This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
https://pt.scribd.com/doc/61390861/Haskell98Report
08/01/2011
text
original
Simon Peyton Jones (editor)
Copyright notice. The authors and publisher intend this Report to belong to the entire Haskell community, and grant permission to copy and distribute it for any purpose, provided that it is reproduced in its entirety, including this Notice. Modiﬁed versions of this Report may also be copied and distributed for any purpose, provided that the modiﬁed version is clearly presented as such, and that it does not claim to be a deﬁnition of the language Haskell 98.
Contents
I The Haskell 98 Language
1 Introduction 1.1 Program Structure . 1.2 The Haskell Kernel 1.3 Values and Types . 1.4 Namespaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1
3 3 4 4 5 7 7 8 9 9 11 12 13 15 17 17 19 19 20 21 21 22 22 23 23 24 25 26 27 27 28 29
2
Lexical Structure 2.1 Notational Conventions . . . 2.2 Lexical Program Structure . 2.3 Comments . . . . . . . . . . 2.4 Identiﬁers and Operators . . 2.5 Numeric Literals . . . . . . 2.6 Character and String Literals 2.7 Layout . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . .
. . . . . . .
. . . . . . .
. . . . . . .
. . . . . . .
. . . . . . .
. . . . . . .
. . . . . . .
. . . . . . .
. . . . . . .
. . . . . . .
. . . . . . .
. . . . . . .
. . . . . . .
. . . . . . .
. . . . . . .
. . . . . . .
. . . . . . .
. . . . . . .
. . . . . . .
. . . . . . .
. . . . . . .
. . . . . . .
. . . . . . .
. . . . . . .
. . . . . . .
. . . . . . .
. . . . . . .
. . . . . . .
3
Expressions 3.1 Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 Variables, Constructors, Operators, and Literals 3.3 Curried Applications and Lambda Abstractions 3.4 Operator Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5 Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.6 Conditionals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.7 Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.8 Tuples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.9 Unit Expressions and Parenthesized Expressions 3.10 Arithmetic Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.11 List Comprehensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.12 Let Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.13 Case Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.14 Do Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.15 Datatypes with Field Labels . . . . . . . . . . 3.15.1 Field Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.15.2 Construction Using Field Labels . . . . 3.15.3 Updates Using Field Labels . . . . . . i
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ii 3.16 Expression TypeSignatures . . . . . . . . . . 3.17 Pattern Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.17.1 Patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.17.2 Informal Semantics of Pattern Matching 3.17.3 Formal Semantics of Pattern Matching . 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CONTENTS
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 30 30 31 34 37 38 39 39 41 42 43 43 45 46 47 47 49 51 51 53 53 54 55 56 57 58 58 59 59 60 61 64 65 66 66 69 69 70 70 71 71 72
Declarations and Bindings 4.1 Overview of Types and Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.1 Kinds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.2 Syntax of Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.3 Syntax of Class Assertions and Contexts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.4 Semantics of Types and Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2 UserDeﬁned Datatypes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.1 Algebraic Datatype Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.2 Type Synonym Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.3 Datatype Renamings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3 Type Classes and Overloading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.1 Class Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.2 Instance Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.3 Derived Instances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.4 Ambiguous Types, and Defaults for Overloaded Numeric Operations 4.4 Nested Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.1 Type Signatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.2 Fixity Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.3 Function and Pattern Bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.3.1 Function bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.3.2 Pattern bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5 Static Semantics of Function and Pattern Bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.1 Dependency Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.2 Generalization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.3 Context Reduction Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.4 Monomorphism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.5 The Monomorphism Restriction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.6 Kind Inference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Modules 5.1 Module Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2 Export Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3 Import Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.1 What is imported . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.2 Qualiﬁed import . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.3 Local aliases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.4 Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4 Importing and Exporting Instance Declarations 5.5 Name Clashes and Closure . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5
. . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . .
CONTENTS
5.5.1 Qualiﬁed names . . . . . 5.5.2 Name clashes . . . . . . . 5.5.3 Closure . . . . . . . . . . Standard Prelude . . . . . . . . . 5.6.1 The Prelude Module . . 5.6.2 Shadowing Prelude Names Separate Compilation . . . . . . . Abstract Datatypes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
iii 72 72 74 74 75 75 76 76 79 79 79 79 80 80 81 81 81 81 81 82 82 84 85 86 87 88 89 89 90 90 91 92 93 93 95 95 97 98
5.6
5.7 5.8 6
Predeﬁned Types and Classes 6.1 Standard Haskell Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.1 Booleans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.2 Characters and Strings . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.3 Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.4 Tuples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.5 The Unit Datatype . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.6 Function Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.7 The IO and IOError Types . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.8 Other Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2 Strict Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3 Standard Haskell Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.1 The Eq Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.2 The Ord Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.3 The Read and Show Classes . . . . . . . . . 6.3.4 The Enum Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.5 The Functor Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.6 The Monad Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.7 The Bounded Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4 Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.1 Numeric Literals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.2 Arithmetic and NumberTheoretic Operations 6.4.3 Exponentiation and Logarithms . . . . . . . 6.4.4 Magnitude and Sign . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.5 Trigonometric Functions . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.6 Coercions and Component Extraction . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7
Basic Input/Output 7.1 Standard I/O Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2 Sequencing I/O Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3 Exception Handling in the I/O Monad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8
Standard Prelude 101 8.1 Prelude PreludeList . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 8.2 Prelude PreludeText . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 8.3 Prelude PreludeIO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
. . . . . 10 Speciﬁcation of Derived Instances 10. . . . . . .3 Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . .iv 9 Syntax Reference 9. . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Miscellaneous . . . . . 16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Array Construction . . . . . 153 13 Complex Numbers 155 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Derived instances of Bounded . . . . . .1 Inlining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16. . . .3 Derived Arrays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Literate comments . . . . . . . 11 Compiler Pragmas 147 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 14 Numeric 14. . .4 Derived instances of Read and Show 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Incremental Array Updates . . . . . . 147 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 ContextFree Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Lexical Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Reading functions . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Library Complex . . 15 Indexing Operations 169 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Library Ix . . . . . . . 170 15. . . 9. . . . .1 Deriving Instances of Ix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 16 Arrays 16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Accumulated Arrays 16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Specialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . 173 174 174 175 176 176 . 159 160 161 161 161 . . . . . .5 An Example . . . .1 Notational Conventions 9. . . . . . . . . 147 II The Haskell 98 Libraries 149 12 Rational Numbers 151 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Library Ratio . .4 Library Numeric . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Derived instances of Enum . . . . . . . . CONTENTS 127 127 128 130 134 136 141 142 142 143 143 145 . . . . . . . .1 Derived instances of Eq and Ord . . . 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Library Array . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Showing functions 14. . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 “Set” operations . . . . . . . 21. .4 Determining the Size of a File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Library Monad . .5 Detecting the End of Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 I/O Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Library List . . . . .2. . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17. . . . . . . .1 Opening Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. .2. . . . . . . . . . .7 The “generic” operations 17. . . . .1 Naming conventions 20. . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 The “By” operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Files and Handles . . .2 Seeking to a new Position 21. .1 Indexing lists . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . .1 Standard Handles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Flushing Buffers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 SemiClosed Handles . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.3 Reading Ahead . . . 21. 17. . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17. 17. . . . . 20. . . . . .9. . . . . . .2 Reading Input . .5 Predicates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Opening and Closing Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 203 203 204 206 209 212 213 213 214 214 214 214 215 215 215 215 217 217 217 217 218 218 218 218 219 219 219 . 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Handle Properties . . . . .2 Closing Files . . . . . . . .4 unfoldr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . v 179 182 182 183 183 184 184 185 185 186 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9.4 Reading The Entire Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 File locking . . . . . . . . . . . 197 20 Monad Utilities 20. . . . . . . . . 21. . . 21. . . . .9 Text Input and Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Buffering Operations . . . . .7 Repositioning Handles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Text Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 List transformations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Maybe Utilities 193 18. . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Library Char . . . . . . . . . . 21 Input/Output 21. . . . . . . . . . .3 Functions . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . 17. . . . 21. 21. . . .8 Further “zip” operations . .2 Class MonadPlus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17. . . . . 194 19 Character Utilities 195 19. . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS 17 List Utilities 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Library Maybe . . . . . .1 Checking for Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . .1 Revisiting an I/O Position 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10Examples . . . . .1 Summing Two Numbers 21. . . . . .10. . . .11Library IO .2 The Random class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Index . . . . . . . . . .vi 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10. . . . . 234 25 Locale 239 25. . . . . . CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . . 219 219 220 221 223 229 24 Dates and Times 231 24. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Library Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27. . . . . . . . . . . . 241 243 245 247 248 249 251 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Directory Functions 23 System Functions . and the StdGen generator 27. . . . .1 Library Locale . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 The RandomGen class. . . . . . .2 Copying Files . . . . . . . . 21.3 The global random number generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240 26 CPU Time 27 Random Numbers 27. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
to discuss an unfortunate situation in the functional programming community: there had come into being more than a dozen nonstrict. It should be suitable for teaching. This document describes the result of that committee’s efforts: a purely functional programming language called Haskell. providing faster communication of new ideas. all similar in expressive power and semantic underpinnings. named after the logician Haskell B. It should be completely described via the publication of a formal syntax and semantics. even more than it is ordinarily. and a vehicle through which others would be encouraged to use functional languages. including ourselves. have published something erroneous. purely functional programming languages.” Haskell B. Goals The committee’s primary goal was to design a language that satisﬁed these constraints: 1. and most of these. Curry whose work provides the logical basis for much of ours. Anyone should be permitted to implement the language and distribute it to whomever they please. Since some of our fellow sinners are among the most careful and competent logicians on the contemporary scene. a stable foundation for real applications development. Oregon. It should reduce unnecessary diversity in functional programming languages. There was a strong consensus at this meeting that more widespread use of this class of functional languages was being hampered by the lack of a common language. 4. Curry and Robert Feys in the Preface to Combinatory Logic [2]. including building large systems. It should be based on ideas that enjoy a wide consensus. and excessive condensation would be false economy here. we regard this as evidence that the subject is refractory. research. . 1956 In September of 1987 a meeting was held at the conference on Functional Programming Languages and Computer Architecture (FPCA ’87) in Portland. 5. It should be freely available. 2.PREFACE vii Preface “Some half dozen persons have written technically on combinatory logic. It was decided that a committee should be formed to design such a language. May 31. 3. and applications. Thus fullness of exposition is necessary for accuracy.
many typographical errors and infelicities had been spotted. As Haskell becomes more widely used. At the 1997 Haskell Workshop in Amsterdam. The Haskell 98 Language and Library Reports were published in February 1999. With reluctance. If these program were to be portable. Clarify obscure passages. making some simpliﬁcations. and constitutes the ofﬁcial speciﬁcation of both. with the following goals: Correct typographical errors. it was decided that a stable variant of Haskell was needed. a set of libraries would have to be standardised too. much larger than I had anticipated.4. together with a standard library called the Prelude. this stable language is the subject of this Report. By the middle of 1997.4). The original committees ceased to exist when the original Haskell 98 Reports were published. so every change was instead proposed to the entire Haskell mailing list. Resolve ambiguities. This task turned out to be much. It includes both the Haskell 98 Language Report and the Libraries Report. I took on the role of gathering and acting on these corrections. Haskell 98 was conceived as a relatively minor tidyup of Haskell 1. and is called “Haskell 98”. Haskell has indeed evolved continuously since its original publication. there had been four iterations of the language design (the latest at that point being Haskell 1. incorporating experimental features. By the time Haskell 98 was stabilised. It is intended to be a “stable” language in sense the implementors are committed to supporting Haskell 98 exactly as speciﬁed. Revising the Haskell 98 Reports After a year or two. A separate effort was therefore begun by a distinct (but overlapping) committee to ﬁx the Haskell 98 Libraries. for the foreseeable future. the Report has been scrutinised by more and more people. and hoped that extensions or variants of the language would appear. It is not a . make small changes to make the overall language more consistent. it had become clear that many programs need access to a larger set of library functions (notably concerning input/output and simple interaction with the operating system). and I have adopted hundreds of (mostly small) changes as a result of their feedback.viii PREFACE Haskell 98: language and libraries The committee intended that Haskell would serve as a basis for future research in language design. and removing some pitfalls for the unwary. The original Haskell Report covered only the language. This document is the outcome of this process of reﬁnement.
org gives access to many useful resources. lexically scoped type variables. Haskell 98 does not impede these developments. There is more besides. concurrency. going well beyond Haskell 98. including: monadic state. existential types. including: multiparameter type classes. For example. recursive donotation. local universal polymorphism and arbitrary ranktypes. including: . can do so in the knowledge that Haskell 98 will continue to exist. and some familiarity with functional languages is assumed. Instead. it provides a stable point of reference.PREFACE ix tutorial on programming in Haskell such as the ‘Gentle Introduction’ [6]. at the time of writing there are Haskell implementations that support: Syntactic sugar. Type system innovations. metaprogramming facilities. or use Haskell for teaching. Control extensions. The entire text of both Reports is available online (see “Haskell resources” below). Haskell Resources The Haskell web site http://haskell. functional dependencies. including: pattern guards. Extensions to Haskell 98 Haskell continues to evolve. exceptions. so that those who wish to write text books.
Implementations of Haskell. devoted a huge amount of time and energy to the language. Those who served on the Language and Library committees.x PREFACE Online versions of the language and library deﬁnitions. via the Haskell mailing list. suggest improvements to. Oregon Graduate Institute) Erik Meijer (Utrecht University) Rishiyur Nikhil (MIT) John Peterson (Yale University) Simon Peyton Jones [editor] (University of Glasgow. Contributed Haskell tools and libraries. Tutorial material on Haskell. Here they are. with their afﬁliation(s) for the relevant period: Arvind (MIT) Lennart Augustsson (Chalmers University) Dave Barton (Mitre Corp) Brian Boutel (Victoria University of Wellington) Warren Burton (Simon Fraser University) Jon Fairbairn (University of Cambridge) Joseph Fasel (Los Alamos National Laboratory) Andy Gordon (University of Cambridge) Maria Guzman (Yale University) Kevin Hammond (Uniiversity of Glasgow) Ralf Hinze (University of Bonn) Paul Hudak [editor] (Yale University) John Hughes [editor] (University of Glasgow. Microsoft Research Ltd) . and continues to be sustained. in particular. You are welcome to comment on. by an active community of researchers and application programmers. and criticise the language or its presentation in the report. University of Nottingham. Building the language Haskell was created. including a complete list of all the differences between Haskell 98 as published in February 1999 and this revised version. Details of the Haskell mailing list. Applications of Haskell. Oregon Graduate Institute) Dick Kieburtz (Oregon Graduate Institute) John Launchbury (University of Glasgow. Chalmers University) Thomas Johnsson (Chalmers University) Mark Jones (Yale University.
ML and Standard ML. Dylan Thurston. Satish Thatte. Keith Wansbrough. Guy Cousineau. Ralf Hinze. Alexander Jacobson. Ian Holyer. Østvold. Julian Seward. Finally. Christian Sievers. Klemens Hemm. Patrick Sansom. Chris Clack. Rick Mohr. Richard Bird. Pablo Lopez. They are as follows: Kris Aerts. APL. Henrik Nilsson. Ross Paterson. Dave Parrott. Randy Hudson. Bjorn Lisper. Michael Marte. Pradeep Varma. Jeff Lewis. Without these forerunners Haskell would not have been possible. Sigbjorn Finne. Nic Holt. Tom Blenko. Michael Fryers. Andreas Rossberg. Simon Marlow. Arthur Norman. Clean. Michael Schneider. Hans Aberg. Olaf Lubeck. Kent Karlsson. Simon Thompson. Andy Moran. Craig Dickson. Stephen Blott. Nimish Shah. Sven Panne. Ian Lynagh. John Robson. Orjan Johansen. the following languages were particularly inﬂuential: Lisp (and its modernday incarnations Common Lisp and Scheme). Bob Hiromoto. Malcolm Wallace. Paul Callaghan. Graeme Moss.PREFACE Mike Reeve (Imperial College) Alastair Reid (University of Glasgow) Colin Runciman (University of York) Philip Wadler [editor] (University of Glasgow) David Wise (Indiana University) Jonathan Young (Yale University) xi Those marked [editor] served as the coordinating editor for one or more revisions of the language. Simon B. In addition. Olaf Chitil. Mike Gunter. . and Turner’s series of languages culminating in Miranda 1 . Richard Kelsey. Rosser. Mark Carroll. Pat Fasel. Backus’s FP [1]. Rinus Plasmeijer. Gofer. Michael Webber. Mike Joy. Randy Michelsen. and others on the lambda calculus. Hope and Hope . Carl Witty. Robert Jeschofnik. Tony Davie. Curry. aside from the important foundational work laid by Church. Magnus Carlsson. and Bonnie Yantis. Laura Dutton. Duke Briscoe. Tom Thomson. Chris Dornan. Amir Kishon. AnttiJuhani Kaijanaho. Landin’s ISWIM. Sandra Loosemore. Mark Lillibridge. Tommy Thorn. Mike Thyer. Raman Sundaresh. Dean Herington. Nick North. Jan Skibinski. Gary Memovich. Franklin Chen. Matt Harden. Christian Maeder. Stephen Price. Lauren Smith. Paul Otto. Jim Mattson. Manuel Chakravarty. Ian Poole. Jan Kort. Stuart Wray. John Meacham. Tony Warnock. Marcin Kowalczyk. George Russell. Chris Fasel. Sergey Mechveliani. Cordy Hall. Josef Svenningsson. Ken Takusagawa. dozens of other people made helpful contributions. Although it is difﬁcult to pinpoint the origin of many ideas. Mark Tullsen. it is right to acknowledge the inﬂuence of many noteworthy programming languages developed over the years. David Tweed. Jose Labra. Thomas Hallgren. Ketil Malde. Stef Joosten. Feliks Kluzniak. Felix Schroeter. Bjarte M. Fergus Henderson. Jerzy Karczmarczuk. Andy Gill. Mark Hall. Larne Pekowsky. Chris Okasaki. Sisal. SiauCheng Khoo. Patrik Jansson. Jones. Id. Sten Anderson. Wolfram Kahl. 1 Miranda is a trademark of Research Software Ltd. some small but many substantial. Libor Skarvada. Stefan Kahrs.
xii Simon Peyton Jones Cambridge. September 2002 PREFACE .
Part I The Haskell 98 Language 1 .
.
At the next lower level are expressions. At the topmost level a Haskell program is a set of modules.e. interpreted. nonstrict semantics. At the bottom level is Haskell’s lexical structure. and ﬁxity information. Modules provide a way to control namespaces and to reuse software in large programs. including lists. Haskell is both the culmination and solidiﬁcation of many years of research on nonstrict functional languages. 1. This includes such issues as the nature of programming environments and the error messages returned for undeﬁned programs (i. compiled. a module system. userdeﬁned algebraic datatypes. etc. of which there are several kinds. arbitrary and ﬁxed precision integers. 3. deﬁned in Chapter 2. This report deﬁnes the syntax for Haskell programs and an informal abstract semantics for the meaning of such programs. datatypes. expressions are at the heart of Haskell programming “in the small. as well as how it relates to the organization of the rest of the report. programs that formally evaluate to ).1 Program Structure In this section. we describe the abstract syntactic and semantic structure of Haskell.Chapter 1 Introduction Haskell is a general purpose. patternmatching. purely functional programming language incorporating many recent innovations in programming language design. Haskell provides higherorder functions. 1. and ﬂoatingpoint numbers. static polymorphic typing. Declarations deﬁne things such as ordinary values. type classes. described in Chapter 5. arrays. list comprehensions.” 4. 2. 3 . a monadic I/O system. described in Chapter 3. The top level of a module consists of a collection of declarations. An expression denotes a value and has a static type. We leave as implementation dependent the ways in which Haskell programs are to be manipulated. and a rich set of primitive datatypes. all described in Chapter 4. The lexical structure captures the concrete representation of Haskell programs in text ﬁles.
¥ ¢ § £ ¤ ¡ ¢ ¦ 1.e. and permits not only parametric polymorphism (using a traditional HindleyMilner type structure) but also ad hoc polymorphism.3 Values and Types An expression evaluates to a value and has a static type. INTRODUCTION This report proceeds bottomup with respect to Haskell’s syntactic structure.2 The Haskell Kernel Haskell has adopted many of the convenient syntactic structures that have become popular in functional programming. the type system allows userdeﬁned datatypes of various sorts. This modular design facilitates reasoning about Haskell programs and provides useful guidelines for implementors of the language. it is essentially a slightly sugared variant of the lambda calculus with a straightforward denotational semantics. the result is a program written in a small subset of Haskell that we call the Haskell kernel. implementations will probably try to provide useful information about errors. If these translations are applied exhaustively. and pragmas supported by most Haskell compilers. Values and types are not mixed in Haskell. so the language includes no mechanism for detecting or acting upon errors. However. there are several chapters describing the Prelude. The translation of each syntactic structure into the kernel is given as the syntax is introduced. they are not distinguishable from nontermination.4 CHAPTER 1. Technically. Although the kernel is not formally speciﬁed. and Chapter 7. However. 1. In this Report. which describes the standard builtin datatypes and classes in Haskell. Examples of Haskell program fragments in running text are given in typewriter font: let x = 1 z = x+y in z+1 “Holes” in program fragments representing arbitrary pieces of Haskell code are written in italics. which discusses the I/O facility in Haskell (i. as then else . Also. etc. the concrete syntax. The chapters not mentioned above are Chapter 6. or overloading (using type classes). See Section 3. how Haskell programs communicate with the outside world). literate programming. the meaning of such syntactic sugar is given by translation into simpler constructs. for types. such as for expresin if sions. for declarations. Errors in Haskell are semantically equivalent to . the speciﬁcation of derived instances. Generally the italicized names are mnemonic. .1.
type constructors.4 Namespaces There are six kinds of names in Haskell: those for variables and constructors denote values. An identiﬁer must not be used as the name of a type constructor and a class in the same scope. class. These are the only constraints.1. and type classes refer to entities related to the type system. NAMESPACES 5 1. 2. Int may simultaneously be the name of a module. . There are two constraints on naming: 1. Names for variables and type variables are identiﬁers beginning with lowercase letters or underscore. those for type variables. the other four kinds of names are identiﬁers beginning with uppercase letters. for example. and module names refer to modules. and constructor within a single scope.4.
6 CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION .
we describe the lowlevel lexical structure of Haskell..Chapter 2 Lexical Structure In this chapter.1 Notational Conventions These notational conventions are used for presenting syntax: optional zero or more repetitions grouping choice difference—elements generated by except those generated by fibonacci terminal syntax in typewriter font Because the syntax in this section describes lexical syntax. Haskell compilers are expected to make use of new versions of Unicode as they are made available. with productions having the form: Care must be taken in distinguishing metalogical syntax such as and from concrete terminal syntax (given in typewriter font) such as  and [. all whitespace is expressed explicitly. Most of the details may be skipped in a ﬁrst reading of the report. Haskell uses the Unicode [11] character set. 2.. there is no implicit space between juxtaposed symbols. source programs are currently biased toward the ASCII character set used in earlier versions of Haskell. However. BNFlike syntax is used throughout.]. This syntax depends on properties of the Unicode characters as deﬁned by the Unicode consortium. although usually the context makes the distinction clear. 7 § ¢ £¡ ¨ ¥¥8 8 8 1 &§ ¢ £¡ A !§ 7 3¢ 8 8 8 @¥¥9 £ § )'% $ " 0(&§#!§ £§ ¢§ ¡ £¡ ¢ ¢ ¦ £¤ ¡ §¥ § § £¡ §¥ § § £ ¦¤ ¢ ¡ ¨ ¦¤ ¢ ¡ ©§¥ § § £ ¢ £ ¡ 7 3¢ ¡§ 7 3¢ 6 4¤ ¦ 2 5 § 3©¦ .
§§ § § ¦ £$ § § § © ¢ 6 6 7 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 §§ § t § 6 7 2 ' 4 3 ' ¦ £$ © ¦ ) 4 2 B2 © ¦§ 7 £ ¦ ¨ 3¦ ¢ )A 98 7 64 #"@¦"%5 3¦ ¢ ¦ 1§¤ 0 0 4 2 ¦ § ¨)§ § ¥ ( § ¦£$ ¦ ¥ 0% ¦ § §£%¢ ¤ % ¦ § 5¤ %§ ¤ ¦¤ $§ 0 ¦ $ ¦ 7 7 § © § ¤ ¤ ¦ § £ ¦ ¡ ' ¢ 7 4 '#4 ¢ 2 ¦ ¤§ ¢ 4 ¨32 ¤ ¦ 4 & $ © § ¥ %§ § ¨¦£ ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¥ ¢ & $ © § ¥ %§ § ¨¦£ ¦ ¦ § #¦ § ¢ ¤ ¤ © 2 4 © ¦ 332 ¡ 2. [ ] ` { } ¤ ¤© ¤ ¥ § 2 " § ! ¢ §¢ © ¥¢ ¤ ¤ © ¦ 7 ¦ 43¤ 3§ ¢ 32 ¡ © ¢ § ¦ ¨¦¤ © § ¥ £ ¤¢ ¡ ¤¥ § ¦ § ¤ § § 7 3§ ¢ ¤ 7 4¦ ¢ ¡ ¢ 7 . / < = > ? \ ˆ  .2 Lexical Program Structure 8 ( ) . .˜ any Unicode symbol or punctuation y B 2 4 3 t ¢ h h h h A v f 4 x"$ wg " 5 7 2 ' 4 3 t § ¦ £$ § 7 2 ' 4 3 t © ¢ A B Z any uppercase or titlecase Unicode letter _ : " ’ %¤ ¢ u 8 8 8 @¥¥9 ¦ £$ 2¤ ¢ u ¢ © 2 3© 4 7 ' § £$ 2¤ ¦ ¢u © %¤ ¢ ¢ u ¢7 %¤ S¢RQFP§ 4 32 ¦ © G E C ¦ 4 _ a b z any Unicode lowercase letter 77 !3¢ 4 t § 8 8 8 @¥¥9 ¦ £$ 4 © 77 03¢ ¢ t 4 § £$ ¦ 703¢ 7 4 t © 77 !3¢ §¢© t 4 77 !3¢ § #¥ ¡3 §¢ ¦ ¤ G E QFC © G E S¢RQFC ¢ © G E C 4 ¡ IHFD32 © ¥ © ¢ ¦ § ¦¥ 4 32 ¦ 4 4 2 B2 © 4 2 ¥ ¥2 ¦ 7 ¡ © ¥ © ¦ ¦ ¥ 4 4 ¢ 2 § § ¨)§ § ¥ ( ¦ £$ ' ¨¢ § © ¤ ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¥ ¢ & $ § © § ¥ %¤ § ¨¦£ ¢ ¤£¡ © § ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¤¢ ¡ 1§3¥0 0 4 ¤ 2 ¦ § ¥ ¤ ' #¢ ¢2 ¦ § 0 ¦ ¦¤ $§ §£%¢ ¤7 ¦§ £ ¦ 7 6 6 6 6 7 ¤ 3¢ ¥ § ¡ § 7 3¢ 7 © ¥ ¡ 4 ¢ 4 ¤ ¡&¤ 7 2 ¢ ¡ .{} a carriage return a line feed a vertical tab a form feed a space a horizontal tab any Unicode character deﬁned as whitespace CHAPTER 2. LEXICAL STRUCTURE : " ’ 7 ¥ 4 §© § © § § § 2 43© 2¤ ¦ 7 ' 7 3¢ ¡ ¢ 7 § !3¢ ¤ 77 § © ¨¥ '¨ ¡ ¤ ¢ ¥ § ¨¢£¡ ¤ ¨¥ §¢ ¤ § ¥ ¨¦£ § ¢ ¡T ) cRasY`WXrpq7"9 g 24"9 A g hi7¡9 gA " 3¦db`XV GH§¢ C U f f 9 e c a Y W U E ¦ 2 ¡ ! # $ % & * + .
3. So. Instead. The comment itself is not lexically analysed. terminated by “}”. however “foo” does start a comment. Within a nested comment.g. each “{” is matched by a corresponding occurrence of “}”. for example. “{” starts a nested comment despite the trailing dashes. 2. the character sequences “{” and “}” have no special signiﬁcance. although = is reserved.4 Identiﬁers and Operators ) ¥ v ¥ £ f ¦f ¤¢24 f ¡ §§ 8 8 8 @¥¥9 § ¦ %¤ ¢7 8¥8¥8 § § § ¦ 8 8 8 @¥¥9 77 !3¢ 4 §© 77 !3¢ ¢ ¤£¡ 8 8 8 @¥¥9 4 §© 4 ¢ ¥ S 7 6 6 6 6 6 §§ § ¦ § §§ § § § S ¥ ¢ §§§ § ¤ 2 ¦ £$ ¢ © ¢ 0 1 9 any Unicode decimal digit 0 1 7 A F a f ’ . as explained in Chapter 11. Nested comments are also used for compiler pragmas. A nested comment begins with “{” and ends with “}”. == and ˜= are not. and. Nested comments may be nested to any depth: any occurrence of the string “{” within the nested comment starts a new nested comment. then any occurrence of {. in a nested comment. If some code is commented out using a nested comment. Similarly. In an ordinary comment. the ﬁrst unmatched occurrence of the string “}” terminates the nested comment. because both of these are legal lexemes. a sequence of dashes has no special signiﬁcance.3 Comments Comments are valid whitespace. COMMENTS 9 Lexical analysis should use the “maximal munch” rule: at each point. The sequence of dashes must not form part of a legal lexeme. “>” or “” do not begin a comment.or } within a string or within an endofline comment in that code will interfere with the nested comments. An ordinary comment begins with a sequence of two or more consecutive dashes (e. are not valid in Haskell programs and should result in a lexing G E HTC Characters not in the category error. although case is a reserved word. ) and extends to the following newline. cases is not. 2. hence.2. No legal lexeme starts with “{”. © § ¥ § ¨¦£ Any kind of is also a proper delimiter for lexemes. the longest possible lexeme satisfying the production is read. For example.
Notice that a colon by itself. used as wild card in patterns. underscores. : : : . as deﬁned above. and are lexically distinguished into two namespaces (Section 1.5). : :: = \  <. “:”.> @ ˜ => Operator symbols are formed from one or more symbol characters.10 CHAPTER 2. is reserved solely for use as the Haskell list constructor.4): An operator symbol starting with a colon is a constructor. LEXICAL STRUCTURE ’ case class data default deriving do else if import in infix infixl infixr instance let module newtype of then type where _ An identiﬁer consists of a letter followed by zero or more letters. Identiﬁers are case sensitive: name. all operators are inﬁx. In the remainder of the report six different kinds of names will be used: variables constructors type variables type constructors type classes modules ) 4 f ¡$ 4 ¡ ¥ h " 9 f £ f 4 f S¥ X¤¢%w5 §§ ) " 9¡¦fX¤ f24w5¡§ 2 3© ¥ £ f 4 4 ©7 ' 2 4 © 7 ' § @ ¦ %¤ 7 2 ¢7 ' 77 !3¢ 4 §© ¦ ¤ § ¦32 ¦ ¦32 ¦ 32 ¦ ¦ 2¤ § § § ¢ ¢7 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 2 ¥¢ ¤ ¤ © ¡ ¦ 43¦ 2 © 4 S¤ © ¢ ¦ ¦ § ¥¢ ¤ © ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¤ § ¦ 72 3¥ %§ ¦ © § § § ¢¦ 2 ¤ ¦ 2 2 4 %§ ¢ %§ ¤ . naMe.4): those that begin with a lowercase letter (variable identiﬁers) and those that begin with an uppercase letter (constructor identiﬁers)..b]”. Compilers that offer warnings for unused identiﬁers are encouraged to suppress such warnings for identiﬁers beginning with underscore. Other than the special syntax for preﬁx negation. “_”. This allows programmers to use “_foo” for a parameter that they expect to be unused. All of the standard inﬁx operators are just predeﬁned symbols and may be rebound. is treated as a lowercase letter. and Name are three distinct identiﬁers (the ﬁrst two are variable identiﬁers. this makes its treatment uniform with other parts of list syntax. and single quotes. although each inﬁx operator can be used in a section to yield partially applied operators (see Section 3. such as “[]” and “[a. An operator symbol starting with any other character is an ordinary identiﬁer. the last is a constructor identiﬁer). Identiﬁers are lexically distinguished into two namespaces (Section 1. Underscore. “_” all by itself is a reserved identiﬁer. digits. and can occur wherever a lowercase letter can. However.
. ¦ ¢ ¦ ¢ § 2 7 ¢ 4§ 7 3¢ ¦ ¥ ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § § § ¡ ¥ ¢ 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 4§ 7 6 3¢ 6 6 § ¦ ¦ ¥ 32 4 4 © 3¤ ¤ § ¦ § © ¦ 32 ¦ ¤ ¦ 37 2 © ¦ § § § ¦ 32 ¢ ¢ %§ ¢ ¡ 2 ¢ S ¥ %§ ¢ ¡ ¦ ! . the other four do not. This applies to variable. ¦ ¤ § `¨ Since a qualiﬁed name is a lexeme. Qualiﬁed names are discussed in detail in Chapter 5. variables and constructors have inﬁx forms. g (three tokens) F. and the other four by identiﬁers beginning with capitals. . . .. no spaces are allowed between the qualiﬁer and the name. Namespaces are also discussed in Section 1.2. for example. NUMERIC LITERALS 11 Variables and type variables are represented by identiﬁers beginning with small letters. also. . Lexes as this f .4. type constructor and type class names.g (qualiﬁed ‘g’) f . F.. (two tokens) F. Sample lexical analyses are shown below. . Prelude. F.g f.+ is an inﬁx operator with the same ﬁxity as the deﬁnition of + in the Prelude (Section 4. (qualiﬁed ‘.g F. (two tokens) The qualiﬁer does not change the syntactic treatment of a name.’) F .. This f.2).5. but not type variables or module names. constructor.5 Numeric Literals §§ § § 2 § § § 2 §§ § § § § § ¦ ¦ 6 7 ¢ ¦ ¢ § 2 73§ ¢ 4 4§ ¨ e E +  ¨ § 32 ¦ ¦ ¢ ¡ . 4§ ¢ ¡ ¥ 0X 7 ¢ ¦ ¢ ¡ 7 3¢ 3¢ 7 § ¦ 32 ¡ ¦ ¢ 4§ ¦ 7 4 § ¡ 3¢ 4 § ¦ 7 3¢ ¦ § 7 ¢2 ¦ 4§ ¢ ¡ ¥ 0o 0x 0O 7 3¢ 43332 ¨ © ¦ 4 © 3¤ `¨ ¦ 72 3¥ %§ ¨ © § ¦ 32 ¨ ¢ %§ ¨ § § S ¢ .4. 2. A name may optionally be qualiﬁed in certain circumstances by prepending them with a module identiﬁer.
Thus "\&" is equivalent to "" and the character ’\&’ is disallowed. are also provided. similarly. Further equivalences of characters are deﬁned in Section 6.6 Character and String Literals ’ ’ \ \& ’ " " " \ \ o x a b f n r t v \ " ’ & ˆ NUL SOH STX ETX EOT ENQ ACK BEL BS HT LF VT FF CR SO SI DLE DC1 DC2 DC3 DC4 NAK SYN ETB CAN EM SUB ESC FS GS RS US SP DEL [ \ ] ˆ _ \ \ ¢ ) h ) h §§ Character literals are written between single quotes. The escape character \& is provided as a “null character” to allow strings such as "\137\&9" and "\SO\&H" to be constructed (both of length two).g. is parsed as a string of length 1. including control characters such as \ˆX. this ensures that a decimal point cannot be mistaken for another use of the dot character. \o137) and hexadecimal (e. “carriage return” (\r). A string may include a “gap”—two backslants enclosing white characters—which is ignored. “new line” (\n). but must be escaped in a string. numeric escape characters in strings consist of all consecutive digits and may be of arbitrary length. but must be escaped in a character.1. LEXICAL STRUCTURE There are two distinct kinds of numeric literals: integer and ﬂoating. The category also includes portable representations for the characters “alert” (\a). A ﬂoating literal must contain digits both before and after the decimal point.2. octal (preﬁxed by 0o or 0O) or hexadecimal notation (preﬁxed by 0x or 0X). as in ’a’. Numeric escapes such as \137 are used to designate the character with decimal representation 137. Similarly.1. “backspace” (\b). For example. This allows one to write long strings on more than one line by writing a backslant at the end of one line and at the start of the next.12 CHAPTER 2. and strings between double quotes.4. “horizontal tab” (\t). The typing of numeric literals is discussed in Section 6. the one ambiguous ASCII escape code. "\SOH". “form feed” (\f). \ must always be escaped. Consistent with the “maximal munch” rule. Escape characters for the Unicode character set. Floating literals are always decimal. Negative numeric literals are discussed in Section 3. octal (e. Note that a single quote ’ may be used in a string. 2. Escape codes may be used in characters and strings to represent special characters. \x37) representations are also allowed. © 7 3¢ 4§ ¤ ¥ ¢ 4§ ¢¡ ¥ § 2 ¦ ¢ 7 3¢ ¦ 7 ¢ © © ¡5¢ ¡ 5¢ ¢ ¨£¡ ) © © ¡ 5¢ ¢ ¨£¡ § §#¥¦£ ¤ ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¥ © y ¢ 2¤ ¢ u ¢ ¤§ ¦ © © § ¨¥ § ¨¥ ¤ ¢ ¦ ¤ ¡§¢ ¤ ¡ §¢ 7 ¥ 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 § @§ © ¢ © ¤ ¥ ¢ © ¡ §¢ #¦ § ¤ § © 7 ¤ ¤ ¡ ¤ § 5¢¦ ¢ ¢ ¥ ¥ .g. as in "Hello". a double quote " may be used in a character. and “vertical tab” (\v).4. Integer literals may be given in decimal (the default).
A close brace is also inserted whenever the syntactic category containing the layout list ends.3 gives a more precise deﬁnition of the layout rules.7 Layout Haskell permits the omission of the braces and semicolons used in several grammar productions. Note in particular: (a) the line beginning }}. or of.7.7). Haskell programs can be straightforwardly produced by other programs. if it is indented the same amount. b = 2 g y = exp2 in exp1 making a.e. do or of is less than or equal to the current indentation level. even if a line is indented to the left of an earlier implicit open brace. Section 9.2 shows the result of applying the layout rule to it. The effect of layout on the meaning of a Haskell program can be completely speciﬁed by adding braces and semicolons in places determined by the layout. LAYOUT 13 "Here is a backslant \\ as well as \137. For each subsequent line. Also. that is. a single newline may actually terminate several layout lists. by using layout to convey the same information.pop. no layout processing is performed for constructs outside the braces. insert a semicolon or close brace). then instead of starting a layout. Informally stated. Because layout is not required. \ \a numeric escape character. If the indentation of the nonbrace lexeme immediately following a where. a close brace is inserted. let. and layout processing occurs for the current level (i. then the previous item is continued (nothing is inserted). let. then a new item begins (a semicolon is inserted). then the layout list ends (a close brace is inserted)." String literals are actually abbreviations for lists of characters (see Section 3. As an example. The layout (or “offside”) rule takes effect whenever the open brace is omitted after the keyword where. This allows both layoutsensitive and layoutinsensitive styles of coding. which can be freely mixed within one program. these rules permit: f x = let a = 1. Figure 2. an explicit open brace must be matched by an explicit close brace. the braces and semicolons are inserted as follows. 2. When this happens. b and g all part of the same layout list. do. Within these explicit open braces.2. if it contains only whitespace or is indented more. where the . Given these rules. and \ˆX. The meaning of this augmented program is now layout insensitive. the indentation of the next lexeme (whether or not on a new line) is remembered and the omitted open brace is inserted (the whitespace preceding the lexeme may include comments). an empty list “{}” is inserted.1 shows a (somewhat contrived) module and Figure 2. a control character. The layout rule matches only those open braces that it has inserted. and if it is indented less. if an illegal lexeme is encountered at a point where a close brace would be legal.
top.push x s = MkStack x s .size s = length (stkToLst s) where {stkToLst Empty = [] . . size ) where {data Stack a = Empty  MkStack a (Stack a) . push.(top Empty) is an error Figure 2.14 CHAPTER 2. pop. and (c) the close brace at the very end.size :: Stack a > Int .2: Sample program with layout expanded termination of the previous line invokes three applications of the layout rule. corresponding to the depth (3) of the nested where clauses. size ) where data Stack a = Empty  MkStack a (Stack a) push :: a > Stack a > Stack a push x s = MkStack x s size :: Stack a > Int size s = length (stkToLst s) where stkToLst Empty = [] stkToLst (MkStack x s) = x:xs where xs = stkToLst s pop :: Stack a > (a. case s of r > i r where i x = x) . push.(top Empty) is an error Figure 2. pop. case s of {r > i r where {i x = x}}) . Stack a) .(pop Empty) is an error . LEXICAL STRUCTURE module AStack( Stack.top (MkStack x s) = x } . inserted because the end of the tuple was detected. (b) the close braces in the where clause nested within the tuple and case expression. inserted because of the column 0 indentation of the endofﬁle token.(pop Empty) is an error top :: Stack a > a top (MkStack x s) = x .top :: Stack a > a .pop (MkStack x s) = (x.pop :: Stack a > (a. top.stkToLst (MkStack x s) = x:xs where {xs = stkToLst s }}.1: A sample program module AStack( Stack.push :: a > Stack a > Stack a . Stack a) pop (MkStack x s) = (x.
In the syntax that follows. the nonterminals . For example. For example actually stands for 30 productions. and may have a double (written as a superscript). index: a letter . regardless of whether or not the identiﬁer “concatMap” is in scope where the list comprehension is used. where appropriate. A precedencelevel variable ranges from 0 to 9.or nonassociativity and a precedence level. an associativity variable varies over . with 10 substitutions for and 3 for . or for left. Free variables and constructors used in these translations always refer to entities deﬁned by the Prelude. Similarly. and (if it is in scope) what it is bound to.Chapter 3 Expressions In this chapter. there are some families of nonterminals indexed by precedence levels . Except in the case of let expressions. including their translations into the Haskell kernel. right.11) means the concatMap deﬁned by the Prelude. “concatMap” used in the translation of list comprehensions (Section 3. ::  15 ¢ ¡ else } ¦ ¡ ¢ ¡ © @§ \ let in if then case of { ¢ S > lambda abstraction let expression conditional case expression ¡ ¡ v v ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ S ¡ ¨ ¡ %§ => expression type signature ¢ § ¡ p v §e ¢© v ¨ v 7 ¢ 3¢ S ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢¡ © ¦ A!¡ § 8¥8¥8 7 ¡ § ¢ £¡5¢ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¢¡ ¤ 2 ¡ £v §¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ p v §e ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¥¡ S ¡ ¡ 2 ¢ ¡ s § S § ¢ p v ¨§e ¢ ¦ ¡ ¦ 32 v 2 ¡ ¡ V 2 ¢ S ¡ v v v ¤ ¥¡ ¤ v ¡ 7 ¢ S ¤ ¡ S ¢ ¢ ¡ ( ) ¦ ¤ ¡ 2 ¦ ©32 ¡7 ¡ 2¤ ¢ ¢ ¡ 2 p v £!e ¢ $ ¡ ¡ v ¡ ¦ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ 7 ¤ 7 § 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 ¤ v ¡ v ¡ v ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ S ¡ ¡ ¡ ¤ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ 7 7 . . these translations preserve both the static and dynamic semantics. we describe the syntax and informal semantics of Haskell expressions.
. .. } ¦ § { ( )  right section labeled construction labeled update ) ) ) ¦ . The ambiguity is resolved by the metarule that each of these constructs extends as far to the right as possible.f let z + f x \ x Parses as (f x) + (g y) (. .(f x)) + y let { . ] . } in x + y let { ..4. let expressions.16 © @§ CHAPTER 3.2). .4. For example. Sample parses are shown below. The grammar is ambiguous regarding the extent of lambda abstractions. parentheses must be added around either “ ” or “ ” when unless or ..operator deﬁned in the Prelude (see Section 4. ¦ 2 ' . Given an unparenthesized expression “ ”.. it has the same precedence as the inﬁx ..2... } in (x + y)) (f x y) :: Int \ x > ((a+b) :: Int) + g y x + y { . the expression p ¢ 8 @e § 2 ¡ ¦ p v £!e ¢ $ ¡ 2 ¢ %e p 8 Q¢ ¡ 2 p v £!e ¢ $ A ¦ ¡ § { . .. Consecutive unparenthesized operators with the same precedence must both be either left or right associative to avoid a syntax error. . Expressions that involve the interaction of ﬁxities with the let/lambda metarule may be hard to parse. EXPRESSIONS Expressions involving inﬁx operators are disambiguated by the operator’s ﬁxity (see Section 4. ] ¢ £ .1). Negation is the only preﬁx operator in Haskell. Figure 4. This f x .  parenthesized expression tuple list arithmetic sequence list comprehension left section left section right section variable general constructor function application 0 ¡ ¦§ 0 ) A 9 g © ¡ ¨ ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¦ ¦¡ 2 ¢ A ¦ § 0 8¥¥8 ' ¡ ¦ § 0 8 ¦ ¦ ' ' ¢ S ¤ ) 2 v ¡ p v ¢ ¡e ¡ ¢ S ) 2 ¡ v ¡ p v ¢ $0e ¡ 2 ¢ S v p v ¢ 5e A 2 ¡ ¡ v ¡ ¡ 7 ¢ p v £!e ¡ ¢ $ ¡ ¡ $ $ ¢ A ¥8¥8 8 ¡ 7 3¢ ¨ ¥ ¢¡ ¢ ¡¢ ¨ £ 7 ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ S ¢ 8¡ ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¡ 8 ¡¡ ¢S ¥8¥8 ¡¢ ¡ ¡ 8 ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ § § ¤ 7 3¢ ¦ 2 7 ¡ ¢ S 4§ ¢ © do { } do expression ¨ ¤ ¡ ¡ ¢ S¢0 ¢ ¢ S¢0 ' ¢ 6 6 ' ¡ ¡ ¢ S ¢ ¡ 0 ¢ ¢ . ) ] ¤ ¥ £ ¢ Q¢ ( ( [ [ [ ( ( ( ) . } ¦ . and conditionals. } in x + y y :: Int > a+b :: Int A note about parsing. } in (x + y) z + (let { .
are indistinguishable by a Haskell program from nontermination. all Haskell types include .1 Errors Errors during expression evaluation. and Literals ¤ ¢ ¤ § § 7 3¢ ¦ 2 7 6 ¡ ¢ S ¢ variable general constructor . The Prelude provides two functions to directly cause such errors: error :: String > a undefined :: a A call to error terminates execution of the program and returns an appropriate error indication to the operating system.3. Programmers are advised to avoid constructs whose parsing involves an interaction of (lack of) associativity with the let/lambda metarule. implementations may choose to display more or less information when an error occurs. ERRORS let x = True in x == x == True cannot possibly mean let x = True in (x == x == True) because (==) is a nonassociative operator. a value of any type may be bound to a computation that. so the expression must parse thus: (let x = True in (x == x)) == True 17 However. the rest of this section shows the syntax of expressions without their precedences. That is. It should also display the string in some systemdependent manner. When evaluated. When undefined is used. The actual program behavior when an error occurs is up to the implementation. 3. when demanded. implementations may well use a postparsing pass to deal with ﬁxities.2 Variables. For the sake of clarity. results in an error. Translations of Haskell expressions use error and undefined to explicitly indicate where execution time errors may occur. The messages passed to the error function in these translations are only suggestions. denoted by .1. Operators. so they may well incorrectly deliver the former parse. errors cause immediate program termination and cannot be caught by the user. 3. the error message is created by the compiler. Since Haskell is a nonstrict language. Constructors.
4. and foldr (*) 1 xs is equivalent to foldr (\x y > x*y) 1 xs.1. or is an ordinary identiﬁer enclosed in grave accents (backquotes). An operator is either an operator symbol. an operator symbol can be converted to an ordinary identiﬁer by enclosing it in parentheses.18 CHAPTER 3. These are described in Section 6. or partially applied using a section (Section 3. . Ratio Integer). If no ﬁxity declaration is given for `op ` ` then it defaults to highest precedence and left associativity (see Section 4.2). a ﬂoating point literal stands for an application of fromRational to a value of type Rational (that is. The integers and are chosen so that . instead of writing the preﬁx application op op x y. Dually. such as ` `.4).1). where fromInteger is a method in class Num (see Section 6. Similarly. An operator is a function that can be applied using inﬁx syntax (Section 3. such as + or $$. The ﬂoating point literal is equivalent to fromRational ( Ratio.5). as found in the and . EXPRESSIONS () [] (. (+) x y is equivalent to x + y. production for An integer literal represents the application of the function fromInteger to the appropriate value of type Integer.% ). one can write the inﬁx application x `op y. where fromRational is a method in class Fractional and Ratio.4. Special syntax is used to name some constructors for some of the builtin types. ) : Haskell provides special syntax to support inﬁx notation. For example. Translation: The integer literal is equivalent to fromInteger . as deﬁned in the Ratio library. ¦ ¦ ¦ § ¦ ` ` ` ` ) ) ) ( ( ( ( ` ` ` ` ) 4 © ¦ 3332 2 ¦ ©32 2 ¤ ¡ ©¦ 2 ¡ &¤¢ 2 2 ¦ ¡ 4 ©¡ ¢ § 32 3¦ 2 ¦ ¦ 4 © ¦ § 32 33 2 ¦ 4 S¤ © § ¤ ¦ ¢ 4 © 3¤¢ § ¤ ¦ 4 32 ¢ § ¦ 2 ¢ © ¦ ¦ 4 © ¦ 3332 ¦ § 3 2 43¤ § ¦ ¤ © ¦ 4 © 3¢S¤ § ¤¢ ¦ ¢ ¢ § 7 3¢ 0 ¤ § § 7 ¦ 2 ¦ 2 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 0 4 32 © ¦ 2 ¡ 2 2 ¦ ©32 ¡ ¡ ©¦ 2 2 ¡ &¤ 2 ¡ 2 ¤¢ ¡ ¦32 ¢ ¦ 2 ¦ ¤ ¦ 32 ¡¦ ¤¢ ¢ variable qualiﬁed variable constructor qualiﬁed constructor variable operator qualiﬁed variable operator constructor operator qualiﬁed constructor operator operator qualiﬁed operator . For example.% constructs a rational from two integers.
as with any inﬁx operator. An expression such Lambda abstractions are written \ as \x:xs>x is syntactically incorrect. partial applications of data construc ) of ( . . page 55). ¡ A ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ £ ¡ Function application is written omitted in (f x) y.3. Because tors are allowed.operator does not necessarily refer to the deﬁnition of .3. The set of patterns must be linear—no variable may appear more than once in the set. There is no link between the local meaning of the .will always refer to the negate function deﬁned in the Prelude. unary .denotes preﬁx negation. then the result is .3. Preﬁx negation has the same precedence as the inﬁx operator . and is syntax for negate . the only preﬁx operator in Haskell.3 Curried Applications and Lambda Abstractions > . ¨ ££ ¥¦£ ¡ ¨ ££ ¥¦£ ¡ ¨ £££ ¡ ¦¥ ¨ £££ ¡ ©§¦¥¤¢ \ > \ > case ( . preﬁx negation qualiﬁed operator .4 Operator Applications £ The special form .deﬁned in the Prelude (see Table 4. v Translation: The following identity holds: Given this translation combined with the semantics of case expressions and pattern matching described in Section 3. Because e1e2 parses as an inﬁx application of the binary operator . . The binary . CURRIED APPLICATIONS AND LAMBDA ABSTRACTIONS 19 3. 3. . ) > ¦ ¢ ¡ A !§ ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ § \ > ¡ ¢ ¡ £5¢ ¡ ¢ S ¢ ¢ ¡ ¢¢ ¨ £§S¢0 ¡ 6 6 ¡ ¡ ¡ function application lambda abstraction ¡ ¡ ¢ 2 ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ 0 . Application associates to the left. £ ¤ ¡ 2 £ ¤ 2 3 ¡ ¢ The form is the inﬁx application of binary operator to expressions and ¡ ¡  2 ¦ ©32 ¡ ¢ ¡ 2 ¤ ¡ ¡¢ ¢ 2 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ 6 6 where the are new identiﬁers.17. where the are patterns. However.operator and unary negation. Similarly. () is syntax for (\ x y > xy). if the pattern fails to match. one must write e1(e2) for the alternative parsing. it may be rebound by the module system. so the parentheses may be could be a data constructor. and does not denote (\ x > x)—one must use negate for that.in the Prelude. it may legally be written as \(x:xs)>x.1.
EXPRESSIONS 3. but (+a+b) is not. ( ) is legal if and only if (x ) ( )). (*a+b) is synparses in the same way as (x tactically invalid. Because (+) is left associative. by the let/lambda metarule (Section 3). However. but (+a*b) and (*(a+b)) are valid. the expression (let n = 10 in n + x) parses as (let n = 10 in (n + x)) rather than ((let n = 10 in n) + x) Because . where is a binary operator and Sections are a convenient syntax for partial application of binary operators. The expression (+ ()) can serve the same purpose. ¢ S ¡ 2 Sections are written as ( ) or ( ). () is not a section. and similarly for ( ). As another example.20 Translation: The following identities hold: CHAPTER 3. the expression (let n = 10 in n +) is invalid because. ( )  right section ) ¡ 2 ¡ 2 ¡ 2 ¡ ¡ ¡ 2 ¢ ¡ ( ( ( ) ) left section left section right section is an expression. the latter may legally be written as (+(a+b)). there is a subtract function deﬁned in the Prelude such that (subtract ) is equivalent to the disallowed section.  £ ¡ ¤ ¢ ( ) negate ¡ 2 £ ¤ ¡ 2 ¢ ¡ p v £!e ¢ $ ¡ ¡ 2 ) 2 p v ¢ ¡e ¡ ) 2 p v ¢ 0e ¡ $ 2 v S ¢ ¡ ¡ 7 ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ 2 v 6 ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ S ¢ . as described in the preceding section.5 Sections ¢ S ¤ v ¡ ¢ S ¡ v ¡ p v ¢ A5e ¡ 2  Syntactic precedence rules apply to sections as follows.is treated specially in the grammar. (a+b+) is syntactically correct. but an application of preﬁx negation. For example.
£ ¡ £ ¢ S ¡ ¤ ¡ ¢ ¡ if then else ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¥ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 ¡ 2 where . which is also the Prelude. The type of type of the entire conditional expression. denoted []. ¥ £ ¡ 3. CONDITIONALS Translation: The following identities hold: 21 3. is a binary operator.1). ] ¢ ¡¡ £ ¥ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ 2 ¡¡ £ ¤ if then else case of { True > . and must have the same type. is an expression.7 Lists [] ( ) : . as deﬁned in the must be Bool. if is False.6 Conditionals ¥ ¢ ¡ Translation: ¡ ¢ The following identity holds: ¥ ¢ £ ¢ ¡ ¤ where True and False are the two nullary constructors from the type Bool. ]. False > } £ ¥ A conditional expression has the form if then else value of is True. The list constructor is :. .6. ¢ ¢ S 8 8 ¥¥8 4 © 3¦ 2 2 ©¦ 2 4 © ¦ 3¡ 32 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¦ 2 ¦ 2 ¢ ¡ [ . and the empty list is Lists are written [ . and is a variable that does not occur free in ¢ ¡2 2 ¢ ¢ ¢ ¡ 2 2 ( ( ) ) \ \ > > ¡ ¡ ¡ 4 ¡ © ¦ 32 2 ¦ ©32 ¦ 32 ¦ 3¡2 ¡ ¢ S ¡ ¡ 2 ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ and returns the value of if the ¢ .3.1. and otherwise. Standard operations on lists are given in the Prelude (see Section 6.3. where . and Chapter 8 notably Section 8.
and the type of the overall expression is [ ] (see Section 4.2). . then the type of the resulting tuple is ( . Translation: ( .1. and cannot be hidden or redeﬁned. ) Tuples are written ( . § 3. like [].1.1.3). where there are denote the same value.. The constructor for an commas. Standard operations on tuples are given in the Prelude (see Section 6. . .2).4.8 Tuples ¢ S (.).5).2). ] : ( : ( ( : []))) ¡ ¡ ¢ 6 6 6 6 ¡ ¦ 32 ¦ 32 ¡ ¡ § ¢ S ¢ S ¢ ¢ . Translation: ( ) is equivalent to . . . ) for is an instance of a tuple as deﬁned in the Prelude. . ¢ ¡ ( () ) ¦ ¤ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡¦ § § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¤ ¢ ¡§ ¡§ 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¦ 2 ¢ ¡ ( .1. It is the only member of that type apart from . and may be of arbitrary length .4 and Chapter 8).2). and can be thought of as the “nullary tuple” (see Section 6. 3. It is a rightassociative operator. ). . with precedence level 5 (Section 4. If through are the types of through . EXPRESSIONS where : and [] are constructors for lists.22 Translation: The following identity holds: CHAPTER 3..1.9 Unit Expressions and Parenthesized Expressions ¡¦ 2 The form ( ) is simply a parenthesized expression. and requires no translation. as deﬁned in the Prelude (see Section 6. it is considered part of the language syntax.) a b c tuple is denoted by (.1. respectively. The constructor “:” is reserved solely for list construction. . Thus (a. ) ¤ ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 £ ¡ ¢ ¡¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¤ [ . The unit expression () has type () (see Section 4.c) and (. . ) (see Section 4. The types of through must all be the same (call it ). and is equivalent to .b.
] where the qualiﬁers are either and is an ¡ ¡ $ © ¢ ¡ 7 ¦ ¢ ¡ [  <let § . page 83). ] list comprehension generator local declaration guard ¥¤ £ ¡ ¥ ¢ ¡ £ ¡ 7 3¢ ¥ ¢ 7 ¢ ¥ ¢ £ ¤ £ ¤ ¡¢ ¡¢ ¡¢ ¡ ¢ [ [ [ [ . ] . . § 3. ] . .. where is a pattern (see Section 3.. enumFromThen.10 Arithmetic Sequences ¨ ¥ ¡ $ ¢ ¡ Translation: Arithmetic sequences satisfy these identities: ¡ where enumFrom.. enumFromTo. and enumFromThenTo are class methods in the class Enum as deﬁned in the Prelude (see Figure 6. The semantics of arithmetic sequences therefore depends entirely on the instance declaration for the type .11 List Comprehensions ¦ A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ guards. ] denotes a list of values of type . where each of the has type . § ¥ ¢ £ ¤ ¡ § § ¨ £ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ [ . Such a list comprehension returns the list of elements produced by evaluating in the successive environments created by the nested. ARITHMETIC SEQUENCES 23 3.3. .. . . § generators of the form expression of type [ ] § <.1.. .17) of type v ¦ A ¥ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ A list comprehension has the form [  . ] enumFrom enumFromThen enumFromTo enumFromThenTo v The arithmetic sequence [ . See Section 6.10.3. ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ £¡ ¢ ¡ 6 6 6 7 ¢ 3¢ S ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ S $ ¢ ] . which are arbitrary expressions of type Bool local bindings that provide new deﬁnitions for use in the generated expression or subsequent guards and generators.. and is an instance of class Enum. depthﬁrst evaluation of the generators in the qualiﬁer list.4 for more details of which Prelude types are in Enum and their semantics. ] ..
4).xs ] yields the list [4. . are deﬁned in the Prelude.x ] [ z  y <.x.4)]. and if a match fails then that element of the list is simply skipped over. it must evaluate to True for the previous pattern match to succeed. mutuallyrecursive list of declarations (let is often called letrec in other languages). As usual. bindings in list comprehensions can shadow those in outer scopes. Pattern bindings are matched lazily. (3. ] = 7 ] ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ ' 7 ¥ ¦ 7 ' ¡ [ [ [ [  True ]  ]  . over patterns. [(5.17).24 CHAPTER 3.are lambda bound and are thus monomorphic (see Section 4. lexicallyscoped. an implicit ˜ makes these patterns irrefutable.(3. over listvalued expressions. True ] if then [  let ok = [  ok _ = [] in concatMap ok let in [  [ x  x <.2]. } in .12 Let Expressions ¢ ¡ © Let expressions have the general form let { .5. 3. The function concatMap. expressions. EXPRESSIONS Binding of variables occurs according to the normal pattern matching rules (see Section 3.. and over sequences of qualiﬁers. and introduce a nested.2).y] ] else [] ] ] 6 ¡ ¢ ¡ . Thus: [ x  xs <.x. ok is a fresh variable. A ¦ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¦ let in ' © 7 ¡ ¡ © 7 ¦ © 7 ¥ ¦ [  let . over boolean over declaration lists.(3.4). over qualiﬁers. which may be used as a translation into the kernel: where ranges over expressions. As indicated by the translation of list comprehensions. If a qualiﬁer is a guard. Declarations are described in Chapter 4. variables bound by let have fully polymorphic types while those deﬁned by <.y) = undefined in does not cause an executiontime error until x or y is evaluated. x <. z <.x) <. let (x.2)] ]. and boolean value True. ]  <. For example. = = = = [ ] [  .[ [(1. for example: Translation: List comprehensions satisfy these identities. The scope of the declarations is the expression and the right hand side of the declarations.
} in are captured by this translation: After removing all type signatures. . ) in case of ˜ > where no variable in appears free in let = fix ( \ ˜ > ) in ¡ ¢ ¨ ££ ¦¥£ ¡ § ¢ £¡ ¦ © @§ ¡ § 7 3¢ 7¡ 3 ¢ ¢ ¦ . 3. using the translation in Section 4. the “” is a terminal symbol.. Each match in turn consists of a sequence of pairs of guards and bodies (expressions). . ¥ § ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡  ¨ § ¢ ¡ > ¤ } 3 § § ¢ ¦¤ 5 § 7 3¢ %§ ¡ 4 ¦ ¨ © ¨ 5© 7 ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ © @§ ¢ £¡ ¦ ¡ A§ 7 3¢ £¡ ¦ ¢ ¢ £¡ ¢ ¡ § ¡ ¥8¥8 ¢ £¡ ¡§ 8 7 3¢ § ¢ S case .) Each alternative consists of a pattern and its matches. .. each declaration is translated into an equation of the form = . This translation does not preserve the static semantics because the use of case precludes a fully polymorphic typing of the bound variables.. in = } in = = let (˜ . which may be used as a translation into the kernel: ¡ where fix is the least ﬁxpoint operator.3. where and are patterns and expressions respectively.4. ..4. where where ¡ £ ¡ 7 3¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¦ ¡ ¢ 6 6 6 6 6 let = in = ¨ ¡ ¡ ¥ ¡ ¢ ¨ © ¡ ¡ ¡ ¨ ¨ © ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¥ ¢ let { = let = . not the syntactic metasymbol for alternation. The static semantics of the bindings in a let expression are described in Section 4. . these identities hold. An alternative of the form > where ¢ ¡  True > where © ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ § ¢ ¡ is treated as shorthand for: v ¨¥ § ¢ 4 v v ¡ © 7 ¥ ¦ ¤ v ¦7 v v © 7 ¥ ¦  > where ¤ ¥7 v ¡ v ¡ ¡v ¢ S 8 8 ¥¥8 v ¨¥ § § ¢ ¢ £¡ 4 ¦ v ¡ v © 7 ¦ 4 where each is of the general form  > A 4 A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¥ § 4 ¡ case v ¥ § of { .3. followed by optional bindings ( ) that scope over all of the guards and expressions of the alternative.3.˜ ) = ( . ..13. > ¦§ of { } . .. Note the use of the irrefutable patterns ˜ . CASE EXPRESSIONS Translation: The dynamic semantics of the expression let { 25 .13 Case Expressions A case expression has the general form (Notice that in the syntax rule for . . . Once done.
. It allows an expression such as putStr "x: " >> getLine >>= \l > return (words l) to be written in a more traditional way as: do putStr "x: " l <. the guards for that alternative are tried sequentially from top to bottom.17. and hence reject the program. in the environment of the case expression extended ﬁrst by the bindings created during the matching of the in the where clause associated with that alternative. the result is . The alternatives are tried sequentially._)  (let b = not a in b :: Bool) > a } However.26 CHAPTER 3. matching continues with the next alternative. <let . to avoid guards that end with a type signature — indeed that is why a contains an not an ._)  let b = not a in b :: Bool > a } is tricky to parse correctly. If no match succeeds. If one of the pattern. Each body must have the same type. A note about parsing. A case expression is evaluated by pattern matching the expression against the individual alternatives. If matches the pattern in the alternative. and parsers with limited lookahead may incorrectly commit to this choice. EXPRESSIONS A case expression must have at least one alternative and each alternative must have at least one body. The expression case x of { (a. namely case x of { (a. .3. and the type of the whole expression is that type. It has a single unambiguous parse. ¦ § ¡ 7 ¦ ¢ ¡ § ¡ ¢¡ £ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢S A § 4 §¤© 8¥8¥8 ¡ § 4 § © 4§ © © @§ do { } do expression v © 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ ¢ S 6 6 6 ¤ ¥¡ © @§ ¢ ¡ § ¡ 4§ 4§ © © ¢ ¡ . and then by the guards evaluates to True. ¦ 3.14 Do Expressions A do expression provides a more conventional syntax for monadic programming. the phrase Bool > a is syntactically valid as a type. ¦ ¨ . the corresponding righthand side is evaluated in the same environment as the guard. If all the guards evaluate to False. Programmers are advised. therefore. with the formal semantics of case expressions in Section 3. from top to bottom.17.getLine return (words l) § § § ¦ 4 ¢ © %§ ¡ 4 ¥ © . Pattern matching is described in Section 3.
As indicated by the translation of do.15 Datatypes with Field Labels A datatype declaration may optionally deﬁne ﬁeld labels (see Section 4. which may be used as a translation into the kernel. as deﬁned in the Prelude. and ok is a fresh identiﬁer. © @§ 4§ © © © @§ 4§ © © do {let . consider: data S = S1 { x :: Int }  S2 { x :: Int } data T = T1 { y :: Int }  T2 { y :: Bool } ...2. because y is given inconsistent typings in the latter. Selectors are top level bindings and so they may be shadowed by local variables but cannot conﬂict with other top level bindings of the same name.3). a ﬁeld label can be used in more than one constructor provided the ﬁeld has the same typing in all constructors. This shadowing only affects selector functions.1 Field Selection ¤ ¢ Field labels are used as selector functions. in record construction (Section 3. 3. To illustrate the last point. >>=.1). the functions >>.15... Within a datatype. passed to fail.2) and update (Section 3.15. and update ﬁelds in a manner that is independent of the overall structure of the datatype. however.are lambda bound and are thus monomorphic.OK . and fail are operations in the class Monad. after eliminating empty : } . When used as a variable.15. DATATYPES WITH FIELD LABELS 27 Translation: Do expressions satisfy these identities.3.15. do { < © @§ 4 ¤© § = = = ¦ 4 ¤© § } = do { } _ = fail ". select from. © The ellipsis ".BAD Here S is legal but T is not. A ﬁeld label can be used at most once in a constructor. These ﬁeld labels can be used to construct." >>= ok in do { } { ¡ 6 ¡ ¢ S ¢ . preferably giving some indication of the location of the patternmatch failure. ﬁeld labels cannot be confused with ordinary variables. Different datatypes cannot share common ﬁeld labels in the same scope. a ﬁeld label serves as a function that extracts the ﬁeld from an object." stands for a compilergenerated error message. 3. variables bound by let have fully polymorphic types while those deﬁned by <. } = © @§ 4 ¤© § } © @§ 4 ¤© ¡ § >> do let ok ok in let 7 ¥ ¦ © @§ 4§ 7 © @§ do { } do { .
(This is also true of ﬁeld updates and ﬁeld patterns.28 Translation: x 0 CHAPTER 3. Unlike the braces used in declaration lists. A ﬁeld label may not be mentioned more than once. 0 ¦ © ' ¡ ¢ v 0 § ¡ ¦ If the th component of a constructor in the binding list . is legal whether or not F was declared with record syntax (provided F has no strict ﬁelds — see the third bullet above).15. 0 v v P ¡ A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¢ ¦ ¡ ' 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¡ = case x of { > . .2. where F is a data constructor. the { and } characters must be explicit. Otherwise. EXPRESSIONS A ﬁeld label 0 ' introduces a selector function deﬁned as: 3. and if appears is . is y when labels the th component of or _ otherwise. The expression F {}. then value . ¦ § v ¦ v where are all the constructors of the datatype containing a ﬁeld labeled with .) Construction using ﬁeld labels is subject to the following constraints: Only ﬁeld labels declared with the speciﬁed constructor may be mentioned. } labeled construction . it denotes F . the ﬁeld labels . Strict ﬁelds are discussed in Section 4. where is the arity of F. . Fields not mentioned are initialized to A compiletime error occurs when any strict ﬁelds (ﬁelds whose declared types are preﬁxed by !) are omitted during construction. is deﬁned as follows: has the ﬁeld label . these are not subject to layout. undefined A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¦ ¡§ ¢ ¡ 0 { = . A ¥¥8 ¡ A A 8 8 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ > } ¦ ' ¤ ¦ ¢2 A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ 0 ¦ 6 6 0 ¢ ¦ ¦ ¡ ¦§ ¢ S ' ¢ 0 . and is y when some ﬁeld in has a label of or undefined otherwise.1. © ' ¡ ¢ v § ¡ ¦ © ¡ ¢ v © ' § ¡ where is the arity of The auxiliary function § . is the default © § 8 8 ¥¥8 © ¡ § © { } = undefined ' ¡ £¢ ¡ 0 ' ¡ ¢¢ 0 Translation: ' In the binding = .2 Construction Using Field Labels ¦ A ¦§ 0 A constructor with labeled ﬁelds may be used to construct a value in which the components are speciﬁed by name rather than by position.
A compiletime error will result if no single constructor deﬁnes the set of ﬁeld labels used in an update. ¦ ' ¦ ' ) A9g© ¨ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ 6 ' ¡ ¢ S ¢ .15.3. Translation: © Using the prior deﬁnition of Here are some examples using labeled ﬁelds: data T = C1 {f1. No label may be mentioned more than once. v is the set of constructors containing all labels in . and is the arity of £ F© £ ¢ § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ > _ > error "Update error" T© ' £ ¡ ¢ ¡ ' ' £ ¡ ¢ . f4 = ’A’.3 Updates Using Field Labels ¦ A ¦§ ¡ 0 § Values belonging to a datatype with ﬁeld labels may be nondestructively updated. f3 = ’x’}. An execution error occurs when the value being updated does not contain all of the speciﬁed labels. f3 = ’B’} x {f1 = 1} The ﬁeld f1 is common to both constructors in T. DATATYPES WITH FIELD LABELS 29 3. Updates are restricted in the following ways: All labels must be taken from the same datatype. At least one constructor must deﬁne all of the labels mentioned in the update. v © ¥¥8 ¡ 8 8 where . f3.. T© § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ T© ¡ ¡ § § ¡ > ¢ ' ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ' ¡ ¢ { } ¡ ¡ = case of ¢ £ ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¦§ 0 { .15.f2 :: Int}  C2 {f1 :: Int. such as x {f2 = 1.f4 :: Char} Translation C1 3 undefined C2 1 ’B’ ’A’ case x of C1 _ f2 > C1 1 f2 C2 _ f3 f4 > C2 1 f3 f4 Expression C1 {f1 = 3} C2 {f1 = 1. } labeled update . This creates a new value in which the speciﬁed ﬁeld values replace those in the existing value. .. This example translates expressions using constructors in ﬁeldlabel notation into equivalent expressions using the same constructors without ﬁeld labels.
3.16 Expression TypeSignatures %§ 0 Expression typesignatures have the form :: .2). so deﬁning the semantics of pattern matching for case expressions is sufﬁcient. they are used to type an expression explicitly and may be used to resolve ambiguous typings due to overloading (see Section 4. .17.1). function deﬁnitions. The value of the expression is just that of .4. do expressions. Translation: 3.17 Pattern Matching Patterns appear in lambda abstractions. or not principal type derivable from comparable to.3. and case expressions. the principal type.1. = } in successor pattern ¡ ¢ ¡ § § ¨ § S § ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¦ 32 :: => ¡ ¢ ¡ £§¢ ¢ £¡ V y ¤ § § 7 3¢ ¦ 2 7 ¤ ¦ 2 ¤ ¡ ¢ ¢ ¡ 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 v ¤ v § § ¡ £¡ ¢ ¤ § ¢£¡ § ¢£ 7¡ ¢ £ 7¡ v § ¢ ¡ £§¢ § § ¡ ¢ £¡ ¢ £¡ ¢ ¡ . } ¦§ ¢ ¦ as pattern arity labeled pattern ¦ 32 ¦ 32 arity ¢ ¢  negative literal £¡ ¢ ¤ ¥ § ¦ § + § ¦ 2 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ § ¢ §¢ ¡ ¢£§¢ § ¡ ¢§ ¡ § 2 ©¦32 ¡ v £§¢ § ¤ ¡ v ¢ ¡ v £¡ p v §e ¡ ¢ ¢ ¢ § 2 ¡ ¥ § ¦ § £¡ ¤ ! § 2 ©¦32 s¢ ¡ v § § ¡ v © ¢ £¡ p v ¢§e ¡ ¢ ¡ v § £ 7¡ ¤ ¢ v £¡ ¢ § v ¢ ¨ ¡ v§ 2©32 ¡ v § £ 7¡ ¦ ¢ ¦ ¢£¡ p v ¨§e ¡ ¢ £¡ § ¢ ¤ £ ¡ ¢ § ¨§ § :: = let { :: . where is an expression and is a type (Section 4. the ﬁrst ﬁve of these ultimately translate into case expressions. pattern bindings. EXPRESSIONS 3. list comprehensions. but it is an error to give a type that is more general than.4).1 Patterns Patterns have this syntax: § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡§ 0 { .30 CHAPTER 3. However. the declared type may be more speciﬁc than the . As with normal type signatures (see Section 4.
_. case e of { [x. according to the following rules: ¤ ¤ 1. PATTERN MATCHING 31 The arity of a constructor must match the number of subpatterns associated with it. It is as if an identiﬁer not used elsewhere were put in its place. For example. ¢ § .z] > if x==0 then True else False } > if x==0 then True else False } 3.y.17.ILLEGAL. All patterns must be linear —no variable may appear more than once. return ). this deﬁnition is illegal: f (x. and outside to inside. it may succeed. Matching the pattern against a value always succeeds and binds ¤ ¢ Patterns of the form @ are called aspatterns. x used twice in pattern case e of { xs@(x:rest) > if x==0 then rest else xs } is equivalent to: let { xs = e } in case xs of { (x:rest) > if x==0 then rest else xs } Patterns of the form _ are wildcards and are useful when some part of a pattern is not referenced on the righthandside. . returning a binding for each variable in the pattern. Attempting to match a pattern can have one of three results: it may fail. For example. ¢ ¡ ¢ £¡ ¢ £¡ ¤ § ¢£§¢ ¡ ¡§ ¢£¡ ¡§ ¢£¡ ¢ £¡ § _ ( ( [ ˜ wildcard parenthesized pattern tuple pattern list pattern irrefutable pattern ¢ ¤ ¢ 6 § ¢ £¡ 0 .3. For example._] is equivalent to: case e of { [x.17.2 Informal Semantics of Pattern Matching Patterns are matched against values. one cannot match against a partiallyapplied constructor. . and allow one to use .x) = x .e. or it may diverge (i. value being matched by § § ¢ ¢ § = as a name for the to . Pattern matching proceeds from left to right. ) ] ¤ ¢ £¡ ¢ § £¡ ¢ 8¥¥8 8 8 8 ¥¥8 ) .
EXPRESSIONS 2. The free variables in are bound to the appropriate values if matching against would otherwise succeed. At that point the entire pattern is matched against the value. . where is a different constructor to ¦ 32 A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ A !§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ § 5.2. and fails otherwise. 7. the overloaded function fromInteger or fromRational is applied to an Integer or Rational literal (resp) to convert it to the appropriate type. depending on the type of the pattern. Matching the pattern against a value. ¦ 32 4. All ﬁelds listed must be declared by the constructor. if all matches succeed. where == is overloaded based on the type of the pattern. Matching an + pattern (where is a variable and is a positive integer literal) against a value succeeds if >= . ﬁelds may not be named more than once. and no binding is done. depends on the value: against a value. Matching against a constructor using labeled ﬁelds is the same as matching ordinary constructor patterns except that the ﬁelds are matched in the order they are named in the ﬁeld list. resulting in the binding of to . the functions >= and . so does the overall computation.32 CHAPTER 3. Matching a numeric. except that only ¢ ¢ ¢ ¦ ¢ ¢ ¦ ¢ ¢ ¢ If the value is . Matching the pattern by data. then is matched against . Matching the pattern ˜ against a value always succeeds. and if the match fails or diverges. Matching the wildcard pattern _ against any value always succeeds. then is matched against . and to if matching against fails or diverges.are overloaded. Again. where ¢ £¡ ¦ 32 § ¢ £¡ ¦ 32 If the value is . this means that no matching is done on a ˜ pattern until one of the variables in is used. The match diverges if this test diverges. character. 3. 8. is the same as in numeric literal patterns. 1 ¦ 2 ¦ 32 7 ¦ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ r1 32 If the value is of the form the match fails. § ¦ Q32 If the value is of the form . the overall match succeeds. 6. that is.) Operationally. subpatterns are matched lefttoright against the components of the data value. Fields not named by the pattern are ignored (matched against _). or string literal pattern against a value succeeds if == . . (Binding does not imply evaluation. § § § That is. depends on the value: is a constructor deﬁned by is a constructor deﬁned ¢ ¡ £5¢ ¢ ¡ £§¢ § ¢ ¡ £§¢ ¢ £¡ § ¢ £¡ ¢ ¡ § ¦ 2 ¢ ¡ £5¢ § ¢ ¡ £§¢ ¢ ¦ ¢ ¡ £§¢ . The match diverges if the comparison diverges. respectively. The interpretation of numeric literals is exactly as described in Section 3. The interpretation of the literal integer literals are allowed. the match diverges. where newtype. the ﬁrst to fail or diverge causes the overall match to fail or diverge.. constructors associated with newtype serve only to change the type of a value. If the value is of the form .
(a. It is sometimes helpful to distinguish two kinds of patterns. The irrefutable patterns are as follows: a variable.b)] > x) [(0.17.1). then ’a’ to match against ’x’. An + pattern can only be matched against a value in the class Integral.’b’] is matched against [’x’. then Aside from the obvious static type constraints (for example. Matching an aspattern augmented with the binding of so does the overall match. the following static class constraints hold: An integer literal pattern can only be matched against a value in the class Num. Consider the following declarations: newtype N = N Bool data D = D !Bool (\ (x:xs) > x:x:xs) (\ ˜(x:xs) > x:x:xs) (\ ˜[x.y) > 0) (\ ˜[x] > 0) [] (\ ˜[x] > x) [] 0 0 : : 3. or of the form ˜ (whether or not (see Section 4. ¢ ¡ £§¢ ¢ ¡ £§¢ E ¤ ¢ § ¢§ ¡ £§¢ ¢ ¡ £§¢ ¢ ¦ ¤ ¢E ¢ ¦ .3). These examples demonstrate refutable vs. a wildcard. ] (0. it is a static error to match a character against a boolean). Matching a refutable pattern is strict: if the value to be matched is the match diverges. Matching an irrefutable pattern is nonstrict: the pattern matches even if the value to be matched is . A ﬂoating literal pattern can only be matched against a value in the class Fractional. irrefutable matching: (\ ˜(x.y) > 0) (\ (x.1) § ¢ ¡ £5¢ § ¢ ¡ £§¢ © § 7 ¢ 0 § ¢ ¡ £§¢ %¥ § ¤ § ¢ §¢ ¡ ¦ § ¤ ¢ ¡ £§¢ § ¢ @ 9.2. These patterns may be removed or changed in future versions of Haskell. But if [’a’.3.’b’] is matched against [ . where is a constructor deﬁned by newtype and is irrefutable @ where is irrefutable. ] (\ ˜[x. attempting to match ’a’ against causes the match to 2.˜(a. If the match of against fails or diverges. ]. All other patterns are refutable. to . Many people feel that + patterns should not be used.’x’]. Here are some examples: 1. PATTERN MATCHING § 33 against a value is the result of matching against . and the result is a failed match.b)] > x) [(0.1). then . If the pattern [’a’. is irrefutable).
For example. and are variables.2: . ¢ ¡ 4 v ¢ 3 v ¤ 1 (\ (N True) > True) (\ (D True) > True) (\ ˜(D True) > True) True E v v ¤¢ 1 ¢ v ¡ . (q). Subsequent identities manipulate the resulting case expression into simpler and simpler forms. in Figures 3. since that would generate rather inefﬁcient code. 3. or pattern binding to which it is attached.Int) > [Int] > Int f ˜(x. Rule (h) in Figure 3. v ¥ § Rule (b) matches a general sourcelanguage case expression. and (s) use a lambda rather than a let.1–3.2. Any implementation should behave so that these identities hold.4). Top level patterns in case expressions and the set of top level patterns in function or pattern bindings may have zero or more associated guards.z) [a]  (a == y) = 1 both a and y will be evaluated by == in the guard. function deﬁnition. then True is substituted for the guards in the forms. and it must be true for the overall pattern match to succeed. (j). in f :: (Int. In particular.2 involves the overloaded operator ==. . In Figures 3. A guard is a boolean expression that is evaluated only after all of the arguments have been successfully matched. and is a newtype constructor.3 Formal Semantics of Pattern Matching The semantics of all pattern matching constructs other than case expressions are deﬁned by giving identities that relate those constructs to case expressions. The guard semantics have an obvious inﬂuence on the strictness characteristics of a function or case expression. and are booleanvalued expressions.2. an otherwise irrefutable pattern may be evaluated because of a guard. and are patterns. EXPRESSIONS These examples illustrate the difference in pattern matching between types deﬁned by data and newtype: Additional examples may be found in Section 4. The semantics of case expressions themselves are in turn given as a series of identities. Rules (d). and are expressions.1. . The environment of the guard is the same as the righthandside of the caseexpression alternative.Int. this indicates that variables bound by case are monomorphically typed (Section 4. These identities all preserve the static semantics.y. (e). regardless of whether it actually includes guards—if no guards are written.1–3.3.17. and are algebraic datatype (data) constructors (including tuple constructors). it is not expected that it will use them directly. it is this rule that deﬁnes the meaning of pattern matching against overloaded constants.34 CHAPTER 3.
 } else ££ ¥¦£ _ £ ¡ ! § ¨ ££ ¥¥£ > case of { . _ > } > ) (case of { > are all the variables in }) (case of { > A % ££ ¦¥£ case of { > (where is a new variable) case of { > let { } in if then _ > }} © ¥ ¢ 2 10 © % A B ¨ @ § A @ 6 _ else if ¥ ¢ 98 70 ££ ¥¦£ 6 © 4 © 1% 5% ¨ § (c) case of {   > > > . > error "No match" } ¡ ! ¨ ££ ¥¦£ © £ ¡ © ¨ © ¡ © ¨ # $£ § § (b) . PATTERN MATCHING 35 . where { } } then 10 > where { # ¥ ¢ 32 ( & )' ¤# ( & )' ¤# % ££ ¦¥£ © & ¤# ¡ ! where each  > © & ¤# % has the form: . _ > } $C ¨ § ££ ¦¥£ © DC ¨ ¨ @ § ¨ $C¦E£¥¥¦FC ££E © ££ © ¥¦£ C C $3 § (d) case (\ where of { ˜ > . }) ¡ "£ § § £ ¡ (a) case of { } where is a new variable case of { case of { _ § (\ > case of { ¥ £ ¦¤¢ ¥ £ ¦¤¢ }) . } } . . Figure 3.1: Semantics of Case Expressions. . _ > } case of { > ( \ > ) . Part 1 G @ § (f) case of { _ > . _ > } @ § @ C ¨ ¨ C § § (e) case of { @ > .17.3.
character. _ > } case ( ) of { > . _ > } . _ > } where and are distinct data constructors of arity and . = .) else where is a numeric literal ¡ £ @ © C ££ ¥¦£ © C £ (r) case where of { > . _ > is a newtype constructor @ @ ¨ ¨ ¢ § § ¢ (k) case of { > . _ > } @ @ © $C ££ ¥¦£ © C ££ ¦¥£ @ © 4 @ (p) @ @ ' ££ ¥¥£ § § (o) > . _ > is a data constructor of arity } @ C ££ ¥¦£ © © C ££ ¥¦£ © ££ ¥¦£ C © ££ ¦¥£ (q) case ( ) of { (\ > ) where is a data constructor of arity © C > . _ > } where is a newtype constructor ¢ } case § C C § (j) case of { > } ( \ > ) of { C § @ C § (i) case of { > . ¦" C E £££ ¥¦¥E © C 28 ¨ E £££ ¥¦¥E @ © ¨ _ > at least one of } is not a variable.2: Semantics of Case Expressions. _ > } case of { > } > @ F ¡ § @ F ¡ § (h) ¡ case where of { > . EXPRESSIONS Figure 3. . _ > } if >= then (\ > ) ( . _ > } case of { _ _ > . _ otherwise case of { {} > . are ﬁelds of constructor . Part 2 @ ¡ § @ C ¡ C ¡ § § (s) case of { + > . _ > } where is if labels the th component of . _ > case of { > case of { { = } > case of { { = . _ > } case of { > . or string literal. ££ ¥¦£ @ ¨ C ££ ¦¥£ @ © C > case © ¨ of { > case _ > } @ ¨ ££ ¥¦£ © ¨ ¦ C ££ ¦¥£ © C § ¨ § (g) case of { case of { > . are new variables else } } }. _ > } A @ ££ ¥¥£ ££ ¦¥£ ¥ ¥ §¨ ¨ A ¥ ¤ ¥ ¦¤ © ¨ © ¤ A § © ¨ © 5¤ ££ ¥¥£ ¥ ¤ § @ § (m) case of { { = .36 CHAPTER 3. _ > } if ( == ) then is a numeric. _ > } of { > . } > . is a new variable © 7¤ A ¨ £ @ ¨ ¢ £ (l) ¢ case where of { > . } > . respectively @ @ ¨ ¨ ¤ ¨ ¤ ££ ¥¦£ § ¨ © ¨ § (n) case of { case of { # { = } > . _ > _ > }} where .
¦ { . } ¦ A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¦ $ ¥ £0 7 ¦ ¦ { . } = = where where empty A § ¦ 37 6 6 © ¥ § ¦ § © 7 ¦ 7 6 6 © 7¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ 6 6 © 7¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ 6 6 © 2§ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 2 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 6 6 2 ¦ ' 2 $ 7 ¦ 2 4 . type data newtype class instance default ( . we describe the syntax and informal semantics of Haskell declarations. . . . module where 2 ¨ ©§ ¤ 5@¤32 ¢ ¡ § 2 4 ¦ ' { { { .¦ § 7 ¥ ¦ ¤ ¤ © ¥ £0 ¦ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ ¡ 7 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¤ ¤ ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¤ © ¥ © ¦ § A 7 ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ © © ¥ ¤ § ¦ ¢ £¡ 7 ¦ § ) 7 7 ¦ 7 ¦ ¦ 8 8 A %§ ¥¥8 ¡ %§ ¦ § ¡ ¡ ¨ © § § ©¦ § © %§ ¨ § ¡ § ¦ 2 © ¢ 7 7 ¦ ¨ 5© ¤ ¥ %§ © %§ ¨ § S § 32 © ¢ ¦ 7§ © ¦ ¦ 7§ © ¨ ¦ § § ¤ ¥ 332 £ ¦ %¢§¢ 4 ¥ x¨ ¤ § ¡ § 32 ¢ ¦ ¦ V ¨ #¦ § § ¥ ©¤ § ©332 ¡ 7©¡ %§ 4 § © ¨ ¤ ¦ § S § 32 ¢ ¦ ¦ ¡ 7© ¡ %§ %¢ § 4 § V © A ¡ 2 § ¡ ¥¥8 ©¡ ¡ 2 § 8 8 7 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 7 ¦ ¡ © 2§ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § © 7¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ © ¦ ' ¡ ¦ ¦ Declarations and Bindings Chapter 4 In this chapter. } } ¦ ¡ 7 $ ¥ ¦£0 7 ¦ ¦ { . = => => => => . } } © 2§ . .
1.1) introduces a new type class and the overloaded operations that must be supported by any type that is an instance of that class. 5]. © 4.3. instance. .2). Haskell has several primitive datatypes that are “hardwired” (such as integers and ﬂoatingpoint numbers).simplified class declaration for Num . and default declarations (Section 4. These “builtin” datatypes are described in detail in Section 6. newtype. suppose we wish to overload the operations (+) and negate on types Int and Float.38 %§ CHAPTER 4. . infixl infixr infix ¦ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 2§ ¨ :: => © ¡ © 7 ¥ ¦ A¤ 2 ¨ ¥ § ¦ § ¤ ¡ § S § 32 ¢ ¦ V A¢ 2 ¡ 8¥¥8 8 8 8 ¥¥8 %§ § ¢ ¡ © ¤ ¡ ¤ ¢ ¢ 2 ¡ 6 6 6 6 7 ¥ ¦ © S¤ © type signature ﬁxity declaration empty declaration %§ § ¢ ¦ ¥ ¢ 2 ¡ . we divide the declarations into three groups: userdeﬁned datatypes.3).e. of the given types.(Num is defined in the Prelude) This declaration may be read “a type a is an instance of the class Num if there are class methods (+) and negate. but most “builtin” datatypes are deﬁned with normal Haskell code. A class declaration (Section 4. whereas may be used either at the top level or in nested scopes (i. For example.3.1 Overview of Types and Classes Haskell uses a traditional HindleyMilner polymorphic type system to provide a static type semantics [3. type signatures. those within a let or where construct). . consisting of value bindings.” We may then declare Int and Float to be instances of this class: . An instance declaration (Section 4.4). and data declarations (Section 4. consisting of type. deﬁned on it. For exposition. and ﬁxity declarations (Section 4. type classes and overloading. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS The declarations in the syntactic category are only allowed at the top level of a Haskell module (see Chapter 5). consisting of class. using normal type and data declarations. but the type system has been extended with type classes (or just classes) that provide a structured way to introduce overloaded functions. and nested declarations.2) declares that a type is an instance of a class and includes the deﬁnitions of the overloaded operations—called class methods—instantiated on the named type. We introduce a new type class called Num: class Num a where (+) :: a > a > a negate :: a > a .
is the kind of types that take a type of kind and return ¤ ¥¡ 6 6 6 ¢ £¡ ¡ ¡ %§ %§ ¡ %§ ' ¢ .” More examples of type classes can be found in the papers by Jones [7] or Wadler and Blott [12]. ] ) . ¡ ¡ ¢ ¨ ¤ ¡ B%§ ¦ 32 ¢ %§ ¡ ¤ ¡ ¡ %§ %§ ' ' The symbol represents the kind of all nullary type constructors. type expressions are classiﬁed into different kinds. negateInt. kinds are entirely implicit and are not a visible part of the language.1 Kinds To ensure that they are valid. ‘constructor class’ was used to describe an extension to the original type classes.simplified instance of Num Float x + y = addFloat x y negate x = negateFloat x where addInt. unlike types.1.4.e. but in general could be any userdeﬁned function. ‘type class’ includes both the original Haskell type classes and the constructor classes introduced by Jones. The ﬁrst declaration above may be read “Int is an instance of the class Num as witnessed by these deﬁnitions (i. 4. 4. OVERVIEW OF TYPES AND CLASSES 39 instance Num Int where . Kind inference is discussed in Section 4.2 Syntax of Types ¨ %§ > %§ function type %§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ ¡ ¡ %§ %§ %§ ( [ ( . ) tuple type list type parenthesised constructor ¤ type application ¢ ©¡ ¢ ¤ ¡ ¨§6 ¦¡ ¢ ¡ If and are kinds. addFloat.simplified instance of Num Int x + y = addInt x y negate x = negateInt x instance Num Float where . There is no longer any reason to use two different terms: in this report.1. then a type of kind . which take one of two possible forms: Kind inference checks the validity of type expressions in a similar way that type inference checks the validity of value expressions. and negateFloat are assumed in this case to be primitive functions.6.1. However.0 type system. The term ‘type class’ was used to describe the original Haskell 1. class methods) for (+) and negate.
Type constructors. If is a type of kind type expression of kind .. also written () (see Sections 3. In general. and is a type of kind . The kind of T is determined by kind inference. Use of the (>) and [] constants is described in more detail below. Special syntax is provided to allow certain type expressions to be written in a more traditional style: § § ¤ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¤ ¡ 6 ¤ ¡ 6 ¢ ¡ 3. and so on.. or newtype T . and treated as types with kind . For example: Char. and classes. The list type is written as [] and has kind . DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS The syntax for Haskell type expressions is given above. Type variables. type values are built from . Integer. 4.1. add the type constructor T to the type vocabulary. Since the IO type constructor has kind . written as identiﬁers beginning with a lowercase letter.5). ) 6 2§ $ § © ¦ ¤ ¤32 ¡ %§ ¤ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¦ 32 6 %§ 6 6 6 ¦ 32 %§ unit type list constructor function constructor tupling constructors . The kind of a variable is determined implicitly by the context in which it appears. and has exactly one value. For example. Int. Most type constructors are written as an identiﬁer beginning with an uppercase letter. IO a. The declarations data T . type synonyms.9 and 6. Just as data values are built using data constructors.40 CHAPTER 4. Type application. The function type is written as (>) and has kind . It denotes the “nullary tuple” type. Their kinds are . a process of kind inference (see Section 4.). to the variable a. 2.6) is needed to determine appropriate kinds for userdeﬁned datatypes. must have kind . (. the type expression IO a can be understood as the application of a constant. having form ( ).. Maybe and IO are unary type constructors.. then is a 6 6 6 6 6 () [] (>) (. it follows that both the variable a and the whole expression. A parenthesized type.). Double and Bool are type constants with kind . and so on. The main forms of type expression are as follows: 1. the names of type constructors start with uppercase letters. is identical to the type . . The tuple types are written as (. Float. . As with data constructors. Unlike data constructors. © S¤ Special syntax is provided for certain builtin type constructors: The trivial type is written as () and has kind .. IO. inﬁx type constructors are not allowed (other than (>)).
the preﬁx type constructors (>).8 and 6. and lists. When we write an explicitly quantiﬁed type. there is no explicit syntax for universal quantiﬁcation [3]. A class identiﬁer begins with an uppercase letter. . always denote the builtin type constructors. These special syntactic forms always denote the builtin type constructors for functions. In a similar way. Int > Int > Float means Int > (Int > Float). and indicates the membership of the type in the class . they cannot be qualiﬁed. the scope of the extends as far to the right as possible. “gtycon”.1. . 2. (.). . for example. It denotes the type of tuples with the ﬁrst component of type . 1.1)). respectively. OVERVIEW OF TYPES AND CLASSES £§ ¡§ 41 £§ ¡§ > .) where there are commas between the parenthesis. ( With one exception (that of the distinguished type variable in a class declaration (Section 4. It denotes the type of lists with elements of type (see Sections 3.3). For example.3. then the expressions (\ > ). Notice that expressions and types have a consistent syntax.1. and so on. A tuple type has the form ( . which is equivalent to the type [] . []. the type expression a > a . which is equivalent to the type (. their semantics is the same as the equivalent userdeﬁned algebraic data types. we often write quantiﬁcation explicitly when denotes the type discussing the types of Haskell programs.) Although the list and tuple types have special syntax. [ ].1. A class assertion has form . nor mentioned in import or export lists (Chapter 5). the second component of type . and ( ) have the types ( > ). For clarity. and so on (see Sections 3.1.7 and 6. tuples. the type variables in a Haskell type expression are all assumed to be universally quantiﬁed. A context consists of zero or more class assertions. [ ]. ) £§ ¢ 6 ¢ & 8 ¢ ¥ ¦ § § ¢ 6 ¤ ¢ 8 ¢ ¢ £ ¤ ¥ ¡ § ¡ ¢ § ¤ ¦ ¦¢ § 32 ¦ © %§ ¨ § 2 4 A 5 %§ 8¥8¥8 ¢ %§ 7¥ ¤ B%§ ¦ © ¦ %§ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¢ ¤ %§ © ¥ %§ 7 7 © 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ ¡ S© ¥ ¢ ¥ 7 £ ¤ § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¢ ¢ ¢7 ¤ ¡§ ¢ £ ¤ %§ © § 7 ¥ ¡ %§ ¢ § 6 ¡ ¡ © S© ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ 8 ¢ ¥ 7 ¢ ¥ ¡ ¢ 6 6 6 6 6 § ¡ § ¢ £§ © © ¤ 7 7 © © © ¥ ¢ 7 ¥ %§ ¡§ ¦ 2 %§ %§ ¢ ¥ 7 v %§ . however. . (Hence the special production. ) where . which is equivalent to the type (>) . If is the type of expression or pattern . and ).. . and has the general form A $ A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ ¡ ( ) ¤ ¢ %§ ¦ ( ) ¦ A © © ( .4). above. For example. ¡§ £§ ¡§ v § 4. ().3 Syntax of Class Assertions and Contexts . A list type has the form [ ]. A function type has the form Function arrows associate to the right. means . regardless of what is in scope. 3.4.
here are some valid types: Eq a => a > a (Eq a. consider the function double: § if and only if the context ¡ ¢ ¢ 8 £ ¢ Whenever ¥ holds in the class environment. Furthermore. In general. Eq b) => [a] > [b] > String (Eq (f a). The context must only contain type variables referenced in . In general. in more detail. we provide informal details of the type system. For example. a type is of the form . and a class environment that declares which types are instances of which classes (a type becomes an instance of a class only via the presence of an instance declaration or a deriving clause). Functor f) => (a > b) > f a > f b > Bool In the third type. § § § 4. £§ ¨ $ © ¢ © A value of type . including the proper use of overloaded class methods (although certain ambiguous overloadings could arise. any of that are free in must also be free in . we use to denote a context and we write => to indicate the type restricted by the context .4. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS where are class identiﬁers. In any such type. Therefore. The outer parentheses may be omitted when . Show a.3. that can be assigned to a particular expression (in a given environment) is called its principal type. explicit typings (called type signatures) are usually optional (see Sections 3. we write => even if the context is empty.1). Types are related by a generalization preorder (speciﬁed below). The type of an expression depends on a type environment that gives types for the free variables in . respectively. also holds. £ ¢ 8 £ ¥ $ ¡§ t $ ¡ ¢ 8 t $ The type substitution ¥ is more general than the type whose domain is such that: if and only if there is a § A $ A ¢ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ ¢ ¡ $ ¢ ¢ v r$ $ § ¢ ¢ § ¢ A ¢ 8 $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ ¥ ¡ £§ ¦ .3. Haskell’s extended HindleyMilner type system can infer the principal type of all expressions.1.4 Semantics of Types and Classes In this section. (Wadler and Blott [12] and Jones [7] discuss type and constructor classes. where is a set of type variables . For convenience.42 CHAPTER 4.4). For example.1. although in this case the concrete syntax contains no =>. the constraint Eq (f a) cannot be made simpler because f is universally quantiﬁed.16 and 4. " t ¡§ is identical to . up to the equivalence induced by the generalization preorder. the universallyquantiﬁed type variables the context must be of the form given above in Section 4. as described in Section 4. may be instantiated at types holds. the most general type. and each of the is either a type variable.) The Haskell type system attributes a type to each expression in the program. or the application of type variable to one or more types.
4.2. renamed datatypes (newtype declarations). in which case double may indeed be applied to a Char. since Num Int holds. double may not normally be applied to values of type Char. However. } 3 %§ ¢ ¥ ¦ 7 ! ! ¡ ¢ 7 ¦ ¦ 7 %§ ¡ %§ ¡ ¡ 7 ¥ %§ ¦ ¦ 7 ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ %§ ! ! arity inﬁx ¦§ £ ¢ ¢ ¡ 3 %§ 8¡ 8 ¥¥8 ¢ 2 ¦ ©32 ' ¡ ¡ %§ ¨ 8 8 ¥¥8 A¢ § © ¦ §¤ ¤32 8 8 ¥¥¡8   ¦ ¦ § 2©¦ 2 ¡ ¦32 ¦ ¦ § ¢ ¤ ¥ © © ¦ ¤ § 332 %§ ¤ ¢ 4§ © ¨ %§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ § S § ¢ ¢ ¦ 32 data => = ¦ ¢ 6 ¢ ¢ ¡ 7 ©¡ 8 ¢ ¥ %§ © ¤ ¦ 3¢ 2 %§ ¨ ¡ 32¡ ¦ ' ¢ ¡ ¤ ¤32 § © ¦ ¢ V ¤ § 332 © ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ 32 %§ %§ 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ ¦ 7 § %¢ #¦ § § 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ © © ¤ § ¦ ¤ § ¦ 2 © © © 7 ©¡ ¢ 7¥ ¦ ¤ 4§ 2 2§ ¦ © .2 UserDeﬁned Datatypes In this section. An algebraic datatype declaration has the form: where is a context. double may be applied to values of type Int (instantiating to Int). 4.2. ! . USERDEFINED DATATYPES double x = x + x 43 The most general type of double is Num .1 Algebraic Datatype Declarations ¨ #¦ § § The precedence for is the same as that for expressions—normal constructor application has higher precedence than inﬁx constructor application (thus a : Foo a parses as a : (Foo a)). we describe algebraic datatypes (data declarations). and type synonyms (type declarations). the unqualiﬁed term “constructor” always means “data constructor”. because Char is not normally an instance of class Num. .4. ) ¦ § ¦ ¢ ¥ ¦ 7 A ¢ ¥ ¦ 7 { :: . The user may choose to declare such an instance. In this Report. The types of the data constructors are given by: A § ¥¥8 ¡ !§ A A 8 8 $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ 6 ¡ ¡ ¢¢¡ ¤ v§ 6 ¢¢¡ ¡ ¡ ¡§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ § ¡ 6 ¡ @§ v A v ¢ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ 8 ¡ $ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ Q¥ §¦v ¥¥ ¢ data ¢ => =   £ ¤ A © S© ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 © ¡ S© © S© deriving © ( . This declaration introduces a new type constructor with one or more constituent data constructors . These declarations may only appear at the top level of a module. because Int is an instance of the class Num.
using the record syntax (C { .f2 :: Int. This means that may be used in type expressions with anywhere between and arguments. These components are normally accessed positionally as arguments to the constructor in expressions or patterns. the overloaded type for ConsSet ensures that ConsSet can only be applied to values whose type is an instance of the class Eq. Constructors using ﬁeld labels may be freely mixed with constructors without them. the declaration data Eq a => Set a = NilSet  ConsSet a (Set a) In the example given. The type variables through must be distinct and may appear in and the . For example. For example: f (ConsSet a s) = a the function f has inferred type Eq a => Set a > a.8. For example. to the components of a data object. }). Pattern matching against ConsSet also gives rise to an Eq a constraint..e. and constructors NilSet and ConsSet with v § ¢ v I¡ ¢ ¢ 6 ¡ ¦ 6 ¥¥8 8 8 ¢ 6 $ 7 ¦7 ¢ 6 ¢ ¡ 8 8 ¢ ¢ ¥ §¥ ¥ ¥ §¥ ¥ ¡ $ ¤ v§ v $ where 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ @§ v . features using labels are simply a shorthand for operations using an underlying positional constructor.6. Labelled Fields A data constructor of arity creates an object with components. the declaration data C = F { f1. The optional deriving part of a data declaration has to do with derived instances.3. The visibility of a datatype’s constructors (i. A constructor with associated ﬁeld labels may still be used as an ordinary constructor. The new type constant has a kind of the form where the kinds of the argument variables are determined by kind inference as described in Section 4. This allows For large datatypes it is useful to assign a speciﬁc ﬁeld to be referenced independently of its location within the constructor.3. the “abstractness” of the datatype) outside of the module in which the datatype is deﬁned is controlled by the form of the datatype’s name in the export list as described in Section 5. The context in the data declaration has no other effect whatsoever. A constructor deﬁnition in a data declaration may assign labels to the ﬁelds of the constructor. it is a static error for any other type variable to appear in or on the righthandside. f3 :: Bool } deﬁnes a type and constructor identical to the one produced by © ¢ 6 Set Set ¢ ¢ 6 ¢ 7 ' ¨¢ ¢ introduces a type constructor Set of kind types NilSet Set ConsSet Eq . and is described in Section 4..44 ¢ v ¢ CHAPTER 4. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS is the largest subset of that constrains only those type variables free in the types . The arguments to the positional constructor occur in the same order as the labeled ﬁelds.
Field names share the top level namespace with ordinary variables and class methods and must not conﬂict with other top level names in scope. Lexically.2. Pattern matching on strictness ﬂags.2. whether or not F was declared with record syntax. . The pattern F {} matches any value built with constructor F. replaces every occurrence of 8 8 ¥¥8 A 8 8 §© ¥¥8 ¡ © 8 8 ¥¥8 $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ ¢ data => =   in an expression is the strict apply is not affected by 2 ¤ ¤ © ¡ ¦ 6 6 8 8 ¥¥8 %¢ § 4§ © 7 ©¡ 2 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ ¡ 2 ¡ $ ¡ # ¡ § § § . For example.2) if is of the form ! .15. v 2§ v © v © v ¢ £ 2 ¡ ¢ ¡ 2 ¤ %§ ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ %§ 32 8 8 ¦ ¢%§ %¢ ¢ 4 § © § ¡ ¡ ©¡ 7 A 8 8 3¢ ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ 6 ¡ ¢ (\ > 2 v %§ ¡ 3¢ A 2 ¥¥8 £ A 8 8 ¡ ¡ ¡ v @§ & v 2§ 6 ¥¥8 8 8 ¨ $ # § 6 ¢ ¡ v © where each by is either of the form ! or . Translation: A declaration of the form 4. Strictness Flags Whenever a data constructor is applied. “!” is an ordinary varsym not a .6. it has special signiﬁcance only in the context of the argument types of a data declaration. A label cannot be shared by more than one type in scope. it is a static error for any other type variable to appear in .4. denoted by an exclamation point.2 Type Synonym Declarations A type synonym declaration introduces a new type that is equivalent to an old type. and function $! (see Section 6. The type is equivalent to the type . the following deﬁnition can be used to provide an alternative way of writing the list type constructor: § ¡ v $ § ¥¥8 ¡ § 8 8 § v I¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ $ type = ¦ § ¢ ¡ $ type %§ = v where is the nonstrict apply function $ if is of the form . A data declaration may use the same ﬁeld label in multiple constructors as long as the typing of the ﬁeld is the same in all cases after type synonym expansion. USERDEFINED DATATYPES data C = F Int Int Bool 45 Operations using ﬁeld labels are described in Section 3. The type variables through must be distinct and are scoped only over . “!”. each argument to the constructor is evaluated if and only if the corresponding type in the algebraic datatype declaration has a strictness ﬂag. The kind of the new type constructor is of the form where the kinds of the arguments and of the right hand side are determined by kind inference as described in Section 4. It has the form § $ which introduces a new type constructor.
DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS Type constructor symbols introduced by type synonym declarations cannot be partially applied. Unlike algebraic datatypes. so that is the same as . The difference is reﬂected in different rules for pattern matching (see Section 3.invalid . newtype may be used to deﬁne recursive types. A type created by newtype differs from an algebraic datatype in that the representation of an algebraic datatype has an extra level of indirection. Similarly. This difference may make access to the representation less efﬁcient. except in the instance type of an instance declaration (Section 4.2. type Rec a = [Rec a] is not allowed. It differs from a type synonym in that it creates a distinct type that must be explicitly coerced to or from the original type.3. The constructor in an expression coerces a value from type to type ( ). but strictly syntactic.17). E $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ § § $ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ § E $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ E ¢ newtype => A declaration of the form = ¦ § ¢ ¤ ¢ %§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ %§ ¢¤ %§ { :: } ¤ ¤ § 332 © ¦ £ ¦ § %¢ 4 § x¨ © § ¡ § ¢ ¡ ¦ 32 newtype => = ¦ ¡ 7 ©¡ V ¢ ¡ %§ E ¢ ¦ 32 § ¦32 ¦ 32 %§ E 6 6 6 $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ ¤32 § © ¦ ¡ § %¢ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 7 ©¡ $ £ 4§ © 2§ ¦ .2) can be deﬁned for a type deﬁned by newtype but may not be deﬁned for a type synonym. this is not so for type synonyms.2).46 type List = [] CHAPTER 4. unlike type synonyms. New instances (see Section 4.invalid = = [Circ a] Tag [Rec a] is not.3 Datatype Renamings ¨ ¦§ § introduces a new type whose representation is the same as an existing type. the newtype constructor is unlifted. unless an algebraic datatype intervenes. newtype does not change the underlying representation of an object. Using in a pattern coerces a value from type ( ) to type . 4. The type ( ) renames the datatype . Type synonyms are a convenient. it is a static error to use without the full number of arguments. These coercions may be implemented without execution time overhead. Although recursive and mutually recursive datatypes are allowed. Also. A synonym and its deﬁnition are completely interchangeable. mechanism to make type signatures more readable.3. type Rec a data Circ a is allowed. For example. whereas type Rec a type Circ a = = [Circ a] [Rec a] .
1 Class Declarations ¨ 5© A class declaration introduces a new class and the operations (class methods) on it. ( n ( N ) ). Thus: newtype Age = Age { unAge :: Int } brings into scope both a constructor and a deconstructor: Age :: Int > Age unAge :: Age > Int 4. see Section 4. A newtype declaration may use ﬁeldnaming syntax.3 Type Classes and Overloading 4. The optional deriving part of a newtype declaration is treated in the same way as the deriving component of a data declaration. In particular. ) ¦ § ¢7 ¤ %§ © 7 ©¡ %§ ¨ § S § ¢ class => where 7 ¥ ¦ ¢ 7 ¥ ¤ ¤ © ¥ £0 ¦ $ ¢ 7 ¦ 7 ¦ ¡ 8¥¥8 8 7 ¦ ¤ %§ ¥ © %§ ¢ ¥ § © 74 ¡ S© © ¢ ¥ © ¡ 4 § © 7 7 © S© 7 ¦ 32 © ¢ ¥ 7 ¡ 6 6 6 6 6 © © 7 ¥ © 7 ¥ ¢ ¥ ©¡ 7 7 § S § ¢ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ ¦ 32 4§ ¦ ¦ 2§ © © . ( d1 ( D1 ) ) and ( s ) are all equivalent to 42. . TYPE CLASSES AND OVERLOADING 47 The following examples clarify the differences between data (algebraic datatypes). ( N ) is equivalent to while ( D1 ) is not equivalent to .3. and newtype (renaming types. A class declaration has the general form: © $ ¢ class => where ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ A { .3. © ¥ } ¦ § ¦ A© §S© 4§ © 7 8 8 ¥¥8 ¦ ( .3.4. though of course there may only be one ﬁeld.3. . type (type synonyms). whereas ( n ).) Given the declarations data D1 = D1 Int data D2 = D2 !Int type S = Int newtype N = N Int d1 (D1 i) = 42 d2 (D2 i) = 42 s i = 42 n (N i) = 42 the expressions ( d1 ). ( d2 ) and (d2 (D2 ) ) are all equivalent to .
in particular. except that the left hand side may only be a variable or function deﬁnition. The may constrain only . no other declarations are permitted in . However. Show a) => Textual a Other than these cases. The default method declaration is a normal value deﬁnition. since class methods declare toplevel values. The context speciﬁes the superclasses of . For example: class Foo a where op :: Num b => a > b > a v #¢ £ $ £ v ¨¢ £ $ $ $ v§ v The may also contain a ﬁxity declaration for any of the class methods (but for no other values). the ﬁxity declaration for a class method may alternatively appear at top level. the may not constrain . whose scope extends outside the class declaration. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS $ This introduces a new class name . the only type variable that may be referred to in is . it may mention type variables other than . op2) = . The default class method for is used if no binding for it is given in a particular instance declaration (see Section 4. they must not conﬂict with other top level bindings in scope. the type variable is scoped only over the class method signatures in the class body.3. as described below. 6 7 ¥ ¦ 6 Foo Num 8 ¥ Here the type of op is © ¢ ' ¡ ¡ ¡ £ £ ¥ ¡ ¤¥ §¥ ¢ 8 ¨ © § ¥ ¦ ¢ ' ¢ ' ¢ 7 ¥ ¦ v 7 ¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ The part of a class declaration contains three kinds of declarations: is: $ ¢ ¢ 7 ¦ . in which case the type of is polymorphic in both and .2). or another class method. a class method can not have the same name as a top level deﬁnition. . For example: class (Read a.. a ﬁeld name. v B v # v v @§ v ¢ v © The type of the toplevel class method The must mention . © The class declaration introduces new class methods . © v © A class declaration with no where part may be useful for combining a collection of classes into a larger one that inherits all of the class methods in the original ones. outside the class declaration. Lastly. Class methods share the top level namespace with variable bindings and ﬁeld names. For example: class Foo a where op1.e. op2 :: a > a (op1.. The superclass relation must not be cyclic.48 CHAPTER 4. i. it must form a directed acyclic graph. The class methods of a class declaration are precisely the for which there is an explicit type signature :: => in . because the left hand side of the default declaration is a pattern. the may contain a default class method for any of the . That is. is not permitted.
. The instance declaration must be given explicitly with no where part.a) where . must take the form of a type constructor applied to simple .2 Instance Declarations ¨ © } § ¦ § © © %§ $ An instance declaration introduces an instance of a class..a) where . The type type variables distinct.range. ) ) & & ( ( [ ( { ) ¦ ¦£©¨¦§¥££ ¤ B%§ £¡ ¤ %§ ¢ ¤ ¢ ¢ © §¢ ¦¥©¨§¦¥¤£¡S¤ %§ ¤ ¢ ¢ © ¦ ¢ ¢ © ¥©¨§¦¥¤£¡S¤ ¢¢ %§ § ¢¢ ¦ ¦ ' © ¥ ¤ ¤ © ¥ £0 ¦ $ A § ¥¥8 ¢ ¡ 7 § 8 8 7 ¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ £ ¤ %§ ¡ ¤ %§ ¢ ¤ ¢ %§ ¢ ¤ %§ ¥¥8 8 8 ¡ ¤ %§ ¤ B%§ ¢ ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ %§ ¦ 2 ¢ %§ 8 8 ¢ ¢ ¨ § ¡ § ¢ ¦ 2 © instance => where 7 § ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ 32 8 8 ¥¥8 %§ ¦ ¡ $ 6 6 6 6 ¦ § ¢ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ © 7 7 § ¦ § © 2§ § ¦ § ¦ . instance C [[a]] where . even though the subclass has no immediate class methods.. it is not automatically an instance of the subclass. instance C (Int. 4. .. it may be a qualiﬁed name. in particular.3. if a type is an instance of all superclasses. (This rule is identical to that used for subordinate names in export lists — Section 5.3. The general form of the corresponding instance declaration is: This prohibits instance declarations such as: instance C (a.2. TYPE CLASSES AND OVERLOADING 49 In such a case. even though range is in scope only with the qualiﬁed name Ix. module A where import qualified Ix instance Ix.4. and the must all be $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ 1 ¢ instance => where { ¦ 2 ¢ class => where { } £%§ ¡ 4 ¦ . } . ] > . furthermore. but the name under which it is in scope is immaterial.. since these have already v x$ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ $ where .. It is illegal to give a binding for a class method that is not in scope. must not be a type synonym.) For example.. The declarations may not contain any type signatures or ﬁxity declarations. Let be a class declaration. this is legal..Ix T where range = . The declarations may contain bindings only for the class methods of .
The constraints expressed by the superclass context be satisﬁed.. The following example illustrates the restrictions imposed by superclass instances: class Foo a => Bar a where ... Show a) => Foo [a] where .6.. In other words.1).. Under this assumption. Show a) => Bar [a] where .. Assume that the type variables in the instance type satisfy the constraints in the instance context . instance (Eq a. If no binding is given for some class method then the corresponding default class method in the class declaration is used (if present). contexts of all superclass instances must be implied by $ of must ’s superclasses and the ¢ An instance declaration that makes the type to be an instance of class instance declaration and is subject to these static restrictions: is called a CT $ 1 ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¢ $ 1 ¢ ¦ 1 ¢ . must be an instance of each of .. if such a default does not exist then the class method of this instance is bound to undefined and no compiletime error results. Any constraints on the type variables in the instance type that are required for the class method declarations in to be welltyped must also be satisﬁed. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS been given in the class declaration. except in pathological cases it is possible to infer from the instance declaration the most general instance context satisfying the above two constraints. The class and type must have the same kind. The ﬁrst instance declaration does indeed say that [a] is an instance of Foo under this assumption. the method declarations must take the form of a variable or function deﬁnition.3. Since Foo is a superclass of Bar. because Eq and Show are superclasses of Num.. This example is valid Haskell. The second instance declaration is valid only if [a] is an ¨ $ # $ 8 8 ¥¥8 1. the second instance declaration is only valid if [a] is an instance of Foo under the assumption Num a. In fact. but it is nevertheless mandatory to write an explicit instance context. this can be determined using kind inference as described in Section 4..50 CHAPTER 4. As in the case of default class methods (Section 4. A type may not be declared as an instance of a particular class more than once in the program. the following two conditions must also be satisﬁed: 2.. then the program would be invalid. instance (Eq a. instance Num a => Bar [a] where . If the two instance declarations instead read like this: instance Num a => Foo [a] where .
then derived instance declarations are automatically generated for the datatype in each of the named classes. TYPE CLASSES AND OVERLOADING 51 instance of Foo under the assumptions (Eq a. instances for all superclasses of must exist for . Classes deﬁned by the standard libraries may also be derivable.. When deriving a class for a type .3 Derived Instances As mentioned in Section 4.2. For example.4 Ambiguous Types. including a speciﬁcation of when such derived instances are possible. all mentioned in Figure 6. Show a).. Bounded. A static error results if it is not possible to derive an instance declaration over a class named in a deriving form. omitting a deriving form is equivalent to including an empty deriving form: deriving (). The only classes in the Prelude for which derived instances are allowed are Eq.3. Ord.3. because the types for show and read. that is. If the form is included. For example. ) ¦ § ¡ ¡ 6 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 2§ . Enum. But this does not hold.invalid is ambiguous. . freeing the programmer from the need to deﬁne them. data and newtype declarations contain an optional deriving form. page 83. and Defaults for Overloaded Numeric Operations ¦ A %§ A problem inherent with Haskellstyle overloading is the possibility of an ambiguous type.1." in show x . Show. then the expression let x = read ". The precise details of how the derived instances are generated for each of these classes are provided in Chapter 10. either via an explicit instance declaration or by including the superclass in the deriving clause. derived instances for datatypes in the class Eq deﬁne the operations == and /=. It is also a static error to give an explicit instance declaration for a class that is also derived.1. since [a] is only an instance of Foo under the stronger assumption Num a. not all datatypes can properly support class methods in Enum. 4. If the deriving form is omitted from a data or newtype declaration. 4. ¢ 6 6 ¢ 8 ¢ 8 ¥ §¥ ¥ ¥ §¥ ¥ show read Show Read String String ¢ ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ ¡ ¢ %§ default ( .4. then no instance declarations are derived for that datatype. For example. using the read and show functions deﬁned in Chapter 10. and Read. Further examples of instance declarations may be found in Chapter 8.3. These instances are subject to the same restrictions as userdeﬁned instances. and supposing that just Int and Bool are members of Read and Show. Derived instances provide convenient commonlyused operations for userdeﬁned datatypes.
shows the classes deﬁned in the Prelude. is defaultable if: ¢ ¢ at least one of these classes is a numeric class. appears only in constraints of the form . For example. turns off all defaults in a module. ) where . page 83. Such types are invalid. but and are forced to have the same type. an ambiguous type variable.3. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS could be satisﬁed by instantiating a as either Int in both cases." in show (x::Bool) which disambiguates the type. pages 91– 92 show the numeric classes.. the earlier expression involving show and read has an ambiguous type since its type Show Read String. rather than being given a ﬁxed type with an expression typesignature. for the ambiguous expression given earlier. and its effect is limited to that module. or Bool. . approxSqrt x = encodeFloat 1 (exponent x ‘div‘ 2) ‘asTypeOf‘ x (See Section 6. In situations where an ambiguous type is discovered. § ¢ ¢ For example. in its type variable in that occurs in but not in . where is a class. Double) The empty default declaration. and Figure 6. § ¢ . default ().6 for a description of encodeFloat and exponent. If no default declaration is given in a module then it assumed to be: default (Integer. and each must be a type for which Num holds. is Ambiguous types can only be circumvented by input from the user. so Haskell provides another way to resolve them— with a default declaration: default ( .4.52 CHAPTER 4. one could write: let x = read ". Occasionally. Such expressions are considered illtyped.) Ambiguities in the class Num are most common.. One way is through the use of expression typesignatures as described in Section 3. Only one default declaration is permitted per module.16. . It is a static error if no such type is found. an otherwise ambiguous expression needs to be made the same type as some variable. For example. a static error.2–6. (that is. Num or a subclass of Num). This is the purpose of the function asTypeOf (Chapter 8): ‘asTypeOf‘ has the value of .1.) Each defaultable variable is replaced by the ﬁrst type in the default list that is an instance of all the ambiguous variable’s classes. there is a type A !§ v § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡§ ¢ v 2§ ¢ $ ¦ $ ¦ 8 ¢ ¥ . and 8 $ ¥ We say that an expression e has an ambiguous type if. and all of these classes are deﬁned in the Prelude or a standard library (Figures 6.
there is currently since x does not have type no way in Haskell to specify a signature for a variable with a dependent type. For example. then each use of is treated as having the declared type. possibly with respect to a context. such as ¦ ¦ § ¢ § 6 ¢ ¢ A ¢ § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ 8 ¡ ¢ ¥ §¥ ¥ A §¤ v ¢ .1. It is a static error if the same type cannot also be inferred for the deﬁning occurrence of .4. 4. or principal type . if we deﬁne sqr x = x*x 0 0 0 0 0 0 then the principal type is sqr Num . it is invalid to give more than one type signature for one variable. and all uses of within its declaration group must have the same monomorphic type (from which the principal type is obtained by generalization. However.5. and hence the scope of a type variable is limited to the type signature that contains it. this is explained in Section 4. It is also valid to declare a more speciﬁc type. If a variable is deﬁned without providing a corresponding type signature declaration. A type signature has the form: :: => which is equivalent to asserting :: => for each from to . which allows applications such as sqr 5 or sqr 0. the deﬁning occurrence.1. then each use of outside its own declaration group (see Section 4. even if the signatures are identical. %§ ¨ § S § ¢ ¢ 8 ¦ 32 ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¥ :: .e. As mentioned in Section 4.5. ¡ => ¡ V © ¤ ¤ ¢ ¢ 6 6 7 ¥ ¦ © S¤ ¦ ¥ ¢ . it is invalid to give a type signature for a variable bound in an outer scope.2).4. NESTED DECLARATIONS 53 4. to ensure that type inference is still possible.4 Nested Declarations The following declarations may be used in any declaration list. every type variable appearing in a signature is universally quantiﬁed over that signature. For example.1 Type Signatures . in the following declarations f :: a > a f x = x :: a v B the a’s in the two type signatures are quite distinct. as described in Section 4.5) is treated as having the corresponding inferred.4. (The type of x is dependent on the type of f.2. . including the top level of a module. Indeed. Moreover.invalid A type signature speciﬁes types for variables. these declarations contain a static error. i.4. Each must have a value binding in the same declaration list that contains the type signature.) If a given program includes a signature for a variable .
4. A ﬁxity declaration may appear anywhere that a type signature appears and. T a > a. and level 9 binds most tightly). The following deﬁnition is pathological. ﬁxity is not a property of that entity’s name. If the is omitted. 4. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS but now applications such as sqr 0.invalid . (Class methods are a minor exception. just like its type. but illustrates how a type signature can be used to specify a type more general than the one that would be inferred: data T a = K (T Int) (T a) f :: T a > a f (K x y) = if f x == 1 then f y else undefined If we remove the signature declaration. The in a ﬁxity declaration must be in the range to . Type signatures can also be used to support polymorphic recursion. infixl. ¦ ¡ 2 ©¦ 2 &¤ 2 A 2 ¡ ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¢ 2 8 8 ¡ ¡ 2 ¨ ¥ § ¦ § %§ § ¢ ¤ 6 6 6 6 7 ¥ ¦ © %§ § ¢ ¦ ¥ ¡ ¡2 2 . respectively). and infixr.1 lists the ﬁxities and precedences of the operators deﬁned in the Prelude. and ten precedence levels. 0 to 9 inclusive (level 0 binds least tightly. For example: §§ § ¦ ¤ § ¦ § ¦ infixl infixr infix . Any operator lacking a ﬁxity declaration is assumed to be infixl 9 (See Section 3 for more on the use of ﬁxities).54 sqr :: Int > Int CHAPTER 4.1 are invalid. Type signatures such as sqr :: (Num a. .2 Fixity Declarations © A ﬁxity declaration gives the ﬁxity and binding precedence of one or more operators. a ﬁxity declaration can only occur in the same sequence of declarations as the declaration of the operator itself. non. level 9 is assumed. Fixity is a property of a particular entity (constructor or variable).and rightassociativity (infix. the type of f will be inferred as T Int > Int due to the ﬁrst recursive call for which the argument to f is T Int. and at most one ﬁxity declaration may be given for any operator.invalid are invalid. their ﬁxity declarations can occur either in the class declaration itself or at top level. Polymorphic recursion allows the user to supply the more general type signature. like a type signature. Also like a type signature. Num b) => a > b sqr :: a > a . as they are more general than the principal type of sqr. Table 4.) There are three kinds of ﬁxity. left. declares a property of a particular operator.
module Foo where import qualified Bar infix 3 ‘op‘ a ‘op‘ b = (a ‘Bar. and the nested deﬁnition of op in f’s righthand side has the default ﬁxity of infixl 9.op‘ b) + 1 f x = let p ‘op‘ q = (p ‘Foo.. <=..op‘ is infixr 7. ˆ.1: Precedences and ﬁxities of prelude operators module Bar( op ) where infixr 7 ‘op‘ op = . ‘Foo. /=. $!. /. <. >=. ** :.4. ˆˆ. ‘quot‘ +.op‘ q) * 2 in . Here.4. ‘mod‘. >. ‘notElem‘ &&  >>.op‘ is infix 3. ++ ==.3 Function and Pattern Bindings © ¥ § ¤ 2 v ¢£¡ § p v ¢ §e ¡ ¡ v © ¢ £¡ p v ¢ §e 2 § ¡ v £¡ p v ¢ 0e $ ¢ § ¡ ¢ ¡ £5¢ ¤ § ¤ ¢ £¡ ¤ ¡ v ¢ 2¢ &¤ v § £¡ ¢ ¤ ¡ ¢ ¡ v § £ 7¡ ¢ ¢ ¤ £ ¡ ¢ § ¢ ¡ £5¢ © ¥ 7 ¦ $ £0 § 6 6 © ¥ 7 ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ $ 0 .  Nonassociative operators Right associative operators . >>= $.) 4.4. ‘div‘. ‘seq‘ Table 4. ‘elem‘. NESTED DECLARATIONS 55 Precedence 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Left associative operators !! *. (It would also be possible to give a ﬁxity to the nested deﬁnition of ‘op‘ with a nested ﬁxity declaration.. ‘rem‘.. ‘Bar.
these three function deﬁnitions are all equivalent: plus x y z = x+y+z x `plus y = \ z > x+y+z ` (x ` plus y) z = x+y+z ` v © v  True = where { 7 ¥ ¦ v 4 ¦ and where .1 Function bindings A function binding binds a variable to a function value. the binding is called a function binding. For example. The general form of a function binding for variable is: ¡ ¥ § ¥ § or ¡ v ¡v   = Note that all clauses deﬁning a function must be contiguous. the latter. Alternative syntax is provided for binding functional values to inﬁx operators. and the number of patterns in each clause must be the same. otherwise. The former is treated as shorthand for a particular case of } v © 7 ¦ = where { ¤ ¥7 v v © ¤ ¦7 v v = where { 7 ¦ 8 8 ¥¥8 § ¡ v where each is a pattern. and where each is of the general form: } } A ¢ ¢ 4 4 v ¥ § 4 ¢ A ¥¥8 ¡ A 8 8 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ ¢ ¢ ¡  ¨ © ¥ ¤ ¢ ¡ = ¦ ¦ ¡ ¤ © ¥ ¡ ¢ ¡ = ¦ where where 9§ ¨© ¨ 7 © ¥ 7 ¥ ¦ § © ¥ ¡ ¦ $ £0 ¤ ( ) ¢ §¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ £5¢ 7 ¦ 6 6 ¡ ¦ ¢ 6 © ¥ ¤ § © ¥ ¦ ¦ ¢ £¡ ¤ . Either binding may appear at the toplevel of a module or within a where or let construct. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS We distinguish two cases within this syntax: a pattern binding occurs when the left hand side is a .56 CHAPTER 4.4. ¤ 4. namely: .3. . The set of patterns corresponding to each match must be linear—no variable is allowed to appear more than once in the entire set.
4. A note about syntax.e. in other words. but the existence of n+k patterns sometimes confuses the issue. A simple pattern binding has form .12.4. as if there were an implicit ˜ in front of it. It is usually straightforward to tell whether a binding is a pattern binding or a function binding. The pattern is matched “lazily” as an irrefutable pattern. a pattern binding is: is the same structure as for ¡ ¥ § ¢ ¥ § ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 4 ¡ ¡ 888 v ¢ where the are new identiﬁers.3. ) of ( ) ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ .4. simple pattern binding): ¡ ¥ § 57 4. where a function bindings above. . Here are four examples: 7 7 if then £ ¤ ¡ ¢ © £ ¡ = let if if in then then 7 ¦ Translation: ing: The pattern binding above is semantically equivalent to this simple pattern bind else else else error "Unmatched pattern" © 7 ¥ ¦ 7  = where { 7 £ ¡ ¢ £ ¡   = = } 4 The general form of a pattern binding is . See the translation in Section 3. NESTED DECLARATIONS Translation: The general binding form for functions is semantically equivalent to the equation (i. A 4 ¡ A ( ) ¥ § ¢ 4 A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ 8 8 ¥¡ ¥8 ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¢ ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¢ = \ ¢ > case ( .2 Pattern bindings A pattern binding binds variables to values.
58 x + 1 = ... (x + 1) = ... (x + 1) * y = ... (x + 1) y = ...
CHAPTER 4. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS
 Function binding, defines (+)  Equivalent to (+) x 1 = ...  Pattern binding, defines x  Function binding, defines (*)  Equivalent to (*) (x+1) y = ...  Function binding, defines (+)  Equivalent to (+) x 1 y = ...
¤
4.5 Static Semantics of Function and Pattern Bindings
The static semantics of the function and pattern bindings of a let expression or where clause are discussed in this section.
4.5.1 Dependency Analysis
In general the static semantics are given by the normal HindleyMilner inference rules. A dependency analysis transformation is ﬁrst performed to increase polymorphism. Two variables bound by value declarations are in the same declaration group if either 1. they are bound by the same pattern binding, or 2. their bindings are mutually recursive (perhaps via some other declarations that are also part of the group). Application of the following rules causes each let or where construct (including the where deﬁning the top level bindings in a module) to bind only the variables of a single declaration group, thus capturing the required dependency analysis: 1 1. The order of declarations in where/let constructs is irrelevant.
£
} in = let { } in (let { 2. let { ; (when no identiﬁer bound in appears free in )
1
} in
A similar transformation is described in Peyton Jones’ book [10].
§
The ﬁrst two can be distinguished because a pattern binding has a — the former cannot be an unparenthesised n+k pattern.
§
¢ £¡
on the left hand side, not a
¦
¡
¦
¡
¦
£
¦
£
¦
¡
¦
¢ £¡
)
4.5. STATIC SEMANTICS OF FUNCTION AND PATTERN BINDINGS
59
4.5.2 Generalization
The HindleyMilner type system assigns types to a letexpression in two stages. First, the righthand side of the declaration is typed, giving a type with no universal quantiﬁcation. Second, all type variables that occur in this type are universally quantiﬁed unless they are associated with bound variables in the type environment; this is called generalization. Finally, the body of the letexpression is typed. For example, consider the declaration f x = let g y = (y,y) in ...
The type of g’s deﬁnition is . The generalization step attributes to g the polymorphic type , after which the typing of the “...” part can proceed. When typing overloaded deﬁnitions, all the overloading constraints from a single declaration group are collected together, to form the context for the type of each variable declared in the group. For example, in the deﬁnition: f x = let g1 x y = if x>y then show x else g2 y x g2 p q = g1 q p in ... String, and the accumulated The types of the deﬁnitions of g1 and g2 are both constraints are Ord (arising from the use of >), and Show (arising from the use of show). The type variables appearing in this collection of constraints are called the constrained type variables. The generalization step attributes to both g1 and g2 the type
Notice that g2 is overloaded in the same way as g1 even though the occurrences of > and show are in the deﬁnition of g1. If the programmer supplies explicit type signatures for more than one variable in a declaration group, the contexts of these signatures must be identical up to renaming of the type variables.
4.5.3 Context Reduction Errors
As mentioned in Section 4.1.4, the context of a type may constrain only a type variable, or the application of a type variable to one or more types. Hence, types produced by generalization must be expressed in a form in which all context constraints have be reduced to this “head normal form”. Consider, for example, the deﬁnition: f xs y = xs == [y]
6
6
Ord
Show
6 ¢
¢
¢
6
¢
¢
¢
¢ & ¢
¢
6
¢
8
¢
¥
¢ & ¢ ¢
6
¢
8
¢
¥
String
60 Its type is given by
CHAPTER 4. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS
f :: Eq a => [a] > a > Bool and not f :: Eq [a] => [a] > a > Bool Even though the equality is taken at the list type, the context must be simpliﬁed, using the instance declaration for Eq on lists, before generalization. If no such instance is in scope, a static error occurs. Here is an example that shows the need for a constraint of the form where m is one of the type variables being generalized; that is, where the class applies to a type expression that is not a type variable or a type constructor. Consider: f :: (Monad m, Eq (m a)) => a > m a > Bool f x y = return x == y The type of return is Monad m => a > m a; the type of (==) is Eq a => a > a > Bool. The type of f should be therefore (Monad m, Eq (m a)) => a > m a > Bool, and the context cannot be simpliﬁed further. The instance declaration derived from a data type deriving clause (see Section 4.3.3) must, like , any instance declaration, have a simple context; that is, all the constraints must be of the form where is a type variable. For example, in the type data Apply a b = App (a b) deriving Show
the derived Show instance will produce a context Show (a b), which cannot be reduced and is not simple; thus a static error results.
4.5.4 Monomorphism
Sometimes it is not possible to generalize over all the type variables used in the type of the deﬁnition. For example, consider the declaration f x = let g y z = ([x,y], z) in ... In an environment where x has type , the type of g’s deﬁnition is ([ ] ). The ([ ] ); only can be universally generalization step attributes to g the type quantiﬁed because occurs in the type environment. We say that the type of g is monomorphic in the type variable . The effect of such monomorphism is that the ﬁrst argument of all applications of g must be of a single type. For example, it would be valid for the “...” to be
'
¢
¢
6'
'
§
6
4
¢
'
¢
6
'
6
¢
8
'
¥
¢
¢
¢
¢
4.5. STATIC SEMANTICS OF FUNCTION AND PATTERN BINDINGS
(g True, g False) (which would, incidentally, force x to have type Bool) but invalid for it to be (g True, g ’c’)
§
61
It is worth noting that the explicit type signatures provided by Haskell are not powerful enough to express types that include monomorphic type variables. For example, we cannot write f x = let g :: a > b > ([a],b) g y z = ([x,y], z) in ... because that would claim that g was polymorphic in both a and b (Section 4.4.1). In this program, g can only be given a type signature if its ﬁrst argument is restricted to a type not involving type variables; for example g :: Int > b > ([Int],b) This signature would also cause x to have type Int.
4.5.5 The Monomorphism Restriction
Haskell places certain extra restrictions on the generalization step, beyond the standard HindleyMilner restriction described above, which further reduces polymorphism in particular cases. The monomorphism restriction depends on the binding syntax of a variable. Recall that a variable is bound by either a function binding or a pattern binding, and that a simple pattern binding is a pattern binding in which the pattern consists of only a single variable (Section 4.4.3). The following two rules deﬁne the monomorphism restriction:
¢
8
$
¥
In general, a type .
§
is said to be monomorphic in the type variable
if
¢
¢
is free in
¢
8
$
¥
62 The monomorphism restriction
CHAPTER 4. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS
Rule 1. We say that a given declaration group is unrestricted if and only if: (a): every variable in the group is bound by a function binding or a simple pattern binding (Section 4.4.3.2), and (b): an explicit type signature is given for every variable in the group that is bound by simple pattern binding. The usual HindleyMilner restriction on polymorphism is that only type variables that do not occur free in the environment may be generalized. In addition, the constrained type variables of a restricted declaration group may not be generalized in the generalization step for that group. (Recall that a type variable is constrained if it must belong to some type class; see Section 4.5.2.) Rule 2. Any monomorphic type variables that remain when type inference for an entire module is complete, are considered ambiguous, and are resolved to particular types using the defaulting rules (Section 4.3.4).
Motivation
Rule 1 is required for two reasons, both of which are fairly subtle.
Rule 1 prevents computations from being unexpectedly repeated. For example, genericLength is a standard function (in library List) whose type is given by genericLength :: Num a => [b] > a Now consider the following expression: let { len = genericLength xs } in (len, len) It looks as if len should be computed only once, but without Rule 1 it might be computed twice, once at each of two different overloadings. If the programmer does actually wish the computation to be repeated, an explicit type signature may be added: let { len :: Num a => a; len = genericLength xs } in (len, len)
Rule 1 prevents ambiguity. For example, consider the declaration group
[(n,s)] = reads t Recall that reads is a standard function whose type is given by the signature reads :: (Read a) => String > [(a,String)] Without Rule 1, n would be assigned the type Read and s the type Read String. The latter is an invalid type, because it is inherently ambiguous. It is not possible to determine at what overloading to use s, nor can this be solved by adding a type signature for s. Hence, when nonsimple pattern bindings are used (Section 4.4.3.2), the types inferred are always monomorphic in their constrained type variables, irrespective of whether a type signature is provided. In this case, both n and s are monomorphic in .
¢
8
¢
¥
¢
¢
¢
8
¢
¥
()) both f and g are monomorphic regardless of any type signatures supplied for f or g.4. in (f. The standard prelude contains many examples of this: sum sum :: (Num a) => [a] > a = foldl (+) 0 Rule 1 applies to both toplevel and nested deﬁnitions.3. Anything deﬁned with function syntax usually generalizes as a function is expected to. 63 Rule 2 is required because there is no way to enforce monomorphic use of an exported binding.4. Hence.g) = ((+). except by performing type inference on modules outside the current module. because their entire scope is visible to the compiler. Consider module M where len1 = genericLength "Hello" len2 = (2*len1) :: Rational . (If the above code is actually what is wanted. Consequences The monomorphism rule has a number of consequences for the programmer. However. Rule 2 now states that the monomorphic type variable a is ambiguous. There is no danger of recomputation here. len1 gets type Int. Thus in f x y = x+y the function f may be used at any overloading in class Num.5. the same function deﬁned with pattern syntax: f = \x > \y > x+y requires a type signature if f is to be fully overloaded. STATIC SEMANTICS OF FUNCTION AND PATTERN BINDINGS The same constraint applies to patternbound functions. a type signature on len1 would solve the problem. Double ) len1 = genericLength "Hello" module M2 where import M1(len1) len2 = (2*len1) :: Rational When type inference on module M1 is complete. and not by any modules that import it. Rule 2 states that the exact types of all the variables bound in a module must be determined by that module alone. For example.) This issue does not arise for nested bindings. module M1(len1) where default( Int. and its use in len2 is typeincorrect. the user must be careful to afﬁx these with type signatures to retain full overloading. len1 has the monomorphic type Num a => a (by Rule 1). and must be resolved using the defaulting rules of Section 4. Many functions are most naturally deﬁned using simple pattern bindings.
It is possible that some parts of an inferred kind may not be fully determined by the corresponding deﬁnitions. the parameter a appears as an argument of the function constructor (>) in the type of bar and hence must have kind . For example. 4. we could assume an arbitrary kind for the a parameter in each of the following examples: data App f a = A (f a) data Tree a = Leaf  Fork (Tree a) (Tree a) This would give kinds and for App and Tree. constructors.6 Kind Inference This section describes the rules that are used to perform kind inference. It follows that both D and S must have kind and that every instance of class C must have kind . the following program fragment includes the deﬁnition of a datatype constructor D. 6 6 6 6 9 6 6 ¡ 6 6 6 ¡ 6 9 6 6 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ . For example. for instance).e. type inference ﬁnds that len1 has the monomorphic type (Num a => a). synonym. and would require an extension to allow polymorphic kinds. For example. all of which would be included in the same dependency group: data C a => D a = Foo (S a) type S a = [D a] class C a where bar :: a > D a > Bool The kinds of variables. and class deﬁnitions into dependency groups. respectively. and instead generates a static error because the kind of []. respectively. This can be achieved in much the same way as the dependency analysis for value declarations that was described in Section 4.invalid This is important because it ensures that each constructor and class are used consistently with the same kind whenever they are in scope. using the default binding . the actual kinds for these two constructors are and . DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS Here.5. The ﬁrst step in the kind inference process is to arrange the set of datatype. Instead. and classes within each group are determined using standard techniques of type inference and kindpreserving uniﬁcation [7]. does not match the kind that is expected for an argument of Tree: type FunnyTree = Tree [] . i. . and the type variable a is resolved to Rational when performing type inference on len2. a synonym S and a class C.64 CHAPTER 4. in such cases. Defaults are applied to each dependency group without consideration of the ways in which particular type constructor constants or classes are used in later dependency groups or elsewhere in the program. for any kind . to calculate a suitable kind for each type constructor and class appearing in a given program. a default of is assumed. For example. in the deﬁnitions above. adding the following deﬁnition to those above does not inﬂuence the kind inferred for Tree (by changing it to .
Second.Chapter 5 Modules A module deﬁnes a collection of values. and its result (of type ) is discarded. or perhaps exported from a module.3. here is a threemodule program: module Main where import A import B main = A. or class deﬁned in. each giving the name of a module to be imported and specifying its entities to be imported. We use the term entity to refer to a value.5) is affected by module boundaries. the computation main is performed. must be called Main and must export the value main. datatypes... A Haskell program is a collection of modules. When the program is executed. type synonyms. For example. and are not ﬁrst class values. etc. in an environment created by a set of imports (resources brought into scope from other modules). Modules are used for namespace control. module B where f = .. changing all occurrences to refer to the appropriate unique name. default declarations scope over a single module (Section 4. classes. (see Chapter 4). imported into. The value of the program is the value of the identiﬁer main in module Main. First. Modules may reference other modules via explicit import declarations. It exports some of these resources. and then concatenating all the module bodies1 .4). A multimodule Haskell program can be converted into a singlemodule program by giving each entity a unique name. 1 65 . type. by convention. It is equivalent to the following singlemodule program: There are two minor exceptions to this statement.. one of which. which must be a computation of type IO for some type (see Chapter 7). Modules may be mutually recursive.f >> B. Rule 2 of the monomorphism restriction (Section 4. making them available to other modules.5.f module A where f = .
).. A module begins with a header: the keyword module.. . There is one distinguished module. i. consisting only of the module body. 7 ¦ © ¡ 2§ © © 4§ ¡ 2§ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ § ¡ 32 ¦ 2§ ¦ ¡ 4§ ¦ ¡ 4§ { { { . type synonyms.6).e.1 Module Structure A module deﬁnes a mutually recursive scope containing declarations for value bindings. data types. MODULES Because they are allowed to be mutually recursive.3) that specify modules to be imported. and a list of entities (enclosed in round parentheses) to be exported. The namespace for modules themselves is ﬂat.. with each module being associated with a unique module name (which are Haskell identiﬁers beginning with a capital letter. If this is used. the header is assumed to be ‘module Main(main) where’. then the layout rule applies for the top level of the module. . . . (see Chapter 4). which is imported into all modules by default (see Section 5.2 Export Lists ¦ ¨ A§ ¤ !¤32 ¢ S 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤32 § ¤ ¢ ¡ ( . © 5. ( An abbreviated form of module. etc. Prelude. bf = . } } } 2 ¨ ©§ ¤ 5@¤32 7 ¢ ¡ ¦ ¡ § 2 4 module ¦ where 2 4 ¦ ' ¡ ¦ ¦ 7 ¥ © 7¥ 7 ¥ ¡ ¦ ¡ ¦ ' 2 6 6 6 6 6 6 © © 2§ 7¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § © ¦ ¡ § 2 4 ¦ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 7 ©§ ¤ @¤32 $ 7 ¦ ¦ ' ¡ 2 4 2§ 2 ¢ ¡ .. modules allow a program to be partitioned freely without regard to dependencies. Chapter 4). The header is followed by a possiblyempty list of import declarations ( . This is followed by a possiblyempty list of toplevel declarations . . is permitted. classes. CHAPTER 5. the module name.66 module Main where main = af >> bf af = . ) ¦ § ¦ ¦ A 2§ 7 A ¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 . ¦ ¦ § 5. Section 5. If the ﬁrst lexeme in the abbreviated module is not a {. plus a set of standard library modules that may be imported as required (see Part II). optionally restricting the imported bindings.
and (b) the constructor or ﬁeld is in scope in the module body regardless of whether it is in scope under a qualiﬁed or unqualiﬁed name. The abbreviated form (. the (possiblyqualiﬁed) type constructor and ﬁeld names in the second form are unqualiﬁed. A type synonym is in scope.. If the export list is omitted. must be in scope. ¦ declared by a type declaration may be named by the form ¡ £ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ £ 4. ). because they cannot otherwise be distinguished from type constructors.Maybe( Nothing..2. ﬁeld name. . A module implementation may only export an entity that it declares. one of these subordinate names is legal if and only if (a) it names a constructor or ﬁeld of . should be enclosed in parentheses to turn them into 2. A class with operations of three ways: 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ The form names. The constructor In all cases. 3. ) An export list identiﬁes the entities to be exported by a module declaration. Entities in an export list may be named as follows: 1. .8).) ( (.) names the type and all its constructors and ﬁeld names that are currently in scope (whether qualiﬁed or not). all values. An algebraic datatype of three ways: declared by a data or newtype declaration may be named in one The form names the type but not the constructors or ﬁeld names. which must be in scope. types and classes deﬁned in the module are exported. whether declared in the module body or imported. may . A value. or that it imports from some other module. . EXPORT LISTS 67 . For example.5. ) ¦ ¦§ ¦ ¦ § ¢ ¢ ¢ ¡ ¢¨ ¦ ¦ § 2 4 ¦ 2 ¤ 3¥ %§ ¦ 72 ¨ © ¡ ¨ ¤ ¢ ¢ %§ 6 6 § ¤ ¤32 4 ¦ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ . where ¨ ¦ § ¨ A ¤ ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ 8 8 ¢ ¥¥8 ¢ A 5 4 ¦ ¡ ¢ 4 ¦ 8 8 ¤ ¢ ¤ ¦ § (. but not those that are imported.) ( module . or class method. the following is legal module A( Mb. ( . names the type and some or all of its constructors and ﬁeld declared in a class declaration may be named in one .. The ability to export a type without its constructors allows the construction of abstract datatypes (see Section 5. Operators be named by giving the name of the value as a s. Just ) ) where import qualified Maybe as Mb Data constructors cannot be named in export lists except as subordinate names.
one of the (unqualiﬁed) subordinate names is legal if and only if (a) it names a class method of . and (b) the class method is in scope in the module body regardless of whether it is in scope under a qualiﬁed or unqualiﬁed name.an invalid module There are no name clashes within module A itself.68 CHAPTER 5. MODULES The abbreviated form (.. A module can name its own local deﬁnitions in its export list using its own name in the “module M” syntax. dequeue ) where import Stack . or as an implicitlynamed member (T(. but there are name clashes in the export list ¦ £ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ £ The form ( . because a local declaration brings into scope both a qualiﬁed and unqualiﬁed name (Section 5. In all cases. must be in scope. The unqualiﬁed names of the entities exported by a module must all be distinct (within their respective namespace). Exports lists are cumulative: the set of entities exported by an export list is the union of the entities exported by the individual items of the list.g) g = f True . a ﬁeld name f from data type T may be exported individually (f. ). For example: module Mod1( module Mod1.. or M is imported by at least one import declaration (qualiﬁed or unqualiﬁed). g. C. For example. 5.e”.) names the class and all its methods that are in scope (whether qualiﬁed or not). For example module A ( C. The form “module M” names the set of all entities that are in scope with both an unqualiﬁed name “e” and a qualiﬁed name “M. . ¡ ¦ The form names the class but not the class methods. item (1) above). For example: module Queue( module Stack. In the second form. module Mod2 ) where import Mod2 import Mod3 Here module Mod1 exports all local deﬁnitions as well as those imported from Mod2 but not those imported from Mod3.1). module B ) where import B(f) import qualified C(f. It is an error to use module M in an export list unless M is the module bearing the export list. item (5)). It makes no difference to an importing module how an entity was exported. This set may be empty.). or as an explicitlynamed member of its data type (T(f)... names the class and some or all of its methods.g. item(2)).f. or by exporting an entire module (module M. item (2)).5. ¡ £ . enqueue. Here the module Queue uses the module name Stack in its export list to abbreviate all the entities imported from Stack.
. The imported entities can be speciﬁed explicitly by listing them in parentheses. 5. “qualified” and “hiding” are each a a . .f (assuming B. ) ¦ ¨ A !§ ¤ ¦ § ¦ ¦§ ¦ 2 § § ¤ %§ 4 ¢ ¢ ¥ ¦ 7 ¨¡ © 4 § ¨ § 2 4 ¡ ¡ ¦ ¦ .f are different entities). Items in the list have the same form as those in export lists. The ordering of import declarations is irrelevant.) ( .g and g (assuming C...3 Import Declarations § The entities exported by a module may be brought into scope in another module with an import declaration at the beginning of the module.3. ) ¦ ¦§ ¦ ¦ § ¢ 2 4§ . 2 4 ¨ import qualified as . the terminal symbols “as”. The effect of multiple import declarations is strictly cumulative: an entity is in scope if it is imported by any of the import declarations in a module.) ( (. The import declaration names the module to be imported and optionally speciﬁes the entities to be imported. ) ¦ ¦ ¡ ¦ 2 ¤ 37 2 ¦ ¡ © 4§ ¤ ¢ ¢ %§ %§ 2 4 6 6 6 6 ¦ ¦ § ¤ © 7 § © ¤ 32 ¡ ¡ 4 ¦ ¢ ¡ ¤ ¦ ¡ 4§ 4§ 4§ . The list must name only entities exported by the imported module. and between module B and C. A single module may be imported by more than one import declaration. ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¤ ¢ A¤ 8 8 ¥¥8 .) refers to all of the constructors. or ﬁeld names exported from the module. They have special signiﬁcance only in the context of an import declaration. Imported names serve as top level declarations: they scope over the entire body of the module but may be shadowed by local nontoplevel bindings. § 5. IMPORT DECLARATIONS 69 between C. rather than Lexically. .g and g are different entities – remember. .. hiding ( . The list may be empty. ¨¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 A§ ¤ 2 4§ ¢ ¡ §¤¤32 4 § 8 8¡ ¥¥8 ¡§ ¤ 2 ( .5. methods.1 What is imported Exactly which entities are to be imported can be speciﬁed in one of the following three ways: 1. modules can import each other recursively). ) ¨ ¨ A 5 4 ¦ ¢¥¥8 8 8 ¡ ¢ ¡ ¤ 4 ¦ ¢ (. in which case nothing except the instances is imported. they may also be used as variables. except qualiﬁers are not permitted and the ‘module ’ entity is not permitted. When the (.) form of import is used for a type or class.f and C. the (.3.
then both the qualiﬁed and unqualiﬁed name of the entity is brought into scope.2 Qualiﬁed import For each entity imported under the rules of Section 5.3. is omitted then all the entities exported by the speciﬁed module are im A !§ ¤ 2 ¡ 4§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ 4§ ¡ ¡ . the toplevel environment is extended.++ l2 l1 * l2 = nub (l1 + l2) succ = (Prelude.3. ). © 5. It is an error to hide an entity that is not.’. In contrast.3.3) on the import statement.+ 1) .All Prelude names must be qualified . only the qualiﬁed name of the entity is brought into scope.’ as a qualiﬁer instead of ‘VeryLongModuleName. The qualiﬁer on the imported name is either the name of the imported module. which speciﬁes that all entities exported by the named module should be imported except for those named in the list. Finally.3. the qualiﬁer is not necessarily the name of the module in which the entity was originally declared. If the import declaration used the qualified keyword. using C in an import list names only a class or type.This + differs from the one in the Prelude . if ported.5. Thus.3 Local aliases Imported modules may be assigned a local alias in the importing module using the as clause. MODULES 2. in fact. or the local alias given in the as clause (Section 5.1. This also allows a different module to be substituted for VeryLongModuleName without changing the 4§ 3.This * differs from the one in the Prelude 5. in import qualified VeryLongModuleName as C entities must be referenced using ‘C. Hence. For example. The ability to exclude the unqualiﬁed names allows full programmer control of the unqualiﬁed namespace: a locally deﬁned entity can share the same name as a qualiﬁed import: module Ring where import qualified Prelude import List( nub ) l1 + l2 = l1 Prelude.70 ¡ ¤32 § ¤ CHAPTER 5. Data constructors may be named directly in hiding lists without being preﬁxed by the associated type. If the qualified keyword is omitted. or type named C is excluded. exported by the imported module. in import M hiding (C) any constructor. Section 5. . Entities can be excluded by using the form hiding( .1 describes qualiﬁed names in more detail. class.
x B. y. 5.5.4 Examples To clarify the above import rules.x.y A.4. All instances in scope within a module are always exported and any import brings all instances in from the imported .f This module is legal provided only that Foo and Baz do not both export f.y In all cases. all instance declarations in scope in module A are imported (Section 5. 5.x A. suppose the module A exports x and y. IMPORTING AND EXPORTING INSTANCE DECLARATIONS 71 qualiﬁers used for the imported module.x. For example: module M where import qualified Foo as A import qualified Baz as A x = A. An as clause may also be used on an unqualified import statement: import Foo as A(f) This declaration brings into scope f and A. A. A.3.4 Importing and Exporting Instance Declarations Instance declarations cannot be explicitly named on import or export lists.x x. provided that all names can still be resolved unambiguously. B.x. B.f. A. y. A. It is legal for more than one module in scope to use the same qualiﬁer.y x.y (nothing) A.y (nothing) x.4). B.y A.x. y. A. A. Then this table shows what names are brought into scope by the speciﬁed import statement: Import declaration import A import A() import A(x) import qualified A import qualified A() import qualified A(x) import A hiding () import A hiding (x) import qualified A hiding () import qualified A hiding (x) import A as B import A as B(x) import qualified A as B Names brought into scope x. B.x.y x. A.y y. A.x.
Thus: module M where f x = . there must be only one binding for f or A. A module whose only purpose is to provide instance declarations can have an empty export list. For example module MyInstances() where instance Show (a > b) where show fn = "<<function>>" instance Show (IO a) where show io = "<<IO action>>" 5.72 CHAPTER 5. .. whether qualified or not. A qualiﬁed name is brought into scope: .ILLEGAL g x = let M. 4 ¦ ¢ ¦ ¦ (Section 2.. that is. it is illegal to write module M where M.ILLEGAL By an import declaration.f respectively.y = x+1 in .5 Name Clashes and Closure 5..1 Qualiﬁed names § By a top level declaration. . import M() does not bring any new names in scope from module M.f x = .f.4). always brings into scope the qualiﬁed name of the imported entity (Section 5.f x x is legal. 5. A toplevel declaration brings into scope both the unqualiﬁed and the qualiﬁed name of the entity being deﬁned. an instance declaration is in scope if and only if a chain of import declarations leads to the module containing the instance declaration. such as f or A.3).5. it must be possible unambiguously to resolve which entity is thereby referred to.2 Name clashes If a module contains a bound occurrence of a name. An import declaration. The deﬁning occurrence must mention the unqualiﬁed name. but does bring in any instances visible in M..5.. For example. MODULES module. therefore. Thus. 2 4 A qualiﬁed name is written as .. This allows a qualiﬁed import to be replaced with an unqualiﬁed one without forcing changes in the references to the imported names. g x = M.
. module C( d. x. B. For example: module A where import B import C tup = (b.. b. the following module is legal: module F where sin :: Float > Float sin x = (x::Float) f x = Prelude.sin (F...sin x) The local declaration for sin is legal. provided that the program does not mention those names. y = . y = . In this case the same entity is brought into scope by two routes (the import of B and the import of C). y ) where import D x = .. even though the Prelude function sin is implicitly in scope.. The reference to x is ambiguous: it could mean x declared in B.. c = . Consider the deﬁnition of tup. and c declared in C respectively.. For example. The ambiguity could be ﬁxed by replacing the reference to x by B.d. module D( d ) where d = .x or C. or x declared in C. x.d. The reference to d is unambiguously resolved to d declared in D.2). c. The references to b and c can be unambiguously resolved to b declared in B... NAME CLASHES AND CLOSURE 73 It is not an error for there to exist names that cannot be so resolved. and unambiguously refers to another declaration in the same declaration list (except that the ﬁxity declaration for a class method can occur at top level — Section 4. x) module B( d. b = . .. d. c.... and can be referred to in A by the names d.5.5. y ) where import D x = . and C.4. The name occurring in a type signature or ﬁxity declarations is always unqualiﬁed. An error is only reported if y is actually mentioned. There is no reference to y.x. so it is not erroneous that distinct entities called y are exported by both B and C.
the import of a variable x does not require that the datatypes and classes in the signature of x be brought into the module along with x unless these entities are referenced by name in the user program. called the “Standard Prelude. 5. That is.3 Closure Every module in a Haskell program must be closed. For example. That is. The Haskell system silently imports any information that must accompany an entity for type checking or any other purposes. Such entities need not even be explicitly exported: the following program is valid even though T does not escape M1: module M1(x) where data T = T x = T module M2 where import M1(x) y = x In this example.sin must both be qualiﬁed to make it unambiguous which sin is meant. MODULES The references to Prelude. The type of an exported entity is unaffected by nonexported type synonyms. That is.74 CHAPTER 5. classes. The Haskell compilation system is responsible for ﬁnding any information needed for compilation without the help of the programmer. However. the Prelude is contained in the . The only reason to export T is to allow other modules to refer it by name. these are interchangeable even when T is not in scope. However. in module M(x) where type T = Int x :: T x = 1 the type of x is both T and Int. the deﬁnition of T is available to any module that encounters it whether or not the name T is in scope. 5. module M2 knows enough about T to correctly type check the program.6 Standard Prelude Many of the features of Haskell are deﬁned in Haskell itself as a library of standard datatypes. there is no way to supply an explicit type signature for y since T is not in scope. every name explicitly mentioned by the source code must be either deﬁned locally or imported from another module. entities that the compiler requires for type checking or other compile time analysis need not be imported if they are not mentioned by name.5. the unqualiﬁed name sin in the type signature in the ﬁrst line of F unambiguously refers to the local declaration for sin. the type checker ﬁnds the deﬁnition of T if needed whether or not it is exported.” In Haskell. Whether or not T is explicitly exported.sin and F. and functions.
They are simply there to help explain the structure of the Prelude module. allowing it to be more easily assimilated. they should be considered part of its implementation. they are not formally deﬁned in Chapter 8. if and only if it is not imported with an explicit import declaration. that a compiler may optimize calls to functions in the Prelude without consulting the source code of the Prelude. These are deﬁned in Part II Separating libraries from the Prelude has the advantage of reducing the size and complexity of the Prelude. Prelude and library modules differ from other modules in that their semantics (but not their implementation) are a ﬁxed part of the Haskell language deﬁnition. Some datatypes (such as Int) and functions (such as Int addition) cannot be speciﬁed directly in Haskell. The latter would be ambiguous without the hiding(null) on the . complex numberss. This means. The implementation of Prelude is also incomplete in its treatment of tuples: there should be an inﬁnite family of tuples and their instance declarations.2 Shadowing Prelude Names The rules about the Prelude have been cast so that it is possible to use Prelude names for nonstandard purposes. 5.6. given in Chapter 8.5. The semantics of the entities in Prelude is speciﬁed by a reference implementation of Prelude written in Haskell. STANDARD PRELUDE 75 module Prelude. Chapter 8 deﬁnes the module Prelude using several other modules: PreludeList. and so on.6. For example. PreludeIO. arrays. These modules are not part of Haskell 98. nonNull :: Int > Bool null x = x == 0 nonNull x = not (null x) Module A redeﬁnes null. For example: module A( null. just like those from any other module. and increasing the space of useful names available to the programmer. This provision for explicit import allows entities deﬁned in the Prelude to be selectively imported. not part of the language deﬁnition. however. and they cannot be imported separately. every module that does so must have an import declaration that makes this nonstandard usage explicit. but the implementation only gives a scheme. and most of the input/output are all part of the standard libraries. for example. Since the treatment of such entities depends on the implementation. 5.6. and contains an unqualiﬁed reference to null on the right hand side of nonNull. There are also many predeﬁned library modules. nonNull ) where import Prelude hiding( null ) null.1 The Prelude Module The Prelude module is imported automatically into all modules as if by the statement ‘import Prelude’. which provide less frequently used functions and types.
For example. pop. for example.7 Separate Compilation Depending on the Haskell implementation used. push. an ADT for stacks could be deﬁned as: module Stack( StkType. 5. Explicit type signatures for all exported values may be necessary to deal with mutual recursion. the use of ++ is not special syntax. Redeﬁning names used by the Prelude does not affect the meaning of these special constructs. 5. however.)) and lists (such as [x] and []) continues to refer to the tuples and lists deﬁned by the standard Prelude.x) and (.) x x h x = [x] ++ [] the explicit import Prelude() declaration prevents the automatic import of Prelude. The special syntax for tuples (such as (x. one cannot deﬁne a new instance for Show Char. For example. empty ) where data StkType a = EmptyStk  Stk a (StkType a) push x s = Stk x s pop (Stk _ s) = s empty = EmptyStk . while the declaration import MyPrelude brings the nonstandard prelude into scope. in module B where import Prelude() import MyPrelude f x = (x. in terms of a different implementation of lists. there is no way to redeﬁne the meaning of [x].8 Abstract Datatypes The ability to export a datatype without its constructors allows the construction of abstract datatypes (ADTs). It is possible to construct and use a different module to serve in place of the Prelude. so it refers to ++ imported from MyPrelude.x) g x = (. Thus there is little danger of accidentally shadowing Prelude names. the Prelude is an ordinary Haskell module. The precise details of separate compilation are not deﬁned by this report. Other than the fact that it is implicitly imported.76 CHAPTER 5. Every module that imports A unqualiﬁed. MODULES import Prelude statement. It is not possible. For example. On the other hand. to hide instance declarations in the Prelude. separate compilation of mutually recursive modules may require that imported modules contain additional information so that they may be referenced before they are compiled. it is special only in that some objects in the Prelude are referenced by special syntactic constructs. and then makes an unqualiﬁed reference to null must also resolve the ambiguous use of null just as A does.
pop. pop. It is also possible to build an ADT on top of an existing type by using a newtype declaration. ABSTRACT DATATYPES 77 Modules importing Stack cannot construct values of type StkType because they do not have access to the constructors of the type.8. they must use push. and empty to construct such values. For example.5. Instead. push. stacks can be deﬁned with lists: module Stack( StkType. empty ) where newtype StkType a = Stk [a] push x (Stk s) = Stk (x:s) pop (Stk (_:s)) = Stk s empty = Stk [] .
MODULES .78 CHAPTER 5.
Show. character literals are nullary constructors in the datatype Char. Numeric types are described in Section 6. The lexical syntax for characters is deﬁned in Section 2. Other predeﬁned types such as arrays. 6. and not.1 Standard Haskell Types These types are deﬁned by the Haskell Prelude.1 Booleans data Bool = False  True deriving (Read. Ord. and rationals are deﬁned in Part II. the Haskell deﬁnition of the type is given. Type Char is an instance of the classes Read. Most functions are not described in detail here as they can easily be understood from their deﬁnitions as given in Chapter 8.6. Enum. Show.2 Characters and Strings The character type Char is an enumeration whose values represent Unicode characters [11]. 6. The basic boolean functions are && (and). Eq. Eq.1. types.Chapter 6 Predeﬁned Types and Classes The Haskell Prelude contains predeﬁned classes. Bounded) The boolean type Bool is an enumeration. Enum. Some deﬁnitions may not be completely valid on syntactic grounds but they faithfully convey the meaning of the underlying type. we describe the types and classes found in the Prelude.4. Ord. complex numbers.1. 6. and 79 . and functions that are implicitly imported into every Haskell program. In this chapter. When appropriate. The name otherwise is deﬁned as True to make guarded expressions more readable.  (or).
6. map characters to and from the Int type.) Int Bool Int denote the same type.) x y produce the same value. Bounded.1) deﬁnes many standard list functions.Bool. Read. "A string" abbreviates [ ’A’. Each tuple type has a single constructor.’t’. and Show. Ord. and uncurry. Note that ASCII control characters each have several representations in character literals: numeric escapes. However. although with special syntax. The following functions are deﬁned for pairs (2tuples): fst.’ ’. Bounded. The ﬁrst constructor is the null list. and MonadPlus.. written ‘[]’ (“nil”). Ord) Lists are an algebraic datatype of two constructors. There is no upper bound on the size of a tuple. and \n and \LF. are described in Sections 3. and limit the instances associated with larger tuples. All tuples are instances of Eq. The module PreludeList (see Section 8. The toEnum and fromEnum functions. A string is a list of characters: type String = [Char] Strings may be abbreviated using the lexical syntax described in Section 2. \f and \FF. \v and \VT. that all their component types are).y) and (. Ord.7. together with the instances for Eq. standard functions from class Enum. The Prelude and libraries deﬁne tuple functions such as zip for tuples up to a size of 7. The constructor for a tuple is written by omitting the expressions surrounding the commas. Monad. Show. Read.80 CHAPTER 6. and the second is ‘:’ (“cons”).8.4 Tuples Tuples are algebraic datatypes with special syntax. of course. snd. but some Haskell implementations may restrict the size of tuples. \b and \BS. as deﬁned in Section 3. (Int. Similar functions are not predeﬁned for larger tuples. respectively. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES Bounded. Functor. curry. ’i’.’r’. two convenient syntaxes for special kinds of lists. there are the following equivalences: \a and \BEL.1.10 and 3. \r and \CR. and the \ˆ notation. 6. In addition. and Show (provided.’n’. \t and \HT. ASCII mnemonic escapes.1. The same holds for tuple type constructors. For example. every Haskell implementation must support tuples up to size 15.3 Lists data [a] = []  a : [a] deriving (Eq. thus.11. thus (x. Arithmetic sequences and list comprehensions. Lists are an instance of classes Read. Eq.’s’. Ord.Int) and (.’g’] 6. as described in Section 3. .
Values of this type are constructed by the various I/O functions and are not presented in any further detail in this report. It is an instance of Show and Eq. Ord. 6.8 Other Types data data data Maybe a Either a b Ordering = = = Nothing  Just a deriving (Eq.1.5 The Unit Datatype data () = () deriving (Eq. Chapter 7 describes I/O operations. const. Read. that is. Sometimes it is desirable to force the evaluation of a value.6. Monad.1. The functions maybe and either are found in the Prelude. Show) Left a  Right b deriving (Eq. Show) The Maybe type is an instance of classes Functor. Read. IO is an instance of the Monad and Functor classes. a function argument is evaluated only when required. See also Section 3.3).9. Show) LT  EQ  GT deriving (Eq. ($). and MonadPlus.6 Function Types Functions are an abstract type: no constructors directly create functional values. flip. Read.2 Strict Evaluation Function application in Haskell is nonstrict. Ord. 6. Ord. Enum. 6. Show) member. The Prelude contains a few I/O functions (deﬁned in Section 8. and until. IOError is an abstract type representing errors raised by I/O operations. The IO type is abstract: no constructors are visible to the user.1.1.7 The IO and IOError Types The IO type serves as a tag for operations (actions) that interact with the outside world. (. using the seq function: seq :: a > b > b . Enum. the nullary constructor ().2. Bounded. Read. The following simple functions are found in the Prelude: id. STRICT EVALUATION 81 6. The Ordering type is used by compare in the class Ord. Bounded. and Part II contains many more. The unit datatype () has one non 6.). Ord.
($!) :: (a > b) > a > b f $ x = f x f $! x = x ‘seq‘ f x The nonstrict application operator $ may appear redundant. .1 The Eq Class class Eq a where (==). the not the same as \x > existence of seq weakens Haskell’s parametricity properties. As a consequence. provide a reasonable deﬁnition for all the class methods. For the same reason. Strict datatypes (see Section 4. $ has low. so it sometimes allows parentheses to be omitted. 6. rightassociative binding precedence. and is deﬁned in terms of seq. such as map ($ 0) xs. (/=) :: x /= y x == y a > a > Bool = not (x == y) = not (x /= y) ¡¢ 0§ ' ' ¢ seq seq ' .82 CHAPTER 6. or zipWith ($) fs xs.1) are deﬁned in terms of the $! operator.3 Standard Haskell Classes Figure 6.1 shows the hierarchy of Haskell classes deﬁned in the Prelude and the Prelude types that are instances of these classes. for example: f $ g $ h x = f (g (h x)) It is also useful in higherorder situations. 6.3) are provided for many of the methods in standard classes. because it is available at every type. A comment with each class declaration in Chapter 8 speciﬁes the smallest collection of method deﬁnitions that. However. infixr 0 $. The Prelude also deﬁnes the $ operator to perform nonstrict application. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES The function seq is deﬁned by the equations: seq is usually introduced to improve performance by avoiding unneeded laziness. $! ($). since ordinary application (f x) means the same as (f $ x).3. then all class methods must be given to fully specify an instance. the provision of seq has is important semantic consequences. since seq can be used to distinguish them.2. The operator $! is strict (callbyvalue) application. If there is no such comment. together with the default declarations. However. Default class method declarations (Section 4.
Double Fractional Float. () Ordering. Double Integral Int. Ordering. Double RealFloat Float. Bool.6. tuples Enum (). STANDARD HASKELL CLASSES 83 Eq All except IO. (>) Show All except IO. Integer. Maybe Functor IO.1: Standard Haskell Classes . Integer. Int. Bool. Integer. Char. Char. (>) Ord All except (>) IO. []. [].3. Double Monad IO. Integer RealFrac Float. Float. Double Real Int. Float. Double Bounded Int. IOError Num Int. (>) Read All except IO. Maybe Figure 6. Float. Double Floating Float.
If one is deﬁned. The default declarations allow a user to create an Ord instance either with a typespeciﬁc compare function or with typespeciﬁc == and <= functions.3. the default method for the other will make use of the one that is deﬁned.84 CHAPTER 6. then both will loop. (>=). are instances of this class. Instances of Ord can be derived for any userdeﬁned datatype whose constituent types are in Ord. and IOError. If both are deﬁned. All basic datatypes except for functions. This declaration gives default method declarations for both /= and ==.2 The Ord Class class (Eq a) => Ord a where compare :: a > a > Ordering (<).x) y x x y The Ord class is used for totally ordered datatypes. 6. (<=).Note that (min x max x y  x <= y  otherwise min x y  x <= y  otherwise y. (>) :: a > a > Bool max. Instances of Eq can be derived for any userdeﬁned datatype whose constituents are also instances of Eq. neither default method is used. = = = = max x y) = (x. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES The Eq class provides equality (==) and inequality (/=) methods. . min :: a > a > a compare x y  x == y = EQ  x <= y = LT  otherwise = GT x x x x <= < >= > y y y y = = = = compare compare compare compare x x x x y y y y /= == /= == GT LT LT GT . If an instance declaration for Eq deﬁnes neither == nor /=. IO. All basic datatypes except for functions and IO are instances of this class. The Ordering datatype allows a single comparison to determine the precise ordering of two objects. The declared order of the constructors in the data declaration determines the ordering in derived Ord instances. each being deﬁned in terms of the other.y) or (y.
lex t] of [x] > x [] > error "PreludeText.6. All Prelude types. default decl for showList given in Prelude The Read and Show classes are used to convert values to or from strings.3 The Read and Show Classes type type ReadS a = String > [(a. (If desired.reads s. Derived instances of Read and Show replicate the style in which a constructor is declared: inﬁx constructors and ﬁeld names are used on input and output. are instances of Show and Read...3.4).3. show. The method showList is provided to allow the programmer to give a specialised way of showing lists of values. the Prelude provides the following auxiliary functions: reads reads shows shows read read s :: (Read a) => ReadS a = readsPrec 0 :: (Show a) => a > ShowS = showsPrec 0 :: (Read a) => String > a = case [x  (x.read: no parse" _ > error "PreludeText. Strings produced by showsPrec are usually readable by readsPrec. showsPrec and showList return a StringtoString function.. ("". default decl for readList given in Prelude class Show a where showsPrec :: Int > a > ShowS show :: a > String showList :: [a] > ShowS showsPrec _ x s = show x ++ s show x = showsPrec 0 x "" . where values of type String should be shown in double quotes. to allow constanttime concatenation of its results using function composition. a programmer can easily make functions and IO types into (vacuous) instances of Show.t) <."") <. rather than between square brackets. which uses precedence context zero.. except function types and IO types. and returns an ordinary String.String)] ShowS = String > String class Read a where readsPrec :: Int > ReadS a readList :: ReadS [a] . The Int argument to showsPrec and readsPrec gives the operator precedence of the enclosing context (see Section 10. A specialised variant. STANDARD HASKELL CLASSES 85 6..) For convenience. This is particularly useful for the Char type..read: ambiguous parse" . is also provided. by providing an instance declaration.
methods are used when translating arithmetic sequences (Section 3. If the input string contains only white space. 6.) If there is no legal lexeme at the beginning of the input string. (Thus lex "" = [("". discarding initial white space. It reads a single lexeme from the input.. The functions succ and pred return the successor and predecessor.. lex returns a single successful “lexeme” consisting of the empty string. enumFrom and enumFromThen should be deﬁned with an implicit bound. The enumFrom. The read function reads input from a string.m] . and returning the characters that constitute the lexeme. The function lex :: ReadS String.10). fromEnum and toEnum should give a runtime error if the result value is not representable in the result type.n’...e.m] [n.Default declarations given in Prelude Class Enum deﬁnes operations on sequentially ordered types. lex fails (i.. is also part of the Prelude."")]. of a value.86 CHAPTER 6. see Chapter 10. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES shows and reads use a default precedence of 0.. which must be completely consumed by the input process. For any type that is an instance of class Bounded as well as Enum.4 The Enum Class class Enum a where succ. returns []). thus: enumFrom x = enumFromTo x maxBound enumFromThen x y = enumFromThenTo x y bound where bound  fromEnum y >= fromEnum x = maxBound  otherwise = minBound The following Prelude types are instances of Enum: . toEnum 7 :: Bool is an error.3.] [n. For example.] [n. used by read. Instances of Enum may be derived for any enumeration type (types whose constructors have no ﬁelds).n’. The functions fromEnum and toEnum map values from a type in Enum to and from Int. respectively. pred :: toEnum :: fromEnum :: enumFrom :: enumFromThen :: enumFromTo :: enumFromThenTo :: a > a Int > a a > Int a > [a] a > a > [a] a > a > [a] a > a > a > [a]  [n. the following should hold: The calls succ maxBound and pred minBound should result in a runtime error.
]. Char: the instance is given in Chapter 8. or when they become less than for negative . is . For all four numeric types. . the list is empty if . . For example. . . ].3. Bool. 8 8 ¥¥8 § ¤ ¤ ¡ ¡¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 § ¢¢ ¡ ¡ ¡¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡¢ ¡ £ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¤ The sequence enumFrom is the list [ .. the list terminates when the next element would be less than . . ]. 8 8 ¥¥8 ¤ § § ¢¥ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¤ ¥ ¥ ¢ ¡ ¢¢ £ ¥¡ § ¡ ¡¤ ¡ ¡¢ § ¡ ¡ ¢¤ ¡ ¢ ¤ § ¥ ¤ £ ¡ ¥ ¡¥ ¥ ¤ ¡ The sequence enumFromTo . based on the primitive functions that convert between a Char and an Int. .] is the list [LT.3. The semantics of these instances is given by Chapter 10. The semantics of these instances is given next. For the types Int and Integer.EQ. except that the list terminates when the elements become greater than for positive increment . and Ordering. Float. If the increment is positive or zero. and Maybe are in this class. 6. £ ¡ ¥ ¤ § £ £ ¤¡ § ]. enumFromTo ’a’ ’z’ denotes the list of lowercase letters in alphabetical order. the list terminates when . the list is empty if negative.6. . all the list elements are the same. all of the enumFrom family of functions are strict in all their arguments. The increment may be zero or negative. For example. Integer. the digits after the decimal point may be lost. ¥ ¢ The sequence enumFromThenTo is the list [ . is . ¤ . . The conversions fromEnum and toEnum convert between the type and Int. where the increment. Double. where the increment. If the increment is zero.5 The Functor Class class Functor f where fmap :: (a > b) > f a > f b The Functor class is used for types that can be mapped over. Lists. . the enumeration functions have the following meaning: The sequence enumFromThen is the list [ . STANDARD HASKELL CLASSES 87 Enumeration types: (). For all four of these Prelude numeric types. the semantics of the enumFrom family is given by the rules for Int above. empty if is the list [ . and pred subtracts 1. Numeric types: Int. IO.GT]. ¥ ¢ For Float and Double. The list is ¥ § ¦ § . In the case of Float and Double. If the increment is the next element would be greater than . [LT. It is implementationdependent what fromEnum returns when applied to a value that is too large to ﬁt in an Int. succ adds 1.
and for IO raises a user exception in the IO monad (see Section 7. lists. for Maybe returns Nothing. In the Prelude.3). “do” expressions provide a convenient syntax for writing monadic expressions (see Section 3. f return a >>= k m >>= return m >>= (\x > k x >>= h) fmap id fmap (f . Maybe. g) id fmap f . 6.6 The Monad Class class Monad m (>>=) :: (>>) :: return :: fail :: m >> k fail s where m a > m a > a > m String (a > m b) > m b m b > m b a > m a = m >>= \_ > k = error s The Monad class deﬁnes the basic operations over a monad.88 CHAPTER 6. fmap g k a m (m >>= k) >>= h . and IO are all instances of Monad. The Prelude provides the following auxiliary functions: sequence sequence_ mapM mapM_ (=<<) :: :: :: :: :: Monad Monad Monad Monad Monad m m m m m => => => => => [m [m (a (a (a a] a] > > > > m > m m b) m b) m b) [a] () > [a] > m [b] > [a] > m () > m a > m b fmap f xs xs >>= return . Instances of Monad should satisfy the following laws: Instances of both Monad and Functor should additionally satisfy the law: All instances of Monad deﬁned in the Prelude satisfy these laws. The fail method for lists returns the empty list []. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES Instances of Functor should satisfy the following laws: All instances of Functor deﬁned in the Prelude satisfy these laws.14).3. See Chapter 7 for more information about monads. The fail method is invoked on patternmatch failure in a do expression.
arbitrary precision integers (Integer). The class Integral contains integers of both limited and unlimited range. Double should cover IEEE doubleprecision. it is desirable that this type be at least equal in range and precision to the IEEE singleprecision type. both real and complex. page 83. Other numeric types such as rationals and complex numbers are deﬁned in libraries. The class Num of numeric types is a subclass of Eq. since the other comparison operations apply to all but complex numbers (deﬁned in the Complex library). the numeric types and the operations upon them have been heavily inﬂuenced by Common Lisp and Scheme. Figure 6. and the class Floating contains all ﬂoatingpoint types.1. Numeric function names and operators are usually overloaded. The standard numeric classes and other numeric functions deﬁned in the Prelude are shown in Figures 6. etc. Some. Ordering. The Bounded class may be derived for any enumeration type. minBound is the ﬁrst constructor listed in the data declaration and maxBound is the last. The results of exceptional conditions (such as overﬂow or underﬂow) on the ﬁxedprecision numeric types are undeﬁned. indeﬁnite. and all tuples are instances of Bounded. The standard numeric types are listed in Table 6.3. NUMBERS 89 6. Bool. In particular.2–6.4 Numbers Haskell provides several kinds of numbers. The default ﬂoating point operations deﬁned by the Haskell Prelude do not conform to current language independent arithmetic (LIA) standards. As Int is an instance of the Bounded class. as deﬁned in the Ratio library. a truncated value. Bounded may also be derived for singleconstructor datatypes whose constituent types are in Bounded. Ord is not a superclass of Bounded since types that are not totally ordered may also have upper and lower bounds. its subclass Real is also a subclass of Ord. 6. the type Rational is a ratio of two Integer values.1. The Prelude deﬁnes only the most basic numeric types: ﬁxed sized integers (Int). maxBound :: a The Bounded class is used to name the upper and lower limits of a type. and double precision ﬂoating (Double). the class Fractional contains all nonintegral types.7 The Bounded Class class Bounded a where minBound.6. ¨ ¡£ ¤ ¡£ ¤ . Char. using several type classes with an inclusion relation shown in Figure 6.3. The ﬁniteprecision integer type Int covers at . (). Float is implementationdeﬁned. Similarly.1 shows the class dependencies and builtin types that are instances of the numeric classes. The types Int. or a special value such as inﬁnity. an implementation may choose error ( .4. single precision ﬂoating (Float). These standards require considerably more complexity in the numeric structure and have thus been relegated to a library. maxBound and least the range minBound can be used to determine the exact Int range deﬁned by an implementation. aspects of the IEEE ﬂoating point standard have been accounted for in Prelude class RealFloat. since all numbers may be compared for equality. but not all. semantically).
div. while the result of ‘div‘ is truncated toward negative inﬁnity. respectively. x `mod y) ` ` Also available on integral numbers are the even and odd predicates: even x = odd = x ` ` 2 == 0 rem not . divMod is deﬁned similarly: quotRem x y divMod x y = = (x `quot y. The class methods quot.2 Arithmetic and NumberTheoretic Operations The inﬁx class methods (+). remainder) pair.4. See Section 4. x ` ` y) ` rem (x `div y. The quot. Ratio Integer). and the unary function negate (which can also be written as a preﬁx minus sign. (*).4 for a discussion of overloading ambiguity. rem. An integer literal represents the application of the function fromInteger to the appropriate value of type Integer.4) apply to all numbers. even . double precision Complex ﬂoatingpoint Table 6.1: Standard Numeric Types 6. single precision Real ﬂoatingpoint.4. and mod class methods satisfy these laws if y is nonzero: (x ` quot y)*y + (x ` ` y) == x ` rem (x ` ` y)*y + (x ` ` y) == x div mod ‘quot‘ is integer division truncated toward zero. while the class method (/) applies only to fractional ones. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES Type Integer Int (Integral a) => Ratio a Float Double (RealFloat a) => Complex a Class Integral Integral RealFrac RealFloat RealFloat Floating Description Arbitraryprecision integers Fixedprecision integers Rational numbers Real ﬂoatingpoint. see section 3. Numeric literals are deﬁned in this indirect way so that they may be interpreted as values of any appropriate numeric type. ().90 CHAPTER 6. 6. The quotRem class method takes a dividend and a divisor as arguments and returns a (quotient.3.5. a ﬂoating literal stands for an application of fromRational to a value of type Rational (that is. div. and mod apply only to integral numbers. Given the typings: fromInteger :: (Num a) => Integer > a fromRational :: (Fractional a) => Rational > a integer and ﬂoating literals have the typings (Num a) => a and (Fractional a) => a.1 Numeric Literals The syntax of numeric literals is given in Section 2. rem. Similarly.
(). atan :: a > a sinh. Enum a) quot. gcd 0 0 raises a runtime error. tan :: a > a asin. there are the greatest common divisor and least common multiple functions. including zero. (*) negate abs. acosh.4. div.2: Standard Numeric Classes and Related Operations. The value of ˆ0 or ˆˆ0 is 1 for any . logBase :: a > a > a sin. NUMBERS class (Eq a. for example gcd (3) 6 = 3. cosh. 0** is undeﬁned.3 Exponentiation and Logarithms The oneargument exponential function exp and the logarithm function log act on ﬂoatingpoint numbers and use base . logBase returns the logarithm of in base . gcd 0 4 = 4. 6. ¢ )¢ lcm is the smallest positive integer that both and divide. sqrt returns the principal square root of a ﬂoatingpoint number.4. gcd is the greatest (positive) integer that divides both and .a) a > Integer class (Num a) => Fractional a where (/) :: a > a > a recip :: a > a fromRational :: Rational > a class (Fractional a) => Floating a where pi :: a exp. log. There are three twoargument exponentiation operations: (ˆ) raises any number to a nonnegative integer power. mod quotRem. sqrt :: a > a (**). gcd (3) (6) = 3. signum fromInteger a) :: :: :: :: => Num a where a > a > a a > a a > a Integer > a 91 class (Num a.6. and (**) takes two ﬂoatingpoint arguments. Ord a) => Real a where toRational :: a > Rational class (Real a. Part 1 Finally. divMod toInteger => :: :: :: Integral a where a > a > a a > a > (a. (ˆˆ) raises a fractional number to any integer power. atanh :: a > a Figure 6. ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ . tanh :: a > a asinh. cos. rem. acos. Show (+).
Integral b) => a > b > a fromIntegral :: (Integral a. isIEEE :: a > Bool atan2 :: a > a > a gcd. Floating a) => RealFloat a where floatRadix :: a > Integer floatDigits :: a > Int floatRange :: a > (Int.Int) decodeFloat :: a > (Integer.4 Magnitude and Sign A number has a magnitude and a sign.92 CHAPTER 6. isDenormalized. these functions are deﬁned by: abs x  x >= 0  x < 0 = x = x = 1 = 0 = 1 signum x  x > 0  x == 0  x < 0 .3: Standard Numeric Classes and Related Operations.a) b b class (Real a. The functions abs and signum apply to any number and satisfy the law: abs x * signum x == x For real numbers.4. Fractional a) => RealFrac properFraction :: (Integral b) => a truncate. floor :: (Integral b) => a class (RealFrac a. round :: (Integral b) => a ceiling. lcm :: (Integral a) => a > a> a (ˆ) :: (Num a. isNegativeZero. Integral b) => a > b > a (ˆˆ) :: (Fractional a. Fractional b) => a > b Figure 6. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES a > > > where (b. Part 2 6. isInfinite. Num b) => a > b realToFrac :: (Real a.Int) encodeFloat :: Integer > Int > a exponent :: a > Int significand :: a > a scaleFloat :: Int > a > a isNaN.
6. For real ﬂoating and . Class RealFloat provides a version of arctangent taking two real ﬂoatingpoint arguments. and furthermore. Two functions convert numbers to type Rational: toRational returns the rational equivalent of its real argument with full precision. See these references for discussions of branch cuts.4. The class methods of class RealFloat allow efﬁcient. and floatRange give the parameters of a ﬂoatingpoint type: the radix of the representation. should return the same value as atan . Every real interval contains a unique simplest rational. inclusive. the even integer if is equidistant between two integers. The ceiling. either and are both zero or else of floatDigits x. logBase. with in a type that is RealFloat. where a rational in reduced form is simpler than another if and . floatDigits. machineindependent access to the components of a ﬂoatingpoint number. and with absolute value less than 1. **. If decodeFloat x yields ( . The precise deﬁnition of the above functions is as in Common Lisp. truncate. pi]. where is the ﬂoatingpoint . The function properFraction takes a real fractional number and returns a pair such that . ceiling returns the least integer not less than . ¢ ¢ 6. then x is equal in value to . and tangent functions and their inverses. It follows the Common Lisp semantics for the origin when signed zeroes are supported. and implementation. Default implementations of tan. in particular. truncate. note that is the simplest rational of all. the number of digits of this radix in the signiﬁcand. which in turn follows Penﬁeld’s proposal for APL [9]. discontinuities. but implementors are free to provide more accurate implementations. and floor . tanh. and sqrt are provided.5 Trigonometric Functions Class Floating provides the circular and hyperbolic sine. atan2 returns a value in the range [pi. and: is an integral number with the same sign as . the greatest integer not greater than .6 Coercions and Component Extraction The ceiling. atan2 1. floor. ).4. A default deﬁnition of atan2 is provided. NUMBERS 93 6. atan2 computes the angle (from the positive xaxis) of the vector from the origin to the point . The function decodeFloat applied to a real ﬂoatingpoint number returns the signiﬁcand expressed as an Integer and an appropriately scaled exponent (an Int). The functions floatRadix. where is the value radix. but implementors can provide a more accurate implementation. and is a fraction with the same type and sign as . encodeFloat performs the inverse of this transformation. respectively. The functions ¦ ' ¥ ¢ ¢ ¢ 0 ¦ ¦ 0 ¢ ¢ £ ¡ ¢ ' 0 ¦ ¢ 4 A ¢ ' ¢ 4 ¡ ¦¥ ' ¥ ¢ ¢ 1 ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ 1 ¡ ¦ ¢ ¦ £ ¡ ¤ 4 4 1 £ 1 ¡ ¢ £ ¢ ¦ ¢ ¢ 0 ¢ ¦ ¢ . floor. round returns the nearest integer to . cosine.4. and the lowest and highest values the exponent may assume. and round functions each take a real fractional argument and return an integral result. truncate yields the integer nearest between and . and round functions can be deﬁned in terms of properFraction. approxRational takes two real fractional arguments and and returns the simplest rational number within of .
scaleFloat multiplies a ﬂoatingpoint number by an integer power of the radix. scaled to lie in the open interval . these may all return false. and isIEEE all support numbers represented using the IEEE standard. isNegativeZero. significand x yields a value of the same type as x. For nonIEEE ﬂoating point numbers. isInfinite. but rather than an Integer. Fractional b) => a > b .94 CHAPTER 6. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES significand and exponent together provide the same information as decodeFloat. Also available are the following coercion functions: fromIntegral :: (Integral a. exponent 0 is zero. Num b) => a > b realToFrac :: (Real a. The functions isNaN. isDenormalized.
see Section 6. two characters of input. Haskell uses a to integrate I/O operations into a purely functional context. Special operations (methods in the class Monad. The term comes from a branch of mathematics known as category theory. the abstract values are the mentioned above. and an implementation is obliged to preserve this order. In the case of the I/O monad. however. To achieve this. and which are described in this section.1. return and linefeed. must be ordered in a welldeﬁned manner for program execution – and I/O in particular – to be meaningful. Haskell’s I/O monad provides the user with a way to specify the sequential chaining of actions. For example.1 Standard I/O Functions Although Haskell provides fairly sophisticated I/O facilities. it is best to think of a monad as an abstract datatype.6) sequentially compose actions. corresponding to conventional I/O operations. an implementation has a great deal of freedom in choosing this order. All I/O functions deﬁned here are character oriented. yet has all of the expressive power found in conventional programming languages. The order of evaluation of expressions in Haskell is constrained only by data dependencies. Some operations are primitive actions. may read as a single newline character.2). 95 ¦ ¢ ¦ 32 4 7 3¢ ¦ ¢ ¦ 32 4 © ¦ 332 § § ¤¢ . From the perspective of a Haskell programmer. as deﬁned in the IO library.Chapter 7 Basic Input/Output The I/O system in Haskell is purely functional. recall that String is a synonym for [Char] (Section 6.3. These functions cannot be used portably for binary I/O. however. © ¦ 332 § § ¤¢ © $ 7. corresponding to sequencing operators (such as the semicolon) in imperative languages. natural to a functional language and The I/O monad used by Haskell mediates between the the that characterize I/O operations and imperative programming in general. it is possible to write many Haskell programs using only the few simple functions that are exported from the Prelude. In the following. Actions. The treatment of the newline character will vary on different systems.
The getContents operation returns all user input as a single string. Typically. 2ˆn)  n <. deﬁned the IO library. and the resulting string is output on the standard output device. the read operation from class Read is used to convert the string to a value.3) on endofﬁle. The getLine operation raises an exception under the same circumstances as hGetLine. print converts values to strings for output using the show operation and adds a newline. a predicate isEOFError that identiﬁes this exception is deﬁned in the IO library. putChar putStr putStrLn print :: :: :: :: Char > IO () String > IO () String > IO () . The interact function takes a function of type String>String as its argument. The readLn function combines getLine and readIO. For example. (The isAscii function is deﬁned in a library. These functions read input from the standard input device (normally the user’s :: :: :: :: :: :: IO Char IO String IO String (String > String) > IO () Read a => String > IO a Read a => IO a getChar getLine getContents interact readIO readLn The getChar operation raises an exception (Section 7. BASIC INPUT/OUTPUT Output Functions These functions write to the standard output device (this is normally the user’s terminal).. The following program simply removes all nonASCII characters from its standard input and echoes the result on its standard output.19]]) Input Functions terminal).) main = interact (filter isAscii) . which is read lazily as it is needed.96 CHAPTER 7. Printable types are those that are instances of class Show. a program to print the ﬁrst 20 integers and their powers of 2 could be written as: main = print ([(n.adds a newline Show a => a > IO () The print function outputs a value of any printable type to the standard output device. The readIO function is similar to read except that it signals parse failure to the I/O monad instead of terminating the program. The entire input from the standard input device is passed to this function as its argument.[0.
The readFile function reads a ﬁle and returns the contents of the ﬁle as a string. The two monadic binding functions.2 Sequencing I/O Operations The type constructor IO is an instance of the Monad class. SEQUENCING I/O OPERATIONS 97 Files These functions operate on ﬁles of characters. To write a value of any printable type. type FilePath = String writeFile :: FilePath > String > IO () appendFile :: FilePath > String > IO () readFile :: FilePath > IO String Note that writeFile and appendFile write a literal string to a ﬁle. Files are named by strings using some implementationspeciﬁc method to resolve strings as ﬁle names.[0. A slightly more elaborate version of the previous example would be: . (>>=) :: IO a > (a > IO b) > IO b (>>) :: IO a > IO b > IO b For example. but takes its input from "inputfile" and writes its output to "outputfile". The >>= operation passes the result of the ﬁrst operation as an argument to the second operation. as with getContents. their second argument. to the ﬁle. A message is printed on the standard output before the program completes.. as with print. main = readFile "inputfile" writeFile "outputfile" (filter isAscii s) putStr "Filtering successful\n" >>= \ s > >> is similar to the previous example using interact.1. The do notation allows programming in a more imperative syntactic style.0.2]]) 7.7. methods in the Monad class. The writeFile and appendFile functions write or append the string. main = appendFile "squares" (show [(x.2.x*x)  x <. are used to compose a series of I/O operations. The ﬁle is read lazily. The >> function is used where the result of the ﬁrst operation is uninteresting. for example when it is (). on demand. their ﬁrst argument. use the show function to convert the value to a string ﬁrst.
the exception is propagated to the next outer handler.98 CHAPTER 7. An exception is caught by the most recent handler established by catch. The IO library deﬁnes functions that construct and examine IOError values. getLine is deﬁned in terms of getChar. BASIC INPUT/OUTPUT main = do putStr "Input file: " ifile <. Exception propagation must be explicitly provided in a handler by reraising any unwanted exceptions. the catch function establishes a handler that receives any exception raised in the action protected by catch. User error values include a string describing the error.isEOFError e then return [] else ioError e) the function f returns [] when an endofﬁle exception occurs in g.getLine return (c:s) 7. using return to deﬁne the result: getLine :: IO String getLine = do c <. otherwise. Any I/O operation may raise an exception instead of returning a result.readFile ifile writeFile ofile (filter isAscii s) putStr "Filtering successful\n" The return function is used to deﬁne the result of an I/O operation. The isEOFError function is part of IO library. The only Prelude function that creates an IOError value is userError. .3 Exception Handling in the I/O Monad The I/O monad includes a simple exception handling system. Exceptions in the I/O monad are represented by values of type IOError. These handlers are not selective: all exceptions are caught. For example.getLine putStr "Output file: " ofile <.getChar if c == ’\n’ then return "" else do s <. For example.getLine s <. userError :: String > IOError Exceptions are raised and caught using the following functions: ioError :: IOError > IO a catch :: IO a > (IOError > IO a) > IO a The ioError function raises an exception. This is an abstract type: its constructors are hidden from the user. in f = catch g (\e > if IO.
The fail method of the IO instance of the Monad class (Section 6. . (>>=).3.3.bindings for return.. the Haskell system prints the associated IOError value and exits the program.7. thus: instance Monad IO where .. EXCEPTION HANDLING IN THE I/O MONAD 99 When an exception propagates outside the main program.6) raises a userError. (>>) fail s = ioError (userError s) The exceptions raised by the I/O functions in the Prelude are deﬁned in Chapter 21.
BASIC INPUT/OUTPUT .100 CHAPTER 7.
PreludeText. as it pleases. Some of these modules import Library modules. PreludeList. and three submodules. of the Library modules.” is often used in places where the remainder of a deﬁnition cannot be given in Haskell. and Numeric. constitute a speciﬁcation only of the default method. The Prelude shown here is organized into a root module.. An implementation is not required to use this organisation for the Prelude. or less. a number of commonlyused functions over lists use the Int type rather than using a more general numeric type. This structure is purely presentational. or () are included in the Prelude for completeness even though the declaration may be incomplete or syntactically invalid. That is. drop. These imports are not. and PreludeIO. and it is not required that the speciﬁcation be implemented as shown here. nor are these three modules available for import separately. Prelude. They do not constitute a speciﬁcation of the meaning of the method in all instances. The default method deﬁnitions. an implementation is free to import more. Only the exports of module Prelude are signiﬁcant. To reduce the occurrence of unexpected ambiguity errors. Instance declarations that simply bind primitives to class methods are omitted. IO. It constitutes a speciﬁcation for the Prelude. given with class declarations. 101 .. and to improve efﬁciency. such as Integral a or Num a. indicated by names starting with “prim”. Declarations for special types such as Integer. of course. An ellipsis “.Chapter 8 Standard Prelude In this chapter the entire Haskell Prelude is given. To take one particular example. Many of the deﬁnitions are written with clarity rather than efﬁciency in mind. are deﬁned in a system dependent manner in module PreludeBuiltin and are not shown here. length. These functions are: take. part of the speciﬁcation of the Prelude. the default method for enumFrom in class Enum will not work properly for types whose range exceeds that of Int (because fromEnum cannot map all values in the type to distinct Int values). Primitives that are not deﬁnable in Haskell. Monad. such as Char. These modules are described fully in Part II. !!. Some of the more verbose instances with obvious functionality have been left out for the sake of brevity.
and replicate. . for example genericLength. with the preﬁx “generic”.102 CHAPTER 8. STANDARD PRELUDE splitAt. The more general versions are given in the List library.
Unicode primitives . (ˆˆ). uncurry.)((. min). return. ($!) ) where import import import import import import PreludeBuiltin UnicodePrims( primUnicodeMaxChar ) PreludeList PreludeText PreludeIO Ratio( Rational ) . sin. asinh. Floating(pi. Char. fromEnum. (ˆ). mapM. div. (>). id. sequence. (*). Trivial type: ()(()) Functions: (>) Eq((==). but are denoted by builtin syntax. atan. True). tan. Integral(quot. round. floor). floatDigits. Bounded(minBound. negate. divMod. floatRange. Either(Left. abs. isInfinite. Num((+). (<). mod. RealFrac(properFraction. Double. gcd. Integer. maybe. flip. IO. Functor(fmap). sinh. mapM_. enumFromThen. truncate. GT). otherwise. asTypeOf. Rational. subtract. isIEEE. (). (**). (. enumFrom. cosh. Ordering(LT. quotRem. ceiling. curry. Monad((>>=). and cannot legally appear in an export list. lcm. Maybe(Nothing. module PreludeText. Just). ($). Enum(succ. encodeFloat. fromRational). atan2).). cos. (=<<). logBase. const.Contains all ‘prim’ values . enumFromThenTo). RealFloat(floatRadix. fail). isDenormalized. until.)((. These builtin types are defined in the Prelude..103 module Prelude ( module PreludeList. decodeFloat. sequence_. toEnum. either. module PreludeIO. odd. Right). log. tanh. asin. significand. isNegativeZero. Int. (&&). error. signum. etc. fst. (. exponent. seq. rem. toInteger). (/=)). EQ. sqrt. fromInteger). Ord(compare. (<=). String. Float.)). acos. acosh. Fractional((/). not. snd. []) Tuple types: (. scaleFloat. maxBound). (). max. pred.)).. exp. (>>). realToFrac. Bool(False. isNaN. atanh). recip. (>=). undefined. fromIntegral. List type: []((:). enumFromTo. even. Real(toRational).
‘div‘. <=. and cannot legally be given . >=. STANDARD PRELUDE .Using compare can be more efficient for complex types. >>= =<< $. (<=). classes.The (:) operator is builtin syntax. ‘mod‘ +. ˆ. ‘rem‘.  .x) max x y  x <= y = y  otherwise = x min x y  x <= y = x  otherwise = y . <. instances and related functions . ˆˆ.Standard types.Equality and Ordered classes class Eq a where (==).note that (min x y. ** *. compare x y  x == y = EQ  x <= y = LT  otherwise = GT x x x x <= < >= > y y y y = = = = compare compare compare compare x x x x y y y y /= == /= == GT LT LT GT . max x y) = (x. min :: a > a > a . ‘quot‘. (>=).y) or (y.a fixity declaration.Minimal complete definition: (==) or (/=) x /= y = not (x == y) x == y = not (x /= y) class (Eq a) => Ord a where compare :: a > a > Ordering (<).104 infixr infixr infixl infixl 9 8 7 6 CHAPTER 8. ‘seq‘ . /=. (>) :: a > a > Bool max. (/=) :: a > a > Bool . but its fixity is given by: infixr 5 : infix infixr infixr infixl infixr infixr 4 3 2 1 1 0 ==. /.Minimal complete definition: (<=) or compare . > &&  >>. $!.
fromEnum pred = toEnum ..n’. fromEnum y .Numeric classes class (Eq a.y = x + negate x = 0 definition: negate or () negate y x class (Num a.m] . (+1) . succ = toEnum . Ord a) => Real a where toRational :: a > Rational .Minimal complete definition: toEnum. pred toEnum fromEnum enumFrom enumFromThen enumFromTo enumFromThenTo :: :: :: :: :: :: :: a > a Int > a a > Int a > [a] a > a > [a] a > a > [a] a > a > a > [a]  [n.Enumeration and Bounded classes class Enum a where succ..] enumFromTo x y = map toEnum [fromEnum x .NOTE: these default methods only make sense for types that map injectively into Int using fromEnum and toEnum.] enumFromThenTo x y z = map toEnum [fromEnum x. (*) :: a > a > a negate :: a > a abs. (subtract 1) ..Minimal complete All. signum :: a > a fromInteger :: Integer > a . fromEnum z] class Bounded a minBound maxBound where :: a :: a . fromEnum y .m] [n..105 . fromEnum enumFrom x = map toEnum [fromEnum x . fromEnum y] enumFromThen x y = map toEnum [fromEnum x. except x . fromEnum .] [n..n’. Show a) => Num a where (+). ()...] [n..
log.Minimal complete definition: quotRem. cos.r) = divMod n d = if signum r == where qr@(q. cosh asin. sinh. atanh :: a > a . atanh x ** y = exp (log x * y) logBase x y = log y / log x sqrt x = x ** 0. acosh. atan :: a > a sinh.r) = n ‘mod‘ d = r where (q.106 class (Real a. tanh :: a > a asinh. STANDARD PRELUDE => Integral a where a > a > a a > a > a a > a > (a.r) = class (Num a) => Fractional a where (/) :: a > a > a recip :: a > a fromRational :: Rational > a quotRem n d quotRem n d divMod n d divMod n d signum d then (q1. cosh.Minimal complete definition: pi. atan asinh. acos.a) a > Integer .Minimal complete definition: fromRational and (recip or (/)) recip x = 1 / x x / y = x * recip y class (Fractional a) => Floating a where pi :: a exp. exp.r) = n ‘div‘ d = q where (q. rem div. r+d) else qr quotRem n d . acosh. acos.r) = n ‘rem‘ d = r where (q. toInteger n ‘quot‘ d = q where (q. sqrt :: a > a (**). log. cos. mod quotRem. Enum quot. logBase :: a > a > a sin.5 tan x = sin x / cos x tanh x = sinh x / cosh x . divMod toInteger a) :: :: :: :: CHAPTER 8. sin. tan :: a > a asin.
0.r) = properFraction x m = if r < 0 then n ._) = properFraction x round x = let (n.r) = properFraction x ceiling x floor x = = .5) of 1 > n 0 > if even n then n else m 1 > m if r > 0 then n + 1 else n where (n.a) b b .r) = properFraction x if r < 0 then n . Fractional a) => RealFrac properFraction :: (Integral b) => a truncate.Minimal complete definition: properFraction truncate x = m where (m.1 else n where (n.107 class (Real a. round :: (Integral b) => a ceiling. floor :: (Integral b) => a a > > > where (b.1 else n + 1 in case signum (abs r .
return a NaN (via +) . Floating a) => RealFloat a where floatRadix :: a > Integer floatDigits :: a > Int floatRange :: a > (Int.gcd: gcd 0 0 is undefined" = gcd’ (abs x) (abs y) where gcd’ x 0 = x gcd’ x y = gcd’ y (x ‘rem‘ y) .Minimal complete definition: All except exponent. odd even n odd gcd gcd 0 0 gcd x y :: (Num a) => a > a > a = flip () :: (Integral a) => a > Bool = n ‘rem‘ 2 == 0 = not . even :: (Integral a) => a > a > a = error "Prelude.x or y is a NaN.Int) decodeFloat :: a > (Integer. isNegativeZero. isIEEE :: a > Bool atan2 :: a > a > a .floatDigits x) where (m.Int) encodeFloat :: Integer > Int > a exponent :: a > Int significand :: a > a scaleFloat :: Int > a > a isNaN.Numeric functions subtract subtract even._) = decodeFloat x encodeFloat m (n+k) where (m.108 CHAPTER 8.must be after the other double zero tests  otherwise = x + y .n) = decodeFloat x atan2 y x  x>0 = atan (y/x)  x==0 && y>0 = pi/2  x<0 && y>0 = pi + atan (y/x) (x<=0 && y<0)  (x<0 && isNegativeZero y)  (isNegativeZero x && isNegativeZero y) = atan2 (y) x  y==0 && (x<0  isNegativeZero x) = pi . STANDARD PRELUDE class (RealFrac a. scaleFloat. atan2 exponent x = if m == 0 then 0 else n + floatDigits x where (m. isInfinite. significand.must be after the previous test on zero y  x==0 && y==0 = y .n) = decodeFloat x significand x scaleFloat k x = = encodeFloat m (. isDenormalized.
list element to a monad type mapM :: Monad m => (a > m b) > [a] > m [b] mapM f as = sequence (map f as) mapM_ mapM_ f as (=<<) f =<< x :: Monad m => (a > m b) > [a] > m () = sequence_ (map f as) :: Monad m => (a > m b) > m a > m b = x >>= f .Minimal complete definition: (>>=). Integral b) => a > b > a = 1 = f x (n1) x where f _ 0 y = y f x n y = g x n where g x n  even n = g (x*x) (n ‘quot‘ 2)  otherwise = f x (n1) (x*y) = error "Prelude. return m >> k = m >>= \_ > k fail s = error s sequence sequence sequence_ sequence_ :: Monad m => [m a] > m [a] = foldr mcons (return []) where mcons p q = p >>= \x > q >>= \y > return (x:y) :: Monad m => [m a] > m () = foldr (>>) (return ()) . toInteger :: (Real a. Fractional b) => a > b = fromRational . Num b) => a > b = fromInteger .ˆ: negative exponent" :: (Fractional a.The xxxM functions take list arguments. but lift the function or . Integral b) => a > b > a = if n >= 0 then xˆn else recip (xˆ(n)) :: (Integral a.Monadic classes class Functor f fmap where :: (a > b) > f a > f b class Monad m where (>>=) :: m a > (a > m b) > m b (>>) :: m a > m b > m b return :: a > m a fail :: String > m a . toRational .109 lcm lcm _ 0 lcm 0 _ lcm x y (ˆ) x ˆ 0 x ˆ n  n > 0 :: = = = (Integral a) => a > a > a 0 0 abs ((x ‘quot‘ (gcd x y)) * y) _ ˆ _ (ˆˆ) x ˆˆ n fromIntegral fromIntegral realToFrac realToFrac :: (Num a.
Bounded) . g = \ x > f (g x) .Function type . Enum. Show.. Ord.Primitive .Unicode values instance Eq Char c == c’ where = fromEnum c == fromEnum c’ . flip :: (a > b > c) > b > a > c flip f x y = f y x seq :: a > b > b seq = .identity function id :: a > a id x = x . STANDARD PRELUDE = () deriving (Eq.flip f takes its (first) two arguments in the reverse order of f.Character type data Char = .. ’a’  ’b’ . True False True False () && x && _  _  x :: = = = = Bool > Bool > Bool x False True x not not True not False otherwise otherwise :: Bool > Bool = False = True :: Bool = True ..function composition (. . Read. Ord.) :: (b > c) > (a > b) > a > c f . Bounded) .Boolean functions (&&).. Enum.110 . ($!) :: (a > b) > a > b f $ x = f x f $! x = x ‘seq‘ f x .(useful in continuationpassing style) ($).Not legal Haskell... . for illustration only .rightassociating infix application operators .Boolean type data Bool = False  True deriving (Eq.constant function const :: a > b > a const x _ = x .Trivial type data () CHAPTER 8.
. fromEnum lastChar] where lastChar :: Char lastChar  c’ < c = minBound  otherwise = maxBound instance Bounded Char where minBound = ’\0’ maxBound = primUnicodeMaxChar type String = [Char] . Show) either :: (a > c) > (b > c) > Either a b > c either f g (Left x) = f x either f g (Right y) = g y .IO type data IO a = .abstract instance Functor IO where fmap f x = x >>= (return .. fromEnum (maxBound::Char)] enumFromThen c c’ = map toEnum [fromEnum c..111 instance Ord Char c <= c’ where = fromEnum c <= fromEnum c’ instance Enum Char where toEnum = primIntToChar fromEnum = primCharToInt enumFrom c = map toEnum [fromEnum c . f) instance Monad IO where (>>=) = . fail s = ioError (userError s) . fromEnum c’ . Show) maybe :: b > (a > b) > Maybe a > b maybe n f Nothing = n maybe n f (Just x) = f x instance Functor Maybe fmap f Nothing = fmap f (Just x) = where Nothing Just (f x) instance Monad Maybe where (Just x) >>= k = k x Nothing >>= k = Nothing return = Just fail s = Nothing . .Maybe type data Maybe a = Nothing  Just a deriving (Eq.. Read.Either type data Either a b = Left a  Right b deriving (Eq.. Ord.. return = .. Ord.. Read.
. .... ... maxBound . ... Ord. 1 Eq Int where Ord Int where Num Int where Real Int where Integral Int where Enum Int where Bounded Int where  0  1 . . .. instance Real Integer where . ..... data Int instance instance instance instance instance instance instance = minBound . instance Ord Integer where ... .. ..be expressed directly in Haskell since the constructor lists would be ..Standard numeric types.. Read... ..far too large.. ...... .. ... 1  0  1 . ...Ordering type data CHAPTER 8... . .. instance Eq Integer where ...... where where where where where where where where .. .. instance Integral Integer where .. Show. STANDARD PRELUDE Ordering = LT  EQ  GT deriving (Eq.. data Integer = ....... . . ... Enum.... instance Enum Integer where .. instance Num Integer where .. .. data Float instance Eq instance Ord instance Num instance Real instance Fractional instance Floating instance RealFrac instance RealFloat data Double instance Eq instance Ord instance Num instance Real instance Fractional instance Floating instance RealFrac instance RealFloat Float Float Float Float Float Float Float Float Double Double Double Double Double Double Double Double where where where where where where where where ... Bounded) .. The data declarations for these types cannot .112 ..... .
may overflow instance Enum Double where succ x = x+1 pred x = x1 toEnum = fromIntegral fromEnum = fromInteger . for illustration only instance Functor [] where fmap = map instance Monad [] m >>= k return x fail s where = concat (map k m) = [x] = [] . depending on how 0.1 is represented.113 The Enum instances for Floats and Doubles are slightly unusual. roundoff errors make these somewhat dubious.Lists data [a] = []  a : [a] deriving (Eq. where = x+1 = x1 = fromIntegral = fromInteger . 0. This example may have either 10 or 11 elements. However.may overflow (Fractional a) => a > [a] (Fractional a) => a > a > [a] (Fractional a. The ‘toEnum’ function truncates numbers to Int.1 . truncate enumFrom = numericEnumFrom enumFromThen = numericEnumFromThen enumFromTo = numericEnumFromTo enumFromThenTo = numericEnumFromThenTo numericEnumFrom :: numericEnumFromThen :: numericEnumFromTo :: numericEnumFromThenTo :: numericEnumFrom = numericEnumFromThen n m = numericEnumFromTo n m = numericEnumFromThenTo n n’ . The definitions of enumFrom and enumFromThen allow floats to be used in arithmetic series: [0.. Ord a) => a > a > [a] (Fractional a. Ord) . Ord a) => a > a > a > [a] iterate (+1) iterate (+(mn)) n takeWhile (<= m+1/2) (numericEnumFrom n) m = takeWhile p (numericEnumFromThen n n’) where p  n’ >= n = (<= m + (n’n)/2)  otherwise = (>= m + (n’n)/2) .Not legal Haskell.95]. truncate = numericEnumFrom = numericEnumFromThen = numericEnumFromTo = numericEnumFromThenTo instance Enum Float succ x pred x toEnum fromEnum enumFrom enumFromThen enumFromTo enumFromThenTo .0.
Misc functions . .asTypeOf is a typerestricted version of const.b) = (a. Ord. STANDARD PRELUDE (a. for illustration only . quadruples.y) :: (a.(NB: not provided for triples.uncurry converts a curried function to a function on pairs.appears.error stops execution and displays an error message error error :: String > a = primError . and its typing forces its first argument .Tuples data data CHAPTER 8. It is usually used .until p f yields the result of applying f until p holds. y) uncurry uncurry f p :: (a > b > c) > ((a. etc.Not legal Haskell.114 . undefined undefined :: a = error "Prelude. curry :: ((a.b.c) deriving (Eq.undefined" .b) > a fst (x.y) = x snd snd (x.component projections for pairs: .c) = (a.b. Bounded) . Ord.(which is usually overloaded) to have the same type as the second.curry converts an uncurried function to a curried function. asTypeOf :: a > a > a asTypeOf = const . Bounded) (a.as an infix operator. b) > c) = f (fst p) (snd p) .) fst :: (a. b) > c) > a > b > c curry f x y = f (x.b) deriving (Eq.It is expected that compilers will recognize this and insert error . until :: (a > Bool) > (a > a) > a > a until p f x  p x = x  otherwise = until p f (f x) .messages that are more appropriate to the context in which undefined .b) > b = y .
take. notElem.Standard list functions module PreludeList ( map. span. last and init are the dual functions working from the end of a finite list. of a list. foldl. head.1 Prelude PreludeList . elem. PRELUDE PRELUDELIST 115 8. :: [a] > a = x = error "Prelude. which must be nonempty. concatMap. splitAt. reverse. or. unwords. respectively. last. repeat. scanr1. ‘notElem‘ . scanl1.Map and append map :: (a > b) > [a] > [b] map f [] = [] map f (x:xs) = f x : map f xs (++) :: [a] > [a] > [a] [] ++ ys = ys (x:xs) ++ ys = x : (xs ++ ys) filter :: (a > Bool) > [a] > [a] filter p [] = [] filter p (x:xs)  p x = x : filter p xs  otherwise = filter p xs concat :: [[a]] > [a] concat xss = foldr (++) [] xss concatMap :: (a > [b]) > [a] > [b] concatMap f = concat . init. words. concat. zipWith3.8. unlines. minimum. cycle. rather than the beginning. and. foldr1. tail. length. filter.head: empty list" :: [a] > [a] = xs = error "Prelude. unzip. drop. (++). break. scanr. null. foldl1. unzip3) where import qualified Char(isSpace) infixl 9 infixr 5 infix 4 !! ++ ‘elem‘. dropWhile. map f head and tail extract the first element and remaining elements. zip3. replicate. sum. takeWhile.tail: empty list" head head (x:_) head [] tail tail (_:xs) tail [] . scanl. all. iterate. foldr. zipWith. lines.1. maximum. zip. lookup. any. product. (!!).
] == [z. again without the starting element: scanl1 f [x1..((z ‘f‘ x1) ‘f‘ x2) ‘f‘.last: empty list" [a] > [a] [] x : init xs error "Prelude. z ‘f‘ x1. x2. . ... but returns a list of successive reduced values from the left: scanl f z [x1. (z ‘f‘ x1) ‘f‘ x2. and a list. xn] == (.] == [x1. scanl is similar to foldl.] foldl :: (a > b > a) > a > [b] > a foldl f z [] = z foldl f z (x:xs) = foldl f (f z x) xs foldl1 foldl1 f (x:xs) foldl1 _ [] scanl scanl f q xs :: (a > a > a) > [a] > a = foldl f x xs = error "Prelude. x1 ‘f‘ x2. reduces the list using the binary operator. STANDARD PRELUDE [a] > a x last xs error "Prelude. ...foldl1: empty list" :: (a > b > a) > a > [b] > [a] = q : (case xs of [] > [] x:xs > scanl f (f q x) xs) :: (a > a > a) > [a] > [a] = scanl f x xs = [] scanl1 scanl1 f (x:xs) scanl1 _ [] .. .. scanl1 is similar.length returns the length of a finite list as an Int.) ‘f‘ xn foldl1 is a variant that has no starting value argument.. from left to right: foldl f z [x1.116 last last [x] last (_:xs) last [] init init [x] init (x:xs) init [] null null [] null (_:_) :: = = = :: = = = CHAPTER 8.. length :: [a] > Int length [] = 0 length (_:l) = 1 + length l .... x2. applied to a binary operator. . and thus must be applied to nonempty lists.List index (subscript) operator.!!: index too large" (x:_) !! 0 = x (_:xs) !! n = xs !! (n1) foldl. a starting value (typically the leftidentity of the operator).. x2.. 0origin (!!) :: [a] > Int > a xs !! n  n < 0 = error "Prelude.init: empty list" :: [a] > Bool = True = False ..] Note that last (scanl f z xs) == foldl f z xs.!!: negative index" [] !! _ = error "Prelude.
It is the identity . scanr. or [] if n > length xs. or equivalently. f x. or xs itself if n > length xs.cycle ties a finite list into a circular one. foldr :: (a > b > b) > b > [a] > b foldr f z [] = z foldr f z (x:xs) = f x (foldr f z xs) foldr1 foldr1 f [x] foldr1 f (x:xs) foldr1 _ [] :: = = = (a > a > a) > [a] > a x f x (foldr1 f xs) error "Prelude. drop n xs). f (f x). Int > [a] > [a] [] [] x : take (n1) xs take :: take n _  n <= 0 = take _ [] = take n (x:xs) = .above functions.8.the infinite repetition of the original list. PRELUDE PRELUDELIST 117 . and scanr1 are the righttoleft duals of the . foldr1.iterate f x returns an infinite list of repeated applications of f to x: .foldr1: empty list" scanr :: (a > b > b) > b > [a] > [b] scanr f q0 [] = [q0] scanr f q0 (x:xs) = f x q : qs where qs@(q:_) = scanr f q0 xs scanr1 scanr1 f [] scanr1 f [x] scanr1 f (x:xs) :: = = = (a > a > a) > [a] > [a] [] [x] f x q : qs where qs@(q:_) = scanr1 f xs .] iterate :: (a > a) > a > [a] iterate f x = x : iterate f (f x) . . returns the prefix of xs of length n. applied to a list xs.cycle: empty list" = xs’ where xs’ = xs ++ xs’ take n.on infinite lists.iterate f x == [x.foldr. drop n xs returns the suffix of xs after the first n elements. with x the value of every element. cycle cycle [] cycle xs :: [a] > [a] = error "Prelude. .repeat x is an infinite list.1.. repeat :: a > [a] repeat x = xs where xs = x:xs ..replicate n x is a list of length n with x the value of every element replicate :: Int > a > [a] replicate n x = take n (repeat x) . splitAt n xs is equivalent to (take n xs.
isSpace s’ lines lines "" lines s words words s . :: (a > Bool) > [a] > [a] = [] = = x : takeWhile p xs [] takeWhile takeWhile p [] takeWhile p (x:xs)  p x  otherwise dropWhile dropWhile p [] dropWhile p xs@(x:xs’)  p x  otherwise :: (a > Bool) > [a] > [a] = [] = = dropWhile p xs’ xs span. dropWhile p xs returns the remaining suffix.[a]) = (take n xs. s’’) = break Char. s’) = break (== ’\n’) s in l : case s’ of [] > [] (_:s’’) > lines s’’ :: String > [String] = case dropWhile Char. The resulting strings do not contain newlines.118 drop :: drop n xs  n <= 0 = drop _ [] = drop n (_:xs) = splitAt splitAt n xs  CHAPTER 8.isSpace s of "" > [] s’ > w : words s’’ where (w. unlines and unwords are the inverse operations. while break p uses the negation of p. which were delimited by white space.zs) = span p xs’ break p = span (not . span p xs is equivalent to (takeWhile p xs.xs) where (ys.zs)  otherwise = ([]. applied to a predicate p and a list xs.[a]) span p [] = ([]. break :: (a > Bool) > [a] > ([a]. words breaks a string up into a list of words. :: String > [String] = [] = let (l. dropWhile p xs). p) lines breaks a string up into a list of strings at newline characters. Similary.[]) span p xs@(x:xs’)  p x = (x:ys. unlines joins lines with terminating newlines. returns the longest prefix (possibly empty) of xs of elements that satisfy p. drop n xs) takeWhile. and unwords joins words with separating spaces. STANDARD PRELUDE Int > [a] > [a] xs [] drop (n1) xs :: Int > [a] > ([a].
True. lookup :: (Eq a) => a > [(a. all :: (a > Bool) > [a] > Bool any p = or . or :: [Bool] > Bool and = foldr (&&) True or = foldr () False .g. any.sum and product compute the sum or product of a finite list of numbers. product :: (Num a) => [a] > a sum = foldl (+) 0 product = foldl (*) 1 . .b)] > Maybe b lookup key [] = Nothing lookup key ((x.maximum and minimum return the maximum or minimum value from a list.of the list satisfies the predicate.elem is the list membership predicate. map p all p = and .which must be nonempty. sum. any determines if any element .minimum: empty list" foldl1 min xs . notElem is the negation. x ‘elem‘ xs.and returns the conjunction of a Boolean list. Similarly. For the result to be .1.reverse xs returns the elements of xs in reverse order. usually written in infix form.disjunctive dual of and. maximum. results from a False . the list must be finite.y):xys)  key == x = Just y  otherwise = lookup key xys . finite. notElem :: (Eq a) => a > [a] > Bool elem x = any (== x) notElem x = all (/= x) . .maximum: empty list" maximum xs = foldl1 max xs minimum [] minimum xs = = error "Prelude. map p . and of an ordered type. elem. or is the . . however.value at a finite index of a finite or infinite list. reverse :: [a] > [a] reverse = foldl (flip (:)) [] xs must be finite.8.e. False. minimum :: (Ord a) => [a] > a maximum [] = error "Prelude.lookup key assocs looks up a key in an association list. and. PRELUDE PRELUDELIST unlines unlines unwords unwords [] unwords ws :: [String] > String = concatMap (++ "\n") :: [String] > String = "" = foldr1 (\w s > w ++ ’ ’:s) ws 119 ..Applied to a predicate and a list. for all.
[b]) = foldr (\(a.b)] = zipWith (.[]) . STANDARD PRELUDE zip takes two lists and returns a list of corresponding pairs. If one input list is short.b:bs.c)] = zipWith3 (.c)] > ([a]. excess elements of the longer list are discarded.b:bs)) ([].b) ˜(as. zipWith :: (a>b>c) > [a]>[b]>[c] zipWith z (a:as) (b:bs) = z a b : zipWith z as bs zipWith _ _ _ = [] zipWith3 :: (a>b>c>d) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d] zipWith3 z (a:as) (b:bs) (c:cs) = z a b c : zipWith3 z as bs cs zipWith3 _ _ _ _ = [] .bs) > (a:as. Zips for larger tuples are in the List library :: [a] > [b] > [(a. zipWith (+) is applied to two lists to produce the list of corresponding sums.[]) :: [(a.[c]) = foldr (\(a. zip3 takes three lists and returns a list of triples.) zip zip zip3 zip3  The zipWith family generalises the zip family by zipping with the function given as the first argument.[].) :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [(a..b)] > ([a].unzip transforms a list of pairs into a pair of lists.b.[b].120  CHAPTER 8.c) ˜(as. instead of a tupling function.cs) > (a:as. unzip unzip unzip3 unzip3 :: [(a.bs.b.b. For example.c:cs)) ([].
Ordering . showParen ) where .2. showString.t) (xs. showList). reads t. showl xs . readl’ t] lex s] ++ lex s. showl xs where showl [] = showChar ’]’ showl (x:xs) = showChar ’.u) (xs.v)  (". read. Read(readsPrec.’ .8. showLitChar. shows.Mimimal complete definition: show or showsPrec showsPrec _ x s = show x ++ s show x showList [] showList (x:xs) = showsPrec 0 x "" = showString "[]" = showChar ’[’ . lex. isAlpha. lexLitChar) import Numeric(showSigned. lexDigits) type type ReadS a ShowS = String > [(a. shows x .2 Prelude PreludeText module PreludeText ( ReadS.t)  ("]".u)  (x.hs import Char(isSpace.t)  ("]".v) class Show a showsPrec show showList where :: Int > a > ShowS :: a > String :: [a] > ShowS <<<<<<<<< lex r.u) readl’ s = [([].The instances of Read and Show for Bool.t) [(x:xs. isDigit. readl’ u] . readLitChar. readList). Maybe.s) pr where readl s = [([]. readSigned.String)] = String > String where :: Int > ReadS a :: ReadS [a] class Read a readsPrec readList . showFloat. readDec. show.Minimal complete definition: readsPrec readList = readParen False (\r > [pr  ("[". isAlphaNum.t) (x. readl s]) lex s] ++ reads s. Either. readParen. showChar. reads.are done via "deriving" clauses in Prelude. Show(showsPrec. shows x . PRELUDE PRELUDETEXT 121 8. showInt.".t) [(x:xs. ShowS. readFloat.
’\’’:t) <.122 reads reads shows shows read read s :: (Read a) => ReadS a = readsPrec 0 :: (Show a) => a > ShowS = showsPrec 0 CHAPTER 8. u)  (ch.u) <. .This lexer is not completely faithful to the Haskell lexical syntax. t)  (str.u) showChar showChar showString showString showParen showParen b p readParen readParen b g r <.s)] lexStrItem (’\\’:c:s)  isSpace c = [("\\&". ch /= "’" ] [(’"’:str. ("".t) (")". showChar ’)’ else p :: Bool > ReadS a > ReadS a = if b then mandatory else optional where optional r = g r ++ mandatory mandatory r = [(x.t) <.t)  ’\\’:t <[dropWhile isSpace s]] lexStrItem s = lexLitChar s .read: no parse" _ > error "Prelude.reads s."") <.t) <. t)  (ch.lex t] of [x] > x [] > error "Prelude.t) <.lexLitChar s.optional s. (str.u)  ("(".Current limitations: Qualified names are not handled properly Octal and hexidecimal numerics are not recognized as a single token Comments are not treated properly lex lex "" lex (c:s)  isSpace c lex (’\’’:s) lex (’"’:s) :: ReadS String = [("". <.read: ambiguous parse" :: Char > ShowS = (:) :: String > ShowS = (++) :: Bool > ShowS > ShowS = if b then showChar ’(’ .s) (x. STANDARD PRELUDE :: (Read a) => String > a = case [x  (x.lex t ] .lexStrItem s. <.lexString s] where lexString (’"’:s) = [("\""."")] = = = lex (dropWhile isSpace s) [(’\’’:ch++"’". p .lexString t ] lexStrItem (’\\’:’&’:s) = [("\\&".s)] lexString s = [(ch++str.lex r.
’:ds++e.u)  (ds. PRELUDE PRELUDETEXT lex (c:s)     isSingle c isSym c isAlpha c isDigit c = = = = [([c].u) <. (ds./<=>?\\ˆ:˜" isIdChar c = isAlphaNum c  c ‘elem‘ "_’"  (sym.’:c:cs)  isDigit c = [(’.t) <.[span isSym s]]  (nam.t) <.t) [(c:ds++fe.possible difficulty with minInt instance Read Int where readsPrec p r = [(fromInteger i.readsPrec p r] . (fe.lexDigits s] instance Show Int where showsPrec n = showsPrec n .t) 123  otherwise = [] where isSingle c = c ‘elem‘ ".s) <. t)  (i.8.[span isDigit s].s)] <.t) <.s)] [(c:sym.u)  (c:t) [(e:ds. c ‘elem‘ "+". (e.t) <.t) lexExp s = [("". toInteger .t) <.lexExp t] lexFracExp s = lexExp s lexExp (e:s)  e ‘elem‘ "eE" = [(e:c:ds.2.t) [(c:nam.bad character lexFracExp (’.possible difficulty with minInt instance Show Integer showsPrec instance Read Integer readsPrec p instance Show Float showsPrec p instance Read Float readsPrec p instance Show Double showsPrec p instance Read Double readsPrec p where = showSigned showInt where = readSigned readDec where = showFloat where = readSigned readFloat where = showFloat where = readSigned readFloat instance Show () where showsPrec p () = showString "()" .t) <.[span isIdChar s]]  (ds.[s].lexFracExp s ] ..lexDigits t] ++  (ds.lexDigits (c:cs).u) <.Reading at the Integer type avoids .()[]{}_‘" isSym c = c ‘elem‘ "!@#$%&*+.Converting to Integer avoids .
lex v ] ) .Other tuples have similar Read and Show instances <<<<< lex r.s) <.readl t ] instance (Show a) => Show [a] where showsPrec p = showList instance (Read a) => Read [a] where readsPrec p = readList .readLitChar s._) <.t) (".t)  (’"’:s. (c.124 CHAPTER 8. Read b) => Read (a.t) <.v) (")".lex r. showLitChar c . (cs. showChar ’\’’ showList cs = showChar ’"’ .t)<. t) <.’ . shows y .t) <.readLitChar s]) readList = readParen False (\r > [(l.b) where readsPrec p = readParen False (\r > [((x.s) (x.b) where showsPrec p (x.lex r. STANDARD PRELUDE instance Read () where readsPrec p = readParen False (\r > [(().s)] readl (’\\’:’&’:s) = readl s readl s = [(c:cs. (")". showl cs showl (c:cs) = showLitChar c .u)  (c .lex s ] ) instance Show Char where showsPrec p ’\’’ = showString "’\\’’" showsPrec p c = showChar ’\’’ . showChar ’.readl s ]) where readl (’"’:s) = [("". (l. w)  ("(". shows x .y) = showChar ’(’ . showl cs instance Read Char readsPrec p where = readParen False (\r > [(c.y). lex t.".u) <.w) . reads u.t)  (’\’’:s. showl cs where showl "" = showChar ’"’ showl (’"’:cs) = showString "\\\"" .Tuples instance (Show a.t)  ("("."\’") <. reads s. Show b) => Show (a. showChar ’)’ instance (Read a.lex r.u) (y.
catch. print. userError.The internals of this type are system dependent data IOError instance instance ioError ioError userError userError catch catch putChar putChar putStr putStr s Show IOError where .3. putStr..8.. getLine. :: = :: = :: = IOError > IO a primIOError String > IOError primUserError IO a > (IOError > IO a) > IO a primCatch :: Char > IO () = primPutChar :: String > IO () = mapM_ putChar s putStrLn :: String > IO () putStrLn s = do putStr s putStr "\n" print print x getChar getChar getLine getLine :: Show a => a > IO () = putStrLn (show x) :: IO Char = primGetChar :: IO String = do c <.getChar if c == ’\n’ then return "" else do s <.. putStrLn.3 Prelude PreludeIO module PreludeIO ( FilePath. PRELUDE PRELUDEIO 125 8. ioError.. getChar. IOError. readFile. Eq IOError where .getLine return (c:s) getContents :: IO String getContents = primGetContents . getContents. writeFile. putChar. appendFile. readIO. readLn ) where import PreludeBuiltin type FilePath = String . interact.
readIO l return r .getContents putStr (f s) readFile readFile writeFile writeFile :: FilePath > IO String = primReadFile :: FilePath > String > IO () = primWriteFile appendFile :: FilePath > String > IO () appendFile = primAppendFile .getLine r <.lex t] of [x] > return x [] > ioError (userError "Prelude.t) <.readIO: ambiguous parse") readLn :: Read a => IO a readLn = do l <.reads s. (""."") <.The hSetBuffering ensures the expected interactive behaviour interact f = do hSetBuffering stdin NoBuffering hSetBuffering stdout NoBuffering s <.126 CHAPTER 8. STANDARD PRELUDE interact :: (String > String) > IO () .raises an exception instead of an error readIO :: Read a => String > IO a readIO s = case [x  (x.readIO: no parse") _ > ioError (userError "Prelude.
this means that conditionals. . In the contextfree syntax. there are some ambiguities that are to be resolved by making grammatical phrases as long as possible. A precedencelevel variable ranges from 0 to 9. . or for left. letexpressions. and lambda abstractions extend to the right as far as possible. proceeding from left to right (in shiftreduce parsing. this is the “maximal munch” rule. an associativity variable varies over .or nonassociativity and a precedence level. In the lexical syntax. with productions having the form: There are some families of nonterminals indexed by precedence levels (written as a superscript). Thus.1 Notational Conventions These notational conventions are used for presenting syntax: optional zero or more repetitions grouping choice difference—elements generated by except those generated by fibonacci terminal syntax in typewriter font BNFlike syntax is used throughout. Similarly. right. for example actually stands for 30 productions.Chapter 9 Syntax Reference 9. and may have a double index: a letter . with 10 substitutions for and 3 for . 127 § ¢ 2 ¢ ¡ ( ) ¦ ¤ 7 § § ¢ £¡ 1§ ¢ £¡ ¦ ¡ 2 ©¦ 2 ¤ ¡7 A !§ 7 3¢ ¡ p v £!e ¢ $ 2 &¤ 8 8 8 @¥¥9 £ § ¢ )'% $ " 0(&§# § ¢§ £§ ¡ £¡ ¢ ¢ ¦ £¤ ¡ §¥ § § £¡ §¥ § § £ ¦¤ ¢ ¡ ¨ ¦¤ ¢ ¡ ©§¥ § § £ ¢ £ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ 2 ¡ 7 3¢ v ¡§ ¡ 7 3¢ 6 6 4¤ ¦ 2 5 § 3©¦ ¡ ¢ S ¢ . In both the lexical and the contextfree syntax. the nonterminals . resolving shift/reduce conﬂicts by shifting).
§§ § § ¦ £$ § § § © ¢ 6 6 7 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 §§ § t § 6 7 2 ' 4 3 ' ¦ £$ © ¦ ) 4 2 B2 © ¦§ 7 £ ¦ ¨ 3¦ ¢ )A 98 7 64 #"@¦"%5 3¦ ¢ ¦ 1§¤ 0 0 4 2 ¦ § ¨)§ § ¥ ( § ¦£$ ¦ ¥ 0% ¦ § §£%¢ ¤ % ¦ § 5¤ %§ ¤ ¦¤ $§ 0 ¦ $ ¦ 7 7 § © § ¤ ¤ ¦ § £ ¦ ¡ ' ¢ 7 4 '#4 ¢ 2 ¦ ¤§ ¢ 4 ¨32 ¤ ¦ 4 & $ © § ¥ %§ § ¨¦£ ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¥ ¢ & $ © § ¥ %§ § ¨¦£ ¦ ¦ § #¦ § ¢ ¤ ¤ © 2 4 © ¦ 332 ¡ 9. [ ] ` { } ¤ ¤© ¤ ¥ § 2 " § ! ¢ §¢ © ¥¢ ¤ ¤ © ¦ 7 ¦ 43¤ 3§ ¢ 32 ¡ © ¢ § ¦ ¨¦¤ © § ¥ £ ¤¢ ¡ ¤¥ § ¦ § ¤ § § 7 3§ ¢ ¤ 7 4¦ ¢ ¡ ¢ 7 . SYNTAX REFERENCE : " ’ 7 ¥ 4 §© § © § § § 2 43© 2¤ ¦ 7 ' 7 3¢ ¡ ¢ 7 § !3¢ ¤ 77 § © ¨¥ '¨ ¡ ¤ ¢ ¥ § ¨¢£¡ ¤ ¨¥ §¢ ¤ § ¥ ¨¦£ § ¢ ¡T ) cRasY`WXrpq7"9 g 24"9 A g hi7¡9 gA " 3¦db`XV GH§¢ C U f f 9 e c a Y W U E ¦ 2 ¡ ! # $ % & * + .˜ any Unicode symbol or punctuation y B 2 4 3 t ¢ h h h h A v f 4 x"$ wg " 5 7 2 ' 4 3 t § ¦ £$ § 7 2 ' 4 3 t © ¢ A B Z any uppercase or titlecase Unicode letter _ : " ’ %¤ ¢ u 8 8 8 @¥¥9 ¦ £$ 2¤ ¢ u ¢ © 2 3© 4 7 ' § £$ 2¤ ¦ ¢u © %¤ ¢ ¢ u ¢7 %¤ S¢RQFP§ 4 32 ¦ © G E C ¦ 4 _ a b z any Unicode lowercase letter 77 !3¢ 4 t § 8 8 8 @¥¥9 ¦ £$ 4 © 77 03¢ ¢ t 4 § £$ ¦ 703¢ 7 4 t © 77 !3¢ §¢© t 4 77 !3¢ § #¥ ¡3 §¢ ¦ ¤ G E QFC © G E S¢RQFC ¢ © G E C 4 ¡ IHFD32 © ¥ © ¢ ¦ § ¦¥ 4 32 ¦ 4 4 2 B2 © 4 2 ¥ ¥2 ¦ 7 ¡ © ¥ © ¦ ¦ ¥ 4 4 ¢ 2 § § ¨)§ § ¥ ( ¦ £$ ' ¨¢ § © ¤ ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¥ ¢ & $ § © § ¥ %¤ § ¨¦£ ¢ ¤£¡ © § ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¤¢ ¡ 1§3¥0 0 4 ¤ 2 ¦ § ¥ ¤ ' #¢ ¢2 ¦ § 0 ¦ ¦¤ $§ §£%¢ ¤7 ¦§ £ ¦ 7 6 6 6 6 7 ¤ 3¢ ¥ § ¡ § 7 3¢ 7 © ¥ ¡ 4 ¢ 4 ¤ ¡&¤ 7 2 ¢ ¡ . .{} a carriage return a line feed a vertical tab a form feed a space a horizontal tab any Unicode character deﬁned as whitespace CHAPTER 9. / < = > ? \ ˆ  .2 Lexical Syntax 128 ( ) .
.2. : :: = \  <.> 0 1 9 any Unicode decimal digit 0 1 7 A F a f variables constructors type variables type constructors type classes modules y @ 7 2 ' 8 8 8 @¥¥9 8¥8¥8 § § § ¦ 8 8 8 @¥¥9 8 8 8 @¥¥9 . . ¤ ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 § ¦32 ¦ § ¦32 ¦ ¦ 32 § ¦ § ¤ ’ " \ 0o 0x e E +  . LEXICAL SYNTAX ’ ’ case class data default deriving do else if import in infix infixl infixr instance let module newtype of then type where _ ) ¥ v ¥ £ f ¦f ¤¢24 f ¡ § § § %¤ 4 §© 2¤ ¦ 77 4 4 § § § %¤ ¢ 7 !3¢ §© §© ¢ 7 ¦ ¢ 7 !3¢ 77 77 !3¢ : : . . 0O ’ \ " \ 0X ’ 129 " x 7 3¢ 4§ ¦ ¢ ¢ ¡ ¥ © § ¨¥ § ¨¥ ¤ ¥ 6 6 6 6 6 6 § © ¡ §¢ #¦ § ¤ § © ¤ ¢ ¡ ¢ 2 ¥ ¢ ¡ ¦ ¦ ¥ 32 § ! ¤ § ¦ § 6 4§ 7 6 3¢ 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 ¦ ¦ ¦ ¢ § 2 73§ ¢ 4 ¢ S ¥ 7 ¢ 4 ¦ © ¦ 32 © 4 © 3¤ ¦ 37 2 § § § ¢ %§ ¦ 32 ¤ ¢ %§ 6 ¦ ¦ © 2 4 %§ %§ ¢ ¤ ¦ ¦ 72 3¥ %§ § ¢¦ 2 § ¦ ¤ ¢ 6 6 6 6 6 6 2 ¥¢ ¤ ¤ © ¡ ¦ 43¦ 2 © 4 S¤ © ¢ ¦ ¦ § ¥¢ ¤ © ¦ ¦ § § ¦ 2 ¢ ¤ ¤ 6 6 6 6 §§ § §§ § § § S ¥ ¢ §§§ § 2 ¦ £$ © ¢ .. . .4§ §§ © § 2 7 ¢ 7 3¢ ¦ ¢ © © ) h ¡ 5)¢ ¡ 5¢ ¢ ¨£¡ © © ) h ¡ 5¢ ¢ ¨£¡ o \& ¢ ¦ ¤ ¡ §¢ ¤ ¡ §¢ 4§ ¨ 7 3¢ § ¦ ¦ ¦32 ¢¡ 4 § 7 ¨ § ¦32 ¡ ¦ ¢ 4 § ¡ 3¢ 4 § ¦ ¦ ¦ 7 ¢ 4 § ¢¡ ¡ ¥ 73 ¢ 4 § 3¢ ¡ ¥ 7 ¢ ¦ ¢ 7 ¢ ¦ ¢ § 2 § 2 7 ¢ 4§ 7 3¢ ¦ 7 3¢ § § S ¢ ¥ § § ¡ ¥ ¢ §§ § § 2 § § § 2 §§ § § § § § ¦ ¦ § 43¦ 2 ¨ © 4 S¤ `¨ © © ¢ %§ ¨ `¨ ¦ 72 3¥ %§ ¨ ¦ ¦ § § ¦ 2 ¨ ¢ ¦ ˜ => ¥ h 9 f £ f 4 f S¥ X¤¢%w5 4 ) " 9¡¦fX¤ f24w5¡ 2 3© ¥ £ f 4 ©7 ' 2 4 © 7 ' : ) 4 f ¡$ 4 ¡ " 9.
If the innermost context is 0.e. preceded by may span multiple lines – Section 2. because it is not preceded only by white space. as a consequence of the ﬁrst two rules. The effect of layout is speciﬁed in this section by describing how to add braces and semicolons to a laidout program. u u – Where the start of a lexeme is preceded only by white space on the same line. the token is inserted after the keyword. – A positive integer. (NB: a string literal it is not. then it is preceded by is the indentation of the lexeme. ¦ ¦ – If the ﬁrst lexeme of a module is not { or module. indicating that the enclosing context is explicit (i. then no layout tokens will be inserted until either the enclosing context ends or a new context is pushed. do.. nor before the . "Jake") There is no inserted before the \Bill.6. The meaning of a Haskell program may depend on its layout. in which each element is either: – Zero. the programmer supplied the opening brace. This section deﬁnes it more precisely. where ¦ ¦ ¤ ¥ § §#¥¦£ ¤ ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¥ © ¢ y ¢ 2¤ ¢ u ¢ ¤§ ¦ ¦ ¦ £ ¦ ¦ £ ¦ ¦ 7 ¦ 6 6 6 6 © 7 § @§ ¤ ¡ ¤ § 5¢¦ ¢ © ¥ a b f n r t v \ " ’ & ˆ NUL SOH STX ETX EOT ENQ ACK BEL BS HT LF VT FF CR SO SI DLE DC1 DC2 DC3 DC4 NAK SYN ETB CAN EM SUB ESC FS GS RS US SP DEL [ \ ] ˆ _ \ \ ¢ . The speciﬁcation takes the form of a function that performs the translation. or of keyword is not followed by the lexeme {.7 gives an informal discussion of the layout rule. So in the fragment f = ("Hello \ \Bill". or if the end of ﬁle has been reached.3 Layout Section 2.130 CHAPTER 9. SYNTAX REFERENCE 9. which is the indentation column of the enclosing layout context. The effect of layout on its meaning can be completely described by adding braces and semicolons in places determined by the layout. where is the indentation of the next lexeme if there is one. provided that . with the following additional tokens: – If a let.) A stack of “layout contexts”. because it is not the beginning of a complete lexeme. The input to is: A stream of lexemes as speciﬁed by the lexical syntax in the Haskell report. where. this lexeme is preceded by where is the indentation of the lexeme. The meaning of this augmented program is now layout insensitive.
not 0. Unicode characters in a source program are considered to be of the same. . and “ ” for the empty stream. To determine the column number. where we use “ ” as a stream construction operator. A tab character causes the insertion of enough spaces to align the current position with the next tab stop. and ¦ ¦ 7 7 . ﬁxed. delivers a layoutinsensitive translation of . } ¡ if if ¥ © ¨ © ¦ ¥ ¢ 2§ ¨ § § ¥ £ ¡ ¨¦¤¢ ¢ © © ¦ ¥ © ¡ ¢ The application ¢2 0 § 2§ ¡ ¦§ ¦¤ $ §£%§ ¤ ¦ § § £ ¥ § © ¥ ¦ © The characters .9. all start a new line. where is the result of lexically analysing a module and adding columnnumber indicators to it as described above. § § ¥ © § © © © ¨© § § ¡ ¡ § § § ¥ ¥ ¡ ¡ ¡ £ £ ¥ ¥ ¥ § ¡ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¦ ¦ ¡ . However. assume a ﬁxedwidth font with the following conventions: 1§3¥0 0 4 ¤ 2 © The ﬁrst column is designated column 1. LAYOUT 131 The “indentation” of a lexeme is the column number of the ﬁrst character of that lexeme. u ¤ ¨ ¥ } ¡ if !£ ¡ ¤ £ ¡ ¡ © § § ¥ © § © ¡ ¥ } ¥ ¡ ¡ if and parseerror © & § © ¥ ¤ § ¡ ¡ ¥ ¨ § © ¥ § § © © © ¥ § § ¡ ¡ ¨ © ¨ ¨ ¥ { ¥ ¡ { £ £ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ § © § ¡ ¥ ¥ ¤ § § © © § § ¡ ¡ ¥ ¥ } } } parseerror £ ¡ ¡ ¥ £ § © § ¡ ¥ } £ £ £ ¡ ¡ £ £ ¤ £ ¡ ¡ ¥ § & § ¡ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¦ ! ¨ ¥ § ¡ ¥ ¥ ¥ { { { ¡ if if £ ¡ © © ¦ ¥ ¥ § § © & © § ¡ ¥ © ¥ £ ¥ ¥ ¦ § ¡ § © § ¥ ¥ . For the purposes of the layout rule. width as an ASCII character. Tab stops are 8 characters apart. The deﬁnition of is as follows. to avoid visual confusion. . programmers should avoid writing programs in which the meaning of implicit layout depends on the width of nonspace characters. the indentation of a line is the indentation of its leftmost lexeme.3.
This clause means that all brace pairs are treated as explicit layout contexts. although they could be: for example let }. the deﬁnition of p is indented less than the indentation of the enclosing context. Note 3. then the algorithm fails. Note 4. because doing so involves ﬁxities. which is set in this case by the deﬁnition of h. we ensure that an explicit close brace can only match an explicit open brace. ).132 CHAPTER 9. to mimic the situation if the empty braces had been explicit. If not. the expression ¦ 4 The test brace. including labelled construction and update (Section 3. y = x } in e’ The close brace is inserted due to the parse error rule above. then the block must be empty. The side condition parseerror is to be interpreted as follows: if the tokens generated so far by together with the next token represent an invalid preﬁx of the Haskell grammar. A nested context must be further indented than the enclosing context ( fails.e. SYNTAX REFERENCE ). checks that an implicitlyadded closing brace would match an implicit open 4 £ ¦ Note 1. A parse error results if an explicit close brace matches an implicit open brace.4. since the close brace is missing. It is an error at this point to be within a nonlayout context (i. and the compiler should indicate a layout error. If the ﬁrst token after a where (say) is not indented more than the enclosing layout context. ¤ ¥ Note 6. For example let x = e. This is a difference between this formulation and Haskell 1. It can fail for instance when the end of the input is reached. and a nonlayout context is active. At the end of the input. because it translates to let { x = e. An example is: § § &§ u © u £ ¥ ¦ . The parseerror rule is hard to implement in its full generality. Note 2. The token is replaced by . Some error conditions are not detected by the algorithm. Note 5. then parseerror is true. any pending closebraces are inserted. If none of the rules given above matches.15). and the tokens generated so far by followed by the token “}” represent a valid preﬁx of the Haskell grammar. By matching against 0 for the current layout context. u f x = let h y = let p z = z in p in h Here. For example. so empty braces are inserted. Note 1 implements the feature that layout processing can be stopped prematurely by a parse error. y = x in e’ is valid.
LAYOUT do a == b == c has a single unambiguous (albeit probably typeincorrect) parse. . Programmers are therefore advised to avoid writing code that requires the parser to insert a closing brace in such situations. namely (do { a == b }) == c 133 because (==) is nonassociative.9.3.
SYNTAX REFERENCE 9. is an alternative style for encoding Haskell source code. Using this style. all other lines are comment. The literate style encourages comments by making them the default. it is an error for a program line to appear adjacent to a nonblank comment line. of course). the style of comment is indicated by the ﬁle extension.readLine > putStr "n!= " > print (fact (read l)) This is the factorial function. 8 8 ¥¥8 . Program code ends just before a subsequent line that begins \end{code} (ignoring string literals. only those parts of the literate program that are entirely enclosed between \begin{code} \end{code} delimiters are treated as program text. a simple factorial program would be: This literate program prompts the user for a number and prints the factorial of that number: > main :: IO () > main = do putStr "Enter a number: " > l <. The program text is recovered by taking only those lines beginning with “>”. > fact :: Integer > Integer > fact 0 = 1 > fact n = n * fact (n1) An alternative style of literate programming is particularly suitable for use with the LaTeX text processing system. ﬁrst developed by Richard Bird and Philip Wadler for Orwell. with “. By convention. where a line is taken as blank if it consists only of whitespace. Layout and comments apply exactly as described in Chapter 9 in the resulting text.lhs” indicating a literate Haskell ﬁle.4 Literate comments The “literate comment” convention. and replacing the leading “>” with a space. For example.134 CHAPTER 9. In this convention. More precisely: Program code begins on the ﬁrst line following a line that begins \begin{code}. and inspired in turn by Donald Knuth’s “literate programming”. though it may be stylistically desirable. all other lines are comment.hs” indicating a usual Haskell ﬁle and “. To capture some cases where one omits an “>” by mistake. A line in which “>” is the ﬁrst character is treated as part of the program. It is not necessary to insert additional blank lines before or after these delimiters.
4. It is not advisable to mix these two styles in the same ﬁle.[1..20]] \end{code} \end{document} This style uses the same ﬁle extension.9. \begin{code} main :: IO () main = print [ (n.n])  n <. . LITERATE COMMENTS \documentstyle{article} \begin{document} \section{Introduction} 135 This is a trivial program that prints the first 20 factorials. product [1..
as ..) ( (. ¦ ¦ 2 ¤ © 37 2 ¦ ¤ ¢ 4§ ¡ © %§ 3¥ %§ ¦ 72 ¤ ¢ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¤32 § ¤ { type data newtype class instance default ( . .. hiding ( .) ( module . ¨ A 5 4 ¦ ¢¥¥8 8 8 ¡ ¢ . ) ¨¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 A !§ ¤ 2 . = => => => => . . 4§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ ( . . A §¤ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ 4 ¦ ¢ 2 4 . ) ¨ A§ ¤ 2 4§ 4§ ¡ §¤¤32 4 § ¡§ ¤ 2 8 8¡ ¥¥8 (. . SYNTAX REFERENCE .5 ContextFree Syntax 136 module where 2 ¨ ©§ ¤ 5@¤32 ¢ ¡ § 2 4 ¦ ' { { { . . ) ¦ ¨ A§ ¤ !¤32 ¢ S (. } = ) = where where ) ) ) ¦ A 8 8 ¥¥8 7¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ 6 6 © 2§ 7¥ ¦ ¡ 2 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ ¢ %§ %§ 6 6 § 4 ¦ ¢ ¤ 32 ¡ © 4§ 4§ 4§ ¡ 6 ¡ ¡ 6 7 ¦ 6 6 § ¤ ¤32 ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ©§ ¤ @¤32 ¢ ¡ 4§ 6 6 6 © 7 ¦ ¡ 4§ ¦ ' 2 $ 7 ¦ 2 4 CHAPTER 9.) ( . 6 6 © ¦ § 7 ¦ ¦ 7 ¡ ¦ 7 ¦ 7 ¦ ¦ A %§ ¡ ¢ %§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¦ § ¡ ¡ ¨ © § § ©¦ § © %§ ¨ § ¡ § ¦ 2 © ¢ 7 5© ¦ 7 ¨ ¤ ¥ %§ © %§ ¨ § S § 32 © ¢ ¦ 7§ © ¦ ¦ 7§ © ¨ ¦ § § ¤ ¥ 332 £ ¦ %¢§¢ 4 ¥ x¨ ¤ § ¡ § 32 ¢ ¦ V ¨ ¦ #¦ § § ¥ ©¤ § ©332 ¡ 7©¡ %§ 4 § © ¨ ¤ ¦ § S § 32 ¢ ¦ ¦ ¡ 7© ¡ %§ %¢ § 4 § V © A ¡ 2 § ¡ ¥¥8 ©¡ ¡ 2 § 8 8 7 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ ¦ § ¦ ¦§ ¦ ¦ § ¨ ¢ ¢ ¦ ¦§ ¦ ¦ § empty declaration § ¡ ¨ © 4 § ¨ § 2 4 ¡ ¡ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦§ ¦ ¦ § ¨ ¢ ¢ ¦ § ¦ A ¡ ¡ 7 ¦ ¡ 7 ¦ ¡ © 2§ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § © 7¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 2 © ¦ ' ¡ ¦ ¦ 9. . ¨ §¤ A A 5 4 ¦ ¢ ) 8 8 ¥¥8 . . . } . 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¢ import qualified 2 4 ¨ ¦ ¦ § ¡ ¤ 4 ¢¦ 8 8 ¥¥8 ( ..) ( (. . . . } } © 2§ ..
} empty ¦ A § :: => type signature ﬁxity declaration empty declaration . ¦ § ¢ ¤ ¢ %§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ ¢ %§ ¦ 32 %§ 6 ¡ § %¢ 7 ©¡ 4§ © 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 © © ¦ § ¦ ¦ ¦ § ¢7 ¤ %§ © %§ ¢ ¥ § © 74 4 § © ¥8¥8 8 ¡ ©S© ¢ 7 7©¡ ¢ ¥ ©¡ 4 § © 7 7 ©S© A 5 %§ 8¥¥8 ¡¢ %§ ¤ B%§ ¢ 7¥ 7 © ¡ %§ 8 ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¢ ¤ %§ © ¥ %§ 7 A ©© 8¥¥8 ¢ ¡ ©S© 7¥ 8 ¢ ¥ 7 ¢ ¥ 7 ( . . . . ) unit type list constructor function constructor tupling constructors ¦ 32 %§ ¡ ¡ %§ %§ %§ ¡ ¤ ( ( ) ) ) ¦ A © S© ¢ ¥ ©¡ 7 7 § S § ¢ 4§ © © ¦ 32 © © ¢ ¥ 7 ¦ 2 § ¡ § ¢ ¦ 32 %§ ¡ %§ ¢ ' %§ ' ¡ %§ 6 ¡ 6 6 6 6 6 6 © %§ § ¢ © S¤ © ¢ 2 ¡ ¢ 2 ¡ ¢ 7 ¥ ¦ ¦ ¥ § ¦ § 7 ¦ 7 6 6 © 7¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ 137 .5. . . %§ © S© ¤ ¢ ¡ ¤ ¡ B%§ ¦ 32 ¢ %§ ¡ ¡ 2 ¨ ¥ § ¦ § ¤ ¡ § S § 32 ¢ ¦ V © ¥ ¦ § 7 ¥ ¦ ¤ ¤ © ¥ £0 ¦ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ ¡ 7 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¤ ¤ ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¤ © ¥ © ¦ § A 7 ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ © ¥ © ¥ ¤ § ¢ £¡ 7 ¦ $ £0 9. . } ¦ ¡ 7 ¦ $ ¥ £0 7 ¦ ¦ { . . CONTEXTFREE SYNTAX { . . ] ) . infixl infixr infix ¦ A §¤ ¦ A¢ 2 ¡ 8¥¥8 8 8 8 ¥¥8 © ¨ > function type type application ¨ ¡ %§ %§ ¢ ¨ ¡ %§ ' %§ ¡ ¡ ¤ ¡ %§ § ¢ © ¤ ( [ ( . ) tuple type list type parenthesized constructor %§ 8 8 ¥¥8 () [] (>) (. .
] > . { :: } :: ! deriving ( . SYNTAX REFERENCE ) ¦ A© §S© 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ © ¤S© © S© 7 ¥ %§ ¢ 7¥ 3 ¦ ¡ %§ ¢ ¢ 7¥ ¦ ¡ %§ ¡ %§ ¤ ¡ ( ( [ ( ) distinct distinct © S¤ ¢ %§ . ¡ ¡ v v ¢ S ¡ ¡ ¡ v ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ v A!¡ § 8 8 ¥¥8 7 ¡ § ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¤ £5¢ 2 ¡ £v §¢ ¡ p v §e ¢ ¦ ¢ ¡ 2 ¢ ¡ s ¡ p v §e ¢© ¨ ¡ expression type signature ¡ ¡ V ¤ ¡ ¦ ¡ ¦ © ¥ ¨© ¨ 7 © ¥ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 9§ § ¢ §¢ ¤ £5¢ 2 ¡ ¢ ¡ § v ¢£¡ p v ¢ §e ¡ § ¡ v © ¢ £¡ p v ¢ §e § 2 ¡ v ¢£¡ p v ¢ 0e $ § ¡ ¢ ¡ £5¢ © ¥ £0 ¦ $ ¤ ¡7 v § ¢ 2¢ &¤ § £¡ ¡ ¢ v £ 7¡ ¢ ¤ ¡ v§ ¢ ¢ ¤ £ ¡ ¢ § ¢ ¡ £5¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¤ ¢ ¦ § ¢ £ ¤ %§ ¡ ¤ %§ ¢ ¤ ¢ %§ ¢ ¤ %§ ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ %§ 8 8 ¤ B%§ ¢ ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ %§ ¦ 2 ¢ %§ 8 8 ¢ ¢ %§ ¦ 32 © ¦ § ¢ ¥ ¦ 7 ¦ ¦ § 2©¦ 2 ¡ ¦32 ¦ arity inﬁx 138   ¦ § £ ¢ ¢ A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¦ ¦ 3 %§ 7 7 %§ 2 ¦ ©32 ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ' %§ ¨ 8 8 ¥¥8 A¢ § © ¦ §¤ ¤32 ¡ 8 8 ¥¥¡8 © ¤ ¦ 3¢ 2 ¢ %§ ¦ 32 ¡ ¢ 32 ¦ %§ ¨ ¡ 32¡ ¦ ' ¢ ¡ ¤ ¤32 § © ¦ ! ! 7¥ ¦ ¦ 7 %§ ¡ ¢ ¢ %§ ¡ { ! . CHAPTER 9. ! } . ) © S¤ %§ ) and £ ¤ B%§ ¡ ¤ %§ = ( = ¨ © ¥ ¤ ¢ ¡ ¤ ¢ ¡  :: where where ) => %§ ¨ § S § ¢ \ let in if then case of { ¢ ¡ © ¡ v ¡ 2 ¢ S ¥¡ v ¢ S v v v ¡ 7 ¢ S ¤ ¡ S ¢ 7 ¡ ¤ p v ¢ §e ¦ ¡ ¦ 32 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¤ ¥¡ ¢ ¡  > lambda abstraction let expression conditional case expression ¦ else } ¢ ¡ © @§ ¢ ¡ 7 ¢ 3¢ S ¡ ¡ ¢ S 6 6 6 6 6 v ¤ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ v v ¡ ¡ ¡ ¤ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ 7 7 ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ 6 6 ¦ ¦ ¦ 6 6 6 © ¥ ¤ ¦ © ¥ ¤ © ¥ 7 ¦ $ 0 distinct 6 § ¦ § © 6 6 6 6 6 6 #¦ § § © © ¢ 7¥ ¤ ¦ £ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ ¦ 7 ¤ ¤32 § © ¦ ¦ © © ¤ § ¦ ¤ § ¦ 2 © 2 . .
] ¦ ) ) )  ( ) right section labeled construction labeled update { ¦ § . CONTEXTFREE SYNTAX do { } do expression function application variable general constructor ¤ ¢ ¡ © @§ ¢ S ¢ 4§ © ¨ ¡ ¢ S¢0 139 ¡ ¢ S¢0 ( ( [ [ [ ( ( ( ) . ¢ ¡ ¨ § . ¡ § § § ¦ 4 ¢ © %§ ¡ 4 ¥ © ¦ § ¢ £¡ ¦ ¡ § 3 § § ¢ ¦¤ 5 § 7 3¢ %§ ¡ 4 ¦ 7 3¢ £¡ ¦ ¢ ¢ £¡ ¢ ¡ § ¡ ¥¥8 ¢ £¡ ¡§ 8 8 7 3¢ © A ¦§ ¦ ' ¡ 0 ¡ ¦§ 0 8 8 ¥¥8 ) A 9 g © ¡ ¨ ¢ ¦ A ¦ § 0 8¥¥8 ' ¡ ¦ § 0 ¦¡ 2 ¢ 8 ¦ ¦ ' ' ¢ S ¤ ) 2 v ¡ p v ¢ ¡e ¡ ¢ S ) 2 ¡ v ¡ p v ¢ $0e ¡ 2 v S ¢ p v ¢ 5e ¡ A ¡ ¡ 7 2 ¢ ¡ v ¡ p v £!e ¡ ¢ $ A ¥8¥8 $ ¡ $ ¢ ¡ 8 7 3¢ ¨ ¥ ¢¡ ¢ ¡¢ ¨ £ 7 ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ S ¢ 8¡ ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¡ 8 ¡¡ ¡¢ ¢S ¡ ¡ 8 ¥8¥8 ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ § § ¤ 7 3¢ ¦ 2 7 9.  parenthesized expression tuple list arithmetic sequence list comprehension left section left section right section ¤ ¥ £ ¢ . > . . . . . } ¦ { . . = ¢ ¡ + successor pattern ¤ ¥ § ¦ § ¤ ¢ 6 § ¢ £¡ ¤ ¢ 6 ¦ ¦§ ' 0 6 6 6 § § © @§ © © 4§ 4§ ¢ £¡ ¦ ¦ 6 § © @§ ¦§ 6 6 7 3¢ 7 3¢ ¦ ¡ ¢ ¡ § ¢ £¡ 7 3¢ $ 6 ¡ 6 ¡ ¢ S ¢ ¢ ¡ 0 . <let . . ¦ ¨ ¡ ¢ S 7 ¦ § ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢¡ £ ¡ ¢ A § 8 8 !§ 4 ¤© ¥¥8 ¡ § ¡ 4 § © . ) ] ¢ £ . ¨ © ¦ ¨5© 7 7 ¥ ¦ A§ > where where . } ¦ <let generator local declaration guard ¢ ¡ 7 .5.. ] . .
. SYNTAX REFERENCE negative literal arity as pattern arity labeled pattern £¡ ¢ ¢ £¡ ¢ ¡ £§¢ ¨§ ¦ 32 { . ) ) variable qualiﬁed variable constructor qualiﬁed constructor variable operator qualiﬁed variable operator constructor operator qualiﬁed constructor operator operator qualiﬁed operator ) ) ) ` ` ` ` 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 ¦ 2 ¤ ¢ § ¢£§¢ ¡ ¡§ ¢£¡ ¡§ ¢£¡ ¢ £¡ § : 4 32 © ¦ 2 ¡ 2 2 ¦ ©32 ¡ ¡ ©¦ 2 2 ¡ &¤ 2 ¡ 2 ¤¢ ¡ ¦32 ¢ ¦ 2 ¤ ¤¢ ¢ ¦ 32 6 § ¢ £¡ 0 ¢ 6 § ¢ ¡ £§¢ 6 6 6 6 6 § ¢ ¤ ¤ ¡ £¡ § v ¢£¡ § ¢£ 7¡ ¢ £ 7¡ v § v § ¢ £¡ . ) ] ¢ § 8¥¥8 8 8 8 ¥¥8 = § () [] (. . . 4 © ¦ 3332 2 ¦ ©32 2 ¤ ¡ ©¦ 2 ¡ &¤¢ 2 2 ¦ ¡ 4 ©¡ ¢ § 32 3¦ 2 ¦ ¦ 4 © ¦ § 32 33 2 ¦ 4 S¤ © § ¤ ¦ ¢ 4 © 3¤¢ § ¤ ¦ 4 32 ¢ § ¦ 2 ¢ © ¦ ¦ ¦ 4 © ¦ 3332 § 3 2 ¦ 43¤ § ¤ © 4 © 3¢S¤ ¦ § ¤¢ ¦ ¢ ¢ ( ( ( ( ` ` ` ` ¢ £¡ ¦ § ¢ ¦ ¦ 32 ¢ ¢ ¢ £¡ ¡ 2©¦32 ¡ § ¦ 2 8 ¥8¥8 ¡ § ¢ §¢ ¡ ¢£¡§¢ § ¢ ¡ £§¢ ¡ v§ v§ ¤ v 2 ©¦32 § ¢ ¡ ¢£¡ p ¢ § §e 2 ¡ !¡ ¤¥ ¡ § ¦ v § £¡ ¢ § 2 ©¦32 s¢ ¡ v § § ¡ v © ¢ £¡ p v ¢ §e ¡ ¢ ¡ v £ 7¡ ¤ ¢ § v £¡ ¢ § v ¢£ 7¡ ¨ ¡ v§ § v ¢£¡ p v ¢ §e ¦ ¢ £¡ ¤ § 140  CHAPTER 9. ¤ ¢ £¡ ¢ § £¡ ¢ . . } § 0 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡§ 0 ¤ § § 7 3¢ ¦ 2 7 ¦ 2 ¤ y _ ( ( [ ˜ wildcard parenthesized pattern tuple pattern list pattern irrefutable pattern ) .
Chapter 10
Speciﬁcation of Derived Instances
A derived instance is an instance declaration that is generated automatically in conjunction with a data or newtype declaration. The body of a derived instance declaration is derived syntactically from the deﬁnition of the associated type. Derived instances are possible only for classes known to the compiler: those deﬁned in either the Prelude or a standard library. In this chapter, we describe the derivation of classes deﬁned by the Prelude.
If
is an algebraic datatype declared by:
3. If is Bounded, the type must be either an enumeration (all constructors must be nullary) or have only one constructor.
5. There must be no explicit instance declaration elsewhere in the program that makes an instance of . For the purposes of derived instances, a newtype declaration is treated as a data declaration with a single constructor. If the deriving form is present, an instance declaration is automatically generated for over each class . If the derived instance declaration is impossible for any of the
v ¦
$
8 8 ¥¥8 ¡
$
$
4. If
is Enum, the type must be an enumeration.
141
v §
v §
1
¢
1 ©¢
2. There is a context
such that
8 8 ¥¥8 ¡
1.
is one of Eq, Ord, Enum, Bounded, Show, or Read. holds for each of the constituent types .
4
(where and the parentheses may be omitted if possible for a class if these conditions hold:
) then a derived instance declaration is
7
8 8 ¥¥8
¡
deriving (
A § ¥¥8 ¡ !§ A A 8 8
)
¡ ¡ ¢¢¡
¡§
8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ § ¡
$
8 8 ¥¥8 ¡
$
¢
data
=>
=
 ,
 ,
£
¢
¦ §
4
$
142
v
CHAPTER 10. SPECIFICATION OF DERIVED INSTANCES
then a static error results. If no derived instances are required, the deriving form may be omitted or the form deriving () may be used. Each derived instance declaration will have the form:
The context is the smallest context satisfying point (2) above. For mutually recusive data types, the compiler may need to perform a ﬁxpoint calculation to compute it. The remaining details of the derived instances for each of the derivable Prelude classes are now given. Free variables and constructors used in these translations always refer to entities deﬁned by the Prelude.
10.1 Derived instances of Eq and Ord
The class methods automatically introduced by derived instances of Eq and Ord are (==), (/=), compare, (<), (<=), (>), (>=), max, and min. The latter seven operators are deﬁned so as to compare their arguments lexicographically with respect to the constructor set given, with earlier constructors in the datatype declaration counting as smaller than later ones. For example, for the Bool datatype, we have that (True > False) == True. Derived comparisons always traverse constructors from left to right. These examples illustrate this property:
(1,undefined) == (2,undefined) (undefined,1) == (undefined,2)
False
All derived operations of class Eq and Ord are strict in both arguments. For example, False <= is , even though False is the ﬁrst constructor of the Bool type.
10.2 Derived instances of Enum
Derived instance declarations for the class Enum are only possible for enumerations (data types with only nullary constructors). The nullary constructors are assumed to be numbered lefttoright with the indices 0 through . The succ and pred operators give the successor and predecessor respectively of a value, under this numbering scheme. It is an error to apply succ to the maximum element, or pred to the minimum element.
£
¥
v
where is derived automatically depending on described in the remainder of this section).
and the data type declaration for
$
8 8 ¥¥8 ¡
$
v d
1 ©¢
¢
instance (
¦
,
) =>
where {
¦
1
¢
} (as will be
10.3. DERIVED INSTANCES OF BOUNDED
143
The toEnum and fromEnum operators map enumerated values to and from the Int type; toEnum raises a runtime error if the Int argument is not the index of one of the constructors. The deﬁnitions of the remaining methods are
enumFrom x enumFromThen x y = enumFromTo x lastCon = enumFromThenTo x y bound where bound  fromEnum y >= fromEnum x =  otherwise = enumFromTo x y = map toEnum [fromEnum x .. fromEnum enumFromThenTo x y z = map toEnum [fromEnum x, fromEnum y
lastCon firstCon y] .. fromEnum z]
where firstCon and lastCon are respectively the ﬁrst and last constructors listed in the data declaration. For example, given the datatype: data we would have: [Orange ..] fromEnum Yellow == == [Orange, Yellow, Green] 2 Color = Red  Orange  Yellow  Green deriving (Enum)
10.3 Derived instances of Bounded
The Bounded class introduces the class methods minBound and maxBound, which deﬁne the minimal and maximal elements of the type. For an enumeration, the ﬁrst and last constructors listed in the data declaration are the bounds. For a type with a single constructor, the constructor is applied to the bounds for the constituent types. For example, the following datatype: data Pair a b = Pair a b deriving Bounded
would generate the following Bounded instance: instance (Bounded a,Bounded b) => Bounded (Pair a b) where minBound = Pair minBound minBound maxBound = Pair maxBound maxBound
10.4 Derived instances of Read and Show
The class methods automatically introduced by derived instances of Read and Show are showsPrec, readsPrec, showList, and readList. They are used to coerce values into strings and parse strings into values.
144
CHAPTER 10. SPECIFICATION OF DERIVED INSTANCES
The function showsPrec d x r accepts a precedence level d (a number from 0 to 11), a value x, and a string r. It returns a string representing x concatenated to r. showsPrec satisﬁes the law: showsPrec d x r ++ s == showsPrec d x (r ++ s) The representation will be enclosed in parentheses if the precedence of the toplevel constructor in x is less than d. Thus, if d is 0 then the result is never surrounded in parentheses; if d is 11 it is always surrounded in parentheses, unless it is an atomic expression (recall that function application has precedence 10). The extra parameter r is essential if treelike structures are to be printed in linear time rather than time quadratic in the size of the tree. The function readsPrec d s accepts a precedence level d (a number from 0 to 10) and a string s, and attempts to parse a value from the front of the string, returning a list of (parsed value, remaining string) pairs. If there is no successful parse, the returned list is empty. Parsing of an unparenthesised inﬁx operator application succeeds only if the precedence of the operator is greater than or equal to d. It should be the case that (x,"") is an element of (readsPrec d (showsPrec d x "")) That is, readsPrec should be able to parse the string produced by showsPrec, and should deliver the value that showsPrec started with. showList and readList allow lists of objects to be represented using nonstandard denotations. This is especially useful for strings (lists of Char). readsPrec will parse any valid representation of the standard types apart from strings, for which only quoted strings are accepted, and other lists, for which only the bracketed form [. . . ] is accepted. See Chapter 8 for full details. The result of show is a syntactically correct Haskell expression containing only constants, given the ﬁxity declarations in force at the point where the type is declared. It contains only the constructor names deﬁned in the data type, parentheses, and spaces. When labelled constructor ﬁelds are used, braces, commas, ﬁeld names, and equal signs are also used. Parentheses are only added where needed, ignoring associativity. No line breaks are added. The result of show is readable by read if all component types are readable. (This is true for all instances deﬁned in the Prelude but may not be true for userdeﬁned instances.) Derived instances of Read make the following assumptions, which derived instances of Show obey: If the constructor is deﬁned to be an inﬁx operator, then the derived Read instance will parse only inﬁx applications of the constructor (not the preﬁx form).
Associativity is not used to reduce the occurrence of parentheses, although precedence may be. For example, given
10.5. AN EXAMPLE
infixr 4 :$ data T = Int :$ T then: – show (1 :$ 2 :$ NT) produces the string "1 :$ (2 :$ NT)". – read "1 :$ (2 :$ NT)" succeeds, with the obvious result. – read "1 :$ 2 :$ NT" fails.
145

NT
If the constructor is deﬁned using record syntax, the derived Read will parse only the recordsyntax form, and furthermore, the ﬁelds must be given in the same order as the original declaration.
The derived Read instance allows arbitrary Haskell whitespace between tokens of the input string. Extra parentheses are also allowed.
The derived Read and Show instances may be unsuitable for some uses. Some problems include: Circular structures cannot be printed or read by these instances. The printer loses shared substructure; the printed representation of an object may be much larger than necessary. The parsing techniques used by the reader are very inefﬁcient; reading a large structure may be quite slow. There is no user control over the printing of types deﬁned in the Prelude. For example, there is no way to change the formatting of ﬂoating point numbers.
10.5 An Example
As a complete example, consider a tree datatype: data Tree a = Leaf a  Tree a :ˆ: Tree a deriving (Eq, Ord, Read, Show) Automatic derivation of instance declarations for Bounded and Enum are not possible, as Tree is not an enumeration or singleconstructor datatype. The complete instance declarations for Tree are shown in Figure 10.1, Note the implicit use of default class method deﬁnitions—for example, only <= is deﬁned for Ord, with the other class methods (<, >, >=, max, and min) being deﬁned by the defaults given in the class declaration shown in Figure 6.1 (page 83).
readsPrec (up_prec+1) t]) r > up_prec) showStr u .Precedence of :ˆ: .t)  ("Leaf". (v.Application has precedence one more than . . v of :ˆ: ignored ++ readParen (d > app_prec) (\r > [(Leaf m.lex s. showsPrec (app_prec+1) m showsPrec d (u :ˆ: v) = showParen (d where showStr = showsPrec (up_prec+1) showString " :ˆ: " showsPrec (up_prec+1) .t) <. SPECIFICATION OF DERIVED INSTANCES infixr 5 :ˆ: data Tree a = Leaf a  Tree a :ˆ: Tree a instance (Eq a) => Eq (Tree a) where Leaf m == Leaf n = m==n u:ˆ:v == x:ˆ:y = u==x && v==y _ == _ = False instance (Ord a) => Ord (Tree a) where Leaf m <= Leaf n = m<=n Leaf m <= x:ˆ:y = True u:ˆ:v <= Leaf n = False u:ˆ:v <= x:ˆ:y = u<x  u==x && v<=y instance (Show a) => Show (Tree a) where showsPrec d (Leaf m) = showParen (d > app_prec) showStr where showStr = showString "Leaf " . (":ˆ:".Note: rightassociativity instance (Read a) => Read (Tree a) where readsPrec d r = readParen (d > up_prec) (\r > [(u:ˆ:v.w) <.lex r.readsPrec (up_prec+1) r.146 CHAPTER 10.readsPrec (app_prec+1) s]) r up_prec = 5 app_prec = 10 .w)  (u.1: Example of Derived Instances . (m.s) <.s) <.t) <.the most tightlybinding operator Figure 10.
This may be prevented by the NOINLINE pragma. #} ¢ ¡ © S¤ ¡ {# INLINE {# NOINLINE ¢ ¡ %§ ¥ §¥ © ¤ ¢ 6 6 6 6 7¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ #} #} © . . This chapter summarizes this existing practice. Compilers will often automatically inline simple expressions.2 Specialization © Specialization is used to avoid inefﬁciencies involved in dispatching overloaded functions. in 147 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ {# SPECIALIZE . An implementation is not required to respect any pragma. Lexically. but which do not form part of the Haskell language proper and do not change a program’s semantics. For example. 11. except that the enclosing syntax is {# #}. 11. but the pragma should be ignored if an implementation is not prepared to handle it. which are used to give additional instructions or hints to the compiler. pragmas appear as comments.Chapter 11 Compiler Pragmas Some compiler implementations support compiler pragmas.1 Inlining ¢ ¤ © © The INLINE pragma instructs the compiler to inline the speciﬁed variables at their use sites.
COMPILER PRAGMAS factorial :: Num a => a > a factorial 0 = 0 factorial n = n * factorial (n1) {# SPECIALIZE factorial :: Int > Int.148 CHAPTER 11. . factorial :: Integer > Integer #} calls to factorial in which the compiler can detect that the parameter is either Int or Integer will use specialized versions of factorial which do not involve overloaded numeric operations.
Part II The Haskell 98 Libraries 149 .
.
. a) => Read (Ratio a) where . Enum. The functions numerator and denominator extract the components of a ratio. Num (Ratio a) where .Chapter 12 Rational Numbers module Ratio ( Ratio. Enum (Ratio a) where .. Real (Ratio a) where . the results may be unpredictable. RealFrac. In each case. for example Ratio Int may give rise to integer overﬂow even for rational numbers of small absolute size. Fractional (Ratio a) where . numerator. and Show..... The type name Rational is a synonym for Ratio Integer. denominator. Show (Ratio a) where . Ratio Integer (Integral a) => a > a > Ratio a (Integral a) => Ratio a > a (RealFrac a) => a > a > Rational Eq (Ratio a) where . Read. (%). 12 % 8 is reduced to 3/2 and 12 % (8) is reduced to (3)/2. For each Integral type .. Rational. Ord. there is a type Ratio of rational pairs with components of type . Ord (Ratio a) where ... these are in reduced form with a positive denominator..... Ratio is an instance of classes Eq.. If is a bounded type. approxRational ) where infixl 7 % data (Integral a) => type Rational = (%) :: numerator.. 151 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ .. Real.Integral instance (Integral a) => Ratio a = .. The operator (%) forms the ratio of two integral numbers.. the instance for Ratio simply “lifts” the corresponding operations over . denominator :: approxRational :: instance (Integral a) => instance (Integral a) => instance (Integral a) => instance (Integral a) => instance (Integral a) => instance (Integral a) => instance (Integral a) => instance (Read a. RealFrac (Ratio a) where . reducing the fraction to terms with no common factor and such that the denominator is positive. Fractional. Num... For example. Ratio is an abstract type.
A rational number in reduced form is said to be simpler than another if and . returns the simplest rational number within the open interval x epsilon x epsilon . Note that it can be proved that any real interval contains a unique simplest rational. applied to two real fractional numbers x and epsilon. RATIONAL NUMBERS The approxRational function. 1 ¦ ¦ 1 ¦ ¦ 1 1 ¦ ¦ ¦ ¡¦ .152 CHAPTER 12.
LIBRARY RATIO 153 12. denominator approxRational  :: (Integral a) => a > a > Ratio a :: (Integral a) => Ratio a > a :: (RealFrac a) => a > a > Rational "reduce" is a subsidiary function used only in this module. numerator. E. Rational.1 Library Ratio . denominator. approxRational ) where infixl 7 % ratPrec = 7 :: Int data type (Integral a) Rational => Ratio a = !a :% !a = Ratio Integer deriving (Eq) (%) numerator. It normalises a ratio by dividing both numerator and denominator by their greatest common divisor.Standard functions on rational numbers module Ratio ( Ratio. (%). 12 ‘reduce‘ 8 == 12 ‘reduce‘ (8) == = = = = = 3 :% 2 3 :% (2) reduce _ 0 reduce x y x % y numerator (x :% _) denominator (_ :% y) instance (Integral a) (x:%y) <= (x’:%y’) (x:%y) < (x’:%y’) instance (Integral a) (x:%y) + (x’:%y’) (x:%y) * (x’:%y’) negate (x:%y) abs (x:%y) signum (x:%y) fromInteger x instance (Integral a) toRational (x:%y) instance (Integral a) (x:%y) / (x’:%y’) recip (x:%y) fromRational (x:%y) error "Ratio.12.% : zero denominator" (x ‘quot‘ d) :% (y ‘quot‘ d) where d = gcd x y reduce (x * signum y) (abs y) x y => Ord (Ratio a) where = x * y’ <= x’ * y = x * y’ < x’ * y => = = = = = = Num (Ratio a) where reduce (x*y’ + x’*y) (y*y’) reduce (x * x’) (y * y’) (x) :% y abs x :% y signum x :% 1 fromInteger x :% 1 => Real (Ratio a) where = toInteger x :% toInteger y => = = = Fractional (Ratio a) where (x*y’) % (y*x’) y % x fromInteger x :% fromInteger y ..g.1.
truncate numericEnumFrom numericEnumFromThen numericEnumFromTo numericEnumFromThenTo May overflow These numericEnumXXX functions are as defined in Prelude.s) <.readsPrec (ratPrec+1) t ]) instance (Integral a) showsPrec p (x:%y) => Show (Ratio a) where = showParen (p > ratPrec) (showsPrec (ratPrec+1) x . ("%".t) <. (y.hs but not exported from it! instance (Read a.r’) = quotRem n’ d’ (n’’:%d’’) = simplest’ d’ r’ d r . showString " % " .r) = quotRem n d (q’.lex s. RATIONAL NUMBERS instance (Integral a) => RealFrac (Ratio a) where properFraction (x:%y) = (fromIntegral q. showsPrec (ratPrec+1) y) approxRational x eps = simplest (xeps) (x+eps) where simplest x y  y < x = simplest y x  x == y = xr  x > 0 = simplest’ n d n’ d’  y < 0 = .154 CHAPTER 12.assumes 0 < n%d < n’%d’ = q :% 1 = (q+1) :% 1 = (q*n’’+d’’) :% n’’ where (q.r) = quotRem x y instance (Integral a) succ x = pred x = toEnum = fromEnum = enumFrom = enumFromThen = enumFromTo = enumFromThenTo = => Enum (Ratio a) where x+1 x1 fromIntegral fromInteger .simplest’ (n’) d’ (n) d  otherwise = 0 :% 1 where xr@(n:%d) = toRational x (n’:%d’) = toRational y simplest’ n    d n’ d’ r == 0 q /= q’ otherwise .u)  (x. r:%y) where (q.readsPrec (ratPrec+1) r. Integral a) => Read (Ratio a) where readsPrec p = readParen (p > ratPrec) (\r > [(x%y.u) <.
realPart. 155 § ¨ § ¡¤ § . polar. phase) pair in canonical form: The magnitude is nonnegative.. cis is a complex value with magnitude and phase (modulo ).. phase instance instance instance instance instance instance (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (Complex (Complex (Complex (Complex (Complex (Complex Complex numbers are an algebraic type.Chapter 13 Complex Numbers module Complex ( Complex((:+)).. The function cis produces a complex number from an angle .a) Complex a > a a) a) a) a) a) a) where where where where where where . conjugate.. the entire number is . This constructor is strict: if either the real part or the imaginary part of the number is . phase ) where infix data 6 :+ => Complex a = !a :+ !a :: :: :: :: :: :: a) a) a) a) a) a) => => => => => => (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat Eq Read Show Num Fractional Floating a) a) a) a) a) a) => => => => => => Complex a > a Complex a > Complex a a > a > Complex a a > Complex a Complex a > (a.. The function polar takes a complex number and returns a (magnitude.. in the range . (RealFloat a) realPart.. then so is the phase. if the magnitude is zero.. The constructor (:+) forms a complex number from its real and imaginary rectangular components.. . . . cis.. mkPolar. imagPart conjugate mkPolar cis polar magnitude. Put another way.. magnitude. A complex number may also be formed from polar components of magnitude and phase by the function mkPolar. . and the phase. imagPart.. .
Show) (RealFloat a) realPart. phase z) magnitude :: (RealFloat a) => Complex a > a magnitude (x:+y) = scaleFloat k (sqrt ((scaleFloat mk x)ˆ2 + (scaleFloat mk y)ˆ2)) where k = max (exponent x) (exponent y) mk = .1 Library Complex module Complex(Complex((:+)). magnitude.k phase :: (RealFloat a) => Complex a > a phase (0 :+ 0) = 0 phase (x :+ y) = atan2 y x .a) = (magnitude z. but unit magnitude. The magnitude and sign of a complex number are deﬁned as follows: abs z signum 0 signum z@(x:+y) = = = magnitude z :+ 0 0 x/r :+ y/r where r = magnitude z That is. cis. realPart. phase) where infix data 6 :+ => Complex a = !a :+ !a deriving (Eq. COMPLEX NUMBERS The functions realPart and imagPart extract the rectangular components of a complex number and the functions magnitude and phase extract the polar components of a complex number. but oriented in the positive real direction. abs is a number with the magnitude of . conjugate. imagPart. mkPolar. polar. imagPart :: (RealFloat a) => Complex a > a realPart (x:+y) = x imagPart (x:+y) = y conjugate :: (RealFloat a) => Complex a > Complex a conjugate (x:+y) = x :+ (y) mkPolar mkPolar r theta cis cis theta polar polar z :: (RealFloat a) => a > a > Complex a = r * cos theta :+ r * sin theta :: (RealFloat a) => a > Complex a = cos theta :+ sin theta :: (RealFloat a) => Complex a > (a.156 CHAPTER 13. The function conjugate computes the conjugate of a complex number in the usual way.Read. 13. whereas signum has the phase of .
13.(x’:+y’) (x:+y) * (x’:+y’) negate (x:+y) abs z signum 0 signum z@(x:+y) fromInteger n => = = = = = = = = Num (Complex a) where (x+x’) :+ (y+y’) (xx’) :+ (yy’) (x*x’y*y’) :+ (x*y’+y*x’) negate x :+ negate y magnitude z :+ 0 0 x/r :+ y/r where r = magnitude z fromInteger n :+ 0 157 instance (RealFloat a) => Fractional (Complex a) where (x:+y) / (x’:+y’) = (x*x’’+y*y’’) / d :+ (y*x’’x*y’’) / d where x’’ = scaleFloat k x’ y’’ = scaleFloat k y’ k = .1.max (exponent x’) (exponent y’) d = x’*x’’ + y’*y’’ fromRational a = fromRational a :+ 0 . LIBRARY COMPLEX instance (RealFloat a) (x:+y) + (x’:+y’) (x:+y) .
z*z)) y’’:+(x’’) where (x’’:+y’’) = log (z + ((y’):+x’)) (x’:+y’) = sqrt (1 .u’) else (u’. COMPLEX NUMBERS instance (RealFloat a) => Floating (Complex a) where pi = pi :+ 0 exp (x:+y) = expx * cos y :+ expx * sin y where expx = exp x log z = log (magnitude z) :+ phase z sqrt 0 sqrt z@(x:+y) = = 0 u :+ (if y < 0 then v else v) where (u.v’) v’ = abs y / (u’*2) u’ = sqrt ((magnitude z + abs x) / 2) sin x * cosh y :+ cos x * sinh y cos x * cosh y :+ (.158 CHAPTER 13.v) = if x < 0 then (v’.z*z) y’:+(x’) where (x’:+y’) = log (((1y):+x) / sqrt (1+z*z)) log (z + sqrt (1+z*z)) log (z + (z+1) * sqrt ((z1)/(z+1))) log ((1+z) / sqrt (1z*z)) sin (x:+y) cos (x:+y) tan (x:+y) = = = sinh (x:+y) cosh (x:+y) tanh (x:+y) = = = asin z@(x:+y) acos z@(x:+y) = = atan z@(x:+y) asinh z acosh z atanh z = = = = .sin x * sinh y) (sinx*coshy:+cosx*sinhy)/(cosx*coshy:+(sinx*sinhy)) where sinx = sin x cosx = cos x sinhy = sinh y coshy = cosh y cos y * sinh x :+ sin y * cosh x cos y * cosh x :+ sin y * sinh x (cosy*sinhx:+siny*coshx)/(cosy*coshx:+siny*sinhx) where siny = sin y cosy = cos y sinhx = sinh x coshx = cosh x y’:+(x’) where (x’:+y’) = log (((y):+x) + sqrt (1 .
floatToDigits. Int) :: (RealFrac a) => ReadS a :: ReadS String 159 . showEFloat. showHex. showIntAtBase. readOct. showInt. showGFloat. readSigned. showFFloat.Chapter 14 Numeric module Numeric(fromRat. readDec. showOct. lexDigits) where fromRat showSigned showIntAtBase showInt showOct showHex readSigned readInt readDec readOct readHex showEFloat showFFloat showGFloat showFloat floatToDigits readFloat lexDigits :: (RealFloat a) => Rational > a :: :: :: :: :: (Real a) Integral Integral Integral Integral => (a > ShowS) > Int > a > ShowS a => a > (Int > Char) > a > ShowS a => a > ShowS a => a > ShowS a => a > ShowS :: (Real a) => ReadS a > ReadS a :: (Integral a) => a > (Char > Bool) > (Char > Int) > ReadS a :: (Integral a) => ReadS a :: (Integral a) => ReadS a :: (Integral a) => ReadS a :: :: :: :: (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat a) a) a) a) => => => => Maybe Int > a > ShowS Maybe Int > a > ShowS Maybe Int > a > ShowS a > ShowS :: (RealFloat a) => Integer > a > ([Int]. showSigned. readHex. showFloat. readFloat. readInt.
and 16 respectively. showOct. if © § then the following properties hold: £ £ ¤ – ¤ £ ¡ ¤ – (when ¥ ¤ ¢ ¨£ – £ 888 ¤ £ ¢ £8 ¤ – ¥ ) £888 ¤ £ ¢ £ floatToDigits ([ ]. is the value to show. is the precedence of the enclosing context. showEFloat. NUMERIC This library contains assorted numeric functions.5e3). and the character representation speciﬁed by the second. then at most digits after the decimal point are shown.999.0015).g. showHex :: Integral a => a > ShowS show nonnegative Integral numbers in base 10.1 and 9. recall the following type deﬁnitions from the Prelude: type ShowS = String > String type ReadS = String > [(a. floatToDigits :: (RealFloat a) => Integer > a > ([Int]. showFFloat. 0.g. and scientiﬁc notation otherwise. . showGFloat :: (RealFloat a) => Maybe Int > a > ShowS These three functions all show signed RealFloat values: – showFFloat uses standard decimal notation (e. Int) converts a base and a value to the representation of the value in digits.160 CHAPTER 14. 1. plus an exponent. 8. showInt. Exactly the same applies to the argument of the other two functions. 2. and is a function that can show unsigned values. More speciﬁcally.45e2. £ ¤ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¦ 7 3¢ ¦ 7 3¢ 7 3¢ © § ¦ ¤ ¥ £ 2 ¤ ¥ © ¡ © § ¦ ¡ £ ¦ 2 ¥ © © § ¦ ¡ ) . In the call showSigned . the value is shown to full preciIn the call showEFloat sion. In what follows.999. – showGFloat uses standard decimal notation for arguments whose absolute value lies between 0. many of which are used in the standard Prelude. – showEFloat uses scientiﬁc (exponential) notation (e. showIntAtBase :: Integral a => a > (Int > Char) > a > ShowS shows a nonnegative Integral number using the base speciﬁed by the ﬁrst argument.String)] 14. if is Just . 245000.1 Showing functions showSigned :: (Real a) => (a > ShowS) > Int > a > ShowS converts a possiblynegative Real value of type a to a string. if is Nothing.
both upper or lower case letters are allowed. and converts a valid digit character to an Int. octal. showIntAtBase. showFloat. READING FUNCTIONS 161 14. In the call readInt . readInt. In the hexadecimal case. floatToDigits. in decimal. readDec.3 Miscellaneous fromRat :: (RealFloat a) => Rational > a converts a Rational value into any type in class RealFloat. readInt :: (Integral a) => a > (Char>Bool) > (Char>Int) > ReadS a reads an unsigned Integral value in an arbitrary base.2.4 Library Numeric module Numeric(fromRat. showGFloat. readFloat. The inconsistent naming is a historical accident. showSigned.2 Reading functions readSigned :: (Real a) => ReadS a > ReadS a reads a signed Real value. given a reader for an unsigned value. lexDigits :: ReadS String reads a nonempty string of decimal digits. readHex. is a predicate distinguishing valid digits in this base. isOctDigit. showFFloat. ( ( isDigit. readFloat :: (RealFrac a) => ReadS a reads an unsigned RealFrac value. Array. showHex. readSigned. and hexadecimal notation respectively. intToDigit ) (%). and readDec is the “dual” of showInt. readOct. readDec. numerator.) 14. isHexDigit digitToInt. readHex :: (Integral a) => ReadS a each read an unsigned number. showEFloat. expressed in decimal scientiﬁc notation. lexDigits) where import Char import Ratio import Array ( . readOct.14. array ) ¦ ©§ ¢© ¢ ' § ¤ ¦ § ¦ ©§ § ¤ ¦ ¢© ¢ ' . showOct. 14. is the base. showInt. § (NB: readInt is the “dual” of showIntAtBase. denominator ) (!).
the real minimum exponent xMin = toRational (expt b (p1)) xMax = toRational (expt b p) p0 = (integerLogBase b (numerator x) integerLogBase b (denominator x) . _) = floatRange r minExp = minExp0 . p) else if x >= xMax then scaleRat b minExp xMin xMax (p+1) (x/b) else if x < xMin then scaleRat b minExp xMin xMax (p1) (x*b) else (x.This converts a rational to a floating.fromRat’ (x) else fromRat’ x . p’) = scaleRat (toRational b) minExp xMin xMax p0 (x / f) r = encodeFloat (round x’) p’ .To speed up the scaling process we compute the log2 of the number to get . NUMERIC .Scale the rational number by the RealFloat base until . p) . .Exponentiation with a cache for the most common numbers. .p .a first guess of the exponent. Int) scaleRat b minExp xMin xMax p x = if p <= minExp then (x.that we got from the scaling.first.Scale x until xMin <= x < xMax.Then round the rational to an Integer and encode it with the exponent .p) ‘max‘ minExp f = if p0 < 0 then 1 % expt b (p0) else expt b p0 % 1 (x’.Handle exceptional cases . This should be used in the .Fractional instances of Float and Double.162 CHAPTER 14. minExpt = 0::Int maxExpt = 1100::Int expt :: Integer > Int > Integer expt base n = if base == 2 && n >= minExpt && n <= maxExpt then expts!n else baseˆn . fromRat :: (RealFloat a) => Rational > a fromRat x = if x == 0 then encodeFloat 0 0 else if x < 0 then . . fromRat’ :: (RealFloat a) => Rational > a fromRat’ x = r where b = floatRadix r p = floatDigits r (minExp0. or p (the exponent) <= minExp. scaleRat :: Rational > Int > Rational > Rational > Int > Rational > (Rational.it lies in the range of the mantissa (as used by decodeFloat/encodeFloat).Conversion process: .
Try squaring the base first to cut down the number of divisions.2ˆn)  n <.showInt.digit to char > a .Simplest way would be just divide i by b until it’s smaller then b.s) (n. .but that would be very slow! We are just slightly more clever.[minExpt .Compute the (floor of the) log of i in base b. readPos str] .number to show > ShowS showIntAtBase base intToDig n rest  n < 0 = error "Numeric.s) (x. showHex are used for positive numbers only showInt. read’’ s] lex r.showIntAtBase: can’t show negative numbers"  n’ == 0 = rest’  otherwise = showIntAtBase base intToDig n’ rest’ where (n’.s)  (str. maxExpt]] 163 .4. showPos (x))  otherwise = showPos x . let l = 2 * integerLogBase (b*b) i doDiv :: Integer > Int > Int doDiv i l = if i < b then l else doDiv (i ‘div‘ b) (l+1) in doDiv (i ‘div‘ (bˆl)) l . LIBRARY NUMERIC expts :: Array Int Integer expts = array (minExpt. integerLogBase :: Integer > Integer > Int integerLogBase b i = if i < b then 0 else .d) = quotRem n base rest’ = intToDig (fromIntegral d) : rest readSigned :: (Real a) => ReadS a > ReadS a readSigned readPos = readParen False read’ where read’ r = read’’ r ++ [(x.. showHex :: Integral a => a > ShowS showOct = showIntAtBase 8 intToDigit showInt = showIntAtBase 10 intToDigit showHex = showIntAtBase 16 intToDigit showIntAtBase :: Integral a => a .t) read’’ r = [(n."") <<<< lex r. showOct.t)  ("". showOct. .14.maxExpt) [(n.base > (Int > Char) .Misc utilities to show integers and floats showSigned :: Real a => (a > ShowS) > Int > a > ShowS showSigned showPos p x  x < 0 = showParen (p > 6) (showChar ’’ .
. readInt :: (Integral a) => a > (Char > Bool) > (Char > Int) > ReadS a readInt radix isDig digToInt s = [(foldl1 (\n d > n * radix + d) (map (fromIntegral . data FFFormat = FFExponent  FFFixed  FFGeneric . r)  (ds.Leading minus signs must be handled elsewhere.164 CHAPTER 14. NUMERIC . . readHex :: (Integral a) => ReadS a readDec = readInt 10 isDigit digitToInt readOct = readInt 8 isOctDigit digitToInt readHex = readInt 16 isHexDigit digitToInt showEFloat showFFloat showGFloat showFloat :: :: :: :: (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat showString showString showString showGFloat a) a) a) a) => => => => Maybe Int > a > ShowS Maybe Int > a > ShowS Maybe Int > a > ShowS a > ShowS showEFloat d x = showFFloat d x = showGFloat d x = showFloat = (formatRealFloat FFExponent d x) (formatRealFloat FFFixed d x) (formatRealFloat FFGeneric d x) Nothing This type is not exported.These are the format types.Unsigned readers for various bases readDec. readOct.readInt reads a string of digits using an arbitrary base.nonnull isDig s ] . digToInt) ds).r) <.
e) = let ds = map intToDigit is in case fmt of FFGeneric > doFmt (if e < 0  e > 7 then FFExponent else FFFixed) (is.4.0e0" [d] > d : ". is’) = roundTo base (dec’+1) is d:ds = map intToDigit (if ei > 0 then init is’ else is’) in d:’. LIBRARY NUMERIC 165 formatRealFloat :: (RealFloat a) => FFFormat > Maybe Int > a > String formatRealFloat fmt decs x = s where base = 10 s = if isNaN x then "NaN" else if isInfinite x then if x < 0 then "Infinity" else "Infinity" else if x < 0  isNegativeZero x then ’’ : doFmt fmt (floatToDigits (toInteger base) (x)) else doFmt fmt (floatToDigits (toInteger base) x) doFmt fmt (is. e) FFExponent > case decs of Nothing > case ds of [] > "0.Always prints a decimal point  e > 0 > take e (ds ++ repeat ’0’) .’:take dec’ (repeat ’0’) ++ "e0" _ > let (ei.0e" ++ show (e1) d:ds > d : ’.’ : ds ++ ’e’:show (e1) Just dec > let dec’ = max dec 1 in case is of [] > ’0’:’.14.’:ds ++ "e" ++ show (e1+ei) FFFixed > case decs of Nothing .
G.when the format specifies no .34 mk0 s = s mkdot0 "" = "" mkdot0 s = ’. . ds) = f (d1) is i’ = c + i in if i’ == base then (1. K. .’ : mk0 (drop e ds)  otherwise > "0. 1 : is) where b2 = base ‘div‘ 2 f n [] = (0. NUMERIC ++ ’.. 0:ds) else (0.and an exponent. It should be improved. rs) = splitAt (e+ei) (map intToDigit is’) in mk0 ls ++ mkdot0 rs else let (ei.Print decimal point iff dec > 0 let dec’ = max dec 0 in if e >= 0 then let (ei. i’:ds) Based on "Printing FloatingPoint Numbers Quickly and Accurately" by R. in PLDI 96.Print 0. replicate n 0) f 0 (i:_) = (if i >= b2 then 1 else 0. z]. [Int]) roundTo base d is = case f d is of (0.. The version here uses a much slower logarithm estimator. b.. is’) = roundTo base (dec’ + e) is (ls.digits after the decimal point roundTo :: Int > Int > [Int] > (Int. Dybvig. Int) . .. is) (1. if floatToDigits r = ([a. is) > (0.’ : s . []) f d (i:is) = let (c." ++ mk0 (replicate (e) ’0’ ++ ds) Just dec > .166 CHAPTER 14.ab.then r = 0. not .This function returns a nonempty list of digits (Ints in [0. In general.Print 34. e) . Burger and R.34. not 34. is) > (1.z * baseˆe floatToDigits :: (RealFloat a) => Integer > a > ([Int]. is’) = roundTo base dec’ (replicate (e) 0 ++ is) d : ds = map intToDigit (if ei > 0 then is’ else 0:is’) in d : mkdot0 ds where mk0 "" = "0" .base1]) .
e0) (r. mUp. LIBRARY NUMERIC floatToDigits _ 0 = ([].p 167 . bˆ(e)*2.4. f :: Integer e :: Int (f. Ignoring . s. Adjust for this. 2*b. e) = let n = minExp . (p . _) = floatRange x p = floatDigits x b = floatRadix x minExp = minExp0 .Haskell promises that p1 <= logBase b f < p.the fraction will make it err even more. bˆ(e+1)*2. mDn) = if e >= 0 then let be = bˆe in if f == bˆ(p1) then (f*be*b*2.logBase 10 2 is slightly bigger than 3/10 so . b) else (f*be*2.will have an impossibly low exponent. b.the real minimum exponent . be*b. 2. 0) floatToDigits base x = let (f0. be. .e0 in if n > 0 then (f0 ‘div‘ (bˆn).1 + e0) * 3 ‘div‘ 10 else ceiling ((log (fromInteger (f+1)) + fromIntegral e * log (fromInteger b)) / log (fromInteger base)) fixup n = if n >= 0 then if r + mUp <= expt base n * s then n else fixup (n+1) else if expt base (n) * (r + mUp) <= s then n . be) else if e > minExp && f == bˆ(p1) then (f*b*2. e0) = decodeFloat x (minExp0.the following will err on the low side. 1) k = let k0 = if b==2 && base==10 then .Haskell requires that f be adjusted so denormalized numbers . e0+n) else (f0.14. 1. 1) else (f*2.
This floating point reader uses a less restrictive syntax for floating . (ds’. NUMERIC else fixup (n+1) in fixup k0 gen ds rn sN mUpN mDnN = let (dn. rn’) = (rn * base) ‘divMod‘ sN mUpN’ = mUpN * base mDnN’ = mDnN * base in case (rn’ < mDnN’. length ds’.[span p s]] .readExp s] ++ [ (0/0.t)  (cs@(_:_). The ‘.point than the Haskell lexer.d.readDec s] readExp’ (’+’:s) = readDec s readExp’ s = readDec s lexDigits lexDigits nonnull nonnull p s :: ReadS String = nonnull isDigit :: (Char > Bool) > ReadS String = [(cs. t)  ("Infinity".t)  (n. True) > if rn’ * 2 < sN then dn : ds else dn+1 : ds (False.t) <. (k. True) > dn+1 : ds (True. readFloat readFloat r :: (RealFrac a) => ReadS a = [(fromRational ((n%1)*10ˆˆ(kd)).lex r] ++ [ (1/0.168 CHAPTER 14.’:ds) = lexDigits ds lexFrac s = [("". False) > dn : ds (False. False) > gen (dn:ds) rn’ sN mUpN’ mDnN’ rds = if k >= 0 then gen [] r (s * expt base k) mUp mDn else let bk = expt base (k) in gen [] (r * bk) s (mUp * bk) (mDn * bk) (map fromIntegral (reverse rds). t)  ("NaN".s)] readExp (e:s)  e ‘elem‘ "eE" = readExp’ s readExp s = [(0.s) <. t)  (ds.t) <.lexFrac d ] lexFrac (’.s)] readExp’ (’’:s) = [(k.t) <.t) <. k) in .t) <. rn’ + mUpN’ > sN) of (True.lex r] where readFix r = [(read (ds++ds’).d) <.t) <.t)  (k.’ is optional.lexDigits r.readFix r.
. which deﬁnes the lower and upper bounds of the range.. inRange.rangeSize (l. rangeSize) ) where class Ord a => range index inRange rangeSize Ix :: :: :: :: a where (a.u) i == i ‘elem‘ range (l. . and inRange... The Ix class contains the methods range. The range operation enumerates all subscripts.. index.u) !! index (l. to an integer.b) where where where where . and a subscript. instance instance instance instance (Ix a.u)] 169 . .a) > (a...et cetera instance instance Ix Ix Ix => Ix Ix Bool Ix Ordering where .u) map index (range (l. the inRange operation tells whether a particular subscript lies in the range deﬁned by a bounding pair. An implementation is entitled to assume the following laws about these operations: range (l. .Chapter 15 Indexing Operations module Ix ( Ix(range.. The index operation maps a bounding pair...u) i == i .a) > (a. index.. It is used primarily for array indexing (see Chapter 16)..when i is in range inRange (l.. where .u)) == [0.a) > [a] a > Int a > Bool Int Char Int Integer (a. Ix b) .a) > (a. The Ix class is used to map a contiguous subrange of values in a type onto integers.
using a deriving clause on a data declaration (Section 4. the nullary constructors are assumed to be numbered lefttoright with the indices being to inclusive.Blue) Red For singleconstructor datatypes.e.170 CHAPTER 15.1.Blue) index (Yellow. £ ¥ ¤ == == == [Yellow.1 Deriving Instances of Ix It is possible to derive an instance of Ix automatically.Blue] 1 False .Green.3. This is the same numbering deﬁned by the Enum class. For example. datatypes having only nullary constructors) and singleconstructor datatypes. Such derived instance declarations for the class Ix are only possible for enumerations (i. whose constituent types are instances of Ix.3). the derived instance declarations are as shown for tuples in Figure 15. given the datatype: data Colour = Red  Orange  Yellow  Green  Blue  Indigo  Violet we would have: range (Yellow. For an enumeration.Blue) Green inRange (Yellow. A Haskell implementation must provide Ix instances for tuples up to at least size 15. INDEXING OPERATIONS 15.
u’)) (i.u1).u) i && inRange (l’.uk) ik + rangeSize (lk. i’ <....(u1.u2. Ix a2.1: Derivation of Ix instances .i2. ik <...i2.l2.. .u1))) inRange ((l1.lk).ik) = inRange (l1. && inRange (lk..uk) ik Figure 15..l2..i’) = inRange (l..range (l1..u2)....range (l’.uk1) * ( ..a2.lk). .....15. .(u1.uk)] index ((l1...u’)) (i...l’).. Ix b) => Ix (a.u)....ik)  i1 <..uk)) (i1.i’)  i <...u2) i2 && .. DERIVING INSTANCES OF IX 171 instance (Ix a.b) where range ((l.lk)..i’) = index (l.u1) i1 && inRange (l2.u2.u’) + index (l’.(u... Ix ak) => Ix (a1.1....u2.u) i * rangeSize (l’..instance (Ix a1..u’)) = [(i. i2 <.Instances for other tuples are obtained from this scheme: .ik) = index (lk.l’).l2.uk) * ( index (lk1..(u.l’).range (l2.range (l. index (l1.u’)] index ((l..(u..uk)) = [(i1...ak) where range ((l1.uk)) (i1.range (lk.uk1) ik1 + rangeSize (lk1..u’) i’ .i2.u’) i’ inRange ((l...(u1.
1)) = [] instance Ix Char where range (m..2 Library Ix module Ix ( Ix(range.a) > a > Int inRange :: (a.m)  otherwise = error "Ix.h)  null (range b) = 0  otherwise = index b h + 1 .n) index b@(m.2).as derived .NB: replacing "null (range b)" by "not (l <= h)" .index: Index out of range.." m <= i && i <= n instance Ix Integer where range (m.index: Index out of range. index." inRange (c. INDEXING OPERATIONS 15.Ix b) => Ix (a.n) i = m <= i && i <= n instance instance instance instance (Ix a.n) i = [m.n) i  inRange b i = fromInteger (i .n) = [m. (1. rangeSize) ) where class Ord a => Ix a where range :: (a." inRange (m.n] index b@(m. b) .2) <= (2.a) > [a] index :: (a.n] = = = i . For example.n) = [m.fails if the bounds are tuples.but the range is nevertheless empty range ((1. for all tuples Ix Bool .as derived Ix Ordering .fromEnum c  otherwise = error "Ix.(2.m error "Ix.as derived Ix () .n) i  inRange b i  otherwise inRange (m.index: Index out of range.c’) ci  inRange b ci = fromEnum ci . inRange..1) .c’) i = c <= i && i <= c’ instance Ix Int where range (m.172 CHAPTER 15.n] index b@(c.a) > a > Bool rangeSize :: (a.as derived.a) > Int rangeSize b@(l.
accumArray. 173 .Chapter 16 Arrays module Array ( module Ix. ixmap ) where import Ix infixl 9 data !..a) > [(a.. (//). assocs. a. (Ix (Ix (Ix (Ix a.. listArray. indices. (!).Abstract (Ix a) array listArray (!) bounds indices elems assocs accumArray (//) accum ixmap instance instance instance instance instance (a. bounds. Read b) => => => => Functor (Array a) Eq (Array a b) Ord (Array a b) Show (Array a b) Read (Array a b) where where where where where .b)] > Array a b :: (Ix a) => (b > c > b) > Array a b > [(a....... a.b)] (b > c > b) > b > (a..a) Array a b > [a] Array a b > [b] Array a b > [(a. . :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: (Ix (Ix (Ix (Ix (Ix (Ix (Ix (Ix a) a) a) a) a) a) a) a) => => => => => => => => . // => Array a b = . . . elems.c)] > Array a b :: (Ix a) => Array a b > [(a. . a.c)] > Array a b :: (Ix a.. .. Ix b) => (a.b)] > Array a b (a.a) > [(a.export all of Ix for convenience Array.a) > (a > b) > Array b c > Array a c Eq b) Ord b) Show a. accum. array.a) > [b] > Array a b Array a b > a > b Array a b > (a. Show b) Read a.
1).. elements. ). using an accumulating function which combines the values of associations with the same index. Figure 16. Thus. not as general functions. relaxes the restriction that a given index may appear at most once in the association list. this module is exported from Array so that modules need not import both Array and Ix.1 Accumulated Arrays Another array creation function.1) : [(i. ). An array may be created by the function array. The bounds function applied to an array returns its bounds. ). a oneorigin vector of length 10 has bounds (1. If. then the array is legal.1 shows some examples that use the array constructor. but empty.100]]) Not every index within the bounds of the array need appear in the association list. in particular. recurrences such as the following are possible: a = array (1. in any dimension. and assocs. and a oneorigin 10 by 10 matrix has bounds ((1.e. elems.1 Array Construction If a is an index type and b is any type.e. accumArray.10). array is strict in the bounds argument and in the indices of the association list. The array is undeﬁned (i. The ﬁrst argument of accumArray is the accumulating £ £ ¤¢ £ ¡ £ £ ¥ . To ensure the possibility of such an implementation.10)). or associations. Because the indices must be checked for these errors.174 CHAPTER 16. in that order. The functions indices. Indexing an empty array always gives an arraybounds error. i * a!(i1))  i <. x) deﬁnes the value of the array at index i to be x. each of the index type of the array. ) if any index in the list is out of bounds. 16. which may be thought of as functions whose domains are isomorphic to contiguous subsets of the integers. The (!) operator denotes array subscripting. These bounds are the lowest and highest indices in the array. ARRAYS Haskell provides indexable arrays. The ﬁrst argument of array is a pair of bounds.[2. Since most array functions involve the class Ix. but bounds still yields the bounds with which the array was constructed. For example. but nonstrict in the values. this The second argument of array is a list of associations of the form ( list will be expressed as a comprehension. Typically. 16. but the values associated with indices that do not appear will be undeﬁned (i. respectively. . the value at that index is undeﬁned (i. return lists of the indices. An array may be constructed from a pair of bounds and a list of values in index order using the function listArray. the lower bound is greater than the upper bound.(10. Functions restricted in this way can be implemented efﬁciently.e.1. a programmer may reasonably expect rapid access to the components. in index order.100) ((1. An association (i. the type of arrays with indices in a and elements in b is written Array a b. arrays are treated as data. when applied to an array. If any two associations in the list have the same index.
hist produces a histogram of the number of occurrences of each index within a speciﬁed range: hist :: (Ix a.[1. as well as the indices.i). given a list of values of some index type. inRange bnds i] If the accumulating function is strict. n by n matrix. the remaining two arguments are a bounds pair and an association list. if m is a 1origin. 1)  i<is. then accumArray is strict in the values. Num b) => Array a b > Array a b > b inner v w = if b == bounds w then sum [v!i * w!i  i <. Num b) => (a. except with the diagonal zeroed.range b] where b = bounds a .n]] is the same matrix. in the association list.2. Ix scale x a = array b where b of numbers by a given number: b) => a > Array b a > Array b a [(i. unlike ordinary arrays.The inner product of two vectors inner :: (Ix a. then m//[((i. i)  i <. 0)  i <. accumulated arrays should not in general be recursive.range b]) 0 0 . accum takes an array and an association list and accumulates pairs from the list into the array with the accumulating function ..Inverting an array that holds a permutation of its indices invPerm :: (Ix a) => Array a a > Array a a invPerm a = array b [(a!i. INCREMENTAL ARRAY UPDATES . (As with the array function.) For example. 16.Scaling an array scale :: (Num a.a) > [a] > Array a b hist bnds is = accumArray (+) 0 bnds [(i. Thus accumArray can be deﬁned using accum: accumArray f z b = accum f (array b [(i. z)  i <.2 Incremental Array Updates The operator (//) takes an array and a list of pairs and returns an array identical to the left argument except that it has been updated by the associations in the right argument. the indices in the association list must be unique for the updated elements to be deﬁned.1: Array examples function.16.range b] else error "inconformable arrays for inner product" where b = bounds v Figure 16. as for the array function.range b] = bounds a 175 . the second is an initial value. Thus. For example. a!i * x)  i <.
u’) (\j>(i. ixmap ) where import Ix import List( (\\) ) infixl 9 !.u’)) = bounds x . they may be thought of as providing function composition on the left and right.j)) x where ((_.2 shows some examples. array._)) = bounds x .A row of a matrix row :: (Ix a.b) c > Array b c row i x = ixmap (l’.3 Derived Arrays The two functions fmap and ixmap derive new arrays from existing ones. The fmap function transforms the array values while ixmap allows for transformations on array indices.(_.4 Library Array module Array ( module Ix.a) b > Array a b diag x = ixmap (l.u) (\i>(i.l’). with the mapping that the original array embodies. Figure 16. accumArray._).c) > Array a b firstArray = fmap (\(x.176 CHAPTER 16.(u. accum. assocs.Projection of first components of an array of pairs firstArray :: (Ix a) => Array a (b. (//).2: Derived array examples 16. elems.a) > Array a b > Array a b subArray bnds = ixmap bnds (\i>i) .export all of Ix Array. (!).Diagonal of a matrix (assumed to be square) diag :: (Ix a) => Array (a. . Ix b) => a > Array (a.i)) x where ((l. // data (Ix a) => Array a b = MkArray (a.a) (a > b) deriving () . indices. ARRAYS . listArray.A rectangular subarray subArray :: (Ix a) => (a. 16. respectively. bounds.y)>x) Figure 16.
indices a] :: (Ix a) => Array a b > [(a.v) > a // [(i. bounds :: (Ix a) => Array a b > [b] = [a!i  i <.indices a. a ! f i)  i <.ivs. f) instance (Ix a.indices a] :: (Ix a) => Array a b > [(a.a!i)  i <.f (a!i) v)]) :: (Ix a) => (b > c > b) > b > (a.array: outofrange array association" listArray listArray b vs (!) (!) (MkArray _ f) bounds bounds (MkArray b _) indices indices elems elems a assocs assocs a (//) a // new_ivs :: (Ix a) => (a.z)  i <.new_ivs] :: (Ix a) => (b > c > b) > Array a b > [(a. Ix b) => (a.b)] = [(i.b)] > Array a b array b ivs = if and [inRange b i  (i.ivs] then MkArray b (\j > case [v  (i.v) <.range b] accum accum f accumArray accumArray f z b ixmap ixmap b f a instance (Ix a) => Functor (Array a) where fmap fn (MkArray b f) = MkArray b (fn .a) > (a > b) > Array b c > Array a c = array b [(i.4.b)] > Array a b = array (bounds a) (old_ivs ++ new_ivs) where old_ivs = [(i. i == j] of [v] > v [] > error "Array. i ‘notElem‘ new_is] new_is = [i  (i.c)] > Array a b = foldl (\a (i.a) > [b] > Array a b = array b (zipWith (\ a b > (a.c)] > Array a b = accum f (array b [(i. LIBRARY ARRAY 177 array :: (Ix a) => (a.a) > [(a.16.a) > [(a._) <. Eq b) => Eq (Array a b) a == a’ = assocs a == assocs a’ where . a!i)  i <.b)) (range b) vs) :: (Ix a) => Array a b > a > b = f :: (Ix a) => Array a b > (a.!: \ \multiply defined array element") else error "Array.range b]) :: (Ix a.a) = b :: (Ix a) => Array a b > [a] = range .!: \ \undefined array element" _ > error "Array._) <.
showChar ’ ’ .u) <. Show a. Read a. (as. ARRAYS instance (Ix a. showsPrec (arrPrec+1) (assocs a) ) instance (Ix a.t) <. (b. Show b) => Show (Array a b) where showsPrec p a = showParen (p > arrPrec) ( showString "array " .Precedence of the ’array’ function is that of application itself arrPrec = 10 . u)  ("array".lex r. showsPrec (arrPrec+1) (bounds a) . Ord b) => Ord (Array a b) a <= a’ = assocs a <= assocs a’ where CHAPTER 16.readsPrec (arrPrec+1) s. Read b) => Read (Array a b) where readsPrec p = readParen (p > arrPrec) (\r > [ (array b as.s) <.178 instance (Ix a.readsPrec (arrPrec+1) t ]) .
179 .
null.This is builtin syntax map. elemIndices. deleteBy. unzip4. head. reverse. unzip3 ) where infix 5 \\ elemIndex elemIndices find findIndex findIndices nub nubBy delete deleteBy (\\) deleteFirstsBy union unionBy :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Eq Eq (a (a (a Eq (a Eq (a Eq (a Eq (a a => a > [a] > Maybe Int a => a > [a] > [Int] > Bool) > [a] > Maybe a > Bool) > [a] > Maybe Int > Bool) > [a] > [Int] a => [a] > [a] > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] a => a > [a] > [a] > a > Bool) > a > [a] > [a] a => [a] > [a] > [a] > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] > [a] a => [a] > [a] > [a] > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] > [a] . (!!). zip5.. sortBy. mapAccumR. genericSplitAt. words. findIndex.. zipWith. repeat. nub. mapAccumL. deleteFirstsBy. . minimumBy. unfoldr. insertBy. LIST UTILITIES Chapter 17 List Utilities module List ( elemIndex. unzip5. maximumBy. zip6. foldl. nubBy. replicate. cycle. unzip7. tails. scanl1. foldr. elem. genericLength. inits. scanl. . genericDrop. union. unionBy. unzip. drop. zip3. groupBy. intersectBy. group. unlines. init. unzip6. (++). zipWith3. product. find. tail. partition. scanr1.. sort. delete. iterate. break.180 CHAPTER 17. splitAt. zipWith7. filter. maximum. concatMap. zipWith6. isPrefixOf. isSuffixOf. intersect. lines. transpose. zip4. zipWith5. takeWhile. and. or. any. minimum. notElem. foldr1. zipWith4. foldl1. scanr. concat. unwords. intersperse. (\\). zip. all.[]((:). genericReplicate. genericIndex. genericTake. zip7. []). findIndices. dropWhile. lookup.and what the Prelude exports . last. span. insert. length. sum. take.
[c]) (b > Maybe (a.[f].f)] > ([a].e.[b].b.c.[c].[b].[e].b.[b].b. c)) > a > [b] > (a.e.[g]) This library deﬁnes some lesserused operations over lists.c.181 intersect intersectBy intersperse transpose partition group groupBy inits tails isPrefixOf isSuffixOf mapAccumL mapAccumR unfoldr sort sortBy insert insertBy maximumBy minimumBy genericLength genericTake genericDrop genericSplitAt genericIndex genericReplicate zip4 zip5 zip6 zip7 zipWith4 zipWith5 zipWith6 zipWith7 unzip4 unzip5 unzip6 unzip7 :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Eq a => [a] > [a] > [a] (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] > [a] a > [a] > [a] [[a]] > [[a]] (a > Bool) > [a] > ([a].[f]) :: [(a.f.e)] :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [e] > [f] > [(a.d)] > ([a].d.[c]. . [c]) (a > b > (a.[d].b. c)) > a > [b] > (a.c.c.c.[d]) :: [(a.b.b)) > b > [a] Ord a => [a] > [a] (a > a > Ordering) > [a] > [a] Ord a => a > [a] > [a] (a > a > Ordering) > a > [a] > [a] (a > a > Ordering) > [a] > a (a > a > Ordering) > [a] > a Integral a => [b] > a Integral a => a > [b] > [b] Integral a => a > [b] > [b] Integral a => a > [b] > ([b].[b]) Integral a => [b] > a > b Integral a => a > b > [b] :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [(a.g)] > ([a].[c].b.[e]) :: [(a.[d].[e].d.f.[d].b.[c].c.c.f)] :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [e] > [f] > [g] > [(a.b.d.d.c.e.[a]) Eq a => [a] > [[a]] (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [[a]] [a] > [[a]] [a] > [[a]] Eq a => [a] > [a] > Bool Eq a => [a] > [a] > Bool (a > b > (a.[b].d)] :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [e] > [(a.g)] :: (a>b>c>d>e) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e] :: (a>b>c>d>e>f) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e]>[f] :: (a>b>c>d>e>f>g) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e]>[f]>[g] :: (a>b>c>d>e>f>g>h) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e]>[f]>[g]>[h] :: [(a.e.e)] > ([a].d.d.
For example: nub [1. giving the occurrences of val in list.8] == [2. if there is no such element.. "dog" ‘union‘ "cow" == "dogcw" intersect is list intersection. (\\).g.4.3.4] . e. LIST UTILITIES 17.4] ‘intersect‘ [2. Nothing is returned if not (val ‘elem‘ list). In the result of xs \\ ys. of val in list as Just index..3.3] = [1. 17. union and intersect (and their By variants) preserve the invariant that their result does not contain duplicates. provided that their ﬁrst argument contains no duplicates.1. (xs ++ ys) \\ xs == ys. if any.2.6. delete ’a’ "banana" == "bnana" (\\) is list difference (nonassociative). nub (meaning “essence”) removes duplicates elements from a list. or Nothing. union is list union. [1.g.4] delete x removes the ﬁrst occurrence of x from its list argument. elemIndices val list returns an inorder list of indices. findIndex returns the corresponding index. find returns the ﬁrst element of a list that satisﬁes a predicate. the ﬁrst occurrence of each element of ys in turn (if any) has been removed from xs.3.182 CHAPTER 17. Thus. nub removes duplicate elements from a list. delete.3.. e.1 Indexing lists elemIndex val list returns the index of the ﬁrst occurrence. e.2 “Set” operations There are a number of “set” operations deﬁned over the List type. findIndices returns a list of all such indices.4.g.
"i"] inits returns the list of initial segments of its argument list. For example: .’ "abcde" == "a.g.""] mapAccumL f s l applies f to an accumulating “state” parameter s and to each element of l in turn. mapAccumR is similar to mapAccumL except that the list is processed from righttoleft rather than lefttoright. insert inserts a new element into an ordered list (arranged in increasing order). unfoldr builds a list from a seed value.17.g.e.3.2."abc"] tails returns the list of all ﬁnal segments of its argument list.3 List transformations intersperse sep inserts sep between the elements of its list argument. which inserts objects into a list according to the speciﬁed ordering relation. adjacent elements. respectively.c.d. intersperse ’. inits "abc" == ["".6]] partition takes a predicate and a list and returns a pair of lists: those elements of the argument list that do and do not satisfy the predicate.[3. p) xs) sort implement a stable sorting algorithm."ab".[2."ss".3].e" transpose transposes the rows and columns of its argument."i". transpose [[1."a".5. For example group "Mississippi" == ["M". partition p xs == (filter p xs. LIST TRANSFORMATIONS 183 17."i". group splits its list argument into a list of lists of equal.6]] == [[1.. tails "abc" == ["abc". longest ﬁrst. shortest ﬁrst.4 unfoldr The unfoldr function is a “dual” to foldr: while foldr reduces a list to a summary value. "c". here speciﬁed in terms of the insertBy function.[4."pp". 17.. e.."i".b.4]."ss".5]. i. filter (not . "bc". e.
The “By” variants are as follows: nubBy. minimumBy. When the “By” function replaces an Eq context by a binary predicate. unfoldr can undo a foldr operation: unfoldr f’ (foldr f z xs) == xs if the following holds: f’ (f x y) = Just (x. The function: nubBy nubBy eq [] nubBy eq (x:xs) :: (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] = [] = x : nubBy eq (filter (\y > not (eq x y)) xs) allows the programmer to supply their own equality test. deleteFirstsBy (the By variant of \\). the predicate is assumed to deﬁne a total ordering. deleteBy.6 The “By” operations By convention. the predicate is assumed to deﬁne an equivalence. the equality method may not be appropriate in all situations. because any (eq x) does the same job as elemBy eq x would. sufﬁx) of the second argument. For example. . f x)) In some cases. A handful of overloaded functions (elemIndex. overloaded functions have a nonoverloaded counterpart whose name is sufﬁxed with “By”. elemIndices.5 Predicates isPrefixOf and isSuffixOf check whether the ﬁrst argument is a preﬁx (resp. unionBy. insertBy. The library does not provide elemBy.y) f’ z = Nothing 17. isPrefixOf. 17. LIST UTILITIES iterate f == unfoldr (\x > Just (x. intersectBy. the function nub could be deﬁned as follows: nub nub [] nub (x:xs) :: (Eq a) => [a] > [a] = [] = x : nub (filter (\y > not (x == y)) xs) However. sortBy. when the “By” function replaces an Ord context by a binary predicate. maximumBy.184 CHAPTER 17. isSuffixOf) were not considered important enough to have “By” variants. groupBy.
For example.8 Further “zip” operations The Prelude provides zip. .7 The “generic” operations The preﬁx “generic” indicates an overloaded function that is a generalised version of a Prelude function. 5. genericSplitAt. and 7 arguments. zipWith. The List library provides these same three operations for 4. The “generic” operations are as follows: genericLength. unzip. zip3. 6. :: Integral a => [b] > a 17.17.7. genericReplicate. genericLength is a generalised version of length. THE “GENERIC” OPERATIONS 185 17. genericIndex (the generic version of !!). genericDrop. unzip3. and zipWith3. genericTake.
unfoldr. tails. group. transpose. zipWith6. isPrefixOf. (!!). . replicate. product. elemIndices. zip3. lines. zipWith.9 Library List module List ( elemIndex. scanr. findIndices p :: (a > Bool) > [a] > [Int] = [ i  (x. span. unzip7. nub. foldl1. unlines. and. concatMap. sort. unionBy. zip5. dropWhile. maximumBy. foldl. zip. length. insert. take.zip xs [0. scanr1. iterate. genericLength. mapAccumL.i) <. elem. genericIndex. nubBy. (\\). unzip. maximum. words. delete. isSuffixOf. genericDrop. unzip4. LIST UTILITIES 17. []). takeWhile. null. genericReplicate. deleteBy. tail.. foldr. groupBy. unwords. deleteFirstsBy. zipWith3.This is builtin syntax map. init. zip4. last. filter. foldr1. drop. findIndices. or. zipWith5. cycle.. intersectBy. . union. any. break.and what the Prelude exports . notElem. findIndex. all. scanl. concat. intersperse. p x ] :: Eq a => [a] > [a] = nubBy (==) . reverse. sortBy.[]((:). zip6. unzip3 ) where import Maybe( listToMaybe ) infix 5 \\ elemIndex elemIndex x elemIndices elemIndices x find find p findIndex findIndex p findIndices findIndices p xs nub nub :: Eq a => a > [a] > Maybe Int = findIndex (x ==) :: Eq a => a > [a] > [Int] = findIndices (x ==) :: (a > Bool) > [a] > Maybe a = listToMaybe . minimumBy. minimum.]. splitAt. sum. zip7..186 CHAPTER 17. inits. zipWith7. filter p :: (a > Bool) > [a] > Maybe Int = listToMaybe . insertBy. lookup. scanl1.. genericTake. find. genericSplitAt. repeat. mapAccumR. intersect. head. zipWith4. partition. (++). unzip5. unzip6.
"i"] group :: Eq a => [a] > [[a]] group = groupBy (==) ."i"..transpose is lazy in both rows and columns."ss".Note that [h  (h:t) <. any (eq x) ys] :: = = = a > [a] > [a] [] [x] x : sep : intersperse sep xs .xss] is not the same as (map head xss) because the former discards empty sublists inside xss transpose :: [[a]] > [[a]] transpose [] = [] transpose ([] : xss) = transpose xss transpose ((x:xs) : xss) = (x : [h  (h:t) <.17.3].[a]) = (filter p xs.[3. filter (not .4]."pp".group "Mississippi" == ["M".4.[]] = [[1.2]. . p) xs) .[2."i".g.group splits its list argument into a list of lists of equal.[5]] . e.xss]) : transpose (xs : [t  (h:t) <.5]."ss"."i".9.elements. and works for nonrectangular ’matrices’ . adjacent .xs. transpose [[1.For example. LIBRARY LIST nubBy nubBy eq [] nubBy eq (x:xs) delete delete deleteBy deleteBy eq x [] deleteBy eq x (y:ys) (\\) (\\) deleteFirstsBy deleteFirstsBy eq union union unionBy unionBy eq xs ys intersect intersect intersectBy intersectBy eq xs ys intersperse intersperse sep [] intersperse sep [x] intersperse sep (x:xs) 187 :: (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] = [] = x : nubBy eq (filter (\y > not (eq x y)) xs) :: Eq a => a > [a] > [a] = deleteBy (==) :: (a > a > Bool) > a > [a] > [a] = [] = if x ‘eq‘ y then ys else y : deleteBy eq x ys :: Eq a => [a] > [a] > [a] = foldl (flip delete) :: (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] > [a] = foldl (flip (deleteBy eq)) :: Eq a => [a] > [a] > [a] = unionBy (==) :: (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] > [a] = xs ++ deleteFirstsBy eq (nubBy eq ys) xs :: Eq a => [a] > [a] > [a] = intersectBy (==) :: (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] > [a] = [x  x <.xss]) partition partition p xs :: (a > Bool) > [a] > ([a].
longest first. c)) > a > [b] > (a. tails "abc" == tails tails [] tails xxs@(_:xs) CHAPTER 17.g."a". "c". y:ys) where (s’’.tails xs returns the . y ) = f s x (s’’."ab". c)) > a > [b] > (a. shortest first. ["abc". ["". "bc". []) = (s’’.b)) > b > [a] = case f b of Nothing > [] Just (a.y ) = f s’ x (s’.inits xs returns the . inits "abc" == inits inits [] inits (x:xs) .188 groupBy groupBy eq [] groupBy eq (x:xs) . [c]) = (s.g. [c]) = (s. LIST UTILITIES :: (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [[a]] = [] = (x:ys) : groupBy eq zs where (ys..e.y:ys) where (s’.. []) = (s’’.b) > a : unfoldr f b :: (Ord a) => [a] > [a] = sortBy compare :: (a > a > Ordering) > [a] > [a] = foldr (insertBy cmp) [] :: (Ord a) => a > [a] > [a] = insertBy compare mapAccumR mapAccumR f s [] mapAccumR f s (x:xs) unfoldr unfoldr f b sort sort sortBy sortBy cmp insert insert . ys) = mapAccumR f s xs :: (b > Maybe (a.""] :: [a] > [[a]] = [[]] = xxs : tails xs :: = = = Eq a => [a] > [a] > Bool True False x == y && isPrefixOf xs ys isPrefixOf isPrefixOf [] _ isPrefixOf _ [] isPrefixOf (x:xs) (y:ys) isSuffixOf isSuffixOf x y mapAccumL mapAccumL f s [] mapAccumL f s (x:xs) :: Eq a => [a] > [a] > Bool = reverse x ‘isPrefixOf‘ reverse y :: (a > b > (a."abc"] :: [a] > [[a]] = [[]] = [[]] ++ map (x:) (inits xs) list of all final segments of xs.ys) = mapAccumL f s’ xs :: (a > b > (a.zs) = span (eq x) xs list of initial segments of xs.e.
LIBRARY LIST insertBy :: (a > a > insertBy cmp x [] = [x] insertBy cmp x ys@(y:ys’) = case cmp x GT > _ > maximumBy maximumBy cmp [] maximumBy cmp xs Ordering) > a > [a] > [a] 189 y of y : insertBy cmp x ys’ x : ys :: (a > a > Ordering) > [a] > a = error "List.xs’’) :: (Integral a) => a > [b] > [b] = xs = [] = = genericDrop (n1) xs error "List.xs’’) error "List.minimumBy: empty list" = foldl1 min xs where min x y = case cmp x y of GT > y _ > x :: (Integral a) => [b] > a = 0 = 1 + genericLength xs :: (Integral a) => a > [b] > [b] = [] = [] = = x : genericTake (n1) xs error "List.9.17.genericSplitAt: negative argument" genericSplitAt (n1) xs .xs) = ([].[]) = = = (x:xs’.[b]) = ([].maximumBy: empty list" = foldl1 max xs where max x y = case cmp x y of GT > x _ > y :: (a > a > Ordering) > [a] > a = error "List.genericDrop: negative argument" :: (Integral a) => a > [b] > ([b].genericTake: negative argument" minimumBy minimumBy cmp [] minimumBy cmp xs genericLength genericLength [] genericLength (x:xs) genericTake genericTake _ [] genericTake 0 _ genericTake n (x:xs)  n > 0  otherwise genericDrop genericDrop 0 xs genericDrop _ [] genericDrop n (_:xs)  n > 0  otherwise genericSplitAt genericSplitAt 0 xs genericSplitAt _ [] genericSplitAt n (x:xs)  n > 0  otherwise where (xs’.
f)] = zipWith6 (.b.b.b.bs.[d]) = foldr (\(a.d:ds)) ([].[]) zipWith7 zipWith6 .d) ˜(as.[b].[].b..d.c:cs.190 genericIndex genericIndex (x:_) 0 genericIndex (_:xs) n  n > 0  otherwise genericIndex _ _ genericReplicate genericReplicate n x zip4 zip4 zip5 zip5 zip6 zip6 zip7 zip7 CHAPTER 17...c...) :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [e] > [f] > [(a.b.c.ds) > (a:as.) :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [e] > [(a.genericIndex: index too large" :: (Integral a) => a > b > [b] = genericTake n (repeat x) :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [(a.e.b.....g)] = zipWith7 (.cs.f...d)] > ([a].e.c.c.c..d)] = zipWith4 (.[c]..[].e)] = zipWith5 (.) :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [e] > [f] > [g] > [(a..) zipWith4 :: (a>b>c>d>e) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e] zipWith4 z (a:as) (b:bs) (c:cs) (d:ds) = z a b c d : zipWith4 z as bs cs ds zipWith4 _ _ _ _ _ = [] zipWith5 :: (a>b>c>d>e>f) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e]>[f] zipWith5 z (a:as) (b:bs) (c:cs) (d:ds) (e:es) = z a b c d e : zipWith5 z as bs cs ds es zipWith5 _ _ _ _ _ _ = [] :: (a>b>c>d>e>f>g) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e]>[f]>[g] zipWith6 z (a:as) (b:bs) (c:cs) (d:ds) (e:es) (f:fs) = z a b c d e f : zipWith6 z as bs cs ds es fs zipWith6 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ = [] :: (a>b>c>d>e>f>g>h) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e]>[f]>[g]>[h] zipWith7 z (a:as) (b:bs) (c:cs) (d:ds) (e:es) (f:fs) (g:gs) = z a b c d e f g : zipWith7 z as bs cs ds es fs gs zipWith7 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ = [] unzip4 unzip4 :: [(a. LIST UTILITIES :: (Integral a) => [b] > a > b = x = = = genericIndex xs (n1) error "List.c.d.b:bs.d.genericIndex: negative argument" error "List.
ds.d.es.[].b.b.[e].[]) :: [(a.f:fs.b.f)] > ([a].[c].d.c.[].d:ds.[d].e:es)) ([].e:es.e.9.[].c.g) ˜(as.fs.b.e.cs.[c].[].bs.es) > (a:as.f.[d].f:fs)) ([].c:cs.e.c.ds.gs) > (a:as.c.[].[d].fs) > (a:as.b:bs. LIBRARY LIST unzip5 unzip5 :: [(a.e) ˜(as.[e].b:bs.f.b.b.e)] > ([a].[e]) = foldr (\(a.e:es.[].d.b:bs.ds.e.cs.f) ˜(as.c:cs.[].c.[b].c:cs.[b].[g]) = foldr (\(a.d.[].cs.[f].[c].[].c.[].d:ds.es.[]) unzip7 unzip7 .[]) 191 unzip6 unzip6 :: [(a.bs.d.[b].17.g)] > ([a].[].d.g:gs)) ([].bs.[].d:ds.[f]) = foldr (\(a.
192 CHAPTER 17. LIST UTILITIES .
fromMaybe.Chapter 18 Maybe Utilities module Maybe( isJust. isNothing fromJust fromMaybe listToMaybe maybeToList catMaybes mapMaybe :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Maybe a > Bool Maybe a > a a > Maybe a > a [a] > Maybe a Maybe a > [a] [Maybe a] > [a] (a > Maybe b) > [a] > [b] The type constructor Maybe is deﬁned in Prelude as data Maybe a = Nothing  Just a The purpose of the Maybe type is to provide a method of dealing with illegal or optional values without terminating the program. mapMaybe.and what the Prelude exports Maybe(Nothing. and without using IOError from the IO monad.. as would happen if error were used. 193 . fromJust.. isNothing. catMaybes. an incorrect result is returned as Nothing. A correct result is encapsulated by wrapping it in Just. maybeToList. listToMaybe. maybe ) where isJust.. Just). . Other operations on Maybe are provided as part of the monadic classes in the Prelude. which would cause the expression to become monadic.
mapMaybe.fromJust: Nothing" :: a > Maybe a > a = d = a :: Maybe a > [a] = [] = [a] :: [a] > Maybe a = Nothing = Just a :: [Maybe a] > [a] = [ m  Just m <.ms ] :: (a > Maybe b) > [a] > [b] = catMaybes . maybe ) where isJust isJust (Just a) isJust Nothing isNothing isNothing fromJust fromJust (Just a) fromJust Nothing fromMaybe fromMaybe d Nothing fromMaybe d (Just a) maybeToList maybeToList Nothing maybeToList (Just a) listToMaybe listToMaybe [] listToMaybe (a:_) catMaybes catMaybes ms mapMaybe mapMaybe f :: Maybe a > Bool = True = False :: Maybe a > Bool = not . maybeToList. map f . catMaybes. listToMaybe. Just).194 CHAPTER 18. fromMaybe. fromJust.and what the Prelude exports Maybe(Nothing. MAYBE UTILITIES 18. .... isJust :: Maybe a > a = a = error "Maybe.1 Library Maybe module Maybe( isJust. isNothing.
isControl. isSpace. isAlphaNum. isLatin1. Unicode characters may be divided into ﬁve general categories: nonprinting. toUpper. digitToInt. The ﬁrst 128 entries of this character set are identical to the ASCII set. numeric digits. isHexDigit. isUpper. any 195 . chr.Chapter 19 Character Utilities module Char ( isAscii. isLatin1. For the purposes of Haskell. isOctDigit. isDigit. the full set of Unicode character attributes is not accessible in this library. isSpace. isLower. intToDigit.. toLower :: Char > Char digitToInt :: Char > Int intToDigit :: Int > Char ord chr :: Char > Int :: Int > Char lexLitChar :: ReadS String readLitChar :: ReadS Char showLitChar :: Char > ShowS This library provides a limited set of operations on the Unicode character set. isLower. lower case alphabetic. toLower. isPrint. isAlpha. isAlphaNum :: Char > Bool toUpper. This module offers only a limited view of the full Unicode character set. isPrint. and other printable characters. showLitChar.and what the Prelude exports Char. String ) where isAscii. isUpper.. other alphabetic. ord. isHexDigit.. readLitChar. lexLitChar. isAlpha. isControl. isOctDigit. with the next 128 entries comes the remainder of the Latin1 character set. isDigit. .
and title).. but in addition converts the to the character that it encodes. here are the predicates which return True: Character Type Lower Case Alphabetic Other Alphabetic Digits Other Printable Nonprinting Predicates isPrint isPrint isPrint isPrint isAlphaNum isAlphaNum isAlphaNum isAlpha isAlpha isLower isUpper The isDigit. lower. digitToInt operates fails unless its argument satisﬁes isHexDigit. For each sort of Unicode character.’f’. Numeric digits may be part of identiﬁers but digits outside the ASCII range are not used by the reader to represent numbers. The function showLitChar converts a character to a string using only printable characters. "Hello")] Function toUpper converts a letter to the corresponding uppercase letter. For example: showLitChar ’\n’ s lexLitChar "\\nHello" readLitChar "\\nHello" = = = "\\n" ++ s [("\\n".’9’. isOctDigit. The ord and chr functions are fromEnum and toEnum restricted to the type Char.15. and isHexDigit functions select only ASCII characters. returning the sequence of characters that encode the character. The function readLitChar does the same. Any Unicode letter which has an uppercase equivalent is transformed. . "Hello")] [(’\n’.196 CHAPTER 19. leaving any other character unchanged.’F’). and generates lowercase hexadecimal digits. Similarly.. toLower converts a letter to the corresponding lowercase letter. using Haskell sourcelanguage escape conventions. ’0’. The function lexLitChar does the reverse. CHARACTER UTILITIES alphabetic character which is not lower case is treated as upper case (Unicode actually has three cases: upper. ’A’.e. but recognises both upper and lowercase hexadecimal digits (i. intToDigit fails unless its argument is in the range 0. leaving any other character unchanged.. ’a’.. The isSpace function recognizes only white characters in the Latin1 range. intToDigit and digitToInt convert between a single digit Char and the corresponding Int.
isLower. readHex) import UnicodePrims .’A’. isAlphaNum. isUpper. isHexDigit. toLower.’Z’ .. ord. isLatin1. showLitChar.Used for character name table.fromEnum ’0’  c >= ’a’ && c <= ’f’ = fromEnum c .Only Latin1 spaces recognized isUpper isLower isAlpha c isDigit c isOctDigit c isHexDigit c isAlphaNum = = = = = = = primUnicodeIsUpper primUnicodeIsLower . import Numeric (readDec. lexLitChar.19.fromEnum ’a’ + 10  c >= ’A’ && c <= ’F’ = fromEnum c . . isUpper.digitToInt: not a digit" .1 Library Char module Char ( isAscii.. isSpace.’a’. lexDigits.and what the Prelude exports Char. digitToInt. chr.. isOctDigit. isControl.Charactertesting operations isAscii. isAlpha. isDigit.Digit conversion operations digitToInt :: Char > Int digitToInt c  isDigit c = fromEnum c . isPrint. readLitChar. isLower. isAlpha. isDigit.. readOct. isHexDigit.. isAlphaNum :: Char > Bool isAscii c isLatin1 c isControl c isPrint = = = = c < ’\x80’ c <= ’\xff’ c < ’ ’  c >= ’\DEL’ && c <= ’\x9f’ primUnicodeIsPrint isSpace c = c ‘elem‘ " \t\n\r\f\v\xA0" .Source of primitive Unicode functions. isPrint. .’z’ isUpper c  isLower c c >= ’0’ && c <= ’9’ c >= ’0’ && c <= ’7’ isDigit c  c >= ’A’ && c <= ’F’  c >= ’a’ && c <= ’f’ primUnicodeIsAlphaNum . isSpace.1. isControl.fromEnum ’A’ + 10  otherwise = error "Char. isLatin1. isOctDigit. intToDigit. toUpper. LIBRARY CHAR 197 19. String ) where import Array .
[a]) = match xs ys = (xs. t)  (n.t) <. CHARACTER UTILITIES toEnum (fromEnum ’0’ + i) toEnum (fromEnum ’a’ + i .s)] (’f’:s) = [(’\f’.s)] (’ˆ’:c:s)  c >= ’@’ && c <= ’_’ = [(chr (ord c .s)] (’\’’:s) = [(’\’’. ([].s’) <. t)  (n.readHex s] s@(c:_)  isUpper c = let table = (’\DEL’.s)] (’v’:s) = [(’\v’.s)] (’\\’:s) = [(’\\’.s)] (’n’:s) = [(’\n’.10) error "Char.s)] (’b’:s) = [(’\b’.ord ’@’). "DEL") : assocs asciiTab in case [(c.s)] readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc :: ReadS Char (’a’:s) = [(’\a’.s)] (’r’:s) = [(’\r’.s)] (’t’:s) = [(’\t’.198 intToDigit :: Int > Char intToDigit i  i >= 0 && i <= 9 =  i >= 10 && i <= 15 =  otherwise = CHAPTER 19.readDec s] (’o’:s) = [(chr n.t) <.intToDigit: not a digit" .[match mne s]] of (pr:_) > [pr] [] > [] _ = [] :: (Eq a) => [a] > [a] > ([a]. mne) <.ys) readEsc match match (x:xs) (y:ys)  x == y match xs ys . t)  (n.Text functions readLitChar :: ReadS Char readLitChar (’\\’:s) = readEsc s readLitChar (c:s) = [(c.readOct s] (’x’:s) = [(chr n.s’)  (c.Casechanging operations toUpper :: Char > Char toUpper = primUnicodeToUpper toLower :: Char > Char toLower = primUnicodeToLower . s)] s@(d:_)  isDigit d = [(chr n.Character code functions ord :: Char > Int ord = fromEnum chr chr :: Int > Char = toEnum .table.s)] (’"’:s) = [(’"’.t) <.
"RS". "NAK".s) = (c:t. "VT". "SUB".c]. "DC1".Very crude approximation to \XYZ. "SOH".s)] . "US". "GS".s)] lexEsc (’ˆ’:c:s)  c >= ’@’ && c <= ’_’ = [([’ˆ’. "EM". "DC4". "ETX". "DC3". 199 lexLitChar :: ReadS String lexLitChar (’\\’:s) = map (prefix ’\\’) (lexEsc s) where lexEsc (c:s)  c ‘elem‘ "abfnrtv\\\"’" = [([c].Numeric escapes lexEsc (’o’:s) = [prefix ’o’ (span isOctDigit s)] lexEsc (’x’:s) = [prefix ’x’ (span isHexDigit s)] lexEsc s@(d:_)  isDigit d = [span isDigit s] . "SO". lexEsc s@(c:_)  isUpper c = [span isCharName s] lexEsc _ = [] isCharName c = isUpper c  isDigit c prefix c (t. "ENQ". LIBRARY CHAR showLitChar :: Char > ShowS showLitChar c  c > ’\DEL’ = showChar ’\\’ . cont where cont cont asciiTab = listArray (’\NUL’. "BEL". "SYN". "LF".1. "CAN". "CR".s)] [] . "DC2". "DLE". "ESC". "FF". "FS". "BS". "ETB". "ACK". "SI". "HT".19. "SP"] s@(c:_)  p c = "\\&" ++ s s = s "EOT". ’ ’) ["NUL". s) lexLitChar (c:s) lexLitChar "" = = [([c]. protectEsc isDigit (shows (ord c)) showLitChar ’\DEL’ = showString "\\DEL" showLitChar ’\\’ = showString "\\\\" showLitChar c  c >= ’ ’ = showChar c showLitChar ’\a’ = showString "\\a" showLitChar ’\b’ = showString "\\b" showLitChar ’\f’ = showString "\\f" showLitChar ’\n’ = showString "\\n" showLitChar ’\r’ = showString "\\r" showLitChar ’\t’ = showString "\\t" showLitChar ’\v’ = showString "\\v" showLitChar ’\SO’ = protectEsc (== ’H’) (showString "\\SO") showLitChar c = showString (’\\’ : asciiTab!c) protectEsc p f = f . "STX".
200 CHAPTER 19. CHARACTER UTILITIES .
201 .
sequence_. mapAndUnzipM. sequence. ) where class Monad m => MonadPlus m where mzero :: m a mplus :: m a > m a > m a join guard when unless ap mapAndUnzipM zipWithM zipWithM_ foldM filterM msum liftM liftM2 liftM3 liftM4 liftM5 :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Monad m => m (m a) > m a MonadPlus m => Bool > m () Monad m => Bool > m () > m () Monad m => Bool > m () > m () Monad m => m (a > b) > m a > m b Monad Monad Monad Monad Monad m m m m m => => => => => (a (a (a (a (a > > > > > m b b b m (b.c)) > [a] > m ([b]. (>>). mapM.. guard. filterM. zipWithM. return. mplus). > m c) > [a] > [b] > > m c) > [a] > [b] > > m a) > a > [b] > m Bool) > [a] > m [a] [c]) m [c] m () a :: MonadPlus m => [m a] > m a :: Monad m => (a > b) > (m a > m b) :: Monad m => (a > b > c) > (m a > m b :: Monad m => (a > b > c > d) > (m a > m b > m c > m d) :: Monad m => (a > b > c > d > e) > (m a > m b > m c > m d > :: Monad m => (a > b > c > d > e > f) (m a > m b > m c > m d > > m c) m e) > m e > m f) .and what the Prelude exports Monad((>>=). msum.202 CHAPTER 20. ap. Functor(fmap). unless. . when. zipWithM_... liftM. (=<<). foldM. liftM2. liftM3. mapM_. MONAD UTILITIES Chapter 20 Monad Utilities module Monad ( MonadPlus(mzero. fail). join. liftM4. liftM5.
NAMING CONVENTIONS 203 The Monad library deﬁnes the MonadPlus class. thus: instance MonadPlus Maybe where mzero = Nothing Nothing ‘mplus‘ ys = ys xs ‘mplus‘ ys = xs instance MonadPlus [] mzero = [] mplus = (++) where . Thus (in the Prelude): sequence :: Monad m => [m a] > m [a] sequence_ :: Monad m => [m a] > m () A preﬁx “m” generalises an existing function to a monadic form. Thus.1 Naming conventions The functions in this library use the following naming conventions: A postﬁx “M” always stands for a function in the Kleisli category: m is added to function results (modulo currying) and nowhere else.20. 20.1. for example.2 Class MonadPlus The MonadPlus class is deﬁned as follows: class Monad m => MonadPlus m where mzero :: m a mplus :: m a > m a > m a The class methods mzero and mplus are the zero and plus of the monad. So. Lists and the Maybe type are instances of MonadPlus. filter :: (a > Bool) > [a] > [a] filterM :: Monad m => (a > m Bool) > [a] > m [a] A postﬁx “_” changes the result type from (m a) to (m ()). and provides some useful operations on monads. for example: sum :: Num a => [a] > a msum :: MonadPlus m => [m a] > m a 20.
3 Functions The join function is the conventional monad join operator. This function is mainly used with complicated data structures or a statetransforming monad. putStr ": ". liftM2 (+) [0. The zipWithM function generalises zipWith to arbitrary monads. the input list should be reversed. For example.. which promotes function application. the liftM operations can be replaced by uses of ap. listFile :: String > IO () listFile nm = do cts <. .3] liftM2 (+) (Just 1) Nothing = Nothing In many situations..2] = [0. For example.readFile nm zipWithM_ (\i line > do putStr (show i).204 CHAPTER 20. .. preﬁxing each line with its line number. and otherwise do nothing. returning the result as a pair of lists. For instance the following function displays a ﬁle.f a2 x2 . It is used to remove one level of monadic structure... The mapAndUnzipM function maps its ﬁrst argument over a list. except that its result is encapsulated in a monad. projecting its bound argument into the outer level. foldM f a1 [x1.1] [0.1. putStrLn line) [1.2. Note that foldM works from lefttoright over the list arguments. x2. The function arguments are scanned left to right. f am xm If righttoleft evaluation is required.f a1 x1 a3 <. The when and unless functions provide conditional execution of monadic expressions.. The monadic lifting operators promote a function to a monad.] (lines cts) The foldM function is analogous to foldl. when debug (putStr "Debugging\n") will output the string "Debugging\n" if the Boolean value debug is True. MONAD UTILITIES 20. This could be an issue where (>>) and the “folded function” are not commutative. xm ] == do a2 <.
‘ap‘ xn is equivalent to liftMn f x1 x2 . FUNCTIONS return f ‘ap‘ x1 ‘ap‘ .. xn 205 .3..20...
) where . liftM4.. filterM.The MonadPlus class definition class (Monad m) => MonadPlus m mzero :: m a mplus :: m a > m a > m a . liftM2.Functions msum msum xs join join x when when p s unless unless p s ap ap guard guard p :: MonadPlus m => [m a] > m a = foldr mplus mzero xs :: (Monad m) => m (m a) > m a = x >>= id :: (Monad m) => Bool > m () > m () = if p then s else return () :: (Monad m) => Bool > m () > m () = when (not p) s :: (Monad m) => m (a > b) > m a > m b = liftM2 ($) :: MonadPlus m => Bool > m () = if p then return () else mzero = = ys xs where where mapAndUnzipM :: (Monad m) => (a > m (b. mplus).. when. liftM3. . mapM. return. liftM5. guard.4 Library Monad module Monad ( MonadPlus(mzero. unzip . sequence. unless.206 CHAPTER 20.and what the Prelude exports Monad((>>=). join. zipWithM. (>>). MONAD UTILITIES 20. [c]) mapAndUnzipM f xs = sequence (map f xs) >>= return . mapAndUnzipM. ap. foldM. liftM..c)) > [a] > m ([b]. zipWithM_. fail). Functor(fmap). mapM_. (=<<). sequence_. msum.Instances of MonadPlus instance MonadPlus Maybe where mzero = Nothing Nothing ‘mplus‘ ys xs ‘mplus‘ ys instance MonadPlus [] mzero = [] mplus = (++) .
4.c.p x.b. return (f a’ b’ c’ d’) } :: (Monad m) => (a > b > c > d > e > f) > (m a > m b > m c > m d > m e > m f) = \a b c d e > do { a’ <. b’ <.20.a. b’ <. b’ <.b. d’ <.c.e. return (f a’ b’) } :: (Monad m) => (a > b > c > d) > (m a > m b > m c > m d) = \a b c > do { a’ <.b. d’ <.b.c. return (f a’ b’ c’) } :: (Monad m) => (a > b > c > d > e) > (m a > m b > m c > m d > m e) = \a b c d > do { a’ <.a. b’ <. return (f a’ b’ c’ d’ e’) } .a.d. c’ <.a. ys <. c’ <.filterM p xs.a. e’ <. c’ <. LIBRARY MONAD 207 zipWithM :: (Monad m) => (a > b > m c) > [a] > [b] > m [c] zipWithM f xs ys = sequence (zipWith f xs ys) zipWithM_ :: (Monad m) => (a > b > m c) > [a] > [b] > m () zipWithM_ f xs ys = sequence_ (zipWith f xs ys) foldM :: (Monad m) => (a > b > m a) > a > [b] > m a foldM f a [] = return a foldM f a (x:xs) = f a x >>= \ y > foldM f y xs filterM :: Monad m => (a > m Bool) > [a] > m [a] filterM p [] = return [] filterM p (x:xs) = do { b <. return (if b then (x:ys) else ys) } liftM liftM f liftM2 liftM2 f liftM3 liftM3 f liftM4 liftM4 f liftM5 liftM5 f :: (Monad m) => (a > b) > (m a > m b) = \a > do { a’ <.d. return (f a’) } :: (Monad m) => (a > b > c) > (m a > m b > m c) = \a b > do { a’ <.
208 CHAPTER 20. MONAD UTILITIES .
209 .
hPrint... ioError. Read.implementationdependent data SeekMode ReadMode  WriteMode  AppendMode  ReadWriteMode deriving (Eq. hIsOpen. Ix. Ix.BlockBuffering). hSetPosn. stdout. SeekMode(AbsoluteSeek.. hSetBuffering. isUserError. putStr. stdout. bracket. IOMode(ReadMode. instance Show HandlePosn where data IOMode data BufferMode = =  = . instance Eq HandlePosn where . ioeGetHandle. Read.WriteMode. hLookAhead. hGetContents.210 CHAPTER 21. data HandlePosn = . Bounded. Show) NoBuffering  LineBuffering BlockBuffering (Maybe Int) deriving (Eq. hSeek. IOError. Read. Show) AbsoluteSeek  RelativeSeek  SeekFromEnd deriving (Eq.LineBuffering. hWaitForInput. isPermissionError. hIsWritable. ioeGetErrorString. hIsSeekable. isEOFError. writeFile. hPutStrLn. catch. stderr :: Handle openFile hClose :: FilePath > IOMode > IO Handle :: Handle > IO () . FilePath. INPUT/OUTPUT Chapter 21 Input/Output module IO ( Handle. hGetPosn. isIllegalOperation. BufferMode(NoBuffering. getContents.AppendMode.. hGetBuffering.. Ord. hIsEOF. hIsReadable.. userError. try. hGetLine. getLine. hGetChar. Ord. instance Show Handle where . getChar. Enum.implementationdependent . ioeGetFileName. readFile. openFile. hIsClosed.implementationdependent . instance Eq Handle where .. isDoesNotExistError. hPutChar. appendFile. stderr. hFileSize.SeekFromEnd). hReady. bracket_. print. readLn ) where import Ix(Ix) data Handle = . HandlePosn. Ord.ReadWriteMode). stdin. isAlreadyExistsError. Enum. isFullError. interact... Bounded.. Show) stdin..RelativeSeek. .. hPutStr. hClose. putStrLn. isAlreadyInUseError.implementationdependent . readIO. hFlush. isEOF.and what the Prelude exports IO. putChar.
Commonly used I/O functions such as print are part of the standard prelude and need not be explicitly imported. This library contain more advanced I/O features.211 hFileSize hIsEOF isEOF isEOF hSetBuffering hGetBuffering hFlush hGetPosn hSetPosn hSeek hWaitForInput hReady hReady h hGetChar hGetLine hLookAhead hGetContents hPutChar hPutStr hPutStrLn hPrint hIsOpen hIsClosed hIsReadable hIsWritable hIsSeekable isAlreadyExistsError isDoesNotExistError isAlreadyInUseError isFullError isEOFError isIllegalOperation isPermissionError isUserError ioeGetErrorString ioeGetHandle ioeGetFileName try bracket bracket_ :: :: :: = :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: = :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Handle > IO Integer Handle > IO Bool IO Bool hIsEOF stdin Handle > BufferMode > IO () Handle > IO BufferMode Handle > IO () Handle > IO HandlePosn HandlePosn > IO () Handle > SeekMode > Integer > IO () Handle > Int > IO Bool Handle > IO Bool hWaitForInput h 0 Handle > IO Char Handle > IO String Handle > IO Char Handle > IO String Handle > Char > IO () Handle > String > IO () Handle > String > IO () Show a => Handle > a > IO () Handle Handle Handle Handle Handle > > > > > IO IO IO IO IO Bool Bool Bool Bool Bool IOError IOError IOError IOError IOError IOError IOError IOError > > > > > > > > Bool Bool Bool Bool Bool Bool Bool Bool :: IOError > String :: IOError > Maybe Handle :: IOError > Maybe FilePath :: IO a > IO (Either IOError a) :: IO a > (a > IO b) > (a > IO c) > IO c :: IO a > (a > IO b) > IO c > IO c The monadic I/O system used in Haskell is described by the Haskell language report. Some related operations on ﬁle systems .
The bracket function captures a common allocate. This is an abstract type. isAlreadyInUseError – the operation failed because one of its arguments is a singleuse resource. which is already being used (for example. isDoesNotExistError – the operation failed because one of its arguments does not exist. which is True if its argument is the corresponding kind of error. isPermissionError – the operation failed because the user does not have sufﬁcient operating system privilege to perform that operation. isEOFError – the operation failed because the end of ﬁle has been reached. the library provides functions to interrogate and construct values in IOError: isAlreadyExistsError – the operation failed because one of its arguments already exists. All these functions return a Bool. These are ioeGetHandle which returns Just if the error value refers to handle and Nothing otherwise. 4 ¦ ¢ 7 ¦ ¥ 4 ¦ ¢ 7 ¦ ¥ . for all other errors. deallocate idiom in which the deallocation step must occur even in the case of an error during computation. the string is implementationdependent.212 are contained in the Directory library. the string returned by ioeGetErrorString is the argument that was passed to fail. isIllegalOperation – the operation is not possible. isUserError – a programmerdeﬁned error value has been raised using fail. ioeGetFileName which returns Just if the error value refers to ﬁle . compute. The try function returns an error in a computation explicitly using the Either type.1 I/O Errors Errors of type IOError are used by the I/O monad. an implementation will not be able to distinguish between the possible error causes. For “user” errors (those which are raised using fail). and ioeGetErrorString which returns a string. Additional errors which could be raised by an implementation are listed after the corresponding operation. In some cases. Three additional functions are provided to obtain information about an error value. INPUT/OUTPUT 21. and Nothing otherwise. In this case it should return isIllegalOperation. CHAPTER 21. and False otherwise. isFullError – the operation failed because the device is full. opening the same ﬁle twice for writing might give this error). Any computation which returns an IO result may fail with isIllegalOperation. This is similar to trycatchﬁnally in Java.
Each value of this type is a handle: a record used by the Haskell runtime system to manage I/O with ﬁle system objects. A handle has at least the following properties: whether it manages input or output or both. Files can be opened. 21. A handle is readable if it manages only input or both input and output. FILES AND HANDLES 213 21. These handles are initially open. A handle is equal according to == only to itself. Most handles will also have a current I/O position indicating where the next input or output operation will occur. Haskell deﬁnes operations to read and write characters from and to ﬁles.1 Standard Handles Three handles are allocated during program initialisation. For simplicity. This ﬁle system is a collection of named ﬁle system objects. . Handles are in the Show and Eq classes. A handle is open when ﬁrst allocated. ordered ﬁles. Once it is closed it can no longer be used for either input or output.2. and normally reside on disk. it is writable if it manages only output or both input and output. which may be organised in directories (see Directory). a buffer (whose length may be zero). likewise. Physical ﬁles are persistent. directories may themselves be ﬁle system objects and could be entries in other directories. The string produced by showing a handle is system dependent. The third (stderr) manages output to the standard error channel. it should include enough information to identify the handle for debugging. closed or semiclosed. though an implementation cannot reuse its storage while references remain to it. yielding a handle which can then be used to operate on the contents of that ﬁle.2. In some implementations. or any other object recognised by the operating system. whether it is open.2 Files and Handles Haskell interfaces to the external world through an abstract ﬁle system. no attempt is made to compare the internal state of different handles for equality. or enabled on a line or block basis. File and directory names are values of type String. whose precise meaning is operating system dependent. any nondirectory ﬁle system object is termed a ﬁle. whether the object is seekable.21. whether buffering is disabled. represented by values of type Handle. The ﬁrst two (stdin and stdout) manage input or output from the Haskell program’s standard input or output channel respectively. although it could in fact be a communication channel.
214
CHAPTER 21. INPUT/OUTPUT
21.2.2 SemiClosed Handles
The operation hGetContents (Section 21.9.4) puts a handle into an intermediate state, semiclosed. In this state, is effectively closed, but items are read from on demand and accumulated in a special list returned by hGetContents . Any operation that fails because a handle is closed, also fails if a handle is semiclosed. The only exception is hClose. A semiclosed handle becomes closed: if hClose is applied to it;
if an I/O error occurs when reading an item from the handle;
or once the entire contents of the handle has been read.
Once a semiclosed handle becomes closed, the contents of the associated list becomes ﬁxed. The contents of this ﬁnal list is only partially speciﬁed: it will contain at least all the items of the stream that were evaluated prior to the handle becoming closed. Any I/O errors encountered while a handle is semiclosed are simply discarded.
21.2.3 File locking
Implementations should enforce as far as possible, at least locally to the Haskell process, multiplereader singlewriter locking on ﬁles. That is, there may either be many handles on the same ﬁle which manage input, or just one handle on the ﬁle which manages output. If any open or semiclosed handle is managing a ﬁle for output, no new handle can be allocated for that ﬁle. If any open or semiclosed handle is managing a ﬁle for input, new handles can only be allocated if they do not manage output. Whether two ﬁles are the same is implementationdependent, but they should normally be the same if they have the same absolute path name and neither has been renamed, for example. Warning: the readFile operation (Section 7.1) holds a semiclosed handle on the ﬁle until the entire contents of the ﬁle have been consumed. It follows that an attempt to write to a ﬁle (using writeFile, for example) that was earlier opened by readFile will usually result in failure with isAlreadyInUseError.
21.3 Opening and Closing Files
21.3.1 Opening Files
Computation openFile allocates and returns a new, open handle to manage the ﬁle . It manages input if is ReadMode, output if is WriteMode or AppendMode, and both input and output if mode is ReadWriteMode.
7
7 ¦
¥
7 ¦
¥
7 ¦
¥
¦
2 4
7 ¦
¥
¦
2 4
7 ¦
7
¥
¦
2 4
21.4. DETERMINING THE SIZE OF A FILE
¦
215
is If the ﬁle does not exist and it is opened for output, it should be created as a new ﬁle. If WriteMode and the ﬁle already exists, then it should be truncated to zero length. Some operating systems delete empty ﬁles, so there is no guarantee that the ﬁle will exist following an openFile with WriteMode unless it is subsequently written to successfully. The handle is positioned at the end of the ﬁle if is AppendMode, and otherwise at the beginning (in which case its internal I/O position is 0). The initial buffer mode is implementationdependent. If openFile fails on a ﬁle opened for output, the ﬁle may still have been created if it did not already exist. Error reporting: the openFile computation may fail with isAlreadyInUseError if the ﬁle is already open and cannot be reopened; isDoesNotExistError if the ﬁle does not exist; or isPermissionError if the user does not have permission to open the ﬁle.
21.3.2 Closing Files
makes handle closed. Before the computation ﬁnishes, if is Computation hClose writable its buffer is ﬂushed as for hFlush. Performing hClose on a handle that has already been closed has no effect; doing so not an error. All other operations on a closed handle will fail. If hClose fails for any reason, any further operations (apart from hClose) on the handle will still fail as if had been successfully closed.
¥ ¥ ¥
21.4 Determining the Size of a File
¥
For a handle in 8bit bytes (
¥
which is attached to a physical ﬁle, hFileSize 0).
returns the size of that ﬁle
21.5 Detecting the End of Input
For a readable handle , computation hIsEOF returns True if no further input can be taken ; for a handle attached to a physical ﬁle this means that the current I/O position is equal from to the length of the ﬁle. Otherwise, it returns False. The computation isEOF is identical, except that it works only on stdin.
¥ ¥
21.6 Buffering Operations
Three kinds of buffering are supported: linebuffering, blockbuffering or nobuffering. These modes have the following effects. For output, items are written out, or ﬂushed, from the internal buffer according to the buffer mode:
7 ¦
2 4
7 ¦
7 ¦
7 ¦
¦
7 ¦
2 4
7 ¦
7 ¦
7 ¦
¥
¦
7 ¦
2 4
¥
216
CHAPTER 21. INPUT/OUTPUT
linebuffering: the entire buffer is ﬂushed whenever a newline is output, the buffer overﬂows, a hFlush is issued, or the handle is closed. blockbuffering: the entire buffer is written out whenever it overﬂows, a hFlush is issued, or the handle is closed.
nobuffering: output is written immediately, and never stored in the buffer.
An implementation is free to ﬂush the buffer more frequently, but not less frequently, than speciﬁed above. The buffer is emptied as soon as it has been written out.
¥
Similarly, input occurs according to the buffer mode for handle
linebuffering: when the buffer for is not empty, the next item is obtained from the buffer; otherwise, when the buffer is empty, characters are read into the buffer until the next newline character is encountered or the buffer is full. No characters are available until the newline character is available or the buffer is full.
¥
blockbuffering: when the buffer for the buffer.
becomes empty, the next block of data is read into
nobuffering: the next input item is read and returned. The hLookAhead operation (Section 21.9.3) implies that even a nobuffered handle may require a onecharacter buffer.
For most implementations, physical ﬁles will normally be blockbuffered and terminals will normally be linebuffered.
¥
If is BlockBuffering , then blockbuffering is enabled if possible. The size of the buffer is items if is Just and is otherwise implementationdependent.
If the buffer mode is changed from BlockBuffering or LineBuffering to NoBuffering, then
¥
if
¥
if
7 ¦
7 ¦
2 4
If
is NoBuffering, then buffering is disabled if possible.
is writable, the buffer is ﬂushed as for hFlush; is not writable, the contents of the buffer is discarded.
¦
§ ©
§ ©
¦
¦
¦
2 4
If
is LineBuffering, linebuffering is enabled if possible.
2 4
¥
Computation hSetBuffering reads and writes.
¦
sets the mode of buffering for handle
7 ¦
7 ¦
.
7 ¦
7 ¦
¥
¦
7 ¦
on subsequent
2 4
21.7. REPOSITIONING HANDLES
217
Error reporting: the hSetBuffering computation may fail with isPermissionError if the handle has already been used for reading or writing and the implementation does not allow the buffering mode to be changed.
¥ ¥
Computation hGetBuffering
returns the current buffering mode for
The default buffering mode when a handle is opened is implementationdependent and may depend on the ﬁle system object which is attached to that handle.
21.6.1 Flushing Buffers
¥
Computation hFlush to the operating system.
¥
causes any items buffered for output in handle
to be sent immediately
Error reporting: the hFlush computation may fail with: isFullError if the device is full; isPermissionError if a system resource limit would be exceeded. It is unspeciﬁed whether the characters in the buffer are discarded or retained under these circumstances.
21.7 Repositioning Handles
21.7.1 Revisiting an I/O Position
returns the current I/O position of as a value of the abstract type Computation hGetPosn HandlePosn. If a call to hGetPosn returns a position , then computation hSetPosn sets the position of to the position it held at the time of the call to hGetPosn. Error reporting: the hSetPosn computation may fail with: isPermissionError if a system resource limit would be exceeded.
21.7.2 Seeking to a new Position
The offset is given in terms of 8bit bytes. If is block or linebuffered, then seeking to a position which is not in the current buffer will ﬁrst cause any items in the output buffer to be written to the device, and then cause the input buffer
¥
§
¥
SeekFromEnd: the position of
is set to offset from the end of the ﬁle.
§
7 ¦
¥
RelativeSeek: the position of
is set to offset from the current position.
§
7 ¦
¥
AbsoluteSeek: the position of
is set to .
2 4
2 4
¥
7 ¦
§
2 4
¥
Computation hSeek
sets the position of handle
depending on
. If
¡
¦
¦
7 ¦
7 ¦
7 ¦
¥
7 ¦
¡
¥
7 ¦
.
¦
7 ¦
¥
7 ¦
7 ¦
¥
is:
7 ¦
218
CHAPTER 21. INPUT/OUTPUT
to be discarded. Some handles may not be seekable (see hIsSeekable), or only support a subset of the possible positioning operations (for instance, it may only be possible to seek to the end of a tape, or to a positive offset from the beginning or current position). It is not possible to set a negative I/O position, or for a physical ﬁle, an I/O position beyond the current endofﬁle. Error reporting: the hSeek computation may fail with: isPermissionError if a system resource limit would be exceeded.
21.8 Handle Properties
The functions hIsOpen, hIsClosed, hIsReadable, hIsWritable and hIsSeekable return information about the properties of a handle. Each of these returns True if the handle has the speciﬁed property, and False otherwise.
21.9 Text Input and Output
Here we deﬁne a standard set of input operations for reading characters and strings from text ﬁles, using handles. Many of these functions are generalizations of Prelude functions. I/O in the Prelude generally uses stdin and stdout; here, handles are explicitly speciﬁed by the I/O operation.
21.9.1 Checking for Input
Computation hWaitForInput waits until input is available on handle . It returns True as soon as input is available on , or False if no input is available within milliseconds.
¥
Computation hReady .
indicates whether at least one item is available for input from handle
Error reporting: the hWaitForInput and hReady computations fail with isEOFError if the end of ﬁle has been reached.
21.9.2 Reading Input
¥ ¥
Computation hGetChar
reads a character from the ﬁle or channel managed by
Error reporting: the hGetChar computation fails with isEOFError if the end of ﬁle has been reached. The hGetLine computation fails with isEOFError if the end of ﬁle is encountered when reading the ﬁrst character of the line. If hGetLine encounters endofﬁle at any other point while reading in a line, it is treated as a line terminator and the (partial) line is returned.
¥
Computation hGetLine reads a line from the ﬁle or channel managed by getLine is a shorthand for hGetLine stdin.
¥
. The Prelude’s
7 ¦
7 ¦
7 ¦
¥
§
§
7 ¦
7¥ ¦
¥
7 ¦
7 ¦
7 ¦
7 ¦
¥
.
5 Text Output ¥ writes the character to the ﬁle or channel managed by Computation hPutChar acters may be buffered if buffering is enabled for . which is made semiclosed.21. Char 7 ¦ 7 ¦ ¥ . the ﬁle or channel managed by given by the shows function to Error reporting: the hPutChar.10. ¥ © © ¥ Computation hPutStr ¥ writes the string to the ﬁle or channel managed by § . Computation hPrint writes the string representation of and appends a newline. Error reporting: the hGetContents computation may fail with: isEOFError if the end of ﬁle has been reached. 21. 7 ¦ 7 ¦ 7 ¦ 7 ¦ ¥ 7 ¦ ¥ 7 ¦ 7 ¦ ¥ without removing it 7 ¦ § . blocking until a character is available.9.10 Examples Here are some simple examples to illustrate Haskell I/O. ¥ Error reporting: the hLookAhead computation may fail with: isEOFError if the end of ﬁle has been reached. EXAMPLES 219 21. 21.10. or isPermissionError if another system resource limit would be exceeded.4 Reading The Entire Input 7 ¦ Computation hGetContents of the channel or ﬁle managed by ¥ returns the list of characters corresponding to the unread portion .1 Summing Two Numbers This program reads and sums two Integers. 21.9.3 Reading Ahead ¥ Computation hLookAhead returns the next character from handle from the input buffer. hPutStr and hPrint computations may fail with: isFullError if the device is full. 21.9.
getArgs h1 <.hGetChar h1 hPutChar h2 (toUpper c) copyFile h1 h2 An equivalent but much shorter version.220 import IO CHAPTER 21.2 Copying Files A simple program to create a copy of a ﬁle.Providing a type signature avoids reliance on . This version uses characterlevel I/O.10. using string I/O is: .openFile f1 ReadMode h2 <.openFile f2 WriteMode copyFile h1 h2 hClose h1 hClose h2 copyFile h1 h2 = do eof <.hIsEOF h1 if eof then return () else do c <. with all lowercase characters translated to uppercase. INPUT/OUTPUT main = do hSetBuffering stdout NoBuffering putStr "Enter an integer: " x1 <.the defaulting rule to fix the type of x1. This program will not allow a ﬁle to be copied to itself.readNum putStr "Enter another integer: " x2 <.f2] <.x2 readNum = readLn 21. Note that exactly two arguments must be supplied to the program.readNum putStr ("Their sum is " ++ show (x1+x2) ++ "\n") where readNum :: IO Integer . import IO import System import Char( toUpper ) main = do [f1.
actions that IO exports.11.before rs <.11 Library IO module IO {.21.readFile f1 writeFile f2 (map toUpper s) 221 21.export list omitted } where .variant of the above where middle computation doesn’t want x bracket_ :: IO a > (a > IO b) > IO c > IO c bracket_ before after m = do x <. LIBRARY IO import System import Char( toUpper ) main = do [f1. try try f :: IO a > IO (Either IOError a) = catch (do r <.getArgs s <.try m after x case rs of Right r > return r Left e > ioError e . Left) bracket :: IO a > (a > IO b) > (a > IO c) > IO c bracket before after m = do x <.before rs <.f2] <.Just provide an implementation of the systemindependent .try (m x) after x case rs of Right r > return r Left e > ioError e .f return (Right r)) (return .
INPUT/OUTPUT .222 CHAPTER 21.
223 .
DIRECTORY FUNCTIONS Chapter 22 Directory Functions module Directory ( Permissions( Permissions. executable.. searchable ). renameFile. createDirectory.. getDirectoryContents. removeFile. getCurrentDirectory. readable. .. searchable :: Bool } instance instance instance instance Eq Ord Read Show Permissions Permissions Permissions Permissions where where where where .. renameDirectory. > > > > > IO () IO () IO () FilePath > IO () FilePath > IO () createDirectory removeDirectory removeFile renameDirectory renameFile getDirectoryContents getCurrentDirectory setCurrentDirectory doesFileExist doesDirectoryExist getPermissions setPermissions getModificationTime :: :: :: :: :: FilePath FilePath FilePath FilePath FilePath :: FilePath > IO [FilePath] :: IO FilePath :: FilePath > IO () :: FilePath > IO Bool :: FilePath > IO Bool :: FilePath > IO Permissions :: FilePath > Permissions > IO () :: FilePath > IO ClockTime . . getModificationTime ) where import Time ( ClockTime ) data Permissions = Permissions { readable. getPermissions. executable.. writable. .. doesFileExist. writable.224 CHAPTER 22. setCurrentDirectory.. removeDirectory. doesDirectoryExist. setPermissions..
or across different physical devices). There is normally at least one absolute path to each ﬁle system object. it is atomically replaced by the directory.). In some operating systems. or isDoesNotExistError if the ﬁle/directory does not exist. removal of the root directory). inaccessible. Error reporting. the ﬁle may not be in use by other processes). Although there may be ﬁle system objects other than ﬁles and directories. it may also be possible to have paths which are relative to the current directory. All such objects should therefore be treated as if they are ﬁles.” under POSIX). A directory contains a series of entries. The removeDirectory and removeFile computations may fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to remove the ﬁle/directory. where is Computation removeFile not itself a directory.1. or have some administrative function (for instance. A conformant implementation need not support directory removal in all situations (for instance.. If the object already exists. “. it is atomically replaced by the object. or may not be in use by other processes). if an implementation does not support an operation it should raise an isIllegalOperation. If the directory already exists. but all such entries are considered to form part of the directory contents. Computation renameDirectory changes the name of an existing directory from to . A conformant implementation need not support renaming directories in all situations (for instance. Some entries may be hidden. this library does not distinguish between physical ﬁles and other nondirectory objects. Any Directory operation could raise an isIllegalOperation. all other permissible errors are described below. The createDirectory computation may fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to create the directory. removes an existing directory . each of which is a named reference to a ﬁle system object (ﬁle. as described in Section 21. however. Error reporting.” or “. the directory has to be empty. If the directory is neither the directory nor an alias of the directory. or as £ ¦ ¦ ¦ 7 7 7 2 2 £ £ ¦ ¦ £ £ ¦ ¦ £ ¦ . directory etc. Each ﬁle system object is referenced by a path. Note that. The implementation may specify additional constraints which must be satisﬁed before a ﬁle can be removed (for instance.225 These functions operate on directories in the ﬁle system. Neither path ¦ ¦ 7 7 2 2 7 7 ¦ 7 2 ¦ 7 ¤§ 2 ¦ ¤§ creates a new directory Computation createDirectory near to empty as the operating system allows. isAlreadyExistsError if the directory already exists. or isDoesNotExistError if the new directory’s parent does not exist. Computation renameFile changes the name of an existing ﬁle system object from to . it is removed as if by removeDirectory. The implementation Computation removeDirectory may specify additional constraints which must be satisﬁed before a directory can be removed (for instance. It is not legal for an implementation to partially remove a directory unless the entire directory is removed. but the constraints must be documented. considered to form part of the directory contents. removes the directory entry for an existing ﬁle . in particular. Entries in subdirectories are not. renaming to an existing directory. ¦ ¦ 7 2 £ ¦ ¤§ ¦ ¤§ 7 ¦ 2 ¦ which is initially empty.
Each entry in the changes . get(set)Permissions. getCurrentDirectory returns an absolute path to the current directory of the calling process. ¦ ¤§ ¤§ ¤§ ¤§ ¦ ¦ Computation getDirectoryContents returned list is named relative to the directory returns a list of all entries in . but not to examine the directory contents. or if either argument to renameFile is a directory. The renameDirectory and renameFile computations may fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to rename the ﬁle/directory.226 CHAPTER 22. Error reporting. The getModificationTime operation returns the clock time at which the ﬁle/directory was last modiﬁed. and False otherwise. the executable ﬁeld will be False. ¦ ¦ . The getDirectoryContents and getCurrentDirectory computations may fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to access the directory. makeReadable f = do p <. but not all permissions. Error reporting. or isDoesNotExistError if the ﬁle/directory does not exist. Note that to change some. setCurrentDirectory the current directory of the calling process to . if permission has been given to use them as part of a path. or isDoesNotExistError if the ﬁle/directory ¤§ If the operating system has a notion of current directories. a construct on the following lines must be used. or isDoesNotExistError if the directory does not exist.getPermissions f setPermissions f (p {readable = True}) The operation doesDirectoryExist returns True if the argument ﬁle exists and is a directory. doesFile(Directory)Exist. The Permissions type is used to record whether certain operations are permissible on a ﬁle/directory. and getModificationTime may fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to access the appropriate information. Note that directories may be searchable without being readable. but the constraints must be documented. DIRECTORY FUNCTIONS may refer to an existing directory. renaming across different physical devices). For directories. Error reporting. If the operating system has a notion of current directories. or isDoesNotExistError if the directory does not exist. setCurrentDirectory may fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to change directory to that speciﬁed. The operation doesFileExist returns True if the argument ﬁle exists and is not a directory. Error reporting. not as an absolute path. Permissions apply both to ﬁles and directories. getPermissions and setPermissions get and set these permissions. and for ﬁles the searchable ﬁeld will be False. A conformant implementation need not support renaming ﬁles in all situations (for instance. and False otherwise. respectively.
227 does not exist. or isDoesNotExistError if the ﬁle/directory does not exist. The setPermissions computation may also fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to change the permission for the speciﬁed ﬁle or directory. .
228 CHAPTER 22. DIRECTORY FUNCTIONS .
in particular. Note that.1.ExitFailure). Show) getArgs getProgName getEnv system exitWith exitFailure :: :: :: :: :: :: IO [String] IO String String > IO String String > IO ExitCode ExitCode > IO a IO a This library describes the interaction of the program with the operating system. system. as described in Section 21. Computation getEnv returns the value of the environment variable . getProgName. Any System operation could raise an isIllegalOperation. getEnv. The exact interpretation of is operatingsystem dependent. Ord. Computation getProgName returns the name of the program as it was invoked. if an implementation does not support an operation it must raise an isIllegalOperation. ExitSuccess indicates successful termination.Chapter 23 System Functions module System ( ExitCode(ExitSuccess. 0 on a POSIXcompliant system). Computation getArgs returns a list of the program’s command line arguments (not including the program name). the isDoesNotExistError exception is raised. and ExitFailure indicates program failure with value . exitFailure ) where data ExitCode = ExitSuccess  ExitFailure Int deriving (Eq. If variable is undeﬁned. exitWith. all other permissible errors are described below. The ExitCode type deﬁnes the exit codes that a program can return. In particular. some values of may be prohibited (for instance. 229 ¤ ¢ ¦ ¦ 2 2 ¤ ¢ ¦ 2 ¤ ¢ ¦ 2 . Read. getArgs.
Otherwise. if any program terminates without calling exitWith explicitly. but the program should return ExitSuccess to mean normal completion. If a program terminates as a result of calling error or because its value is otherwise determined to be . ¦ returns the exit code produced when the operating system processes 4 7 ¢ § 0 § § S ¢ ¡ ¡ . any open or semiclosed handles are ﬁrst closed. SYSTEM FUNCTIONS ¦ ¦ Computation exitWith terminates the program.230 CHAPTER 23. and ExitFailure to mean that the program encountered a problem from which it ). returning to the program’s caller. then it is treated identically to the computation exitFailure. exitWith bypasses the error handling in the I/O monad and cannot be intercepted by catch. could not recover. The value exitFailure is equal to exitWith (ExitFailure where is implementationdependent. Before the program terminates. it is treated identically to the computation ( >> exitWith ExitSuccess) ‘catch‘ \ _ > exitFailure 7 ¢ § 0 § § S ¢ ¦ 2 ¦ 2 4 Computation system the command . The caller may interpret the return code as it wishes.
231 .
tdMonth. Read. String. ctHour.May. Enum. toUTCTime. Int. diffClockTimes. tdDay... tdMonth. addToClockTime. Show) :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Int. Month(January. ctMin. ctTZ. ctSec.September. Read. ctDay.Friday. .. Int. tdPicosec). DATES AND TIMES Chapter 24 Dates and Times module Time ( ClockTime.Saturday). calendarTimeToString. Integer. ctIsDST). formatCalendarTime ) where import Ix(Ix) data ClockTime = . getClockTime. tdYear.December). Ix. toClockTime. Month. Ord. tdMin. July. Ord. ctYDay. tdSec :: Int.June.232 CHAPTER 24.. ctWDay. ctMin. TimeDiff(TimeDiff. Bounded. tdPicosec :: Integer } deriving (Eq.. Show) .April. Ord. Ix. Show) data TimeDiff = TimeDiff { tdYear. ctTZName.Monday.Implementationdependent data Month = January  February  March  April  May  June  July  August  September  October  November  December deriving (Eq. ctYear. Show) data Day = Sunday  Monday  Tuesday  Wednesday  Thursday  Friday  Saturday deriving (Eq.Tuesday. Day. ctMonth. tdSec. tdHour. Read. Enum. Ord. Int. ctHour. instance Eq ClockTime where .Wednesday. tdMin. ctSec ctPicosec ctWDay ctYDay ctTZName ctTZ ctIsDST } deriving (Eq.March. Bounded.Thursday. Read. Bool data CalendarTime = CalendarTime { ctYear ctMonth ctDay.. ctPicosec. tdHour.November.August. toCalendarTime. instance Ord ClockTime where . Day(Sunday. CalendarTime(CalendarTime.October.February. tdDay.
ClockTime is an abstract type. and False otherwise. § § © S§ ¤ § § § t ¢ £ ¦ ¤ § 8¥¥8 8 8¥¥8 8 ¤ ¢ ¤ £ 8¥¥8 8 8¥¥8 8 8¥¥8 8 8¥¥8 8 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 Allows for two Leap Seconds 364 in nonLeap years Variation from UTC in seconds § § ¦ 4 ¢ ¦ E ¡ § .Functions on times getClockTime :: IO ClockTime addToClockTime diffClockTimes toCalendarTime toUTCTime toClockTime calendarTimeToString formatCalendarTime :: TimeDiff > ClockTime > ClockTime :: ClockTime > ClockTime > TimeDiff :: :: :: :: :: ClockTime > IO CalendarTime ClockTime > CalendarTime CalendarTime > ClockTime CalendarTime > String TimeLocale > String > CalendarTime > String The Time library provides standard functionality for clock times. The returns difference may be either positive or negative. Function toCalendarTime converts to a local time. toCalendarTime is in the IO monad. used for the system’s internal clock time. Value ctYear maxInt ctDay 1 ctHour 0 ctMin 0 ctSec 0 ctPicosec 0 ctYDay 0 ctTZ 89999 Range maxInt 31 23 59 61 365 89999 £ Comments PreGregorian dates are inaccurate The ﬁeld is the name of the time zone. Because of this dependence on the local environment. modiﬁed by the timezone and daylight savings time settings in force at the time of conversion. The expression addToClockTime adds a time difference and a clock time to yield a new clock time. The TimeDiff type records the difference between two clock times in a userreadable way. Function getClockTime returns the current time in its internal representation. The expression diffClockTimes the difference between two clock times and as a TimeDiff. including timezone information. It follows RFC 1129 in its use of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). CalendarTime is a userreadable and manipulable representation of the internal ClockTime type. The ﬁeld is True if Daylight Savings Time would be in effect. The numeric ﬁelds have the following ranges.233 . Clock times may be compared directly or converted to a calendar time CalendarTime for I/O or other manipulations.
Ix. ctTZName. ctTZ.Thursday. Read. DATES AND TIMES Function toUTCTime converts into a CalendarTime in standard UTC format. Ix. toClockTime converts into the corresponding internal ClockTime ignoring the contents of the . Enum.. Month(January. . tdMonth.). Show) ¢ £ 4 ¢ E ¡ 7 § § ¢ G § 7 ¢ ( § .May. TimeDiff(TimeDiff.September.. Function calendarTimeToString formats calendar times using local conventions and a formatting string. Bounded. ctYDay.defaultTimeLocale) import Char ( intToDigit ) data ClockTime = . Day(Sunday. Enum.June. ctYear. toUTCTime. . tdSec. Bounded.August. . t © S§ 24. tdYear.April.February. ctIsDST). and ﬁelds.1 Library Time module Time ( ClockTime. addToClockTime.234 § CHAPTER 24.October. toClockTime. toCalendarTime.Wednesday. July. ctMin. tdDay.Monday. ctMonth. formatCalendarTime ) where import Ix(Ix) import Locale(TimeLocale(. ctWDay.. instance Eq ClockTime where . ctDay. tdHour. Ord. calendarTimeToString. ctSec. ctHour. diffClockTimes..November. ctPicosec.Friday. instance Ord ClockTime where .Tuesday. tdPicosec). CalendarTime(CalendarTime.Implementationdependent data Month = January  February  March  April  May  June  July  August  September  October  November  December deriving (Eq. Ord.. getClockTime...Saturday).March. Show) data Day = Sunday  Monday  Tuesday  Wednesday  Thursday  Friday  Saturday deriving (Eq. tdMin.December). Read.
. ctHour..Implementationdependent :: CalendarTime > String = formatCalendarTime defaultTimeLocale "%c" .. :: ClockTime = .Implementationdependent :: TimeDiff = . . Bool data TimeDiff = TimeDiff { tdYear. Ord.1. Read..Implementationdependent > CalendarTime .. Ord. Day. ctSec ctPicosec ctWDay ctYDay ctTZName ctTZ ctIsDST } deriving (Eq.. tdDay. Read. tdSec :: Int. Int. :: ClockTime = .. :: ClockTime = . Month.Implementationdependent :: CalendarTime > ClockTime = . Int.Implementationdependent > IO CalendarTime .. Show) getClockTime getClockTime addToClockTime addToClockTime td ct diffClockTimes diffClockTimes ct1 ct2 toCalendarTime toCalendarTime ct toUTCTime toUTCTime ct toClockTime toClockTime cal calendarTimeToString calendarTimeToString :: IO ClockTime = .. > ClockTime > ClockTime . Int. tdPicosec :: Integer } deriving (Eq. tdHour. ctMin.Implementationdependent > ClockTime > TimeDiff . Show) 235 :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Int.. tdMin. Integer. tdMonth. String... LIBRARY TIME data CalendarTime = CalendarTime { ctYear ctMonth ctDay..24.
1 else 6) ‘divMod‘ 7 in show2 (if days >= 4 then .. days) = (yday + 7 .236 CHAPTER 24.if fromEnum wday > 0 then fromEnum wday . DATES AND TIMES formatCalendarTime :: TimeLocale > String > CalendarTime > String formatCalendarTime l fmt ct@(CalendarTime year mon day hour min sec sdec wday yday tzname _ _) = doFmt fmt where doFmt (’%’:c:cs) = decode c ++ doFmt cs doFmt (c:cs) = c : doFmt cs doFmt "" = "" to12 :: Int > Int to12 h = let h’ = h ‘mod‘ 12 in if h’ == 0 then 12 else h’ decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode ’A’ ’a’ ’B’ ’b’ ’h’ ’C’ ’c’ ’D’ ’d’ ’e’ ’H’ ’I’ ’j’ ’k’ ’l’ ’M’ ’m’ ’n’ ’p’ ’R’ ’r’ ’T’ ’t’ ’S’ ’s’ ’U’ ’u’ = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = fst (wDays l !! fromEnum wday) snd (wDays l !! fromEnum wday) fst (months l !! fromEnum mon) snd (months l !! fromEnum mon) snd (months l !! fromEnum mon) show2 (year ‘quot‘ 100) doFmt (dateTimeFmt l) doFmt "%m/%d/%y" show2 day show2’ day show2 hour show2 (to12 hour) show3 yday show2’ hour show2’ (to12 hour) show2 min show2 (fromEnum mon+1) "\n" (if hour < 12 then fst else snd) (amPm l) doFmt "%H:%M" doFmt (time12Fmt l) doFmt "%H:%M:%S" "\t" show2 sec .fromEnum wday) ‘div‘ 7) show (let n = fromEnum wday in if n == 0 then 7 else n) decode ’V’ = let (week. ..Implementationdependent show2 ((yday + 7 .
if fromEnum wday > 0 then fromEnum wday . show2’.1 else 6) ‘div‘ 7) decode ’w’ = show (fromEnum wday) decode ’X’ = doFmt (timeFmt l) decode ’x’ = doFmt (dateFmt l) decode ’Y’ = show year decode ’y’ = show2 (year ‘rem‘ 100) decode ’Z’ = tzname decode ’%’ = "%" decode c = [c] show2. intToDigit x] else show2 x show3 x = intToDigit (x ‘quot‘ 100) : show2 (x ‘rem‘ 100) 237 . intToDigit (x ‘rem‘ 10)] show2’ x = if x < 10 then [ ’ ’.1. show3 :: Int > String show2 x = [intToDigit (x ‘quot‘ 10). LIBRARY TIME week+1 else if week == 0 then 53 else week) decode ’W’ = show2 ((yday + 7 .24.
DATES AND TIMES .238 CHAPTER 24.
String).. dateFmt. Ord. String)]. defaultTimeLocale) where data TimeLocale = TimeLocale { wDays :: [(String. timeFmt. time12Fmt :: String } deriving (Eq. amPm :: (String. String)]. it supports only time and date information as used by calendarTimeToString from the Time library. At present.Chapter 25 Locale module Locale(TimeLocale(. 239 . dateTimeFmt. months :: [(String.). Show) defaultTimeLocale :: TimeLocale full and abbreviated week days full and abbreviated months AM/PM symbols formatting strings The Locale library provides the ability to adapt to local conventions.
240
CHAPTER 25. LOCALE
25.1 Library Locale
module Locale(TimeLocale(..), defaultTimeLocale) where data TimeLocale = TimeLocale { wDays :: [(String, String)], months :: [(String, String)], amPm :: (String, String), dateTimeFmt, dateFmt, timeFmt, time12Fmt :: String } deriving (Eq, Ord, Show) full and abbreviated week days full and abbreviated months AM/PM symbols formatting strings
defaultTimeLocale :: TimeLocale defaultTimeLocale = TimeLocale { wDays = [("Sunday", "Sun"), ("Monday", "Mon"), ("Tuesday", "Tue"), ("Wednesday", "Wed"), ("Thursday", "Thu"), ("Friday", "Fri"), ("Saturday", "Sat")], months = [("January", ("March", ("May", ("July", ("September", ("November", "Jan"), "Mar"), "May"), "Jul"), "Sep"), "Nov"), ("February", ("April", ("June", ("August", ("October", ("December", "Feb"), "Apr"), "Jun"), "Aug"), "Oct"), "Dec")],
amPm = ("AM", "PM"), dateTimeFmt = "%a %b %e %H:%M:%S %Z %Y", dateFmt = "%m/%d/%y", timeFmt = "%H:%M:%S", time12Fmt = "%I:%M:%S %p" }
Chapter 26
CPU Time
module CPUTime ( getCPUTime, cpuTimePrecision ) where getCPUTime cpuTimePrecision :: IO Integer :: Integer
Computation getCPUTime returns the number of picoseconds of CPU time used by the current program. The precision of this result is given by cpuTimePrecision. This is the smallest measurable difference in CPU time that the implementation can record, and is given as an integral number of picoseconds.
241
242
CHAPTER 26. CPU TIME
243
244
CHAPTER 27. RANDOM NUMBERS
Chapter 27
Random Numbers
module Random ( RandomGen(next, split, genRange), StdGen, mkStdGen, Random( random, randomR, randoms, randomRs, randomIO, randomRIO ), getStdRandom, getStdGen, setStdGen, newStdGen ) where  The RandomGen class class RandomGen genRange :: g next :: g split :: g g where > (Int, Int) > (Int, g) > (g, g)
 A standard instance of RandomGen data StdGen = ...  Abstract instance RandomGen StdGen where ... instance Read StdGen where ... instance Show StdGen where ... mkStdGen :: Int > StdGen  The Random class class Random a where randomR :: RandomGen g => (a, a) > g > (a, g) random :: RandomGen g => g > (a, g) randomRs :: RandomGen g => (a, a) > g > [a] randoms :: RandomGen g => g > [a] randomRIO :: (a,a) > IO a randomIO :: IO a instance instance instance instance instance instance Random Random Random Random Random Random Int Integer Float Double Bool Char where where where where where where ... ... ... ... ... ...
 The global random generator newStdGen :: IO StdGen setStdGen :: StdGen > IO () getStdGen :: IO StdGen getStdRandom :: (StdGen > (a, StdGen)) > IO a
the Float instance of Random allows one to generate random values of type Float. The next operation returns an Int that is uniformly distributed in the range returned by genRange (including both end points). THE RANDOMGEN CLASS. or to get different results on each run by using the systeminitialised generator.27. The library makes it possible to generate repeatable results.Default method genRange g = (minBound. – genRange – If genRange . g) . and hence the value it returns can be determined only by the instance of RandomGen. class RandomGen g where genRange :: g > (Int. The split operation allows one to obtain two independent random number generators.1. without being concerned that the generator returned by (say) next might have a different range to the generator passed to next. then . by starting with a speciﬁed initial random number generator.Int) next :: g > (Int. The class RandomGen provides a common interface to such generators. and a new generator. when passing a random number generator down to recursive calls).1 The RandomGen class. g) split :: g > (g. but very little work has been done on statistically robust implementations of split ([1. 27. ¦ ¡ ¡ . AND THE STDGEN GENERATOR 245 The Random library deals with the common task of pseudorandom number generation. This is very useful in functional programs (for example. . and the StdGen generator The class RandomGen provides a common interface to random number generators. or by supplying a seed from some other source.4] are the only examples we know of). The class Random provides a way to extract particular values from a random number generator. The library is split into two layers: A core random number generator provides a supply of bits. That in turn allows an implementation to make a single call to genRange to establish a generator’s range. For example. It is required that: The second condition ensures that genRange cannot examine its argument.maxBound) The genRange operation yields the range of values returned by the generator.
. In addition. instance Read StdGen where . instance Show StdGen where .. Again. It guarantees to consume only a ﬁnite portion of the string.. by mapping an Int into a generator. In general. But now consider these two apparentlyindependent generators: g1 = snd (split g) g2 = snd (split (fst (split g))) If split genuinely delivers independent generators (as speciﬁed).. mkStdGen :: Int > StdGen The StgGen instance of RandomGen has a genRange of at least 30 bits.Abstract instance RandomGen StdGen where . Different argument strings are likely to result in different results. It is required that read (show g) == g... of course.. Until more is known about implementations of split. all we require is that split deliver generators that are (a) not identical and (b) independently robust in the sense just given. . variantOf g) Here. split g = (g. then g1 and g2 should be independent.. the abstract data type StdGen: data StdGen = . Implementation warning. The function mkStdGen provides an alternative way of producing an initial generator.3]. A superﬁcially attractive implementation of split is instance RandomGen MyGen where .. read may be used to map an arbitrary string (not necessarily one produced by show) onto a value of type StdGen. split returns g itself and a new generator derived from g. RANDOM NUMBERS The Random library provides one instance of RandomGen. Implementations of the above form do not meet the speciﬁcation. The result of repeatedly using next should be at least as statistically robust as the “Minimal Standard Random Number Generator” described by [2. Programmers may. distinct arguments should be likely to produce distinct generators. but in fact they are both equal to variantOf g..246 CHAPTER 27. supply their own instances of RandomGen. The Show/Read instances of StdGen provide a primitive way to save the state of a random number generator.. the read instance of StdGen has the following properties: It guarantees to succeed on any string.
the range is (arbitrarily) the range of Int. the range is normally the whole type. .. and returns a random value uniformly distributed in the closed interval .. . – For bounded types (instances of Bounded. but does not take a range...g’) = random g randomRs = . a) > g > [a] randoms :: RandomGen g => g > [a] randomRIO :: (a... – For fractional types. randomIO = getStdRandom random randomRIO range = getStdRandom (randomR range) instance instance instance instance instance instance Random Random Random Random Random Random Int Integer Float Double Bool Char where where where where where where .. such as Char). and do not return a new generator. random does the same as randomR. the Random class allows the programmer to extract random values of a variety of types: class Random a where randomR :: RandomGen g => (a.27.. together with a new generator.. randomR takes a range and a random number generator .2.Default methods randoms g = x : randoms g’ where (x.. For continuous types there is no requirement that the values and are ever produced.. ...similar. the range is normally the semiclosed interval ¦ ¨ § ¨¥ 2 7 § ¨¥ £ § ¨¥ 2 7 2 7 § ¨¥ 2 7 .2 The Random class With a source of random number supply in hand.a) > IO a randomIO :: IO a . – For Integer. randomRs and randoms.. g) randomRs :: RandomGen g => (a. .. It is unspeciﬁed what happens if . but they may be. THE RANDOM CLASS 247 27. .. depending on the implementation and the interval. g) random :: RandomGen g => g > (a. The plural versions. produce an inﬁnite list of random values. . a) > g > (a.
and KW Miller. or Linux’s kernel random number generator.ac. To get deterministic behaviour. pp8289. 2(2):203212. Oct 1988. implicit. randomRIO and randomIO. April 1992. 27. for example.mat. and returns the other. Jan 1990. “Don’t trust parallel Monte Carlo”. [2] SK Park. by using the time of day.6)) References [1] FW Burton and RL Page. [3] DG Carta. For example. setStdGen getStdGen newStdGen getStdRandom :: :: :: :: StdGen > IO () IO StdGen IO StdGen (StdGen > (a. “Two fast implementations of the minimal standard random number generator”. pp11921201. July 1998. and updates the global generator with the new generator returned by the function.at/ is a great source of information. held in some global variable maintained by the IO monad. Comm ACM. pp8788. Comm ACM 31(10). Journal of Functional Programming. 33(1).3). It is initialised automatically in some systemdependent fashion. RANDOM NUMBERS The IO versions.3 The global random number generator There is a single. StdGen)) > IO a getStdGen and setStdGen get and set the global random number generator. ACM SIGSIM Simulation Digest 28(1).sbg. use the global random number generator (see Section 27. . respectively. [4] P Hellekalek.good ones are hard to ﬁnd”. newStdGen applies split to the current global random generator. “Random number generators . “Distributed random number generation”. getStdRandom uses the supplied function to get a value from the current global random generator. rollDice gets a random integer between 1 and 6: rollDice :: IO Int rollDice = getStdRandom (randomR (1. updates it with one of the results. use setStdGen. global random number generator of type StdGen.248 CHAPTER 27. The Web site http://random.
J. January 1989. The principal type scheme of an object in combinatory logic. San Francisco. Fasel. The Implementation of Functional Programming Languages. [4] KF. A gentle introduction to Haskell. Feys. Yale University. Penﬁeld. Paris. Principal values and branch cuts in complex APL. In APL ’81 Conference Proceedings. Albuquerque. Co. pages 207–212. [11] Unicode Consortium.Bibliography [1] J. January 1982. October 1999. [10] S. Austin. Addison Wesley. [9] P. Jones. Fax´ n A static semantics for Haskell Journal of Functional Programming. How to make ad hoc polymorphism less ad hoc. 249 . [8] Mark P. [2] H. CACM. N. In Proceedings of the 9th ACM Symposium on Principles of Programming Languages. Technical Report YALEU/DCS/RR901. pages 60–76. NorthHolland Pub. Texas. pages 248–256.M.. [7] Mark P. 1987. Can programming be liberated from the von Neumann style? A functional style and its algebra of programs. Englewood Cliffs. Hudak. Journal of Functional Programming. September 1981. Combinatory Logic. December 1969. Transactions of the American Mathematical Society. Peterson. PrenticeHall International. In Proceedings of the 16th ACM Symposium on Principles of Programming Languages. Reading. A system of constructor classes: overloading and implicit higherorder polymorphism. Milner. Version 3. Jones. 2002. Amsterdam. e [5] J.R. Haskell Workshop. MA. Peyton Jones. Jr. and J. 1958. 21(8):613–641. [12] P. Curry and R. Wadler and S. August 1978. Backus. 5(1).L. Principal type schemes for functional programs. January 1995.B. May 1996. Typing Haskell in Haskell. 2000. [3] L. [6] P.. Hindley. New Jersey. The Unicode Standard. 146:29–60.0. Damas and R. Blott.
250 BIBLIOGRAPHY .
119 alt. see also + pattern ++. 16. 88. 151. see wildcard pattern . 92. 139 alts. 12 \t. 79. 109 >>=. 104. 12 \r. 20–23. 84. 173. 62 and. 92. 174. 55. 110 ˜. 82. 109 _. 110 %. 55. 55. 104. 174. see lambda abstraction \&. 91. 119 ANYseq. 97. 31. 142 >>. 173. 104. 105 **.. 97. see irrefutable pattern abbreviated module. 153 251 § 7 3¢ §§ ¢ ¦ . 105 AbsoluteSeek. 55. 104. 214 application. 92. 104. 12 \\. 202. 51. 104. 66 abs. 104. 109 ==. 105. 104. 141 all. 104. 142 :.Index font. 88. 12 \n. 115 . 104. 104. 104. 91. 90. 55.). 91. 109 ˆˆ. 104. 177 accumArray. 19 function. !. 9. 80 (). 43. see function application operator. 187 \. 139 ambiguous type. 173. 104. 235 aexp. 44. 91. 119 ANY. 91. 55. 129 ap. 55. 106 +. 97. 55. 55. 82. 104. 55. 206 apat. 84. 30 <. 110 (. 109 @. 81. see trivial type and unit expression *. 104. 80 \\. 55. 9. 55. 67. 106 //.). 142 =<<. 177 acos. 126 AppendMode. 93. 140 appendFile. 173. 91. 129 any. 175–177 /=. 175. 81. 81. 55. see also negation . Code Index entries that refer to nonterminals in the Haskell syntax are shown in an entities are shown in typewriter font. 155. 12 \b. 55. 177 !!. 80 (. 92. 104. 88. 176. 55. 55. Ordinary index entries are shown in a roman font. 105. 106 addToClockTime. 90. 104. 153 &&. 55. 142 >. 79. 91. 55. 104. 104. 25. 84. 110 /. 84. 156 ::. 129 any. 55. 104. see operator application approxRational. 110 $!. 12 . 90. 151. 115. see aspattern [] (nil). 233. 80 :+. 182 \a. 142 >=. 106 acosh. 91. 116 $. 17. 90. 45. 217 abstract datatype. 9. 76 accum. 142 <=. 25. 230 ˆ. 55. 91. 186. 55. 12 \f. 55.. 139 algebraic datatype. 12 \v. 91. 180.
9 endofline. 173. 211. 106 atype. 130 chr. 161.252 arithmetic operator. 98. 197 array. 174 Array (module). 143 instance for Char. 9. 47 class. 174 derived. 12. 25 INDEX catch. 89. 42 class method. 118 btype. 9 nested. 173. 23. 115 conditional expression. 194 cdecl. 92. 17. 235 case expression. 12. 67 with an empty where part. 107 changing the directory. 161. 215 closure. 9. 106 assocs. 137 ceiling. 110 boolean. 66. 80 Array (datatype). 136 cntrl. 173. 137 cdecls. 232 ClockTime (datatype). 140 concat. 33 ascDigit. 91. 197. 174. 193. 155. 10. 105 derived instance. 12. 93. 226 Char (datatype). 79. 142 Complex (module). 221 bracket_. 7 ascLarge. 79. 41. 106 asinh. 114 atan. 9. 129 ascSmall. 129 ascSymbol. 198 cis. 108 atanh. 234 char. 174. 9. 173. 47. 48 class environment. 195. 235 calendarTimeToString. 129 ascii. see pattern binding simple pattern. see function binding pattern. 9 comment. 31. 90 arithmetic sequence. 230 catMaybes. 174. 18. 137 BufferMode (datatype). 79 literal syntax. 137 basic input/output. 156 class. 48. 130 character. 41 class declaration. 221 break. 91. 74 cname. see simple pattern binding body. 79 Bounded (class). 18. 9. 137 class assertion. 104. 210 CalendarTime (datatype). 21 conid. 93 comment. 130 conjugate. 195. 121. 49 clock time. 136 Bool (datatype). 140 . 38. 38. 69. 91. 211. 115 concatMap. 93. 11. 155. 173 accumulated. 156 conop. 47. 9. 40. 84. 156 con. 129 compare. 91. 155. 38. 106 atan2. 110 Char (module). 39. 37 function. 12. 129 closing a ﬁle. 232. 176. 17. 177 aspattern (@). 125. 232. 177 bracket. 129 asin. 130 ASCII character set. 176 array. 111 bounds. see ASCII character set transparent. 234 closecom. 177 asTypeOf. 233. 95 binding. 92. 51. 40. 38. 47. see transparent character set charesc. 130 coercion. 12 character set ASCII.
182. 37 class. 235 current directory. 92. 232. 90. 240 dateTimeFmt. 38. 180. Haskell B. 239. 49 declaration group. vii cycle. 241 cpuTimePrecision. 232. 184. see newtype declaration dateFmt. 153 dependency analysis. 114 Curry. 47 within a let expression. 137 context reduction. 174. 38 constructor expression. 187 deleting directories. 225 denominator. 97 doDiv. 51 defaultTimeLocale. 186 elems. 92. 43. 213. 106 divMod. 235 ctHour. 240 Day (datatype). 138 decimal. 180. 240 delete. 93 CPU time. 239. 182. 27.. see import declaration instance. 118 e. 180. 234 dclass. 41. 145 default declaration. 225 creating a ﬁle. 117 dashes. 106 cosine. 224. 232. 38. 50. see instance declaration within a class declaration. 241 CPUTime (module). see abstract datatype algebraic. 106 do expression. 235 digit. 129 digitToInt. 91. 93. 81. 43. 43. 108 . 43 abstract. 137 declaration. 58 derived instance. 115. 130 decl. 91. 182. 138 constrs. 81.INDEX const. 235 ctMin. 138 diffClockTimes. 92. 141. 187 deleteBy. 112 drop. 59 cos. 81. 11. 43. 186 elemIndices. 232. 91. 111 elem. 80. 129 data constructor. 130 context. 55. 197 directories. 43 data declaration. 187 deleteFirstsBy. 138 constructor class. 55. 9. 9. 10. 137 decodeFloat. 91. 226 curry. 118 dropWhile. see class declaration datatype. 163 doesDirectoryExist. 224 doesFileExist. 93. 214 ctDay. 151. 110 constr. 56. 239. 24 within an instance declaration. 233. 224 div. 119 elemIndex. 232. 51. 173. 195. 180. 58 decls. 184. 104. see also instance declaration deriving. 167 Either (datatype). 43 datatype. 40 consym. 26. 225 deleting ﬁles. 48. see data declaration default. see ﬁxity declaration import. 224 Directory (module). 177 encodeFloat. 41 context. see default declaration 253 ﬁxity. see algebraic datatype declaration. 224 Double (datatype). 89. 108 default class method. 241 createDirectory. see data declaration recursive. 106 cosh. 235 ctIsDST. see recursive datatype renaming. 180. 111 either.
see label. 202. 28.254 end of ﬁle. 91 export. 229 ExitFailure. 230 escape. 52 expt. 33 floatRadix. 98 executable. 16. 15 case. 97. 130 even. see type expression unit. 65 Enum (class). 180. 167 fail. 38. 19. 27 update. 108 floatToDigits. 92. 108 floatRange. see case expression conditional. 44 construction. 154 superclass of Integral. see unit expression expression typesignature. 229 . 139 FFFormat (datatype). 86. 229 exitFailure. 104 derived instance. 139 fexp. 229 EQ. 21. 89. see conditional expression let. 81 Eq (class). 49. see class environment type. 110 Float (datatype). 86. 30. 177 instance for Char. 16. 213 FilePath (type synonym). 92. 99. 12. 91. 229 exitWith. 106 enumeration. 86. 92. 105 enumFromTo. 212 False. 142 instance for Array. 114. 215 entity. 108 exception handling. 166 ¡ ¢ ¡ . 91. 105 environment class. 17 error. 180. 136 v INDEX expression. 91. 67. 30. 186 findIndices. 93. 94. 88. 51. 86. 182. 158 superclass of RealFloat. 18 ﬁxity. 12 floatDigits. 28 selection. 108 exponentiation. 105 derived instance. see type environment environment variables. 51. 111 instance for Double. 142 instance for Char. 109. 110 superclass of Num. 112 ﬂoat. 17. 19. 186 ﬁxity. 163 f. see let expression simple case. 229 ExitSuccess. 105 enumFromThenTo. 92. 159. 106 exponent. 29 ﬁelddecl. 105 enumFromThen. 89. 186 findIndex. 4. 180. 113 instance for Ratio. 108 Floating (class). 92. 139 exp. 213 ﬁle buffering. 170 enumFrom. 81. 54 flip. see simple case expression type. 54. 24–26. 93. 164 ﬁeld label. 138 ﬁle. 16. 137 ﬁxity declaration. 93. 162 expts. 82. 215 ﬁle system. 105 superclass of Ord. 67. 106 instance for Complex. 89. 108 ﬂoating literal pattern. 113 instance for Float. 4. 51. 115 filterM. 43. 66 exports. 207 find. 104 error. 86. 224 execution time. 241 ExitCode (datatype). 48. 139 exp. 79 fbind. 125 filter. 136 export list.
96. 189 genericIndex. 41 functional language. 224. 31. 38. 181. 92. 42 generator. 3 Haskell kernel. 159. 129 fpat. 235 getContents. 248 graphic. 181. 31. 190 genericSplitAt. 105 fromIntegral. 23. 81 gtycon. 9. 177 instance for IO. 140 gconsym. 224 getProgName. 248 getStdRandom. 210 HandlePosn (datatype). 18. 125 getCPUTime. 181. 181. 86. 56. 244. 92. 189 genericTake. 157 instance for Ratio. 162 fromRat’. 125 getModificationTime. 11. 202. 107 ﬂushing a ﬁle buffer. 56. 9. 244. 137 generalization. 181. 244. 194 fromRat. 225 getEnv. 87 funlhs. 108 gcon. 165 formfeed. 219 getArgs. 89. 129 255 . 181. 194 fromMaybe. 91. 117 formal semantics. 138 gendecl. 213 Haskell. 183. 140 fpats.INDEX floor. 193. 188 GT. 176 foldl. 94. 224. 106 superclass of RealFrac. 139 gdrhs. 3 formatCalendarTime. 107 fromEnum. 40. 117 foldr1. 109 fromJust. 96. 116 foldM. 4 hClose. 138 gdpat. 181. 90. 18 gd. 140 Fractional (class). 162 fromRational. 206 Handle (datatype). 233. 105 fromInteger. 91. 210. 215 head. 87. 25. 40. 210 handles. 115 hexadecimal. 130 gcd. 47. 56 function type. 229 getChar. 34 guard. vii. 106 fst. 25. 25. 96. 12. 229 getLine. 187 groupBy. 130 hexit. 90. 93. 229 getStdGen. 92. 111 instance for Maybe. 236 formatRealFloat. 153 superclass of Floating. 189 genericReplicate. 137 guard. 106 instance for Complex. 9. 129 group. vii Functor (class). 59 generalization preorder. 233. 111 functor. 202. 181. 245 get the contents of a ﬁle. 224 getPermissions. 49. 109 instance for []. 114 function. 81 function binding. 18. 116 foldl1. 184. 113 instance for Array. 241 getCurrentDirectory. 109. 225 getDirectoryContents. 18. 125 getClockTime. 207 foldr. 80. 54. 91. 193. 190 genericLength. 217 fmap. 189 genRange. 138 gap. 87. 55. 18. 91. 23 genericDrop.
182. 187 intersectBy. 70 HindleyMilner type system. 33 integerLogBase. 181. 69. 194 . 211. 211. 212 isJust. 189 inst. 210. 91. 136 import declaration. 136 impdecls. 81. 57 isAlpha. 58 hIsClosed. 12 integer literal pattern. 172 indices. 197 isAlreadyExistsError. 219 hGetLine. see also derived instance importing and exporting. 184. 38. 211. 69. 216 hSetPosn. 218 hLookAhead. 221 ioeGetErrorString. 138 instance declaration. 211. 219 hPutStrLn. 211. 197 isAlphaNum. 211. 81. 181. 217 hGetBuffering. 38. 169. 183. 50. 211. 126 intersect. 217 hGetChar. 212 ioeGetFileName. 212 ioeGetHandle. 217 hiding. 211. 181. 187 intersperse. 71 with an empty where part. 137 identiﬁer. 219 hPutStr. 210 I/O errors. 211. 211 hReady. 38. 215 hFlush. 211. 211. 211. 216. 215 isAscii. 181. 211. 211. 110 idecl. 197 isControl. 181. 218 hGetPosn. 188 insertBy. 197 isIllegalOperation. 183. 112 integer. 212 isFullError. 219 hPutChar. 212 isAlreadyInUseError. 195. 171. 211. 9 ifthenelse expression. 69 impspec. 183. 136 import. 198 IO. 49 Int (datatype). 181. 219 hPrint. 214. 112 Integer (datatype). 195. 211. 211. 106 interact. 195. 211. 174. 92. 98. 211. 210 IO (datatype). 211. 210 input/output examples. 173. 197 isDoesNotExistError. 197 isDigit. 218 I/O. see conditional expression imagPart. 212 isHexDigit. 137 idecls. 187 intToDigit. 215 isEOFError. 116 inits. 212. 34. 184. 212 ioError. 211. 96. 215 isEOF. 89. 211. 211. 218 hIsWritable. 163 Integral (class). 188 inlining. 169. 155.256 hFileSize. 217 hWaitForInput. 49. 111 IO (module). 211. 195. 219 inRange. 49. 212 id. 195. 212 IOError (datatype). 33. 210. 193. 211. 215 hIsOpen. 212. 211. 211. 211. 147 INDEX input/output. 195. 156 impdecl. 4. 211. 171. 218 hIsEOF. 81. 218 hGetContents. 92. 49. 218 hSeek. 49. 218 hIsSeekable. 211. 217 hSetBuffering. 89. 177 init. 211. 214 irrefutable pattern. 211. 136 index. 172 insert. 125 IOMode (datatype). 66. 125. 69. 218 hIsReadable. 195. 24.
206 mapM. 181. 172 instance for Integer. 130. 169. 116 layout. 202. 81 length. 116 let expression. 81 kind. 23 lex. 211. 109 Left. 27 lambda abstraction. 169. 212. 232. 23. 50. 195. 16. 197 isSpace. 115 mapAccumL. 9. 171. 177 listToMaybe. 129 lexical structure. 197 isNothing. 32 literate comments. 41 listArray. 172. 155. 24 in do expressions. 134 Locale (module). 9. 9. 197 isPermissionError. 139 libraries. 234 ixmap. 170 instance for Char. 7 lexLitChar. 122 lexDigits. 65 making directories. 91. 91 logBase. 183. 109 match. 159. 195. 234. 207 liftM3. 194 isOctDigit. 119 maximumBy. 168 lexeme. 173. 194 mapM_. 195. 219 lookup. 215 isPrefixOf. 211. 202. 210. 9. 156 Main (module). 202. 172 instance for Int. 129 literal pattern. 188 isPrint. 19. 31. 188 mapAndUnzipM. 74 liftM. 40. 181. 225 map. 199 . 176. 174. 111 v § ¢ £ 7¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ 7 . 202. 172 Ix (module). 80 list type. 26 in list comprehensions. 142 maxBound. 240 locale. 181. 181. 19. 193. 180. 81. 194 literal. 109 mapMaybe. 206 Just. 106 lookahead. 173. 239 log. 195. 183. 195. 86. 195. 119 . 118 List (module). 195. 172 derived instance. 197 isSuffixOf. 44.INDEX isLatin1. 92 magnitude. 39. 88. 64 label. 12. 44. see also offside rule lcm. 56 linearity. 105. 202. 92. 117 Ix (class). 212 iterate. 198 max. 176. 31. 207 liftM4. 40. 143 maximal munch rule. 88. 64 kind inference. 106 logarithm. 65 main. 129 last. 202. 127 maximum. 91. 104. 80 list comprehension. 21. 207 liftM5. 181. 239. 184. 202. 197 isLower. 13. 140 LT. 89. 45. 207 v 257 liftM2. 91. 56 lines. 186 list. 193. 45. 176. 188 mapAccumR. 197 isUserError. 40. 189 Maybe (datatype). 50. 173. 188 isUpper. 207 linear pattern. 31. 81 magnitude. 177 join. 84. 19 large. 193.
193. 129 negate. 206 monad. 202. see qualiﬁed name special. 187 null. 34. see special name namespaces. 159. 178 instance for Char. 110 notElem. 111 instance for Maybe. 193. 138 newline. 106 modid. 104. 113 numericEnumFromThenTo. 194 method. 16. 194 maybe. 206 + pattern. 151. 54. 10. 19. 33. 140 opencom. 11. 210. 214 opening a ﬁle. 11 translation of literals. 129 openFile. 90 numericEnumFrom. 137 or. 81. 121. 186. 105 instance for Complex. 26. 245 nonnull. 119 Ord (class). 202. 113 numericEnumFromThen. 51. 27. 181. 13. 84. 18. 10 ncomment. see class method min. 206 monomorphic type variable. 234 moving directories. 248 newtype declaration. 244. 161. 206 mzero. 9. 180. 230 operator. 136 module. 60. 130 octit. 113 octal. 18 numerator. 206 Monad (module). 129 odd. 89. 105 ord. 61 monomorphism restriction. 9. 106 superclass of Real. 206 msum. 46 INDEX next. 186 nubBy. 89. 19 operator application. 81. 246 mod. 182. 184. 116 Num (class). 88. 38. 32. 84. 130. 111 maybeToList. 89 literal syntax. 105 number. 104 derived instance. 90. 198 Ordering (datatype). 52. 55. 168 not. 202. 17. 197 numeric type. 89. 225 mplus. 113 numericEnumFromTo. 91. 157 instance for Ratio. 113 instance for IO. 112 ¢ ¦ . 19. 202. 244. 61 Month (datatype). 54. 180. 9. 189 mkPolar. 142 minBound. 202. 91. 57 name qualiﬁed. 90. 104. 19 ops. 111 superclass of MonadPlus. see also layout op. 153 superclass of Real. 142 instance for Array. 136 Monad (class). 88. 9. 105. 66. 108 offside rule. 232. 153 superclass of Fractional. 20 newconstr. 111 instance for Ratio. 129 newStdGen. 5. 105 negation. 81 nub. 195. 244.258 Maybe (module). 46. 109 instance for []. 184. 55. 91. 32–34. 225 moving ﬁles. 119 minimumBy. 115. 143 minimum. 153 Numeric (module). 214 operating system commands. 206 instance for Maybe. 65 module. 95 MonadPlus (class). 11. 155. 66. 9. 206 instance for []. 119 Nothing. 79. 156 mkStdGen. 91.
151 Ratio (module). 225 pattern. 172 rangeSize. 125 putStr. 38 overloaded pattern. 247 range. 130 qual. 85. 247 Random (module). 11. see irrefutable pattern linear. 23. 31. 106 quotRem. 25. 244. 96. 125 PreludeIO (module). 3 properFraction. 151. 129 v 259 program arguments.INDEX otherwise. 96. 18. 103 PreludeBuiltin (module). 91. 31. 54 polymorphism. 178 ¢ ¦ ¢ ¦ § ¢ £¡ . 119 program. 91. 171. see ﬂoating literal pattern integer. 229 program structure. 156 physical ﬁle. 57 patternmatching. 104. 11. 53 print. 125 PreludeList (module). 140 qvarid. 75 Prelude (module). 11. 130 qop. 139 qualiﬁed name. 153 rational numbers. 169. 42. 23 quantiﬁcation. see + pattern refutable. see refutable pattern pattern binding. 245 randomIO. 161 Rational (type synonym). 125 qcon. 229 program name. 110 overloaded functions. 125 putStrLn. see integer literal pattern irrefutable. 19. 9. 143 instance for [a]. 244. 103. 244. 244. 105 Prelude implicit import of. 130 Random (class). 103. see aspattern _. 18. 172 Ratio (datatype). 11. 91. 247 randoms. 247 randomR. 51 partition. 34 Permissions (datatype). 217 RandomGen. 224 phase. 92. 140 qtycls. 30 overloaded constant. 218 polymorphic recursion. 79. see patternmatching overloading. 140 qvarsym. 90. 18. 103. 130 qvarop. 115 PreludeText (module). 41 quot. 11. 151 Read (class). 121 derived instance. 11. 181. 213 pi. 244 random. 183. 155. 244. 72 qualiﬁer. 106 polar. 55. 96. 18. 140 qconsym. 155. 103. 93. 130 qtycon. 47 defaults. 106 qvar. 247 randomRs. 96. 70. 153. 169. 30 @. 140 pat. 187 . 103. 171. 125 product. see linear pattern + . 156 polling a handle for input. 107 putChar. 130 qconop. 124 instance for Array. 140 qconid. 11. 244. see also ﬁxity pred. 147 precedence. 121 principal type. 51. 151. see constructed pattern ﬂoating. 140 path. 247 randomRIO. 18. 247 random access ﬁles. 75. 4 pragmas. see wildcard pattern constructed. 43.
225 renaming ﬁles. 248 setting the directory. 164 readParen. 109 reverse. 94. 81. 217 seeking a ﬁle. 92. 122 readable. 159. 16. 108 realPart. 106 removeDirectory. 92. 126 readList. 106 recursive datatype. 244. 198 readFile.260 instance for Char. 88. 119 . 110 sequence. 226 reading from a ﬁle. 143 ReadWriteMode. 93. 117 replicate. 153 superclass of Integral. 195. 85. 163 readsPrec. 85. 198 readLn. 86. 225 removing directories. 159. 224. 91. 10. 92. 159. 130 reservedop. 162 scanl. 116 scanl1. 224 section. 123 instance for Ratio. 107 RealFloat (class). 91. 56. 225 setPermissions. 155. 104. 92. 106 superclass of RealFrac. 92. 156 realToFrac. 226 Show (class). 51. 90. 130 return. 96. 123 instance for Float. 143 instance for [a]. 55. 140 INDEX scaleFloat. 224 readDec. 20. 121 derived instance. 105 instance for Ratio. 166 . 154 superclass of RealFloat. 123 instance for Integer. 104. 31. 214 separate compilation. 159. 108 RealFrac (class). 88. 85. 121. 85. 225 renameDirectory. 33 RelativeSeek. 109 setCurrentDirectory. 224. 137 searchable. 108 scaleRat. 117 scontext. 85. 138 Right. 218 readInt. 88. 91. 217 SeekMode (datatype). see also operator application SeekFromEnd. 217 semantics formal. 93. 224 setStdGen. 225 repeat. 214 readFloat. 159. 81 round. 46 refutable pattern. 123 instance for Int. 225 renaming directories. 217 rem. 107 instance for Ratio. 121. 121 reads. 139 rhs. 109 recip. 85. 97. 117 reservedid. 224. 96. 224. 224. 109 sequence_. 124 instance for Double. 10. 214 Real (class). 124 v v § ¡ ¢ £¡ ¢ ¡ ¤ ¤ . 210. 10. see formal semantics semiclosed handles. 143 readLitChar. 159. 225 removeFile. 117 scanr1. 154 read. 164 readIO. 225 removing ﬁles. 122 ReadS (type synonym). 89. 168 readHex. 225 renameFile. 86. 164 reading a directory. 126. 214 readOct. 76 seq. 164 readEsc. 107 roundTo. 122 readSigned. 126 ReadMode. 116 scanr.
123 instance for HandlePosn. 92. 232. 122 showSigned. 121. 106 sine. 164 showHex. 85. 129. 129 split. 213 stmt. 91. 210. 46. 130 synonym. 127 System (module). 232. 124 instance for Double. 232. 163 showParen. 159. 74. 188 sortBy. 108 signum. 235 261 . 53 significand. 12. 79 literal syntax. 92. 111 string. 9. 183. 237 show2’. 181. 106 size of ﬁle. 62 simpleclass. 159. 45 strictness ﬂags. see type signature signdecl. 246 stdin. 154 superclass of Num. 122 sign. 235 tdMin. 123 instance for Float. 45. 41. 118 special. 106 tangent. 159. 159. 129 span. 91. 183. 86. 199 showOct. 178 instance for Char. 129 snd. 229 tab. 105 simple pattern binding. 85. 159. 213 StdGen (datatype). see transparent string string. 122 showEFloat. 181. 143 showString. 121 shows. 232. 195. 9. 93 tanh. 188 take. 26. 237 show3. 82 String (type synonym). 163 showsPrec. 235 tdPicosec. 91. 159. 106 standard handles. see also Prelude stderr. 181. 139 strictness ﬂag. 85. 91. 210. 235 tdMonth. 213 standard prelude. 117 takeWhile. 93 sinh. 163 showList. 159. 106 tdDay. 163 showIntAtBase. 229 system. 138 sin. 164 showFloat. 26. 130 subtract. 237 showChar. 80. 49 symbol. 210. 114 sort. 85. 164 showGFloat. 108 succ. 163 showInt. 9. 121 show2. 164 showFFloat. 94. 48. 210 instance for Integer. 91. 213 stdout. 105 show. 143 showLitChar. 235 tdHour. see type synonym syntax. 121. 118 tan. 9. 159. 123 instance for Ratio. 139 stmts. 215 small. 245 splitAt. 80. 159. 12 transparent. 91. 129 tail. 105 sum. 43. 232.INDEX instance for Array. 184. 137 simpletype. 92 signature. 115 tails. 85. 57. 118 sqrt. 188 space. 122 ShowS (type synonym). 119 superclass. 244. 86. 9. 244. 123 instance for Int.
93. 211. 9. see also datatype recursive. 130 uncurry. see function type list. 125 valdefs. 232. 4. 120 unzip4. 17. 234 time. 4 var. 93 trivial type. 187 trigonometric function. 18. see newtype declaration type signature. 181. 182. 42 type expression. 188 Unicode character set. 9. 17. 38. 232 time of day. 191 unzip6. 41. 129 union. 7. 43 topdecl (default). 22. 202. 181. 39. 136 topdecls. 103. 43 type environment. 53 for an expression. 79 truncate. 224. 49 value. 67. 42 ambiguous. 9. 130 varop. 49. 105 toUpper. 181. 236 toCalendarTime. 233. 191 userError. 81 True. 41. 40. 183. 197 uniDigit. see expression typesignature type synonym. 190 unzip5. 119 unzip. see class type constructor. see numeric type principal. 9. 42. 221 tuple. 180. 129 unless. 130 type. 233. 140 varid. 49 topdecl (newtype). 235 terminating a program. 51 topdecl (instance). 45. 107 try. 187 uniSmall. 181. 49. 240 TimeDiff (datatype). 91. 136 toRational. 11. 137 type class. 11. 41 tycls. 81. 239. 140 . 66. 198 toUTCTime. 46 tyvar. 181. 185. 106 toLower. 230 the ﬁle system. 187 unionBy. 240 TimeLocale (datatype). 180. see list type monomorphic. 22 uniWhite. 224 Time (module). 239. 232. 114 unfoldr. 40. 80 tuple type. see trivial type tuple. 240 to12. 86. 233. 17. 10. 232 time12Fmt. 12 UnicodePrims (module). 198 topdecl (class). 195.262 tdYear. 4. see monomorphic type numeric. 129 unit datatype. 181. 38. 38. 239. 40. 191 unzip7. see tuple type type. see trivial type unit expression. see principal type INDEX trivial. 18. 235 toEnum. 40 type renaming. 9. 114 unwords. 195. 232. 45 topdecl. 119 until. 11. see constructed type function. 130 tycon. 98. 92. 235 timeFmt. see ambiguous type constructed. 11. 235 transpose. 22. 120 unzip3. 129 uniSymbol. 105 toInteger. 80. 93. 206 unlines. 235 toClockTime. 47 topdecl (data). 129 uniLarge. 184. 46 topdecl (type). 114 undefined.
190 zip5. 181. 207 263 . 118 writable. 190 zipWith. 185. 9. 181.INDEX vars. 224 writeFile. 120 zip3. 185. 181. 129 whitespace. 206 whitechar. 190 zip6. 202. 130 vertab. 53. 9. 9. 181. 97. 202. 137 varsym. 31 words. 10. 9. 202. 190 zipWith6. 129 when. 120 zip4. 181. 38. 214 WriteMode. 126. 181. 190 zipWith7. 214 zip. 120 zipWith3. 80. 190 zipWith5. 190 zip7. 181. 129 whitestuff. 120 zipWith4. 181. 207 zipWithM_. 190 zipWithM. 129 wildcard pattern (_).
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?