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Biometric System

Biometric System

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Publicado porAayush Srivastava

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Published by: Aayush Srivastava on Aug 03, 2011
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Biometric System: An Introduction Today, we live in an anonymous information society characterised by increasing global mobility.

The identification and later authentication are the need of time for security and development. Automated recognition of individuals is becoming increasingly important. Biometric systems are thus a boon to the world. Biometrics are becoming a necessity for sensitive work processes in the public and private sectors around the globe. Biometrics is the automated recognition o f individuals based on their behavioural and biological characteristics. In general it is the science of measuring physical properties of living beings. Before I move on to the core of the topic, the basic terminology of Biometrics should be understood.

A biometric characteristic is biological or behavioural property of an individual that can be measured and from which distinguishing, repeatable biometric features can be extracted for the purpose of automated recognition of individuals. Example: face. In the development of biometric identification systems, physical and behavioural characteristics for recognition are required

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which dispose of biometric features which are as unique as possible, i.e., which do not reappear at any other person: Uniqueness which occur in as many people as possible: Universality whose biometric features don't change over time: Permanence which are measurable with simple technical instruments: Measurability which are easy and comfortable to measure: User friendliness

A biometric sample is the analog or digital representation of biometric characteristics prior to the biometric feature extraction process and obtained from a biometric capture device or a biometric capture subsystem. Example: electronic face photograph.

A biometric reference comprises one or more stored biometric samples. In Automatic Teller Machines .Biometric features are information extracted from biometric samples which can be used for comparison with a biometric reference. . Example: characteristic measures extracted from a face photograph such as eye distance or nose size etc. Computer networks. A biometric system operates in the following two modes: Verification: A one to one comparison of a captured biometric with a stored template to verify that the individual is who he claims to be. or biometric models attributed to a biometric data subject which can be used for comparison. Justice and law enforcement. biometric templates. It can be done in conjunction with a smart card. Application of Biometrics Biometrics is being extensively used in the fields Network security and authentication. The identification only succeeds in identifying the individual if the comparison of the biometric sample to a template in the database falls within a previously set threshold.The network can be exploited fully without a security breach. Biometrics in computer network: Biometrics is used to authenticate an individual based on this unique biological trait. This kind of security gives people immense confidence and relief in areas like e commerce etc . Internet Banking and Crime analysis. username or ID number. Identification: A one to many comparison of the captured biometric against a biometric database in attempt to identify an unknown individual.

medical information and other personal information. secure authentication is done. Even when the database of users is extremely large. Biometric in banking: Biometrics finds important application in the areas of internet banking and telephone banking. Even without any User ID and password. as more and more business is done online .e. . A system has been developed whereby a card that already has a customer s digital signature is inserted into a smart card reader. The system will verify the signatures over the internet. preventing hackers from getting in and combating identity theft through the emerged biometric application subscription control . But nowadays. The user swipes a finger over a biometric sensor for the card to be unlocked . It is used to secure transactions in Automatic T eller Machines (ATM s) thus no longer requiring the person to present the ATM card. with a finger touch on the sensor alone. through internet. This system control is a one to much authentication system. a fast authentication is done with total privacy maintained as well as control by the users of their accounts. the need of secure web-based transactions is constantly increasing passwords and user ID are no longer considered secure enough for transacting business over the network i. Although both digital signatures and fingerprinting devices have around for several years. this is the first time the matching occurs on the actual card instead of sending information to an external device for authenticating.Biometrics tighten the security in the areas of banking intelligence and secure Banking data and credit card numbers. Biometric web-based authentication protects network integrity. an easy.

and comparing them against known criminal profiles. he can proceed ahead for transactions. Special software will pass client authentication requests made using the mouse via a secure internet link to the bank s we server. Tellers will not match picture identification and signatures. A customer simply walks up to the teller line and looks into an iris identification device to prove identity. Biometric technology is used in Justice and Law Enforcement because of the enormous capabilities of its automated (as opposed to manual) software. Access control using multi-modal biometric technology is now also common in courthouses. Biometric technology can also function as access control. facilitating the documenting of legal proceedings. This system is recently developed that will identify the bank s customers through a high resolution fingerprint recognition system that fits into a regular size mouse. Biometric technology also provides accurate court transcription systems. An instant identification of customers will be done at teller windows. Speech recognition solutions are common in Justice and Law Enforcement due to the advantage they provide identifying audio samples. As the id is authenticated. which matches an individual's face to the mug shot database. allowing easy and accurate management of personnel. lawyers. This technology can be used remotely. offenders and witnesses. is extremely useful. Biometrics in Justice and law enforcement: In the field of Justice and Law Enforcement applications include Prison administration and bookings. Another window based teller technology has emerged which has totally replaced the use of identification cards. The customers will n ot have to show the id card. Mug shot recognition technology. . where a c entralized fingerprint template database will be housed. and can even provide a virtual 'line up' application if witness authentication is needed.An online banking institution will be offering its customers fingerprint verification through a mouse to securely bank over the internet. crime scene identification and national identity programs. Facial recognition technology uses facial features to compile profiles of individuals and compare them against existing databases.

It also has laser-etched photographs and holograms to add security and reduce the risk of falsification. Both the developed and the developing world seem to be interested in Biometrics for consistent growth and development. such as individual personal history. privacy. Even if an Iraqi has lost their ID card. is an ID card issued to all US Service personnel and cont ractors on US Military sites. . On the other hand the poor African nation Gambia has been implementing this technology on national level. Privacy activists in many countries have criticized the technology's use for the potential harm to civil liberties. A National Identification Number (NIN). An individua l s data. The Gambia Biometric Identification System (GAMBIS) allowed for the issuance of Gambia s first biometric identity documents in July 2009. Biometrics are being used extensively in Iraq also to catalogue as many Iraqis as possible providing Iraqis with a verifiable identification card. US passports with facial (imagebased) biometric data were scheduled to be produced. There have been over 10 million of these cards issued. residential permits. including their biometric information (thumbprints) is captured in the database. is issued to the applicant.Countries following Biometrics Technology In the present world. immune to forgery. their identification can be found and verified by using their unique biometric information. and the risk of identity theft. Currently. the collected biometrics information is logged into a central database which then allows a user profile to be created. This card contains biometric data and digitized photographs. During account creation. Biometric documents issued for Gambia include national identity cards. such as kidnapping. many countries have adopted or are planning to adopt this technology. Additional information can also be added to each account record. non-Gambian ID cards and driver licenses. there is some apprehension in the United States (and the European Union) that the information can be "skimmed" and identify people's c itizenship remotely for criminal intent. In the United States of America from 2005. unique to each applicant applying for a card. The US Department of Defence Common Access Card.

Canada has begun research into the use of biometric technology in the area of border security and immigration. One disadvantage is that a determined pirate can steal the biometric information if it's stored on a computer. but it has been documented throughout the United States. Fingerprint readers are used to limit access to computers. but they are no more reliable than turnkey locks. India's Home Minister.S.. since humankind came into existence". It is a functioning example of biometric technology. That makes the information vulnerable to copying from any other computer system that can access it. this would be the biggest implementation of the Biometrics in the world. The Identification number will be stored in central databases consisting the biometric information of the individual. Copying Some of the systems store biometric information through software and keep it in the computer or on a disk. and a cop gone lost armed with an innocent person's biometric information can destroy that individual. described the process as "the biggest exercise. Officials in India will spend one year classifying India's population according to demographics indicators. How often evidence planting happens is an open question. Biometric identification systems have many disadvantages also. is already operational. Customs and Border Protection. Disadvantages of Biometric System As said Science is an evil born. Of course. the NEXUS program operated jointly by the Canada Border Services Agency and U.. The government will then use the information to issue identity cards. but such systems can be abused. At least one program. people are free to do what they will with their own biometr ic information. If the computer . Our nation India is also undertaking an ambitious mega project to provide a unique identification number to each of its 1. There are many other drawbacks to these systems. Evidence Planting Evidence planting by police ha ppens. If implemented . P Chidambaram.25 billion people. It has been reported that Police have at times misused biometric information. specifically "iris recognition biometric technology" used for border control and security for air travellers.

Biometric identification systems undermine privacy by making identity theft more likely. but when the state establishes biometric identification schemes. a biometric identification system is far more expensive than a simple turnkey lock. People are expected to show up at the government office and submit to fingerprinting. police generally need probable cause before arrest and formal fingerprinting at the station. state expenditures on such systems are questionable. They've even resulted in state crime. it's best to preserve privacy. When implemented by the state. it is wise to avoid biometric systems. and it's no more reliable. There are much cheaper ways of confirming the identity of an individual. much like the criminally accused of the past. it undermines the presumption in a free society of innocence. someone in a foreign country can copy it.S. can copy it. Notoriously Expensive Biometric identification systems are notoriously expensive. Locks are More Economical As a security measure on a computer system. These biometric identification systems are often touted as foolproof but they are far from it. Technical Vulnerability--Unauthorized Use Some biometric identification systems can be beaten with a copy of a fingerprint or eye. A government within the U. It is more expensive to change than the turnkey system. the tradition shifts. Astute private individuals find less expensive systems. For those concerned with freedom. A biometric identification system is not an economically advantageous technology. In a radically difficult economy. . the situation is far worse because such systems have been grossly abused in the past. A Subtle Presumption Undermined When biometric information is required by the state. Privacy To safeguard freedoms. In America. Someone who understands the technology c an fabricate a copy from the owner's biometric information and access the computer system.with the biometric information is connected to the web.

Biometrics encompasses Voice. Facial recognition and more. eyes puffy. biometrics is used as a form of identity access management and access control. The final disadvantage is the expense and technical complexity of such systems. It is also used to identify individuals in groups that are under surveillance. it is only hoped that this technology contributes to sustainable development. Eye. in particular. The disadvantages are numerous however: criminals have been known to remove fingers to open biometric locks. The advantages of biometrics are the person is the key so you need never remember your card or key again. In computer science. In spite of having so many pros and cons. voice hoarse or your fingers are rough from labouring. these systems are not always reliable as human beings change over time if you are ill. It is being extensively around the globe. Every time you use Biometrics you are being tracked by a database bringing up a range of privacy i ssues. Biometrics consists of methods for uniquely recognizing humans based upon one or more intrinsic physical or behavioural traits. Fingerprint.Conclusion In a nutshell. Biometrics requires a lot of data to be kept on a person. Each body part is unique and Biometrics uses your unique identity to enable a purchase activate something or unlock something. Thank You!! . Vein. This technology is in its initial stages now and it is too early to question it.

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