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https://pt.scribd.com/doc/61390861/Haskell98Report
08/01/2011
text
original
Simon Peyton Jones (editor)
Copyright notice. The authors and publisher intend this Report to belong to the entire Haskell community, and grant permission to copy and distribute it for any purpose, provided that it is reproduced in its entirety, including this Notice. Modiﬁed versions of this Report may also be copied and distributed for any purpose, provided that the modiﬁed version is clearly presented as such, and that it does not claim to be a deﬁnition of the language Haskell 98.
Contents
I The Haskell 98 Language
1 Introduction 1.1 Program Structure . 1.2 The Haskell Kernel 1.3 Values and Types . 1.4 Namespaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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3 3 4 4 5 7 7 8 9 9 11 12 13 15 17 17 19 19 20 21 21 22 22 23 23 24 25 26 27 27 28 29
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Lexical Structure 2.1 Notational Conventions . . . 2.2 Lexical Program Structure . 2.3 Comments . . . . . . . . . . 2.4 Identiﬁers and Operators . . 2.5 Numeric Literals . . . . . . 2.6 Character and String Literals 2.7 Layout . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Expressions 3.1 Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 Variables, Constructors, Operators, and Literals 3.3 Curried Applications and Lambda Abstractions 3.4 Operator Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5 Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.6 Conditionals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.7 Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.8 Tuples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.9 Unit Expressions and Parenthesized Expressions 3.10 Arithmetic Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.11 List Comprehensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.12 Let Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.13 Case Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.14 Do Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.15 Datatypes with Field Labels . . . . . . . . . . 3.15.1 Field Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.15.2 Construction Using Field Labels . . . . 3.15.3 Updates Using Field Labels . . . . . . i
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ii 3.16 Expression TypeSignatures . . . . . . . . . . 3.17 Pattern Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.17.1 Patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.17.2 Informal Semantics of Pattern Matching 3.17.3 Formal Semantics of Pattern Matching . 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CONTENTS
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 30 30 31 34 37 38 39 39 41 42 43 43 45 46 47 47 49 51 51 53 53 54 55 56 57 58 58 59 59 60 61 64 65 66 66 69 69 70 70 71 71 72
Declarations and Bindings 4.1 Overview of Types and Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.1 Kinds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.2 Syntax of Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.3 Syntax of Class Assertions and Contexts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.4 Semantics of Types and Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2 UserDeﬁned Datatypes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.1 Algebraic Datatype Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.2 Type Synonym Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.3 Datatype Renamings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3 Type Classes and Overloading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.1 Class Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.2 Instance Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.3 Derived Instances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.4 Ambiguous Types, and Defaults for Overloaded Numeric Operations 4.4 Nested Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.1 Type Signatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.2 Fixity Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.3 Function and Pattern Bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.3.1 Function bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.3.2 Pattern bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5 Static Semantics of Function and Pattern Bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.1 Dependency Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.2 Generalization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.3 Context Reduction Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.4 Monomorphism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.5 The Monomorphism Restriction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.6 Kind Inference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Modules 5.1 Module Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2 Export Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3 Import Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.1 What is imported . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.2 Qualiﬁed import . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.3 Local aliases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.4 Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4 Importing and Exporting Instance Declarations 5.5 Name Clashes and Closure . . . . . . . . . . .
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CONTENTS
5.5.1 Qualiﬁed names . . . . . 5.5.2 Name clashes . . . . . . . 5.5.3 Closure . . . . . . . . . . Standard Prelude . . . . . . . . . 5.6.1 The Prelude Module . . 5.6.2 Shadowing Prelude Names Separate Compilation . . . . . . . Abstract Datatypes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
iii 72 72 74 74 75 75 76 76 79 79 79 79 80 80 81 81 81 81 81 82 82 84 85 86 87 88 89 89 90 90 91 92 93 93 95 95 97 98
5.6
5.7 5.8 6
Predeﬁned Types and Classes 6.1 Standard Haskell Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.1 Booleans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.2 Characters and Strings . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.3 Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.4 Tuples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.5 The Unit Datatype . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.6 Function Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.7 The IO and IOError Types . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.8 Other Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2 Strict Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3 Standard Haskell Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.1 The Eq Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.2 The Ord Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.3 The Read and Show Classes . . . . . . . . . 6.3.4 The Enum Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.5 The Functor Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.6 The Monad Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.7 The Bounded Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4 Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.1 Numeric Literals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.2 Arithmetic and NumberTheoretic Operations 6.4.3 Exponentiation and Logarithms . . . . . . . 6.4.4 Magnitude and Sign . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.5 Trigonometric Functions . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.6 Coercions and Component Extraction . . . .
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7
Basic Input/Output 7.1 Standard I/O Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2 Sequencing I/O Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3 Exception Handling in the I/O Monad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Standard Prelude 101 8.1 Prelude PreludeList . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 8.2 Prelude PreludeText . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 8.3 Prelude PreludeIO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
. . . . . . . .2 Derived instances of Enum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 14 Numeric 14. . . .4 Derived instances of Read and Show 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Library Ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Specialization . . . .1 Deriving Instances of Ix . . . . . . . . . . .1 Accumulated Arrays 16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Notational Conventions 9. . . . . .2 Lexical Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . .5 ContextFree Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CONTENTS 127 127 128 130 134 136 141 142 142 143 143 145 . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Reading functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 160 161 161 161 . . . . . . . . . . 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Indexing Operations 169 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Library Ix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14. . . . . . . .4 Library Numeric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.1 Derived instances of Eq and Ord . . . . . . . . . .1 Library Complex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Compiler Pragmas 147 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Derived instances of Bounded . . . . . . .4 Literate comments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . .2 Incremental Array Updates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Layout . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Miscellaneous . . . .1 Showing functions 14. 16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . .1 Inlining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Speciﬁcation of Derived Instances 10. 10. . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16. . . . 173 174 174 175 176 176 . . . 170 15. . . . . . . . 147 II The Haskell 98 Libraries 149 12 Rational Numbers 151 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . .iv 9 Syntax Reference 9. . . . . . . . . . . 153 13 Complex Numbers 155 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Array Construction . . . . . . . . . 172 16 Arrays 16. .4 Library Array . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 An Example . . . . .3 Derived Arrays . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . .3 List transformations . .1 Flushing Buffers . . . .3 Reading Ahead . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . .4 Reading The Entire Input . . 17. . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Class MonadPlus . v 179 182 182 183 183 184 184 185 185 186 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17. . . . . . . . . . . .4 Determining the Size of a File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 SemiClosed Handles . . . . . 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . .2. . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Library Maybe .1 Checking for Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 The “generic” operations 17. . . . . . . . . . .2 Reading Input . . .2 “Set” operations .5 Detecting the End of Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 203 203 204 206 209 212 213 213 214 214 214 214 215 215 215 215 217 217 217 217 218 218 218 218 219 219 219 . . . . . 21. . . . . 21. . .1 Revisiting an I/O Position 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Text Input and Output . 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . .1 I/O Errors . . . . . . . . .6 The “By” operations . . . . . . . . . . .2 Closing Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 19 Character Utilities 195 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Functions . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Indexing lists . .CONTENTS 17 List Utilities 17. . . . .6 Buffering Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Files and Handles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20. . 17. 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Naming conventions 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Seeking to a new Position 21.3 Opening and Closing Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17. . . . . . . . . .5 Text Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Library List . 17.9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Handle Properties . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . .5 Predicates . . . . . . . . . .3 File locking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . .7.1 Library Char . . . . . . . . . . .1 Standard Handles . . . . 197 20 Monad Utilities 20. . . . 17. . . .4 Library Monad . . . . . . . . . .9. . 21 Input/Output 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Repositioning Handles . . 21. . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . .3. 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . .1 Opening Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Maybe Utilities 193 18. . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 unfoldr . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. .8 Further “zip” operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 The RandomGen class. . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219 219 220 221 223 229 24 Dates and Times 231 24. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27. . . . . .3 The global random number generator . . . . . . . . . . 240 26 CPU Time 27 Random Numbers 27.11Library IO . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. .10. . .vi 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and the StdGen generator 27. . .1 Library Locale . . . . . . . . 22 Directory Functions 23 System Functions . . CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 The Random class . . . . . . . . . . . . Index . . . . . . . . . . . . 234 25 Locale 239 25. . . 241 243 245 247 248 249 251 . . .2 Copying Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Library Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Summing Two Numbers 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
and excessive condensation would be false economy here. 4. It should reduce unnecessary diversity in functional programming languages. providing faster communication of new ideas.” Haskell B. to discuss an unfortunate situation in the functional programming community: there had come into being more than a dozen nonstrict. 1956 In September of 1987 a meeting was held at the conference on Functional Programming Languages and Computer Architecture (FPCA ’87) in Portland. . Since some of our fellow sinners are among the most careful and competent logicians on the contemporary scene. research. There was a strong consensus at this meeting that more widespread use of this class of functional languages was being hampered by the lack of a common language. Goals The committee’s primary goal was to design a language that satisﬁed these constraints: 1. Thus fullness of exposition is necessary for accuracy. even more than it is ordinarily.PREFACE vii Preface “Some half dozen persons have written technically on combinatory logic. It should be suitable for teaching. a stable foundation for real applications development. It was decided that a committee should be formed to design such a language. 5. and a vehicle through which others would be encouraged to use functional languages. and most of these. Curry and Robert Feys in the Preface to Combinatory Logic [2]. including ourselves. purely functional programming languages. named after the logician Haskell B. we regard this as evidence that the subject is refractory. May 31. all similar in expressive power and semantic underpinnings. Curry whose work provides the logical basis for much of ours. It should be completely described via the publication of a formal syntax and semantics. including building large systems. It should be based on ideas that enjoy a wide consensus. 3. Anyone should be permitted to implement the language and distribute it to whomever they please. Oregon. This document describes the result of that committee’s efforts: a purely functional programming language called Haskell. and applications. 2. have published something erroneous. It should be freely available.
it was decided that a stable variant of Haskell was needed. The original Haskell Report covered only the language. so every change was instead proposed to the entire Haskell mailing list. It is not a . Resolve ambiguities. As Haskell becomes more widely used. for the foreseeable future. together with a standard library called the Prelude. and constitutes the ofﬁcial speciﬁcation of both. and I have adopted hundreds of (mostly small) changes as a result of their feedback. there had been four iterations of the language design (the latest at that point being Haskell 1. By the middle of 1997. and removing some pitfalls for the unwary. A separate effort was therefore begun by a distinct (but overlapping) committee to ﬁx the Haskell 98 Libraries. with the following goals: Correct typographical errors. and is called “Haskell 98”. Haskell 98 was conceived as a relatively minor tidyup of Haskell 1. Clarify obscure passages. The original committees ceased to exist when the original Haskell 98 Reports were published. make small changes to make the overall language more consistent. The Haskell 98 Language and Library Reports were published in February 1999. At the 1997 Haskell Workshop in Amsterdam.viii PREFACE Haskell 98: language and libraries The committee intended that Haskell would serve as a basis for future research in language design. incorporating experimental features. I took on the role of gathering and acting on these corrections. a set of libraries would have to be standardised too. much larger than I had anticipated. it had become clear that many programs need access to a larger set of library functions (notably concerning input/output and simple interaction with the operating system). this stable language is the subject of this Report. It includes both the Haskell 98 Language Report and the Libraries Report. If these program were to be portable. By the time Haskell 98 was stabilised.4). This document is the outcome of this process of reﬁnement. Revising the Haskell 98 Reports After a year or two. and hoped that extensions or variants of the language would appear. making some simpliﬁcations. many typographical errors and infelicities had been spotted. It is intended to be a “stable” language in sense the implementors are committed to supporting Haskell 98 exactly as speciﬁed.4. the Report has been scrutinised by more and more people. Haskell has indeed evolved continuously since its original publication. This task turned out to be much. With reluctance.
existential types. including: monadic state.PREFACE ix tutorial on programming in Haskell such as the ‘Gentle Introduction’ [6]. There is more besides. lexically scoped type variables. and some familiarity with functional languages is assumed. Haskell 98 does not impede these developments. including: pattern guards.org gives access to many useful resources. can do so in the knowledge that Haskell 98 will continue to exist. local universal polymorphism and arbitrary ranktypes. Type system innovations. recursive donotation. exceptions. Extensions to Haskell 98 Haskell continues to evolve. so that those who wish to write text books. concurrency. Control extensions. Haskell Resources The Haskell web site http://haskell. The entire text of both Reports is available online (see “Haskell resources” below). For example. going well beyond Haskell 98. functional dependencies. including: multiparameter type classes. Instead. or use Haskell for teaching. including: . at the time of writing there are Haskell implementations that support: Syntactic sugar. it provides a stable point of reference. metaprogramming facilities.
via the Haskell mailing list. Oregon Graduate Institute) Erik Meijer (Utrecht University) Rishiyur Nikhil (MIT) John Peterson (Yale University) Simon Peyton Jones [editor] (University of Glasgow. in particular. and criticise the language or its presentation in the report. University of Nottingham. You are welcome to comment on. Those who served on the Language and Library committees. Implementations of Haskell. including a complete list of all the differences between Haskell 98 as published in February 1999 and this revised version. with their afﬁliation(s) for the relevant period: Arvind (MIT) Lennart Augustsson (Chalmers University) Dave Barton (Mitre Corp) Brian Boutel (Victoria University of Wellington) Warren Burton (Simon Fraser University) Jon Fairbairn (University of Cambridge) Joseph Fasel (Los Alamos National Laboratory) Andy Gordon (University of Cambridge) Maria Guzman (Yale University) Kevin Hammond (Uniiversity of Glasgow) Ralf Hinze (University of Bonn) Paul Hudak [editor] (Yale University) John Hughes [editor] (University of Glasgow. Contributed Haskell tools and libraries. Chalmers University) Thomas Johnsson (Chalmers University) Mark Jones (Yale University. Oregon Graduate Institute) Dick Kieburtz (Oregon Graduate Institute) John Launchbury (University of Glasgow. Here they are. Tutorial material on Haskell.x PREFACE Online versions of the language and library deﬁnitions. devoted a huge amount of time and energy to the language. Building the language Haskell was created. and continues to be sustained. by an active community of researchers and application programmers. Details of the Haskell mailing list. Microsoft Research Ltd) . suggest improvements to. Applications of Haskell.
Patrick Sansom. APL. Sergey Mechveliani. Mike Joy. Ross Paterson. George Russell. Bjarte M. Rick Mohr. Sisal. Ralf Hinze. Gary Memovich. John Meacham. Arthur Norman. Mark Carroll. Jan Skibinski. Mark Lillibridge. Graeme Moss. Tom Blenko. Olaf Lubeck. Klemens Hemm. Stef Joosten. Richard Kelsey. Paul Callaghan. Simon Marlow. Gofer. Landin’s ISWIM. Tom Thomson. Jones. Chris Fasel. John Robson. Orjan Johansen. Patrik Jansson. Pablo Lopez. Jerzy Karczmarczuk. Sigbjorn Finne. Jan Kort. Dave Parrott. Nimish Shah. and Turner’s series of languages culminating in Miranda 1 . They are as follows: Kris Aerts. Clean. Simon Thompson. Julian Seward. Randy Michelsen. the following languages were particularly inﬂuential: Lisp (and its modernday incarnations Common Lisp and Scheme). Ketil Malde. Tommy Thorn. Larne Pekowsky. Stuart Wray. Andreas Rossberg. Without these forerunners Haskell would not have been possible. Amir Kishon. Robert Jeschofnik. aside from the important foundational work laid by Church. Randy Hudson. Jeff Lewis. Sven Panne. Michael Fryers. Craig Dickson. Jose Labra. Matt Harden. Stefan Kahrs. Bob Hiromoto. Tony Warnock. Mark Hall. Olaf Chitil. Sandra Loosemore. Feliks Kluzniak. Simon B. Richard Bird. Stephen Price. and Bonnie Yantis. Andy Moran. Rosser. Sten Anderson. Rinus Plasmeijer. Christian Sievers. Raman Sundaresh. Id. Henrik Nilsson. Stephen Blott. Tony Davie. David Tweed. Østvold. SiauCheng Khoo. Josef Svenningsson. Thomas Hallgren. . Paul Otto. Lauren Smith. Ken Takusagawa. Chris Dornan. Michael Schneider. Keith Wansbrough. AnttiJuhani Kaijanaho. some small but many substantial. Carl Witty. Laura Dutton. 1 Miranda is a trademark of Research Software Ltd. Mark Tullsen. Ian Poole. Andy Gill. Chris Okasaki. Cordy Hall. Bjorn Lisper. Satish Thatte. Magnus Carlsson. Mike Thyer. Backus’s FP [1]. and others on the lambda calculus. Michael Webber. Christian Maeder.PREFACE Mike Reeve (Imperial College) Alastair Reid (University of Glasgow) Colin Runciman (University of York) Philip Wadler [editor] (University of Glasgow) David Wise (Indiana University) Jonathan Young (Yale University) xi Those marked [editor] served as the coordinating editor for one or more revisions of the language. Guy Cousineau. Dylan Thurston. Jim Mattson. Ian Lynagh. Pat Fasel. Marcin Kowalczyk. Hans Aberg. Mike Gunter. Curry. Franklin Chen. it is right to acknowledge the inﬂuence of many noteworthy programming languages developed over the years. Nick North. ML and Standard ML. Pradeep Varma. In addition. Fergus Henderson. Chris Clack. Finally. Alexander Jacobson. Hope and Hope . Michael Marte. Duke Briscoe. dozens of other people made helpful contributions. Nic Holt. Although it is difﬁcult to pinpoint the origin of many ideas. Manuel Chakravarty. Felix Schroeter. Wolfram Kahl. Malcolm Wallace. Kent Karlsson. Ian Holyer. Dean Herington. Libor Skarvada.
September 2002 PREFACE .xii Simon Peyton Jones Cambridge.
Part I The Haskell 98 Language 1 .
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userdeﬁned algebraic datatypes. At the bottom level is Haskell’s lexical structure. and ﬁxity information. nonstrict semantics.1 Program Structure In this section. of which there are several kinds. Haskell is both the culmination and solidiﬁcation of many years of research on nonstrict functional languages. 3 . patternmatching. a monadic I/O system. The top level of a module consists of a collection of declarations. a module system.Chapter 1 Introduction Haskell is a general purpose. including lists. We leave as implementation dependent the ways in which Haskell programs are to be manipulated. list comprehensions. static polymorphic typing. arrays. described in Chapter 5. Modules provide a way to control namespaces and to reuse software in large programs. An expression denotes a value and has a static type. all described in Chapter 4. we describe the abstract syntactic and semantic structure of Haskell. The lexical structure captures the concrete representation of Haskell programs in text ﬁles. Declarations deﬁne things such as ordinary values. At the topmost level a Haskell program is a set of modules. purely functional programming language incorporating many recent innovations in programming language design. arbitrary and ﬁxed precision integers. 2. programs that formally evaluate to ).e. described in Chapter 3. 3. At the next lower level are expressions. compiled. Haskell provides higherorder functions. etc. datatypes. 1. expressions are at the heart of Haskell programming “in the small. 1. and ﬂoatingpoint numbers. interpreted. type classes. as well as how it relates to the organization of the rest of the report. and a rich set of primitive datatypes. deﬁned in Chapter 2. This report deﬁnes the syntax for Haskell programs and an informal abstract semantics for the meaning of such programs.” 4. This includes such issues as the nature of programming environments and the error messages returned for undeﬁned programs (i.
for declarations. for types. Generally the italicized names are mnemonic. See Section 3. so the language includes no mechanism for detecting or acting upon errors. and permits not only parametric polymorphism (using a traditional HindleyMilner type structure) but also ad hoc polymorphism. Also. it is essentially a slightly sugared variant of the lambda calculus with a straightforward denotational semantics. Although the kernel is not formally speciﬁed. literate programming. Errors in Haskell are semantically equivalent to . there are several chapters describing the Prelude.2 The Haskell Kernel Haskell has adopted many of the convenient syntactic structures that have become popular in functional programming.e. implementations will probably try to provide useful information about errors. However. the meaning of such syntactic sugar is given by translation into simpler constructs. However. how Haskell programs communicate with the outside world). 1. they are not distinguishable from nontermination. which discusses the I/O facility in Haskell (i. The chapters not mentioned above are Chapter 6. Values and types are not mixed in Haskell. the concrete syntax. the result is a program written in a small subset of Haskell that we call the Haskell kernel. as then else . etc. Examples of Haskell program fragments in running text are given in typewriter font: let x = 1 z = x+y in z+1 “Holes” in program fragments representing arbitrary pieces of Haskell code are written in italics. The translation of each syntactic structure into the kernel is given as the syntax is introduced. the type system allows userdeﬁned datatypes of various sorts.1.4 CHAPTER 1. and Chapter 7. This modular design facilitates reasoning about Haskell programs and provides useful guidelines for implementors of the language. . Technically. which describes the standard builtin datatypes and classes in Haskell. In this Report.3 Values and Types An expression evaluates to a value and has a static type. or overloading (using type classes). If these translations are applied exhaustively. INTRODUCTION This report proceeds bottomup with respect to Haskell’s syntactic structure. the speciﬁcation of derived instances. ¥ ¢ § £ ¤ ¡ ¢ ¦ 1. and pragmas supported by most Haskell compilers. such as for expresin if sions.
2. and type classes refer to entities related to the type system. class.4. type constructors. These are the only constraints. those for type variables.1. Names for variables and type variables are identiﬁers beginning with lowercase letters or underscore. Int may simultaneously be the name of a module. and module names refer to modules. the other four kinds of names are identiﬁers beginning with uppercase letters. An identiﬁer must not be used as the name of a type constructor and a class in the same scope. NAMESPACES 5 1. and constructor within a single scope. for example.4 Namespaces There are six kinds of names in Haskell: those for variables and constructors denote values. . There are two constraints on naming: 1.
INTRODUCTION .6 CHAPTER 1.
However.. we describe the lowlevel lexical structure of Haskell. This syntax depends on properties of the Unicode characters as deﬁned by the Unicode consortium.1 Notational Conventions These notational conventions are used for presenting syntax: optional zero or more repetitions grouping choice difference—elements generated by except those generated by fibonacci terminal syntax in typewriter font Because the syntax in this section describes lexical syntax.Chapter 2 Lexical Structure In this chapter. 7 § ¢ £¡ ¨ ¥¥8 8 8 1 &§ ¢ £¡ A !§ 7 3¢ 8 8 8 @¥¥9 £ § )'% $ " 0(&§#!§ £§ ¢§ ¡ £¡ ¢ ¢ ¦ £¤ ¡ §¥ § § £¡ §¥ § § £ ¦¤ ¢ ¡ ¨ ¦¤ ¢ ¡ ©§¥ § § £ ¢ £ ¡ 7 3¢ ¡§ 7 3¢ 6 4¤ ¦ 2 5 § 3©¦ . source programs are currently biased toward the ASCII character set used in earlier versions of Haskell. all whitespace is expressed explicitly. BNFlike syntax is used throughout. there is no implicit space between juxtaposed symbols. Haskell compilers are expected to make use of new versions of Unicode as they are made available. although usually the context makes the distinction clear. Haskell uses the Unicode [11] character set. 2..]. Most of the details may be skipped in a ﬁrst reading of the report. with productions having the form: Care must be taken in distinguishing metalogical syntax such as and from concrete terminal syntax (given in typewriter font) such as  and [.
2 Lexical Program Structure 8 ( ) .{} a carriage return a line feed a vertical tab a form feed a space a horizontal tab any Unicode character deﬁned as whitespace CHAPTER 2. LEXICAL STRUCTURE : " ’ 7 ¥ 4 §© § © § § § 2 43© 2¤ ¦ 7 ' 7 3¢ ¡ ¢ 7 § !3¢ ¤ 77 § © ¨¥ '¨ ¡ ¤ ¢ ¥ § ¨¢£¡ ¤ ¨¥ §¢ ¤ § ¥ ¨¦£ § ¢ ¡T ) cRasY`WXrpq7"9 g 24"9 A g hi7¡9 gA " 3¦db`XV GH§¢ C U f f 9 e c a Y W U E ¦ 2 ¡ ! # $ % & * + .§§ § § ¦ £$ § § § © ¢ 6 6 7 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 §§ § t § 6 7 2 ' 4 3 ' ¦ £$ © ¦ ) 4 2 B2 © ¦§ 7 £ ¦ ¨ 3¦ ¢ )A 98 7 64 #"@¦"%5 3¦ ¢ ¦ 1§¤ 0 0 4 2 ¦ § ¨)§ § ¥ ( § ¦£$ ¦ ¥ 0% ¦ § §£%¢ ¤ % ¦ § 5¤ %§ ¤ ¦¤ $§ 0 ¦ $ ¦ 7 7 § © § ¤ ¤ ¦ § £ ¦ ¡ ' ¢ 7 4 '#4 ¢ 2 ¦ ¤§ ¢ 4 ¨32 ¤ ¦ 4 & $ © § ¥ %§ § ¨¦£ ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¥ ¢ & $ © § ¥ %§ § ¨¦£ ¦ ¦ § #¦ § ¢ ¤ ¤ © 2 4 © ¦ 332 ¡ 2.˜ any Unicode symbol or punctuation y B 2 4 3 t ¢ h h h h A v f 4 x"$ wg " 5 7 2 ' 4 3 t § ¦ £$ § 7 2 ' 4 3 t © ¢ A B Z any uppercase or titlecase Unicode letter _ : " ’ %¤ ¢ u 8 8 8 @¥¥9 ¦ £$ 2¤ ¢ u ¢ © 2 3© 4 7 ' § £$ 2¤ ¦ ¢u © %¤ ¢ ¢ u ¢7 %¤ S¢RQFP§ 4 32 ¦ © G E C ¦ 4 _ a b z any Unicode lowercase letter 77 !3¢ 4 t § 8 8 8 @¥¥9 ¦ £$ 4 © 77 03¢ ¢ t 4 § £$ ¦ 703¢ 7 4 t © 77 !3¢ §¢© t 4 77 !3¢ § #¥ ¡3 §¢ ¦ ¤ G E QFC © G E S¢RQFC ¢ © G E C 4 ¡ IHFD32 © ¥ © ¢ ¦ § ¦¥ 4 32 ¦ 4 4 2 B2 © 4 2 ¥ ¥2 ¦ 7 ¡ © ¥ © ¦ ¦ ¥ 4 4 ¢ 2 § § ¨)§ § ¥ ( ¦ £$ ' ¨¢ § © ¤ ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¥ ¢ & $ § © § ¥ %¤ § ¨¦£ ¢ ¤£¡ © § ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¤¢ ¡ 1§3¥0 0 4 ¤ 2 ¦ § ¥ ¤ ' #¢ ¢2 ¦ § 0 ¦ ¦¤ $§ §£%¢ ¤7 ¦§ £ ¦ 7 6 6 6 6 7 ¤ 3¢ ¥ § ¡ § 7 3¢ 7 © ¥ ¡ 4 ¢ 4 ¤ ¡&¤ 7 2 ¢ ¡ . [ ] ` { } ¤ ¤© ¤ ¥ § 2 " § ! ¢ §¢ © ¥¢ ¤ ¤ © ¦ 7 ¦ 43¤ 3§ ¢ 32 ¡ © ¢ § ¦ ¨¦¤ © § ¥ £ ¤¢ ¡ ¤¥ § ¦ § ¤ § § 7 3§ ¢ ¤ 7 4¦ ¢ ¡ ¢ 7 . / < = > ? \ ˆ  . .
“>” or “” do not begin a comment. 2. Instead. for example. Similarly. terminated by “}”. a sequence of dashes has no special signiﬁcance. and. Nested comments are also used for compiler pragmas. 2. A nested comment begins with “{” and ends with “}”. each “{” is matched by a corresponding occurrence of “}”.3. as explained in Chapter 11.3 Comments Comments are valid whitespace. are not valid in Haskell programs and should result in a lexing G E HTC Characters not in the category error.or } within a string or within an endofline comment in that code will interfere with the nested comments. No legal lexeme starts with “{”. So.4 Identiﬁers and Operators ) ¥ v ¥ £ f ¦f ¤¢24 f ¡ §§ 8 8 8 @¥¥9 § ¦ %¤ ¢7 8¥8¥8 § § § ¦ 8 8 8 @¥¥9 77 !3¢ 4 §© 77 !3¢ ¢ ¤£¡ 8 8 8 @¥¥9 4 §© 4 ¢ ¥ S 7 6 6 6 6 6 §§ § ¦ § §§ § § § S ¥ ¢ §§§ § ¤ 2 ¦ £$ ¢ © ¢ 0 1 9 any Unicode decimal digit 0 1 7 A F a f ’ . although = is reserved. == and ˜= are not. although case is a reserved word. COMMENTS 9 Lexical analysis should use the “maximal munch” rule: at each point. Within a nested comment. For example. hence. The comment itself is not lexically analysed. the ﬁrst unmatched occurrence of the string “}” terminates the nested comment. the longest possible lexeme satisfying the production is read. If some code is commented out using a nested comment.g. In an ordinary comment. however “foo” does start a comment.2. then any occurrence of {. cases is not. the character sequences “{” and “}” have no special signiﬁcance. An ordinary comment begins with a sequence of two or more consecutive dashes (e. Nested comments may be nested to any depth: any occurrence of the string “{” within the nested comment starts a new nested comment. “{” starts a nested comment despite the trailing dashes. © § ¥ § ¨¦£ Any kind of is also a proper delimiter for lexemes. ) and extends to the following newline. because both of these are legal lexemes. in a nested comment. The sequence of dashes must not form part of a legal lexeme.
This allows programmers to use “_foo” for a parameter that they expect to be unused. and Name are three distinct identiﬁers (the ﬁrst two are variable identiﬁers..4): those that begin with a lowercase letter (variable identiﬁers) and those that begin with an uppercase letter (constructor identiﬁers). “:”.> @ ˜ => Operator symbols are formed from one or more symbol characters.4): An operator symbol starting with a colon is a constructor. although each inﬁx operator can be used in a section to yield partially applied operators (see Section 3. “_” all by itself is a reserved identiﬁer.b]”. An operator symbol starting with any other character is an ordinary identiﬁer. Notice that a colon by itself. However. is treated as a lowercase letter. Identiﬁers are case sensitive: name. such as “[]” and “[a. the last is a constructor identiﬁer). and single quotes. Other than the special syntax for preﬁx negation. naMe. underscores. : : : . “_”. used as wild card in patterns. Identiﬁers are lexically distinguished into two namespaces (Section 1. All of the standard inﬁx operators are just predeﬁned symbols and may be rebound.5). In the remainder of the report six different kinds of names will be used: variables constructors type variables type constructors type classes modules ) 4 f ¡$ 4 ¡ ¥ h " 9 f £ f 4 f S¥ X¤¢%w5 §§ ) " 9¡¦fX¤ f24w5¡§ 2 3© ¥ £ f 4 4 ©7 ' 2 4 © 7 ' § @ ¦ %¤ 7 2 ¢7 ' 77 !3¢ 4 §© ¦ ¤ § ¦32 ¦ ¦32 ¦ 32 ¦ ¦ 2¤ § § § ¢ ¢7 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 2 ¥¢ ¤ ¤ © ¡ ¦ 43¦ 2 © 4 S¤ © ¢ ¦ ¦ § ¥¢ ¤ © ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¤ § ¦ 72 3¥ %§ ¦ © § § § ¢¦ 2 ¤ ¦ 2 2 4 %§ ¢ %§ ¤ . Underscore.10 CHAPTER 2. and are lexically distinguished into two namespaces (Section 1. as deﬁned above. all operators are inﬁx. is reserved solely for use as the Haskell list constructor. digits. : :: = \  <. this makes its treatment uniform with other parts of list syntax. LEXICAL STRUCTURE ’ case class data default deriving do else if import in infix infixl infixr instance let module newtype of then type where _ An identiﬁer consists of a letter followed by zero or more letters. Compilers that offer warnings for unused identiﬁers are encouraged to suppress such warnings for identiﬁers beginning with underscore. and can occur wherever a lowercase letter can.
(two tokens) The qualiﬁer does not change the syntactic treatment of a name. constructor. Prelude. Qualiﬁed names are discussed in detail in Chapter 5. ¦ ¢ ¦ ¢ § 2 7 ¢ 4§ 7 3¢ ¦ ¥ ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § § § ¡ ¥ ¢ 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 4§ 7 6 3¢ 6 6 § ¦ ¦ ¥ 32 4 4 © 3¤ ¤ § ¦ § © ¦ 32 ¦ ¤ ¦ 37 2 © ¦ § § § ¦ 32 ¢ ¢ %§ ¢ ¡ 2 ¢ S ¥ %§ ¢ ¡ ¦ ! .g f. This f.4. the other four do not. Lexes as this f . .. .5.g (qualiﬁed ‘g’) f . no spaces are allowed between the qualiﬁer and the name. . (two tokens) F. ¦ ¤ § `¨ Since a qualiﬁed name is a lexeme.g F. 2. F. A name may optionally be qualiﬁed in certain circumstances by prepending them with a module identiﬁer.’) F .. . NUMERIC LITERALS 11 Variables and type variables are represented by identiﬁers beginning with small letters. This applies to variable.2). F.. variables and constructors have inﬁx forms. for example. 4§ ¢ ¡ ¥ 0X 7 ¢ ¦ ¢ ¡ 7 3¢ 3¢ 7 § ¦ 32 ¡ ¦ ¢ 4§ ¦ 7 4 § ¡ 3¢ 4 § ¦ 7 3¢ ¦ § 7 ¢2 ¦ 4§ ¢ ¡ ¥ 0o 0x 0O 7 3¢ 43332 ¨ © ¦ 4 © 3¤ `¨ ¦ 72 3¥ %§ ¨ © § ¦ 32 ¨ ¢ %§ ¨ § § S ¢ . (qualiﬁed ‘. . also.4. Namespaces are also discussed in Section 1..2. type constructor and type class names. Sample lexical analyses are shown below. and the other four by identiﬁers beginning with capitals. but not type variables or module names.+ is an inﬁx operator with the same ﬁxity as the deﬁnition of + in the Prelude (Section 4.5 Numeric Literals §§ § § 2 § § § 2 §§ § § § § § ¦ ¦ 6 7 ¢ ¦ ¢ § 2 73§ ¢ 4 4§ ¨ e E +  ¨ § 32 ¦ ¦ ¢ ¡ . g (three tokens) F.
Integer literals may be given in decimal (the default). and strings between double quotes. “horizontal tab” (\t).4.g. Thus "\&" is equivalent to "" and the character ’\&’ is disallowed. is parsed as a string of length 1. but must be escaped in a character. a double quote " may be used in a character. Similarly. A string may include a “gap”—two backslants enclosing white characters—which is ignored. including control characters such as \ˆX.6 Character and String Literals ’ ’ \ \& ’ " " " \ \ o x a b f n r t v \ " ’ & ˆ NUL SOH STX ETX EOT ENQ ACK BEL BS HT LF VT FF CR SO SI DLE DC1 DC2 DC3 DC4 NAK SYN ETB CAN EM SUB ESC FS GS RS US SP DEL [ \ ] ˆ _ \ \ ¢ ) h ) h §§ Character literals are written between single quotes. © 7 3¢ 4§ ¤ ¥ ¢ 4§ ¢¡ ¥ § 2 ¦ ¢ 7 3¢ ¦ 7 ¢ © © ¡5¢ ¡ 5¢ ¢ ¨£¡ ) © © ¡ 5¢ ¢ ¨£¡ § §#¥¦£ ¤ ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¥ © y ¢ 2¤ ¢ u ¢ ¤§ ¦ © © § ¨¥ § ¨¥ ¤ ¢ ¦ ¤ ¡§¢ ¤ ¡ §¢ 7 ¥ 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 § @§ © ¢ © ¤ ¥ ¢ © ¡ §¢ #¦ § ¤ § © 7 ¤ ¤ ¡ ¤ § 5¢¦ ¢ ¢ ¥ ¥ . Further equivalences of characters are deﬁned in Section 6. octal (e. \o137) and hexadecimal (e. LEXICAL STRUCTURE There are two distinct kinds of numeric literals: integer and ﬂoating. and “vertical tab” (\v). Escape codes may be used in characters and strings to represent special characters. as in "Hello". the one ambiguous ASCII escape code. \ must always be escaped. this ensures that a decimal point cannot be mistaken for another use of the dot character.4. “carriage return” (\r). Floating literals are always decimal.12 CHAPTER 2. A ﬂoating literal must contain digits both before and after the decimal point. The category also includes portable representations for the characters “alert” (\a). 2. “new line” (\n). similarly. as in ’a’. Negative numeric literals are discussed in Section 3. Consistent with the “maximal munch” rule. \x37) representations are also allowed.1. Escape characters for the Unicode character set. but must be escaped in a string. “form feed” (\f). “backspace” (\b). octal (preﬁxed by 0o or 0O) or hexadecimal notation (preﬁxed by 0x or 0X). numeric escape characters in strings consist of all consecutive digits and may be of arbitrary length. For example.2. are also provided. The escape character \& is provided as a “null character” to allow strings such as "\137\&9" and "\SO\&H" to be constructed (both of length two). Note that a single quote ’ may be used in a string. "\SOH". This allows one to write long strings on more than one line by writing a backslant at the end of one line and at the start of the next.g. The typing of numeric literals is discussed in Section 6. Numeric escapes such as \137 are used to designate the character with decimal representation 137.1.
Also. even if a line is indented to the left of an earlier implicit open brace. that is.pop. then the previous item is continued (nothing is inserted). A close brace is also inserted whenever the syntactic category containing the layout list ends. then instead of starting a layout.e.1 shows a (somewhat contrived) module and Figure 2. if it contains only whitespace or is indented more. an empty list “{}” is inserted. b and g all part of the same layout list. insert a semicolon or close brace). where the . 2. Note in particular: (a) the line beginning }}. The layout rule matches only those open braces that it has inserted. no layout processing is performed for constructs outside the braces.7 Layout Haskell permits the omission of the braces and semicolons used in several grammar productions. let. and layout processing occurs for the current level (i.7). When this happens. if an illegal lexeme is encountered at a point where a close brace would be legal. let. The layout (or “offside”) rule takes effect whenever the open brace is omitted after the keyword where. The effect of layout on the meaning of a Haskell program can be completely speciﬁed by adding braces and semicolons in places determined by the layout. and if it is indented less. a close brace is inserted. This allows both layoutsensitive and layoutinsensitive styles of coding. Section 9. the braces and semicolons are inserted as follows. Informally stated. these rules permit: f x = let a = 1. If the indentation of the nonbrace lexeme immediately following a where.2 shows the result of applying the layout rule to it." String literals are actually abbreviations for lists of characters (see Section 3. \ \a numeric escape character. a single newline may actually terminate several layout lists. by using layout to convey the same information. Figure 2.7. then a new item begins (a semicolon is inserted). do. Haskell programs can be straightforwardly produced by other programs. which can be freely mixed within one program. As an example. Because layout is not required. The meaning of this augmented program is now layout insensitive. then the layout list ends (a close brace is inserted). an explicit open brace must be matched by an explicit close brace.2. or of. and \ˆX. Given these rules. For each subsequent line. LAYOUT 13 "Here is a backslant \\ as well as \137. do or of is less than or equal to the current indentation level. the indentation of the next lexeme (whether or not on a new line) is remembered and the omitted open brace is inserted (the whitespace preceding the lexeme may include comments).3 gives a more precise deﬁnition of the layout rules. b = 2 g y = exp2 in exp1 making a. if it is indented the same amount. a control character. Within these explicit open braces.
pop.push x s = MkStack x s . inserted because the end of the tuple was detected. top.(pop Empty) is an error top :: Stack a > a top (MkStack x s) = x . inserted because of the column 0 indentation of the endofﬁle token.(top Empty) is an error Figure 2.(pop Empty) is an error .push :: a > Stack a > Stack a .(top Empty) is an error Figure 2. (b) the close braces in the where clause nested within the tuple and case expression. top. push.2: Sample program with layout expanded termination of the previous line invokes three applications of the layout rule.size s = length (stkToLst s) where {stkToLst Empty = [] . corresponding to the depth (3) of the nested where clauses.top :: Stack a > a .stkToLst (MkStack x s) = x:xs where {xs = stkToLst s }}. and (c) the close brace at the very end. Stack a) . case s of {r > i r where {i x = x}}) .1: A sample program module AStack( Stack. LEXICAL STRUCTURE module AStack( Stack.pop :: Stack a > (a.top (MkStack x s) = x } . size ) where {data Stack a = Empty  MkStack a (Stack a) . pop.14 CHAPTER 2.pop (MkStack x s) = (x. case s of r > i r where i x = x) . push.size :: Stack a > Int . Stack a) pop (MkStack x s) = (x. . size ) where data Stack a = Empty  MkStack a (Stack a) push :: a > Stack a > Stack a push x s = MkStack x s size :: Stack a > Int size s = length (stkToLst s) where stkToLst Empty = [] stkToLst (MkStack x s) = x:xs where xs = stkToLst s pop :: Stack a > (a.
regardless of whether or not the identiﬁer “concatMap” is in scope where the list comprehension is used.or nonassociativity and a precedence level. including their translations into the Haskell kernel. Similarly. an associativity variable varies over . Except in the case of let expressions. and (if it is in scope) what it is bound to. and may have a double (written as a superscript).Chapter 3 Expressions In this chapter. these translations preserve both the static and dynamic semantics. For example. where appropriate. A precedencelevel variable ranges from 0 to 9. there are some families of nonterminals indexed by precedence levels . right. In the syntax that follows. we describe the syntax and informal semantics of Haskell expressions. with 10 substitutions for and 3 for . Free variables and constructors used in these translations always refer to entities deﬁned by the Prelude. ::  15 ¢ ¡ else } ¦ ¡ ¢ ¡ © @§ \ let in if then case of { ¢ S > lambda abstraction let expression conditional case expression ¡ ¡ v v ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ S ¡ ¨ ¡ %§ => expression type signature ¢ § ¡ p v §e ¢© v ¨ v 7 ¢ 3¢ S ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢¡ © ¦ A!¡ § 8¥8¥8 7 ¡ § ¢ £¡5¢ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¢¡ ¤ 2 ¡ £v §¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ p v §e ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¥¡ S ¡ ¡ 2 ¢ ¡ s § S § ¢ p v ¨§e ¢ ¦ ¡ ¦ 32 v 2 ¡ ¡ V 2 ¢ S ¡ v v v ¤ ¥¡ ¤ v ¡ 7 ¢ S ¤ ¡ S ¢ ¢ ¡ ( ) ¦ ¤ ¡ 2 ¦ ©32 ¡7 ¡ 2¤ ¢ ¢ ¡ 2 p v £!e ¢ $ ¡ ¡ v ¡ ¦ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ 7 ¤ 7 § 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 ¤ v ¡ v ¡ v ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ S ¡ ¡ ¡ ¤ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ 7 7 . For example actually stands for 30 productions. “concatMap” used in the translation of list comprehensions (Section 3. index: a letter .11) means the concatMap deﬁned by the Prelude. or for left. . the nonterminals .
Given an unparenthesized expression “ ”. ] ¢ £ . } in (x + y)) (f x y) :: Int \ x > ((a+b) :: Int) + g y x + y { . } in x + y y :: Int > a+b :: Int A note about parsing.f let z + f x \ x Parses as (f x) + (g y) (. } in (x + y) z + (let { . . } ¦ § { ( )  right section labeled construction labeled update ) ) ) ¦ .. } in x + y let { . . ¦ 2 ' .16 © @§ CHAPTER 3. ) ] ¤ ¥ £ ¢ Q¢ ( ( [ [ [ ( ( ( ) .. Sample parses are shown below.. Negation is the only preﬁx operator in Haskell.. and conditionals. it has the same precedence as the inﬁx ..(f x)) + y let { .. For example. This f x . Consecutive unparenthesized operators with the same precedence must both be either left or right associative to avoid a syntax error.1). parentheses must be added around either “ ” or “ ” when unless or . . The ambiguity is resolved by the metarule that each of these constructs extends as far to the right as possible. .4.operator deﬁned in the Prelude (see Section 4.. } ¦ . The grammar is ambiguous regarding the extent of lambda abstractions.. the expression p ¢ 8 @e § 2 ¡ ¦ p v £!e ¢ $ ¡ 2 ¢ %e p 8 Q¢ ¡ 2 p v £!e ¢ $ A ¦ ¡ § { . EXPRESSIONS Expressions involving inﬁx operators are disambiguated by the operator’s ﬁxity (see Section 4..4. .2.  parenthesized expression tuple list arithmetic sequence list comprehension left section left section right section variable general constructor function application 0 ¡ ¦§ 0 ) A 9 g © ¡ ¨ ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¦ ¦¡ 2 ¢ A ¦ § 0 8¥¥8 ' ¡ ¦ § 0 8 ¦ ¦ ' ' ¢ S ¤ ) 2 v ¡ p v ¢ ¡e ¡ ¢ S ) 2 ¡ v ¡ p v ¢ $0e ¡ 2 ¢ S v p v ¢ 5e A 2 ¡ ¡ v ¡ ¡ 7 ¢ p v £!e ¡ ¢ $ ¡ ¡ $ $ ¢ A ¥8¥8 8 ¡ 7 3¢ ¨ ¥ ¢¡ ¢ ¡¢ ¨ £ 7 ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ S ¢ 8¡ ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¡ 8 ¡¡ ¢S ¥8¥8 ¡¢ ¡ ¡ 8 ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ § § ¤ 7 3¢ ¦ 2 7 ¡ ¢ S 4§ ¢ © do { } do expression ¨ ¤ ¡ ¡ ¢ S¢0 ¢ ¢ S¢0 ' ¢ 6 6 ' ¡ ¡ ¢ S ¢ ¡ 0 ¢ ¢ . Expressions that involve the interaction of ﬁxities with the let/lambda metarule may be hard to parse. ] . let expressions.2). Figure 4.
It should also display the string in some systemdependent manner. denoted by . so they may well incorrectly deliver the former parse. so the expression must parse thus: (let x = True in (x == x)) == True 17 However. Since Haskell is a nonstrict language. That is. 3. When evaluated. when demanded. Operators. a value of any type may be bound to a computation that. Programmers are advised to avoid constructs whose parsing involves an interaction of (lack of) associativity with the let/lambda metarule. and Literals ¤ ¢ ¤ § § 7 3¢ ¦ 2 7 6 ¡ ¢ S ¢ variable general constructor .3. implementations may well use a postparsing pass to deal with ﬁxities. The Prelude provides two functions to directly cause such errors: error :: String > a undefined :: a A call to error terminates execution of the program and returns an appropriate error indication to the operating system. ERRORS let x = True in x == x == True cannot possibly mean let x = True in (x == x == True) because (==) is a nonassociative operator. Constructors. The actual program behavior when an error occurs is up to the implementation. all Haskell types include . are indistinguishable by a Haskell program from nontermination. When undefined is used. errors cause immediate program termination and cannot be caught by the user. results in an error. Translations of Haskell expressions use error and undefined to explicitly indicate where execution time errors may occur. 3. The messages passed to the error function in these translations are only suggestions.1. For the sake of clarity. the error message is created by the compiler. implementations may choose to display more or less information when an error occurs. the rest of this section shows the syntax of expressions without their precedences.2 Variables.1 Errors Errors during expression evaluation.
For example.4). An operator is either an operator symbol. a ﬂoating point literal stands for an application of fromRational to a value of type Rational (that is. The ﬂoating point literal is equivalent to fromRational ( Ratio. such as + or $$. Similarly. or is an ordinary identiﬁer enclosed in grave accents (backquotes).5).4. or partially applied using a section (Section 3. Special syntax is used to name some constructors for some of the builtin types. The integers and are chosen so that . An operator is a function that can be applied using inﬁx syntax (Section 3. one can write the inﬁx application x `op y. such as ` `. These are described in Section 6. and foldr (*) 1 xs is equivalent to foldr (\x y > x*y) 1 xs. Ratio Integer). an operator symbol can be converted to an ordinary identiﬁer by enclosing it in parentheses. as deﬁned in the Ratio library. where fromRational is a method in class Fractional and Ratio.2). Translation: The integer literal is equivalent to fromInteger .18 CHAPTER 3. Dually. production for An integer literal represents the application of the function fromInteger to the appropriate value of type Integer. as found in the and .4.% constructs a rational from two integers. . ¦ ¦ ¦ § ¦ ` ` ` ` ) ) ) ( ( ( ( ` ` ` ` ) 4 © ¦ 3332 2 ¦ ©32 2 ¤ ¡ ©¦ 2 ¡ &¤¢ 2 2 ¦ ¡ 4 ©¡ ¢ § 32 3¦ 2 ¦ ¦ 4 © ¦ § 32 33 2 ¦ 4 S¤ © § ¤ ¦ ¢ 4 © 3¤¢ § ¤ ¦ 4 32 ¢ § ¦ 2 ¢ © ¦ ¦ 4 © ¦ 3332 ¦ § 3 2 43¤ § ¦ ¤ © ¦ 4 © 3¢S¤ § ¤¢ ¦ ¢ ¢ § 7 3¢ 0 ¤ § § 7 ¦ 2 ¦ 2 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 0 4 32 © ¦ 2 ¡ 2 2 ¦ ©32 ¡ ¡ ©¦ 2 2 ¡ &¤ 2 ¡ 2 ¤¢ ¡ ¦32 ¢ ¦ 2 ¦ ¤ ¦ 32 ¡¦ ¤¢ ¢ variable qualiﬁed variable constructor qualiﬁed constructor variable operator qualiﬁed variable operator constructor operator qualiﬁed constructor operator operator qualiﬁed operator . (+) x y is equivalent to x + y. EXPRESSIONS () [] (. where fromInteger is a method in class Num (see Section 6. If no ﬁxity declaration is given for `op ` ` then it defaults to highest precedence and left associativity (see Section 4.1. instead of writing the preﬁx application op op x y. For example.1). ) : Haskell provides special syntax to support inﬁx notation.% ).
Because e1e2 parses as an inﬁx application of the binary operator . Similarly.3.1. so the parentheses may be could be a data constructor. CURRIED APPLICATIONS AND LAMBDA ABSTRACTIONS 19 3. There is no link between the local meaning of the . the only preﬁx operator in Haskell. £ ¤ ¡ 2 £ ¤ 2 3 ¡ ¢ The form is the inﬁx application of binary operator to expressions and ¡ ¡  2 ¦ ©32 ¡ ¢ ¡ 2 ¤ ¡ ¡¢ ¢ 2 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ 6 6 where the are new identiﬁers. page 55). . An expression such Lambda abstractions are written \ as \x:xs>x is syntactically incorrect. ) > ¦ ¢ ¡ A !§ ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ § \ > ¡ ¢ ¡ £5¢ ¡ ¢ S ¢ ¢ ¡ ¢¢ ¨ £§S¢0 ¡ 6 6 ¡ ¡ ¡ function application lambda abstraction ¡ ¡ ¢ 2 ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ 0 .in the Prelude.operator does not necessarily refer to the deﬁnition of . as with any inﬁx operator. Application associates to the left. ¨ ££ ¥¦£ ¡ ¨ ££ ¥¦£ ¡ ¨ £££ ¡ ¦¥ ¨ £££ ¡ ©§¦¥¤¢ \ > \ > case ( . However.operator and unary negation. () is syntax for (\ x y > xy).3. partial applications of data construc ) of ( . v Translation: The following identity holds: Given this translation combined with the semantics of case expressions and pattern matching described in Section 3. preﬁx negation qualiﬁed operator . where the are patterns.denotes preﬁx negation. Preﬁx negation has the same precedence as the inﬁx operator . Because tors are allowed. unary . 3. The binary . The set of patterns must be linear—no variable may appear more than once in the set. . then the result is . it may be rebound by the module system.deﬁned in the Prelude (see Table 4. it may legally be written as \(x:xs)>x. . ¡ A ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ £ ¡ Function application is written omitted in (f x) y. and is syntax for negate .3 Curried Applications and Lambda Abstractions > . one must write e1(e2) for the alternative parsing.17.3.will always refer to the negate function deﬁned in the Prelude. if the pattern fails to match.4 Operator Applications £ The special form . and does not denote (\ x > x)—one must use negate for that.
and similarly for ( ). As another example. but (+a+b) is not. () is not a section. ( )  right section ) ¡ 2 ¡ 2 ¡ 2 ¡ ¡ ¡ 2 ¢ ¡ ( ( ( ) ) left section left section right section is an expression.5 Sections ¢ S ¤ v ¡ ¢ S ¡ v ¡ p v ¢ A5e ¡ 2  Syntactic precedence rules apply to sections as follows. ( ) is legal if and only if (x ) ( )). the latter may legally be written as (+(a+b)). ¢ S ¡ 2 Sections are written as ( ) or ( ).  £ ¡ ¤ ¢ ( ) negate ¡ 2 £ ¤ ¡ 2 ¢ ¡ p v £!e ¢ $ ¡ ¡ 2 ) 2 p v ¢ ¡e ¡ ) 2 p v ¢ 0e ¡ $ 2 v S ¢ ¡ ¡ 7 ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ 2 v 6 ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ S ¢ . EXPRESSIONS 3. by the let/lambda metarule (Section 3). Because (+) is left associative. there is a subtract function deﬁned in the Prelude such that (subtract ) is equivalent to the disallowed section. the expression (let n = 10 in n +) is invalid because. However. For example. (*a+b) is synparses in the same way as (x tactically invalid.is treated specially in the grammar. as described in the preceding section. (a+b+) is syntactically correct. the expression (let n = 10 in n + x) parses as (let n = 10 in (n + x)) rather than ((let n = 10 in n) + x) Because .20 Translation: The following identities hold: CHAPTER 3. but (+a*b) and (*(a+b)) are valid. where is a binary operator and Sections are a convenient syntax for partial application of binary operators. The expression (+ ()) can serve the same purpose. but an application of preﬁx negation.
]. where . and the empty list is Lists are written [ . £ ¡ £ ¢ S ¡ ¤ ¡ ¢ ¡ if then else ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¥ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 ¡ 2 where . The type of type of the entire conditional expression. denoted []. is an expression.6.3.3. is a binary operator.1. and is a variable that does not occur free in ¢ ¡2 2 ¢ ¢ ¢ ¡ 2 2 ( ( ) ) \ \ > > ¡ ¡ ¡ 4 ¡ © ¦ 32 2 ¦ ©32 ¦ 32 ¦ 3¡2 ¡ ¢ S ¡ ¡ 2 ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ and returns the value of if the ¢ . which is also the Prelude. as deﬁned in the must be Bool.6 Conditionals ¥ ¢ ¡ Translation: ¡ ¢ The following identity holds: ¥ ¢ £ ¢ ¡ ¤ where True and False are the two nullary constructors from the type Bool. and Chapter 8 notably Section 8.1). ¥ £ ¡ 3. if is False.7 Lists [] ( ) : . . ] ¢ ¡¡ £ ¥ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ 2 ¡¡ £ ¤ if then else case of { True > . The list constructor is :. and must have the same type. ¢ ¢ S 8 8 ¥¥8 4 © 3¦ 2 2 ©¦ 2 4 © ¦ 3¡ 32 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¦ 2 ¦ 2 ¢ ¡ [ . CONDITIONALS Translation: The following identities hold: 21 3. False > } £ ¥ A conditional expression has the form if then else value of is True. and otherwise. Standard operations on lists are given in the Prelude (see Section 6.
The constructor for an commas.9 Unit Expressions and Parenthesized Expressions ¡¦ 2 The form ( ) is simply a parenthesized expression.5). . . and the type of the overall expression is [ ] (see Section 4. and is equivalent to . Translation: ( . and cannot be hidden or redeﬁned. It is the only member of that type apart from .).2). . ) (see Section 4. and may be of arbitrary length .1.1.3). ) ¤ ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 £ ¡ ¢ ¡¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¤ [ .2).1. where there are denote the same value.. The types of through must all be the same (call it ).22 Translation: The following identity holds: CHAPTER 3. and can be thought of as the “nullary tuple” (see Section 6. like []. § 3. The unit expression () has type () (see Section 4. ¢ ¡ ( () ) ¦ ¤ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡¦ § § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¤ ¢ ¡§ ¡§ 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¦ 2 ¢ ¡ ( . If through are the types of through . The constructor “:” is reserved solely for list construction. with precedence level 5 (Section 4. . It is a rightassociative operator. ) for is an instance of a tuple as deﬁned in the Prelude. respectively.1. ] : ( : ( ( : []))) ¡ ¡ ¢ 6 6 6 6 ¡ ¦ 32 ¦ 32 ¡ ¡ § ¢ S ¢ S ¢ ¢ ..4. . . Translation: ( ) is equivalent to .8 Tuples ¢ S (.c) and (. . then the type of the resulting tuple is ( .1. Standard operations on tuples are given in the Prelude (see Section 6. it is considered part of the language syntax. ) Tuples are written ( . ).2). Thus (a. and requires no translation.2). . as deﬁned in the Prelude (see Section 6.) a b c tuple is denoted by (. 3. .1. EXPRESSIONS where : and [] are constructors for lists.4 and Chapter 8).b.
.10. ] enumFrom enumFromThen enumFromTo enumFromThenTo v The arithmetic sequence [ . ARITHMETIC SEQUENCES 23 3. ] ..3. ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ £¡ ¢ ¡ 6 6 6 7 ¢ 3¢ S ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ S $ ¢ ] . which are arbitrary expressions of type Bool local bindings that provide new deﬁnitions for use in the generated expression or subsequent guards and generators. ] denotes a list of values of type .3. page 83). ] .. and enumFromThenTo are class methods in the class Enum as deﬁned in the Prelude (see Figure 6.. § 3.4 for more details of which Prelude types are in Enum and their semantics..17) of type v ¦ A ¥ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ A list comprehension has the form [  . ] . .11 List Comprehensions ¦ A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ guards. and is an instance of class Enum. See Section 6. ] where the qualiﬁers are either and is an ¡ ¡ $ © ¢ ¡ 7 ¦ ¢ ¡ [  <let § .1.10 Arithmetic Sequences ¨ ¥ ¡ $ ¢ ¡ Translation: Arithmetic sequences satisfy these identities: ¡ where enumFrom. where each of the has type . where is a pattern (see Section 3. § generators of the form expression of type [ ] § <. § ¥ ¢ £ ¤ ¡ § § ¨ £ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ [ . enumFromTo.. depthﬁrst evaluation of the generators in the qualiﬁer list. . enumFromThen. . . ] list comprehension generator local declaration guard ¥¤ £ ¡ ¥ ¢ ¡ £ ¡ 7 3¢ ¥ ¢ 7 ¢ ¥ ¢ £ ¤ £ ¤ ¡¢ ¡¢ ¡¢ ¡ ¢ [ [ [ [ .. Such a list comprehension returns the list of elements produced by evaluating in the successive environments created by the nested.. The semantics of arithmetic sequences therefore depends entirely on the instance declaration for the type . .
4).x.5. Declarations are described in Chapter 4. True ] if then [  let ok = [  ok _ = [] in concatMap ok let in [  [ x  x <. 3.2]. For example.12 Let Expressions ¢ ¡ © Let expressions have the general form let { . x <. [(5. (3.x) <. If a qualiﬁer is a guard. . and if a match fails then that element of the list is simply skipped over. it must evaluate to True for the previous pattern match to succeed. over boolean over declaration lists. z <.4). and introduce a nested. let (x.y) = undefined in does not cause an executiontime error until x or y is evaluated. = = = = [ ] [  . over patterns. The scope of the declarations is the expression and the right hand side of the declarations. an implicit ˜ makes these patterns irrefutable. EXPRESSIONS Binding of variables occurs according to the normal pattern matching rules (see Section 3.y] ] else [] ] ] 6 ¡ ¢ ¡ . over listvalued expressions.2). variables bound by let have fully polymorphic types while those deﬁned by <. ]  <.(3. lexicallyscoped. and over sequences of qualiﬁers. for example: Translation: List comprehensions satisfy these identities.2)] ].4)]. The function concatMap. over qualiﬁers. expressions. ok is a fresh variable. A ¦ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¦ let in ' © 7 ¡ ¡ © 7 ¦ © 7 ¥ ¦ [  let . As usual. Thus: [ x  xs <. mutuallyrecursive list of declarations (let is often called letrec in other languages).[ [(1. are deﬁned in the Prelude. } in . and boolean value True.xs ] yields the list [4. Pattern bindings are matched lazily.are lambda bound and are thus monomorphic (see Section 4.24 CHAPTER 3.(3. which may be used as a translation into the kernel: where ranges over expressions.x. As indicated by the translation of list comprehensions. bindings in list comprehensions can shadow those in outer scopes.. ] = 7 ] ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ ' 7 ¥ ¦ 7 ' ¡ [ [ [ [  True ]  ]  .17).x ] [ z  y <.
not the syntactic metasymbol for alternation. > ¦§ of { } . This translation does not preserve the static semantics because the use of case precludes a fully polymorphic typing of the bound variables.. Once done. .. Note the use of the irrefutable patterns ˜ .13 Case Expressions A case expression has the general form (Notice that in the syntax rule for . The static semantics of the bindings in a let expression are described in Section 4.) Each alternative consists of a pattern and its matches.4. ) in case of ˜ > where no variable in appears free in let = fix ( \ ˜ > ) in ¡ ¢ ¨ ££ ¦¥£ ¡ § ¢ £¡ ¦ © @§ ¡ § 7 3¢ 7¡ 3 ¢ ¢ ¦ . .. . . which may be used as a translation into the kernel: ¡ where fix is the least ﬁxpoint operator. . Each match in turn consists of a sequence of pairs of guards and bodies (expressions). . . followed by optional bindings ( ) that scope over all of the guards and expressions of the alternative. the “” is a terminal symbol.3.3. An alternative of the form > where ¢ ¡  True > where © ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ § ¢ ¡ is treated as shorthand for: v ¨¥ § ¢ 4 v v ¡ © 7 ¥ ¦ ¤ v ¦7 v v © 7 ¥ ¦  > where ¤ ¥7 v ¡ v ¡ ¡v ¢ S 8 8 ¥¥8 v ¨¥ § § ¢ ¢ £¡ 4 ¦ v ¡ v © 7 ¦ 4 where each is of the general form  > A 4 A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¥ § 4 ¡ case v ¥ § of { . where and are patterns and expressions respectively. } in are captured by this translation: After removing all type signatures. CASE EXPRESSIONS Translation: The dynamic semantics of the expression let { 25 .. using the translation in Section 4. . ¥ § ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡  ¨ § ¢ ¡ > ¤ } 3 § § ¢ ¦¤ 5 § 7 3¢ %§ ¡ 4 ¦ ¨ © ¨ 5© 7 ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ © @§ ¢ £¡ ¦ ¡ A§ 7 3¢ £¡ ¦ ¢ ¢ £¡ ¢ ¡ § ¡ ¥8¥8 ¢ £¡ ¡§ 8 7 3¢ § ¢ S case .3..13. 3.4. these identities hold. each declaration is translated into an equation of the form = . where where ¡ £ ¡ 7 3¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¦ ¡ ¢ 6 6 6 6 6 let = in = ¨ ¡ ¡ ¥ ¡ ¢ ¨ © ¡ ¡ ¡ ¨ ¨ © ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¥ ¢ let { = let = .˜ ) = ( . in = } in = = let (˜ . ..
It has a single unambiguous parse. Programmers are advised. A case expression is evaluated by pattern matching the expression against the individual alternatives. Each body must have the same type. the result is . the phrase Bool > a is syntactically valid as a type. If all the guards evaluate to False. ¦ 3. matching continues with the next alternative. from top to bottom._)  (let b = not a in b :: Bool) > a } However. Pattern matching is described in Section 3. with the formal semantics of case expressions in Section 3. <let . and then by the guards evaluates to True. and hence reject the program. ¦ ¨ . . ¦ § ¡ 7 ¦ ¢ ¡ § ¡ ¢¡ £ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢S A § 4 §¤© 8¥8¥8 ¡ § 4 § © 4§ © © @§ do { } do expression v © 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ ¢ S 6 6 6 ¤ ¥¡ © @§ ¢ ¡ § ¡ 4§ 4§ © © ¢ ¡ . The alternatives are tried sequentially.26 CHAPTER 3. A note about parsing. therefore. to avoid guards that end with a type signature — indeed that is why a contains an not an . The expression case x of { (a. EXPRESSIONS A case expression must have at least one alternative and each alternative must have at least one body. If no match succeeds._)  let b = not a in b :: Bool > a } is tricky to parse correctly.17. It allows an expression such as putStr "x: " >> getLine >>= \l > return (words l) to be written in a more traditional way as: do putStr "x: " l <.14 Do Expressions A do expression provides a more conventional syntax for monadic programming. the guards for that alternative are tried sequentially from top to bottom. namely case x of { (a. If matches the pattern in the alternative.getLine return (words l) § § § ¦ 4 ¢ © %§ ¡ 4 ¥ © .3. . the corresponding righthand side is evaluated in the same environment as the guard. in the environment of the case expression extended ﬁrst by the bindings created during the matching of the in the where clause associated with that alternative.17. If one of the pattern. and parsers with limited lookahead may incorrectly commit to this choice. and the type of the whole expression is that type.
3. When used as a variable. however.2. after eliminating empty : } .1 Field Selection ¤ ¢ Field labels are used as selector functions. A ﬁeld label can be used at most once in a constructor.are lambda bound and are thus monomorphic. Selectors are top level bindings and so they may be shadowed by local variables but cannot conﬂict with other top level bindings of the same name. variables bound by let have fully polymorphic types while those deﬁned by <.2) and update (Section 3. and fail are operations in the class Monad. in record construction (Section 3. which may be used as a translation into the kernel.15. because y is given inconsistent typings in the latter. 3. a ﬁeld label serves as a function that extracts the ﬁeld from an object.15. Different datatypes cannot share common ﬁeld labels in the same scope. select from. and update ﬁelds in a manner that is independent of the overall structure of the datatype. >>=. © @§ 4§ © © © @§ 4§ © © do {let . preferably giving some indication of the location of the patternmatch failure..BAD Here S is legal but T is not. To illustrate the last point. a ﬁeld label can be used in more than one constructor provided the ﬁeld has the same typing in all constructors. consider: data S = S1 { x :: Int }  S2 { x :: Int } data T = T1 { y :: Int }  T2 { y :: Bool } . } = © @§ 4 ¤© § } © @§ 4 ¤© ¡ § >> do let ok ok in let 7 ¥ ¦ © @§ 4§ 7 © @§ do { } do { . ﬁeld labels cannot be confused with ordinary variables.15.. passed to fail. As indicated by the translation of do. do { < © @§ 4 ¤© § = = = ¦ 4 ¤© § } = do { } _ = fail ".1). Within a datatype. and ok is a fresh identiﬁer.3)..15. DATATYPES WITH FIELD LABELS 27 Translation: Do expressions satisfy these identities." stands for a compilergenerated error message. 3. © The ellipsis ". as deﬁned in the Prelude. This shadowing only affects selector functions.OK .15 Datatypes with Field Labels A datatype declaration may optionally deﬁne ﬁeld labels (see Section 4. the functions >>. These ﬁeld labels can be used to construct.." >>= ok in do { } { ¡ 6 ¡ ¢ S ¢ .
} labeled construction . the { and } characters must be explicit. Unlike the braces used in declaration lists. is legal whether or not F was declared with record syntax (provided F has no strict ﬁelds — see the third bullet above). © ' ¡ ¢ v § ¡ ¦ © ¡ ¢ v © ' § ¡ where is the arity of The auxiliary function § .2 Construction Using Field Labels ¦ A ¦§ 0 A constructor with labeled ﬁelds may be used to construct a value in which the components are speciﬁed by name rather than by position. (This is also true of ﬁeld updates and ﬁeld patterns. EXPRESSIONS A ﬁeld label 0 ' introduces a selector function deﬁned as: 3.) Construction using ﬁeld labels is subject to the following constraints: Only ﬁeld labels declared with the speciﬁed constructor may be mentioned. Fields not mentioned are initialized to A compiletime error occurs when any strict ﬁelds (ﬁelds whose declared types are preﬁxed by !) are omitted during construction. undefined A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¦ ¡§ ¢ ¡ 0 { = . 0 v v P ¡ A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¢ ¦ ¡ ' 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¡ = case x of { > .15. 0 ¦ © ' ¡ ¢ v 0 § ¡ ¦ If the th component of a constructor in the binding list .2. Otherwise. then value .1. where F is a data constructor. is y when labels the th component of or _ otherwise. is deﬁned as follows: has the ﬁeld label . and is y when some ﬁeld in has a label of or undefined otherwise. it denotes F . is the default © § 8 8 ¥¥8 © ¡ § © { } = undefined ' ¡ £¢ ¡ 0 ' ¡ ¢¢ 0 Translation: ' In the binding = . A ¥¥8 ¡ A A 8 8 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ > } ¦ ' ¤ ¦ ¢2 A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ 0 ¦ 6 6 0 ¢ ¦ ¦ ¡ ¦§ ¢ S ' ¢ 0 . A ﬁeld label may not be mentioned more than once. and if appears is . ¦ § v ¦ v where are all the constructors of the datatype containing a ﬁeld labeled with . Strict ﬁelds are discussed in Section 4. the ﬁeld labels . these are not subject to layout. The expression F {}. where is the arity of F. .28 Translation: x 0 CHAPTER 3. .
Updates are restricted in the following ways: All labels must be taken from the same datatype.. Translation: © Using the prior deﬁnition of Here are some examples using labeled ﬁelds: data T = C1 {f1.f4 :: Char} Translation C1 3 undefined C2 1 ’B’ ’A’ case x of C1 _ f2 > C1 1 f2 C2 _ f3 f4 > C2 1 f3 f4 Expression C1 {f1 = 3} C2 {f1 = 1.3. This example translates expressions using constructors in ﬁeldlabel notation into equivalent expressions using the same constructors without ﬁeld labels.f2 :: Int}  C2 {f1 :: Int.3 Updates Using Field Labels ¦ A ¦§ ¡ 0 § Values belonging to a datatype with ﬁeld labels may be nondestructively updated. A compiletime error will result if no single constructor deﬁnes the set of ﬁeld labels used in an update. f3. An execution error occurs when the value being updated does not contain all of the speciﬁed labels. v is the set of constructors containing all labels in . T© § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ T© ¡ ¡ § § ¡ > ¢ ' ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ' ¡ ¢ { } ¡ ¡ = case of ¢ £ ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¦§ 0 { . f4 = ’A’. f3 = ’x’}. such as x {f2 = 1.15. } labeled update . DATATYPES WITH FIELD LABELS 29 3. f3 = ’B’} x {f1 = 1} The ﬁeld f1 is common to both constructors in T. and is the arity of £ F© £ ¢ § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ > _ > error "Update error" T© ' £ ¡ ¢ ¡ ' ' £ ¡ ¢ . .15. No label may be mentioned more than once. v © ¥¥8 ¡ 8 8 where . ¦ ' ¦ ' ) A9g© ¨ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ 6 ' ¡ ¢ S ¢ . This creates a new value in which the speciﬁed ﬁeld values replace those in the existing value. At least one constructor must deﬁne all of the labels mentioned in the update..
they are used to type an expression explicitly and may be used to resolve ambiguous typings due to overloading (see Section 4.17. 3.17 Pattern Matching Patterns appear in lambda abstractions. } ¦§ ¢ ¦ as pattern arity labeled pattern ¦ 32 ¦ 32 arity ¢ ¢  negative literal £¡ ¢ ¤ ¥ § ¦ § + § ¦ 2 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ § ¢ §¢ ¡ ¢£§¢ § ¡ ¢§ ¡ § 2 ©¦32 ¡ v £§¢ § ¤ ¡ v ¢ ¡ v £¡ p v §e ¡ ¢ ¢ ¢ § 2 ¡ ¥ § ¦ § £¡ ¤ ! § 2 ©¦32 s¢ ¡ v § § ¡ v © ¢ £¡ p v ¢§e ¡ ¢ ¡ v § £ 7¡ ¤ ¢ v £¡ ¢ § v ¢ ¨ ¡ v§ 2©32 ¡ v § £ 7¡ ¦ ¢ ¦ ¢£¡ p v ¨§e ¡ ¢ £¡ § ¢ ¤ £ ¡ ¢ § ¨§ § :: = let { :: . and case expressions.30 CHAPTER 3. but it is an error to give a type that is more general than. EXPRESSIONS 3.4. where is an expression and is a type (Section 4. function deﬁnitions.1).1 Patterns Patterns have this syntax: § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡§ 0 { .2). The value of the expression is just that of . the declared type may be more speciﬁc than the . the principal type. . pattern bindings.16 Expression TypeSignatures %§ 0 Expression typesignatures have the form :: .1. or not principal type derivable from comparable to. However. = } in successor pattern ¡ ¢ ¡ § § ¨ § S § ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¦ 32 :: => ¡ ¢ ¡ £§¢ ¢ £¡ V y ¤ § § 7 3¢ ¦ 2 7 ¤ ¦ 2 ¤ ¡ ¢ ¢ ¡ 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 v ¤ v § § ¡ £¡ ¢ ¤ § ¢£¡ § ¢£ 7¡ ¢ £ 7¡ v § ¢ ¡ £§¢ § § ¡ ¢ £¡ ¢ £¡ ¢ ¡ .4). so deﬁning the semantics of pattern matching for case expressions is sufﬁcient.3. list comprehensions. As with normal type signatures (see Section 4. Translation: 3. do expressions. the ﬁrst ﬁve of these ultimately translate into case expressions.
one cannot match against a partiallyapplied constructor. and allow one to use . Pattern matching proceeds from left to right. . . return ).17.z] > if x==0 then True else False } > if x==0 then True else False } 3. or it may diverge (i. Matching the pattern against a value always succeeds and binds ¤ ¢ Patterns of the form @ are called aspatterns. according to the following rules: ¤ ¤ 1. ) ] ¤ ¢ £¡ ¢ § £¡ ¢ 8¥¥8 8 8 8 ¥¥8 ) .e. value being matched by § § ¢ ¢ § = as a name for the to . For example.17. PATTERN MATCHING 31 The arity of a constructor must match the number of subpatterns associated with it. For example. x used twice in pattern case e of { xs@(x:rest) > if x==0 then rest else xs } is equivalent to: let { xs = e } in case xs of { (x:rest) > if x==0 then rest else xs } Patterns of the form _ are wildcards and are useful when some part of a pattern is not referenced on the righthandside. returning a binding for each variable in the pattern. and outside to inside. Attempting to match a pattern can have one of three results: it may fail.y.x) = x . ¢ § . It is as if an identiﬁer not used elsewhere were put in its place. For example.3._. case e of { [x.2 Informal Semantics of Pattern Matching Patterns are matched against values. All patterns must be linear —no variable may appear more than once.ILLEGAL. ¢ ¡ ¢ £¡ ¢ £¡ ¤ § ¢£§¢ ¡ ¡§ ¢£¡ ¡§ ¢£¡ ¢ £¡ § _ ( ( [ ˜ wildcard parenthesized pattern tuple pattern list pattern irrefutable pattern ¢ ¤ ¢ 6 § ¢ £¡ 0 ._] is equivalent to: case e of { [x. it may succeed. this deﬁnition is illegal: f (x.
ﬁelds may not be named more than once. Matching against a constructor using labeled ﬁelds is the same as matching ordinary constructor patterns except that the ﬁelds are matched in the order they are named in the ﬁeld list. At that point the entire pattern is matched against the value. 1 ¦ 2 ¦ 32 7 ¦ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ r1 32 If the value is of the form the match fails.) Operationally. depending on the type of the pattern. the overall match succeeds. and no binding is done. where ¢ £¡ ¦ 32 § ¢ £¡ ¦ 32 If the value is . § § § That is. that is. Matching an + pattern (where is a variable and is a positive integer literal) against a value succeeds if >= . . Again. The match diverges if this test diverges. EXPRESSIONS 2. ¦ 32 4. and to if matching against fails or diverges. and if the match fails or diverges. the ﬁrst to fail or diverge causes the overall match to fail or diverge.32 CHAPTER 3. (Binding does not imply evaluation. Matching the pattern by data. The interpretation of the literal integer literals are allowed. this means that no matching is done on a ˜ pattern until one of the variables in is used. then is matched against . so does the overall computation. The interpretation of numeric literals is exactly as described in Section 3. if all matches succeed. then is matched against . The match diverges if the comparison diverges. § ¦ Q32 If the value is of the form . 7. character. and fails otherwise. resulting in the binding of to . the functions >= and . Matching the pattern ˜ against a value always succeeds. the overloaded function fromInteger or fromRational is applied to an Integer or Rational literal (resp) to convert it to the appropriate type. depends on the value: is a constructor deﬁned by is a constructor deﬁned ¢ ¡ £5¢ ¢ ¡ £§¢ § ¢ ¡ £§¢ ¢ £¡ § ¢ £¡ ¢ ¡ § ¦ 2 ¢ ¡ £5¢ § ¢ ¡ £§¢ ¢ ¦ ¢ ¡ £§¢ . respectively. Matching the pattern against a value. Fields not named by the pattern are ignored (matched against _). 8. 6. is the same as in numeric literal patterns. constructors associated with newtype serve only to change the type of a value.2.are overloaded. where == is overloaded based on the type of the pattern. where newtype. If the value is of the form . Matching the wildcard pattern _ against any value always succeeds. subpatterns are matched lefttoright against the components of the data value. Matching a numeric. where is a different constructor to ¦ 32 A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ A !§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ § 5.. 3. The free variables in are bound to the appropriate values if matching against would otherwise succeed. except that only ¢ ¢ ¢ ¦ ¢ ¢ ¦ ¢ ¢ ¢ If the value is . depends on the value: against a value. or string literal pattern against a value succeeds if == . . the match diverges. All ﬁelds listed must be declared by the constructor.
’x’]. a wildcard.˜(a. An + pattern can only be matched against a value in the class Integral.b)] > x) [(0. then Aside from the obvious static type constraints (for example. and the result is a failed match. If the match of against fails or diverges. then . (a. irrefutable matching: (\ ˜(x. is irrefutable). it is a static error to match a character against a boolean).3). It is sometimes helpful to distinguish two kinds of patterns. PATTERN MATCHING § 33 against a value is the result of matching against . These examples demonstrate refutable vs. attempting to match ’a’ against causes the match to 2. or of the form ˜ (whether or not (see Section 4. Matching a refutable pattern is strict: if the value to be matched is the match diverges.17.1) § ¢ ¡ £5¢ § ¢ ¡ £§¢ © § 7 ¢ 0 § ¢ ¡ £§¢ %¥ § ¤ § ¢ §¢ ¡ ¦ § ¤ ¢ ¡ £§¢ § ¢ @ 9. where is a constructor deﬁned by newtype and is irrefutable @ where is irrefutable.1).2.b)] > x) [(0. Many people feel that + patterns should not be used. Consider the following declarations: newtype N = N Bool data D = D !Bool (\ (x:xs) > x:x:xs) (\ ˜(x:xs) > x:x:xs) (\ ˜[x. ] (0. The irrefutable patterns are as follows: a variable. then ’a’ to match against ’x’. A ﬂoating literal pattern can only be matched against a value in the class Fractional.y) > 0) (\ ˜[x] > 0) [] (\ ˜[x] > x) [] 0 0 : : 3. Matching an aspattern augmented with the binding of so does the overall match.3. the following static class constraints hold: An integer literal pattern can only be matched against a value in the class Num. ]. If the pattern [’a’. to . ] (\ ˜[x.’b’] is matched against [ .’b’] is matched against [’x’. These patterns may be removed or changed in future versions of Haskell. All other patterns are refutable.1). Here are some examples: 1.y) > 0) (\ (x. ¢ ¡ £§¢ ¢ ¡ £§¢ E ¤ ¢ § ¢§ ¡ £§¢ ¢ ¡ £§¢ ¢ ¦ ¤ ¢E ¢ ¦ . But if [’a’. Matching an irrefutable pattern is nonstrict: the pattern matches even if the value to be matched is .
Int.Int) > [Int] > Int f ˜(x.2. in f :: (Int.2. The guard semantics have an obvious inﬂuence on the strictness characteristics of a function or case expression. regardless of whether it actually includes guards—if no guards are written. and (s) use a lambda rather than a let. it is this rule that deﬁnes the meaning of pattern matching against overloaded constants. an otherwise irrefutable pattern may be evaluated because of a guard. Rule (h) in Figure 3. (q). ¢ ¡ 4 v ¢ 3 v ¤ 1 (\ (N True) > True) (\ (D True) > True) (\ ˜(D True) > True) True E v v ¤¢ 1 ¢ v ¡ .4). and are algebraic datatype (data) constructors (including tuple constructors). function deﬁnition. (j).1. and are variables.3 Formal Semantics of Pattern Matching The semantics of all pattern matching constructs other than case expressions are deﬁned by giving identities that relate those constructs to case expressions.2: .3. and are patterns. (e). For example. and is a newtype constructor. The environment of the guard is the same as the righthandside of the caseexpression alternative.y. Top level patterns in case expressions and the set of top level patterns in function or pattern bindings may have zero or more associated guards.17. EXPRESSIONS These examples illustrate the difference in pattern matching between types deﬁned by data and newtype: Additional examples may be found in Section 4. and it must be true for the overall pattern match to succeed. . and are booleanvalued expressions. In Figures 3. 3. The semantics of case expressions themselves are in turn given as a series of identities. Any implementation should behave so that these identities hold. A guard is a boolean expression that is evaluated only after all of the arguments have been successfully matched.1–3.34 CHAPTER 3. . then True is substituted for the guards in the forms. this indicates that variables bound by case are monomorphically typed (Section 4. it is not expected that it will use them directly. In particular. Subsequent identities manipulate the resulting case expression into simpler and simpler forms. v ¥ § Rule (b) matches a general sourcelanguage case expression.1–3.z) [a]  (a == y) = 1 both a and y will be evaluated by == in the guard. since that would generate rather inefﬁcient code. Rules (d). and are expressions.2 involves the overloaded operator ==. in Figures 3. These identities all preserve the static semantics. or pattern binding to which it is attached.
17. .3. _ > } @ § @ C ¨ ¨ C § § (e) case of { @ > .  } else ££ ¥¦£ _ £ ¡ ! § ¨ ££ ¥¥£ > case of { . Figure 3. > error "No match" } ¡ ! ¨ ££ ¥¦£ © £ ¡ © ¨ © ¡ © ¨ # $£ § § (b) . _ > } case of { > ( \ > ) . where { } } then 10 > where { # ¥ ¢ 32 ( & )' ¤# ( & )' ¤# % ££ ¦¥£ © & ¤# ¡ ! where each  > © & ¤# % has the form: . }) ¡ "£ § § £ ¡ (a) case of { } where is a new variable case of { case of { _ § (\ > case of { ¥ £ ¦¤¢ ¥ £ ¦¤¢ }) . PATTERN MATCHING 35 . . } } .1: Semantics of Case Expressions. _ > } > ) (case of { > are all the variables in }) (case of { > A % ££ ¦¥£ case of { > (where is a new variable) case of { > let { } in if then _ > }} © ¥ ¢ 2 10 © % A B ¨ @ § A @ 6 _ else if ¥ ¢ 98 70 ££ ¥¦£ 6 © 4 © 1% 5% ¨ § (c) case of {   > > > . Part 1 G @ § (f) case of { _ > . _ > } $C ¨ § ££ ¦¥£ © DC ¨ ¨ @ § ¨ $C¦E£¥¥¦FC ££E © ££ © ¥¦£ C C $3 § (d) case (\ where of { ˜ > .
respectively @ @ ¨ ¨ ¤ ¨ ¤ ££ ¥¦£ § ¨ © ¨ § (n) case of { case of { # { = } > . or string literal. ££ ¥¦£ @ ¨ C ££ ¦¥£ @ © C > case © ¨ of { > case _ > } @ ¨ ££ ¥¦£ © ¨ ¦ C ££ ¦¥£ © C § ¨ § (g) case of { case of { > . _ > is a data constructor of arity } @ C ££ ¥¦£ © © C ££ ¥¦£ © ££ ¥¦£ C © ££ ¦¥£ (q) case ( ) of { (\ > ) where is a data constructor of arity © C > . ¦" C E £££ ¥¦¥E © C 28 ¨ E £££ ¥¦¥E @ © ¨ _ > at least one of } is not a variable. _ > } of { > . _ > } . _ > case of { > case of { { = } > case of { { = . are new variables else } } }. _ > } where is if labels the th component of .36 CHAPTER 3. EXPRESSIONS Figure 3. } > . _ > } if ( == ) then is a numeric. _ > } case of { > .) else where is a numeric literal ¡ £ @ © C ££ ¥¦£ © C £ (r) case where of { > . is a new variable © 7¤ A ¨ £ @ ¨ ¢ £ (l) ¢ case where of { > . _ > } case ( ) of { > . _ > } where is a newtype constructor ¢ } case § C C § (j) case of { > } ( \ > ) of { C § @ C § (i) case of { > .2: Semantics of Case Expressions. = . . _ > _ > }} where . character. _ > } case of { > } > @ F ¡ § @ F ¡ § (h) ¡ case where of { > . _ > is a newtype constructor @ @ ¨ ¨ ¢ § § ¢ (k) case of { > . _ > } if >= then (\ > ) ( . _ > } where and are distinct data constructors of arity and . _ > } case of { _ _ > . _ otherwise case of { {} > . are ﬁelds of constructor . Part 2 @ ¡ § @ C ¡ C ¡ § § (s) case of { + > . _ > } @ @ © $C ££ ¥¦£ © C ££ ¦¥£ @ © 4 @ (p) @ @ ' ££ ¥¥£ § § (o) > . } > . _ > } A @ ££ ¥¥£ ££ ¦¥£ ¥ ¥ §¨ ¨ A ¥ ¤ ¥ ¦¤ © ¨ © ¤ A § © ¨ © 5¤ ££ ¥¥£ ¥ ¤ § @ § (m) case of { { = .
. . we describe the syntax and informal semantics of Haskell declarations. . } ¦ A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¦ $ ¥ £0 7 ¦ ¦ { . } } © 2§ .¦ § 7 ¥ ¦ ¤ ¤ © ¥ £0 ¦ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ ¡ 7 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¤ ¤ ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¤ © ¥ © ¦ § A 7 ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ © © ¥ ¤ § ¦ ¢ £¡ 7 ¦ § ) 7 7 ¦ 7 ¦ ¦ 8 8 A %§ ¥¥8 ¡ %§ ¦ § ¡ ¡ ¨ © § § ©¦ § © %§ ¨ § ¡ § ¦ 2 © ¢ 7 7 ¦ ¨ 5© ¤ ¥ %§ © %§ ¨ § S § 32 © ¢ ¦ 7§ © ¦ ¦ 7§ © ¨ ¦ § § ¤ ¥ 332 £ ¦ %¢§¢ 4 ¥ x¨ ¤ § ¡ § 32 ¢ ¦ ¦ V ¨ #¦ § § ¥ ©¤ § ©332 ¡ 7©¡ %§ 4 § © ¨ ¤ ¦ § S § 32 ¢ ¦ ¦ ¡ 7© ¡ %§ %¢ § 4 § V © A ¡ 2 § ¡ ¥¥8 ©¡ ¡ 2 § 8 8 7 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 7 ¦ ¡ © 2§ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § © 7¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ © ¦ ' ¡ ¦ ¦ Declarations and Bindings Chapter 4 In this chapter. } = = where where empty A § ¦ 37 6 6 © ¥ § ¦ § © 7 ¦ 7 6 6 © 7¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ 6 6 © 7¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ 6 6 © 2§ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 2 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 6 6 2 ¦ ' 2 $ 7 ¦ 2 4 . ¦ { . type data newtype class instance default ( . module where 2 ¨ ©§ ¤ 5@¤32 ¢ ¡ § 2 4 ¦ ' { { { . . = => => => => . } } ¦ ¡ 7 $ ¥ ¦£0 7 ¦ ¦ { .
© 4. type classes and overloading. but most “builtin” datatypes are deﬁned with normal Haskell code. but the type system has been extended with type classes (or just classes) that provide a structured way to introduce overloaded functions. deﬁned on it. These “builtin” datatypes are described in detail in Section 6. For example. For exposition. type signatures. and default declarations (Section 4.4). . and ﬁxity declarations (Section 4. An instance declaration (Section 4. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS The declarations in the syntactic category are only allowed at the top level of a Haskell module (see Chapter 5). 5].1.38 %§ CHAPTER 4. Haskell has several primitive datatypes that are “hardwired” (such as integers and ﬂoatingpoint numbers). consisting of type.” We may then declare Int and Float to be instances of this class: . newtype. and data declarations (Section 4. A class declaration (Section 4. consisting of class. of the given types. . .simplified class declaration for Num . whereas may be used either at the top level or in nested scopes (i. suppose we wish to overload the operations (+) and negate on types Int and Float. and nested declarations.1) introduces a new type class and the overloaded operations that must be supported by any type that is an instance of that class. infixl infixr infix ¦ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 2§ ¨ :: => © ¡ © 7 ¥ ¦ A¤ 2 ¨ ¥ § ¦ § ¤ ¡ § S § 32 ¢ ¦ V A¢ 2 ¡ 8¥¥8 8 8 8 ¥¥8 %§ § ¢ ¡ © ¤ ¡ ¤ ¢ ¢ 2 ¡ 6 6 6 6 7 ¥ ¦ © S¤ © type signature ﬁxity declaration empty declaration %§ § ¢ ¦ ¥ ¢ 2 ¡ .2) declares that a type is an instance of a class and includes the deﬁnitions of the overloaded operations—called class methods—instantiated on the named type.3). using normal type and data declarations. instance.3.e.1 Overview of Types and Classes Haskell uses a traditional HindleyMilner polymorphic type system to provide a static type semantics [3.3. We introduce a new type class called Num: class Num a where (+) :: a > a > a negate :: a > a .2). we divide the declarations into three groups: userdeﬁned datatypes.(Num is defined in the Prelude) This declaration may be read “a type a is an instance of the class Num if there are class methods (+) and negate. those within a let or where construct). consisting of value bindings.
Kind inference is discussed in Section 4. ‘constructor class’ was used to describe an extension to the original type classes. 4.simplified instance of Num Float x + y = addFloat x y negate x = negateFloat x where addInt. 4. then a type of kind . is the kind of types that take a type of kind and return ¤ ¥¡ 6 6 6 ¢ £¡ ¡ ¡ %§ %§ ¡ %§ ' ¢ .1. unlike types. The term ‘type class’ was used to describe the original Haskell 1. negateInt.e.6.4. but in general could be any userdeﬁned function.2 Syntax of Types ¨ %§ > %§ function type %§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ ¡ ¡ %§ %§ %§ ( [ ( . type expressions are classiﬁed into different kinds.simplified instance of Num Int x + y = addInt x y negate x = negateInt x instance Num Float where . which take one of two possible forms: Kind inference checks the validity of type expressions in a similar way that type inference checks the validity of value expressions. ] ) .1 Kinds To ensure that they are valid. There is no longer any reason to use two different terms: in this report.1.1. kinds are entirely implicit and are not a visible part of the language. OVERVIEW OF TYPES AND CLASSES 39 instance Num Int where .0 type system. and negateFloat are assumed in this case to be primitive functions. However. ¡ ¡ ¢ ¨ ¤ ¡ B%§ ¦ 32 ¢ %§ ¡ ¤ ¡ ¡ %§ %§ ' ' The symbol represents the kind of all nullary type constructors.” More examples of type classes can be found in the papers by Jones [7] or Wadler and Blott [12]. The ﬁrst declaration above may be read “Int is an instance of the class Num as witnessed by these deﬁnitions (i. addFloat. ) tuple type list type parenthesised constructor ¤ type application ¢ ©¡ ¢ ¤ ¡ ¨§6 ¦¡ ¢ ¡ If and are kinds. ‘type class’ includes both the original Haskell type classes and the constructor classes introduced by Jones. class methods) for (+) and negate.
Most type constructors are written as an identiﬁer beginning with an uppercase letter. inﬁx type constructors are not allowed (other than (>)). and has exactly one value.5). Just as data values are built using data constructors. and treated as types with kind . Int. Double and Bool are type constants with kind . A parenthesized type. or newtype T . and classes.6) is needed to determine appropriate kinds for userdeﬁned datatypes.9 and 6. written as identiﬁers beginning with a lowercase letter. It denotes the “nullary tuple” type. is identical to the type . In general. 2. and so on. Float. to the variable a. . Type variables. also written () (see Sections 3. ) 6 2§ $ § © ¦ ¤ ¤32 ¡ %§ ¤ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¦ 32 6 %§ 6 6 6 ¦ 32 %§ unit type list constructor function constructor tupling constructors . Maybe and IO are unary type constructors.).. Special syntax is provided to allow certain type expressions to be written in a more traditional style: § § ¤ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¤ ¡ 6 ¤ ¡ 6 ¢ ¡ 3.40 CHAPTER 4. Type application. and so on. Use of the (>) and [] constants is described in more detail below. As with data constructors. The main forms of type expression are as follows: 1. The tuple types are written as (. © S¤ Special syntax is provided for certain builtin type constructors: The trivial type is written as () and has kind . then is a 6 6 6 6 6 () [] (>) (. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS The syntax for Haskell type expressions is given above. For example: Char.1.. Integer. (.. The kind of a variable is determined implicitly by the context in which it appears. Type constructors. must have kind . . 4. having form ( ). IO a. Unlike data constructors. the names of type constructors start with uppercase letters. type values are built from .). add the type constructor T to the type vocabulary. The kind of T is determined by kind inference. type synonyms. The list type is written as [] and has kind . For example. Since the IO type constructor has kind .. it follows that both the variable a and the whole expression. The function type is written as (>) and has kind . The declarations data T . IO. Their kinds are . a process of kind inference (see Section 4.. the type expression IO a can be understood as the application of a constant. If is a type of kind type expression of kind . and is a type of kind .
3. . they cannot be qualiﬁed. .4. [ ]. and ). If is the type of expression or pattern . and so on. When we write an explicitly quantiﬁed type.. always denote the builtin type constructors.1. A function type has the form Function arrows associate to the right. A class identiﬁer begins with an uppercase letter. (Hence the special production. These special syntactic forms always denote the builtin type constructors for functions. . (. Notice that expressions and types have a consistent syntax. Int > Int > Float means Int > (Int > Float). the scope of the extends as far to the right as possible. and ( ) have the types ( > ). and so on (see Sections 3. the preﬁx type constructors (>).) Although the list and tuple types have special syntax.4). . which is equivalent to the type (. their semantics is the same as the equivalent userdeﬁned algebraic data types.1)). nor mentioned in import or export lists (Chapter 5).1. OVERVIEW OF TYPES AND CLASSES £§ ¡§ 41 £§ ¡§ > .3. ¡§ £§ ¡§ v § 4. For clarity. []. It denotes the type of lists with elements of type (see Sections 3. and indicates the membership of the type in the class .). then the expressions (\ > ). the type variables in a Haskell type expression are all assumed to be universally quantiﬁed. In a similar way. the second component of type . ( With one exception (that of the distinguished type variable in a class declaration (Section 4.8 and 6.7 and 6. which is equivalent to the type [] . . (). tuples.3). 2. however. and lists. above. means .) where there are commas between the parenthesis. 1. [ ]. A class assertion has form .3 Syntax of Class Assertions and Contexts . and has the general form A $ A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ ¡ ( ) ¤ ¢ %§ ¦ ( ) ¦ A © © ( . A list type has the form [ ]. It denotes the type of tuples with the ﬁrst component of type . there is no explicit syntax for universal quantiﬁcation [3]. A tuple type has the form ( . For example. for example. ) where . For example. regardless of what is in scope. respectively. “gtycon”.1. we often write quantiﬁcation explicitly when denotes the type discussing the types of Haskell programs. A context consists of zero or more class assertions. which is equivalent to the type (>) . ) £§ ¢ 6 ¢ & 8 ¢ ¥ ¦ § § ¢ 6 ¤ ¢ 8 ¢ ¢ £ ¤ ¥ ¡ § ¡ ¢ § ¤ ¦ ¦¢ § 32 ¦ © %§ ¨ § 2 4 A 5 %§ 8¥8¥8 ¢ %§ 7¥ ¤ B%§ ¦ © ¦ %§ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¢ ¤ %§ © ¥ %§ 7 7 © 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ ¡ S© ¥ ¢ ¥ 7 £ ¤ § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¢ ¢ ¢7 ¤ ¡§ ¢ £ ¤ %§ © § 7 ¥ ¡ %§ ¢ § 6 ¡ ¡ © S© ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ 8 ¢ ¥ 7 ¢ ¥ ¡ ¢ 6 6 6 6 6 § ¡ § ¢ £§ © © ¤ 7 7 © © © ¥ ¢ 7 ¥ %§ ¡§ ¦ 2 %§ %§ ¢ ¥ 7 v %§ .1. the type expression a > a .
although in this case the concrete syntax contains no =>. we use to denote a context and we write => to indicate the type restricted by the context . respectively. including the proper use of overloaded class methods (although certain ambiguous overloadings could arise. Therefore. consider the function double: § if and only if the context ¡ ¢ ¢ 8 £ ¢ Whenever ¥ holds in the class environment. For example. any of that are free in must also be free in . The context must only contain type variables referenced in . we provide informal details of the type system.4.1. or the application of type variable to one or more types. Eq b) => [a] > [b] > String (Eq (f a). the constraint Eq (f a) cannot be made simpler because f is universally quantiﬁed.) The Haskell type system attributes a type to each expression in the program. Functor f) => (a > b) > f a > f b > Bool In the third type.3. where is a set of type variables . DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS where are class identiﬁers. (Wadler and Blott [12] and Jones [7] discuss type and constructor classes.4 Semantics of Types and Classes In this section. we write => even if the context is empty. For convenience. Types are related by a generalization preorder (speciﬁed below). § § § 4. £§ ¨ $ © ¢ © A value of type . and a class environment that declares which types are instances of which classes (a type becomes an instance of a class only via the presence of an instance declaration or a deriving clause). may be instantiated at types holds. Haskell’s extended HindleyMilner type system can infer the principal type of all expressions.1. and each of the is either a type variable. The type of an expression depends on a type environment that gives types for the free variables in . The outer parentheses may be omitted when . For example. Furthermore. up to the equivalence induced by the generalization preorder.16 and 4. In general.4). " t ¡§ is identical to . £ ¢ 8 £ ¥ $ ¡§ t $ ¡ ¢ 8 t $ The type substitution ¥ is more general than the type whose domain is such that: if and only if there is a § A $ A ¢ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ ¢ ¡ $ ¢ ¢ v r$ $ § ¢ ¢ § ¢ A ¢ 8 $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ ¥ ¡ £§ ¦ .3. in more detail. that can be assigned to a particular expression (in a given environment) is called its principal type. In any such type. here are some valid types: Eq a => a > a (Eq a. as described in Section 4. Show a. explicit typings (called type signatures) are usually optional (see Sections 3. a type is of the form . the most general type. In general. the universallyquantiﬁed type variables the context must be of the form given above in Section 4. also holds.42 CHAPTER 4.1).
2. These declarations may only appear at the top level of a module. because Int is an instance of the class Num. } 3 %§ ¢ ¥ ¦ 7 ! ! ¡ ¢ 7 ¦ ¦ 7 %§ ¡ %§ ¡ ¡ 7 ¥ %§ ¦ ¦ 7 ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ %§ ! ! arity inﬁx ¦§ £ ¢ ¢ ¡ 3 %§ 8¡ 8 ¥¥8 ¢ 2 ¦ ©32 ' ¡ ¡ %§ ¨ 8 8 ¥¥8 A¢ § © ¦ §¤ ¤32 8 8 ¥¥¡8   ¦ ¦ § 2©¦ 2 ¡ ¦32 ¦ ¦ § ¢ ¤ ¥ © © ¦ ¤ § 332 %§ ¤ ¢ 4§ © ¨ %§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ § S § ¢ ¢ ¦ 32 data => = ¦ ¢ 6 ¢ ¢ ¡ 7 ©¡ 8 ¢ ¥ %§ © ¤ ¦ 3¢ 2 %§ ¨ ¡ 32¡ ¦ ' ¢ ¡ ¤ ¤32 § © ¦ ¢ V ¤ § 332 © ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ 32 %§ %§ 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ ¦ 7 § %¢ #¦ § § 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ © © ¤ § ¦ ¤ § ¦ 2 © © © 7 ©¡ ¢ 7¥ ¦ ¤ 4§ 2 2§ ¦ © . However. ) ¦ § ¦ ¢ ¥ ¦ 7 A ¢ ¥ ¦ 7 { :: . and type synonyms (type declarations). USERDEFINED DATATYPES double x = x + x 43 The most general type of double is Num .2 UserDeﬁned Datatypes In this section. double may not normally be applied to values of type Char. in which case double may indeed be applied to a Char. The types of the data constructors are given by: A § ¥¥8 ¡ !§ A A 8 8 $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ 6 ¡ ¡ ¢¢¡ ¤ v§ 6 ¢¢¡ ¡ ¡ ¡§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ § ¡ 6 ¡ @§ v A v ¢ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ 8 ¡ $ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ Q¥ §¦v ¥¥ ¢ data ¢ => =   £ ¤ A © S© ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 © ¡ S© © S© deriving © ( . since Num Int holds.2. renamed datatypes (newtype declarations). In this Report. 4. . we describe algebraic datatypes (data declarations). double may be applied to values of type Int (instantiating to Int). 4.4. because Char is not normally an instance of class Num. The user may choose to declare such an instance. This declaration introduces a new type constructor with one or more constituent data constructors . An algebraic datatype declaration has the form: where is a context. ! .1 Algebraic Datatype Declarations ¨ #¦ § § The precedence for is the same as that for expressions—normal constructor application has higher precedence than inﬁx constructor application (thus a : Foo a parses as a : (Foo a)). the unqualiﬁed term “constructor” always means “data constructor”.
to the components of a data object.44 ¢ v ¢ CHAPTER 4. features using labels are simply a shorthand for operations using an underlying positional constructor. A constructor with associated ﬁeld labels may still be used as an ordinary constructor. The type variables through must be distinct and may appear in and the . This allows For large datatypes it is useful to assign a speciﬁc ﬁeld to be referenced independently of its location within the constructor. the declaration data Eq a => Set a = NilSet  ConsSet a (Set a) In the example given. the “abstractness” of the datatype) outside of the module in which the datatype is deﬁned is controlled by the form of the datatype’s name in the export list as described in Section 5. The optional deriving part of a data declaration has to do with derived instances. f3 :: Bool } deﬁnes a type and constructor identical to the one produced by © ¢ 6 Set Set ¢ ¢ 6 ¢ 7 ' ¨¢ ¢ introduces a type constructor Set of kind types NilSet Set ConsSet Eq .e. Labelled Fields A data constructor of arity creates an object with components. The visibility of a datatype’s constructors (i. using the record syntax (C { . and is described in Section 4. the overloaded type for ConsSet ensures that ConsSet can only be applied to values whose type is an instance of the class Eq.6. For example.. and constructors NilSet and ConsSet with v § ¢ v I¡ ¢ ¢ 6 ¡ ¦ 6 ¥¥8 8 8 ¢ 6 $ 7 ¦7 ¢ 6 ¢ ¡ 8 8 ¢ ¢ ¥ §¥ ¥ ¥ §¥ ¥ ¡ $ ¤ v§ v $ where 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ @§ v . For example: f (ConsSet a s) = a the function f has inferred type Eq a => Set a > a. A constructor deﬁnition in a data declaration may assign labels to the ﬁelds of the constructor. the declaration data C = F { f1. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS is the largest subset of that constrains only those type variables free in the types . The new type constant has a kind of the form where the kinds of the argument variables are determined by kind inference as described in Section 4. Pattern matching against ConsSet also gives rise to an Eq a constraint. This means that may be used in type expressions with anywhere between and arguments.3. These components are normally accessed positionally as arguments to the constructor in expressions or patterns. }). Constructors using ﬁeld labels may be freely mixed with constructors without them. The arguments to the positional constructor occur in the same order as the labeled ﬁelds.. it is a static error for any other type variable to appear in or on the righthandside.3. For example.f2 :: Int.8. The context in the data declaration has no other effect whatsoever.
Lexically. denoted by an exclamation point. . it is a static error for any other type variable to appear in . v 2§ v © v © v ¢ £ 2 ¡ ¢ ¡ 2 ¤ %§ ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ %§ 32 8 8 ¦ ¢%§ %¢ ¢ 4 § © § ¡ ¡ ©¡ 7 A 8 8 3¢ ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ 6 ¡ ¢ (\ > 2 v %§ ¡ 3¢ A 2 ¥¥8 £ A 8 8 ¡ ¡ ¡ v @§ & v 2§ 6 ¥¥8 8 8 ¨ $ # § 6 ¢ ¡ v © where each by is either of the form ! or .2. Strictness Flags Whenever a data constructor is applied.2 Type Synonym Declarations A type synonym declaration introduces a new type that is equivalent to an old type. it has special signiﬁcance only in the context of the argument types of a data declaration. The type is equivalent to the type . For example. and function $! (see Section 6. A data declaration may use the same ﬁeld label in multiple constructors as long as the typing of the ﬁeld is the same in all cases after type synonym expansion. The kind of the new type constructor is of the form where the kinds of the arguments and of the right hand side are determined by kind inference as described in Section 4. The type variables through must be distinct and are scoped only over . Pattern matching on strictness ﬂags. whether or not F was declared with record syntax. The pattern F {} matches any value built with constructor F. each argument to the constructor is evaluated if and only if the corresponding type in the algebraic datatype declaration has a strictness ﬂag. “!”. Translation: A declaration of the form 4. “!” is an ordinary varsym not a . the following deﬁnition can be used to provide an alternative way of writing the list type constructor: § ¡ v $ § ¥¥8 ¡ § 8 8 § v I¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ $ type = ¦ § ¢ ¡ $ type %§ = v where is the nonstrict apply function $ if is of the form .15. USERDEFINED DATATYPES data C = F Int Int Bool 45 Operations using ﬁeld labels are described in Section 3. Field names share the top level namespace with ordinary variables and class methods and must not conﬂict with other top level names in scope.2) if is of the form ! . replaces every occurrence of 8 8 ¥¥8 A 8 8 §© ¥¥8 ¡ © 8 8 ¥¥8 $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ ¢ data => =   in an expression is the strict apply is not affected by 2 ¤ ¤ © ¡ ¦ 6 6 8 8 ¥¥8 %¢ § 4§ © 7 ©¡ 2 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ ¡ 2 ¡ $ ¡ # ¡ § § § . A label cannot be shared by more than one type in scope.2.4. It has the form § $ which introduces a new type constructor.6.
it is a static error to use without the full number of arguments. mechanism to make type signatures more readable.3 Datatype Renamings ¨ ¦§ § introduces a new type whose representation is the same as an existing type. newtype may be used to deﬁne recursive types. unless an algebraic datatype intervenes. This difference may make access to the representation less efﬁcient. whereas type Rec a type Circ a = = [Circ a] [Rec a] . The constructor in an expression coerces a value from type to type ( ). Similarly.invalid . The difference is reﬂected in different rules for pattern matching (see Section 3.2). except in the instance type of an instance declaration (Section 4.46 type List = [] CHAPTER 4. unlike type synonyms. but strictly syntactic.invalid = = [Circ a] Tag [Rec a] is not. E $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ § § $ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ § E $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ E ¢ newtype => A declaration of the form = ¦ § ¢ ¤ ¢ %§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ %§ ¢¤ %§ { :: } ¤ ¤ § 332 © ¦ £ ¦ § %¢ 4 § x¨ © § ¡ § ¢ ¡ ¦ 32 newtype => = ¦ ¡ 7 ©¡ V ¢ ¡ %§ E ¢ ¦ 32 § ¦32 ¦ 32 %§ E 6 6 6 $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ ¤32 § © ¦ ¡ § %¢ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 7 ©¡ $ £ 4§ © 2§ ¦ . type Rec a = [Rec a] is not allowed. the newtype constructor is unlifted. type Rec a data Circ a is allowed. Also.2) can be deﬁned for a type deﬁned by newtype but may not be deﬁned for a type synonym. These coercions may be implemented without execution time overhead. It differs from a type synonym in that it creates a distinct type that must be explicitly coerced to or from the original type. The type ( ) renames the datatype . newtype does not change the underlying representation of an object. Using in a pattern coerces a value from type ( ) to type .3. Although recursive and mutually recursive datatypes are allowed. Type synonyms are a convenient. so that is the same as .17). Unlike algebraic datatypes. A type created by newtype differs from an algebraic datatype in that the representation of an algebraic datatype has an extra level of indirection.2. A synonym and its deﬁnition are completely interchangeable. this is not so for type synonyms. New instances (see Section 4. 4. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS Type constructor symbols introduced by type synonym declarations cannot be partially applied.3. For example.
whereas ( n ). though of course there may only be one ﬁeld.) Given the declarations data D1 = D1 Int data D2 = D2 !Int type S = Int newtype N = N Int d1 (D1 i) = 42 d2 (D2 i) = 42 s i = 42 n (N i) = 42 the expressions ( d1 ). In particular. TYPE CLASSES AND OVERLOADING 47 The following examples clarify the differences between data (algebraic datatypes).3. . Thus: newtype Age = Age { unAge :: Int } brings into scope both a constructor and a deconstructor: Age :: Int > Age unAge :: Age > Int 4. ( d2 ) and (d2 (D2 ) ) are all equivalent to . A class declaration has the general form: © $ ¢ class => where ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ A { .3 Type Classes and Overloading 4. ( d1 ( D1 ) ) and ( s ) are all equivalent to 42.1 Class Declarations ¨ 5© A class declaration introduces a new class and the operations (class methods) on it. A newtype declaration may use ﬁeldnaming syntax. type (type synonyms). © ¥ } ¦ § ¦ A© §S© 4§ © 7 8 8 ¥¥8 ¦ ( . ( N ) is equivalent to while ( D1 ) is not equivalent to . ) ¦ § ¢7 ¤ %§ © 7 ©¡ %§ ¨ § S § ¢ class => where 7 ¥ ¦ ¢ 7 ¥ ¤ ¤ © ¥ £0 ¦ $ ¢ 7 ¦ 7 ¦ ¡ 8¥¥8 8 7 ¦ ¤ %§ ¥ © %§ ¢ ¥ § © 74 ¡ S© © ¢ ¥ © ¡ 4 § © 7 7 © S© 7 ¦ 32 © ¢ ¥ 7 ¡ 6 6 6 6 6 © © 7 ¥ © 7 ¥ ¢ ¥ ©¡ 7 7 § S § ¢ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ ¦ 32 4§ ¦ ¦ 2§ © © .3. .3. see Section 4. and newtype (renaming types. The optional deriving part of a newtype declaration is treated in the same way as the deriving component of a data declaration.3.4. ( n ( N ) ).
the may not constrain .2). it must form a directed acyclic graph. . it may mention type variables other than . is not permitted. because the left hand side of the default declaration is a pattern. The superclass relation must not be cyclic. Show a) => Textual a Other than these cases. However. a ﬁeld name. 6 7 ¥ ¦ 6 Foo Num 8 ¥ Here the type of op is © ¢ ' ¡ ¡ ¡ £ £ ¥ ¡ ¤¥ §¥ ¢ 8 ¨ © § ¥ ¦ ¢ ' ¢ ' ¢ 7 ¥ ¦ v 7 ¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ The part of a class declaration contains three kinds of declarations: is: $ ¢ ¢ 7 ¦ . they must not conﬂict with other top level bindings in scope. The context speciﬁes the superclasses of . © The class declaration introduces new class methods . The default class method for is used if no binding for it is given in a particular instance declaration (see Section 4. the ﬁxity declaration for a class method may alternatively appear at top level. For example: class Foo a where op :: Num b => a > b > a v #¢ £ $ £ v ¨¢ £ $ $ $ v§ v The may also contain a ﬁxity declaration for any of the class methods (but for no other values).. in particular. no other declarations are permitted in . a class method can not have the same name as a top level deﬁnition. op2 :: a > a (op1.3. in which case the type of is polymorphic in both and . op2) = . as described below. except that the left hand side may only be a variable or function deﬁnition. Class methods share the top level namespace with variable bindings and ﬁeld names. For example: class Foo a where op1. That is. the type variable is scoped only over the class method signatures in the class body. or another class method. v B v # v v @§ v ¢ v © The type of the toplevel class method The must mention . DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS $ This introduces a new class name . The default method declaration is a normal value deﬁnition. The may constrain only . outside the class declaration. i. For example: class (Read a. the only type variable that may be referred to in is .. whose scope extends outside the class declaration. since class methods declare toplevel values.e. the may contain a default class method for any of the .48 CHAPTER 4. The class methods of a class declaration are precisely the for which there is an explicit type signature :: => in . © v © A class declaration with no where part may be useful for combining a collection of classes into a larger one that inherits all of the class methods in the original ones. Lastly.
a) where . even though range is in scope only with the qualiﬁed name Ix.2 Instance Declarations ¨ © } § ¦ § © © %§ $ An instance declaration introduces an instance of a class. The type type variables distinct.a) where .. 4. furthermore. it may be a qualiﬁed name. It is illegal to give a binding for a class method that is not in scope. } .Ix T where range = . instance C (Int. The declarations may contain bindings only for the class methods of . even though the subclass has no immediate class methods.. and the must all be $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ 1 ¢ instance => where { ¦ 2 ¢ class => where { } £%§ ¡ 4 ¦ .range... The instance declaration must be given explicitly with no where part... module A where import qualified Ix instance Ix.. in particular. but the name under which it is in scope is immaterial. (This rule is identical to that used for subordinate names in export lists — Section 5. must not be a type synonym. The general form of the corresponding instance declaration is: This prohibits instance declarations such as: instance C (a.) For example. must take the form of a type constructor applied to simple . it is not automatically an instance of the subclass. this is legal. instance C [[a]] where . if a type is an instance of all superclasses. ) ) & & ( ( [ ( { ) ¦ ¦£©¨¦§¥££ ¤ B%§ £¡ ¤ %§ ¢ ¤ ¢ ¢ © §¢ ¦¥©¨§¦¥¤£¡S¤ %§ ¤ ¢ ¢ © ¦ ¢ ¢ © ¥©¨§¦¥¤£¡S¤ ¢¢ %§ § ¢¢ ¦ ¦ ' © ¥ ¤ ¤ © ¥ £0 ¦ $ A § ¥¥8 ¢ ¡ 7 § 8 8 7 ¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ £ ¤ %§ ¡ ¤ %§ ¢ ¤ ¢ %§ ¢ ¤ %§ ¥¥8 8 8 ¡ ¤ %§ ¤ B%§ ¢ ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ %§ ¦ 2 ¢ %§ 8 8 ¢ ¢ ¨ § ¡ § ¢ ¦ 2 © instance => where 7 § ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ 32 8 8 ¥¥8 %§ ¦ ¡ $ 6 6 6 6 ¦ § ¢ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ © 7 7 § ¦ § © 2§ § ¦ § ¦ . Let be a class declaration. ] > . TYPE CLASSES AND OVERLOADING 49 In such a case.2. since these have already v x$ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ $ where . The declarations may not contain any type signatures or ﬁxity declarations.4.3..3. .
In fact. Since Foo is a superclass of Bar.3. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS been given in the class declaration. because Eq and Show are superclasses of Num. contexts of all superclass instances must be implied by $ of must ’s superclasses and the ¢ An instance declaration that makes the type to be an instance of class instance declaration and is subject to these static restrictions: is called a CT $ 1 ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¢ $ 1 ¢ ¦ 1 ¢ . A type may not be declared as an instance of a particular class more than once in the program. except in pathological cases it is possible to infer from the instance declaration the most general instance context satisfying the above two constraints.. instance (Eq a..6.. This example is valid Haskell. The second instance declaration is valid only if [a] is an ¨ $ # $ 8 8 ¥¥8 1. The constraints expressed by the superclass context be satisﬁed.. instance Num a => Bar [a] where . the method declarations must take the form of a variable or function deﬁnition. If no binding is given for some class method then the corresponding default class method in the class declaration is used (if present).. instance (Eq a..50 CHAPTER 4.. Show a) => Bar [a] where . Show a) => Foo [a] where . the following two conditions must also be satisﬁed: 2. then the program would be invalid. this can be determined using kind inference as described in Section 4. the second instance declaration is only valid if [a] is an instance of Foo under the assumption Num a.. The ﬁrst instance declaration does indeed say that [a] is an instance of Foo under this assumption. must be an instance of each of . Any constraints on the type variables in the instance type that are required for the class method declarations in to be welltyped must also be satisﬁed.. Assume that the type variables in the instance type satisfy the constraints in the instance context . As in the case of default class methods (Section 4. The following example illustrates the restrictions imposed by superclass instances: class Foo a => Bar a where . but it is nevertheless mandatory to write an explicit instance context.1). If the two instance declarations instead read like this: instance Num a => Foo [a] where . The class and type must have the same kind. if such a default does not exist then the class method of this instance is bound to undefined and no compiletime error results. In other words. Under this assumption..
3. TYPE CLASSES AND OVERLOADING 51 instance of Foo under the assumptions (Eq a. since [a] is only an instance of Foo under the stronger assumption Num a. instances for all superclasses of must exist for . page 83. 4. If the form is included. then derived instance declarations are automatically generated for the datatype in each of the named classes. These instances are subject to the same restrictions as userdeﬁned instances..3.3 Derived Instances As mentioned in Section 4. When deriving a class for a type . Derived instances provide convenient commonlyused operations for userdeﬁned datatypes. including a speciﬁcation of when such derived instances are possible. all mentioned in Figure 6. The only classes in the Prelude for which derived instances are allowed are Eq. that is.. using the read and show functions deﬁned in Chapter 10. and Read. Classes deﬁned by the standard libraries may also be derivable. Ord. For example. The precise details of how the derived instances are generated for each of these classes are provided in Chapter 10.invalid is ambiguous. For example." in show x . omitting a deriving form is equivalent to including an empty deriving form: deriving ().1. A static error results if it is not possible to derive an instance declaration over a class named in a deriving form. Show a).4.4 Ambiguous Types. Enum. and supposing that just Int and Bool are members of Read and Show. and Defaults for Overloaded Numeric Operations ¦ A %§ A problem inherent with Haskellstyle overloading is the possibility of an ambiguous type. Further examples of instance declarations may be found in Chapter 8. derived instances for datatypes in the class Eq deﬁne the operations == and /=. Show. 4. ¢ 6 6 ¢ 8 ¢ 8 ¥ §¥ ¥ ¥ §¥ ¥ show read Show Read String String ¢ ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ ¡ ¢ %§ default ( . then no instance declarations are derived for that datatype. then the expression let x = read ". If the deriving form is omitted from a data or newtype declaration. data and newtype declarations contain an optional deriving form. ) ¦ § ¡ ¡ 6 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 2§ .2. because the types for show and read. It is also a static error to give an explicit instance declaration for a class that is also derived. But this does not hold.3. not all datatypes can properly support class methods in Enum. either via an explicit instance declaration or by including the superclass in the deriving clause. freeing the programmer from the need to deﬁne them. Bounded. For example.1. .
and 8 $ ¥ We say that an expression e has an ambiguous type if. for the ambiguous expression given earlier. Such types are invalid. where is a class. Only one default declaration is permitted per module.) Ambiguities in the class Num are most common.3. . so Haskell provides another way to resolve them— with a default declaration: default ( . Such expressions are considered illtyped. is Ambiguous types can only be circumvented by input from the user. approxSqrt x = encodeFloat 1 (exponent x ‘div‘ 2) ‘asTypeOf‘ x (See Section 6. the earlier expression involving show and read has an ambiguous type since its type Show Read String. there is a type A !§ v § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡§ ¢ v 2§ ¢ $ ¦ $ ¦ 8 ¢ ¥ . § ¢ ¢ For example. or Bool. For example. turns off all defaults in a module. For example. pages 91– 92 show the numeric classes. and all of these classes are deﬁned in the Prelude or a standard library (Figures 6.16. ) where .6 for a description of encodeFloat and exponent.1. § ¢ . If no default declaration is given in a module then it assumed to be: default (Integer. one could write: let x = read ". but and are forced to have the same type. and its effect is limited to that module.2–6. an otherwise ambiguous expression needs to be made the same type as some variable." in show (x::Bool) which disambiguates the type. (that is. and each must be a type for which Num holds. Num or a subclass of Num). an ambiguous type variable.4. a static error. appears only in constraints of the form . This is the purpose of the function asTypeOf (Chapter 8): ‘asTypeOf‘ has the value of . rather than being given a ﬁxed type with an expression typesignature. In situations where an ambiguous type is discovered. is defaultable if: ¢ ¢ at least one of these classes is a numeric class. Occasionally. Double) The empty default declaration. in its type variable in that occurs in but not in . default (). DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS could be satisﬁed by instantiating a as either Int in both cases. page 83. shows the classes deﬁned in the Prelude. One way is through the use of expression typesignatures as described in Section 3.. and Figure 6.52 CHAPTER 4.. .) Each defaultable variable is replaced by the ﬁrst type in the default list that is an instance of all the ambiguous variable’s classes. It is a static error if no such type is found.
) If a given program includes a signature for a variable . as described in Section 4. Each must have a value binding in the same declaration list that contains the type signature. If a variable is deﬁned without providing a corresponding type signature declaration.2).invalid A type signature speciﬁes types for variables. which allows applications such as sqr 5 or sqr 0. then each use of is treated as having the declared type.5) is treated as having the corresponding inferred.5. there is currently since x does not have type no way in Haskell to specify a signature for a variable with a dependent type. A type signature has the form: :: => which is equivalent to asserting :: => for each from to . NESTED DECLARATIONS 53 4. It is a static error if the same type cannot also be inferred for the deﬁning occurrence of . including the top level of a module. and all uses of within its declaration group must have the same monomorphic type (from which the principal type is obtained by generalization.5. such as ¦ ¦ § ¢ § 6 ¢ ¢ A ¢ § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ 8 ¡ ¢ ¥ §¥ ¥ A §¤ v ¢ . to ensure that type inference is still possible.4 Nested Declarations The following declarations may be used in any declaration list. %§ ¨ § S § ¢ ¢ 8 ¦ 32 ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¥ :: .2. these declarations contain a static error. if we deﬁne sqr x = x*x 0 0 0 0 0 0 then the principal type is sqr Num . i. the deﬁning occurrence. It is also valid to declare a more speciﬁc type. or principal type .4. For example. 4. As mentioned in Section 4. in the following declarations f :: a > a f x = x :: a v B the a’s in the two type signatures are quite distinct.1. it is invalid to give more than one type signature for one variable. then each use of outside its own declaration group (see Section 4. and hence the scope of a type variable is limited to the type signature that contains it.4.4.1. Moreover. (The type of x is dependent on the type of f.1 Type Signatures . Indeed. possibly with respect to a context. For example. every type variable appearing in a signature is universally quantiﬁed over that signature. .e. However. this is explained in Section 4. ¡ => ¡ V © ¤ ¤ ¢ ¢ 6 6 7 ¥ ¦ © S¤ ¦ ¥ ¢ . even if the signatures are identical. it is invalid to give a type signature for a variable bound in an outer scope.4.
1 lists the ﬁxities and precedences of the operators deﬁned in the Prelude. and infixr. left. infixl. (Class methods are a minor exception. The following deﬁnition is pathological. and level 9 binds most tightly). Table 4. Num b) => a > b sqr :: a > a . Polymorphic recursion allows the user to supply the more general type signature. the type of f will be inferred as T Int > Int due to the ﬁrst recursive call for which the argument to f is T Int.invalid . just like its type. a ﬁxity declaration can only occur in the same sequence of declarations as the declaration of the operator itself.invalid are invalid.) There are three kinds of ﬁxity. T a > a. Type signatures such as sqr :: (Num a.and rightassociativity (infix. and ten precedence levels. and at most one ﬁxity declaration may be given for any operator.1 are invalid. Fixity is a property of a particular entity (constructor or variable). their ﬁxity declarations can occur either in the class declaration itself or at top level. Any operator lacking a ﬁxity declaration is assumed to be infixl 9 (See Section 3 for more on the use of ﬁxities). 4. Also like a type signature. as they are more general than the principal type of sqr. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS but now applications such as sqr 0. A ﬁxity declaration may appear anywhere that a type signature appears and.2 Fixity Declarations © A ﬁxity declaration gives the ﬁxity and binding precedence of one or more operators. declares a property of a particular operator. level 9 is assumed. The in a ﬁxity declaration must be in the range to . ¦ ¡ 2 ©¦ 2 &¤ 2 A 2 ¡ ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¢ 2 8 8 ¡ ¡ 2 ¨ ¥ § ¦ § %§ § ¢ ¤ 6 6 6 6 7 ¥ ¦ © %§ § ¢ ¦ ¥ ¡ ¡2 2 . For example: §§ § ¦ ¤ § ¦ § ¦ infixl infixr infix . respectively).54 sqr :: Int > Int CHAPTER 4. 0 to 9 inclusive (level 0 binds least tightly. ﬁxity is not a property of that entity’s name. non. like a type signature. Type signatures can also be used to support polymorphic recursion. If the is omitted.4. . but illustrates how a type signature can be used to specify a type more general than the one that would be inferred: data T a = K (T Int) (T a) f :: T a > a f (K x y) = if f x == 1 then f y else undefined If we remove the signature declaration.
. ** :. /=. ‘notElem‘ &&  >>. ‘mod‘. ˆˆ. ‘seq‘ Table 4. ‘elem‘. >. ˆ. $!. ‘Foo. (It would also be possible to give a ﬁxity to the nested deﬁnition of ‘op‘ with a nested ﬁxity declaration..op‘ b) + 1 f x = let p ‘op‘ q = (p ‘Foo. >>= $. <=.op‘ is infix 3. NESTED DECLARATIONS 55 Precedence 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Left associative operators !! *. ‘rem‘. ++ ==.3 Function and Pattern Bindings © ¥ § ¤ 2 v ¢£¡ § p v ¢ §e ¡ ¡ v © ¢ £¡ p v ¢ §e 2 § ¡ v £¡ p v ¢ 0e $ ¢ § ¡ ¢ ¡ £5¢ ¤ § ¤ ¢ £¡ ¤ ¡ v ¢ 2¢ &¤ v § £¡ ¢ ¤ ¡ ¢ ¡ v § £ 7¡ ¢ ¢ ¤ £ ¡ ¢ § ¢ ¡ £5¢ © ¥ 7 ¦ $ £0 § 6 6 © ¥ 7 ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ $ 0 .op‘ is infixr 7.. ‘quot‘ +. ‘Bar.. >=.1: Precedences and ﬁxities of prelude operators module Bar( op ) where infixr 7 ‘op‘ op = .4. and the nested deﬁnition of op in f’s righthand side has the default ﬁxity of infixl 9. <. /.4.  Nonassociative operators Right associative operators . ‘div‘. module Foo where import qualified Bar infix 3 ‘op‘ a ‘op‘ b = (a ‘Bar.op‘ q) * 2 in . Here.4.) 4.
.56 CHAPTER 4. The former is treated as shorthand for a particular case of } v © 7 ¦ = where { ¤ ¥7 v v © ¤ ¦7 v v = where { 7 ¦ 8 8 ¥¥8 § ¡ v where each is a pattern.1 Function bindings A function binding binds a variable to a function value. and the number of patterns in each clause must be the same. ¤ 4. these three function deﬁnitions are all equivalent: plus x y z = x+y+z x `plus y = \ z > x+y+z ` (x ` plus y) z = x+y+z ` v © v  True = where { 7 ¥ ¦ v 4 ¦ and where . The general form of a function binding for variable is: ¡ ¥ § ¥ § or ¡ v ¡v   = Note that all clauses deﬁning a function must be contiguous. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS We distinguish two cases within this syntax: a pattern binding occurs when the left hand side is a . The set of patterns corresponding to each match must be linear—no variable is allowed to appear more than once in the entire set. Alternative syntax is provided for binding functional values to inﬁx operators. the binding is called a function binding. For example.3.4. Either binding may appear at the toplevel of a module or within a where or let construct. the latter. and where each is of the general form: } } A ¢ ¢ 4 4 v ¥ § 4 ¢ A ¥¥8 ¡ A 8 8 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ ¢ ¢ ¡  ¨ © ¥ ¤ ¢ ¡ = ¦ ¦ ¡ ¤ © ¥ ¡ ¢ ¡ = ¦ where where 9§ ¨© ¨ 7 © ¥ 7 ¥ ¦ § © ¥ ¡ ¦ $ £0 ¤ ( ) ¢ §¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ £5¢ 7 ¦ 6 6 ¡ ¦ ¢ 6 © ¥ ¤ § © ¥ ¦ ¦ ¢ £¡ ¤ . namely: . otherwise.
a pattern binding is: is the same structure as for ¡ ¥ § ¢ ¥ § ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 4 ¡ ¡ 888 v ¢ where the are new identiﬁers. in other words. A simple pattern binding has form . simple pattern binding): ¡ ¥ § 57 4. It is usually straightforward to tell whether a binding is a pattern binding or a function binding. A note about syntax.2 Pattern bindings A pattern binding binds variables to values. Here are four examples: 7 7 if then £ ¤ ¡ ¢ © £ ¡ = let if if in then then 7 ¦ Translation: ing: The pattern binding above is semantically equivalent to this simple pattern bind else else else error "Unmatched pattern" © 7 ¥ ¦ 7  = where { 7 £ ¡ ¢ £ ¡   = = } 4 The general form of a pattern binding is . where a function bindings above. but the existence of n+k patterns sometimes confuses the issue.4. NESTED DECLARATIONS Translation: The general binding form for functions is semantically equivalent to the equation (i.4. A 4 ¡ A ( ) ¥ § ¢ 4 A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ 8 8 ¥¡ ¥8 ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¢ ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¢ = \ ¢ > case ( .12. . The pattern is matched “lazily” as an irrefutable pattern. See the translation in Section 3. ) of ( ) ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ .e. as if there were an implicit ˜ in front of it.3.4.
58 x + 1 = ... (x + 1) = ... (x + 1) * y = ... (x + 1) y = ...
CHAPTER 4. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS
 Function binding, defines (+)  Equivalent to (+) x 1 = ...  Pattern binding, defines x  Function binding, defines (*)  Equivalent to (*) (x+1) y = ...  Function binding, defines (+)  Equivalent to (+) x 1 y = ...
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4.5 Static Semantics of Function and Pattern Bindings
The static semantics of the function and pattern bindings of a let expression or where clause are discussed in this section.
4.5.1 Dependency Analysis
In general the static semantics are given by the normal HindleyMilner inference rules. A dependency analysis transformation is ﬁrst performed to increase polymorphism. Two variables bound by value declarations are in the same declaration group if either 1. they are bound by the same pattern binding, or 2. their bindings are mutually recursive (perhaps via some other declarations that are also part of the group). Application of the following rules causes each let or where construct (including the where deﬁning the top level bindings in a module) to bind only the variables of a single declaration group, thus capturing the required dependency analysis: 1 1. The order of declarations in where/let constructs is irrelevant.
£
} in = let { } in (let { 2. let { ; (when no identiﬁer bound in appears free in )
1
} in
A similar transformation is described in Peyton Jones’ book [10].
§
The ﬁrst two can be distinguished because a pattern binding has a — the former cannot be an unparenthesised n+k pattern.
§
¢ £¡
on the left hand side, not a
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4.5. STATIC SEMANTICS OF FUNCTION AND PATTERN BINDINGS
59
4.5.2 Generalization
The HindleyMilner type system assigns types to a letexpression in two stages. First, the righthand side of the declaration is typed, giving a type with no universal quantiﬁcation. Second, all type variables that occur in this type are universally quantiﬁed unless they are associated with bound variables in the type environment; this is called generalization. Finally, the body of the letexpression is typed. For example, consider the declaration f x = let g y = (y,y) in ...
The type of g’s deﬁnition is . The generalization step attributes to g the polymorphic type , after which the typing of the “...” part can proceed. When typing overloaded deﬁnitions, all the overloading constraints from a single declaration group are collected together, to form the context for the type of each variable declared in the group. For example, in the deﬁnition: f x = let g1 x y = if x>y then show x else g2 y x g2 p q = g1 q p in ... String, and the accumulated The types of the deﬁnitions of g1 and g2 are both constraints are Ord (arising from the use of >), and Show (arising from the use of show). The type variables appearing in this collection of constraints are called the constrained type variables. The generalization step attributes to both g1 and g2 the type
Notice that g2 is overloaded in the same way as g1 even though the occurrences of > and show are in the deﬁnition of g1. If the programmer supplies explicit type signatures for more than one variable in a declaration group, the contexts of these signatures must be identical up to renaming of the type variables.
4.5.3 Context Reduction Errors
As mentioned in Section 4.1.4, the context of a type may constrain only a type variable, or the application of a type variable to one or more types. Hence, types produced by generalization must be expressed in a form in which all context constraints have be reduced to this “head normal form”. Consider, for example, the deﬁnition: f xs y = xs == [y]
6
6
Ord
Show
6 ¢
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6
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CHAPTER 4. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS
f :: Eq a => [a] > a > Bool and not f :: Eq [a] => [a] > a > Bool Even though the equality is taken at the list type, the context must be simpliﬁed, using the instance declaration for Eq on lists, before generalization. If no such instance is in scope, a static error occurs. Here is an example that shows the need for a constraint of the form where m is one of the type variables being generalized; that is, where the class applies to a type expression that is not a type variable or a type constructor. Consider: f :: (Monad m, Eq (m a)) => a > m a > Bool f x y = return x == y The type of return is Monad m => a > m a; the type of (==) is Eq a => a > a > Bool. The type of f should be therefore (Monad m, Eq (m a)) => a > m a > Bool, and the context cannot be simpliﬁed further. The instance declaration derived from a data type deriving clause (see Section 4.3.3) must, like , any instance declaration, have a simple context; that is, all the constraints must be of the form where is a type variable. For example, in the type data Apply a b = App (a b) deriving Show
the derived Show instance will produce a context Show (a b), which cannot be reduced and is not simple; thus a static error results.
4.5.4 Monomorphism
Sometimes it is not possible to generalize over all the type variables used in the type of the deﬁnition. For example, consider the declaration f x = let g y z = ([x,y], z) in ... In an environment where x has type , the type of g’s deﬁnition is ([ ] ). The ([ ] ); only can be universally generalization step attributes to g the type quantiﬁed because occurs in the type environment. We say that the type of g is monomorphic in the type variable . The effect of such monomorphism is that the ﬁrst argument of all applications of g must be of a single type. For example, it would be valid for the “...” to be
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It is worth noting that the explicit type signatures provided by Haskell are not powerful enough to express types that include monomorphic type variables. For example, we cannot write f x = let g :: a > b > ([a],b) g y z = ([x,y], z) in ... because that would claim that g was polymorphic in both a and b (Section 4.4.1). In this program, g can only be given a type signature if its ﬁrst argument is restricted to a type not involving type variables; for example g :: Int > b > ([Int],b) This signature would also cause x to have type Int.
4.5.5 The Monomorphism Restriction
Haskell places certain extra restrictions on the generalization step, beyond the standard HindleyMilner restriction described above, which further reduces polymorphism in particular cases. The monomorphism restriction depends on the binding syntax of a variable. Recall that a variable is bound by either a function binding or a pattern binding, and that a simple pattern binding is a pattern binding in which the pattern consists of only a single variable (Section 4.4.3). The following two rules deﬁne the monomorphism restriction:
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CHAPTER 4. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS
Rule 1. We say that a given declaration group is unrestricted if and only if: (a): every variable in the group is bound by a function binding or a simple pattern binding (Section 4.4.3.2), and (b): an explicit type signature is given for every variable in the group that is bound by simple pattern binding. The usual HindleyMilner restriction on polymorphism is that only type variables that do not occur free in the environment may be generalized. In addition, the constrained type variables of a restricted declaration group may not be generalized in the generalization step for that group. (Recall that a type variable is constrained if it must belong to some type class; see Section 4.5.2.) Rule 2. Any monomorphic type variables that remain when type inference for an entire module is complete, are considered ambiguous, and are resolved to particular types using the defaulting rules (Section 4.3.4).
Motivation
Rule 1 is required for two reasons, both of which are fairly subtle.
Rule 1 prevents computations from being unexpectedly repeated. For example, genericLength is a standard function (in library List) whose type is given by genericLength :: Num a => [b] > a Now consider the following expression: let { len = genericLength xs } in (len, len) It looks as if len should be computed only once, but without Rule 1 it might be computed twice, once at each of two different overloadings. If the programmer does actually wish the computation to be repeated, an explicit type signature may be added: let { len :: Num a => a; len = genericLength xs } in (len, len)
Rule 1 prevents ambiguity. For example, consider the declaration group
[(n,s)] = reads t Recall that reads is a standard function whose type is given by the signature reads :: (Read a) => String > [(a,String)] Without Rule 1, n would be assigned the type Read and s the type Read String. The latter is an invalid type, because it is inherently ambiguous. It is not possible to determine at what overloading to use s, nor can this be solved by adding a type signature for s. Hence, when nonsimple pattern bindings are used (Section 4.4.3.2), the types inferred are always monomorphic in their constrained type variables, irrespective of whether a type signature is provided. In this case, both n and s are monomorphic in .
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a type signature on len1 would solve the problem. Double ) len1 = genericLength "Hello" module M2 where import M1(len1) len2 = (2*len1) :: Rational When type inference on module M1 is complete. except by performing type inference on modules outside the current module.4.) This issue does not arise for nested bindings. and not by any modules that import it.5. Rule 2 states that the exact types of all the variables bound in a module must be determined by that module alone. and must be resolved using the defaulting rules of Section 4. (If the above code is actually what is wanted. Thus in f x y = x+y the function f may be used at any overloading in class Num. Consider module M where len1 = genericLength "Hello" len2 = (2*len1) :: Rational . in (f. For example. Consequences The monomorphism rule has a number of consequences for the programmer. the user must be careful to afﬁx these with type signatures to retain full overloading. 63 Rule 2 is required because there is no way to enforce monomorphic use of an exported binding. There is no danger of recomputation here.3. Rule 2 now states that the monomorphic type variable a is ambiguous. the same function deﬁned with pattern syntax: f = \x > \y > x+y requires a type signature if f is to be fully overloaded. len1 has the monomorphic type Num a => a (by Rule 1). module M1(len1) where default( Int. because their entire scope is visible to the compiler. Hence.()) both f and g are monomorphic regardless of any type signatures supplied for f or g. and its use in len2 is typeincorrect. Many functions are most naturally deﬁned using simple pattern bindings. The standard prelude contains many examples of this: sum sum :: (Num a) => [a] > a = foldl (+) 0 Rule 1 applies to both toplevel and nested deﬁnitions. Anything deﬁned with function syntax usually generalizes as a function is expected to. STATIC SEMANTICS OF FUNCTION AND PATTERN BINDINGS The same constraint applies to patternbound functions. len1 gets type Int. However.g) = ((+).4.
e. and class deﬁnitions into dependency groups. does not match the kind that is expected for an argument of Tree: type FunnyTree = Tree [] . DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS Here. Instead. Defaults are applied to each dependency group without consideration of the ways in which particular type constructor constants or classes are used in later dependency groups or elsewhere in the program. the parameter a appears as an argument of the function constructor (>) in the type of bar and hence must have kind . we could assume an arbitrary kind for the a parameter in each of the following examples: data App f a = A (f a) data Tree a = Leaf  Fork (Tree a) (Tree a) This would give kinds and for App and Tree. and would require an extension to allow polymorphic kinds. For example. all of which would be included in the same dependency group: data C a => D a = Foo (S a) type S a = [D a] class C a where bar :: a > D a > Bool The kinds of variables. and instead generates a static error because the kind of []. constructors. and the type variable a is resolved to Rational when performing type inference on len2. using the default binding . For example. a synonym S and a class C. It is possible that some parts of an inferred kind may not be fully determined by the corresponding deﬁnitions. in such cases.5. the actual kinds for these two constructors are and . respectively. It follows that both D and S must have kind and that every instance of class C must have kind . respectively. the following program fragment includes the deﬁnition of a datatype constructor D. in the deﬁnitions above. type inference ﬁnds that len1 has the monomorphic type (Num a => a). a default of is assumed. 4. . 6 6 6 6 9 6 6 ¡ 6 6 6 ¡ 6 9 6 6 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ . for any kind .64 CHAPTER 4. For example. synonym. This can be achieved in much the same way as the dependency analysis for value declarations that was described in Section 4. and classes within each group are determined using standard techniques of type inference and kindpreserving uniﬁcation [7]. The ﬁrst step in the kind inference process is to arrange the set of datatype. adding the following deﬁnition to those above does not inﬂuence the kind inferred for Tree (by changing it to . For example.invalid This is important because it ensures that each constructor and class are used consistently with the same kind whenever they are in scope. to calculate a suitable kind for each type constructor and class appearing in a given program.6 Kind Inference This section describes the rules that are used to perform kind inference. for instance). i.
(see Chapter 4). in an environment created by a set of imports (resources brought into scope from other modules). It is equivalent to the following singlemodule program: There are two minor exceptions to this statement.4). Second. by convention.Chapter 5 Modules A module deﬁnes a collection of values.. datatypes... Rule 2 of the monomorphism restriction (Section 4. A multimodule Haskell program can be converted into a singlemodule program by giving each entity a unique name. must be called Main and must export the value main. and then concatenating all the module bodies1 .f >> B. It exports some of these resources.. the computation main is performed. or perhaps exported from a module. making them available to other modules.f module A where f = . classes.5. The value of the program is the value of the identiﬁer main in module Main. etc. which must be a computation of type IO for some type (see Chapter 7). each giving the name of a module to be imported and specifying its entities to be imported. type synonyms.3. 1 65 . Modules may reference other modules via explicit import declarations. or class deﬁned in. Modules are used for namespace control. changing all occurrences to refer to the appropriate unique name. and are not ﬁrst class values. and its result (of type ) is discarded. here is a threemodule program: module Main where import A import B main = A. module B where f = . When the program is executed.5) is affected by module boundaries. First. default declarations scope over a single module (Section 4. We use the term entity to refer to a value. imported into. A Haskell program is a collection of modules. Modules may be mutually recursive. For example. type. one of which.
66 module Main where main = af >> bf af = .. bf = . . . the module name. classes.3) that specify modules to be imported. data types. and a list of entities (enclosed in round parentheses) to be exported. The namespace for modules themselves is ﬂat. type synonyms. ). If this is used.2 Export Lists ¦ ¨ A§ ¤ !¤32 ¢ S 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤32 § ¤ ¢ ¡ ( . ) ¦ § ¦ ¦ A 2§ 7 A ¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 . which is imported into all modules by default (see Section 5. ( An abbreviated form of module..1 Module Structure A module deﬁnes a mutually recursive scope containing declarations for value bindings. CHAPTER 5. MODULES Because they are allowed to be mutually recursive. The header is followed by a possiblyempty list of import declarations ( . . ¦ ¦ § 5. consisting only of the module body. Prelude. etc. modules allow a program to be partitioned freely without regard to dependencies. with each module being associated with a unique module name (which are Haskell identiﬁers beginning with a capital letter.e. is permitted. 7 ¦ © ¡ 2§ © © 4§ ¡ 2§ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ § ¡ 32 ¦ 2§ ¦ ¡ 4§ ¦ ¡ 4§ { { { . (see Chapter 4).. A module begins with a header: the keyword module. Section 5. © 5. plus a set of standard library modules that may be imported as required (see Part II).6). . If the ﬁrst lexeme in the abbreviated module is not a {. then the layout rule applies for the top level of the module.. There is one distinguished module. Chapter 4). the header is assumed to be ‘module Main(main) where’. i. } } } 2 ¨ ©§ ¤ 5@¤32 7 ¢ ¡ ¦ ¡ § 2 4 module ¦ where 2 4 ¦ ' ¡ ¦ ¦ 7 ¥ © 7¥ 7 ¥ ¡ ¦ ¡ ¦ ' 2 6 6 6 6 6 6 © © 2§ 7¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § © ¦ ¡ § 2 4 ¦ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 7 ©§ ¤ @¤32 $ 7 ¦ ¦ ' ¡ 2 4 2§ 2 ¢ ¡ . This is followed by a possiblyempty list of toplevel declarations . . optionally restricting the imported bindings.
) ¦ ¦§ ¦ ¦ § ¢ ¢ ¢ ¡ ¢¨ ¦ ¦ § 2 4 ¦ 2 ¤ 3¥ %§ ¦ 72 ¨ © ¡ ¨ ¤ ¢ ¢ %§ 6 6 § ¤ ¤32 4 ¦ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ . but not those that are imported.2. The abbreviated form (. which must be in scope. ( . A value. Just ) ) where import qualified Maybe as Mb Data constructors cannot be named in export lists except as subordinate names. EXPORT LISTS 67 . names the type and some or all of its constructors and ﬁeld declared in a class declaration may be named in one . because they cannot otherwise be distinguished from type constructors.. ) An export list identiﬁes the entities to be exported by a module declaration.) names the type and all its constructors and ﬁeld names that are currently in scope (whether qualiﬁed or not). The constructor In all cases. should be enclosed in parentheses to turn them into 2. For example. . An algebraic datatype of three ways: declared by a data or newtype declaration may be named in one The form names the type but not the constructors or ﬁeld names.. or class method. 3. Entities in an export list may be named as follows: 1..Maybe( Nothing. ). A type synonym is in scope.5.) ( module . types and classes deﬁned in the module are exported. must be in scope. or that it imports from some other module. Operators be named by giving the name of the value as a s. If the export list is omitted. all values.8). the (possiblyqualiﬁed) type constructor and ﬁeld names in the second form are unqualiﬁed.) ( (. may . . whether declared in the module body or imported. the following is legal module A( Mb. A module implementation may only export an entity that it declares. and (b) the constructor or ﬁeld is in scope in the module body regardless of whether it is in scope under a qualiﬁed or unqualiﬁed name. ¦ declared by a type declaration may be named by the form ¡ £ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ £ 4. A class with operations of three ways: 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ The form names. where ¨ ¦ § ¨ A ¤ ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ 8 8 ¢ ¥¥8 ¢ A 5 4 ¦ ¡ ¢ 4 ¦ 8 8 ¤ ¢ ¤ ¦ § (. ﬁeld name. one of these subordinate names is legal if and only if (a) it names a constructor or ﬁeld of . . The ability to export a type without its constructors allows the construction of abstract datatypes (see Section 5.
dequeue ) where import Stack . It makes no difference to an importing module how an entity was exported. but there are name clashes in the export list ¦ £ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ £ The form ( . The form “module M” names the set of all entities that are in scope with both an unqualiﬁed name “e” and a qualiﬁed name “M.g) g = f True . .. item(2)). a ﬁeld name f from data type T may be exported individually (f. enqueue. This set may be empty. It is an error to use module M in an export list unless M is the module bearing the export list. and (b) the class method is in scope in the module body regardless of whether it is in scope under a qualiﬁed or unqualiﬁed name.). g.an invalid module There are no name clashes within module A itself. For example. A module can name its own local deﬁnitions in its export list using its own name in the “module M” syntax. item (2)). module B ) where import B(f) import qualified C(f.68 CHAPTER 5.5. module Mod2 ) where import Mod2 import Mod3 Here module Mod1 exports all local deﬁnitions as well as those imported from Mod2 but not those imported from Mod3. ). C. must be in scope. In the second form. For example: module Queue( module Stack. 5. or M is imported by at least one import declaration (qualiﬁed or unqualiﬁed). The unqualiﬁed names of the entities exported by a module must all be distinct (within their respective namespace). item (1) above).e”.f. In all cases. For example: module Mod1( module Mod1.) names the class and all its methods that are in scope (whether qualiﬁed or not).. one of the (unqualiﬁed) subordinate names is legal if and only if (a) it names a class method of . or as an explicitlynamed member of its data type (T(f). Here the module Queue uses the module name Stack in its export list to abbreviate all the entities imported from Stack. Exports lists are cumulative: the set of entities exported by an export list is the union of the entities exported by the individual items of the list. because a local declaration brings into scope both a qualiﬁed and unqualiﬁed name (Section 5. MODULES The abbreviated form (. For example module A ( C. ¡ £ .1).. or by exporting an entire module (module M. or as an implicitlynamed member (T(. names the class and some or all of its methods. item (5)).g. ¡ ¦ The form names the class but not the class methods..
The list may be empty. The imported entities can be speciﬁed explicitly by listing them in parentheses.3 Import Declarations § The entities exported by a module may be brought into scope in another module with an import declaration at the beginning of the module. § 5.) ( .3.) refers to all of the constructors. the terminal symbols “as”. The list must name only entities exported by the imported module. ) ¦ ¦ ¡ ¦ 2 ¤ 37 2 ¦ ¡ © 4§ ¤ ¢ ¢ %§ %§ 2 4 6 6 6 6 ¦ ¦ § ¤ © 7 § © ¤ 32 ¡ ¡ 4 ¦ ¢ ¡ ¤ ¦ ¡ 4§ 4§ 4§ ..g and g are different entities – remember. They have special signiﬁcance only in the context of an import declaration. The effect of multiple import declarations is strictly cumulative: an entity is in scope if it is imported by any of the import declarations in a module. Items in the list have the same form as those in export lists. . ¨¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 A§ ¤ 2 4§ ¢ ¡ §¤¤32 4 § 8 8¡ ¥¥8 ¡§ ¤ 2 ( . ) ¦ ¦§ ¦ ¦ § ¢ 2 4§ .1 What is imported Exactly which entities are to be imported can be speciﬁed in one of the following three ways: 1. or ﬁeld names exported from the module.f (assuming B. . the (.. The ordering of import declarations is irrelevant. and between module B and C.) form of import is used for a type or class. When the (.g and g (assuming C.5. ) ¦ ¨ A !§ ¤ ¦ § ¦ ¦§ ¦ 2 § § ¤ %§ 4 ¢ ¢ ¥ ¦ 7 ¨¡ © 4 § ¨ § 2 4 ¡ ¡ ¦ ¦ . A single module may be imported by more than one import declaration.. except qualiﬁers are not permitted and the ‘module ’ entity is not permitted. Imported names serve as top level declarations: they scope over the entire body of the module but may be shadowed by local nontoplevel bindings. hiding ( . . The import declaration names the module to be imported and optionally speciﬁes the entities to be imported. ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¤ ¢ A¤ 8 8 ¥¥8 . rather than Lexically.) ( (.3. ) ¨ ¨ A 5 4 ¦ ¢¥¥8 8 8 ¡ ¢ ¡ ¤ 4 ¦ ¢ (. “qualified” and “hiding” are each a a .f are different entities). methods. 5. 2 4 ¨ import qualified as .f and C. modules can import each other recursively). they may also be used as variables. IMPORT DECLARATIONS 69 between C.. in which case nothing except the instances is imported.
1. in import M hiding (C) any constructor. If the qualified keyword is omitted.2 Qualiﬁed import For each entity imported under the rules of Section 5. Data constructors may be named directly in hiding lists without being preﬁxed by the associated type. Section 5.’ as a qualiﬁer instead of ‘VeryLongModuleName. ).70 ¡ ¤32 § ¤ CHAPTER 5. exported by the imported module. Entities can be excluded by using the form hiding( . .This + differs from the one in the Prelude . The qualiﬁer on the imported name is either the name of the imported module.All Prelude names must be qualified . which speciﬁes that all entities exported by the named module should be imported except for those named in the list.5.++ l2 l1 * l2 = nub (l1 + l2) succ = (Prelude.3. Finally. In contrast. or type named C is excluded. Hence.1 describes qualiﬁed names in more detail. or the local alias given in the as clause (Section 5. MODULES 2. the toplevel environment is extended. in import qualified VeryLongModuleName as C entities must be referenced using ‘C.3.3. class. in fact.3) on the import statement. If the import declaration used the qualified keyword.+ 1) .3 Local aliases Imported modules may be assigned a local alias in the importing module using the as clause. if ported.’.This * differs from the one in the Prelude 5. is omitted then all the entities exported by the speciﬁed module are im A !§ ¤ 2 ¡ 4§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ 4§ ¡ ¡ . For example. The ability to exclude the unqualiﬁed names allows full programmer control of the unqualiﬁed namespace: a locally deﬁned entity can share the same name as a qualiﬁed import: module Ring where import qualified Prelude import List( nub ) l1 + l2 = l1 Prelude. This also allows a different module to be substituted for VeryLongModuleName without changing the 4§ 3. It is an error to hide an entity that is not. the qualiﬁer is not necessarily the name of the module in which the entity was originally declared. only the qualiﬁed name of the entity is brought into scope.3. © 5. then both the qualiﬁed and unqualiﬁed name of the entity is brought into scope. using C in an import list names only a class or type. Thus.
B. A. A.x. A.3.x.y A.x B.x A. All instances in scope within a module are always exported and any import brings all instances in from the imported . For example: module M where import qualified Foo as A import qualified Baz as A x = A. Then this table shows what names are brought into scope by the speciﬁed import statement: Import declaration import A import A() import A(x) import qualified A import qualified A() import qualified A(x) import A hiding () import A hiding (x) import qualified A hiding () import qualified A hiding (x) import A as B import A as B(x) import qualified A as B Names brought into scope x. A. y.4).x. 5.y y. A. 5.5. y. A. IMPORTING AND EXPORTING INSTANCE DECLARATIONS 71 qualiﬁers used for the imported module.y x. y. B. all instance declarations in scope in module A are imported (Section 5. A.y In all cases. suppose the module A exports x and y.4 Importing and Exporting Instance Declarations Instance declarations cannot be explicitly named on import or export lists.f. An as clause may also be used on an unqualified import statement: import Foo as A(f) This declaration brings into scope f and A.4 Examples To clarify the above import rules.x.y A.y (nothing) A.y (nothing) x. B. A. provided that all names can still be resolved unambiguously.x.4. It is legal for more than one module in scope to use the same qualiﬁer.x x.x.f This module is legal provided only that Foo and Baz do not both export f.y x. B.
5.ILLEGAL By an import declaration.5.72 CHAPTER 5.f x x is legal.5. but does bring in any instances visible in M.4). that is. Thus: module M where f x = . such as f or A.. therefore.f respectively. The deﬁning occurrence must mention the unqualiﬁed name. . an instance declaration is in scope if and only if a chain of import declarations leads to the module containing the instance declaration. . g x = M. For example module MyInstances() where instance Show (a > b) where show fn = "<<function>>" instance Show (IO a) where show io = "<<IO action>>" 5. This allows a qualiﬁed import to be replaced with an unqualiﬁed one without forcing changes in the references to the imported names. A toplevel declaration brings into scope both the unqualiﬁed and the qualiﬁed name of the entity being deﬁned.y = x+1 in .. An import declaration.f. A qualiﬁed name is brought into scope: . For example.ILLEGAL g x = let M.. it is illegal to write module M where M. it must be possible unambiguously to resolve which entity is thereby referred to.3).2 Name clashes If a module contains a bound occurrence of a name.5 Name Clashes and Closure 5. import M() does not bring any new names in scope from module M.f x = . MODULES module. A module whose only purpose is to provide instance declarations can have an empty export list..1 Qualiﬁed names § By a top level declaration. 4 ¦ ¢ ¦ ¦ (Section 2. always brings into scope the qualiﬁed name of the imported entity (Section 5.. Thus. there must be only one binding for f or A.. 2 4 A qualiﬁed name is written as . whether qualified or not.
y ) where import D x = . The name occurring in a type signature or ﬁxity declarations is always unqualiﬁed. c. x.. For example. and can be referred to in A by the names d..d..5. y ) where import D x = . b = .. c. An error is only reported if y is actually mentioned..x. The ambiguity could be ﬁxed by replacing the reference to x by B. For example: module A where import B import C tup = (b. In this case the same entity is brought into scope by two routes (the import of B and the import of C). B. NAME CLASHES AND CLOSURE 73 It is not an error for there to exist names that cannot be so resolved.2). x) module B( d. so it is not erroneous that distinct entities called y are exported by both B and C. and C. even though the Prelude function sin is implicitly in scope. There is no reference to y.. d.sin (F. and c declared in C respectively. The reference to d is unambiguously resolved to d declared in D. provided that the program does not mention those names. or x declared in C. the following module is legal: module F where sin :: Float > Float sin x = (x::Float) f x = Prelude..4. and unambiguously refers to another declaration in the same declaration list (except that the ﬁxity declaration for a class method can occur at top level — Section 4.5. c = .. The reference to x is ambiguous: it could mean x declared in B. y = . module D( d ) where d = . y = . .. x. b... Consider the deﬁnition of tup.d.. The references to b and c can be unambiguously resolved to b declared in B..x or C.sin x) The local declaration for sin is legal.. module C( d.
5. and functions. Such entities need not even be explicitly exported: the following program is valid even though T does not escape M1: module M1(x) where data T = T x = T module M2 where import M1(x) y = x In this example. That is. module M2 knows enough about T to correctly type check the program. For example. Whether or not T is explicitly exported. 5. That is.3 Closure Every module in a Haskell program must be closed. these are interchangeable even when T is not in scope. classes. there is no way to supply an explicit type signature for y since T is not in scope. MODULES The references to Prelude. However.” In Haskell. The type of an exported entity is unaffected by nonexported type synonyms. the type checker ﬁnds the deﬁnition of T if needed whether or not it is exported. entities that the compiler requires for type checking or other compile time analysis need not be imported if they are not mentioned by name. every name explicitly mentioned by the source code must be either deﬁned locally or imported from another module. the import of a variable x does not require that the datatypes and classes in the signature of x be brought into the module along with x unless these entities are referenced by name in the user program.sin and F.6 Standard Prelude Many of the features of Haskell are deﬁned in Haskell itself as a library of standard datatypes.sin must both be qualiﬁed to make it unambiguous which sin is meant. The Haskell compilation system is responsible for ﬁnding any information needed for compilation without the help of the programmer.5. the deﬁnition of T is available to any module that encounters it whether or not the name T is in scope. That is. the Prelude is contained in the . However. The only reason to export T is to allow other modules to refer it by name. The Haskell system silently imports any information that must accompany an entity for type checking or any other purposes.74 CHAPTER 5. the unqualiﬁed name sin in the type signature in the ﬁrst line of F unambiguously refers to the local declaration for sin. called the “Standard Prelude. in module M(x) where type T = Int x :: T x = 1 the type of x is both T and Int.
Prelude and library modules differ from other modules in that their semantics (but not their implementation) are a ﬁxed part of the Haskell language deﬁnition. and they cannot be imported separately. and contains an unqualiﬁed reference to null on the right hand side of nonNull. and most of the input/output are all part of the standard libraries.2 Shadowing Prelude Names The rules about the Prelude have been cast so that it is possible to use Prelude names for nonstandard purposes. 5. but the implementation only gives a scheme. complex numberss. Some datatypes (such as Int) and functions (such as Int addition) cannot be speciﬁed directly in Haskell. Chapter 8 deﬁnes the module Prelude using several other modules: PreludeList. they are not formally deﬁned in Chapter 8. and increasing the space of useful names available to the programmer.6. they should be considered part of its implementation. if and only if it is not imported with an explicit import declaration. The latter would be ambiguous without the hiding(null) on the . 5. allowing it to be more easily assimilated. There are also many predeﬁned library modules. This means. They are simply there to help explain the structure of the Prelude module. The implementation of Prelude is also incomplete in its treatment of tuples: there should be an inﬁnite family of tuples and their instance declarations. given in Chapter 8. and so on. This provision for explicit import allows entities deﬁned in the Prelude to be selectively imported. Since the treatment of such entities depends on the implementation. just like those from any other module. that a compiler may optimize calls to functions in the Prelude without consulting the source code of the Prelude.6. which provide less frequently used functions and types. however. PreludeIO. for example.6.1 The Prelude Module The Prelude module is imported automatically into all modules as if by the statement ‘import Prelude’. The semantics of the entities in Prelude is speciﬁed by a reference implementation of Prelude written in Haskell. These are deﬁned in Part II Separating libraries from the Prelude has the advantage of reducing the size and complexity of the Prelude. arrays.5. every module that does so must have an import declaration that makes this nonstandard usage explicit. STANDARD PRELUDE 75 module Prelude. nonNull ) where import Prelude hiding( null ) null. not part of the language deﬁnition. For example. For example: module A( null. These modules are not part of Haskell 98. nonNull :: Int > Bool null x = x == 0 nonNull x = not (null x) Module A redeﬁnes null.
It is possible to construct and use a different module to serve in place of the Prelude.x) and (. Other than the fact that it is implicitly imported. an ADT for stacks could be deﬁned as: module Stack( StkType. so it refers to ++ imported from MyPrelude. Explicit type signatures for all exported values may be necessary to deal with mutual recursion. the use of ++ is not special syntax. Thus there is little danger of accidentally shadowing Prelude names. while the declaration import MyPrelude brings the nonstandard prelude into scope. 5. it is special only in that some objects in the Prelude are referenced by special syntactic constructs. Every module that imports A unqualiﬁed.76 CHAPTER 5. 5. however.8 Abstract Datatypes The ability to export a datatype without its constructors allows the construction of abstract datatypes (ADTs). to hide instance declarations in the Prelude. The special syntax for tuples (such as (x. there is no way to redeﬁne the meaning of [x]. empty ) where data StkType a = EmptyStk  Stk a (StkType a) push x s = Stk x s pop (Stk _ s) = s empty = EmptyStk . For example. separate compilation of mutually recursive modules may require that imported modules contain additional information so that they may be referenced before they are compiled. one cannot deﬁne a new instance for Show Char.7 Separate Compilation Depending on the Haskell implementation used. push. For example. It is not possible. Redeﬁning names used by the Prelude does not affect the meaning of these special constructs. in module B where import Prelude() import MyPrelude f x = (x. pop. For example. in terms of a different implementation of lists. the Prelude is an ordinary Haskell module. On the other hand.x) g x = (. for example. The precise details of separate compilation are not deﬁned by this report. MODULES import Prelude statement.)) and lists (such as [x] and []) continues to refer to the tuples and lists deﬁned by the standard Prelude. and then makes an unqualiﬁed reference to null must also resolve the ambiguous use of null just as A does.) x x h x = [x] ++ [] the explicit import Prelude() declaration prevents the automatic import of Prelude.
pop. and empty to construct such values. stacks can be deﬁned with lists: module Stack( StkType. they must use push. Instead. push. It is also possible to build an ADT on top of an existing type by using a newtype declaration.5.8. For example. ABSTRACT DATATYPES 77 Modules importing Stack cannot construct values of type StkType because they do not have access to the constructors of the type. empty ) where newtype StkType a = Stk [a] push x (Stk s) = Stk (x:s) pop (Stk (_:s)) = Stk s empty = Stk [] . pop.
MODULES .78 CHAPTER 5.
1.1 Standard Haskell Types These types are deﬁned by the Haskell Prelude. types. In this chapter. The name otherwise is deﬁned as True to make guarded expressions more readable.2 Characters and Strings The character type Char is an enumeration whose values represent Unicode characters [11].  (or).1 Booleans data Bool = False  True deriving (Read. and 79 . and functions that are implicitly imported into every Haskell program. 6. and not. Eq. we describe the types and classes found in the Prelude. complex numbers. Bounded) The boolean type Bool is an enumeration. Type Char is an instance of the classes Read.1. character literals are nullary constructors in the datatype Char. 6. Other predeﬁned types such as arrays.6. Enum. Show. Show.Chapter 6 Predeﬁned Types and Classes The Haskell Prelude contains predeﬁned classes. Eq.4. When appropriate. and rationals are deﬁned in Part II. The lexical syntax for characters is deﬁned in Section 2. Ord. Ord. Enum. The basic boolean functions are && (and). 6. Most functions are not described in detail here as they can easily be understood from their deﬁnitions as given in Chapter 8. Numeric types are described in Section 6. the Haskell deﬁnition of the type is given. Some deﬁnitions may not be completely valid on syntactic grounds but they faithfully convey the meaning of the underlying type.
map characters to and from the Int type. The same holds for tuple type constructors. \r and \CR. A string is a list of characters: type String = [Char] Strings may be abbreviated using the lexical syntax described in Section 2.’n’. Similar functions are not predeﬁned for larger tuples. \f and \FF. The Prelude and libraries deﬁne tuple functions such as zip for tuples up to a size of 7. Show.11. and \n and \LF. Lists are an instance of classes Read.’s’.y) and (. The following functions are deﬁned for pairs (2tuples): fst. that all their component types are). Arithmetic sequences and list comprehensions. Ord. and Show (provided.7. The toEnum and fromEnum functions. . For example.1. and the second is ‘:’ (“cons”). Read.Int) and (.3 Lists data [a] = []  a : [a] deriving (Eq. Monad. Functor.Bool. The module PreludeList (see Section 8. Ord. and the \ˆ notation. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES Bounded.4 Tuples Tuples are algebraic datatypes with special syntax. there are the following equivalences: \a and \BEL. every Haskell implementation must support tuples up to size 15. \v and \VT. and MonadPlus. 6. two convenient syntaxes for special kinds of lists. "A string" abbreviates [ ’A’. The ﬁrst constructor is the null list. ’i’.8. as described in Section 3. curry. The constructor for a tuple is written by omitting the expressions surrounding the commas. thus (x. Note that ASCII control characters each have several representations in character literals: numeric escapes.6. Ord.) x y produce the same value.1.’ ’. \t and \HT. ASCII mnemonic escapes. All tuples are instances of Eq.’r’. Eq. (Int. although with special syntax. There is no upper bound on the size of a tuple.1) deﬁnes many standard list functions. of course. as deﬁned in Section 3.. respectively. Read. In addition. Bounded. Bounded. Each tuple type has a single constructor. \b and \BS. and limit the instances associated with larger tuples. and Show.) Int Bool Int denote the same type. together with the instances for Eq. written ‘[]’ (“nil”). and uncurry. are described in Sections 3. However. thus. standard functions from class Enum.80 CHAPTER 6.’g’] 6.10 and 3.’t’. Ord) Lists are an algebraic datatype of two constructors. but some Haskell implementations may restrict the size of tuples. snd.
2 Strict Evaluation Function application in Haskell is nonstrict. Sometimes it is desirable to force the evaluation of a value. Enum. The Prelude contains a few I/O functions (deﬁned in Section 8. Ord.6 Function Types Functions are an abstract type: no constructors directly create functional values. and MonadPlus. and until. Ord. Ord. The functions maybe and either are found in the Prelude. const. ($). that is. Ord. It is an instance of Show and Eq. 6. STRICT EVALUATION 81 6. Show) member. The Ordering type is used by compare in the class Ord. IO is an instance of the Monad and Functor classes. The following simple functions are found in the Prelude: id. Read.8 Other Types data data data Maybe a Either a b Ordering = = = Nothing  Just a deriving (Eq.1. Show) The Maybe type is an instance of classes Functor. IOError is an abstract type representing errors raised by I/O operations. Read.). using the seq function: seq :: a > b > b .7 The IO and IOError Types The IO type serves as a tag for operations (actions) that interact with the outside world. Values of this type are constructed by the various I/O functions and are not presented in any further detail in this report. Monad.1. Show) LT  EQ  GT deriving (Eq. 6.1. the nullary constructor ().9. Bounded. Show) Left a  Right b deriving (Eq. Bounded. Read.6. a function argument is evaluated only when required. Enum. The unit datatype () has one non 6. 6.3).1.2. Read. Chapter 7 describes I/O operations. The IO type is abstract: no constructors are visible to the user. (.5 The Unit Datatype data () = () deriving (Eq. flip. See also Section 3. and Part II contains many more.
1 The Eq Class class Eq a where (==). $ has low. provide a reasonable deﬁnition for all the class methods. since seq can be used to distinguish them. rightassociative binding precedence. The Prelude also deﬁnes the $ operator to perform nonstrict application. $! ($). then all class methods must be given to fully specify an instance. together with the default declarations. the provision of seq has is important semantic consequences.1) are deﬁned in terms of the $! operator. If there is no such comment. However. since ordinary application (f x) means the same as (f $ x). 6. The operator $! is strict (callbyvalue) application.82 CHAPTER 6. Strict datatypes (see Section 4. . Default class method declarations (Section 4. 6. or zipWith ($) fs xs. the not the same as \x > existence of seq weakens Haskell’s parametricity properties.3) are provided for many of the methods in standard classes. However. As a consequence.1 shows the hierarchy of Haskell classes deﬁned in the Prelude and the Prelude types that are instances of these classes. A comment with each class declaration in Chapter 8 speciﬁes the smallest collection of method deﬁnitions that. (/=) :: x /= y x == y a > a > Bool = not (x == y) = not (x /= y) ¡¢ 0§ ' ' ¢ seq seq ' . infixr 0 $. ($!) :: (a > b) > a > b f $ x = f x f $! x = x ‘seq‘ f x The nonstrict application operator $ may appear redundant.2. so it sometimes allows parentheses to be omitted. For the same reason. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES The function seq is deﬁned by the equations: seq is usually introduced to improve performance by avoiding unneeded laziness. because it is available at every type. for example: f $ g $ h x = f (g (h x)) It is also useful in higherorder situations.3. and is deﬁned in terms of seq.3 Standard Haskell Classes Figure 6. such as map ($ 0) xs.
(>) Read All except IO. Float. Double Fractional Float. Float. STANDARD HASKELL CLASSES 83 Eq All except IO. Double Real Int. tuples Enum (). Integer.3. Double RealFloat Float. Integer RealFrac Float. Bool. () Ordering. Double Monad IO. Maybe Functor IO. Integer. []. Double Bounded Int. Float. Int. IOError Num Int. (>) Ord All except (>) IO. Ordering. Bool. []. Double Integral Int. Maybe Figure 6. (>) Show All except IO.1: Standard Haskell Classes . Integer. Double Floating Float.6. Char. Char.
All basic datatypes except for functions.y) or (y.84 CHAPTER 6. (>=). the default method for the other will make use of the one that is deﬁned. and IOError. are instances of this class. The default declarations allow a user to create an Ord instance either with a typespeciﬁc compare function or with typespeciﬁc == and <= functions. = = = = max x y) = (x.3. If both are deﬁned. 6. If an instance declaration for Eq deﬁnes neither == nor /=. Instances of Ord can be derived for any userdeﬁned datatype whose constituent types are in Ord. The Ordering datatype allows a single comparison to determine the precise ordering of two objects. . This declaration gives default method declarations for both /= and ==. Instances of Eq can be derived for any userdeﬁned datatype whose constituents are also instances of Eq. (<=).2 The Ord Class class (Eq a) => Ord a where compare :: a > a > Ordering (<).x) y x x y The Ord class is used for totally ordered datatypes. IO. All basic datatypes except for functions and IO are instances of this class. each being deﬁned in terms of the other. The declared order of the constructors in the data declaration determines the ordering in derived Ord instances. neither default method is used. If one is deﬁned. min :: a > a > a compare x y  x == y = EQ  x <= y = LT  otherwise = GT x x x x <= < >= > y y y y = = = = compare compare compare compare x x x x y y y y /= == /= == GT LT LT GT . (>) :: a > a > Bool max.Note that (min x max x y  x <= y  otherwise min x y  x <= y  otherwise y. then both will loop. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES The Eq class provides equality (==) and inequality (/=) methods.
3 The Read and Show Classes type type ReadS a = String > [(a. default decl for showList given in Prelude The Read and Show classes are used to convert values to or from strings.4).) For convenience.lex t] of [x] > x [] > error "PreludeText. default decl for readList given in Prelude class Show a where showsPrec :: Int > a > ShowS show :: a > String showList :: [a] > ShowS showsPrec _ x s = show x ++ s show x = showsPrec 0 x "" . Strings produced by showsPrec are usually readable by readsPrec. A specialised variant.read: ambiguous parse" . a programmer can easily make functions and IO types into (vacuous) instances of Show. This is particularly useful for the Char type. are instances of Show and Read. to allow constanttime concatenation of its results using function composition. The method showList is provided to allow the programmer to give a specialised way of showing lists of values.. rather than between square brackets. by providing an instance declaration.3..6. All Prelude types.read: no parse" _ > error "PreludeText. showsPrec and showList return a StringtoString function.String)] ShowS = String > String class Read a where readsPrec :: Int > ReadS a readList :: ReadS [a] .reads s. ("". (If desired... where values of type String should be shown in double quotes. STANDARD HASKELL CLASSES 85 6. which uses precedence context zero.. except function types and IO types. and returns an ordinary String. Derived instances of Read and Show replicate the style in which a constructor is declared: inﬁx constructors and ﬁeld names are used on input and output. The Int argument to showsPrec and readsPrec gives the operator precedence of the enclosing context (see Section 10. the Prelude provides the following auxiliary functions: reads reads shows shows read read s :: (Read a) => ReadS a = readsPrec 0 :: (Show a) => a > ShowS = showsPrec 0 :: (Read a) => String > a = case [x  (x."") <. is also provided. show.3..t) <.
pred :: toEnum :: fromEnum :: enumFrom :: enumFromThen :: enumFromTo :: enumFromThenTo :: a > a Int > a a > Int a > [a] a > a > [a] a > a > [a] a > a > a > [a]  [n.. (Thus lex "" = [("".n’. lex returns a single successful “lexeme” consisting of the empty string.] [n.] [n. 6.) If there is no legal lexeme at the beginning of the input string.4 The Enum Class class Enum a where succ. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES shows and reads use a default precedence of 0.e. The functions fromEnum and toEnum map values from a type in Enum to and from Int. which must be completely consumed by the input process. For any type that is an instance of class Bounded as well as Enum."")]..Default declarations given in Prelude Class Enum deﬁnes operations on sequentially ordered types.10). The enumFrom.m] .86 CHAPTER 6. used by read. see Chapter 10. of a value. enumFrom and enumFromThen should be deﬁned with an implicit bound. lex fails (i. toEnum 7 :: Bool is an error... The function lex :: ReadS String. discarding initial white space. is also part of the Prelude. It reads a single lexeme from the input. respectively. thus: enumFrom x = enumFromTo x maxBound enumFromThen x y = enumFromThenTo x y bound where bound  fromEnum y >= fromEnum x = maxBound  otherwise = minBound The following Prelude types are instances of Enum: . methods are used when translating arithmetic sequences (Section 3. The read function reads input from a string.. For example.m] [n. If the input string contains only white space. Instances of Enum may be derived for any enumeration type (types whose constructors have no ﬁelds).n’. and returning the characters that constitute the lexeme. returns []). The functions succ and pred return the successor and predecessor.3.. the following should hold: The calls succ maxBound and pred minBound should result in a runtime error. fromEnum and toEnum should give a runtime error if the result value is not representable in the result type.
and pred subtracts 1.6. The increment may be zero or negative. ]. the enumeration functions have the following meaning: The sequence enumFromThen is the list [ . is . or when they become less than for negative . empty if is the list [ . . For example. the list is empty if . Char: the instance is given in Chapter 8.GT]. enumFromTo ’a’ ’z’ denotes the list of lowercase letters in alphabetical order. where the increment. The conversions fromEnum and toEnum convert between the type and Int.3. the list terminates when . . £ ¡ ¥ ¤ § £ £ ¤¡ § ]. Lists. the list terminates when the next element would be less than . 8 8 ¥¥8 ¤ § § ¢¥ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¤ ¥ ¥ ¢ ¡ ¢¢ £ ¥¡ § ¡ ¡¤ ¡ ¡¢ § ¡ ¡ ¢¤ ¡ ¢ ¤ § ¥ ¤ £ ¡ ¥ ¡¥ ¥ ¤ ¡ The sequence enumFromTo . . The semantics of these instances is given next. ¤ .EQ. where the increment. except that the list terminates when the elements become greater than for positive increment . . Double. Bool. Float. IO. based on the primitive functions that convert between a Char and an Int. For example.3. Numeric types: Int.5 The Functor Class class Functor f where fmap :: (a > b) > f a > f b The Functor class is used for types that can be mapped over. the list is empty if negative. is . [LT. the semantics of the enumFrom family is given by the rules for Int above. . and Maybe are in this class. all of the enumFrom family of functions are strict in all their arguments. It is implementationdependent what fromEnum returns when applied to a value that is too large to ﬁt in an Int. The semantics of these instances is given by Chapter 10. the digits after the decimal point may be lost. . Integer. all the list elements are the same. 6. and Ordering. If the increment is zero. ]. In the case of Float and Double. . succ adds 1. If the increment is positive or zero. ]. For all four numeric types. The list is ¥ § ¦ § . STANDARD HASKELL CLASSES 87 Enumeration types: ().] is the list [LT. If the increment is the next element would be greater than .. . ¥ ¢ For Float and Double. . 8 8 ¥¥8 § ¤ ¤ ¡ ¡¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 § ¢¢ ¡ ¡ ¡¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡¢ ¡ £ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¤ The sequence enumFrom is the list [ . For the types Int and Integer. ¥ ¢ The sequence enumFromThenTo is the list [ . For all four of these Prelude numeric types.
The fail method is invoked on patternmatch failure in a do expression. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES Instances of Functor should satisfy the following laws: All instances of Functor deﬁned in the Prelude satisfy these laws. 6. and IO are all instances of Monad.3). The Prelude provides the following auxiliary functions: sequence sequence_ mapM mapM_ (=<<) :: :: :: :: :: Monad Monad Monad Monad Monad m m m m m => => => => => [m [m (a (a (a a] a] > > > > m > m m b) m b) m b) [a] () > [a] > m [b] > [a] > m () > m a > m b fmap f xs xs >>= return . “do” expressions provide a convenient syntax for writing monadic expressions (see Section 3. f return a >>= k m >>= return m >>= (\x > k x >>= h) fmap id fmap (f . In the Prelude.6 The Monad Class class Monad m (>>=) :: (>>) :: return :: fail :: m >> k fail s where m a > m a > a > m String (a > m b) > m b m b > m b a > m a = m >>= \_ > k = error s The Monad class deﬁnes the basic operations over a monad. g) id fmap f . fmap g k a m (m >>= k) >>= h .14). for Maybe returns Nothing. Maybe.88 CHAPTER 6. The fail method for lists returns the empty list [].3. Instances of Monad should satisfy the following laws: Instances of both Monad and Functor should additionally satisfy the law: All instances of Monad deﬁned in the Prelude satisfy these laws. and for IO raises a user exception in the IO monad (see Section 7. See Chapter 7 for more information about monads. lists.
Ordering. the class Fractional contains all nonintegral types. page 83. semantically). The class Num of numeric types is a subclass of Eq. The ﬁniteprecision integer type Int covers at . (). ¨ ¡£ ¤ ¡£ ¤ .1 shows the class dependencies and builtin types that are instances of the numeric classes. Float is implementationdeﬁned. a truncated value. Bounded may also be derived for singleconstructor datatypes whose constituent types are in Bounded.4 Numbers Haskell provides several kinds of numbers. The class Integral contains integers of both limited and unlimited range. an implementation may choose error ( . maxBound and least the range minBound can be used to determine the exact Int range deﬁned by an implementation.3. As Int is an instance of the Bounded class. Char. 6. since the other comparison operations apply to all but complex numbers (deﬁned in the Complex library). or a special value such as inﬁnity. The types Int.4. Ord is not a superclass of Bounded since types that are not totally ordered may also have upper and lower bounds. both real and complex. In particular. as deﬁned in the Ratio library.2–6. since all numbers may be compared for equality. arbitrary precision integers (Integer). The standard numeric types are listed in Table 6. aspects of the IEEE ﬂoating point standard have been accounted for in Prelude class RealFloat. the type Rational is a ratio of two Integer values. indeﬁnite.7 The Bounded Class class Bounded a where minBound. using several type classes with an inclusion relation shown in Figure 6. and all tuples are instances of Bounded. and the class Floating contains all ﬂoatingpoint types. Numeric function names and operators are usually overloaded. The Bounded class may be derived for any enumeration type. The standard numeric classes and other numeric functions deﬁned in the Prelude are shown in Figures 6.6. The default ﬂoating point operations deﬁned by the Haskell Prelude do not conform to current language independent arithmetic (LIA) standards. Double should cover IEEE doubleprecision. minBound is the ﬁrst constructor listed in the data declaration and maxBound is the last. These standards require considerably more complexity in the numeric structure and have thus been relegated to a library. it is desirable that this type be at least equal in range and precision to the IEEE singleprecision type. etc. Other numeric types such as rationals and complex numbers are deﬁned in libraries. single precision ﬂoating (Float). and double precision ﬂoating (Double). its subclass Real is also a subclass of Ord.3. Figure 6. NUMBERS 89 6.1. Some. maxBound :: a The Bounded class is used to name the upper and lower limits of a type. Bool. Similarly.1. the numeric types and the operations upon them have been heavily inﬂuenced by Common Lisp and Scheme. but not all. The Prelude deﬁnes only the most basic numeric types: ﬁxed sized integers (Int). The results of exceptional conditions (such as overﬂow or underﬂow) on the ﬁxedprecision numeric types are undeﬁned.
4. Similarly.4 for a discussion of overloading ambiguity. Numeric literals are deﬁned in this indirect way so that they may be interpreted as values of any appropriate numeric type. (*). div. and the unary function negate (which can also be written as a preﬁx minus sign. rem. div. a ﬂoating literal stands for an application of fromRational to a value of type Rational (that is.1 Numeric Literals The syntax of numeric literals is given in Section 2. remainder) pair.2 Arithmetic and NumberTheoretic Operations The inﬁx class methods (+). x ` ` y) ` rem (x `div y. while the class method (/) applies only to fractional ones. respectively. single precision Real ﬂoatingpoint. and mod class methods satisfy these laws if y is nonzero: (x ` quot y)*y + (x ` ` y) == x ` rem (x ` ` y)*y + (x ` ` y) == x div mod ‘quot‘ is integer division truncated toward zero. divMod is deﬁned similarly: quotRem x y divMod x y = = (x `quot y. See Section 4. The quot.1: Standard Numeric Types 6. double precision Complex ﬂoatingpoint Table 6. The quotRem class method takes a dividend and a divisor as arguments and returns a (quotient.3. even .4. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES Type Integer Int (Integral a) => Ratio a Float Double (RealFloat a) => Complex a Class Integral Integral RealFrac RealFloat RealFloat Floating Description Arbitraryprecision integers Fixedprecision integers Rational numbers Real ﬂoatingpoint. The class methods quot. An integer literal represents the application of the function fromInteger to the appropriate value of type Integer. Given the typings: fromInteger :: (Num a) => Integer > a fromRational :: (Fractional a) => Rational > a integer and ﬂoating literals have the typings (Num a) => a and (Fractional a) => a. x `mod y) ` ` Also available on integral numbers are the even and odd predicates: even x = odd = x ` ` 2 == 0 rem not . ().4) apply to all numbers. rem. see section 3. and mod apply only to integral numbers.90 CHAPTER 6.5. while the result of ‘div‘ is truncated toward negative inﬁnity. 6. Ratio Integer).
logBase :: a > a > a sin. for example gcd (3) 6 = 3. including zero. gcd is the greatest (positive) integer that divides both and . mod quotRem. 6. and (**) takes two ﬂoatingpoint arguments. (). Ord a) => Real a where toRational :: a > Rational class (Real a. divMod toInteger => :: :: :: Integral a where a > a > a a > a > (a. cos. Part 1 Finally. acos.2: Standard Numeric Classes and Related Operations. atanh :: a > a Figure 6. (ˆˆ) raises a fractional number to any integer power. acosh. gcd 0 0 raises a runtime error. Enum a) quot. Show (+). log. ¢ )¢ lcm is the smallest positive integer that both and divide. signum fromInteger a) :: :: :: :: => Num a where a > a > a a > a a > a Integer > a 91 class (Num a. NUMBERS class (Eq a.a) a > Integer class (Num a) => Fractional a where (/) :: a > a > a recip :: a > a fromRational :: Rational > a class (Fractional a) => Floating a where pi :: a exp. 0** is undeﬁned. sqrt :: a > a (**). gcd 0 4 = 4. gcd (3) (6) = 3. atan :: a > a sinh. rem.6. ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ . There are three twoargument exponentiation operations: (ˆ) raises any number to a nonnegative integer power. tanh :: a > a asinh. tan :: a > a asin. The value of ˆ0 or ˆˆ0 is 1 for any . div. there are the greatest common divisor and least common multiple functions.4. (*) negate abs. cosh.4. logBase returns the logarithm of in base .3 Exponentiation and Logarithms The oneargument exponential function exp and the logarithm function log act on ﬂoatingpoint numbers and use base . sqrt returns the principal square root of a ﬂoatingpoint number.
floor :: (Integral b) => a class (RealFrac a.Int) encodeFloat :: Integer > Int > a exponent :: a > Int significand :: a > a scaleFloat :: Int > a > a isNaN. Floating a) => RealFloat a where floatRadix :: a > Integer floatDigits :: a > Int floatRange :: a > (Int.a) b b class (Real a. isDenormalized. isNegativeZero. isIEEE :: a > Bool atan2 :: a > a > a gcd. Part 2 6.Int) decodeFloat :: a > (Integer. Num b) => a > b realToFrac :: (Real a.4. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES a > > > where (b.3: Standard Numeric Classes and Related Operations. isInfinite. Fractional b) => a > b Figure 6. round :: (Integral b) => a ceiling. these functions are deﬁned by: abs x  x >= 0  x < 0 = x = x = 1 = 0 = 1 signum x  x > 0  x == 0  x < 0 .92 CHAPTER 6.4 Magnitude and Sign A number has a magnitude and a sign. Integral b) => a > b > a (ˆˆ) :: (Fractional a. The functions abs and signum apply to any number and satisfy the law: abs x * signum x == x For real numbers. lcm :: (Integral a) => a > a> a (ˆ) :: (Num a. Fractional a) => RealFrac properFraction :: (Integral b) => a truncate. Integral b) => a > b > a fromIntegral :: (Integral a.
). the even integer if is equidistant between two integers. ceiling returns the least integer not less than . It follows the Common Lisp semantics for the origin when signed zeroes are supported. logBase.4. The functions ¦ ' ¥ ¢ ¢ ¢ 0 ¦ ¦ 0 ¢ ¢ £ ¡ ¢ ' 0 ¦ ¢ 4 A ¢ ' ¢ 4 ¡ ¦¥ ' ¥ ¢ ¢ 1 ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ 1 ¡ ¦ ¢ ¦ £ ¡ ¤ 4 4 1 £ 1 ¡ ¢ £ ¢ ¦ ¢ ¢ 0 ¢ ¦ ¢ . Two functions convert numbers to type Rational: toRational returns the rational equivalent of its real argument with full precision.4. machineindependent access to the components of a ﬂoatingpoint number. respectively. and furthermore. and implementation. then x is equal in value to . and floatRange give the parameters of a ﬂoatingpoint type: the radix of the representation. and round functions can be deﬁned in terms of properFraction.5 Trigonometric Functions Class Floating provides the circular and hyperbolic sine. where is the ﬂoatingpoint . NUMBERS 93 6. should return the same value as atan . but implementors are free to provide more accurate implementations. truncate. the greatest integer not greater than . where a rational in reduced form is simpler than another if and . and tangent functions and their inverses. with in a type that is RealFloat. The precise deﬁnition of the above functions is as in Common Lisp. tanh. approxRational takes two real fractional arguments and and returns the simplest rational number within of . ¢ ¢ 6. and the lowest and highest values the exponent may assume. See these references for discussions of branch cuts.6. where is the value radix. A default deﬁnition of atan2 is provided. and sqrt are provided. If decodeFloat x yields ( . The ceiling. atan2 returns a value in the range [pi. either and are both zero or else of floatDigits x. and with absolute value less than 1. floatDigits. which in turn follows Penﬁeld’s proposal for APL [9]. truncate yields the integer nearest between and . Every real interval contains a unique simplest rational. floor. in particular.6 Coercions and Component Extraction The ceiling. cosine. but implementors can provide a more accurate implementation. and is a fraction with the same type and sign as . floor. note that is the simplest rational of all.4. the number of digits of this radix in the signiﬁcand. inclusive. pi]. truncate. Default implementations of tan. atan2 computes the angle (from the positive xaxis) of the vector from the origin to the point . Class RealFloat provides a version of arctangent taking two real ﬂoatingpoint arguments. **. round returns the nearest integer to . discontinuities. The function properFraction takes a real fractional number and returns a pair such that . and round functions each take a real fractional argument and return an integral result. The functions floatRadix. and floor . The class methods of class RealFloat allow efﬁcient. The function decodeFloat applied to a real ﬂoatingpoint number returns the signiﬁcand expressed as an Integer and an appropriately scaled exponent (an Int). encodeFloat performs the inverse of this transformation. and: is an integral number with the same sign as . atan2 1. For real ﬂoating and .
For nonIEEE ﬂoating point numbers. Also available are the following coercion functions: fromIntegral :: (Integral a. The functions isNaN. isDenormalized. and isIEEE all support numbers represented using the IEEE standard. scaleFloat multiplies a ﬂoatingpoint number by an integer power of the radix. these may all return false. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES significand and exponent together provide the same information as decodeFloat. isInfinite. exponent 0 is zero. Fractional b) => a > b . significand x yields a value of the same type as x. but rather than an Integer. Num b) => a > b realToFrac :: (Real a. scaled to lie in the open interval . isNegativeZero.94 CHAPTER 6.
Some operations are primitive actions.Chapter 7 Basic Input/Output The I/O system in Haskell is purely functional. return and linefeed. natural to a functional language and The I/O monad used by Haskell mediates between the the that characterize I/O operations and imperative programming in general. however. it is possible to write many Haskell programs using only the few simple functions that are exported from the Prelude. From the perspective of a Haskell programmer. and which are described in this section. yet has all of the expressive power found in conventional programming languages. Actions. For example. two characters of input. an implementation has a great deal of freedom in choosing this order. corresponding to conventional I/O operations. 95 ¦ ¢ ¦ 32 4 7 3¢ ¦ ¢ ¦ 32 4 © ¦ 332 § § ¤¢ . may read as a single newline character. recall that String is a synonym for [Char] (Section 6.1. Special operations (methods in the class Monad. All I/O functions deﬁned here are character oriented. In the following. To achieve this. These functions cannot be used portably for binary I/O. The term comes from a branch of mathematics known as category theory. and an implementation is obliged to preserve this order.6) sequentially compose actions. the abstract values are the mentioned above. however. corresponding to sequencing operators (such as the semicolon) in imperative languages. Haskell uses a to integrate I/O operations into a purely functional context. must be ordered in a welldeﬁned manner for program execution – and I/O in particular – to be meaningful.2). Haskell’s I/O monad provides the user with a way to specify the sequential chaining of actions. see Section 6. © ¦ 332 § § ¤¢ © $ 7. The treatment of the newline character will vary on different systems. In the case of the I/O monad. as deﬁned in the IO library.3. it is best to think of a monad as an abstract datatype. The order of evaluation of expressions in Haskell is constrained only by data dependencies.1 Standard I/O Functions Although Haskell provides fairly sophisticated I/O facilities.
96 CHAPTER 7.. The readIO function is similar to read except that it signals parse failure to the I/O monad instead of terminating the program. The readLn function combines getLine and readIO. The entire input from the standard input device is passed to this function as its argument.19]]) Input Functions terminal).adds a newline Show a => a > IO () The print function outputs a value of any printable type to the standard output device. a program to print the ﬁrst 20 integers and their powers of 2 could be written as: main = print ([(n. The getContents operation returns all user input as a single string. Printable types are those that are instances of class Show.3) on endofﬁle. print converts values to strings for output using the show operation and adds a newline. 2ˆn)  n <. These functions read input from the standard input device (normally the user’s :: :: :: :: :: :: IO Char IO String IO String (String > String) > IO () Read a => String > IO a Read a => IO a getChar getLine getContents interact readIO readLn The getChar operation raises an exception (Section 7.) main = interact (filter isAscii) . The following program simply removes all nonASCII characters from its standard input and echoes the result on its standard output. The interact function takes a function of type String>String as its argument. deﬁned the IO library. The getLine operation raises an exception under the same circumstances as hGetLine. putChar putStr putStrLn print :: :: :: :: Char > IO () String > IO () String > IO () . a predicate isEOFError that identiﬁes this exception is deﬁned in the IO library. Typically.[0. For example. BASIC INPUT/OUTPUT Output Functions These functions write to the standard output device (this is normally the user’s terminal). and the resulting string is output on the standard output device. the read operation from class Read is used to convert the string to a value. (The isAscii function is deﬁned in a library. which is read lazily as it is needed.
The readFile function reads a ﬁle and returns the contents of the ﬁle as a string.1. methods in the Monad class. The >>= operation passes the result of the ﬁrst operation as an argument to the second operation. but takes its input from "inputfile" and writes its output to "outputfile". (>>=) :: IO a > (a > IO b) > IO b (>>) :: IO a > IO b > IO b For example.. as with print.x*x)  x <.7. Files are named by strings using some implementationspeciﬁc method to resolve strings as ﬁle names. as with getContents. A message is printed on the standard output before the program completes. SEQUENCING I/O OPERATIONS 97 Files These functions operate on ﬁles of characters. type FilePath = String writeFile :: FilePath > String > IO () appendFile :: FilePath > String > IO () readFile :: FilePath > IO String Note that writeFile and appendFile write a literal string to a ﬁle. To write a value of any printable type.[0. The >> function is used where the result of the ﬁrst operation is uninteresting. on demand. to the ﬁle. are used to compose a series of I/O operations. main = appendFile "squares" (show [(x. The two monadic binding functions. their second argument.2 Sequencing I/O Operations The type constructor IO is an instance of the Monad class. their ﬁrst argument. main = readFile "inputfile" writeFile "outputfile" (filter isAscii s) putStr "Filtering successful\n" >>= \ s > >> is similar to the previous example using interact. for example when it is (). The do notation allows programming in a more imperative syntactic style.2. use the show function to convert the value to a string ﬁrst. A slightly more elaborate version of the previous example would be: . The ﬁle is read lazily. The writeFile and appendFile functions write or append the string.0.2]]) 7.
Exception propagation must be explicitly provided in a handler by reraising any unwanted exceptions.readFile ifile writeFile ofile (filter isAscii s) putStr "Filtering successful\n" The return function is used to deﬁne the result of an I/O operation.getLine putStr "Output file: " ofile <.getChar if c == ’\n’ then return "" else do s <.isEOFError e then return [] else ioError e) the function f returns [] when an endofﬁle exception occurs in g. Exceptions in the I/O monad are represented by values of type IOError.98 CHAPTER 7. For example.3 Exception Handling in the I/O Monad The I/O monad includes a simple exception handling system. For example. This is an abstract type: its constructors are hidden from the user. These handlers are not selective: all exceptions are caught. otherwise. in f = catch g (\e > if IO. The only Prelude function that creates an IOError value is userError. BASIC INPUT/OUTPUT main = do putStr "Input file: " ifile <.getLine s <. the exception is propagated to the next outer handler. using return to deﬁne the result: getLine :: IO String getLine = do c <. userError :: String > IOError Exceptions are raised and caught using the following functions: ioError :: IOError > IO a catch :: IO a > (IOError > IO a) > IO a The ioError function raises an exception. . An exception is caught by the most recent handler established by catch. the catch function establishes a handler that receives any exception raised in the action protected by catch. The IO library deﬁnes functions that construct and examine IOError values. User error values include a string describing the error. The isEOFError function is part of IO library. Any I/O operation may raise an exception instead of returning a result.getLine return (c:s) 7. getLine is deﬁned in terms of getChar.
The fail method of the IO instance of the Monad class (Section 6.bindings for return. (>>=).7. . (>>) fail s = ioError (userError s) The exceptions raised by the I/O functions in the Prelude are deﬁned in Chapter 21. EXCEPTION HANDLING IN THE I/O MONAD 99 When an exception propagates outside the main program.3.6) raises a userError.. the Haskell system prints the associated IOError value and exits the program. thus: instance Monad IO where .3..
BASIC INPUT/OUTPUT .100 CHAPTER 7.
To reduce the occurrence of unexpected ambiguity errors. IO. The Prelude shown here is organized into a root module. An implementation is not required to use this organisation for the Prelude. Monad.. and Numeric. drop. This structure is purely presentational. Many of the deﬁnitions are written with clarity rather than efﬁciency in mind. Only the exports of module Prelude are signiﬁcant. part of the speciﬁcation of the Prelude. Prelude. To take one particular example. indicated by names starting with “prim”. 101 . The default method deﬁnitions. Declarations for special types such as Integer. such as Char. or less. nor are these three modules available for import separately.” is often used in places where the remainder of a deﬁnition cannot be given in Haskell. and to improve efﬁciency. the default method for enumFrom in class Enum will not work properly for types whose range exceeds that of Int (because fromEnum cannot map all values in the type to distinct Int values). given with class declarations. An ellipsis “. These modules are described fully in Part II. and PreludeIO. constitute a speciﬁcation only of the default method. Some of the more verbose instances with obvious functionality have been left out for the sake of brevity. Primitives that are not deﬁnable in Haskell. a number of commonlyused functions over lists use the Int type rather than using a more general numeric type. That is. They do not constitute a speciﬁcation of the meaning of the method in all instances. as it pleases. an implementation is free to import more. These functions are: take. such as Integral a or Num a. or () are included in the Prelude for completeness even though the declaration may be incomplete or syntactically invalid. of course. Some of these modules import Library modules. of the Library modules. These imports are not. length. Instance declarations that simply bind primitives to class methods are omitted. It constitutes a speciﬁcation for the Prelude. and it is not required that the speciﬁcation be implemented as shown here. !!. PreludeText.Chapter 8 Standard Prelude In this chapter the entire Haskell Prelude is given. are deﬁned in a system dependent manner in module PreludeBuiltin and are not shown here. and three submodules. PreludeList..
The more general versions are given in the List library. for example genericLength. . with the preﬁx “generic”. STANDARD PRELUDE splitAt. and replicate.102 CHAPTER 8.
acosh. module PreludeIO. even. Bool(False.)). Enum(succ. log. const. fromEnum. Ord(compare. Trivial type: ()(()) Functions: (>) Eq((==). maxBound). isDenormalized. floatDigits..)). IO. GT). Char. EQ. (). enumFrom.103 module Prelude ( module PreludeList. ($!) ) where import import import import import import PreludeBuiltin UnicodePrims( primUnicodeMaxChar ) PreludeList PreludeText PreludeIO Ratio( Rational ) . etc. (>>). maybe. isNegativeZero. error. RealFloat(floatRadix. Floating(pi. mod. Integral(quot. fromIntegral. (/=)). id. pred. until. sin. decodeFloat. asinh. cosh. (ˆ). Int. asin. subtract. sequence_. encodeFloat. (<=). ($). sequence. and cannot legally appear in an export list. asTypeOf. Double. return. Functor(fmap). realToFrac. recip. fromInteger). not. logBase. scaleFloat. isNaN. (**). Ordering(LT. tan. Right). tanh. RealFrac(properFraction. atanh). cos. fail). abs. negate. toEnum. min). fromRational). divMod. atan. fst. Num((+).)((. quotRem. []) Tuple types: (. String. odd. Monad((>>=). (>=). (<). exponent. Float. toInteger). undefined. Integer. (. sinh. Rational. (=<<).. but are denoted by builtin syntax. mapM. (). (. Fractional((/). gcd. signum. truncate. rem. atan2). snd. floatRange. (ˆˆ). Either(Left. (>). lcm. Bounded(minBound. enumFromThen. floor).Unicode primitives . Real(toRational). (&&). exp. uncurry. module PreludeText. otherwise. seq.Contains all ‘prim’ values . sqrt. acos. List type: []((:). max. enumFromThenTo). ceiling. curry.)((. True). Maybe(Nothing. div. mapM_. either. (*). isInfinite. significand. isIEEE. round. These builtin types are defined in the Prelude. enumFromTo. flip. Just).).
Minimal complete definition: (<=) or compare . ** *. > &&  >>. STANDARD PRELUDE .y) or (y. instances and related functions . min :: a > a > a . ˆ. classes. max x y) = (x. compare x y  x == y = EQ  x <= y = LT  otherwise = GT x x x x <= < >= > y y y y = = = = compare compare compare compare x x x x y y y y /= == /= == GT LT LT GT . ˆˆ. (>) :: a > a > Bool max. ‘div‘.x) max x y  x <= y = y  otherwise = x min x y  x <= y = x  otherwise = y . <=. >>= =<< $.Equality and Ordered classes class Eq a where (==). ‘mod‘ +.The (:) operator is builtin syntax.note that (min x y. $!. /=. but its fixity is given by: infixr 5 : infix infixr infixr infixl infixr infixr 4 3 2 1 1 0 ==. (>=). ‘rem‘. >=.  . /. ‘seq‘ . and cannot legally be given . <. ‘quot‘.Using compare can be more efficient for complex types.Minimal complete definition: (==) or (/=) x /= y = not (x == y) x == y = not (x /= y) class (Eq a) => Ord a where compare :: a > a > Ordering (<).a fixity declaration. (/=) :: a > a > Bool .104 infixr infixr infixl infixl 9 8 7 6 CHAPTER 8.Standard types. (<=).
. Ord a) => Real a where toRational :: a > Rational . fromEnum y] enumFromThen x y = map toEnum [fromEnum x.. Show a) => Num a where (+).Minimal complete definition: toEnum.] enumFromTo x y = map toEnum [fromEnum x .y = x + negate x = 0 definition: negate or () negate y x class (Num a.NOTE: these default methods only make sense for types that map injectively into Int using fromEnum and toEnum. (subtract 1) .m] [n.105 .n’. (*) :: a > a > a negate :: a > a abs. except x ... succ = toEnum .m] .n’..Enumeration and Bounded classes class Enum a where succ. fromEnum pred = toEnum . signum :: a > a fromInteger :: Integer > a .] [n. fromEnum enumFrom x = map toEnum [fromEnum x ... pred toEnum fromEnum enumFrom enumFromThen enumFromTo enumFromThenTo :: :: :: :: :: :: :: a > a Int > a a > Int a > [a] a > a > [a] a > a > [a] a > a > a > [a]  [n. fromEnum z] class Bounded a minBound maxBound where :: a :: a ..] [n.Numeric classes class (Eq a. (+1) .] enumFromThenTo x y z = map toEnum [fromEnum x. fromEnum y . (). fromEnum y . fromEnum .Minimal complete All.
r) = n ‘mod‘ d = r where (q. acos. r+d) else qr quotRem n d . acos. cos. sin. mod quotRem. divMod toInteger a) :: :: :: :: CHAPTER 8. acosh. tan :: a > a asin. atanh :: a > a .a) a > Integer . exp. tanh :: a > a asinh. log.Minimal complete definition: fromRational and (recip or (/)) recip x = 1 / x x / y = x * recip y class (Fractional a) => Floating a where pi :: a exp.r) = class (Num a) => Fractional a where (/) :: a > a > a recip :: a > a fromRational :: Rational > a quotRem n d quotRem n d divMod n d divMod n d signum d then (q1.r) = n ‘rem‘ d = r where (q.Minimal complete definition: quotRem. cosh. cosh asin. atan :: a > a sinh. toInteger n ‘quot‘ d = q where (q. sinh. atanh x ** y = exp (log x * y) logBase x y = log y / log x sqrt x = x ** 0. acosh.Minimal complete definition: pi. atan asinh.106 class (Real a.5 tan x = sin x / cos x tanh x = sinh x / cosh x . log.r) = n ‘div‘ d = q where (q. rem div. Enum quot. sqrt :: a > a (**). logBase :: a > a > a sin. STANDARD PRELUDE => Integral a where a > a > a a > a > a a > a > (a.r) = divMod n d = if signum r == where qr@(q. cos.
0. floor :: (Integral b) => a a > > > where (b._) = properFraction x round x = let (n.107 class (Real a. round :: (Integral b) => a ceiling.1 else n where (n.r) = properFraction x m = if r < 0 then n . Fractional a) => RealFrac properFraction :: (Integral b) => a truncate.r) = properFraction x ceiling x floor x = = .5) of 1 > n 0 > if even n then n else m 1 > m if r > 0 then n + 1 else n where (n.r) = properFraction x if r < 0 then n .1 else n + 1 in case signum (abs r .Minimal complete definition: properFraction truncate x = m where (m.a) b b .
even :: (Integral a) => a > a > a = error "Prelude.n) = decodeFloat x atan2 y x  x>0 = atan (y/x)  x==0 && y>0 = pi/2  x<0 && y>0 = pi + atan (y/x) (x<=0 && y<0)  (x<0 && isNegativeZero y)  (isNegativeZero x && isNegativeZero y) = atan2 (y) x  y==0 && (x<0  isNegativeZero x) = pi .Int) encodeFloat :: Integer > Int > a exponent :: a > Int significand :: a > a scaleFloat :: Int > a > a isNaN.must be after the other double zero tests  otherwise = x + y . atan2 exponent x = if m == 0 then 0 else n + floatDigits x where (m.108 CHAPTER 8.Int) decodeFloat :: a > (Integer. significand. isNegativeZero.Numeric functions subtract subtract even. isInfinite.must be after the previous test on zero y  x==0 && y==0 = y . scaleFloat.floatDigits x) where (m.gcd: gcd 0 0 is undefined" = gcd’ (abs x) (abs y) where gcd’ x 0 = x gcd’ x y = gcd’ y (x ‘rem‘ y) . odd even n odd gcd gcd 0 0 gcd x y :: (Num a) => a > a > a = flip () :: (Integral a) => a > Bool = n ‘rem‘ 2 == 0 = not . Floating a) => RealFloat a where floatRadix :: a > Integer floatDigits :: a > Int floatRange :: a > (Int._) = decodeFloat x encodeFloat m (n+k) where (m. STANDARD PRELUDE class (RealFrac a.n) = decodeFloat x significand x scaleFloat k x = = encodeFloat m (. isIEEE :: a > Bool atan2 :: a > a > a .x or y is a NaN.Minimal complete definition: All except exponent. isDenormalized. return a NaN (via +) .
toInteger :: (Real a.The xxxM functions take list arguments.list element to a monad type mapM :: Monad m => (a > m b) > [a] > m [b] mapM f as = sequence (map f as) mapM_ mapM_ f as (=<<) f =<< x :: Monad m => (a > m b) > [a] > m () = sequence_ (map f as) :: Monad m => (a > m b) > m a > m b = x >>= f . Integral b) => a > b > a = 1 = f x (n1) x where f _ 0 y = y f x n y = g x n where g x n  even n = g (x*x) (n ‘quot‘ 2)  otherwise = f x (n1) (x*y) = error "Prelude. Integral b) => a > b > a = if n >= 0 then xˆn else recip (xˆ(n)) :: (Integral a. toRational .Monadic classes class Functor f fmap where :: (a > b) > f a > f b class Monad m where (>>=) :: m a > (a > m b) > m b (>>) :: m a > m b > m b return :: a > m a fail :: String > m a .Minimal complete definition: (>>=). Fractional b) => a > b = fromRational . but lift the function or . Num b) => a > b = fromInteger .109 lcm lcm _ 0 lcm 0 _ lcm x y (ˆ) x ˆ 0 x ˆ n  n > 0 :: = = = (Integral a) => a > a > a 0 0 abs ((x ‘quot‘ (gcd x y)) * y) _ ˆ _ (ˆˆ) x ˆˆ n fromIntegral fromIntegral realToFrac realToFrac :: (Num a. return m >> k = m >>= \_ > k fail s = error s sequence sequence sequence_ sequence_ :: Monad m => [m a] > m [a] = foldr mcons (return []) where mcons p q = p >>= \x > q >>= \y > return (x:y) :: Monad m => [m a] > m () = foldr (>>) (return ()) .ˆ: negative exponent" :: (Fractional a.
True False True False () && x && _  _  x :: = = = = Bool > Bool > Bool x False True x not not True not False otherwise otherwise :: Bool > Bool = False = True :: Bool = True .function composition (. STANDARD PRELUDE = () deriving (Eq.Primitive . Show.identity function id :: a > a id x = x .(useful in continuationpassing style) ($).Boolean functions (&&).Trivial type data () CHAPTER 8. Enum..Not legal Haskell.Character type data Char = .) :: (b > c) > (a > b) > a > c f . Read. Ord.Function type . .110 .constant function const :: a > b > a const x _ = x .. flip :: (a > b > c) > b > a > c flip f x y = f y x seq :: a > b > b seq = .Unicode values instance Eq Char c == c’ where = fromEnum c == fromEnum c’ .. Enum.. Bounded) .rightassociating infix application operators . for illustration only .Boolean type data Bool = False  True deriving (Eq. Ord. .. ’a’  ’b’ . g = \ x > f (g x) .flip f takes its (first) two arguments in the reverse order of f. Bounded) .. ($!) :: (a > b) > a > b f $ x = f x f $! x = x ‘seq‘ f x .
fail s = ioError (userError s) . fromEnum (maxBound::Char)] enumFromThen c c’ = map toEnum [fromEnum c.Either type data Either a b = Left a  Right b deriving (Eq... .Maybe type data Maybe a = Nothing  Just a deriving (Eq. f) instance Monad IO where (>>=) = ... Read. Show) maybe :: b > (a > b) > Maybe a > b maybe n f Nothing = n maybe n f (Just x) = f x instance Functor Maybe fmap f Nothing = fmap f (Just x) = where Nothing Just (f x) instance Monad Maybe where (Just x) >>= k = k x Nothing >>= k = Nothing return = Just fail s = Nothing ..IO type data IO a = . Ord. Show) either :: (a > c) > (b > c) > Either a b > c either f g (Left x) = f x either f g (Right y) = g y . Ord.... fromEnum lastChar] where lastChar :: Char lastChar  c’ < c = minBound  otherwise = maxBound instance Bounded Char where minBound = ’\0’ maxBound = primUnicodeMaxChar type String = [Char] . fromEnum c’ . return = .abstract instance Functor IO where fmap f x = x >>= (return . Read.111 instance Ord Char c <= c’ where = fromEnum c <= fromEnum c’ instance Enum Char where toEnum = primIntToChar fromEnum = primCharToInt enumFrom c = map toEnum [fromEnum c .
instance Enum Integer where . where where where where where where where where . ... data Int instance instance instance instance instance instance instance = minBound .. data Float instance Eq instance Ord instance Num instance Real instance Fractional instance Floating instance RealFrac instance RealFloat data Double instance Eq instance Ord instance Num instance Real instance Fractional instance Floating instance RealFrac instance RealFloat Float Float Float Float Float Float Float Float Double Double Double Double Double Double Double Double where where where where where where where where .. . ... Show.... maxBound .. .... .. . Ord.Standard numeric types.. instance Eq Integer where ......112 . .. instance Integral Integer where .. 1  0  1 . .. . . ... ...... ... Read.. Enum.. ..far too large..be expressed directly in Haskell since the constructor lists would be ... instance Real Integer where . ...... . instance Num Integer where .... data Integer = ... . STANDARD PRELUDE Ordering = LT  EQ  GT deriving (Eq........ Bounded) ... . . 1 Eq Int where Ord Int where Num Int where Real Int where Integral Int where Enum Int where Bounded Int where  0  1 . The data declarations for these types cannot .. .. instance Ord Integer where ... .Ordering type data CHAPTER 8......
.1 is represented.0.95]. However. truncate enumFrom = numericEnumFrom enumFromThen = numericEnumFromThen enumFromTo = numericEnumFromTo enumFromThenTo = numericEnumFromThenTo numericEnumFrom :: numericEnumFromThen :: numericEnumFromTo :: numericEnumFromThenTo :: numericEnumFrom = numericEnumFromThen n m = numericEnumFromTo n m = numericEnumFromThenTo n n’ . The ‘toEnum’ function truncates numbers to Int. for illustration only instance Functor [] where fmap = map instance Monad [] m >>= k return x fail s where = concat (map k m) = [x] = [] . truncate = numericEnumFrom = numericEnumFromThen = numericEnumFromTo = numericEnumFromThenTo instance Enum Float succ x pred x toEnum fromEnum enumFrom enumFromThen enumFromTo enumFromThenTo . Ord a) => a > a > a > [a] iterate (+1) iterate (+(mn)) n takeWhile (<= m+1/2) (numericEnumFrom n) m = takeWhile p (numericEnumFromThen n n’) where p  n’ >= n = (<= m + (n’n)/2)  otherwise = (>= m + (n’n)/2) . 0. Ord a) => a > a > [a] (Fractional a. This example may have either 10 or 11 elements. where = x+1 = x1 = fromIntegral = fromInteger .may overflow (Fractional a) => a > [a] (Fractional a) => a > a > [a] (Fractional a.Lists data [a] = []  a : [a] deriving (Eq. Ord) . depending on how 0. roundoff errors make these somewhat dubious.113 The Enum instances for Floats and Doubles are slightly unusual.Not legal Haskell.1 .may overflow instance Enum Double where succ x = x+1 pred x = x1 toEnum = fromIntegral fromEnum = fromInteger . The definitions of enumFrom and enumFromThen allow floats to be used in arithmetic series: [0.
and its typing forces its first argument .Misc functions . until :: (a > Bool) > (a > a) > a > a until p f x  p x = x  otherwise = until p f (f x) . Ord. It is usually used .until p f yields the result of applying f until p holds.b) > b = y . Ord. y) uncurry uncurry f p :: (a > b > c) > ((a. STANDARD PRELUDE (a.114 .curry converts an uncurried function to a curried function.(NB: not provided for triples. Bounded) (a.b) deriving (Eq.b) > a fst (x.) fst :: (a.error stops execution and displays an error message error error :: String > a = primError .uncurry converts a curried function to a function on pairs.c) = (a.component projections for pairs: .Tuples data data CHAPTER 8. etc.(which is usually overloaded) to have the same type as the second.b. quadruples. for illustration only .messages that are more appropriate to the context in which undefined .b. Bounded) . asTypeOf :: a > a > a asTypeOf = const . curry :: ((a. b) > c) > a > b > c curry f x y = f (x. undefined undefined :: a = error "Prelude.It is expected that compilers will recognize this and insert error .Not legal Haskell. b) > c) = f (fst p) (snd p) .y) :: (a.c) deriving (Eq.undefined" .y) = x snd snd (x.appears.as an infix operator. .asTypeOf is a typerestricted version of const.b) = (a.
scanl1. head. and. foldr1. notElem. span. repeat.8. foldl1. elem.1 Prelude PreludeList . takeWhile. lookup. product. dropWhile. unlines. :: [a] > a = x = error "Prelude. filter. foldl. map f head and tail extract the first element and remaining elements. all. (!!). words. zip. scanl. lines. scanr. (++). concatMap. rather than the beginning. ‘notElem‘ . concat. replicate. tail. init. of a list. unzip. maximum. which must be nonempty. sum. last. length.1. cycle. break. last and init are the dual functions working from the end of a finite list. foldr.head: empty list" :: [a] > [a] = xs = error "Prelude. zipWith.Map and append map :: (a > b) > [a] > [b] map f [] = [] map f (x:xs) = f x : map f xs (++) :: [a] > [a] > [a] [] ++ ys = ys (x:xs) ++ ys = x : (xs ++ ys) filter :: (a > Bool) > [a] > [a] filter p [] = [] filter p (x:xs)  p x = x : filter p xs  otherwise = filter p xs concat :: [[a]] > [a] concat xss = foldr (++) [] xss concatMap :: (a > [b]) > [a] > [b] concatMap f = concat . zipWith3. drop. any. scanr1. PRELUDE PRELUDELIST 115 8. or. null. unwords. zip3. splitAt. unzip3) where import qualified Char(isSpace) infixl 9 infixr 5 infix 4 !! ++ ‘elem‘. take.tail: empty list" head head (x:_) head [] tail tail (_:xs) tail [] . iterate. reverse.Standard list functions module PreludeList ( map. respectively. minimum.
!!: negative index" [] !! _ = error "Prelude.. but returns a list of successive reduced values from the left: scanl f z [x1. z ‘f‘ x1.] == [x1. reduces the list using the binary operator... x2.. scanl1 is similar.. scanl is similar to foldl. .init: empty list" :: [a] > Bool = True = False .) ‘f‘ xn foldl1 is a variant that has no starting value argument. ..] == [z....116 last last [x] last (_:xs) last [] init init [x] init (x:xs) init [] null null [] null (_:_) :: = = = :: = = = CHAPTER 8.. again without the starting element: scanl1 f [x1. ... and thus must be applied to nonempty lists. applied to a binary operator.!!: index too large" (x:_) !! 0 = x (_:xs) !! n = xs !! (n1) foldl.List index (subscript) operator.foldl1: empty list" :: (a > b > a) > a > [b] > [a] = q : (case xs of [] > [] x:xs > scanl f (f q x) xs) :: (a > a > a) > [a] > [a] = scanl f x xs = [] scanl1 scanl1 f (x:xs) scanl1 _ [] . STANDARD PRELUDE [a] > a x last xs error "Prelude. .. x2. and a list.length returns the length of a finite list as an Int.((z ‘f‘ x1) ‘f‘ x2) ‘f‘.. 0origin (!!) :: [a] > Int > a xs !! n  n < 0 = error "Prelude. .last: empty list" [a] > [a] [] x : init xs error "Prelude.] Note that last (scanl f z xs) == foldl f z xs. from left to right: foldl f z [x1. xn] == (. length :: [a] > Int length [] = 0 length (_:l) = 1 + length l .] foldl :: (a > b > a) > a > [b] > a foldl f z [] = z foldl f z (x:xs) = foldl f (f z x) xs foldl1 foldl1 f (x:xs) foldl1 _ [] scanl scanl f q xs :: (a > a > a) > [a] > a = foldl f x xs = error "Prelude. a starting value (typically the leftidentity of the operator). (z ‘f‘ x1) ‘f‘ x2. x2. x1 ‘f‘ x2..
drop n xs). Int > [a] > [a] [] [] x : take (n1) xs take :: take n _  n <= 0 = take _ [] = take n (x:xs) = . applied to a list xs. or xs itself if n > length xs. or [] if n > length xs.on infinite lists. and scanr1 are the righttoleft duals of the . f (f x).the infinite repetition of the original list.foldr. . repeat :: a > [a] repeat x = xs where xs = x:xs . returns the prefix of xs of length n.above functions.iterate f x returns an infinite list of repeated applications of f to x: .cycle ties a finite list into a circular one.] iterate :: (a > a) > a > [a] iterate f x = x : iterate f (f x) .8.repeat x is an infinite list.cycle: empty list" = xs’ where xs’ = xs ++ xs’ take n. foldr :: (a > b > b) > b > [a] > b foldr f z [] = z foldr f z (x:xs) = f x (foldr f z xs) foldr1 foldr1 f [x] foldr1 f (x:xs) foldr1 _ [] :: = = = (a > a > a) > [a] > a x f x (foldr1 f xs) error "Prelude. It is the identity .replicate n x is a list of length n with x the value of every element replicate :: Int > a > [a] replicate n x = take n (repeat x) .foldr1: empty list" scanr :: (a > b > b) > b > [a] > [b] scanr f q0 [] = [q0] scanr f q0 (x:xs) = f x q : qs where qs@(q:_) = scanr f q0 xs scanr1 scanr1 f [] scanr1 f [x] scanr1 f (x:xs) :: = = = (a > a > a) > [a] > [a] [] [x] f x q : qs where qs@(q:_) = scanr1 f xs . cycle cycle [] cycle xs :: [a] > [a] = error "Prelude. with x the value of every element.iterate f x == [x. foldr1. PRELUDE PRELUDELIST 117 . splitAt n xs is equivalent to (take n xs. or equivalently. drop n xs returns the suffix of xs after the first n elements. . scanr..1. f x..
zs) = span p xs’ break p = span (not . returns the longest prefix (possibly empty) of xs of elements that satisfy p. unlines and unwords are the inverse operations. :: (a > Bool) > [a] > [a] = [] = = x : takeWhile p xs [] takeWhile takeWhile p [] takeWhile p (x:xs)  p x  otherwise dropWhile dropWhile p [] dropWhile p xs@(x:xs’)  p x  otherwise :: (a > Bool) > [a] > [a] = [] = = dropWhile p xs’ xs span. unlines joins lines with terminating newlines. words breaks a string up into a list of words. s’) = break (== ’\n’) s in l : case s’ of [] > [] (_:s’’) > lines s’’ :: String > [String] = case dropWhile Char.[]) span p xs@(x:xs’)  p x = (x:ys. break :: (a > Bool) > [a] > ([a]. which were delimited by white space. and unwords joins words with separating spaces. The resulting strings do not contain newlines. while break p uses the negation of p. applied to a predicate p and a list xs.118 drop :: drop n xs  n <= 0 = drop _ [] = drop n (_:xs) = splitAt splitAt n xs  CHAPTER 8.zs)  otherwise = ([]. STANDARD PRELUDE Int > [a] > [a] xs [] drop (n1) xs :: Int > [a] > ([a].[a]) = (take n xs. Similary. drop n xs) takeWhile.isSpace s’ lines lines "" lines s words words s . p) lines breaks a string up into a list of strings at newline characters.xs) where (ys. :: String > [String] = [] = let (l.[a]) span p [] = ([].isSpace s of "" > [] s’ > w : words s’’ where (w. s’’) = break Char. dropWhile p xs returns the remaining suffix. dropWhile p xs). span p xs is equivalent to (takeWhile p xs.
minimum :: (Ord a) => [a] > a maximum [] = error "Prelude. finite.maximum: empty list" maximum xs = foldl1 max xs minimum [] minimum xs = = error "Prelude.8.minimum: empty list" foldl1 min xs .1. sum. lookup :: (Eq a) => a > [(a. False. for all.True.reverse xs returns the elements of xs in reverse order. product :: (Num a) => [a] > a sum = foldl (+) 0 product = foldl (*) 1 . any determines if any element ..value at a finite index of a finite or infinite list. map p all p = and . and. Similarly. results from a False . all :: (a > Bool) > [a] > Bool any p = or . and of an ordered type. PRELUDE PRELUDELIST unlines unlines unwords unwords [] unwords ws :: [String] > String = concatMap (++ "\n") :: [String] > String = "" = foldr1 (\w s > w ++ ’ ’:s) ws 119 . or :: [Bool] > Bool and = foldr (&&) True or = foldr () False .y):xys)  key == x = Just y  otherwise = lookup key xys . however. the list must be finite. notElem is the negation. reverse :: [a] > [a] reverse = foldl (flip (:)) [] xs must be finite.b)] > Maybe b lookup key [] = Nothing lookup key ((x.and returns the conjunction of a Boolean list.of the list satisfies the predicate. map p . any.lookup key assocs looks up a key in an association list. . notElem :: (Eq a) => a > [a] > Bool elem x = any (== x) notElem x = all (/= x) .elem is the list membership predicate. usually written in infix form.maximum and minimum return the maximum or minimum value from a list.Applied to a predicate and a list.e.g. .disjunctive dual of and. x ‘elem‘ xs. maximum. For the result to be . elem.sum and product compute the sum or product of a finite list of numbers. or is the . .which must be nonempty.
zipWith :: (a>b>c) > [a]>[b]>[c] zipWith z (a:as) (b:bs) = z a b : zipWith z as bs zipWith _ _ _ = [] zipWith3 :: (a>b>c>d) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d] zipWith3 z (a:as) (b:bs) (c:cs) = z a b c : zipWith3 z as bs cs zipWith3 _ _ _ _ = [] .b.c)] > ([a].[c]) = foldr (\(a.b)] = zipWith (.c:cs)) ([]. Zips for larger tuples are in the List library :: [a] > [b] > [(a. zipWith (+) is applied to two lists to produce the list of corresponding sums. unzip unzip unzip3 unzip3 :: [(a.b) ˜(as.c)] = zipWith3 (.) zip zip zip3 zip3  The zipWith family generalises the zip family by zipping with the function given as the first argument.[b]) = foldr (\(a.unzip transforms a list of pairs into a pair of lists. For example.[b].b)] > ([a]..b:bs. instead of a tupling function.c) ˜(as.bs. zip3 takes three lists and returns a list of triples.[]) .120  CHAPTER 8.cs) > (a:as.bs) > (a:as. STANDARD PRELUDE zip takes two lists and returns a list of corresponding pairs.[]) :: [(a. excess elements of the longer list are discarded. If one input list is short.) :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [(a.b.b:bs)) ([].b.[].
showl xs where showl [] = showChar ’]’ showl (x:xs) = showChar ’. showl xs . showChar.The instances of Read and Show for Bool. Read(readsPrec. readFloat. readParen.v) class Show a showsPrec show showList where :: Int > a > ShowS :: a > String :: [a] > ShowS <<<<<<<<< lex r.2 Prelude PreludeText module PreludeText ( ReadS. reads. shows x .’ . readl s]) lex s] ++ reads s.are done via "deriving" clauses in Prelude.". shows x .v)  (". showList). readl’ u] .Mimimal complete definition: show or showsPrec showsPrec _ x s = show x ++ s show x showList [] showList (x:xs) = showsPrec 0 x "" = showString "[]" = showChar ’[’ .t) [(x:xs. isDigit.8.u) (xs. Show(showsPrec. show. PRELUDE PRELUDETEXT 121 8. showParen ) where . ShowS. lex.hs import Char(isSpace. readDec.String)] = String > String where :: Int > ReadS a :: ReadS [a] class Read a readsPrec readList . readSigned. isAlphaNum. showString. readList). showLitChar.u)  (x. readl’ t] lex s] ++ lex s. lexLitChar) import Numeric(showSigned. readLitChar. reads t.s) pr where readl s = [([]. showFloat. lexDigits) type type ReadS a ShowS = String > [(a.t)  ("]". Either. isAlpha.2.Minimal complete definition: readsPrec readList = readParen False (\r > [pr  ("[". Maybe.u) readl’ s = [([].t) (xs. shows. read. Ordering . showInt.t)  ("]".t) [(x:xs.t) (x.
t) (")".lexLitChar s.read: ambiguous parse" :: Char > ShowS = (:) :: String > ShowS = (++) :: Bool > ShowS > ShowS = if b then showChar ’(’ .t) <.lex t ] . p .u)  ("(". <.u) <. u)  (ch.t) <.122 reads reads shows shows read read s :: (Read a) => ReadS a = readsPrec 0 :: (Show a) => a > ShowS = showsPrec 0 CHAPTER 8. t)  (ch.Current limitations: Qualified names are not handled properly Octal and hexidecimal numerics are not recognized as a single token Comments are not treated properly lex lex "" lex (c:s)  isSpace c lex (’\’’:s) lex (’"’:s) :: ReadS String = [("".read: no parse" _ > error "Prelude. .This lexer is not completely faithful to the Haskell lexical syntax.s)] lexStrItem (’\\’:c:s)  isSpace c = [("\\&".t) <.s)] lexString s = [(ch++str.lex r.lexString t ] lexStrItem (’\\’:’&’:s) = [("\\&".lex t] of [x] > x [] > error "Prelude. (str. ch /= "’" ] [(’"’:str."")] = = = lex (dropWhile isSpace s) [(’\’’:ch++"’".lexString s] where lexString (’"’:s) = [("\"".lexStrItem s.s) (x.optional s. showChar ’)’ else p :: Bool > ReadS a > ReadS a = if b then mandatory else optional where optional r = g r ++ mandatory mandatory r = [(x. ("".reads s.t)  ’\\’:t <[dropWhile isSpace s]] lexStrItem s = lexLitChar s . t)  (str. STANDARD PRELUDE :: (Read a) => String > a = case [x  (x."") <.u) showChar showChar showString showString showParen showParen b p readParen readParen b g r <.’\’’:t) <. <.
t) <.[span isDigit s].[span isSym s]]  (nam.lexDigits s] instance Show Int where showsPrec n = showsPrec n .s) <.u) <.lexExp t] lexFracExp s = lexExp s lexExp (e:s)  e ‘elem‘ "eE" = [(e:c:ds.possible difficulty with minInt instance Show Integer showsPrec instance Read Integer readsPrec p instance Show Float showsPrec p instance Read Float readsPrec p instance Show Double showsPrec p instance Read Double readsPrec p where = showSigned showInt where = readSigned readDec where = showFloat where = readSigned readFloat where = showFloat where = readSigned readFloat instance Show () where showsPrec p () = showString "()" .t) [(c:nam.[span isIdChar s]]  (ds.’:ds++e.s)] [(c:sym. (e..u)  (c:t) [(e:ds. (fe.t) <.8. c ‘elem‘ "+".u) <.’:c:cs)  isDigit c = [(’.Converting to Integer avoids .t) lexExp s = [("". (ds. t)  (i.u)  (ds.2.possible difficulty with minInt instance Read Int where readsPrec p r = [(fromInteger i.t) <.bad character lexFracExp (’.t) [(c:ds++fe.lexDigits t] ++  (ds.readsPrec p r] .s)] <.t) <.t) <.t) 123  otherwise = [] where isSingle c = c ‘elem‘ ". toInteger ./<=>?\\ˆ:˜" isIdChar c = isAlphaNum c  c ‘elem‘ "_’"  (sym.()[]{}_‘" isSym c = c ‘elem‘ "!@#$%&*+.Reading at the Integer type avoids .[s].lexDigits (c:cs). PRELUDE PRELUDETEXT lex (c:s)     isSingle c isSym c isAlpha c isDigit c = = = = [([c].t) <.lexFracExp s ] .
Show b) => Show (a. lex v ] ) . shows y .lex r.Tuples instance (Show a. showl cs showl (c:cs) = showLitChar c .124 CHAPTER 8. reads s.t)  (’"’:s._) <. showl cs instance Read Char readsPrec p where = readParen False (\r > [(c. t) <.w) .".s)] readl (’\\’:’&’:s) = readl s readl s = [(c:cs.readl s ]) where readl (’"’:s) = [("".readLitChar s]) readList = readParen False (\r > [(l.’ .b) where showsPrec p (x. showChar ’.t) <.u) <.lex r.t)<. showLitChar c .y).t) ("."\’") <.s) <. (")".t) <.readLitChar s. (l. shows x .u) (y.t)  ("(".lex r.Other tuples have similar Read and Show instances <<<<< lex r. w)  ("(". (cs. showChar ’\’’ showList cs = showChar ’"’ . reads u.readl t ] instance (Show a) => Show [a] where showsPrec p = showList instance (Read a) => Read [a] where readsPrec p = readList . STANDARD PRELUDE instance Read () where readsPrec p = readParen False (\r > [(().s) (x. (c.b) where readsPrec p = readParen False (\r > [((x. Read b) => Read (a. showl cs where showl "" = showChar ’"’ showl (’"’:cs) = showString "\\\"" .t)  (’\’’:s. lex t.u)  (c . showChar ’)’ instance (Read a.y) = showChar ’(’ .lex s ] ) instance Show Char where showsPrec p ’\’’ = showString "’\\’’" showsPrec p c = showChar ’\’’ .v) (")".
PRELUDE PRELUDEIO 125 8.getChar if c == ’\n’ then return "" else do s <.. putChar.3. IOError. getChar. Eq IOError where . readIO. appendFile. :: = :: = :: = IOError > IO a primIOError String > IOError primUserError IO a > (IOError > IO a) > IO a primCatch :: Char > IO () = primPutChar :: String > IO () = mapM_ putChar s putStrLn :: String > IO () putStrLn s = do putStr s putStr "\n" print print x getChar getChar getLine getLine :: Show a => a > IO () = putStrLn (show x) :: IO Char = primGetChar :: IO String = do c <.The internals of this type are system dependent data IOError instance instance ioError ioError userError userError catch catch putChar putChar putStr putStr s Show IOError where . putStrLn. print. getLine..8. ioError. putStr. readFile.. readLn ) where import PreludeBuiltin type FilePath = String .getLine return (c:s) getContents :: IO String getContents = primGetContents . getContents.3 Prelude PreludeIO module PreludeIO ( FilePath. userError.. writeFile. interact. catch.
The hSetBuffering ensures the expected interactive behaviour interact f = do hSetBuffering stdin NoBuffering hSetBuffering stdout NoBuffering s <. ("".readIO l return r .reads s.readIO: no parse") _ > ioError (userError "Prelude.raises an exception instead of an error readIO :: Read a => String > IO a readIO s = case [x  (x.126 CHAPTER 8.t) <. STANDARD PRELUDE interact :: (String > String) > IO () .lex t] of [x] > return x [] > ioError (userError "Prelude."") <.getLine r <.readIO: ambiguous parse") readLn :: Read a => IO a readLn = do l <.getContents putStr (f s) readFile readFile writeFile writeFile :: FilePath > IO String = primReadFile :: FilePath > String > IO () = primWriteFile appendFile :: FilePath > String > IO () appendFile = primAppendFile .
Chapter 9 Syntax Reference 9. In the lexical syntax. . A precedencelevel variable ranges from 0 to 9. with productions having the form: There are some families of nonterminals indexed by precedence levels (written as a superscript). . right. there are some ambiguities that are to be resolved by making grammatical phrases as long as possible. this means that conditionals. this is the “maximal munch” rule. or for left. In both the lexical and the contextfree syntax. and lambda abstractions extend to the right as far as possible. resolving shift/reduce conﬂicts by shifting). for example actually stands for 30 productions. and may have a double index: a letter . letexpressions. with 10 substitutions for and 3 for . 127 § ¢ 2 ¢ ¡ ( ) ¦ ¤ 7 § § ¢ £¡ 1§ ¢ £¡ ¦ ¡ 2 ©¦ 2 ¤ ¡7 A !§ 7 3¢ ¡ p v £!e ¢ $ 2 &¤ 8 8 8 @¥¥9 £ § ¢ )'% $ " 0(&§# § ¢§ £§ ¡ £¡ ¢ ¢ ¦ £¤ ¡ §¥ § § £¡ §¥ § § £ ¦¤ ¢ ¡ ¨ ¦¤ ¢ ¡ ©§¥ § § £ ¢ £ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ 2 ¡ 7 3¢ v ¡§ ¡ 7 3¢ 6 6 4¤ ¦ 2 5 § 3©¦ ¡ ¢ S ¢ . In the contextfree syntax. proceeding from left to right (in shiftreduce parsing.or nonassociativity and a precedence level. the nonterminals . an associativity variable varies over .1 Notational Conventions These notational conventions are used for presenting syntax: optional zero or more repetitions grouping choice difference—elements generated by except those generated by fibonacci terminal syntax in typewriter font BNFlike syntax is used throughout. Thus. Similarly.
{} a carriage return a line feed a vertical tab a form feed a space a horizontal tab any Unicode character deﬁned as whitespace CHAPTER 9.˜ any Unicode symbol or punctuation y B 2 4 3 t ¢ h h h h A v f 4 x"$ wg " 5 7 2 ' 4 3 t § ¦ £$ § 7 2 ' 4 3 t © ¢ A B Z any uppercase or titlecase Unicode letter _ : " ’ %¤ ¢ u 8 8 8 @¥¥9 ¦ £$ 2¤ ¢ u ¢ © 2 3© 4 7 ' § £$ 2¤ ¦ ¢u © %¤ ¢ ¢ u ¢7 %¤ S¢RQFP§ 4 32 ¦ © G E C ¦ 4 _ a b z any Unicode lowercase letter 77 !3¢ 4 t § 8 8 8 @¥¥9 ¦ £$ 4 © 77 03¢ ¢ t 4 § £$ ¦ 703¢ 7 4 t © 77 !3¢ §¢© t 4 77 !3¢ § #¥ ¡3 §¢ ¦ ¤ G E QFC © G E S¢RQFC ¢ © G E C 4 ¡ IHFD32 © ¥ © ¢ ¦ § ¦¥ 4 32 ¦ 4 4 2 B2 © 4 2 ¥ ¥2 ¦ 7 ¡ © ¥ © ¦ ¦ ¥ 4 4 ¢ 2 § § ¨)§ § ¥ ( ¦ £$ ' ¨¢ § © ¤ ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¥ ¢ & $ § © § ¥ %¤ § ¨¦£ ¢ ¤£¡ © § ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¤¢ ¡ 1§3¥0 0 4 ¤ 2 ¦ § ¥ ¤ ' #¢ ¢2 ¦ § 0 ¦ ¦¤ $§ §£%¢ ¤7 ¦§ £ ¦ 7 6 6 6 6 7 ¤ 3¢ ¥ § ¡ § 7 3¢ 7 © ¥ ¡ 4 ¢ 4 ¤ ¡&¤ 7 2 ¢ ¡ .§§ § § ¦ £$ § § § © ¢ 6 6 7 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 §§ § t § 6 7 2 ' 4 3 ' ¦ £$ © ¦ ) 4 2 B2 © ¦§ 7 £ ¦ ¨ 3¦ ¢ )A 98 7 64 #"@¦"%5 3¦ ¢ ¦ 1§¤ 0 0 4 2 ¦ § ¨)§ § ¥ ( § ¦£$ ¦ ¥ 0% ¦ § §£%¢ ¤ % ¦ § 5¤ %§ ¤ ¦¤ $§ 0 ¦ $ ¦ 7 7 § © § ¤ ¤ ¦ § £ ¦ ¡ ' ¢ 7 4 '#4 ¢ 2 ¦ ¤§ ¢ 4 ¨32 ¤ ¦ 4 & $ © § ¥ %§ § ¨¦£ ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¥ ¢ & $ © § ¥ %§ § ¨¦£ ¦ ¦ § #¦ § ¢ ¤ ¤ © 2 4 © ¦ 332 ¡ 9. SYNTAX REFERENCE : " ’ 7 ¥ 4 §© § © § § § 2 43© 2¤ ¦ 7 ' 7 3¢ ¡ ¢ 7 § !3¢ ¤ 77 § © ¨¥ '¨ ¡ ¤ ¢ ¥ § ¨¢£¡ ¤ ¨¥ §¢ ¤ § ¥ ¨¦£ § ¢ ¡T ) cRasY`WXrpq7"9 g 24"9 A g hi7¡9 gA " 3¦db`XV GH§¢ C U f f 9 e c a Y W U E ¦ 2 ¡ ! # $ % & * + . / < = > ? \ ˆ  . [ ] ` { } ¤ ¤© ¤ ¥ § 2 " § ! ¢ §¢ © ¥¢ ¤ ¤ © ¦ 7 ¦ 43¤ 3§ ¢ 32 ¡ © ¢ § ¦ ¨¦¤ © § ¥ £ ¤¢ ¡ ¤¥ § ¦ § ¤ § § 7 3§ ¢ ¤ 7 4¦ ¢ ¡ ¢ 7 . .2 Lexical Syntax 128 ( ) .
¤ ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 § ¦32 ¦ § ¦32 ¦ ¦ 32 § ¦ § ¤ ’ " \ 0o 0x e E +  .2. . 0O ’ \ " \ 0X ’ 129 " x 7 3¢ 4§ ¦ ¢ ¢ ¡ ¥ © § ¨¥ § ¨¥ ¤ ¥ 6 6 6 6 6 6 § © ¡ §¢ #¦ § ¤ § © ¤ ¢ ¡ ¢ 2 ¥ ¢ ¡ ¦ ¦ ¥ 32 § ! ¤ § ¦ § 6 4§ 7 6 3¢ 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 ¦ ¦ ¦ ¢ § 2 73§ ¢ 4 ¢ S ¥ 7 ¢ 4 ¦ © ¦ 32 © 4 © 3¤ ¦ 37 2 § § § ¢ %§ ¦ 32 ¤ ¢ %§ 6 ¦ ¦ © 2 4 %§ %§ ¢ ¤ ¦ ¦ 72 3¥ %§ § ¢¦ 2 § ¦ ¤ ¢ 6 6 6 6 6 6 2 ¥¢ ¤ ¤ © ¡ ¦ 43¦ 2 © 4 S¤ © ¢ ¦ ¦ § ¥¢ ¤ © ¦ ¦ § § ¦ 2 ¢ ¤ ¤ 6 6 6 6 §§ § §§ § § § S ¥ ¢ §§§ § 2 ¦ £$ © ¢ .> 0 1 9 any Unicode decimal digit 0 1 7 A F a f variables constructors type variables type constructors type classes modules y @ 7 2 ' 8 8 8 @¥¥9 8¥8¥8 § § § ¦ 8 8 8 @¥¥9 8 8 8 @¥¥9 .4§ §§ © § 2 7 ¢ 7 3¢ ¦ ¢ © © ) h ¡ 5)¢ ¡ 5¢ ¢ ¨£¡ © © ) h ¡ 5¢ ¢ ¨£¡ o \& ¢ ¦ ¤ ¡ §¢ ¤ ¡ §¢ 4§ ¨ 7 3¢ § ¦ ¦ ¦32 ¢¡ 4 § 7 ¨ § ¦32 ¡ ¦ ¢ 4 § ¡ 3¢ 4 § ¦ ¦ ¦ 7 ¢ 4 § ¢¡ ¡ ¥ 73 ¢ 4 § 3¢ ¡ ¥ 7 ¢ ¦ ¢ 7 ¢ ¦ ¢ § 2 § 2 7 ¢ 4§ 7 3¢ ¦ 7 3¢ § § S ¢ ¥ § § ¡ ¥ ¢ §§ § § 2 § § § 2 §§ § § § § § ¦ ¦ § 43¦ 2 ¨ © 4 S¤ `¨ © © ¢ %§ ¨ `¨ ¦ 72 3¥ %§ ¨ ¦ ¦ § § ¦ 2 ¨ ¢ ¦ ˜ => ¥ h 9 f £ f 4 f S¥ X¤¢%w5 4 ) " 9¡¦fX¤ f24w5¡ 2 3© ¥ £ f 4 ©7 ' 2 4 © 7 ' : ) 4 f ¡$ 4 ¡ " 9. . . LEXICAL SYNTAX ’ ’ case class data default deriving do else if import in infix infixl infixr instance let module newtype of then type where _ ) ¥ v ¥ £ f ¦f ¤¢24 f ¡ § § § %¤ 4 §© 2¤ ¦ 77 4 4 § § § %¤ ¢ 7 !3¢ §© §© ¢ 7 ¦ ¢ 7 !3¢ 77 77 !3¢ : : .. : :: = \  <. . .
preceded by may span multiple lines – Section 2.130 CHAPTER 9. This section deﬁnes it more precisely. u u – Where the start of a lexeme is preceded only by white space on the same line. or if the end of ﬁle has been reached. because it is not the beginning of a complete lexeme.6. the token is inserted after the keyword. So in the fragment f = ("Hello \ \Bill". because it is not preceded only by white space. where ¦ ¦ ¤ ¥ § §#¥¦£ ¤ ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¥ © ¢ y ¢ 2¤ ¢ u ¢ ¤§ ¦ ¦ ¦ £ ¦ ¦ £ ¦ ¦ 7 ¦ 6 6 6 6 © 7 § @§ ¤ ¡ ¤ § 5¢¦ ¢ © ¥ a b f n r t v \ " ’ & ˆ NUL SOH STX ETX EOT ENQ ACK BEL BS HT LF VT FF CR SO SI DLE DC1 DC2 DC3 DC4 NAK SYN ETB CAN EM SUB ESC FS GS RS US SP DEL [ \ ] ˆ _ \ \ ¢ . "Jake") There is no inserted before the \Bill. The meaning of a Haskell program may depend on its layout. – A positive integer. (NB: a string literal it is not. the programmer supplied the opening brace. The speciﬁcation takes the form of a function that performs the translation. with the following additional tokens: – If a let. nor before the . where is the indentation of the next lexeme if there is one. indicating that the enclosing context is explicit (i. then it is preceded by is the indentation of the lexeme. The input to is: A stream of lexemes as speciﬁed by the lexical syntax in the Haskell report.3 Layout Section 2. or of keyword is not followed by the lexeme {. The meaning of this augmented program is now layout insensitive. which is the indentation column of the enclosing layout context.e. where.) A stack of “layout contexts”. then no layout tokens will be inserted until either the enclosing context ends or a new context is pushed. provided that . If the innermost context is 0. do.. The effect of layout on its meaning can be completely described by adding braces and semicolons in places determined by the layout. The effect of layout is speciﬁed in this section by describing how to add braces and semicolons to a laidout program. as a consequence of the ﬁrst two rules.7 gives an informal discussion of the layout rule. in which each element is either: – Zero. SYNTAX REFERENCE 9. this lexeme is preceded by where is the indentation of the lexeme. ¦ ¦ – If the ﬁrst lexeme of a module is not { or module.
to avoid visual confusion. where is the result of lexically analysing a module and adding columnnumber indicators to it as described above. width as an ASCII character. Tab stops are 8 characters apart. The deﬁnition of is as follows. where we use “ ” as a stream construction operator. the indentation of a line is the indentation of its leftmost lexeme. . u ¤ ¨ ¥ } ¡ if !£ ¡ ¤ £ ¡ ¡ © § § ¥ © § © ¡ ¥ } ¥ ¡ ¡ if and parseerror © & § © ¥ ¤ § ¡ ¡ ¥ ¨ § © ¥ § § © © © ¥ § § ¡ ¡ ¨ © ¨ ¨ ¥ { ¥ ¡ { £ £ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ § © § ¡ ¥ ¥ ¤ § § © © § § ¡ ¡ ¥ ¥ } } } parseerror £ ¡ ¡ ¥ £ § © § ¡ ¥ } £ £ £ ¡ ¡ £ £ ¤ £ ¡ ¡ ¥ § & § ¡ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¦ ! ¨ ¥ § ¡ ¥ ¥ ¥ { { { ¡ if if £ ¡ © © ¦ ¥ ¥ § § © & © § ¡ ¥ © ¥ £ ¥ ¥ ¦ § ¡ § © § ¥ ¥ .9. delivers a layoutinsensitive translation of . A tab character causes the insertion of enough spaces to align the current position with the next tab stop. programmers should avoid writing programs in which the meaning of implicit layout depends on the width of nonspace characters. Unicode characters in a source program are considered to be of the same. To determine the column number. all start a new line. and “ ” for the empty stream. and ¦ ¦ 7 7 . However. For the purposes of the layout rule. assume a ﬁxedwidth font with the following conventions: 1§3¥0 0 4 ¤ 2 © The ﬁrst column is designated column 1. } ¡ if if ¥ © ¨ © ¦ ¥ ¢ 2§ ¨ § § ¥ £ ¡ ¨¦¤¢ ¢ © © ¦ ¥ © ¡ ¢ The application ¢2 0 § 2§ ¡ ¦§ ¦¤ $ §£%§ ¤ ¦ § § £ ¥ § © ¥ ¦ © The characters .3. § § ¥ © § © © © ¨© § § ¡ ¡ § § § ¥ ¥ ¡ ¡ ¡ £ £ ¥ ¥ ¥ § ¡ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¦ ¦ ¡ . ﬁxed. LAYOUT 131 The “indentation” of a lexeme is the column number of the ﬁrst character of that lexeme. . not 0.
If none of the rules given above matches. including labelled construction and update (Section 3. The token is replaced by . Note 2. This is a difference between this formulation and Haskell 1. An example is: § § &§ u © u £ ¥ ¦ . checks that an implicitlyadded closing brace would match an implicit open 4 £ ¦ Note 1. ).4. The side condition parseerror is to be interpreted as follows: if the tokens generated so far by together with the next token represent an invalid preﬁx of the Haskell grammar. u f x = let h y = let p z = z in p in h Here. the deﬁnition of p is indented less than the indentation of the enclosing context. By matching against 0 for the current layout context. A parse error results if an explicit close brace matches an implicit open brace. Note 3. ¤ ¥ Note 6. then the algorithm fails. y = x } in e’ The close brace is inserted due to the parse error rule above. which is set in this case by the deﬁnition of h. to mimic the situation if the empty braces had been explicit. and the compiler should indicate a layout error. For example. If the ﬁrst token after a where (say) is not indented more than the enclosing layout context. Note 4. then the block must be empty. A nested context must be further indented than the enclosing context ( fails. It can fail for instance when the end of the input is reached. Some error conditions are not detected by the algorithm. so empty braces are inserted. the expression ¦ 4 The test brace.e. any pending closebraces are inserted. The parseerror rule is hard to implement in its full generality. If not. although they could be: for example let }. At the end of the input. Note 1 implements the feature that layout processing can be stopped prematurely by a parse error. we ensure that an explicit close brace can only match an explicit open brace. because doing so involves ﬁxities.15). Note 5. This clause means that all brace pairs are treated as explicit layout contexts. SYNTAX REFERENCE ). then parseerror is true.132 CHAPTER 9. and a nonlayout context is active. y = x in e’ is valid. because it translates to let { x = e. and the tokens generated so far by followed by the token “}” represent a valid preﬁx of the Haskell grammar. It is an error at this point to be within a nonlayout context (i. For example let x = e. since the close brace is missing.
LAYOUT do a == b == c has a single unambiguous (albeit probably typeincorrect) parse.9.3. . Programmers are therefore advised to avoid writing code that requires the parser to insert a closing brace in such situations. namely (do { a == b }) == c 133 because (==) is nonassociative.
readLine > putStr "n!= " > print (fact (read l)) This is the factorial function. More precisely: Program code begins on the ﬁrst line following a line that begins \begin{code}. a simple factorial program would be: This literate program prompts the user for a number and prints the factorial of that number: > main :: IO () > main = do putStr "Enter a number: " > l <. all other lines are comment. A line in which “>” is the ﬁrst character is treated as part of the program. 8 8 ¥¥8 . Layout and comments apply exactly as described in Chapter 9 in the resulting text.4 Literate comments The “literate comment” convention. only those parts of the literate program that are entirely enclosed between \begin{code} \end{code} delimiters are treated as program text. The literate style encourages comments by making them the default. with “. of course).134 CHAPTER 9. SYNTAX REFERENCE 9. it is an error for a program line to appear adjacent to a nonblank comment line. where a line is taken as blank if it consists only of whitespace. and inspired in turn by Donald Knuth’s “literate programming”. Using this style. and replacing the leading “>” with a space. By convention. though it may be stylistically desirable. > fact :: Integer > Integer > fact 0 = 1 > fact n = n * fact (n1) An alternative style of literate programming is particularly suitable for use with the LaTeX text processing system. is an alternative style for encoding Haskell source code.hs” indicating a usual Haskell ﬁle and “. the style of comment is indicated by the ﬁle extension. To capture some cases where one omits an “>” by mistake.lhs” indicating a literate Haskell ﬁle. ﬁrst developed by Richard Bird and Philip Wadler for Orwell. For example. The program text is recovered by taking only those lines beginning with “>”. It is not necessary to insert additional blank lines before or after these delimiters. In this convention. all other lines are comment. Program code ends just before a subsequent line that begins \end{code} (ignoring string literals.
4. LITERATE COMMENTS \documentstyle{article} \begin{document} \section{Introduction} 135 This is a trivial program that prints the first 20 factorials.n])  n <. \begin{code} main :: IO () main = print [ (n.20]] \end{code} \end{document} This style uses the same ﬁle extension.[1. product [1. ... It is not advisable to mix these two styles in the same ﬁle.9.
} = ) = where where ) ) ) ¦ A 8 8 ¥¥8 7¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ 6 6 © 2§ 7¥ ¦ ¡ 2 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ ¢ %§ %§ 6 6 § 4 ¦ ¢ ¤ 32 ¡ © 4§ 4§ 4§ ¡ 6 ¡ ¡ 6 7 ¦ 6 6 § ¤ ¤32 ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ©§ ¤ @¤32 ¢ ¡ 4§ 6 6 6 © 7 ¦ ¡ 4§ ¦ ' 2 $ 7 ¦ 2 4 CHAPTER 9.. 4§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ ( .. ) ¨ A§ ¤ 2 4§ 4§ ¡ §¤¤32 4 § ¡§ ¤ 2 8 8¡ ¥¥8 (. as . } . hiding ( .) ( module . SYNTAX REFERENCE . 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¢ import qualified 2 4 ¨ ¦ ¦ § ¡ ¤ 4 ¢¦ 8 8 ¥¥8 ( . .) ( (. A §¤ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ 4 ¦ ¢ 2 4 . . } } © 2§ . . . . . ¦ ¦ 2 ¤ © 37 2 ¦ ¤ ¢ 4§ ¡ © %§ 3¥ %§ ¦ 72 ¤ ¢ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¤32 § ¤ { type data newtype class instance default ( . . = => => => => . ¨ §¤ A A 5 4 ¦ ¢ ) 8 8 ¥¥8 . .. 6 6 © ¦ § 7 ¦ ¦ 7 ¡ ¦ 7 ¦ 7 ¦ ¦ A %§ ¡ ¢ %§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¦ § ¡ ¡ ¨ © § § ©¦ § © %§ ¨ § ¡ § ¦ 2 © ¢ 7 5© ¦ 7 ¨ ¤ ¥ %§ © %§ ¨ § S § 32 © ¢ ¦ 7§ © ¦ ¦ 7§ © ¨ ¦ § § ¤ ¥ 332 £ ¦ %¢§¢ 4 ¥ x¨ ¤ § ¡ § 32 ¢ ¦ V ¨ ¦ #¦ § § ¥ ©¤ § ©332 ¡ 7©¡ %§ 4 § © ¨ ¤ ¦ § S § 32 ¢ ¦ ¦ ¡ 7© ¡ %§ %¢ § 4 § V © A ¡ 2 § ¡ ¥¥8 ©¡ ¡ 2 § 8 8 7 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ ¦ § ¦ ¦§ ¦ ¦ § ¨ ¢ ¢ ¦ ¦§ ¦ ¦ § empty declaration § ¡ ¨ © 4 § ¨ § 2 4 ¡ ¡ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦§ ¦ ¦ § ¨ ¢ ¢ ¦ § ¦ A ¡ ¡ 7 ¦ ¡ 7 ¦ ¡ © 2§ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § © 7¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 2 © ¦ ' ¡ ¦ ¦ 9.. ¨ A 5 4 ¦ ¢¥¥8 8 8 ¡ ¢ . .) ( . . . ) ¦ ¨ A§ ¤ !¤32 ¢ S (. ) ¨¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 A !§ ¤ 2 .) ( (.5 ContextFree Syntax 136 module where 2 ¨ ©§ ¤ 5@¤32 ¢ ¡ § 2 4 ¦ ' { { { .
. . infixl infixr infix ¦ A §¤ ¦ A¢ 2 ¡ 8¥¥8 8 8 8 ¥¥8 © ¨ > function type type application ¨ ¡ %§ %§ ¢ ¨ ¡ %§ ' %§ ¡ ¡ ¤ ¡ %§ § ¢ © ¤ ( [ ( . %§ © S© ¤ ¢ ¡ ¤ ¡ B%§ ¦ 32 ¢ %§ ¡ ¡ 2 ¨ ¥ § ¦ § ¤ ¡ § S § 32 ¢ ¦ V © ¥ ¦ § 7 ¥ ¦ ¤ ¤ © ¥ £0 ¦ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ ¡ 7 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¤ ¤ ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¤ © ¥ © ¦ § A 7 ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ © ¥ © ¥ ¤ § ¢ £¡ 7 ¦ $ £0 9. ) tuple type list type parenthesized constructor %§ 8 8 ¥¥8 () [] (>) (. . . CONTEXTFREE SYNTAX { . . ) unit type list constructor function constructor tupling constructors ¦ 32 %§ ¡ ¡ %§ %§ %§ ¡ ¤ ( ( ) ) ) ¦ A © S© ¢ ¥ ©¡ 7 7 § S § ¢ 4§ © © ¦ 32 © © ¢ ¥ 7 ¦ 2 § ¡ § ¢ ¦ 32 %§ ¡ %§ ¢ ' %§ ' ¡ %§ 6 ¡ 6 6 6 6 6 6 © %§ § ¢ © S¤ © ¢ 2 ¡ ¢ 2 ¡ ¢ 7 ¥ ¦ ¦ ¥ § ¦ § 7 ¦ 7 6 6 © 7¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ 137 . . . } empty ¦ A § :: => type signature ﬁxity declaration empty declaration . ] ) . } ¦ ¡ 7 ¦ $ ¥ £0 7 ¦ ¦ { . .5. ¦ § ¢ ¤ ¢ %§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ ¢ %§ ¦ 32 %§ 6 ¡ § %¢ 7 ©¡ 4§ © 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 © © ¦ § ¦ ¦ ¦ § ¢7 ¤ %§ © %§ ¢ ¥ § © 74 4 § © ¥8¥8 8 ¡ ©S© ¢ 7 7©¡ ¢ ¥ ©¡ 4 § © 7 7 ©S© A 5 %§ 8¥¥8 ¡¢ %§ ¤ B%§ ¢ 7¥ 7 © ¡ %§ 8 ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¢ ¤ %§ © ¥ %§ 7 A ©© 8¥¥8 ¢ ¡ ©S© 7¥ 8 ¢ ¥ 7 ¢ ¥ 7 ( . .
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. . ] . ¦ ¨ ¡ ¢ S 7 ¦ § ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢¡ £ ¡ ¢ A § 8 8 !§ 4 ¤© ¥¥8 ¡ § ¡ 4 § © . } ¦ <let generator local declaration guard ¢ ¡ 7 . > . ) ] ¢ £ . . ¨ © ¦ ¨5© 7 7 ¥ ¦ A§ > where where .5. = ¢ ¡ + successor pattern ¤ ¥ § ¦ § ¤ ¢ 6 § ¢ £¡ ¤ ¢ 6 ¦ ¦§ ' 0 6 6 6 § § © @§ © © 4§ 4§ ¢ £¡ ¦ ¦ 6 § © @§ ¦§ 6 6 7 3¢ 7 3¢ ¦ ¡ ¢ ¡ § ¢ £¡ 7 3¢ $ 6 ¡ 6 ¡ ¢ S ¢ ¢ ¡ 0 . <let . ¢ ¡ ¨ § . . .  parenthesized expression tuple list arithmetic sequence list comprehension left section left section right section ¤ ¥ £ ¢ .. ] ¦ ) ) )  ( ) right section labeled construction labeled update { ¦ § . . ¡ § § § ¦ 4 ¢ © %§ ¡ 4 ¥ © ¦ § ¢ £¡ ¦ ¡ § 3 § § ¢ ¦¤ 5 § 7 3¢ %§ ¡ 4 ¦ 7 3¢ £¡ ¦ ¢ ¢ £¡ ¢ ¡ § ¡ ¥¥8 ¢ £¡ ¡§ 8 8 7 3¢ © A ¦§ ¦ ' ¡ 0 ¡ ¦§ 0 8 8 ¥¥8 ) A 9 g © ¡ ¨ ¢ ¦ A ¦ § 0 8¥¥8 ' ¡ ¦ § 0 ¦¡ 2 ¢ 8 ¦ ¦ ' ' ¢ S ¤ ) 2 v ¡ p v ¢ ¡e ¡ ¢ S ) 2 ¡ v ¡ p v ¢ $0e ¡ 2 v S ¢ p v ¢ 5e ¡ A ¡ ¡ 7 2 ¢ ¡ v ¡ p v £!e ¡ ¢ $ A ¥8¥8 $ ¡ $ ¢ ¡ 8 7 3¢ ¨ ¥ ¢¡ ¢ ¡¢ ¨ £ 7 ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ S ¢ 8¡ ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¡ 8 ¡¡ ¡¢ ¢S ¡ ¡ 8 ¥8¥8 ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ § § ¤ 7 3¢ ¦ 2 7 9. } ¦ { . CONTEXTFREE SYNTAX do { } do expression function application variable general constructor ¤ ¢ ¡ © @§ ¢ S ¢ 4§ © ¨ ¡ ¢ S¢0 139 ¡ ¢ S¢0 ( ( [ [ [ ( ( ( ) . .
) ) variable qualiﬁed variable constructor qualiﬁed constructor variable operator qualiﬁed variable operator constructor operator qualiﬁed constructor operator operator qualiﬁed operator ) ) ) ` ` ` ` 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 ¦ 2 ¤ ¢ § ¢£§¢ ¡ ¡§ ¢£¡ ¡§ ¢£¡ ¢ £¡ § : 4 32 © ¦ 2 ¡ 2 2 ¦ ©32 ¡ ¡ ©¦ 2 2 ¡ &¤ 2 ¡ 2 ¤¢ ¡ ¦32 ¢ ¦ 2 ¤ ¤¢ ¢ ¦ 32 6 § ¢ £¡ 0 ¢ 6 § ¢ ¡ £§¢ 6 6 6 6 6 § ¢ ¤ ¤ ¡ £¡ § v ¢£¡ § ¢£ 7¡ ¢ £ 7¡ v § v § ¢ £¡ . SYNTAX REFERENCE negative literal arity as pattern arity labeled pattern £¡ ¢ ¢ £¡ ¢ ¡ £§¢ ¨§ ¦ 32 { . . . ¤ ¢ £¡ ¢ § £¡ ¢ . . . } § 0 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡§ 0 ¤ § § 7 3¢ ¦ 2 7 ¦ 2 ¤ y _ ( ( [ ˜ wildcard parenthesized pattern tuple pattern list pattern irrefutable pattern ) . ) ] ¢ § 8¥¥8 8 8 8 ¥¥8 = § () [] (. 4 © ¦ 3332 2 ¦ ©32 2 ¤ ¡ ©¦ 2 ¡ &¤¢ 2 2 ¦ ¡ 4 ©¡ ¢ § 32 3¦ 2 ¦ ¦ 4 © ¦ § 32 33 2 ¦ 4 S¤ © § ¤ ¦ ¢ 4 © 3¤¢ § ¤ ¦ 4 32 ¢ § ¦ 2 ¢ © ¦ ¦ ¦ 4 © ¦ 3332 § 3 2 ¦ 43¤ § ¤ © 4 © 3¢S¤ ¦ § ¤¢ ¦ ¢ ¢ ( ( ( ( ` ` ` ` ¢ £¡ ¦ § ¢ ¦ ¦ 32 ¢ ¢ ¢ £¡ ¡ 2©¦32 ¡ § ¦ 2 8 ¥8¥8 ¡ § ¢ §¢ ¡ ¢£¡§¢ § ¢ ¡ £§¢ ¡ v§ v§ ¤ v 2 ©¦32 § ¢ ¡ ¢£¡ p ¢ § §e 2 ¡ !¡ ¤¥ ¡ § ¦ v § £¡ ¢ § 2 ©¦32 s¢ ¡ v § § ¡ v © ¢ £¡ p v ¢ §e ¡ ¢ ¡ v £ 7¡ ¤ ¢ § v £¡ ¢ § v ¢£ 7¡ ¨ ¡ v§ § v ¢£¡ p v ¢ §e ¦ ¢ £¡ ¤ § 140  CHAPTER 9.
Chapter 10
Speciﬁcation of Derived Instances
A derived instance is an instance declaration that is generated automatically in conjunction with a data or newtype declaration. The body of a derived instance declaration is derived syntactically from the deﬁnition of the associated type. Derived instances are possible only for classes known to the compiler: those deﬁned in either the Prelude or a standard library. In this chapter, we describe the derivation of classes deﬁned by the Prelude.
If
is an algebraic datatype declared by:
3. If is Bounded, the type must be either an enumeration (all constructors must be nullary) or have only one constructor.
5. There must be no explicit instance declaration elsewhere in the program that makes an instance of . For the purposes of derived instances, a newtype declaration is treated as a data declaration with a single constructor. If the deriving form is present, an instance declaration is automatically generated for over each class . If the derived instance declaration is impossible for any of the
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(where and the parentheses may be omitted if possible for a class if these conditions hold:
) then a derived instance declaration is
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CHAPTER 10. SPECIFICATION OF DERIVED INSTANCES
then a static error results. If no derived instances are required, the deriving form may be omitted or the form deriving () may be used. Each derived instance declaration will have the form:
The context is the smallest context satisfying point (2) above. For mutually recusive data types, the compiler may need to perform a ﬁxpoint calculation to compute it. The remaining details of the derived instances for each of the derivable Prelude classes are now given. Free variables and constructors used in these translations always refer to entities deﬁned by the Prelude.
10.1 Derived instances of Eq and Ord
The class methods automatically introduced by derived instances of Eq and Ord are (==), (/=), compare, (<), (<=), (>), (>=), max, and min. The latter seven operators are deﬁned so as to compare their arguments lexicographically with respect to the constructor set given, with earlier constructors in the datatype declaration counting as smaller than later ones. For example, for the Bool datatype, we have that (True > False) == True. Derived comparisons always traverse constructors from left to right. These examples illustrate this property:
(1,undefined) == (2,undefined) (undefined,1) == (undefined,2)
False
All derived operations of class Eq and Ord are strict in both arguments. For example, False <= is , even though False is the ﬁrst constructor of the Bool type.
10.2 Derived instances of Enum
Derived instance declarations for the class Enum are only possible for enumerations (data types with only nullary constructors). The nullary constructors are assumed to be numbered lefttoright with the indices 0 through . The succ and pred operators give the successor and predecessor respectively of a value, under this numbering scheme. It is an error to apply succ to the maximum element, or pred to the minimum element.
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where is derived automatically depending on described in the remainder of this section).
and the data type declaration for
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10.3. DERIVED INSTANCES OF BOUNDED
143
The toEnum and fromEnum operators map enumerated values to and from the Int type; toEnum raises a runtime error if the Int argument is not the index of one of the constructors. The deﬁnitions of the remaining methods are
enumFrom x enumFromThen x y = enumFromTo x lastCon = enumFromThenTo x y bound where bound  fromEnum y >= fromEnum x =  otherwise = enumFromTo x y = map toEnum [fromEnum x .. fromEnum enumFromThenTo x y z = map toEnum [fromEnum x, fromEnum y
lastCon firstCon y] .. fromEnum z]
where firstCon and lastCon are respectively the ﬁrst and last constructors listed in the data declaration. For example, given the datatype: data we would have: [Orange ..] fromEnum Yellow == == [Orange, Yellow, Green] 2 Color = Red  Orange  Yellow  Green deriving (Enum)
10.3 Derived instances of Bounded
The Bounded class introduces the class methods minBound and maxBound, which deﬁne the minimal and maximal elements of the type. For an enumeration, the ﬁrst and last constructors listed in the data declaration are the bounds. For a type with a single constructor, the constructor is applied to the bounds for the constituent types. For example, the following datatype: data Pair a b = Pair a b deriving Bounded
would generate the following Bounded instance: instance (Bounded a,Bounded b) => Bounded (Pair a b) where minBound = Pair minBound minBound maxBound = Pair maxBound maxBound
10.4 Derived instances of Read and Show
The class methods automatically introduced by derived instances of Read and Show are showsPrec, readsPrec, showList, and readList. They are used to coerce values into strings and parse strings into values.
144
CHAPTER 10. SPECIFICATION OF DERIVED INSTANCES
The function showsPrec d x r accepts a precedence level d (a number from 0 to 11), a value x, and a string r. It returns a string representing x concatenated to r. showsPrec satisﬁes the law: showsPrec d x r ++ s == showsPrec d x (r ++ s) The representation will be enclosed in parentheses if the precedence of the toplevel constructor in x is less than d. Thus, if d is 0 then the result is never surrounded in parentheses; if d is 11 it is always surrounded in parentheses, unless it is an atomic expression (recall that function application has precedence 10). The extra parameter r is essential if treelike structures are to be printed in linear time rather than time quadratic in the size of the tree. The function readsPrec d s accepts a precedence level d (a number from 0 to 10) and a string s, and attempts to parse a value from the front of the string, returning a list of (parsed value, remaining string) pairs. If there is no successful parse, the returned list is empty. Parsing of an unparenthesised inﬁx operator application succeeds only if the precedence of the operator is greater than or equal to d. It should be the case that (x,"") is an element of (readsPrec d (showsPrec d x "")) That is, readsPrec should be able to parse the string produced by showsPrec, and should deliver the value that showsPrec started with. showList and readList allow lists of objects to be represented using nonstandard denotations. This is especially useful for strings (lists of Char). readsPrec will parse any valid representation of the standard types apart from strings, for which only quoted strings are accepted, and other lists, for which only the bracketed form [. . . ] is accepted. See Chapter 8 for full details. The result of show is a syntactically correct Haskell expression containing only constants, given the ﬁxity declarations in force at the point where the type is declared. It contains only the constructor names deﬁned in the data type, parentheses, and spaces. When labelled constructor ﬁelds are used, braces, commas, ﬁeld names, and equal signs are also used. Parentheses are only added where needed, ignoring associativity. No line breaks are added. The result of show is readable by read if all component types are readable. (This is true for all instances deﬁned in the Prelude but may not be true for userdeﬁned instances.) Derived instances of Read make the following assumptions, which derived instances of Show obey: If the constructor is deﬁned to be an inﬁx operator, then the derived Read instance will parse only inﬁx applications of the constructor (not the preﬁx form).
Associativity is not used to reduce the occurrence of parentheses, although precedence may be. For example, given
10.5. AN EXAMPLE
infixr 4 :$ data T = Int :$ T then: – show (1 :$ 2 :$ NT) produces the string "1 :$ (2 :$ NT)". – read "1 :$ (2 :$ NT)" succeeds, with the obvious result. – read "1 :$ 2 :$ NT" fails.
145

NT
If the constructor is deﬁned using record syntax, the derived Read will parse only the recordsyntax form, and furthermore, the ﬁelds must be given in the same order as the original declaration.
The derived Read instance allows arbitrary Haskell whitespace between tokens of the input string. Extra parentheses are also allowed.
The derived Read and Show instances may be unsuitable for some uses. Some problems include: Circular structures cannot be printed or read by these instances. The printer loses shared substructure; the printed representation of an object may be much larger than necessary. The parsing techniques used by the reader are very inefﬁcient; reading a large structure may be quite slow. There is no user control over the printing of types deﬁned in the Prelude. For example, there is no way to change the formatting of ﬂoating point numbers.
10.5 An Example
As a complete example, consider a tree datatype: data Tree a = Leaf a  Tree a :ˆ: Tree a deriving (Eq, Ord, Read, Show) Automatic derivation of instance declarations for Bounded and Enum are not possible, as Tree is not an enumeration or singleconstructor datatype. The complete instance declarations for Tree are shown in Figure 10.1, Note the implicit use of default class method deﬁnitions—for example, only <= is deﬁned for Ord, with the other class methods (<, >, >=, max, and min) being deﬁned by the defaults given in the class declaration shown in Figure 6.1 (page 83).
readsPrec (app_prec+1) s]) r up_prec = 5 app_prec = 10 . (v.s) <.1: Example of Derived Instances .Precedence of :ˆ: .w)  (u.t) <.readsPrec (up_prec+1) r. showsPrec (app_prec+1) m showsPrec d (u :ˆ: v) = showParen (d where showStr = showsPrec (up_prec+1) showString " :ˆ: " showsPrec (up_prec+1) .t) <.readsPrec (up_prec+1) t]) r > up_prec) showStr u .t)  ("Leaf".w) <.146 CHAPTER 10.s) <.lex s. v of :ˆ: ignored ++ readParen (d > app_prec) (\r > [(Leaf m. SPECIFICATION OF DERIVED INSTANCES infixr 5 :ˆ: data Tree a = Leaf a  Tree a :ˆ: Tree a instance (Eq a) => Eq (Tree a) where Leaf m == Leaf n = m==n u:ˆ:v == x:ˆ:y = u==x && v==y _ == _ = False instance (Ord a) => Ord (Tree a) where Leaf m <= Leaf n = m<=n Leaf m <= x:ˆ:y = True u:ˆ:v <= Leaf n = False u:ˆ:v <= x:ˆ:y = u<x  u==x && v<=y instance (Show a) => Show (Tree a) where showsPrec d (Leaf m) = showParen (d > app_prec) showStr where showStr = showString "Leaf " .Application has precedence one more than . . (m.lex r.the most tightlybinding operator Figure 10. (":ˆ:".Note: rightassociativity instance (Read a) => Read (Tree a) where readsPrec d r = readParen (d > up_prec) (\r > [(u:ˆ:v.
which are used to give additional instructions or hints to the compiler. .Chapter 11 Compiler Pragmas Some compiler implementations support compiler pragmas. 11. Lexically. pragmas appear as comments. This may be prevented by the NOINLINE pragma. 11. An implementation is not required to respect any pragma. For example. This chapter summarizes this existing practice. but the pragma should be ignored if an implementation is not prepared to handle it.2 Specialization © Specialization is used to avoid inefﬁciencies involved in dispatching overloaded functions. but which do not form part of the Haskell language proper and do not change a program’s semantics.1 Inlining ¢ ¤ © © The INLINE pragma instructs the compiler to inline the speciﬁed variables at their use sites. #} ¢ ¡ © S¤ ¡ {# INLINE {# NOINLINE ¢ ¡ %§ ¥ §¥ © ¤ ¢ 6 6 6 6 7¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ #} #} © . Compilers will often automatically inline simple expressions. in 147 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ {# SPECIALIZE . except that the enclosing syntax is {# #}.
. factorial :: Integer > Integer #} calls to factorial in which the compiler can detect that the parameter is either Int or Integer will use specialized versions of factorial which do not involve overloaded numeric operations.148 CHAPTER 11. COMPILER PRAGMAS factorial :: Num a => a > a factorial 0 = 0 factorial n = n * factorial (n1) {# SPECIALIZE factorial :: Int > Int.
Part II The Haskell 98 Libraries 149 .
.
If is a bounded type..Chapter 12 Rational Numbers module Ratio ( Ratio.. Enum. Num. denominator. Real (Ratio a) where ..... the results may be unpredictable.. these are in reduced form with a positive denominator. denominator :: approxRational :: instance (Integral a) => instance (Integral a) => instance (Integral a) => instance (Integral a) => instance (Integral a) => instance (Integral a) => instance (Integral a) => instance (Read a.. numerator.... The type name Rational is a synonym for Ratio Integer. Real. The functions numerator and denominator extract the components of a ratio. (%). Ord. For example. RealFrac. Show (Ratio a) where .. Ratio is an abstract type. Num (Ratio a) where . Enum (Ratio a) where .Integral instance (Integral a) => Ratio a = .. Fractional.. the instance for Ratio simply “lifts” the corresponding operations over . and Show.. RealFrac (Ratio a) where . The operator (%) forms the ratio of two integral numbers... approxRational ) where infixl 7 % data (Integral a) => type Rational = (%) :: numerator.. 12 % 8 is reduced to 3/2 and 12 % (8) is reduced to (3)/2. reducing the fraction to terms with no common factor and such that the denominator is positive. for example Ratio Int may give rise to integer overﬂow even for rational numbers of small absolute size.. In each case. Ratio is an instance of classes Eq. 151 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ . Ord (Ratio a) where . Ratio Integer (Integral a) => a > a > Ratio a (Integral a) => Ratio a > a (RealFrac a) => a > a > Rational Eq (Ratio a) where . For each Integral type .. Fractional (Ratio a) where . Read. there is a type Ratio of rational pairs with components of type . a) => Read (Ratio a) where . Rational.
A rational number in reduced form is said to be simpler than another if and . Note that it can be proved that any real interval contains a unique simplest rational. returns the simplest rational number within the open interval x epsilon x epsilon . RATIONAL NUMBERS The approxRational function. 1 ¦ ¦ 1 ¦ ¦ 1 1 ¦ ¦ ¦ ¡¦ .152 CHAPTER 12. applied to two real fractional numbers x and epsilon.
1. denominator. approxRational ) where infixl 7 % ratPrec = 7 :: Int data type (Integral a) Rational => Ratio a = !a :% !a = Ratio Integer deriving (Eq) (%) numerator. numerator. 12 ‘reduce‘ 8 == 12 ‘reduce‘ (8) == = = = = = 3 :% 2 3 :% (2) reduce _ 0 reduce x y x % y numerator (x :% _) denominator (_ :% y) instance (Integral a) (x:%y) <= (x’:%y’) (x:%y) < (x’:%y’) instance (Integral a) (x:%y) + (x’:%y’) (x:%y) * (x’:%y’) negate (x:%y) abs (x:%y) signum (x:%y) fromInteger x instance (Integral a) toRational (x:%y) instance (Integral a) (x:%y) / (x’:%y’) recip (x:%y) fromRational (x:%y) error "Ratio. It normalises a ratio by dividing both numerator and denominator by their greatest common divisor.g. denominator approxRational  :: (Integral a) => a > a > Ratio a :: (Integral a) => Ratio a > a :: (RealFrac a) => a > a > Rational "reduce" is a subsidiary function used only in this module. (%).12.1 Library Ratio .. LIBRARY RATIO 153 12. E.% : zero denominator" (x ‘quot‘ d) :% (y ‘quot‘ d) where d = gcd x y reduce (x * signum y) (abs y) x y => Ord (Ratio a) where = x * y’ <= x’ * y = x * y’ < x’ * y => = = = = = = Num (Ratio a) where reduce (x*y’ + x’*y) (y*y’) reduce (x * x’) (y * y’) (x) :% y abs x :% y signum x :% 1 fromInteger x :% 1 => Real (Ratio a) where = toInteger x :% toInteger y => = = = Fractional (Ratio a) where (x*y’) % (y*x’) y % x fromInteger x :% fromInteger y .Standard functions on rational numbers module Ratio ( Ratio. Rational.
showsPrec (ratPrec+1) y) approxRational x eps = simplest (xeps) (x+eps) where simplest x y  y < x = simplest y x  x == y = xr  x > 0 = simplest’ n d n’ d’  y < 0 = . ("%".r) = quotRem x y instance (Integral a) succ x = pred x = toEnum = fromEnum = enumFrom = enumFromThen = enumFromTo = enumFromThenTo = => Enum (Ratio a) where x+1 x1 fromIntegral fromInteger .u) <.lex s. showString " % " .r’) = quotRem n’ d’ (n’’:%d’’) = simplest’ d’ r’ d r .s) <.readsPrec (ratPrec+1) t ]) instance (Integral a) showsPrec p (x:%y) => Show (Ratio a) where = showParen (p > ratPrec) (showsPrec (ratPrec+1) x . r:%y) where (q.simplest’ (n’) d’ (n) d  otherwise = 0 :% 1 where xr@(n:%d) = toRational x (n’:%d’) = toRational y simplest’ n    d n’ d’ r == 0 q /= q’ otherwise . Integral a) => Read (Ratio a) where readsPrec p = readParen (p > ratPrec) (\r > [(x%y.assumes 0 < n%d < n’%d’ = q :% 1 = (q+1) :% 1 = (q*n’’+d’’) :% n’’ where (q.hs but not exported from it! instance (Read a.readsPrec (ratPrec+1) r.t) <. truncate numericEnumFrom numericEnumFromThen numericEnumFromTo numericEnumFromThenTo May overflow These numericEnumXXX functions are as defined in Prelude.154 CHAPTER 12.r) = quotRem n d (q’. (y.u)  (x. RATIONAL NUMBERS instance (Integral a) => RealFrac (Ratio a) where properFraction (x:%y) = (fromIntegral q.
. The function polar takes a complex number and returns a (magnitude. 155 § ¨ § ¡¤ § . then so is the phase. imagPart. phase) pair in canonical form: The magnitude is nonnegative.. The function cis produces a complex number from an angle .. and the phase. realPart..... polar. conjugate. Put another way. mkPolar. magnitude. phase instance instance instance instance instance instance (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (Complex (Complex (Complex (Complex (Complex (Complex Complex numbers are an algebraic type.. the entire number is .. phase ) where infix data 6 :+ => Complex a = !a :+ !a :: :: :: :: :: :: a) a) a) a) a) a) => => => => => => (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat Eq Read Show Num Fractional Floating a) a) a) a) a) a) => => => => => => Complex a > a Complex a > Complex a a > a > Complex a a > Complex a Complex a > (a. .a) Complex a > a a) a) a) a) a) a) where where where where where where . if the magnitude is zero.Chapter 13 Complex Numbers module Complex ( Complex((:+)). . in the range . imagPart conjugate mkPolar cis polar magnitude.. cis is a complex value with magnitude and phase (modulo ). cis. This constructor is strict: if either the real part or the imaginary part of the number is . (RealFloat a) realPart. A complex number may also be formed from polar components of magnitude and phase by the function mkPolar.. . . The constructor (:+) forms a complex number from its real and imaginary rectangular components.. .
k phase :: (RealFloat a) => Complex a > a phase (0 :+ 0) = 0 phase (x :+ y) = atan2 y x .Read. 13. phase z) magnitude :: (RealFloat a) => Complex a > a magnitude (x:+y) = scaleFloat k (sqrt ((scaleFloat mk x)ˆ2 + (scaleFloat mk y)ˆ2)) where k = max (exponent x) (exponent y) mk = . The magnitude and sign of a complex number are deﬁned as follows: abs z signum 0 signum z@(x:+y) = = = magnitude z :+ 0 0 x/r :+ y/r where r = magnitude z That is.1 Library Complex module Complex(Complex((:+)). magnitude. polar. but unit magnitude. imagPart. cis.156 CHAPTER 13. The function conjugate computes the conjugate of a complex number in the usual way. whereas signum has the phase of . conjugate. imagPart :: (RealFloat a) => Complex a > a realPart (x:+y) = x imagPart (x:+y) = y conjugate :: (RealFloat a) => Complex a > Complex a conjugate (x:+y) = x :+ (y) mkPolar mkPolar r theta cis cis theta polar polar z :: (RealFloat a) => a > a > Complex a = r * cos theta :+ r * sin theta :: (RealFloat a) => a > Complex a = cos theta :+ sin theta :: (RealFloat a) => Complex a > (a. COMPLEX NUMBERS The functions realPart and imagPart extract the rectangular components of a complex number and the functions magnitude and phase extract the polar components of a complex number. realPart.Show) (RealFloat a) realPart. phase) where infix data 6 :+ => Complex a = !a :+ !a deriving (Eq. mkPolar. abs is a number with the magnitude of . but oriented in the positive real direction.a) = (magnitude z.
1.max (exponent x’) (exponent y’) d = x’*x’’ + y’*y’’ fromRational a = fromRational a :+ 0 .(x’:+y’) (x:+y) * (x’:+y’) negate (x:+y) abs z signum 0 signum z@(x:+y) fromInteger n => = = = = = = = = Num (Complex a) where (x+x’) :+ (y+y’) (xx’) :+ (yy’) (x*x’y*y’) :+ (x*y’+y*x’) negate x :+ negate y magnitude z :+ 0 0 x/r :+ y/r where r = magnitude z fromInteger n :+ 0 157 instance (RealFloat a) => Fractional (Complex a) where (x:+y) / (x’:+y’) = (x*x’’+y*y’’) / d :+ (y*x’’x*y’’) / d where x’’ = scaleFloat k x’ y’’ = scaleFloat k y’ k = . LIBRARY COMPLEX instance (RealFloat a) (x:+y) + (x’:+y’) (x:+y) .13.
sin x * sinh y) (sinx*coshy:+cosx*sinhy)/(cosx*coshy:+(sinx*sinhy)) where sinx = sin x cosx = cos x sinhy = sinh y coshy = cosh y cos y * sinh x :+ sin y * cosh x cos y * cosh x :+ sin y * sinh x (cosy*sinhx:+siny*coshx)/(cosy*coshx:+siny*sinhx) where siny = sin y cosy = cos y sinhx = sinh x coshx = cosh x y’:+(x’) where (x’:+y’) = log (((y):+x) + sqrt (1 .158 CHAPTER 13.z*z)) y’’:+(x’’) where (x’’:+y’’) = log (z + ((y’):+x’)) (x’:+y’) = sqrt (1 .z*z) y’:+(x’) where (x’:+y’) = log (((1y):+x) / sqrt (1+z*z)) log (z + sqrt (1+z*z)) log (z + (z+1) * sqrt ((z1)/(z+1))) log ((1+z) / sqrt (1z*z)) sin (x:+y) cos (x:+y) tan (x:+y) = = = sinh (x:+y) cosh (x:+y) tanh (x:+y) = = = asin z@(x:+y) acos z@(x:+y) = = atan z@(x:+y) asinh z acosh z atanh z = = = = .v) = if x < 0 then (v’. COMPLEX NUMBERS instance (RealFloat a) => Floating (Complex a) where pi = pi :+ 0 exp (x:+y) = expx * cos y :+ expx * sin y where expx = exp x log z = log (magnitude z) :+ phase z sqrt 0 sqrt z@(x:+y) = = 0 u :+ (if y < 0 then v else v) where (u.v’) v’ = abs y / (u’*2) u’ = sqrt ((magnitude z + abs x) / 2) sin x * cosh y :+ cos x * sinh y cos x * cosh y :+ (.u’) else (u’.
showEFloat. readInt. showGFloat. showHex. showIntAtBase. floatToDigits. readHex. showInt. readOct. showFloat. lexDigits) where fromRat showSigned showIntAtBase showInt showOct showHex readSigned readInt readDec readOct readHex showEFloat showFFloat showGFloat showFloat floatToDigits readFloat lexDigits :: (RealFloat a) => Rational > a :: :: :: :: :: (Real a) Integral Integral Integral Integral => (a > ShowS) > Int > a > ShowS a => a > (Int > Char) > a > ShowS a => a > ShowS a => a > ShowS a => a > ShowS :: (Real a) => ReadS a > ReadS a :: (Integral a) => a > (Char > Bool) > (Char > Int) > ReadS a :: (Integral a) => ReadS a :: (Integral a) => ReadS a :: (Integral a) => ReadS a :: :: :: :: (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat a) a) a) a) => => => => Maybe Int > a > ShowS Maybe Int > a > ShowS Maybe Int > a > ShowS a > ShowS :: (RealFloat a) => Integer > a > ([Int]. readDec.Chapter 14 Numeric module Numeric(fromRat. Int) :: (RealFrac a) => ReadS a :: ReadS String 159 . showOct. showSigned. readSigned. showFFloat. readFloat.
Int) converts a base and a value to the representation of the value in digits.g.1 and 9. showGFloat :: (RealFloat a) => Maybe Int > a > ShowS These three functions all show signed RealFloat values: – showFFloat uses standard decimal notation (e. showFFloat. floatToDigits :: (RealFloat a) => Integer > a > ([Int]. Exactly the same applies to the argument of the other two functions. and is a function that can show unsigned values. showIntAtBase :: Integral a => a > (Int > Char) > a > ShowS shows a nonnegative Integral number using the base speciﬁed by the ﬁrst argument. – showGFloat uses standard decimal notation for arguments whose absolute value lies between 0.5e3).999. More speciﬁcally. In what follows. if is Just . £ ¤ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¦ 7 3¢ ¦ 7 3¢ 7 3¢ © § ¦ ¤ ¥ £ 2 ¤ ¥ © ¡ © § ¦ ¡ £ ¦ 2 ¥ © © § ¦ ¡ ) . is the precedence of the enclosing context. showHex :: Integral a => a > ShowS show nonnegative Integral numbers in base 10. showInt.45e2.0015). then at most digits after the decimal point are shown. if is Nothing. NUMERIC This library contains assorted numeric functions. 2.g. recall the following type deﬁnitions from the Prelude: type ShowS = String > String type ReadS = String > [(a.160 CHAPTER 14. is the value to show. 0. many of which are used in the standard Prelude. the value is shown to full preciIn the call showEFloat sion. 8. plus an exponent. if © § then the following properties hold: £ £ ¤ – ¤ £ ¡ ¤ – (when ¥ ¤ ¢ ¨£ – £ 888 ¤ £ ¢ £8 ¤ – ¥ ) £888 ¤ £ ¢ £ floatToDigits ([ ].999. and 16 respectively. and scientiﬁc notation otherwise. – showEFloat uses scientiﬁc (exponential) notation (e. 245000. showEFloat. 1. .1 Showing functions showSigned :: (Real a) => (a > ShowS) > Int > a > ShowS converts a possiblynegative Real value of type a to a string. showOct.String)] 14. and the character representation speciﬁed by the second. In the call showSigned .
( ( isDigit. readHex. readOct. showHex. READING FUNCTIONS 161 14.4 Library Numeric module Numeric(fromRat. 14. readInt. intToDigit ) (%). and converts a valid digit character to an Int. readDec. is a predicate distinguishing valid digits in this base. expressed in decimal scientiﬁc notation. readFloat :: (RealFrac a) => ReadS a reads an unsigned RealFrac value. showSigned. readSigned. readDec. array ) ¦ ©§ ¢© ¢ ' § ¤ ¦ § ¦ ©§ § ¤ ¦ ¢© ¢ ' . showEFloat. readHex :: (Integral a) => ReadS a each read an unsigned number. readInt :: (Integral a) => a > (Char>Bool) > (Char>Int) > ReadS a reads an unsigned Integral value in an arbitrary base. is the base. given a reader for an unsigned value. both upper or lower case letters are allowed.) 14.2. in decimal. lexDigits :: ReadS String reads a nonempty string of decimal digits. The inconsistent naming is a historical accident. readFloat. showIntAtBase. showFloat. octal.3 Miscellaneous fromRat :: (RealFloat a) => Rational > a converts a Rational value into any type in class RealFloat. isOctDigit. isHexDigit digitToInt. In the call readInt .2 Reading functions readSigned :: (Real a) => ReadS a > ReadS a reads a signed Real value. showInt. In the hexadecimal case. denominator ) (!). showFFloat. floatToDigits.14. lexDigits) where import Char import Ratio import Array ( . § (NB: readInt is the “dual” of showIntAtBase. showOct. Array. numerator. and readDec is the “dual” of showInt. readOct. showGFloat. and hexadecimal notation respectively.
a first guess of the exponent.fromRat’ (x) else fromRat’ x .first. or p (the exponent) <= minExp.that we got from the scaling. p) else if x >= xMax then scaleRat b minExp xMin xMax (p+1) (x/b) else if x < xMin then scaleRat b minExp xMin xMax (p1) (x*b) else (x.the real minimum exponent xMin = toRational (expt b (p1)) xMax = toRational (expt b p) p0 = (integerLogBase b (numerator x) integerLogBase b (denominator x) . _) = floatRange r minExp = minExp0 .p) ‘max‘ minExp f = if p0 < 0 then 1 % expt b (p0) else expt b p0 % 1 (x’.p .Scale x until xMin <= x < xMax.Exponentiation with a cache for the most common numbers.This converts a rational to a floating.162 CHAPTER 14. p’) = scaleRat (toRational b) minExp xMin xMax p0 (x / f) r = encodeFloat (round x’) p’ . Int) scaleRat b minExp xMin xMax p x = if p <= minExp then (x. NUMERIC . . minExpt = 0::Int maxExpt = 1100::Int expt :: Integer > Int > Integer expt base n = if base == 2 && n >= minExpt && n <= maxExpt then expts!n else baseˆn .Then round the rational to an Integer and encode it with the exponent . p) .it lies in the range of the mantissa (as used by decodeFloat/encodeFloat). This should be used in the . fromRat’ :: (RealFloat a) => Rational > a fromRat’ x = r where b = floatRadix r p = floatDigits r (minExp0.Handle exceptional cases .Fractional instances of Float and Double.To speed up the scaling process we compute the log2 of the number to get . scaleRat :: Rational > Int > Rational > Rational > Int > Rational > (Rational.Conversion process: . fromRat :: (RealFloat a) => Rational > a fromRat x = if x == 0 then encodeFloat 0 0 else if x < 0 then . . .Scale the rational number by the RealFloat base until .
showOct. showHex are used for positive numbers only showInt.s)  (str.but that would be very slow! We are just slightly more clever."") <<<< lex r. readPos str] . LIBRARY NUMERIC expts :: Array Int Integer expts = array (minExpt.showIntAtBase: can’t show negative numbers"  n’ == 0 = rest’  otherwise = showIntAtBase base intToDig n’ rest’ where (n’. read’’ s] lex r. .s) (n..s) (x. integerLogBase :: Integer > Integer > Int integerLogBase b i = if i < b then 0 else .t) read’’ r = [(n. .4.t)  ("".number to show > ShowS showIntAtBase base intToDig n rest  n < 0 = error "Numeric.2ˆn)  n <.Misc utilities to show integers and floats showSigned :: Real a => (a > ShowS) > Int > a > ShowS showSigned showPos p x  x < 0 = showParen (p > 6) (showChar ’’ . showHex :: Integral a => a > ShowS showOct = showIntAtBase 8 intToDigit showInt = showIntAtBase 10 intToDigit showHex = showIntAtBase 16 intToDigit showIntAtBase :: Integral a => a .showInt.14.digit to char > a . showOct.d) = quotRem n base rest’ = intToDig (fromIntegral d) : rest readSigned :: (Real a) => ReadS a > ReadS a readSigned readPos = readParen False read’ where read’ r = read’’ r ++ [(x.maxExpt) [(n. showPos (x))  otherwise = showPos x .Try squaring the base first to cut down the number of divisions. let l = 2 * integerLogBase (b*b) i doDiv :: Integer > Int > Int doDiv i l = if i < b then l else doDiv (i ‘div‘ b) (l+1) in doDiv (i ‘div‘ (bˆl)) l . maxExpt]] 163 .Simplest way would be just divide i by b until it’s smaller then b.Compute the (floor of the) log of i in base b.[minExpt .base > (Int > Char) .
readHex :: (Integral a) => ReadS a readDec = readInt 10 isDigit digitToInt readOct = readInt 8 isOctDigit digitToInt readHex = readInt 16 isHexDigit digitToInt showEFloat showFFloat showGFloat showFloat :: :: :: :: (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat showString showString showString showGFloat a) a) a) a) => => => => Maybe Int > a > ShowS Maybe Int > a > ShowS Maybe Int > a > ShowS a > ShowS showEFloat d x = showFFloat d x = showGFloat d x = showFloat = (formatRealFloat FFExponent d x) (formatRealFloat FFFixed d x) (formatRealFloat FFGeneric d x) Nothing This type is not exported. r)  (ds. NUMERIC . . .These are the format types. readOct.Leading minus signs must be handled elsewhere.164 CHAPTER 14.r) <.readInt reads a string of digits using an arbitrary base. digToInt) ds).Unsigned readers for various bases readDec. readInt :: (Integral a) => a > (Char > Bool) > (Char > Int) > ReadS a readInt radix isDig digToInt s = [(foldl1 (\n d > n * radix + d) (map (fromIntegral .nonnull isDig s ] . data FFFormat = FFExponent  FFFixed  FFGeneric .
’:ds ++ "e" ++ show (e1+ei) FFFixed > case decs of Nothing . LIBRARY NUMERIC 165 formatRealFloat :: (RealFloat a) => FFFormat > Maybe Int > a > String formatRealFloat fmt decs x = s where base = 10 s = if isNaN x then "NaN" else if isInfinite x then if x < 0 then "Infinity" else "Infinity" else if x < 0  isNegativeZero x then ’’ : doFmt fmt (floatToDigits (toInteger base) (x)) else doFmt fmt (floatToDigits (toInteger base) x) doFmt fmt (is.0e0" [d] > d : ".Always prints a decimal point  e > 0 > take e (ds ++ repeat ’0’) .’ : ds ++ ’e’:show (e1) Just dec > let dec’ = max dec 1 in case is of [] > ’0’:’. e) FFExponent > case decs of Nothing > case ds of [] > "0. is’) = roundTo base (dec’+1) is d:ds = map intToDigit (if ei > 0 then init is’ else is’) in d:’.4.’:take dec’ (repeat ’0’) ++ "e0" _ > let (ei.0e" ++ show (e1) d:ds > d : ’. e) = let ds = map intToDigit is in case fmt of FFGeneric > doFmt (if e < 0  e > 7 then FFExponent else FFFixed) (is.14.
. is’) = roundTo base dec’ (replicate (e) 0 ++ is) d : ds = map intToDigit (if ei > 0 then is’ else 0:is’) in d : mkdot0 ds where mk0 "" = "0" .Print 0.then r = 0. replicate n 0) f 0 (i:_) = (if i >= b2 then 1 else 0. .base1]) . is) > (1. is’) = roundTo base (dec’ + e) is (ls..This function returns a nonempty list of digits (Ints in [0.Print 34. Burger and R.34 mk0 s = s mkdot0 "" = "" mkdot0 s = ’. rs) = splitAt (e+ei) (map intToDigit is’) in mk0 ls ++ mkdot0 rs else let (ei. NUMERIC ++ ’. Dybvig. e) . not . []) f d (i:is) = let (c. Int) . . b. in PLDI 96.ab. In general. 1 : is) where b2 = base ‘div‘ 2 f n [] = (0. i’:ds) Based on "Printing FloatingPoint Numbers Quickly and Accurately" by R. if floatToDigits r = ([a. 0:ds) else (0. [Int]) roundTo base d is = case f d is of (0. K. The version here uses a much slower logarithm estimator.166 CHAPTER 14.. is) (1. ds) = f (d1) is i’ = c + i in if i’ == base then (1..when the format specifies no .z * baseˆe floatToDigits :: (RealFloat a) => Integer > a > ([Int]. It should be improved. is) > (0." ++ mk0 (replicate (e) ’0’ ++ ds) Just dec > . z]..and an exponent.34. not 34.Print decimal point iff dec > 0 let dec’ = max dec 0 in if e >= 0 then let (ei.’ : s .’ : mk0 (drop e ds)  otherwise > "0.digits after the decimal point roundTo :: Int > Int > [Int] > (Int.G.
be.4. 2. e0+n) else (f0.the following will err on the low side. 1. (p . Ignoring .p 167 .14.the fraction will make it err even more.logBase 10 2 is slightly bigger than 3/10 so . . b.the real minimum exponent .e0 in if n > 0 then (f0 ‘div‘ (bˆn). mDn) = if e >= 0 then let be = bˆe in if f == bˆ(p1) then (f*be*b*2.1 + e0) * 3 ‘div‘ 10 else ceiling ((log (fromInteger (f+1)) + fromIntegral e * log (fromInteger b)) / log (fromInteger base)) fixup n = if n >= 0 then if r + mUp <= expt base n * s then n else fixup (n+1) else if expt base (n) * (r + mUp) <= s then n .will have an impossibly low exponent. s. bˆ(e+1)*2. mUp. bˆ(e)*2. e) = let n = minExp . 1) k = let k0 = if b==2 && base==10 then . e0) (r. _) = floatRange x p = floatDigits x b = floatRadix x minExp = minExp0 . b) else (f*be*2. Adjust for this.Haskell promises that p1 <= logBase b f < p.Haskell requires that f be adjusted so denormalized numbers . f :: Integer e :: Int (f. e0) = decodeFloat x (minExp0. 2*b. be) else if e > minExp && f == bˆ(p1) then (f*b*2. LIBRARY NUMERIC floatToDigits _ 0 = ([]. 0) floatToDigits base x = let (f0. 1) else (f*2. be*b.
[span p s]] . k) in .d. False) > dn : ds (False.t)  (k. The ‘.t) <.t) <. True) > if rn’ * 2 < sN then dn : ds else dn+1 : ds (False.t) <.t) <.s)] readExp’ (’’:s) = [(k.s)] readExp (e:s)  e ‘elem‘ "eE" = readExp’ s readExp s = [(0.t)  (cs@(_:_). False) > gen (dn:ds) rn’ sN mUpN’ mDnN’ rds = if k >= 0 then gen [] r (s * expt base k) mUp mDn else let bk = expt base (k) in gen [] (r * bk) s (mUp * bk) (mDn * bk) (map fromIntegral (reverse rds). t)  (ds.d) <.168 CHAPTER 14.lex r] where readFix r = [(read (ds++ds’).’:ds) = lexDigits ds lexFrac s = [("". (ds’.lexFrac d ] lexFrac (’. rn’) = (rn * base) ‘divMod‘ sN mUpN’ = mUpN * base mDnN’ = mDnN * base in case (rn’ < mDnN’. NUMERIC else fixup (n+1) in fixup k0 gen ds rn sN mUpN mDnN = let (dn. True) > dn+1 : ds (True.lex r] ++ [ (1/0. t)  ("Infinity".t) <.point than the Haskell lexer.s) <. (k.t)  (n. length ds’.This floating point reader uses a less restrictive syntax for floating . rn’ + mUpN’ > sN) of (True.’ is optional.t) <.readDec s] readExp’ (’+’:s) = readDec s readExp’ s = readDec s lexDigits lexDigits nonnull nonnull p s :: ReadS String = nonnull isDigit :: (Char > Bool) > ReadS String = [(cs.readExp s] ++ [ (0/0.lexDigits r. readFloat readFloat r :: (RealFrac a) => ReadS a = [(fromRational ((n%1)*10ˆˆ(kd)). t)  ("NaN".readFix r.
u) map index (range (l. . . and a subscript. and inRange. to an integer. The range operation enumerates all subscripts..u) i == i .u)) == [0. index. The Ix class is used to map a contiguous subrange of values in a type onto integers.Chapter 15 Indexing Operations module Ix ( Ix(range.a) > (a. which deﬁnes the lower and upper bounds of the range.u) i == i ‘elem‘ range (l.a) > [a] a > Int a > Bool Int Char Int Integer (a.... inRange.when i is in range inRange (l..a) > (a... rangeSize) ) where class Ord a => range index inRange rangeSize Ix :: :: :: :: a where (a.u)] 169 ..b) where where where where . where .u) !! index (l. The index operation maps a bounding pair. It is used primarily for array indexing (see Chapter 16)..rangeSize (l.. the inRange operation tells whether a particular subscript lies in the range deﬁned by a bounding pair.et cetera instance instance Ix Ix Ix => Ix Ix Bool Ix Ordering where . instance instance instance instance (Ix a. . An implementation is entitled to assume the following laws about these operations: range (l. Ix b) . index...a) > (a.. The Ix class contains the methods range.
INDEXING OPERATIONS 15. This is the same numbering deﬁned by the Enum class. Such derived instance declarations for the class Ix are only possible for enumerations (i. the derived instance declarations are as shown for tuples in Figure 15. £ ¥ ¤ == == == [Yellow.3). using a deriving clause on a data declaration (Section 4.e.Blue) index (Yellow.1. whose constituent types are instances of Ix. given the datatype: data Colour = Red  Orange  Yellow  Green  Blue  Indigo  Violet we would have: range (Yellow.Blue) Red For singleconstructor datatypes. For an enumeration.170 CHAPTER 15.1 Deriving Instances of Ix It is possible to derive an instance of Ix automatically.Blue] 1 False .Blue) Green inRange (Yellow.Green. datatypes having only nullary constructors) and singleconstructor datatypes. the nullary constructors are assumed to be numbered lefttoright with the indices being to inclusive. A Haskell implementation must provide Ix instances for tuples up to at least size 15. For example.3.
.range (l1.u2) i2 && ...u) i * rangeSize (l’.1.uk)) = [(i1..ik) = index (lk..(u..ik)  i1 <.range (l’. index (l1.uk) ik + rangeSize (lk.. Ix b) => Ix (a.u1)..i’) = inRange (l...i2.Instances for other tuples are obtained from this scheme: ...ak) where range ((l1.a2.u’)] index ((l.u’) i’ . ik <..i2..i’) = index (l.(u.. ..u’)) (i.l2.range (l2.1: Derivation of Ix instances ..i2.uk1) ik1 + rangeSize (lk1.u’)) = [(i.uk)] index ((l1.u1))) inRange ((l1.u2).l’)..(u. i2 <. Ix a2.b) where range ((l...range (lk..l2.u’)) (i..lk).uk)) (i1..u1) i1 && inRange (l2.15...(u1.l’).instance (Ix a1.....uk) ik Figure 15.lk).u) i && inRange (l’.lk)..(u1..uk)) (i1.range (l.u2.l2.. .ik) = inRange (l1.uk1) * ( ..u2. DERIVING INSTANCES OF IX 171 instance (Ix a.(u1.u2. Ix ak) => Ix (a1.u’) i’ inRange ((l.... && inRange (lk...u).l’).u’) + index (l’... i’ <..i’)  i <...uk) * ( index (lk1. .....
n) i = [m. (1." inRange (m." inRange (c. for all tuples Ix Bool .as derived .m)  otherwise = error "Ix.n) = [m.as derived Ix () ..2).2) <= (2.fails if the bounds are tuples.index: Index out of range. b) .n) = [m. index.NB: replacing "null (range b)" by "not (l <= h)" .n] = = = i .as derived Ix Ordering ..index: Index out of range.n) i = m <= i && i <= n instance instance instance instance (Ix a.fromEnum c  otherwise = error "Ix.a) > a > Int inRange :: (a.2 Library Ix module Ix ( Ix(range. For example.m error "Ix..c’) i = c <= i && i <= c’ instance Ix Int where range (m.n] index b@(c.n) index b@(m.but the range is nevertheless empty range ((1.n] index b@(m.(2. INDEXING OPERATIONS 15.h)  null (range b) = 0  otherwise = index b h + 1 . rangeSize) ) where class Ord a => Ix a where range :: (a." m <= i && i <= n instance Ix Integer where range (m.a) > Int rangeSize b@(l.1) .index: Index out of range.a) > [a] index :: (a. inRange.a) > a > Bool rangeSize :: (a.172 CHAPTER 15.n) i  inRange b i = fromInteger (i .Ix b) => Ix (a.1)) = [] instance Ix Char where range (m.c’) ci  inRange b ci = fromEnum ci .n) i  inRange b i  otherwise inRange (m.as derived.
b)] > Array a b :: (Ix a) => (b > c > b) > Array a b > [(a. ixmap ) where import Ix infixl 9 data !..a) > [(a. (//). elems. .c)] > Array a b :: (Ix a) => Array a b > [(a. a. Show b) Read a. 173 . accumArray.a) > [b] > Array a b Array a b > a > b Array a b > (a.export all of Ix for convenience Array.Chapter 16 Arrays module Array ( module Ix.. Ix b) => (a.. array... . assocs.. Read b) => => => => Functor (Array a) Eq (Array a b) Ord (Array a b) Show (Array a b) Read (Array a b) where where where where where . // => Array a b = . (Ix (Ix (Ix (Ix a.Abstract (Ix a) array listArray (!) bounds indices elems assocs accumArray (//) accum ixmap instance instance instance instance instance (a.b)] (b > c > b) > b > (a. :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: (Ix (Ix (Ix (Ix (Ix (Ix (Ix (Ix a) a) a) a) a) a) a) a) => => => => => => => => .. . accum..a) Array a b > [a] Array a b > [b] Array a b > [(a. a. (!). indices..a) > [(a.c)] > Array a b :: (Ix a.. bounds. listArray.. a.a) > (a > b) > Array b c > Array a c Eq b) Ord b) Show a.b)] > Array a b (a.. . .
1 shows some examples that use the array constructor. return lists of the indices. in that order. using an accumulating function which combines the values of associations with the same index. but empty. and assocs. To ensure the possibility of such an implementation. not as general functions.1. These bounds are the lowest and highest indices in the array. respectively. An association (i. The bounds function applied to an array returns its bounds. and a oneorigin 10 by 10 matrix has bounds ((1. An array may be created by the function array. ).100) ((1. then the array is legal. relaxes the restriction that a given index may appear at most once in the association list. . x) deﬁnes the value of the array at index i to be x. a programmer may reasonably expect rapid access to the components. this module is exported from Array so that modules need not import both Array and Ix.e. If.1). The ﬁrst argument of array is a pair of bounds. If any two associations in the list have the same index. The (!) operator denotes array subscripting. recurrences such as the following are possible: a = array (1. the value at that index is undeﬁned (i. Functions restricted in this way can be implemented efﬁciently. a oneorigin vector of length 10 has bounds (1.100]]) Not every index within the bounds of the array need appear in the association list.. when applied to an array. Since most array functions involve the class Ix. but the values associated with indices that do not appear will be undeﬁned (i. which may be thought of as functions whose domains are isomorphic to contiguous subsets of the integers. the lower bound is greater than the upper bound. Because the indices must be checked for these errors. the type of arrays with indices in a and elements in b is written Array a b. elements. arrays are treated as data. Typically. The ﬁrst argument of accumArray is the accumulating £ £ ¤¢ £ ¡ £ £ ¥ . 16. in index order. elems. The array is undeﬁned (i. in any dimension. array is strict in the bounds argument and in the indices of the association list. ).1 Accumulated Arrays Another array creation function. in particular. ) if any index in the list is out of bounds.1) : [(i.1 Array Construction If a is an index type and b is any type.(10. but bounds still yields the bounds with which the array was constructed.e. An array may be constructed from a pair of bounds and a list of values in index order using the function listArray. or associations.10). Figure 16.e. this The second argument of array is a list of associations of the form ( list will be expressed as a comprehension.10)). ). For example.[2. i * a!(i1))  i <. accumArray. ARRAYS Haskell provides indexable arrays. each of the index type of the array. 16. Thus. The functions indices.174 CHAPTER 16. Indexing an empty array always gives an arraybounds error. but nonstrict in the values.
range b] else error "inconformable arrays for inner product" where b = bounds v Figure 16. i)  i <.16.. as well as the indices. hist produces a histogram of the number of occurrences of each index within a speciﬁed range: hist :: (Ix a.[1.2 Incremental Array Updates The operator (//) takes an array and a list of pairs and returns an array identical to the left argument except that it has been updated by the associations in the right argument.i). accumulated arrays should not in general be recursive.2.range b] where b = bounds a . unlike ordinary arrays. in the association list. Num b) => Array a b > Array a b > b inner v w = if b == bounds w then sum [v!i * w!i  i <. given a list of values of some index type.The inner product of two vectors inner :: (Ix a.range b]) 0 0 . INCREMENTAL ARRAY UPDATES . accum takes an array and an association list and accumulates pairs from the list into the array with the accumulating function .Scaling an array scale :: (Num a. z)  i <. Ix scale x a = array b where b of numbers by a given number: b) => a > Array b a > Array b a [(i.1: Array examples function. 1)  i<is. then accumArray is strict in the values. a!i * x)  i <. For example. 0)  i <. except with the diagonal zeroed.n]] is the same matrix. Thus accumArray can be deﬁned using accum: accumArray f z b = accum f (array b [(i. inRange bnds i] If the accumulating function is strict. (As with the array function.) For example. the second is an initial value.Inverting an array that holds a permutation of its indices invPerm :: (Ix a) => Array a a > Array a a invPerm a = array b [(a!i. 16. as for the array function. n by n matrix.range b] = bounds a 175 . Num b) => (a. Thus. the remaining two arguments are a bounds pair and an association list. if m is a 1origin.a) > [a] > Array a b hist bnds is = accumArray (+) 0 bnds [(i. the indices in the association list must be unique for the updated elements to be deﬁned. then m//[((i.
export all of Ix Array._)) = bounds x .176 CHAPTER 16.j)) x where ((_. // data (Ix a) => Array a b = MkArray (a. (//).u) (\i>(i. they may be thought of as providing function composition on the left and right. accumArray. 16.b) c > Array b c row i x = ixmap (l’. with the mapping that the original array embodies.A rectangular subarray subArray :: (Ix a) => (a. elems.4 Library Array module Array ( module Ix.2 shows some examples.y)>x) Figure 16.u’)) = bounds x .i)) x where ((l. .3 Derived Arrays The two functions fmap and ixmap derive new arrays from existing ones. assocs. accum.(u. bounds.a) > Array a b > Array a b subArray bnds = ixmap bnds (\i>i) .A row of a matrix row :: (Ix a.(_. array. ixmap ) where import Ix import List( (\\) ) infixl 9 !.a) b > Array a b diag x = ixmap (l. indices. listArray.Projection of first components of an array of pairs firstArray :: (Ix a) => Array a (b. (!). ARRAYS .c) > Array a b firstArray = fmap (\(x. Figure 16. The fmap function transforms the array values while ixmap allows for transformations on array indices.l’). Ix b) => a > Array (a._). respectively.Diagonal of a matrix (assumed to be square) diag :: (Ix a) => Array (a.u’) (\j>(i.2: Derived array examples 16.a) (a > b) deriving () .
bounds :: (Ix a) => Array a b > [b] = [a!i  i <.new_ivs] :: (Ix a) => (b > c > b) > Array a b > [(a.f (a!i) v)]) :: (Ix a) => (b > c > b) > b > (a.b)) (range b) vs) :: (Ix a) => Array a b > a > b = f :: (Ix a) => Array a b > (a.a) > (a > b) > Array b c > Array a c = array b [(i. Ix b) => (a._) <.indices a] :: (Ix a) => Array a b > [(a. LIBRARY ARRAY 177 array :: (Ix a) => (a.v) > a // [(i.z)  i <.ivs] then MkArray b (\j > case [v  (i.b)] > Array a b = array (bounds a) (old_ivs ++ new_ivs) where old_ivs = [(i.ivs.range b]) :: (Ix a.!: \ \undefined array element" _ > error "Array. f) instance (Ix a.b)] = [(i.a) > [b] > Array a b = array b (zipWith (\ a b > (a. a ! f i)  i <. i ‘notElem‘ new_is] new_is = [i  (i.a) = b :: (Ix a) => Array a b > [a] = range . Eq b) => Eq (Array a b) a == a’ = assocs a == assocs a’ where .a!i)  i <.range b] accum accum f accumArray accumArray f z b ixmap ixmap b f a instance (Ix a) => Functor (Array a) where fmap fn (MkArray b f) = MkArray b (fn .a) > [(a.c)] > Array a b = accum f (array b [(i.indices a._) <.4. i == j] of [v] > v [] > error "Array.a) > [(a.indices a] :: (Ix a) => Array a b > [(a.b)] > Array a b array b ivs = if and [inRange b i  (i. a!i)  i <.16.array: outofrange array association" listArray listArray b vs (!) (!) (MkArray _ f) bounds bounds (MkArray b _) indices indices elems elems a assocs assocs a (//) a // new_ivs :: (Ix a) => (a.!: \ \multiply defined array element") else error "Array.v) <.c)] > Array a b = foldl (\a (i.
lex r. Ord b) => Ord (Array a b) a <= a’ = assocs a <= assocs a’ where CHAPTER 16. Read a.s) <. showsPrec (arrPrec+1) (assocs a) ) instance (Ix a. showsPrec (arrPrec+1) (bounds a) .178 instance (Ix a. Read b) => Read (Array a b) where readsPrec p = readParen (p > arrPrec) (\r > [ (array b as. (as. (b.Precedence of the ’array’ function is that of application itself arrPrec = 10 . Show b) => Show (Array a b) where showsPrec p a = showParen (p > arrPrec) ( showString "array " .t) <. showChar ’ ’ . Show a. ARRAYS instance (Ix a. u)  ("array".readsPrec (arrPrec+1) t ]) .u) <.readsPrec (arrPrec+1) s.
179 .
group.This is builtin syntax map. elem. unzip.[]((:). []). scanr. span. replicate. partition. lookup. nub. intersperse. intersect. scanl1. cycle. iterate. genericTake. minimum. or. unzip7. init. reverse. splitAt. nubBy. sort. zipWith4. LIST UTILITIES Chapter 17 List Utilities module List ( elemIndex. zipWith3. tails. scanl. zip5. insert. tail. findIndex. genericSplitAt. foldr1.and what the Prelude exports . deleteFirstsBy. notElem. unionBy. elemIndices. genericLength. repeat. sum. (++). takeWhile. (!!). findIndices. unwords. maximum. mapAccumR. genericDrop. concatMap. zipWith6. unfoldr. . inits. genericReplicate. maximumBy. filter. transpose. sortBy. zip4. drop. take. . last. product. find. length. deleteBy. zip7. insertBy. groupBy. null. zip.. foldl. all. foldl1. delete. words. break. unzip5.. dropWhile.. isPrefixOf. foldr. any. minimumBy. scanr1. union. unzip6. zip6. zip3. zipWith. and. head. lines. genericIndex. zipWith5. zipWith7. concat. unzip4. unzip3 ) where infix 5 \\ elemIndex elemIndices find findIndex findIndices nub nubBy delete deleteBy (\\) deleteFirstsBy union unionBy :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Eq Eq (a (a (a Eq (a Eq (a Eq (a Eq (a a => a > [a] > Maybe Int a => a > [a] > [Int] > Bool) > [a] > Maybe a > Bool) > [a] > Maybe Int > Bool) > [a] > [Int] a => [a] > [a] > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] a => a > [a] > [a] > a > Bool) > a > [a] > [a] a => [a] > [a] > [a] > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] > [a] a => [a] > [a] > [a] > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] > [a] . (\\). isSuffixOf. mapAccumL. unlines.180 CHAPTER 17. intersectBy.
[e].b.[b].g)] :: (a>b>c>d>e) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e] :: (a>b>c>d>e>f) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e]>[f] :: (a>b>c>d>e>f>g) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e]>[f]>[g] :: (a>b>c>d>e>f>g>h) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e]>[f]>[g]>[h] :: [(a.[e].[g]) This library deﬁnes some lesserused operations over lists.f)] :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [e] > [f] > [g] > [(a.b.d.[d].c.[c].b.d.d)] :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [e] > [(a.[c].e.b.e. c)) > a > [b] > (a.e.d)] > ([a].[d].[f].f.b.[b].d.b)) > b > [a] Ord a => [a] > [a] (a > a > Ordering) > [a] > [a] Ord a => a > [a] > [a] (a > a > Ordering) > a > [a] > [a] (a > a > Ordering) > [a] > a (a > a > Ordering) > [a] > a Integral a => [b] > a Integral a => a > [b] > [b] Integral a => a > [b] > [b] Integral a => a > [b] > ([b].c.d.[c].c.f)] > ([a].[b]) Integral a => [b] > a > b Integral a => a > b > [b] :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [(a.d. [c]) (b > Maybe (a.c.[e]) :: [(a.[b].c.d. c)) > a > [b] > (a.181 intersect intersectBy intersperse transpose partition group groupBy inits tails isPrefixOf isSuffixOf mapAccumL mapAccumR unfoldr sort sortBy insert insertBy maximumBy minimumBy genericLength genericTake genericDrop genericSplitAt genericIndex genericReplicate zip4 zip5 zip6 zip7 zipWith4 zipWith5 zipWith6 zipWith7 unzip4 unzip5 unzip6 unzip7 :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Eq a => [a] > [a] > [a] (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] > [a] a > [a] > [a] [[a]] > [[a]] (a > Bool) > [a] > ([a].c.c.[f]) :: [(a.g)] > ([a].b.e. [c]) (a > b > (a.[d]) :: [(a.b.[d].b.f.c.e)] :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [e] > [f] > [(a.[b].[a]) Eq a => [a] > [[a]] (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [[a]] [a] > [[a]] [a] > [[a]] Eq a => [a] > [a] > Bool Eq a => [a] > [a] > Bool (a > b > (a.[c].e)] > ([a]. .
3] = [1. e. or Nothing. "dog" ‘union‘ "cow" == "dogcw" intersect is list intersection. giving the occurrences of val in list.g.3.g. delete. findIndex returns the corresponding index.3. e. Thus. delete ’a’ "banana" == "bnana" (\\) is list difference (nonassociative)..3. [1. nub removes duplicate elements from a list.4.2.8] == [2. union and intersect (and their By variants) preserve the invariant that their result does not contain duplicates. elemIndices val list returns an inorder list of indices. provided that their ﬁrst argument contains no duplicates. if there is no such element. (xs ++ ys) \\ xs == ys. union is list union. of val in list as Just index.1 Indexing lists elemIndex val list returns the index of the ﬁrst occurrence.3.182 CHAPTER 17.6.g.4] . find returns the ﬁrst element of a list that satisﬁes a predicate. In the result of xs \\ ys.. findIndices returns a list of all such indices.2 “Set” operations There are a number of “set” operations deﬁned over the List type. e. Nothing is returned if not (val ‘elem‘ list). (\\). if any.. nub (meaning “essence”) removes duplicates elements from a list.4. 17. LIST UTILITIES 17.4] ‘intersect‘ [2.1.4] delete x removes the ﬁrst occurrence of x from its list argument. the ﬁrst occurrence of each element of ys in turn (if any) has been removed from xs. For example: nub [1.
For example: ."i"."ab". shortest ﬁrst."ss". "c".6]] partition takes a predicate and a list and returns a pair of lists: those elements of the argument list that do and do not satisfy the predicate. longest ﬁrst.2. i.[2."abc"] tails returns the list of all ﬁnal segments of its argument list. respectively.b. transpose [[1."pp". LIST TRANSFORMATIONS 183 17. inits "abc" == ["". group splits its list argument into a list of lists of equal.4 unfoldr The unfoldr function is a “dual” to foldr: while foldr reduces a list to a summary value.."ss".. insert inserts a new element into an ordered list (arranged in increasing order). which inserts objects into a list according to the speciﬁed ordering relation.""] mapAccumL f s l applies f to an accumulating “state” parameter s and to each element of l in turn.3]."i"] inits returns the list of initial segments of its argument list. filter (not .4].g. p) xs) sort implement a stable sorting algorithm.17."i".6]] == [[1.e. e. intersperse ’.e" transpose transposes the rows and columns of its argument. For example group "Mississippi" == ["M". 17.’ "abcde" == "a."a".. e.[4."i". "bc".3 List transformations intersperse sep inserts sep between the elements of its list argument. partition p xs == (filter p xs. tails "abc" == ["abc".3. unfoldr builds a list from a seed value. adjacent elements. here speciﬁed in terms of the insertBy function.c.g.d.5. mapAccumR is similar to mapAccumL except that the list is processed from righttoleft rather than lefttoright.[3.5].
maximumBy.6 The “By” operations By convention. unfoldr can undo a foldr operation: unfoldr f’ (foldr f z xs) == xs if the following holds: f’ (f x y) = Just (x. when the “By” function replaces an Ord context by a binary predicate. A handful of overloaded functions (elemIndex. because any (eq x) does the same job as elemBy eq x would. groupBy. intersectBy. isSuffixOf) were not considered important enough to have “By” variants. sortBy. overloaded functions have a nonoverloaded counterpart whose name is sufﬁxed with “By”. 17. the predicate is assumed to deﬁne a total ordering. LIST UTILITIES iterate f == unfoldr (\x > Just (x. deleteBy. minimumBy.y) f’ z = Nothing 17.5 Predicates isPrefixOf and isSuffixOf check whether the ﬁrst argument is a preﬁx (resp. isPrefixOf. elemIndices. the predicate is assumed to deﬁne an equivalence. insertBy. The function: nubBy nubBy eq [] nubBy eq (x:xs) :: (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] = [] = x : nubBy eq (filter (\y > not (eq x y)) xs) allows the programmer to supply their own equality test. The “By” variants are as follows: nubBy. f x)) In some cases. unionBy. When the “By” function replaces an Eq context by a binary predicate. the equality method may not be appropriate in all situations. For example. deleteFirstsBy (the By variant of \\). sufﬁx) of the second argument.184 CHAPTER 17. The library does not provide elemBy. the function nub could be deﬁned as follows: nub nub [] nub (x:xs) :: (Eq a) => [a] > [a] = [] = x : nub (filter (\y > not (x == y)) xs) However. .
and 7 arguments. unzip3. genericLength is a generalised version of length. 5. The “generic” operations are as follows: genericLength. :: Integral a => [b] > a 17. and zipWith3.7 The “generic” operations The preﬁx “generic” indicates an overloaded function that is a generalised version of a Prelude function. genericIndex (the generic version of !!). genericSplitAt.7. genericTake.17. zipWith. The List library provides these same three operations for 4. genericDrop. 6.8 Further “zip” operations The Prelude provides zip. THE “GENERIC” OPERATIONS 185 17. unzip. . zip3. For example. genericReplicate.
union. replicate. find. last. length. zipWith6. inits. any. . lines.. scanl. mapAccumL. LIST UTILITIES 17. minimum. genericIndex. intersperse. null. (++). nubBy. unzip4. or. unzip6. unfoldr. zipWith4. zip5. break. sort. genericLength. take.. unwords. intersectBy.zip xs [0. product. mapAccumR.186 CHAPTER 17. scanl1. init. zipWith. delete. all. zipWith3. group. zip4. cycle. minimumBy. groupBy.This is builtin syntax map. reverse. nub. isPrefixOf.[]((:). unzip3 ) where import Maybe( listToMaybe ) infix 5 \\ elemIndex elemIndex x elemIndices elemIndices x find find p findIndex findIndex p findIndices findIndices p xs nub nub :: Eq a => a > [a] > Maybe Int = findIndex (x ==) :: Eq a => a > [a] > [Int] = findIndices (x ==) :: (a > Bool) > [a] > Maybe a = listToMaybe . genericTake. transpose. sortBy.9 Library List module List ( elemIndex. dropWhile. maximumBy. (!!). foldl. head. (\\). elemIndices. insertBy. and. filter p :: (a > Bool) > [a] > Maybe Int = listToMaybe . concat. zip7. unlines. unionBy. genericDrop.i) <. iterate. []). span. tails. lookup. words. foldl1.. zip6. findIndex. unzip5. notElem. takeWhile. deleteFirstsBy.and what the Prelude exports . genericReplicate. isSuffixOf. zip. scanr1. unzip7.. zipWith5. filter. findIndices p :: (a > Bool) > [a] > [Int] = [ i  (x. repeat. intersect.]. partition. insert. genericSplitAt. foldr1. foldr. zipWith7. tail. p x ] :: Eq a => [a] > [a] = nubBy (==) . . drop. scanr. zip3. splitAt. maximum. findIndices. elem. unzip. sum. concatMap. deleteBy.
[a]) = (filter p xs."pp".elements.Note that [h  (h:t) <.xss]) partition partition p xs :: (a > Bool) > [a] > ([a].xss]) : transpose (xs : [t  (h:t) <. any (eq x) ys] :: = = = a > [a] > [a] [] [x] x : sep : intersperse sep xs . p) xs) .xs.transpose is lazy in both rows and columns.group splits its list argument into a list of lists of equal.[]] = [[1..For example.9. . LIBRARY LIST nubBy nubBy eq [] nubBy eq (x:xs) delete delete deleteBy deleteBy eq x [] deleteBy eq x (y:ys) (\\) (\\) deleteFirstsBy deleteFirstsBy eq union union unionBy unionBy eq xs ys intersect intersect intersectBy intersectBy eq xs ys intersperse intersperse sep [] intersperse sep [x] intersperse sep (x:xs) 187 :: (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] = [] = x : nubBy eq (filter (\y > not (eq x y)) xs) :: Eq a => a > [a] > [a] = deleteBy (==) :: (a > a > Bool) > a > [a] > [a] = [] = if x ‘eq‘ y then ys else y : deleteBy eq x ys :: Eq a => [a] > [a] > [a] = foldl (flip delete) :: (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] > [a] = foldl (flip (deleteBy eq)) :: Eq a => [a] > [a] > [a] = unionBy (==) :: (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] > [a] = xs ++ deleteFirstsBy eq (nubBy eq ys) xs :: Eq a => [a] > [a] > [a] = intersectBy (==) :: (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] > [a] = [x  x <."i". e.4].xss] is not the same as (map head xss) because the former discards empty sublists inside xss transpose :: [[a]] > [[a]] transpose [] = [] transpose ([] : xss) = transpose xss transpose ((x:xs) : xss) = (x : [h  (h:t) <.5]."i".[3.[2. transpose [[1.4."i"] group :: Eq a => [a] > [[a]] group = groupBy (==) ."ss".g.2].[5]] .group "Mississippi" == ["M".17."ss". filter (not . and works for nonrectangular ’matrices’ . adjacent .3]."i".
inits xs returns the ."a". [c]) = (s. y:ys) where (s’’.zs) = span (eq x) xs list of initial segments of xs.g. []) = (s’’.y ) = f s’ x (s’.""] :: [a] > [[a]] = [[]] = xxs : tails xs :: = = = Eq a => [a] > [a] > Bool True False x == y && isPrefixOf xs ys isPrefixOf isPrefixOf [] _ isPrefixOf _ [] isPrefixOf (x:xs) (y:ys) isSuffixOf isSuffixOf x y mapAccumL mapAccumL f s [] mapAccumL f s (x:xs) :: Eq a => [a] > [a] > Bool = reverse x ‘isPrefixOf‘ reverse y :: (a > b > (a. c)) > a > [b] > (a. inits "abc" == inits inits [] inits (x:xs) . shortest first. "c". tails "abc" == tails tails [] tails xxs@(_:xs) CHAPTER 17. [c]) = (s.b) > a : unfoldr f b :: (Ord a) => [a] > [a] = sortBy compare :: (a > a > Ordering) > [a] > [a] = foldr (insertBy cmp) [] :: (Ord a) => a > [a] > [a] = insertBy compare mapAccumR mapAccumR f s [] mapAccumR f s (x:xs) unfoldr unfoldr f b sort sort sortBy sortBy cmp insert insert .."ab".b)) > b > [a] = case f b of Nothing > [] Just (a.ys) = mapAccumL f s’ xs :: (a > b > (a. LIST UTILITIES :: (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [[a]] = [] = (x:ys) : groupBy eq zs where (ys. longest first.y:ys) where (s’.g.e.. y ) = f s x (s’’. c)) > a > [b] > (a.e."abc"] :: [a] > [[a]] = [[]] = [[]] ++ map (x:) (inits xs) list of all final segments of xs.188 groupBy groupBy eq [] groupBy eq (x:xs) . ys) = mapAccumR f s xs :: (b > Maybe (a. []) = (s’’. ["". ["abc". "bc".tails xs returns the .
genericDrop: negative argument" :: (Integral a) => a > [b] > ([b].17.genericSplitAt: negative argument" genericSplitAt (n1) xs .[]) = = = (x:xs’. LIBRARY LIST insertBy :: (a > a > insertBy cmp x [] = [x] insertBy cmp x ys@(y:ys’) = case cmp x GT > _ > maximumBy maximumBy cmp [] maximumBy cmp xs Ordering) > a > [a] > [a] 189 y of y : insertBy cmp x ys’ x : ys :: (a > a > Ordering) > [a] > a = error "List.[b]) = ([].xs’’) error "List.genericTake: negative argument" minimumBy minimumBy cmp [] minimumBy cmp xs genericLength genericLength [] genericLength (x:xs) genericTake genericTake _ [] genericTake 0 _ genericTake n (x:xs)  n > 0  otherwise genericDrop genericDrop 0 xs genericDrop _ [] genericDrop n (_:xs)  n > 0  otherwise genericSplitAt genericSplitAt 0 xs genericSplitAt _ [] genericSplitAt n (x:xs)  n > 0  otherwise where (xs’.xs) = ([].minimumBy: empty list" = foldl1 min xs where min x y = case cmp x y of GT > y _ > x :: (Integral a) => [b] > a = 0 = 1 + genericLength xs :: (Integral a) => a > [b] > [b] = [] = [] = = x : genericTake (n1) xs error "List.xs’’) :: (Integral a) => a > [b] > [b] = xs = [] = = genericDrop (n1) xs error "List.9.maximumBy: empty list" = foldl1 max xs where max x y = case cmp x y of GT > x _ > y :: (a > a > Ordering) > [a] > a = error "List.
.b..b.c.) :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [e] > [f] > [g] > [(a.c.[].genericIndex: negative argument" error "List.[d]) = foldr (\(a...d.d)] > ([a].) :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [e] > [(a... LIST UTILITIES :: (Integral a) => [b] > a > b = x = = = genericIndex xs (n1) error "List.genericIndex: index too large" :: (Integral a) => a > b > [b] = genericTake n (repeat x) :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [(a.e)] = zipWith5 (.b.c.bs.c:cs..c.c.c.d..[]) zipWith7 zipWith6 .d)] = zipWith4 (..e.b..[c].b.cs.d) ˜(as.f)] = zipWith6 (...190 genericIndex genericIndex (x:_) 0 genericIndex (_:xs) n  n > 0  otherwise genericIndex _ _ genericReplicate genericReplicate n x zip4 zip4 zip5 zip5 zip6 zip6 zip7 zip7 CHAPTER 17..g)] = zipWith7 (.d:ds)) ([].e.) :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [e] > [f] > [(a.[].f.) zipWith4 :: (a>b>c>d>e) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e] zipWith4 z (a:as) (b:bs) (c:cs) (d:ds) = z a b c d : zipWith4 z as bs cs ds zipWith4 _ _ _ _ _ = [] zipWith5 :: (a>b>c>d>e>f) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e]>[f] zipWith5 z (a:as) (b:bs) (c:cs) (d:ds) (e:es) = z a b c d e : zipWith5 z as bs cs ds es zipWith5 _ _ _ _ _ _ = [] :: (a>b>c>d>e>f>g) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e]>[f]>[g] zipWith6 z (a:as) (b:bs) (c:cs) (d:ds) (e:es) (f:fs) = z a b c d e f : zipWith6 z as bs cs ds es fs zipWith6 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ = [] :: (a>b>c>d>e>f>g>h) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e]>[f]>[g]>[h] zipWith7 z (a:as) (b:bs) (c:cs) (d:ds) (e:es) (f:fs) (g:gs) = z a b c d e f g : zipWith7 z as bs cs ds es fs gs zipWith7 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ = [] unzip4 unzip4 :: [(a.[b].b.b:bs..ds) > (a:as.d.
e) ˜(as.[c].[b].[c].f.e.c.[f].[]) :: [(a.c.d:ds.b:bs.g:gs)) ([].bs.[e].f:fs.[].cs.b:bs.b.bs.[].[f]) = foldr (\(a.[b].f.c:cs.c:cs.d.f:fs)) ([].c.[d].b.[c].d.[].ds.g) ˜(as.[].b.es) > (a:as.e.[].e:es.d:ds.d.d:ds.[].b.c:cs.9.cs.es.[e]) = foldr (\(a.17.c.e.c.b:bs.d.e.[].[].[e].[d].f) ˜(as.[b].ds.bs.es. LIBRARY LIST unzip5 unzip5 :: [(a.fs.c.e:es.d.b.[g]) = foldr (\(a.[].e:es)) ([].d.[]) 191 unzip6 unzip6 :: [(a.[d].[].g)] > ([a].cs.[].b.ds.f)] > ([a].[].[]) unzip7 unzip7 .gs) > (a:as.fs) > (a:as.e)] > ([a].
192 CHAPTER 17. LIST UTILITIES .
isNothing fromJust fromMaybe listToMaybe maybeToList catMaybes mapMaybe :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Maybe a > Bool Maybe a > a a > Maybe a > a [a] > Maybe a Maybe a > [a] [Maybe a] > [a] (a > Maybe b) > [a] > [b] The type constructor Maybe is deﬁned in Prelude as data Maybe a = Nothing  Just a The purpose of the Maybe type is to provide a method of dealing with illegal or optional values without terminating the program. an incorrect result is returned as Nothing. mapMaybe.. fromMaybe. catMaybes.. Other operations on Maybe are provided as part of the monadic classes in the Prelude. maybe ) where isJust.and what the Prelude exports Maybe(Nothing. as would happen if error were used.. listToMaybe. fromJust. maybeToList. A correct result is encapsulated by wrapping it in Just.Chapter 18 Maybe Utilities module Maybe( isJust. isNothing. which would cause the expression to become monadic. . 193 . Just). and without using IOError from the IO monad.
isJust :: Maybe a > a = a = error "Maybe. catMaybes. isNothing. fromMaybe.1 Library Maybe module Maybe( isJust. maybe ) where isJust isJust (Just a) isJust Nothing isNothing isNothing fromJust fromJust (Just a) fromJust Nothing fromMaybe fromMaybe d Nothing fromMaybe d (Just a) maybeToList maybeToList Nothing maybeToList (Just a) listToMaybe listToMaybe [] listToMaybe (a:_) catMaybes catMaybes ms mapMaybe mapMaybe f :: Maybe a > Bool = True = False :: Maybe a > Bool = not . Just).. maybeToList. listToMaybe. .fromJust: Nothing" :: a > Maybe a > a = d = a :: Maybe a > [a] = [] = [a] :: [a] > Maybe a = Nothing = Just a :: [Maybe a] > [a] = [ m  Just m <.. mapMaybe.. fromJust.194 CHAPTER 18. MAYBE UTILITIES 18.and what the Prelude exports Maybe(Nothing.ms ] :: (a > Maybe b) > [a] > [b] = catMaybes . map f .
isHexDigit. isOctDigit. The ﬁrst 128 entries of this character set are identical to the ASCII set. isControl. isLatin1. isControl. . toLower :: Char > Char digitToInt :: Char > Int intToDigit :: Int > Char ord chr :: Char > Int :: Int > Char lexLitChar :: ReadS String readLitChar :: ReadS Char showLitChar :: Char > ShowS This library provides a limited set of operations on the Unicode character set. isSpace. isAlpha. numeric digits. isSpace. Unicode characters may be divided into ﬁve general categories: nonprinting. isLower. toUpper. isAlphaNum. readLitChar. isAlpha. intToDigit. the full set of Unicode character attributes is not accessible in this library. isDigit. lexLitChar. isAlphaNum :: Char > Bool toUpper. other alphabetic. and other printable characters. isLatin1.. isHexDigit. ord. toLower.. isPrint. digitToInt. isDigit. any 195 .. For the purposes of Haskell.and what the Prelude exports Char. isLower. isOctDigit. isPrint. lower case alphabetic. isUpper. isUpper. with the next 128 entries comes the remainder of the Latin1 character set. showLitChar. This module offers only a limited view of the full Unicode character set. String ) where isAscii.Chapter 19 Character Utilities module Char ( isAscii. chr.
e. toLower converts a letter to the corresponding lowercase letter. returning the sequence of characters that encode the character. The function lexLitChar does the reverse.. leaving any other character unchanged. Any Unicode letter which has an uppercase equivalent is transformed. The ord and chr functions are fromEnum and toEnum restricted to the type Char. "Hello")] [(’\n’. intToDigit and digitToInt convert between a single digit Char and the corresponding Int. but in addition converts the to the character that it encodes. ’A’. using Haskell sourcelanguage escape conventions. isOctDigit. intToDigit fails unless its argument is in the range 0. Similarly. The function showLitChar converts a character to a string using only printable characters. For each sort of Unicode character. here are the predicates which return True: Character Type Lower Case Alphabetic Other Alphabetic Digits Other Printable Nonprinting Predicates isPrint isPrint isPrint isPrint isAlphaNum isAlphaNum isAlphaNum isAlpha isAlpha isLower isUpper The isDigit. digitToInt operates fails unless its argument satisﬁes isHexDigit. and isHexDigit functions select only ASCII characters.’F’). ’0’. ’a’. and title).. ..196 CHAPTER 19. but recognises both upper and lowercase hexadecimal digits (i. lower.15.’f’. leaving any other character unchanged. and generates lowercase hexadecimal digits.’9’. "Hello")] Function toUpper converts a letter to the corresponding uppercase letter. CHARACTER UTILITIES alphabetic character which is not lower case is treated as upper case (Unicode actually has three cases: upper. The isSpace function recognizes only white characters in the Latin1 range. Numeric digits may be part of identiﬁers but digits outside the ASCII range are not used by the reader to represent numbers. The function readLitChar does the same.. For example: showLitChar ’\n’ s lexLitChar "\\nHello" readLitChar "\\nHello" = = = "\\n" ++ s [("\\n".
isLatin1.. lexDigits..fromEnum ’A’ + 10  otherwise = error "Char. String ) where import Array . isHexDigit. isOctDigit. readLitChar. isAlpha.fromEnum ’a’ + 10  c >= ’A’ && c <= ’F’ = fromEnum c . isDigit. isHexDigit. lexLitChar.Digit conversion operations digitToInt :: Char > Int digitToInt c  isDigit c = fromEnum c ..’A’.19. . isSpace.’a’. isLower.and what the Prelude exports Char. isAlphaNum :: Char > Bool isAscii c isLatin1 c isControl c isPrint = = = = c < ’\x80’ c <= ’\xff’ c < ’ ’  c >= ’\DEL’ && c <= ’\x9f’ primUnicodeIsPrint isSpace c = c ‘elem‘ " \t\n\r\f\v\xA0" . isAlpha. isPrint.Only Latin1 spaces recognized isUpper isLower isAlpha c isDigit c isOctDigit c isHexDigit c isAlphaNum = = = = = = = primUnicodeIsUpper primUnicodeIsLower .digitToInt: not a digit" . toLower. isUpper. isControl.1 Library Char module Char ( isAscii. isDigit. isSpace. isLower.fromEnum ’0’  c >= ’a’ && c <= ’f’ = fromEnum c . isOctDigit. isLatin1..’Z’ . showLitChar. isPrint. digitToInt. readHex) import UnicodePrims .’z’ isUpper c  isLower c c >= ’0’ && c <= ’9’ c >= ’0’ && c <= ’7’ isDigit c  c >= ’A’ && c <= ’F’  c >= ’a’ && c <= ’f’ primUnicodeIsAlphaNum . isControl. . isUpper. ord.1. readOct.Used for character name table. LIBRARY CHAR 197 19. isAlphaNum.Source of primitive Unicode functions..Charactertesting operations isAscii. import Numeric (readDec. intToDigit. chr. toUpper.
s’) <. s)] s@(d:_)  isDigit d = [(chr n. t)  (n.readOct s] (’x’:s) = [(chr n.s’)  (c. t)  (n. "DEL") : assocs asciiTab in case [(c.[match mne s]] of (pr:_) > [pr] [] > [] _ = [] :: (Eq a) => [a] > [a] > ([a].t) <.s)] (’f’:s) = [(’\f’.readHex s] s@(c:_)  isUpper c = let table = (’\DEL’.Text functions readLitChar :: ReadS Char readLitChar (’\\’:s) = readEsc s readLitChar (c:s) = [(c.s)] (’ˆ’:c:s)  c >= ’@’ && c <= ’_’ = [(chr (ord c .s)] (’\’’:s) = [(’\’’.t) <.s)] (’v’:s) = [(’\v’.s)] (’r’:s) = [(’\r’.s)] (’"’:s) = [(’"’.s)] (’t’:s) = [(’\t’.table.[a]) = match xs ys = (xs.s)] readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc :: ReadS Char (’a’:s) = [(’\a’. mne) <.s)] (’n’:s) = [(’\n’. t)  (n.s)] (’b’:s) = [(’\b’.t) <.198 intToDigit :: Int > Char intToDigit i  i >= 0 && i <= 9 =  i >= 10 && i <= 15 =  otherwise = CHAPTER 19. CHARACTER UTILITIES toEnum (fromEnum ’0’ + i) toEnum (fromEnum ’a’ + i .s)] (’\\’:s) = [(’\\’.Character code functions ord :: Char > Int ord = fromEnum chr chr :: Int > Char = toEnum . ([].10) error "Char.Casechanging operations toUpper :: Char > Char toUpper = primUnicodeToUpper toLower :: Char > Char toLower = primUnicodeToLower .intToDigit: not a digit" .readDec s] (’o’:s) = [(chr n.ord ’@’).ys) readEsc match match (x:xs) (y:ys)  x == y match xs ys .
"HT". "CAN". lexEsc s@(c:_)  isUpper c = [span isCharName s] lexEsc _ = [] isCharName c = isUpper c  isDigit c prefix c (t. "SI". "BS". cont where cont cont asciiTab = listArray (’\NUL’.Very crude approximation to \XYZ. s) lexLitChar (c:s) lexLitChar "" = = [([c].s)] . "FF".c]. "SO". "DC4". "ESC". "DC1". "SOH".s)] lexEsc (’ˆ’:c:s)  c >= ’@’ && c <= ’_’ = [([’ˆ’.19. "ENQ". "GS".Numeric escapes lexEsc (’o’:s) = [prefix ’o’ (span isOctDigit s)] lexEsc (’x’:s) = [prefix ’x’ (span isHexDigit s)] lexEsc s@(d:_)  isDigit d = [span isDigit s] .s) = (c:t. "VT". "DLE". "DC2". "US". 199 lexLitChar :: ReadS String lexLitChar (’\\’:s) = map (prefix ’\\’) (lexEsc s) where lexEsc (c:s)  c ‘elem‘ "abfnrtv\\\"’" = [([c]. "FS".s)] [] . "ACK". LIBRARY CHAR showLitChar :: Char > ShowS showLitChar c  c > ’\DEL’ = showChar ’\\’ . "BEL". "ETX". "SP"] s@(c:_)  p c = "\\&" ++ s s = s "EOT". "SUB". protectEsc isDigit (shows (ord c)) showLitChar ’\DEL’ = showString "\\DEL" showLitChar ’\\’ = showString "\\\\" showLitChar c  c >= ’ ’ = showChar c showLitChar ’\a’ = showString "\\a" showLitChar ’\b’ = showString "\\b" showLitChar ’\f’ = showString "\\f" showLitChar ’\n’ = showString "\\n" showLitChar ’\r’ = showString "\\r" showLitChar ’\t’ = showString "\\t" showLitChar ’\v’ = showString "\\v" showLitChar ’\SO’ = protectEsc (== ’H’) (showString "\\SO") showLitChar c = showString (’\\’ : asciiTab!c) protectEsc p f = f . "NAK". "LF". "DC3". "RS". "EM". "STX".1. "ETB". "SYN". ’ ’) ["NUL". "CR".
CHARACTER UTILITIES .200 CHAPTER 19.
201 .
foldM. fail). msum. (=<<). guard. Functor(fmap). liftM5.and what the Prelude exports Monad((>>=). ) where class Monad m => MonadPlus m where mzero :: m a mplus :: m a > m a > m a join guard when unless ap mapAndUnzipM zipWithM zipWithM_ foldM filterM msum liftM liftM2 liftM3 liftM4 liftM5 :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Monad m => m (m a) > m a MonadPlus m => Bool > m () Monad m => Bool > m () > m () Monad m => Bool > m () > m () Monad m => m (a > b) > m a > m b Monad Monad Monad Monad Monad m m m m m => => => => => (a (a (a (a (a > > > > > m b b b m (b. liftM. mplus). . mapM. > m c) > [a] > [b] > > m c) > [a] > [b] > > m a) > a > [b] > m Bool) > [a] > m [a] [c]) m [c] m () a :: MonadPlus m => [m a] > m a :: Monad m => (a > b) > (m a > m b) :: Monad m => (a > b > c) > (m a > m b :: Monad m => (a > b > c > d) > (m a > m b > m c > m d) :: Monad m => (a > b > c > d > e) > (m a > m b > m c > m d > :: Monad m => (a > b > c > d > e > f) (m a > m b > m c > m d > > m c) m e) > m e > m f) . zipWithM. join.. MONAD UTILITIES Chapter 20 Monad Utilities module Monad ( MonadPlus(mzero. unless. ap. when. liftM2. mapM_. mapAndUnzipM. sequence_. filterM..202 CHAPTER 20.. return. liftM4. (>>). zipWithM_. liftM3.c)) > [a] > m ([b]. sequence.
2 Class MonadPlus The MonadPlus class is deﬁned as follows: class Monad m => MonadPlus m where mzero :: m a mplus :: m a > m a > m a The class methods mzero and mplus are the zero and plus of the monad. thus: instance MonadPlus Maybe where mzero = Nothing Nothing ‘mplus‘ ys = ys xs ‘mplus‘ ys = xs instance MonadPlus [] mzero = [] mplus = (++) where . for example: sum :: Num a => [a] > a msum :: MonadPlus m => [m a] > m a 20.1 Naming conventions The functions in this library use the following naming conventions: A postﬁx “M” always stands for a function in the Kleisli category: m is added to function results (modulo currying) and nowhere else. for example. Thus. NAMING CONVENTIONS 203 The Monad library deﬁnes the MonadPlus class. filter :: (a > Bool) > [a] > [a] filterM :: Monad m => (a > m Bool) > [a] > m [a] A postﬁx “_” changes the result type from (m a) to (m ()). Lists and the Maybe type are instances of MonadPlus. and provides some useful operations on monads. 20. So. Thus (in the Prelude): sequence :: Monad m => [m a] > m [a] sequence_ :: Monad m => [m a] > m () A preﬁx “m” generalises an existing function to a monadic form.20.1.
The when and unless functions provide conditional execution of monadic expressions. x2. the input list should be reversed. MONAD UTILITIES 20.. The monadic lifting operators promote a function to a monad. . putStr ": ". For example. This could be an issue where (>>) and the “folded function” are not commutative.3 Functions The join function is the conventional monad join operator.readFile nm zipWithM_ (\i line > do putStr (show i). For instance the following function displays a ﬁle. returning the result as a pair of lists. xm ] == do a2 <.. Note that foldM works from lefttoright over the list arguments.2.f a1 x1 a3 <.. The mapAndUnzipM function maps its ﬁrst argument over a list.. liftM2 (+) [0. It is used to remove one level of monadic structure.204 CHAPTER 20. and otherwise do nothing.] (lines cts) The foldM function is analogous to foldl. .f a2 x2 . The function arguments are scanned left to right. foldM f a1 [x1. This function is mainly used with complicated data structures or a statetransforming monad.1] [0.. the liftM operations can be replaced by uses of ap. projecting its bound argument into the outer level. listFile :: String > IO () listFile nm = do cts <.3] liftM2 (+) (Just 1) Nothing = Nothing In many situations. when debug (putStr "Debugging\n") will output the string "Debugging\n" if the Boolean value debug is True. putStrLn line) [1.. For example. preﬁxing each line with its line number. The zipWithM function generalises zipWith to arbitrary monads. except that its result is encapsulated in a monad. which promotes function application.1.2] = [0. f am xm If righttoleft evaluation is required.
. ‘ap‘ xn is equivalent to liftMn f x1 x2 .3. FUNCTIONS return f ‘ap‘ x1 ‘ap‘ ...20.. xn 205 .
filterM. join. liftM4. msum..Instances of MonadPlus instance MonadPlus Maybe where mzero = Nothing Nothing ‘mplus‘ ys xs ‘mplus‘ ys instance MonadPlus [] mzero = [] mplus = (++) . fail). ) where . guard. ap. mapAndUnzipM.4 Library Monad module Monad ( MonadPlus(mzero.c)) > [a] > m ([b]. liftM5. mapM_. mplus). zipWithM_. unless. liftM3. liftM2.Functions msum msum xs join join x when when p s unless unless p s ap ap guard guard p :: MonadPlus m => [m a] > m a = foldr mplus mzero xs :: (Monad m) => m (m a) > m a = x >>= id :: (Monad m) => Bool > m () > m () = if p then s else return () :: (Monad m) => Bool > m () > m () = when (not p) s :: (Monad m) => m (a > b) > m a > m b = liftM2 ($) :: MonadPlus m => Bool > m () = if p then return () else mzero = = ys xs where where mapAndUnzipM :: (Monad m) => (a > m (b. sequence_. (=<<). Functor(fmap). [c]) mapAndUnzipM f xs = sequence (map f xs) >>= return . sequence. zipWithM. .and what the Prelude exports Monad((>>=).The MonadPlus class definition class (Monad m) => MonadPlus m mzero :: m a mplus :: m a > m a > m a .. MONAD UTILITIES 20. liftM. mapM. return. unzip . (>>). when..206 CHAPTER 20. foldM.
20.p x. c’ <.e.b. return (if b then (x:ys) else ys) } liftM liftM f liftM2 liftM2 f liftM3 liftM3 f liftM4 liftM4 f liftM5 liftM5 f :: (Monad m) => (a > b) > (m a > m b) = \a > do { a’ <.d. b’ <. b’ <.b.a.4. return (f a’ b’) } :: (Monad m) => (a > b > c > d) > (m a > m b > m c > m d) = \a b c > do { a’ <.c.a. ys <. return (f a’) } :: (Monad m) => (a > b > c) > (m a > m b > m c) = \a b > do { a’ <. return (f a’ b’ c’ d’) } :: (Monad m) => (a > b > c > d > e > f) > (m a > m b > m c > m d > m e > m f) = \a b c d e > do { a’ <.d.b. c’ <. return (f a’ b’ c’) } :: (Monad m) => (a > b > c > d > e) > (m a > m b > m c > m d > m e) = \a b c d > do { a’ <. c’ <. LIBRARY MONAD 207 zipWithM :: (Monad m) => (a > b > m c) > [a] > [b] > m [c] zipWithM f xs ys = sequence (zipWith f xs ys) zipWithM_ :: (Monad m) => (a > b > m c) > [a] > [b] > m () zipWithM_ f xs ys = sequence_ (zipWith f xs ys) foldM :: (Monad m) => (a > b > m a) > a > [b] > m a foldM f a [] = return a foldM f a (x:xs) = f a x >>= \ y > foldM f y xs filterM :: Monad m => (a > m Bool) > [a] > m [a] filterM p [] = return [] filterM p (x:xs) = do { b <.c. b’ <. e’ <.a.b. d’ <. b’ <. d’ <.filterM p xs.c. return (f a’ b’ c’ d’ e’) } .a.a.
208 CHAPTER 20. MONAD UTILITIES .
209 .
bracket_. Ix. hPrint. Bounded. data HandlePosn = . hGetContents. stdin. readLn ) where import Ix(Ix) data Handle = .AppendMode. HandlePosn. Read. ioeGetErrorString. getLine. ioeGetHandle. hIsWritable. hIsOpen. isEOF.. Enum.implementationdependent data SeekMode ReadMode  WriteMode  AppendMode  ReadWriteMode deriving (Eq.implementationdependent . isPermissionError. Ord. Read. ioError. hIsEOF. hWaitForInput.implementationdependent . hClose. hIsReadable.implementationdependent .. readIO. stdout.. FilePath. IOError. writeFile. isAlreadyInUseError. isIllegalOperation. hGetLine. hGetPosn. stderr. putChar.RelativeSeek. Read.. bracket.WriteMode. Ord. print. hFlush. IOMode(ReadMode. instance Eq HandlePosn where . hPutChar. appendFile. isFullError.. putStr. hSetPosn. instance Show HandlePosn where data IOMode data BufferMode = =  = . interact. instance Eq Handle where . INPUT/OUTPUT Chapter 21 Input/Output module IO ( Handle. . hSeek. hLookAhead. hIsClosed. isUserError. hFileSize. Ix. SeekMode(AbsoluteSeek.LineBuffering..210 CHAPTER 21. Bounded. instance Show Handle where . hPutStrLn. Show) NoBuffering  LineBuffering BlockBuffering (Maybe Int) deriving (Eq.BlockBuffering). Show) stdin. BufferMode(NoBuffering..ReadWriteMode). isDoesNotExistError. ioeGetFileName. hGetBuffering.. try. Enum. Show) AbsoluteSeek  RelativeSeek  SeekFromEnd deriving (Eq. hReady. isAlreadyExistsError. hPutStr. readFile. Ord. hGetChar.. userError... isEOFError. openFile. getChar. getContents. stderr :: Handle openFile hClose :: FilePath > IOMode > IO Handle :: Handle > IO () . catch.SeekFromEnd). putStrLn. hSetBuffering. hIsSeekable..and what the Prelude exports IO. stdout.
211 hFileSize hIsEOF isEOF isEOF hSetBuffering hGetBuffering hFlush hGetPosn hSetPosn hSeek hWaitForInput hReady hReady h hGetChar hGetLine hLookAhead hGetContents hPutChar hPutStr hPutStrLn hPrint hIsOpen hIsClosed hIsReadable hIsWritable hIsSeekable isAlreadyExistsError isDoesNotExistError isAlreadyInUseError isFullError isEOFError isIllegalOperation isPermissionError isUserError ioeGetErrorString ioeGetHandle ioeGetFileName try bracket bracket_ :: :: :: = :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: = :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Handle > IO Integer Handle > IO Bool IO Bool hIsEOF stdin Handle > BufferMode > IO () Handle > IO BufferMode Handle > IO () Handle > IO HandlePosn HandlePosn > IO () Handle > SeekMode > Integer > IO () Handle > Int > IO Bool Handle > IO Bool hWaitForInput h 0 Handle > IO Char Handle > IO String Handle > IO Char Handle > IO String Handle > Char > IO () Handle > String > IO () Handle > String > IO () Show a => Handle > a > IO () Handle Handle Handle Handle Handle > > > > > IO IO IO IO IO Bool Bool Bool Bool Bool IOError IOError IOError IOError IOError IOError IOError IOError > > > > > > > > Bool Bool Bool Bool Bool Bool Bool Bool :: IOError > String :: IOError > Maybe Handle :: IOError > Maybe FilePath :: IO a > IO (Either IOError a) :: IO a > (a > IO b) > (a > IO c) > IO c :: IO a > (a > IO b) > IO c > IO c The monadic I/O system used in Haskell is described by the Haskell language report. Some related operations on ﬁle systems . Commonly used I/O functions such as print are part of the standard prelude and need not be explicitly imported. This library contain more advanced I/O features.
The bracket function captures a common allocate. and Nothing otherwise. This is an abstract type.1 I/O Errors Errors of type IOError are used by the I/O monad. The try function returns an error in a computation explicitly using the Either type. and ioeGetErrorString which returns a string. the library provides functions to interrogate and construct values in IOError: isAlreadyExistsError – the operation failed because one of its arguments already exists. isFullError – the operation failed because the device is full. Additional errors which could be raised by an implementation are listed after the corresponding operation. opening the same ﬁle twice for writing might give this error). isDoesNotExistError – the operation failed because one of its arguments does not exist. ioeGetFileName which returns Just if the error value refers to ﬁle . an implementation will not be able to distinguish between the possible error causes. which is already being used (for example. CHAPTER 21. These are ioeGetHandle which returns Just if the error value refers to handle and Nothing otherwise. for all other errors. Three additional functions are provided to obtain information about an error value. isUserError – a programmerdeﬁned error value has been raised using fail. 4 ¦ ¢ 7 ¦ ¥ 4 ¦ ¢ 7 ¦ ¥ . In some cases. and False otherwise. the string is implementationdependent. isEOFError – the operation failed because the end of ﬁle has been reached.212 are contained in the Directory library. For “user” errors (those which are raised using fail). isPermissionError – the operation failed because the user does not have sufﬁcient operating system privilege to perform that operation. In this case it should return isIllegalOperation. the string returned by ioeGetErrorString is the argument that was passed to fail. All these functions return a Bool. which is True if its argument is the corresponding kind of error. This is similar to trycatchﬁnally in Java. deallocate idiom in which the deallocation step must occur even in the case of an error during computation. Any computation which returns an IO result may fail with isIllegalOperation. INPUT/OUTPUT 21. compute. isAlreadyInUseError – the operation failed because one of its arguments is a singleuse resource. isIllegalOperation – the operation is not possible.
or enabled on a line or block basis. Once it is closed it can no longer be used for either input or output. For simplicity. A handle has at least the following properties: whether it manages input or output or both.2. Each value of this type is a handle: a record used by the Haskell runtime system to manage I/O with ﬁle system objects.2 Files and Handles Haskell interfaces to the external world through an abstract ﬁle system. A handle is equal according to == only to itself. A handle is readable if it manages only input or both input and output. The string produced by showing a handle is system dependent. whether buffering is disabled. . whether the object is seekable. Files can be opened. FILES AND HANDLES 213 21. likewise. it is writable if it manages only output or both input and output. Handles are in the Show and Eq classes. no attempt is made to compare the internal state of different handles for equality. yielding a handle which can then be used to operate on the contents of that ﬁle. File and directory names are values of type String. which may be organised in directories (see Directory).2. These handles are initially open. any nondirectory ﬁle system object is termed a ﬁle. and normally reside on disk. closed or semiclosed. ordered ﬁles. Physical ﬁles are persistent. In some implementations. whether it is open. directories may themselves be ﬁle system objects and could be entries in other directories. represented by values of type Handle. it should include enough information to identify the handle for debugging. Haskell deﬁnes operations to read and write characters from and to ﬁles. This ﬁle system is a collection of named ﬁle system objects. The third (stderr) manages output to the standard error channel. or any other object recognised by the operating system. whose precise meaning is operating system dependent.21. The ﬁrst two (stdin and stdout) manage input or output from the Haskell program’s standard input or output channel respectively.1 Standard Handles Three handles are allocated during program initialisation. a buffer (whose length may be zero). though an implementation cannot reuse its storage while references remain to it. 21. Most handles will also have a current I/O position indicating where the next input or output operation will occur. although it could in fact be a communication channel. A handle is open when ﬁrst allocated.
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21.2.2 SemiClosed Handles
The operation hGetContents (Section 21.9.4) puts a handle into an intermediate state, semiclosed. In this state, is effectively closed, but items are read from on demand and accumulated in a special list returned by hGetContents . Any operation that fails because a handle is closed, also fails if a handle is semiclosed. The only exception is hClose. A semiclosed handle becomes closed: if hClose is applied to it;
if an I/O error occurs when reading an item from the handle;
or once the entire contents of the handle has been read.
Once a semiclosed handle becomes closed, the contents of the associated list becomes ﬁxed. The contents of this ﬁnal list is only partially speciﬁed: it will contain at least all the items of the stream that were evaluated prior to the handle becoming closed. Any I/O errors encountered while a handle is semiclosed are simply discarded.
21.2.3 File locking
Implementations should enforce as far as possible, at least locally to the Haskell process, multiplereader singlewriter locking on ﬁles. That is, there may either be many handles on the same ﬁle which manage input, or just one handle on the ﬁle which manages output. If any open or semiclosed handle is managing a ﬁle for output, no new handle can be allocated for that ﬁle. If any open or semiclosed handle is managing a ﬁle for input, new handles can only be allocated if they do not manage output. Whether two ﬁles are the same is implementationdependent, but they should normally be the same if they have the same absolute path name and neither has been renamed, for example. Warning: the readFile operation (Section 7.1) holds a semiclosed handle on the ﬁle until the entire contents of the ﬁle have been consumed. It follows that an attempt to write to a ﬁle (using writeFile, for example) that was earlier opened by readFile will usually result in failure with isAlreadyInUseError.
21.3 Opening and Closing Files
21.3.1 Opening Files
Computation openFile allocates and returns a new, open handle to manage the ﬁle . It manages input if is ReadMode, output if is WriteMode or AppendMode, and both input and output if mode is ReadWriteMode.
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is If the ﬁle does not exist and it is opened for output, it should be created as a new ﬁle. If WriteMode and the ﬁle already exists, then it should be truncated to zero length. Some operating systems delete empty ﬁles, so there is no guarantee that the ﬁle will exist following an openFile with WriteMode unless it is subsequently written to successfully. The handle is positioned at the end of the ﬁle if is AppendMode, and otherwise at the beginning (in which case its internal I/O position is 0). The initial buffer mode is implementationdependent. If openFile fails on a ﬁle opened for output, the ﬁle may still have been created if it did not already exist. Error reporting: the openFile computation may fail with isAlreadyInUseError if the ﬁle is already open and cannot be reopened; isDoesNotExistError if the ﬁle does not exist; or isPermissionError if the user does not have permission to open the ﬁle.
21.3.2 Closing Files
makes handle closed. Before the computation ﬁnishes, if is Computation hClose writable its buffer is ﬂushed as for hFlush. Performing hClose on a handle that has already been closed has no effect; doing so not an error. All other operations on a closed handle will fail. If hClose fails for any reason, any further operations (apart from hClose) on the handle will still fail as if had been successfully closed.
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21.4 Determining the Size of a File
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For a handle in 8bit bytes (
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returns the size of that ﬁle
21.5 Detecting the End of Input
For a readable handle , computation hIsEOF returns True if no further input can be taken ; for a handle attached to a physical ﬁle this means that the current I/O position is equal from to the length of the ﬁle. Otherwise, it returns False. The computation isEOF is identical, except that it works only on stdin.
¥ ¥
21.6 Buffering Operations
Three kinds of buffering are supported: linebuffering, blockbuffering or nobuffering. These modes have the following effects. For output, items are written out, or ﬂushed, from the internal buffer according to the buffer mode:
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linebuffering: the entire buffer is ﬂushed whenever a newline is output, the buffer overﬂows, a hFlush is issued, or the handle is closed. blockbuffering: the entire buffer is written out whenever it overﬂows, a hFlush is issued, or the handle is closed.
nobuffering: output is written immediately, and never stored in the buffer.
An implementation is free to ﬂush the buffer more frequently, but not less frequently, than speciﬁed above. The buffer is emptied as soon as it has been written out.
¥
Similarly, input occurs according to the buffer mode for handle
linebuffering: when the buffer for is not empty, the next item is obtained from the buffer; otherwise, when the buffer is empty, characters are read into the buffer until the next newline character is encountered or the buffer is full. No characters are available until the newline character is available or the buffer is full.
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blockbuffering: when the buffer for the buffer.
becomes empty, the next block of data is read into
nobuffering: the next input item is read and returned. The hLookAhead operation (Section 21.9.3) implies that even a nobuffered handle may require a onecharacter buffer.
For most implementations, physical ﬁles will normally be blockbuffered and terminals will normally be linebuffered.
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If is BlockBuffering , then blockbuffering is enabled if possible. The size of the buffer is items if is Just and is otherwise implementationdependent.
If the buffer mode is changed from BlockBuffering or LineBuffering to NoBuffering, then
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is writable, the buffer is ﬂushed as for hFlush; is not writable, the contents of the buffer is discarded.
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Computation hSetBuffering reads and writes.
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21.7. REPOSITIONING HANDLES
217
Error reporting: the hSetBuffering computation may fail with isPermissionError if the handle has already been used for reading or writing and the implementation does not allow the buffering mode to be changed.
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Computation hGetBuffering
returns the current buffering mode for
The default buffering mode when a handle is opened is implementationdependent and may depend on the ﬁle system object which is attached to that handle.
21.6.1 Flushing Buffers
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Computation hFlush to the operating system.
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causes any items buffered for output in handle
to be sent immediately
Error reporting: the hFlush computation may fail with: isFullError if the device is full; isPermissionError if a system resource limit would be exceeded. It is unspeciﬁed whether the characters in the buffer are discarded or retained under these circumstances.
21.7 Repositioning Handles
21.7.1 Revisiting an I/O Position
returns the current I/O position of as a value of the abstract type Computation hGetPosn HandlePosn. If a call to hGetPosn returns a position , then computation hSetPosn sets the position of to the position it held at the time of the call to hGetPosn. Error reporting: the hSetPosn computation may fail with: isPermissionError if a system resource limit would be exceeded.
21.7.2 Seeking to a new Position
The offset is given in terms of 8bit bytes. If is block or linebuffered, then seeking to a position which is not in the current buffer will ﬁrst cause any items in the output buffer to be written to the device, and then cause the input buffer
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to be discarded. Some handles may not be seekable (see hIsSeekable), or only support a subset of the possible positioning operations (for instance, it may only be possible to seek to the end of a tape, or to a positive offset from the beginning or current position). It is not possible to set a negative I/O position, or for a physical ﬁle, an I/O position beyond the current endofﬁle. Error reporting: the hSeek computation may fail with: isPermissionError if a system resource limit would be exceeded.
21.8 Handle Properties
The functions hIsOpen, hIsClosed, hIsReadable, hIsWritable and hIsSeekable return information about the properties of a handle. Each of these returns True if the handle has the speciﬁed property, and False otherwise.
21.9 Text Input and Output
Here we deﬁne a standard set of input operations for reading characters and strings from text ﬁles, using handles. Many of these functions are generalizations of Prelude functions. I/O in the Prelude generally uses stdin and stdout; here, handles are explicitly speciﬁed by the I/O operation.
21.9.1 Checking for Input
Computation hWaitForInput waits until input is available on handle . It returns True as soon as input is available on , or False if no input is available within milliseconds.
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Computation hReady .
indicates whether at least one item is available for input from handle
Error reporting: the hWaitForInput and hReady computations fail with isEOFError if the end of ﬁle has been reached.
21.9.2 Reading Input
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Computation hGetChar
reads a character from the ﬁle or channel managed by
Error reporting: the hGetChar computation fails with isEOFError if the end of ﬁle has been reached. The hGetLine computation fails with isEOFError if the end of ﬁle is encountered when reading the ﬁrst character of the line. If hGetLine encounters endofﬁle at any other point while reading in a line, it is treated as a line terminator and the (partial) line is returned.
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Computation hGetLine reads a line from the ﬁle or channel managed by getLine is a shorthand for hGetLine stdin.
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hPutStr and hPrint computations may fail with: isFullError if the device is full.9. which is made semiclosed.10 Examples Here are some simple examples to illustrate Haskell I/O.10. 7 ¦ 7 ¦ 7 ¦ 7 ¦ ¥ 7 ¦ ¥ 7 ¦ 7 ¦ ¥ without removing it 7 ¦ § . EXAMPLES 219 21. blocking until a character is available. 21. ¥ Error reporting: the hLookAhead computation may fail with: isEOFError if the end of ﬁle has been reached.5 Text Output ¥ writes the character to the ﬁle or channel managed by Computation hPutChar acters may be buffered if buffering is enabled for .21. 21.1 Summing Two Numbers This program reads and sums two Integers. the ﬁle or channel managed by given by the shows function to Error reporting: the hPutChar. ¥ © © ¥ Computation hPutStr ¥ writes the string to the ﬁle or channel managed by § .9.9. 21.3 Reading Ahead ¥ Computation hLookAhead returns the next character from handle from the input buffer.10. Computation hPrint writes the string representation of and appends a newline. Char 7 ¦ 7 ¦ ¥ . or isPermissionError if another system resource limit would be exceeded. Error reporting: the hGetContents computation may fail with: isEOFError if the end of ﬁle has been reached. 21.4 Reading The Entire Input 7 ¦ Computation hGetContents of the channel or ﬁle managed by ¥ returns the list of characters corresponding to the unread portion .
the defaulting rule to fix the type of x1.openFile f1 ReadMode h2 <.f2] <. import IO import System import Char( toUpper ) main = do [f1.hGetChar h1 hPutChar h2 (toUpper c) copyFile h1 h2 An equivalent but much shorter version. with all lowercase characters translated to uppercase.10. This version uses characterlevel I/O.220 import IO CHAPTER 21.Providing a type signature avoids reliance on .x2 readNum = readLn 21.hIsEOF h1 if eof then return () else do c <. INPUT/OUTPUT main = do hSetBuffering stdout NoBuffering putStr "Enter an integer: " x1 <.2 Copying Files A simple program to create a copy of a ﬁle.readNum putStr ("Their sum is " ++ show (x1+x2) ++ "\n") where readNum :: IO Integer .getArgs h1 <. using string I/O is: . Note that exactly two arguments must be supplied to the program.readNum putStr "Enter another integer: " x2 <.openFile f2 WriteMode copyFile h1 h2 hClose h1 hClose h2 copyFile h1 h2 = do eof <. This program will not allow a ﬁle to be copied to itself.
21.11.try m after x case rs of Right r > return r Left e > ioError e .f2] <.before rs <.export list omitted } where .actions that IO exports. Left) bracket :: IO a > (a > IO b) > (a > IO c) > IO c bracket before after m = do x <.getArgs s <.Just provide an implementation of the systemindependent .before rs <. LIBRARY IO import System import Char( toUpper ) main = do [f1.readFile f1 writeFile f2 (map toUpper s) 221 21.11 Library IO module IO {.try (m x) after x case rs of Right r > return r Left e > ioError e . try try f :: IO a > IO (Either IOError a) = catch (do r <.f return (Right r)) (return .variant of the above where middle computation doesn’t want x bracket_ :: IO a > (a > IO b) > IO c > IO c bracket_ before after m = do x <.
INPUT/OUTPUT .222 CHAPTER 21.
223 .
executable. . getCurrentDirectory. createDirectory. . searchable :: Bool } instance instance instance instance Eq Ord Read Show Permissions Permissions Permissions Permissions where where where where ...224 CHAPTER 22.. getDirectoryContents. doesFileExist. setCurrentDirectory. renameDirectory. executable. setPermissions. getModificationTime ) where import Time ( ClockTime ) data Permissions = Permissions { readable... doesDirectoryExist. searchable ). DIRECTORY FUNCTIONS Chapter 22 Directory Functions module Directory ( Permissions( Permissions. writable. removeFile.. . writable. removeDirectory. getPermissions.. > > > > > IO () IO () IO () FilePath > IO () FilePath > IO () createDirectory removeDirectory removeFile renameDirectory renameFile getDirectoryContents getCurrentDirectory setCurrentDirectory doesFileExist doesDirectoryExist getPermissions setPermissions getModificationTime :: :: :: :: :: FilePath FilePath FilePath FilePath FilePath :: FilePath > IO [FilePath] :: IO FilePath :: FilePath > IO () :: FilePath > IO Bool :: FilePath > IO Bool :: FilePath > IO Permissions :: FilePath > Permissions > IO () :: FilePath > IO ClockTime . readable. renameFile..
but the constraints must be documented. A conformant implementation need not support renaming directories in all situations (for instance. the ﬁle may not be in use by other processes). renaming to an existing directory.. or isDoesNotExistError if the ﬁle/directory does not exist. Error reporting. It is not legal for an implementation to partially remove a directory unless the entire directory is removed. as described in Section 21.” or “. directory etc. Some entries may be hidden. All such objects should therefore be treated as if they are ﬁles. or may not be in use by other processes). Computation renameFile changes the name of an existing ﬁle system object from to . In some operating systems.225 These functions operate on directories in the ﬁle system. all other permissible errors are described below. There is normally at least one absolute path to each ﬁle system object. in particular. considered to form part of the directory contents. isAlreadyExistsError if the directory already exists. inaccessible. If the directory already exists. it is atomically replaced by the directory. removes an existing directory . Each ﬁle system object is referenced by a path. A directory contains a series of entries. or have some administrative function (for instance. Note that. Error reporting. The removeDirectory and removeFile computations may fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to remove the ﬁle/directory.” under POSIX). removal of the root directory). it is removed as if by removeDirectory. if an implementation does not support an operation it should raise an isIllegalOperation.1. it may also be possible to have paths which are relative to the current directory. “. but all such entries are considered to form part of the directory contents. Any Directory operation could raise an isIllegalOperation. ¦ ¦ 7 2 £ ¦ ¤§ ¦ ¤§ 7 ¦ 2 ¦ which is initially empty. or isDoesNotExistError if the new directory’s parent does not exist. each of which is a named reference to a ﬁle system object (ﬁle. or across different physical devices). the directory has to be empty. Although there may be ﬁle system objects other than ﬁles and directories. The createDirectory computation may fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to create the directory. however. A conformant implementation need not support directory removal in all situations (for instance. Computation renameDirectory changes the name of an existing directory from to . Entries in subdirectories are not. it is atomically replaced by the object. where is Computation removeFile not itself a directory. The implementation may specify additional constraints which must be satisﬁed before a ﬁle can be removed (for instance. removes the directory entry for an existing ﬁle . or as £ ¦ ¦ ¦ 7 7 7 2 2 £ £ ¦ ¦ £ £ ¦ ¦ £ ¦ . The implementation Computation removeDirectory may specify additional constraints which must be satisﬁed before a directory can be removed (for instance.). If the directory is neither the directory nor an alias of the directory. Neither path ¦ ¦ 7 7 2 2 7 7 ¦ 7 2 ¦ 7 ¤§ 2 ¦ ¤§ creates a new directory Computation createDirectory near to empty as the operating system allows. If the object already exists. this library does not distinguish between physical ﬁles and other nondirectory objects.
¦ ¤§ ¤§ ¤§ ¤§ ¦ ¦ Computation getDirectoryContents returned list is named relative to the directory returns a list of all entries in . and False otherwise. The Permissions type is used to record whether certain operations are permissible on a ﬁle/directory. but not to examine the directory contents. A conformant implementation need not support renaming ﬁles in all situations (for instance. doesFile(Directory)Exist.226 CHAPTER 22. setCurrentDirectory may fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to change directory to that speciﬁed. or isDoesNotExistError if the directory does not exist. getCurrentDirectory returns an absolute path to the current directory of the calling process. Error reporting. Error reporting. and False otherwise. setCurrentDirectory the current directory of the calling process to . If the operating system has a notion of current directories. a construct on the following lines must be used. Permissions apply both to ﬁles and directories. respectively. and getModificationTime may fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to access the appropriate information. The renameDirectory and renameFile computations may fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to rename the ﬁle/directory. or if either argument to renameFile is a directory. makeReadable f = do p <. For directories. but the constraints must be documented. get(set)Permissions. but not all permissions. not as an absolute path. the executable ﬁeld will be False. Error reporting. ¦ ¦ . or isDoesNotExistError if the ﬁle/directory does not exist. or isDoesNotExistError if the directory does not exist. The getDirectoryContents and getCurrentDirectory computations may fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to access the directory. getPermissions and setPermissions get and set these permissions. Error reporting. Note that directories may be searchable without being readable. renaming across different physical devices). if permission has been given to use them as part of a path. The operation doesFileExist returns True if the argument ﬁle exists and is not a directory. or isDoesNotExistError if the ﬁle/directory ¤§ If the operating system has a notion of current directories. Note that to change some.getPermissions f setPermissions f (p {readable = True}) The operation doesDirectoryExist returns True if the argument ﬁle exists and is a directory. Each entry in the changes . DIRECTORY FUNCTIONS may refer to an existing directory. and for ﬁles the searchable ﬁeld will be False. The getModificationTime operation returns the clock time at which the ﬁle/directory was last modiﬁed.
. The setPermissions computation may also fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to change the permission for the speciﬁed ﬁle or directory. or isDoesNotExistError if the ﬁle/directory does not exist.227 does not exist.
228 CHAPTER 22. DIRECTORY FUNCTIONS .
Note that. The ExitCode type deﬁnes the exit codes that a program can return. getArgs. Any System operation could raise an isIllegalOperation. exitWith. exitFailure ) where data ExitCode = ExitSuccess  ExitFailure Int deriving (Eq. Ord. as described in Section 21. if an implementation does not support an operation it must raise an isIllegalOperation. In particular. some values of may be prohibited (for instance. Show) getArgs getProgName getEnv system exitWith exitFailure :: :: :: :: :: :: IO [String] IO String String > IO String String > IO ExitCode ExitCode > IO a IO a This library describes the interaction of the program with the operating system. Computation getProgName returns the name of the program as it was invoked. system. and ExitFailure indicates program failure with value . Read. If variable is undeﬁned.Chapter 23 System Functions module System ( ExitCode(ExitSuccess.ExitFailure). getProgName. ExitSuccess indicates successful termination. the isDoesNotExistError exception is raised. Computation getArgs returns a list of the program’s command line arguments (not including the program name).1. The exact interpretation of is operatingsystem dependent. all other permissible errors are described below. 229 ¤ ¢ ¦ ¦ 2 2 ¤ ¢ ¦ 2 ¤ ¢ ¦ 2 . getEnv. Computation getEnv returns the value of the environment variable . 0 on a POSIXcompliant system). in particular.
SYSTEM FUNCTIONS ¦ ¦ Computation exitWith terminates the program. returning to the program’s caller. and ExitFailure to mean that the program encountered a problem from which it ). ¦ returns the exit code produced when the operating system processes 4 7 ¢ § 0 § § S ¢ ¡ ¡ . If a program terminates as a result of calling error or because its value is otherwise determined to be . if any program terminates without calling exitWith explicitly.230 CHAPTER 23. then it is treated identically to the computation exitFailure. The value exitFailure is equal to exitWith (ExitFailure where is implementationdependent. exitWith bypasses the error handling in the I/O monad and cannot be intercepted by catch. The caller may interpret the return code as it wishes. could not recover. it is treated identically to the computation ( >> exitWith ExitSuccess) ‘catch‘ \ _ > exitFailure 7 ¢ § 0 § § S ¢ ¦ 2 ¦ 2 4 Computation system the command . Otherwise. Before the program terminates. but the program should return ExitSuccess to mean normal completion. any open or semiclosed handles are ﬁrst closed.
231 .
June. TimeDiff(TimeDiff.Wednesday. toClockTime. Enum. tdSec :: Int..March. ctTZName. Integer. Bool data CalendarTime = CalendarTime { ctYear ctMonth ctDay. instance Ord ClockTime where . Bounded. tdSec. ctYDay. Day(Sunday. ctTZ..April. tdDay. diffClockTimes. Ord. Read. tdMonth. formatCalendarTime ) where import Ix(Ix) data ClockTime = . tdHour. DATES AND TIMES Chapter 24 Dates and Times module Time ( ClockTime. Read.Implementationdependent data Month = January  February  March  April  May  June  July  August  September  October  November  December deriving (Eq. tdYear. Month.Saturday). Read.October. ctSec ctPicosec ctWDay ctYDay ctTZName ctTZ ctIsDST } deriving (Eq.February. July. Show) . Day.Thursday. tdDay. ctDay. ctMin. Show) data Day = Sunday  Monday  Tuesday  Wednesday  Thursday  Friday  Saturday deriving (Eq. addToClockTime. ctPicosec. CalendarTime(CalendarTime. getClockTime. Ix. tdMin. Ord.232 CHAPTER 24.September. ctIsDST). Read. Bounded. Show) :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Int.November. ctHour. ctWDay. Int. Ix. tdMin. Ord. Int.August. ... ctMin. toCalendarTime. tdPicosec).Tuesday.Monday. ctHour. Ord.. tdHour. toUTCTime. calendarTimeToString. ctYear. tdMonth.May. instance Eq ClockTime where . Enum. String. ctMonth.December). Month(January. Int.Friday.. tdPicosec :: Integer } deriving (Eq. Show) data TimeDiff = TimeDiff { tdYear. ctSec.
including timezone information. Function toCalendarTime converts to a local time. The returns difference may be either positive or negative. Because of this dependence on the local environment. Function getClockTime returns the current time in its internal representation. The expression diffClockTimes the difference between two clock times and as a TimeDiff. The numeric ﬁelds have the following ranges. Value ctYear maxInt ctDay 1 ctHour 0 ctMin 0 ctSec 0 ctPicosec 0 ctYDay 0 ctTZ 89999 Range maxInt 31 23 59 61 365 89999 £ Comments PreGregorian dates are inaccurate The ﬁeld is the name of the time zone. toCalendarTime is in the IO monad. ClockTime is an abstract type.Functions on times getClockTime :: IO ClockTime addToClockTime diffClockTimes toCalendarTime toUTCTime toClockTime calendarTimeToString formatCalendarTime :: TimeDiff > ClockTime > ClockTime :: ClockTime > ClockTime > TimeDiff :: :: :: :: :: ClockTime > IO CalendarTime ClockTime > CalendarTime CalendarTime > ClockTime CalendarTime > String TimeLocale > String > CalendarTime > String The Time library provides standard functionality for clock times. modiﬁed by the timezone and daylight savings time settings in force at the time of conversion. used for the system’s internal clock time. and False otherwise. § § © S§ ¤ § § § t ¢ £ ¦ ¤ § 8¥¥8 8 8¥¥8 8 ¤ ¢ ¤ £ 8¥¥8 8 8¥¥8 8 8¥¥8 8 8¥¥8 8 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 Allows for two Leap Seconds 364 in nonLeap years Variation from UTC in seconds § § ¦ 4 ¢ ¦ E ¡ § . The TimeDiff type records the difference between two clock times in a userreadable way. CalendarTime is a userreadable and manipulable representation of the internal ClockTime type. Clock times may be compared directly or converted to a calendar time CalendarTime for I/O or other manipulations. The expression addToClockTime adds a time difference and a clock time to yield a new clock time.233 . The ﬁeld is True if Daylight Savings Time would be in effect. It follows RFC 1129 in its use of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).
tdPicosec). ctMin.December). toClockTime. and ﬁelds.September. Ix. Show) data Day = Sunday  Monday  Tuesday  Wednesday  Thursday  Friday  Saturday deriving (Eq. tdMin.Thursday. Ix. Day(Sunday. July.234 § CHAPTER 24. ctDay. Ord. Function calendarTimeToString formats calendar times using local conventions and a formatting string. . ctHour.. Bounded.Saturday)..October. toUTCTime.March. formatCalendarTime ) where import Ix(Ix) import Locale(TimeLocale(. tdHour. Month(January. . instance Ord ClockTime where . tdSec.February. ctPicosec.Wednesday. tdYear. instance Eq ClockTime where . tdDay. getClockTime. tdMonth. ctMonth.November. Bounded.. TimeDiff(TimeDiff.August. ctIsDST). . t © S§ 24. ctWDay.. Ord. addToClockTime..Implementationdependent data Month = January  February  March  April  May  June  July  August  September  October  November  December deriving (Eq... Read.Friday.Tuesday.defaultTimeLocale) import Char ( intToDigit ) data ClockTime = . CalendarTime(CalendarTime.June.). ctYDay. Enum. ctYear. diffClockTimes. toClockTime converts into the corresponding internal ClockTime ignoring the contents of the . calendarTimeToString. Read. ctTZ. DATES AND TIMES Function toUTCTime converts into a CalendarTime in standard UTC format. toCalendarTime. ctTZName.Monday.May.April. Show) ¢ £ 4 ¢ E ¡ 7 § § ¢ G § 7 ¢ ( § .1 Library Time module Time ( ClockTime. Enum. ctSec.
. Int. Show) 235 :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Int...Implementationdependent :: CalendarTime > ClockTime = . tdMin. Read. ctMin...24. Int. tdDay. tdPicosec :: Integer } deriving (Eq... Ord. :: ClockTime = . ctSec ctPicosec ctWDay ctYDay ctTZName ctTZ ctIsDST } deriving (Eq. ... tdHour. tdSec :: Int. tdMonth. ctHour.Implementationdependent > CalendarTime . Read. :: ClockTime = .Implementationdependent > IO CalendarTime . > ClockTime > ClockTime . Bool data TimeDiff = TimeDiff { tdYear. :: ClockTime = . String. Int.Implementationdependent :: TimeDiff = ..Implementationdependent > ClockTime > TimeDiff .. LIBRARY TIME data CalendarTime = CalendarTime { ctYear ctMonth ctDay. Ord.Implementationdependent :: CalendarTime > String = formatCalendarTime defaultTimeLocale "%c" .. Month. Integer. .1. Show) getClockTime getClockTime addToClockTime addToClockTime td ct diffClockTimes diffClockTimes ct1 ct2 toCalendarTime toCalendarTime ct toUTCTime toUTCTime ct toClockTime toClockTime cal calendarTimeToString calendarTimeToString :: IO ClockTime = . Day.
DATES AND TIMES formatCalendarTime :: TimeLocale > String > CalendarTime > String formatCalendarTime l fmt ct@(CalendarTime year mon day hour min sec sdec wday yday tzname _ _) = doFmt fmt where doFmt (’%’:c:cs) = decode c ++ doFmt cs doFmt (c:cs) = c : doFmt cs doFmt "" = "" to12 :: Int > Int to12 h = let h’ = h ‘mod‘ 12 in if h’ == 0 then 12 else h’ decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode ’A’ ’a’ ’B’ ’b’ ’h’ ’C’ ’c’ ’D’ ’d’ ’e’ ’H’ ’I’ ’j’ ’k’ ’l’ ’M’ ’m’ ’n’ ’p’ ’R’ ’r’ ’T’ ’t’ ’S’ ’s’ ’U’ ’u’ = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = fst (wDays l !! fromEnum wday) snd (wDays l !! fromEnum wday) fst (months l !! fromEnum mon) snd (months l !! fromEnum mon) snd (months l !! fromEnum mon) show2 (year ‘quot‘ 100) doFmt (dateTimeFmt l) doFmt "%m/%d/%y" show2 day show2’ day show2 hour show2 (to12 hour) show3 yday show2’ hour show2’ (to12 hour) show2 min show2 (fromEnum mon+1) "\n" (if hour < 12 then fst else snd) (amPm l) doFmt "%H:%M" doFmt (time12Fmt l) doFmt "%H:%M:%S" "\t" show2 sec .1 else 6) ‘divMod‘ 7 in show2 (if days >= 4 then . days) = (yday + 7 ..if fromEnum wday > 0 then fromEnum wday . ..fromEnum wday) ‘div‘ 7) show (let n = fromEnum wday in if n == 0 then 7 else n) decode ’V’ = let (week.236 CHAPTER 24.Implementationdependent show2 ((yday + 7 .
LIBRARY TIME week+1 else if week == 0 then 53 else week) decode ’W’ = show2 ((yday + 7 . intToDigit x] else show2 x show3 x = intToDigit (x ‘quot‘ 100) : show2 (x ‘rem‘ 100) 237 .1.24.1 else 6) ‘div‘ 7) decode ’w’ = show (fromEnum wday) decode ’X’ = doFmt (timeFmt l) decode ’x’ = doFmt (dateFmt l) decode ’Y’ = show year decode ’y’ = show2 (year ‘rem‘ 100) decode ’Z’ = tzname decode ’%’ = "%" decode c = [c] show2. show3 :: Int > String show2 x = [intToDigit (x ‘quot‘ 10). show2’.if fromEnum wday > 0 then fromEnum wday . intToDigit (x ‘rem‘ 10)] show2’ x = if x < 10 then [ ’ ’.
238 CHAPTER 24. DATES AND TIMES .
String)].Chapter 25 Locale module Locale(TimeLocale(. String)]. dateTimeFmt. 239 . String). At present. Show) defaultTimeLocale :: TimeLocale full and abbreviated week days full and abbreviated months AM/PM symbols formatting strings The Locale library provides the ability to adapt to local conventions. months :: [(String. dateFmt.. time12Fmt :: String } deriving (Eq. timeFmt. Ord. amPm :: (String. defaultTimeLocale) where data TimeLocale = TimeLocale { wDays :: [(String.). it supports only time and date information as used by calendarTimeToString from the Time library.
240
CHAPTER 25. LOCALE
25.1 Library Locale
module Locale(TimeLocale(..), defaultTimeLocale) where data TimeLocale = TimeLocale { wDays :: [(String, String)], months :: [(String, String)], amPm :: (String, String), dateTimeFmt, dateFmt, timeFmt, time12Fmt :: String } deriving (Eq, Ord, Show) full and abbreviated week days full and abbreviated months AM/PM symbols formatting strings
defaultTimeLocale :: TimeLocale defaultTimeLocale = TimeLocale { wDays = [("Sunday", "Sun"), ("Monday", "Mon"), ("Tuesday", "Tue"), ("Wednesday", "Wed"), ("Thursday", "Thu"), ("Friday", "Fri"), ("Saturday", "Sat")], months = [("January", ("March", ("May", ("July", ("September", ("November", "Jan"), "Mar"), "May"), "Jul"), "Sep"), "Nov"), ("February", ("April", ("June", ("August", ("October", ("December", "Feb"), "Apr"), "Jun"), "Aug"), "Oct"), "Dec")],
amPm = ("AM", "PM"), dateTimeFmt = "%a %b %e %H:%M:%S %Z %Y", dateFmt = "%m/%d/%y", timeFmt = "%H:%M:%S", time12Fmt = "%I:%M:%S %p" }
Chapter 26
CPU Time
module CPUTime ( getCPUTime, cpuTimePrecision ) where getCPUTime cpuTimePrecision :: IO Integer :: Integer
Computation getCPUTime returns the number of picoseconds of CPU time used by the current program. The precision of this result is given by cpuTimePrecision. This is the smallest measurable difference in CPU time that the implementation can record, and is given as an integral number of picoseconds.
241
242
CHAPTER 26. CPU TIME
243
244
CHAPTER 27. RANDOM NUMBERS
Chapter 27
Random Numbers
module Random ( RandomGen(next, split, genRange), StdGen, mkStdGen, Random( random, randomR, randoms, randomRs, randomIO, randomRIO ), getStdRandom, getStdGen, setStdGen, newStdGen ) where  The RandomGen class class RandomGen genRange :: g next :: g split :: g g where > (Int, Int) > (Int, g) > (g, g)
 A standard instance of RandomGen data StdGen = ...  Abstract instance RandomGen StdGen where ... instance Read StdGen where ... instance Show StdGen where ... mkStdGen :: Int > StdGen  The Random class class Random a where randomR :: RandomGen g => (a, a) > g > (a, g) random :: RandomGen g => g > (a, g) randomRs :: RandomGen g => (a, a) > g > [a] randoms :: RandomGen g => g > [a] randomRIO :: (a,a) > IO a randomIO :: IO a instance instance instance instance instance instance Random Random Random Random Random Random Int Integer Float Double Bool Char where where where where where where ... ... ... ... ... ...
 The global random generator newStdGen :: IO StdGen setStdGen :: StdGen > IO () getStdGen :: IO StdGen getStdRandom :: (StdGen > (a, StdGen)) > IO a
That in turn allows an implementation to make a single call to genRange to establish a generator’s range. The library makes it possible to generate repeatable results.maxBound) The genRange operation yields the range of values returned by the generator. but very little work has been done on statistically robust implementations of split ([1. AND THE STDGEN GENERATOR 245 The Random library deals with the common task of pseudorandom number generation. then .4] are the only examples we know of). class RandomGen g where genRange :: g > (Int. . The next operation returns an Int that is uniformly distributed in the range returned by genRange (including both end points). – genRange – If genRange . and hence the value it returns can be determined only by the instance of RandomGen. The library is split into two layers: A core random number generator provides a supply of bits.1 The RandomGen class. This is very useful in functional programs (for example. g) . g) split :: g > (g. or by supplying a seed from some other source. The class Random provides a way to extract particular values from a random number generator. THE RANDOMGEN CLASS. 27. The class RandomGen provides a common interface to such generators. It is required that: The second condition ensures that genRange cannot examine its argument. the Float instance of Random allows one to generate random values of type Float. without being concerned that the generator returned by (say) next might have a different range to the generator passed to next. and a new generator.Default method genRange g = (minBound. and the StdGen generator The class RandomGen provides a common interface to random number generators. ¦ ¡ ¡ .27. or to get different results on each run by using the systeminitialised generator.1.Int) next :: g > (Int. by starting with a speciﬁed initial random number generator. The split operation allows one to obtain two independent random number generators. when passing a random number generator down to recursive calls). For example.
3]. RANDOM NUMBERS The Random library provides one instance of RandomGen. Different argument strings are likely to result in different results. read may be used to map an arbitrary string (not necessarily one produced by show) onto a value of type StdGen. instance Read StdGen where .. instance Show StdGen where . supply their own instances of RandomGen. The function mkStdGen provides an alternative way of producing an initial generator.. The Show/Read instances of StdGen provide a primitive way to save the state of a random number generator. The result of repeatedly using next should be at least as statistically robust as the “Minimal Standard Random Number Generator” described by [2.246 CHAPTER 27. the read instance of StdGen has the following properties: It guarantees to succeed on any string.. split returns g itself and a new generator derived from g. In addition. Implementation warning... of course... Implementations of the above form do not meet the speciﬁcation. but in fact they are both equal to variantOf g.. In general. all we require is that split deliver generators that are (a) not identical and (b) independently robust in the sense just given. A superﬁcially attractive implementation of split is instance RandomGen MyGen where . . mkStdGen :: Int > StdGen The StgGen instance of RandomGen has a genRange of at least 30 bits. by mapping an Int into a generator. variantOf g) Here. . the abstract data type StdGen: data StdGen = ...Abstract instance RandomGen StdGen where . But now consider these two apparentlyindependent generators: g1 = snd (split g) g2 = snd (split (fst (split g))) If split genuinely delivers independent generators (as speciﬁed). It is required that read (show g) == g. Until more is known about implementations of split. It guarantees to consume only a ﬁnite portion of the string. split g = (g. Again. Programmers may. distinct arguments should be likely to produce distinct generators. then g1 and g2 should be independent.
– For Integer... and do not return a new generator... a) > g > [a] randoms :: RandomGen g => g > [a] randomRIO :: (a. the range is (arbitrarily) the range of Int.. the Random class allows the programmer to extract random values of a variety of types: class Random a where randomR :: RandomGen g => (a.g’) = random g randomRs = .2 The Random class With a source of random number supply in hand. randomR takes a range and a random number generator .. . the range is normally the whole type. . together with a new generator. but they may be.a) > IO a randomIO :: IO a . depending on the implementation and the interval. g) random :: RandomGen g => g > (a.similar.. g) randomRs :: RandomGen g => (a. For continuous types there is no requirement that the values and are ever produced. randomRs and randoms. a) > g > (a.2.... . the range is normally the semiclosed interval ¦ ¨ § ¨¥ 2 7 § ¨¥ £ § ¨¥ 2 7 2 7 § ¨¥ 2 7 ... It is unspeciﬁed what happens if . . The plural versions.. produce an inﬁnite list of random values. but does not take a range. . – For bounded types (instances of Bounded.27. . – For fractional types. such as Char).. random does the same as randomR.Default methods randoms g = x : randoms g’ where (x.. randomIO = getStdRandom random randomRIO range = getStdRandom (randomR range) instance instance instance instance instance instance Random Random Random Random Random Random Int Integer Float Double Bool Char where where where where where where .. THE RANDOM CLASS 247 27. and returns a random value uniformly distributed in the closed interval .
and KW Miller. “Distributed random number generation”. and returns the other. . pp11921201.mat. and updates the global generator with the new generator returned by the function. To get deterministic behaviour. held in some global variable maintained by the IO monad. For example. The Web site http://random. updates it with one of the results. “Don’t trust parallel Monte Carlo”. pp8289. 2(2):203212. use setStdGen. StdGen)) > IO a getStdGen and setStdGen get and set the global random number generator. [3] DG Carta. 27.248 CHAPTER 27. implicit.ac. by using the time of day. 33(1). Journal of Functional Programming. rollDice gets a random integer between 1 and 6: rollDice :: IO Int rollDice = getStdRandom (randomR (1.3). respectively. pp8788. for example. April 1992. July 1998.sbg. ACM SIGSIM Simulation Digest 28(1). “Random number generators . getStdRandom uses the supplied function to get a value from the current global random generator. global random number generator of type StdGen. RANDOM NUMBERS The IO versions.at/ is a great source of information. It is initialised automatically in some systemdependent fashion. [4] P Hellekalek. use the global random number generator (see Section 27. [2] SK Park.3 The global random number generator There is a single. Oct 1988.good ones are hard to ﬁnd”. Comm ACM 31(10). newStdGen applies split to the current global random generator. randomRIO and randomIO. Comm ACM. or Linux’s kernel random number generator. “Two fast implementations of the minimal standard random number generator”.6)) References [1] FW Burton and RL Page. setStdGen getStdGen newStdGen getStdRandom :: :: :: :: StdGen > IO () IO StdGen IO StdGen (StdGen > (a. Jan 1990.
NorthHolland Pub. [12] P. January 1995. Jr. Journal of Functional Programming. The Implementation of Functional Programming Languages. Reading. Fax´ n A static semantics for Haskell Journal of Functional Programming. MA. [8] Mark P. [11] Unicode Consortium. Austin. [10] S. Jones. A system of constructor classes: overloading and implicit higherorder polymorphism. e [5] J. 2002. In APL ’81 Conference Proceedings. September 1981. pages 207–212. and J. [9] P. In Proceedings of the 16th ACM Symposium on Principles of Programming Languages. Milner. August 1978. January 1982. Co. Principal type schemes for functional programs. Damas and R. Hudak. pages 60–76. [7] Mark P. In Proceedings of the 9th ACM Symposium on Principles of Programming Languages.B. Englewood Cliffs. Curry and R. December 1969. Amsterdam. May 1996. Penﬁeld. The Unicode Standard. Version 3. Typing Haskell in Haskell. Peyton Jones. Blott.M. Backus. 5(1). Yale University. Can programming be liberated from the von Neumann style? A functional style and its algebra of programs. Combinatory Logic. Jones.L. Wadler and S. 146:29–60. January 1989.. Peterson. Paris. 2000. New Jersey. Albuquerque. The principal type scheme of an object in combinatory logic. How to make ad hoc polymorphism less ad hoc. A gentle introduction to Haskell. [4] KF. Transactions of the American Mathematical Society. Hindley. San Francisco.0.Bibliography [1] J. [2] H. CACM. 1958. J. [6] P.. Addison Wesley. Feys.R. N. pages 248–256. 249 . [3] L. 21(8):613–641. PrenticeHall International. October 1999. Technical Report YALEU/DCS/RR901. Texas. 1987. Haskell Workshop. Fasel. Principal values and branch cuts in complex APL.
250 BIBLIOGRAPHY .
214 application. 187 \. 175. 12 \r. 116 $. see lambda abstraction \&. 9. 233. 104. 153 &&. 109 @. Ordinary index entries are shown in a roman font. 151. 104. 84. 80 (. 80 \\.. 110 %. see irrefutable pattern abbreviated module. 104. 110 ˜. 55. 174. 175–177 /=. 104. 79. 55. 92. 16. 12 \t. 12 \n. 91. 84. 55. 206 apat. 104. 119 ANYseq. 82. 20–23.).. 55. 105 **. 177 acos. 182 \a. 90. 45. 119 alt. 55. 81. 142 >. 90. 12 . see also negation . 109 ˆˆ. 55. 115. 104. 88. 142 <=. 80 :+. 106 //. 93. 17. 55. see also + pattern ++. 156 ::. 177 !!. 106 acosh. 97. 142 >=. 81. 104. 51. 44. 79. 104. see wildcard pattern . 88.Index font. 104. 55. 91. 110 /. 141 all. 12 \\. 82. 230 ˆ. 55. 55. 110 $!. 139 ambiguous type. 174. see trivial type and unit expression *. 66 abs. 92. 55. 91. 217 abstract datatype. 90. 109 _. see aspattern [] (nil). 173. 104. 104. 109 ==. 104. 110 (. 104. 55. 80 (). Code Index entries that refer to nonterminals in the Haskell syntax are shown in an entities are shown in typewriter font. 115 . 105 AbsoluteSeek. 76 accum. 104. 91. 106 +. 12 \f. 151. 104. 126 AppendMode. 104. 173. 92. 176. 153 251 § 7 3¢ §§ ¢ ¦ . 88. 91. 140 appendFile. 55. 55. 55. 91. 92. 90. 62 and. 55.). 139 algebraic datatype. 9. 55. 91. 55. 25. 55. 91. see function application operator. 84. 97. 67. 129 ap. 139 alts. 104. 173. 235 aexp. see operator application approxRational. 142 :. 129 any. 142 =<<. !. 104. 104. 12 \v. 104. 186. 25. 91. 180. 55. 109 >>=. 19 function. 119 ANY. 91. 31. 177 accumArray. 84. 81. 173. 43. 105. 105. 202. 12 \b. 142 >>. 97. 30 <. 129 any. 55. 155. 106 addToClockTime. 104. 9. 55.
25 INDEX catch. 137 class assertion. 195. 47. 155. 48 class environment. 80 Array (datatype). 12. 104. 142 Complex (module). 230 catMaybes. 129 closing a ﬁle. 93. 155. 226 Char (datatype). 129 ascSmall. 79 Bounded (class). 176 array. 118 btype. 79. 156 class. 130 character. 89. 173 accumulated. 137 basic input/output. 161. 106 assocs. 12. 221 break. see pattern binding simple pattern. 221 bracket_. 91. 38. 11. 125. 114 atan. 195. 12 character set ASCII. 129 ascii. 136 cntrl. 98. see transparent character set charesc. 211. see ASCII character set transparent. 140 concat. 93 comment. 40. 235 case expression.252 arithmetic operator. 197. see simple pattern binding body. 234 closecom. 9. 173. 69. 33 ascDigit. 176. 137 BufferMode (datatype). see function binding pattern. 84. 130 chr. 42 class method. 48. 215 closure. 38. 12. 106 atan2. 9 endofline. 177 aspattern (@). 93. 7 ascLarge. 51. 66. 91. 137 cdecls. 173. 37 function. 12. 121. 174. 143 instance for Char. 235 calendarTimeToString. 232. 74 cname. 18. 9. 234 char. 129 asin. 9 nested. 9 comment. 155. 110 boolean. 47 class. 91. 92. 18. 156 con. 174 derived. 21 conid. 233. 106 asinh. 198 cis. 177 bracket. 47. 107 changing the directory. 130 ASCII character set. 174. 17. 194 cdecl. 9. 140 . 79. 23. 129 compare. 38. 38. 156 conop. 49 clock time. 40. 9. 41 class declaration. 67 with an empty where part. 210 CalendarTime (datatype). 108 atanh. 9. 10. 9. 79 literal syntax. 193. 174. 105 derived instance. 177 asTypeOf. 95 binding. 111 bounds. 174 Array (module). 31. 110 Char (module). 39. 90 arithmetic sequence. 211. 136 Bool (datatype). 41. 232 ClockTime (datatype). 130 conjugate. 91. 17. 129 ascSymbol. 115 concatMap. 173. 173. 232. 197 array. 137 ceiling. 161. 115 conditional expression. 106 atype. 47. 92. 130 coercion.
137 decodeFloat. 111 elem. 41 context. 81. 138 constrs. 117 dashes. 240 Day (datatype). 225 creating a ﬁle. see also instance declaration deriving. 93 CPU time. 108 . 91. 232. 232. 118 e. 10. 197 directories. 240 delete. 51. 26. 138 decimal. 182. see ﬁxity declaration import. 106 divMod. 235 current directory. 89. 24 within an instance declaration. see newtype declaration dateFmt. 213. 43 datatype. 224 Directory (module). see instance declaration within a class declaration. 43 data declaration. 184. see class declaration datatype. 48. 91. 38 constructor expression. 241 CPUTime (module). 81. 187 deleting directories. 9. 104. 37 class. 92. 43. 224 div. 182. 106 do expression. 233. 180. 114 Curry. 232. 174. 145 default declaration. 91. see default declaration 253 ﬁxity. 41. 137 declaration. see data declaration default. 93. see algebraic datatype declaration. 106 cosine. 224 Double (datatype). 224 doesFileExist. 232. 91. 180. 232. 90. 92. 108 default class method. 55. 111 either. 110 constr. 186 elemIndices. 187 deleteBy. 182. 177 encodeFloat. 239. 163 doesDirectoryExist. 92. 43. 50. 186 elems. 106 cosh. 141. 58 derived instance. 43. 80. 241 cpuTimePrecision. 180. 138 diffClockTimes. 180. 234 dclass. 43. 129 digitToInt. 55.INDEX const. 240 dateTimeFmt. 184. 239. 138 constructor class. 224. 40 consym. 241 createDirectory. 49 declaration group. 235 ctIsDST. vii cycle. 235 ctMin. 214 ctDay. 129 data constructor. 9. 226 curry. 239. 97 doDiv. 180. 225 denominator. see import declaration instance. 38. 112 drop. Haskell B. 56. 173. 130 context. see data declaration recursive. 58 decls. 119 elemIndex. 43 abstract. 93. 153 dependency analysis. 225 deleting ﬁles. 27. see abstract datatype algebraic. 38. 235 ctHour. 47 within a let expression. 195. see recursive datatype renaming. 81. 137 context reduction. 187 deleteFirstsBy. 115.. 151. 167 Either (datatype). 118 dropWhile. 51 defaultTimeLocale. 11. 130 decl. 235 digit. 59 cos.
91. 229 EQ. 229 ExitSuccess. 104 error. 130 even. 229 exitWith. 65 Enum (class). 106 instance for Complex. 186 findIndices. 108 ﬂoating literal pattern. 89. 89. 93. 86. 108 floatRange. 81. 139 exp. 16. 16. 139 fexp. 224 execution time. 230 escape. 29 ﬁelddecl. 154 superclass of Integral. 54 flip. 4. 108 Floating (class). 170 enumFrom. 12 floatDigits. 51. see case expression conditional. see conditional expression let. 158 superclass of RealFloat. 142 instance for Array. 12.254 end of ﬁle. 108 exponentiation. 81 Eq (class). 104 derived instance. 106 enumeration. 4. 92. 86. 159. 44 construction. 30. 15 case. see type expression unit. 136 export list. 88. 136 v INDEX expression. 99. 28. 213 ﬁle buffering. 111 instance for Double. 92. 17 error. 125 filter. see label. 19. 51. 166 ¡ ¢ ¡ . 162 expts. 67. 186 findIndex. 43. 139 FFFormat (datatype). 28 selection. 163 f. 105 environment class. 213 FilePath (type synonym). 27 update. 106 exponent. 229 ExitFailure. 186 ﬁxity. 30. 18 ﬁxity. 115 filterM. 51. 215 ﬁle system. 97. 105 enumFromThenTo. 108 exception handling. 113 instance for Float. 17. 38. 114. 212 False. 94. 182. 177 instance for Char. 113 instance for Ratio. 164 ﬁeld label. 79 fbind. 202. 91 export. 137 ﬁxity declaration. 105 enumFromThen. 92. 54. 48. 110 Float (datatype). 229 exitFailure. 82. 67. 142 instance for Char. 49. 241 ExitCode (datatype). 109. 86. see unit expression expression typesignature. 86. 19. 180. 93. see let expression simple case. see simple case expression type. 92. 180. 105 derived instance. 138 ﬁle. 98 executable. 89. 92. 93. 16. 139 exp. 52 expt. 86. 207 find. 229 . 33 floatRadix. see type environment environment variables. 21. 110 superclass of Num. 167 fail. 91. 66 exports. 105 enumFromTo. 24–26. see class environment type. 108 floatToDigits. 105 superclass of Ord. 215 entity. 112 ﬂoat. 91. 180.
176 foldl. 9. 106 fst. 224. 181. 138 gap. 165 formfeed. 55. 106 superclass of RealFrac. 87. 86. 47. 107 ﬂushing a ﬁle buffer. 56. 229 getLine. 3 formatCalendarTime. 189 genericReplicate. 138 gdpat. 244. 181. 138 gendecl. 137 generalization. 92. 224 getProgName. 56 function type. 31. 187 groupBy. 210 handles. 225 getDirectoryContents. 42 generator. 157 instance for Ratio. 59 generalization preorder. 80. 25. 129 255 . 162 fromRat’. 140 gconsym. 244. 105 fromIntegral. 224 getPermissions. 194 fromRat. 210. 130 hexit. 217 fmap. 96. 184.INDEX floor. 181. 219 getArgs. 213 Haskell. 140 Fractional (class). 207 foldr. 193. 87. 25. 18. 244. 25. 89. 188 GT. 4 hClose. 245 get the contents of a ﬁle. 108 gcon. 189 genRange. 114 function. 210 HandlePosn (datatype). 31. 159. 181. 18 gd. 215 head. 125 getModificationTime. 9. 11. 181. 106 instance for Complex. 189 genericIndex. 181. 137 guard. 117 formal semantics. 190 genericSplitAt. 18. 113 instance for Array. 34 guard. 90. 225 getEnv. 224. 153 superclass of Floating. 93. 81 function binding. 18. 81 gtycon. 54. 206 Handle (datatype). 91. 92. 109. 248 graphic. 9. 49. vii. 233. 41 functional language. vii Functor (class). 96. 117 foldr1. 202. 115 hexadecimal. 94. 233. 241 getCurrentDirectory. 92. 90. 177 instance for IO. 229 getStdGen. 87 funlhs. 91. 116 foldl1. 12. 111 functor. 91. 193. 23 genericDrop. 18. 202. 248 getStdRandom. 194 fromMaybe. 109 instance for []. 229 getChar. 91. 189 genericTake. 130 gcd. 109 fromJust. 116 foldM. 162 fromRational. 129 fpat. 139 gdrhs. 236 formatRealFloat. 105 fromInteger. 235 getContents. 183. 107 fromEnum. 96. 56. 140 fpats. 23. 125 getCPUTime. 181. 3 Haskell kernel. 181. 111 instance for Maybe. 38. 129 group. 40. 190 genericLength. 40. 125 getClockTime.
214 irrefutable pattern. 212 IOError (datatype). 211. 184. 212 ioeGetFileName. 71 with an empty where part. 195. 212. 215 hIsOpen. 33 integerLogBase. 69. 49. 210. 211. 195. 211. 181. 49. 212 ioeGetHandle. 211. 174. 211. 106 interact. 69. 211. 217 hSetBuffering. 198 IO. 210 I/O errors.256 hFileSize. 34. 38. 211. 211. 112 integer. 219 hPutStrLn. 219 inRange. 183. 211. 211 hReady. 24. 136 import. 218 hIsWritable. 211. 212 isAlreadyInUseError. 12 integer literal pattern. 193. 218 hIsEOF. 212 id. 156 impdecl. 81. 173. 58 hIsClosed. 111 IO (module). 188 insertBy. 217 hWaitForInput. 181. 169. 219 hPutChar. 195. 197 isDoesNotExistError. 171. 182. 183. 218 I/O. 211. 212 isHexDigit. 214. 211. 126 intersect. 212 isFullError. 181. 177 init. 91. 216 hSetPosn. 171. 211. 137 identiﬁer. 215 hFlush. 136 import declaration. 210. 197 isAlreadyExistsError. 219 hPutStr. 215 isEOFError. 112 Integer (datatype). 218 hSeek. 163 Integral (class). 169. 49 Int (datatype). 211. 136 index. 211. 181. 212 isJust. 211. 69 impspec. 217 hiding. 4. 211. 211. 70 HindleyMilner type system. 217 hGetBuffering. 98. 219 hGetLine. 211. 211. 125. 218 hIsSeekable. 217 hGetChar. 211. 188 inlining. 215 isEOF. 136 impdecls. 187 intersperse. 172 insert. 211. 81. 138 instance declaration. 96. 89. 189 inst. 38. 81. 50. see conditional expression imagPart. 125 IOMode (datatype). 194 . 211. 110 idecl. 197 isIllegalOperation. 210 input/output examples. 89. 181. 221 ioeGetErrorString. 147 INDEX input/output. 181. 218 hIsReadable. 184. 210 IO (datatype). see also derived instance importing and exporting. 49. 195. 66. 172 indices. 92. 187 intToDigit. 197 isDigit. 57 isAlpha. 197 isControl. 38. 155. 211. 211. 92. 211. 9 ifthenelse expression. 137 idecls. 211. 212 ioError. 183. 33. 216. 211. 195. 195. 69. 218 hLookAhead. 116 inits. 195. 218 hGetPosn. 218 hGetContents. 211. 211. 219 hPrint. 197 isAlphaNum. 187 intersectBy. 211. 212. 211. 49. 215 isAscii.
21. 210. 195. 129 last. 202. 122 lexDigits. 129 literal pattern. 188 mapAccumR. 172 derived instance. 91 logBase. 81 kind. 195. 181. 172 instance for Integer. 170 instance for Char. 172 instance for Int. 195. 106 lookahead. 41 listArray. 211. 24 in do expressions. 207 linear pattern. 92. 197 isSuffixOf. 118 List (module). 45. 81 length. 184. 173. 195. 232. 12. 31. 134 Locale (module). 117 Ix (class). 106 logarithm. 195. 234. 197 isSpace. 197 isLower. 23 lex. 105. 225 map. 199 . 188 mapAndUnzipM. 155. 207 liftM3. 211. 89. 9. 56 linearity. 202. 64 label. 195. 127 maximum. 239 log. 64 kind inference. 91. 23. 129 lexical structure. 44. 206 Just. 88. see also offside rule lcm. 206 mapM. 80 list comprehension. 194 literal. 181. 168 lexeme. 45. 181. 172. 81 magnitude. 202. 193. 7 lexLitChar. 183. 9. 40. 84. 193. 140 LT. 176. 195. 91. 181. 119 maximumBy. 40. 183. 193. 56 lines. 19 large. 177 join. 130. 19. 194 mapM_. 142 maxBound. 111 v § ¢ £ 7¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ 7 . 31. 194 isOctDigit. 32 literate comments. 65 making directories. 116 let expression. 202. 13. 188 isUpper. 207 liftM5. 174. 219 lookup. 16. 173. 197 isNothing. 26 in list comprehensions. 234 ixmap. 31. 9. 91. 104. 202. 212 iterate. 27 lambda abstraction. 159.INDEX isLatin1. 207 liftM4. 109 match. 202. 176. 116 layout. 74 liftM. 212. 50. 156 Main (module). 186 list. 19. 215 isPrefixOf. 92 magnitude. 80 list type. 171. 109 mapMaybe. 39. 119 . 180. 65 main. 86. 197 isPermissionError. 9. 88. 240 locale. 139 libraries. 169. 143 maximal munch rule. 198 max. 239. 207 v 257 liftM2. 44. 202. 169. 81. 115 mapAccumL. 173. 109 Left. 50. 181. 172 Ix (module). 197 isUserError. 176. 177 listToMaybe. 40. 188 isPrint. 189 Maybe (datatype).
161. 105 negation. 61 monomorphism restriction. 129 negate. 111 instance for Ratio. 234 moving directories. 180. 186 nubBy. 60. 89 literal syntax. 182. 129 newStdGen. 52. 51. 9. 143 minimum. 195. 193. 10 ncomment. 210. 189 mkPolar. 202. 11. 108 offside rule. 113 numericEnumFromTo. 113 numericEnumFromThenTo. 230 operator. 81 nub. 206 Monad (module). 121. 46 INDEX next. 129 openFile. 65 module. 193. 57 name qualiﬁed. 19 operator application. 214 opening a ﬁle. 214 operating system commands. 119 minimumBy. 113 numericEnumFromThen. 54. 119 Nothing. 106 superclass of Real. 138 newline. 244. 26. 18 numerator. 105 ord. 105 number. 110 notElem. 155. 140 opencom. 105 instance for Complex. 136 module. 156 mkStdGen. 17. 104 derived instance. 9. 46. 178 instance for Char. 18. 151. 11. 81. 153 Numeric (module). 89. 206 msum. 91. 116 Num (class). 55. 84. 206 + pattern. 180. 32–34. 9. 66. 206 instance for []. 111 instance for Maybe. 27. 137 or. 89. 105. 244. 81. 130. 20 newconstr. see qualiﬁed name special. 32. 66. 19. 194 method. 181. 95 MonadPlus (class). 206 instance for Maybe. 90. 130 octit. 159. 54. 91. 186. 88. 206 monad. 115. 197 numeric type. 206 mzero. 61 Month (datatype). 104. 34. 89. 16. 225 mplus. 202. 194 maybe. 109 instance for []. 19. 142 instance for Array. 129 odd. 198 Ordering (datatype). 9. 19 ops. 84. 113 instance for IO.258 Maybe (module). 206 monomorphic type variable. 184. 106 modid. 91. 187 null. see special name namespaces. 38. 112 ¢ ¦ . 184. 90 numericEnumFrom. 55. 245 nonnull. 168 not. 91. 13. 244. 142 minBound. 153 superclass of Real. 111 maybeToList. 202. 157 instance for Ratio. 10. see class method min. 232. 111 superclass of MonadPlus. 5. 136 Monad (class). 246 mod. 9. see also layout op. 88. 202. 113 octal. 90. 79. 202. 104. 11 translation of literals. 225 moving ﬁles. 248 newtype declaration. 119 Ord (class). 153 superclass of Fractional. 33.
11. see irrefutable pattern linear. 244. 11. 106 polar. 96. see patternmatching overloading. 121 derived instance. 53 print. 130 qual. 70. 41 quot. 19. 25. 171. 169. 172 rangeSize. see + pattern refutable. 140 qconid. 93. 54 polymorphism. 247 randomR. 75 Prelude (module). 121 principal type. 161 Rational (type synonym). 91. 85. 34 Permissions (datatype). 96. see ﬂoating literal pattern integer. 155. 155. 115 PreludeText (module). 91. 11. 218 polymorphic recursion. 244. 224 phase. 3 properFraction. 90. 103 PreludeBuiltin (module). 42. 18. 31. 92. 247 random access ﬁles. 247 Random (module). 18. 151. 125 PreludeIO (module). 57 patternmatching. 130 Random (class). 244 random. 245 randomIO. 125 putStr. 125 product. 172 Ratio (datatype). 18. 244. 169. 153. see aspattern _. 156 polling a handle for input. 119 program. 244. 30 overloaded constant. 11. 181. 110 overloaded functions. 9. see wildcard pattern constructed. 247 randoms. 103. 18. see linear pattern + . 130 qvarop. 247 randomRIO. 229 program name. 125 PreludeList (module). 140 pat. 151 Read (class). see constructed pattern ﬂoating. 147 precedence. see integer literal pattern irrefutable. 244. 140 qvarsym. 23 quantiﬁcation. 23. 156 physical ﬁle. 11. 103. 91. 4 pragmas. 178 ¢ ¦ ¢ ¦ § ¢ £¡ . 153 rational numbers. 151 Ratio (module). 30 @. 129 v 259 program arguments. 96. 244. 103. 72 qualiﬁer. 11. 107 putChar. 55. 11. 151. 124 instance for Array. 103. 79.INDEX otherwise. 213 pi. see refutable pattern pattern binding. 31. 106 qvar. 130 qtycon. 247 range. 183. 130 qop. 38 overloaded pattern. 140 qconsym. 51 partition. 140 path. 247 randomRs. 171. 104. 125 putStrLn. 105 Prelude implicit import of. 143 instance for [a]. 103. 96. 47 defaults. 140 qvarid. 140 qtycls. 225 pattern. 229 program structure. see also ﬁxity pred. 139 qualiﬁed name. 51. 43. 130 qconop. 75. 125 qcon. 18. 106 quotRem. 217 RandomGen. 187 .
108 RealFrac (class).260 instance for Char. 126. 106 removeDirectory. 116 scanr. 214 separate compilation. 92. 117 scontext. 121. 139 rhs. 159. 55. 85. 226 reading from a ﬁle. 81. 159. 143 ReadWriteMode. 224. 154 superclass of RealFloat. 92. 91. 110 sequence. 109 reverse. 159. 162 scanl. 33 RelativeSeek. 116 scanl1. 217 SeekMode (datatype). 164 readIO. 46 refutable pattern. 198 readFile. 117 scanr1. 88. 86. 107 RealFloat (class). 168 readHex. 137 searchable. 51. 91. 225 repeat. 81 round. 108 scaleRat. 123 instance for Integer. 109 setCurrentDirectory. 106 recursive datatype. 226 Show (class). 143 readLitChar. 140 INDEX scaleFloat. 224 section. 56. 122 readable. 85. 225 removing directories. 109 recip. 224. 106 superclass of RealFrac. 248 setting the directory. 92. 214 readFloat. 108 realPart. 10. 159. 76 seq. 224 setStdGen. 214 readOct. 217 rem. 154 read. 121 reads. 123 instance for Int. 91. 163 readsPrec. 117 replicate. 217 seeking a ﬁle. 119 . 85. 93. 107 instance for Ratio. 109 sequence_. 92. 224. 198 readLn. 225 renameDirectory. 96. 130 reservedop. 155. 86. 121 derived instance. 122 readSigned. 126 ReadMode. 89. 225 removing ﬁles. 117 reservedid. 96. 164 readEsc. 244. 85. 159. 10. 210. 104. 195. 138 Right. 122 ReadS (type synonym). 164 readParen. 153 superclass of Integral. 105 instance for Ratio. 10. 225 renaming ﬁles. 31. 214 Real (class). 16. 88. 121. 88. 224 readDec. 143 instance for [a]. 104. 124 instance for Double. 85. 224. 130 return. 92. 123 instance for Float. 126 readList. 217 semantics formal. see also operator application SeekFromEnd. 225 setPermissions. 90. see formal semantics semiclosed handles. 93. 159. 97. 107 roundTo. 123 instance for Ratio. 225 removeFile. 85. 224. 218 readInt. 20. 156 realToFrac. 94. 225 renaming directories. 164 reading a directory. 166 . 124 v v § ¡ ¢ £¡ ¢ ¡ ¤ ¤ . 225 renameFile.
45. 91. 210 instance for Integer. 9. 244. 12. 49 symbol. 188 space.INDEX instance for Array. 139 strictness ﬂag. 215 small. 106 size of ﬁle. 106 tangent. 213 StdGen (datatype). 159. 91. 85. 143 showLitChar. 163 showList. 105 simple pattern binding. 232. 232. 106 tdDay. 123 instance for Ratio. 106 standard handles. 163 showIntAtBase. 129 split. 9. 246 stdin. 139 stmts. 92 signature. 213 stmt. 138 sin. 159. 159. 82 String (type synonym). 121 show2. 159. 122 showSigned. 213 stdout. 235 261 . 235 tdMin. 80. 188 take. 91. 130 synonym. 181. 26. 210. 129. 235 tdHour. 195. 85. 183. 123 instance for Int. 48. 164 showGFloat. 9. 85. 122 sign. 164 showFloat. 79 literal syntax. 164 showHex. 118 tan. 74. 86. 122 showEFloat. 129 snd. 86. 91. 163 showsPrec. 188 sortBy. 123 instance for HandlePosn. 46. 57. 127 System (module). 62 simpleclass. 115 tails. 106 sine. 159. 159. 245 splitAt. 124 instance for Double. 210. 183. 237 showChar. 121 shows. 53 significand. 181. 121. 26. 159. 154 superclass of Num. 92. 143 showString. see also Prelude stderr. 108 signum. 117 takeWhile. 93 sinh. 111 string. 105 show. 105 sum. 114 sort. 91. 181. 232. 199 showOct. 235 tdPicosec. 178 instance for Char. 108 succ. 118 sqrt. 232. 85. 118 special. 159. 164 showFFloat. 159. 41. 163 showInt. 184. 119 superclass. 235 tdMonth. see transparent string string. 163 showParen. 129 tail. 237 show2’. 237 show3. 130 subtract. 137 simpletype. 123 instance for Float. 80. 12 transparent. 94. see type signature signdecl. 45 strictness ﬂags. 244. see type synonym syntax. 93 tanh. 122 ShowS (type synonym). 129 span. 92. 229 system. 9. 91. 85. 121. 229 tab. 43. 213 standard prelude. 232. 9. 210.
49. 39. 136 toRational. 181. 130 varop. 11. 93 trivial type. 119 unzip. 114 unwords. 40. 232. 11. 190 unzip5. 22. 197 uniDigit. 41 tycls. 38. 198 toUTCTime. 45. 239. 91. 233. 114 undefined. 239. see trivial type unit expression. 202. 181. 140 varid. 79 truncate. 187 unionBy. 182. 67. 233. 81. 45 topdecl. 10. 239. 180. 129 union. 181. 42. 125 valdefs. 224 Time (module). 41. 106 toLower. 191 unzip7. see expression typesignature type synonym. 9. 181. see numeric type principal. 181. 136 topdecls. 183. 38. 17. 198 topdecl (class). 105 toInteger. 129 unless. 9. see function type list. 137 type class. see tuple type type. 92. 235 toClockTime. 17. 129 uniLarge. 22 uniWhite. see principal type INDEX trivial. 49 value. 18. 49 topdecl (newtype). 187 trigonometric function. 9. 129 unit datatype. 22. 105 toUpper. 12 UnicodePrims (module). 40. 185. 81 True. 107 try. 232 time of day. see ambiguous type constructed. 46 tyvar. 42 ambiguous. 11. 187 uniSmall. 195. see monomorphic type numeric. 43 topdecl (default). 53 for an expression. 47 topdecl (data). 230 the ﬁle system. 211. 9. 236 toCalendarTime. 232 time12Fmt. 240 to12. 235 timeFmt. 233. 240 TimeLocale (datatype). 46 topdecl (type). 119 until. 232. 235 terminating a program. 224. 140 . 180. see list type monomorphic. 49. 40. see trivial type tuple. 120 unzip3. 93. 51 topdecl (instance). 206 unlines. 66. 221 tuple. 86. 40 type renaming. 38. 184. 130 tycon. 7. 120 unzip4. 235 transpose. 195. 98. 130 type. 80. see also datatype recursive. 41. 240 TimeDiff (datatype). 191 unzip6. 114 unfoldr. 235 toEnum. 103. 129 uniSymbol. 181. 232. 93. 80 tuple type.262 tdYear. 234 time. 11. 42 type expression. 4. see constructed type function. 191 userError. 4 var. 43 type environment. 188 Unicode character set. 130 uncurry. 9. 18. 17. see class type constructor. see newtype declaration type signature. 4.
137 varsym. 120 zip4. 181. 120 zipWith3.INDEX vars. 181. 181. 181. 129 when. 181. 190 zipWithM. 224 writeFile. 190 zipWith. 80. 202. 9. 207 263 . 190 zip7. 53. 206 whitechar. 185. 97. 190 zipWith5. 214 WriteMode. 129 whitestuff. 129 wildcard pattern (_). 9. 190 zipWith6. 202. 38. 207 zipWithM_. 181. 190 zip6. 214 zip. 118 writable. 9. 181. 181. 190 zip5. 31 words. 202. 120 zipWith4. 129 whitespace. 10. 126. 130 vertab. 9. 120 zip3. 185. 190 zipWith7.
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