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https://pt.scribd.com/doc/61390861/Haskell98Report
08/01/2011
text
original
Simon Peyton Jones (editor)
Copyright notice. The authors and publisher intend this Report to belong to the entire Haskell community, and grant permission to copy and distribute it for any purpose, provided that it is reproduced in its entirety, including this Notice. Modiﬁed versions of this Report may also be copied and distributed for any purpose, provided that the modiﬁed version is clearly presented as such, and that it does not claim to be a deﬁnition of the language Haskell 98.
Contents
I The Haskell 98 Language
1 Introduction 1.1 Program Structure . 1.2 The Haskell Kernel 1.3 Values and Types . 1.4 Namespaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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3 3 4 4 5 7 7 8 9 9 11 12 13 15 17 17 19 19 20 21 21 22 22 23 23 24 25 26 27 27 28 29
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Lexical Structure 2.1 Notational Conventions . . . 2.2 Lexical Program Structure . 2.3 Comments . . . . . . . . . . 2.4 Identiﬁers and Operators . . 2.5 Numeric Literals . . . . . . 2.6 Character and String Literals 2.7 Layout . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Expressions 3.1 Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 Variables, Constructors, Operators, and Literals 3.3 Curried Applications and Lambda Abstractions 3.4 Operator Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5 Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.6 Conditionals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.7 Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.8 Tuples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.9 Unit Expressions and Parenthesized Expressions 3.10 Arithmetic Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.11 List Comprehensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.12 Let Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.13 Case Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.14 Do Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.15 Datatypes with Field Labels . . . . . . . . . . 3.15.1 Field Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.15.2 Construction Using Field Labels . . . . 3.15.3 Updates Using Field Labels . . . . . . i
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ii 3.16 Expression TypeSignatures . . . . . . . . . . 3.17 Pattern Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.17.1 Patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.17.2 Informal Semantics of Pattern Matching 3.17.3 Formal Semantics of Pattern Matching . 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CONTENTS
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 30 30 31 34 37 38 39 39 41 42 43 43 45 46 47 47 49 51 51 53 53 54 55 56 57 58 58 59 59 60 61 64 65 66 66 69 69 70 70 71 71 72
Declarations and Bindings 4.1 Overview of Types and Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.1 Kinds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.2 Syntax of Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.3 Syntax of Class Assertions and Contexts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.4 Semantics of Types and Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2 UserDeﬁned Datatypes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.1 Algebraic Datatype Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.2 Type Synonym Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.3 Datatype Renamings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3 Type Classes and Overloading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.1 Class Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.2 Instance Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.3 Derived Instances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.4 Ambiguous Types, and Defaults for Overloaded Numeric Operations 4.4 Nested Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.1 Type Signatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.2 Fixity Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.3 Function and Pattern Bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.3.1 Function bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.3.2 Pattern bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5 Static Semantics of Function and Pattern Bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.1 Dependency Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.2 Generalization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.3 Context Reduction Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.4 Monomorphism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.5 The Monomorphism Restriction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.6 Kind Inference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Modules 5.1 Module Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2 Export Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3 Import Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.1 What is imported . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.2 Qualiﬁed import . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.3 Local aliases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.4 Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4 Importing and Exporting Instance Declarations 5.5 Name Clashes and Closure . . . . . . . . . . .
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CONTENTS
5.5.1 Qualiﬁed names . . . . . 5.5.2 Name clashes . . . . . . . 5.5.3 Closure . . . . . . . . . . Standard Prelude . . . . . . . . . 5.6.1 The Prelude Module . . 5.6.2 Shadowing Prelude Names Separate Compilation . . . . . . . Abstract Datatypes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
iii 72 72 74 74 75 75 76 76 79 79 79 79 80 80 81 81 81 81 81 82 82 84 85 86 87 88 89 89 90 90 91 92 93 93 95 95 97 98
5.6
5.7 5.8 6
Predeﬁned Types and Classes 6.1 Standard Haskell Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.1 Booleans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.2 Characters and Strings . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.3 Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.4 Tuples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.5 The Unit Datatype . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.6 Function Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.7 The IO and IOError Types . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.8 Other Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2 Strict Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3 Standard Haskell Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.1 The Eq Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.2 The Ord Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.3 The Read and Show Classes . . . . . . . . . 6.3.4 The Enum Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.5 The Functor Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.6 The Monad Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.7 The Bounded Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4 Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.1 Numeric Literals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.2 Arithmetic and NumberTheoretic Operations 6.4.3 Exponentiation and Logarithms . . . . . . . 6.4.4 Magnitude and Sign . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.5 Trigonometric Functions . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.6 Coercions and Component Extraction . . . .
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7
Basic Input/Output 7.1 Standard I/O Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2 Sequencing I/O Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3 Exception Handling in the I/O Monad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Standard Prelude 101 8.1 Prelude PreludeList . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 8.2 Prelude PreludeText . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 8.3 Prelude PreludeIO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 ContextFree Syntax . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Library Numeric . . . . . . . . . . 172 16 Arrays 16. . . . . . . . . . . .2 Specialization . . . . . . . . . . 173 174 174 175 176 176 . . . . . . . . . . .1 Showing functions 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 160 161 161 161 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Derived instances of Bounded . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Derived instances of Enum . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Literate comments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Compiler Pragmas 147 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Library Complex . . 15 Indexing Operations 169 15. . . . . . . . . . .2 Lexical Syntax . . . . . . . 153 13 Complex Numbers 155 13. .2 Library Ix . . 147 II The Haskell 98 Libraries 149 12 Rational Numbers 151 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Incremental Array Updates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Derived instances of Eq and Ord . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . .1 Accumulated Arrays 16.1 Deriving Instances of Ix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 An Example . 170 15. 156 14 Numeric 14. . . . . . . . . . 10 Speciﬁcation of Derived Instances 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Reading functions . . . . . . . 14. . . . . . .1 Library Ratio . . . . . . . . . . .3 Miscellaneous . . . . .3 Layout . . .1 Notational Conventions 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Array Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16. . . . . .1 Inlining . . . .iv 9 Syntax Reference 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . CONTENTS 127 127 128 130 134 136 141 142 142 143 143 145 . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . .4 Derived instances of Read and Show 10. . . . 147 11. . . . . . . . . .3 Derived Arrays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Library Array .
.2 Seeking to a new Position 21. . . . . . .4 Reading The Entire Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . 197 20 Monad Utilities 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Text Output . . . . . . . .1 Revisiting an I/O Position 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS 17 List Utilities 17. . . . .2 SemiClosed Handles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . .1 Library Char . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Detecting the End of Input . . . . . . . . . . 17. 201 203 203 204 206 209 212 213 213 214 214 214 214 215 215 215 215 217 217 217 217 218 218 218 218 219 219 219 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Repositioning Handles . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Class MonadPlus . . . .8 Handle Properties . . . . . .5 Predicates . . . 17. . . 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Buffering Operations . 21 Input/Output 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 19 Character Utilities 195 19. . . . . . . . . . . .2 “Set” operations . . . . 21. . . . . . . . 21. .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . v 179 182 182 183 183 184 184 185 185 186 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Library Maybe . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Standard Handles . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Functions . . . . . . . . . . 20. . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . .3. . . . .1 Checking for Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Reading Ahead . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . .9 Text Input and Output . . . . .1 Naming conventions 20. . . . . .3 File locking . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Closing Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17. . . .4 unfoldr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Further “zip” operations . . . . .7 The “generic” operations 17. . . . .1 Opening Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Files and Handles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Indexing lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Library List . . . . 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Library Monad . . . .1 I/O Errors . . . . . . . . .1 Flushing Buffers . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . .3 Opening and Closing Files . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 The “By” operations . . . . . . . . .3 List transformations . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . 18 Maybe Utilities 193 18. . . .2 Reading Input . . . .4 Determining the Size of a File . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17. . . . . . . . . 21. . . 21. . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . .
.1 The RandomGen class. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240 26 CPU Time 27 Random Numbers 27. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Directory Functions 23 System Functions . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Copying Files . . . . . .1 Library Time . . . . . .vi 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Library Locale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and the StdGen generator 27. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. .2 The Random class . . . . 27. .10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10. . . . . . . . . . . .11Library IO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Summing Two Numbers 21. . . . . . . . . . . . .3 The global random number generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241 243 245 247 248 249 251 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Index . . . . . . . .10Examples . . . . . . . CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234 25 Locale 239 25. . . . . . . . . . . 219 219 220 221 223 229 24 Dates and Times 231 24.
2. Anyone should be permitted to implement the language and distribute it to whomever they please. research. 4. have published something erroneous. and most of these. Curry and Robert Feys in the Preface to Combinatory Logic [2]. and a vehicle through which others would be encouraged to use functional languages. to discuss an unfortunate situation in the functional programming community: there had come into being more than a dozen nonstrict.” Haskell B. It should be suitable for teaching. named after the logician Haskell B. It should be completely described via the publication of a formal syntax and semantics. May 31. . It should be based on ideas that enjoy a wide consensus. This document describes the result of that committee’s efforts: a purely functional programming language called Haskell. It was decided that a committee should be formed to design such a language. Goals The committee’s primary goal was to design a language that satisﬁed these constraints: 1. It should be freely available. Oregon. and excessive condensation would be false economy here. providing faster communication of new ideas. a stable foundation for real applications development. There was a strong consensus at this meeting that more widespread use of this class of functional languages was being hampered by the lack of a common language. 5. It should reduce unnecessary diversity in functional programming languages. Thus fullness of exposition is necessary for accuracy. including building large systems. even more than it is ordinarily. 3. and applications. Curry whose work provides the logical basis for much of ours. including ourselves. purely functional programming languages. all similar in expressive power and semantic underpinnings. Since some of our fellow sinners are among the most careful and competent logicians on the contemporary scene. 1956 In September of 1987 a meeting was held at the conference on Functional Programming Languages and Computer Architecture (FPCA ’87) in Portland. we regard this as evidence that the subject is refractory.PREFACE vii Preface “Some half dozen persons have written technically on combinatory logic.
this stable language is the subject of this Report. it had become clear that many programs need access to a larger set of library functions (notably concerning input/output and simple interaction with the operating system). incorporating experimental features. By the time Haskell 98 was stabilised. and removing some pitfalls for the unwary. a set of libraries would have to be standardised too. The Haskell 98 Language and Library Reports were published in February 1999. making some simpliﬁcations. By the middle of 1997. If these program were to be portable. Revising the Haskell 98 Reports After a year or two. This document is the outcome of this process of reﬁnement. Resolve ambiguities.4). This task turned out to be much. It is intended to be a “stable” language in sense the implementors are committed to supporting Haskell 98 exactly as speciﬁed. and I have adopted hundreds of (mostly small) changes as a result of their feedback. The original committees ceased to exist when the original Haskell 98 Reports were published. so every change was instead proposed to the entire Haskell mailing list. I took on the role of gathering and acting on these corrections. The original Haskell Report covered only the language. the Report has been scrutinised by more and more people.4. with the following goals: Correct typographical errors. With reluctance. As Haskell becomes more widely used. and constitutes the ofﬁcial speciﬁcation of both. Clarify obscure passages. there had been four iterations of the language design (the latest at that point being Haskell 1. together with a standard library called the Prelude. it was decided that a stable variant of Haskell was needed.viii PREFACE Haskell 98: language and libraries The committee intended that Haskell would serve as a basis for future research in language design. It includes both the Haskell 98 Language Report and the Libraries Report. A separate effort was therefore begun by a distinct (but overlapping) committee to ﬁx the Haskell 98 Libraries. At the 1997 Haskell Workshop in Amsterdam. for the foreseeable future. and is called “Haskell 98”. many typographical errors and infelicities had been spotted. Haskell 98 was conceived as a relatively minor tidyup of Haskell 1. much larger than I had anticipated. make small changes to make the overall language more consistent. and hoped that extensions or variants of the language would appear. It is not a . Haskell has indeed evolved continuously since its original publication.
metaprogramming facilities. The entire text of both Reports is available online (see “Haskell resources” below). concurrency. can do so in the knowledge that Haskell 98 will continue to exist. including: multiparameter type classes. There is more besides. exceptions. lexically scoped type variables. For example. existential types.org gives access to many useful resources. it provides a stable point of reference. Control extensions.PREFACE ix tutorial on programming in Haskell such as the ‘Gentle Introduction’ [6]. Type system innovations. Instead. including: pattern guards. going well beyond Haskell 98. and some familiarity with functional languages is assumed. Extensions to Haskell 98 Haskell continues to evolve. local universal polymorphism and arbitrary ranktypes. so that those who wish to write text books. recursive donotation. or use Haskell for teaching. Haskell Resources The Haskell web site http://haskell. including: . functional dependencies. including: monadic state. Haskell 98 does not impede these developments. at the time of writing there are Haskell implementations that support: Syntactic sugar.
Oregon Graduate Institute) Dick Kieburtz (Oregon Graduate Institute) John Launchbury (University of Glasgow. Building the language Haskell was created. University of Nottingham. by an active community of researchers and application programmers. Chalmers University) Thomas Johnsson (Chalmers University) Mark Jones (Yale University. Contributed Haskell tools and libraries. Microsoft Research Ltd) . including a complete list of all the differences between Haskell 98 as published in February 1999 and this revised version. Those who served on the Language and Library committees. via the Haskell mailing list. You are welcome to comment on. in particular. Tutorial material on Haskell. Details of the Haskell mailing list. devoted a huge amount of time and energy to the language. Here they are. with their afﬁliation(s) for the relevant period: Arvind (MIT) Lennart Augustsson (Chalmers University) Dave Barton (Mitre Corp) Brian Boutel (Victoria University of Wellington) Warren Burton (Simon Fraser University) Jon Fairbairn (University of Cambridge) Joseph Fasel (Los Alamos National Laboratory) Andy Gordon (University of Cambridge) Maria Guzman (Yale University) Kevin Hammond (Uniiversity of Glasgow) Ralf Hinze (University of Bonn) Paul Hudak [editor] (Yale University) John Hughes [editor] (University of Glasgow. and criticise the language or its presentation in the report. Applications of Haskell.x PREFACE Online versions of the language and library deﬁnitions. Oregon Graduate Institute) Erik Meijer (Utrecht University) Rishiyur Nikhil (MIT) John Peterson (Yale University) Simon Peyton Jones [editor] (University of Glasgow. suggest improvements to. Implementations of Haskell. and continues to be sustained.
Mike Thyer. Ralf Hinze. Ross Paterson. Hope and Hope . Mike Joy. Felix Schroeter. Stephen Blott. George Russell. Finally. Mark Carroll. Rosser. Id. Cordy Hall. Sven Panne. Alexander Jacobson. Craig Dickson. Patrick Sansom. Simon Marlow. Rinus Plasmeijer. Ian Lynagh. Duke Briscoe. Manuel Chakravarty. Dylan Thurston. Mike Gunter. Marcin Kowalczyk. Sandra Loosemore. Simon Thompson. Michael Schneider. Chris Okasaki. Graeme Moss. Josef Svenningsson. SiauCheng Khoo. Chris Fasel. John Meacham. Sten Anderson. Christian Maeder. Michael Fryers. Guy Cousineau. Stuart Wray. Although it is difﬁcult to pinpoint the origin of many ideas. Nic Holt. Christian Sievers. Simon B. Chris Dornan. AnttiJuhani Kaijanaho. Michael Webber. Olaf Lubeck. They are as follows: Kris Aerts. Bob Hiromoto. and others on the lambda calculus. Sisal. Randy Michelsen. Tommy Thorn. Keith Wansbrough. Amir Kishon. Ken Takusagawa. some small but many substantial. . Matt Harden. Satish Thatte. In addition. Østvold. Tony Davie. Sergey Mechveliani. Bjarte M. Ian Poole. Stef Joosten. Kent Karlsson. Michael Marte. Thomas Hallgren. Raman Sundaresh. it is right to acknowledge the inﬂuence of many noteworthy programming languages developed over the years. Andy Moran. Randy Hudson. Pablo Lopez. Lauren Smith. Fergus Henderson. Rick Mohr. Henrik Nilsson. Gofer. Chris Clack. dozens of other people made helpful contributions. Bjorn Lisper. and Turner’s series of languages culminating in Miranda 1 . Julian Seward. Jim Mattson. Pat Fasel. Landin’s ISWIM. Sigbjorn Finne. Tony Warnock. John Robson. Hans Aberg. Orjan Johansen. aside from the important foundational work laid by Church. Jose Labra.PREFACE Mike Reeve (Imperial College) Alastair Reid (University of Glasgow) Colin Runciman (University of York) Philip Wadler [editor] (University of Glasgow) David Wise (Indiana University) Jonathan Young (Yale University) xi Those marked [editor] served as the coordinating editor for one or more revisions of the language. Jan Kort. Jones. Carl Witty. Tom Blenko. Backus’s FP [1]. Arthur Norman. Ketil Malde. Gary Memovich. Patrik Jansson. Andreas Rossberg. Mark Tullsen. Malcolm Wallace. APL. Pradeep Varma. Stefan Kahrs. Franklin Chen. the following languages were particularly inﬂuential: Lisp (and its modernday incarnations Common Lisp and Scheme). Dave Parrott. Jerzy Karczmarczuk. Stephen Price. Magnus Carlsson. Mark Lillibridge. Wolfram Kahl. Larne Pekowsky. Richard Bird. Robert Jeschofnik. Without these forerunners Haskell would not have been possible. Nick North. Feliks Kluzniak. Richard Kelsey. Jan Skibinski. Tom Thomson. Laura Dutton. Jeff Lewis. Libor Skarvada. Curry. David Tweed. Ian Holyer. Andy Gill. and Bonnie Yantis. Olaf Chitil. Dean Herington. Klemens Hemm. ML and Standard ML. Paul Callaghan. 1 Miranda is a trademark of Research Software Ltd. Paul Otto. Nimish Shah. Mark Hall. Clean.
xii Simon Peyton Jones Cambridge. September 2002 PREFACE .
Part I The Haskell 98 Language 1 .
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we describe the abstract syntactic and semantic structure of Haskell. At the next lower level are expressions. described in Chapter 3. An expression denotes a value and has a static type. purely functional programming language incorporating many recent innovations in programming language design. This report deﬁnes the syntax for Haskell programs and an informal abstract semantics for the meaning of such programs. and a rich set of primitive datatypes. Declarations deﬁne things such as ordinary values. Modules provide a way to control namespaces and to reuse software in large programs. etc. Haskell provides higherorder functions. deﬁned in Chapter 2. interpreted. We leave as implementation dependent the ways in which Haskell programs are to be manipulated. arbitrary and ﬁxed precision integers. arrays.” 4. including lists. and ﬁxity information. The lexical structure captures the concrete representation of Haskell programs in text ﬁles. static polymorphic typing. 1. list comprehensions. all described in Chapter 4.Chapter 1 Introduction Haskell is a general purpose. programs that formally evaluate to ). type classes. This includes such issues as the nature of programming environments and the error messages returned for undeﬁned programs (i. 2. 1.1 Program Structure In this section.e. The top level of a module consists of a collection of declarations. of which there are several kinds. datatypes. 3. At the bottom level is Haskell’s lexical structure. patternmatching. a monadic I/O system. as well as how it relates to the organization of the rest of the report. 3 . a module system. userdeﬁned algebraic datatypes. Haskell is both the culmination and solidiﬁcation of many years of research on nonstrict functional languages. and ﬂoatingpoint numbers. At the topmost level a Haskell program is a set of modules. expressions are at the heart of Haskell programming “in the small. described in Chapter 5. compiled. nonstrict semantics.
the speciﬁcation of derived instances. However. for types. Values and types are not mixed in Haskell. Technically. it is essentially a slightly sugared variant of the lambda calculus with a straightforward denotational semantics. Examples of Haskell program fragments in running text are given in typewriter font: let x = 1 z = x+y in z+1 “Holes” in program fragments representing arbitrary pieces of Haskell code are written in italics. If these translations are applied exhaustively. there are several chapters describing the Prelude. and permits not only parametric polymorphism (using a traditional HindleyMilner type structure) but also ad hoc polymorphism. See Section 3. the result is a program written in a small subset of Haskell that we call the Haskell kernel. Also. such as for expresin if sions.4 CHAPTER 1. This modular design facilitates reasoning about Haskell programs and provides useful guidelines for implementors of the language. or overloading (using type classes). INTRODUCTION This report proceeds bottomup with respect to Haskell’s syntactic structure. how Haskell programs communicate with the outside world). ¥ ¢ § £ ¤ ¡ ¢ ¦ 1.e. The chapters not mentioned above are Chapter 6. which describes the standard builtin datatypes and classes in Haskell. so the language includes no mechanism for detecting or acting upon errors. The translation of each syntactic structure into the kernel is given as the syntax is introduced. the concrete syntax.3 Values and Types An expression evaluates to a value and has a static type. Errors in Haskell are semantically equivalent to . the type system allows userdeﬁned datatypes of various sorts. Although the kernel is not formally speciﬁed. as then else . implementations will probably try to provide useful information about errors. and Chapter 7. 1. the meaning of such syntactic sugar is given by translation into simpler constructs. etc. they are not distinguishable from nontermination. In this Report. However.1. for declarations. and pragmas supported by most Haskell compilers. . Generally the italicized names are mnemonic. which discusses the I/O facility in Haskell (i.2 The Haskell Kernel Haskell has adopted many of the convenient syntactic structures that have become popular in functional programming. literate programming.
Names for variables and type variables are identiﬁers beginning with lowercase letters or underscore. and constructor within a single scope. for example. class. and type classes refer to entities related to the type system. and module names refer to modules. the other four kinds of names are identiﬁers beginning with uppercase letters. These are the only constraints. There are two constraints on naming: 1. type constructors. those for type variables. Int may simultaneously be the name of a module. An identiﬁer must not be used as the name of a type constructor and a class in the same scope. NAMESPACES 5 1.4. .1.4 Namespaces There are six kinds of names in Haskell: those for variables and constructors denote values. 2.
INTRODUCTION .6 CHAPTER 1.
This syntax depends on properties of the Unicode characters as deﬁned by the Unicode consortium. 2. However. Most of the details may be skipped in a ﬁrst reading of the report. although usually the context makes the distinction clear... with productions having the form: Care must be taken in distinguishing metalogical syntax such as and from concrete terminal syntax (given in typewriter font) such as  and [. Haskell uses the Unicode [11] character set. source programs are currently biased toward the ASCII character set used in earlier versions of Haskell.1 Notational Conventions These notational conventions are used for presenting syntax: optional zero or more repetitions grouping choice difference—elements generated by except those generated by fibonacci terminal syntax in typewriter font Because the syntax in this section describes lexical syntax. all whitespace is expressed explicitly. Haskell compilers are expected to make use of new versions of Unicode as they are made available. BNFlike syntax is used throughout. 7 § ¢ £¡ ¨ ¥¥8 8 8 1 &§ ¢ £¡ A !§ 7 3¢ 8 8 8 @¥¥9 £ § )'% $ " 0(&§#!§ £§ ¢§ ¡ £¡ ¢ ¢ ¦ £¤ ¡ §¥ § § £¡ §¥ § § £ ¦¤ ¢ ¡ ¨ ¦¤ ¢ ¡ ©§¥ § § £ ¢ £ ¡ 7 3¢ ¡§ 7 3¢ 6 4¤ ¦ 2 5 § 3©¦ .]. we describe the lowlevel lexical structure of Haskell. there is no implicit space between juxtaposed symbols.Chapter 2 Lexical Structure In this chapter.
˜ any Unicode symbol or punctuation y B 2 4 3 t ¢ h h h h A v f 4 x"$ wg " 5 7 2 ' 4 3 t § ¦ £$ § 7 2 ' 4 3 t © ¢ A B Z any uppercase or titlecase Unicode letter _ : " ’ %¤ ¢ u 8 8 8 @¥¥9 ¦ £$ 2¤ ¢ u ¢ © 2 3© 4 7 ' § £$ 2¤ ¦ ¢u © %¤ ¢ ¢ u ¢7 %¤ S¢RQFP§ 4 32 ¦ © G E C ¦ 4 _ a b z any Unicode lowercase letter 77 !3¢ 4 t § 8 8 8 @¥¥9 ¦ £$ 4 © 77 03¢ ¢ t 4 § £$ ¦ 703¢ 7 4 t © 77 !3¢ §¢© t 4 77 !3¢ § #¥ ¡3 §¢ ¦ ¤ G E QFC © G E S¢RQFC ¢ © G E C 4 ¡ IHFD32 © ¥ © ¢ ¦ § ¦¥ 4 32 ¦ 4 4 2 B2 © 4 2 ¥ ¥2 ¦ 7 ¡ © ¥ © ¦ ¦ ¥ 4 4 ¢ 2 § § ¨)§ § ¥ ( ¦ £$ ' ¨¢ § © ¤ ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¥ ¢ & $ § © § ¥ %¤ § ¨¦£ ¢ ¤£¡ © § ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¤¢ ¡ 1§3¥0 0 4 ¤ 2 ¦ § ¥ ¤ ' #¢ ¢2 ¦ § 0 ¦ ¦¤ $§ §£%¢ ¤7 ¦§ £ ¦ 7 6 6 6 6 7 ¤ 3¢ ¥ § ¡ § 7 3¢ 7 © ¥ ¡ 4 ¢ 4 ¤ ¡&¤ 7 2 ¢ ¡ . .2 Lexical Program Structure 8 ( ) . LEXICAL STRUCTURE : " ’ 7 ¥ 4 §© § © § § § 2 43© 2¤ ¦ 7 ' 7 3¢ ¡ ¢ 7 § !3¢ ¤ 77 § © ¨¥ '¨ ¡ ¤ ¢ ¥ § ¨¢£¡ ¤ ¨¥ §¢ ¤ § ¥ ¨¦£ § ¢ ¡T ) cRasY`WXrpq7"9 g 24"9 A g hi7¡9 gA " 3¦db`XV GH§¢ C U f f 9 e c a Y W U E ¦ 2 ¡ ! # $ % & * + . [ ] ` { } ¤ ¤© ¤ ¥ § 2 " § ! ¢ §¢ © ¥¢ ¤ ¤ © ¦ 7 ¦ 43¤ 3§ ¢ 32 ¡ © ¢ § ¦ ¨¦¤ © § ¥ £ ¤¢ ¡ ¤¥ § ¦ § ¤ § § 7 3§ ¢ ¤ 7 4¦ ¢ ¡ ¢ 7 . / < = > ? \ ˆ  .§§ § § ¦ £$ § § § © ¢ 6 6 7 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 §§ § t § 6 7 2 ' 4 3 ' ¦ £$ © ¦ ) 4 2 B2 © ¦§ 7 £ ¦ ¨ 3¦ ¢ )A 98 7 64 #"@¦"%5 3¦ ¢ ¦ 1§¤ 0 0 4 2 ¦ § ¨)§ § ¥ ( § ¦£$ ¦ ¥ 0% ¦ § §£%¢ ¤ % ¦ § 5¤ %§ ¤ ¦¤ $§ 0 ¦ $ ¦ 7 7 § © § ¤ ¤ ¦ § £ ¦ ¡ ' ¢ 7 4 '#4 ¢ 2 ¦ ¤§ ¢ 4 ¨32 ¤ ¦ 4 & $ © § ¥ %§ § ¨¦£ ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¥ ¢ & $ © § ¥ %§ § ¨¦£ ¦ ¦ § #¦ § ¢ ¤ ¤ © 2 4 © ¦ 332 ¡ 2.{} a carriage return a line feed a vertical tab a form feed a space a horizontal tab any Unicode character deﬁned as whitespace CHAPTER 2.
“{” starts a nested comment despite the trailing dashes. 2. in a nested comment.or } within a string or within an endofline comment in that code will interfere with the nested comments. No legal lexeme starts with “{”. An ordinary comment begins with a sequence of two or more consecutive dashes (e. The comment itself is not lexically analysed. Nested comments are also used for compiler pragmas. terminated by “}”. So. cases is not. hence. for example. Instead. the ﬁrst unmatched occurrence of the string “}” terminates the nested comment. and. © § ¥ § ¨¦£ Any kind of is also a proper delimiter for lexemes. then any occurrence of {. are not valid in Haskell programs and should result in a lexing G E HTC Characters not in the category error. If some code is commented out using a nested comment. == and ˜= are not. the character sequences “{” and “}” have no special signiﬁcance. because both of these are legal lexemes. a sequence of dashes has no special signiﬁcance. In an ordinary comment. each “{” is matched by a corresponding occurrence of “}”. Nested comments may be nested to any depth: any occurrence of the string “{” within the nested comment starts a new nested comment. the longest possible lexeme satisfying the production is read. although = is reserved. ) and extends to the following newline. 2. Similarly.3 Comments Comments are valid whitespace.3. COMMENTS 9 Lexical analysis should use the “maximal munch” rule: at each point.4 Identiﬁers and Operators ) ¥ v ¥ £ f ¦f ¤¢24 f ¡ §§ 8 8 8 @¥¥9 § ¦ %¤ ¢7 8¥8¥8 § § § ¦ 8 8 8 @¥¥9 77 !3¢ 4 §© 77 !3¢ ¢ ¤£¡ 8 8 8 @¥¥9 4 §© 4 ¢ ¥ S 7 6 6 6 6 6 §§ § ¦ § §§ § § § S ¥ ¢ §§§ § ¤ 2 ¦ £$ ¢ © ¢ 0 1 9 any Unicode decimal digit 0 1 7 A F a f ’ . Within a nested comment.2.g. as explained in Chapter 11. For example. The sequence of dashes must not form part of a legal lexeme. A nested comment begins with “{” and ends with “}”. although case is a reserved word. “>” or “” do not begin a comment. however “foo” does start a comment.
Notice that a colon by itself. is treated as a lowercase letter. “:”. In the remainder of the report six different kinds of names will be used: variables constructors type variables type constructors type classes modules ) 4 f ¡$ 4 ¡ ¥ h " 9 f £ f 4 f S¥ X¤¢%w5 §§ ) " 9¡¦fX¤ f24w5¡§ 2 3© ¥ £ f 4 4 ©7 ' 2 4 © 7 ' § @ ¦ %¤ 7 2 ¢7 ' 77 !3¢ 4 §© ¦ ¤ § ¦32 ¦ ¦32 ¦ 32 ¦ ¦ 2¤ § § § ¢ ¢7 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 2 ¥¢ ¤ ¤ © ¡ ¦ 43¦ 2 © 4 S¤ © ¢ ¦ ¦ § ¥¢ ¤ © ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¤ § ¦ 72 3¥ %§ ¦ © § § § ¢¦ 2 ¤ ¦ 2 2 4 %§ ¢ %§ ¤ . all operators are inﬁx. However. the last is a constructor identiﬁer). although each inﬁx operator can be used in a section to yield partially applied operators (see Section 3. All of the standard inﬁx operators are just predeﬁned symbols and may be rebound. as deﬁned above. “_” all by itself is a reserved identiﬁer. and Name are three distinct identiﬁers (the ﬁrst two are variable identiﬁers.4): An operator symbol starting with a colon is a constructor. An operator symbol starting with any other character is an ordinary identiﬁer.10 CHAPTER 2. such as “[]” and “[a.> @ ˜ => Operator symbols are formed from one or more symbol characters. is reserved solely for use as the Haskell list constructor. and are lexically distinguished into two namespaces (Section 1.. Underscore. this makes its treatment uniform with other parts of list syntax. and single quotes. naMe.4): those that begin with a lowercase letter (variable identiﬁers) and those that begin with an uppercase letter (constructor identiﬁers). Other than the special syntax for preﬁx negation. Compilers that offer warnings for unused identiﬁers are encouraged to suppress such warnings for identiﬁers beginning with underscore. : :: = \  <.5). : : : . “_”. This allows programmers to use “_foo” for a parameter that they expect to be unused. digits. and can occur wherever a lowercase letter can. LEXICAL STRUCTURE ’ case class data default deriving do else if import in infix infixl infixr instance let module newtype of then type where _ An identiﬁer consists of a letter followed by zero or more letters. underscores. used as wild card in patterns.b]”. Identiﬁers are lexically distinguished into two namespaces (Section 1. Identiﬁers are case sensitive: name.
2.4.’) F . the other four do not.+ is an inﬁx operator with the same ﬁxity as the deﬁnition of + in the Prelude (Section 4. (qualiﬁed ‘. for example. but not type variables or module names.. g (three tokens) F.2. Namespaces are also discussed in Section 1.5. and the other four by identiﬁers beginning with capitals. A name may optionally be qualiﬁed in certain circumstances by prepending them with a module identiﬁer. F.4. . (two tokens) The qualiﬁer does not change the syntactic treatment of a name.g f.. This f. NUMERIC LITERALS 11 Variables and type variables are represented by identiﬁers beginning with small letters. . Sample lexical analyses are shown below.2). ¦ ¢ ¦ ¢ § 2 7 ¢ 4§ 7 3¢ ¦ ¥ ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § § § ¡ ¥ ¢ 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 4§ 7 6 3¢ 6 6 § ¦ ¦ ¥ 32 4 4 © 3¤ ¤ § ¦ § © ¦ 32 ¦ ¤ ¦ 37 2 © ¦ § § § ¦ 32 ¢ ¢ %§ ¢ ¡ 2 ¢ S ¥ %§ ¢ ¡ ¦ ! .5 Numeric Literals §§ § § 2 § § § 2 §§ § § § § § ¦ ¦ 6 7 ¢ ¦ ¢ § 2 73§ ¢ 4 4§ ¨ e E +  ¨ § 32 ¦ ¦ ¢ ¡ .. Lexes as this f . (two tokens) F. also. ¦ ¤ § `¨ Since a qualiﬁed name is a lexeme. type constructor and type class names. This applies to variable. 4§ ¢ ¡ ¥ 0X 7 ¢ ¦ ¢ ¡ 7 3¢ 3¢ 7 § ¦ 32 ¡ ¦ ¢ 4§ ¦ 7 4 § ¡ 3¢ 4 § ¦ 7 3¢ ¦ § 7 ¢2 ¦ 4§ ¢ ¡ ¥ 0o 0x 0O 7 3¢ 43332 ¨ © ¦ 4 © 3¤ `¨ ¦ 72 3¥ %§ ¨ © § ¦ 32 ¨ ¢ %§ ¨ § § S ¢ . constructor.g (qualiﬁed ‘g’) f . Qualiﬁed names are discussed in detail in Chapter 5. . F. Prelude. .g F.. variables and constructors have inﬁx forms. . no spaces are allowed between the qualiﬁer and the name.
Numeric escapes such as \137 are used to designate the character with decimal representation 137. “backspace” (\b). Negative numeric literals are discussed in Section 3. a double quote " may be used in a character. Integer literals may be given in decimal (the default). Floating literals are always decimal. Note that a single quote ’ may be used in a string. A ﬂoating literal must contain digits both before and after the decimal point. but must be escaped in a character. \o137) and hexadecimal (e.g. and “vertical tab” (\v).g. The category also includes portable representations for the characters “alert” (\a). © 7 3¢ 4§ ¤ ¥ ¢ 4§ ¢¡ ¥ § 2 ¦ ¢ 7 3¢ ¦ 7 ¢ © © ¡5¢ ¡ 5¢ ¢ ¨£¡ ) © © ¡ 5¢ ¢ ¨£¡ § §#¥¦£ ¤ ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¥ © y ¢ 2¤ ¢ u ¢ ¤§ ¦ © © § ¨¥ § ¨¥ ¤ ¢ ¦ ¤ ¡§¢ ¤ ¡ §¢ 7 ¥ 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 § @§ © ¢ © ¤ ¥ ¢ © ¡ §¢ #¦ § ¤ § © 7 ¤ ¤ ¡ ¤ § 5¢¦ ¢ ¢ ¥ ¥ . including control characters such as \ˆX.4. this ensures that a decimal point cannot be mistaken for another use of the dot character. are also provided.1. \x37) representations are also allowed. Further equivalences of characters are deﬁned in Section 6.1. A string may include a “gap”—two backslants enclosing white characters—which is ignored. as in "Hello". octal (preﬁxed by 0o or 0O) or hexadecimal notation (preﬁxed by 0x or 0X). \ must always be escaped. “form feed” (\f). Escape codes may be used in characters and strings to represent special characters. LEXICAL STRUCTURE There are two distinct kinds of numeric literals: integer and ﬂoating. Thus "\&" is equivalent to "" and the character ’\&’ is disallowed.4. Similarly. "\SOH". as in ’a’.2. but must be escaped in a string. and strings between double quotes. similarly. 2. Consistent with the “maximal munch” rule. The escape character \& is provided as a “null character” to allow strings such as "\137\&9" and "\SO\&H" to be constructed (both of length two). The typing of numeric literals is discussed in Section 6. is parsed as a string of length 1. “carriage return” (\r). Escape characters for the Unicode character set. This allows one to write long strings on more than one line by writing a backslant at the end of one line and at the start of the next. “new line” (\n).12 CHAPTER 2.6 Character and String Literals ’ ’ \ \& ’ " " " \ \ o x a b f n r t v \ " ’ & ˆ NUL SOH STX ETX EOT ENQ ACK BEL BS HT LF VT FF CR SO SI DLE DC1 DC2 DC3 DC4 NAK SYN ETB CAN EM SUB ESC FS GS RS US SP DEL [ \ ] ˆ _ \ \ ¢ ) h ) h §§ Character literals are written between single quotes. the one ambiguous ASCII escape code. numeric escape characters in strings consist of all consecutive digits and may be of arbitrary length. octal (e. For example. “horizontal tab” (\t).
if it is indented the same amount. even if a line is indented to the left of an earlier implicit open brace.1 shows a (somewhat contrived) module and Figure 2.7). and layout processing occurs for the current level (i.2. then instead of starting a layout. do. the indentation of the next lexeme (whether or not on a new line) is remembered and the omitted open brace is inserted (the whitespace preceding the lexeme may include comments).e. a single newline may actually terminate several layout lists. let. an explicit open brace must be matched by an explicit close brace. If the indentation of the nonbrace lexeme immediately following a where.7.7 Layout Haskell permits the omission of the braces and semicolons used in several grammar productions. This allows both layoutsensitive and layoutinsensitive styles of coding. Note in particular: (a) the line beginning }}. When this happens. Also. the braces and semicolons are inserted as follows. Because layout is not required. \ \a numeric escape character. and if it is indented less. then a new item begins (a semicolon is inserted).2 shows the result of applying the layout rule to it. The effect of layout on the meaning of a Haskell program can be completely speciﬁed by adding braces and semicolons in places determined by the layout. 2. For each subsequent line. b and g all part of the same layout list. As an example. let. The meaning of this augmented program is now layout insensitive. Section 9. The layout (or “offside”) rule takes effect whenever the open brace is omitted after the keyword where. that is. an empty list “{}” is inserted. Given these rules. Figure 2. A close brace is also inserted whenever the syntactic category containing the layout list ends. where the . if it contains only whitespace or is indented more. LAYOUT 13 "Here is a backslant \\ as well as \137. no layout processing is performed for constructs outside the braces. The layout rule matches only those open braces that it has inserted. which can be freely mixed within one program. by using layout to convey the same information. Informally stated. then the previous item is continued (nothing is inserted).pop. or of. Within these explicit open braces. then the layout list ends (a close brace is inserted). a control character. b = 2 g y = exp2 in exp1 making a.3 gives a more precise deﬁnition of the layout rules. Haskell programs can be straightforwardly produced by other programs. do or of is less than or equal to the current indentation level. if an illegal lexeme is encountered at a point where a close brace would be legal. insert a semicolon or close brace). a close brace is inserted." String literals are actually abbreviations for lists of characters (see Section 3. and \ˆX. these rules permit: f x = let a = 1.
size :: Stack a > Int . Stack a) pop (MkStack x s) = (x. pop. push. corresponding to the depth (3) of the nested where clauses. size ) where {data Stack a = Empty  MkStack a (Stack a) . inserted because the end of the tuple was detected. top. case s of r > i r where i x = x) . size ) where data Stack a = Empty  MkStack a (Stack a) push :: a > Stack a > Stack a push x s = MkStack x s size :: Stack a > Int size s = length (stkToLst s) where stkToLst Empty = [] stkToLst (MkStack x s) = x:xs where xs = stkToLst s pop :: Stack a > (a. pop.(top Empty) is an error Figure 2.top (MkStack x s) = x } .(pop Empty) is an error top :: Stack a > a top (MkStack x s) = x .pop :: Stack a > (a. push. inserted because of the column 0 indentation of the endofﬁle token. (b) the close braces in the where clause nested within the tuple and case expression. top. Stack a) . and (c) the close brace at the very end.push :: a > Stack a > Stack a .(top Empty) is an error Figure 2. .14 CHAPTER 2.size s = length (stkToLst s) where {stkToLst Empty = [] .stkToLst (MkStack x s) = x:xs where {xs = stkToLst s }}.push x s = MkStack x s .top :: Stack a > a .2: Sample program with layout expanded termination of the previous line invokes three applications of the layout rule. case s of {r > i r where {i x = x}}) .1: A sample program module AStack( Stack.(pop Empty) is an error . LEXICAL STRUCTURE module AStack( Stack.pop (MkStack x s) = (x.
11) means the concatMap deﬁned by the Prelude. an associativity variable varies over .or nonassociativity and a precedence level. For example actually stands for 30 productions. and may have a double (written as a superscript). A precedencelevel variable ranges from 0 to 9. “concatMap” used in the translation of list comprehensions (Section 3. In the syntax that follows. with 10 substitutions for and 3 for . there are some families of nonterminals indexed by precedence levels . we describe the syntax and informal semantics of Haskell expressions. where appropriate. right. index: a letter . Similarly. . including their translations into the Haskell kernel. regardless of whether or not the identiﬁer “concatMap” is in scope where the list comprehension is used. these translations preserve both the static and dynamic semantics. and (if it is in scope) what it is bound to. the nonterminals . or for left. Except in the case of let expressions. For example.Chapter 3 Expressions In this chapter. ::  15 ¢ ¡ else } ¦ ¡ ¢ ¡ © @§ \ let in if then case of { ¢ S > lambda abstraction let expression conditional case expression ¡ ¡ v v ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ S ¡ ¨ ¡ %§ => expression type signature ¢ § ¡ p v §e ¢© v ¨ v 7 ¢ 3¢ S ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢¡ © ¦ A!¡ § 8¥8¥8 7 ¡ § ¢ £¡5¢ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¢¡ ¤ 2 ¡ £v §¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ p v §e ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¥¡ S ¡ ¡ 2 ¢ ¡ s § S § ¢ p v ¨§e ¢ ¦ ¡ ¦ 32 v 2 ¡ ¡ V 2 ¢ S ¡ v v v ¤ ¥¡ ¤ v ¡ 7 ¢ S ¤ ¡ S ¢ ¢ ¡ ( ) ¦ ¤ ¡ 2 ¦ ©32 ¡7 ¡ 2¤ ¢ ¢ ¡ 2 p v £!e ¢ $ ¡ ¡ v ¡ ¦ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ 7 ¤ 7 § 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 ¤ v ¡ v ¡ v ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ S ¡ ¡ ¡ ¤ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ 7 7 . Free variables and constructors used in these translations always refer to entities deﬁned by the Prelude.
The ambiguity is resolved by the metarule that each of these constructs extends as far to the right as possible. } ¦ § { ( )  right section labeled construction labeled update ) ) ) ¦ .f let z + f x \ x Parses as (f x) + (g y) (.. the expression p ¢ 8 @e § 2 ¡ ¦ p v £!e ¢ $ ¡ 2 ¢ %e p 8 Q¢ ¡ 2 p v £!e ¢ $ A ¦ ¡ § { . } in x + y let { .2). Expressions that involve the interaction of ﬁxities with the let/lambda metarule may be hard to parse. } in (x + y) z + (let { ... ] . Consecutive unparenthesized operators with the same precedence must both be either left or right associative to avoid a syntax error.. The grammar is ambiguous regarding the extent of lambda abstractions. it has the same precedence as the inﬁx . } in (x + y)) (f x y) :: Int \ x > ((a+b) :: Int) + g y x + y { . } in x + y y :: Int > a+b :: Int A note about parsing.1). For example.4. let expressions.. EXPRESSIONS Expressions involving inﬁx operators are disambiguated by the operator’s ﬁxity (see Section 4.  parenthesized expression tuple list arithmetic sequence list comprehension left section left section right section variable general constructor function application 0 ¡ ¦§ 0 ) A 9 g © ¡ ¨ ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¦ ¦¡ 2 ¢ A ¦ § 0 8¥¥8 ' ¡ ¦ § 0 8 ¦ ¦ ' ' ¢ S ¤ ) 2 v ¡ p v ¢ ¡e ¡ ¢ S ) 2 ¡ v ¡ p v ¢ $0e ¡ 2 ¢ S v p v ¢ 5e A 2 ¡ ¡ v ¡ ¡ 7 ¢ p v £!e ¡ ¢ $ ¡ ¡ $ $ ¢ A ¥8¥8 8 ¡ 7 3¢ ¨ ¥ ¢¡ ¢ ¡¢ ¨ £ 7 ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ S ¢ 8¡ ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¡ 8 ¡¡ ¢S ¥8¥8 ¡¢ ¡ ¡ 8 ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ § § ¤ 7 3¢ ¦ 2 7 ¡ ¢ S 4§ ¢ © do { } do expression ¨ ¤ ¡ ¡ ¢ S¢0 ¢ ¢ S¢0 ' ¢ 6 6 ' ¡ ¡ ¢ S ¢ ¡ 0 ¢ ¢ . Figure 4. ] ¢ £ .. parentheses must be added around either “ ” or “ ” when unless or . ) ] ¤ ¥ £ ¢ Q¢ ( ( [ [ [ ( ( ( ) ..16 © @§ CHAPTER 3..4.. This f x . .(f x)) + y let { . Given an unparenthesized expression “ ”. .2. . Sample parses are shown below. and conditionals. } ¦ . ¦ 2 ' . . Negation is the only preﬁx operator in Haskell.operator deﬁned in the Prelude (see Section 4. .
3.1 Errors Errors during expression evaluation. the error message is created by the compiler. 3. errors cause immediate program termination and cannot be caught by the user. and Literals ¤ ¢ ¤ § § 7 3¢ ¦ 2 7 6 ¡ ¢ S ¢ variable general constructor . ERRORS let x = True in x == x == True cannot possibly mean let x = True in (x == x == True) because (==) is a nonassociative operator.1. When undefined is used. results in an error. For the sake of clarity. a value of any type may be bound to a computation that. all Haskell types include . Since Haskell is a nonstrict language. the rest of this section shows the syntax of expressions without their precedences. Programmers are advised to avoid constructs whose parsing involves an interaction of (lack of) associativity with the let/lambda metarule. denoted by . The actual program behavior when an error occurs is up to the implementation. The messages passed to the error function in these translations are only suggestions. implementations may well use a postparsing pass to deal with ﬁxities. When evaluated.2 Variables. Constructors. so the expression must parse thus: (let x = True in (x == x)) == True 17 However. Translations of Haskell expressions use error and undefined to explicitly indicate where execution time errors may occur. It should also display the string in some systemdependent manner. 3. implementations may choose to display more or less information when an error occurs. so they may well incorrectly deliver the former parse. when demanded. The Prelude provides two functions to directly cause such errors: error :: String > a undefined :: a A call to error terminates execution of the program and returns an appropriate error indication to the operating system. are indistinguishable by a Haskell program from nontermination. Operators. That is.
% ). as deﬁned in the Ratio library.4. ¦ ¦ ¦ § ¦ ` ` ` ` ) ) ) ( ( ( ( ` ` ` ` ) 4 © ¦ 3332 2 ¦ ©32 2 ¤ ¡ ©¦ 2 ¡ &¤¢ 2 2 ¦ ¡ 4 ©¡ ¢ § 32 3¦ 2 ¦ ¦ 4 © ¦ § 32 33 2 ¦ 4 S¤ © § ¤ ¦ ¢ 4 © 3¤¢ § ¤ ¦ 4 32 ¢ § ¦ 2 ¢ © ¦ ¦ 4 © ¦ 3332 ¦ § 3 2 43¤ § ¦ ¤ © ¦ 4 © 3¢S¤ § ¤¢ ¦ ¢ ¢ § 7 3¢ 0 ¤ § § 7 ¦ 2 ¦ 2 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 0 4 32 © ¦ 2 ¡ 2 2 ¦ ©32 ¡ ¡ ©¦ 2 2 ¡ &¤ 2 ¡ 2 ¤¢ ¡ ¦32 ¢ ¦ 2 ¦ ¤ ¦ 32 ¡¦ ¤¢ ¢ variable qualiﬁed variable constructor qualiﬁed constructor variable operator qualiﬁed variable operator constructor operator qualiﬁed constructor operator operator qualiﬁed operator . production for An integer literal represents the application of the function fromInteger to the appropriate value of type Integer. Similarly.1. An operator is a function that can be applied using inﬁx syntax (Section 3. These are described in Section 6. one can write the inﬁx application x `op y. The ﬂoating point literal is equivalent to fromRational ( Ratio. Ratio Integer). a ﬂoating point literal stands for an application of fromRational to a value of type Rational (that is. For example. If no ﬁxity declaration is given for `op ` ` then it defaults to highest precedence and left associativity (see Section 4.4. or partially applied using a section (Section 3. . Translation: The integer literal is equivalent to fromInteger .2). The integers and are chosen so that . where fromInteger is a method in class Num (see Section 6. instead of writing the preﬁx application op op x y. For example. such as ` `.4). an operator symbol can be converted to an ordinary identiﬁer by enclosing it in parentheses.1). such as + or $$. An operator is either an operator symbol.5). Dually. (+) x y is equivalent to x + y.% constructs a rational from two integers. or is an ordinary identiﬁer enclosed in grave accents (backquotes). ) : Haskell provides special syntax to support inﬁx notation.18 CHAPTER 3. where fromRational is a method in class Fractional and Ratio. and foldr (*) 1 xs is equivalent to foldr (\x y > x*y) 1 xs. EXPRESSIONS () [] (. as found in the and . Special syntax is used to name some constructors for some of the builtin types.
.deﬁned in the Prelude (see Table 4. page 55). Because e1e2 parses as an inﬁx application of the binary operator . () is syntax for (\ x y > xy). as with any inﬁx operator. and does not denote (\ x > x)—one must use negate for that. ¡ A ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ £ ¡ Function application is written omitted in (f x) y.3. then the result is . The binary . ¨ ££ ¥¦£ ¡ ¨ ££ ¥¦£ ¡ ¨ £££ ¡ ¦¥ ¨ £££ ¡ ©§¦¥¤¢ \ > \ > case ( . it may be rebound by the module system. one must write e1(e2) for the alternative parsing.4 Operator Applications £ The special form .operator and unary negation.denotes preﬁx negation. The set of patterns must be linear—no variable may appear more than once in the set. v Translation: The following identity holds: Given this translation combined with the semantics of case expressions and pattern matching described in Section 3.17. if the pattern fails to match. the only preﬁx operator in Haskell.3.operator does not necessarily refer to the deﬁnition of . Preﬁx negation has the same precedence as the inﬁx operator . Because tors are allowed. CURRIED APPLICATIONS AND LAMBDA ABSTRACTIONS 19 3.will always refer to the negate function deﬁned in the Prelude.3. so the parentheses may be could be a data constructor. £ ¤ ¡ 2 £ ¤ 2 3 ¡ ¢ The form is the inﬁx application of binary operator to expressions and ¡ ¡  2 ¦ ©32 ¡ ¢ ¡ 2 ¤ ¡ ¡¢ ¢ 2 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ 6 6 where the are new identiﬁers. . An expression such Lambda abstractions are written \ as \x:xs>x is syntactically incorrect. and is syntax for negate . 3. unary . . where the are patterns. it may legally be written as \(x:xs)>x. partial applications of data construc ) of ( .3 Curried Applications and Lambda Abstractions > .in the Prelude. Application associates to the left. Similarly. There is no link between the local meaning of the . preﬁx negation qualiﬁed operator . ) > ¦ ¢ ¡ A !§ ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ § \ > ¡ ¢ ¡ £5¢ ¡ ¢ S ¢ ¢ ¡ ¢¢ ¨ £§S¢0 ¡ 6 6 ¡ ¡ ¡ function application lambda abstraction ¡ ¡ ¢ 2 ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ 0 .1. However.
5 Sections ¢ S ¤ v ¡ ¢ S ¡ v ¡ p v ¢ A5e ¡ 2  Syntactic precedence rules apply to sections as follows. by the let/lambda metarule (Section 3). there is a subtract function deﬁned in the Prelude such that (subtract ) is equivalent to the disallowed section. ¢ S ¡ 2 Sections are written as ( ) or ( ). () is not a section. but (+a*b) and (*(a+b)) are valid. but (+a+b) is not.20 Translation: The following identities hold: CHAPTER 3. and similarly for ( ). as described in the preceding section. but an application of preﬁx negation. the expression (let n = 10 in n + x) parses as (let n = 10 in (n + x)) rather than ((let n = 10 in n) + x) Because . (a+b+) is syntactically correct. (*a+b) is synparses in the same way as (x tactically invalid. For example.is treated specially in the grammar. EXPRESSIONS 3. However. where is a binary operator and Sections are a convenient syntax for partial application of binary operators. the latter may legally be written as (+(a+b)). ( )  right section ) ¡ 2 ¡ 2 ¡ 2 ¡ ¡ ¡ 2 ¢ ¡ ( ( ( ) ) left section left section right section is an expression. the expression (let n = 10 in n +) is invalid because.  £ ¡ ¤ ¢ ( ) negate ¡ 2 £ ¤ ¡ 2 ¢ ¡ p v £!e ¢ $ ¡ ¡ 2 ) 2 p v ¢ ¡e ¡ ) 2 p v ¢ 0e ¡ $ 2 v S ¢ ¡ ¡ 7 ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ 2 v 6 ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ S ¢ . As another example. Because (+) is left associative. The expression (+ ()) can serve the same purpose. ( ) is legal if and only if (x ) ( )).
denoted []. which is also the Prelude. and otherwise.1).7 Lists [] ( ) : . is an expression. The type of type of the entire conditional expression. and is a variable that does not occur free in ¢ ¡2 2 ¢ ¢ ¢ ¡ 2 2 ( ( ) ) \ \ > > ¡ ¡ ¡ 4 ¡ © ¦ 32 2 ¦ ©32 ¦ 32 ¦ 3¡2 ¡ ¢ S ¡ ¡ 2 ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ and returns the value of if the ¢ . . ¢ ¢ S 8 8 ¥¥8 4 © 3¦ 2 2 ©¦ 2 4 © ¦ 3¡ 32 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¦ 2 ¦ 2 ¢ ¡ [ . Standard operations on lists are given in the Prelude (see Section 6. and the empty list is Lists are written [ . ] ¢ ¡¡ £ ¥ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ 2 ¡¡ £ ¤ if then else case of { True > . as deﬁned in the must be Bool. is a binary operator.1. CONDITIONALS Translation: The following identities hold: 21 3. and must have the same type.6.6 Conditionals ¥ ¢ ¡ Translation: ¡ ¢ The following identity holds: ¥ ¢ £ ¢ ¡ ¤ where True and False are the two nullary constructors from the type Bool. False > } £ ¥ A conditional expression has the form if then else value of is True. if is False. The list constructor is :. £ ¡ £ ¢ S ¡ ¤ ¡ ¢ ¡ if then else ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¥ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 ¡ 2 where .3. where . and Chapter 8 notably Section 8. ¥ £ ¡ 3.3. ].
b..2). Thus (a. respectively.1. Translation: ( ) is equivalent to .2). and the type of the overall expression is [ ] (see Section 4. ..c) and (.) a b c tuple is denoted by (.2).4. . The constructor “:” is reserved solely for list construction. . The types of through must all be the same (call it ).1. ). and is equivalent to . and requires no translation. It is the only member of that type apart from . and may be of arbitrary length . and can be thought of as the “nullary tuple” (see Section 6. then the type of the resulting tuple is ( . ) Tuples are written ( .2). it is considered part of the language syntax. If through are the types of through . . Translation: ( . and cannot be hidden or redeﬁned.9 Unit Expressions and Parenthesized Expressions ¡¦ 2 The form ( ) is simply a parenthesized expression. 3.1. § 3.3). . EXPRESSIONS where : and [] are constructors for lists. Standard operations on tuples are given in the Prelude (see Section 6. ] : ( : ( ( : []))) ¡ ¡ ¢ 6 6 6 6 ¡ ¦ 32 ¦ 32 ¡ ¡ § ¢ S ¢ S ¢ ¢ . like [].4 and Chapter 8).1. It is a rightassociative operator. with precedence level 5 (Section 4.8 Tuples ¢ S (.5). ) (see Section 4.1. . ¢ ¡ ( () ) ¦ ¤ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡¦ § § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¤ ¢ ¡§ ¡§ 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¦ 2 ¢ ¡ ( . ) ¤ ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 £ ¡ ¢ ¡¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¤ [ . . as deﬁned in the Prelude (see Section 6.1. The constructor for an commas. . .22 Translation: The following identity holds: CHAPTER 3. ) for is an instance of a tuple as deﬁned in the Prelude. The unit expression () has type () (see Section 4.). where there are denote the same value.
3..3. ] . . ] list comprehension generator local declaration guard ¥¤ £ ¡ ¥ ¢ ¡ £ ¡ 7 3¢ ¥ ¢ 7 ¢ ¥ ¢ £ ¤ £ ¤ ¡¢ ¡¢ ¡¢ ¡ ¢ [ [ [ [ . page 83). ] . § 3. . The semantics of arithmetic sequences therefore depends entirely on the instance declaration for the type .. § generators of the form expression of type [ ] § <. depthﬁrst evaluation of the generators in the qualiﬁer list...10. ] denotes a list of values of type .17) of type v ¦ A ¥ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ A list comprehension has the form [  . . where is a pattern (see Section 3. and enumFromThenTo are class methods in the class Enum as deﬁned in the Prelude (see Figure 6. . ] where the qualiﬁers are either and is an ¡ ¡ $ © ¢ ¡ 7 ¦ ¢ ¡ [  <let § . which are arbitrary expressions of type Bool local bindings that provide new deﬁnitions for use in the generated expression or subsequent guards and generators. ] enumFrom enumFromThen enumFromTo enumFromThenTo v The arithmetic sequence [ .. where each of the has type .. ARITHMETIC SEQUENCES 23 3. See Section 6.11 List Comprehensions ¦ A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ guards. ] . enumFromTo.1.. § ¥ ¢ £ ¤ ¡ § § ¨ £ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ [ . . Such a list comprehension returns the list of elements produced by evaluating in the successive environments created by the nested.4 for more details of which Prelude types are in Enum and their semantics. and is an instance of class Enum.10 Arithmetic Sequences ¨ ¥ ¡ $ ¢ ¡ Translation: Arithmetic sequences satisfy these identities: ¡ where enumFrom. . ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ £¡ ¢ ¡ 6 6 6 7 ¢ 3¢ S ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ S $ ¢ ] . enumFromThen.
= = = = [ ] [  . } in . (3. mutuallyrecursive list of declarations (let is often called letrec in other languages).x) <. for example: Translation: List comprehensions satisfy these identities.12 Let Expressions ¢ ¡ © Let expressions have the general form let { .x.y) = undefined in does not cause an executiontime error until x or y is evaluated. and over sequences of qualiﬁers.(3.2)] ]. If a qualiﬁer is a guard. over patterns. True ] if then [  let ok = [  ok _ = [] in concatMap ok let in [  [ x  x <. ok is a fresh variable.(3.5.2]. 3.24 CHAPTER 3.y] ] else [] ] ] 6 ¡ ¢ ¡ .[ [(1. The scope of the declarations is the expression and the right hand side of the declarations. Declarations are described in Chapter 4.xs ] yields the list [4. z <. A ¦ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¦ let in ' © 7 ¡ ¡ © 7 ¦ © 7 ¥ ¦ [  let . an implicit ˜ makes these patterns irrefutable. ]  <. Pattern bindings are matched lazily.4). it must evaluate to True for the previous pattern match to succeed. EXPRESSIONS Binding of variables occurs according to the normal pattern matching rules (see Section 3. x <. bindings in list comprehensions can shadow those in outer scopes. over qualiﬁers.17). [(5.x ] [ z  y <. and boolean value True. and if a match fails then that element of the list is simply skipped over. lexicallyscoped. For example. As usual. Thus: [ x  xs <.are lambda bound and are thus monomorphic (see Section 4. .. let (x. ] = 7 ] ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ ' 7 ¥ ¦ 7 ' ¡ [ [ [ [  True ]  ]  . over listvalued expressions. expressions.2). over boolean over declaration lists. variables bound by let have fully polymorphic types while those deﬁned by <. and introduce a nested. As indicated by the translation of list comprehensions. are deﬁned in the Prelude. The function concatMap.x. which may be used as a translation into the kernel: where ranges over expressions.4).4)].
Each match in turn consists of a sequence of pairs of guards and bodies (expressions).. not the syntactic metasymbol for alternation. . } in are captured by this translation: After removing all type signatures.13 Case Expressions A case expression has the general form (Notice that in the syntax rule for .. The static semantics of the bindings in a let expression are described in Section 4.4.˜ ) = ( . in = } in = = let (˜ . CASE EXPRESSIONS Translation: The dynamic semantics of the expression let { 25 . This translation does not preserve the static semantics because the use of case precludes a fully polymorphic typing of the bound variables. Note the use of the irrefutable patterns ˜ . using the translation in Section 4. . ¥ § ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡  ¨ § ¢ ¡ > ¤ } 3 § § ¢ ¦¤ 5 § 7 3¢ %§ ¡ 4 ¦ ¨ © ¨ 5© 7 ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ © @§ ¢ £¡ ¦ ¡ A§ 7 3¢ £¡ ¦ ¢ ¢ £¡ ¢ ¡ § ¡ ¥8¥8 ¢ £¡ ¡§ 8 7 3¢ § ¢ S case . ) in case of ˜ > where no variable in appears free in let = fix ( \ ˜ > ) in ¡ ¢ ¨ ££ ¦¥£ ¡ § ¢ £¡ ¦ © @§ ¡ § 7 3¢ 7¡ 3 ¢ ¢ ¦ . where where ¡ £ ¡ 7 3¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¦ ¡ ¢ 6 6 6 6 6 let = in = ¨ ¡ ¡ ¥ ¡ ¢ ¨ © ¡ ¡ ¡ ¨ ¨ © ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¥ ¢ let { = let = . .3. which may be used as a translation into the kernel: ¡ where fix is the least ﬁxpoint operator. 3.) Each alternative consists of a pattern and its matches.. each declaration is translated into an equation of the form = . > ¦§ of { } . . where and are patterns and expressions respectively..3.3.. An alternative of the form > where ¢ ¡  True > where © ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ § ¢ ¡ is treated as shorthand for: v ¨¥ § ¢ 4 v v ¡ © 7 ¥ ¦ ¤ v ¦7 v v © 7 ¥ ¦  > where ¤ ¥7 v ¡ v ¡ ¡v ¢ S 8 8 ¥¥8 v ¨¥ § § ¢ ¢ £¡ 4 ¦ v ¡ v © 7 ¦ 4 where each is of the general form  > A 4 A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¥ § 4 ¡ case v ¥ § of { . . followed by optional bindings ( ) that scope over all of the guards and expressions of the alternative. . . .. these identities hold.13. Once done. .4. the “” is a terminal symbol.
_)  let b = not a in b :: Bool > a } is tricky to parse correctly. with the formal semantics of case expressions in Section 3. If no match succeeds.17. therefore. If one of the pattern.26 CHAPTER 3. . It allows an expression such as putStr "x: " >> getLine >>= \l > return (words l) to be written in a more traditional way as: do putStr "x: " l <. ¦ ¨ .3.14 Do Expressions A do expression provides a more conventional syntax for monadic programming. . A note about parsing. the guards for that alternative are tried sequentially from top to bottom. <let . The alternatives are tried sequentially. If all the guards evaluate to False. A case expression is evaluated by pattern matching the expression against the individual alternatives. Programmers are advised. from top to bottom. and parsers with limited lookahead may incorrectly commit to this choice. the phrase Bool > a is syntactically valid as a type. The expression case x of { (a. namely case x of { (a. and hence reject the program. the corresponding righthand side is evaluated in the same environment as the guard. EXPRESSIONS A case expression must have at least one alternative and each alternative must have at least one body. matching continues with the next alternative.17. Each body must have the same type. and the type of the whole expression is that type.getLine return (words l) § § § ¦ 4 ¢ © %§ ¡ 4 ¥ © ._)  (let b = not a in b :: Bool) > a } However. ¦ § ¡ 7 ¦ ¢ ¡ § ¡ ¢¡ £ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢S A § 4 §¤© 8¥8¥8 ¡ § 4 § © 4§ © © @§ do { } do expression v © 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ ¢ S 6 6 6 ¤ ¥¡ © @§ ¢ ¡ § ¡ 4§ 4§ © © ¢ ¡ . Pattern matching is described in Section 3. to avoid guards that end with a type signature — indeed that is why a contains an not an . It has a single unambiguous parse. the result is . ¦ 3. If matches the pattern in the alternative. and then by the guards evaluates to True. in the environment of the case expression extended ﬁrst by the bindings created during the matching of the in the where clause associated with that alternative.
variables bound by let have fully polymorphic types while those deﬁned by <. This shadowing only affects selector functions.. 3.3). however. a ﬁeld label serves as a function that extracts the ﬁeld from an object. © The ellipsis ". >>=.15. the functions >>.1).15. Within a datatype. } = © @§ 4 ¤© § } © @§ 4 ¤© ¡ § >> do let ok ok in let 7 ¥ ¦ © @§ 4§ 7 © @§ do { } do { . Selectors are top level bindings and so they may be shadowed by local variables but cannot conﬂict with other top level bindings of the same name. which may be used as a translation into the kernel. as deﬁned in the Prelude. preferably giving some indication of the location of the patternmatch failure.15 Datatypes with Field Labels A datatype declaration may optionally deﬁne ﬁeld labels (see Section 4.2. Different datatypes cannot share common ﬁeld labels in the same scope. To illustrate the last point. DATATYPES WITH FIELD LABELS 27 Translation: Do expressions satisfy these identities. ﬁeld labels cannot be confused with ordinary variables. in record construction (Section 3. 3. consider: data S = S1 { x :: Int }  S2 { x :: Int } data T = T1 { y :: Int }  T2 { y :: Bool } .. and fail are operations in the class Monad.2) and update (Section 3. passed to fail.1 Field Selection ¤ ¢ Field labels are used as selector functions. a ﬁeld label can be used in more than one constructor provided the ﬁeld has the same typing in all constructors.. select from. © @§ 4§ © © © @§ 4§ © © do {let . because y is given inconsistent typings in the latter. and update ﬁelds in a manner that is independent of the overall structure of the datatype.BAD Here S is legal but T is not.15.are lambda bound and are thus monomorphic. and ok is a fresh identiﬁer. These ﬁeld labels can be used to construct.. When used as a variable." >>= ok in do { } { ¡ 6 ¡ ¢ S ¢ ." stands for a compilergenerated error message. do { < © @§ 4 ¤© § = = = ¦ 4 ¤© § } = do { } _ = fail ". after eliminating empty : } .OK . As indicated by the translation of do.3. A ﬁeld label can be used at most once in a constructor.15.
is deﬁned as follows: has the ﬁeld label . then value .) Construction using ﬁeld labels is subject to the following constraints: Only ﬁeld labels declared with the speciﬁed constructor may be mentioned.15. ¦ § v ¦ v where are all the constructors of the datatype containing a ﬁeld labeled with . A ¥¥8 ¡ A A 8 8 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ > } ¦ ' ¤ ¦ ¢2 A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ 0 ¦ 6 6 0 ¢ ¦ ¦ ¡ ¦§ ¢ S ' ¢ 0 . 0 ¦ © ' ¡ ¢ v 0 § ¡ ¦ If the th component of a constructor in the binding list . where F is a data constructor.1. . © ' ¡ ¢ v § ¡ ¦ © ¡ ¢ v © ' § ¡ where is the arity of The auxiliary function § . } labeled construction .2. . (This is also true of ﬁeld updates and ﬁeld patterns. and if appears is . Otherwise. EXPRESSIONS A ﬁeld label 0 ' introduces a selector function deﬁned as: 3. the { and } characters must be explicit. Strict ﬁelds are discussed in Section 4. 0 v v P ¡ A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¢ ¦ ¡ ' 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¡ = case x of { > .28 Translation: x 0 CHAPTER 3. A ﬁeld label may not be mentioned more than once. Fields not mentioned are initialized to A compiletime error occurs when any strict ﬁelds (ﬁelds whose declared types are preﬁxed by !) are omitted during construction. where is the arity of F. and is y when some ﬁeld in has a label of or undefined otherwise. is y when labels the th component of or _ otherwise.2 Construction Using Field Labels ¦ A ¦§ 0 A constructor with labeled ﬁelds may be used to construct a value in which the components are speciﬁed by name rather than by position. undefined A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¦ ¡§ ¢ ¡ 0 { = . it denotes F . is the default © § 8 8 ¥¥8 © ¡ § © { } = undefined ' ¡ £¢ ¡ 0 ' ¡ ¢¢ 0 Translation: ' In the binding = . the ﬁeld labels . is legal whether or not F was declared with record syntax (provided F has no strict ﬁelds — see the third bullet above). Unlike the braces used in declaration lists. these are not subject to layout. The expression F {}.
A compiletime error will result if no single constructor deﬁnes the set of ﬁeld labels used in an update. ¦ ' ¦ ' ) A9g© ¨ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ 6 ' ¡ ¢ S ¢ . v is the set of constructors containing all labels in . At least one constructor must deﬁne all of the labels mentioned in the update.3. v © ¥¥8 ¡ 8 8 where . f3. f4 = ’A’. No label may be mentioned more than once.15.. This example translates expressions using constructors in ﬁeldlabel notation into equivalent expressions using the same constructors without ﬁeld labels. such as x {f2 = 1. T© § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ T© ¡ ¡ § § ¡ > ¢ ' ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ' ¡ ¢ { } ¡ ¡ = case of ¢ £ ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¦§ 0 { . An execution error occurs when the value being updated does not contain all of the speciﬁed labels.15.3 Updates Using Field Labels ¦ A ¦§ ¡ 0 § Values belonging to a datatype with ﬁeld labels may be nondestructively updated. DATATYPES WITH FIELD LABELS 29 3. This creates a new value in which the speciﬁed ﬁeld values replace those in the existing value.f4 :: Char} Translation C1 3 undefined C2 1 ’B’ ’A’ case x of C1 _ f2 > C1 1 f2 C2 _ f3 f4 > C2 1 f3 f4 Expression C1 {f1 = 3} C2 {f1 = 1. Updates are restricted in the following ways: All labels must be taken from the same datatype. Translation: © Using the prior deﬁnition of Here are some examples using labeled ﬁelds: data T = C1 {f1.f2 :: Int}  C2 {f1 :: Int. f3 = ’B’} x {f1 = 1} The ﬁeld f1 is common to both constructors in T. .. } labeled update . and is the arity of £ F© £ ¢ § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ > _ > error "Update error" T© ' £ ¡ ¢ ¡ ' ' £ ¡ ¢ . f3 = ’x’}.
and case expressions. where is an expression and is a type (Section 4. However. so deﬁning the semantics of pattern matching for case expressions is sufﬁcient. the ﬁrst ﬁve of these ultimately translate into case expressions. or not principal type derivable from comparable to. the declared type may be more speciﬁc than the . The value of the expression is just that of .1. pattern bindings. the principal type.4). list comprehensions. 3.4. Translation: 3. EXPRESSIONS 3. function deﬁnitions. = } in successor pattern ¡ ¢ ¡ § § ¨ § S § ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¦ 32 :: => ¡ ¢ ¡ £§¢ ¢ £¡ V y ¤ § § 7 3¢ ¦ 2 7 ¤ ¦ 2 ¤ ¡ ¢ ¢ ¡ 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 v ¤ v § § ¡ £¡ ¢ ¤ § ¢£¡ § ¢£ 7¡ ¢ £ 7¡ v § ¢ ¡ £§¢ § § ¡ ¢ £¡ ¢ £¡ ¢ ¡ . do expressions.1). As with normal type signatures (see Section 4. .1 Patterns Patterns have this syntax: § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡§ 0 { . they are used to type an expression explicitly and may be used to resolve ambiguous typings due to overloading (see Section 4. } ¦§ ¢ ¦ as pattern arity labeled pattern ¦ 32 ¦ 32 arity ¢ ¢  negative literal £¡ ¢ ¤ ¥ § ¦ § + § ¦ 2 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ § ¢ §¢ ¡ ¢£§¢ § ¡ ¢§ ¡ § 2 ©¦32 ¡ v £§¢ § ¤ ¡ v ¢ ¡ v £¡ p v §e ¡ ¢ ¢ ¢ § 2 ¡ ¥ § ¦ § £¡ ¤ ! § 2 ©¦32 s¢ ¡ v § § ¡ v © ¢ £¡ p v ¢§e ¡ ¢ ¡ v § £ 7¡ ¤ ¢ v £¡ ¢ § v ¢ ¨ ¡ v§ 2©32 ¡ v § £ 7¡ ¦ ¢ ¦ ¢£¡ p v ¨§e ¡ ¢ £¡ § ¢ ¤ £ ¡ ¢ § ¨§ § :: = let { :: .17.3.2). but it is an error to give a type that is more general than.17 Pattern Matching Patterns appear in lambda abstractions.16 Expression TypeSignatures %§ 0 Expression typesignatures have the form :: .30 CHAPTER 3.
All patterns must be linear —no variable may appear more than once. returning a binding for each variable in the pattern. ¢ § . For example.ILLEGAL. and outside to inside.17.x) = x .17._] is equivalent to: case e of { [x.e. . this deﬁnition is illegal: f (x. according to the following rules: ¤ ¤ 1. Matching the pattern against a value always succeeds and binds ¤ ¢ Patterns of the form @ are called aspatterns. case e of { [x. For example. one cannot match against a partiallyapplied constructor. ) ] ¤ ¢ £¡ ¢ § £¡ ¢ 8¥¥8 8 8 8 ¥¥8 ) . return ). x used twice in pattern case e of { xs@(x:rest) > if x==0 then rest else xs } is equivalent to: let { xs = e } in case xs of { (x:rest) > if x==0 then rest else xs } Patterns of the form _ are wildcards and are useful when some part of a pattern is not referenced on the righthandside.2 Informal Semantics of Pattern Matching Patterns are matched against values._. it may succeed. For example. value being matched by § § ¢ ¢ § = as a name for the to . It is as if an identiﬁer not used elsewhere were put in its place. Attempting to match a pattern can have one of three results: it may fail. Pattern matching proceeds from left to right. PATTERN MATCHING 31 The arity of a constructor must match the number of subpatterns associated with it.z] > if x==0 then True else False } > if x==0 then True else False } 3. or it may diverge (i.y.3. . ¢ ¡ ¢ £¡ ¢ £¡ ¤ § ¢£§¢ ¡ ¡§ ¢£¡ ¡§ ¢£¡ ¢ £¡ § _ ( ( [ ˜ wildcard parenthesized pattern tuple pattern list pattern irrefutable pattern ¢ ¤ ¢ 6 § ¢ £¡ 0 . and allow one to use .
then is matched against . ¦ 32 4. this means that no matching is done on a ˜ pattern until one of the variables in is used. . constructors associated with newtype serve only to change the type of a value. Matching the pattern by data. (Binding does not imply evaluation. where is a different constructor to ¦ 32 A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ A !§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ § 5. except that only ¢ ¢ ¢ ¦ ¢ ¢ ¦ ¢ ¢ ¢ If the value is . that is.) Operationally. . 3. ﬁelds may not be named more than once. The match diverges if this test diverges. depends on the value: against a value. 6. The free variables in are bound to the appropriate values if matching against would otherwise succeed. where newtype. The interpretation of the literal integer literals are allowed. Fields not named by the pattern are ignored (matched against _). 8. subpatterns are matched lefttoright against the components of the data value. and fails otherwise. Matching the wildcard pattern _ against any value always succeeds. the ﬁrst to fail or diverge causes the overall match to fail or diverge. if all matches succeed.. The interpretation of numeric literals is exactly as described in Section 3. then is matched against . the match diverges. character. Again. Matching against a constructor using labeled ﬁelds is the same as matching ordinary constructor patterns except that the ﬁelds are matched in the order they are named in the ﬁeld list. and if the match fails or diverges. the functions >= and . All ﬁelds listed must be declared by the constructor. and no binding is done. Matching an + pattern (where is a variable and is a positive integer literal) against a value succeeds if >= . At that point the entire pattern is matched against the value. EXPRESSIONS 2. 1 ¦ 2 ¦ 32 7 ¦ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ r1 32 If the value is of the form the match fails. and to if matching against fails or diverges. Matching the pattern against a value. § § § That is.are overloaded. Matching the pattern ˜ against a value always succeeds. depending on the type of the pattern. is the same as in numeric literal patterns. resulting in the binding of to . depends on the value: is a constructor deﬁned by is a constructor deﬁned ¢ ¡ £5¢ ¢ ¡ £§¢ § ¢ ¡ £§¢ ¢ £¡ § ¢ £¡ ¢ ¡ § ¦ 2 ¢ ¡ £5¢ § ¢ ¡ £§¢ ¢ ¦ ¢ ¡ £§¢ .2. the overall match succeeds. where ¢ £¡ ¦ 32 § ¢ £¡ ¦ 32 If the value is . where == is overloaded based on the type of the pattern. 7.32 CHAPTER 3. Matching a numeric. § ¦ Q32 If the value is of the form . respectively. the overloaded function fromInteger or fromRational is applied to an Integer or Rational literal (resp) to convert it to the appropriate type. If the value is of the form . The match diverges if the comparison diverges. or string literal pattern against a value succeeds if == . so does the overall computation.
1) § ¢ ¡ £5¢ § ¢ ¡ £§¢ © § 7 ¢ 0 § ¢ ¡ £§¢ %¥ § ¤ § ¢ §¢ ¡ ¦ § ¤ ¢ ¡ £§¢ § ¢ @ 9. Consider the following declarations: newtype N = N Bool data D = D !Bool (\ (x:xs) > x:x:xs) (\ ˜(x:xs) > x:x:xs) (\ ˜[x. ] (\ ˜[x. An + pattern can only be matched against a value in the class Integral.y) > 0) (\ (x. irrefutable matching: (\ ˜(x. If the match of against fails or diverges. the following static class constraints hold: An integer literal pattern can only be matched against a value in the class Num.1). where is a constructor deﬁned by newtype and is irrefutable @ where is irrefutable. (a. It is sometimes helpful to distinguish two kinds of patterns.˜(a. ].b)] > x) [(0. Matching a refutable pattern is strict: if the value to be matched is the match diverges. then ’a’ to match against ’x’. If the pattern [’a’.3. All other patterns are refutable.’x’].y) > 0) (\ ˜[x] > 0) [] (\ ˜[x] > x) [] 0 0 : : 3. ] (0.1). Many people feel that + patterns should not be used. attempting to match ’a’ against causes the match to 2. then . to . ¢ ¡ £§¢ ¢ ¡ £§¢ E ¤ ¢ § ¢§ ¡ £§¢ ¢ ¡ £§¢ ¢ ¦ ¤ ¢E ¢ ¦ . is irrefutable). These patterns may be removed or changed in future versions of Haskell. PATTERN MATCHING § 33 against a value is the result of matching against . and the result is a failed match.3). then Aside from the obvious static type constraints (for example. a wildcard. Matching an irrefutable pattern is nonstrict: the pattern matches even if the value to be matched is .’b’] is matched against [ . A ﬂoating literal pattern can only be matched against a value in the class Fractional. Here are some examples: 1.’b’] is matched against [’x’. The irrefutable patterns are as follows: a variable. But if [’a’.2.b)] > x) [(0. These examples demonstrate refutable vs. it is a static error to match a character against a boolean). or of the form ˜ (whether or not (see Section 4. Matching an aspattern augmented with the binding of so does the overall match.17.
. and are variables. (j). since that would generate rather inefﬁcient code.Int) > [Int] > Int f ˜(x. Rule (h) in Figure 3. it is not expected that it will use them directly. The semantics of case expressions themselves are in turn given as a series of identities. A guard is a boolean expression that is evaluated only after all of the arguments have been successfully matched.1–3.2.2: . In Figures 3. Top level patterns in case expressions and the set of top level patterns in function or pattern bindings may have zero or more associated guards. and are booleanvalued expressions. and is a newtype constructor. function deﬁnition. and it must be true for the overall pattern match to succeed. it is this rule that deﬁnes the meaning of pattern matching against overloaded constants. The environment of the guard is the same as the righthandside of the caseexpression alternative. in Figures 3. and are algebraic datatype (data) constructors (including tuple constructors). and are expressions. then True is substituted for the guards in the forms.17. EXPRESSIONS These examples illustrate the difference in pattern matching between types deﬁned by data and newtype: Additional examples may be found in Section 4. ¢ ¡ 4 v ¢ 3 v ¤ 1 (\ (N True) > True) (\ (D True) > True) (\ ˜(D True) > True) True E v v ¤¢ 1 ¢ v ¡ . this indicates that variables bound by case are monomorphically typed (Section 4. Subsequent identities manipulate the resulting case expression into simpler and simpler forms.Int. or pattern binding to which it is attached. an otherwise irrefutable pattern may be evaluated because of a guard.y.2 involves the overloaded operator ==.1. (e).34 CHAPTER 3. . and are patterns.z) [a]  (a == y) = 1 both a and y will be evaluated by == in the guard. The guard semantics have an obvious inﬂuence on the strictness characteristics of a function or case expression. Rules (d). v ¥ § Rule (b) matches a general sourcelanguage case expression. Any implementation should behave so that these identities hold. In particular. These identities all preserve the static semantics. regardless of whether it actually includes guards—if no guards are written.3 Formal Semantics of Pattern Matching The semantics of all pattern matching constructs other than case expressions are deﬁned by giving identities that relate those constructs to case expressions.2.1–3. For example. in f :: (Int. 3.4). (q).3. and (s) use a lambda rather than a let.
_ > } $C ¨ § ££ ¦¥£ © DC ¨ ¨ @ § ¨ $C¦E£¥¥¦FC ££E © ££ © ¥¦£ C C $3 § (d) case (\ where of { ˜ > . where { } } then 10 > where { # ¥ ¢ 32 ( & )' ¤# ( & )' ¤# % ££ ¦¥£ © & ¤# ¡ ! where each  > © & ¤# % has the form: . }) ¡ "£ § § £ ¡ (a) case of { } where is a new variable case of { case of { _ § (\ > case of { ¥ £ ¦¤¢ ¥ £ ¦¤¢ }) . . _ > } > ) (case of { > are all the variables in }) (case of { > A % ££ ¦¥£ case of { > (where is a new variable) case of { > let { } in if then _ > }} © ¥ ¢ 2 10 © % A B ¨ @ § A @ 6 _ else if ¥ ¢ 98 70 ££ ¥¦£ 6 © 4 © 1% 5% ¨ § (c) case of {   > > > .1: Semantics of Case Expressions. } } . Figure 3. PATTERN MATCHING 35 . Part 1 G @ § (f) case of { _ > . > error "No match" } ¡ ! ¨ ££ ¥¦£ © £ ¡ © ¨ © ¡ © ¨ # $£ § § (b) . .3. _ > } @ § @ C ¨ ¨ C § § (e) case of { @ > .  } else ££ ¥¦£ _ £ ¡ ! § ¨ ££ ¥¥£ > case of { . _ > } case of { > ( \ > ) .17.
. EXPRESSIONS Figure 3. _ otherwise case of { {} > . _ > case of { > case of { { = } > case of { { = .36 CHAPTER 3. _ > } case of { > } > @ F ¡ § @ F ¡ § (h) ¡ case where of { > . = . _ > _ > }} where . _ > } A @ ££ ¥¥£ ££ ¦¥£ ¥ ¥ §¨ ¨ A ¥ ¤ ¥ ¦¤ © ¨ © ¤ A § © ¨ © 5¤ ££ ¥¥£ ¥ ¤ § @ § (m) case of { { = . ££ ¥¦£ @ ¨ C ££ ¦¥£ @ © C > case © ¨ of { > case _ > } @ ¨ ££ ¥¦£ © ¨ ¦ C ££ ¦¥£ © C § ¨ § (g) case of { case of { > . respectively @ @ ¨ ¨ ¤ ¨ ¤ ££ ¥¦£ § ¨ © ¨ § (n) case of { case of { # { = } > . _ > } if >= then (\ > ) ( . _ > } where and are distinct data constructors of arity and . _ > } . _ > } case ( ) of { > . } > .2: Semantics of Case Expressions. is a new variable © 7¤ A ¨ £ @ ¨ ¢ £ (l) ¢ case where of { > .) else where is a numeric literal ¡ £ @ © C ££ ¥¦£ © C £ (r) case where of { > . } > . _ > } case of { _ _ > . _ > } case of { > . _ > is a newtype constructor @ @ ¨ ¨ ¢ § § ¢ (k) case of { > . _ > } where is a newtype constructor ¢ } case § C C § (j) case of { > } ( \ > ) of { C § @ C § (i) case of { > . are new variables else } } }. or string literal. _ > } of { > . ¦" C E £££ ¥¦¥E © C 28 ¨ E £££ ¥¦¥E @ © ¨ _ > at least one of } is not a variable. Part 2 @ ¡ § @ C ¡ C ¡ § § (s) case of { + > . _ > } @ @ © $C ££ ¥¦£ © C ££ ¦¥£ @ © 4 @ (p) @ @ ' ££ ¥¥£ § § (o) > . are ﬁelds of constructor . _ > } where is if labels the th component of . _ > } if ( == ) then is a numeric. character. _ > is a data constructor of arity } @ C ££ ¥¦£ © © C ££ ¥¦£ © ££ ¥¦£ C © ££ ¦¥£ (q) case ( ) of { (\ > ) where is a data constructor of arity © C > .
type data newtype class instance default ( . = => => => => . . . we describe the syntax and informal semantics of Haskell declarations.¦ § 7 ¥ ¦ ¤ ¤ © ¥ £0 ¦ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ ¡ 7 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¤ ¤ ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¤ © ¥ © ¦ § A 7 ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ © © ¥ ¤ § ¦ ¢ £¡ 7 ¦ § ) 7 7 ¦ 7 ¦ ¦ 8 8 A %§ ¥¥8 ¡ %§ ¦ § ¡ ¡ ¨ © § § ©¦ § © %§ ¨ § ¡ § ¦ 2 © ¢ 7 7 ¦ ¨ 5© ¤ ¥ %§ © %§ ¨ § S § 32 © ¢ ¦ 7§ © ¦ ¦ 7§ © ¨ ¦ § § ¤ ¥ 332 £ ¦ %¢§¢ 4 ¥ x¨ ¤ § ¡ § 32 ¢ ¦ ¦ V ¨ #¦ § § ¥ ©¤ § ©332 ¡ 7©¡ %§ 4 § © ¨ ¤ ¦ § S § 32 ¢ ¦ ¦ ¡ 7© ¡ %§ %¢ § 4 § V © A ¡ 2 § ¡ ¥¥8 ©¡ ¡ 2 § 8 8 7 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 7 ¦ ¡ © 2§ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § © 7¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ © ¦ ' ¡ ¦ ¦ Declarations and Bindings Chapter 4 In this chapter. } } © 2§ . . } } ¦ ¡ 7 $ ¥ ¦£0 7 ¦ ¦ { . ¦ { . } ¦ A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¦ $ ¥ £0 7 ¦ ¦ { . } = = where where empty A § ¦ 37 6 6 © ¥ § ¦ § © 7 ¦ 7 6 6 © 7¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ 6 6 © 7¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ 6 6 © 2§ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 2 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 6 6 2 ¦ ' 2 $ 7 ¦ 2 4 . . module where 2 ¨ ©§ ¤ 5@¤32 ¢ ¡ § 2 4 ¦ ' { { { .
3). Haskell has several primitive datatypes that are “hardwired” (such as integers and ﬂoatingpoint numbers). © 4.38 %§ CHAPTER 4. deﬁned on it.4).1) introduces a new type class and the overloaded operations that must be supported by any type that is an instance of that class. of the given types. These “builtin” datatypes are described in detail in Section 6.” We may then declare Int and Float to be instances of this class: . consisting of type. We introduce a new type class called Num: class Num a where (+) :: a > a > a negate :: a > a . consisting of class. type classes and overloading.2) declares that a type is an instance of a class and includes the deﬁnitions of the overloaded operations—called class methods—instantiated on the named type. For example.simplified class declaration for Num . we divide the declarations into three groups: userdeﬁned datatypes. newtype. but most “builtin” datatypes are deﬁned with normal Haskell code. A class declaration (Section 4. those within a let or where construct). and ﬁxity declarations (Section 4. infixl infixr infix ¦ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 2§ ¨ :: => © ¡ © 7 ¥ ¦ A¤ 2 ¨ ¥ § ¦ § ¤ ¡ § S § 32 ¢ ¦ V A¢ 2 ¡ 8¥¥8 8 8 8 ¥¥8 %§ § ¢ ¡ © ¤ ¡ ¤ ¢ ¢ 2 ¡ 6 6 6 6 7 ¥ ¦ © S¤ © type signature ﬁxity declaration empty declaration %§ § ¢ ¦ ¥ ¢ 2 ¡ .1 Overview of Types and Classes Haskell uses a traditional HindleyMilner polymorphic type system to provide a static type semantics [3. . type signatures. and data declarations (Section 4. using normal type and data declarations. and nested declarations.e. . 5]. and default declarations (Section 4.1.3.2). whereas may be used either at the top level or in nested scopes (i. suppose we wish to overload the operations (+) and negate on types Int and Float. instance. . but the type system has been extended with type classes (or just classes) that provide a structured way to introduce overloaded functions.3.(Num is defined in the Prelude) This declaration may be read “a type a is an instance of the class Num if there are class methods (+) and negate. consisting of value bindings. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS The declarations in the syntactic category are only allowed at the top level of a Haskell module (see Chapter 5). An instance declaration (Section 4. For exposition.
type expressions are classiﬁed into different kinds. ‘constructor class’ was used to describe an extension to the original type classes. kinds are entirely implicit and are not a visible part of the language. but in general could be any userdeﬁned function.simplified instance of Num Int x + y = addInt x y negate x = negateInt x instance Num Float where . The term ‘type class’ was used to describe the original Haskell 1. then a type of kind . The ﬁrst declaration above may be read “Int is an instance of the class Num as witnessed by these deﬁnitions (i. 4.e.1.simplified instance of Num Float x + y = addFloat x y negate x = negateFloat x where addInt. negateInt. and negateFloat are assumed in this case to be primitive functions.2 Syntax of Types ¨ %§ > %§ function type %§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ ¡ ¡ %§ %§ %§ ( [ ( . ¡ ¡ ¢ ¨ ¤ ¡ B%§ ¦ 32 ¢ %§ ¡ ¤ ¡ ¡ %§ %§ ' ' The symbol represents the kind of all nullary type constructors. However. ] ) .0 type system. There is no longer any reason to use two different terms: in this report.1 Kinds To ensure that they are valid. OVERVIEW OF TYPES AND CLASSES 39 instance Num Int where .1. ) tuple type list type parenthesised constructor ¤ type application ¢ ©¡ ¢ ¤ ¡ ¨§6 ¦¡ ¢ ¡ If and are kinds. Kind inference is discussed in Section 4. ‘type class’ includes both the original Haskell type classes and the constructor classes introduced by Jones. unlike types. 4.” More examples of type classes can be found in the papers by Jones [7] or Wadler and Blott [12].1. is the kind of types that take a type of kind and return ¤ ¥¡ 6 6 6 ¢ £¡ ¡ ¡ %§ %§ ¡ %§ ' ¢ . addFloat. which take one of two possible forms: Kind inference checks the validity of type expressions in a similar way that type inference checks the validity of value expressions.4.6. class methods) for (+) and negate.
The list type is written as [] and has kind .1. If is a type of kind type expression of kind .40 CHAPTER 4. © S¤ Special syntax is provided for certain builtin type constructors: The trivial type is written as () and has kind . Use of the (>) and [] constants is described in more detail below. Type application.). IO a. Since the IO type constructor has kind . IO. it follows that both the variable a and the whole expression. Float. type values are built from . or newtype T . Integer. Just as data values are built using data constructors. must have kind . Int.. For example. (. add the type constructor T to the type vocabulary. and so on. Maybe and IO are unary type constructors. Their kinds are . .6) is needed to determine appropriate kinds for userdeﬁned datatypes.9 and 6. The tuple types are written as (. Type constructors.5). and so on. 2. and treated as types with kind .. Type variables. As with data constructors. inﬁx type constructors are not allowed (other than (>)).). the names of type constructors start with uppercase letters. type synonyms. It denotes the “nullary tuple” type. also written () (see Sections 3.. the type expression IO a can be understood as the application of a constant. The main forms of type expression are as follows: 1. and is a type of kind . a process of kind inference (see Section 4. A parenthesized type. In general. The function type is written as (>) and has kind . DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS The syntax for Haskell type expressions is given above.. Unlike data constructors. and classes. ) 6 2§ $ § © ¦ ¤ ¤32 ¡ %§ ¤ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¦ 32 6 %§ 6 6 6 ¦ 32 %§ unit type list constructor function constructor tupling constructors . The declarations data T . and has exactly one value. 4. to the variable a. Special syntax is provided to allow certain type expressions to be written in a more traditional style: § § ¤ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¤ ¡ 6 ¤ ¡ 6 ¢ ¡ 3. . Double and Bool are type constants with kind . written as identiﬁers beginning with a lowercase letter. Most type constructors are written as an identiﬁer beginning with an uppercase letter. is identical to the type . then is a 6 6 6 6 6 () [] (>) (. The kind of T is determined by kind inference. For example: Char.. The kind of a variable is determined implicitly by the context in which it appears. having form ( ).
there is no explicit syntax for universal quantiﬁcation [3]. respectively. they cannot be qualiﬁed. . the type variables in a Haskell type expression are all assumed to be universally quantiﬁed.3). For example. When we write an explicitly quantiﬁed type. always denote the builtin type constructors. If is the type of expression or pattern . A class assertion has form .8 and 6. [ ]. ¡§ £§ ¡§ v § 4. []. and lists. regardless of what is in scope. 2.3 Syntax of Class Assertions and Contexts . A function type has the form Function arrows associate to the right. It denotes the type of lists with elements of type (see Sections 3. (Hence the special production. then the expressions (\ > ). and so on. OVERVIEW OF TYPES AND CLASSES £§ ¡§ 41 £§ ¡§ > . the scope of the extends as far to the right as possible. ) where .1. which is equivalent to the type (>) .1)). In a similar way. the preﬁx type constructors (>). For example. nor mentioned in import or export lists (Chapter 5). means . their semantics is the same as the equivalent userdeﬁned algebraic data types. the type expression a > a . A list type has the form [ ]. “gtycon”. tuples.) where there are commas between the parenthesis. . . ) £§ ¢ 6 ¢ & 8 ¢ ¥ ¦ § § ¢ 6 ¤ ¢ 8 ¢ ¢ £ ¤ ¥ ¡ § ¡ ¢ § ¤ ¦ ¦¢ § 32 ¦ © %§ ¨ § 2 4 A 5 %§ 8¥8¥8 ¢ %§ 7¥ ¤ B%§ ¦ © ¦ %§ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¢ ¤ %§ © ¥ %§ 7 7 © 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ ¡ S© ¥ ¢ ¥ 7 £ ¤ § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¢ ¢ ¢7 ¤ ¡§ ¢ £ ¤ %§ © § 7 ¥ ¡ %§ ¢ § 6 ¡ ¡ © S© ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ 8 ¢ ¥ 7 ¢ ¥ ¡ ¢ 6 6 6 6 6 § ¡ § ¢ £§ © © ¤ 7 7 © © © ¥ ¢ 7 ¥ %§ ¡§ ¦ 2 %§ %§ ¢ ¥ 7 v %§ .3. and so on (see Sections 3. (). 3. 1. ( With one exception (that of the distinguished type variable in a class declaration (Section 4.4). A class identiﬁer begins with an uppercase letter. which is equivalent to the type [] .1.). (. . however. A tuple type has the form ( . and has the general form A $ A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ ¡ ( ) ¤ ¢ %§ ¦ ( ) ¦ A © © ( . . It denotes the type of tuples with the ﬁrst component of type . we often write quantiﬁcation explicitly when denotes the type discussing the types of Haskell programs.) Although the list and tuple types have special syntax.4.7 and 6. A context consists of zero or more class assertions. and ). and indicates the membership of the type in the class . which is equivalent to the type (. For clarity. These special syntactic forms always denote the builtin type constructors for functions. Notice that expressions and types have a consistent syntax. [ ]. above.1. Int > Int > Float means Int > (Int > Float). for example..1. and ( ) have the types ( > ). the second component of type .
as described in Section 4. and each of the is either a type variable. For convenience. £ ¢ 8 £ ¥ $ ¡§ t $ ¡ ¢ 8 t $ The type substitution ¥ is more general than the type whose domain is such that: if and only if there is a § A $ A ¢ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ ¢ ¡ $ ¢ ¢ v r$ $ § ¢ ¢ § ¢ A ¢ 8 $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ ¥ ¡ £§ ¦ .1).1. £§ ¨ $ © ¢ © A value of type .3. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS where are class identiﬁers. (Wadler and Blott [12] and Jones [7] discuss type and constructor classes.42 CHAPTER 4. respectively. or the application of type variable to one or more types. that can be assigned to a particular expression (in a given environment) is called its principal type. Eq b) => [a] > [b] > String (Eq (f a).1. Furthermore. § § § 4.4 Semantics of Types and Classes In this section. the universallyquantiﬁed type variables the context must be of the form given above in Section 4. we provide informal details of the type system. and a class environment that declares which types are instances of which classes (a type becomes an instance of a class only via the presence of an instance declaration or a deriving clause). any of that are free in must also be free in . although in this case the concrete syntax contains no =>. In general. the constraint Eq (f a) cannot be made simpler because f is universally quantiﬁed. In general. " t ¡§ is identical to . The type of an expression depends on a type environment that gives types for the free variables in . Types are related by a generalization preorder (speciﬁed below). a type is of the form . Haskell’s extended HindleyMilner type system can infer the principal type of all expressions. Therefore.16 and 4. the most general type.4. The outer parentheses may be omitted when . in more detail. including the proper use of overloaded class methods (although certain ambiguous overloadings could arise. For example. we use to denote a context and we write => to indicate the type restricted by the context . we write => even if the context is empty. consider the function double: § if and only if the context ¡ ¢ ¢ 8 £ ¢ Whenever ¥ holds in the class environment. here are some valid types: Eq a => a > a (Eq a. Show a. Functor f) => (a > b) > f a > f b > Bool In the third type.4). In any such type. may be instantiated at types holds. For example. The context must only contain type variables referenced in . also holds.) The Haskell type system attributes a type to each expression in the program. up to the equivalence induced by the generalization preorder. where is a set of type variables .3. explicit typings (called type signatures) are usually optional (see Sections 3.
renamed datatypes (newtype declarations). ) ¦ § ¦ ¢ ¥ ¦ 7 A ¢ ¥ ¦ 7 { :: . The user may choose to declare such an instance. However. 4. the unqualiﬁed term “constructor” always means “data constructor”. USERDEFINED DATATYPES double x = x + x 43 The most general type of double is Num . double may not normally be applied to values of type Char. . This declaration introduces a new type constructor with one or more constituent data constructors . in which case double may indeed be applied to a Char. and type synonyms (type declarations). since Num Int holds. because Int is an instance of the class Num. An algebraic datatype declaration has the form: where is a context. double may be applied to values of type Int (instantiating to Int). 4. These declarations may only appear at the top level of a module.2 UserDeﬁned Datatypes In this section.2. The types of the data constructors are given by: A § ¥¥8 ¡ !§ A A 8 8 $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ 6 ¡ ¡ ¢¢¡ ¤ v§ 6 ¢¢¡ ¡ ¡ ¡§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ § ¡ 6 ¡ @§ v A v ¢ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ 8 ¡ $ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ Q¥ §¦v ¥¥ ¢ data ¢ => =   £ ¤ A © S© ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 © ¡ S© © S© deriving © ( . } 3 %§ ¢ ¥ ¦ 7 ! ! ¡ ¢ 7 ¦ ¦ 7 %§ ¡ %§ ¡ ¡ 7 ¥ %§ ¦ ¦ 7 ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ %§ ! ! arity inﬁx ¦§ £ ¢ ¢ ¡ 3 %§ 8¡ 8 ¥¥8 ¢ 2 ¦ ©32 ' ¡ ¡ %§ ¨ 8 8 ¥¥8 A¢ § © ¦ §¤ ¤32 8 8 ¥¥¡8   ¦ ¦ § 2©¦ 2 ¡ ¦32 ¦ ¦ § ¢ ¤ ¥ © © ¦ ¤ § 332 %§ ¤ ¢ 4§ © ¨ %§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ § S § ¢ ¢ ¦ 32 data => = ¦ ¢ 6 ¢ ¢ ¡ 7 ©¡ 8 ¢ ¥ %§ © ¤ ¦ 3¢ 2 %§ ¨ ¡ 32¡ ¦ ' ¢ ¡ ¤ ¤32 § © ¦ ¢ V ¤ § 332 © ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ 32 %§ %§ 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ ¦ 7 § %¢ #¦ § § 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ © © ¤ § ¦ ¤ § ¦ 2 © © © 7 ©¡ ¢ 7¥ ¦ ¤ 4§ 2 2§ ¦ © .2. In this Report. ! . because Char is not normally an instance of class Num. we describe algebraic datatypes (data declarations).1 Algebraic Datatype Declarations ¨ #¦ § § The precedence for is the same as that for expressions—normal constructor application has higher precedence than inﬁx constructor application (thus a : Foo a parses as a : (Foo a)).4.
f3 :: Bool } deﬁnes a type and constructor identical to the one produced by © ¢ 6 Set Set ¢ ¢ 6 ¢ 7 ' ¨¢ ¢ introduces a type constructor Set of kind types NilSet Set ConsSet Eq . A constructor deﬁnition in a data declaration may assign labels to the ﬁelds of the constructor.8.3.e. and constructors NilSet and ConsSet with v § ¢ v I¡ ¢ ¢ 6 ¡ ¦ 6 ¥¥8 8 8 ¢ 6 $ 7 ¦7 ¢ 6 ¢ ¡ 8 8 ¢ ¢ ¥ §¥ ¥ ¥ §¥ ¥ ¡ $ ¤ v§ v $ where 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ @§ v .44 ¢ v ¢ CHAPTER 4.. Labelled Fields A data constructor of arity creates an object with components. the “abstractness” of the datatype) outside of the module in which the datatype is deﬁned is controlled by the form of the datatype’s name in the export list as described in Section 5. The visibility of a datatype’s constructors (i. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS is the largest subset of that constrains only those type variables free in the types .6. For example. }). and is described in Section 4. This allows For large datatypes it is useful to assign a speciﬁc ﬁeld to be referenced independently of its location within the constructor. This means that may be used in type expressions with anywhere between and arguments. the declaration data Eq a => Set a = NilSet  ConsSet a (Set a) In the example given.. The arguments to the positional constructor occur in the same order as the labeled ﬁelds. the declaration data C = F { f1.3. Constructors using ﬁeld labels may be freely mixed with constructors without them. The new type constant has a kind of the form where the kinds of the argument variables are determined by kind inference as described in Section 4. to the components of a data object. The optional deriving part of a data declaration has to do with derived instances.f2 :: Int. A constructor with associated ﬁeld labels may still be used as an ordinary constructor. For example: f (ConsSet a s) = a the function f has inferred type Eq a => Set a > a. features using labels are simply a shorthand for operations using an underlying positional constructor. The context in the data declaration has no other effect whatsoever. The type variables through must be distinct and may appear in and the . For example. using the record syntax (C { . the overloaded type for ConsSet ensures that ConsSet can only be applied to values whose type is an instance of the class Eq. Pattern matching against ConsSet also gives rise to an Eq a constraint. These components are normally accessed positionally as arguments to the constructor in expressions or patterns. it is a static error for any other type variable to appear in or on the righthandside.
It has the form § $ which introduces a new type constructor. replaces every occurrence of 8 8 ¥¥8 A 8 8 §© ¥¥8 ¡ © 8 8 ¥¥8 $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ ¢ data => =   in an expression is the strict apply is not affected by 2 ¤ ¤ © ¡ ¦ 6 6 8 8 ¥¥8 %¢ § 4§ © 7 ©¡ 2 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ ¡ 2 ¡ $ ¡ # ¡ § § § . The kind of the new type constructor is of the form where the kinds of the arguments and of the right hand side are determined by kind inference as described in Section 4. the following deﬁnition can be used to provide an alternative way of writing the list type constructor: § ¡ v $ § ¥¥8 ¡ § 8 8 § v I¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ $ type = ¦ § ¢ ¡ $ type %§ = v where is the nonstrict apply function $ if is of the form . Strictness Flags Whenever a data constructor is applied. Pattern matching on strictness ﬂags. The pattern F {} matches any value built with constructor F. denoted by an exclamation point. For example.6.2.2.2 Type Synonym Declarations A type synonym declaration introduces a new type that is equivalent to an old type. The type variables through must be distinct and are scoped only over . Field names share the top level namespace with ordinary variables and class methods and must not conﬂict with other top level names in scope. A label cannot be shared by more than one type in scope. v 2§ v © v © v ¢ £ 2 ¡ ¢ ¡ 2 ¤ %§ ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ %§ 32 8 8 ¦ ¢%§ %¢ ¢ 4 § © § ¡ ¡ ©¡ 7 A 8 8 3¢ ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ 6 ¡ ¢ (\ > 2 v %§ ¡ 3¢ A 2 ¥¥8 £ A 8 8 ¡ ¡ ¡ v @§ & v 2§ 6 ¥¥8 8 8 ¨ $ # § 6 ¢ ¡ v © where each by is either of the form ! or .4. it is a static error for any other type variable to appear in . Translation: A declaration of the form 4. whether or not F was declared with record syntax. The type is equivalent to the type .15. A data declaration may use the same ﬁeld label in multiple constructors as long as the typing of the ﬁeld is the same in all cases after type synonym expansion. it has special signiﬁcance only in the context of the argument types of a data declaration.2) if is of the form ! . each argument to the constructor is evaluated if and only if the corresponding type in the algebraic datatype declaration has a strictness ﬂag. USERDEFINED DATATYPES data C = F Int Int Bool 45 Operations using ﬁeld labels are described in Section 3. Lexically. “!” is an ordinary varsym not a . “!”. and function $! (see Section 6. .
For example. newtype does not change the underlying representation of an object. A synonym and its deﬁnition are completely interchangeable.2) can be deﬁned for a type deﬁned by newtype but may not be deﬁned for a type synonym.2). type Rec a data Circ a is allowed.17). Although recursive and mutually recursive datatypes are allowed. whereas type Rec a type Circ a = = [Circ a] [Rec a] . 4. E $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ § § $ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ § E $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ E ¢ newtype => A declaration of the form = ¦ § ¢ ¤ ¢ %§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ %§ ¢¤ %§ { :: } ¤ ¤ § 332 © ¦ £ ¦ § %¢ 4 § x¨ © § ¡ § ¢ ¡ ¦ 32 newtype => = ¦ ¡ 7 ©¡ V ¢ ¡ %§ E ¢ ¦ 32 § ¦32 ¦ 32 %§ E 6 6 6 $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ ¤32 § © ¦ ¡ § %¢ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 7 ©¡ $ £ 4§ © 2§ ¦ .2. unless an algebraic datatype intervenes. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS Type constructor symbols introduced by type synonym declarations cannot be partially applied. type Rec a = [Rec a] is not allowed. The type ( ) renames the datatype . The difference is reﬂected in different rules for pattern matching (see Section 3. it is a static error to use without the full number of arguments. so that is the same as . Unlike algebraic datatypes.3. New instances (see Section 4. This difference may make access to the representation less efﬁcient. The constructor in an expression coerces a value from type to type ( ).3 Datatype Renamings ¨ ¦§ § introduces a new type whose representation is the same as an existing type. Also. except in the instance type of an instance declaration (Section 4. newtype may be used to deﬁne recursive types.invalid . It differs from a type synonym in that it creates a distinct type that must be explicitly coerced to or from the original type. Type synonyms are a convenient. A type created by newtype differs from an algebraic datatype in that the representation of an algebraic datatype has an extra level of indirection. this is not so for type synonyms. but strictly syntactic. mechanism to make type signatures more readable. the newtype constructor is unlifted.46 type List = [] CHAPTER 4. Using in a pattern coerces a value from type ( ) to type . Similarly. These coercions may be implemented without execution time overhead. unlike type synonyms.3.invalid = = [Circ a] Tag [Rec a] is not.
The optional deriving part of a newtype declaration is treated in the same way as the deriving component of a data declaration. and newtype (renaming types.3. see Section 4. In particular. . A class declaration has the general form: © $ ¢ class => where ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ A { .) Given the declarations data D1 = D1 Int data D2 = D2 !Int type S = Int newtype N = N Int d1 (D1 i) = 42 d2 (D2 i) = 42 s i = 42 n (N i) = 42 the expressions ( d1 ). .3. whereas ( n ). ( d1 ( D1 ) ) and ( s ) are all equivalent to 42. TYPE CLASSES AND OVERLOADING 47 The following examples clarify the differences between data (algebraic datatypes).3 Type Classes and Overloading 4.4. ( N ) is equivalent to while ( D1 ) is not equivalent to . ( d2 ) and (d2 (D2 ) ) are all equivalent to . ) ¦ § ¢7 ¤ %§ © 7 ©¡ %§ ¨ § S § ¢ class => where 7 ¥ ¦ ¢ 7 ¥ ¤ ¤ © ¥ £0 ¦ $ ¢ 7 ¦ 7 ¦ ¡ 8¥¥8 8 7 ¦ ¤ %§ ¥ © %§ ¢ ¥ § © 74 ¡ S© © ¢ ¥ © ¡ 4 § © 7 7 © S© 7 ¦ 32 © ¢ ¥ 7 ¡ 6 6 6 6 6 © © 7 ¥ © 7 ¥ ¢ ¥ ©¡ 7 7 § S § ¢ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ ¦ 32 4§ ¦ ¦ 2§ © © .3.1 Class Declarations ¨ 5© A class declaration introduces a new class and the operations (class methods) on it. Thus: newtype Age = Age { unAge :: Int } brings into scope both a constructor and a deconstructor: Age :: Int > Age unAge :: Age > Int 4. A newtype declaration may use ﬁeldnaming syntax.3. ( n ( N ) ). © ¥ } ¦ § ¦ A© §S© 4§ © 7 8 8 ¥¥8 ¦ ( . though of course there may only be one ﬁeld. type (type synonyms).
Lastly. Class methods share the top level namespace with variable bindings and ﬁeld names. or another class method. i. a ﬁeld name. For example: class Foo a where op :: Num b => a > b > a v #¢ £ $ £ v ¨¢ £ $ $ $ v§ v The may also contain a ﬁxity declaration for any of the class methods (but for no other values).. whose scope extends outside the class declaration.48 CHAPTER 4. it may mention type variables other than . For example: class Foo a where op1. the may not constrain . The default class method for is used if no binding for it is given in a particular instance declaration (see Section 4. except that the left hand side may only be a variable or function deﬁnition. The superclass relation must not be cyclic. the may contain a default class method for any of the .e. v B v # v v @§ v ¢ v © The type of the toplevel class method The must mention . Show a) => Textual a Other than these cases. in particular. op2) = . they must not conﬂict with other top level bindings in scope. . © v © A class declaration with no where part may be useful for combining a collection of classes into a larger one that inherits all of the class methods in the original ones. op2 :: a > a (op1. the ﬁxity declaration for a class method may alternatively appear at top level. That is. the type variable is scoped only over the class method signatures in the class body. The class methods of a class declaration are precisely the for which there is an explicit type signature :: => in . 6 7 ¥ ¦ 6 Foo Num 8 ¥ Here the type of op is © ¢ ' ¡ ¡ ¡ £ £ ¥ ¡ ¤¥ §¥ ¢ 8 ¨ © § ¥ ¦ ¢ ' ¢ ' ¢ 7 ¥ ¦ v 7 ¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ The part of a class declaration contains three kinds of declarations: is: $ ¢ ¢ 7 ¦ .2). the only type variable that may be referred to in is . However. The default method declaration is a normal value deﬁnition. The may constrain only . a class method can not have the same name as a top level deﬁnition. in which case the type of is polymorphic in both and .3. The context speciﬁes the superclasses of . as described below. outside the class declaration. For example: class (Read a. it must form a directed acyclic graph. © The class declaration introduces new class methods . no other declarations are permitted in . is not permitted. since class methods declare toplevel values. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS $ This introduces a new class name .. because the left hand side of the default declaration is a pattern.
must not be a type synonym. It is illegal to give a binding for a class method that is not in scope. The instance declaration must be given explicitly with no where part.a) where . but the name under which it is in scope is immaterial. since these have already v x$ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ $ where . 4.. furthermore. instance C (Int.3.Ix T where range = . it may be a qualiﬁed name. The declarations may not contain any type signatures or ﬁxity declarations. ) ) & & ( ( [ ( { ) ¦ ¦£©¨¦§¥££ ¤ B%§ £¡ ¤ %§ ¢ ¤ ¢ ¢ © §¢ ¦¥©¨§¦¥¤£¡S¤ %§ ¤ ¢ ¢ © ¦ ¢ ¢ © ¥©¨§¦¥¤£¡S¤ ¢¢ %§ § ¢¢ ¦ ¦ ' © ¥ ¤ ¤ © ¥ £0 ¦ $ A § ¥¥8 ¢ ¡ 7 § 8 8 7 ¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ £ ¤ %§ ¡ ¤ %§ ¢ ¤ ¢ %§ ¢ ¤ %§ ¥¥8 8 8 ¡ ¤ %§ ¤ B%§ ¢ ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ %§ ¦ 2 ¢ %§ 8 8 ¢ ¢ ¨ § ¡ § ¢ ¦ 2 © instance => where 7 § ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ 32 8 8 ¥¥8 %§ ¦ ¡ $ 6 6 6 6 ¦ § ¢ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ © 7 7 § ¦ § © 2§ § ¦ § ¦ . and the must all be $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ 1 ¢ instance => where { ¦ 2 ¢ class => where { } £%§ ¡ 4 ¦ . The general form of the corresponding instance declaration is: This prohibits instance declarations such as: instance C (a.) For example.3. ] > . .a) where . module A where import qualified Ix instance Ix. instance C [[a]] where .... this is legal.. } .. even though range is in scope only with the qualiﬁed name Ix. Let be a class declaration. The type type variables distinct.. it is not automatically an instance of the subclass.2 Instance Declarations ¨ © } § ¦ § © © %§ $ An instance declaration introduces an instance of a class. must take the form of a type constructor applied to simple . TYPE CLASSES AND OVERLOADING 49 In such a case. even though the subclass has no immediate class methods. The declarations may contain bindings only for the class methods of .range. (This rule is identical to that used for subordinate names in export lists — Section 5.. in particular.4.2. if a type is an instance of all superclasses.
If no binding is given for some class method then the corresponding default class method in the class declaration is used (if present). this can be determined using kind inference as described in Section 4.. Assume that the type variables in the instance type satisfy the constraints in the instance context . instance (Eq a. This example is valid Haskell.. the method declarations must take the form of a variable or function deﬁnition. Show a) => Bar [a] where .. must be an instance of each of . The class and type must have the same kind. Any constraints on the type variables in the instance type that are required for the class method declarations in to be welltyped must also be satisﬁed. then the program would be invalid.. because Eq and Show are superclasses of Num.50 CHAPTER 4. The following example illustrates the restrictions imposed by superclass instances: class Foo a => Bar a where . instance Num a => Bar [a] where . Since Foo is a superclass of Bar. the second instance declaration is only valid if [a] is an instance of Foo under the assumption Num a. if such a default does not exist then the class method of this instance is bound to undefined and no compiletime error results. except in pathological cases it is possible to infer from the instance declaration the most general instance context satisfying the above two constraints. The constraints expressed by the superclass context be satisﬁed. the following two conditions must also be satisﬁed: 2. In other words. Under this assumption. Show a) => Foo [a] where . The ﬁrst instance declaration does indeed say that [a] is an instance of Foo under this assumption. A type may not be declared as an instance of a particular class more than once in the program.. instance (Eq a. If the two instance declarations instead read like this: instance Num a => Foo [a] where . but it is nevertheless mandatory to write an explicit instance context. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS been given in the class declaration..6. The second instance declaration is valid only if [a] is an ¨ $ # $ 8 8 ¥¥8 1...3. In fact..1).. contexts of all superclass instances must be implied by $ of must ’s superclasses and the ¢ An instance declaration that makes the type to be an instance of class instance declaration and is subject to these static restrictions: is called a CT $ 1 ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¢ $ 1 ¢ ¦ 1 ¢ . As in the case of default class methods (Section 4.
not all datatypes can properly support class methods in Enum. But this does not hold. When deriving a class for a type . It is also a static error to give an explicit instance declaration for a class that is also derived. ¢ 6 6 ¢ 8 ¢ 8 ¥ §¥ ¥ ¥ §¥ ¥ show read Show Read String String ¢ ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ ¡ ¢ %§ default ( .. If the deriving form is omitted from a data or newtype declaration. Ord. that is.. including a speciﬁcation of when such derived instances are possible. . using the read and show functions deﬁned in Chapter 10.1. Bounded. page 83.4.4 Ambiguous Types. data and newtype declarations contain an optional deriving form. because the types for show and read.1. omitting a deriving form is equivalent to including an empty deriving form: deriving (). since [a] is only an instance of Foo under the stronger assumption Num a. A static error results if it is not possible to derive an instance declaration over a class named in a deriving form. then the expression let x = read ".3 Derived Instances As mentioned in Section 4.invalid is ambiguous. and Read. then derived instance declarations are automatically generated for the datatype in each of the named classes. The only classes in the Prelude for which derived instances are allowed are Eq. Enum. For example. either via an explicit instance declaration or by including the superclass in the deriving clause. TYPE CLASSES AND OVERLOADING 51 instance of Foo under the assumptions (Eq a. freeing the programmer from the need to deﬁne them. instances for all superclasses of must exist for . then no instance declarations are derived for that datatype. Show." in show x . all mentioned in Figure 6. 4. Further examples of instance declarations may be found in Chapter 8. The precise details of how the derived instances are generated for each of these classes are provided in Chapter 10. For example. For example. and Defaults for Overloaded Numeric Operations ¦ A %§ A problem inherent with Haskellstyle overloading is the possibility of an ambiguous type. Show a).3. These instances are subject to the same restrictions as userdeﬁned instances. If the form is included. derived instances for datatypes in the class Eq deﬁne the operations == and /=.3.3. Derived instances provide convenient commonlyused operations for userdeﬁned datatypes. ) ¦ § ¡ ¡ 6 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 2§ . 4. and supposing that just Int and Bool are members of Read and Show. Classes deﬁned by the standard libraries may also be derivable.2.
3. in its type variable in that occurs in but not in . appears only in constraints of the form .1. For example. If no default declaration is given in a module then it assumed to be: default (Integer. the earlier expression involving show and read has an ambiguous type since its type Show Read String." in show (x::Bool) which disambiguates the type. and 8 $ ¥ We say that an expression e has an ambiguous type if. For example. and Figure 6. an otherwise ambiguous expression needs to be made the same type as some variable. one could write: let x = read ". Only one default declaration is permitted per module.2–6. . Occasionally. § ¢ ¢ For example. is Ambiguous types can only be circumvented by input from the user.4.16. . and each must be a type for which Num holds.) Ambiguities in the class Num are most common. § ¢ . an ambiguous type variable.. default (). ) where . shows the classes deﬁned in the Prelude. approxSqrt x = encodeFloat 1 (exponent x ‘div‘ 2) ‘asTypeOf‘ x (See Section 6. Such expressions are considered illtyped. for the ambiguous expression given earlier. This is the purpose of the function asTypeOf (Chapter 8): ‘asTypeOf‘ has the value of . there is a type A !§ v § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡§ ¢ v 2§ ¢ $ ¦ $ ¦ 8 ¢ ¥ . and all of these classes are deﬁned in the Prelude or a standard library (Figures 6. where is a class. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS could be satisﬁed by instantiating a as either Int in both cases. One way is through the use of expression typesignatures as described in Section 3. In situations where an ambiguous type is discovered. Such types are invalid.. turns off all defaults in a module. a static error. It is a static error if no such type is found. so Haskell provides another way to resolve them— with a default declaration: default ( . but and are forced to have the same type. or Bool. and its effect is limited to that module. pages 91– 92 show the numeric classes. rather than being given a ﬁxed type with an expression typesignature. Num or a subclass of Num). is defaultable if: ¢ ¢ at least one of these classes is a numeric class.) Each defaultable variable is replaced by the ﬁrst type in the default list that is an instance of all the ambiguous variable’s classes.52 CHAPTER 4. page 83. Double) The empty default declaration. (that is.6 for a description of encodeFloat and exponent.
possibly with respect to a context.) If a given program includes a signature for a variable . then each use of is treated as having the declared type. (The type of x is dependent on the type of f.4 Nested Declarations The following declarations may be used in any declaration list. if we deﬁne sqr x = x*x 0 0 0 0 0 0 then the principal type is sqr Num . A type signature has the form: :: => which is equivalent to asserting :: => for each from to . and hence the scope of a type variable is limited to the type signature that contains it. It is also valid to declare a more speciﬁc type. However. it is invalid to give more than one type signature for one variable.1.e.5) is treated as having the corresponding inferred. including the top level of a module.2. it is invalid to give a type signature for a variable bound in an outer scope. %§ ¨ § S § ¢ ¢ 8 ¦ 32 ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¥ :: . For example.4.5. As mentioned in Section 4. even if the signatures are identical. then each use of outside its own declaration group (see Section 4. If a variable is deﬁned without providing a corresponding type signature declaration. Moreover. 4. which allows applications such as sqr 5 or sqr 0. i. .2). or principal type .5.invalid A type signature speciﬁes types for variables. and all uses of within its declaration group must have the same monomorphic type (from which the principal type is obtained by generalization.1 Type Signatures .4. such as ¦ ¦ § ¢ § 6 ¢ ¢ A ¢ § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ 8 ¡ ¢ ¥ §¥ ¥ A §¤ v ¢ . in the following declarations f :: a > a f x = x :: a v B the a’s in the two type signatures are quite distinct.4.4. NESTED DECLARATIONS 53 4. every type variable appearing in a signature is universally quantiﬁed over that signature. It is a static error if the same type cannot also be inferred for the deﬁning occurrence of . this is explained in Section 4. Each must have a value binding in the same declaration list that contains the type signature. to ensure that type inference is still possible.1. there is currently since x does not have type no way in Haskell to specify a signature for a variable with a dependent type. the deﬁning occurrence. as described in Section 4. these declarations contain a static error. Indeed. For example. ¡ => ¡ V © ¤ ¤ ¢ ¢ 6 6 7 ¥ ¦ © S¤ ¦ ¥ ¢ .
2 Fixity Declarations © A ﬁxity declaration gives the ﬁxity and binding precedence of one or more operators. just like its type. For example: §§ § ¦ ¤ § ¦ § ¦ infixl infixr infix . (Class methods are a minor exception. and level 9 binds most tightly).) There are three kinds of ﬁxity. infixl. ﬁxity is not a property of that entity’s name. The following deﬁnition is pathological. The in a ﬁxity declaration must be in the range to . Type signatures can also be used to support polymorphic recursion. a ﬁxity declaration can only occur in the same sequence of declarations as the declaration of the operator itself. Also like a type signature. declares a property of a particular operator.1 are invalid. and ten precedence levels. A ﬁxity declaration may appear anywhere that a type signature appears and. Any operator lacking a ﬁxity declaration is assumed to be infixl 9 (See Section 3 for more on the use of ﬁxities). non. and infixr. level 9 is assumed. . Table 4. like a type signature. but illustrates how a type signature can be used to specify a type more general than the one that would be inferred: data T a = K (T Int) (T a) f :: T a > a f (K x y) = if f x == 1 then f y else undefined If we remove the signature declaration. If the is omitted.invalid are invalid.1 lists the ﬁxities and precedences of the operators deﬁned in the Prelude. left. and at most one ﬁxity declaration may be given for any operator.and rightassociativity (infix. as they are more general than the principal type of sqr. their ﬁxity declarations can occur either in the class declaration itself or at top level. 0 to 9 inclusive (level 0 binds least tightly. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS but now applications such as sqr 0. the type of f will be inferred as T Int > Int due to the ﬁrst recursive call for which the argument to f is T Int. 4.4. Fixity is a property of a particular entity (constructor or variable). respectively).invalid . T a > a. Num b) => a > b sqr :: a > a . ¦ ¡ 2 ©¦ 2 &¤ 2 A 2 ¡ ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¢ 2 8 8 ¡ ¡ 2 ¨ ¥ § ¦ § %§ § ¢ ¤ 6 6 6 6 7 ¥ ¦ © %§ § ¢ ¦ ¥ ¡ ¡2 2 . Polymorphic recursion allows the user to supply the more general type signature.54 sqr :: Int > Int CHAPTER 4. Type signatures such as sqr :: (Num a.
‘div‘. Here. (It would also be possible to give a ﬁxity to the nested deﬁnition of ‘op‘ with a nested ﬁxity declaration..op‘ q) * 2 in .op‘ is infix 3. and the nested deﬁnition of op in f’s righthand side has the default ﬁxity of infixl 9. ‘elem‘.4. <.op‘ b) + 1 f x = let p ‘op‘ q = (p ‘Foo. ‘notElem‘ &&  >>. ‘mod‘. ˆˆ. ‘rem‘. >>= $. <=..  Nonassociative operators Right associative operators . NESTED DECLARATIONS 55 Precedence 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Left associative operators !! *.) 4. ++ ==. ** :. >=.4. ‘Bar.4. >.1: Precedences and ﬁxities of prelude operators module Bar( op ) where infixr 7 ‘op‘ op = .3 Function and Pattern Bindings © ¥ § ¤ 2 v ¢£¡ § p v ¢ §e ¡ ¡ v © ¢ £¡ p v ¢ §e 2 § ¡ v £¡ p v ¢ 0e $ ¢ § ¡ ¢ ¡ £5¢ ¤ § ¤ ¢ £¡ ¤ ¡ v ¢ 2¢ &¤ v § £¡ ¢ ¤ ¡ ¢ ¡ v § £ 7¡ ¢ ¢ ¤ £ ¡ ¢ § ¢ ¡ £5¢ © ¥ 7 ¦ $ £0 § 6 6 © ¥ 7 ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ $ 0 . ˆ. module Foo where import qualified Bar infix 3 ‘op‘ a ‘op‘ b = (a ‘Bar. $!. ‘seq‘ Table 4.. ‘Foo. ‘quot‘ +.. /=.op‘ is infixr 7. /.
The set of patterns corresponding to each match must be linear—no variable is allowed to appear more than once in the entire set. The former is treated as shorthand for a particular case of } v © 7 ¦ = where { ¤ ¥7 v v © ¤ ¦7 v v = where { 7 ¦ 8 8 ¥¥8 § ¡ v where each is a pattern.3. For example. The general form of a function binding for variable is: ¡ ¥ § ¥ § or ¡ v ¡v   = Note that all clauses deﬁning a function must be contiguous. the latter. these three function deﬁnitions are all equivalent: plus x y z = x+y+z x `plus y = \ z > x+y+z ` (x ` plus y) z = x+y+z ` v © v  True = where { 7 ¥ ¦ v 4 ¦ and where . DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS We distinguish two cases within this syntax: a pattern binding occurs when the left hand side is a . Either binding may appear at the toplevel of a module or within a where or let construct. and where each is of the general form: } } A ¢ ¢ 4 4 v ¥ § 4 ¢ A ¥¥8 ¡ A 8 8 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ ¢ ¢ ¡  ¨ © ¥ ¤ ¢ ¡ = ¦ ¦ ¡ ¤ © ¥ ¡ ¢ ¡ = ¦ where where 9§ ¨© ¨ 7 © ¥ 7 ¥ ¦ § © ¥ ¡ ¦ $ £0 ¤ ( ) ¢ §¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ £5¢ 7 ¦ 6 6 ¡ ¦ ¢ 6 © ¥ ¤ § © ¥ ¦ ¦ ¢ £¡ ¤ .56 CHAPTER 4.1 Function bindings A function binding binds a variable to a function value. and the number of patterns in each clause must be the same. namely: . the binding is called a function binding. otherwise. ¤ 4. Alternative syntax is provided for binding functional values to inﬁx operators.4. .
See the translation in Section 3. in other words.4.2 Pattern bindings A pattern binding binds variables to values.12.4.4. but the existence of n+k patterns sometimes confuses the issue. as if there were an implicit ˜ in front of it. A simple pattern binding has form . The pattern is matched “lazily” as an irrefutable pattern.3. A note about syntax. where a function bindings above. simple pattern binding): ¡ ¥ § 57 4. a pattern binding is: is the same structure as for ¡ ¥ § ¢ ¥ § ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 4 ¡ ¡ 888 v ¢ where the are new identiﬁers.e. ) of ( ) ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ . A 4 ¡ A ( ) ¥ § ¢ 4 A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ 8 8 ¥¡ ¥8 ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¢ ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¢ = \ ¢ > case ( . . NESTED DECLARATIONS Translation: The general binding form for functions is semantically equivalent to the equation (i. Here are four examples: 7 7 if then £ ¤ ¡ ¢ © £ ¡ = let if if in then then 7 ¦ Translation: ing: The pattern binding above is semantically equivalent to this simple pattern bind else else else error "Unmatched pattern" © 7 ¥ ¦ 7  = where { 7 £ ¡ ¢ £ ¡   = = } 4 The general form of a pattern binding is . It is usually straightforward to tell whether a binding is a pattern binding or a function binding.
58 x + 1 = ... (x + 1) = ... (x + 1) * y = ... (x + 1) y = ...
CHAPTER 4. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS
 Function binding, defines (+)  Equivalent to (+) x 1 = ...  Pattern binding, defines x  Function binding, defines (*)  Equivalent to (*) (x+1) y = ...  Function binding, defines (+)  Equivalent to (+) x 1 y = ...
¤
4.5 Static Semantics of Function and Pattern Bindings
The static semantics of the function and pattern bindings of a let expression or where clause are discussed in this section.
4.5.1 Dependency Analysis
In general the static semantics are given by the normal HindleyMilner inference rules. A dependency analysis transformation is ﬁrst performed to increase polymorphism. Two variables bound by value declarations are in the same declaration group if either 1. they are bound by the same pattern binding, or 2. their bindings are mutually recursive (perhaps via some other declarations that are also part of the group). Application of the following rules causes each let or where construct (including the where deﬁning the top level bindings in a module) to bind only the variables of a single declaration group, thus capturing the required dependency analysis: 1 1. The order of declarations in where/let constructs is irrelevant.
£
} in = let { } in (let { 2. let { ; (when no identiﬁer bound in appears free in )
1
} in
A similar transformation is described in Peyton Jones’ book [10].
§
The ﬁrst two can be distinguished because a pattern binding has a — the former cannot be an unparenthesised n+k pattern.
§
¢ £¡
on the left hand side, not a
¦
¡
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¦
£
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£
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)
4.5. STATIC SEMANTICS OF FUNCTION AND PATTERN BINDINGS
59
4.5.2 Generalization
The HindleyMilner type system assigns types to a letexpression in two stages. First, the righthand side of the declaration is typed, giving a type with no universal quantiﬁcation. Second, all type variables that occur in this type are universally quantiﬁed unless they are associated with bound variables in the type environment; this is called generalization. Finally, the body of the letexpression is typed. For example, consider the declaration f x = let g y = (y,y) in ...
The type of g’s deﬁnition is . The generalization step attributes to g the polymorphic type , after which the typing of the “...” part can proceed. When typing overloaded deﬁnitions, all the overloading constraints from a single declaration group are collected together, to form the context for the type of each variable declared in the group. For example, in the deﬁnition: f x = let g1 x y = if x>y then show x else g2 y x g2 p q = g1 q p in ... String, and the accumulated The types of the deﬁnitions of g1 and g2 are both constraints are Ord (arising from the use of >), and Show (arising from the use of show). The type variables appearing in this collection of constraints are called the constrained type variables. The generalization step attributes to both g1 and g2 the type
Notice that g2 is overloaded in the same way as g1 even though the occurrences of > and show are in the deﬁnition of g1. If the programmer supplies explicit type signatures for more than one variable in a declaration group, the contexts of these signatures must be identical up to renaming of the type variables.
4.5.3 Context Reduction Errors
As mentioned in Section 4.1.4, the context of a type may constrain only a type variable, or the application of a type variable to one or more types. Hence, types produced by generalization must be expressed in a form in which all context constraints have be reduced to this “head normal form”. Consider, for example, the deﬁnition: f xs y = xs == [y]
6
6
Ord
Show
6 ¢
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6
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¢ & ¢
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CHAPTER 4. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS
f :: Eq a => [a] > a > Bool and not f :: Eq [a] => [a] > a > Bool Even though the equality is taken at the list type, the context must be simpliﬁed, using the instance declaration for Eq on lists, before generalization. If no such instance is in scope, a static error occurs. Here is an example that shows the need for a constraint of the form where m is one of the type variables being generalized; that is, where the class applies to a type expression that is not a type variable or a type constructor. Consider: f :: (Monad m, Eq (m a)) => a > m a > Bool f x y = return x == y The type of return is Monad m => a > m a; the type of (==) is Eq a => a > a > Bool. The type of f should be therefore (Monad m, Eq (m a)) => a > m a > Bool, and the context cannot be simpliﬁed further. The instance declaration derived from a data type deriving clause (see Section 4.3.3) must, like , any instance declaration, have a simple context; that is, all the constraints must be of the form where is a type variable. For example, in the type data Apply a b = App (a b) deriving Show
the derived Show instance will produce a context Show (a b), which cannot be reduced and is not simple; thus a static error results.
4.5.4 Monomorphism
Sometimes it is not possible to generalize over all the type variables used in the type of the deﬁnition. For example, consider the declaration f x = let g y z = ([x,y], z) in ... In an environment where x has type , the type of g’s deﬁnition is ([ ] ). The ([ ] ); only can be universally generalization step attributes to g the type quantiﬁed because occurs in the type environment. We say that the type of g is monomorphic in the type variable . The effect of such monomorphism is that the ﬁrst argument of all applications of g must be of a single type. For example, it would be valid for the “...” to be
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It is worth noting that the explicit type signatures provided by Haskell are not powerful enough to express types that include monomorphic type variables. For example, we cannot write f x = let g :: a > b > ([a],b) g y z = ([x,y], z) in ... because that would claim that g was polymorphic in both a and b (Section 4.4.1). In this program, g can only be given a type signature if its ﬁrst argument is restricted to a type not involving type variables; for example g :: Int > b > ([Int],b) This signature would also cause x to have type Int.
4.5.5 The Monomorphism Restriction
Haskell places certain extra restrictions on the generalization step, beyond the standard HindleyMilner restriction described above, which further reduces polymorphism in particular cases. The monomorphism restriction depends on the binding syntax of a variable. Recall that a variable is bound by either a function binding or a pattern binding, and that a simple pattern binding is a pattern binding in which the pattern consists of only a single variable (Section 4.4.3). The following two rules deﬁne the monomorphism restriction:
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CHAPTER 4. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS
Rule 1. We say that a given declaration group is unrestricted if and only if: (a): every variable in the group is bound by a function binding or a simple pattern binding (Section 4.4.3.2), and (b): an explicit type signature is given for every variable in the group that is bound by simple pattern binding. The usual HindleyMilner restriction on polymorphism is that only type variables that do not occur free in the environment may be generalized. In addition, the constrained type variables of a restricted declaration group may not be generalized in the generalization step for that group. (Recall that a type variable is constrained if it must belong to some type class; see Section 4.5.2.) Rule 2. Any monomorphic type variables that remain when type inference for an entire module is complete, are considered ambiguous, and are resolved to particular types using the defaulting rules (Section 4.3.4).
Motivation
Rule 1 is required for two reasons, both of which are fairly subtle.
Rule 1 prevents computations from being unexpectedly repeated. For example, genericLength is a standard function (in library List) whose type is given by genericLength :: Num a => [b] > a Now consider the following expression: let { len = genericLength xs } in (len, len) It looks as if len should be computed only once, but without Rule 1 it might be computed twice, once at each of two different overloadings. If the programmer does actually wish the computation to be repeated, an explicit type signature may be added: let { len :: Num a => a; len = genericLength xs } in (len, len)
Rule 1 prevents ambiguity. For example, consider the declaration group
[(n,s)] = reads t Recall that reads is a standard function whose type is given by the signature reads :: (Read a) => String > [(a,String)] Without Rule 1, n would be assigned the type Read and s the type Read String. The latter is an invalid type, because it is inherently ambiguous. It is not possible to determine at what overloading to use s, nor can this be solved by adding a type signature for s. Hence, when nonsimple pattern bindings are used (Section 4.4.3.2), the types inferred are always monomorphic in their constrained type variables, irrespective of whether a type signature is provided. In this case, both n and s are monomorphic in .
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()) both f and g are monomorphic regardless of any type signatures supplied for f or g. len1 gets type Int. There is no danger of recomputation here.g) = ((+). a type signature on len1 would solve the problem.5. Rule 2 now states that the monomorphic type variable a is ambiguous. Rule 2 states that the exact types of all the variables bound in a module must be determined by that module alone. module M1(len1) where default( Int. For example. Hence.4. STATIC SEMANTICS OF FUNCTION AND PATTERN BINDINGS The same constraint applies to patternbound functions. (If the above code is actually what is wanted. and its use in len2 is typeincorrect. Consider module M where len1 = genericLength "Hello" len2 = (2*len1) :: Rational . Thus in f x y = x+y the function f may be used at any overloading in class Num. except by performing type inference on modules outside the current module. Consequences The monomorphism rule has a number of consequences for the programmer.3. and not by any modules that import it. 63 Rule 2 is required because there is no way to enforce monomorphic use of an exported binding. and must be resolved using the defaulting rules of Section 4. Anything deﬁned with function syntax usually generalizes as a function is expected to.4. len1 has the monomorphic type Num a => a (by Rule 1). Many functions are most naturally deﬁned using simple pattern bindings.) This issue does not arise for nested bindings. However. in (f. the user must be careful to afﬁx these with type signatures to retain full overloading. The standard prelude contains many examples of this: sum sum :: (Num a) => [a] > a = foldl (+) 0 Rule 1 applies to both toplevel and nested deﬁnitions. because their entire scope is visible to the compiler. the same function deﬁned with pattern syntax: f = \x > \y > x+y requires a type signature if f is to be fully overloaded. Double ) len1 = genericLength "Hello" module M2 where import M1(len1) len2 = (2*len1) :: Rational When type inference on module M1 is complete.
6 6 6 6 9 6 6 ¡ 6 6 6 ¡ 6 9 6 6 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ .64 CHAPTER 4. adding the following deﬁnition to those above does not inﬂuence the kind inferred for Tree (by changing it to . constructors. i. Instead. for instance). does not match the kind that is expected for an argument of Tree: type FunnyTree = Tree [] . Defaults are applied to each dependency group without consideration of the ways in which particular type constructor constants or classes are used in later dependency groups or elsewhere in the program. a default of is assumed. and classes within each group are determined using standard techniques of type inference and kindpreserving uniﬁcation [7]. for any kind . type inference ﬁnds that len1 has the monomorphic type (Num a => a). It is possible that some parts of an inferred kind may not be fully determined by the corresponding deﬁnitions.invalid This is important because it ensures that each constructor and class are used consistently with the same kind whenever they are in scope. using the default binding . the following program fragment includes the deﬁnition of a datatype constructor D. and the type variable a is resolved to Rational when performing type inference on len2. and would require an extension to allow polymorphic kinds. in such cases. For example. 4. For example. For example. This can be achieved in much the same way as the dependency analysis for value declarations that was described in Section 4. the actual kinds for these two constructors are and . the parameter a appears as an argument of the function constructor (>) in the type of bar and hence must have kind . in the deﬁnitions above. respectively. respectively. synonym. and instead generates a static error because the kind of [].6 Kind Inference This section describes the rules that are used to perform kind inference. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS Here. and class deﬁnitions into dependency groups. For example. a synonym S and a class C. The ﬁrst step in the kind inference process is to arrange the set of datatype. It follows that both D and S must have kind and that every instance of class C must have kind . all of which would be included in the same dependency group: data C a => D a = Foo (S a) type S a = [D a] class C a where bar :: a > D a > Bool The kinds of variables. . we could assume an arbitrary kind for the a parameter in each of the following examples: data App f a = A (f a) data Tree a = Leaf  Fork (Tree a) (Tree a) This would give kinds and for App and Tree.e.5. to calculate a suitable kind for each type constructor and class appearing in a given program.
must be called Main and must export the value main. changing all occurrences to refer to the appropriate unique name. datatypes. We use the term entity to refer to a value. by convention. 1 65 . making them available to other modules. imported into.f >> B. Second. module B where f = . For example.. A Haskell program is a collection of modules.4). default declarations scope over a single module (Section 4. It exports some of these resources. which must be a computation of type IO for some type (see Chapter 7). The value of the program is the value of the identiﬁer main in module Main..3.5) is affected by module boundaries. A multimodule Haskell program can be converted into a singlemodule program by giving each entity a unique name.f module A where f = . and its result (of type ) is discarded. (see Chapter 4). type synonyms.. Modules may be mutually recursive.. classes. Rule 2 of the monomorphism restriction (Section 4. Modules may reference other modules via explicit import declarations. and are not ﬁrst class values. Modules are used for namespace control. and then concatenating all the module bodies1 . etc.5. one of which. When the program is executed. type. First. or class deﬁned in. in an environment created by a set of imports (resources brought into scope from other modules).Chapter 5 Modules A module deﬁnes a collection of values. each giving the name of a module to be imported and specifying its entities to be imported. here is a threemodule program: module Main where import A import B main = A. or perhaps exported from a module. the computation main is performed. It is equivalent to the following singlemodule program: There are two minor exceptions to this statement.
modules allow a program to be partitioned freely without regard to dependencies. then the layout rule applies for the top level of the module. .3) that specify modules to be imported.. etc. plus a set of standard library modules that may be imported as required (see Part II). and a list of entities (enclosed in round parentheses) to be exported. is permitted. If this is used. . This is followed by a possiblyempty list of toplevel declarations .. type synonyms. ¦ ¦ § 5. bf = . which is imported into all modules by default (see Section 5. CHAPTER 5. optionally restricting the imported bindings. (see Chapter 4). The namespace for modules themselves is ﬂat. The header is followed by a possiblyempty list of import declarations ( . Prelude. There is one distinguished module. If the ﬁrst lexeme in the abbreviated module is not a {. Section 5.2 Export Lists ¦ ¨ A§ ¤ !¤32 ¢ S 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤32 § ¤ ¢ ¡ ( . MODULES Because they are allowed to be mutually recursive. A module begins with a header: the keyword module.. ) ¦ § ¦ ¦ A 2§ 7 A ¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 . classes. consisting only of the module body. } } } 2 ¨ ©§ ¤ 5@¤32 7 ¢ ¡ ¦ ¡ § 2 4 module ¦ where 2 4 ¦ ' ¡ ¦ ¦ 7 ¥ © 7¥ 7 ¥ ¡ ¦ ¡ ¦ ' 2 6 6 6 6 6 6 © © 2§ 7¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § © ¦ ¡ § 2 4 ¦ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 7 ©§ ¤ @¤32 $ 7 ¦ ¦ ' ¡ 2 4 2§ 2 ¢ ¡ .6).e.1 Module Structure A module deﬁnes a mutually recursive scope containing declarations for value bindings. the header is assumed to be ‘module Main(main) where’. i. with each module being associated with a unique module name (which are Haskell identiﬁers beginning with a capital letter.66 module Main where main = af >> bf af = . the module name. ). Chapter 4). . ( An abbreviated form of module. . © 5. data types.. 7 ¦ © ¡ 2§ © © 4§ ¡ 2§ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ § ¡ 32 ¦ 2§ ¦ ¡ 4§ ¦ ¡ 4§ { { { . .
where ¨ ¦ § ¨ A ¤ ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ 8 8 ¢ ¥¥8 ¢ A 5 4 ¦ ¡ ¢ 4 ¦ 8 8 ¤ ¢ ¤ ¦ § (.. 3.) ( module .. but not those that are imported.8).Maybe( Nothing. ) ¦ ¦§ ¦ ¦ § ¢ ¢ ¢ ¡ ¢¨ ¦ ¦ § 2 4 ¦ 2 ¤ 3¥ %§ ¦ 72 ¨ © ¡ ¨ ¤ ¢ ¢ %§ 6 6 § ¤ ¤32 4 ¦ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ . because they cannot otherwise be distinguished from type constructors.2. The constructor In all cases. whether declared in the module body or imported. A class with operations of three ways: 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ The form names. the following is legal module A( Mb. or class method. ( . . all values. must be in scope. The ability to export a type without its constructors allows the construction of abstract datatypes (see Section 5. and (b) the constructor or ﬁeld is in scope in the module body regardless of whether it is in scope under a qualiﬁed or unqualiﬁed name. types and classes deﬁned in the module are exported.) names the type and all its constructors and ﬁeld names that are currently in scope (whether qualiﬁed or not). A value.. Just ) ) where import qualified Maybe as Mb Data constructors cannot be named in export lists except as subordinate names. The abbreviated form (. the (possiblyqualiﬁed) type constructor and ﬁeld names in the second form are unqualiﬁed.5. may . . ﬁeld name. An algebraic datatype of three ways: declared by a data or newtype declaration may be named in one The form names the type but not the constructors or ﬁeld names. If the export list is omitted.) ( (. ¦ declared by a type declaration may be named by the form ¡ £ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ £ 4. . ). EXPORT LISTS 67 . one of these subordinate names is legal if and only if (a) it names a constructor or ﬁeld of . names the type and some or all of its constructors and ﬁeld declared in a class declaration may be named in one . or that it imports from some other module. A type synonym is in scope. A module implementation may only export an entity that it declares. Operators be named by giving the name of the value as a s. ) An export list identiﬁes the entities to be exported by a module declaration. which must be in scope. For example. should be enclosed in parentheses to turn them into 2. Entities in an export list may be named as follows: 1.
g. must be in scope. or as an implicitlynamed member (T(. A module can name its own local deﬁnitions in its export list using its own name in the “module M” syntax. or M is imported by at least one import declaration (qualiﬁed or unqualiﬁed).68 CHAPTER 5.. item (1) above). or as an explicitlynamed member of its data type (T(f).. For example: module Queue( module Stack.. In all cases. module B ) where import B(f) import qualified C(f. The unqualiﬁed names of the entities exported by a module must all be distinct (within their respective namespace). . or by exporting an entire module (module M. item (2)).. 5. ). enqueue. dequeue ) where import Stack . but there are name clashes in the export list ¦ £ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ £ The form ( . In the second form.1). The form “module M” names the set of all entities that are in scope with both an unqualiﬁed name “e” and a qualiﬁed name “M. item(2)). This set may be empty.) names the class and all its methods that are in scope (whether qualiﬁed or not). For example: module Mod1( module Mod1. It is an error to use module M in an export list unless M is the module bearing the export list. MODULES The abbreviated form (. ¡ ¦ The form names the class but not the class methods.g. item (5)). and (b) the class method is in scope in the module body regardless of whether it is in scope under a qualiﬁed or unqualiﬁed name. Exports lists are cumulative: the set of entities exported by an export list is the union of the entities exported by the individual items of the list.e”. a ﬁeld name f from data type T may be exported individually (f. because a local declaration brings into scope both a qualiﬁed and unqualiﬁed name (Section 5.an invalid module There are no name clashes within module A itself.5. For example module A ( C. C. For example. It makes no difference to an importing module how an entity was exported. one of the (unqualiﬁed) subordinate names is legal if and only if (a) it names a class method of .f. module Mod2 ) where import Mod2 import Mod3 Here module Mod1 exports all local deﬁnitions as well as those imported from Mod2 but not those imported from Mod3. ¡ £ .g) g = f True . names the class and some or all of its methods.). Here the module Queue uses the module name Stack in its export list to abbreviate all the entities imported from Stack.
3. 2 4 ¨ import qualified as . . When the (.3. except qualiﬁers are not permitted and the ‘module ’ entity is not permitted.) refers to all of the constructors. ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¤ ¢ A¤ 8 8 ¥¥8 . Items in the list have the same form as those in export lists.g and g are different entities – remember. in which case nothing except the instances is imported.. They have special signiﬁcance only in the context of an import declaration. The imported entities can be speciﬁed explicitly by listing them in parentheses. ) ¦ ¨ A !§ ¤ ¦ § ¦ ¦§ ¦ 2 § § ¤ %§ 4 ¢ ¢ ¥ ¦ 7 ¨¡ © 4 § ¨ § 2 4 ¡ ¡ ¦ ¦ . The import declaration names the module to be imported and optionally speciﬁes the entities to be imported. .1 What is imported Exactly which entities are to be imported can be speciﬁed in one of the following three ways: 1.5. methods.) ( .3 Import Declarations § The entities exported by a module may be brought into scope in another module with an import declaration at the beginning of the module. . they may also be used as variables.f are different entities).f (assuming B.) ( (. The list may be empty. The ordering of import declarations is irrelevant..) form of import is used for a type or class. § 5. ) ¦ ¦§ ¦ ¦ § ¢ 2 4§ . hiding ( . 5. ) ¨ ¨ A 5 4 ¦ ¢¥¥8 8 8 ¡ ¢ ¡ ¤ 4 ¦ ¢ (. Imported names serve as top level declarations: they scope over the entire body of the module but may be shadowed by local nontoplevel bindings.f and C. and between module B and C. the (. IMPORT DECLARATIONS 69 between C. The effect of multiple import declarations is strictly cumulative: an entity is in scope if it is imported by any of the import declarations in a module. or ﬁeld names exported from the module. “qualified” and “hiding” are each a a . ¨¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 A§ ¤ 2 4§ ¢ ¡ §¤¤32 4 § 8 8¡ ¥¥8 ¡§ ¤ 2 ( . modules can import each other recursively). the terminal symbols “as”.. The list must name only entities exported by the imported module. A single module may be imported by more than one import declaration. rather than Lexically. ) ¦ ¦ ¡ ¦ 2 ¤ 37 2 ¦ ¡ © 4§ ¤ ¢ ¢ %§ %§ 2 4 6 6 6 6 ¦ ¦ § ¤ © 7 § © ¤ 32 ¡ ¡ 4 ¦ ¢ ¡ ¤ ¦ ¡ 4§ 4§ 4§ ..g and g (assuming C.
in fact. . © 5. If the qualified keyword is omitted. in import qualified VeryLongModuleName as C entities must be referenced using ‘C. in import M hiding (C) any constructor.1.5.This + differs from the one in the Prelude .70 ¡ ¤32 § ¤ CHAPTER 5. Data constructors may be named directly in hiding lists without being preﬁxed by the associated type.3.This * differs from the one in the Prelude 5. Entities can be excluded by using the form hiding( . using C in an import list names only a class or type.+ 1) . MODULES 2.1 describes qualiﬁed names in more detail.’ as a qualiﬁer instead of ‘VeryLongModuleName. If the import declaration used the qualified keyword. In contrast.2 Qualiﬁed import For each entity imported under the rules of Section 5.All Prelude names must be qualified . then both the qualiﬁed and unqualiﬁed name of the entity is brought into scope. which speciﬁes that all entities exported by the named module should be imported except for those named in the list. the qualiﬁer is not necessarily the name of the module in which the entity was originally declared. The qualiﬁer on the imported name is either the name of the imported module. The ability to exclude the unqualiﬁed names allows full programmer control of the unqualiﬁed namespace: a locally deﬁned entity can share the same name as a qualiﬁed import: module Ring where import qualified Prelude import List( nub ) l1 + l2 = l1 Prelude.3. only the qualiﬁed name of the entity is brought into scope.3 Local aliases Imported modules may be assigned a local alias in the importing module using the as clause. exported by the imported module. Hence. class.3. This also allows a different module to be substituted for VeryLongModuleName without changing the 4§ 3. Thus. It is an error to hide an entity that is not. For example. Finally. or the local alias given in the as clause (Section 5.3.3) on the import statement.’.++ l2 l1 * l2 = nub (l1 + l2) succ = (Prelude. or type named C is excluded. Section 5. the toplevel environment is extended. ). if ported. is omitted then all the entities exported by the speciﬁed module are im A !§ ¤ 2 ¡ 4§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ 4§ ¡ ¡ .
y x.x x. All instances in scope within a module are always exported and any import brings all instances in from the imported . A.x B.y y. For example: module M where import qualified Foo as A import qualified Baz as A x = A.x.y (nothing) x.4 Importing and Exporting Instance Declarations Instance declarations cannot be explicitly named on import or export lists.x. A. all instance declarations in scope in module A are imported (Section 5. It is legal for more than one module in scope to use the same qualiﬁer. B.x. suppose the module A exports x and y. y. Then this table shows what names are brought into scope by the speciﬁed import statement: Import declaration import A import A() import A(x) import qualified A import qualified A() import qualified A(x) import A hiding () import A hiding (x) import qualified A hiding () import qualified A hiding (x) import A as B import A as B(x) import qualified A as B Names brought into scope x.y x. y.f. 5. B.x. A. A. A.3. A.5.4).x A. B. An as clause may also be used on an unqualified import statement: import Foo as A(f) This declaration brings into scope f and A. provided that all names can still be resolved unambiguously. A. IMPORTING AND EXPORTING INSTANCE DECLARATIONS 71 qualiﬁers used for the imported module.x.4. A.y (nothing) A.f This module is legal provided only that Foo and Baz do not both export f.y In all cases. 5.4 Examples To clarify the above import rules.y A.x. y.y A. B.
Thus. therefore.5 Name Clashes and Closure 5. MODULES module. For example. 5.. that is. there must be only one binding for f or A. The deﬁning occurrence must mention the unqualiﬁed name.5. For example module MyInstances() where instance Show (a > b) where show fn = "<<function>>" instance Show (IO a) where show io = "<<IO action>>" 5. whether qualified or not. g x = M..4).f.y = x+1 in .2 Name clashes If a module contains a bound occurrence of a name.5. . 4 ¦ ¢ ¦ ¦ (Section 2. but does bring in any instances visible in M.72 CHAPTER 5. This allows a qualiﬁed import to be replaced with an unqualiﬁed one without forcing changes in the references to the imported names.ILLEGAL By an import declaration. . A qualiﬁed name is brought into scope: . such as f or A. A toplevel declaration brings into scope both the unqualiﬁed and the qualiﬁed name of the entity being deﬁned.ILLEGAL g x = let M.f x x is legal. it is illegal to write module M where M.f respectively. always brings into scope the qualiﬁed name of the imported entity (Section 5. an instance declaration is in scope if and only if a chain of import declarations leads to the module containing the instance declaration.f x = . 2 4 A qualiﬁed name is written as . Thus: module M where f x = .. A module whose only purpose is to provide instance declarations can have an empty export list...1 Qualiﬁed names § By a top level declaration. An import declaration. import M() does not bring any new names in scope from module M.3).. it must be possible unambiguously to resolve which entity is thereby referred to.
2).x. d.. b. y = . The references to b and c can be unambiguously resolved to b declared in B.. c.. The name occurring in a type signature or ﬁxity declarations is always unqualiﬁed.sin (F. the following module is legal: module F where sin :: Float > Float sin x = (x::Float) f x = Prelude. B.. NAME CLASHES AND CLOSURE 73 It is not an error for there to exist names that cannot be so resolved. so it is not erroneous that distinct entities called y are exported by both B and C.. y ) where import D x = . The ambiguity could be ﬁxed by replacing the reference to x by B.4. c = . provided that the program does not mention those names. or x declared in C. The reference to d is unambiguously resolved to d declared in D.x or C. In this case the same entity is brought into scope by two routes (the import of B and the import of C).. y = . even though the Prelude function sin is implicitly in scope. Consider the deﬁnition of tup. For example.. For example: module A where import B import C tup = (b.. module D( d ) where d = . and C... x. c. and c declared in C respectively. There is no reference to y..sin x) The local declaration for sin is legal. and can be referred to in A by the names d.d.5. module C( d. y ) where import D x = .. x.. b = . An error is only reported if y is actually mentioned.5. and unambiguously refers to another declaration in the same declaration list (except that the ﬁxity declaration for a class method can occur at top level — Section 4. .d. The reference to x is ambiguous: it could mean x declared in B.. x) module B( d.
74 CHAPTER 5. entities that the compiler requires for type checking or other compile time analysis need not be imported if they are not mentioned by name. and functions. The Haskell compilation system is responsible for ﬁnding any information needed for compilation without the help of the programmer. module M2 knows enough about T to correctly type check the program.3 Closure Every module in a Haskell program must be closed. the Prelude is contained in the . the unqualiﬁed name sin in the type signature in the ﬁrst line of F unambiguously refers to the local declaration for sin. The only reason to export T is to allow other modules to refer it by name. MODULES The references to Prelude.5. That is. The Haskell system silently imports any information that must accompany an entity for type checking or any other purposes.” In Haskell. these are interchangeable even when T is not in scope. However. For example. That is. in module M(x) where type T = Int x :: T x = 1 the type of x is both T and Int. the import of a variable x does not require that the datatypes and classes in the signature of x be brought into the module along with x unless these entities are referenced by name in the user program. 5. there is no way to supply an explicit type signature for y since T is not in scope. That is. 5.6 Standard Prelude Many of the features of Haskell are deﬁned in Haskell itself as a library of standard datatypes. However. the type checker ﬁnds the deﬁnition of T if needed whether or not it is exported. the deﬁnition of T is available to any module that encounters it whether or not the name T is in scope. every name explicitly mentioned by the source code must be either deﬁned locally or imported from another module. The type of an exported entity is unaffected by nonexported type synonyms. Such entities need not even be explicitly exported: the following program is valid even though T does not escape M1: module M1(x) where data T = T x = T module M2 where import M1(x) y = x In this example. classes.sin and F. called the “Standard Prelude. Whether or not T is explicitly exported.sin must both be qualiﬁed to make it unambiguous which sin is meant.
just like those from any other module. The semantics of the entities in Prelude is speciﬁed by a reference implementation of Prelude written in Haskell. and they cannot be imported separately. nonNull :: Int > Bool null x = x == 0 nonNull x = not (null x) Module A redeﬁnes null. if and only if it is not imported with an explicit import declaration. for example. arrays. they should be considered part of its implementation.5.2 Shadowing Prelude Names The rules about the Prelude have been cast so that it is possible to use Prelude names for nonstandard purposes. and so on. every module that does so must have an import declaration that makes this nonstandard usage explicit.6. which provide less frequently used functions and types. given in Chapter 8. This means. They are simply there to help explain the structure of the Prelude module. Since the treatment of such entities depends on the implementation. not part of the language deﬁnition. 5. 5. and increasing the space of useful names available to the programmer. nonNull ) where import Prelude hiding( null ) null. they are not formally deﬁned in Chapter 8. Chapter 8 deﬁnes the module Prelude using several other modules: PreludeList.6. Prelude and library modules differ from other modules in that their semantics (but not their implementation) are a ﬁxed part of the Haskell language deﬁnition. PreludeIO. that a compiler may optimize calls to functions in the Prelude without consulting the source code of the Prelude. however. There are also many predeﬁned library modules. For example.1 The Prelude Module The Prelude module is imported automatically into all modules as if by the statement ‘import Prelude’. allowing it to be more easily assimilated. The latter would be ambiguous without the hiding(null) on the . These are deﬁned in Part II Separating libraries from the Prelude has the advantage of reducing the size and complexity of the Prelude. and most of the input/output are all part of the standard libraries. These modules are not part of Haskell 98. and contains an unqualiﬁed reference to null on the right hand side of nonNull. For example: module A( null. complex numberss. Some datatypes (such as Int) and functions (such as Int addition) cannot be speciﬁed directly in Haskell. This provision for explicit import allows entities deﬁned in the Prelude to be selectively imported. STANDARD PRELUDE 75 module Prelude. The implementation of Prelude is also incomplete in its treatment of tuples: there should be an inﬁnite family of tuples and their instance declarations.6. but the implementation only gives a scheme.
7 Separate Compilation Depending on the Haskell implementation used. On the other hand. Thus there is little danger of accidentally shadowing Prelude names. for example. For example.)) and lists (such as [x] and []) continues to refer to the tuples and lists deﬁned by the standard Prelude.) x x h x = [x] ++ [] the explicit import Prelude() declaration prevents the automatic import of Prelude. however. Other than the fact that it is implicitly imported.x) g x = (. it is special only in that some objects in the Prelude are referenced by special syntactic constructs. so it refers to ++ imported from MyPrelude. push. 5. It is possible to construct and use a different module to serve in place of the Prelude. For example. separate compilation of mutually recursive modules may require that imported modules contain additional information so that they may be referenced before they are compiled.8 Abstract Datatypes The ability to export a datatype without its constructors allows the construction of abstract datatypes (ADTs). in module B where import Prelude() import MyPrelude f x = (x. one cannot deﬁne a new instance for Show Char. 5. pop. in terms of a different implementation of lists. MODULES import Prelude statement. The precise details of separate compilation are not deﬁned by this report. there is no way to redeﬁne the meaning of [x]. an ADT for stacks could be deﬁned as: module Stack( StkType. For example. to hide instance declarations in the Prelude. the use of ++ is not special syntax. Every module that imports A unqualiﬁed.x) and (. The special syntax for tuples (such as (x. empty ) where data StkType a = EmptyStk  Stk a (StkType a) push x s = Stk x s pop (Stk _ s) = s empty = EmptyStk .76 CHAPTER 5. Redeﬁning names used by the Prelude does not affect the meaning of these special constructs. Explicit type signatures for all exported values may be necessary to deal with mutual recursion. It is not possible. while the declaration import MyPrelude brings the nonstandard prelude into scope. and then makes an unqualiﬁed reference to null must also resolve the ambiguous use of null just as A does. the Prelude is an ordinary Haskell module.
pop. It is also possible to build an ADT on top of an existing type by using a newtype declaration. empty ) where newtype StkType a = Stk [a] push x (Stk s) = Stk (x:s) pop (Stk (_:s)) = Stk s empty = Stk [] .8. stacks can be deﬁned with lists: module Stack( StkType. push. ABSTRACT DATATYPES 77 Modules importing Stack cannot construct values of type StkType because they do not have access to the constructors of the type. they must use push. For example. and empty to construct such values. Instead. pop.5.
78 CHAPTER 5. MODULES .
1 Standard Haskell Types These types are deﬁned by the Haskell Prelude. The lexical syntax for characters is deﬁned in Section 2. character literals are nullary constructors in the datatype Char. and not. and functions that are implicitly imported into every Haskell program.4. we describe the types and classes found in the Prelude. 6. Type Char is an instance of the classes Read. Show.1. 6. complex numbers. Eq.1.  (or). Enum.6.2 Characters and Strings The character type Char is an enumeration whose values represent Unicode characters [11]. Other predeﬁned types such as arrays.1 Booleans data Bool = False  True deriving (Read. Most functions are not described in detail here as they can easily be understood from their deﬁnitions as given in Chapter 8. the Haskell deﬁnition of the type is given. types. The basic boolean functions are && (and). In this chapter. Show. Ord.Chapter 6 Predeﬁned Types and Classes The Haskell Prelude contains predeﬁned classes. Numeric types are described in Section 6. and 79 . and rationals are deﬁned in Part II. Ord. Enum. 6. Bounded) The boolean type Bool is an enumeration. The name otherwise is deﬁned as True to make guarded expressions more readable. When appropriate. Eq. Some deﬁnitions may not be completely valid on syntactic grounds but they faithfully convey the meaning of the underlying type.
two convenient syntaxes for special kinds of lists. and limit the instances associated with larger tuples. \t and \HT. The module PreludeList (see Section 8.’t’. thus. Ord. All tuples are instances of Eq. and \n and \LF.3 Lists data [a] = []  a : [a] deriving (Eq. A string is a list of characters: type String = [Char] Strings may be abbreviated using the lexical syntax described in Section 2. Eq. \b and \BS. The same holds for tuple type constructors. Lists are an instance of classes Read. \f and \FF. Ord. standard functions from class Enum.y) and (. written ‘[]’ (“nil”). and MonadPlus.10 and 3. Read.1. The constructor for a tuple is written by omitting the expressions surrounding the commas. In addition. There is no upper bound on the size of a tuple. "A string" abbreviates [ ’A’.) Int Bool Int denote the same type. Read. map characters to and from the Int type.Int) and (. there are the following equivalences: \a and \BEL. \r and \CR. snd. although with special syntax.4 Tuples Tuples are algebraic datatypes with special syntax.. Arithmetic sequences and list comprehensions. but some Haskell implementations may restrict the size of tuples. Each tuple type has a single constructor. Ord) Lists are an algebraic datatype of two constructors. ASCII mnemonic escapes. 6. The toEnum and fromEnum functions. Bounded.6.80 CHAPTER 6.Bool. as described in Section 3.1) deﬁnes many standard list functions. For example. and the second is ‘:’ (“cons”).1.11.’s’. of course. that all their component types are). (Int. ’i’.’n’. curry. are described in Sections 3. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES Bounded.’ ’. Bounded. The Prelude and libraries deﬁne tuple functions such as zip for tuples up to a size of 7. and Show (provided.8. thus (x. Similar functions are not predeﬁned for larger tuples.) x y produce the same value. \v and \VT. However. and Show. and the \ˆ notation. Note that ASCII control characters each have several representations in character literals: numeric escapes. . Show.’r’.’g’] 6.7. Ord. The following functions are deﬁned for pairs (2tuples): fst. and uncurry. respectively. together with the instances for Eq. Monad. The ﬁrst constructor is the null list. every Haskell implementation must support tuples up to size 15. Functor. as deﬁned in Section 3.
Read. Show) member. ($).). the nullary constructor (). Values of this type are constructed by the various I/O functions and are not presented in any further detail in this report.6. Ord. The Ordering type is used by compare in the class Ord. Ord. Ord. Read. The Prelude contains a few I/O functions (deﬁned in Section 8. and MonadPlus. Show) The Maybe type is an instance of classes Functor. IO is an instance of the Monad and Functor classes. See also Section 3. Enum. Show) Left a  Right b deriving (Eq. Ord.9. 6. The IO type is abstract: no constructors are visible to the user. const. Enum.1. The functions maybe and either are found in the Prelude. a function argument is evaluated only when required. flip. IOError is an abstract type representing errors raised by I/O operations. Read. that is.8 Other Types data data data Maybe a Either a b Ordering = = = Nothing  Just a deriving (Eq. Read. The following simple functions are found in the Prelude: id. Bounded. Monad. It is an instance of Show and Eq.2.1. (. Sometimes it is desirable to force the evaluation of a value. Show) LT  EQ  GT deriving (Eq.5 The Unit Datatype data () = () deriving (Eq. The unit datatype () has one non 6.2 Strict Evaluation Function application in Haskell is nonstrict. Bounded.3). 6.1. using the seq function: seq :: a > b > b . and until.7 The IO and IOError Types The IO type serves as a tag for operations (actions) that interact with the outside world.1. and Part II contains many more. STRICT EVALUATION 81 6. 6.6 Function Types Functions are an abstract type: no constructors directly create functional values. Chapter 7 describes I/O operations.
the provision of seq has is important semantic consequences. (/=) :: x /= y x == y a > a > Bool = not (x == y) = not (x /= y) ¡¢ 0§ ' ' ¢ seq seq ' . for example: f $ g $ h x = f (g (h x)) It is also useful in higherorder situations. then all class methods must be given to fully specify an instance. However. . the not the same as \x > existence of seq weakens Haskell’s parametricity properties. Strict datatypes (see Section 4.1) are deﬁned in terms of the $! operator.82 CHAPTER 6. 6. As a consequence. The Prelude also deﬁnes the $ operator to perform nonstrict application. ($!) :: (a > b) > a > b f $ x = f x f $! x = x ‘seq‘ f x The nonstrict application operator $ may appear redundant. so it sometimes allows parentheses to be omitted. However.3) are provided for many of the methods in standard classes. For the same reason. $ has low. and is deﬁned in terms of seq. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES The function seq is deﬁned by the equations: seq is usually introduced to improve performance by avoiding unneeded laziness. A comment with each class declaration in Chapter 8 speciﬁes the smallest collection of method deﬁnitions that.1 shows the hierarchy of Haskell classes deﬁned in the Prelude and the Prelude types that are instances of these classes. since ordinary application (f x) means the same as (f $ x). because it is available at every type. infixr 0 $. 6.1 The Eq Class class Eq a where (==). Default class method declarations (Section 4. together with the default declarations. or zipWith ($) fs xs. since seq can be used to distinguish them. If there is no such comment.2. $! ($). such as map ($ 0) xs.3 Standard Haskell Classes Figure 6. provide a reasonable deﬁnition for all the class methods. rightassociative binding precedence.3. The operator $! is strict (callbyvalue) application.
Float. IOError Num Int. Double RealFloat Float. Ordering. Double Monad IO. Char. Bool. STANDARD HASKELL CLASSES 83 Eq All except IO. Char. Double Floating Float. Double Integral Int. Double Bounded Int. Bool. (>) Ord All except (>) IO.3. Float. Integer. Double Fractional Float. Maybe Functor IO. Int. Float. []. Maybe Figure 6. (>) Read All except IO. tuples Enum (). () Ordering.1: Standard Haskell Classes . Double Real Int. Integer. (>) Show All except IO. Integer.6. []. Integer RealFrac Float.
PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES The Eq class provides equality (==) and inequality (/=) methods.84 CHAPTER 6. each being deﬁned in terms of the other. If both are deﬁned. then both will loop. The Ordering datatype allows a single comparison to determine the precise ordering of two objects. min :: a > a > a compare x y  x == y = EQ  x <= y = LT  otherwise = GT x x x x <= < >= > y y y y = = = = compare compare compare compare x x x x y y y y /= == /= == GT LT LT GT .x) y x x y The Ord class is used for totally ordered datatypes. the default method for the other will make use of the one that is deﬁned. If one is deﬁned. (>) :: a > a > Bool max. and IOError. All basic datatypes except for functions and IO are instances of this class. neither default method is used. . (>=). The default declarations allow a user to create an Ord instance either with a typespeciﬁc compare function or with typespeciﬁc == and <= functions. All basic datatypes except for functions.3. Instances of Eq can be derived for any userdeﬁned datatype whose constituents are also instances of Eq.y) or (y. Instances of Ord can be derived for any userdeﬁned datatype whose constituent types are in Ord. The declared order of the constructors in the data declaration determines the ordering in derived Ord instances. This declaration gives default method declarations for both /= and ==.2 The Ord Class class (Eq a) => Ord a where compare :: a > a > Ordering (<). are instances of this class. If an instance declaration for Eq deﬁnes neither == nor /=. (<=). 6.Note that (min x max x y  x <= y  otherwise min x y  x <= y  otherwise y. = = = = max x y) = (x. IO.
.read: no parse" _ > error "PreludeText.3 The Read and Show Classes type type ReadS a = String > [(a."") <.. show.t) <. except function types and IO types. showsPrec and showList return a StringtoString function. All Prelude types.. the Prelude provides the following auxiliary functions: reads reads shows shows read read s :: (Read a) => ReadS a = readsPrec 0 :: (Show a) => a > ShowS = showsPrec 0 :: (Read a) => String > a = case [x  (x.String)] ShowS = String > String class Read a where readsPrec :: Int > ReadS a readList :: ReadS [a] . This is particularly useful for the Char type. to allow constanttime concatenation of its results using function composition.3. Strings produced by showsPrec are usually readable by readsPrec. default decl for showList given in Prelude The Read and Show classes are used to convert values to or from strings. and returns an ordinary String. is also provided.3.lex t] of [x] > x [] > error "PreludeText. which uses precedence context zero. ("". (If desired..) For convenience. by providing an instance declaration. A specialised variant. default decl for readList given in Prelude class Show a where showsPrec :: Int > a > ShowS show :: a > String showList :: [a] > ShowS showsPrec _ x s = show x ++ s show x = showsPrec 0 x "" . rather than between square brackets... The method showList is provided to allow the programmer to give a specialised way of showing lists of values.reads s.4). Derived instances of Read and Show replicate the style in which a constructor is declared: inﬁx constructors and ﬁeld names are used on input and output. The Int argument to showsPrec and readsPrec gives the operator precedence of the enclosing context (see Section 10. STANDARD HASKELL CLASSES 85 6. where values of type String should be shown in double quotes.read: ambiguous parse" . are instances of Show and Read. a programmer can easily make functions and IO types into (vacuous) instances of Show.6.
The function lex :: ReadS String. the following should hold: The calls succ maxBound and pred minBound should result in a runtime error. thus: enumFrom x = enumFromTo x maxBound enumFromThen x y = enumFromThenTo x y bound where bound  fromEnum y >= fromEnum x = maxBound  otherwise = minBound The following Prelude types are instances of Enum: .3. The functions succ and pred return the successor and predecessor. lex fails (i. For example.. and returning the characters that constitute the lexeme.. Instances of Enum may be derived for any enumeration type (types whose constructors have no ﬁelds).] [n.86 CHAPTER 6. lex returns a single successful “lexeme” consisting of the empty string."")]. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES shows and reads use a default precedence of 0. fromEnum and toEnum should give a runtime error if the result value is not representable in the result type. of a value. The read function reads input from a string. (Thus lex "" = [("". discarding initial white space.. methods are used when translating arithmetic sequences (Section 3. 6.4 The Enum Class class Enum a where succ. The enumFrom.m] .10).m] [n. is also part of the Prelude.] [n. The functions fromEnum and toEnum map values from a type in Enum to and from Int. used by read. It reads a single lexeme from the input. see Chapter 10.e. toEnum 7 :: Bool is an error.n’.. respectively..) If there is no legal lexeme at the beginning of the input string. returns []). If the input string contains only white space. enumFrom and enumFromThen should be deﬁned with an implicit bound. For any type that is an instance of class Bounded as well as Enum.n’. which must be completely consumed by the input process.. pred :: toEnum :: fromEnum :: enumFrom :: enumFromThen :: enumFromTo :: enumFromThenTo :: a > a Int > a a > Int a > [a] a > a > [a] a > a > [a] a > a > a > [a]  [n.Default declarations given in Prelude Class Enum deﬁnes operations on sequentially ordered types.
] is the list [LT. based on the primitive functions that convert between a Char and an Int.. and pred subtracts 1. ]. the list is empty if negative. is . Numeric types: Int. succ adds 1. Double. . Bool. all of the enumFrom family of functions are strict in all their arguments.EQ. ]. For example. IO.3. Float. empty if is the list [ . The semantics of these instances is given by Chapter 10. For example. The list is ¥ § ¦ § . . the list terminates when . 8 8 ¥¥8 ¤ § § ¢¥ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¤ ¥ ¥ ¢ ¡ ¢¢ £ ¥¡ § ¡ ¡¤ ¡ ¡¢ § ¡ ¡ ¢¤ ¡ ¢ ¤ § ¥ ¤ £ ¡ ¥ ¡¥ ¥ ¤ ¡ The sequence enumFromTo . the enumeration functions have the following meaning: The sequence enumFromThen is the list [ . If the increment is zero. . Integer. the list terminates when the next element would be less than . . The semantics of these instances is given next. the semantics of the enumFrom family is given by the rules for Int above. ¤ . STANDARD HASKELL CLASSES 87 Enumeration types: (). [LT. all the list elements are the same. £ ¡ ¥ ¤ § £ £ ¤¡ § ].GT]. the digits after the decimal point may be lost. and Maybe are in this class. . For all four numeric types. Char: the instance is given in Chapter 8. If the increment is the next element would be greater than . ¥ ¢ The sequence enumFromThenTo is the list [ .5 The Functor Class class Functor f where fmap :: (a > b) > f a > f b The Functor class is used for types that can be mapped over. except that the list terminates when the elements become greater than for positive increment . the list is empty if . For the types Int and Integer. enumFromTo ’a’ ’z’ denotes the list of lowercase letters in alphabetical order. 8 8 ¥¥8 § ¤ ¤ ¡ ¡¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 § ¢¢ ¡ ¡ ¡¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡¢ ¡ £ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¤ The sequence enumFrom is the list [ . where the increment. 6. is . Lists. ]. . and Ordering. The increment may be zero or negative. .6. . . In the case of Float and Double. The conversions fromEnum and toEnum convert between the type and Int.3. or when they become less than for negative . where the increment. It is implementationdependent what fromEnum returns when applied to a value that is too large to ﬁt in an Int. For all four of these Prelude numeric types. ¥ ¢ For Float and Double. If the increment is positive or zero.
and IO are all instances of Monad. The Prelude provides the following auxiliary functions: sequence sequence_ mapM mapM_ (=<<) :: :: :: :: :: Monad Monad Monad Monad Monad m m m m m => => => => => [m [m (a (a (a a] a] > > > > m > m m b) m b) m b) [a] () > [a] > m [b] > [a] > m () > m a > m b fmap f xs xs >>= return .6 The Monad Class class Monad m (>>=) :: (>>) :: return :: fail :: m >> k fail s where m a > m a > a > m String (a > m b) > m b m b > m b a > m a = m >>= \_ > k = error s The Monad class deﬁnes the basic operations over a monad. Instances of Monad should satisfy the following laws: Instances of both Monad and Functor should additionally satisfy the law: All instances of Monad deﬁned in the Prelude satisfy these laws. See Chapter 7 for more information about monads. f return a >>= k m >>= return m >>= (\x > k x >>= h) fmap id fmap (f . Maybe. g) id fmap f .3. for Maybe returns Nothing. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES Instances of Functor should satisfy the following laws: All instances of Functor deﬁned in the Prelude satisfy these laws. fmap g k a m (m >>= k) >>= h . The fail method for lists returns the empty list [].14).3).88 CHAPTER 6. 6. “do” expressions provide a convenient syntax for writing monadic expressions (see Section 3. and for IO raises a user exception in the IO monad (see Section 7. The fail method is invoked on patternmatch failure in a do expression. In the Prelude. lists.
The Bounded class may be derived for any enumeration type. Some. the class Fractional contains all nonintegral types. The ﬁniteprecision integer type Int covers at . These standards require considerably more complexity in the numeric structure and have thus been relegated to a library. a truncated value. as deﬁned in the Ratio library. Ord is not a superclass of Bounded since types that are not totally ordered may also have upper and lower bounds.2–6.7 The Bounded Class class Bounded a where minBound.1. The default ﬂoating point operations deﬁned by the Haskell Prelude do not conform to current language independent arithmetic (LIA) standards. etc. Char. The standard numeric types are listed in Table 6.1. and the class Floating contains all ﬂoatingpoint types. Figure 6. since the other comparison operations apply to all but complex numbers (deﬁned in the Complex library). its subclass Real is also a subclass of Ord. the numeric types and the operations upon them have been heavily inﬂuenced by Common Lisp and Scheme. Other numeric types such as rationals and complex numbers are deﬁned in libraries. it is desirable that this type be at least equal in range and precision to the IEEE singleprecision type. As Int is an instance of the Bounded class. or a special value such as inﬁnity. The Prelude deﬁnes only the most basic numeric types: ﬁxed sized integers (Int). using several type classes with an inclusion relation shown in Figure 6. The class Integral contains integers of both limited and unlimited range. Float is implementationdeﬁned. minBound is the ﬁrst constructor listed in the data declaration and maxBound is the last. single precision ﬂoating (Float). ¨ ¡£ ¤ ¡£ ¤ . since all numbers may be compared for equality. and all tuples are instances of Bounded. arbitrary precision integers (Integer).4 Numbers Haskell provides several kinds of numbers.1 shows the class dependencies and builtin types that are instances of the numeric classes.3. The results of exceptional conditions (such as overﬂow or underﬂow) on the ﬁxedprecision numeric types are undeﬁned. (). indeﬁnite.3. Bool. Double should cover IEEE doubleprecision. Bounded may also be derived for singleconstructor datatypes whose constituent types are in Bounded. maxBound :: a The Bounded class is used to name the upper and lower limits of a type. The class Num of numeric types is a subclass of Eq. page 83. Numeric function names and operators are usually overloaded. but not all. In particular. and double precision ﬂoating (Double). an implementation may choose error ( . aspects of the IEEE ﬂoating point standard have been accounted for in Prelude class RealFloat. the type Rational is a ratio of two Integer values.6. both real and complex. The standard numeric classes and other numeric functions deﬁned in the Prelude are shown in Figures 6. maxBound and least the range minBound can be used to determine the exact Int range deﬁned by an implementation. NUMBERS 89 6. Similarly. semantically).4. 6. The types Int. Ordering.
rem. while the class method (/) applies only to fractional ones. 6.1 Numeric Literals The syntax of numeric literals is given in Section 2. respectively. even . Similarly. rem. The quotRem class method takes a dividend and a divisor as arguments and returns a (quotient. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES Type Integer Int (Integral a) => Ratio a Float Double (RealFloat a) => Complex a Class Integral Integral RealFrac RealFloat RealFloat Floating Description Arbitraryprecision integers Fixedprecision integers Rational numbers Real ﬂoatingpoint. see section 3. a ﬂoating literal stands for an application of fromRational to a value of type Rational (that is. x ` ` y) ` rem (x `div y. The quot.3. Ratio Integer). single precision Real ﬂoatingpoint. divMod is deﬁned similarly: quotRem x y divMod x y = = (x `quot y. (). Numeric literals are deﬁned in this indirect way so that they may be interpreted as values of any appropriate numeric type.4) apply to all numbers.1: Standard Numeric Types 6.2 Arithmetic and NumberTheoretic Operations The inﬁx class methods (+). x `mod y) ` ` Also available on integral numbers are the even and odd predicates: even x = odd = x ` ` 2 == 0 rem not .4 for a discussion of overloading ambiguity. remainder) pair.4. See Section 4.90 CHAPTER 6. Given the typings: fromInteger :: (Num a) => Integer > a fromRational :: (Fractional a) => Rational > a integer and ﬂoating literals have the typings (Num a) => a and (Fractional a) => a.5. double precision Complex ﬂoatingpoint Table 6. and mod class methods satisfy these laws if y is nonzero: (x ` quot y)*y + (x ` ` y) == x ` rem (x ` ` y)*y + (x ` ` y) == x div mod ‘quot‘ is integer division truncated toward zero. and mod apply only to integral numbers. An integer literal represents the application of the function fromInteger to the appropriate value of type Integer. div. while the result of ‘div‘ is truncated toward negative inﬁnity. div.4. The class methods quot. (*). and the unary function negate (which can also be written as a preﬁx minus sign.
acosh. divMod toInteger => :: :: :: Integral a where a > a > a a > a > (a. Part 1 Finally. (ˆˆ) raises a fractional number to any integer power.2: Standard Numeric Classes and Related Operations. log. gcd (3) (6) = 3. There are three twoargument exponentiation operations: (ˆ) raises any number to a nonnegative integer power. gcd is the greatest (positive) integer that divides both and . and (**) takes two ﬂoatingpoint arguments. sqrt :: a > a (**). rem. Ord a) => Real a where toRational :: a > Rational class (Real a. The value of ˆ0 or ˆˆ0 is 1 for any . sqrt returns the principal square root of a ﬂoatingpoint number. logBase :: a > a > a sin. cosh. gcd 0 4 = 4. including zero. 6. logBase returns the logarithm of in base . signum fromInteger a) :: :: :: :: => Num a where a > a > a a > a a > a Integer > a 91 class (Num a. tanh :: a > a asinh.6. NUMBERS class (Eq a. tan :: a > a asin. for example gcd (3) 6 = 3. cos. div.a) a > Integer class (Num a) => Fractional a where (/) :: a > a > a recip :: a > a fromRational :: Rational > a class (Fractional a) => Floating a where pi :: a exp. there are the greatest common divisor and least common multiple functions. (*) negate abs.4. ¢ )¢ lcm is the smallest positive integer that both and divide. atanh :: a > a Figure 6. mod quotRem. 0** is undeﬁned. ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ . acos. atan :: a > a sinh. ().3 Exponentiation and Logarithms The oneargument exponential function exp and the logarithm function log act on ﬂoatingpoint numbers and use base . Enum a) quot.4. gcd 0 0 raises a runtime error. Show (+).
The functions abs and signum apply to any number and satisfy the law: abs x * signum x == x For real numbers.4 Magnitude and Sign A number has a magnitude and a sign. Integral b) => a > b > a fromIntegral :: (Integral a.a) b b class (Real a.Int) decodeFloat :: a > (Integer. Floating a) => RealFloat a where floatRadix :: a > Integer floatDigits :: a > Int floatRange :: a > (Int. Num b) => a > b realToFrac :: (Real a.Int) encodeFloat :: Integer > Int > a exponent :: a > Int significand :: a > a scaleFloat :: Int > a > a isNaN.3: Standard Numeric Classes and Related Operations. floor :: (Integral b) => a class (RealFrac a. Fractional b) => a > b Figure 6. these functions are deﬁned by: abs x  x >= 0  x < 0 = x = x = 1 = 0 = 1 signum x  x > 0  x == 0  x < 0 . PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES a > > > where (b. lcm :: (Integral a) => a > a> a (ˆ) :: (Num a. isIEEE :: a > Bool atan2 :: a > a > a gcd. isNegativeZero. Fractional a) => RealFrac properFraction :: (Integral b) => a truncate.4. Integral b) => a > b > a (ˆˆ) :: (Fractional a. isInfinite. round :: (Integral b) => a ceiling. Part 2 6. isDenormalized.92 CHAPTER 6.
and furthermore. where is the ﬂoatingpoint . cosine. The function decodeFloat applied to a real ﬂoatingpoint number returns the signiﬁcand expressed as an Integer and an appropriately scaled exponent (an Int). encodeFloat performs the inverse of this transformation. and tangent functions and their inverses. and implementation. Default implementations of tan. Every real interval contains a unique simplest rational. truncate.4. It follows the Common Lisp semantics for the origin when signed zeroes are supported. The ceiling. A default deﬁnition of atan2 is provided. See these references for discussions of branch cuts.6 Coercions and Component Extraction The ceiling. but implementors can provide a more accurate implementation. note that is the simplest rational of all. inclusive. the even integer if is equidistant between two integers. Class RealFloat provides a version of arctangent taking two real ﬂoatingpoint arguments. respectively. but implementors are free to provide more accurate implementations. atan2 computes the angle (from the positive xaxis) of the vector from the origin to the point . NUMBERS 93 6. The function properFraction takes a real fractional number and returns a pair such that . in particular. round returns the nearest integer to . and floor . ). the number of digits of this radix in the signiﬁcand. ceiling returns the least integer not less than . and floatRange give the parameters of a ﬂoatingpoint type: the radix of the representation. and with absolute value less than 1. The functions floatRadix. atan2 returns a value in the range [pi. either and are both zero or else of floatDigits x. floor. and round functions can be deﬁned in terms of properFraction. **. tanh. approxRational takes two real fractional arguments and and returns the simplest rational number within of . where is the value radix. where a rational in reduced form is simpler than another if and . should return the same value as atan . floor. logBase. floatDigits.4. pi]. which in turn follows Penﬁeld’s proposal for APL [9]. Two functions convert numbers to type Rational: toRational returns the rational equivalent of its real argument with full precision. The class methods of class RealFloat allow efﬁcient. and is a fraction with the same type and sign as . ¢ ¢ 6. machineindependent access to the components of a ﬂoatingpoint number.6. If decodeFloat x yields ( . truncate. The precise deﬁnition of the above functions is as in Common Lisp. The functions ¦ ' ¥ ¢ ¢ ¢ 0 ¦ ¦ 0 ¢ ¢ £ ¡ ¢ ' 0 ¦ ¢ 4 A ¢ ' ¢ 4 ¡ ¦¥ ' ¥ ¢ ¢ 1 ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ 1 ¡ ¦ ¢ ¦ £ ¡ ¤ 4 4 1 £ 1 ¡ ¢ £ ¢ ¦ ¢ ¢ 0 ¢ ¦ ¢ . the greatest integer not greater than . and the lowest and highest values the exponent may assume.5 Trigonometric Functions Class Floating provides the circular and hyperbolic sine. and sqrt are provided. For real ﬂoating and . and round functions each take a real fractional argument and return an integral result. truncate yields the integer nearest between and . and: is an integral number with the same sign as .4. atan2 1. with in a type that is RealFloat. discontinuities. then x is equal in value to .
scaleFloat multiplies a ﬂoatingpoint number by an integer power of the radix. For nonIEEE ﬂoating point numbers. and isIEEE all support numbers represented using the IEEE standard. exponent 0 is zero. isNegativeZero. significand x yields a value of the same type as x. scaled to lie in the open interval . Fractional b) => a > b . Num b) => a > b realToFrac :: (Real a. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES significand and exponent together provide the same information as decodeFloat.94 CHAPTER 6. but rather than an Integer. isDenormalized. The functions isNaN. isInfinite. Also available are the following coercion functions: fromIntegral :: (Integral a. these may all return false.
In the case of the I/O monad. an implementation has a great deal of freedom in choosing this order. Some operations are primitive actions. © ¦ 332 § § ¤¢ © $ 7. return and linefeed. as deﬁned in the IO library. corresponding to conventional I/O operations. Actions. In the following. Haskell uses a to integrate I/O operations into a purely functional context. recall that String is a synonym for [Char] (Section 6. must be ordered in a welldeﬁned manner for program execution – and I/O in particular – to be meaningful. For example. 95 ¦ ¢ ¦ 32 4 7 3¢ ¦ ¢ ¦ 32 4 © ¦ 332 § § ¤¢ .2). and which are described in this section. natural to a functional language and The I/O monad used by Haskell mediates between the the that characterize I/O operations and imperative programming in general. and an implementation is obliged to preserve this order. The order of evaluation of expressions in Haskell is constrained only by data dependencies. may read as a single newline character. it is possible to write many Haskell programs using only the few simple functions that are exported from the Prelude.6) sequentially compose actions. yet has all of the expressive power found in conventional programming languages.Chapter 7 Basic Input/Output The I/O system in Haskell is purely functional. see Section 6. To achieve this. corresponding to sequencing operators (such as the semicolon) in imperative languages.3. Haskell’s I/O monad provides the user with a way to specify the sequential chaining of actions. These functions cannot be used portably for binary I/O. All I/O functions deﬁned here are character oriented. two characters of input.1. it is best to think of a monad as an abstract datatype. The treatment of the newline character will vary on different systems. the abstract values are the mentioned above.1 Standard I/O Functions Although Haskell provides fairly sophisticated I/O facilities. however. Special operations (methods in the class Monad. From the perspective of a Haskell programmer. The term comes from a branch of mathematics known as category theory. however.
. a program to print the ﬁrst 20 integers and their powers of 2 could be written as: main = print ([(n. the read operation from class Read is used to convert the string to a value.96 CHAPTER 7.19]]) Input Functions terminal). The getLine operation raises an exception under the same circumstances as hGetLine.adds a newline Show a => a > IO () The print function outputs a value of any printable type to the standard output device. (The isAscii function is deﬁned in a library. Printable types are those that are instances of class Show. The entire input from the standard input device is passed to this function as its argument. BASIC INPUT/OUTPUT Output Functions These functions write to the standard output device (this is normally the user’s terminal).) main = interact (filter isAscii) . print converts values to strings for output using the show operation and adds a newline. The getContents operation returns all user input as a single string. The interact function takes a function of type String>String as its argument. putChar putStr putStrLn print :: :: :: :: Char > IO () String > IO () String > IO () .[0.3) on endofﬁle. The following program simply removes all nonASCII characters from its standard input and echoes the result on its standard output. a predicate isEOFError that identiﬁes this exception is deﬁned in the IO library. These functions read input from the standard input device (normally the user’s :: :: :: :: :: :: IO Char IO String IO String (String > String) > IO () Read a => String > IO a Read a => IO a getChar getLine getContents interact readIO readLn The getChar operation raises an exception (Section 7. deﬁned the IO library. which is read lazily as it is needed. The readLn function combines getLine and readIO. 2ˆn)  n <. Typically. and the resulting string is output on the standard output device. The readIO function is similar to read except that it signals parse failure to the I/O monad instead of terminating the program. For example.
to the ﬁle. as with getContents. The do notation allows programming in a more imperative syntactic style.2.0. use the show function to convert the value to a string ﬁrst.7. The >> function is used where the result of the ﬁrst operation is uninteresting. To write a value of any printable type. for example when it is (). are used to compose a series of I/O operations. methods in the Monad class. The ﬁle is read lazily. their ﬁrst argument. main = appendFile "squares" (show [(x. but takes its input from "inputfile" and writes its output to "outputfile". SEQUENCING I/O OPERATIONS 97 Files These functions operate on ﬁles of characters. The >>= operation passes the result of the ﬁrst operation as an argument to the second operation. as with print.x*x)  x <.1. Files are named by strings using some implementationspeciﬁc method to resolve strings as ﬁle names. The writeFile and appendFile functions write or append the string. on demand.2]]) 7. (>>=) :: IO a > (a > IO b) > IO b (>>) :: IO a > IO b > IO b For example.[0. A slightly more elaborate version of the previous example would be: . A message is printed on the standard output before the program completes. The two monadic binding functions. main = readFile "inputfile" writeFile "outputfile" (filter isAscii s) putStr "Filtering successful\n" >>= \ s > >> is similar to the previous example using interact. their second argument. The readFile function reads a ﬁle and returns the contents of the ﬁle as a string.2 Sequencing I/O Operations The type constructor IO is an instance of the Monad class. type FilePath = String writeFile :: FilePath > String > IO () appendFile :: FilePath > String > IO () readFile :: FilePath > IO String Note that writeFile and appendFile write a literal string to a ﬁle..
userError :: String > IOError Exceptions are raised and caught using the following functions: ioError :: IOError > IO a catch :: IO a > (IOError > IO a) > IO a The ioError function raises an exception.getChar if c == ’\n’ then return "" else do s <.getLine s <. The isEOFError function is part of IO library. in f = catch g (\e > if IO. using return to deﬁne the result: getLine :: IO String getLine = do c <. User error values include a string describing the error. Any I/O operation may raise an exception instead of returning a result. getLine is deﬁned in terms of getChar. This is an abstract type: its constructors are hidden from the user.98 CHAPTER 7. An exception is caught by the most recent handler established by catch. Exception propagation must be explicitly provided in a handler by reraising any unwanted exceptions. the exception is propagated to the next outer handler. Exceptions in the I/O monad are represented by values of type IOError.isEOFError e then return [] else ioError e) the function f returns [] when an endofﬁle exception occurs in g. otherwise. the catch function establishes a handler that receives any exception raised in the action protected by catch. For example.readFile ifile writeFile ofile (filter isAscii s) putStr "Filtering successful\n" The return function is used to deﬁne the result of an I/O operation. These handlers are not selective: all exceptions are caught.getLine return (c:s) 7. . BASIC INPUT/OUTPUT main = do putStr "Input file: " ifile <. The only Prelude function that creates an IOError value is userError. The IO library deﬁnes functions that construct and examine IOError values.getLine putStr "Output file: " ofile <. For example.3 Exception Handling in the I/O Monad The I/O monad includes a simple exception handling system.
3. EXCEPTION HANDLING IN THE I/O MONAD 99 When an exception propagates outside the main program.3.bindings for return. the Haskell system prints the associated IOError value and exits the program.7. The fail method of the IO instance of the Monad class (Section 6.. thus: instance Monad IO where . . (>>) fail s = ioError (userError s) The exceptions raised by the I/O functions in the Prelude are deﬁned in Chapter 21. (>>=).6) raises a userError..
BASIC INPUT/OUTPUT .100 CHAPTER 7.
Only the exports of module Prelude are signiﬁcant. Instance declarations that simply bind primitives to class methods are omitted. !!. That is.. Primitives that are not deﬁnable in Haskell. An implementation is not required to use this organisation for the Prelude. constitute a speciﬁcation only of the default method. Many of the deﬁnitions are written with clarity rather than efﬁciency in mind. Some of these modules import Library modules. of course. An ellipsis “. or less. and to improve efﬁciency. PreludeText. Declarations for special types such as Integer. part of the speciﬁcation of the Prelude. and PreludeIO. 101 . and three submodules. The Prelude shown here is organized into a root module. IO.” is often used in places where the remainder of a deﬁnition cannot be given in Haskell. as it pleases. Some of the more verbose instances with obvious functionality have been left out for the sake of brevity. They do not constitute a speciﬁcation of the meaning of the method in all instances. of the Library modules.. an implementation is free to import more. These imports are not. given with class declarations. indicated by names starting with “prim”. are deﬁned in a system dependent manner in module PreludeBuiltin and are not shown here. the default method for enumFrom in class Enum will not work properly for types whose range exceeds that of Int (because fromEnum cannot map all values in the type to distinct Int values). Monad. To take one particular example. such as Char.Chapter 8 Standard Prelude In this chapter the entire Haskell Prelude is given. This structure is purely presentational. length. Prelude. PreludeList. such as Integral a or Num a. It constitutes a speciﬁcation for the Prelude. drop. The default method deﬁnitions. These modules are described fully in Part II. and it is not required that the speciﬁcation be implemented as shown here. These functions are: take. or () are included in the Prelude for completeness even though the declaration may be incomplete or syntactically invalid. nor are these three modules available for import separately. and Numeric. To reduce the occurrence of unexpected ambiguity errors. a number of commonlyused functions over lists use the Int type rather than using a more general numeric type.
. with the preﬁx “generic”. and replicate. STANDARD PRELUDE splitAt.102 CHAPTER 8. for example genericLength. The more general versions are given in the List library.
abs. (ˆ). asTypeOf. ().)((. cos. isNaN. Just). (). recip. maybe. mod. curry. atan2).)).. but are denoted by builtin syntax. fromRational). Char. enumFrom. ($). log. ($!) ) where import import import import import import PreludeBuiltin UnicodePrims( primUnicodeMaxChar ) PreludeList PreludeText PreludeIO Ratio( Rational ) . scaleFloat. fromIntegral. isNegativeZero. Either(Left. sequence. IO. max. (>)..)). fail). (*). even. negate. (=<<). fst. module PreludeText. quotRem. logBase. undefined. String.Unicode primitives . fromEnum. isDenormalized. tanh. Ordering(LT. Trivial type: ()(()) Functions: (>) Eq((==). floatRange. truncate. Bounded(minBound. sin. flip. Fractional((/). toInteger). tan. encodeFloat. snd. asin. odd. List type: []((:). subtract. divMod. sinh. (. Double. Real(toRational). error. Functor(fmap). mapM_. realToFrac. Int. either. toEnum. exp. return. sequence_. etc. EQ. ceiling. lcm. Right). RealFloat(floatRadix. GT). []) Tuple types: (. (. Rational. RealFrac(properFraction. atanh). (**).103 module Prelude ( module PreludeList.)((. module PreludeIO. otherwise. until. cosh. isIEEE. floor). id. These builtin types are defined in the Prelude. seq. Enum(succ. enumFromThen. pred. sqrt. floatDigits. exponent. fromInteger). Float. Integral(quot. (>=). Num((+). (<=). div. rem. gcd. (<). significand. mapM. Integer. (&&). round. maxBound). const. (>>). asinh. enumFromThenTo). decodeFloat.Contains all ‘prim’ values . isInfinite. enumFromTo. Maybe(Nothing. and cannot legally appear in an export list. (ˆˆ). Bool(False. acosh. (/=)). Monad((>>=). uncurry. Ord(compare. True). atan. Floating(pi. signum.). acos. min). not.
Standard types. ˆ. but its fixity is given by: infixr 5 : infix infixr infixr infixl infixr infixr 4 3 2 1 1 0 ==. > &&  >>. ‘quot‘. <=. instances and related functions . ** *. ˆˆ.y) or (y. /=. classes. and cannot legally be given .note that (min x y.a fixity declaration. >>= =<< $. STANDARD PRELUDE .Using compare can be more efficient for complex types. (/=) :: a > a > Bool . <. compare x y  x == y = EQ  x <= y = LT  otherwise = GT x x x x <= < >= > y y y y = = = = compare compare compare compare x x x x y y y y /= == /= == GT LT LT GT .x) max x y  x <= y = y  otherwise = x min x y  x <= y = x  otherwise = y .The (:) operator is builtin syntax. ‘div‘. ‘rem‘. (<=).Equality and Ordered classes class Eq a where (==). ‘mod‘ +. min :: a > a > a . /. >=. ‘seq‘ . (>) :: a > a > Bool max.Minimal complete definition: (==) or (/=) x /= y = not (x == y) x == y = not (x /= y) class (Eq a) => Ord a where compare :: a > a > Ordering (<). $!. max x y) = (x. (>=).  .104 infixr infixr infixl infixl 9 8 7 6 CHAPTER 8.Minimal complete definition: (<=) or compare .
.m] [n..m] .Enumeration and Bounded classes class Enum a where succ. fromEnum z] class Bounded a minBound maxBound where :: a :: a .n’..] enumFromThenTo x y z = map toEnum [fromEnum x..y = x + negate x = 0 definition: negate or () negate y x class (Num a. except x .. fromEnum . (). fromEnum enumFrom x = map toEnum [fromEnum x .105 .Minimal complete All.Minimal complete definition: toEnum. pred toEnum fromEnum enumFrom enumFromThen enumFromTo enumFromThenTo :: :: :: :: :: :: :: a > a Int > a a > Int a > [a] a > a > [a] a > a > [a] a > a > a > [a]  [n. (*) :: a > a > a negate :: a > a abs. succ = toEnum .Numeric classes class (Eq a. fromEnum y . fromEnum pred = toEnum . (subtract 1) . (+1) ..] [n.NOTE: these default methods only make sense for types that map injectively into Int using fromEnum and toEnum.] [n.] enumFromTo x y = map toEnum [fromEnum x .n’.. Show a) => Num a where (+). signum :: a > a fromInteger :: Integer > a . Ord a) => Real a where toRational :: a > Rational . fromEnum y . fromEnum y] enumFromThen x y = map toEnum [fromEnum x..
tan :: a > a asin. sqrt :: a > a (**). atan asinh. atanh x ** y = exp (log x * y) logBase x y = log y / log x sqrt x = x ** 0.r) = class (Num a) => Fractional a where (/) :: a > a > a recip :: a > a fromRational :: Rational > a quotRem n d quotRem n d divMod n d divMod n d signum d then (q1. cosh asin. rem div. acosh. acos.r) = n ‘mod‘ d = r where (q. log.r) = n ‘rem‘ d = r where (q.r) = divMod n d = if signum r == where qr@(q.106 class (Real a. r+d) else qr quotRem n d . sinh.Minimal complete definition: fromRational and (recip or (/)) recip x = 1 / x x / y = x * recip y class (Fractional a) => Floating a where pi :: a exp. cosh. mod quotRem.a) a > Integer . tanh :: a > a asinh.r) = n ‘div‘ d = q where (q. cos. STANDARD PRELUDE => Integral a where a > a > a a > a > a a > a > (a. atan :: a > a sinh. Enum quot. acosh. atanh :: a > a . toInteger n ‘quot‘ d = q where (q. sin. divMod toInteger a) :: :: :: :: CHAPTER 8. cos.Minimal complete definition: quotRem. exp.5 tan x = sin x / cos x tanh x = sinh x / cosh x .Minimal complete definition: pi. acos. log. logBase :: a > a > a sin.
r) = properFraction x if r < 0 then n .Minimal complete definition: properFraction truncate x = m where (m.1 else n where (n.r) = properFraction x ceiling x floor x = = . round :: (Integral b) => a ceiling.1 else n + 1 in case signum (abs r .5) of 1 > n 0 > if even n then n else m 1 > m if r > 0 then n + 1 else n where (n.0.107 class (Real a._) = properFraction x round x = let (n.r) = properFraction x m = if r < 0 then n . floor :: (Integral b) => a a > > > where (b. Fractional a) => RealFrac properFraction :: (Integral b) => a truncate.a) b b .
n) = decodeFloat x significand x scaleFloat k x = = encodeFloat m (. scaleFloat._) = decodeFloat x encodeFloat m (n+k) where (m. even :: (Integral a) => a > a > a = error "Prelude. significand. return a NaN (via +) .must be after the previous test on zero y  x==0 && y==0 = y .n) = decodeFloat x atan2 y x  x>0 = atan (y/x)  x==0 && y>0 = pi/2  x<0 && y>0 = pi + atan (y/x) (x<=0 && y<0)  (x<0 && isNegativeZero y)  (isNegativeZero x && isNegativeZero y) = atan2 (y) x  y==0 && (x<0  isNegativeZero x) = pi . isDenormalized. isNegativeZero.Minimal complete definition: All except exponent.108 CHAPTER 8.Int) decodeFloat :: a > (Integer.must be after the other double zero tests  otherwise = x + y .Int) encodeFloat :: Integer > Int > a exponent :: a > Int significand :: a > a scaleFloat :: Int > a > a isNaN. isIEEE :: a > Bool atan2 :: a > a > a . isInfinite. odd even n odd gcd gcd 0 0 gcd x y :: (Num a) => a > a > a = flip () :: (Integral a) => a > Bool = n ‘rem‘ 2 == 0 = not . atan2 exponent x = if m == 0 then 0 else n + floatDigits x where (m.floatDigits x) where (m. Floating a) => RealFloat a where floatRadix :: a > Integer floatDigits :: a > Int floatRange :: a > (Int.Numeric functions subtract subtract even.gcd: gcd 0 0 is undefined" = gcd’ (abs x) (abs y) where gcd’ x 0 = x gcd’ x y = gcd’ y (x ‘rem‘ y) . STANDARD PRELUDE class (RealFrac a.x or y is a NaN.
Minimal complete definition: (>>=). toRational . Fractional b) => a > b = fromRational .Monadic classes class Functor f fmap where :: (a > b) > f a > f b class Monad m where (>>=) :: m a > (a > m b) > m b (>>) :: m a > m b > m b return :: a > m a fail :: String > m a . toInteger :: (Real a. Integral b) => a > b > a = if n >= 0 then xˆn else recip (xˆ(n)) :: (Integral a.list element to a monad type mapM :: Monad m => (a > m b) > [a] > m [b] mapM f as = sequence (map f as) mapM_ mapM_ f as (=<<) f =<< x :: Monad m => (a > m b) > [a] > m () = sequence_ (map f as) :: Monad m => (a > m b) > m a > m b = x >>= f .109 lcm lcm _ 0 lcm 0 _ lcm x y (ˆ) x ˆ 0 x ˆ n  n > 0 :: = = = (Integral a) => a > a > a 0 0 abs ((x ‘quot‘ (gcd x y)) * y) _ ˆ _ (ˆˆ) x ˆˆ n fromIntegral fromIntegral realToFrac realToFrac :: (Num a. return m >> k = m >>= \_ > k fail s = error s sequence sequence sequence_ sequence_ :: Monad m => [m a] > m [a] = foldr mcons (return []) where mcons p q = p >>= \x > q >>= \y > return (x:y) :: Monad m => [m a] > m () = foldr (>>) (return ()) .ˆ: negative exponent" :: (Fractional a. Integral b) => a > b > a = 1 = f x (n1) x where f _ 0 y = y f x n y = g x n where g x n  even n = g (x*x) (n ‘quot‘ 2)  otherwise = f x (n1) (x*y) = error "Prelude. Num b) => a > b = fromInteger .The xxxM functions take list arguments. but lift the function or .
Enum..Primitive ..Trivial type data () CHAPTER 8.Character type data Char = . Enum.. ($!) :: (a > b) > a > b f $ x = f x f $! x = x ‘seq‘ f x .Function type . STANDARD PRELUDE = () deriving (Eq.(useful in continuationpassing style) ($). .. Bounded) . Read. Ord. ’a’  ’b’ .Not legal Haskell.Unicode values instance Eq Char c == c’ where = fromEnum c == fromEnum c’ . flip :: (a > b > c) > b > a > c flip f x y = f y x seq :: a > b > b seq = ..110 .constant function const :: a > b > a const x _ = x .Boolean functions (&&).Boolean type data Bool = False  True deriving (Eq.function composition (. True False True False () && x && _  _  x :: = = = = Bool > Bool > Bool x False True x not not True not False otherwise otherwise :: Bool > Bool = False = True :: Bool = True . for illustration only . Bounded) . . Show.identity function id :: a > a id x = x ..rightassociating infix application operators . g = \ x > f (g x) .flip f takes its (first) two arguments in the reverse order of f.) :: (b > c) > (a > b) > a > c f . Ord.
Ord. fromEnum (maxBound::Char)] enumFromThen c c’ = map toEnum [fromEnum c.. fromEnum lastChar] where lastChar :: Char lastChar  c’ < c = minBound  otherwise = maxBound instance Bounded Char where minBound = ’\0’ maxBound = primUnicodeMaxChar type String = [Char] .Either type data Either a b = Left a  Right b deriving (Eq.IO type data IO a = . Ord. Show) maybe :: b > (a > b) > Maybe a > b maybe n f Nothing = n maybe n f (Just x) = f x instance Functor Maybe fmap f Nothing = fmap f (Just x) = where Nothing Just (f x) instance Monad Maybe where (Just x) >>= k = k x Nothing >>= k = Nothing return = Just fail s = Nothing .abstract instance Functor IO where fmap f x = x >>= (return . Read. fromEnum c’ .Maybe type data Maybe a = Nothing  Just a deriving (Eq. Read. . return = ..... fail s = ioError (userError s) .. f) instance Monad IO where (>>=) = . Show) either :: (a > c) > (b > c) > Either a b > c either f g (Left x) = f x either f g (Right y) = g y ...111 instance Ord Char c <= c’ where = fromEnum c <= fromEnum c’ instance Enum Char where toEnum = primIntToChar fromEnum = primCharToInt enumFrom c = map toEnum [fromEnum c .
.. maxBound .. . . instance Real Integer where . .... Read.. Show..... instance Integral Integer where .112 . .....Standard numeric types... . 1  0  1 .. Ord.... . STANDARD PRELUDE Ordering = LT  EQ  GT deriving (Eq..... instance Ord Integer where .. Enum..Ordering type data CHAPTER 8... .. data Float instance Eq instance Ord instance Num instance Real instance Fractional instance Floating instance RealFrac instance RealFloat data Double instance Eq instance Ord instance Num instance Real instance Fractional instance Floating instance RealFrac instance RealFloat Float Float Float Float Float Float Float Float Double Double Double Double Double Double Double Double where where where where where where where where ... data Int instance instance instance instance instance instance instance = minBound .. .. .... The data declarations for these types cannot ... instance Num Integer where . ..... . .. instance Enum Integer where . 1 Eq Int where Ord Int where Num Int where Real Int where Integral Int where Enum Int where Bounded Int where  0  1 .. data Integer = .......... .... instance Eq Integer where .... . where where where where where where where where .far too large. . . Bounded) . ... .. .... ..be expressed directly in Haskell since the constructor lists would be .
Ord a) => a > a > [a] (Fractional a.may overflow instance Enum Double where succ x = x+1 pred x = x1 toEnum = fromIntegral fromEnum = fromInteger . The ‘toEnum’ function truncates numbers to Int. truncate enumFrom = numericEnumFrom enumFromThen = numericEnumFromThen enumFromTo = numericEnumFromTo enumFromThenTo = numericEnumFromThenTo numericEnumFrom :: numericEnumFromThen :: numericEnumFromTo :: numericEnumFromThenTo :: numericEnumFrom = numericEnumFromThen n m = numericEnumFromTo n m = numericEnumFromThenTo n n’ . truncate = numericEnumFrom = numericEnumFromThen = numericEnumFromTo = numericEnumFromThenTo instance Enum Float succ x pred x toEnum fromEnum enumFrom enumFromThen enumFromTo enumFromThenTo .95]. Ord) . 0.may overflow (Fractional a) => a > [a] (Fractional a) => a > a > [a] (Fractional a. However.Lists data [a] = []  a : [a] deriving (Eq.. for illustration only instance Functor [] where fmap = map instance Monad [] m >>= k return x fail s where = concat (map k m) = [x] = [] . depending on how 0.1 .1 is represented. where = x+1 = x1 = fromIntegral = fromInteger . The definitions of enumFrom and enumFromThen allow floats to be used in arithmetic series: [0. roundoff errors make these somewhat dubious.113 The Enum instances for Floats and Doubles are slightly unusual. Ord a) => a > a > a > [a] iterate (+1) iterate (+(mn)) n takeWhile (<= m+1/2) (numericEnumFrom n) m = takeWhile p (numericEnumFromThen n n’) where p  n’ >= n = (<= m + (n’n)/2)  otherwise = (>= m + (n’n)/2) . This example may have either 10 or 11 elements.Not legal Haskell.0.
undefined undefined :: a = error "Prelude.y) :: (a.b) > a fst (x.114 .uncurry converts a curried function to a function on pairs. . Bounded) (a. b) > c) = f (fst p) (snd p) .b.Tuples data data CHAPTER 8.Not legal Haskell. y) uncurry uncurry f p :: (a > b > c) > ((a.(NB: not provided for triples.b) deriving (Eq. etc.y) = x snd snd (x. STANDARD PRELUDE (a.b) > b = y .c) deriving (Eq. b) > c) > a > b > c curry f x y = f (x.) fst :: (a.c) = (a. curry :: ((a. for illustration only .messages that are more appropriate to the context in which undefined . Ord.b.as an infix operator. until :: (a > Bool) > (a > a) > a > a until p f x  p x = x  otherwise = until p f (f x) .It is expected that compilers will recognize this and insert error .component projections for pairs: . It is usually used . and its typing forces its first argument .asTypeOf is a typerestricted version of const. Bounded) .b) = (a.Misc functions .(which is usually overloaded) to have the same type as the second.until p f yields the result of applying f until p holds. Ord.error stops execution and displays an error message error error :: String > a = primError . quadruples. asTypeOf :: a > a > a asTypeOf = const .undefined" .appears.curry converts an uncurried function to a curried function.
rather than the beginning. repeat. dropWhile. unzip. :: [a] > a = x = error "Prelude. any. takeWhile. maximum. unzip3) where import qualified Char(isSpace) infixl 9 infixr 5 infix 4 !! ++ ‘elem‘. all. scanl. foldr1. tail. scanr. span. unwords. words. iterate. last and init are the dual functions working from the end of a finite list. zipWith3.1. replicate. map f head and tail extract the first element and remaining elements. reverse. (!!).head: empty list" :: [a] > [a] = xs = error "Prelude.Map and append map :: (a > b) > [a] > [b] map f [] = [] map f (x:xs) = f x : map f xs (++) :: [a] > [a] > [a] [] ++ ys = ys (x:xs) ++ ys = x : (xs ++ ys) filter :: (a > Bool) > [a] > [a] filter p [] = [] filter p (x:xs)  p x = x : filter p xs  otherwise = filter p xs concat :: [[a]] > [a] concat xss = foldr (++) [] xss concatMap :: (a > [b]) > [a] > [b] concatMap f = concat . scanl1. scanr1. unlines. null.8. foldr. or. cycle. elem. (++). of a list. concatMap. head. sum. concat.1 Prelude PreludeList . take. ‘notElem‘ . break. which must be nonempty. foldl1. lines. respectively. init. product. zipWith. drop. filter. last.Standard list functions module PreludeList ( map. foldl.tail: empty list" head head (x:_) head [] tail tail (_:xs) tail [] . PRELUDE PRELUDELIST 115 8. length. zip. minimum. splitAt. zip3. and. lookup. notElem.
116 last last [x] last (_:xs) last [] init init [x] init (x:xs) init [] null null [] null (_:_) :: = = = :: = = = CHAPTER 8. scanl1 is similar...... x2... length :: [a] > Int length [] = 0 length (_:l) = 1 + length l .] foldl :: (a > b > a) > a > [b] > a foldl f z [] = z foldl f z (x:xs) = foldl f (f z x) xs foldl1 foldl1 f (x:xs) foldl1 _ [] scanl scanl f q xs :: (a > a > a) > [a] > a = foldl f x xs = error "Prelude. . z ‘f‘ x1. applied to a binary operator. but returns a list of successive reduced values from the left: scanl f z [x1.last: empty list" [a] > [a] [] x : init xs error "Prelude. x2. and a list. xn] == (..!!: negative index" [] !! _ = error "Prelude. (z ‘f‘ x1) ‘f‘ x2... x2.((z ‘f‘ x1) ‘f‘ x2) ‘f‘.) ‘f‘ xn foldl1 is a variant that has no starting value argument. a starting value (typically the leftidentity of the operator). ..] == [x1. again without the starting element: scanl1 f [x1. STANDARD PRELUDE [a] > a x last xs error "Prelude. x1 ‘f‘ x2.length returns the length of a finite list as an Int. ..init: empty list" :: [a] > Bool = True = False .. and thus must be applied to nonempty lists. . 0origin (!!) :: [a] > Int > a xs !! n  n < 0 = error "Prelude. from left to right: foldl f z [x1.foldl1: empty list" :: (a > b > a) > a > [b] > [a] = q : (case xs of [] > [] x:xs > scanl f (f q x) xs) :: (a > a > a) > [a] > [a] = scanl f x xs = [] scanl1 scanl1 f (x:xs) scanl1 _ [] . .. reduces the list using the binary operator.List index (subscript) operator. scanl is similar to foldl..] == [z.] Note that last (scanl f z xs) == foldl f z xs.!!: index too large" (x:_) !! 0 = x (_:xs) !! n = xs !! (n1) foldl.
drop n xs returns the suffix of xs after the first n elements.. scanr. splitAt n xs is equivalent to (take n xs.foldr. repeat :: a > [a] repeat x = xs where xs = x:xs . PRELUDE PRELUDELIST 117 .above functions.8.replicate n x is a list of length n with x the value of every element replicate :: Int > a > [a] replicate n x = take n (repeat x) .iterate f x returns an infinite list of repeated applications of f to x: . cycle cycle [] cycle xs :: [a] > [a] = error "Prelude. drop n xs).the infinite repetition of the original list. or [] if n > length xs. or equivalently. with x the value of every element. and scanr1 are the righttoleft duals of the . Int > [a] > [a] [] [] x : take (n1) xs take :: take n _  n <= 0 = take _ [] = take n (x:xs) = . applied to a list xs.on infinite lists.] iterate :: (a > a) > a > [a] iterate f x = x : iterate f (f x) . f (f x). f x. .cycle: empty list" = xs’ where xs’ = xs ++ xs’ take n.1.foldr1: empty list" scanr :: (a > b > b) > b > [a] > [b] scanr f q0 [] = [q0] scanr f q0 (x:xs) = f x q : qs where qs@(q:_) = scanr f q0 xs scanr1 scanr1 f [] scanr1 f [x] scanr1 f (x:xs) :: = = = (a > a > a) > [a] > [a] [] [x] f x q : qs where qs@(q:_) = scanr1 f xs . or xs itself if n > length xs. foldr :: (a > b > b) > b > [a] > b foldr f z [] = z foldr f z (x:xs) = f x (foldr f z xs) foldr1 foldr1 f [x] foldr1 f (x:xs) foldr1 _ [] :: = = = (a > a > a) > [a] > a x f x (foldr1 f xs) error "Prelude. It is the identity .iterate f x == [x. foldr1..repeat x is an infinite list. returns the prefix of xs of length n. .cycle ties a finite list into a circular one.
dropWhile p xs). STANDARD PRELUDE Int > [a] > [a] xs [] drop (n1) xs :: Int > [a] > ([a]. while break p uses the negation of p. s’) = break (== ’\n’) s in l : case s’ of [] > [] (_:s’’) > lines s’’ :: String > [String] = case dropWhile Char. applied to a predicate p and a list xs. p) lines breaks a string up into a list of strings at newline characters. span p xs is equivalent to (takeWhile p xs.118 drop :: drop n xs  n <= 0 = drop _ [] = drop n (_:xs) = splitAt splitAt n xs  CHAPTER 8.isSpace s’ lines lines "" lines s words words s .[a]) = (take n xs. Similary. which were delimited by white space.[]) span p xs@(x:xs’)  p x = (x:ys.isSpace s of "" > [] s’ > w : words s’’ where (w. dropWhile p xs returns the remaining suffix. :: String > [String] = [] = let (l. and unwords joins words with separating spaces.xs) where (ys.[a]) span p [] = ([].zs) = span p xs’ break p = span (not . :: (a > Bool) > [a] > [a] = [] = = x : takeWhile p xs [] takeWhile takeWhile p [] takeWhile p (x:xs)  p x  otherwise dropWhile dropWhile p [] dropWhile p xs@(x:xs’)  p x  otherwise :: (a > Bool) > [a] > [a] = [] = = dropWhile p xs’ xs span. The resulting strings do not contain newlines. drop n xs) takeWhile.zs)  otherwise = ([]. unlines joins lines with terminating newlines. s’’) = break Char. words breaks a string up into a list of words. break :: (a > Bool) > [a] > ([a]. returns the longest prefix (possibly empty) of xs of elements that satisfy p. unlines and unwords are the inverse operations.
reverse xs returns the elements of xs in reverse order. all :: (a > Bool) > [a] > Bool any p = or . results from a False . For the result to be . any.y):xys)  key == x = Just y  otherwise = lookup key xys . or :: [Bool] > Bool and = foldr (&&) True or = foldr () False . any determines if any element .e. elem. maximum.which must be nonempty. PRELUDE PRELUDELIST unlines unlines unwords unwords [] unwords ws :: [String] > String = concatMap (++ "\n") :: [String] > String = "" = foldr1 (\w s > w ++ ’ ’:s) ws 119 .lookup key assocs looks up a key in an association list.of the list satisfies the predicate.g.maximum and minimum return the maximum or minimum value from a list. lookup :: (Eq a) => a > [(a. for all.value at a finite index of a finite or infinite list. x ‘elem‘ xs. or is the . notElem :: (Eq a) => a > [a] > Bool elem x = any (== x) notElem x = all (/= x) .b)] > Maybe b lookup key [] = Nothing lookup key ((x.. minimum :: (Ord a) => [a] > a maximum [] = error "Prelude. and. . sum. however.Applied to a predicate and a list.disjunctive dual of and.minimum: empty list" foldl1 min xs .sum and product compute the sum or product of a finite list of numbers. Similarly. . False. reverse :: [a] > [a] reverse = foldl (flip (:)) [] xs must be finite. notElem is the negation. map p . the list must be finite. map p all p = and .maximum: empty list" maximum xs = foldl1 max xs minimum [] minimum xs = = error "Prelude.1. finite. product :: (Num a) => [a] > a sum = foldl (+) 0 product = foldl (*) 1 .8.and returns the conjunction of a Boolean list. usually written in infix form. and of an ordered type. .elem is the list membership predicate.True.
[c]) = foldr (\(a.[b].c:cs)) ([].b)] > ([a]. For example.unzip transforms a list of pairs into a pair of lists. STANDARD PRELUDE zip takes two lists and returns a list of corresponding pairs.b)] = zipWith (. zip3 takes three lists and returns a list of triples.c)] = zipWith3 (.. zipWith :: (a>b>c) > [a]>[b]>[c] zipWith z (a:as) (b:bs) = z a b : zipWith z as bs zipWith _ _ _ = [] zipWith3 :: (a>b>c>d) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d] zipWith3 z (a:as) (b:bs) (c:cs) = z a b c : zipWith3 z as bs cs zipWith3 _ _ _ _ = [] . zipWith (+) is applied to two lists to produce the list of corresponding sums. unzip unzip unzip3 unzip3 :: [(a.[].bs) > (a:as.[b]) = foldr (\(a.b.b. instead of a tupling function.c) ˜(as.b) ˜(as.b:bs)) ([].) :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [(a.[]) :: [(a.b.cs) > (a:as.b:bs. excess elements of the longer list are discarded.120  CHAPTER 8. If one input list is short.bs.c)] > ([a].) zip zip zip3 zip3  The zipWith family generalises the zip family by zipping with the function given as the first argument.[]) . Zips for larger tuples are in the List library :: [a] > [b] > [(a.
Mimimal complete definition: show or showsPrec showsPrec _ x s = show x ++ s show x showList [] showList (x:xs) = showsPrec 0 x "" = showString "[]" = showChar ’[’ .Minimal complete definition: readsPrec readList = readParen False (\r > [pr  ("[".The instances of Read and Show for Bool. Either. readLitChar.". isAlpha. shows.are done via "deriving" clauses in Prelude.t) [(x:xs. showl xs where showl [] = showChar ’]’ showl (x:xs) = showChar ’. show.t) [(x:xs. read. isDigit. PRELUDE PRELUDETEXT 121 8.t)  ("]". showl xs . readFloat. Maybe. showFloat. shows x .s) pr where readl s = [([]. Ordering .u) (xs. ShowS. reads t. showChar.u)  (x. readSigned. showInt. readl s]) lex s] ++ reads s. isAlphaNum.v)  (". lexDigits) type type ReadS a ShowS = String > [(a. readl’ t] lex s] ++ lex s. readDec.hs import Char(isSpace.u) readl’ s = [([].t)  ("]". lex. showParen ) where . shows x . reads.’ .t) (xs. readList).t) (x. readl’ u] . Show(showsPrec.2 Prelude PreludeText module PreludeText ( ReadS. showList).8. showString. readParen.2.String)] = String > String where :: Int > ReadS a :: ReadS [a] class Read a readsPrec readList . Read(readsPrec. showLitChar. lexLitChar) import Numeric(showSigned.v) class Show a showsPrec show showList where :: Int > a > ShowS :: a > String :: [a] > ShowS <<<<<<<<< lex r.
showChar ’)’ else p :: Bool > ReadS a > ReadS a = if b then mandatory else optional where optional r = g r ++ mandatory mandatory r = [(x.lexStrItem s.Current limitations: Qualified names are not handled properly Octal and hexidecimal numerics are not recognized as a single token Comments are not treated properly lex lex "" lex (c:s)  isSpace c lex (’\’’:s) lex (’"’:s) :: ReadS String = [("". <. ("".t) (")". t)  (str.t) <. (str.reads s. ch /= "’" ] [(’"’:str.u) showChar showChar showString showString showParen showParen b p readParen readParen b g r <.s)] lexString s = [(ch++str.lexLitChar s.lexString t ] lexStrItem (’\\’:’&’:s) = [("\\&".read: no parse" _ > error "Prelude."")] = = = lex (dropWhile isSpace s) [(’\’’:ch++"’".lex r. <. u)  (ch. STANDARD PRELUDE :: (Read a) => String > a = case [x  (x. .optional s.t)  ’\\’:t <[dropWhile isSpace s]] lexStrItem s = lexLitChar s .t) <.read: ambiguous parse" :: Char > ShowS = (:) :: String > ShowS = (++) :: Bool > ShowS > ShowS = if b then showChar ’(’ .This lexer is not completely faithful to the Haskell lexical syntax.u)  ("(".’\’’:t) <.t) <.lex t] of [x] > x [] > error "Prelude."") <.lex t ] . p .122 reads reads shows shows read read s :: (Read a) => ReadS a = readsPrec 0 :: (Show a) => a > ShowS = showsPrec 0 CHAPTER 8.u) <.lexString s] where lexString (’"’:s) = [("\"".s) (x. t)  (ch.s)] lexStrItem (’\\’:c:s)  isSpace c = [("\\&".
readsPrec p r] .[s].t) <.u)  (c:t) [(e:ds. toInteger .t) 123  otherwise = [] where isSingle c = c ‘elem‘ ".s) <.t) [(c:ds++fe.t) <.lexDigits (c:cs). t)  (i.[span isIdChar s]]  (ds.lexFracExp s ] .8.t) <.possible difficulty with minInt instance Show Integer showsPrec instance Read Integer readsPrec p instance Show Float showsPrec p instance Read Float readsPrec p instance Show Double showsPrec p instance Read Double readsPrec p where = showSigned showInt where = readSigned readDec where = showFloat where = readSigned readFloat where = showFloat where = readSigned readFloat instance Show () where showsPrec p () = showString "()" . c ‘elem‘ "+".lexDigits t] ++  (ds.bad character lexFracExp (’.()[]{}_‘" isSym c = c ‘elem‘ "!@#$%&*+.t) <.t) [(c:nam.’:ds++e.t) <.lexDigits s] instance Show Int where showsPrec n = showsPrec n .s)] <.t) <.possible difficulty with minInt instance Read Int where readsPrec p r = [(fromInteger i.[span isSym s]]  (nam.t) lexExp s = [("".u) <.s)] [(c:sym. (fe.Converting to Integer avoids .. (e.Reading at the Integer type avoids .u)  (ds.lexExp t] lexFracExp s = lexExp s lexExp (e:s)  e ‘elem‘ "eE" = [(e:c:ds. PRELUDE PRELUDETEXT lex (c:s)     isSingle c isSym c isAlpha c isDigit c = = = = [([c]. (ds.2.’:c:cs)  isDigit c = [(’.[span isDigit s]./<=>?\\ˆ:˜" isIdChar c = isAlphaNum c  c ‘elem‘ "_’"  (sym.u) <.
readl t ] instance (Show a) => Show [a] where showsPrec p = showList instance (Read a) => Read [a] where readsPrec p = readList ."\’") <.y) = showChar ’(’ .readl s ]) where readl (’"’:s) = [("".t) <. showl cs where showl "" = showChar ’"’ showl (’"’:cs) = showString "\\\"" .124 CHAPTER 8. reads u. lex t. showChar ’.t)  (’"’:s. showl cs instance Read Char readsPrec p where = readParen False (\r > [(c. shows y .u)  (c . showChar ’\’’ showList cs = showChar ’"’ . Show b) => Show (a.readLitChar s]) readList = readParen False (\r > [(l. (c.v) (")".s)] readl (’\\’:’&’:s) = readl s readl s = [(c:cs.Tuples instance (Show a. lex v ] ) .b) where showsPrec p (x. STANDARD PRELUDE instance Read () where readsPrec p = readParen False (\r > [(().t) <. reads s.t)  ("(".lex r.s) (x.y).t)<.t)  (’\’’:s.w) . (cs.u) (y.u) <.lex r. showl cs showl (c:cs) = showLitChar c .Other tuples have similar Read and Show instances <<<<< lex r.". (l.lex r.’ . showChar ’)’ instance (Read a.readLitChar s. t) <. (")". w)  ("(".s) <.t) (". showLitChar c ._) <. Read b) => Read (a.lex s ] ) instance Show Char where showsPrec p ’\’’ = showString "’\\’’" showsPrec p c = showChar ’\’’ . shows x .b) where readsPrec p = readParen False (\r > [((x.
print. ioError. interact. Eq IOError where ...8. IOError.getLine return (c:s) getContents :: IO String getContents = primGetContents . writeFile. userError.3 Prelude PreludeIO module PreludeIO ( FilePath. getLine. getContents. readLn ) where import PreludeBuiltin type FilePath = String . readFile.3. readIO. PRELUDE PRELUDEIO 125 8. appendFile.. getChar. :: = :: = :: = IOError > IO a primIOError String > IOError primUserError IO a > (IOError > IO a) > IO a primCatch :: Char > IO () = primPutChar :: String > IO () = mapM_ putChar s putStrLn :: String > IO () putStrLn s = do putStr s putStr "\n" print print x getChar getChar getLine getLine :: Show a => a > IO () = putStrLn (show x) :: IO Char = primGetChar :: IO String = do c <. putStrLn.The internals of this type are system dependent data IOError instance instance ioError ioError userError userError catch catch putChar putChar putStr putStr s Show IOError where . putChar..getChar if c == ’\n’ then return "" else do s <. catch. putStr.
reads s.getContents putStr (f s) readFile readFile writeFile writeFile :: FilePath > IO String = primReadFile :: FilePath > String > IO () = primWriteFile appendFile :: FilePath > String > IO () appendFile = primAppendFile .readIO: ambiguous parse") readLn :: Read a => IO a readLn = do l <.readIO: no parse") _ > ioError (userError "Prelude. (""."") <.readIO l return r .raises an exception instead of an error readIO :: Read a => String > IO a readIO s = case [x  (x.t) <. STANDARD PRELUDE interact :: (String > String) > IO () .getLine r <.lex t] of [x] > return x [] > ioError (userError "Prelude.126 CHAPTER 8.The hSetBuffering ensures the expected interactive behaviour interact f = do hSetBuffering stdin NoBuffering hSetBuffering stdout NoBuffering s <.
there are some ambiguities that are to be resolved by making grammatical phrases as long as possible. this means that conditionals. A precedencelevel variable ranges from 0 to 9. resolving shift/reduce conﬂicts by shifting).1 Notational Conventions These notational conventions are used for presenting syntax: optional zero or more repetitions grouping choice difference—elements generated by except those generated by fibonacci terminal syntax in typewriter font BNFlike syntax is used throughout. In the lexical syntax. the nonterminals . In both the lexical and the contextfree syntax. 127 § ¢ 2 ¢ ¡ ( ) ¦ ¤ 7 § § ¢ £¡ 1§ ¢ £¡ ¦ ¡ 2 ©¦ 2 ¤ ¡7 A !§ 7 3¢ ¡ p v £!e ¢ $ 2 &¤ 8 8 8 @¥¥9 £ § ¢ )'% $ " 0(&§# § ¢§ £§ ¡ £¡ ¢ ¢ ¦ £¤ ¡ §¥ § § £¡ §¥ § § £ ¦¤ ¢ ¡ ¨ ¦¤ ¢ ¡ ©§¥ § § £ ¢ £ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ 2 ¡ 7 3¢ v ¡§ ¡ 7 3¢ 6 6 4¤ ¦ 2 5 § 3©¦ ¡ ¢ S ¢ . Thus. . proceeding from left to right (in shiftreduce parsing. letexpressions. Similarly. or for left.Chapter 9 Syntax Reference 9. this is the “maximal munch” rule. right. and lambda abstractions extend to the right as far as possible. with 10 substitutions for and 3 for . . In the contextfree syntax. for example actually stands for 30 productions. with productions having the form: There are some families of nonterminals indexed by precedence levels (written as a superscript). and may have a double index: a letter .or nonassociativity and a precedence level. an associativity variable varies over .
2 Lexical Syntax 128 ( ) . / < = > ? \ ˆ  . [ ] ` { } ¤ ¤© ¤ ¥ § 2 " § ! ¢ §¢ © ¥¢ ¤ ¤ © ¦ 7 ¦ 43¤ 3§ ¢ 32 ¡ © ¢ § ¦ ¨¦¤ © § ¥ £ ¤¢ ¡ ¤¥ § ¦ § ¤ § § 7 3§ ¢ ¤ 7 4¦ ¢ ¡ ¢ 7 . . SYNTAX REFERENCE : " ’ 7 ¥ 4 §© § © § § § 2 43© 2¤ ¦ 7 ' 7 3¢ ¡ ¢ 7 § !3¢ ¤ 77 § © ¨¥ '¨ ¡ ¤ ¢ ¥ § ¨¢£¡ ¤ ¨¥ §¢ ¤ § ¥ ¨¦£ § ¢ ¡T ) cRasY`WXrpq7"9 g 24"9 A g hi7¡9 gA " 3¦db`XV GH§¢ C U f f 9 e c a Y W U E ¦ 2 ¡ ! # $ % & * + .§§ § § ¦ £$ § § § © ¢ 6 6 7 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 §§ § t § 6 7 2 ' 4 3 ' ¦ £$ © ¦ ) 4 2 B2 © ¦§ 7 £ ¦ ¨ 3¦ ¢ )A 98 7 64 #"@¦"%5 3¦ ¢ ¦ 1§¤ 0 0 4 2 ¦ § ¨)§ § ¥ ( § ¦£$ ¦ ¥ 0% ¦ § §£%¢ ¤ % ¦ § 5¤ %§ ¤ ¦¤ $§ 0 ¦ $ ¦ 7 7 § © § ¤ ¤ ¦ § £ ¦ ¡ ' ¢ 7 4 '#4 ¢ 2 ¦ ¤§ ¢ 4 ¨32 ¤ ¦ 4 & $ © § ¥ %§ § ¨¦£ ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¥ ¢ & $ © § ¥ %§ § ¨¦£ ¦ ¦ § #¦ § ¢ ¤ ¤ © 2 4 © ¦ 332 ¡ 9.{} a carriage return a line feed a vertical tab a form feed a space a horizontal tab any Unicode character deﬁned as whitespace CHAPTER 9.˜ any Unicode symbol or punctuation y B 2 4 3 t ¢ h h h h A v f 4 x"$ wg " 5 7 2 ' 4 3 t § ¦ £$ § 7 2 ' 4 3 t © ¢ A B Z any uppercase or titlecase Unicode letter _ : " ’ %¤ ¢ u 8 8 8 @¥¥9 ¦ £$ 2¤ ¢ u ¢ © 2 3© 4 7 ' § £$ 2¤ ¦ ¢u © %¤ ¢ ¢ u ¢7 %¤ S¢RQFP§ 4 32 ¦ © G E C ¦ 4 _ a b z any Unicode lowercase letter 77 !3¢ 4 t § 8 8 8 @¥¥9 ¦ £$ 4 © 77 03¢ ¢ t 4 § £$ ¦ 703¢ 7 4 t © 77 !3¢ §¢© t 4 77 !3¢ § #¥ ¡3 §¢ ¦ ¤ G E QFC © G E S¢RQFC ¢ © G E C 4 ¡ IHFD32 © ¥ © ¢ ¦ § ¦¥ 4 32 ¦ 4 4 2 B2 © 4 2 ¥ ¥2 ¦ 7 ¡ © ¥ © ¦ ¦ ¥ 4 4 ¢ 2 § § ¨)§ § ¥ ( ¦ £$ ' ¨¢ § © ¤ ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¥ ¢ & $ § © § ¥ %¤ § ¨¦£ ¢ ¤£¡ © § ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¤¢ ¡ 1§3¥0 0 4 ¤ 2 ¦ § ¥ ¤ ' #¢ ¢2 ¦ § 0 ¦ ¦¤ $§ §£%¢ ¤7 ¦§ £ ¦ 7 6 6 6 6 7 ¤ 3¢ ¥ § ¡ § 7 3¢ 7 © ¥ ¡ 4 ¢ 4 ¤ ¡&¤ 7 2 ¢ ¡ .
4§ §§ © § 2 7 ¢ 7 3¢ ¦ ¢ © © ) h ¡ 5)¢ ¡ 5¢ ¢ ¨£¡ © © ) h ¡ 5¢ ¢ ¨£¡ o \& ¢ ¦ ¤ ¡ §¢ ¤ ¡ §¢ 4§ ¨ 7 3¢ § ¦ ¦ ¦32 ¢¡ 4 § 7 ¨ § ¦32 ¡ ¦ ¢ 4 § ¡ 3¢ 4 § ¦ ¦ ¦ 7 ¢ 4 § ¢¡ ¡ ¥ 73 ¢ 4 § 3¢ ¡ ¥ 7 ¢ ¦ ¢ 7 ¢ ¦ ¢ § 2 § 2 7 ¢ 4§ 7 3¢ ¦ 7 3¢ § § S ¢ ¥ § § ¡ ¥ ¢ §§ § § 2 § § § 2 §§ § § § § § ¦ ¦ § 43¦ 2 ¨ © 4 S¤ `¨ © © ¢ %§ ¨ `¨ ¦ 72 3¥ %§ ¨ ¦ ¦ § § ¦ 2 ¨ ¢ ¦ ˜ => ¥ h 9 f £ f 4 f S¥ X¤¢%w5 4 ) " 9¡¦fX¤ f24w5¡ 2 3© ¥ £ f 4 ©7 ' 2 4 © 7 ' : ) 4 f ¡$ 4 ¡ " 9.2. 0O ’ \ " \ 0X ’ 129 " x 7 3¢ 4§ ¦ ¢ ¢ ¡ ¥ © § ¨¥ § ¨¥ ¤ ¥ 6 6 6 6 6 6 § © ¡ §¢ #¦ § ¤ § © ¤ ¢ ¡ ¢ 2 ¥ ¢ ¡ ¦ ¦ ¥ 32 § ! ¤ § ¦ § 6 4§ 7 6 3¢ 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 ¦ ¦ ¦ ¢ § 2 73§ ¢ 4 ¢ S ¥ 7 ¢ 4 ¦ © ¦ 32 © 4 © 3¤ ¦ 37 2 § § § ¢ %§ ¦ 32 ¤ ¢ %§ 6 ¦ ¦ © 2 4 %§ %§ ¢ ¤ ¦ ¦ 72 3¥ %§ § ¢¦ 2 § ¦ ¤ ¢ 6 6 6 6 6 6 2 ¥¢ ¤ ¤ © ¡ ¦ 43¦ 2 © 4 S¤ © ¢ ¦ ¦ § ¥¢ ¤ © ¦ ¦ § § ¦ 2 ¢ ¤ ¤ 6 6 6 6 §§ § §§ § § § S ¥ ¢ §§§ § 2 ¦ £$ © ¢ .. ¤ ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 § ¦32 ¦ § ¦32 ¦ ¦ 32 § ¦ § ¤ ’ " \ 0o 0x e E +  . . . LEXICAL SYNTAX ’ ’ case class data default deriving do else if import in infix infixl infixr instance let module newtype of then type where _ ) ¥ v ¥ £ f ¦f ¤¢24 f ¡ § § § %¤ 4 §© 2¤ ¦ 77 4 4 § § § %¤ ¢ 7 !3¢ §© §© ¢ 7 ¦ ¢ 7 !3¢ 77 77 !3¢ : : . . . : :: = \  <.> 0 1 9 any Unicode decimal digit 0 1 7 A F a f variables constructors type variables type constructors type classes modules y @ 7 2 ' 8 8 8 @¥¥9 8¥8¥8 § § § ¦ 8 8 8 @¥¥9 8 8 8 @¥¥9 . .
130 CHAPTER 9. where ¦ ¦ ¤ ¥ § §#¥¦£ ¤ ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¥ © ¢ y ¢ 2¤ ¢ u ¢ ¤§ ¦ ¦ ¦ £ ¦ ¦ £ ¦ ¦ 7 ¦ 6 6 6 6 © 7 § @§ ¤ ¡ ¤ § 5¢¦ ¢ © ¥ a b f n r t v \ " ’ & ˆ NUL SOH STX ETX EOT ENQ ACK BEL BS HT LF VT FF CR SO SI DLE DC1 DC2 DC3 DC4 NAK SYN ETB CAN EM SUB ESC FS GS RS US SP DEL [ \ ] ˆ _ \ \ ¢ . If the innermost context is 0. indicating that the enclosing context is explicit (i. So in the fragment f = ("Hello \ \Bill". ¦ ¦ – If the ﬁrst lexeme of a module is not { or module. provided that . SYNTAX REFERENCE 9. then it is preceded by is the indentation of the lexeme. The effect of layout is speciﬁed in this section by describing how to add braces and semicolons to a laidout program. do. where. u u – Where the start of a lexeme is preceded only by white space on the same line. "Jake") There is no inserted before the \Bill. as a consequence of the ﬁrst two rules. – A positive integer. This section deﬁnes it more precisely. the token is inserted after the keyword.) A stack of “layout contexts”. with the following additional tokens: – If a let. The effect of layout on its meaning can be completely described by adding braces and semicolons in places determined by the layout..6. which is the indentation column of the enclosing layout context.7 gives an informal discussion of the layout rule. The input to is: A stream of lexemes as speciﬁed by the lexical syntax in the Haskell report. the programmer supplied the opening brace. because it is not preceded only by white space.3 Layout Section 2. nor before the . The meaning of this augmented program is now layout insensitive. (NB: a string literal it is not. in which each element is either: – Zero. or of keyword is not followed by the lexeme {. then no layout tokens will be inserted until either the enclosing context ends or a new context is pushed. because it is not the beginning of a complete lexeme. or if the end of ﬁle has been reached. preceded by may span multiple lines – Section 2. this lexeme is preceded by where is the indentation of the lexeme. The speciﬁcation takes the form of a function that performs the translation. The meaning of a Haskell program may depend on its layout. where is the indentation of the next lexeme if there is one.e.
the indentation of a line is the indentation of its leftmost lexeme. assume a ﬁxedwidth font with the following conventions: 1§3¥0 0 4 ¤ 2 © The ﬁrst column is designated column 1. A tab character causes the insertion of enough spaces to align the current position with the next tab stop. and “ ” for the empty stream. to avoid visual confusion. where we use “ ” as a stream construction operator. width as an ASCII character. all start a new line. § § ¥ © § © © © ¨© § § ¡ ¡ § § § ¥ ¥ ¡ ¡ ¡ £ £ ¥ ¥ ¥ § ¡ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¦ ¦ ¡ . programmers should avoid writing programs in which the meaning of implicit layout depends on the width of nonspace characters. The deﬁnition of is as follows. ﬁxed. where is the result of lexically analysing a module and adding columnnumber indicators to it as described above.9. u ¤ ¨ ¥ } ¡ if !£ ¡ ¤ £ ¡ ¡ © § § ¥ © § © ¡ ¥ } ¥ ¡ ¡ if and parseerror © & § © ¥ ¤ § ¡ ¡ ¥ ¨ § © ¥ § § © © © ¥ § § ¡ ¡ ¨ © ¨ ¨ ¥ { ¥ ¡ { £ £ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ § © § ¡ ¥ ¥ ¤ § § © © § § ¡ ¡ ¥ ¥ } } } parseerror £ ¡ ¡ ¥ £ § © § ¡ ¥ } £ £ £ ¡ ¡ £ £ ¤ £ ¡ ¡ ¥ § & § ¡ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¦ ! ¨ ¥ § ¡ ¥ ¥ ¥ { { { ¡ if if £ ¡ © © ¦ ¥ ¥ § § © & © § ¡ ¥ © ¥ £ ¥ ¥ ¦ § ¡ § © § ¥ ¥ . To determine the column number. . not 0. However.3. } ¡ if if ¥ © ¨ © ¦ ¥ ¢ 2§ ¨ § § ¥ £ ¡ ¨¦¤¢ ¢ © © ¦ ¥ © ¡ ¢ The application ¢2 0 § 2§ ¡ ¦§ ¦¤ $ §£%§ ¤ ¦ § § £ ¥ § © ¥ ¦ © The characters . Unicode characters in a source program are considered to be of the same. For the purposes of the layout rule. and ¦ ¦ 7 7 . delivers a layoutinsensitive translation of . . Tab stops are 8 characters apart. LAYOUT 131 The “indentation” of a lexeme is the column number of the ﬁrst character of that lexeme.
If none of the rules given above matches. The token is replaced by . A nested context must be further indented than the enclosing context ( fails. so empty braces are inserted. It is an error at this point to be within a nonlayout context (i. Note 4. we ensure that an explicit close brace can only match an explicit open brace. since the close brace is missing. Note 5. Note 1 implements the feature that layout processing can be stopped prematurely by a parse error.e. and the compiler should indicate a layout error. It can fail for instance when the end of the input is reached. By matching against 0 for the current layout context. This is a difference between this formulation and Haskell 1. then the block must be empty. and the tokens generated so far by followed by the token “}” represent a valid preﬁx of the Haskell grammar. u f x = let h y = let p z = z in p in h Here. y = x } in e’ The close brace is inserted due to the parse error rule above. A parse error results if an explicit close brace matches an implicit open brace. ). This clause means that all brace pairs are treated as explicit layout contexts. to mimic the situation if the empty braces had been explicit. which is set in this case by the deﬁnition of h. Note 2. For example. and a nonlayout context is active. The side condition parseerror is to be interpreted as follows: if the tokens generated so far by together with the next token represent an invalid preﬁx of the Haskell grammar. If not. then parseerror is true. Some error conditions are not detected by the algorithm. SYNTAX REFERENCE ). ¤ ¥ Note 6. The parseerror rule is hard to implement in its full generality. including labelled construction and update (Section 3. although they could be: for example let }.132 CHAPTER 9. If the ﬁrst token after a where (say) is not indented more than the enclosing layout context. then the algorithm fails. For example let x = e. An example is: § § &§ u © u £ ¥ ¦ . checks that an implicitlyadded closing brace would match an implicit open 4 £ ¦ Note 1. y = x in e’ is valid. because it translates to let { x = e. At the end of the input.4. because doing so involves ﬁxities. any pending closebraces are inserted. the expression ¦ 4 The test brace. the deﬁnition of p is indented less than the indentation of the enclosing context.15). Note 3.
3.9. LAYOUT do a == b == c has a single unambiguous (albeit probably typeincorrect) parse. . namely (do { a == b }) == c 133 because (==) is nonassociative. Programmers are therefore advised to avoid writing code that requires the parser to insert a closing brace in such situations.
SYNTAX REFERENCE 9. with “. > fact :: Integer > Integer > fact 0 = 1 > fact n = n * fact (n1) An alternative style of literate programming is particularly suitable for use with the LaTeX text processing system. 8 8 ¥¥8 . it is an error for a program line to appear adjacent to a nonblank comment line. is an alternative style for encoding Haskell source code. Program code ends just before a subsequent line that begins \end{code} (ignoring string literals. Layout and comments apply exactly as described in Chapter 9 in the resulting text. It is not necessary to insert additional blank lines before or after these delimiters. In this convention. all other lines are comment. The program text is recovered by taking only those lines beginning with “>”. and inspired in turn by Donald Knuth’s “literate programming”.hs” indicating a usual Haskell ﬁle and “. of course).readLine > putStr "n!= " > print (fact (read l)) This is the factorial function. and replacing the leading “>” with a space. where a line is taken as blank if it consists only of whitespace. a simple factorial program would be: This literate program prompts the user for a number and prints the factorial of that number: > main :: IO () > main = do putStr "Enter a number: " > l <.lhs” indicating a literate Haskell ﬁle. More precisely: Program code begins on the ﬁrst line following a line that begins \begin{code}. all other lines are comment. A line in which “>” is the ﬁrst character is treated as part of the program. The literate style encourages comments by making them the default. Using this style. the style of comment is indicated by the ﬁle extension. For example. To capture some cases where one omits an “>” by mistake. though it may be stylistically desirable.134 CHAPTER 9. ﬁrst developed by Richard Bird and Philip Wadler for Orwell. By convention. only those parts of the literate program that are entirely enclosed between \begin{code} \end{code} delimiters are treated as program text.4 Literate comments The “literate comment” convention.
LITERATE COMMENTS \documentstyle{article} \begin{document} \section{Introduction} 135 This is a trivial program that prints the first 20 factorials..4.n])  n <. \begin{code} main :: IO () main = print [ (n. .[1. product [1..20]] \end{code} \end{document} This style uses the same ﬁle extension.9. It is not advisable to mix these two styles in the same ﬁle.
) ( (.. . } = ) = where where ) ) ) ¦ A 8 8 ¥¥8 7¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ 6 6 © 2§ 7¥ ¦ ¡ 2 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ ¢ %§ %§ 6 6 § 4 ¦ ¢ ¤ 32 ¡ © 4§ 4§ 4§ ¡ 6 ¡ ¡ 6 7 ¦ 6 6 § ¤ ¤32 ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ©§ ¤ @¤32 ¢ ¡ 4§ 6 6 6 © 7 ¦ ¡ 4§ ¦ ' 2 $ 7 ¦ 2 4 CHAPTER 9. .. ) ¦ ¨ A§ ¤ !¤32 ¢ S (. ¨ §¤ A A 5 4 ¦ ¢ ) 8 8 ¥¥8 . . . } . .. .5 ContextFree Syntax 136 module where 2 ¨ ©§ ¤ 5@¤32 ¢ ¡ § 2 4 ¦ ' { { { .) ( . . . 6 6 © ¦ § 7 ¦ ¦ 7 ¡ ¦ 7 ¦ 7 ¦ ¦ A %§ ¡ ¢ %§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¦ § ¡ ¡ ¨ © § § ©¦ § © %§ ¨ § ¡ § ¦ 2 © ¢ 7 5© ¦ 7 ¨ ¤ ¥ %§ © %§ ¨ § S § 32 © ¢ ¦ 7§ © ¦ ¦ 7§ © ¨ ¦ § § ¤ ¥ 332 £ ¦ %¢§¢ 4 ¥ x¨ ¤ § ¡ § 32 ¢ ¦ V ¨ ¦ #¦ § § ¥ ©¤ § ©332 ¡ 7©¡ %§ 4 § © ¨ ¤ ¦ § S § 32 ¢ ¦ ¦ ¡ 7© ¡ %§ %¢ § 4 § V © A ¡ 2 § ¡ ¥¥8 ©¡ ¡ 2 § 8 8 7 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ ¦ § ¦ ¦§ ¦ ¦ § ¨ ¢ ¢ ¦ ¦§ ¦ ¦ § empty declaration § ¡ ¨ © 4 § ¨ § 2 4 ¡ ¡ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦§ ¦ ¦ § ¨ ¢ ¢ ¦ § ¦ A ¡ ¡ 7 ¦ ¡ 7 ¦ ¡ © 2§ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § © 7¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 2 © ¦ ' ¡ ¦ ¦ 9. ) ¨ A§ ¤ 2 4§ 4§ ¡ §¤¤32 4 § ¡§ ¤ 2 8 8¡ ¥¥8 (. } } © 2§ . SYNTAX REFERENCE . 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¢ import qualified 2 4 ¨ ¦ ¦ § ¡ ¤ 4 ¢¦ 8 8 ¥¥8 ( . hiding ( . = => => => => . ¨ A 5 4 ¦ ¢¥¥8 8 8 ¡ ¢ . . A §¤ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ 4 ¦ ¢ 2 4 . as . . 4§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ ( . ¦ ¦ 2 ¤ © 37 2 ¦ ¤ ¢ 4§ ¡ © %§ 3¥ %§ ¦ 72 ¤ ¢ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¤32 § ¤ { type data newtype class instance default ( .) ( (.) ( module . ) ¨¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 A !§ ¤ 2 .. .
¦ § ¢ ¤ ¢ %§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ ¢ %§ ¦ 32 %§ 6 ¡ § %¢ 7 ©¡ 4§ © 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 © © ¦ § ¦ ¦ ¦ § ¢7 ¤ %§ © %§ ¢ ¥ § © 74 4 § © ¥8¥8 8 ¡ ©S© ¢ 7 7©¡ ¢ ¥ ©¡ 4 § © 7 7 ©S© A 5 %§ 8¥¥8 ¡¢ %§ ¤ B%§ ¢ 7¥ 7 © ¡ %§ 8 ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¢ ¤ %§ © ¥ %§ 7 A ©© 8¥¥8 ¢ ¡ ©S© 7¥ 8 ¢ ¥ 7 ¢ ¥ 7 ( . } empty ¦ A § :: => type signature ﬁxity declaration empty declaration . . . . ) unit type list constructor function constructor tupling constructors ¦ 32 %§ ¡ ¡ %§ %§ %§ ¡ ¤ ( ( ) ) ) ¦ A © S© ¢ ¥ ©¡ 7 7 § S § ¢ 4§ © © ¦ 32 © © ¢ ¥ 7 ¦ 2 § ¡ § ¢ ¦ 32 %§ ¡ %§ ¢ ' %§ ' ¡ %§ 6 ¡ 6 6 6 6 6 6 © %§ § ¢ © S¤ © ¢ 2 ¡ ¢ 2 ¡ ¢ 7 ¥ ¦ ¦ ¥ § ¦ § 7 ¦ 7 6 6 © 7¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ 137 . . ) tuple type list type parenthesized constructor %§ 8 8 ¥¥8 () [] (>) (. . ] ) . . .5. CONTEXTFREE SYNTAX { . %§ © S© ¤ ¢ ¡ ¤ ¡ B%§ ¦ 32 ¢ %§ ¡ ¡ 2 ¨ ¥ § ¦ § ¤ ¡ § S § 32 ¢ ¦ V © ¥ ¦ § 7 ¥ ¦ ¤ ¤ © ¥ £0 ¦ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ ¡ 7 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¤ ¤ ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¤ © ¥ © ¦ § A 7 ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ © ¥ © ¥ ¤ § ¢ £¡ 7 ¦ $ £0 9. . } ¦ ¡ 7 ¦ $ ¥ £0 7 ¦ ¦ { . infixl infixr infix ¦ A §¤ ¦ A¢ 2 ¡ 8¥¥8 8 8 8 ¥¥8 © ¨ > function type type application ¨ ¡ %§ %§ ¢ ¨ ¡ %§ ' %§ ¡ ¡ ¤ ¡ %§ § ¢ © ¤ ( [ ( . .
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Chapter 10
Speciﬁcation of Derived Instances
A derived instance is an instance declaration that is generated automatically in conjunction with a data or newtype declaration. The body of a derived instance declaration is derived syntactically from the deﬁnition of the associated type. Derived instances are possible only for classes known to the compiler: those deﬁned in either the Prelude or a standard library. In this chapter, we describe the derivation of classes deﬁned by the Prelude.
If
is an algebraic datatype declared by:
3. If is Bounded, the type must be either an enumeration (all constructors must be nullary) or have only one constructor.
5. There must be no explicit instance declaration elsewhere in the program that makes an instance of . For the purposes of derived instances, a newtype declaration is treated as a data declaration with a single constructor. If the deriving form is present, an instance declaration is automatically generated for over each class . If the derived instance declaration is impossible for any of the
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4
(where and the parentheses may be omitted if possible for a class if these conditions hold:
) then a derived instance declaration is
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CHAPTER 10. SPECIFICATION OF DERIVED INSTANCES
then a static error results. If no derived instances are required, the deriving form may be omitted or the form deriving () may be used. Each derived instance declaration will have the form:
The context is the smallest context satisfying point (2) above. For mutually recusive data types, the compiler may need to perform a ﬁxpoint calculation to compute it. The remaining details of the derived instances for each of the derivable Prelude classes are now given. Free variables and constructors used in these translations always refer to entities deﬁned by the Prelude.
10.1 Derived instances of Eq and Ord
The class methods automatically introduced by derived instances of Eq and Ord are (==), (/=), compare, (<), (<=), (>), (>=), max, and min. The latter seven operators are deﬁned so as to compare their arguments lexicographically with respect to the constructor set given, with earlier constructors in the datatype declaration counting as smaller than later ones. For example, for the Bool datatype, we have that (True > False) == True. Derived comparisons always traverse constructors from left to right. These examples illustrate this property:
(1,undefined) == (2,undefined) (undefined,1) == (undefined,2)
False
All derived operations of class Eq and Ord are strict in both arguments. For example, False <= is , even though False is the ﬁrst constructor of the Bool type.
10.2 Derived instances of Enum
Derived instance declarations for the class Enum are only possible for enumerations (data types with only nullary constructors). The nullary constructors are assumed to be numbered lefttoright with the indices 0 through . The succ and pred operators give the successor and predecessor respectively of a value, under this numbering scheme. It is an error to apply succ to the maximum element, or pred to the minimum element.
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where is derived automatically depending on described in the remainder of this section).
and the data type declaration for
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10.3. DERIVED INSTANCES OF BOUNDED
143
The toEnum and fromEnum operators map enumerated values to and from the Int type; toEnum raises a runtime error if the Int argument is not the index of one of the constructors. The deﬁnitions of the remaining methods are
enumFrom x enumFromThen x y = enumFromTo x lastCon = enumFromThenTo x y bound where bound  fromEnum y >= fromEnum x =  otherwise = enumFromTo x y = map toEnum [fromEnum x .. fromEnum enumFromThenTo x y z = map toEnum [fromEnum x, fromEnum y
lastCon firstCon y] .. fromEnum z]
where firstCon and lastCon are respectively the ﬁrst and last constructors listed in the data declaration. For example, given the datatype: data we would have: [Orange ..] fromEnum Yellow == == [Orange, Yellow, Green] 2 Color = Red  Orange  Yellow  Green deriving (Enum)
10.3 Derived instances of Bounded
The Bounded class introduces the class methods minBound and maxBound, which deﬁne the minimal and maximal elements of the type. For an enumeration, the ﬁrst and last constructors listed in the data declaration are the bounds. For a type with a single constructor, the constructor is applied to the bounds for the constituent types. For example, the following datatype: data Pair a b = Pair a b deriving Bounded
would generate the following Bounded instance: instance (Bounded a,Bounded b) => Bounded (Pair a b) where minBound = Pair minBound minBound maxBound = Pair maxBound maxBound
10.4 Derived instances of Read and Show
The class methods automatically introduced by derived instances of Read and Show are showsPrec, readsPrec, showList, and readList. They are used to coerce values into strings and parse strings into values.
144
CHAPTER 10. SPECIFICATION OF DERIVED INSTANCES
The function showsPrec d x r accepts a precedence level d (a number from 0 to 11), a value x, and a string r. It returns a string representing x concatenated to r. showsPrec satisﬁes the law: showsPrec d x r ++ s == showsPrec d x (r ++ s) The representation will be enclosed in parentheses if the precedence of the toplevel constructor in x is less than d. Thus, if d is 0 then the result is never surrounded in parentheses; if d is 11 it is always surrounded in parentheses, unless it is an atomic expression (recall that function application has precedence 10). The extra parameter r is essential if treelike structures are to be printed in linear time rather than time quadratic in the size of the tree. The function readsPrec d s accepts a precedence level d (a number from 0 to 10) and a string s, and attempts to parse a value from the front of the string, returning a list of (parsed value, remaining string) pairs. If there is no successful parse, the returned list is empty. Parsing of an unparenthesised inﬁx operator application succeeds only if the precedence of the operator is greater than or equal to d. It should be the case that (x,"") is an element of (readsPrec d (showsPrec d x "")) That is, readsPrec should be able to parse the string produced by showsPrec, and should deliver the value that showsPrec started with. showList and readList allow lists of objects to be represented using nonstandard denotations. This is especially useful for strings (lists of Char). readsPrec will parse any valid representation of the standard types apart from strings, for which only quoted strings are accepted, and other lists, for which only the bracketed form [. . . ] is accepted. See Chapter 8 for full details. The result of show is a syntactically correct Haskell expression containing only constants, given the ﬁxity declarations in force at the point where the type is declared. It contains only the constructor names deﬁned in the data type, parentheses, and spaces. When labelled constructor ﬁelds are used, braces, commas, ﬁeld names, and equal signs are also used. Parentheses are only added where needed, ignoring associativity. No line breaks are added. The result of show is readable by read if all component types are readable. (This is true for all instances deﬁned in the Prelude but may not be true for userdeﬁned instances.) Derived instances of Read make the following assumptions, which derived instances of Show obey: If the constructor is deﬁned to be an inﬁx operator, then the derived Read instance will parse only inﬁx applications of the constructor (not the preﬁx form).
Associativity is not used to reduce the occurrence of parentheses, although precedence may be. For example, given
10.5. AN EXAMPLE
infixr 4 :$ data T = Int :$ T then: – show (1 :$ 2 :$ NT) produces the string "1 :$ (2 :$ NT)". – read "1 :$ (2 :$ NT)" succeeds, with the obvious result. – read "1 :$ 2 :$ NT" fails.
145

NT
If the constructor is deﬁned using record syntax, the derived Read will parse only the recordsyntax form, and furthermore, the ﬁelds must be given in the same order as the original declaration.
The derived Read instance allows arbitrary Haskell whitespace between tokens of the input string. Extra parentheses are also allowed.
The derived Read and Show instances may be unsuitable for some uses. Some problems include: Circular structures cannot be printed or read by these instances. The printer loses shared substructure; the printed representation of an object may be much larger than necessary. The parsing techniques used by the reader are very inefﬁcient; reading a large structure may be quite slow. There is no user control over the printing of types deﬁned in the Prelude. For example, there is no way to change the formatting of ﬂoating point numbers.
10.5 An Example
As a complete example, consider a tree datatype: data Tree a = Leaf a  Tree a :ˆ: Tree a deriving (Eq, Ord, Read, Show) Automatic derivation of instance declarations for Bounded and Enum are not possible, as Tree is not an enumeration or singleconstructor datatype. The complete instance declarations for Tree are shown in Figure 10.1, Note the implicit use of default class method deﬁnitions—for example, only <= is deﬁned for Ord, with the other class methods (<, >, >=, max, and min) being deﬁned by the defaults given in the class declaration shown in Figure 6.1 (page 83).
readsPrec (up_prec+1) t]) r > up_prec) showStr u .t)  ("Leaf".t) <. .1: Example of Derived Instances .146 CHAPTER 10. (v.lex s.w) <.s) <.Precedence of :ˆ: .t) <. showsPrec (app_prec+1) m showsPrec d (u :ˆ: v) = showParen (d where showStr = showsPrec (up_prec+1) showString " :ˆ: " showsPrec (up_prec+1) . (":ˆ:".s) <. (m.Application has precedence one more than .w)  (u.lex r. SPECIFICATION OF DERIVED INSTANCES infixr 5 :ˆ: data Tree a = Leaf a  Tree a :ˆ: Tree a instance (Eq a) => Eq (Tree a) where Leaf m == Leaf n = m==n u:ˆ:v == x:ˆ:y = u==x && v==y _ == _ = False instance (Ord a) => Ord (Tree a) where Leaf m <= Leaf n = m<=n Leaf m <= x:ˆ:y = True u:ˆ:v <= Leaf n = False u:ˆ:v <= x:ˆ:y = u<x  u==x && v<=y instance (Show a) => Show (Tree a) where showsPrec d (Leaf m) = showParen (d > app_prec) showStr where showStr = showString "Leaf " .readsPrec (app_prec+1) s]) r up_prec = 5 app_prec = 10 .the most tightlybinding operator Figure 10.Note: rightassociativity instance (Read a) => Read (Tree a) where readsPrec d r = readParen (d > up_prec) (\r > [(u:ˆ:v.readsPrec (up_prec+1) r. v of :ˆ: ignored ++ readParen (d > app_prec) (\r > [(Leaf m.
but the pragma should be ignored if an implementation is not prepared to handle it. An implementation is not required to respect any pragma. This chapter summarizes this existing practice. . 11. which are used to give additional instructions or hints to the compiler. pragmas appear as comments. Lexically. This may be prevented by the NOINLINE pragma. but which do not form part of the Haskell language proper and do not change a program’s semantics.Chapter 11 Compiler Pragmas Some compiler implementations support compiler pragmas.1 Inlining ¢ ¤ © © The INLINE pragma instructs the compiler to inline the speciﬁed variables at their use sites. For example.2 Specialization © Specialization is used to avoid inefﬁciencies involved in dispatching overloaded functions. except that the enclosing syntax is {# #}. #} ¢ ¡ © S¤ ¡ {# INLINE {# NOINLINE ¢ ¡ %§ ¥ §¥ © ¤ ¢ 6 6 6 6 7¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ #} #} © . in 147 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ {# SPECIALIZE . Compilers will often automatically inline simple expressions. 11.
factorial :: Integer > Integer #} calls to factorial in which the compiler can detect that the parameter is either Int or Integer will use specialized versions of factorial which do not involve overloaded numeric operations. .148 CHAPTER 11. COMPILER PRAGMAS factorial :: Num a => a > a factorial 0 = 0 factorial n = n * factorial (n1) {# SPECIALIZE factorial :: Int > Int.
Part II The Haskell 98 Libraries 149 .
.
.. (%). RealFrac (Ratio a) where ... the instance for Ratio simply “lifts” the corresponding operations over .. denominator. 12 % 8 is reduced to 3/2 and 12 % (8) is reduced to (3)/2. and Show.. reducing the fraction to terms with no common factor and such that the denominator is positive. For each Integral type . Ratio Integer (Integral a) => a > a > Ratio a (Integral a) => Ratio a > a (RealFrac a) => a > a > Rational Eq (Ratio a) where .. If is a bounded type.. Ratio is an instance of classes Eq.. The functions numerator and denominator extract the components of a ratio. Ord (Ratio a) where .. Fractional (Ratio a) where . denominator :: approxRational :: instance (Integral a) => instance (Integral a) => instance (Integral a) => instance (Integral a) => instance (Integral a) => instance (Integral a) => instance (Integral a) => instance (Read a. The type name Rational is a synonym for Ratio Integer.. 151 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ .Chapter 12 Rational Numbers module Ratio ( Ratio.. Ratio is an abstract type. Show (Ratio a) where . Real (Ratio a) where .. Fractional. the results may be unpredictable.. RealFrac. Num.. approxRational ) where infixl 7 % data (Integral a) => type Rational = (%) :: numerator.. for example Ratio Int may give rise to integer overﬂow even for rational numbers of small absolute size. In each case... Read. numerator. Enum. Ord. For example. Enum (Ratio a) where . there is a type Ratio of rational pairs with components of type . a) => Read (Ratio a) where .Integral instance (Integral a) => Ratio a = . Num (Ratio a) where . The operator (%) forms the ratio of two integral numbers. Real. these are in reduced form with a positive denominator... Rational.
returns the simplest rational number within the open interval x epsilon x epsilon . applied to two real fractional numbers x and epsilon. Note that it can be proved that any real interval contains a unique simplest rational.152 CHAPTER 12. A rational number in reduced form is said to be simpler than another if and . RATIONAL NUMBERS The approxRational function. 1 ¦ ¦ 1 ¦ ¦ 1 1 ¦ ¦ ¦ ¡¦ .
% : zero denominator" (x ‘quot‘ d) :% (y ‘quot‘ d) where d = gcd x y reduce (x * signum y) (abs y) x y => Ord (Ratio a) where = x * y’ <= x’ * y = x * y’ < x’ * y => = = = = = = Num (Ratio a) where reduce (x*y’ + x’*y) (y*y’) reduce (x * x’) (y * y’) (x) :% y abs x :% y signum x :% 1 fromInteger x :% 1 => Real (Ratio a) where = toInteger x :% toInteger y => = = = Fractional (Ratio a) where (x*y’) % (y*x’) y % x fromInteger x :% fromInteger y .1 Library Ratio . It normalises a ratio by dividing both numerator and denominator by their greatest common divisor. denominator. Rational.g. approxRational ) where infixl 7 % ratPrec = 7 :: Int data type (Integral a) Rational => Ratio a = !a :% !a = Ratio Integer deriving (Eq) (%) numerator. 12 ‘reduce‘ 8 == 12 ‘reduce‘ (8) == = = = = = 3 :% 2 3 :% (2) reduce _ 0 reduce x y x % y numerator (x :% _) denominator (_ :% y) instance (Integral a) (x:%y) <= (x’:%y’) (x:%y) < (x’:%y’) instance (Integral a) (x:%y) + (x’:%y’) (x:%y) * (x’:%y’) negate (x:%y) abs (x:%y) signum (x:%y) fromInteger x instance (Integral a) toRational (x:%y) instance (Integral a) (x:%y) / (x’:%y’) recip (x:%y) fromRational (x:%y) error "Ratio.Standard functions on rational numbers module Ratio ( Ratio.1. E. denominator approxRational  :: (Integral a) => a > a > Ratio a :: (Integral a) => Ratio a > a :: (RealFrac a) => a > a > Rational "reduce" is a subsidiary function used only in this module. (%). numerator.12. LIBRARY RATIO 153 12..
u) <.r’) = quotRem n’ d’ (n’’:%d’’) = simplest’ d’ r’ d r . truncate numericEnumFrom numericEnumFromThen numericEnumFromTo numericEnumFromThenTo May overflow These numericEnumXXX functions are as defined in Prelude.t) <.hs but not exported from it! instance (Read a. showsPrec (ratPrec+1) y) approxRational x eps = simplest (xeps) (x+eps) where simplest x y  y < x = simplest y x  x == y = xr  x > 0 = simplest’ n d n’ d’  y < 0 = .readsPrec (ratPrec+1) r.154 CHAPTER 12.lex s.s) <. Integral a) => Read (Ratio a) where readsPrec p = readParen (p > ratPrec) (\r > [(x%y. r:%y) where (q. ("%".assumes 0 < n%d < n’%d’ = q :% 1 = (q+1) :% 1 = (q*n’’+d’’) :% n’’ where (q.simplest’ (n’) d’ (n) d  otherwise = 0 :% 1 where xr@(n:%d) = toRational x (n’:%d’) = toRational y simplest’ n    d n’ d’ r == 0 q /= q’ otherwise .u)  (x.readsPrec (ratPrec+1) t ]) instance (Integral a) showsPrec p (x:%y) => Show (Ratio a) where = showParen (p > ratPrec) (showsPrec (ratPrec+1) x . showString " % " .r) = quotRem x y instance (Integral a) succ x = pred x = toEnum = fromEnum = enumFrom = enumFromThen = enumFromTo = enumFromThenTo = => Enum (Ratio a) where x+1 x1 fromIntegral fromInteger . (y. RATIONAL NUMBERS instance (Integral a) => RealFrac (Ratio a) where properFraction (x:%y) = (fromIntegral q.r) = quotRem n d (q’.
The constructor (:+) forms a complex number from its real and imaginary rectangular components. realPart.. the entire number is .. cis. . (RealFloat a) realPart. in the range . .. then so is the phase..a) Complex a > a a) a) a) a) a) a) where where where where where where . The function polar takes a complex number and returns a (magnitude.... and the phase.. 155 § ¨ § ¡¤ § . . mkPolar.. imagPart. cis is a complex value with magnitude and phase (modulo ). Put another way. A complex number may also be formed from polar components of magnitude and phase by the function mkPolar.. imagPart conjugate mkPolar cis polar magnitude.. phase) pair in canonical form: The magnitude is nonnegative. conjugate. .. phase ) where infix data 6 :+ => Complex a = !a :+ !a :: :: :: :: :: :: a) a) a) a) a) a) => => => => => => (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat Eq Read Show Num Fractional Floating a) a) a) a) a) a) => => => => => => Complex a > a Complex a > Complex a a > a > Complex a a > Complex a Complex a > (a. if the magnitude is zero. magnitude. phase instance instance instance instance instance instance (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (Complex (Complex (Complex (Complex (Complex (Complex Complex numbers are an algebraic type.Chapter 13 Complex Numbers module Complex ( Complex((:+)). This constructor is strict: if either the real part or the imaginary part of the number is . The function cis produces a complex number from an angle . polar. .
phase) where infix data 6 :+ => Complex a = !a :+ !a deriving (Eq. magnitude. mkPolar.k phase :: (RealFloat a) => Complex a > a phase (0 :+ 0) = 0 phase (x :+ y) = atan2 y x .Read. COMPLEX NUMBERS The functions realPart and imagPart extract the rectangular components of a complex number and the functions magnitude and phase extract the polar components of a complex number. but oriented in the positive real direction. conjugate. abs is a number with the magnitude of .Show) (RealFloat a) realPart.156 CHAPTER 13.a) = (magnitude z. cis. but unit magnitude. whereas signum has the phase of . The function conjugate computes the conjugate of a complex number in the usual way. phase z) magnitude :: (RealFloat a) => Complex a > a magnitude (x:+y) = scaleFloat k (sqrt ((scaleFloat mk x)ˆ2 + (scaleFloat mk y)ˆ2)) where k = max (exponent x) (exponent y) mk = . 13.1 Library Complex module Complex(Complex((:+)). The magnitude and sign of a complex number are deﬁned as follows: abs z signum 0 signum z@(x:+y) = = = magnitude z :+ 0 0 x/r :+ y/r where r = magnitude z That is. imagPart :: (RealFloat a) => Complex a > a realPart (x:+y) = x imagPart (x:+y) = y conjugate :: (RealFloat a) => Complex a > Complex a conjugate (x:+y) = x :+ (y) mkPolar mkPolar r theta cis cis theta polar polar z :: (RealFloat a) => a > a > Complex a = r * cos theta :+ r * sin theta :: (RealFloat a) => a > Complex a = cos theta :+ sin theta :: (RealFloat a) => Complex a > (a. imagPart. realPart. polar.
13.(x’:+y’) (x:+y) * (x’:+y’) negate (x:+y) abs z signum 0 signum z@(x:+y) fromInteger n => = = = = = = = = Num (Complex a) where (x+x’) :+ (y+y’) (xx’) :+ (yy’) (x*x’y*y’) :+ (x*y’+y*x’) negate x :+ negate y magnitude z :+ 0 0 x/r :+ y/r where r = magnitude z fromInteger n :+ 0 157 instance (RealFloat a) => Fractional (Complex a) where (x:+y) / (x’:+y’) = (x*x’’+y*y’’) / d :+ (y*x’’x*y’’) / d where x’’ = scaleFloat k x’ y’’ = scaleFloat k y’ k = . LIBRARY COMPLEX instance (RealFloat a) (x:+y) + (x’:+y’) (x:+y) .max (exponent x’) (exponent y’) d = x’*x’’ + y’*y’’ fromRational a = fromRational a :+ 0 .1.
v) = if x < 0 then (v’.v’) v’ = abs y / (u’*2) u’ = sqrt ((magnitude z + abs x) / 2) sin x * cosh y :+ cos x * sinh y cos x * cosh y :+ (.158 CHAPTER 13.u’) else (u’.z*z)) y’’:+(x’’) where (x’’:+y’’) = log (z + ((y’):+x’)) (x’:+y’) = sqrt (1 .z*z) y’:+(x’) where (x’:+y’) = log (((1y):+x) / sqrt (1+z*z)) log (z + sqrt (1+z*z)) log (z + (z+1) * sqrt ((z1)/(z+1))) log ((1+z) / sqrt (1z*z)) sin (x:+y) cos (x:+y) tan (x:+y) = = = sinh (x:+y) cosh (x:+y) tanh (x:+y) = = = asin z@(x:+y) acos z@(x:+y) = = atan z@(x:+y) asinh z acosh z atanh z = = = = . COMPLEX NUMBERS instance (RealFloat a) => Floating (Complex a) where pi = pi :+ 0 exp (x:+y) = expx * cos y :+ expx * sin y where expx = exp x log z = log (magnitude z) :+ phase z sqrt 0 sqrt z@(x:+y) = = 0 u :+ (if y < 0 then v else v) where (u.sin x * sinh y) (sinx*coshy:+cosx*sinhy)/(cosx*coshy:+(sinx*sinhy)) where sinx = sin x cosx = cos x sinhy = sinh y coshy = cosh y cos y * sinh x :+ sin y * cosh x cos y * cosh x :+ sin y * sinh x (cosy*sinhx:+siny*coshx)/(cosy*coshx:+siny*sinhx) where siny = sin y cosy = cos y sinhx = sinh x coshx = cosh x y’:+(x’) where (x’:+y’) = log (((y):+x) + sqrt (1 .
readSigned. showIntAtBase. readDec. readInt. showFFloat.Chapter 14 Numeric module Numeric(fromRat. showGFloat. readOct. showEFloat. showInt. showSigned. showOct. lexDigits) where fromRat showSigned showIntAtBase showInt showOct showHex readSigned readInt readDec readOct readHex showEFloat showFFloat showGFloat showFloat floatToDigits readFloat lexDigits :: (RealFloat a) => Rational > a :: :: :: :: :: (Real a) Integral Integral Integral Integral => (a > ShowS) > Int > a > ShowS a => a > (Int > Char) > a > ShowS a => a > ShowS a => a > ShowS a => a > ShowS :: (Real a) => ReadS a > ReadS a :: (Integral a) => a > (Char > Bool) > (Char > Int) > ReadS a :: (Integral a) => ReadS a :: (Integral a) => ReadS a :: (Integral a) => ReadS a :: :: :: :: (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat a) a) a) a) => => => => Maybe Int > a > ShowS Maybe Int > a > ShowS Maybe Int > a > ShowS a > ShowS :: (RealFloat a) => Integer > a > ([Int]. floatToDigits. readHex. showHex. readFloat. showFloat. Int) :: (RealFrac a) => ReadS a :: ReadS String 159 .
floatToDigits :: (RealFloat a) => Integer > a > ([Int]. is the value to show. recall the following type deﬁnitions from the Prelude: type ShowS = String > String type ReadS = String > [(a. showFFloat. . £ ¤ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¦ 7 3¢ ¦ 7 3¢ 7 3¢ © § ¦ ¤ ¥ £ 2 ¤ ¥ © ¡ © § ¦ ¡ £ ¦ 2 ¥ © © § ¦ ¡ ) .45e2. then at most digits after the decimal point are shown. 1. if is Just . showOct.0015). if © § then the following properties hold: £ £ ¤ – ¤ £ ¡ ¤ – (when ¥ ¤ ¢ ¨£ – £ 888 ¤ £ ¢ £8 ¤ – ¥ ) £888 ¤ £ ¢ £ floatToDigits ([ ]. and scientiﬁc notation otherwise. Int) converts a base and a value to the representation of the value in digits. 8.g. plus an exponent. showIntAtBase :: Integral a => a > (Int > Char) > a > ShowS shows a nonnegative Integral number using the base speciﬁed by the ﬁrst argument. NUMERIC This library contains assorted numeric functions.999.1 and 9. many of which are used in the standard Prelude. is the precedence of the enclosing context. and is a function that can show unsigned values. In the call showSigned . and the character representation speciﬁed by the second.String)] 14. the value is shown to full preciIn the call showEFloat sion. showInt. showGFloat :: (RealFloat a) => Maybe Int > a > ShowS These three functions all show signed RealFloat values: – showFFloat uses standard decimal notation (e. – showGFloat uses standard decimal notation for arguments whose absolute value lies between 0.g. – showEFloat uses scientiﬁc (exponential) notation (e.1 Showing functions showSigned :: (Real a) => (a > ShowS) > Int > a > ShowS converts a possiblynegative Real value of type a to a string. In what follows. More speciﬁcally.160 CHAPTER 14. and 16 respectively. 245000.5e3).999. 2. showEFloat. Exactly the same applies to the argument of the other two functions. showHex :: Integral a => a > ShowS show nonnegative Integral numbers in base 10. if is Nothing. 0.
( ( isDigit. readDec. floatToDigits. 14. In the call readInt . showGFloat.2. readFloat :: (RealFrac a) => ReadS a reads an unsigned RealFrac value. numerator. denominator ) (!). In the hexadecimal case.3 Miscellaneous fromRat :: (RealFloat a) => Rational > a converts a Rational value into any type in class RealFloat. is a predicate distinguishing valid digits in this base. The inconsistent naming is a historical accident. showInt.) 14. showFloat. Array.14. showIntAtBase. intToDigit ) (%). is the base. both upper or lower case letters are allowed. octal. readOct. isOctDigit. and hexadecimal notation respectively. READING FUNCTIONS 161 14. readDec. readSigned. readHex. showEFloat. readFloat. readInt. readOct. lexDigits :: ReadS String reads a nonempty string of decimal digits. readInt :: (Integral a) => a > (Char>Bool) > (Char>Int) > ReadS a reads an unsigned Integral value in an arbitrary base. and converts a valid digit character to an Int.4 Library Numeric module Numeric(fromRat. showFFloat. and readDec is the “dual” of showInt. expressed in decimal scientiﬁc notation. showHex.2 Reading functions readSigned :: (Real a) => ReadS a > ReadS a reads a signed Real value. lexDigits) where import Char import Ratio import Array ( . § (NB: readInt is the “dual” of showIntAtBase. readHex :: (Integral a) => ReadS a each read an unsigned number. given a reader for an unsigned value. in decimal. isHexDigit digitToInt. showOct. showSigned. array ) ¦ ©§ ¢© ¢ ' § ¤ ¦ § ¦ ©§ § ¤ ¦ ¢© ¢ ' .
the real minimum exponent xMin = toRational (expt b (p1)) xMax = toRational (expt b p) p0 = (integerLogBase b (numerator x) integerLogBase b (denominator x) . fromRat :: (RealFloat a) => Rational > a fromRat x = if x == 0 then encodeFloat 0 0 else if x < 0 then .To speed up the scaling process we compute the log2 of the number to get .it lies in the range of the mantissa (as used by decodeFloat/encodeFloat).p) ‘max‘ minExp f = if p0 < 0 then 1 % expt b (p0) else expt b p0 % 1 (x’.Exponentiation with a cache for the most common numbers. scaleRat :: Rational > Int > Rational > Rational > Int > Rational > (Rational. .Handle exceptional cases . This should be used in the .Then round the rational to an Integer and encode it with the exponent .that we got from the scaling.p .a first guess of the exponent.This converts a rational to a floating. p) . minExpt = 0::Int maxExpt = 1100::Int expt :: Integer > Int > Integer expt base n = if base == 2 && n >= minExpt && n <= maxExpt then expts!n else baseˆn . or p (the exponent) <= minExp.Scale the rational number by the RealFloat base until . _) = floatRange r minExp = minExp0 . .first.Fractional instances of Float and Double. fromRat’ :: (RealFloat a) => Rational > a fromRat’ x = r where b = floatRadix r p = floatDigits r (minExp0.Scale x until xMin <= x < xMax. p) else if x >= xMax then scaleRat b minExp xMin xMax (p+1) (x/b) else if x < xMin then scaleRat b minExp xMin xMax (p1) (x*b) else (x. NUMERIC .162 CHAPTER 14.Conversion process: .fromRat’ (x) else fromRat’ x . . p’) = scaleRat (toRational b) minExp xMin xMax p0 (x / f) r = encodeFloat (round x’) p’ . Int) scaleRat b minExp xMin xMax p x = if p <= minExp then (x.
let l = 2 * integerLogBase (b*b) i doDiv :: Integer > Int > Int doDiv i l = if i < b then l else doDiv (i ‘div‘ b) (l+1) in doDiv (i ‘div‘ (bˆl)) l ."") <<<< lex r.t) read’’ r = [(n.Misc utilities to show integers and floats showSigned :: Real a => (a > ShowS) > Int > a > ShowS showSigned showPos p x  x < 0 = showParen (p > 6) (showChar ’’ . showOct.s)  (str.showIntAtBase: can’t show negative numbers"  n’ == 0 = rest’  otherwise = showIntAtBase base intToDig n’ rest’ where (n’.but that would be very slow! We are just slightly more clever.digit to char > a .d) = quotRem n base rest’ = intToDig (fromIntegral d) : rest readSigned :: (Real a) => ReadS a > ReadS a readSigned readPos = readParen False read’ where read’ r = read’’ r ++ [(x.s) (n. .Try squaring the base first to cut down the number of divisions.base > (Int > Char) .s) (x.Compute the (floor of the) log of i in base b. showHex :: Integral a => a > ShowS showOct = showIntAtBase 8 intToDigit showInt = showIntAtBase 10 intToDigit showHex = showIntAtBase 16 intToDigit showIntAtBase :: Integral a => a . maxExpt]] 163 . .showInt.14. readPos str] .maxExpt) [(n. showOct. LIBRARY NUMERIC expts :: Array Int Integer expts = array (minExpt.[minExpt .. integerLogBase :: Integer > Integer > Int integerLogBase b i = if i < b then 0 else .number to show > ShowS showIntAtBase base intToDig n rest  n < 0 = error "Numeric. showHex are used for positive numbers only showInt. read’’ s] lex r.Simplest way would be just divide i by b until it’s smaller then b. showPos (x))  otherwise = showPos x .2ˆn)  n <.t)  ("".4.
digToInt) ds). NUMERIC . readHex :: (Integral a) => ReadS a readDec = readInt 10 isDigit digitToInt readOct = readInt 8 isOctDigit digitToInt readHex = readInt 16 isHexDigit digitToInt showEFloat showFFloat showGFloat showFloat :: :: :: :: (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat showString showString showString showGFloat a) a) a) a) => => => => Maybe Int > a > ShowS Maybe Int > a > ShowS Maybe Int > a > ShowS a > ShowS showEFloat d x = showFFloat d x = showGFloat d x = showFloat = (formatRealFloat FFExponent d x) (formatRealFloat FFFixed d x) (formatRealFloat FFGeneric d x) Nothing This type is not exported. .164 CHAPTER 14.nonnull isDig s ] . r)  (ds.r) <. .Unsigned readers for various bases readDec. readOct.Leading minus signs must be handled elsewhere.readInt reads a string of digits using an arbitrary base.These are the format types. readInt :: (Integral a) => a > (Char > Bool) > (Char > Int) > ReadS a readInt radix isDig digToInt s = [(foldl1 (\n d > n * radix + d) (map (fromIntegral . data FFFormat = FFExponent  FFFixed  FFGeneric .
LIBRARY NUMERIC 165 formatRealFloat :: (RealFloat a) => FFFormat > Maybe Int > a > String formatRealFloat fmt decs x = s where base = 10 s = if isNaN x then "NaN" else if isInfinite x then if x < 0 then "Infinity" else "Infinity" else if x < 0  isNegativeZero x then ’’ : doFmt fmt (floatToDigits (toInteger base) (x)) else doFmt fmt (floatToDigits (toInteger base) x) doFmt fmt (is. is’) = roundTo base (dec’+1) is d:ds = map intToDigit (if ei > 0 then init is’ else is’) in d:’. e) = let ds = map intToDigit is in case fmt of FFGeneric > doFmt (if e < 0  e > 7 then FFExponent else FFFixed) (is.0e" ++ show (e1) d:ds > d : ’. e) FFExponent > case decs of Nothing > case ds of [] > "0.’ : ds ++ ’e’:show (e1) Just dec > let dec’ = max dec 1 in case is of [] > ’0’:’.14.4.’:take dec’ (repeat ’0’) ++ "e0" _ > let (ei.Always prints a decimal point  e > 0 > take e (ds ++ repeat ’0’) .0e0" [d] > d : ".’:ds ++ "e" ++ show (e1+ei) FFFixed > case decs of Nothing .
Int) .then r = 0. In general. is) > (0. is) (1. rs) = splitAt (e+ei) (map intToDigit is’) in mk0 ls ++ mkdot0 rs else let (ei.base1]) .G. is) > (1. Burger and R. ." ++ mk0 (replicate (e) ’0’ ++ ds) Just dec > . Dybvig.34 mk0 s = s mkdot0 "" = "" mkdot0 s = ’. b. ds) = f (d1) is i’ = c + i in if i’ == base then (1. 1 : is) where b2 = base ‘div‘ 2 f n [] = (0..digits after the decimal point roundTo :: Int > Int > [Int] > (Int.Print 34. The version here uses a much slower logarithm estimator..z * baseˆe floatToDigits :: (RealFloat a) => Integer > a > ([Int].This function returns a nonempty list of digits (Ints in [0.’ : mk0 (drop e ds)  otherwise > "0. not 34. NUMERIC ++ ’. replicate n 0) f 0 (i:_) = (if i >= b2 then 1 else 0. z].34. [Int]) roundTo base d is = case f d is of (0. in PLDI 96... K.166 CHAPTER 14. e) .when the format specifies no .’ : s . []) f d (i:is) = let (c. .ab. 0:ds) else (0. is’) = roundTo base (dec’ + e) is (ls. . is’) = roundTo base dec’ (replicate (e) 0 ++ is) d : ds = map intToDigit (if ei > 0 then is’ else 0:is’) in d : mkdot0 ds where mk0 "" = "0" .Print 0.and an exponent.Print decimal point iff dec > 0 let dec’ = max dec 0 in if e >= 0 then let (ei. It should be improved. if floatToDigits r = ([a. i’:ds) Based on "Printing FloatingPoint Numbers Quickly and Accurately" by R. not .
1) k = let k0 = if b==2 && base==10 then . b) else (f*be*2. 1) else (f*2. be) else if e > minExp && f == bˆ(p1) then (f*b*2. e) = let n = minExp .14. e0) = decodeFloat x (minExp0. be.p 167 . _) = floatRange x p = floatDigits x b = floatRadix x minExp = minExp0 . bˆ(e+1)*2. . 1. LIBRARY NUMERIC floatToDigits _ 0 = ([]. 0) floatToDigits base x = let (f0. e0) (r.Haskell requires that f be adjusted so denormalized numbers . 2.logBase 10 2 is slightly bigger than 3/10 so . mDn) = if e >= 0 then let be = bˆe in if f == bˆ(p1) then (f*be*b*2. e0+n) else (f0. 2*b. (p . bˆ(e)*2.will have an impossibly low exponent. be*b.the fraction will make it err even more. Adjust for this. mUp.Haskell promises that p1 <= logBase b f < p.4. b.the real minimum exponent .1 + e0) * 3 ‘div‘ 10 else ceiling ((log (fromInteger (f+1)) + fromIntegral e * log (fromInteger b)) / log (fromInteger base)) fixup n = if n >= 0 then if r + mUp <= expt base n * s then n else fixup (n+1) else if expt base (n) * (r + mUp) <= s then n . Ignoring .the following will err on the low side.e0 in if n > 0 then (f0 ‘div‘ (bˆn). f :: Integer e :: Int (f. s.
The ‘.lexFrac d ] lexFrac (’.t) <. True) > dn+1 : ds (True. (k.t)  (n.lex r] where readFix r = [(read (ds++ds’).This floating point reader uses a less restrictive syntax for floating . t)  ("NaN".t) <. t)  ("Infinity".t) <. k) in .s)] readExp (e:s)  e ‘elem‘ "eE" = readExp’ s readExp s = [(0. t)  (ds.t)  (cs@(_:_). False) > dn : ds (False.lex r] ++ [ (1/0.d) <. rn’) = (rn * base) ‘divMod‘ sN mUpN’ = mUpN * base mDnN’ = mDnN * base in case (rn’ < mDnN’. (ds’.lexDigits r.t) <.readExp s] ++ [ (0/0.[span p s]] . length ds’.s) <. NUMERIC else fixup (n+1) in fixup k0 gen ds rn sN mUpN mDnN = let (dn.’ is optional.point than the Haskell lexer. True) > if rn’ * 2 < sN then dn : ds else dn+1 : ds (False. rn’ + mUpN’ > sN) of (True. readFloat readFloat r :: (RealFrac a) => ReadS a = [(fromRational ((n%1)*10ˆˆ(kd)).t)  (k.’:ds) = lexDigits ds lexFrac s = [("".s)] readExp’ (’’:s) = [(k.t) <.t) <.168 CHAPTER 14.readFix r.readDec s] readExp’ (’+’:s) = readDec s readExp’ s = readDec s lexDigits lexDigits nonnull nonnull p s :: ReadS String = nonnull isDigit :: (Char > Bool) > ReadS String = [(cs.d. False) > gen (dn:ds) rn’ sN mUpN’ mDnN’ rds = if k >= 0 then gen [] r (s * expt base k) mUp mDn else let bk = expt base (k) in gen [] (r * bk) s (mUp * bk) (mDn * bk) (map fromIntegral (reverse rds).
. where ..u) i == i ‘elem‘ range (l.when i is in range inRange (l.u) map index (range (l. instance instance instance instance (Ix a. . It is used primarily for array indexing (see Chapter 16). and a subscript.a) > (a. inRange.u) !! index (l.. rangeSize) ) where class Ord a => range index inRange rangeSize Ix :: :: :: :: a where (a..u) i == i .. to an integer.u)) == [0.. which deﬁnes the lower and upper bounds of the range. The range operation enumerates all subscripts. index.a) > [a] a > Int a > Bool Int Char Int Integer (a. and inRange.Chapter 15 Indexing Operations module Ix ( Ix(range.b) where where where where .. An implementation is entitled to assume the following laws about these operations: range (l.. The Ix class is used to map a contiguous subrange of values in a type onto integers.u)] 169 ... index.a) > (a.. . Ix b) .rangeSize (l. The index operation maps a bounding pair. The Ix class contains the methods range.a) > (a...et cetera instance instance Ix Ix Ix => Ix Ix Bool Ix Ordering where .. the inRange operation tells whether a particular subscript lies in the range deﬁned by a bounding pair.
1. given the datatype: data Colour = Red  Orange  Yellow  Green  Blue  Indigo  Violet we would have: range (Yellow.3. Such derived instance declarations for the class Ix are only possible for enumerations (i. This is the same numbering deﬁned by the Enum class. £ ¥ ¤ == == == [Yellow.Blue) Green inRange (Yellow. datatypes having only nullary constructors) and singleconstructor datatypes.170 CHAPTER 15.Blue] 1 False . A Haskell implementation must provide Ix instances for tuples up to at least size 15. the nullary constructors are assumed to be numbered lefttoright with the indices being to inclusive. INDEXING OPERATIONS 15. For example. For an enumeration.e.3).Blue) Red For singleconstructor datatypes. using a deriving clause on a data declaration (Section 4.Green.1 Deriving Instances of Ix It is possible to derive an instance of Ix automatically.Blue) index (Yellow. the derived instance declarations are as shown for tuples in Figure 15. whose constituent types are instances of Ix.
(u1.u’) + index (l’.range (l’.lk).range (l.(u..u2. .u2)...i’) = index (l....u1).uk) * ( index (lk1.ik) = index (lk. Ix ak) => Ix (a1.b) where range ((l..1.(u..(u1.l2..u2...ak) where range ((l1.15...u’) i’ . ik <.uk)) = [(i1...ik) = inRange (l1.i’)  i <...l’)..u).u) i && inRange (l’.(u. Ix a2.Instances for other tuples are obtained from this scheme: .u’) i’ inRange ((l..uk)) (i1..uk)) (i1.i2...range (lk...uk) ik Figure 15.... && inRange (lk.lk)..l2..lk).i’) = inRange (l.. i2 <.1: Derivation of Ix instances .a2.l’).... i’ <.uk1) * ( ..ik)  i1 <.u2.i2. ..u’)) (i.(u1..i2. DERIVING INSTANCES OF IX 171 instance (Ix a..uk)] index ((l1..uk) ik + rangeSize (lk. index (l1..u’)) (i.. Ix b) => Ix (a.instance (Ix a1..range (l2...u1) i1 && inRange (l2.u) i * rangeSize (l’.l2.range (l1.u’)] index ((l.. ..u2) i2 && .uk1) ik1 + rangeSize (lk1..u1))) inRange ((l1.u’)) = [(i..l’).
index: Index out of range.n) = [m.as derived Ix Ordering .Ix b) => Ix (a.index: Index out of range.a) > a > Bool rangeSize :: (a.n] index b@(c.n] = = = i .n) i  inRange b i  otherwise inRange (m.as derived Ix () ..n) i = m <= i && i <= n instance instance instance instance (Ix a. rangeSize) ) where class Ord a => Ix a where range :: (a.172 CHAPTER 15..1)) = [] instance Ix Char where range (m.but the range is nevertheless empty range ((1.as derived .NB: replacing "null (range b)" by "not (l <= h)" .n) i  inRange b i = fromInteger (i ..a) > Int rangeSize b@(l.m error "Ix.2)." inRange (c.index: Index out of range. INDEXING OPERATIONS 15. b) .a) > a > Int inRange :: (a.m)  otherwise = error "Ix. (1.n] index b@(m.n) i = [m.c’) i = c <= i && i <= c’ instance Ix Int where range (m.h)  null (range b) = 0  otherwise = index b h + 1 ." inRange (m. For example.fromEnum c  otherwise = error "Ix." m <= i && i <= n instance Ix Integer where range (m.c’) ci  inRange b ci = fromEnum ci .2 Library Ix module Ix ( Ix(range.2) <= (2.a) > [a] index :: (a.fails if the bounds are tuples.1) .as derived. index. for all tuples Ix Bool . inRange.n) index b@(m.(2.n) = [m.
Ix b) => (a. accumArray. accum. indices. ixmap ) where import Ix infixl 9 data !. a. listArray. // => Array a b = . (//). ... assocs.a) > (a > b) > Array b c > Array a c Eq b) Ord b) Show a. .a) > [b] > Array a b Array a b > a > b Array a b > (a.b)] > Array a b :: (Ix a) => (b > c > b) > Array a b > [(a.. bounds. (!). Show b) Read a.. a.c)] > Array a b :: (Ix a.b)] > Array a b (a.b)] (b > c > b) > b > (a.Abstract (Ix a) array listArray (!) bounds indices elems assocs accumArray (//) accum ixmap instance instance instance instance instance (a.a) > [(a.. elems.Chapter 16 Arrays module Array ( module Ix. :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: (Ix (Ix (Ix (Ix (Ix (Ix (Ix (Ix a) a) a) a) a) a) a) a) => => => => => => => => .c)] > Array a b :: (Ix a) => Array a b > [(a. . .. (Ix (Ix (Ix (Ix a.a) > [(a.. ..export all of Ix for convenience Array. Read b) => => => => Functor (Array a) Eq (Array a b) Ord (Array a b) Show (Array a b) Read (Array a b) where where where where where . array... 173 ..a) Array a b > [a] Array a b > [b] Array a b > [(a. a..
For example. An array may be created by the function array.100) ((1. ARRAYS Haskell provides indexable arrays.[2.100]]) Not every index within the bounds of the array need appear in the association list. in that order. return lists of the indices. the value at that index is undeﬁned (i. in index order. relaxes the restriction that a given index may appear at most once in the association list. a programmer may reasonably expect rapid access to the components.174 CHAPTER 16. The (!) operator denotes array subscripting. when applied to an array.1). in particular. accumArray. which may be thought of as functions whose domains are isomorphic to contiguous subsets of the integers. this The second argument of array is a list of associations of the form ( list will be expressed as a comprehension. elements. but bounds still yields the bounds with which the array was constructed. and a oneorigin 10 by 10 matrix has bounds ((1. but empty. The ﬁrst argument of array is a pair of bounds. ). An array may be constructed from a pair of bounds and a list of values in index order using the function listArray. each of the index type of the array. ). or associations. 16. Indexing an empty array always gives an arraybounds error. The bounds function applied to an array returns its bounds.1) : [(i. in any dimension. Typically. this module is exported from Array so that modules need not import both Array and Ix. 16. An association (i.e. elems. If any two associations in the list have the same index. then the array is legal. i * a!(i1))  i <. and assocs.10)). The array is undeﬁned (i. but the values associated with indices that do not appear will be undeﬁned (i. using an accumulating function which combines the values of associations with the same index. To ensure the possibility of such an implementation.e. ) if any index in the list is out of bounds. the lower bound is greater than the upper bound. The ﬁrst argument of accumArray is the accumulating £ £ ¤¢ £ ¡ £ £ ¥ . not as general functions. recurrences such as the following are possible: a = array (1. These bounds are the lowest and highest indices in the array.1 shows some examples that use the array constructor.1 Array Construction If a is an index type and b is any type. Figure 16. The functions indices.1 Accumulated Arrays Another array creation function.. If.(10. but nonstrict in the values. ). array is strict in the bounds argument and in the indices of the association list.10). Because the indices must be checked for these errors.e. . Functions restricted in this way can be implemented efﬁciently. a oneorigin vector of length 10 has bounds (1. Since most array functions involve the class Ix. the type of arrays with indices in a and elements in b is written Array a b. x) deﬁnes the value of the array at index i to be x. Thus. respectively.1. arrays are treated as data.
as well as the indices. in the association list.Inverting an array that holds a permutation of its indices invPerm :: (Ix a) => Array a a > Array a a invPerm a = array b [(a!i. Ix scale x a = array b where b of numbers by a given number: b) => a > Array b a > Array b a [(i.16. 1)  i<is. hist produces a histogram of the number of occurrences of each index within a speciﬁed range: hist :: (Ix a.range b]) 0 0 .The inner product of two vectors inner :: (Ix a. INCREMENTAL ARRAY UPDATES . inRange bnds i] If the accumulating function is strict. unlike ordinary arrays.range b] where b = bounds a . a!i * x)  i <.i).[1. then m//[((i.. accum takes an array and an association list and accumulates pairs from the list into the array with the accumulating function . Thus accumArray can be deﬁned using accum: accumArray f z b = accum f (array b [(i. given a list of values of some index type. Num b) => Array a b > Array a b > b inner v w = if b == bounds w then sum [v!i * w!i  i <. z)  i <. (As with the array function. 16. except with the diagonal zeroed. Thus. i)  i <. the remaining two arguments are a bounds pair and an association list. For example.range b] else error "inconformable arrays for inner product" where b = bounds v Figure 16.) For example. the second is an initial value.1: Array examples function. 0)  i <. then accumArray is strict in the values.Scaling an array scale :: (Num a.2. if m is a 1origin.2 Incremental Array Updates The operator (//) takes an array and a list of pairs and returns an array identical to the left argument except that it has been updated by the associations in the right argument. n by n matrix. the indices in the association list must be unique for the updated elements to be deﬁned. accumulated arrays should not in general be recursive. Num b) => (a.range b] = bounds a 175 .a) > [a] > Array a b hist bnds is = accumArray (+) 0 bnds [(i. as for the array function.n]] is the same matrix.
_)) = bounds x . elems.i)) x where ((l. 16.c) > Array a b firstArray = fmap (\(x.y)>x) Figure 16. array.a) b > Array a b diag x = ixmap (l._). assocs. Figure 16.b) c > Array b c row i x = ixmap (l’.Projection of first components of an array of pairs firstArray :: (Ix a) => Array a (b. ARRAYS . (!). indices. The fmap function transforms the array values while ixmap allows for transformations on array indices.176 CHAPTER 16.a) (a > b) deriving () . respectively. accum. // data (Ix a) => Array a b = MkArray (a. Ix b) => a > Array (a. they may be thought of as providing function composition on the left and right.j)) x where ((_. bounds.(_. listArray.u’) (\j>(i.a) > Array a b > Array a b subArray bnds = ixmap bnds (\i>i) .(u.u) (\i>(i.4 Library Array module Array ( module Ix.export all of Ix Array.2 shows some examples. . ixmap ) where import Ix import List( (\\) ) infixl 9 !. with the mapping that the original array embodies.3 Derived Arrays The two functions fmap and ixmap derive new arrays from existing ones.u’)) = bounds x .A rectangular subarray subArray :: (Ix a) => (a. accumArray.2: Derived array examples 16.l’). (//).A row of a matrix row :: (Ix a.Diagonal of a matrix (assumed to be square) diag :: (Ix a) => Array (a.
16.ivs] then MkArray b (\j > case [v  (i.b)] = [(i. i ‘notElem‘ new_is] new_is = [i  (i.4.ivs.v) <. Eq b) => Eq (Array a b) a == a’ = assocs a == assocs a’ where .a) > [(a.range b]) :: (Ix a. i == j] of [v] > v [] > error "Array.!: \ \undefined array element" _ > error "Array.f (a!i) v)]) :: (Ix a) => (b > c > b) > b > (a.a) > [(a.z)  i <.new_ivs] :: (Ix a) => (b > c > b) > Array a b > [(a.range b] accum accum f accumArray accumArray f z b ixmap ixmap b f a instance (Ix a) => Functor (Array a) where fmap fn (MkArray b f) = MkArray b (fn .c)] > Array a b = foldl (\a (i. a ! f i)  i <.indices a] :: (Ix a) => Array a b > [(a.a) = b :: (Ix a) => Array a b > [a] = range .a) > [b] > Array a b = array b (zipWith (\ a b > (a.indices a] :: (Ix a) => Array a b > [(a. LIBRARY ARRAY 177 array :: (Ix a) => (a. a!i)  i <.a!i)  i <.b)) (range b) vs) :: (Ix a) => Array a b > a > b = f :: (Ix a) => Array a b > (a. f) instance (Ix a. bounds :: (Ix a) => Array a b > [b] = [a!i  i <.b)] > Array a b array b ivs = if and [inRange b i  (i. Ix b) => (a.a) > (a > b) > Array b c > Array a c = array b [(i._) <.!: \ \multiply defined array element") else error "Array.array: outofrange array association" listArray listArray b vs (!) (!) (MkArray _ f) bounds bounds (MkArray b _) indices indices elems elems a assocs assocs a (//) a // new_ivs :: (Ix a) => (a.indices a.c)] > Array a b = accum f (array b [(i.b)] > Array a b = array (bounds a) (old_ivs ++ new_ivs) where old_ivs = [(i.v) > a // [(i._) <.
178 instance (Ix a. (b.readsPrec (arrPrec+1) t ]) .lex r.t) <. (as. showsPrec (arrPrec+1) (bounds a) .u) <. Read b) => Read (Array a b) where readsPrec p = readParen (p > arrPrec) (\r > [ (array b as. Ord b) => Ord (Array a b) a <= a’ = assocs a <= assocs a’ where CHAPTER 16. showChar ’ ’ . showsPrec (arrPrec+1) (assocs a) ) instance (Ix a.Precedence of the ’array’ function is that of application itself arrPrec = 10 . Show a.readsPrec (arrPrec+1) s. u)  ("array".s) <. Read a. Show b) => Show (Array a b) where showsPrec p a = showParen (p > arrPrec) ( showString "array " . ARRAYS instance (Ix a.
179 .
notElem.. insertBy. deleteFirstsBy. foldl. mapAccumL. words. genericTake. . delete. unzip7. drop. dropWhile.. unionBy. zip3. head. replicate. scanl1. filter. genericDrop. (!!). foldl1. minimum. tails. intersperse. span. last.. unfoldr. zipWith6. partition. zipWith. splitAt. reverse. union. findIndices. transpose. minimumBy.[]((:). nubBy. tail. lookup. find. init. maximum. mapAccumR. takeWhile. inits. zip4. zipWith3. zipWith7. cycle. length. unzip3 ) where infix 5 \\ elemIndex elemIndices find findIndex findIndices nub nubBy delete deleteBy (\\) deleteFirstsBy union unionBy :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Eq Eq (a (a (a Eq (a Eq (a Eq (a Eq (a a => a > [a] > Maybe Int a => a > [a] > [Int] > Bool) > [a] > Maybe a > Bool) > [a] > Maybe Int > Bool) > [a] > [Int] a => [a] > [a] > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] a => a > [a] > [a] > a > Bool) > a > [a] > [a] a => [a] > [a] > [a] > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] > [a] a => [a] > [a] > [a] > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] > [a] . (++). take. unzip5. concatMap. zip7. genericSplitAt. isPrefixOf. intersectBy. group. zip. insert. nub.180 CHAPTER 17. concat. isSuffixOf. sortBy. scanl. scanr. sort. and. genericReplicate. product. (\\).This is builtin syntax map. LIST UTILITIES Chapter 17 List Utilities module List ( elemIndex. unzip6. foldr. zip6. deleteBy. all. unlines. maximumBy. groupBy. scanr1. foldr1. unzip.and what the Prelude exports . zipWith5. break. unwords. zip5. iterate. null. lines. unzip4. findIndex. zipWith4. elem. intersect. sum. or. genericIndex. elemIndices. []). genericLength. repeat. . any.
[a]) Eq a => [a] > [[a]] (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [[a]] [a] > [[a]] [a] > [[a]] Eq a => [a] > [a] > Bool Eq a => [a] > [a] > Bool (a > b > (a.d)] > ([a].e)] > ([a].c.d.d.[d].[e].g)] :: (a>b>c>d>e) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e] :: (a>b>c>d>e>f) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e]>[f] :: (a>b>c>d>e>f>g) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e]>[f]>[g] :: (a>b>c>d>e>f>g>h) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e]>[f]>[g]>[h] :: [(a.[c].b.b.[b].b.d)] :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [e] > [(a.c.[d].[f].181 intersect intersectBy intersperse transpose partition group groupBy inits tails isPrefixOf isSuffixOf mapAccumL mapAccumR unfoldr sort sortBy insert insertBy maximumBy minimumBy genericLength genericTake genericDrop genericSplitAt genericIndex genericReplicate zip4 zip5 zip6 zip7 zipWith4 zipWith5 zipWith6 zipWith7 unzip4 unzip5 unzip6 unzip7 :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Eq a => [a] > [a] > [a] (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] > [a] a > [a] > [a] [[a]] > [[a]] (a > Bool) > [a] > ([a]. [c]) (b > Maybe (a.[f]) :: [(a.f.d. c)) > a > [b] > (a.c.[d]) :: [(a.[b]) Integral a => [b] > a > b Integral a => a > b > [b] :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [(a.c.c.[e].b)) > b > [a] Ord a => [a] > [a] (a > a > Ordering) > [a] > [a] Ord a => a > [a] > [a] (a > a > Ordering) > a > [a] > [a] (a > a > Ordering) > [a] > a (a > a > Ordering) > [a] > a Integral a => [b] > a Integral a => a > [b] > [b] Integral a => a > [b] > [b] Integral a => a > [b] > ([b].[b]. [c]) (a > b > (a.[b].e.b.[b].[e]) :: [(a.e. c)) > a > [b] > (a.d.[d].f.c.b.e. .f)] > ([a].c.[c].[g]) This library deﬁnes some lesserused operations over lists.c.f)] :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [e] > [f] > [g] > [(a.e.g)] > ([a].[c].e)] :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [e] > [f] > [(a.[c].b.d.b.d.b.
1 Indexing lists elemIndex val list returns the index of the ﬁrst occurrence. (xs ++ ys) \\ xs == ys.. giving the occurrences of val in list. For example: nub [1. of val in list as Just index.3. [1. e. findIndex returns the corresponding index. e. 17. e. provided that their ﬁrst argument contains no duplicates.3. Nothing is returned if not (val ‘elem‘ list).4] . (\\).2. union and intersect (and their By variants) preserve the invariant that their result does not contain duplicates.3] = [1.3. if there is no such element.g. union is list union.g. the ﬁrst occurrence of each element of ys in turn (if any) has been removed from xs.g. Thus.6. find returns the ﬁrst element of a list that satisﬁes a predicate.4] ‘intersect‘ [2. nub (meaning “essence”) removes duplicates elements from a list.2 “Set” operations There are a number of “set” operations deﬁned over the List type. if any. "dog" ‘union‘ "cow" == "dogcw" intersect is list intersection.4. In the result of xs \\ ys. delete... elemIndices val list returns an inorder list of indices. delete ’a’ "banana" == "bnana" (\\) is list difference (nonassociative).4.8] == [2.182 CHAPTER 17.3. LIST UTILITIES 17. findIndices returns a list of all such indices. or Nothing. nub removes duplicate elements from a list.1.4] delete x removes the ﬁrst occurrence of x from its list argument.
respectively."ab". adjacent elements."i"."pp"."i".[4.[3.[2."i"] inits returns the list of initial segments of its argument list. unfoldr builds a list from a seed value. For example: .g.5."i". LIST TRANSFORMATIONS 183 17.e" transpose transposes the rows and columns of its argument."ss".17.2.4 unfoldr The unfoldr function is a “dual” to foldr: while foldr reduces a list to a summary value. group splits its list argument into a list of lists of equal.g.6]] partition takes a predicate and a list and returns a pair of lists: those elements of the argument list that do and do not satisfy the predicate.3.6]] == [[1.""] mapAccumL f s l applies f to an accumulating “state” parameter s and to each element of l in turn.b.e. here speciﬁed in terms of the insertBy function.3]. intersperse ’.’ "abcde" == "a. "bc". insert inserts a new element into an ordered list (arranged in increasing order).4].d. transpose [[1. e. e.c. partition p xs == (filter p xs.3 List transformations intersperse sep inserts sep between the elements of its list argument.. shortest ﬁrst.5]."a"."abc"] tails returns the list of all ﬁnal segments of its argument list. mapAccumR is similar to mapAccumL except that the list is processed from righttoleft rather than lefttoright. 17. i. For example group "Mississippi" == ["M". tails "abc" == ["abc". p) xs) sort implement a stable sorting algorithm."ss".. "c". which inserts objects into a list according to the speciﬁed ordering relation. filter (not . inits "abc" == ["".. longest ﬁrst.
elemIndices. 17. A handful of overloaded functions (elemIndex. For example.y) f’ z = Nothing 17. The function: nubBy nubBy eq [] nubBy eq (x:xs) :: (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] = [] = x : nubBy eq (filter (\y > not (eq x y)) xs) allows the programmer to supply their own equality test. f x)) In some cases. overloaded functions have a nonoverloaded counterpart whose name is sufﬁxed with “By”. the equality method may not be appropriate in all situations. . sufﬁx) of the second argument. the predicate is assumed to deﬁne a total ordering. LIST UTILITIES iterate f == unfoldr (\x > Just (x. minimumBy. When the “By” function replaces an Eq context by a binary predicate. deleteBy. The library does not provide elemBy. maximumBy. unionBy. when the “By” function replaces an Ord context by a binary predicate. isPrefixOf. intersectBy. isSuffixOf) were not considered important enough to have “By” variants. groupBy.6 The “By” operations By convention.5 Predicates isPrefixOf and isSuffixOf check whether the ﬁrst argument is a preﬁx (resp. the function nub could be deﬁned as follows: nub nub [] nub (x:xs) :: (Eq a) => [a] > [a] = [] = x : nub (filter (\y > not (x == y)) xs) However. unfoldr can undo a foldr operation: unfoldr f’ (foldr f z xs) == xs if the following holds: f’ (f x y) = Just (x. sortBy. insertBy. the predicate is assumed to deﬁne an equivalence. The “By” variants are as follows: nubBy. deleteFirstsBy (the By variant of \\).184 CHAPTER 17. because any (eq x) does the same job as elemBy eq x would.
The List library provides these same three operations for 4. For example. genericLength is a generalised version of length. genericTake. zip3.7.7 The “generic” operations The preﬁx “generic” indicates an overloaded function that is a generalised version of a Prelude function. :: Integral a => [b] > a 17. genericDrop. . and 7 arguments. THE “GENERIC” OPERATIONS 185 17. and zipWith3. unzip. unzip3.8 Further “zip” operations The Prelude provides zip. The “generic” operations are as follows: genericLength. genericIndex (the generic version of !!). zipWith. genericReplicate. 5.17. genericSplitAt. 6.
sortBy. tails. foldl1. drop. all. unzip. group. scanr. mapAccumL.[]((:). scanr1. minimum. findIndex. genericReplicate. cycle. product. splitAt. mapAccumR. isPrefixOf. notElem. inits. LIST UTILITIES 17. unzip5. zipWith5. []). delete.186 CHAPTER 17.. insert. init. partition. any. elemIndices. unwords.. words. p x ] :: Eq a => [a] > [a] = nubBy (==) . . isSuffixOf. dropWhile. replicate. findIndices.zip xs [0. takeWhile. span. zipWith.]. or. findIndices p :: (a > Bool) > [a] > [Int] = [ i  (x. . repeat. maximum.. foldr. union. unzip7. sum. length. nubBy. minimumBy. unzip6. scanl1. zipWith4. (++). zip6. find. break. zip. unzip3 ) where import Maybe( listToMaybe ) infix 5 \\ elemIndex elemIndex x elemIndices elemIndices x find find p findIndex findIndex p findIndices findIndices p xs nub nub :: Eq a => a > [a] > Maybe Int = findIndex (x ==) :: Eq a => a > [a] > [Int] = findIndices (x ==) :: (a > Bool) > [a] > Maybe a = listToMaybe . genericTake. zip3. sort. transpose. unlines. genericLength. concatMap. (\\). lookup.9 Library List module List ( elemIndex. unionBy. nub. unzip4. genericSplitAt. head. unfoldr. tail. lines. intersperse. zip4. genericIndex. zip7. genericDrop. null. intersect.This is builtin syntax map.and what the Prelude exports . intersectBy. scanl. insertBy. last. zipWith7. and.i) <. foldl. iterate. filter. take. maximumBy. foldr1. groupBy. (!!). deleteBy. reverse. zipWith3. deleteFirstsBy. zip5. concat.. elem. zipWith6. filter p :: (a > Bool) > [a] > Maybe Int = listToMaybe .
[3..[2.group splits its list argument into a list of lists of equal.[]] = [[1. . transpose [[1. any (eq x) ys] :: = = = a > [a] > [a] [] [x] x : sep : intersperse sep xs ."ss".xs.xss] is not the same as (map head xss) because the former discards empty sublists inside xss transpose :: [[a]] > [[a]] transpose [] = [] transpose ([] : xss) = transpose xss transpose ((x:xs) : xss) = (x : [h  (h:t) <.2]. p) xs) .[a]) = (filter p xs.elements."ss".17.xss]) partition partition p xs :: (a > Bool) > [a] > ([a]. and works for nonrectangular ’matrices’ .g. LIBRARY LIST nubBy nubBy eq [] nubBy eq (x:xs) delete delete deleteBy deleteBy eq x [] deleteBy eq x (y:ys) (\\) (\\) deleteFirstsBy deleteFirstsBy eq union union unionBy unionBy eq xs ys intersect intersect intersectBy intersectBy eq xs ys intersperse intersperse sep [] intersperse sep [x] intersperse sep (x:xs) 187 :: (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] = [] = x : nubBy eq (filter (\y > not (eq x y)) xs) :: Eq a => a > [a] > [a] = deleteBy (==) :: (a > a > Bool) > a > [a] > [a] = [] = if x ‘eq‘ y then ys else y : deleteBy eq x ys :: Eq a => [a] > [a] > [a] = foldl (flip delete) :: (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] > [a] = foldl (flip (deleteBy eq)) :: Eq a => [a] > [a] > [a] = unionBy (==) :: (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] > [a] = xs ++ deleteFirstsBy eq (nubBy eq ys) xs :: Eq a => [a] > [a] > [a] = intersectBy (==) :: (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] > [a] = [x  x <."i"] group :: Eq a => [a] > [[a]] group = groupBy (==) .4.4].For example.group "Mississippi" == ["M".3].Note that [h  (h:t) <."i"."i".9.[5]] ."i".xss]) : transpose (xs : [t  (h:t) <.5].transpose is lazy in both rows and columns. adjacent ."pp". e. filter (not .
y:ys) where (s’’. shortest first."ab". tails "abc" == tails tails [] tails xxs@(_:xs) CHAPTER 17. ys) = mapAccumR f s xs :: (b > Maybe (a. [c]) = (s.g."abc"] :: [a] > [[a]] = [[]] = [[]] ++ map (x:) (inits xs) list of all final segments of xs. "bc". []) = (s’’.188 groupBy groupBy eq [] groupBy eq (x:xs) . c)) > a > [b] > (a.zs) = span (eq x) xs list of initial segments of xs. inits "abc" == inits inits [] inits (x:xs) .b) > a : unfoldr f b :: (Ord a) => [a] > [a] = sortBy compare :: (a > a > Ordering) > [a] > [a] = foldr (insertBy cmp) [] :: (Ord a) => a > [a] > [a] = insertBy compare mapAccumR mapAccumR f s [] mapAccumR f s (x:xs) unfoldr unfoldr f b sort sort sortBy sortBy cmp insert insert . "c".e.e. [c]) = (s.""] :: [a] > [[a]] = [[]] = xxs : tails xs :: = = = Eq a => [a] > [a] > Bool True False x == y && isPrefixOf xs ys isPrefixOf isPrefixOf [] _ isPrefixOf _ [] isPrefixOf (x:xs) (y:ys) isSuffixOf isSuffixOf x y mapAccumL mapAccumL f s [] mapAccumL f s (x:xs) :: Eq a => [a] > [a] > Bool = reverse x ‘isPrefixOf‘ reverse y :: (a > b > (a. []) = (s’’..y ) = f s’ x (s’. ["abc".b)) > b > [a] = case f b of Nothing > [] Just (a. longest first.ys) = mapAccumL f s’ xs :: (a > b > (a. c)) > a > [b] > (a."a". ["". y ) = f s x (s’’.inits xs returns the . LIST UTILITIES :: (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [[a]] = [] = (x:ys) : groupBy eq zs where (ys.y:ys) where (s’.g..tails xs returns the .
xs) = ([].genericSplitAt: negative argument" genericSplitAt (n1) xs .maximumBy: empty list" = foldl1 max xs where max x y = case cmp x y of GT > x _ > y :: (a > a > Ordering) > [a] > a = error "List. LIBRARY LIST insertBy :: (a > a > insertBy cmp x [] = [x] insertBy cmp x ys@(y:ys’) = case cmp x GT > _ > maximumBy maximumBy cmp [] maximumBy cmp xs Ordering) > a > [a] > [a] 189 y of y : insertBy cmp x ys’ x : ys :: (a > a > Ordering) > [a] > a = error "List.[]) = = = (x:xs’.minimumBy: empty list" = foldl1 min xs where min x y = case cmp x y of GT > y _ > x :: (Integral a) => [b] > a = 0 = 1 + genericLength xs :: (Integral a) => a > [b] > [b] = [] = [] = = x : genericTake (n1) xs error "List.genericDrop: negative argument" :: (Integral a) => a > [b] > ([b].9.xs’’) error "List.xs’’) :: (Integral a) => a > [b] > [b] = xs = [] = = genericDrop (n1) xs error "List.[b]) = ([].genericTake: negative argument" minimumBy minimumBy cmp [] minimumBy cmp xs genericLength genericLength [] genericLength (x:xs) genericTake genericTake _ [] genericTake 0 _ genericTake n (x:xs)  n > 0  otherwise genericDrop genericDrop 0 xs genericDrop _ [] genericDrop n (_:xs)  n > 0  otherwise genericSplitAt genericSplitAt 0 xs genericSplitAt _ [] genericSplitAt n (x:xs)  n > 0  otherwise where (xs’.17.
e.ds) > (a:as.genericIndex: negative argument" error "List..b.d..[c].cs.) zipWith4 :: (a>b>c>d>e) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e] zipWith4 z (a:as) (b:bs) (c:cs) (d:ds) = z a b c d : zipWith4 z as bs cs ds zipWith4 _ _ _ _ _ = [] zipWith5 :: (a>b>c>d>e>f) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e]>[f] zipWith5 z (a:as) (b:bs) (c:cs) (d:ds) (e:es) = z a b c d e : zipWith5 z as bs cs ds es zipWith5 _ _ _ _ _ _ = [] :: (a>b>c>d>e>f>g) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e]>[f]>[g] zipWith6 z (a:as) (b:bs) (c:cs) (d:ds) (e:es) (f:fs) = z a b c d e f : zipWith6 z as bs cs ds es fs zipWith6 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ = [] :: (a>b>c>d>e>f>g>h) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e]>[f]>[g]>[h] zipWith7 z (a:as) (b:bs) (c:cs) (d:ds) (e:es) (f:fs) (g:gs) = z a b c d e f g : zipWith7 z as bs cs ds es fs gs zipWith7 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ = [] unzip4 unzip4 :: [(a..c.d) ˜(as.e)] = zipWith5 (.b.c.e.c.d.[d]) = foldr (\(a.d.[].[b].[]) zipWith7 zipWith6 .d)] = zipWith4 (.b:bs.c.f.b.bs.b.. LIST UTILITIES :: (Integral a) => [b] > a > b = x = = = genericIndex xs (n1) error "List..c...) :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [e] > [(a.c:cs.b..) :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [e] > [f] > [g] > [(a.f)] = zipWith6 (..g)] = zipWith7 (...c.[]..d:ds)) ([].b.d)] > ([a]..) :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [e] > [f] > [(a.190 genericIndex genericIndex (x:_) 0 genericIndex (_:xs) n  n > 0  otherwise genericIndex _ _ genericReplicate genericReplicate n x zip4 zip4 zip5 zip5 zip6 zip6 zip7 zip7 CHAPTER 17..genericIndex: index too large" :: (Integral a) => a > b > [b] = genericTake n (repeat x) :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [(a.
c:cs.[c].[e].f.c.e.b.[e]) = foldr (\(a.c.ds.[b].cs.ds.[g]) = foldr (\(a.[].bs.c.[].g) ˜(as.fs.b.f:fs.es.[].c:cs. LIBRARY LIST unzip5 unzip5 :: [(a.[].ds.b:bs.f.[].b.c:cs.g)] > ([a].d.d.cs.[b].es.bs.d.[e].e:es.[].d:ds.e:es)) ([].[c].[]) unzip7 unzip7 .[f].b:bs.[f]) = foldr (\(a.c.es) > (a:as.b:bs.[c].[]) 191 unzip6 unzip6 :: [(a.b.[d].e.[d].[].[]) :: [(a.e) ˜(as.[].[].f:fs)) ([].c.f)] > ([a].[d].fs) > (a:as.[].b.d:ds.[].[b].e.d.17.gs) > (a:as.cs.g:gs)) ([].e.e)] > ([a].c.b.9.f) ˜(as.bs.e:es.d.[].d.d:ds.
LIST UTILITIES .192 CHAPTER 17.
which would cause the expression to become monadic. Just). fromMaybe. an incorrect result is returned as Nothing. A correct result is encapsulated by wrapping it in Just. maybe ) where isJust.Chapter 18 Maybe Utilities module Maybe( isJust. maybeToList. 193 . catMaybes. isNothing. and without using IOError from the IO monad. mapMaybe. listToMaybe. Other operations on Maybe are provided as part of the monadic classes in the Prelude. as would happen if error were used. isNothing fromJust fromMaybe listToMaybe maybeToList catMaybes mapMaybe :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Maybe a > Bool Maybe a > a a > Maybe a > a [a] > Maybe a Maybe a > [a] [Maybe a] > [a] (a > Maybe b) > [a] > [b] The type constructor Maybe is deﬁned in Prelude as data Maybe a = Nothing  Just a The purpose of the Maybe type is to provide a method of dealing with illegal or optional values without terminating the program. fromJust...and what the Prelude exports Maybe(Nothing. ..
isJust :: Maybe a > a = a = error "Maybe. fromJust. maybe ) where isJust isJust (Just a) isJust Nothing isNothing isNothing fromJust fromJust (Just a) fromJust Nothing fromMaybe fromMaybe d Nothing fromMaybe d (Just a) maybeToList maybeToList Nothing maybeToList (Just a) listToMaybe listToMaybe [] listToMaybe (a:_) catMaybes catMaybes ms mapMaybe mapMaybe f :: Maybe a > Bool = True = False :: Maybe a > Bool = not .194 CHAPTER 18.and what the Prelude exports Maybe(Nothing.. isNothing. fromMaybe. mapMaybe. map f ..fromJust: Nothing" :: a > Maybe a > a = d = a :: Maybe a > [a] = [] = [a] :: [a] > Maybe a = Nothing = Just a :: [Maybe a] > [a] = [ m  Just m <. . listToMaybe.ms ] :: (a > Maybe b) > [a] > [b] = catMaybes . catMaybes.. Just). maybeToList.1 Library Maybe module Maybe( isJust. MAYBE UTILITIES 18.
intToDigit. isHexDigit. lower case alphabetic. isOctDigit. The ﬁrst 128 entries of this character set are identical to the ASCII set. with the next 128 entries comes the remainder of the Latin1 character set. toLower :: Char > Char digitToInt :: Char > Int intToDigit :: Int > Char ord chr :: Char > Int :: Int > Char lexLitChar :: ReadS String readLitChar :: ReadS Char showLitChar :: Char > ShowS This library provides a limited set of operations on the Unicode character set... the full set of Unicode character attributes is not accessible in this library.. readLitChar. isOctDigit. isSpace. Unicode characters may be divided into ﬁve general categories: nonprinting. isAlphaNum. isUpper. isDigit. isAlphaNum :: Char > Bool toUpper. . isPrint.and what the Prelude exports Char. isDigit. isHexDigit. showLitChar. isUpper. isPrint. isControl. isSpace. For the purposes of Haskell. lexLitChar. This module offers only a limited view of the full Unicode character set.Chapter 19 Character Utilities module Char ( isAscii. chr. isAlpha. and other printable characters. numeric digits. isLower. toLower. toUpper. String ) where isAscii. any 195 . ord. isLatin1. isLatin1. isLower. other alphabetic. digitToInt. isAlpha. isControl.
but in addition converts the to the character that it encodes.15.. intToDigit fails unless its argument is in the range 0.’9’. ’A’. "Hello")] Function toUpper converts a letter to the corresponding uppercase letter. ’0’. For each sort of Unicode character. "Hello")] [(’\n’. For example: showLitChar ’\n’ s lexLitChar "\\nHello" readLitChar "\\nHello" = = = "\\n" ++ s [("\\n". Any Unicode letter which has an uppercase equivalent is transformed. using Haskell sourcelanguage escape conventions. The function lexLitChar does the reverse. intToDigit and digitToInt convert between a single digit Char and the corresponding Int. here are the predicates which return True: Character Type Lower Case Alphabetic Other Alphabetic Digits Other Printable Nonprinting Predicates isPrint isPrint isPrint isPrint isAlphaNum isAlphaNum isAlphaNum isAlpha isAlpha isLower isUpper The isDigit.196 CHAPTER 19. CHARACTER UTILITIES alphabetic character which is not lower case is treated as upper case (Unicode actually has three cases: upper. but recognises both upper and lowercase hexadecimal digits (i. ’a’.e. leaving any other character unchanged. and title). and isHexDigit functions select only ASCII characters. digitToInt operates fails unless its argument satisﬁes isHexDigit. isOctDigit. . lower. The ord and chr functions are fromEnum and toEnum restricted to the type Char. toLower converts a letter to the corresponding lowercase letter.. The function showLitChar converts a character to a string using only printable characters.’f’. leaving any other character unchanged. returning the sequence of characters that encode the character...’F’). The isSpace function recognizes only white characters in the Latin1 range. and generates lowercase hexadecimal digits. The function readLitChar does the same. Numeric digits may be part of identiﬁers but digits outside the ASCII range are not used by the reader to represent numbers. Similarly.
toLower. . isOctDigit. LIBRARY CHAR 197 19.’a’. readLitChar.and what the Prelude exports Char.’z’ isUpper c  isLower c c >= ’0’ && c <= ’9’ c >= ’0’ && c <= ’7’ isDigit c  c >= ’A’ && c <= ’F’  c >= ’a’ && c <= ’f’ primUnicodeIsAlphaNum .19.fromEnum ’0’  c >= ’a’ && c <= ’f’ = fromEnum c . isDigit. isOctDigit. chr. isSpace.. isControl. isLatin1. isUpper.. .1 Library Char module Char ( isAscii. ord.. lexLitChar. intToDigit.Only Latin1 spaces recognized isUpper isLower isAlpha c isDigit c isOctDigit c isHexDigit c isAlphaNum = = = = = = = primUnicodeIsUpper primUnicodeIsLower ..digitToInt: not a digit" . isAlphaNum :: Char > Bool isAscii c isLatin1 c isControl c isPrint = = = = c < ’\x80’ c <= ’\xff’ c < ’ ’  c >= ’\DEL’ && c <= ’\x9f’ primUnicodeIsPrint isSpace c = c ‘elem‘ " \t\n\r\f\v\xA0" .’Z’ .Digit conversion operations digitToInt :: Char > Int digitToInt c  isDigit c = fromEnum c . toUpper. isAlpha. isLower. isAlphaNum..Charactertesting operations isAscii. isHexDigit.fromEnum ’a’ + 10  c >= ’A’ && c <= ’F’ = fromEnum c .fromEnum ’A’ + 10  otherwise = error "Char.Source of primitive Unicode functions. isLower. isControl. isPrint. isHexDigit. isPrint. import Numeric (readDec. isDigit.’A’.1.Used for character name table. digitToInt. isLatin1. showLitChar. lexDigits. readHex) import UnicodePrims . String ) where import Array . isUpper. isSpace. isAlpha. readOct.
readOct s] (’x’:s) = [(chr n. t)  (n.Character code functions ord :: Char > Int ord = fromEnum chr chr :: Int > Char = toEnum .s’)  (c.Casechanging operations toUpper :: Char > Char toUpper = primUnicodeToUpper toLower :: Char > Char toLower = primUnicodeToLower .10) error "Char.t) <.t) <.[a]) = match xs ys = (xs.s’) <.t) <.s)] (’r’:s) = [(’\r’.readHex s] s@(c:_)  isUpper c = let table = (’\DEL’.table.readDec s] (’o’:s) = [(chr n.s)] (’\\’:s) = [(’\\’. "DEL") : assocs asciiTab in case [(c.ord ’@’).ys) readEsc match match (x:xs) (y:ys)  x == y match xs ys . ([].s)] (’b’:s) = [(’\b’.Text functions readLitChar :: ReadS Char readLitChar (’\\’:s) = readEsc s readLitChar (c:s) = [(c.198 intToDigit :: Int > Char intToDigit i  i >= 0 && i <= 9 =  i >= 10 && i <= 15 =  otherwise = CHAPTER 19. s)] s@(d:_)  isDigit d = [(chr n.intToDigit: not a digit" .s)] (’"’:s) = [(’"’.s)] (’n’:s) = [(’\n’. t)  (n.s)] (’\’’:s) = [(’\’’.s)] (’t’:s) = [(’\t’. mne) <. CHARACTER UTILITIES toEnum (fromEnum ’0’ + i) toEnum (fromEnum ’a’ + i .s)] readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc :: ReadS Char (’a’:s) = [(’\a’.[match mne s]] of (pr:_) > [pr] [] > [] _ = [] :: (Eq a) => [a] > [a] > ([a].s)] (’v’:s) = [(’\v’.s)] (’f’:s) = [(’\f’.s)] (’ˆ’:c:s)  c >= ’@’ && c <= ’_’ = [(chr (ord c . t)  (n.
protectEsc isDigit (shows (ord c)) showLitChar ’\DEL’ = showString "\\DEL" showLitChar ’\\’ = showString "\\\\" showLitChar c  c >= ’ ’ = showChar c showLitChar ’\a’ = showString "\\a" showLitChar ’\b’ = showString "\\b" showLitChar ’\f’ = showString "\\f" showLitChar ’\n’ = showString "\\n" showLitChar ’\r’ = showString "\\r" showLitChar ’\t’ = showString "\\t" showLitChar ’\v’ = showString "\\v" showLitChar ’\SO’ = protectEsc (== ’H’) (showString "\\SO") showLitChar c = showString (’\\’ : asciiTab!c) protectEsc p f = f . "DC2". "LF". "BS". "ENQ". "ETX". "CAN".s)] .19. "ESC". "STX". "DC1". "ACK". "FF". "EM". "DC4". "BEL". "ETB".c].Very crude approximation to \XYZ. lexEsc s@(c:_)  isUpper c = [span isCharName s] lexEsc _ = [] isCharName c = isUpper c  isDigit c prefix c (t. "FS". LIBRARY CHAR showLitChar :: Char > ShowS showLitChar c  c > ’\DEL’ = showChar ’\\’ . "SOH".s)] [] . "SYN". "HT". "CR". "DLE". "SP"] s@(c:_)  p c = "\\&" ++ s s = s "EOT". "SUB".s)] lexEsc (’ˆ’:c:s)  c >= ’@’ && c <= ’_’ = [([’ˆ’. "US".s) = (c:t. 199 lexLitChar :: ReadS String lexLitChar (’\\’:s) = map (prefix ’\\’) (lexEsc s) where lexEsc (c:s)  c ‘elem‘ "abfnrtv\\\"’" = [([c]. "VT". cont where cont cont asciiTab = listArray (’\NUL’. s) lexLitChar (c:s) lexLitChar "" = = [([c]. ’ ’) ["NUL".1. "SI".Numeric escapes lexEsc (’o’:s) = [prefix ’o’ (span isOctDigit s)] lexEsc (’x’:s) = [prefix ’x’ (span isHexDigit s)] lexEsc s@(d:_)  isDigit d = [span isDigit s] . "GS". "SO". "DC3". "NAK". "RS".
CHARACTER UTILITIES .200 CHAPTER 19.
201 .
sequence_. liftM. > m c) > [a] > [b] > > m c) > [a] > [b] > > m a) > a > [b] > m Bool) > [a] > m [a] [c]) m [c] m () a :: MonadPlus m => [m a] > m a :: Monad m => (a > b) > (m a > m b) :: Monad m => (a > b > c) > (m a > m b :: Monad m => (a > b > c > d) > (m a > m b > m c > m d) :: Monad m => (a > b > c > d > e) > (m a > m b > m c > m d > :: Monad m => (a > b > c > d > e > f) (m a > m b > m c > m d > > m c) m e) > m e > m f) . zipWithM. unless. liftM2.. mplus). fail). liftM4.202 CHAPTER 20. guard. msum. mapM. foldM. filterM. liftM3. ap. sequence. .. (=<<). zipWithM_. (>>)..and what the Prelude exports Monad((>>=). MONAD UTILITIES Chapter 20 Monad Utilities module Monad ( MonadPlus(mzero. ) where class Monad m => MonadPlus m where mzero :: m a mplus :: m a > m a > m a join guard when unless ap mapAndUnzipM zipWithM zipWithM_ foldM filterM msum liftM liftM2 liftM3 liftM4 liftM5 :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Monad m => m (m a) > m a MonadPlus m => Bool > m () Monad m => Bool > m () > m () Monad m => Bool > m () > m () Monad m => m (a > b) > m a > m b Monad Monad Monad Monad Monad m m m m m => => => => => (a (a (a (a (a > > > > > m b b b m (b. join.c)) > [a] > m ([b]. liftM5. Functor(fmap). mapAndUnzipM. mapM_. when. return.
So. Thus (in the Prelude): sequence :: Monad m => [m a] > m [a] sequence_ :: Monad m => [m a] > m () A preﬁx “m” generalises an existing function to a monadic form. Thus.20.1. filter :: (a > Bool) > [a] > [a] filterM :: Monad m => (a > m Bool) > [a] > m [a] A postﬁx “_” changes the result type from (m a) to (m ()). for example. Lists and the Maybe type are instances of MonadPlus. NAMING CONVENTIONS 203 The Monad library deﬁnes the MonadPlus class. and provides some useful operations on monads. thus: instance MonadPlus Maybe where mzero = Nothing Nothing ‘mplus‘ ys = ys xs ‘mplus‘ ys = xs instance MonadPlus [] mzero = [] mplus = (++) where . for example: sum :: Num a => [a] > a msum :: MonadPlus m => [m a] > m a 20. 20.2 Class MonadPlus The MonadPlus class is deﬁned as follows: class Monad m => MonadPlus m where mzero :: m a mplus :: m a > m a > m a The class methods mzero and mplus are the zero and plus of the monad.1 Naming conventions The functions in this library use the following naming conventions: A postﬁx “M” always stands for a function in the Kleisli category: m is added to function results (modulo currying) and nowhere else.
.. This could be an issue where (>>) and the “folded function” are not commutative. preﬁxing each line with its line number. For instance the following function displays a ﬁle. . and otherwise do nothing.f a2 x2 . which promotes function application.1.3 Functions The join function is the conventional monad join operator. It is used to remove one level of monadic structure. projecting its bound argument into the outer level. The function arguments are scanned left to right. the liftM operations can be replaced by uses of ap.3] liftM2 (+) (Just 1) Nothing = Nothing In many situations.. foldM f a1 [x1. liftM2 (+) [0. xm ] == do a2 <. The when and unless functions provide conditional execution of monadic expressions.. The mapAndUnzipM function maps its ﬁrst argument over a list. putStrLn line) [1. putStr ": ". x2.f a1 x1 a3 <.204 CHAPTER 20. For example. listFile :: String > IO () listFile nm = do cts <.. MONAD UTILITIES 20. except that its result is encapsulated in a monad. .] (lines cts) The foldM function is analogous to foldl. f am xm If righttoleft evaluation is required.1] [0. returning the result as a pair of lists.readFile nm zipWithM_ (\i line > do putStr (show i).2. Note that foldM works from lefttoright over the list arguments. For example.. The zipWithM function generalises zipWith to arbitrary monads. the input list should be reversed. This function is mainly used with complicated data structures or a statetransforming monad. when debug (putStr "Debugging\n") will output the string "Debugging\n" if the Boolean value debug is True.2] = [0. The monadic lifting operators promote a function to a monad.
xn 205 . FUNCTIONS return f ‘ap‘ x1 ‘ap‘ .20....3. ‘ap‘ xn is equivalent to liftMn f x1 x2 ..
[c]) mapAndUnzipM f xs = sequence (map f xs) >>= return . return. (>>). MONAD UTILITIES 20. liftM5. sequence_. sequence. liftM3. fail). when. unzip .The MonadPlus class definition class (Monad m) => MonadPlus m mzero :: m a mplus :: m a > m a > m a . liftM4. filterM. ) where . unless.. liftM. msum. (=<<).. foldM. mapAndUnzipM.. guard. Functor(fmap).c)) > [a] > m ([b]. .and what the Prelude exports Monad((>>=). mplus). zipWithM. mapM. zipWithM_. liftM2. join.206 CHAPTER 20.4 Library Monad module Monad ( MonadPlus(mzero.Functions msum msum xs join join x when when p s unless unless p s ap ap guard guard p :: MonadPlus m => [m a] > m a = foldr mplus mzero xs :: (Monad m) => m (m a) > m a = x >>= id :: (Monad m) => Bool > m () > m () = if p then s else return () :: (Monad m) => Bool > m () > m () = when (not p) s :: (Monad m) => m (a > b) > m a > m b = liftM2 ($) :: MonadPlus m => Bool > m () = if p then return () else mzero = = ys xs where where mapAndUnzipM :: (Monad m) => (a > m (b. ap. mapM_.Instances of MonadPlus instance MonadPlus Maybe where mzero = Nothing Nothing ‘mplus‘ ys xs ‘mplus‘ ys instance MonadPlus [] mzero = [] mplus = (++) .
ys <. b’ <. return (f a’ b’ c’) } :: (Monad m) => (a > b > c > d > e) > (m a > m b > m c > m d > m e) = \a b c d > do { a’ <. c’ <. b’ <. return (if b then (x:ys) else ys) } liftM liftM f liftM2 liftM2 f liftM3 liftM3 f liftM4 liftM4 f liftM5 liftM5 f :: (Monad m) => (a > b) > (m a > m b) = \a > do { a’ <.a. c’ <.a. d’ <.e. LIBRARY MONAD 207 zipWithM :: (Monad m) => (a > b > m c) > [a] > [b] > m [c] zipWithM f xs ys = sequence (zipWith f xs ys) zipWithM_ :: (Monad m) => (a > b > m c) > [a] > [b] > m () zipWithM_ f xs ys = sequence_ (zipWith f xs ys) foldM :: (Monad m) => (a > b > m a) > a > [b] > m a foldM f a [] = return a foldM f a (x:xs) = f a x >>= \ y > foldM f y xs filterM :: Monad m => (a > m Bool) > [a] > m [a] filterM p [] = return [] filterM p (x:xs) = do { b <. return (f a’) } :: (Monad m) => (a > b > c) > (m a > m b > m c) = \a b > do { a’ <.c.20. e’ <.a.b. return (f a’ b’ c’ d’) } :: (Monad m) => (a > b > c > d > e > f) > (m a > m b > m c > m d > m e > m f) = \a b c d e > do { a’ <.a. b’ <. return (f a’ b’) } :: (Monad m) => (a > b > c > d) > (m a > m b > m c > m d) = \a b c > do { a’ <.b.d.d.b.p x.c.filterM p xs. d’ <.c.a. b’ <. return (f a’ b’ c’ d’ e’) } .b. c’ <.4.
MONAD UTILITIES .208 CHAPTER 20.
209 .
ioeGetHandle. ioeGetErrorString. hIsOpen. putStr. hGetPosn. FilePath. putStrLn. isAlreadyExistsError. hIsEOF. hReady. instance Eq Handle where .. Enum. hIsSeekable. instance Eq HandlePosn where . Bounded. hGetChar. isEOFError.. hPutChar. stdout. hPutStrLn..implementationdependent . Read.RelativeSeek. writeFile. . Ord.implementationdependent . readLn ) where import Ix(Ix) data Handle = . IOError.implementationdependent data SeekMode ReadMode  WriteMode  AppendMode  ReadWriteMode deriving (Eq. isEOF. userError.. hPutStr.WriteMode. stderr. hFlush. stdin. IOMode(ReadMode. hSeek. bracket. putChar. stderr :: Handle openFile hClose :: FilePath > IOMode > IO Handle :: Handle > IO () . hGetBuffering. hSetBuffering.210 CHAPTER 21. Ord. hWaitForInput. readFile. hPrint. ioeGetFileName. Ix. data HandlePosn = .AppendMode. openFile. Show) stdin.implementationdependent . isIllegalOperation.. Enum. isPermissionError. try. readIO.ReadWriteMode). hLookAhead... Ord. getLine.. Show) AbsoluteSeek  RelativeSeek  SeekFromEnd deriving (Eq. print. hClose.BlockBuffering). HandlePosn. isUserError. Bounded.. catch.SeekFromEnd). instance Show Handle where . hGetContents. interact. SeekMode(AbsoluteSeek. appendFile. Read. hSetPosn.. isFullError. hFileSize. Ix. hGetLine. stdout. hIsReadable.LineBuffering. hIsClosed. Read. getChar. isAlreadyInUseError. Show) NoBuffering  LineBuffering BlockBuffering (Maybe Int) deriving (Eq. getContents. isDoesNotExistError..and what the Prelude exports IO.. BufferMode(NoBuffering. ioError. bracket_. INPUT/OUTPUT Chapter 21 Input/Output module IO ( Handle. hIsWritable. instance Show HandlePosn where data IOMode data BufferMode = =  = .
211 hFileSize hIsEOF isEOF isEOF hSetBuffering hGetBuffering hFlush hGetPosn hSetPosn hSeek hWaitForInput hReady hReady h hGetChar hGetLine hLookAhead hGetContents hPutChar hPutStr hPutStrLn hPrint hIsOpen hIsClosed hIsReadable hIsWritable hIsSeekable isAlreadyExistsError isDoesNotExistError isAlreadyInUseError isFullError isEOFError isIllegalOperation isPermissionError isUserError ioeGetErrorString ioeGetHandle ioeGetFileName try bracket bracket_ :: :: :: = :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: = :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Handle > IO Integer Handle > IO Bool IO Bool hIsEOF stdin Handle > BufferMode > IO () Handle > IO BufferMode Handle > IO () Handle > IO HandlePosn HandlePosn > IO () Handle > SeekMode > Integer > IO () Handle > Int > IO Bool Handle > IO Bool hWaitForInput h 0 Handle > IO Char Handle > IO String Handle > IO Char Handle > IO String Handle > Char > IO () Handle > String > IO () Handle > String > IO () Show a => Handle > a > IO () Handle Handle Handle Handle Handle > > > > > IO IO IO IO IO Bool Bool Bool Bool Bool IOError IOError IOError IOError IOError IOError IOError IOError > > > > > > > > Bool Bool Bool Bool Bool Bool Bool Bool :: IOError > String :: IOError > Maybe Handle :: IOError > Maybe FilePath :: IO a > IO (Either IOError a) :: IO a > (a > IO b) > (a > IO c) > IO c :: IO a > (a > IO b) > IO c > IO c The monadic I/O system used in Haskell is described by the Haskell language report. Some related operations on ﬁle systems . This library contain more advanced I/O features. Commonly used I/O functions such as print are part of the standard prelude and need not be explicitly imported.
which is already being used (for example. The try function returns an error in a computation explicitly using the Either type. isPermissionError – the operation failed because the user does not have sufﬁcient operating system privilege to perform that operation. and ioeGetErrorString which returns a string. and Nothing otherwise. In some cases. The bracket function captures a common allocate. ioeGetFileName which returns Just if the error value refers to ﬁle . This is similar to trycatchﬁnally in Java. and False otherwise. the string returned by ioeGetErrorString is the argument that was passed to fail. which is True if its argument is the corresponding kind of error. the string is implementationdependent. compute. INPUT/OUTPUT 21. deallocate idiom in which the deallocation step must occur even in the case of an error during computation. This is an abstract type. All these functions return a Bool. Any computation which returns an IO result may fail with isIllegalOperation. isEOFError – the operation failed because the end of ﬁle has been reached. isDoesNotExistError – the operation failed because one of its arguments does not exist. Three additional functions are provided to obtain information about an error value. CHAPTER 21. isAlreadyInUseError – the operation failed because one of its arguments is a singleuse resource.1 I/O Errors Errors of type IOError are used by the I/O monad. isFullError – the operation failed because the device is full. isIllegalOperation – the operation is not possible. 4 ¦ ¢ 7 ¦ ¥ 4 ¦ ¢ 7 ¦ ¥ . opening the same ﬁle twice for writing might give this error).212 are contained in the Directory library. In this case it should return isIllegalOperation. These are ioeGetHandle which returns Just if the error value refers to handle and Nothing otherwise. For “user” errors (those which are raised using fail). the library provides functions to interrogate and construct values in IOError: isAlreadyExistsError – the operation failed because one of its arguments already exists. for all other errors. an implementation will not be able to distinguish between the possible error causes. Additional errors which could be raised by an implementation are listed after the corresponding operation. isUserError – a programmerdeﬁned error value has been raised using fail.
likewise. directories may themselves be ﬁle system objects and could be entries in other directories. The ﬁrst two (stdin and stdout) manage input or output from the Haskell program’s standard input or output channel respectively. A handle is equal according to == only to itself. This ﬁle system is a collection of named ﬁle system objects. or any other object recognised by the operating system. . whether buffering is disabled. although it could in fact be a communication channel.2. A handle is open when ﬁrst allocated. Handles are in the Show and Eq classes. it is writable if it manages only output or both input and output. whether it is open. Files can be opened.2 Files and Handles Haskell interfaces to the external world through an abstract ﬁle system. File and directory names are values of type String.1 Standard Handles Three handles are allocated during program initialisation. which may be organised in directories (see Directory). Most handles will also have a current I/O position indicating where the next input or output operation will occur. though an implementation cannot reuse its storage while references remain to it.21. a buffer (whose length may be zero). A handle is readable if it manages only input or both input and output. FILES AND HANDLES 213 21. ordered ﬁles. 21. Each value of this type is a handle: a record used by the Haskell runtime system to manage I/O with ﬁle system objects. Haskell deﬁnes operations to read and write characters from and to ﬁles. whether the object is seekable. In some implementations. For simplicity. whose precise meaning is operating system dependent. any nondirectory ﬁle system object is termed a ﬁle. The string produced by showing a handle is system dependent. yielding a handle which can then be used to operate on the contents of that ﬁle. closed or semiclosed. These handles are initially open. represented by values of type Handle. Physical ﬁles are persistent.2. A handle has at least the following properties: whether it manages input or output or both. and normally reside on disk. it should include enough information to identify the handle for debugging. or enabled on a line or block basis. The third (stderr) manages output to the standard error channel. no attempt is made to compare the internal state of different handles for equality. Once it is closed it can no longer be used for either input or output.
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21.2.2 SemiClosed Handles
The operation hGetContents (Section 21.9.4) puts a handle into an intermediate state, semiclosed. In this state, is effectively closed, but items are read from on demand and accumulated in a special list returned by hGetContents . Any operation that fails because a handle is closed, also fails if a handle is semiclosed. The only exception is hClose. A semiclosed handle becomes closed: if hClose is applied to it;
if an I/O error occurs when reading an item from the handle;
or once the entire contents of the handle has been read.
Once a semiclosed handle becomes closed, the contents of the associated list becomes ﬁxed. The contents of this ﬁnal list is only partially speciﬁed: it will contain at least all the items of the stream that were evaluated prior to the handle becoming closed. Any I/O errors encountered while a handle is semiclosed are simply discarded.
21.2.3 File locking
Implementations should enforce as far as possible, at least locally to the Haskell process, multiplereader singlewriter locking on ﬁles. That is, there may either be many handles on the same ﬁle which manage input, or just one handle on the ﬁle which manages output. If any open or semiclosed handle is managing a ﬁle for output, no new handle can be allocated for that ﬁle. If any open or semiclosed handle is managing a ﬁle for input, new handles can only be allocated if they do not manage output. Whether two ﬁles are the same is implementationdependent, but they should normally be the same if they have the same absolute path name and neither has been renamed, for example. Warning: the readFile operation (Section 7.1) holds a semiclosed handle on the ﬁle until the entire contents of the ﬁle have been consumed. It follows that an attempt to write to a ﬁle (using writeFile, for example) that was earlier opened by readFile will usually result in failure with isAlreadyInUseError.
21.3 Opening and Closing Files
21.3.1 Opening Files
Computation openFile allocates and returns a new, open handle to manage the ﬁle . It manages input if is ReadMode, output if is WriteMode or AppendMode, and both input and output if mode is ReadWriteMode.
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is If the ﬁle does not exist and it is opened for output, it should be created as a new ﬁle. If WriteMode and the ﬁle already exists, then it should be truncated to zero length. Some operating systems delete empty ﬁles, so there is no guarantee that the ﬁle will exist following an openFile with WriteMode unless it is subsequently written to successfully. The handle is positioned at the end of the ﬁle if is AppendMode, and otherwise at the beginning (in which case its internal I/O position is 0). The initial buffer mode is implementationdependent. If openFile fails on a ﬁle opened for output, the ﬁle may still have been created if it did not already exist. Error reporting: the openFile computation may fail with isAlreadyInUseError if the ﬁle is already open and cannot be reopened; isDoesNotExistError if the ﬁle does not exist; or isPermissionError if the user does not have permission to open the ﬁle.
21.3.2 Closing Files
makes handle closed. Before the computation ﬁnishes, if is Computation hClose writable its buffer is ﬂushed as for hFlush. Performing hClose on a handle that has already been closed has no effect; doing so not an error. All other operations on a closed handle will fail. If hClose fails for any reason, any further operations (apart from hClose) on the handle will still fail as if had been successfully closed.
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21.4 Determining the Size of a File
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returns the size of that ﬁle
21.5 Detecting the End of Input
For a readable handle , computation hIsEOF returns True if no further input can be taken ; for a handle attached to a physical ﬁle this means that the current I/O position is equal from to the length of the ﬁle. Otherwise, it returns False. The computation isEOF is identical, except that it works only on stdin.
¥ ¥
21.6 Buffering Operations
Three kinds of buffering are supported: linebuffering, blockbuffering or nobuffering. These modes have the following effects. For output, items are written out, or ﬂushed, from the internal buffer according to the buffer mode:
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linebuffering: the entire buffer is ﬂushed whenever a newline is output, the buffer overﬂows, a hFlush is issued, or the handle is closed. blockbuffering: the entire buffer is written out whenever it overﬂows, a hFlush is issued, or the handle is closed.
nobuffering: output is written immediately, and never stored in the buffer.
An implementation is free to ﬂush the buffer more frequently, but not less frequently, than speciﬁed above. The buffer is emptied as soon as it has been written out.
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Similarly, input occurs according to the buffer mode for handle
linebuffering: when the buffer for is not empty, the next item is obtained from the buffer; otherwise, when the buffer is empty, characters are read into the buffer until the next newline character is encountered or the buffer is full. No characters are available until the newline character is available or the buffer is full.
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blockbuffering: when the buffer for the buffer.
becomes empty, the next block of data is read into
nobuffering: the next input item is read and returned. The hLookAhead operation (Section 21.9.3) implies that even a nobuffered handle may require a onecharacter buffer.
For most implementations, physical ﬁles will normally be blockbuffered and terminals will normally be linebuffered.
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If is BlockBuffering , then blockbuffering is enabled if possible. The size of the buffer is items if is Just and is otherwise implementationdependent.
If the buffer mode is changed from BlockBuffering or LineBuffering to NoBuffering, then
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is writable, the buffer is ﬂushed as for hFlush; is not writable, the contents of the buffer is discarded.
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Computation hSetBuffering reads and writes.
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21.7. REPOSITIONING HANDLES
217
Error reporting: the hSetBuffering computation may fail with isPermissionError if the handle has already been used for reading or writing and the implementation does not allow the buffering mode to be changed.
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Computation hGetBuffering
returns the current buffering mode for
The default buffering mode when a handle is opened is implementationdependent and may depend on the ﬁle system object which is attached to that handle.
21.6.1 Flushing Buffers
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Computation hFlush to the operating system.
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causes any items buffered for output in handle
to be sent immediately
Error reporting: the hFlush computation may fail with: isFullError if the device is full; isPermissionError if a system resource limit would be exceeded. It is unspeciﬁed whether the characters in the buffer are discarded or retained under these circumstances.
21.7 Repositioning Handles
21.7.1 Revisiting an I/O Position
returns the current I/O position of as a value of the abstract type Computation hGetPosn HandlePosn. If a call to hGetPosn returns a position , then computation hSetPosn sets the position of to the position it held at the time of the call to hGetPosn. Error reporting: the hSetPosn computation may fail with: isPermissionError if a system resource limit would be exceeded.
21.7.2 Seeking to a new Position
The offset is given in terms of 8bit bytes. If is block or linebuffered, then seeking to a position which is not in the current buffer will ﬁrst cause any items in the output buffer to be written to the device, and then cause the input buffer
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CHAPTER 21. INPUT/OUTPUT
to be discarded. Some handles may not be seekable (see hIsSeekable), or only support a subset of the possible positioning operations (for instance, it may only be possible to seek to the end of a tape, or to a positive offset from the beginning or current position). It is not possible to set a negative I/O position, or for a physical ﬁle, an I/O position beyond the current endofﬁle. Error reporting: the hSeek computation may fail with: isPermissionError if a system resource limit would be exceeded.
21.8 Handle Properties
The functions hIsOpen, hIsClosed, hIsReadable, hIsWritable and hIsSeekable return information about the properties of a handle. Each of these returns True if the handle has the speciﬁed property, and False otherwise.
21.9 Text Input and Output
Here we deﬁne a standard set of input operations for reading characters and strings from text ﬁles, using handles. Many of these functions are generalizations of Prelude functions. I/O in the Prelude generally uses stdin and stdout; here, handles are explicitly speciﬁed by the I/O operation.
21.9.1 Checking for Input
Computation hWaitForInput waits until input is available on handle . It returns True as soon as input is available on , or False if no input is available within milliseconds.
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Computation hReady .
indicates whether at least one item is available for input from handle
Error reporting: the hWaitForInput and hReady computations fail with isEOFError if the end of ﬁle has been reached.
21.9.2 Reading Input
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Computation hGetChar
reads a character from the ﬁle or channel managed by
Error reporting: the hGetChar computation fails with isEOFError if the end of ﬁle has been reached. The hGetLine computation fails with isEOFError if the end of ﬁle is encountered when reading the ﬁrst character of the line. If hGetLine encounters endofﬁle at any other point while reading in a line, it is treated as a line terminator and the (partial) line is returned.
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Computation hGetLine reads a line from the ﬁle or channel managed by getLine is a shorthand for hGetLine stdin.
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or isPermissionError if another system resource limit would be exceeded.10.10. EXAMPLES 219 21.1 Summing Two Numbers This program reads and sums two Integers. ¥ Error reporting: the hLookAhead computation may fail with: isEOFError if the end of ﬁle has been reached. 21. Char 7 ¦ 7 ¦ ¥ . ¥ © © ¥ Computation hPutStr ¥ writes the string to the ﬁle or channel managed by § . 21. blocking until a character is available.21.3 Reading Ahead ¥ Computation hLookAhead returns the next character from handle from the input buffer. the ﬁle or channel managed by given by the shows function to Error reporting: the hPutChar. 21.4 Reading The Entire Input 7 ¦ Computation hGetContents of the channel or ﬁle managed by ¥ returns the list of characters corresponding to the unread portion .9. which is made semiclosed. Computation hPrint writes the string representation of and appends a newline. 7 ¦ 7 ¦ 7 ¦ 7 ¦ ¥ 7 ¦ ¥ 7 ¦ 7 ¦ ¥ without removing it 7 ¦ § . 21.10 Examples Here are some simple examples to illustrate Haskell I/O.5 Text Output ¥ writes the character to the ﬁle or channel managed by Computation hPutChar acters may be buffered if buffering is enabled for .9. Error reporting: the hGetContents computation may fail with: isEOFError if the end of ﬁle has been reached. hPutStr and hPrint computations may fail with: isFullError if the device is full.9.
openFile f1 ReadMode h2 <.2 Copying Files A simple program to create a copy of a ﬁle.f2] <.220 import IO CHAPTER 21.openFile f2 WriteMode copyFile h1 h2 hClose h1 hClose h2 copyFile h1 h2 = do eof <. using string I/O is: . This version uses characterlevel I/O.getArgs h1 <.readNum putStr ("Their sum is " ++ show (x1+x2) ++ "\n") where readNum :: IO Integer . Note that exactly two arguments must be supplied to the program. with all lowercase characters translated to uppercase. This program will not allow a ﬁle to be copied to itself. INPUT/OUTPUT main = do hSetBuffering stdout NoBuffering putStr "Enter an integer: " x1 <. import IO import System import Char( toUpper ) main = do [f1.Providing a type signature avoids reliance on .hGetChar h1 hPutChar h2 (toUpper c) copyFile h1 h2 An equivalent but much shorter version.the defaulting rule to fix the type of x1.x2 readNum = readLn 21.readNum putStr "Enter another integer: " x2 <.10.hIsEOF h1 if eof then return () else do c <.
11. Left) bracket :: IO a > (a > IO b) > (a > IO c) > IO c bracket before after m = do x <.variant of the above where middle computation doesn’t want x bracket_ :: IO a > (a > IO b) > IO c > IO c bracket_ before after m = do x <.try (m x) after x case rs of Right r > return r Left e > ioError e .actions that IO exports.Just provide an implementation of the systemindependent .try m after x case rs of Right r > return r Left e > ioError e .21.f return (Right r)) (return . try try f :: IO a > IO (Either IOError a) = catch (do r <.getArgs s <.f2] <.readFile f1 writeFile f2 (map toUpper s) 221 21.11 Library IO module IO {.export list omitted } where .before rs <. LIBRARY IO import System import Char( toUpper ) main = do [f1.before rs <.
INPUT/OUTPUT .222 CHAPTER 21.
223 .
readable. writable. getModificationTime ) where import Time ( ClockTime ) data Permissions = Permissions { readable. renameDirectory. . searchable ). getDirectoryContents. createDirectory. removeDirectory. DIRECTORY FUNCTIONS Chapter 22 Directory Functions module Directory ( Permissions( Permissions.. getCurrentDirectory.. renameFile. searchable :: Bool } instance instance instance instance Eq Ord Read Show Permissions Permissions Permissions Permissions where where where where . . writable. removeFile.. executable. executable. doesDirectoryExist.. . doesFileExist...224 CHAPTER 22.. getPermissions.. setCurrentDirectory. > > > > > IO () IO () IO () FilePath > IO () FilePath > IO () createDirectory removeDirectory removeFile renameDirectory renameFile getDirectoryContents getCurrentDirectory setCurrentDirectory doesFileExist doesDirectoryExist getPermissions setPermissions getModificationTime :: :: :: :: :: FilePath FilePath FilePath FilePath FilePath :: FilePath > IO [FilePath] :: IO FilePath :: FilePath > IO () :: FilePath > IO Bool :: FilePath > IO Bool :: FilePath > IO Permissions :: FilePath > Permissions > IO () :: FilePath > IO ClockTime . setPermissions.
If the object already exists. The removeDirectory and removeFile computations may fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to remove the ﬁle/directory. removes the directory entry for an existing ﬁle . Error reporting. inaccessible. directory etc. or isDoesNotExistError if the new directory’s parent does not exist. Note that. however. in particular. each of which is a named reference to a ﬁle system object (ﬁle. removes an existing directory . The implementation may specify additional constraints which must be satisﬁed before a ﬁle can be removed (for instance. The implementation Computation removeDirectory may specify additional constraints which must be satisﬁed before a directory can be removed (for instance. it is atomically replaced by the directory. the ﬁle may not be in use by other processes). A conformant implementation need not support renaming directories in all situations (for instance. A conformant implementation need not support directory removal in all situations (for instance. Computation renameDirectory changes the name of an existing directory from to . A directory contains a series of entries. it may also be possible to have paths which are relative to the current directory.” under POSIX). Neither path ¦ ¦ 7 7 2 2 7 7 ¦ 7 2 ¦ 7 ¤§ 2 ¦ ¤§ creates a new directory Computation createDirectory near to empty as the operating system allows. but all such entries are considered to form part of the directory contents. but the constraints must be documented. “. If the directory is neither the directory nor an alias of the directory. it is atomically replaced by the object. ¦ ¦ 7 2 £ ¦ ¤§ ¦ ¤§ 7 ¦ 2 ¦ which is initially empty. or isDoesNotExistError if the ﬁle/directory does not exist. Computation renameFile changes the name of an existing ﬁle system object from to . If the directory already exists. In some operating systems. if an implementation does not support an operation it should raise an isIllegalOperation. There is normally at least one absolute path to each ﬁle system object. it is removed as if by removeDirectory. or across different physical devices). The createDirectory computation may fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to create the directory.). Error reporting. Some entries may be hidden.. or as £ ¦ ¦ ¦ 7 7 7 2 2 £ £ ¦ ¦ £ £ ¦ ¦ £ ¦ . as described in Section 21. the directory has to be empty. all other permissible errors are described below. considered to form part of the directory contents.225 These functions operate on directories in the ﬁle system. Each ﬁle system object is referenced by a path. removal of the root directory). or have some administrative function (for instance. All such objects should therefore be treated as if they are ﬁles. Although there may be ﬁle system objects other than ﬁles and directories.” or “.1. Any Directory operation could raise an isIllegalOperation. where is Computation removeFile not itself a directory. this library does not distinguish between physical ﬁles and other nondirectory objects. or may not be in use by other processes). renaming to an existing directory. Entries in subdirectories are not. isAlreadyExistsError if the directory already exists. It is not legal for an implementation to partially remove a directory unless the entire directory is removed.
and for ﬁles the searchable ﬁeld will be False. but not to examine the directory contents. A conformant implementation need not support renaming ﬁles in all situations (for instance. or isDoesNotExistError if the directory does not exist. ¦ ¤§ ¤§ ¤§ ¤§ ¦ ¦ Computation getDirectoryContents returned list is named relative to the directory returns a list of all entries in . or isDoesNotExistError if the directory does not exist. renaming across different physical devices). but the constraints must be documented. setCurrentDirectory may fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to change directory to that speciﬁed. If the operating system has a notion of current directories. ¦ ¦ . or if either argument to renameFile is a directory. The renameDirectory and renameFile computations may fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to rename the ﬁle/directory. For directories. The operation doesFileExist returns True if the argument ﬁle exists and is not a directory. getPermissions and setPermissions get and set these permissions. getCurrentDirectory returns an absolute path to the current directory of the calling process. but not all permissions. if permission has been given to use them as part of a path. a construct on the following lines must be used. the executable ﬁeld will be False. or isDoesNotExistError if the ﬁle/directory ¤§ If the operating system has a notion of current directories. not as an absolute path. Error reporting. get(set)Permissions. respectively. and False otherwise. Error reporting. The getDirectoryContents and getCurrentDirectory computations may fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to access the directory. Each entry in the changes .getPermissions f setPermissions f (p {readable = True}) The operation doesDirectoryExist returns True if the argument ﬁle exists and is a directory. Permissions apply both to ﬁles and directories. Error reporting. Note that to change some. doesFile(Directory)Exist.226 CHAPTER 22. makeReadable f = do p <. and False otherwise. The getModificationTime operation returns the clock time at which the ﬁle/directory was last modiﬁed. setCurrentDirectory the current directory of the calling process to . or isDoesNotExistError if the ﬁle/directory does not exist. Note that directories may be searchable without being readable. Error reporting. DIRECTORY FUNCTIONS may refer to an existing directory. and getModificationTime may fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to access the appropriate information. The Permissions type is used to record whether certain operations are permissible on a ﬁle/directory.
or isDoesNotExistError if the ﬁle/directory does not exist.227 does not exist. The setPermissions computation may also fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to change the permission for the speciﬁed ﬁle or directory. .
DIRECTORY FUNCTIONS .228 CHAPTER 22.
getProgName. ExitSuccess indicates successful termination. Computation getArgs returns a list of the program’s command line arguments (not including the program name). if an implementation does not support an operation it must raise an isIllegalOperation. Note that. 0 on a POSIXcompliant system).Chapter 23 System Functions module System ( ExitCode(ExitSuccess. some values of may be prohibited (for instance. Any System operation could raise an isIllegalOperation. Show) getArgs getProgName getEnv system exitWith exitFailure :: :: :: :: :: :: IO [String] IO String String > IO String String > IO ExitCode ExitCode > IO a IO a This library describes the interaction of the program with the operating system. Computation getProgName returns the name of the program as it was invoked. all other permissible errors are described below. In particular. The exact interpretation of is operatingsystem dependent. Ord. 229 ¤ ¢ ¦ ¦ 2 2 ¤ ¢ ¦ 2 ¤ ¢ ¦ 2 . the isDoesNotExistError exception is raised. Computation getEnv returns the value of the environment variable .1. and ExitFailure indicates program failure with value . getEnv.ExitFailure). getArgs. Read. If variable is undeﬁned. exitWith. exitFailure ) where data ExitCode = ExitSuccess  ExitFailure Int deriving (Eq. system. in particular. as described in Section 21. The ExitCode type deﬁnes the exit codes that a program can return.
any open or semiclosed handles are ﬁrst closed. ¦ returns the exit code produced when the operating system processes 4 7 ¢ § 0 § § S ¢ ¡ ¡ . and ExitFailure to mean that the program encountered a problem from which it ). if any program terminates without calling exitWith explicitly. The value exitFailure is equal to exitWith (ExitFailure where is implementationdependent. it is treated identically to the computation ( >> exitWith ExitSuccess) ‘catch‘ \ _ > exitFailure 7 ¢ § 0 § § S ¢ ¦ 2 ¦ 2 4 Computation system the command . exitWith bypasses the error handling in the I/O monad and cannot be intercepted by catch. Before the program terminates. SYSTEM FUNCTIONS ¦ ¦ Computation exitWith terminates the program. The caller may interpret the return code as it wishes. returning to the program’s caller. then it is treated identically to the computation exitFailure. could not recover. If a program terminates as a result of calling error or because its value is otherwise determined to be .230 CHAPTER 23. but the program should return ExitSuccess to mean normal completion. Otherwise.
231 .
Int. ctMin.December).Friday. Show) :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Int. toCalendarTime.Tuesday. getClockTime. ctSec ctPicosec ctWDay ctYDay ctTZName ctTZ ctIsDST } deriving (Eq.. String. ctHour. tdDay. ctTZ. Show) .April. July.Wednesday. diffClockTimes.August. Int. Read. Ix. Day(Sunday. formatCalendarTime ) where import Ix(Ix) data ClockTime = . Bounded.. ctTZName.. Ix. ctIsDST). Day. ctSec.Implementationdependent data Month = January  February  March  April  May  June  July  August  September  October  November  December deriving (Eq.. Ord. ctHour. ctDay. Enum.Saturday). tdMonth. Enum.232 CHAPTER 24.June. Int. instance Eq ClockTime where . Read. tdYear. CalendarTime(CalendarTime.Monday. instance Ord ClockTime where . Integer. Show) data TimeDiff = TimeDiff { tdYear. Month. toUTCTime.September.. ctMonth. ctWDay.Thursday. Ord. Ord. Read.February. ctMin.March. ctYear. addToClockTime. tdHour. tdSec :: Int. ctPicosec. Bool data CalendarTime = CalendarTime { ctYear ctMonth ctDay. tdPicosec :: Integer } deriving (Eq. tdHour. Month(January.October. tdMin. tdSec.. Show) data Day = Sunday  Monday  Tuesday  Wednesday  Thursday  Friday  Saturday deriving (Eq. Read. tdPicosec). Bounded. toClockTime. tdMonth. ctYDay. DATES AND TIMES Chapter 24 Dates and Times module Time ( ClockTime. calendarTimeToString. tdDay. .May.November. tdMin. Ord. TimeDiff(TimeDiff.
The ﬁeld is True if Daylight Savings Time would be in effect.Functions on times getClockTime :: IO ClockTime addToClockTime diffClockTimes toCalendarTime toUTCTime toClockTime calendarTimeToString formatCalendarTime :: TimeDiff > ClockTime > ClockTime :: ClockTime > ClockTime > TimeDiff :: :: :: :: :: ClockTime > IO CalendarTime ClockTime > CalendarTime CalendarTime > ClockTime CalendarTime > String TimeLocale > String > CalendarTime > String The Time library provides standard functionality for clock times. Function toCalendarTime converts to a local time. Because of this dependence on the local environment. The TimeDiff type records the difference between two clock times in a userreadable way. including timezone information. Clock times may be compared directly or converted to a calendar time CalendarTime for I/O or other manipulations. The expression diffClockTimes the difference between two clock times and as a TimeDiff.233 . Value ctYear maxInt ctDay 1 ctHour 0 ctMin 0 ctSec 0 ctPicosec 0 ctYDay 0 ctTZ 89999 Range maxInt 31 23 59 61 365 89999 £ Comments PreGregorian dates are inaccurate The ﬁeld is the name of the time zone. § § © S§ ¤ § § § t ¢ £ ¦ ¤ § 8¥¥8 8 8¥¥8 8 ¤ ¢ ¤ £ 8¥¥8 8 8¥¥8 8 8¥¥8 8 8¥¥8 8 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 Allows for two Leap Seconds 364 in nonLeap years Variation from UTC in seconds § § ¦ 4 ¢ ¦ E ¡ § . used for the system’s internal clock time. The numeric ﬁelds have the following ranges. The expression addToClockTime adds a time difference and a clock time to yield a new clock time. It follows RFC 1129 in its use of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). modiﬁed by the timezone and daylight savings time settings in force at the time of conversion. The returns difference may be either positive or negative. ClockTime is an abstract type. and False otherwise. toCalendarTime is in the IO monad. Function getClockTime returns the current time in its internal representation. CalendarTime is a userreadable and manipulable representation of the internal ClockTime type.
t © S§ 24. formatCalendarTime ) where import Ix(Ix) import Locale(TimeLocale(. . getClockTime. ctTZ. Read.Implementationdependent data Month = January  February  March  April  May  June  July  August  September  October  November  December deriving (Eq. Ix. ctDay. Ix. ctYDay.April. Ord. instance Eq ClockTime where . tdMonth. ctMin. tdMin.234 § CHAPTER 24. Show) ¢ £ 4 ¢ E ¡ 7 § § ¢ G § 7 ¢ ( § . Show) data Day = Sunday  Monday  Tuesday  Wednesday  Thursday  Friday  Saturday deriving (Eq. toUTCTime. CalendarTime(CalendarTime.defaultTimeLocale) import Char ( intToDigit ) data ClockTime = ..Wednesday. tdSec. ctWDay. tdDay.June.September. and ﬁelds.1 Library Time module Time ( ClockTime.. Bounded. ctMonth. ctHour. TimeDiff(TimeDiff.. toClockTime converts into the corresponding internal ClockTime ignoring the contents of the . ctTZName.. .Friday. Enum.August. July.. .November. Month(January. Ord. toCalendarTime.Thursday. ctIsDST). DATES AND TIMES Function toUTCTime converts into a CalendarTime in standard UTC format.Monday.December). ctPicosec. ctSec.February. Bounded. Enum. Read. ctYear.Tuesday.Saturday)..October. tdHour. diffClockTimes. calendarTimeToString. tdYear.. toClockTime.). tdPicosec). instance Ord ClockTime where . Function calendarTimeToString formats calendar times using local conventions and a formatting string.March. addToClockTime.May. Day(Sunday.
. ctMin. Month. tdMonth.. tdHour. Integer. Int.24. ctHour.. Ord.Implementationdependent :: TimeDiff = . :: ClockTime = .Implementationdependent > CalendarTime .Implementationdependent :: CalendarTime > String = formatCalendarTime defaultTimeLocale "%c" . String.... Show) 235 :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Int. :: ClockTime = . > ClockTime > ClockTime . Day. tdPicosec :: Integer } deriving (Eq. :: ClockTime = . Read. Show) getClockTime getClockTime addToClockTime addToClockTime td ct diffClockTimes diffClockTimes ct1 ct2 toCalendarTime toCalendarTime ct toUTCTime toUTCTime ct toClockTime toClockTime cal calendarTimeToString calendarTimeToString :: IO ClockTime = . tdDay.. tdSec :: Int. LIBRARY TIME data CalendarTime = CalendarTime { ctYear ctMonth ctDay. Read. tdMin... Int. Bool data TimeDiff = TimeDiff { tdYear. Int. .Implementationdependent :: CalendarTime > ClockTime = .Implementationdependent > ClockTime > TimeDiff . Ord. .. ctSec ctPicosec ctWDay ctYDay ctTZName ctTZ ctIsDST } deriving (Eq.Implementationdependent > IO CalendarTime ..1..
. DATES AND TIMES formatCalendarTime :: TimeLocale > String > CalendarTime > String formatCalendarTime l fmt ct@(CalendarTime year mon day hour min sec sdec wday yday tzname _ _) = doFmt fmt where doFmt (’%’:c:cs) = decode c ++ doFmt cs doFmt (c:cs) = c : doFmt cs doFmt "" = "" to12 :: Int > Int to12 h = let h’ = h ‘mod‘ 12 in if h’ == 0 then 12 else h’ decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode ’A’ ’a’ ’B’ ’b’ ’h’ ’C’ ’c’ ’D’ ’d’ ’e’ ’H’ ’I’ ’j’ ’k’ ’l’ ’M’ ’m’ ’n’ ’p’ ’R’ ’r’ ’T’ ’t’ ’S’ ’s’ ’U’ ’u’ = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = fst (wDays l !! fromEnum wday) snd (wDays l !! fromEnum wday) fst (months l !! fromEnum mon) snd (months l !! fromEnum mon) snd (months l !! fromEnum mon) show2 (year ‘quot‘ 100) doFmt (dateTimeFmt l) doFmt "%m/%d/%y" show2 day show2’ day show2 hour show2 (to12 hour) show3 yday show2’ hour show2’ (to12 hour) show2 min show2 (fromEnum mon+1) "\n" (if hour < 12 then fst else snd) (amPm l) doFmt "%H:%M" doFmt (time12Fmt l) doFmt "%H:%M:%S" "\t" show2 sec . days) = (yday + 7 .fromEnum wday) ‘div‘ 7) show (let n = fromEnum wday in if n == 0 then 7 else n) decode ’V’ = let (week...236 CHAPTER 24.1 else 6) ‘divMod‘ 7 in show2 (if days >= 4 then .if fromEnum wday > 0 then fromEnum wday .Implementationdependent show2 ((yday + 7 .
intToDigit (x ‘rem‘ 10)] show2’ x = if x < 10 then [ ’ ’.if fromEnum wday > 0 then fromEnum wday .1.24. LIBRARY TIME week+1 else if week == 0 then 53 else week) decode ’W’ = show2 ((yday + 7 .1 else 6) ‘div‘ 7) decode ’w’ = show (fromEnum wday) decode ’X’ = doFmt (timeFmt l) decode ’x’ = doFmt (dateFmt l) decode ’Y’ = show year decode ’y’ = show2 (year ‘rem‘ 100) decode ’Z’ = tzname decode ’%’ = "%" decode c = [c] show2. intToDigit x] else show2 x show3 x = intToDigit (x ‘quot‘ 100) : show2 (x ‘rem‘ 100) 237 . show2’. show3 :: Int > String show2 x = [intToDigit (x ‘quot‘ 10).
238 CHAPTER 24. DATES AND TIMES .
Ord. String). defaultTimeLocale) where data TimeLocale = TimeLocale { wDays :: [(String. months :: [(String. time12Fmt :: String } deriving (Eq.). Show) defaultTimeLocale :: TimeLocale full and abbreviated week days full and abbreviated months AM/PM symbols formatting strings The Locale library provides the ability to adapt to local conventions. dateFmt. 239 . String)]. At present. timeFmt. amPm :: (String. it supports only time and date information as used by calendarTimeToString from the Time library. String)].. dateTimeFmt.Chapter 25 Locale module Locale(TimeLocale(.
240
CHAPTER 25. LOCALE
25.1 Library Locale
module Locale(TimeLocale(..), defaultTimeLocale) where data TimeLocale = TimeLocale { wDays :: [(String, String)], months :: [(String, String)], amPm :: (String, String), dateTimeFmt, dateFmt, timeFmt, time12Fmt :: String } deriving (Eq, Ord, Show) full and abbreviated week days full and abbreviated months AM/PM symbols formatting strings
defaultTimeLocale :: TimeLocale defaultTimeLocale = TimeLocale { wDays = [("Sunday", "Sun"), ("Monday", "Mon"), ("Tuesday", "Tue"), ("Wednesday", "Wed"), ("Thursday", "Thu"), ("Friday", "Fri"), ("Saturday", "Sat")], months = [("January", ("March", ("May", ("July", ("September", ("November", "Jan"), "Mar"), "May"), "Jul"), "Sep"), "Nov"), ("February", ("April", ("June", ("August", ("October", ("December", "Feb"), "Apr"), "Jun"), "Aug"), "Oct"), "Dec")],
amPm = ("AM", "PM"), dateTimeFmt = "%a %b %e %H:%M:%S %Z %Y", dateFmt = "%m/%d/%y", timeFmt = "%H:%M:%S", time12Fmt = "%I:%M:%S %p" }
Chapter 26
CPU Time
module CPUTime ( getCPUTime, cpuTimePrecision ) where getCPUTime cpuTimePrecision :: IO Integer :: Integer
Computation getCPUTime returns the number of picoseconds of CPU time used by the current program. The precision of this result is given by cpuTimePrecision. This is the smallest measurable difference in CPU time that the implementation can record, and is given as an integral number of picoseconds.
241
242
CHAPTER 26. CPU TIME
243
244
CHAPTER 27. RANDOM NUMBERS
Chapter 27
Random Numbers
module Random ( RandomGen(next, split, genRange), StdGen, mkStdGen, Random( random, randomR, randoms, randomRs, randomIO, randomRIO ), getStdRandom, getStdGen, setStdGen, newStdGen ) where  The RandomGen class class RandomGen genRange :: g next :: g split :: g g where > (Int, Int) > (Int, g) > (g, g)
 A standard instance of RandomGen data StdGen = ...  Abstract instance RandomGen StdGen where ... instance Read StdGen where ... instance Show StdGen where ... mkStdGen :: Int > StdGen  The Random class class Random a where randomR :: RandomGen g => (a, a) > g > (a, g) random :: RandomGen g => g > (a, g) randomRs :: RandomGen g => (a, a) > g > [a] randoms :: RandomGen g => g > [a] randomRIO :: (a,a) > IO a randomIO :: IO a instance instance instance instance instance instance Random Random Random Random Random Random Int Integer Float Double Bool Char where where where where where where ... ... ... ... ... ...
 The global random generator newStdGen :: IO StdGen setStdGen :: StdGen > IO () getStdGen :: IO StdGen getStdRandom :: (StdGen > (a, StdGen)) > IO a
That in turn allows an implementation to make a single call to genRange to establish a generator’s range. The next operation returns an Int that is uniformly distributed in the range returned by genRange (including both end points).1. – genRange – If genRange . THE RANDOMGEN CLASS. g) split :: g > (g. It is required that: The second condition ensures that genRange cannot examine its argument. This is very useful in functional programs (for example. without being concerned that the generator returned by (say) next might have a different range to the generator passed to next.Default method genRange g = (minBound. and the StdGen generator The class RandomGen provides a common interface to random number generators. when passing a random number generator down to recursive calls). g) . class RandomGen g where genRange :: g > (Int. . AND THE STDGEN GENERATOR 245 The Random library deals with the common task of pseudorandom number generation. and a new generator. but very little work has been done on statistically robust implementations of split ([1. and hence the value it returns can be determined only by the instance of RandomGen. 27.Int) next :: g > (Int.27. ¦ ¡ ¡ .1 The RandomGen class. or by supplying a seed from some other source.4] are the only examples we know of). The library is split into two layers: A core random number generator provides a supply of bits.maxBound) The genRange operation yields the range of values returned by the generator. or to get different results on each run by using the systeminitialised generator. then . The split operation allows one to obtain two independent random number generators. The class Random provides a way to extract particular values from a random number generator. The class RandomGen provides a common interface to such generators. The library makes it possible to generate repeatable results. the Float instance of Random allows one to generate random values of type Float. For example. by starting with a speciﬁed initial random number generator.
by mapping an Int into a generator... distinct arguments should be likely to produce distinct generators. instance Show StdGen where . The Show/Read instances of StdGen provide a primitive way to save the state of a random number generator. RANDOM NUMBERS The Random library provides one instance of RandomGen. supply their own instances of RandomGen. It is required that read (show g) == g. Until more is known about implementations of split. It guarantees to consume only a ﬁnite portion of the string... A superﬁcially attractive implementation of split is instance RandomGen MyGen where . but in fact they are both equal to variantOf g. variantOf g) Here.... .3]. read may be used to map an arbitrary string (not necessarily one produced by show) onto a value of type StdGen. Programmers may. instance Read StdGen where . The result of repeatedly using next should be at least as statistically robust as the “Minimal Standard Random Number Generator” described by [2. mkStdGen :: Int > StdGen The StgGen instance of RandomGen has a genRange of at least 30 bits. Implementations of the above form do not meet the speciﬁcation. all we require is that split deliver generators that are (a) not identical and (b) independently robust in the sense just given. Different argument strings are likely to result in different results.246 CHAPTER 27. then g1 and g2 should be independent. . Implementation warning. In addition.. split returns g itself and a new generator derived from g. In general.Abstract instance RandomGen StdGen where . the abstract data type StdGen: data StdGen = .. of course. Again. split g = (g. The function mkStdGen provides an alternative way of producing an initial generator. But now consider these two apparentlyindependent generators: g1 = snd (split g) g2 = snd (split (fst (split g))) If split genuinely delivers independent generators (as speciﬁed).. the read instance of StdGen has the following properties: It guarantees to succeed on any string.
. produce an inﬁnite list of random values. the range is (arbitrarily) the range of Int.similar.. random does the same as randomR.. a) > g > (a. randomRs and randoms.. . .g’) = random g randomRs = .. the Random class allows the programmer to extract random values of a variety of types: class Random a where randomR :: RandomGen g => (a..27.2. For continuous types there is no requirement that the values and are ever produced. such as Char).. – For fractional types. . g) randomRs :: RandomGen g => (a.2 The Random class With a source of random number supply in hand. g) random :: RandomGen g => g > (a. . the range is normally the whole type... depending on the implementation and the interval. The plural versions.. randomR takes a range and a random number generator ... and do not return a new generator. .Default methods randoms g = x : randoms g’ where (x. – For bounded types (instances of Bounded. the range is normally the semiclosed interval ¦ ¨ § ¨¥ 2 7 § ¨¥ £ § ¨¥ 2 7 2 7 § ¨¥ 2 7 .. . randomIO = getStdRandom random randomRIO range = getStdRandom (randomR range) instance instance instance instance instance instance Random Random Random Random Random Random Int Integer Float Double Bool Char where where where where where where . a) > g > [a] randoms :: RandomGen g => g > [a] randomRIO :: (a.. THE RANDOM CLASS 247 27. but does not take a range. but they may be.. together with a new generator. and returns a random value uniformly distributed in the closed interval . It is unspeciﬁed what happens if ..a) > IO a randomIO :: IO a . – For Integer.
RANDOM NUMBERS The IO versions. updates it with one of the results. by using the time of day. [4] P Hellekalek. Comm ACM. 33(1). and returns the other. use setStdGen. getStdRandom uses the supplied function to get a value from the current global random generator. and KW Miller. Jan 1990. held in some global variable maintained by the IO monad. “Don’t trust parallel Monte Carlo”.3 The global random number generator There is a single. . setStdGen getStdGen newStdGen getStdRandom :: :: :: :: StdGen > IO () IO StdGen IO StdGen (StdGen > (a. ACM SIGSIM Simulation Digest 28(1). [3] DG Carta. randomRIO and randomIO. Comm ACM 31(10). To get deterministic behaviour. “Random number generators .6)) References [1] FW Burton and RL Page. It is initialised automatically in some systemdependent fashion. newStdGen applies split to the current global random generator. use the global random number generator (see Section 27. global random number generator of type StdGen.mat. Journal of Functional Programming. “Two fast implementations of the minimal standard random number generator”. pp11921201. 2(2):203212. or Linux’s kernel random number generator.sbg. respectively. pp8788. Oct 1988. [2] SK Park. implicit.248 CHAPTER 27.ac. “Distributed random number generation”. and updates the global generator with the new generator returned by the function. The Web site http://random.at/ is a great source of information. rollDice gets a random integer between 1 and 6: rollDice :: IO Int rollDice = getStdRandom (randomR (1. pp8289. July 1998. 27. for example. For example. StdGen)) > IO a getStdGen and setStdGen get and set the global random number generator.good ones are hard to ﬁnd”.3). April 1992.
Texas. Reading. CACM. Peterson. [11] Unicode Consortium.. Can programming be liberated from the von Neumann style? A functional style and its algebra of programs. Hindley. Technical Report YALEU/DCS/RR901. Addison Wesley. Penﬁeld. Damas and R. Combinatory Logic. [7] Mark P.R. N. PrenticeHall International. In Proceedings of the 9th ACM Symposium on Principles of Programming Languages. pages 207–212. Englewood Cliffs. Milner. [12] P. The Unicode Standard. 1987. and J. September 1981. Hudak. Feys. Peyton Jones. In APL ’81 Conference Proceedings. e [5] J.0. MA. January 1982. [9] P. Yale University. August 1978. [3] L. [2] H. Haskell Workshop. 2000. 146:29–60.M. 249 . December 1969.L. New Jersey. J. 5(1). Fax´ n A static semantics for Haskell Journal of Functional Programming. Co. Jones. Principal type schemes for functional programs. NorthHolland Pub.B. Version 3. Blott. How to make ad hoc polymorphism less ad hoc. The principal type scheme of an object in combinatory logic. A system of constructor classes: overloading and implicit higherorder polymorphism. Journal of Functional Programming. Jones. May 1996. pages 248–256. January 1995. [4] KF.. Jr. Austin. Albuquerque. Transactions of the American Mathematical Society. Fasel. 21(8):613–641. Backus. [10] S. The Implementation of Functional Programming Languages. Principal values and branch cuts in complex APL. Wadler and S. Typing Haskell in Haskell. 1958.Bibliography [1] J. January 1989. Curry and R. Paris. 2002. San Francisco. In Proceedings of the 16th ACM Symposium on Principles of Programming Languages. Amsterdam. [8] Mark P. October 1999. A gentle introduction to Haskell. pages 60–76. [6] P.
250 BIBLIOGRAPHY .
Code Index entries that refer to nonterminals in the Haskell syntax are shown in an entities are shown in typewriter font. 104. 176. 79. 141 all. 20–23. 206 apat.). 82. 104. 186. 142 >. see operator application approxRational. 233. 55. 93. 105. 80 (. 110 /. 55. 91. 55. 173. 129 any. 119 ANYseq. 109 >>=. 139 algebraic datatype. 55. 55. 126 AppendMode. 80 \\. 155. 104. 55. 104. 119 alt.Index font. 151. 104. 104. 12 \f. 55. 12 \n. 66 abs. 91. 104. see aspattern [] (nil). 104. 84. 109 ==. 104. 175. 119 ANY. 230 ˆ. 104. 104. Ordinary index entries are shown in a roman font. 97. 139 alts. 106 addToClockTime. 104. 12 \b. 12 . 55. 55. see trivial type and unit expression *.. 177 accumArray. see also negation . 97. 142 <=. 115. 55.). 140 appendFile. 19 function. 79. 31. 80 (). 62 and. 55. 44. 90. 173. see lambda abstraction \&. 25. 88. 88. 91. 9. 9. 12 \\. 92. 104. 110 $!. 92. 97. 81. 81. 153 251 § 7 3¢ §§ ¢ ¦ . 17. 91. 104. 174. 175–177 /=. 142 >=. 12 \v. 81. 104. see function application operator. 67. 105 **. 91. 55. see also + pattern ++. 142 >>. 129 any. 90. 109 @. 214 application. 235 aexp. 82. 104. 16. 104. 84. 116 $. see wildcard pattern . 156 ::. 104. 105 AbsoluteSeek. 217 abstract datatype. 84. 180. 90. 151. 45. 43. 55. 91. 30 <. 55. !.. 55. 91. 142 =<<. 51. 177 !!. 84. 104. 153 &&. 106 +. 139 ambiguous type. 109 ˆˆ. 92. 105. 55. 173. 55. 104. 25. 91. 129 ap. 187 \. 12 \t. 106 acosh. 142 :. 182 \a. 174. 173. 55. 55. 55. 80 :+. 88. 177 acos. 92. 76 accum. 91. 55. 106 //. 110 ˜. 91. 115 . 104. 9. 90. 55. 109 _. 110 (. 202. 12 \r. 110 %. see irrefutable pattern abbreviated module.
7 ascLarge. 9. 12. 193. 161. 115 conditional expression. 12. 130 chr.252 arithmetic operator. see function binding pattern. 37 function. 129 ascii. 137 BufferMode (datatype). 93. 177 aspattern (@). see transparent character set charesc. 232 ClockTime (datatype). 69. 9. 47. 115 concatMap. 174. 137 basic input/output. 67 with an empty where part. 92. 12 character set ASCII. see pattern binding simple pattern. 121. 174. 140 concat. 136 Bool (datatype). 106 atype. 194 cdecl. 9 comment. 173. 49 clock time. 80 Array (datatype). 210 CalendarTime (datatype). 9 nested. 17. 91. 40. 173. 23. 108 atanh. 174 derived. 211. 137 ceiling. 125. 18. 129 compare. 98. 9. 143 instance for Char. 66. 110 boolean. 18. 173. 129 asin. 197. 9. 106 asinh. 221 break. 79. 38. 235 calendarTimeToString. 226 Char (datatype). 92. 137 class assertion. 140 . 48. 173. 173 accumulated. 84. 105 derived instance. 155. 11. 12. 177 asTypeOf. 234 closecom. 232. 211. 215 closure. 9 endofline. 48 class environment. 156 con. 79. 93. 142 Complex (module). 47. 195. 232. 41. 91. 12. 235 case expression. 155. 31. 79 Bounded (class). 177 bracket. 130 conjugate. 197 array. 130 ASCII character set. 106 assocs. 91. 137 cdecls. 129 closing a ﬁle. 195. 161. 130 character. 156 class. 9. 39. 176. 174 Array (module). 90 arithmetic sequence. 221 bracket_. 21 conid. 234 char. 89. 233. 47. 38. 176 array. 136 cntrl. see simple pattern binding body. see ASCII character set transparent. 114 atan. 41 class declaration. 91. 106 atan2. 33 ascDigit. 79 literal syntax. 10. 230 catMaybes. 198 cis. 107 changing the directory. 110 Char (module). 42 class method. 129 ascSymbol. 129 ascSmall. 9. 174. 40. 47 class. 38. 95 binding. 111 bounds. 17. 130 coercion. 155. 51. 38. 74 cname. 104. 25 INDEX catch. 93 comment. 156 conop. 118 btype.
9. Haskell B. see also instance declaration deriving. 224. 180. 184. see class declaration datatype. 41. 224 div. 112 drop. 235 ctMin. 163 doesDirectoryExist. 241 cpuTimePrecision. 187 deleteBy. 37 class. see recursive datatype renaming. 43. 81. 47 within a let expression. 55. 225 deleting ﬁles. 106 cosine. 97 doDiv. 232. see data declaration recursive. 114 Curry. 187 deleting directories. 38. see instance declaration within a class declaration. 111 elem. 145 default declaration. 48. 106 do expression. 11. 226 curry. 129 digitToInt. 177 encodeFloat. 43. 43 datatype. 43 abstract. 91.INDEX const. 182. 43. see algebraic datatype declaration. see import declaration instance. 108 default class method. 233. see abstract datatype algebraic. 138 constrs. 93. 232. 225 denominator. 10. 91. 232. 130 decl. 195. 173. 186 elemIndices. 239. 224 Directory (module). 41 context. 58 derived instance. 235 digit. 43. 232. 115. 92. 235 current directory. 197 directories. 239. 182. 213. 9. 241 createDirectory.. 232. 240 Day (datatype). 51. 241 CPUTime (module). 214 ctDay. 89. 119 elemIndex. 180. 153 dependency analysis. 111 either. 117 dashes. see default declaration 253 ﬁxity. 138 decimal. 93 CPU time. 118 dropWhile. 187 deleteFirstsBy. 225 creating a ﬁle. 184. 137 context reduction. 38. 91. 106 divMod. 129 data constructor. 55. 58 decls. 91. 43 data declaration. 27. 50. 80. 235 ctIsDST. 51 defaultTimeLocale. 92. vii cycle. 186 elems. 56. 40 consym. 93. 108 . 110 constr. 239. 151. 59 cos. 234 dclass. 235 ctHour. 38 constructor expression. 106 cosh. 180. see newtype declaration dateFmt. 90. 92. 137 decodeFloat. see ﬁxity declaration import. 182. 81. 240 dateTimeFmt. 224 doesFileExist. 130 context. 141. 26. 137 declaration. 138 constructor class. 49 declaration group. 180. 138 diffClockTimes. 167 Either (datatype). 24 within an instance declaration. 118 e. see data declaration default. 240 delete. 104. 224 Double (datatype). 180. 81. 174.
30. 91 export. 110 superclass of Num. 51. 91. 186 ﬁxity. 229 exitFailure. 139 fexp. 207 find. 92. 142 instance for Char. 142 instance for Array. 44 construction. 136 export list. 167 fail. 139 exp. 105 superclass of Ord. 92. 111 instance for Double. 106 exponent. see unit expression expression typesignature. 229 exitWith. 159. 17 error. 66 exports. 4. 115 filterM. 180. 15 case. 21. 158 superclass of RealFloat. 108 exception handling. 136 v INDEX expression. 170 enumFrom. 17. 106 instance for Complex. 113 instance for Ratio. 18 ﬁxity. 186 findIndex. 162 expts. see let expression simple case. 104 error.254 end of ﬁle. 12. 229 ExitFailure. 16. 16. 67. 104 derived instance. 86. 89. see type expression unit. 166 ¡ ¢ ¡ . 105 enumFromThen. 29 ﬁelddecl. 54. see conditional expression let. 91. 186 findIndices. 65 Enum (class). 99. 86. 12 floatDigits. 54 flip. 213 ﬁle buffering. 79 fbind. 230 escape. see case expression conditional. 98 executable. 81 Eq (class). 81. 105 enumFromTo. 91. 229 ExitSuccess. 229 . 105 enumFromThenTo. 51. 94. 137 ﬁxity declaration. see label. 82. 19. 93. 108 exponentiation. 86. 43. 138 ﬁle. 88. 38. 154 superclass of Integral. 215 entity. see simple case expression type. 52 expt. 49. 108 ﬂoating literal pattern. 92. 108 floatRange. 51. 213 FilePath (type synonym). 109. 212 False. 28 selection. 180. 24–26. 110 Float (datatype). 105 derived instance. 139 exp. 19. 86. 215 ﬁle system. 93. 92. 28. 33 floatRadix. 130 even. 113 instance for Float. 224 execution time. 229 EQ. 164 ﬁeld label. 108 Floating (class). 114. 163 f. 105 environment class. 16. 180. 4. 108 floatToDigits. 202. 241 ExitCode (datatype). 86. see class environment type. 182. 27 update. 48. 97. 139 FFFormat (datatype). see type environment environment variables. 92. 177 instance for Char. 93. 112 ﬂoat. 30. 106 enumeration. 89. 89. 125 filter. 67.
233. 91. 165 formfeed. 93. 210 HandlePosn (datatype). 109 fromJust. vii. 130 hexit. 31. 92. 105 fromInteger. 248 getStdRandom. 105 fromIntegral. 111 functor. 59 generalization preorder. 157 instance for Ratio. 187 groupBy. 25. 215 head. 47. 207 foldr. 137 guard. 116 foldl1. 56. 92. 109. 80. 40. 244. 193. 229 getStdGen. 91. 140 Fractional (class). 181. 109 instance for []. 11. 125 getClockTime.INDEX floor. 153 superclass of Floating. 117 foldr1. 210. 244. 177 instance for IO. 189 genericTake. 229 getChar. 159. 18. 130 gcd. 245 get the contents of a ﬁle. 229 getLine. 96. 113 instance for Array. 190 genericSplitAt. 18 gd. 213 Haskell. 107 fromEnum. vii Functor (class). 225 getDirectoryContents. 55. 129 group. 235 getContents. 116 foldM. 90. 190 genericLength. 18. 129 255 . 92. 34 guard. 181. 224. 138 gap. 189 genericReplicate. 111 instance for Maybe. 9. 87 funlhs. 54. 184. 202. 183. 25. 40. 91. 12. 41 functional language. 18. 224 getPermissions. 140 fpats. 3 Haskell kernel. 86. 106 instance for Complex. 194 fromRat. 138 gdpat. 90. 56. 188 GT. 233. 106 fst. 81 function binding. 236 formatRealFloat. 129 fpat. 181. 181. 114 function. 9. 210 handles. 225 getEnv. 162 fromRational. 219 getArgs. 115 hexadecimal. 23. 107 ﬂushing a ﬁle buffer. 56 function type. 176 foldl. 162 fromRat’. 194 fromMaybe. 217 fmap. 117 formal semantics. 138 gendecl. 125 getModificationTime. 106 superclass of RealFrac. 241 getCurrentDirectory. 181. 49. 42 generator. 189 genericIndex. 206 Handle (datatype). 181. 224 getProgName. 248 graphic. 189 genRange. 96. 202. 224. 87. 244. 3 formatCalendarTime. 181. 81 gtycon. 4 hClose. 25. 193. 108 gcon. 23 genericDrop. 89. 181. 139 gdrhs. 140 gconsym. 125 getCPUTime. 91. 96. 94. 137 generalization. 18. 9. 87. 38. 31.
9 ifthenelse expression. 33. 211. 211. 81. 184. 211. 217 hGetBuffering. 49. 212. 212 ioError. 219 inRange. 177 init. 211. 38. 174. 219 hGetLine. 189 inst. 71 with an empty where part. 89. 12 integer literal pattern. 183. 218 hIsReadable. 38. 211. 211 hReady. 181. 173. 70 HindleyMilner type system. 137 identiﬁer. 218 hLookAhead. 182. 210. 210 IO (datatype). 212 isFullError. 89. 181. 91. 210. 219 hPutStr. 211. 181. 195. 110 idecl. 211. 197 isAlphaNum. 219 hPutChar. 217 hGetChar. 219 hPutStrLn. 194 . 211. 69. 211. 116 inits. 218 hIsWritable. 197 isControl. 125. 172 insert. 212 IOError (datatype). 211. 211. 211. 156 impdecl. 218 hIsSeekable. 212 ioeGetFileName. 218 I/O. 188 inlining. 181. 211. 211. 215 hIsOpen. 214 irrefutable pattern. 195. 211. 219 hPrint. 217 hWaitForInput. 218 hIsEOF. 195. 81. 195. 155.256 hFileSize. 197 isIllegalOperation. 187 intToDigit. 216. 211. 197 isDoesNotExistError. 211. 195. 136 import declaration. 126 intersect. 69. 112 integer. 112 Integer (datatype). 188 insertBy. see conditional expression imagPart. 111 IO (module). 215 isEOFError. 58 hIsClosed. 211. 136 index. 33 integerLogBase. 211. 181. 187 intersectBy. 172 indices. 218 hSeek. 215 isAscii. 49. 217 hSetBuffering. 211. 92. 147 INDEX input/output. 211. 211. 49. 211. 212. 125 IOMode (datatype). 212 isAlreadyInUseError. 212 id. 212 isHexDigit. 197 isAlreadyExistsError. 106 interact. 211. 171. 137 idecls. 211. 34. 181. 215 hFlush. 210 I/O errors. 49. 81. 184. 211. 211. 216 hSetPosn. 214. 4. 49 Int (datatype). 98. 211. 195. 218 hGetPosn. 211. 183. 193. 96. 212 isJust. 136 impdecls. 211. 197 isDigit. 221 ioeGetErrorString. 211. 198 IO. 69. 38. 66. 171. 218 hGetContents. 169. 169. 211. 138 instance declaration. 217 hiding. 92. 136 import. 24. 195. see also derived instance importing and exporting. 50. 187 intersperse. 69 impspec. 212 ioeGetHandle. 215 isEOF. 163 Integral (class). 57 isAlpha. 183. 210 input/output examples.
181. 129 lexical structure. 210. 118 List (module). 40. 172 instance for Integer. 91. 13. 212. 202. 239 log. 81 kind. 194 isOctDigit. 74 liftM. 193. 172. 104. 197 isSpace. 109 mapMaybe. 142 maxBound. 64 kind inference. see also offside rule lcm. 23. 202. 80 list comprehension. 92 magnitude. 89. 119 maximumBy. 173. 183. 195. 184. 207 v 257 liftM2. 206 Just. 176. 202. 31. 140 LT. 186 list. 40. 56 linearity. 80 list type. 16. 207 liftM3. 188 isUpper. 106 logarithm. 202. 181. 188 mapAccumR. 172 instance for Int. 31. 50. 105. 9. 174. 64 label. 181. 193. 195. 139 libraries. 172 derived instance. 19. 234 ixmap. 116 let expression. 109 Left. 21. 188 mapAndUnzipM. 44. 84. 180. 50. 45. 56 lines. 19 large. 92. 173. 19. 195. 27 lambda abstraction. 171. 41 listArray. 122 lexDigits. 9. 183. 232. 197 isNothing. 7 lexLitChar. 31. 109 match. 65 making directories. 32 literate comments. 9. 91 logBase. 197 isLower. 23 lex. 207 liftM4. 115 mapAccumL. 143 maximal munch rule. 169. 181. 116 layout. 202. 130. 197 isPermissionError. 81 length. 127 maximum. 211. 12. 26 in list comprehensions. 81 magnitude. 155. 189 Maybe (datatype). 44. 156 Main (module). 207 linear pattern. 88. 195. 86. 202. 234. 195. 81. 45. 212 iterate. 106 lookahead. 195. 168 lexeme. 211. 240 locale. 188 isPrint. 207 liftM5. 134 Locale (module). 173. 197 isSuffixOf. 91. 129 last. 111 v § ¢ £ 7¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ 7 . 197 isUserError. 65 main. 159. 129 literal pattern. 195. 176. 176. 194 literal. 40. 172 Ix (module). 198 max. 206 mapM. 9. 91. 39. 169. 199 . 24 in do expressions. 170 instance for Char. 117 Ix (class). 181. 202. 225 map. 119 . 193. 219 lookup.INDEX isLatin1. 239. 194 mapM_. 215 isPrefixOf. 88. 177 listToMaybe. 177 join.
61 Month (datatype). 89. 81 nub.258 Maybe (module). 34. 91. 119 Ord (class). 89. 184. 54. 9. 17. 32–34. 130. 91. 90 numericEnumFrom. 90. 79. 89 literal syntax. 182. 33. 95 MonadPlus (class). see also layout op. 136 Monad (class). 113 instance for IO. 244. 18. 157 instance for Ratio. 186. 11 translation of literals. 20 newconstr. 197 numeric type. 244. 66. 178 instance for Char. 115. 105 negation. 51. see qualiﬁed name special. 119 Nothing. 193. 248 newtype declaration. 91. 19 operator application. 113 numericEnumFromThenTo. 232. 46 INDEX next. 106 modid. 198 Ordering (datatype). 119 minimumBy. 89. 9. 16. 140 opencom. 129 odd. 202. 10 ncomment. 113 numericEnumFromTo. 111 maybeToList. 234 moving directories. 26. 155. 60. 11. 129 openFile. 136 module. 153 superclass of Real. 91. 84. 57 name qualiﬁed. 206 instance for []. 54. 81. 180. 81. 245 nonnull. 88. 88. 106 superclass of Real. 10. 246 mod. 13. 104. 225 mplus. 138 newline. 104 derived instance. 161. 116 Num (class). see special name namespaces. 210. 18 numerator. 90. 206 msum. 27. 109 instance for []. 153 Numeric (module). 129 newStdGen. 206 monomorphic type variable. 9. 55. 195. 105. 46. 214 opening a ﬁle. 194 method. 61 monomorphism restriction. 66. 5. 151. 137 or. 105 ord. 193. 202. 181. see class method min. 52. 111 superclass of MonadPlus. 105 instance for Complex. 202. 202. 9. 111 instance for Maybe. 111 instance for Ratio. 153 superclass of Fractional. 186 nubBy. 206 Monad (module). 142 instance for Array. 19. 65 module. 194 maybe. 142 minBound. 38. 9. 189 mkPolar. 129 negate. 156 mkStdGen. 113 octal. 202. 19 ops. 32. 143 minimum. 187 null. 225 moving ﬁles. 110 notElem. 159. 230 operator. 206 mzero. 121. 84. 19. 180. 130 octit. 113 numericEnumFromThen. 11. 168 not. 206 instance for Maybe. 244. 206 monad. 55. 184. 105 number. 108 offside rule. 112 ¢ ¦ . 104. 206 + pattern. 214 operating system commands.
103 PreludeBuiltin (module). 130 qtycon. 151. 140 qconid. 130 qconop. 106 qvar. 18. 3 properFraction. 11. 103. 121 derived instance. 91. 140 qvarsym. 140 qconsym. 11. 53 print. 11. 140 pat. 11. 91. 125 putStrLn. 72 qualiﬁer. 217 RandomGen. 124 instance for Array. 125 putStr. 171. 70. 229 program structure. 91. 31. 75. 125 product. 105 Prelude implicit import of. 247 random access ﬁles. 156 physical ﬁle. 121 principal type. 169. 30 overloaded constant. 90. 247 randomRs. 140 qvarid. see linear pattern + . 54 polymorphism. 9. 18. 103. see patternmatching overloading. 247 range. 244. 224 phase. 147 precedence. 125 qcon. 130 qual. 96. 41 quot. 11. 23. 119 program. 38 overloaded pattern. 31. 43. 140 qtycls. 129 v 259 program arguments. 247 randomR. 245 randomIO. 213 pi. 130 qvarop. 156 polling a handle for input. 161 Rational (type synonym). 110 overloaded functions. see + pattern refutable. 25. 103. 107 putChar. 93. 183. 244. 103. see wildcard pattern constructed. 143 instance for [a]. 244. 247 randomRIO. 18. see also ﬁxity pred. see refutable pattern pattern binding. 151 Ratio (module). 51 partition. see irrefutable pattern linear. 172 Ratio (datatype). 30 @. 247 Random (module). 218 polymorphic recursion. 85. 42. 244 random. 153. 11. see ﬂoating literal pattern integer. 18. 19. see aspattern _. 103. 125 PreludeIO (module). 34 Permissions (datatype). 51. 79. 153 rational numbers. 244. 155. 92. 229 program name. 140 path. 244. 172 rangeSize. 169. 181. 115 PreludeText (module). 96. 106 polar. 244. 130 qop. 18. 75 Prelude (module). 151. 96. 139 qualiﬁed name. 104. 178 ¢ ¦ ¢ ¦ § ¢ £¡ .INDEX otherwise. 96. 187 . 57 patternmatching. 106 quotRem. 225 pattern. 47 defaults. 247 randoms. 11. 125 PreludeList (module). see constructed pattern ﬂoating. 55. 171. 155. see integer literal pattern irrefutable. 130 Random (class). 4 pragmas. 23 quantiﬁcation. 151 Read (class).
137 searchable. 85. 224. 91. 110 sequence. 198 readFile. 91. 159. 198 readLn. 88. 123 instance for Int. 92. 126 ReadMode. 109 reverse. 164 reading a directory. 117 scontext. 244. 92. 96. 225 removing directories. 130 return. 159. 51. 225 removeFile. 117 reservedid. 163 readsPrec. 166 . 46 refutable pattern. 164 readParen. 10. 124 v v § ¡ ¢ £¡ ¢ ¡ ¤ ¤ . 217 rem. 94. 106 recursive datatype. 224. 154 superclass of RealFloat. 20. 224. 122 readable. 143 readLitChar. 107 roundTo. 104. 116 scanl1. 107 RealFloat (class). 56. 214 readFloat. 214 separate compilation. 109 setCurrentDirectory. 226 reading from a ﬁle. 92. 162 scanl. 10. 168 readHex. 140 INDEX scaleFloat. 210. 122 ReadS (type synonym). 164 readIO. 123 instance for Ratio. 218 readInt. 121. 105 instance for Ratio. 126. 126 readList. 109 sequence_. 225 setPermissions. 117 scanr1. 116 scanr. 93. see also operator application SeekFromEnd. 121.260 instance for Char. 214 readOct. 107 instance for Ratio. see formal semantics semiclosed handles. 121 reads. 85. 106 removeDirectory. 85. 143 ReadWriteMode. 92. 55. 117 replicate. 224 section. 224. 248 setting the directory. 92. 88. 159. 224. 156 realToFrac. 130 reservedop. 10. 159. 224 setStdGen. 91. 33 RelativeSeek. 109 recip. 85. 86. 97. 96. 90. 225 renameDirectory. 121 derived instance. 86. 195. 104. 225 renameFile. 225 repeat. 81 round. 225 removing ﬁles. 93. 217 semantics formal. 154 read. 108 realPart. 139 rhs. 106 superclass of RealFrac. 124 instance for Double. 123 instance for Float. 155. 225 renaming directories. 143 instance for [a]. 153 superclass of Integral. 159. 123 instance for Integer. 89. 108 RealFrac (class). 164 readEsc. 88. 31. 85. 225 renaming ﬁles. 85. 119 . 224 readDec. 159. 108 scaleRat. 16. 81. 226 Show (class). 76 seq. 217 SeekMode (datatype). 138 Right. 214 Real (class). 217 seeking a ﬁle. 122 readSigned.
195. 115 tails. 122 sign. 210. 163 showsPrec. 164 showGFloat. 210 instance for Integer. 121 shows. 45. 237 showChar. 159. 181. 91. 164 showHex. 57.INDEX instance for Array. 213 stdout. 119 superclass. 130 synonym. 106 tdDay. 181. 9. 85. 129 split. 86. 92. 184. 163 showParen. 9. 159. 237 show2’. 127 System (module). 159. 122 showEFloat. 159. 108 succ. 181. 45 strictness ﬂags. 213 standard prelude. 178 instance for Char. 93 tanh. 139 stmts. 106 tangent. 138 sin. 163 showList. 62 simpleclass. 91. 9. 26. 105 simple pattern binding. 213 StdGen (datatype). 53 significand. 118 special. 235 tdHour. 143 showLitChar. 232. 41. 235 tdMin. 9. 26. 244. 92. 43. 12. 229 system. 105 show. 139 strictness ﬂag. see type synonym syntax. 188 take. 235 261 . 122 ShowS (type synonym). 213 stmt. 159. 129 snd. 143 showString. 121 show2. 114 sort. 106 standard handles. 49 symbol. 129. 106 size of ﬁle. 123 instance for Ratio. 235 tdMonth. 93 sinh. 121. 74. 85. 245 splitAt. 229 tab. 244. 82 String (type synonym). 199 showOct. 121. 188 space. 163 showInt. 237 show3. 85. see transparent string string. 92 signature. 232. 232. 246 stdin. 164 showFFloat. 117 takeWhile. 159. 183. 48. 130 subtract. 154 superclass of Num. 80. 210. 85. 159. 124 instance for Double. 122 showSigned. 137 simpletype. 46. 159. 118 tan. 91. 188 sortBy. 164 showFloat. 183. 91. 163 showIntAtBase. 129 tail. 129 span. 91. 85. 210. 108 signum. 105 sum. 12 transparent. 94. 106 sine. 215 small. 86. 9. see type signature signdecl. 235 tdPicosec. 123 instance for Int. 123 instance for HandlePosn. see also Prelude stderr. 232. 79 literal syntax. 123 instance for Float. 118 sqrt. 111 string. 91. 232. 159. 80.
187 trigonometric function. 181. 9. 136 toRational. 233. 129 unless. 130 uncurry. 11. 233. 4 var. 93. 184. 239. 11. 107 try. 130 tycon. 195. 4. 93 trivial type. 181. 180. 80 tuple type. 232 time of day. 224. 22 uniWhite. 43 type environment. 182.262 tdYear. 120 unzip4. 190 unzip5. 211. 18. 235 timeFmt. 181. 129 uniSymbol. 42 ambiguous. 9. 17. see class type constructor. 9. 129 unit datatype. 45 topdecl. 105 toUpper. 22. 45. 239. 137 type class. 42. 197 uniDigit. 17. 9. 49 value. 40. 206 unlines. 12 UnicodePrims (module). 43 topdecl (default). 125 valdefs. 195. 93. 235 toEnum. 106 toLower. 198 toUTCTime. see trivial type unit expression. 92. 81 True. 40. see function type list. 49 topdecl (newtype). 91. 232 time12Fmt. 41. 46 topdecl (type). 235 terminating a program. see monomorphic type numeric. 39. 191 unzip7. 4. 51 topdecl (instance). 38. 119 until. 7. 66. 47 topdecl (data). 232. 86. 129 union. 18. see trivial type tuple. 198 topdecl (class). 129 uniLarge. 114 undefined. see newtype declaration type signature. 181. 11. 202. 188 Unicode character set. 221 tuple. see numeric type principal. see also datatype recursive. 136 topdecls. see ambiguous type constructed. 235 transpose. see constructed type function. 181. 17. 11. 41 tycls. 181. 105 toInteger. 38. 9. 232. 187 unionBy. 230 the ﬁle system. 120 unzip3. 130 type. 240 TimeDiff (datatype). 40 type renaming. 234 time. 235 toClockTime. 98. 49. 46 tyvar. 233. 81. see tuple type type. 40. 10. 119 unzip. 236 toCalendarTime. 232. 80. 187 uniSmall. 53 for an expression. 240 to12. see principal type INDEX trivial. 67. 22. 114 unwords. 114 unfoldr. 103. 191 userError. 130 varop. see expression typesignature type synonym. 240 TimeLocale (datatype). 140 varid. 49. 191 unzip6. 239. 224 Time (module). 185. 180. see list type monomorphic. 183. 79 truncate. 42 type expression. 38. 41. 140 .
120 zipWith4. 190 zip6. 185. 129 when. 190 zipWithM. 185. 9. 120 zip4. 190 zipWith6.INDEX vars. 137 varsym. 129 whitestuff. 181. 129 whitespace. 214 WriteMode. 31 words. 190 zip5. 181. 9. 181. 202. 80. 202. 130 vertab. 190 zip7. 181. 207 263 . 126. 97. 190 zipWith7. 206 whitechar. 9. 190 zipWith. 120 zipWith3. 181. 129 wildcard pattern (_). 118 writable. 214 zip. 190 zipWith5. 181. 38. 9. 181. 10. 202. 224 writeFile. 53. 120 zip3. 181. 207 zipWithM_.
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