloat r :: (RealFrac a) => ReadS a = [(fromRational ((n%1)*10ˆˆ(kd)). rn’ + mUpN’ > sN) of (True. False) > gen (dn:ds) rn’ sN mUpN’ mDnN’ rds = if k >= 0 then gen [] r (s * expt base k) mUp mDn else let bk = expt base (k) in gen [] (r * bk) s (mUp * bk) (mDn * bk) (map fromIntegral (reverse rds).d.t)  (cs@(_:_).lexFrac d ] lexFrac (’.readExp s] ++ [ (0/0. (k. length ds’.[span p s]] .s)] readExp (e:s)  e ‘elem‘ "eE" = readExp’ s readExp s = [(0. True) > if rn’ * 2 < sN then dn : ds else dn+1 : ds (False. True) > dn+1 : ds (True.t) <. t)  ("Infinity".point than the Haskell lexer.t) <. t)  ("NaN". rn’) = (rn * base) ‘divMod‘ sN mUpN’ = mUpN * base mDnN’ = mDnN * base in case (rn’ < mDnN’.lexDigits r.t) <.t)  (n.’:ds) = lexDigits ds lexFrac s = [("".readFix r. False) > dn : ds (False. t)  (ds.t)  (k.168 CHAPTER 14.s)] readExp’ (’’:s) = [(k.’ is optional. The ‘.
u) i == i ..a) > (a.a) > (a. the inRange operation tells whether a particular subscript lies in the range deﬁned by a bounding pair.u) i == i ‘elem‘ range (l. instance instance instance instance (Ix a.et cetera instance instance Ix Ix Ix => Ix Ix Bool Ix Ordering where . .u)] 169 .b) where where where where . inRange. which deﬁnes the lower and upper bounds of the range..u) map index (range (l. rangeSize) ) where class Ord a => range index inRange rangeSize Ix :: :: :: :: a where (a.. and inRange.u) !! index (l. index.. The range operation enumerates all subscripts. Ix b) . and a subscript.when i is in range inRange (l.. to an integer. .a) > [a] a > Int a > Bool Int Char Int Integer (a.. The index operation maps a bounding pair..a) > (a. It is used primarily for array indexing (see Chapter 16). index. The Ix class contains the methods range. where . ..u)) == [0.rangeSize (l...Chapter 15 Indexing Operations module Ix ( Ix(range. An implementation is entitled to assume the following laws about these operations: range (l... The Ix class is used to map a contiguous subrange of values in a type onto integers..
the nullary constructors are assumed to be numbered lefttoright with the indices being to inclusive. whose constituent types are instances of Ix. using a deriving clause on a data declaration (Section 4.Blue) Red For singleconstructor datatypes. given the datatype: data Colour = Red  Orange  Yellow  Green  Blue  Indigo  Violet we would have: range (Yellow.Blue) Green inRange (Yellow. This is the same numbering deﬁned by the Enum class.e. INDEXING OPERATIONS 15.Green. the derived instance declarations are as shown for tuples in Figure 15.Blue] 1 False .3). Such derived instance declarations for the class Ix are only possible for enumerations (i.170 CHAPTER 15. £ ¥ ¤ == == == [Yellow.1 Deriving Instances of Ix It is possible to derive an instance of Ix automatically. For an enumeration. A Haskell implementation must provide Ix instances for tuples up to at least size 15. For example.Blue) index (Yellow.3.1. datatypes having only nullary constructors) and singleconstructor datatypes.
.Instances for other tuples are obtained from this scheme: . . DERIVING INSTANCES OF IX 171 instance (Ix a.u) i * rangeSize (l’.l’).i2.(u1.u’) i’ inRange ((l.uk1) ik1 + rangeSize (lk1.u’)) (i...instance (Ix a1.(u1. && inRange (lk.l’)..u’) + index (l’.i2. Ix ak) => Ix (a1..i’) = inRange (l..l2.range (l..u2) i2 && .u’) i’ .u2.range (l1...u2.u2. ik <.lk).uk)] index ((l1.ik) = index (lk....lk).uk) * ( index (lk1.(u. .... i’ <.b) where range ((l...(u1..u’)] index ((l.. Ix a2..i2..15.u2).. Ix b) => Ix (a.l2.(u.l2.uk)) (i1...i’)  i <.a2.range (l’...u).lk).range (lk..u1) i1 && inRange (l2.u1).uk)) = [(i1..uk) ik Figure 15.. index (l1.uk1) * ( .....1: Derivation of Ix instances ..ik)  i1 <...ak) where range ((l1..u1))) inRange ((l1.u) i && inRange (l’.1.uk) ik + rangeSize (lk.ik) = inRange (l1.l’). i2 <.i’) = index (l...uk)) (i1...(u..u’)) = [(i...u’)) (i..range (l2....
(1.(2.a) > Int rangeSize b@(l.n) i  inRange b i = fromInteger (i .c’) ci  inRange b ci = fromEnum ci .a) > [a] index :: (a.index: Index out of range." inRange (m.n) = [m.2) <= (2.n] index b@(m.index: Index out of range.n] index b@(c.NB: replacing "null (range b)" by "not (l <= h)" .m error "Ix.1) .as derived Ix () .as derived.2). for all tuples Ix Bool .as derived .n) index b@(m.n) i  inRange b i  otherwise inRange (m.index: Index out of range.a) > a > Bool rangeSize :: (a. INDEXING OPERATIONS 15.h)  null (range b) = 0  otherwise = index b h + 1 . b) .Ix b) => Ix (a.n] = = = i .2 Library Ix module Ix ( Ix(range.n) i = m <= i && i <= n instance instance instance instance (Ix a.1)) = [] instance Ix Char where range (m." inRange (c." m <= i && i <= n instance Ix Integer where range (m..m)  otherwise = error "Ix.as derived Ix Ordering .n) = [m. inRange.but the range is nevertheless empty range ((1..fromEnum c  otherwise = error "Ix.172 CHAPTER 15. index..a) > a > Int inRange :: (a.n) i = [m.fails if the bounds are tuples. For example.c’) i = c <= i && i <= c’ instance Ix Int where range (m. rangeSize) ) where class Ord a => Ix a where range :: (a.
. a. :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: (Ix (Ix (Ix (Ix (Ix (Ix (Ix (Ix a) a) a) a) a) a) a) a) => => => => => => => => .b)] (b > c > b) > b > (a. listArray. ixmap ) where import Ix infixl 9 data !.a) > [(a.. a. . // => Array a b = ..a) > [(a.a) > (a > b) > Array b c > Array a c Eq b) Ord b) Show a. assocs.Chapter 16 Arrays module Array ( module Ix. Read b) => => => => Functor (Array a) Eq (Array a b) Ord (Array a b) Show (Array a b) Read (Array a b) where where where where where ..c)] > Array a b :: (Ix a... accumArray. (!).b)] > Array a b (a... Show b) Read a. Ix b) => (a. . a. (//). elems.c)] > Array a b :: (Ix a) => Array a b > [(a. (Ix (Ix (Ix (Ix a. indices..export all of Ix for convenience Array. . array. .b)] > Array a b :: (Ix a) => (b > c > b) > Array a b > [(a. bounds. accum..a) > [b] > Array a b Array a b > a > b Array a b > (a.. .Abstract (Ix a) array listArray (!) bounds indices elems assocs accumArray (//) accum ixmap instance instance instance instance instance (a.a) Array a b > [a] Array a b > [b] Array a b > [(a.. 173 .
but empty. Functions restricted in this way can be implemented efﬁciently.100) ((1. ). Typically. The bounds function applied to an array returns its bounds. the type of arrays with indices in a and elements in b is written Array a b. but nonstrict in the values.1 shows some examples that use the array constructor. relaxes the restriction that a given index may appear at most once in the association list. a oneorigin vector of length 10 has bounds (1. in particular. 16. but the values associated with indices that do not appear will be undeﬁned (i. These bounds are the lowest and highest indices in the array. The array is undeﬁned (i. ). using an accumulating function which combines the values of associations with the same index.1 Array Construction If a is an index type and b is any type. .10)).. accumArray.(10. and assocs.1. in that order.e. recurrences such as the following are possible: a = array (1. which may be thought of as functions whose domains are isomorphic to contiguous subsets of the integers. but bounds still yields the bounds with which the array was constructed. in any dimension. each of the index type of the array. ) if any index in the list is out of bounds. the lower bound is greater than the upper bound. For example. elems. and a oneorigin 10 by 10 matrix has bounds ((1. 16. when applied to an array.10). or associations. x) deﬁnes the value of the array at index i to be x. respectively. Thus. Since most array functions involve the class Ix. Indexing an empty array always gives an arraybounds error. ).e. then the array is legal. The functions indices. elements.e. The ﬁrst argument of array is a pair of bounds. An association (i.1). To ensure the possibility of such an implementation. i * a!(i1))  i <. An array may be created by the function array.[2. a programmer may reasonably expect rapid access to the components. Figure 16. An array may be constructed from a pair of bounds and a list of values in index order using the function listArray. the value at that index is undeﬁned (i. return lists of the indices. in index order. Because the indices must be checked for these errors. The ﬁrst argument of accumArray is the accumulating £ £ ¤¢ £ ¡ £ £ ¥ . ARRAYS Haskell provides indexable arrays. The (!) operator denotes array subscripting. If. If any two associations in the list have the same index.1 Accumulated Arrays Another array creation function. this The second argument of array is a list of associations of the form ( list will be expressed as a comprehension. not as general functions.100]]) Not every index within the bounds of the array need appear in the association list.174 CHAPTER 16. this module is exported from Array so that modules need not import both Array and Ix.1) : [(i. arrays are treated as data. array is strict in the bounds argument and in the indices of the association list.
hist produces a histogram of the number of occurrences of each index within a speciﬁed range: hist :: (Ix a. as for the array function. n by n matrix.16.. given a list of values of some index type. then m//[((i. the indices in the association list must be unique for the updated elements to be deﬁned. Thus accumArray can be deﬁned using accum: accumArray f z b = accum f (array b [(i. except with the diagonal zeroed.The inner product of two vectors inner :: (Ix a.1: Array examples function.Scaling an array scale :: (Num a. 0)  i <.n]] is the same matrix. Num b) => Array a b > Array a b > b inner v w = if b == bounds w then sum [v!i * w!i  i <. 16.2. accumulated arrays should not in general be recursive. as well as the indices.) For example. then accumArray is strict in the values. z)  i <. Thus. For example. unlike ordinary arrays. (As with the array function. Ix scale x a = array b where b of numbers by a given number: b) => a > Array b a > Array b a [(i.range b] = bounds a 175 .2 Incremental Array Updates The operator (//) takes an array and a list of pairs and returns an array identical to the left argument except that it has been updated by the associations in the right argument. the second is an initial value.range b] else error "inconformable arrays for inner product" where b = bounds v Figure 16.range b]) 0 0 .i).range b] where b = bounds a . INCREMENTAL ARRAY UPDATES . i)  i <. if m is a 1origin.[1.Inverting an array that holds a permutation of its indices invPerm :: (Ix a) => Array a a > Array a a invPerm a = array b [(a!i. 1)  i<is. Num b) => (a. the remaining two arguments are a bounds pair and an association list. a!i * x)  i <.a) > [a] > Array a b hist bnds is = accumArray (+) 0 bnds [(i. accum takes an array and an association list and accumulates pairs from the list into the array with the accumulating function . in the association list. inRange bnds i] If the accumulating function is strict.
indices. array.c) > Array a b firstArray = fmap (\(x. ARRAYS .y)>x) Figure 16. elems. 16.a) (a > b) deriving () . .(_. accumArray. ixmap ) where import Ix import List( (\\) ) infixl 9 !.a) > Array a b > Array a b subArray bnds = ixmap bnds (\i>i) ._).(u.j)) x where ((_. with the mapping that the original array embodies.A row of a matrix row :: (Ix a. listArray.l’). bounds.A rectangular subarray subArray :: (Ix a) => (a.2 shows some examples.u’)) = bounds x .176 CHAPTER 16. accum.Diagonal of a matrix (assumed to be square) diag :: (Ix a) => Array (a.i)) x where ((l.3 Derived Arrays The two functions fmap and ixmap derive new arrays from existing ones. respectively.2: Derived array examples 16. they may be thought of as providing function composition on the left and right.4 Library Array module Array ( module Ix. // data (Ix a) => Array a b = MkArray (a.a) b > Array a b diag x = ixmap (l._)) = bounds x .u’) (\j>(i. Figure 16.export all of Ix Array. The fmap function transforms the array values while ixmap allows for transformations on array indices. (//).Projection of first components of an array of pairs firstArray :: (Ix a) => Array a (b. assocs. Ix b) => a > Array (a.u) (\i>(i. (!).b) c > Array b c row i x = ixmap (l’.
a!i)  i <.a!i)  i <.new_ivs] :: (Ix a) => (b > c > b) > Array a b > [(a.array: outofrange array association" listArray listArray b vs (!) (!) (MkArray _ f) bounds bounds (MkArray b _) indices indices elems elems a assocs assocs a (//) a // new_ivs :: (Ix a) => (a.indices a. i == j] of [v] > v [] > error "Array.z)  i <.a) > [(a.a) > [(a. i ‘notElem‘ new_is] new_is = [i  (i.indices a] :: (Ix a) => Array a b > [(a.c)] > Array a b = accum f (array b [(i.a) = b :: (Ix a) => Array a b > [a] = range .v) <.range b] accum accum f accumArray accumArray f z b ixmap ixmap b f a instance (Ix a) => Functor (Array a) where fmap fn (MkArray b f) = MkArray b (fn . a ! f i)  i <. f) instance (Ix a.b)] > Array a b array b ivs = if and [inRange b i  (i._) <. bounds :: (Ix a) => Array a b > [b] = [a!i  i <.a) > (a > b) > Array b c > Array a c = array b [(i.b)) (range b) vs) :: (Ix a) => Array a b > a > b = f :: (Ix a) => Array a b > (a.ivs] then MkArray b (\j > case [v  (i.b)] > Array a b = array (bounds a) (old_ivs ++ new_ivs) where old_ivs = [(i.c)] > Array a b = foldl (\a (i.f (a!i) v)]) :: (Ix a) => (b > c > b) > b > (a.range b]) :: (Ix a.!: \ \multiply defined array element") else error "Array. Ix b) => (a.!: \ \undefined array element" _ > error "Array.b)] = [(i.v) > a // [(i._) <.a) > [b] > Array a b = array b (zipWith (\ a b > (a. Eq b) => Eq (Array a b) a == a’ = assocs a == assocs a’ where .ivs.16. LIBRARY ARRAY 177 array :: (Ix a) => (a.indices a] :: (Ix a) => Array a b > [(a.4.
Read a. Show b) => Show (Array a b) where showsPrec p a = showParen (p > arrPrec) ( showString "array " . (as. Show a.u) <.t) <.Precedence of the ’array’ function is that of application itself arrPrec = 10 . Ord b) => Ord (Array a b) a <= a’ = assocs a <= assocs a’ where CHAPTER 16.lex r. showsPrec (arrPrec+1) (bounds a) . showsPrec (arrPrec+1) (assocs a) ) instance (Ix a. Read b) => Read (Array a b) where readsPrec p = readParen (p > arrPrec) (\r > [ (array b as.s) <.178 instance (Ix a.readsPrec (arrPrec+1) s. u)  ("array". (b.readsPrec (arrPrec+1) t ]) . showChar ’ ’ . ARRAYS instance (Ix a.
179 .
lines. zipWith5. unfoldr. tails. zipWith7. zipWith3. dropWhile. reverse. genericDrop. and. (!!). mapAccumR. zipWith6. takeWhile. deleteFirstsBy. maximumBy. any. zip5. replicate. genericSplitAt. sum. scanr.and what the Prelude exports . LIST UTILITIES Chapter 17 List Utilities module List ( elemIndex. minimum. notElem. sort. nubBy.. splitAt. zip4. unwords. product. elemIndices.180 CHAPTER 17. unzip. maximum. unzip7. zip. sortBy. findIndex.. foldl1. filter. all. delete. union. zipWith4. length. isSuffixOf.This is builtin syntax map. zip6. unzip3 ) where infix 5 \\ elemIndex elemIndices find findIndex findIndices nub nubBy delete deleteBy (\\) deleteFirstsBy union unionBy :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Eq Eq (a (a (a Eq (a Eq (a Eq (a Eq (a a => a > [a] > Maybe Int a => a > [a] > [Int] > Bool) > [a] > Maybe a > Bool) > [a] > Maybe Int > Bool) > [a] > [Int] a => [a] > [a] > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] a => a > [a] > [a] > a > Bool) > a > [a] > [a] a => [a] > [a] > [a] > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] > [a] a => [a] > [a] > [a] > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] > [a] . concatMap. genericReplicate. concat. intersect. zipWith. zip7. last. group. (++). drop.[]((:). foldr1. deleteBy. unlines. lookup. genericTake. insert.. findIndices. intersperse. zip3. []). cycle. groupBy. null. foldl. span. init. head. unzip5. foldr. unzip4. . scanl1. repeat. take. partition. unionBy. transpose. iterate. scanl. insertBy. (\\). find. elem. words. genericIndex. isPrefixOf. mapAccumL. genericLength. intersectBy. break. unzip6. inits. or. scanr1. . minimumBy. nub. tail.
c.b.[b]) Integral a => [b] > a > b Integral a => a > b > [b] :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [(a.d.b.b.e.d.c. c)) > a > [b] > (a.d.d)] > ([a].f.[c].[f].c.f)] :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [e] > [f] > [g] > [(a.[c].181 intersect intersectBy intersperse transpose partition group groupBy inits tails isPrefixOf isSuffixOf mapAccumL mapAccumR unfoldr sort sortBy insert insertBy maximumBy minimumBy genericLength genericTake genericDrop genericSplitAt genericIndex genericReplicate zip4 zip5 zip6 zip7 zipWith4 zipWith5 zipWith6 zipWith7 unzip4 unzip5 unzip6 unzip7 :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Eq a => [a] > [a] > [a] (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] > [a] a > [a] > [a] [[a]] > [[a]] (a > Bool) > [a] > ([a]. [c]) (b > Maybe (a.c.g)] :: (a>b>c>d>e) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e] :: (a>b>c>d>e>f) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e]>[f] :: (a>b>c>d>e>f>g) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e]>[f]>[g] :: (a>b>c>d>e>f>g>h) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e]>[f]>[g]>[h] :: [(a.e.[b].d)] :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [e] > [(a.b.e.d.c.e)] :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [e] > [f] > [(a.[e].b.[c].[f]) :: [(a.e.[b].[d].d.d.[d]. .[b].b.c.c.[a]) Eq a => [a] > [[a]] (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [[a]] [a] > [[a]] [a] > [[a]] Eq a => [a] > [a] > Bool Eq a => [a] > [a] > Bool (a > b > (a.[e]) :: [(a.f)] > ([a].[d]) :: [(a.f.[b].b)) > b > [a] Ord a => [a] > [a] (a > a > Ordering) > [a] > [a] Ord a => a > [a] > [a] (a > a > Ordering) > a > [a] > [a] (a > a > Ordering) > [a] > a (a > a > Ordering) > [a] > a Integral a => [b] > a Integral a => a > [b] > [b] Integral a => a > [b] > [b] Integral a => a > [b] > ([b]. [c]) (a > b > (a.b.[e].b.e)] > ([a].g)] > ([a].[c].c.[g]) This library deﬁnes some lesserused operations over lists.[d]. c)) > a > [b] > (a.
3.6. the ﬁrst occurrence of each element of ys in turn (if any) has been removed from xs.3. provided that their ﬁrst argument contains no duplicates.3.2.3] = [1. [1..182 CHAPTER 17.4. e.g.8] == [2. In the result of xs \\ ys.. findIndex returns the corresponding index.4] delete x removes the ﬁrst occurrence of x from its list argument.g.2 “Set” operations There are a number of “set” operations deﬁned over the List type. if there is no such element. For example: nub [1. or Nothing.3.. if any. nub removes duplicate elements from a list. union is list union. delete.1 Indexing lists elemIndex val list returns the index of the ﬁrst occurrence. find returns the ﬁrst element of a list that satisﬁes a predicate. nub (meaning “essence”) removes duplicates elements from a list. union and intersect (and their By variants) preserve the invariant that their result does not contain duplicates.4] ‘intersect‘ [2. of val in list as Just index. 17.g. delete ’a’ "banana" == "bnana" (\\) is list difference (nonassociative). findIndices returns a list of all such indices. (xs ++ ys) \\ xs == ys.1. e. e. Thus. giving the occurrences of val in list. LIST UTILITIES 17. (\\). elemIndices val list returns an inorder list of indices.4] .4. "dog" ‘union‘ "cow" == "dogcw" intersect is list intersection. Nothing is returned if not (val ‘elem‘ list).
e" transpose transposes the rows and columns of its argument.5].. p) xs) sort implement a stable sorting algorithm. respectively.3].c."pp".3."abc"] tails returns the list of all ﬁnal segments of its argument list."ab". For example group "Mississippi" == ["M".’ "abcde" == "a. group splits its list argument into a list of lists of equal."i". longest ﬁrst. here speciﬁed in terms of the insertBy function. LIST TRANSFORMATIONS 183 17."i".d.g. For example: ."a". "bc". "c".4 unfoldr The unfoldr function is a “dual” to foldr: while foldr reduces a list to a summary value. inits "abc" == ["". i. 17.g. shortest ﬁrst."i". filter (not .[2..6]] == [[1. unfoldr builds a list from a seed value.2. partition p xs == (filter p xs. adjacent elements."i"] inits returns the list of initial segments of its argument list.[4."ss".e."ss". intersperse ’..3 List transformations intersperse sep inserts sep between the elements of its list argument.""] mapAccumL f s l applies f to an accumulating “state” parameter s and to each element of l in turn.4].b. e. e. tails "abc" == ["abc". insert inserts a new element into an ordered list (arranged in increasing order). which inserts objects into a list according to the speciﬁed ordering relation.5. mapAccumR is similar to mapAccumL except that the list is processed from righttoleft rather than lefttoright.17.[3. transpose [[1.6]] partition takes a predicate and a list and returns a pair of lists: those elements of the argument list that do and do not satisfy the predicate.
184 CHAPTER 17. the predicate is assumed to deﬁne an equivalence. unfoldr can undo a foldr operation: unfoldr f’ (foldr f z xs) == xs if the following holds: f’ (f x y) = Just (x. the equality method may not be appropriate in all situations. elemIndices. f x)) In some cases. 17. overloaded functions have a nonoverloaded counterpart whose name is sufﬁxed with “By”. A handful of overloaded functions (elemIndex.6 The “By” operations By convention. unionBy. insertBy. LIST UTILITIES iterate f == unfoldr (\x > Just (x. When the “By” function replaces an Eq context by a binary predicate. deleteBy. The “By” variants are as follows: nubBy. groupBy. The library does not provide elemBy. isSuffixOf) were not considered important enough to have “By” variants. The function: nubBy nubBy eq [] nubBy eq (x:xs) :: (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] = [] = x : nubBy eq (filter (\y > not (eq x y)) xs) allows the programmer to supply their own equality test. the function nub could be deﬁned as follows: nub nub [] nub (x:xs) :: (Eq a) => [a] > [a] = [] = x : nub (filter (\y > not (x == y)) xs) However. minimumBy.5 Predicates isPrefixOf and isSuffixOf check whether the ﬁrst argument is a preﬁx (resp. intersectBy.y) f’ z = Nothing 17. because any (eq x) does the same job as elemBy eq x would. For example. deleteFirstsBy (the By variant of \\). when the “By” function replaces an Ord context by a binary predicate. isPrefixOf. the predicate is assumed to deﬁne a total ordering. sufﬁx) of the second argument. . maximumBy. sortBy.
and zipWith3. 5. The List library provides these same three operations for 4. genericTake.17.7 The “generic” operations The preﬁx “generic” indicates an overloaded function that is a generalised version of a Prelude function. THE “GENERIC” OPERATIONS 185 17. 6. genericIndex (the generic version of !!).8 Further “zip” operations The Prelude provides zip. :: Integral a => [b] > a 17. . and 7 arguments. genericDrop.7. unzip3. unzip. genericLength is a generalised version of length. genericSplitAt. zip3. zipWith. For example. genericReplicate. The “generic” operations are as follows: genericLength.
unfoldr. unzip3 ) where import Maybe( listToMaybe ) infix 5 \\ elemIndex elemIndex x elemIndices elemIndices x find find p findIndex findIndex p findIndices findIndices p xs nub nub :: Eq a => a > [a] > Maybe Int = findIndex (x ==) :: Eq a => a > [a] > [Int] = findIndices (x ==) :: (a > Bool) > [a] > Maybe a = listToMaybe . iterate. zipWith. unionBy. length. foldl1. product. insert. inits.This is builtin syntax map. .i) <. minimumBy. and. all. head. null. lookup. zipWith4..9 Library List module List ( elemIndex. mapAccumL. foldr1. sort. isPrefixOf. break. find. foldr. tails. unzip6. notElem. LIST UTILITIES 17. drop. unzip4. or. genericIndex.. take. zipWith5. unzip5. nubBy. genericSplitAt. isSuffixOf. zipWith6. elem. deleteFirstsBy. genericTake. intersectBy. sortBy. concat.. splitAt. unzip7. maximumBy. unwords.[]((:).186 CHAPTER 17. zip7. foldl. transpose. zip6. zipWith3. zip5. findIndices p :: (a > Bool) > [a] > [Int] = [ i  (x. []). dropWhile. zipWith7. p x ] :: Eq a => [a] > [a] = nubBy (==) . repeat.and what the Prelude exports . genericReplicate. last. filter p :: (a > Bool) > [a] > Maybe Int = listToMaybe . scanl1. delete. partition. union. span. minimum. (!!). genericLength. scanr. scanl. intersperse. . unlines. zip4. sum. tail. replicate. concatMap. findIndices. nub. takeWhile. intersect. cycle. maximum. filter. groupBy. findIndex. (\\). elemIndices. mapAccumR. scanr1. (++). init. deleteBy. zip3. lines. reverse. any. zip. insertBy.]. group.zip xs [0. genericDrop. unzip. words..
17.2]."i".[3. and works for nonrectangular ’matrices’ .[]] = [[1.9. e.elements."pp".group "Mississippi" == ["M".[2.xs. p) xs) . adjacent .[a]) = (filter p xs.[5]] ."i"."ss".5].transpose is lazy in both rows and columns. LIBRARY LIST nubBy nubBy eq [] nubBy eq (x:xs) delete delete deleteBy deleteBy eq x [] deleteBy eq x (y:ys) (\\) (\\) deleteFirstsBy deleteFirstsBy eq union union unionBy unionBy eq xs ys intersect intersect intersectBy intersectBy eq xs ys intersperse intersperse sep [] intersperse sep [x] intersperse sep (x:xs) 187 :: (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] = [] = x : nubBy eq (filter (\y > not (eq x y)) xs) :: Eq a => a > [a] > [a] = deleteBy (==) :: (a > a > Bool) > a > [a] > [a] = [] = if x ‘eq‘ y then ys else y : deleteBy eq x ys :: Eq a => [a] > [a] > [a] = foldl (flip delete) :: (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] > [a] = foldl (flip (deleteBy eq)) :: Eq a => [a] > [a] > [a] = unionBy (==) :: (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] > [a] = xs ++ deleteFirstsBy eq (nubBy eq ys) xs :: Eq a => [a] > [a] > [a] = intersectBy (==) :: (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] > [a] = [x  x <. any (eq x) ys] :: = = = a > [a] > [a] [] [x] x : sep : intersperse sep xs .xss]) partition partition p xs :: (a > Bool) > [a] > ([a]. transpose [[1. . filter (not .."i"."ss".g.For example."i"] group :: Eq a => [a] > [[a]] group = groupBy (==) .xss] is not the same as (map head xss) because the former discards empty sublists inside xss transpose :: [[a]] > [[a]] transpose [] = [] transpose ([] : xss) = transpose xss transpose ((x:xs) : xss) = (x : [h  (h:t) <.4.3].group splits its list argument into a list of lists of equal.4].Note that [h  (h:t) <.xss]) : transpose (xs : [t  (h:t) <.
y ) = f s x (s’’.tails xs returns the . []) = (s’’.y ) = f s’ x (s’.188 groupBy groupBy eq [] groupBy eq (x:xs) . tails "abc" == tails tails [] tails xxs@(_:xs) CHAPTER 17. y:ys) where (s’’. inits "abc" == inits inits [] inits (x:xs) . ["abc"."abc"] :: [a] > [[a]] = [[]] = [[]] ++ map (x:) (inits xs) list of all final segments of xs. ys) = mapAccumR f s xs :: (b > Maybe (a.ys) = mapAccumL f s’ xs :: (a > b > (a. [c]) = (s..zs) = span (eq x) xs list of initial segments of xs. []) = (s’’.y:ys) where (s’. "c".e.g. [c]) = (s. c)) > a > [b] > (a. "bc".e."a".""] :: [a] > [[a]] = [[]] = xxs : tails xs :: = = = Eq a => [a] > [a] > Bool True False x == y && isPrefixOf xs ys isPrefixOf isPrefixOf [] _ isPrefixOf _ [] isPrefixOf (x:xs) (y:ys) isSuffixOf isSuffixOf x y mapAccumL mapAccumL f s [] mapAccumL f s (x:xs) :: Eq a => [a] > [a] > Bool = reverse x ‘isPrefixOf‘ reverse y :: (a > b > (a. c)) > a > [b] > (a. shortest first. longest first. [""."ab".inits xs returns the ..b)) > b > [a] = case f b of Nothing > [] Just (a.g.b) > a : unfoldr f b :: (Ord a) => [a] > [a] = sortBy compare :: (a > a > Ordering) > [a] > [a] = foldr (insertBy cmp) [] :: (Ord a) => a > [a] > [a] = insertBy compare mapAccumR mapAccumR f s [] mapAccumR f s (x:xs) unfoldr unfoldr f b sort sort sortBy sortBy cmp insert insert . LIST UTILITIES :: (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [[a]] = [] = (x:ys) : groupBy eq zs where (ys.
maximumBy: empty list" = foldl1 max xs where max x y = case cmp x y of GT > x _ > y :: (a > a > Ordering) > [a] > a = error "List.[]) = = = (x:xs’.xs’’) error "List.[b]) = ([].17.minimumBy: empty list" = foldl1 min xs where min x y = case cmp x y of GT > y _ > x :: (Integral a) => [b] > a = 0 = 1 + genericLength xs :: (Integral a) => a > [b] > [b] = [] = [] = = x : genericTake (n1) xs error "List.genericDrop: negative argument" :: (Integral a) => a > [b] > ([b].xs’’) :: (Integral a) => a > [b] > [b] = xs = [] = = genericDrop (n1) xs error "List. LIBRARY LIST insertBy :: (a > a > insertBy cmp x [] = [x] insertBy cmp x ys@(y:ys’) = case cmp x GT > _ > maximumBy maximumBy cmp [] maximumBy cmp xs Ordering) > a > [a] > [a] 189 y of y : insertBy cmp x ys’ x : ys :: (a > a > Ordering) > [a] > a = error "List.genericTake: negative argument" minimumBy minimumBy cmp [] minimumBy cmp xs genericLength genericLength [] genericLength (x:xs) genericTake genericTake _ [] genericTake 0 _ genericTake n (x:xs)  n > 0  otherwise genericDrop genericDrop 0 xs genericDrop _ [] genericDrop n (_:xs)  n > 0  otherwise genericSplitAt genericSplitAt 0 xs genericSplitAt _ [] genericSplitAt n (x:xs)  n > 0  otherwise where (xs’.genericSplitAt: negative argument" genericSplitAt (n1) xs .xs) = ([].9.
d:ds)) ([].b:bs.) zipWith4 :: (a>b>c>d>e) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e] zipWith4 z (a:as) (b:bs) (c:cs) (d:ds) = z a b c d : zipWith4 z as bs cs ds zipWith4 _ _ _ _ _ = [] zipWith5 :: (a>b>c>d>e>f) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e]>[f] zipWith5 z (a:as) (b:bs) (c:cs) (d:ds) (e:es) = z a b c d e : zipWith5 z as bs cs ds es zipWith5 _ _ _ _ _ _ = [] :: (a>b>c>d>e>f>g) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e]>[f]>[g] zipWith6 z (a:as) (b:bs) (c:cs) (d:ds) (e:es) (f:fs) = z a b c d e f : zipWith6 z as bs cs ds es fs zipWith6 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ = [] :: (a>b>c>d>e>f>g>h) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e]>[f]>[g]>[h] zipWith7 z (a:as) (b:bs) (c:cs) (d:ds) (e:es) (f:fs) (g:gs) = z a b c d e f g : zipWith7 z as bs cs ds es fs gs zipWith7 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ = [] unzip4 unzip4 :: [(a.f)] = zipWith6 (..b.e.b.c.e)] = zipWith5 (.b.e. LIST UTILITIES :: (Integral a) => [b] > a > b = x = = = genericIndex xs (n1) error "List.d)] > ([a].b....d)] = zipWith4 (.c.d..[]..[d]) = foldr (\(a.c:cs.c..) :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [e] > [f] > [g] > [(a.c..c..d...) :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [e] > [f] > [(a.[]) zipWith7 zipWith6 .b.d) ˜(as.190 genericIndex genericIndex (x:_) 0 genericIndex (_:xs) n  n > 0  otherwise genericIndex _ _ genericReplicate genericReplicate n x zip4 zip4 zip5 zip5 zip6 zip6 zip7 zip7 CHAPTER 17.[b].) :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [e] > [(a.c.b.genericIndex: negative argument" error "List.ds) > (a:as.genericIndex: index too large" :: (Integral a) => a > b > [b] = genericTake n (repeat x) :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [(a.f.[].bs.cs.[c].g)] = zipWith7 (...d..
[]) :: [(a.[b].ds.[].d.c.ds.[].[d].bs.g) ˜(as.bs.es.[e].c:cs.e:es.[b].g)] > ([a].c:cs.b.[].f.[f].bs.[]) unzip7 unzip7 .f)] > ([a].d.e.gs) > (a:as.e) ˜(as.[f]) = foldr (\(a.17.[]) 191 unzip6 unzip6 :: [(a.[g]) = foldr (\(a.es) > (a:as.c.ds.cs.c.b:bs.d.e)] > ([a].b:bs.b.[]. LIBRARY LIST unzip5 unzip5 :: [(a.fs) > (a:as.[].c.[].9.e:es.c.g:gs)) ([].[].es.d.b:bs.b.c.[c].e.d:ds.[].f:fs)) ([].[d].[e]) = foldr (\(a.c:cs.[].e:es)) ([].[e].[b].e.d:ds.b.cs.f) ˜(as.d.d.[c].b.[].f.b.[].[d].e.cs.[c].f:fs.d:ds.[].fs.
192 CHAPTER 17. LIST UTILITIES .
. fromJust. and without using IOError from the IO monad. . an incorrect result is returned as Nothing.and what the Prelude exports Maybe(Nothing. isNothing fromJust fromMaybe listToMaybe maybeToList catMaybes mapMaybe :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Maybe a > Bool Maybe a > a a > Maybe a > a [a] > Maybe a Maybe a > [a] [Maybe a] > [a] (a > Maybe b) > [a] > [b] The type constructor Maybe is deﬁned in Prelude as data Maybe a = Nothing  Just a The purpose of the Maybe type is to provide a method of dealing with illegal or optional values without terminating the program. maybe ) where isJust. isNothing. Just). fromMaybe. as would happen if error were used. 193 . A correct result is encapsulated by wrapping it in Just.Chapter 18 Maybe Utilities module Maybe( isJust.. Other operations on Maybe are provided as part of the monadic classes in the Prelude.. listToMaybe. which would cause the expression to become monadic. catMaybes. maybeToList. mapMaybe.
isJust :: Maybe a > a = a = error "Maybe.. listToMaybe.fromJust: Nothing" :: a > Maybe a > a = d = a :: Maybe a > [a] = [] = [a] :: [a] > Maybe a = Nothing = Just a :: [Maybe a] > [a] = [ m  Just m <. mapMaybe... map f . fromMaybe.and what the Prelude exports Maybe(Nothing. maybeToList. Just). . fromJust. maybe ) where isJust isJust (Just a) isJust Nothing isNothing isNothing fromJust fromJust (Just a) fromJust Nothing fromMaybe fromMaybe d Nothing fromMaybe d (Just a) maybeToList maybeToList Nothing maybeToList (Just a) listToMaybe listToMaybe [] listToMaybe (a:_) catMaybes catMaybes ms mapMaybe mapMaybe f :: Maybe a > Bool = True = False :: Maybe a > Bool = not . isNothing.1 Library Maybe module Maybe( isJust. MAYBE UTILITIES 18. catMaybes.ms ] :: (a > Maybe b) > [a] > [b] = catMaybes .194 CHAPTER 18.
with the next 128 entries comes the remainder of the Latin1 character set. isHexDigit. isControl. isLatin1. toUpper. readLitChar. isSpace. isAlpha. The ﬁrst 128 entries of this character set are identical to the ASCII set.and what the Prelude exports Char. isOctDigit. the full set of Unicode character attributes is not accessible in this library. intToDigit.. numeric digits. isAlphaNum :: Char > Bool toUpper. isLower.. showLitChar. String ) where isAscii. digitToInt. isAlphaNum. lower case alphabetic. isPrint. isControl. isHexDigit.Chapter 19 Character Utilities module Char ( isAscii. isDigit. toLower :: Char > Char digitToInt :: Char > Int intToDigit :: Int > Char ord chr :: Char > Int :: Int > Char lexLitChar :: ReadS String readLitChar :: ReadS Char showLitChar :: Char > ShowS This library provides a limited set of operations on the Unicode character set. For the purposes of Haskell. chr. any 195 . toLower. isPrint. This module offers only a limited view of the full Unicode character set. . isLower. isAlpha. and other printable characters. isUpper.. isSpace. lexLitChar. other alphabetic. isLatin1. isOctDigit. isUpper. Unicode characters may be divided into ﬁve general categories: nonprinting. ord. isDigit.
. leaving any other character unchanged. Numeric digits may be part of identiﬁers but digits outside the ASCII range are not used by the reader to represent numbers. digitToInt operates fails unless its argument satisﬁes isHexDigit. For example: showLitChar ’\n’ s lexLitChar "\\nHello" readLitChar "\\nHello" = = = "\\n" ++ s [("\\n".. returning the sequence of characters that encode the character.’f’. toLower converts a letter to the corresponding lowercase letter.. "Hello")] Function toUpper converts a letter to the corresponding uppercase letter. and title). CHARACTER UTILITIES alphabetic character which is not lower case is treated as upper case (Unicode actually has three cases: upper. isOctDigit. Similarly. and generates lowercase hexadecimal digits. intToDigit fails unless its argument is in the range 0.. The function showLitChar converts a character to a string using only printable characters. lower. leaving any other character unchanged. but in addition converts the to the character that it encodes. . "Hello")] [(’\n’. The function lexLitChar does the reverse. using Haskell sourcelanguage escape conventions.’F’).’9’.15.e. here are the predicates which return True: Character Type Lower Case Alphabetic Other Alphabetic Digits Other Printable Nonprinting Predicates isPrint isPrint isPrint isPrint isAlphaNum isAlphaNum isAlphaNum isAlpha isAlpha isLower isUpper The isDigit. ’A’. The isSpace function recognizes only white characters in the Latin1 range. The ord and chr functions are fromEnum and toEnum restricted to the type Char. Any Unicode letter which has an uppercase equivalent is transformed. For each sort of Unicode character. intToDigit and digitToInt convert between a single digit Char and the corresponding Int. and isHexDigit functions select only ASCII characters. The function readLitChar does the same. ’a’. but recognises both upper and lowercase hexadecimal digits (i. ’0’.196 CHAPTER 19.
isHexDigit. isLower.Digit conversion operations digitToInt :: Char > Int digitToInt c  isDigit c = fromEnum c . isDigit. toUpper. isUpper.Only Latin1 spaces recognized isUpper isLower isAlpha c isDigit c isOctDigit c isHexDigit c isAlphaNum = = = = = = = primUnicodeIsUpper primUnicodeIsLower . isControl. isHexDigit. isUpper.. isDigit.’A’.Charactertesting operations isAscii. isAlpha. isLower.digitToInt: not a digit" . isAlphaNum.19.. readHex) import UnicodePrims . import Numeric (readDec. isAlphaNum :: Char > Bool isAscii c isLatin1 c isControl c isPrint = = = = c < ’\x80’ c <= ’\xff’ c < ’ ’  c >= ’\DEL’ && c <= ’\x9f’ primUnicodeIsPrint isSpace c = c ‘elem‘ " \t\n\r\f\v\xA0" . chr. lexDigits. isOctDigit.fromEnum ’A’ + 10  otherwise = error "Char. isOctDigit. showLitChar. isSpace. readLitChar. isControl. isPrint. String ) where import Array . .Source of primitive Unicode functions.Used for character name table. lexLitChar.fromEnum ’a’ + 10  c >= ’A’ && c <= ’F’ = fromEnum c .’Z’ . isAlpha. isSpace. isPrint. . isLatin1.. readOct.. isLatin1.’z’ isUpper c  isLower c c >= ’0’ && c <= ’9’ c >= ’0’ && c <= ’7’ isDigit c  c >= ’A’ && c <= ’F’  c >= ’a’ && c <= ’f’ primUnicodeIsAlphaNum .and what the Prelude exports Char. toLower. intToDigit. digitToInt.. LIBRARY CHAR 197 19.1 Library Char module Char ( isAscii.’a’.1.fromEnum ’0’  c >= ’a’ && c <= ’f’ = fromEnum c . ord.
s)] (’t’:s) = [(’\t’.s)] (’f’:s) = [(’\f’. t)  (n.readDec s] (’o’:s) = [(chr n. "DEL") : assocs asciiTab in case [(c.10) error "Char.readOct s] (’x’:s) = [(chr n.Casechanging operations toUpper :: Char > Char toUpper = primUnicodeToUpper toLower :: Char > Char toLower = primUnicodeToLower .s)] (’ˆ’:c:s)  c >= ’@’ && c <= ’_’ = [(chr (ord c . ([].s’)  (c.s)] (’\\’:s) = [(’\\’.ord ’@’). t)  (n.t) <.198 intToDigit :: Int > Char intToDigit i  i >= 0 && i <= 9 =  i >= 10 && i <= 15 =  otherwise = CHAPTER 19.s)] (’\’’:s) = [(’\’’.t) <. s)] s@(d:_)  isDigit d = [(chr n.readHex s] s@(c:_)  isUpper c = let table = (’\DEL’.intToDigit: not a digit" .s)] (’b’:s) = [(’\b’. CHARACTER UTILITIES toEnum (fromEnum ’0’ + i) toEnum (fromEnum ’a’ + i .s)] (’v’:s) = [(’\v’.s)] readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc :: ReadS Char (’a’:s) = [(’\a’.Text functions readLitChar :: ReadS Char readLitChar (’\\’:s) = readEsc s readLitChar (c:s) = [(c. t)  (n.s)] (’n’:s) = [(’\n’.ys) readEsc match match (x:xs) (y:ys)  x == y match xs ys .[match mne s]] of (pr:_) > [pr] [] > [] _ = [] :: (Eq a) => [a] > [a] > ([a]. mne) <.Character code functions ord :: Char > Int ord = fromEnum chr chr :: Int > Char = toEnum .t) <.s’) <.s)] (’r’:s) = [(’\r’.table.s)] (’"’:s) = [(’"’.[a]) = match xs ys = (xs.
lexEsc s@(c:_)  isUpper c = [span isCharName s] lexEsc _ = [] isCharName c = isUpper c  isDigit c prefix c (t. "ETX". "EM". "CAN".19. "SP"] s@(c:_)  p c = "\\&" ++ s s = s "EOT".1. "BS". "STX". "SUB". "DC4". "VT". "HT". "DC3".s) = (c:t. "US". protectEsc isDigit (shows (ord c)) showLitChar ’\DEL’ = showString "\\DEL" showLitChar ’\\’ = showString "\\\\" showLitChar c  c >= ’ ’ = showChar c showLitChar ’\a’ = showString "\\a" showLitChar ’\b’ = showString "\\b" showLitChar ’\f’ = showString "\\f" showLitChar ’\n’ = showString "\\n" showLitChar ’\r’ = showString "\\r" showLitChar ’\t’ = showString "\\t" showLitChar ’\v’ = showString "\\v" showLitChar ’\SO’ = protectEsc (== ’H’) (showString "\\SO") showLitChar c = showString (’\\’ : asciiTab!c) protectEsc p f = f .s)] [] . "DC1".Very crude approximation to \XYZ. "FS". "RS".c]. 199 lexLitChar :: ReadS String lexLitChar (’\\’:s) = map (prefix ’\\’) (lexEsc s) where lexEsc (c:s)  c ‘elem‘ "abfnrtv\\\"’" = [([c]. "GS". "NAK". "BEL". "DC2". LIBRARY CHAR showLitChar :: Char > ShowS showLitChar c  c > ’\DEL’ = showChar ’\\’ . "ETB".s)] lexEsc (’ˆ’:c:s)  c >= ’@’ && c <= ’_’ = [([’ˆ’. "ACK". "LF". cont where cont cont asciiTab = listArray (’\NUL’. "FF". "CR". s) lexLitChar (c:s) lexLitChar "" = = [([c]. "SI".s)] . "SOH". "ESC". "DLE". "SYN". "SO". "ENQ".Numeric escapes lexEsc (’o’:s) = [prefix ’o’ (span isOctDigit s)] lexEsc (’x’:s) = [prefix ’x’ (span isHexDigit s)] lexEsc s@(d:_)  isDigit d = [span isDigit s] . ’ ’) ["NUL".
CHARACTER UTILITIES .200 CHAPTER 19.
201 .
zipWithM. (>>). Functor(fmap). ) where class Monad m => MonadPlus m where mzero :: m a mplus :: m a > m a > m a join guard when unless ap mapAndUnzipM zipWithM zipWithM_ foldM filterM msum liftM liftM2 liftM3 liftM4 liftM5 :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Monad m => m (m a) > m a MonadPlus m => Bool > m () Monad m => Bool > m () > m () Monad m => Bool > m () > m () Monad m => m (a > b) > m a > m b Monad Monad Monad Monad Monad m m m m m => => => => => (a (a (a (a (a > > > > > m b b b m (b. .202 CHAPTER 20.and what the Prelude exports Monad((>>=). liftM2. zipWithM_. liftM5. MONAD UTILITIES Chapter 20 Monad Utilities module Monad ( MonadPlus(mzero. sequence. when. mapM_. filterM. ap.. guard. fail). liftM3. liftM. return.. mapM. (=<<). sequence_.c)) > [a] > m ([b]. msum.. liftM4. > m c) > [a] > [b] > > m c) > [a] > [b] > > m a) > a > [b] > m Bool) > [a] > m [a] [c]) m [c] m () a :: MonadPlus m => [m a] > m a :: Monad m => (a > b) > (m a > m b) :: Monad m => (a > b > c) > (m a > m b :: Monad m => (a > b > c > d) > (m a > m b > m c > m d) :: Monad m => (a > b > c > d > e) > (m a > m b > m c > m d > :: Monad m => (a > b > c > d > e > f) (m a > m b > m c > m d > > m c) m e) > m e > m f) . foldM. mplus). mapAndUnzipM. unless. join.
for example.2 Class MonadPlus The MonadPlus class is deﬁned as follows: class Monad m => MonadPlus m where mzero :: m a mplus :: m a > m a > m a The class methods mzero and mplus are the zero and plus of the monad. thus: instance MonadPlus Maybe where mzero = Nothing Nothing ‘mplus‘ ys = ys xs ‘mplus‘ ys = xs instance MonadPlus [] mzero = [] mplus = (++) where . filter :: (a > Bool) > [a] > [a] filterM :: Monad m => (a > m Bool) > [a] > m [a] A postﬁx “_” changes the result type from (m a) to (m ()).1 Naming conventions The functions in this library use the following naming conventions: A postﬁx “M” always stands for a function in the Kleisli category: m is added to function results (modulo currying) and nowhere else. Thus (in the Prelude): sequence :: Monad m => [m a] > m [a] sequence_ :: Monad m => [m a] > m () A preﬁx “m” generalises an existing function to a monadic form.1. for example: sum :: Num a => [a] > a msum :: MonadPlus m => [m a] > m a 20. NAMING CONVENTIONS 203 The Monad library deﬁnes the MonadPlus class.20. 20. Thus. Lists and the Maybe type are instances of MonadPlus. So. and provides some useful operations on monads.
The when and unless functions provide conditional execution of monadic expressions.. putStr ": ". putStrLn line) [1. .f a2 x2 . which promotes function application. except that its result is encapsulated in a monad. Note that foldM works from lefttoright over the list arguments. For example. .3] liftM2 (+) (Just 1) Nothing = Nothing In many situations. x2.1] [0. f am xm If righttoleft evaluation is required.204 CHAPTER 20. This function is mainly used with complicated data structures or a statetransforming monad. The mapAndUnzipM function maps its ﬁrst argument over a list. the input list should be reversed. and otherwise do nothing. returning the result as a pair of lists. For instance the following function displays a ﬁle.2. The monadic lifting operators promote a function to a monad. For example.] (lines cts) The foldM function is analogous to foldl.1. xm ] == do a2 <. preﬁxing each line with its line number..3 Functions The join function is the conventional monad join operator. The function arguments are scanned left to right.2] = [0.. This could be an issue where (>>) and the “folded function” are not commutative. foldM f a1 [x1. It is used to remove one level of monadic structure.. The zipWithM function generalises zipWith to arbitrary monads. the liftM operations can be replaced by uses of ap. MONAD UTILITIES 20.f a1 x1 a3 <. liftM2 (+) [0. projecting its bound argument into the outer level. listFile :: String > IO () listFile nm = do cts <.readFile nm zipWithM_ (\i line > do putStr (show i).. when debug (putStr "Debugging\n") will output the string "Debugging\n" if the Boolean value debug is True..
xn 205 ... ‘ap‘ xn is equivalent to liftMn f x1 x2 .20. FUNCTIONS return f ‘ap‘ x1 ‘ap‘ ..3..
liftM4. zipWithM_. Functor(fmap). fail). sequence. mapAndUnzipM. [c]) mapAndUnzipM f xs = sequence (map f xs) >>= return . .and what the Prelude exports Monad((>>=). join. return. ap.Instances of MonadPlus instance MonadPlus Maybe where mzero = Nothing Nothing ‘mplus‘ ys xs ‘mplus‘ ys instance MonadPlus [] mzero = [] mplus = (++) .. sequence_.The MonadPlus class definition class (Monad m) => MonadPlus m mzero :: m a mplus :: m a > m a > m a . liftM3. unless. liftM.206 CHAPTER 20. mapM_.c)) > [a] > m ([b]. ) where . mplus). unzip .. MONAD UTILITIES 20. foldM. mapM. (=<<). when. guard.4 Library Monad module Monad ( MonadPlus(mzero. liftM5.Functions msum msum xs join join x when when p s unless unless p s ap ap guard guard p :: MonadPlus m => [m a] > m a = foldr mplus mzero xs :: (Monad m) => m (m a) > m a = x >>= id :: (Monad m) => Bool > m () > m () = if p then s else return () :: (Monad m) => Bool > m () > m () = when (not p) s :: (Monad m) => m (a > b) > m a > m b = liftM2 ($) :: MonadPlus m => Bool > m () = if p then return () else mzero = = ys xs where where mapAndUnzipM :: (Monad m) => (a > m (b. liftM2. (>>).. msum. zipWithM. filterM.
b’ <.a.4.e.b.d. b’ <.20. d’ <. return (f a’ b’ c’ d’ e’) } .filterM p xs.c.b. return (f a’ b’ c’) } :: (Monad m) => (a > b > c > d > e) > (m a > m b > m c > m d > m e) = \a b c d > do { a’ <.a. c’ <. c’ <. return (f a’ b’) } :: (Monad m) => (a > b > c > d) > (m a > m b > m c > m d) = \a b c > do { a’ <.c.a.a. c’ <. ys <. e’ <.b. return (f a’) } :: (Monad m) => (a > b > c) > (m a > m b > m c) = \a b > do { a’ <.c.a.b. LIBRARY MONAD 207 zipWithM :: (Monad m) => (a > b > m c) > [a] > [b] > m [c] zipWithM f xs ys = sequence (zipWith f xs ys) zipWithM_ :: (Monad m) => (a > b > m c) > [a] > [b] > m () zipWithM_ f xs ys = sequence_ (zipWith f xs ys) foldM :: (Monad m) => (a > b > m a) > a > [b] > m a foldM f a [] = return a foldM f a (x:xs) = f a x >>= \ y > foldM f y xs filterM :: Monad m => (a > m Bool) > [a] > m [a] filterM p [] = return [] filterM p (x:xs) = do { b <.p x. b’ <. b’ <. return (f a’ b’ c’ d’) } :: (Monad m) => (a > b > c > d > e > f) > (m a > m b > m c > m d > m e > m f) = \a b c d e > do { a’ <.d. d’ <. return (if b then (x:ys) else ys) } liftM liftM f liftM2 liftM2 f liftM3 liftM3 f liftM4 liftM4 f liftM5 liftM5 f :: (Monad m) => (a > b) > (m a > m b) = \a > do { a’ <.
208 CHAPTER 20. MONAD UTILITIES .
209 .
ioeGetHandle. hIsWritable. hGetContents.. hGetLine. hSetPosn. . getChar. putStrLn. SeekMode(AbsoluteSeek. hFlush. openFile. putStr. BufferMode(NoBuffering. hLookAhead. FilePath. hPutChar. getContents.BlockBuffering). appendFile. isPermissionError.. hWaitForInput. isEOFError. try. readIO. readLn ) where import Ix(Ix) data Handle = . Show) AbsoluteSeek  RelativeSeek  SeekFromEnd deriving (Eq.ReadWriteMode). hIsClosed. bracket. putChar. catch. Enum. instance Show Handle where .implementationdependent .LineBuffering.and what the Prelude exports IO... instance Eq HandlePosn where . Ix.. hPutStr. IOError. isFullError. instance Show HandlePosn where data IOMode data BufferMode = =  = .implementationdependent .AppendMode. interact. isEOF. INPUT/OUTPUT Chapter 21 Input/Output module IO ( Handle. stdout. instance Eq Handle where .implementationdependent data SeekMode ReadMode  WriteMode  AppendMode  ReadWriteMode deriving (Eq. stdin. hIsEOF... hIsOpen. Ord.RelativeSeek.. getLine. hClose. ioeGetFileName. hReady. Read. hGetChar. hIsSeekable. hPutStrLn. Bounded. stderr :: Handle openFile hClose :: FilePath > IOMode > IO Handle :: Handle > IO () . isAlreadyExistsError.. ioError. hGetPosn. Enum. Ix.. hFileSize.210 CHAPTER 21. Ord. hGetBuffering. Bounded. HandlePosn. userError.. writeFile. isIllegalOperation. Read. readFile. print. stdout. ioeGetErrorString. Show) NoBuffering  LineBuffering BlockBuffering (Maybe Int) deriving (Eq. stderr. data HandlePosn = . Show) stdin. Ord.SeekFromEnd). hPrint. hIsReadable. isAlreadyInUseError. hSeek. isUserError.implementationdependent .WriteMode. isDoesNotExistError. Read.. IOMode(ReadMode. bracket_. hSetBuffering.
211 hFileSize hIsEOF isEOF isEOF hSetBuffering hGetBuffering hFlush hGetPosn hSetPosn hSeek hWaitForInput hReady hReady h hGetChar hGetLine hLookAhead hGetContents hPutChar hPutStr hPutStrLn hPrint hIsOpen hIsClosed hIsReadable hIsWritable hIsSeekable isAlreadyExistsError isDoesNotExistError isAlreadyInUseError isFullError isEOFError isIllegalOperation isPermissionError isUserError ioeGetErrorString ioeGetHandle ioeGetFileName try bracket bracket_ :: :: :: = :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: = :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Handle > IO Integer Handle > IO Bool IO Bool hIsEOF stdin Handle > BufferMode > IO () Handle > IO BufferMode Handle > IO () Handle > IO HandlePosn HandlePosn > IO () Handle > SeekMode > Integer > IO () Handle > Int > IO Bool Handle > IO Bool hWaitForInput h 0 Handle > IO Char Handle > IO String Handle > IO Char Handle > IO String Handle > Char > IO () Handle > String > IO () Handle > String > IO () Show a => Handle > a > IO () Handle Handle Handle Handle Handle > > > > > IO IO IO IO IO Bool Bool Bool Bool Bool IOError IOError IOError IOError IOError IOError IOError IOError > > > > > > > > Bool Bool Bool Bool Bool Bool Bool Bool :: IOError > String :: IOError > Maybe Handle :: IOError > Maybe FilePath :: IO a > IO (Either IOError a) :: IO a > (a > IO b) > (a > IO c) > IO c :: IO a > (a > IO b) > IO c > IO c The monadic I/O system used in Haskell is described by the Haskell language report. Commonly used I/O functions such as print are part of the standard prelude and need not be explicitly imported. This library contain more advanced I/O features. Some related operations on ﬁle systems .
which is True if its argument is the corresponding kind of error. and Nothing otherwise. ioeGetFileName which returns Just if the error value refers to ﬁle . All these functions return a Bool. opening the same ﬁle twice for writing might give this error). the string is implementationdependent. isAlreadyInUseError – the operation failed because one of its arguments is a singleuse resource. Three additional functions are provided to obtain information about an error value. For “user” errors (those which are raised using fail). compute. These are ioeGetHandle which returns Just if the error value refers to handle and Nothing otherwise. Any computation which returns an IO result may fail with isIllegalOperation. isPermissionError – the operation failed because the user does not have sufﬁcient operating system privilege to perform that operation. deallocate idiom in which the deallocation step must occur even in the case of an error during computation. and False otherwise. 4 ¦ ¢ 7 ¦ ¥ 4 ¦ ¢ 7 ¦ ¥ . isIllegalOperation – the operation is not possible.212 are contained in the Directory library. the library provides functions to interrogate and construct values in IOError: isAlreadyExistsError – the operation failed because one of its arguments already exists. which is already being used (for example. The bracket function captures a common allocate. This is an abstract type.1 I/O Errors Errors of type IOError are used by the I/O monad. isFullError – the operation failed because the device is full. In this case it should return isIllegalOperation. Additional errors which could be raised by an implementation are listed after the corresponding operation. isEOFError – the operation failed because the end of ﬁle has been reached. In some cases. INPUT/OUTPUT 21. the string returned by ioeGetErrorString is the argument that was passed to fail. an implementation will not be able to distinguish between the possible error causes. isDoesNotExistError – the operation failed because one of its arguments does not exist. This is similar to trycatchﬁnally in Java. CHAPTER 21. isUserError – a programmerdeﬁned error value has been raised using fail. and ioeGetErrorString which returns a string. The try function returns an error in a computation explicitly using the Either type. for all other errors.
A handle has at least the following properties: whether it manages input or output or both.1 Standard Handles Three handles are allocated during program initialisation. represented by values of type Handle.2 Files and Handles Haskell interfaces to the external world through an abstract ﬁle system. whether it is open. any nondirectory ﬁle system object is termed a ﬁle. Most handles will also have a current I/O position indicating where the next input or output operation will occur. File and directory names are values of type String. Files can be opened. closed or semiclosed. . For simplicity.21. whose precise meaning is operating system dependent. no attempt is made to compare the internal state of different handles for equality. Handles are in the Show and Eq classes. which may be organised in directories (see Directory). a buffer (whose length may be zero). ordered ﬁles. The string produced by showing a handle is system dependent. In some implementations.2. yielding a handle which can then be used to operate on the contents of that ﬁle. The third (stderr) manages output to the standard error channel. though an implementation cannot reuse its storage while references remain to it. FILES AND HANDLES 213 21. A handle is equal according to == only to itself. The ﬁrst two (stdin and stdout) manage input or output from the Haskell program’s standard input or output channel respectively. Each value of this type is a handle: a record used by the Haskell runtime system to manage I/O with ﬁle system objects. Physical ﬁles are persistent. it is writable if it manages only output or both input and output. 21. Haskell deﬁnes operations to read and write characters from and to ﬁles. A handle is open when ﬁrst allocated. whether the object is seekable. This ﬁle system is a collection of named ﬁle system objects. although it could in fact be a communication channel. and normally reside on disk. whether buffering is disabled. directories may themselves be ﬁle system objects and could be entries in other directories.2. it should include enough information to identify the handle for debugging. or enabled on a line or block basis. or any other object recognised by the operating system. likewise. These handles are initially open. Once it is closed it can no longer be used for either input or output. A handle is readable if it manages only input or both input and output.
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21.2.2 SemiClosed Handles
The operation hGetContents (Section 21.9.4) puts a handle into an intermediate state, semiclosed. In this state, is effectively closed, but items are read from on demand and accumulated in a special list returned by hGetContents . Any operation that fails because a handle is closed, also fails if a handle is semiclosed. The only exception is hClose. A semiclosed handle becomes closed: if hClose is applied to it;
if an I/O error occurs when reading an item from the handle;
or once the entire contents of the handle has been read.
Once a semiclosed handle becomes closed, the contents of the associated list becomes ﬁxed. The contents of this ﬁnal list is only partially speciﬁed: it will contain at least all the items of the stream that were evaluated prior to the handle becoming closed. Any I/O errors encountered while a handle is semiclosed are simply discarded.
21.2.3 File locking
Implementations should enforce as far as possible, at least locally to the Haskell process, multiplereader singlewriter locking on ﬁles. That is, there may either be many handles on the same ﬁle which manage input, or just one handle on the ﬁle which manages output. If any open or semiclosed handle is managing a ﬁle for output, no new handle can be allocated for that ﬁle. If any open or semiclosed handle is managing a ﬁle for input, new handles can only be allocated if they do not manage output. Whether two ﬁles are the same is implementationdependent, but they should normally be the same if they have the same absolute path name and neither has been renamed, for example. Warning: the readFile operation (Section 7.1) holds a semiclosed handle on the ﬁle until the entire contents of the ﬁle have been consumed. It follows that an attempt to write to a ﬁle (using writeFile, for example) that was earlier opened by readFile will usually result in failure with isAlreadyInUseError.
21.3 Opening and Closing Files
21.3.1 Opening Files
Computation openFile allocates and returns a new, open handle to manage the ﬁle . It manages input if is ReadMode, output if is WriteMode or AppendMode, and both input and output if mode is ReadWriteMode.
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is If the ﬁle does not exist and it is opened for output, it should be created as a new ﬁle. If WriteMode and the ﬁle already exists, then it should be truncated to zero length. Some operating systems delete empty ﬁles, so there is no guarantee that the ﬁle will exist following an openFile with WriteMode unless it is subsequently written to successfully. The handle is positioned at the end of the ﬁle if is AppendMode, and otherwise at the beginning (in which case its internal I/O position is 0). The initial buffer mode is implementationdependent. If openFile fails on a ﬁle opened for output, the ﬁle may still have been created if it did not already exist. Error reporting: the openFile computation may fail with isAlreadyInUseError if the ﬁle is already open and cannot be reopened; isDoesNotExistError if the ﬁle does not exist; or isPermissionError if the user does not have permission to open the ﬁle.
21.3.2 Closing Files
makes handle closed. Before the computation ﬁnishes, if is Computation hClose writable its buffer is ﬂushed as for hFlush. Performing hClose on a handle that has already been closed has no effect; doing so not an error. All other operations on a closed handle will fail. If hClose fails for any reason, any further operations (apart from hClose) on the handle will still fail as if had been successfully closed.
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21.4 Determining the Size of a File
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returns the size of that ﬁle
21.5 Detecting the End of Input
For a readable handle , computation hIsEOF returns True if no further input can be taken ; for a handle attached to a physical ﬁle this means that the current I/O position is equal from to the length of the ﬁle. Otherwise, it returns False. The computation isEOF is identical, except that it works only on stdin.
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21.6 Buffering Operations
Three kinds of buffering are supported: linebuffering, blockbuffering or nobuffering. These modes have the following effects. For output, items are written out, or ﬂushed, from the internal buffer according to the buffer mode:
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linebuffering: the entire buffer is ﬂushed whenever a newline is output, the buffer overﬂows, a hFlush is issued, or the handle is closed. blockbuffering: the entire buffer is written out whenever it overﬂows, a hFlush is issued, or the handle is closed.
nobuffering: output is written immediately, and never stored in the buffer.
An implementation is free to ﬂush the buffer more frequently, but not less frequently, than speciﬁed above. The buffer is emptied as soon as it has been written out.
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Similarly, input occurs according to the buffer mode for handle
linebuffering: when the buffer for is not empty, the next item is obtained from the buffer; otherwise, when the buffer is empty, characters are read into the buffer until the next newline character is encountered or the buffer is full. No characters are available until the newline character is available or the buffer is full.
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blockbuffering: when the buffer for the buffer.
becomes empty, the next block of data is read into
nobuffering: the next input item is read and returned. The hLookAhead operation (Section 21.9.3) implies that even a nobuffered handle may require a onecharacter buffer.
For most implementations, physical ﬁles will normally be blockbuffered and terminals will normally be linebuffered.
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If is BlockBuffering , then blockbuffering is enabled if possible. The size of the buffer is items if is Just and is otherwise implementationdependent.
If the buffer mode is changed from BlockBuffering or LineBuffering to NoBuffering, then
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Computation hSetBuffering reads and writes.
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21.7. REPOSITIONING HANDLES
217
Error reporting: the hSetBuffering computation may fail with isPermissionError if the handle has already been used for reading or writing and the implementation does not allow the buffering mode to be changed.
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Computation hGetBuffering
returns the current buffering mode for
The default buffering mode when a handle is opened is implementationdependent and may depend on the ﬁle system object which is attached to that handle.
21.6.1 Flushing Buffers
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Computation hFlush to the operating system.
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causes any items buffered for output in handle
to be sent immediately
Error reporting: the hFlush computation may fail with: isFullError if the device is full; isPermissionError if a system resource limit would be exceeded. It is unspeciﬁed whether the characters in the buffer are discarded or retained under these circumstances.
21.7 Repositioning Handles
21.7.1 Revisiting an I/O Position
returns the current I/O position of as a value of the abstract type Computation hGetPosn HandlePosn. If a call to hGetPosn returns a position , then computation hSetPosn sets the position of to the position it held at the time of the call to hGetPosn. Error reporting: the hSetPosn computation may fail with: isPermissionError if a system resource limit would be exceeded.
21.7.2 Seeking to a new Position
The offset is given in terms of 8bit bytes. If is block or linebuffered, then seeking to a position which is not in the current buffer will ﬁrst cause any items in the output buffer to be written to the device, and then cause the input buffer
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to be discarded. Some handles may not be seekable (see hIsSeekable), or only support a subset of the possible positioning operations (for instance, it may only be possible to seek to the end of a tape, or to a positive offset from the beginning or current position). It is not possible to set a negative I/O position, or for a physical ﬁle, an I/O position beyond the current endofﬁle. Error reporting: the hSeek computation may fail with: isPermissionError if a system resource limit would be exceeded.
21.8 Handle Properties
The functions hIsOpen, hIsClosed, hIsReadable, hIsWritable and hIsSeekable return information about the properties of a handle. Each of these returns True if the handle has the speciﬁed property, and False otherwise.
21.9 Text Input and Output
Here we deﬁne a standard set of input operations for reading characters and strings from text ﬁles, using handles. Many of these functions are generalizations of Prelude functions. I/O in the Prelude generally uses stdin and stdout; here, handles are explicitly speciﬁed by the I/O operation.
21.9.1 Checking for Input
Computation hWaitForInput waits until input is available on handle . It returns True as soon as input is available on , or False if no input is available within milliseconds.
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Computation hReady .
indicates whether at least one item is available for input from handle
Error reporting: the hWaitForInput and hReady computations fail with isEOFError if the end of ﬁle has been reached.
21.9.2 Reading Input
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Computation hGetChar
reads a character from the ﬁle or channel managed by
Error reporting: the hGetChar computation fails with isEOFError if the end of ﬁle has been reached. The hGetLine computation fails with isEOFError if the end of ﬁle is encountered when reading the ﬁrst character of the line. If hGetLine encounters endofﬁle at any other point while reading in a line, it is treated as a line terminator and the (partial) line is returned.
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Computation hGetLine reads a line from the ﬁle or channel managed by getLine is a shorthand for hGetLine stdin.
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EXAMPLES 219 21. ¥ Error reporting: the hLookAhead computation may fail with: isEOFError if the end of ﬁle has been reached.5 Text Output ¥ writes the character to the ﬁle or channel managed by Computation hPutChar acters may be buffered if buffering is enabled for .10. Char 7 ¦ 7 ¦ ¥ . or isPermissionError if another system resource limit would be exceeded. which is made semiclosed.9.10 Examples Here are some simple examples to illustrate Haskell I/O. blocking until a character is available. 21.10.21.3 Reading Ahead ¥ Computation hLookAhead returns the next character from handle from the input buffer. 21. 7 ¦ 7 ¦ 7 ¦ 7 ¦ ¥ 7 ¦ ¥ 7 ¦ 7 ¦ ¥ without removing it 7 ¦ § . Error reporting: the hGetContents computation may fail with: isEOFError if the end of ﬁle has been reached.9. the ﬁle or channel managed by given by the shows function to Error reporting: the hPutChar.4 Reading The Entire Input 7 ¦ Computation hGetContents of the channel or ﬁle managed by ¥ returns the list of characters corresponding to the unread portion . 21.9.1 Summing Two Numbers This program reads and sums two Integers. 21. hPutStr and hPrint computations may fail with: isFullError if the device is full. Computation hPrint writes the string representation of and appends a newline. ¥ © © ¥ Computation hPutStr ¥ writes the string to the ﬁle or channel managed by § .
hIsEOF h1 if eof then return () else do c <.getArgs h1 <.220 import IO CHAPTER 21. This program will not allow a ﬁle to be copied to itself.readNum putStr "Enter another integer: " x2 <.2 Copying Files A simple program to create a copy of a ﬁle.openFile f1 ReadMode h2 <. using string I/O is: .openFile f2 WriteMode copyFile h1 h2 hClose h1 hClose h2 copyFile h1 h2 = do eof <.the defaulting rule to fix the type of x1. This version uses characterlevel I/O. INPUT/OUTPUT main = do hSetBuffering stdout NoBuffering putStr "Enter an integer: " x1 <. Note that exactly two arguments must be supplied to the program.f2] <.10.Providing a type signature avoids reliance on . import IO import System import Char( toUpper ) main = do [f1.hGetChar h1 hPutChar h2 (toUpper c) copyFile h1 h2 An equivalent but much shorter version.x2 readNum = readLn 21. with all lowercase characters translated to uppercase.readNum putStr ("Their sum is " ++ show (x1+x2) ++ "\n") where readNum :: IO Integer .
before rs <. LIBRARY IO import System import Char( toUpper ) main = do [f1.getArgs s <.actions that IO exports.21.11.Just provide an implementation of the systemindependent .before rs <.try (m x) after x case rs of Right r > return r Left e > ioError e .variant of the above where middle computation doesn’t want x bracket_ :: IO a > (a > IO b) > IO c > IO c bracket_ before after m = do x <.11 Library IO module IO {.try m after x case rs of Right r > return r Left e > ioError e . try try f :: IO a > IO (Either IOError a) = catch (do r <.export list omitted } where .readFile f1 writeFile f2 (map toUpper s) 221 21.f2] <. Left) bracket :: IO a > (a > IO b) > (a > IO c) > IO c bracket before after m = do x <.f return (Right r)) (return .
INPUT/OUTPUT .222 CHAPTER 21.
223 .
. setPermissions.. renameFile.. executable.. doesFileExist. getDirectoryContents. executable. renameDirectory. removeDirectory. DIRECTORY FUNCTIONS Chapter 22 Directory Functions module Directory ( Permissions( Permissions. createDirectory.. . removeFile.. getPermissions. getModificationTime ) where import Time ( ClockTime ) data Permissions = Permissions { readable. writable. . writable. > > > > > IO () IO () IO () FilePath > IO () FilePath > IO () createDirectory removeDirectory removeFile renameDirectory renameFile getDirectoryContents getCurrentDirectory setCurrentDirectory doesFileExist doesDirectoryExist getPermissions setPermissions getModificationTime :: :: :: :: :: FilePath FilePath FilePath FilePath FilePath :: FilePath > IO [FilePath] :: IO FilePath :: FilePath > IO () :: FilePath > IO Bool :: FilePath > IO Bool :: FilePath > IO Permissions :: FilePath > Permissions > IO () :: FilePath > IO ClockTime . . readable. doesDirectoryExist. searchable :: Bool } instance instance instance instance Eq Ord Read Show Permissions Permissions Permissions Permissions where where where where . searchable ).224 CHAPTER 22. setCurrentDirectory. getCurrentDirectory...
Some entries may be hidden. but the constraints must be documented. as described in Section 21. the ﬁle may not be in use by other processes). In some operating systems. or across different physical devices). If the directory is neither the directory nor an alias of the directory. this library does not distinguish between physical ﬁles and other nondirectory objects. or isDoesNotExistError if the ﬁle/directory does not exist.” or “.). All such objects should therefore be treated as if they are ﬁles. Computation renameDirectory changes the name of an existing directory from to . Note that.225 These functions operate on directories in the ﬁle system. each of which is a named reference to a ﬁle system object (ﬁle. It is not legal for an implementation to partially remove a directory unless the entire directory is removed. renaming to an existing directory. A directory contains a series of entries. Neither path ¦ ¦ 7 7 2 2 7 7 ¦ 7 2 ¦ 7 ¤§ 2 ¦ ¤§ creates a new directory Computation createDirectory near to empty as the operating system allows. ¦ ¦ 7 2 £ ¦ ¤§ ¦ ¤§ 7 ¦ 2 ¦ which is initially empty. If the directory already exists. or isDoesNotExistError if the new directory’s parent does not exist. or may not be in use by other processes). all other permissible errors are described below. inaccessible. Entries in subdirectories are not. removes the directory entry for an existing ﬁle . the directory has to be empty. it is atomically replaced by the object. however. isAlreadyExistsError if the directory already exists. removal of the root directory). “. directory etc. There is normally at least one absolute path to each ﬁle system object. Error reporting. considered to form part of the directory contents. it is atomically replaced by the directory. Any Directory operation could raise an isIllegalOperation. If the object already exists. Each ﬁle system object is referenced by a path.. A conformant implementation need not support renaming directories in all situations (for instance. The implementation Computation removeDirectory may specify additional constraints which must be satisﬁed before a directory can be removed (for instance. The createDirectory computation may fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to create the directory. Although there may be ﬁle system objects other than ﬁles and directories. in particular. or as £ ¦ ¦ ¦ 7 7 7 2 2 £ £ ¦ ¦ £ £ ¦ ¦ £ ¦ . removes an existing directory . A conformant implementation need not support directory removal in all situations (for instance.1.” under POSIX). but all such entries are considered to form part of the directory contents. if an implementation does not support an operation it should raise an isIllegalOperation. where is Computation removeFile not itself a directory. it is removed as if by removeDirectory. Computation renameFile changes the name of an existing ﬁle system object from to . it may also be possible to have paths which are relative to the current directory. Error reporting. The removeDirectory and removeFile computations may fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to remove the ﬁle/directory. or have some administrative function (for instance. The implementation may specify additional constraints which must be satisﬁed before a ﬁle can be removed (for instance.
getPermissions f setPermissions f (p {readable = True}) The operation doesDirectoryExist returns True if the argument ﬁle exists and is a directory. or isDoesNotExistError if the ﬁle/directory ¤§ If the operating system has a notion of current directories. getCurrentDirectory returns an absolute path to the current directory of the calling process.226 CHAPTER 22. Note that directories may be searchable without being readable. but the constraints must be documented. A conformant implementation need not support renaming ﬁles in all situations (for instance. and for ﬁles the searchable ﬁeld will be False. setCurrentDirectory the current directory of the calling process to . get(set)Permissions. the executable ﬁeld will be False. but not to examine the directory contents. The getModificationTime operation returns the clock time at which the ﬁle/directory was last modiﬁed. Each entry in the changes . The Permissions type is used to record whether certain operations are permissible on a ﬁle/directory. or isDoesNotExistError if the ﬁle/directory does not exist. Error reporting. or isDoesNotExistError if the directory does not exist. and False otherwise. not as an absolute path. setCurrentDirectory may fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to change directory to that speciﬁed. renaming across different physical devices). and getModificationTime may fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to access the appropriate information. For directories. if permission has been given to use them as part of a path. Note that to change some. doesFile(Directory)Exist. Error reporting. If the operating system has a notion of current directories. getPermissions and setPermissions get and set these permissions. or isDoesNotExistError if the directory does not exist. a construct on the following lines must be used. or if either argument to renameFile is a directory. DIRECTORY FUNCTIONS may refer to an existing directory. but not all permissions. Error reporting. respectively. Permissions apply both to ﬁles and directories. The getDirectoryContents and getCurrentDirectory computations may fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to access the directory. makeReadable f = do p <. ¦ ¤§ ¤§ ¤§ ¤§ ¦ ¦ Computation getDirectoryContents returned list is named relative to the directory returns a list of all entries in . and False otherwise. The operation doesFileExist returns True if the argument ﬁle exists and is not a directory. Error reporting. ¦ ¦ . The renameDirectory and renameFile computations may fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to rename the ﬁle/directory.
. The setPermissions computation may also fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to change the permission for the speciﬁed ﬁle or directory. or isDoesNotExistError if the ﬁle/directory does not exist.227 does not exist.
228 CHAPTER 22. DIRECTORY FUNCTIONS .
0 on a POSIXcompliant system). In particular. some values of may be prohibited (for instance. Computation getEnv returns the value of the environment variable . ExitSuccess indicates successful termination. the isDoesNotExistError exception is raised. The exact interpretation of is operatingsystem dependent. and ExitFailure indicates program failure with value . Note that. exitWith. Read. exitFailure ) where data ExitCode = ExitSuccess  ExitFailure Int deriving (Eq. all other permissible errors are described below. getProgName. getArgs.Chapter 23 System Functions module System ( ExitCode(ExitSuccess. Computation getProgName returns the name of the program as it was invoked. Computation getArgs returns a list of the program’s command line arguments (not including the program name). The ExitCode type deﬁnes the exit codes that a program can return. If variable is undeﬁned. system. Show) getArgs getProgName getEnv system exitWith exitFailure :: :: :: :: :: :: IO [String] IO String String > IO String String > IO ExitCode ExitCode > IO a IO a This library describes the interaction of the program with the operating system.1. 229 ¤ ¢ ¦ ¦ 2 2 ¤ ¢ ¦ 2 ¤ ¢ ¦ 2 .ExitFailure). Ord. in particular. if an implementation does not support an operation it must raise an isIllegalOperation. Any System operation could raise an isIllegalOperation. getEnv. as described in Section 21.
¦ returns the exit code produced when the operating system processes 4 7 ¢ § 0 § § S ¢ ¡ ¡ . any open or semiclosed handles are ﬁrst closed.230 CHAPTER 23. then it is treated identically to the computation exitFailure. The caller may interpret the return code as it wishes. Before the program terminates. exitWith bypasses the error handling in the I/O monad and cannot be intercepted by catch. if any program terminates without calling exitWith explicitly. and ExitFailure to mean that the program encountered a problem from which it ). but the program should return ExitSuccess to mean normal completion. returning to the program’s caller. The value exitFailure is equal to exitWith (ExitFailure where is implementationdependent. SYSTEM FUNCTIONS ¦ ¦ Computation exitWith terminates the program. If a program terminates as a result of calling error or because its value is otherwise determined to be . Otherwise. it is treated identically to the computation ( >> exitWith ExitSuccess) ‘catch‘ \ _ > exitFailure 7 ¢ § 0 § § S ¢ ¦ 2 ¦ 2 4 Computation system the command . could not recover.
231 .
Int.September. tdDay. toCalendarTime.October. tdMonth. ctTZ. Bounded.December). tdPicosec :: Integer } deriving (Eq. tdPicosec). Ord.. ctIsDST). tdSec. Show) :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Int.March. tdHour. Day(Sunday.February. Day. CalendarTime(CalendarTime. ctMin.232 CHAPTER 24. Ix. July. ctPicosec. Int. instance Ord ClockTime where . Ix. ctTZName. Ord. Read. diffClockTimes. Show) data TimeDiff = TimeDiff { tdYear. addToClockTime.Friday. Show) . Enum.April. tdSec :: Int. ctDay. Int. tdHour. DATES AND TIMES Chapter 24 Dates and Times module Time ( ClockTime.August. ctWDay. Read. Read. ctYear.. Integer. ctMin. calendarTimeToString. getClockTime. String. ctHour. tdYear. Bool data CalendarTime = CalendarTime { ctYear ctMonth ctDay.. Bounded. tdMonth.Tuesday.Thursday. . ctYDay. tdDay. toClockTime..Implementationdependent data Month = January  February  March  April  May  June  July  August  September  October  November  December deriving (Eq. tdMin. tdMin.Saturday). TimeDiff(TimeDiff. formatCalendarTime ) where import Ix(Ix) data ClockTime = .Monday. ctSec ctPicosec ctWDay ctYDay ctTZName ctTZ ctIsDST } deriving (Eq. Ord.. toUTCTime.Wednesday.June.. Ord. Month. Show) data Day = Sunday  Monday  Tuesday  Wednesday  Thursday  Friday  Saturday deriving (Eq. Month(January. ctSec.November. ctMonth. ctHour. instance Eq ClockTime where .May. Read. Enum.
The returns difference may be either positive or negative.Functions on times getClockTime :: IO ClockTime addToClockTime diffClockTimes toCalendarTime toUTCTime toClockTime calendarTimeToString formatCalendarTime :: TimeDiff > ClockTime > ClockTime :: ClockTime > ClockTime > TimeDiff :: :: :: :: :: ClockTime > IO CalendarTime ClockTime > CalendarTime CalendarTime > ClockTime CalendarTime > String TimeLocale > String > CalendarTime > String The Time library provides standard functionality for clock times. and False otherwise. Function getClockTime returns the current time in its internal representation. CalendarTime is a userreadable and manipulable representation of the internal ClockTime type. Because of this dependence on the local environment. § § © S§ ¤ § § § t ¢ £ ¦ ¤ § 8¥¥8 8 8¥¥8 8 ¤ ¢ ¤ £ 8¥¥8 8 8¥¥8 8 8¥¥8 8 8¥¥8 8 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 Allows for two Leap Seconds 364 in nonLeap years Variation from UTC in seconds § § ¦ 4 ¢ ¦ E ¡ § . It follows RFC 1129 in its use of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). including timezone information. ClockTime is an abstract type.233 . The expression diffClockTimes the difference between two clock times and as a TimeDiff. toCalendarTime is in the IO monad. Function toCalendarTime converts to a local time. The expression addToClockTime adds a time difference and a clock time to yield a new clock time. The numeric ﬁelds have the following ranges. Value ctYear maxInt ctDay 1 ctHour 0 ctMin 0 ctSec 0 ctPicosec 0 ctYDay 0 ctTZ 89999 Range maxInt 31 23 59 61 365 89999 £ Comments PreGregorian dates are inaccurate The ﬁeld is the name of the time zone. The TimeDiff type records the difference between two clock times in a userreadable way. Clock times may be compared directly or converted to a calendar time CalendarTime for I/O or other manipulations. The ﬁeld is True if Daylight Savings Time would be in effect. modiﬁed by the timezone and daylight savings time settings in force at the time of conversion. used for the system’s internal clock time.
Read. ctHour. Function calendarTimeToString formats calendar times using local conventions and a formatting string.Saturday).Thursday. diffClockTimes.Monday. Bounded. Enum. toClockTime converts into the corresponding internal ClockTime ignoring the contents of the .September. ctSec.. Bounded.. ctWDay. instance Ord ClockTime where .October. toClockTime. Day(Sunday. tdPicosec).November. July.1 Library Time module Time ( ClockTime. Ix. TimeDiff(TimeDiff.. t © S§ 24. Enum. Ord. addToClockTime. ctIsDST).defaultTimeLocale) import Char ( intToDigit ) data ClockTime = . ctDay. getClockTime.Implementationdependent data Month = January  February  March  April  May  June  July  August  September  October  November  December deriving (Eq.February. tdDay.April. ctYDay.Wednesday. ctYear. tdMin.. Month(January.. Ord.June. . toUTCTime. Read.March. tdHour. ctMonth. and ﬁelds. toCalendarTime.Tuesday.December). .. ctPicosec.234 § CHAPTER 24. calendarTimeToString.May. DATES AND TIMES Function toUTCTime converts into a CalendarTime in standard UTC format.). tdMonth. Show) data Day = Sunday  Monday  Tuesday  Wednesday  Thursday  Friday  Saturday deriving (Eq. tdYear. instance Eq ClockTime where . tdSec. ctTZName.. Ix.Friday. . formatCalendarTime ) where import Ix(Ix) import Locale(TimeLocale(. Show) ¢ £ 4 ¢ E ¡ 7 § § ¢ G § 7 ¢ ( § . ctTZ.August. CalendarTime(CalendarTime. ctMin.
Show) getClockTime getClockTime addToClockTime addToClockTime td ct diffClockTimes diffClockTimes ct1 ct2 toCalendarTime toCalendarTime ct toUTCTime toUTCTime ct toClockTime toClockTime cal calendarTimeToString calendarTimeToString :: IO ClockTime = .. Int. > ClockTime > ClockTime .Implementationdependent :: CalendarTime > ClockTime = . LIBRARY TIME data CalendarTime = CalendarTime { ctYear ctMonth ctDay. tdMonth.Implementationdependent > ClockTime > TimeDiff ..Implementationdependent :: TimeDiff = .. Read. tdMin. Read. ctHour. tdDay. tdPicosec :: Integer } deriving (Eq. Ord. Day. Integer.... tdSec :: Int.. . :: ClockTime = ..Implementationdependent > CalendarTime .. Int.Implementationdependent :: CalendarTime > String = formatCalendarTime defaultTimeLocale "%c" . Bool data TimeDiff = TimeDiff { tdYear. :: ClockTime = . String. ctMin.Implementationdependent > IO CalendarTime .1.. Show) 235 :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Int. tdHour. .. Int. ctSec ctPicosec ctWDay ctYDay ctTZName ctTZ ctIsDST } deriving (Eq. :: ClockTime = . Month. Ord..24.
DATES AND TIMES formatCalendarTime :: TimeLocale > String > CalendarTime > String formatCalendarTime l fmt ct@(CalendarTime year mon day hour min sec sdec wday yday tzname _ _) = doFmt fmt where doFmt (’%’:c:cs) = decode c ++ doFmt cs doFmt (c:cs) = c : doFmt cs doFmt "" = "" to12 :: Int > Int to12 h = let h’ = h ‘mod‘ 12 in if h’ == 0 then 12 else h’ decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode ’A’ ’a’ ’B’ ’b’ ’h’ ’C’ ’c’ ’D’ ’d’ ’e’ ’H’ ’I’ ’j’ ’k’ ’l’ ’M’ ’m’ ’n’ ’p’ ’R’ ’r’ ’T’ ’t’ ’S’ ’s’ ’U’ ’u’ = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = fst (wDays l !! fromEnum wday) snd (wDays l !! fromEnum wday) fst (months l !! fromEnum mon) snd (months l !! fromEnum mon) snd (months l !! fromEnum mon) show2 (year ‘quot‘ 100) doFmt (dateTimeFmt l) doFmt "%m/%d/%y" show2 day show2’ day show2 hour show2 (to12 hour) show3 yday show2’ hour show2’ (to12 hour) show2 min show2 (fromEnum mon+1) "\n" (if hour < 12 then fst else snd) (amPm l) doFmt "%H:%M" doFmt (time12Fmt l) doFmt "%H:%M:%S" "\t" show2 sec .fromEnum wday) ‘div‘ 7) show (let n = fromEnum wday in if n == 0 then 7 else n) decode ’V’ = let (week. days) = (yday + 7 ... .Implementationdependent show2 ((yday + 7 .1 else 6) ‘divMod‘ 7 in show2 (if days >= 4 then .236 CHAPTER 24.if fromEnum wday > 0 then fromEnum wday .
1.1 else 6) ‘div‘ 7) decode ’w’ = show (fromEnum wday) decode ’X’ = doFmt (timeFmt l) decode ’x’ = doFmt (dateFmt l) decode ’Y’ = show year decode ’y’ = show2 (year ‘rem‘ 100) decode ’Z’ = tzname decode ’%’ = "%" decode c = [c] show2. intToDigit (x ‘rem‘ 10)] show2’ x = if x < 10 then [ ’ ’. LIBRARY TIME week+1 else if week == 0 then 53 else week) decode ’W’ = show2 ((yday + 7 .24. show2’. intToDigit x] else show2 x show3 x = intToDigit (x ‘quot‘ 100) : show2 (x ‘rem‘ 100) 237 .if fromEnum wday > 0 then fromEnum wday . show3 :: Int > String show2 x = [intToDigit (x ‘quot‘ 10).
DATES AND TIMES .238 CHAPTER 24.
it supports only time and date information as used by calendarTimeToString from the Time library. At present.. timeFmt.). Show) defaultTimeLocale :: TimeLocale full and abbreviated week days full and abbreviated months AM/PM symbols formatting strings The Locale library provides the ability to adapt to local conventions. Ord. dateTimeFmt. 239 . months :: [(String. String). amPm :: (String. time12Fmt :: String } deriving (Eq. defaultTimeLocale) where data TimeLocale = TimeLocale { wDays :: [(String. String)]. String)].Chapter 25 Locale module Locale(TimeLocale(. dateFmt.
240
CHAPTER 25. LOCALE
25.1 Library Locale
module Locale(TimeLocale(..), defaultTimeLocale) where data TimeLocale = TimeLocale { wDays :: [(String, String)], months :: [(String, String)], amPm :: (String, String), dateTimeFmt, dateFmt, timeFmt, time12Fmt :: String } deriving (Eq, Ord, Show) full and abbreviated week days full and abbreviated months AM/PM symbols formatting strings
defaultTimeLocale :: TimeLocale defaultTimeLocale = TimeLocale { wDays = [("Sunday", "Sun"), ("Monday", "Mon"), ("Tuesday", "Tue"), ("Wednesday", "Wed"), ("Thursday", "Thu"), ("Friday", "Fri"), ("Saturday", "Sat")], months = [("January", ("March", ("May", ("July", ("September", ("November", "Jan"), "Mar"), "May"), "Jul"), "Sep"), "Nov"), ("February", ("April", ("June", ("August", ("October", ("December", "Feb"), "Apr"), "Jun"), "Aug"), "Oct"), "Dec")],
amPm = ("AM", "PM"), dateTimeFmt = "%a %b %e %H:%M:%S %Z %Y", dateFmt = "%m/%d/%y", timeFmt = "%H:%M:%S", time12Fmt = "%I:%M:%S %p" }
Chapter 26
CPU Time
module CPUTime ( getCPUTime, cpuTimePrecision ) where getCPUTime cpuTimePrecision :: IO Integer :: Integer
Computation getCPUTime returns the number of picoseconds of CPU time used by the current program. The precision of this result is given by cpuTimePrecision. This is the smallest measurable difference in CPU time that the implementation can record, and is given as an integral number of picoseconds.
241
242
CHAPTER 26. CPU TIME
243
244
CHAPTER 27. RANDOM NUMBERS
Chapter 27
Random Numbers
module Random ( RandomGen(next, split, genRange), StdGen, mkStdGen, Random( random, randomR, randoms, randomRs, randomIO, randomRIO ), getStdRandom, getStdGen, setStdGen, newStdGen ) where  The RandomGen class class RandomGen genRange :: g next :: g split :: g g where > (Int, Int) > (Int, g) > (g, g)
 A standard instance of RandomGen data StdGen = ...  Abstract instance RandomGen StdGen where ... instance Read StdGen where ... instance Show StdGen where ... mkStdGen :: Int > StdGen  The Random class class Random a where randomR :: RandomGen g => (a, a) > g > (a, g) random :: RandomGen g => g > (a, g) randomRs :: RandomGen g => (a, a) > g > [a] randoms :: RandomGen g => g > [a] randomRIO :: (a,a) > IO a randomIO :: IO a instance instance instance instance instance instance Random Random Random Random Random Random Int Integer Float Double Bool Char where where where where where where ... ... ... ... ... ...
 The global random generator newStdGen :: IO StdGen setStdGen :: StdGen > IO () getStdGen :: IO StdGen getStdRandom :: (StdGen > (a, StdGen)) > IO a
The library makes it possible to generate repeatable results.4] are the only examples we know of). the Float instance of Random allows one to generate random values of type Float. The split operation allows one to obtain two independent random number generators. without being concerned that the generator returned by (say) next might have a different range to the generator passed to next. THE RANDOMGEN CLASS. but very little work has been done on statistically robust implementations of split ([1. The class Random provides a way to extract particular values from a random number generator.Default method genRange g = (minBound. and hence the value it returns can be determined only by the instance of RandomGen. That in turn allows an implementation to make a single call to genRange to establish a generator’s range. The class RandomGen provides a common interface to such generators. The next operation returns an Int that is uniformly distributed in the range returned by genRange (including both end points). This is very useful in functional programs (for example. or by supplying a seed from some other source. by starting with a speciﬁed initial random number generator. and a new generator.maxBound) The genRange operation yields the range of values returned by the generator. ¦ ¡ ¡ . and the StdGen generator The class RandomGen provides a common interface to random number generators. g) . 27.27. . For example. then . or to get different results on each run by using the systeminitialised generator.1 The RandomGen class. – genRange – If genRange . AND THE STDGEN GENERATOR 245 The Random library deals with the common task of pseudorandom number generation.Int) next :: g > (Int. The library is split into two layers: A core random number generator provides a supply of bits.1. g) split :: g > (g. when passing a random number generator down to recursive calls). It is required that: The second condition ensures that genRange cannot examine its argument. class RandomGen g where genRange :: g > (Int.
but in fact they are both equal to variantOf g. In general. instance Show StdGen where .. Different argument strings are likely to result in different results. Until more is known about implementations of split.. Implementations of the above form do not meet the speciﬁcation.246 CHAPTER 27. the read instance of StdGen has the following properties: It guarantees to succeed on any string. the abstract data type StdGen: data StdGen = .. all we require is that split deliver generators that are (a) not identical and (b) independently robust in the sense just given. split g = (g..3]. Implementation warning. variantOf g) Here. distinct arguments should be likely to produce distinct generators. The Show/Read instances of StdGen provide a primitive way to save the state of a random number generator. A superﬁcially attractive implementation of split is instance RandomGen MyGen where .. of course. split returns g itself and a new generator derived from g. The result of repeatedly using next should be at least as statistically robust as the “Minimal Standard Random Number Generator” described by [2.Abstract instance RandomGen StdGen where .. . mkStdGen :: Int > StdGen The StgGen instance of RandomGen has a genRange of at least 30 bits. Again.. It guarantees to consume only a ﬁnite portion of the string. .. then g1 and g2 should be independent.. But now consider these two apparentlyindependent generators: g1 = snd (split g) g2 = snd (split (fst (split g))) If split genuinely delivers independent generators (as speciﬁed). by mapping an Int into a generator. It is required that read (show g) == g. RANDOM NUMBERS The Random library provides one instance of RandomGen. instance Read StdGen where . read may be used to map an arbitrary string (not necessarily one produced by show) onto a value of type StdGen. The function mkStdGen provides an alternative way of producing an initial generator. supply their own instances of RandomGen. In addition.. Programmers may.
The plural versions.. but they may be.. randomRs and randoms.. .. ..2 The Random class With a source of random number supply in hand. g) randomRs :: RandomGen g => (a..27. such as Char)... but does not take a range. produce an inﬁnite list of random values... a) > g > [a] randoms :: RandomGen g => g > [a] randomRIO :: (a. randomR takes a range and a random number generator . the range is normally the whole type.Default methods randoms g = x : randoms g’ where (x. random does the same as randomR... It is unspeciﬁed what happens if . For continuous types there is no requirement that the values and are ever produced. the range is (arbitrarily) the range of Int.a) > IO a randomIO :: IO a . together with a new generator. . – For bounded types (instances of Bounded... . – For Integer. THE RANDOM CLASS 247 27. and returns a random value uniformly distributed in the closed interval . and do not return a new generator. depending on the implementation and the interval..similar. . ..2. the range is normally the semiclosed interval ¦ ¨ § ¨¥ 2 7 § ¨¥ £ § ¨¥ 2 7 2 7 § ¨¥ 2 7 . g) random :: RandomGen g => g > (a. the Random class allows the programmer to extract random values of a variety of types: class Random a where randomR :: RandomGen g => (a.g’) = random g randomRs = . randomIO = getStdRandom random randomRIO range = getStdRandom (randomR range) instance instance instance instance instance instance Random Random Random Random Random Random Int Integer Float Double Bool Char where where where where where where . – For fractional types. a) > g > (a.
2(2):203212. global random number generator of type StdGen. “Two fast implementations of the minimal standard random number generator”. StdGen)) > IO a getStdGen and setStdGen get and set the global random number generator. 27. Comm ACM 31(10). Journal of Functional Programming. pp11921201. newStdGen applies split to the current global random generator. July 1998.3 The global random number generator There is a single.ac. Oct 1988. “Random number generators . and returns the other. by using the time of day. held in some global variable maintained by the IO monad.at/ is a great source of information. and KW Miller. pp8289. getStdRandom uses the supplied function to get a value from the current global random generator. use setStdGen. respectively. ACM SIGSIM Simulation Digest 28(1). 33(1). It is initialised automatically in some systemdependent fashion. “Don’t trust parallel Monte Carlo”. rollDice gets a random integer between 1 and 6: rollDice :: IO Int rollDice = getStdRandom (randomR (1. [2] SK Park. Comm ACM. randomRIO and randomIO. April 1992.6)) References [1] FW Burton and RL Page.mat. and updates the global generator with the new generator returned by the function. [3] DG Carta. RANDOM NUMBERS The IO versions. The Web site http://random. Jan 1990. For example.good ones are hard to ﬁnd”. for example.3). . use the global random number generator (see Section 27. setStdGen getStdGen newStdGen getStdRandom :: :: :: :: StdGen > IO () IO StdGen IO StdGen (StdGen > (a. or Linux’s kernel random number generator.248 CHAPTER 27. implicit. To get deterministic behaviour. updates it with one of the results.sbg. “Distributed random number generation”. pp8788. [4] P Hellekalek.
Feys.. Hudak. Wadler and S. Peyton Jones. [4] KF. In APL ’81 Conference Proceedings. J.L. The Unicode Standard. NorthHolland Pub. Fax´ n A static semantics for Haskell Journal of Functional Programming. and J. Englewood Cliffs. Yale University. Principal type schemes for functional programs.R. Haskell Workshop. A gentle introduction to Haskell. Fasel. September 1981. [2] H. pages 60–76. Milner. [10] S. [8] Mark P. [11] Unicode Consortium. Backus. A system of constructor classes: overloading and implicit higherorder polymorphism. Peterson. PrenticeHall International. Jones. 146:29–60. January 1982. 2002. Reading.. Can programming be liberated from the von Neumann style? A functional style and its algebra of programs. Hindley. Typing Haskell in Haskell. Transactions of the American Mathematical Society. San Francisco. Albuquerque. Blott. CACM. pages 207–212. Version 3. Journal of Functional Programming. 2000. Austin. N.M. Penﬁeld. Combinatory Logic. The Implementation of Functional Programming Languages. 1958. August 1978. The principal type scheme of an object in combinatory logic. New Jersey.B. In Proceedings of the 16th ACM Symposium on Principles of Programming Languages.0. [3] L. 21(8):613–641. 5(1). Principal values and branch cuts in complex APL. December 1969. Amsterdam. How to make ad hoc polymorphism less ad hoc. Jr. Addison Wesley. pages 248–256. January 1989. Curry and R. e [5] J. 1987. January 1995. October 1999. May 1996.Bibliography [1] J. [9] P. [7] Mark P. Damas and R. [6] P. [12] P. Texas. Paris. Jones. MA. In Proceedings of the 9th ACM Symposium on Principles of Programming Languages. 249 . Co. Technical Report YALEU/DCS/RR901.
250 BIBLIOGRAPHY .
12 . 25. 142 :. 109 @. 55. 55. 55. 84. 214 application. 91. 92. 230 ˆ. 91. 80 \\. 106 acosh. see trivial type and unit expression *. 105. 55. see irrefutable pattern abbreviated module. 142 =<<. 19 function. 12 \n. 17. 180. 55. 142 <=. see function application operator. 55. 141 all. 55. see aspattern [] (nil). 174. 9. 25. 91. 105 **. 104. 62 and. 55. 104. 66 abs. 91. 12 \b. 153 251 § 7 3¢ §§ ¢ ¦ . 91. 142 >=. 55. 173. 104. see also negation . 104. 104. 173. 90. 55. see lambda abstraction \&. 90. 93. 80 (. 173. 91. Code Index entries that refer to nonterminals in the Haskell syntax are shown in an entities are shown in typewriter font. 104. 119 alt. 105. 97. 84. 104. see wildcard pattern . 43. 106 +. 67. 177 acos. 104.). 79. 177 !!. 153 &&. 140 appendFile. 20–23. 81. 206 apat. 110 $!. 104. 51. 110 %. 187 \. 12 \v. 31. see also + pattern ++. 116 $. 92. 109 ==. 109 _. 76 accum. 55. 175. 80 :+. 176. 202. 104. 9. 55. 55. 139 algebraic datatype. 97. 88. 151. !. 104. 81. 129 any. 91. 104. 177 accumArray. 175–177 /=. 119 ANY. 55. 126 AppendMode. 186. 182 \a. 88. 91. see operator application approxRational. 55. 91. 142 >>. 109 ˆˆ. 129 any. 55. 233. 110 (. 12 \f. 109 >>=. 81. 82. 9. 104. 115. 174. 156 ::.. 16. 88. 139 alts. 44. 106 //. 82. 90. 151. 139 ambiguous type. 45. 12 \t. 104. 97. 55. 79. 110 /. 104. 217 abstract datatype. 91.). 84. 173.. 55. 30 <. 104. 110 ˜. 55. 84. 104.Index font. 55. 92. 105 AbsoluteSeek. 55. 90. 12 \\. 104. 92. 104. 155. 106 addToClockTime. 80 (). 129 ap. 12 \r. 235 aexp. 115 . 104. 119 ANYseq. 55. 104. Ordinary index entries are shown in a roman font. 142 >.
93. 79. 130 conjugate. 98. 211. 177 bracket. 173. 118 btype. 235 case expression. see function binding pattern. 11. 161. 106 asinh. 67 with an empty where part. 174. 174. 49 clock time. 25 INDEX catch. 137 cdecls. 91. 193. 48 class environment. 66. 79 Bounded (class). 21 conid. 176. 39. 136 Bool (datatype). 232 ClockTime (datatype). 210 CalendarTime (datatype). 114 atan. 125. 47. 129 compare. 136 cntrl. 226 Char (datatype). 234 char. 142 Complex (module). 17. 140 concat. 18. 7 ascLarge. 17. 129 ascSmall. 106 assocs. 74 cname.252 arithmetic operator. 174 derived. 129 ascii. 232. 9. 197. 221 break. 69. 91. 107 changing the directory. 40. 155. 130 character. 235 calendarTimeToString. 195. 79. 9. 137 ceiling. 95 binding. 23. 194 cdecl. 155. 115 concatMap. 18. 129 asin. 92. 174. 130 chr. 173 accumulated. 137 basic input/output. see transparent character set charesc. 115 conditional expression. 12 character set ASCII. 93. 9. see simple pattern binding body. 12. 129 closing a ﬁle. 9. 93 comment. 197 array. 38. 108 atanh. 90 arithmetic sequence. 221 bracket_. 161. 156 conop. 174 Array (module). 9 endofline. 38. 173. see pattern binding simple pattern. 143 instance for Char. 37 function. 110 Char (module). 173. 10. 41. 33 ascDigit. 79 literal syntax. 89. 234 closecom. 40. 106 atan2. 104. 233. 198 cis. 12. 91. 195. 130 coercion. 47. 84. 9 comment. 41 class declaration. 9. 173. 140 . 111 bounds. 177 aspattern (@). 38. 48. 106 atype. 232. 12. 51. 47. 137 BufferMode (datatype). 38. 121. 215 closure. 176 array. 91. 42 class method. 137 class assertion. 92. 130 ASCII character set. see ASCII character set transparent. 129 ascSymbol. 105 derived instance. 31. 155. 230 catMaybes. 177 asTypeOf. 47 class. 156 con. 80 Array (datatype). 110 boolean. 156 class. 12. 211. 9 nested. 9.
177 encodeFloat. 163 doesDirectoryExist. 41 context. 58 decls. 239. 180. 50. 43. 138 decimal. 235 ctMin. 43 data declaration. 41. 119 elemIndex. 195. 49 declaration group. 51 defaultTimeLocale. 38. 90. 81. 48. 56. 225 denominator. 118 dropWhile. 224 Directory (module). see newtype declaration dateFmt. 106 divMod. 106 cosh. 213. 38 constructor expression. 240 Day (datatype). 106 cosine. 129 digitToInt. 89. see also instance declaration deriving. 153 dependency analysis. see default declaration 253 ﬁxity. 138 constrs. 225 deleting ﬁles. 93. 232. 93 CPU time. 24 within an instance declaration. vii cycle. 180. 43. Haskell B. 91. 197 directories. 55. 224 doesFileExist. 40 consym. 145 default declaration. 111 either. 114 Curry. 224 Double (datatype). 235 ctIsDST. 104. 182. 232. 240 delete. 43. 130 context. 224. 173. 58 derived instance. 11. 232. 240 dateTimeFmt. see class declaration datatype. 10. 59 cos. 55. 81. see abstract datatype algebraic. 115. 234 dclass. 27. see data declaration default. 92. 38. 51. 137 context reduction. 130 decl. 37 class. 93. 187 deleting directories. 137 decodeFloat. see data declaration recursive. 241 cpuTimePrecision. 182. 239. 112 drop. 241 createDirectory. 235 digit. 174. 241 CPUTime (module). 80.. 187 deleteBy. 9. 111 elem. 214 ctDay. 187 deleteFirstsBy. 92. 110 constr. 9. 180. 129 data constructor. 180. 43 abstract. see ﬁxity declaration import. see instance declaration within a class declaration. 138 diffClockTimes. 186 elems. 138 constructor class. 91. 106 do expression. 226 curry. 235 ctHour. 233. 43. 232. 151.INDEX const. 92. 141. 91. 184. 224 div. see import declaration instance. 225 creating a ﬁle. 137 declaration. 43 datatype. 118 e. 184. 239. 108 . 26. 167 Either (datatype). 81. 47 within a let expression. 97 doDiv. 108 default class method. 186 elemIndices. see recursive datatype renaming. 180. 232. 235 current directory. 117 dashes. see algebraic datatype declaration. 91. 182.
115 filterM. 229 exitWith. 86. 92. 110 Float (datatype). 92. see unit expression expression typesignature. 89. see class environment type. 99. 12. 180. 106 enumeration. 139 FFFormat (datatype). 21. 16. 86. 67. 93. 229 EQ. 38. 138 ﬁle. 91. 162 expts. 106 instance for Complex. 213 FilePath (type synonym). 177 instance for Char. 28. 229 ExitFailure. 65 Enum (class). 17. 170 enumFrom. 49. 91. 92. 93. 180. 207 find. 51. 27 update. 30. 89. 4. 139 exp. 88. 109. 136 v INDEX expression. 104 derived instance. 105 superclass of Ord. 54. 142 instance for Char. 112 ﬂoat. 86. 180. 4. 167 fail. 17 error. see label. 86. 12 floatDigits. 108 floatRange. 33 floatRadix. 30. 29 ﬁelddecl. 92. 105 enumFromTo. 86. 81 Eq (class). 79 fbind. 66 exports. 16. 82. 154 superclass of Integral. 108 floatToDigits. 158 superclass of RealFloat. 130 even. 51. 113 instance for Float. 93. 164 ﬁeld label. 139 exp. see type expression unit. 15 case. see type environment environment variables. 105 enumFromThenTo. 106 exponent. 215 ﬁle system. 67. 94. 163 f. 202. 229 . 108 Floating (class). see simple case expression type. 108 ﬂoating literal pattern. 213 ﬁle buffering. 91 export. 81. 139 fexp. 105 environment class. 229 ExitSuccess. 137 ﬁxity declaration. 136 export list. 44 construction. 166 ¡ ¢ ¡ . 98 executable. 113 instance for Ratio. 182. 19. 125 filter. 111 instance for Double. 108 exponentiation. 91. 212 False. 19. 186 findIndex. 230 escape. 92. see case expression conditional. 224 execution time. 24–26. 186 ﬁxity. 105 enumFromThen. 142 instance for Array. 108 exception handling.254 end of ﬁle. 159. 104 error. 97. 51. 43. 48. 186 findIndices. 18 ﬁxity. 89. 28 selection. 110 superclass of Num. 229 exitFailure. see conditional expression let. see let expression simple case. 16. 241 ExitCode (datatype). 54 flip. 114. 52 expt. 105 derived instance. 215 entity.
34 guard. 194 fromRat. 210 HandlePosn (datatype). 80. 91. 23.INDEX floor. 107 fromEnum. 140 fpats. 207 foldr. 138 gap. 137 guard. 224 getProgName. 193. 18. 219 getArgs. 18 gd. 56 function type. 181. 111 functor. 236 formatRealFloat. 106 superclass of RealFrac. 9. 181. 177 instance for IO. 114 function. 81 gtycon. 130 hexit. 188 GT. 116 foldl1. 137 generalization. 105 fromInteger. 9. 96. 181. 117 foldr1. 225 getDirectoryContents. 56. 92. 181. 248 graphic. 25. 224 getPermissions. 94. 233. 181. 113 instance for Array. 105 fromIntegral. 106 instance for Complex. 91. 153 superclass of Floating. 193. 87. 157 instance for Ratio. 244. 40. 108 gcon. 206 Handle (datatype). 125 getModificationTime. 159. 90. 31. 229 getStdGen. 245 get the contents of a ﬁle. 18. 210 handles. 109 instance for []. 241 getCurrentDirectory. 229 getLine. 96. 23 genericDrop. 117 formal semantics. 129 fpat. 181. 25. 138 gdpat. 202. 56. 54. 91. 225 getEnv. 189 genericIndex. 96. 12. 130 gcd. 18. 3 Haskell kernel. 129 255 . 233. 129 group. 248 getStdRandom. 235 getContents. 87. 4 hClose. 55. 229 getChar. 224. 87 funlhs. 93. 18. 38. 109 fromJust. 49. 42 generator. 189 genericReplicate. 187 groupBy. 176 foldl. 86. 89. 244. 181. vii Functor (class). 140 Fractional (class). 183. 9. 125 getClockTime. 31. 11. 139 gdrhs. 217 fmap. 91. 107 ﬂushing a ﬁle buffer. 109. 59 generalization preorder. 138 gendecl. 194 fromMaybe. 92. 125 getCPUTime. 189 genRange. 190 genericLength. 40. 215 head. 92. 140 gconsym. 165 formfeed. 244. vii. 47. 3 formatCalendarTime. 189 genericTake. 41 functional language. 111 instance for Maybe. 181. 210. 213 Haskell. 162 fromRat’. 190 genericSplitAt. 106 fst. 115 hexadecimal. 202. 162 fromRational. 116 foldM. 81 function binding. 184. 90. 224. 25.
81. 212 IOError (datatype). 197 isAlphaNum. 211. 197 isDoesNotExistError. 136 import. 189 inst. 211. 211. 96. 24. 212 id. 211. 69. 172 indices. 210. 195. 136 index.256 hFileSize. 211. 217 hWaitForInput. 211. 70 HindleyMilner type system. 211. 211. 112 Integer (datatype). 218 hLookAhead. 219 hPutStrLn. 187 intersectBy. 217 hGetBuffering. 211. 211. 211. 33. 194 . 169. 49. 215 hIsOpen. 184. 211. 81. 211. 89. 171. 187 intersperse. 155. 211 hReady. 181. 210 I/O errors. 218 hGetPosn. 38. 211. 112 integer. 69. 9 ifthenelse expression. 216. 219 hGetLine. 197 isIllegalOperation. 181. 181. 212 ioeGetFileName. 198 IO. 211. 195. 38. 197 isControl. 212 isJust. 147 INDEX input/output. 184. 49. 49 Int (datatype). 181. 195. 163 Integral (class). 91. 212 isHexDigit. 211. 210 input/output examples. 187 intToDigit. 195. 211. 125 IOMode (datatype). 174. 211. 212 ioeGetHandle. 98. 195. 183. 188 inlining. 38. 69 impspec. 215 isEOF. 214 irrefutable pattern. 171. 137 idecls. 183. 66. 217 hGetChar. 211. 218 I/O. 110 idecl. 212 isFullError. 218 hIsWritable. 50. 210. see conditional expression imagPart. 49. 218 hGetContents. 156 impdecl. 218 hIsSeekable. 211. 218 hIsReadable. 212. 219 hPutStr. 218 hIsEOF. 169. 69. 211. 136 import declaration. 211. 221 ioeGetErrorString. 92. 197 isDigit. 215 hFlush. 106 interact. 181. 211. 49. 136 impdecls. 57 isAlpha. 195. 211. 58 hIsClosed. 219 inRange. 92. 212. 172 insert. 211. 12 integer literal pattern. 125. 116 inits. 126 intersect. 214. 211. 212 ioError. 71 with an empty where part. 111 IO (module). 216 hSetPosn. see also derived instance importing and exporting. 195. 217 hSetBuffering. 197 isAlreadyExistsError. 173. 193. 218 hSeek. 183. 188 insertBy. 181. 210 IO (datatype). 219 hPrint. 217 hiding. 219 hPutChar. 34. 182. 138 instance declaration. 211. 81. 137 identiﬁer. 212 isAlreadyInUseError. 4. 211. 211. 211. 177 init. 89. 211. 215 isAscii. 215 isEOFError. 33 integerLogBase. 211.
177 listToMaybe. 21. 143 maximal munch rule. 41 listArray. 212 iterate. 105. 129 lexical structure. 31. 92 magnitude. 91. 156 Main (module). 173. 188 isPrint. 180. 207 liftM4. 31. 27 lambda abstraction. 130. 116 let expression. 199 . 24 in do expressions. 197 isSpace. 139 libraries. 129 last. 111 v § ¢ £ 7¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ 7 . 39. 181. 16. 88. 56 lines. 169.INDEX isLatin1. 207 liftM5. 225 map. 91 logBase. 40. 207 linear pattern. 211. 193. 31. 56 linearity. 45. 172. 45. 202. 181. 109 Left. 193. 176. 211. 177 join. 172 Ix (module). 89. 117 Ix (class). 207 liftM3. 50. 173. 81 kind. 109 mapMaybe. 32 literate comments. 40. 202. 239 log. 155. 44. 9. 195. 173. 23. 171. 194 isOctDigit. 140 LT. 172 derived instance. 184. 197 isNothing. 202. 197 isSuffixOf. 181. 86. 186 list. 115 mapAccumL. 176. 181. 64 kind inference. 92. 234. 240 locale. 195. 159. 176. 215 isPrefixOf. 106 logarithm. 19. 81 length. 118 List (module). 188 mapAndUnzipM. 91. 80 list type. 26 in list comprehensions. 88. 9. 188 isUpper. 198 max. 119 maximumBy. 194 literal. 207 v 257 liftM2. 7 lexLitChar. 188 mapAccumR. 19. 40. 197 isUserError. 183. 195. 81. 172 instance for Int. 50. 181. 183. 104. 234 ixmap. 239. 172 instance for Integer. 81 magnitude. 65 making directories. 174. 80 list comprehension. 202. 122 lexDigits. 116 layout. 84. 169. 19 large. 119 . 44. 13. 109 match. 202. 189 Maybe (datatype). 9. 134 Locale (module). 142 maxBound. 232. 202. see also offside rule lcm. 74 liftM. 212. 197 isLower. 206 mapM. 23 lex. 202. 193. 170 instance for Char. 195. 127 maximum. 168 lexeme. 195. 129 literal pattern. 9. 197 isPermissionError. 195. 219 lookup. 12. 206 Just. 195. 194 mapM_. 64 label. 91. 210. 106 lookahead. 65 main.
26. 111 maybeToList. 194 maybe. 91. 11. 89 literal syntax. 187 null. 202. 180. 81 nub. 66. 214 opening a ﬁle.258 Maybe (module). 11 translation of literals. 9. 206 msum. 155. 129 negate. 234 moving directories. 156 mkStdGen. 38. 113 instance for IO. see also layout op. 95 MonadPlus (class). 105 negation. 206 monad. 113 numericEnumFromThenTo. 202. 182. 65 module. 19 operator application. 84. 16. 91. 106 superclass of Real. 193. 184. 90. 245 nonnull. 81. 142 instance for Array. 17. 88. 168 not. 105 instance for Complex. 244. 105. 119 Ord (class). 89. 159. 210. 104. 198 Ordering (datatype). 153 superclass of Real. 32–34. 91. 184. 119 Nothing. 104. 11. 9. 206 monomorphic type variable. 161. 129 openFile. 46 INDEX next. 153 Numeric (module). 55. 225 moving ﬁles. 111 superclass of MonadPlus. 129 odd. see special name namespaces. 109 instance for []. 129 newStdGen. 89. 206 instance for []. 206 Monad (module). 54. 66. 51. 248 newtype declaration. 189 mkPolar. 194 method. 137 or. 202. 61 monomorphism restriction. 193. 105 ord. 206 + pattern. 130. 197 numeric type. 178 instance for Char. 186. 130 octit. 116 Num (class). 90 numericEnumFrom. 81. 244. 46. 142 minBound. 9. 108 offside rule. 19 ops. 90. 206 instance for Maybe. 105 number. 136 module. 181. 104 derived instance. 89. 106 modid. see qualiﬁed name special. 9. 202. 60. 52. 79. 119 minimumBy. 110 notElem. 206 mzero. 113 numericEnumFromTo. 195. 136 Monad (class). 91. 32. 10. 34. 157 instance for Ratio. 84. 19. 143 minimum. 140 opencom. 88. 244. 111 instance for Maybe. 111 instance for Ratio. 5. 121. 9. 113 octal. 33. 57 name qualiﬁed. 61 Month (datatype). see class method min. 54. 113 numericEnumFromThen. 19. 214 operating system commands. 55. 20 newconstr. 180. 13. 151. 186 nubBy. 202. 230 operator. 138 newline. 246 mod. 232. 115. 225 mplus. 10 ncomment. 18 numerator. 27. 18. 153 superclass of Fractional. 112 ¢ ¦ .
11. 9. 244. 105 Prelude implicit import of. 139 qualiﬁed name. 171. 247 randomR. see + pattern refutable. see aspattern _. 244. see integer literal pattern irrefutable. 125 PreludeIO (module). 130 qvarop. see constructed pattern ﬂoating. 53 print. 34 Permissions (datatype). 11. 247 randomRs. 115 PreludeText (module). 25. 217 RandomGen. 96. 130 qtycon. 244. 140 qtycls. 130 Random (class). 31. 93. 125 PreludeList (module). see refutable pattern pattern binding. 47 defaults. 156 physical ﬁle. 11. 151. 11. 51. 140 qconsym. 96. 43. 153. 218 polymorphic recursion. 11. 91. 18. 23 quantiﬁcation. 38 overloaded pattern. 70. 244. 55. 18. 103. 91. 11. 156 polling a handle for input. 85. 181. 72 qualiﬁer. see also ﬁxity pred. 91. 130 qop. 31. 96. 155. 245 randomIO. 42. 57 patternmatching. 30 overloaded constant. 125 putStr. 103 PreludeBuiltin (module). 140 qconid. see wildcard pattern constructed. see linear pattern + . 125 product. 178 ¢ ¦ ¢ ¦ § ¢ £¡ . 106 polar.INDEX otherwise. 171. 75. 18. 229 program name. 140 qvarid. 225 pattern. 106 qvar. 143 instance for [a]. 130 qconop. 103. 151 Ratio (module). 213 pi. 4 pragmas. 92. 169. 106 quotRem. 247 randoms. 130 qual. 244 random. 125 putStrLn. 183. 110 overloaded functions. 18. 140 path. 224 phase. 104. 121 derived instance. 96. 229 program structure. 30 @. 75 Prelude (module). 54 polymorphism. 23. 103. 244. 11. 244. 103. 79. 247 range. 172 Ratio (datatype). 187 . 90. 129 v 259 program arguments. 51 partition. see patternmatching overloading. 169. 125 qcon. 155. 140 pat. 151 Read (class). 153 rational numbers. 151. 161 Rational (type synonym). 247 Random (module). 103. 41 quot. 147 precedence. 119 program. 3 properFraction. 19. 247 randomRIO. 121 principal type. see irrefutable pattern linear. 172 rangeSize. 140 qvarsym. 107 putChar. 124 instance for Array. 247 random access ﬁles. see ﬂoating literal pattern integer. 18.
214 readFloat. 225 renaming directories. 159. 159. 89. 86. 140 INDEX scaleFloat. 81 round. 81. 86. see also operator application SeekFromEnd. 117 reservedid. 88. 90. 31. 46 refutable pattern. 164 readIO. 116 scanr. 121 reads. 225 removing directories. 97. 224. 126. 91. 126 readList. 139 rhs. 126 ReadMode. 143 ReadWriteMode. 106 superclass of RealFrac. 104. 224 readDec. 109 recip. 88. 217 rem. 108 RealFrac (class). 85. 143 instance for [a]. 85. 96. 119 . 107 instance for Ratio. 106 removeDirectory. 16. 121 derived instance. 214 Real (class). 164 readParen. 10. 92. 122 ReadS (type synonym). 224. 92. 92. 106 recursive datatype. 107 RealFloat (class). 224. 105 instance for Ratio. 85.260 instance for Char. 159. 107 roundTo. 225 removeFile. 159. 96. 108 scaleRat. 10. 124 v v § ¡ ¢ £¡ ¢ ¡ ¤ ¤ . 224. 10. 121. 94. 225 repeat. 85. 124 instance for Double. 88. 198 readLn. 225 setPermissions. 123 instance for Ratio. 93. 156 realToFrac. 226 reading from a ﬁle. 154 superclass of RealFloat. 109 sequence_. 122 readSigned. 248 setting the directory. 166 . 224 section. 122 readable. 214 readOct. 76 seq. 162 scanl. 217 SeekMode (datatype). 55. 214 separate compilation. 130 return. 91. 117 scanr1. 56. 109 reverse. 225 renameFile. 110 sequence. 210. see formal semantics semiclosed handles. 217 seeking a ﬁle. 225 renaming ﬁles. 123 instance for Float. 164 reading a directory. 159. 117 scontext. 51. 138 Right. 33 RelativeSeek. 143 readLitChar. 155. 123 instance for Int. 153 superclass of Integral. 85. 224 setStdGen. 217 semantics formal. 244. 85. 130 reservedop. 123 instance for Integer. 159. 154 read. 226 Show (class). 117 replicate. 163 readsPrec. 91. 224. 164 readEsc. 109 setCurrentDirectory. 137 searchable. 108 realPart. 116 scanl1. 198 readFile. 218 readInt. 225 removing ﬁles. 20. 93. 168 readHex. 121. 104. 225 renameDirectory. 92. 195. 92.
108 signum. 9. 45. 111 string. 163 showParen. 91. 106 standard handles. 85. 127 System (module). 195. 139 strictness ﬂag. 129 snd. 232. 82 String (type synonym). 199 showOct. 184. 43. 139 stmts. 237 show3. 91. 118 tan. 159. 181. 93 tanh. 80. 26. 210. 210. 237 show2’. 181. 129 span. 213 stmt. 119 superclass. 215 small. 124 instance for Double. 244. see also Prelude stderr. 213 standard prelude. 164 showFFloat. 108 succ. 159. 159. 213 stdout.INDEX instance for Array. 91. 229 system. 130 synonym. 106 tangent. 93 sinh. 57. 235 tdHour. 163 showList. 105 show. 188 sortBy. 9. 163 showsPrec. 94. 92 signature. 229 tab. 115 tails. 143 showLitChar. 91. 159. 92. 53 significand. 210 instance for Integer. 105 sum. 12. 235 261 . 118 sqrt. 9. 138 sin. 74. 9. 129 tail. 123 instance for HandlePosn. 122 showSigned. 129 split. 232. 41. 121 show2. 159. 143 showString. 246 stdin. 79 literal syntax. 85. see transparent string string. 86. 164 showGFloat. 235 tdPicosec. 122 ShowS (type synonym). 235 tdMonth. 48. 91. 106 tdDay. 237 showChar. 123 instance for Int. 122 showEFloat. 62 simpleclass. 235 tdMin. 123 instance for Float. 121. 46. 106 size of ﬁle. 122 sign. 85. 183. 123 instance for Ratio. 183. 213 StdGen (datatype). 80. 159. 45 strictness ﬂags. 163 showInt. 245 splitAt. 106 sine. 159. 129. 121. 121 shows. 114 sort. 92. 117 takeWhile. 232. 232. 159. 118 special. 49 symbol. 85. 91. 181. 188 space. 9. 85. 244. 86. 12 transparent. 210. 163 showIntAtBase. see type synonym syntax. 232. 154 superclass of Num. 164 showFloat. 159. 188 take. 137 simpletype. see type signature signdecl. 26. 164 showHex. 178 instance for Char. 105 simple pattern binding. 130 subtract.
93. see also datatype recursive. 7. 187 trigonometric function. 45. 240 TimeLocale (datatype). 11. 41 tycls. see ambiguous type constructed. 198 topdecl (class). 233. 98. 49 value. 49. 47 topdecl (data). 10. 211. 129 uniSymbol. 67. 51 topdecl (instance). 240 to12. 235 timeFmt. 114 undefined. 187 unionBy. see trivial type unit expression. 224. 140 . 11. 188 Unicode character set. 9. 235 transpose. 185. 187 uniSmall. 206 unlines. 42 ambiguous. 11. 9. 130 tycon. 197 uniDigit. 183. see constructed type function. 43 topdecl (default). 240 TimeDiff (datatype). 181. 233. 232 time of day. 38. 232. 40. 232. 235 terminating a program. 181. 120 unzip4. 236 toCalendarTime. 125 valdefs. see expression typesignature type synonym. 130 type. 18. 41. 42. 4 var. see trivial type tuple. 191 unzip7. 119 until. 91. 195. 39. 106 toLower. 181. 38. 230 the ﬁle system. 224 Time (module). 49. 103. 53 for an expression. 136 topdecls. 38. 114 unwords. 17. 181. 40. 182. 46 tyvar. 93. 66. 42 type expression. 129 uniLarge. 184. 234 time. 239. 239. 43 type environment. 114 unfoldr. 92. 221 tuple. 136 toRational. 105 toInteger. 105 toUpper. 80 tuple type. 191 unzip6. 130 uncurry. 191 userError. 49 topdecl (newtype). 22. 190 unzip5. see principal type INDEX trivial. 41. 18. 232. 9. 4. 181. 80. 235 toEnum. 40. 17. see monomorphic type numeric. 129 union. 129 unit datatype. 46 topdecl (type). 239. 4. 93 trivial type. 232 time12Fmt. 198 toUTCTime. 137 type class. 11. 9. 45 topdecl. see list type monomorphic. 9. 120 unzip3. see function type list. 180. 79 truncate. 202. see class type constructor. 22. see numeric type principal. 12 UnicodePrims (module). 86. 81. 233. see tuple type type. 22 uniWhite. 140 varid. 181. 119 unzip.262 tdYear. 195. see newtype declaration type signature. 40 type renaming. 235 toClockTime. 17. 180. 107 try. 81 True. 130 varop. 129 unless.
181.INDEX vars. 97. 130 vertab. 207 263 . 137 varsym. 190 zipWith6. 202. 202. 9. 9. 224 writeFile. 31 words. 118 writable. 181. 181. 206 whitechar. 9. 202. 53. 129 when. 181. 190 zipWith5. 80. 181. 190 zip5. 190 zip6. 207 zipWithM_. 185. 38. 9. 181. 185. 214 WriteMode. 190 zipWith. 190 zipWith7. 181. 120 zipWith4. 190 zip7. 120 zipWith3. 181. 129 whitestuff. 10. 129 wildcard pattern (_). 120 zip3. 214 zip. 190 zipWithM. 120 zip4. 129 whitespace. 126.
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