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OBJECTIVE : To determine the penetration value of bitumen and the consistency of bitumen sample

APPARATUS: 1. Penetration Apparatus

2. Bitumen

3. Water bath 4. Sample container

THEORY In this experiment, the sample is melted and cooled under controlled conditions. The penetration is measured with a penetrometer by means of which standard needle is applied to the sample under specific conditions. The temperature, load and time of solid bituminous are understood to be 24-26oc, 100g and 5s respectively. For semi-solid bituminous, the penetration is more than the hard ones. Therefore, penetration test of bituminous materials is important and very wide, application to classify the bituminous to specific grade. Although penetration test is classified as empirical test, it is very easy and fast to be done.

PROCEDURES 1. The sample been heated with care, it has been stirring as soon as possible to prevent local over-heating until it become sufficiently fluid to pour. Avoid incorporating bubbles into samples. 2. The sample been poured into sample container to a depth such that, when cooled to the depth of sample is at least 10mm greater than the depth to which the needle is expected to penetrate. 3. Covers have been loosely for each container as a protection against dust and allow to cool in the atmosphere for 1 to 1 hour. 4. The sample been placed in the water bath for an hour at around 25oc of temperature. 5. The needle holder been examined and been guided to established the absence of water and other extraneous matter. 6. A penetration needle has been cleaned with toluene or other suitable solvent, dry with dried clean cloth and inserted the needle in the penetrometer. 7. The needle position has been slowly lowering it until its tip just makes contact with the surface of the sample. 8. The reading of the penetrometer has been noted or brought the pointer to zero. 9. The needle holders has been quickly released for the specified period of time and adjust the instrument to measure the distance penetrated in tenth of a millimeter. 10. At least made three determinations at points on the surface of the sample not less than 10mm from side of the container and not less than 10mm apart. The needle has been cleaned before repeating the test.

RESULT Experiment No. 1 2 3 1 34.5 30.4 33.7 2 25.0 31.8 28.5 Penetration (Pen) 3 28.5 30.5 21.6 4 23.0 29.1 22.4 5 20.4 29.5 17.6 26.28 30.26 24.76 Average

Determine the nearest penetration value following table below: Penetration Maximum differences between the highest and the lowest value. 2 4 6 8 0 49 50 149 150 249 250 above

DISCUSSION Discuss on the penetration value obtain based on table below: PENETRATION 30 40 TYPE OF PAVEMENT Heavy loaded pavement such as bus station, junctions 40 60 60 80 Pavement on normal roads Cold climate places, road on hills

QUESTION 1. What are the actual purposes of penetration test? To get the value as a measure of the consistency of penetration bitumen

2. What does it mean by bituminous grade 80/100? Bitumen 80/100 grade bitumen having the qualities of adhesion, the nature of both the cement and water-resistant properties

3. State importance of this test. This test can determine the hardness of bitumen and bitumen classify according

to the infiltration

4. Which is the better condition? Higher value or lower value of penetration? In warmer regions, lower penetration grades are preferred to avoid softening whereas higher penetration grades like 180/200 are used in colder regions to prevent the occurrence of excessive brittleness. High penetration grade is used in spray application works. So the better used is lower value of penetration.

DISCUSSION Based on the result obtained, it was found that he uniformity of the temperature the bituminous is not uniform because the value obtained when the penetration different, acceptable value is obtained for experiment number is 30.26. it is lower penetration, it is suitable for heavy loaded pavement such as bus station, junctions.

CONCLUSION The conclusion that we got from the experiment its shown that the temperature uniformity while running the experiment is important because the value should be obtained from the third experiment is the same. And the experiment was based on the values used for paving is worth 30.26, while the other are certain error during infiltration such as there should be no movement of the container while needle penetrates into sample, the sample should be free from any extraneous matter and lastly the needle should be cleaned with benzene and dried before penetration.