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The identification and later authentication are the need of time for security and development. Automated recognition of individuals is becoming increasingly important. Biometric systems are thus a boon to the world. Biometrics are becoming a necessity for sensitive work processes in the public and private sectors around the globe. Biometrics is the automated recognition o f individuals based on their behavioural and biological characteristics. In general it is the science of measuring physical properties of living beings. Before I move on to the core of the topic, the basic terminology of Biometrics should be understood.
A biometric characteristic is biological or behavioural property of an individual that can be measured and from which distinguishing, repeatable biometric features can be extracted for the purpose of automated recognition of individuals. Example: face. In the development of biometric identification systems, physical and behavioural characteristics for recognition are required
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which dispose of biometric features which are as unique as possible, i.e., which do not reappear at any other person: Uniqueness which occur in as many people as possible: Universality whose biometric features don't change over time: Permanence which are measurable with simple technical instruments: Measurability which are easy and comfortable to measure: User friendliness
A biometric sample is the analog or digital representation of biometric characteristics prior to the biometric feature extraction process and obtained from a biometric capture device or a biometric capture subsystem. Example: electronic face photograph.
Biometrics in computer network: Biometrics is used to authenticate an individual based on this unique biological trait. The identification only succeeds in identifying the individual if the comparison of the biometric sample to a template in the database falls within a previously set threshold. Identification: A one to many comparison of the captured biometric against a biometric database in attempt to identify an unknown individual. In Automatic Teller Machines .Biometric features are information extracted from biometric samples which can be used for comparison with a biometric reference. Example: characteristic measures extracted from a face photograph such as eye distance or nose size etc. . This kind of security gives people immense confidence and relief in areas like e commerce etc . Computer networks. A biometric system operates in the following two modes: Verification: A one to one comparison of a captured biometric with a stored template to verify that the individual is who he claims to be. Justice and law enforcement. Internet Banking and Crime analysis. It can be done in conjunction with a smart card. Application of Biometrics Biometrics is being extensively used in the fields Network security and authentication. biometric templates. or biometric models attributed to a biometric data subject which can be used for comparison. A biometric reference comprises one or more stored biometric samples.The network can be exploited fully without a security breach. username or ID number.
secure authentication is done. The system will verify the signatures over the internet. an easy. This system control is a one to much authentication system. But nowadays. preventing hackers from getting in and combating identity theft through the emerged biometric application subscription control . Biometric web-based authentication protects network integrity. It is used to secure transactions in Automatic T eller Machines (ATM s) thus no longer requiring the person to present the ATM card.e. A system has been developed whereby a card that already has a customer s digital signature is inserted into a smart card reader. medical information and other personal information. through internet. . Biometric in banking: Biometrics finds important application in the areas of internet banking and telephone banking. as more and more business is done online .Biometrics tighten the security in the areas of banking intelligence and secure Banking data and credit card numbers. Even without any User ID and password. this is the first time the matching occurs on the actual card instead of sending information to an external device for authenticating. The user swipes a finger over a biometric sensor for the card to be unlocked . Although both digital signatures and fingerprinting devices have around for several years. the need of secure web-based transactions is constantly increasing passwords and user ID are no longer considered secure enough for transacting business over the network i. a fast authentication is done with total privacy maintained as well as control by the users of their accounts. Even when the database of users is extremely large. with a finger touch on the sensor alone.
facilitating the documenting of legal proceedings. allowing easy and accurate management of personnel. he can proceed ahead for transactions. is extremely useful. and comparing them against known criminal profiles. This system is recently developed that will identify the bank s customers through a high resolution fingerprint recognition system that fits into a regular size mouse. The customers will n ot have to show the id card. Special software will pass client authentication requests made using the mouse via a secure internet link to the bank s we server. .An online banking institution will be offering its customers fingerprint verification through a mouse to securely bank over the internet. Facial recognition technology uses facial features to compile profiles of individuals and compare them against existing databases. Another window based teller technology has emerged which has totally replaced the use of identification cards. Biometrics in Justice and law enforcement: In the field of Justice and Law Enforcement applications include Prison administration and bookings. Tellers will not match picture identification and signatures. crime scene identification and national identity programs. Speech recognition solutions are common in Justice and Law Enforcement due to the advantage they provide identifying audio samples. and can even provide a virtual 'line up' application if witness authentication is needed. An instant identification of customers will be done at teller windows. This technology can be used remotely. Biometric technology also provides accurate court transcription systems. lawyers. which matches an individual's face to the mug shot database. Access control using multi-modal biometric technology is now also common in courthouses. Mug shot recognition technology. Biometric technology is used in Justice and Law Enforcement because of the enormous capabilities of its automated (as opposed to manual) software. A customer simply walks up to the teller line and looks into an iris identification device to prove identity. As the id is authenticated. Biometric technology can also function as access control. offenders and witnesses. where a c entralized fingerprint template database will be housed.
privacy. residential permits. An individua l s data. Additional information can also be added to each account record. non-Gambian ID cards and driver licenses. . Currently. many countries have adopted or are planning to adopt this technology. unique to each applicant applying for a card. Even if an Iraqi has lost their ID card. This card contains biometric data and digitized photographs. On the other hand the poor African nation Gambia has been implementing this technology on national level. The US Department of Defence Common Access Card. is an ID card issued to all US Service personnel and cont ractors on US Military sites. In the United States of America from 2005.Countries following Biometrics Technology In the present world. is issued to the applicant. Biometric documents issued for Gambia include national identity cards. including their biometric information (thumbprints) is captured in the database. their identification can be found and verified by using their unique biometric information. The Gambia Biometric Identification System (GAMBIS) allowed for the issuance of Gambia s first biometric identity documents in July 2009. the collected biometrics information is logged into a central database which then allows a user profile to be created. such as kidnapping. immune to forgery. There have been over 10 million of these cards issued. there is some apprehension in the United States (and the European Union) that the information can be "skimmed" and identify people's c itizenship remotely for criminal intent. During account creation. and the risk of identity theft. Both the developed and the developing world seem to be interested in Biometrics for consistent growth and development. A National Identification Number (NIN). It also has laser-etched photographs and holograms to add security and reduce the risk of falsification. US passports with facial (imagebased) biometric data were scheduled to be produced. Privacy activists in many countries have criticized the technology's use for the potential harm to civil liberties. such as individual personal history. Biometrics are being used extensively in Iraq also to catalogue as many Iraqis as possible providing Iraqis with a verifiable identification card.
Our nation India is also undertaking an ambitious mega project to provide a unique identification number to each of its 1. Copying Some of the systems store biometric information through software and keep it in the computer or on a disk. P Chidambaram. but they are no more reliable than turnkey locks. this would be the biggest implementation of the Biometrics in the world. but such systems can be abused. and a cop gone lost armed with an innocent person's biometric information can destroy that individual. Of course. If the computer . Biometric identification systems have many disadvantages also.S. Fingerprint readers are used to limit access to computers. That makes the information vulnerable to copying from any other computer system that can access it. the NEXUS program operated jointly by the Canada Border Services Agency and U.. specifically "iris recognition biometric technology" used for border control and security for air travellers. One disadvantage is that a determined pirate can steal the biometric information if it's stored on a computer. is already operational. If implemented . There are many other drawbacks to these systems. described the process as "the biggest exercise.. The Identification number will be stored in central databases consisting the biometric information of the individual. Evidence Planting Evidence planting by police ha ppens. How often evidence planting happens is an open question. It has been reported that Police have at times misused biometric information. It is a functioning example of biometric technology. Customs and Border Protection.Canada has begun research into the use of biometric technology in the area of border security and immigration. Officials in India will spend one year classifying India's population according to demographics indicators.25 billion people. India's Home Minister. At least one program. people are free to do what they will with their own biometr ic information. The government will then use the information to issue identity cards. since humankind came into existence". Disadvantages of Biometric System As said Science is an evil born. but it has been documented throughout the United States.
police generally need probable cause before arrest and formal fingerprinting at the station. Biometric identification systems undermine privacy by making identity theft more likely. A Subtle Presumption Undermined When biometric information is required by the state. Astute private individuals find less expensive systems.with the biometric information is connected to the web. In a radically difficult economy. the tradition shifts. A government within the U. Technical Vulnerability--Unauthorized Use Some biometric identification systems can be beaten with a copy of a fingerprint or eye. someone in a foreign country can copy it. and it's no more reliable.S. It is more expensive to change than the turnkey system. a biometric identification system is far more expensive than a simple turnkey lock. People are expected to show up at the government office and submit to fingerprinting. These biometric identification systems are often touted as foolproof but they are far from it. Someone who understands the technology c an fabricate a copy from the owner's biometric information and access the computer system. Privacy To safeguard freedoms. the situation is far worse because such systems have been grossly abused in the past. it undermines the presumption in a free society of innocence. Locks are More Economical As a security measure on a computer system. can copy it. Notoriously Expensive Biometric identification systems are notoriously expensive. For those concerned with freedom. but when the state establishes biometric identification schemes. They've even resulted in state crime. There are much cheaper ways of confirming the identity of an individual. When implemented by the state. state expenditures on such systems are questionable. much like the criminally accused of the past. it is wise to avoid biometric systems. . A biometric identification system is not an economically advantageous technology. In America. it's best to preserve privacy.
In computer science. these systems are not always reliable as human beings change over time if you are ill. Biometrics requires a lot of data to be kept on a person. it is only hoped that this technology contributes to sustainable development. Eye. It is being extensively around the globe. eyes puffy. Facial recognition and more. The disadvantages are numerous however: criminals have been known to remove fingers to open biometric locks. Each body part is unique and Biometrics uses your unique identity to enable a purchase activate something or unlock something. voice hoarse or your fingers are rough from labouring. Biometrics consists of methods for uniquely recognizing humans based upon one or more intrinsic physical or behavioural traits. Every time you use Biometrics you are being tracked by a database bringing up a range of privacy i ssues. Thank You!! .Conclusion In a nutshell. Biometrics encompasses Voice. Fingerprint. The final disadvantage is the expense and technical complexity of such systems. Vein. The advantages of biometrics are the person is the key so you need never remember your card or key again. In spite of having so many pros and cons. in particular. This technology is in its initial stages now and it is too early to question it. biometrics is used as a form of identity access management and access control. It is also used to identify individuals in groups that are under surveillance.
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