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A Thesis In MASS COMMUNICATIONS Submitted to the Graduate Faculty of Texas Tech University in Partial Fulfillment of The Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF ARTS Approved Harsha Gangadharbatla Committee Chair Todd Chambers Kent Wilkinson Fred Hartmeister Dean of the Graduate School August, 2009
Copyright 2009, Lakshmi N. Tirumala
Texas Tech University, Lakshmi N. Tirumala, Aug. 2009
I acknowledge my family who supported me throughout this study. I would like to thank my parents for their emotional support during stressful times, and my brother and sister-in-law for their patience, critiques and valuable inputs. I would also like to acknowledge Dr. Todd Chambers, who served the roles of a Chairperson, mentor and friend throughout my masters program at Texas Tech. His very presence and positive encouragement gave me the much needed motivation and mental strength to continue with the research at times when I was completely lost. He was always there to assist me with my academic and personal growth, and I am very grateful for his invaluable guidance throughout this process. Also, I would like to acknowledge Dr. Kent Wilkinson, whose support and encouragements gave me the confidence to take on any daunting tasks. He was able to find time to listen to my ideas and lead me towards the right path when I was completely clueless. I am very thankful to him for being there whenever I needed him. Also, other faculty members and staff in the College of Mass Communications at Texas Tech University should be acknowledged for their help and encouragements throughout my graduate program. Specifically, I would like to thank Dr. Michael Parkinson, one of the best graduate student advisors the college could ever find, for his support. A special thanks goes out to Dr. Harsha Gangadharbhatla who served as much more than a primary thesis advisor, but also the role of a friend throughout my masters program. And lastly, thanks to Josh Robinson, Randy Hays, Jessica Robinson, and Brian who were always willing to help whenever called upon. Finally, my good friends Andrea Smith, Anthony Galvez, Arijit Basu, Emily Buck, and Philip Madison who helped with providing the much needed laughs and memories. Thank you for understanding and being there for me. ii
................5 On being “Indian”...........................................................................................................................................................................1 Reasons for the Popularity.....................................................................................22 United Kingdom and Europe ....................................................................................................................................................21 Oceania ................................................20 Asia ...........................................................................................37 Qualitative research ......................................................22 Bollywood in United States ........ Aug........................................................................................ Methodology ........................................................................................................31 IV..................................................................................................v List of Tables..... Tirumala......11 Cultural Identity........................................................................................................ ii Abstract .............23 III........................................................... Literature Review ...................25 Cultural Studies .......................................................26 The Concept of Ethnic Identity..............................................25 The Circuit of Culture............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ vi I.......................................28 Cultural Identity of Asian Americans..........................................15 Bollywood & Diaspora ...37 iii ................................................ Introduction ..................................................................1 Bollywood Movies and Identity ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Lakshmi N.............................................................................................................................................................................................. Theoretical Framework ..................................................21 Africa and Russia............................................................Texas Tech University........................15 A Brief History of Bollywood Industry .................................... 2009 Table of Contents Acknowledgements .......................12 II...................................................................................10 The Indian Diaspora ...................................................
95 iv .....................................................................................................................................39 Focus Groups ....................................80 A........................................................................................................................... Aug....................................................................55 Media ................................................................................................................ Interview Consent form ....................................58 The influence of Bollywood movies on cultural identity ..................................43 V...44 Constructing Identity ............................................41 Coding .....................................................................................................................................................................88 B....................................................................Texas Tech University...................... Discussion Guide ............................... 2009 In-depth interviews ........................................................................64 VI...................................46 Family ............ Tirumala........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Focus group Consent form ..................................53 Friends ................................................................................................................................... Findings and Discussion .....92 C....... Plot Summaries ..........94 D................................................................71 References.........................50 Institutions .............. Conclusion and Limitations ........................................ Lakshmi N........
Bollywood movies not only act as a bridge between home and diaspora. 2009 Abstract Indian cinema has been one of the most dominant and distinguishing features of the subcontinent’s culture for the past sixty years. but they help transmit the culture and traditions that play a crucial role in maintaining the “Indianness. In particular.” among second-generation Indian Americans. Previous research suggests that the Indian Diaspora may use these types of media products as a form of cultural maintenance. this study seeks to demonstrate how Bollywood film viewing practices of the second-generation Indian Americans intersect to create a notion of “Indianness. they are bringing these cultural artifacts with them. Tirumala. Lakshmi N. as Indians continue to seek out jobs and educational opportunities worldwide. v . Bollywood movies appeared to have a significant influence on second-generation Indian Americans in maintaining those identities.Texas Tech University. the study found that though social factors such as family and peer groups have played a dominant role in constructing the Indian identity. This thesis explores the role of Bollywood movies in constructing and maintaining the cultural identity among secondgeneration Indian Americans. And.” Discussions generated across in-depth interviews (N = 8) and focus groups (N = 8) about the process of participants’ cultural identity construction and maintenance showed that the cultural identity of second-generation Indian Americans depended on various interpersonal and mediated communication activities. Interestingly. Aug.
.......................................45 3............... 2009 List of Tables 1....................... Aug........................... Summary of research findings.........................72 vi ... Demographics and movie watching frequency .....................Texas Tech University....... Indian Film Industry vs Hollywood in 2008 ................ Lakshmi N...............3 2............................ Tirumala....
and information across the United States. representations of the Indian culture in the movies. and representation) are explored through in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with secondgeneration Indian Americans. identity. Tirumala. This qualitative research study is based on cultural studies and seeks to explore the role of Bollywood movies in identity construction among second-generation Indian Americans. The circuit of culture suits the proposed study well because of the consumption of Bollywood movies by second-generation Indian Americans. So. ‘What is my true “identity”?’ has become a fundamental and yet significant question in one’s life. Bollywood Movies and Identity In today’s world of global movement and cultural hybridity. plots. Aug. The three moments from the circuit of culture (consumption. Consequently films have become a major part of modern society. our personal identities are in constant flux. 2009 Chapter I Introduction Films are a common source of entertainment. through which people are becoming aware of different cultures from all over the world. 1997). and the connections that viewers make with the movies themes.Texas Tech University. Beard (1994) observed that films are among the most common artifacts of modern popular culture that generate and reflect diverse cultures and the traditional values of a society. and Negus. education. In recent times. Lakshmi N. Hall. Mackay. Janes. and characters. a great deal has 1 . using the circuit of culture (du Gay.
and especially the phenomenal success of Hindi movies (also known as Bollywood) among the Indian diaspora (Dudrah. According to Basu (2004). 2008.Texas Tech University. 1996). it is essential for us to know about Indian cinema and the reasons for its popularity among Indians as well as for the Indian diaspora. While commenting on the influence of electronic media on the diapsoric community. However. Appadurai has argued that “because of its sheer multiplicity in which they appear (films.4). in this globalized world. Uberoi. diasporic communities are able to stay connected with their homeland and maintain their self-identity. However. p. Tirumala. Lakshmi N. it is important to study the role of Bollywood movies in Indian diasporic identity construction. 1999). 1998). The Indian cinema industry. Electronic media have been the essential tools for the diaspora in re-rooting their identities (Appadurai. Palmer. 2006. Indian cinema has been one of the most dominant and distinguishing features of the subcontinent’s popular culture for the past sixty years. 1990. 2009 been studied in the area of “cultural identity” and on the concept “home” with some of the most important contributions towards this research study coming from cultural studies area (Bandyopadhyay. Aug. with technological advancements. internet and telephones) and because of the rapid way in which they move through daily life. electronic media provide diapsoric communities with resources for self-imagining that help maintain the identity” (Appadurai. most commonly known as Bollywood (although Bollywood represents Hindi film 2 . With the increasing popularity of electronic media. 1990. before we look into the significance of Bollywood movies. TV. Appadurai. preserving and maintaining one’s own culture and identity has become a serious challenge.
Texas Tech University. Indian Film Industry vs Hollywood in 2008 Indian Film Industry Films Produced* Tickets sold World Wide revenues** Average cost per film 1. Pricewaterhouse Coopers Ltd (FICCI-Pricewaterhouse. Mumbai. Karnataka. though not for its financial returns (Dwyer.2 billion U. Andhra Pradesh. 1995). produces Hindi-language films. and Kerala also produce films in regional languages (Booth.100 4 billion U. individual states such as West Bengal. Aug. 3 . Tamil Nadu. Though Bollywood is the best-known Indian film industry. which only produces about half that number. the Indian film industry produces more than 1000 films each year compared to Hollywood. the film business in India is decentralized (Srinivas.S $ 56 billion U. 2006). 2002).S $ 2.S $ 3 million Hollywood 800 3 billion U. or ‘Bollywood’ as it is commonly called. Lakshmi N. To satisfy the 14 million Indians who go to the cinema every day. 2008) Unlike Hollywood. Table 1 compared the size and global reach of the two most prolific film industries. Tirumala. 2008) provided the following figures and estimates.S $60 million *National Film Production 2008 ** Estimates 2009 (FICCI-Pricewaterhouse. is the world’s largest film industry in terms of the number of films produced. Table 1. which are popular throughout India and among expatriate Indians living abroad. 2009 industry alone).
Texas Tech University, Lakshmi N. Tirumala, Aug. 2009
Indian cinema has always found a market overseas with a limited number of films being exported to countries such as the Soviet Union, Middle East, parts of Africa, Southeast Asia, the Caribbean, the United States, Australia and Great Britain (Srinivas, 2002). Recently, western interest in Bollywood has been rapidly growing as India’s largest film industry based in Mumbai has been producing more than 400 films every year (Rao, 2007). Through the years, Bollywood’s annual output of more than 400 films a year that accumulates 3.6 billion audience members across the world has become a necessary comfort for the South Asian diaspora communities (Chopra, 2007). Through its rich cultural textures and images, Bollywood cinema has facilitated a platform by which the South Asian diaspora can stay connected to the homeland. Hindi film blockbusters are now exported in large numbers of subtitled prints to the United States, United Kingdom, and Australia. Popular newspapers such as The New York Times and The Washington Post have started publishing regular reviews of Bollywood movies. Stadtler (2005) observed that the popularity of Bollywood cinema in the United States and United Kingdom has been on the rise since the year 2000, with the exposure of South Asian popular culture reaching an all time high. As Rajadhyaksha (2003) noted, “there is a craze for ‘Bollywood’ movies that quite exceeds anything we have seen before” (p. 24). This fondness for Bollywood cinema began with films like Dilwale Dulhaniya Le Jayenge (1995), Dil To Pagal Hai (1997), Taal (1999), Lagaan (2001) and Kal Ho Na Ho (2003), which achieved success in overseas markets; in fact these movies stayed among the top ten grossing films of the 4
Texas Tech University, Lakshmi N. Tirumala, Aug. 2009
year in United States and United Kingdom (Rajadhyaksha, 2003). Since then, India’s movie exports to the United States increased dramatically from $10 million a decade ago to $2 billion last year. The following are some of the reasons for Bollywood’s everincreasing popularity. Reasons for the Popularity One of the significant reasons for the increase in popularity is due to the change in producers’ attitudes towards the motion picture business. Film producers like Ronnie Screwvala and Aditya Chopra have begun professionalizing the cinema business, bringing in outside investors and aggressively marketing films with novel plots (Gyalzen, 2007). Their production companies have successfully cut the old format of three-and-half hour movies to a fast-paced 120 minutes and have hired Hollywood scriptwriters to make films more appealing and watchable. This is particularly a significant factor in Bollywood’s popularity as the new movie format that will break into the Indian diapsora more often that the age-old Bollywood movies (Overdorf, 2007). One example for such successful collaboration was the recent blockbuster by Mira Nair’s New York based production, The Namesake, a story about the relationships and identity struggles between the son and his Indian immigrant parents. The film grossed close to $14 million at the box office with nearly 95 percent of the ticket sales generated from the United States (Overdorf, 2007). This international reach of Bollywood is rather important as it assures financial returns and
Texas Tech University, Lakshmi N. Tirumala, Aug. 2009
also increases the interest among Indian diasporic community to watch the new short and slick Bollywood movies. Second, the Indian movie industry started enjoying an impressive boom due to the improved Indian economy with a significant number of Indians getting wealthier and spending more on entertainment. Lovgren (2004) observed that the telecommunications revolution and information technology explosion witnessed an all-time growth in the Indian economy that propelled the middle class life style into newer heights. A study by the McKinsey Global Institute also discovered that Indian consumer spending increased from $250 billion in 2004 to $400 billion by 2007 (Ablett, Baijal, Beinhocker, Bose, Farrell, Gersch, Greenberg, Gupta, and Gupta, 2007). The economic boom and improved conditions of the middle class sector greatly encouraged Bollywood producers to invest more money in films and to improve technical quality in order to ensure maximum financial returns both in domestic and overseas market. According to Aditya Chopra, one of the popular Bollywood producers, as technical quality advances, moviegoers come in increasing numbers to watch these latest movies (Overdorf, 2007). Another important reason for Bollywood’s popularity can be attributed to the growing Indian population overseas. The Indian population around the world is estimated around 25 million consisting of both non-resident Indians (a.k.a. NRI) and persons of Indian origin (a.k.a. POI) (Indian diaspora, n.d.). The Indian community in the United States alone increased from 1.68 million in 2000 to close to 2.5 million in 2005 (Joseph, 2006). The U.S. census bureau found that the Indians are the fastest growing community 6
Finally. Researchers like Kaur and Sinha (2005) suggested that DVD. New Zealand.). Great Britain. Thussu (2008) observed that the availability of these new delivery and distribution mechanisms have contributed to the global visibility of popular Indian cinema. New media technologies like satellites. Representation of the Indian diaspora. the Internet and digital home video devices such as DVD’s have opened new distribution channels to bring Bollywood into the living rooms. As stated earlier. the most common tool for a force of bonding through entertainment media would be “Hindi cinema. Aug. According to the Internet Movie 7 . the Internet. the United States. The era of globalization effectively placed Indian film industry on a global platform. n. and satellite television have cultivated and increased number of fans in countries like Great Britain.2 billion annual revenue comes largely from these overseas markets where Indian communities provide a great number of audiences for theatrical releases and DVD sales. Bollywood exports play an important role in Indian film industry’s growing popularity overseas.” a phenomenon unique to the Indian diaspora community to stay connected to the homeland. 2005).d. 2009 among Asian communities in U.Texas Tech University.S (Indian American population. Tirumala. Lakshmi N. and Australia. and Australia. This essentially popularized Bollywood movies in countries like the United States. and foreign locations made Bollywood movies a household name amongst diasporic communities (Kaur and Sinha. Dave (2007) observed that roughly half of Bollywood’s estimated $2.
As Chopra (2007) observed Bollywood is not just a style of filmmaking. films from India do more business in the United States than films from any other country (Joseph. 2006). these revenues contribute significantly to drive Indian filmmaking to new heights in terms of quality. Yash Raj Films. Dissanayake (2006) argued that the diaporic communities are becoming more interested in Bollywood films that deal with Indian history. Aug. reported that Bollywood films in the United States earn approximately $100 million a year through theatre screenings. Tirumala. Indian heritage and culture and Indian nationhood. With popular Indian television channels playing Bollywood movies at least once a day and the Internet providing various options to watch Bollywood movies. 2005). According to the table 1 estimations this $100 million represents film production costs for approximately 33 Indian films compared to about 2 films in Hollywood. 2009 Database. 8 . cinematography.Texas Tech University. one may safely assume that Bollywood movies are becoming an integral part of the Indian diaspora through which they can stay in touch and maintain Indian traditions and culture. Although it seems a small number in comparison to Hollywood financial returns. as the $100 million accounts to a huge amount in Indian currency. and innovative story lines (Bose. The aforementioned reasons make Bollywood films a much sought after entertainment source for Indians living in India as well as abroad. it is a culture and a religion unto itself. video sales and the sale of movie soundtracks (Overdorf. 2007). one of India’s largest film production and distribution companies. Lakshmi N.
2005. Tirumala. This suggests the emergence of a particular Bollywood culture in India. Bollywood films strongly influence dress codes. dress styles. which relates to a concept called fan culture (Srinivas. For example. 1999). Most studies. particularly in United States. Juluri. it is important to touch base with concepts such as fan culture and Indianness. and rituals for both the educated person and a layman alike. Punathambekar. to fill the gap in the diaporic identity literature. cultural adjustments patterns like changes in life styles. 2007. however.Texas Tech University. Therefore. the current study investigates the identity construction process of second-generation Indian American students. Aug. Dawson. Chopra (2007) noted that members of a certain Bollywood film club from South Korea wore Sharukh Khan (a popular Bollywood actor) t-shirts and goggles while watching a Hindi film. living conditions and socio economic ties between home and Diaspora (Rao. language. In fact. and body language with utmost sincerity. In other words. Lakshmi N. have focused on Indian immigrants. 2009 Though some of the following will be discussed in greater detail in the next chapter. 1998). I seek to demonstrate how Hindi film viewing practices in second-generation Indian Americans intersect to create a 9 . it is surprising to see that little research work is done in the area of Bollywood movies and cultural identity formation among second-generation Indian Americans. which is now being spread by new media technologies even within the Indian diaspora. demographic characteristics. 2005. and examines the role of Bollywood in maintaining their identities. many ardent Indian movie fans of Indian origin copy their favorite actor’s mannerisms. Considering the popularity of Bollywood movies amongst the Indian diaspora. who were born and brought up in the United States.
2009 notion of “Indianness. As Nehru (1946) stated. Some key elements of Indianness are language and regions. Jawaharlal Nehru (1946) defined this quality as “unity in diversity. a quality that makes quintessentially India. described or measured. On Being “Indian” According to Bhat (2006).Texas Tech University.” Cohn (1972) defined Indianness or being Indian as something that is unique. customs and traditions. Taking cues from Cohn’s (1972) definition many scholars define Indianness in terms of religious tolerance and simple acceptance of unity in diversity while others define the notion focusing on the otherworldly aspects of this culture like family togetherness. Indianness is nothing but a “psycho-social product of colonialism as much as post colonialism” (p. 2006). something that can be distinctly experienced. a notion of independent nation that brought the people together despite their diversity in many aspects. Lakshmi N. religions. the importance of 10 .243). traditions and value system (Bhat.” Before examining literature on cultural identity construction. Tirumala. it is important to understand the concepts like “Indianness” and cultural identity. castes and sub-castes. The Discovery of India. Aug. However. In his book. even the universal religious faiths like Christianity and Islam will have a distinct Indian touch to it that makes them Indian Christians and Indian Muslims. sects and sub-sects. From the definitions and observations it can be said that Indianness is one notion that is considered to be inherent and inseparable from all Indians.
2006). Bhat. The reason behind such importance given to Hinduism is that many scholars believe Hinduism as an ethnic religion that has strong roots in India. and Illinois (How a burgeoning. it fits to discuss the Indian diaspora in the United States. The Indian Diaspora Recent population estimates suggested that the Indian diaspora has reached 25 million. Gujarat Samaj. language. and region define the identity of Indian diasporic communities. apart from language and region. Lakshmi N. New Jersey. Aug. New York. 2006). Religion. are white-collar professionals such as engineers. doctors. along with other Indian Associations like Global Organization of People 11 .S. lawyers or businessman (Bhat.Texas Tech University. As Singh (2003) points out that these very elements like religion. Indians started migrating to United States only after the Immigration and Nationality Act was revoked in 1965. Because this study was limited to the United States. 2006). 2006).S. 2003. spreading across the globe in more than 130 countries (Bhuyan. This suggests that religion is a significant aspect of the notion “Indianness”. Many regional associations like TANA (Telugu Association of North America). based Indians now numbering about three million according to the United States Census calculations and are most heavily concentrated in the states of California. language and caste factors play a dominant role in the lives of U. The majority of Indians who migrated to U. 2009 Hinduism cannot be ignored or overlooked from the concept of Indianness as it plays a crucial role in unifying various castes and tribes (Singh. ATA (American Telugu Association). Texas. Tirumala.
Research scholars (Rao. Tirumala. it is a part of the Indian diaspora that comes out every time they involve and interact with other ethnic groups. As Bhat (2006) and Singh (2003) noted. New communications technologies like satellite television. etc. the Internet. as mentioned in this thesis. it is worth exploring the cultural identity construction process among second-generation Indian Americans and the role of Bollywood in maintaining these identities. Aug. Thus. Thus. while the notion of “Indianness” becomes significant in India only when it is challenged. the cultural 12 . 2008. Cultural Identity Cultural identity can simply be defined as an individual’s way of identifying himself/herself with the culture. frequently enables the notion of “Indianness” through its various programs. Jung and Lee (2004) defined cultural identity as a “socially and historically constructed outcome of locating the self in relation to interactions with others as well as to socially and culturally conditioned communicative structures within a given society” (p. electronic media in particular. mobile phones and DVDs have helped this cause of connecting with the home culture. 2009 for Indian Origin (GOPIO) have emerged to maintain a separate identity for Indians by facilitating an opportunity to meet with people from same regions. 2006) also noted that there is a continuous effort among members of the Indian diaspora to maintain cultural identity through their activities that are distinctly Indian.147). Rao (2008). films. Bhat.Texas Tech University. Lakshmi N. argued that mass media. whether it is a home culture or host culture.
Tirumala. Moorti (2003) argued that these social interactions play a significant role in constructing and maintaining one’s identity and this holds true particularly with diasporic communities. Cultural identity is also an important contributor to a people’s wellbeing. This study is primarily based on the second-generation Indian American undergraduate students from Texas Tech University and how they construct their cultural identity. 2009 identity of Indian Americans. Hence. is continually negotiated between the U. the 13 . These factors influence in shaping the overall cultural identity among minority individuals and make them choose to identify themselves with certain culture they often come into contact with cultural “in-groups” and “out-groups. beliefs. Identifying with a particular culture makes people feel they belong and gives them a sense of security. and attitudes toward a particular cultural group. Aug. Lakshmi N. culture and Indian culture. an individual’s identity is maintained through social interactions with others as well as with media. Most importantly. This thesis investigated the role of Bollywood movies in second-generation Indian Americans via in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. In fact.Texas Tech University. especially the second-generation Indian Americans.” Secondgeneration Indian Americans naturally fall under this scenario by constantly experiencing the dynamics of both the Indian as well as American cultures. it makes an interesting study to explore the role of Bollywood movies and factors influencing the identity construction among second-generation Indian Americans. they will report conflicting ideas. Lee (2006) observed that when individuals with minority status. To accomplish this. for example Indian Americans. experience multiple cultures and are trapped by the dynamics of these cultures.S.
identity. Tirumala. 14 . and representation) of circuit of culture. 2009 study examined the role of Bollywood movies using three moments (consumption. Aug.Texas Tech University. Lakshmi N.
The first Indian talkie. 2007). 2006). with the arrival of talkies in the early 1930s. However. 2009 Chapter II Literature Review A Brief History of Bollywood Industry The birth of Indian cinema has coincided with the freedom struggle against British colonialism. Due to the phenomenal expansion of Hollywood industry and lack of better Indian filmmakers. almost 85 percent of movies shown in India were American. The 1930s witnessed the arrival of many new production companies and filmmakers from all over the country. Aug. which led to an increase in number of films being 15 . Lakshmi N. 2006). when Lumiere Brothers’ Cinematographe unveiled six soundless short films in Bombay (Bose. Since that time cinema has been successfully engaged in defining a cultural identity that was Indian both in its shape and form (Rao. The first exposure to motion pictures for India was in the year 1896. Raja Harishchandra (1913). 1996). It brought revolutionary changes in the whole set up of India’s film industry (Bose. Tirumala. which signified the birth of the Indian film industry. was produced by the Imperial film company and directed by Irani in 1931. the Indian film industry was able to free itself from foreign influence and produce movies that were related to Indian social and culture system (Nayar. Dada Saheb Phalke was responsible for the production of country’s first silent feature film. However. Alam Ara.Texas Tech University. Indian cinema gradually took the shape of a regular industry during the late 1920s.
This is about the time when song and dance sequences were introduced in Indian films that gave the films unique and aesthetic look. The Indian audiences accepted the innovative idea with great enthusiasm. The late 1930s and early 1940s were recognized as the decade of social protests in the history of Indian cinema. with the British withdrawal from India in 1947. which helped transform Indian movies into a commodity in later years. Films helped the cause by uniting Indians and getting them to think and act as citizens of a sovereign nation. and several other dialects around the time. This was also the period the country was united by Mahatma Gandhi’s civil disobedience and non-violence movement against the British demanding for Indian independence. 1980). an 16 . Aug. had fallen within the purview of the law during the late 1930s. which gave a little chance to the filmmakers to fight against the British colonialism. have evolved in the cinematic imagination” (p. westernization and indigeneity. Telugu. 2009 made. Three major studios during this period made some serious but entertaining films for all social classes of the Indian audience. The Indian film industry. 58). Tamil. Rao (2007) noted that it was the period when “a tension between modernity and tradition. Indian film producers and directors were able to focus on scripts and dialogues that pertained to the Indian society and culture. Kannada.Texas Tech University. however. With the advent of sound. Indian cinema finally emerged as an undisputed vehicle for national unity focusing heavily on reality and aesthetics (Kalkar. From these tensions has emerged a unique ideology called Indian identity. Regional issues and a desire to see and hear one’s own language had spurred new regional film industries producing Bengali. Tirumala. However. Lakshmi N.
2006). religion and moral values – important characteristics that movies frequently focused upon. During the late 1960s. and Mother India (1957) that were focused on underprivileged populations and inequities in Indian society (Jaikumar. However. Bimal Roy. which appealed to the underprivileged sections of society (Iordanova. 2003). The poor. political and economic turmoil during 1970s and early 1980s saw Indian cinema return to the concept of social concerns. angry. Bollywood cinema shifted its social concerns towards romantic genres. arrived in 1955 with the introduction of Satyajit Ray and his classic Pather Panchali. Mehnoob Khan’s Mother India was the first Indian film to be nominated for an Oscar (Chopra. 2007).Texas Tech University. Among the films. which positioned Indian film on the world film platform. Aug. however. 2007). young man was the primary audience of these films. The tremendous success of Zanjeer (1973) introduced the figure of “angry young man” to the Indian screen. The notable turning point. Tirumala. Guru Dutt and Mehboob Khan made films with social messages such as Do Bigha Zamin (1953). Lakshmi N. Pyaasa (1957). The male protagonist was portrayed as a cynical and rebellious worker who was often seen fighting rich businesses and corrupt politicians (Rao. and Rajesh Khanna. introducing new film stars like Shammi Kapoor. Throughout the late 1950s. directors like Raj Kapoor. 2009 identity that is associated with family. It was a strategy through which Hindi 17 . The first International film festival (IFF) of India that was held in early 1952 at Bombay has had a significant impact on Indian cinema and inspired filmmakers toward producing art films.
but hides the way it regulate these needs and manipulates the consumers to desire what it produces (Adorno.” and stated that Bollywood became a part of the culture industry. Though the Bollywood industry specializes in understanding what the audience wants. As discussed 18 . Tirumala. 2009 films have ensured that viewer. With the advent of cable and satellite television. it succumbs to the elite whims. 1975). a phenomenon coined by Theodor Adorno and Max Horkheimer (1976). The culture industry claims to serve the needs of the consumers for entertainment. radio and magazines (Adorno. popular culture not only mirrors society.Texas Tech University. interests and influences the audiences to desire what it produces. where easy access to Bollywood and Hollywood films were made available to viewers at home. According to this theory. 2003). both men and women. Rajadhyaksha (2003) termed this shift as “Bollywoodization of the Indian cinema. Aug. but also shapes the society through the process of standardization and commodification through films. more often than not. Lakshmi N. identified with the working and lower middle class populations. Indian filmmakers began operating in a new media landscape. 1975). Based on this culture theory it can be assumed that the Bollywood film industry often manipulates the viewer to desire what it produces rather making films that viewers would be interested to watch. The significant changes that were brought in by the liberalization of the Indian economy throughout the 1990s enabled the already growing internationalization of the production and distribution of Hindi films (Rajadhyaksha. The late 1980s and early 1990s saw the revival of the musical love stories in Hindi cinema.
Kaho Na Pyar Hai (2000). 2003). etc. Moviegoers in India take pride in associating themselves with an actor or actress and diligently follow their mannerisms (Srinivas. In the past decade. hair styles. This trend based in synergies across different media platforms has encouraged Bollywood film producers to focus on urban and niche audiences who have ample disposable income and are active consumers.27). Black (2004). “Bollywood is not the Indian film industry or not the film industry alone. Accordingly. Baym and Punathambekar (2007) observed that “fandom” is a significant element of Indian film culture. overseas distribution rights for a big budget movie have doubled in price than that in the Indian market (Jaikumar. His argument about Bollywood industry was in line with the cultural industry concept of commodification. Dil Chahta Hi (2003) (see Appendix A for some of the plot summaries) achieved success both in the domestic and overseas market alike. from cable to radio.. from New Delhi to New York” (p. 19 . Given the immense popularity of Indian film stars and the large number of fan communities that have emerged over the years. 2009 earlier.Texas Tech University. it is not surprising to see that the audience desires to imitate dress codes. 2002). Lakshmi N. Television and music rights generated more revenues than the entire movie production cost. Tirumala. It might be best seen as a more diffuse cultural conglomeration involving a range of distribution and consumption activities from websites to music cassettes. Dhoom (2004). some of the most popular films such as Don (2006) Rang De Basanti (2005). that they see in Indian movies. hairstyles and even mannerisms. Kabhi Kushi Kabhi Gham (2001). Bollywood as a cultural industry influences dress codes. Rajadhyaksha (2003) further argued. Aug. Swades (2004).
and Danny Boyel’s Slum Dog Millionaire (2008) achieved tremendous success in the Indian diaspora. The new age film producers argue that films with western themes and usage of “Hinglish” (a blend of Hindi and English language) will not attract a large of number of the diasporic audience. These techniques demonstrated a trend toward reaching a global audience as opposed to the industry’s earlier objective of resisting western influence.S. Aug. The period between 2001 and 2008 is very significant with the exposure of South Asian popular culture reaching an all time high. and U. This is slowly changing as the popularity and importance of Bollywood cinema amongst the large South Asian diaspora is now being recognized as an important cultural object for scholars of socio-cultural studies. opened to sold-out crowds in London. particularly in U.K. while localizing and Indianizing them can best be labeled as “glocalization” (Ganti. all these films featured westernized themes. Bombay Dreams. 2009 Interestingly. Athique (2005) noted that it is surprising to see that the Bombay cinema has not generated much interest among scholars of cultural studies. Lakshmi N. Movies such as Monsoon Wedding (2001). the big budget musical drama. Bollywood & Diaspora Following is a brief description of Bollywood’s presence in a few important regions of the world: 20 . both directed by Mira Nair.Texas Tech University. 2002). Tirumala. These innovative strategies adopted by filmmakers by taking global formats and visual styles. During this period. The Name Sake (2006). and considerable use of English language in the dialogues. foreign locations.
21 . Bollywood movies are watched on cable and DVDs. Indian movies offer an alternative style to Hollywood movies and music videos that both Indian diaspora and African youth could follow without the fear of becoming western. Aug.S. Although. and the U. Pakistan and Bangladesh arguably enjoy an upper hand in the consumption of Bollywood movies. a few Bollywood films like Tajmahal (2005) were legally released in Pakistan. Tirumala. Bollywood movies are also popular in other South Asian countries such as Nepal and Sri Lanka due to their proximity with the Indian subcontinent. Bollywood films are particularly popular in the former Soviet Union. Morocco and South Africa because of its increasing Indian diaspora. Bollywood is not so popular in this part of the world compared to Oceania. it has made a slow but steady progress over the years (Irodanova. 2009 Asia Among Asian countries.K. According to Larkin (1997).). 2005). Lakshmi N. Iordanova (2006) noted that Bollywood movies are dubbed to Russian and shown in prominent theatres.Texas Tech University. 2006). the U.. for the most part. Also Afghanistan. because most of the people from these countries speak/understand Hindi (Kaur and Sinha. However. Africa and Russia Bollywood is now being recognized and achieving box office success in some parts of Africa such as Nigeria. Israel and Arab countries have been witnessing a gradual increase in popularity for Bollywood films since 2001 (Mishra. Although Pakistan’s government banned Indian films. n.d.
especially for song and dance sequences. Bollywood films have been gradually improving its box office revenues in the UK and it is fitting to say that the UK plays a significant role in Bollywood’s global share (Dawson.Texas Tech University. For example. 2005). 22 . Since 1997. Two television channels—RTL II (German) and Rai Uno (Italian)—have recently started to broadcast Indian movies every week (Sheth. Indian filmmakers have been attracted to the country’s diverse locations and rich landscapes to film significant number of song and dance sequences (Shah. Bend it Like Beckham (2002). Dawson observed that the Bollywood is also popular in Western Europe where India’s mega film industry has carved an identity for itself. 2009 Oceania Bollywood ranks second only to Hollywood in countries such as Australia and New Zealand. 2006). United Kingdom and Europe As per industry sources. and Bride and Prejudice (2005) have been filmed entirely in United Kingdom. 2005). Australia is one of the few countries where there is a large Indian diaspora. the Yash Raj film Salaam Namaste (2005) was one of the first Indian films to be shot entirely in Australia. Aug. thanks to its ever-increasing Indian population (Kaur and Sinha. With the growing Indian diaspora. 2005). 2006). Lakshmi N. This trend was followed by most recent movies like Heyy Babyy and Chak de India (2007). Bollywood films do exceptionally well in United Kingdom (Sheth. Australia has been providing a backdrop for a number of Bollywood films. Many films such as Kabhi Khushi Kabhie Gham (2001). Tirumala.
Kal Ho Naa Ho (2003).C. 2009 Bollywood in United States Bollywood has been experiencing tremendous growth in revenues in North American markets and is most popular among the South Asian communities in cities such as Chicago. Some of the more recent music-oriented films have 23 . During the past 10 years. many Bollywood filmmakers have been shooting significant number of scenes in America. one of the India’s largest production houses and distributors. the largest cable television provider in the United States (Sikka. Tirumala.Texas Tech University. With ever growing numbers of South Asians immigrating to the United States. and Chocolate (2005) were shot in United States. 2005). video rental retailers such as Netflix are offering more Bollywood movies through their online stores. Washington D. Many big-budget Bollywood films are debuting in the top 20 box office charts in cities where the Indian diaspora is large. Also.S.. reported that Bollywood films in the U. 2007). video sales and the sale of audio tracks from the movies (Overdorf. 2007). Lakshmi N. A few recent prominent films like Kaante (2002). and New York (Overdorf. make an average of $100 million a year through theatre screenings. Indian films do more business in the United States than films from any other country. Aug. As mentioned in the previous chapter. Bollywood started entering into American living rooms through “Bollywood On Demand” provided by Comcast Corporation. Yash Raj Films. With the Indian movie industry gaining popularity in the West. Indian filmmakers have set their sights on the United States when it comes to locations for filming significant scenes and song and dance sequences.
the generation of revenues through movie ticket sales. 24 . the following chapter examines the cultural identity in terms of cultural studies. especially in the United States. Tirumala. to hit Broadway during 20042005 season. Aug. Specifically. Lakshmi N. and the creation of overseas markets through the exportation of theatrical and home video consumption. 2009 influenced the first Bollywood musical. has provided an opportunity to explore issues related to the creation and maintenance of cultural identity. There is no question that the Indian movie industry has experienced exceptional growth in the number of films produced. The next chapter examined the theoretical frameworks that could be used to analyze the relationship between Bollywood and the development of cultural identity among the secondgeneration Indian Americans. raise of multiplexes. The growth of the Bollywood film industry in foreign markets. Bombay Dreams.Texas Tech University.
Williams (1961) conceptualized the culture “as a whole way of life” (p. in today’s global world. in their material context” (p. he positioned the culture in two general categories: There is. and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society” (p. 25 . and it display social disparity. 41). According to Stuart Hall (1997). film/video studies.Texas Tech University. and cultural anthropology to explore cultural phenomena in industrial societies. art. located. and in situ. Johnson (1987) explained cultural studies with three main characteristics: culture is associated with social relations. morals. first. 50). mass media play a significant role in representing and even projecting a society’s culture. 2009 Chapter III Theoretical Framework Cultural Studies Cultural studies combine sociology. Tirumala. He maintained that the way to understand culture as “a whole. law. human thought and experience are variously recorded. Taylor (1874) defined culture as “it is that complex whole which includes knowledge. custom. Aug. belief systems. it involves power structures. Additionally. …Second …is the social definition of culture. which expresses certain meanings and values not only in art and learning but also in institutions and ordinary behavior (p. the ideal in which culture is the body of intellectual and imaginative work. Cultural studies are the way to analyze and understand the systems and values of our daily lives. Lakshmi N. Culture represents certain meanings and values of a society. 41). 67). …Culture is a description of a particular way of life.
Tirumala. Bollywood movies should provide links to the Indian culture. cultural studies focus on how individuals understand their culture through mass media. However. it does not create new culture or a social phenomenon but it repackages and reforms cultural practices. Accordingly. One explanation for this process is through the Circuit of Culture. especially electronic media. and regulation (du Gay et al. identity. consumption. consciously or unconsciously. Hall (1996) explained that the media play an important role in the formation of the things that they reflect. social ideology is always present in culture. For the Indian diaspora in the United States. Accordingly. suggested that combining these five elements completes a circuit and to 26 . 2009 Hall (1997) observed that the images and the values of a society would be provided by mass media. du Gay et al.. Moreover. audience could get other cultural perspectives through mass media so that they might realize that the culture they are living in differs from other cultures. Lakshmi N. one needs to look at its representation. It suggests that to study a cultural text or artifact. a cultural studies framework that can be used to explore and examine the process of cultural identification.Texas Tech University. Hall (1982) described the role of media in the society as functional. Aug. The Circuit of Culture Circuit of culture is a model that offers a holistic view of the process of communication. No matter what the audience perceives about the content of mass media. 1997). production. Hall (1997) suggested that the audience could learn other cultural values through media and so they might recognize that they live in different cultures. In short.
production. this process helps us to understand the complexity of communication. Likewise. At the moment of identity. Production is pursued on the basis of targeted audience and at this stage we are concerned with understanding how various meanings are encoded in messages. the communication process is much more than sending a message from point A to B. So. The moments of the circuit -. Tirumala.Texas Tech University. visuals and language play a predominant role in the process of representation. like Hall (2005) suggested. 1997). Consumption deals with how these messages are decoded and the meaning that audiences make of them. On the final moment of Regulation. 27 . As Hall (1997) suggested cultural meaning is socially constructed through systems of symbolic representations.. and regulation -. the meaning of any cultural text or artifact can be examined and understood from these five interdependent elements of the circuit of culture. As indicated above. Lakshmi N.play a significant role in how we send and receive messages. consumption. Curtin and Gaither (2005) argued that the circuit of culture is a useful framework for better understanding the values and meanings of any cultural product. the circuit examines how cultural messages affect consumers in their daily lives. Aug. 2009 examine or analyze how cultural processes are accomplished in our daily lives. one must take this circuit into consideration if it is to be studied adequately (du Gay et al.representation. the circuit examines how people find similarities with themselves and messages encoded during the production. identity. The circuit of culture consists of five major moments: representation is the first stage of the circuit as it is a process by which cultural meaning is generated and given a shape.
Jung and Lee (2004) observed that the definitions provided by past researchers with respect to ethnic. However. Based on this statement. 2004). Johnson.Texas Tech University. racial and cultural 28 . Lakshmi N. (1997) observed that people consume products to project certain cultural identities that they want others to recognize they possess. ethnic minorities are successfully finding a balance between their home and host cultures and trying not to steer away from the ancestral culture and traditions. The cultural process engaged by Indian American adults was examined on the basis of circuit of culture framework. Globalization and new media technologies like the Internet and satellite television help the diaspora communities to stay connected with their ethnic roots as often as possible and restore the old traditions and value system (Appadurai. Scholars have defined ethnic identity in different ways and interestingly there seems to be no distinction in identity literature when it comes to defining racial. according to Johnson (2000). We may infer that diaspora identities have always been unstable because of their constant exposure to home and host culture influences. 1996). mainly focusing on the elements of representation. The concept of ethnic identity The cultural identity of immigrated minority groups has been an issue in the fields of mass communications and social sciences (see Gillespie. ethnic. Tirumala. 2000. identity and consumption. 2000). 2009 du Gay et al. Aug. the current study attempted to examine whether consumption of Bollywood movies helps second-generation Indian Americans understand and maintain their cultural identity among. and cultural identity (as referred in Jung and Lee.
However. It is safe to assume that ethnic groups express their identity by choosing ethnic symbols such as ethnic clothes. Interacting with family and friends on a daily basis appeared to help identify and maintain the home culture. Sreberny (2000) noted “approaches to ethnicity usually focus on the common bonds of language. ethnic festivals. and most importantly through consumption of ethnic food and media. Language and religious customs play a crucial role in bringing together people who share similar cultural traits and form a sub-cultural group. today. 29 .S. it only make things complicated and difficult to draw out a universal definition. Kelly (1996) defined ethnic identity as “a group’s or individual’s cultural construction of their ethnic past which is grounded in an historical context but which also responds to changes in the lives of both groups and individuals” (p.Texas Tech University. it is important to note that ethnic groups combine these with host culture elements to construct a third identity such as Indian American. This is an important notion because the current study will also attempt to explore the role played by family and friends in understanding the Indian culture and identity. ethnic language. Aug. Tirumala. 2009 identities are similar.82). It is not at all surprising considering the number of ethnicities and cultures in U. myth and habit which bind members of an ethnic community together as a sub-cultural grouping within the territorial confines of a nation-state” (p. 179). Lakshmi N. Hall (1997) clearly emphasized that the cultural elements like family and peer groups play a significant role in the formation of individual’s identity.
outgroup members constantly remind him or her of in-group identity. cultural identity is defined. They also argued that individuals positively differentiate their in-group from out-group on specific identity and value dimensions. While in-group members often help individual maintain the culture. to closely identify 30 . Chances are that new media technologies create ample opportunities for minority communities to find a new sense of connection and maintain their identities. which allows ethnic group members. satellite television and DVD. 2009 Furthermore. Aug. Examining the role of intergroup behavior.Texas Tech University. produced and maintained through various social interactions inside and outside ethnic communities. He suggested that there is a difference between interacting with in-group members and outgroup members. 2004). Thus. For example. For the purpose of this research. Lakshmi N. Tirumala. Apart from interpersonal interactions with family and peer group the cultural identity of ethnic groups can be constructed and maintained through their constant interactions with media technologies like the Internet. Indian American students in this case. Hall (1997) suggested that the mass media acts as a linkage between dispersed public and the homeland of cultural life that helps to create a sense of identity among the media consumers. consumption of ethnic news and entertainment through satellite channels and DVDs could serve to maintain the culture and traditions of ethnic minorities. communicating with in-group and out-group members play an influential role in identifying with an individual’s ethnic culture (Durham. Cultural identity formation is a complicated process. Tajfel and Turner (1986) observed that the act of categorizing oneself as a particular group member would lead to a display of in-group favoritism. cultural identity is defined as a level of ethnic identification.
Jo (2000) found that Korean culture. none of the past studies focused particularly on Indian Americans. age hierarchy.Texas Tech University. 2009 themselves with their cultural and traditional origins. This reflects the importance of family togetherness to Asian culture in comparison to the individualistic approach of Western cultures. 2004). Aug. the majority of the literature was drawn from either Asian American or Asian Britain identity construction studies. The current research highlights the role of Bollywood movies. Lakshmi N. it reflects the collectivistic approach of Asian culture to the individualistic orientation of Western culture. As discussed in the previous chapter it is important to pay attention to Bollywood movies not only for their dynamic reach to the diaspora communities but also for their popularity among the group. In a study of ethnic identity formation process among second-generation KoreanAmericans. She discovered that the majority of the participants from the study identified 31 . was a strong force behind the identity negotiation process. which facilitate the cultural contacts by erasing geographical boundaries and thereby influencing ethnic group’s identity construction and maintenance. In other words. 2004. Although the Asian American group does consists of Indian Americans. Durham. Cultural Identity of Asian Americans As there is an absence of literature about second-generation Indian Americans and their cultural identity process. Prior studies found that the cultural identity of Asian Americans to be largely influenced by family and social relationships (see Jung and Lee. associated with strict parenting style. and faith in religion. Tirumala.
The above studies reemphasize the fact that family and religion play a dominant role in constructing and maintaining the cultural identification. and watching Asian films helped them stay connected to the home culture. which suggested that the second-generation Korean Americans were strongly connected to the Korean culture. Aug. Diamond. many teenagers in this study opined that Asian films mirrored the true culture and traditional aspects. In his study of South Asian immigrant girls and diaspora identity.Texas Tech University. Tirumala. The author argued that since the participants were brought up in a mixed culture it is understandable to see a difference in their Indianness from that of their parents. and Cooper (1999) posited that the cultural identity of Asian teenage girls in Britain depended on their social activities and interactions. peer group interactions and religious institutions strongly motivate the students ethnic identification process. attitudes. attending language classes. and behaviors of many Asian societies that helped reinforce cultural values. Lakshmi N. Hennick. Durham (2004) found that the participants classified themselves as Indians and identified that family and peer group interactions as the driving force behind their identity formation. found that external forces such as the relationship with parents. All the participants in this study reported an affinity 32 . a majority of the girls admitted that their level of Indianness differs from that of their parents. Interestingly. Many teenagers in the study reported that mixing with Asian friends. However. who surveyed Korean American students. Jung and Lee (2004). 2009 themselves as Korean or Korean American. This suggested that the level of cultural identity diminishes from generation to generation in the Indian diaspora.
peer group interaction and entertainment industry also play a crucial role in defining one’s ethnic identity. Tirumala. Jung and Lee (2004) found that young Korean Americans most often rely on the distance shrinking communication technologies such as mobile phones. Internet. This supports Hall’s (1997) observation that mass media and communication technologies play a crucial role in enhancing the process of identity formation. 2009 towards their people of similar ethnic background. Further support is provided by Lee (2004) who found that satellite television programs played an important role reinforcing the connection with Korean culture and society while looking at Korean immigrants and the role of satellite television.Texas Tech University. This suggested that apart from family and religious institutions. Drawing the basis from the above research works. Because the current study examined the role of Bollywood movies. Lakshmi N. and satellite television to create new social realities and cultural identities within the Korean diaspora community context. Mass media has been used as a useful communication tool for cultural identity construction and maintenance among first generation immigrants and their children. it was important to look at the past research studies that investigated the role of media. peer group interactions. and religious institutions in constructing and maintaining the identity. Aug. Thompson’s (2002) study of media use and diaspora identity among immigrants and their children in the U. The study also revealed that satellite television acted as a good education tool for children to learn Korean language and culture.K found that joint viewing of ethnic television and films are extremely important in the construction of cultural 33 . the current study seek to understand the role of family. In their aforementioned ethnographic study on Korean American students.
The study suggested that the Chinese ethnic Internet sites provided a way for Chinese to stay connected with their culture and preserve the traditional values. Aug. Rao (2007) researched Bollywood movies and non-elite audiences in India and found that the majority of the respondents did not identify themselves with the current 34 . he found that the extensive use of VCR at home to watch Indian films represented a significant means for parents to maintain links with their country and culture of origin. 2009 identity.Texas Tech University. Gillespie observed that the parents considered Indian films to be useful and informative agents for constructing cultural identity of their children. This is an ample indication of Internets role in shaping and reinforcing cultural identity. Findings from this study suggested that besides family and peer group interactions. electronic media played an important role in constructing and reinforcing the identity. attitudes. Melkote and Liu (2000) found that Chinese ethnic Internet sites like tudou. Gillespie (1989) examined the role of the video recorder in the construction of ethnic identity among Indians in England.com helped by integrating all the Chinese students and scholars in the United Sates. The Internet also began to play a significant role in constructing and maintaining the cultural identity of people living in ethnic diasporas. Tirumala. While looking specifically at Bollywood movies and identity construction. whereas children felt little connection to the films. Interestingly. Lakshmi N. whereas second-generation children resisted the Indian traditions and customs that were shown in films. and belief system in their children apart from teaching the Indian language. The majority of the parents used Indian films to cultivate certain traditional cultural values.
Aug. it suggested that the Bollywood industry has been producing movies to lure diaspora communities (elite or high income groups as per Indian standards) and increase the financial returns through its exports. previous studies showed that the cultural identity construction among second-generation populations depends on various negotiation processes through a combination of inter personal and mediated communicative interactions. Participants from the study also stated that the Hindi film music gave them an opportunity to stay close to the ethnic culture. in-group and out-group interactions. and mass media such as print. Lakshmi N. religious institutions. television. Although the past research studies looked at the role of all the abovementioned variables in identity construction.Texas Tech University. Therefore. Dawson’s (2005) study of Hindi film music and the negotiation of identity among British-Asian youths resulted in positive responses from the audience. Though this study did not focus on immigrant identity. they have not explored the role of Bollywood movies in the identity construction of second-generation Indian Americans. 2009 Bollywood narratives. and films. based on those findings and a significant gap in the literature the current study developed the following research questions to examine the role of Bollywood films in cultural identity formation and maintenance among second-generation Indian Americans: RQ 1: What factors do second-generation Indian Americans identify as influencing their identity construction? 35 . Internet. Tirumala. radio. In summary. He reasoned that while Bollywood industry has been veering towards a Western style catering to the needs of elite Indians and Indian Diasporia community. The variables that were derived out of the previous research are: family. the movies have ignored the preferences of non-elite audiences.
2009 RQ 2: What role do mass media play in second-generation Indian Americans identity construction? RQ 3: What roles does Bollywood in particular play in the process of identity construction among second-generation Indian Americans? 36 .Texas Tech University. Tirumala. Aug. Lakshmi N.
Qualitative research According to Denzin and Lincoln (2005). and memos to the self” (p. Qualitative methods including in-depth interviews and focus groups were conducted to understand the role of social institutions and the mass media in general and focus on the role of Bollywood movies on the Identity process. 3).e. interviews. photographs. conversations. A qualitative researcher is an integral part of the investigation and so it enables a researcher to examine individual motivations through which detailed information can be obtained 37 . They turn the world into a series of representations. material practices that make the world visible. Lakshmi N. qualitative research is defined as… “a situated activity that located the observer in the world. It emphasizes the importance of observing variables in the natural setting where they are found. recordings.Texas Tech University. i. including field notes. Aug. Qualitative research is also defined as an inquiry in which the researcher attempts to understand some larger phenomena by investigating it in a holistic way. 2009 Chapter IV Methodology This research study explored the research questions grounded in cultural studies by looking at how second-generation Indian Americans construct their identity. These practices transform the world. “Indianness” and how Bollywood movies are used to maintain the culture and identity. Tirumala. It consists of a set of interpretive.
Tirumala. It examines questions that can otherwise be impossible to answer with quantitative methods. It explore new areas of research. 2005. 1996). Comprehensive data gathering limits scope. It is impossible to replicate. a. It uses subjective information. b. While on the flip side. 1997). Aug. Subjectivity raises the issue of reliability and validity of the approach. b. Lakshmi N. Weinreich. c. and d. (Key. Some advantages of qualitative research are: a. Specifically the study examined how Indian American students at Texas Tech University in Lubbock. 38 . and e.Texas Tech University. It is an in-depth examination of a phenomenon. Weinreich (1996) observed that the qualitative research helps to obtain a realistic view of the world that cannot be captured through the statistical data analysis used in quantitative research. This study used two of the qualitative methods to examine and analyze the identity construction process among second-generation Indian Americans. 2009 (Denizen and Lincoln. Texas used Bollywood movies in constructing and maintaining their identity. It is not limited to rigidly defined variables. c. The following is a detailed description of each method that was used in this study. Researcher bias is unavoidable. d.
This technique is a very time consuming process. sensitive. Some of the merits of indepth interview technique are a. Lakshmi N. It is prone to bias. Interviewer or interview responses may be biased in order to prove an idea or a situation is working. generalization cannot be made (Boyce and Neale. most of which are unsuitable to address in a group format. In-depth interviews provide detailed information on a particular program or idea. or confidential information.Texas Tech University. 2009 In-depth interviews Fontana and Frey (2005) observed that in-depth interviewing is a good way to understand people and their attitudes. Simply put. Tirumala. 2006). People may feel more comfortable to have a conversation and share their views in person compared to filling out a survey However. there are also a few disadvantages to this technique: a. Because of the small sample size. b. it is one of the qualitative research techniques that involve conducting individual interviews with a small number of people to examine their perspectives on an idea or a situation (Boyce and Neale. 2006). from conducting interviews to transcribing and analyzing the responses c. Every effort should be made to conduct interviews with minimal bias b. In-depth interviews are ideal for investigating personal. Aug. this research study adopted Kvale’s (1996) seven stages of the interview process as a guide: 39 . Bearing the merits and drawbacks in mind.
2. Analyzing – Researcher decides the proper method for analysis. reliability. 3. 4.Texas Tech University. between February 15. 2008. The data obtained through these interviews were then transcribed for analysis as soon as possible after each interview was conducted. a recognized student organization at Texas Tech University. Thematizing – This is the primary stage of the interview. Lakshmi N. The main objective for the interview should be clarified before the interview. Verifying – Verify the generalizability. Aug. Tirumala. A total of eight second-generation Indian American students were interviewed in the College of Mass Communications at Texas Tech University. 5. 2008 and March 15. The researcher also attended few general body meetings held by SASA to explain the purpose of the study and sign up interested participants. Reporting – Discuss the findings from the study and explain how those results follow scientific criteria and the ethical aspects (Kvale. 6. Transcribing – The data obtained through interviews are transcribed for analyzing the data. Interviewing – Interviews are conducted at this stage. 2009 1. 1996). All individuals were initially contacted by sending personal emails to the members of South Asian Students Association (SASA). and validity of the interview analysis. Designing – The interview is designed to achieve the objective of the study. were digitally recorded and the respondent’s names were changed to conceal the participants’ identity. requesting participation in the study. The researcher should keep in mind what he or she wants from the interview. 7. 40 . All interviews lasted about an hour to hour and half.
Aug. 2009 These transcriptions were typed word-for-word into Microsoft Word. and attitudes towards a topic. 1988). It provides data more quickly and at lower cost than other methods 41 . A focus group typically consists of 7-10 people who share certain characteristics that relate to the topic of the discussion (Krueger. The rationale behind conducting focus groups in addition to in-depth interviews was to enhance understanding the scenario in a better way and to reveal wide range of common opinions as focus groups have a focused discussion about specific topics or issues. (1995) suggested the following advantages and limitations of using focus groups are: a. A careful and systematic analysis of the discussion provides insight as to how an idea or a situation is perceived by the group. Tirumala. which produce detailed information that otherwise cannot be produced. Focus Groups As stated earlier. Lakshmi N. qualitative research enables researchers to examine individual motivations. Group interviews are therefore conducted to gather individuals’ opinions. These transcriptions were read many times to draw patterns and common themes during the analysis stage. Marczac and Seawell. The focus group technique is extremely useful for exploring attitudes and perceptions and is particularly useful for evaluating complex phenomena such as how audiences process and make sense of certain mediated images. The focus group method was the second qualitative technique that was used for this study. People naturally interact and are influenced by others in a group environment b.Texas Tech University. experiences. knowledge.
Considering the merits and challenges of focus group. Lakshmi N. 1998). Tirumala. Focus groups are comparatively easy to conduct d. results cannot be generalized d. 2009 c. 3. As in the case with in-depth interviews. 1995). Results are easy to understand and are accessible to everyone As with any research technique. Aug. Produces relatively chaotic data making analysis more difficult c. Results may be biased by the presence of a dominated member (Marczac and Seawell. Moderator may intentionally or unintentionally bias results by providing cues about desired responses e. The interview should always include less than ten questions. this study employed Krueger’s (1988) three. individuals for the focus group session were contacted initially by sending personal emails to the members of South Asian Students Association (SASA). Interview: Questions should be carefully planned but appear spontaneous during the focus group discussion. Conceptualization: Determine the purpose of the study and whom to study 2. Researchers’ have less control over the group in general b. A total of eight second-generation Indian American students agreed to participate in a focus group 42 . Analysis: The process of analyzing and reporting must be systematic and descriptive (Krueger.phase process as a guide to conduct focus groups: 1. focus group has its own limitations: a.Texas Tech University. Because of its small sample size. requesting to participate in the study.
The focus group session lasted for an hour and was video recorded. Previous research works that were based on qualitative methods suggests that the descriptions a researcher provides and the categories and themes they develop becomes the core of the analysis. Aug. Focus group discussions were transcribed word-for-word into Microsoft Word. As in the case with in-depth interviews. I used a new color to highlight it within the transcriptions. 43 . I coded the data by organizing and categorizing the emerging themes using highlighters. the transcriptions from focus group were read many times to draw patterns and common themes during the analysis stage.Texas Tech University. 2009 session at the College of Mass Communications at Texas Tech University in the second week of April 2008. All the respondents’ names were changed to conceal the participants’ identity and the data thus obtained was transcribed immediately after the focus group session. Lakshmi N. Coding Once the transcriptions from both the in-depth interviews and focus groups were typed completed. they were read and re-read searching for common themes and patterns. Tirumala. For each new theme that emerged. As I read and read re-read the transcriptions from my interviews and focus group session.
Aug. 2009 Chapter V Findings and Discussion The purpose of the study is to throw some light on the role of Bollywood movies in identity formation and maintenance among Indian American young adults. And finally. each interview and focus group session were transcribed and read multiple times searching for common themes and patterns across the data. The role of media. the analysis of this study adopted du Gay et al. the circuit of culture and specifically looked at the moments of representation. and consumption. These areas were investigated using in-depth interviews and a focus group session with second-generation Indian American students.” The three main areas that were addressed in this research study are: 1. As suggested earlier. (1997) framework. excluding Bollywood. Tirumala. to examine the identity construction process of second-generation Indian Americans and the role played by Bollywood movies in creating the notion of “Indianness. in this identity construction. Factors influencing second-generation Indian Americans’ identity construction. 3. the roles of Bollywood movies in constructing and maintaining this identity. 2.Texas Tech University. Lakshmi N. identity. The themes that emerged during the reading are discussed below through the analysis of the interviews and focus group data. 44 . As discussed in the previous chapter.
Texas Tech University. All the names were changed to conceal the participant’s identity and they were assigned with a pseudonym: Table 2. The information included in Table 2 outlined the basic demographics of the participants and their reported Bollywood movie viewing frequency. 2009 While exploring general media habits and Bollywood viewing habits in particular. Tirumala. Demographics and movie watching frequency Name Puja Rahul Rupa Sandeep Deepa Gowri Hari Sree Sharukh Aishwarya Vijay Bipasha Hritik Amir Salman Kajol Deepika Age 22 23 25 22 23 22 21 24 21 22 22 22 21 22 22 21 22 Gender Female Male Female Male Female Female Male Male Male Female Male Female Male Male Male Female Female 45 Bollywood Movie Watching Frequency Twice a week Once a week Once a week Once a week Twice a week Twice a week Twice a week Thrice a week Once a week Once a week Once in two weeks Once a week Once a week Twice a week Once a week Once a week Twice a week . Aug. Only one respondent said that he would typically watch once in two weeks. Lakshmi N. most of the respondents claimed that they watch at least one Bollywood movie a week.
Aug. same religious views and attitudes. Asked what it means to be an Indian. Rahul (male. Puja (female. This suggested that although all participants were born and brought up in the U. 23) responded as follows: I see myself as Indian/Indian American because though I was born here I was still brought up as if I was from there. My parents pressed the culture upon me and I try to keep the traditions alive and pass it on to the next generation. but not American. The following section examined what being an “Indian” meant to secondgeneration Indian American Students in Texas Tech University. Constructing Identity All research participants were self-identified as either Indian American or Indian. they still identify with their ethnic roots and keep the “Indianness” alive. religion. Asked why it is important to maintain the culture. festivities and weddings. Tirumala. Lakshmi N. All of them visited India at least once and learned about Indian traditions and culture. All the interviewees associated the Indian culture with family togetherness.Texas Tech University. They expressed that maintaining the culture and traditions is very important and it is something that they definitely want to pass it on to their children.S. I have all the cultural similarities. the average age of the participants was 21 and on an average they watched at least one Bollywood movie a week. 22) said the following: 46 . 2009 According to the basic demographics included in Table 2.
a majority of the focus group respondents expressed their desire to marry an Indian guy or a girl. I know that I want my children to be Indian and want them to know values and beliefs that I have been raised with. The research shows that ethnic distinction plays a critical role in constructing Indian identity among Indian American students. 25) remembered discovering her identity as Indian through her interactions with other ethnic group members. a focus group respondent said the following: I obviously want to marry a Indian because I feel it’s important to marry an Indian because there are so many things that you do not understand if you are married to someone who is not an Indian. which suggested that these participants not only maintain the cultural identity but also want to pass it on to future generations. since nobody really recognizes me as an American. Lakshmi N. She observed “interacting with out-group members constantly reminds me of being an Indian. and these comments clearly reveal that most of the secondgeneration Indian American participants try to stay connected with their home culture and traditional values. 22). Tirumala. Talking about the marriage system. All focus group respondents also shared similar views on the importance of maintaining the culture. 2009 I think maintaining culture is extremely important to me because that’s who you are and always will be even if you live the rest of your life here in America.Texas Tech University. another interview participant Rupa (female. Gowri (female. For example. Apart from religion and family togetherness.” This response suggested that though Rupa was born and brought up in 47 . Aug.
a member of South Asian Students Association (SASA) at Tech said the following: “Me and some of my SASA friends always hang out together and have fun like celebrating holi (festival of colors) or eat Indian food.Texas Tech University. who are frequently and pejoratively identified as ABCD’s (American Born Confused Desi) by Indian media 48 . 2009 America and speaks English like any other American she will never be accepted as an American because of her ethnic background. Accordingly. there is no evidence to support this assumption. Tirumala. Sandeep (male. which constantly reminds me of my ethnic background. On the other hand. an interesting discussion emerged from the focus group session that focused on the fact that few Indian American students. Interactions with both “in-group” and “out-group” members play a significant role in inter-cultural identity negotiation process and most importantly remind secondgeneration Indian Americans of their ethnic roots and cultural background. Aug. despite their being born in America and fluent in English. as the researcher did not explore in this area. Lakshmi N. most of the Indian American students. While there is a possibility that the race of these respondents may also be a factor for not being accepted as Americans. do not veer away from Indian culture due to their interactions with peer group members and taking part in Indian cultural events. Most of the interview participants identified student associations as playing a dominant role in maintaining one’s cultural identity because they facilitate a constant interaction with peer group members.” Having born and brought up in America. Sandeep actively participates in SASA and try to create awareness about the Indian culture on campus. 22).
It’s because their parents do not talk about the importance of culture. 49 . Aug.Texas Tech University. A focus group respondent Hritik (male. When asked for the reason. 2009 and peer groups. assimilate toward American culture and do not like to identify themselves with Indian roots. This suggested that the social and cultural interactions play a key role in defining and maintaining the cultural identity amongst second-generation Indian American students. so as soon as they leave from home they don’t get involved in any Indian events. 21) observed the following: So they often hangout with Americans and do stuff together but they always come back to us when they want to share things about their families because they do not identify this aspect of sharing with their American friends. While none of the respondents of both interviews and focus groups identified themselves as ABCDs. they observed that even the so called “ABCDs” come around and interact with them whenever they feel like talking about their families and parents because of the cultural differences they experience when talking with their American peers. Tirumala. responded as follows: Some just ignore the whole fact that they are Indian. they will talk about how they are American more than an Indian because they do not learn anything about cultural background or traditions. Deepa (female. or interact with us and they lose everything and start acting as Americans. Lakshmi N. 23) a focus group participant.
Texas Tech University. three themes including family. During the examination of the first research question. 2009 Now that we have looked at participant’s observations on the notion of “Indianness. Tirumala. institutions. Aug. institutions. friends. and friends emerged out of the interviews and focus group sessions. families play a pivotal role in constructing and maintaining the ethnic roots and identities because they keep the traditions and rituals alive by continuing to follow them and also having their children to take part in these rituals and other celebrations. Each of these factors is discussed at length in the following sub sections. 22) said the following: 50 . The in-depth interviews and focus group suggests that identity construction process among second-generation Indian Americans is based on four major factors. Family Interviews from this study indicated that the family plays a significant role in the cultural identity formation among second-generation Indian Americans. Gowri (female. and media. Following is the synthesis of these three themes. Lakshmi N. The four major factors are family. As Kelly (1996) and Jung and Lee (2004) pointed out.” it is important to learn how it is constructed and maintained by secondgeneration Indian Americans. A majority of the interviewees pointed out that their parents speak to them in their native language and observed that it was necessary for their own children to be able to understand and converse in their native tongue. Parents teaching Indian culture at home and/or asking their children to speak in their native language are the most commonly identified activities that influence the identity formation of Indian American students.
it can be assumed that staying away from ethnic language makes second-generation Indian Americans fallout from learning about the culture and there by loose their identity. Aug. Deepa (female. 23) said the following: Being around my family makes me think of the Indian culture and traditions. Whenever they watch Indian programs like television soap operas or movies. praying once a day and eating Indian food are few things that second-generation Indian Americans learned from their families. 51 . you know she does not want me to lose the language. Whenever I ask my mom something. I now take pride in saying that I can speak Hindi very fluently and some of the Indian Americans who cannot do so look up to me. 2009 I thank my family for teaching me how to speak in Hindi when I was young. So. she’s always like why don’t you tell me in Hindi/Gujarathi. Tirumala. It suggested that family members do things in certain way that goes along with culture and tradition. The majority of the focus group participants also maintained that just being around family members reminds them of Indian culture and traditions. he would ask his parents about the meaning of phrases he could not understand. Likewise Rahul (male. 23) speaks to his mom and dad in Gujarathi at home. And whenever I go home me and my family goes to an Indian restaurant and then may be watch Indian movies. Also cultural aspects like respect for elders. We usually eat Indian food and do aarti (light a candle) and pray for a while. Lakshmi N.Texas Tech University.
It is observed that participants give priority to their parents and seek their acceptance before taking any important decisions. Aug. The following are the ideas and views on the role of institution in maintaining the cultural identity. To sum up. played Indian music all the time in cars when we were driving somewhere and they took us to festivals. Tirumala. they rented Bollywood movies to watch with us. 2009 All participants from both the interviews and focus groups maintained that family was the most influential factor in constructing and maintaining identity. 22). Parents play a dominant role in the identity construction of secondgeneration Indian Americans because they are the ones who teach and instill the idea of culture and value system through various activities. institutions also played a major role in constructing and maintaining the identity among these students. 52 . I mean I was always around the culture because my parents took me to all the events and made me involve in all those things. an interview participant said the following: My parents took me to temple. most of the participants from this study stated that family has the biggest influence on their identity construction and keep them motivated to participate in the culture and traditions. As seen earlier in this chapter. Vijay (male. Lakshmi N.Texas Tech University. Thus family clearly plays a predominant role in constructing the identity in second-generation Indian American students.
I think these activities contribute a lot in preserving our culture and identity.Texas Tech University. 2009 Institutions The interview participants from this study indicated that in addition to the family and language. we did this thing called puja once every week and it would have Bhagavadgeetha and Ramayana (religious scriptures) classes and we all kids sit together and learn about those stories. Sree (male. Jung and Lee (2004) emphasized that the ethnic church played a crucial role in constructing a social network among Korean Americans. religious institutions like temples and religious classes play an important role in identity formation of the second-generation Indian Americans. which teach you about moral values and traditions. 24). Most of the respondents from interviews and the focus group claimed that they participate in all the traditional celebrations and attend Hindu temple on a regular basis. This is a very interesting scenario because many people living in India do not seem to give importance to ethnic wear while second53 . The majority of the interview participants also observed that they pray every day and wear ethnic clothes to traditional events. Lakshmi N. who was the vice president of South Asian Students Association. going to religious events and participating in traditional functions give Indian Americans a chance to socialize with people from the same cultural background and stay connected with their ethnic roots. Aug. We also play holi and diwali every year and have a lot of social events to create awareness about Indian culture and traditions in the University. Similarly. said the following: When I was growing up. Tirumala.
Texas Tech University. I think it is because we are so far away from India we try to preserve and keep the culture alive by doing certain things. This suggested that a participant’s religious faith is deeply rooted by going to a temple and learning it from a religious guru as well as involving in religious events. Likewise. 2009 generation Indian Americans emphasize it as a symbol for their identity. All participants expressed pride in learning and maintaining the religious faith and keeping in touch with their inner self. Aug. Most participants from interviews stated that their parents always wanted them to focus on religion and know everything about it by visiting temple and religious classes. And if I go to traditional events like garbha or something I feel awkward if I don’t wear Indian clothes. Tirumala. But my Indian cousins say they do not wear traditional clothes often. They maintained that though they never took it seriously and understood the importance behind knowing about one’s religion and traditions initially. it was only in the later stage that they realized the value of religion and importance of maintaining it. This factor enables them to keep in tune with their religion and stay connected with their culture and identity. Sree (male. Lakshmi N. Kajol (female. 21) said the following: We are strong in maintaining the religious traditions. participants from the focus group observed that religious classes played an important role in learning about values and customs. 24) said the following: 54 . We celebrate all Indian festivals and go to temple regularly.
2009 I did Sunday school for couple of years but I never took it seriously at all because I have never realized the importance of it. They talked about Hinduism and what you are supposed to do and it helped some to know about culture. Lakshmi N. Most participants from both interviews and the focus group observed that members of these associations arrange cultural events that help second-generation Indian Americans stay connected to the home culture. Aug. Tirumala. University student organizations like SASA and ISA provided them with an opportunity to mix with fellow Indian Americans and Indian students who share similar views and ideas. They taught a lot about Indian values and traditions. Indian Students Association (ISA) also played an important role in preserving and maintaining the culture and identity. Organizations such as South Asian Students Association (SASA). But after I grew up and started going to geetha classes. Friends All the participants from interviews and the focus group observed that they began to take more interest towards Indian culture and traditions after they entered the university.Texas Tech University. Most of the interviewees point out that they socialize with other Indian 55 . It can be assumed that these associations act as an additional push to identify and maintain the culture and traditions in secondgeneration Indian Americans. This again suggested that institutions like religious classes and student organizations contribute a lot in identity formation and maintenance among second-generation Indian American students. I realized the importance of maintaining the religious values because it is your identity.
watching Indian television channels. Going to temple. “When you meet someone from similar cultural background. Aug. Participants from the focus group session also expressed that they were able to maintain the culture as Indian friends surround them all the time.Texas Tech University. Gowri (female. garbha (religious event) and movie night. Hritik (male. 21) said the following: We all try to maintain the Indian spirit by watching Indian movies. listening to Indian songs etc and I am able to do all that because I am constantly with my Indian friends and I do not think I would have done that if I were not around them. 22) responded the following 56 . They also let me keep the traditions alive and help me keep me in check just by being around them. 2009 American students and Indian students alike. listening to Bollywood music. Indian American students also participate in all the traditional events like diwali (festival of lights). 21). Tirumala. Lakshmi N. Hritik’s statement suggested that friends play an influential role in maintaining ethnic roots among Indian American students when they are away from home. and watching Bollywood movies were some of the activities Indian American students keenly involved. you have already broken the ice and it makes easy to talk to because you already know that you have so much in common traditionally and culturally” said Kajol (female. Asked how important friends are in maintaining the culture. attending Indian weddings. eating Indian food.
Aug. Tirumala. She also tells us to remember who we are and where we come from. “Through my family friends I have learned some stuff about culture. Lakshmi N. I mean they come only next to family. They noted that family friends try to teach them about values and traditions by inviting them to different functions like house warming or a religious puja (prayer). The majority of the focus group participants observed that unlike peer groups. 2009 They are extremely important. Deepa (female. 23) observed the following: One of my mom’s friends. The interviewees and focus group participants stated that family friends also play a significant role in learning and maintaining Indian traditions and values. she is very culturally sound and very religious and she always tries to keep us that way. They taught me a lot about our traditions and what’s right and what’s wrong by 57 . She always tells us about what’s going on and how we need to be sure and not forget our roots. family friends give them an extra push to learn about religious stories and moral values by making them read religious books.Texas Tech University. I mean I did not have too many Indian friends when I was younger and I think I did not understand a lot about the culture and traditions but now I have a lot of Indian friends and that influences me in knowing and understanding about some things like customs and values. This showed that friends and family friends were equally important in maintaining Indian culture among second-generation Indian American students.
although this seems to depend on the right set of friends who share similar attitudes and a common believe system.Texas Tech University. The mere presence of them helps second-generation Indian Americans remain cognizant of their culture and traditions. Following is the analysis that examined the research question 2: What role do mass media play in second-generation Indian Americans identity construction? Media Although the interviewees did not read ethnic newspapers regularly due to language barriers.” stated Rahul (male. He continued saying: I used to go to family friends’ house and hang out with them all the time. We usually play. Therefore. some found them to be valuable sources of information especially 58 . eat Indian food. 2009 reading books like Bhagavadgeetha and Ramayana to me when I was little. religion. and friends. I actually learned cooking Indian food from these family friends. Tirumala. watch Indian movies and have fun. Aug. 23). They always told me not to forget my religious background and today they are one of the reasons my faith is really strong. Apart from family. The findings discussed above suggest that family friends and peer groups play a crucial role in constructing and maintaining an individual’s identity. it is better to focus on mediated sources of influence differentiated from the interpersonal ones just discussed. media influence cannot be taken lightly in identity construction process among secondgeneration Indian Americans. Lakshmi N.
21) stated: I love reading Indian books all the time because they have so much information about the Indian society and traditions. Focus group participants observed that even though newspapers and magazines focus on politics. Aug.Texas Tech University. All the participants listened to Indian radio stations when they are available and liked listening to Bollywood music and Indi pop albums. I read the book “The Namesake” and can actually identify with it because my parents moved to United States and I was born here and I can identify with the family morals and values. They acknowledged that the Indian music played through these stations reminds them of India and the culture in a 59 . but I read English newspapers like “The Hindu” or “Times of India” to check out the cricket scores and read Bollywood news because everything else is about politics. 2009 about sports and movies. Tirumala. many participants from interviews as well as the focus group noted that they read books written by Indian authors like “The Namesake” and “Shantaram” and admitted that they can identify with the plots and characters of these novels. Interestingly. Kajol (female.” said Rupa (female. very few interviewees claimed to have read Indian English newspapers and magazines to check out information on films and sports. 25). However. Lakshmi N. “I hardly read Indian newspapers because I do not understand the language fully. which I am not interested in. Indian American students can occasionally learn about society and culture through newspapers as they focus on traditional events like holi and diwali and write articles about them.
“All these radio channels play Hindi music but again the radio jockeys have American accents which is weird. another interview participant responded in the following: I love listening to Indian radio channels because they play Hindi music all the time. 2009 subtle way. 23).Texas Tech University. Rupa (female. Though they spoke Hindi and Gujarathi they still have fake accents when it comes to English. Tirumala. Asked how different the Indian music is.” On the other hand. 25). they still open a few spots to focus on religion and 60 . Very few focus group participants mentioned that they listen to religious talk shows and programs about traditional celebrations on radio to learn about customs and values. It is just kind of calm and peaceful and reminds me of India. 22) said the following: “One of the time slots is about religion and they will do like mythology stories. Lakshmi N. I think you can learn about traditions like arranged marriages because half the time most of the songs talk about arranged marriages and religion. the above responses suggested that though radio channels play Hindi music for a majority of time. We always turn that program on and listen to the stories and it’s really about values and traditions. Puja (female.” reported Deepa (female. Although a lack of research work on Indian American radio makes it impossible to corroborate. one interviewee had a different take on these radio channels and especially about RJ’s (radio jockey). Aug.
All the participants maintained that their parents were the primary consumers of Indian television channels but they made the respondents watch Indian programs and movies that are culturally rich. however. Tirumala. but that it keeps their Indian identity alive and active. Television played a pivotal role in bringing the Indian culture and traditions into the lives of Indians in the U. they only have access to these channels at home. but not in Lubbock. Sahara. did not like the soap operas and melodramatic plots of many daily serial programs but they all expressed a positive attitude towards the message these programs are trying to send across. Aug. Hritik (male. and other areas of the diaspora through various programs and movies. All interviewees and focus group participants have subscriptions to satellite channels like Zee. Gemini. Who wants to be lakhpathi etc. Star plus and Sony. which reminds me of Indian culture. Most of the participants stated that they learn few things about culture and traditions through radio. however. 2009 traditions. there are going to be 61 .Texas Tech University. but I guess they are trying to send this message that no one is going to have a perfect life. They are some cool programs like Mahabharata. 21) said the following about these programs: All these television programs are bunch of melodramas and they are bad compared to the American Television programs. Most of the interviewees. Lakshmi N.S. 22) said the following: My parents watch all the Indian channels and I watch with them whenever I am at home. Teja. Aishwarya (female.
Tirumala. Most of the participants agreed that television helps in maintaining the cultural identity and stay in tune with the traditions and societal standards. 2009 lot of problems and adversaries and you will have to stick together to get through the situation. entertainment programs are rather popular compared to news programs among participants because a majority of the participants said that they don’t learn about Indian culture through news. Half the stuff gets broadcast from India and you get to see parts of India. I guess television is our way to stay in tune with the Indian culture while we are here. Lakshmi N. 22). you can actually learn about family values and to respect your in-laws and older people. Gowri (female. 21) characterized cultural maintenance as follows: I guess. Accordingly. The focus group participants had particularly strong memories of their parents telling them about the culture and traditional values through television programs when they were little. 62 . as they don’t watch news programs very often. All the participants from the interviews and the focus group expressed that the television channels try to teach Indian American students a lot about family values.Texas Tech University. I think we can definitely learn about family values. Aug. religion and also language”. which helps a lot in keeping that part of us alive. a focus group participant observed the following when asked about her impression of Indian television channels “[they] throw a lot of culture and traditions at you and they try to teach us all kids about values and traditions through some of their programs. the importance of religion and traditions. Sharukh (male.
Hritik (male. that created new opportunities to stay connected to the homeland. the secondgeneration Indian Americans at Texas Tech University who participated in this study did not see the Internet as a potential medium to keep connected to the home culture. email and chat facilities etc. 21) observed that “Basically the only Indian website I have ever gone on to is movie websites and music sites. However. he expressed that going to those sites reminds him of India just because of the Indian media.Texas Tech University. Given the importance of electronic media among young adults it was surprising how second-generation Indian Americans did not find the Internet a significant vehicle to maintain and stay connected with their culture. all the participants from interviews and focus groups noted that they use social networking sites such as Facebook and Myspace to stay in touch with other Indian Americans and Indian friends. Interestingly. most of the participants from interviews and the focus groups noted that they do not go online to check information regarding the Indian culture. Lakshmi N. Aug.” However. Most of the existing research literature on Asian Americans identifies the Internet as a major contributor in cultural identity because of its link to vast information like online news papers. But at the same time they also observed that the Internet does not specifically contribute towards strengthening their Indian identity as 63 . 2009 Interestingly. The majority of the focus group participants stated that they don’t learn about Indian culture through the internet because they would rather ask their parents or friends if they did not understand something than going online and reading about it. Tirumala.
Tirumala. movies play an active role that transmit ideas. and national values and culture in film narratives. Participants stated that on average they watch Bollywood movies once or twice a week and mostly with friends and family. It was found that among the Indian American students included in this study Texas Tech. in the identity formation of Indian American students. Following is the analysis that looked at research question 3: What role does Bollywood in particular play in the process of identity construction among secondgeneration Indian Americans? The influence of Bollywood movies on cultural identity Among the many different entertainment media. they rented Bollywood film DVD’s from local Indian stores. All the participants from interviews and the focus group observed that Bollywood movies play a crucial role in cultural identity maintenance.Texas Tech University. traditions and culture through its variety of plots and characters. 64 . such as attending church and celebrating Christmas. most of which are produced and circulated in India at the same time. He observed that importance has been given to religious activities. Ghahghaei (2007) stated that Hollywood movies play a major role in identity formation among Americans. Aug. Accordingly. the world’s second largest film industry. this research study focused on the role played by Bollywood movies. Lakshmi N. 2009 they regularly meet up with most of their Facebook/Myspace friends through various ISA and SASA events and meetings.
They further added that most of the times. Swades. Aug. However. 22) said the following: I actually identify with Kabhi Khushi Kabhi Ghum. participants associated Indian movies with strong family values. religion and moral values. who veered away from the Indian culture. Lakshmi N. Most of the participants mentioned Kabhi Kushi Kabhi Ghum. song and dance sequences. Bipasha (female. Tirumala. understand and embrace the culture. to come around. They believed that movies with strong traditions and cultural values help the ABCD’s (American Born Confused Desi). Kuch Kuch Hota Hai. moral values and traditions. I think it is important because I have been raised with same values and 65 . Few participants mentioned that it was irritating to watch movies in theatres with subtitles on because half the time they cannot read the subtitles. and traditional Indian weddings. Gowri (female. because it focuses on what’s really important to Indian people. and Rang De Basanti (See Appendix A for plot summaries) as their favorite movies and stated that they learned a lot by watching these movies. According to one interview participant. like acceptance of family. 2009 All participants preferred watching movies on DVDs to a theatre because movies on DVD have subtitles and are easy to read. 22). Indian movies played in mediocre theatres. Dilwale Dulhaniya Lejayenge. Indian movies focused on family values and they try to show that parents are important and they are always right. where it was harder to read the subtitles.Texas Tech University. This is the common view shared among all the participants of interviews and focus groups.
produced Indian American movies do a good job in teaching Indian culture and value system. praying etc. 22). This teaches you that family is very important and you are not supposed to go against their wish.S. I mean I have couple of friends who married to an outsider and not being accepted by the family and you see this all the time in Hindi movies where parents are not accepting of it. all participants maintained that U. I think they in a way help me keep my culture and traditions alive because all these movies usually has something to do with festivals or religion and they do things that help me remember and maintain it. 2009 morals and I agree with the things they show in movies.Texas Tech University. Most of the focus group participants stated that they identify a lot with Indian movies and their narrations. 23) said the following: I think they are really good and a doing a great job in portraying Indian culture and traditions. Sandeep (male. Most of them show values. In addition to Bollywood movies. culture and religious things like visiting temples. Aug. The majority of the interview participants expressed that Indian movie’s doing a decent job in portraying a true Indian society and culture. Tirumala. Interestingly all the other participants also shared similar views as Sandeep (male. Most of the participants stated that they could identify with these movies since they 66 . 22) said: I identify a lot with these movies. Lakshmi N. I look up to these movies and it is heartwarming to know that this is true and this is right. Deepa (female.
2009 represent Indian Americans and their life styles. Tirumala.Texas Tech University. Participants from interviews and the focus group alike noted that there is not much of a difference in watching movies with parents and friends because they watch for entertainment and fun. He always hung out with Americans and did not really make any friends with Indians but then he moved to Austin and was surrounded by Indians and finally transformed into a Desi. Asked why they felt uncomfortable. I flipped out and fast forwarded the movie. I mean that’s something you don’t talk about with your parents and it’s really weird to watch when your parents are around because they don’t believe in pre marital sex 67 . Amir (male. Now he likes everything about India and gets involved in all the Indian events and cultural programs. all participants from interviews and the focus group stated that they feel very uncomfortable if there was a kissing scene or a sex scene in a movie whenever they watch with parents. I felt weird. 22). However. Aug. Kajol (female. but they all show a common theme of how the male protagonist in the movie hates everything about Indians but finally comes around and starts respecting the culture. Few participants described that these Indian American movies like “ABCD” and “Where is the party yaar” are stereotyped and funny. a interview participant responded: I was watching this movie “Salaam Namaste” with my parents and then there was this scene in which Saif and Perity are having sex and I was like O’ my gosh they are having sex. Lakshmi N. 21) shared her experience in the following: I have watched American Desi and that’s exactly how my brother was when he was a kid.
So I learned a lot about festivities like holi. and rakshabandhan watching it in movies. because my parents are not really big about participating in these events. Lakshmi N.Texas Tech University. 2009 and also do not approve of it. Tirumala.” All participants expressed that Bollywood helps them keep their traditions and values alive by representing the culture in movies and reinforcing the importance of maintaining and passing it on to the future generations. the biggest thing I probably learned through movies is festivities and weddings. observed most of the participants from interviews and focus groups. Participants noted that they all learned a lot about festivities and weddings as most of the movies have plots and themes that revolve around these cultural elements. 22) stated: 68 . It gave me an incentive to involve more in it. And then there is religion. it seems big in almost every movie. I got enough religious aspects out of watching it in movies. 24) a focus group participant also observed that “Most of the Hindi movies have to show some form of wedding and I guess that is kind of cool because we miss out on these big family gatherings and weddings and it’s great to watch it in movies. diwali. Aug. I mean if I was watching with my kids I would fast forward it because it is weird. Religion and togetherness are the other things they learn through Bollywood movies. Puja (female. 25) reported: Culturally. Rupa (female. But you don’t have to feel awkward when you are watching it with your friends. Sree (male. It helps me stay connected to the culture and ethnic roots.
Most of the participants from interviews said that whenever they watch movies with their parents. a few participants from interviews argued that the Bollywood movies are becoming more and more Westernized in respect to public affection. Lakshmi N. However. which help Indian American’s become aware of Indian culture and traditions. They also show these characters talk in English. drug use. sexually-suggestive clothing. 69 . because they get to learn something and will be able to pass it on to their kids. 2009 One thing that I have noticed is that Indians have close knit families and all the neighbors always know each other and that’s the kind of values brought in through movies and that is really important for all these Indian Americans. They are kind of showing more affection’s in the movies like kissing scenes and love making scenes. Deepika (female. one parent would try to explain the reasons behind a particular theme.Texas Tech University. Finally. the majority of the participants observed that the culture and traditions portrayed by Bollywood movies were precise and true to what’s being practiced among the Indian families. 22) observed: Bollywood is really pushing towards the American way. violence and all kinds of crazy stuff that they never showed before. and general life style. Aug. They also maintained that their parents talk about traditions and values whenever they watch Indian movies. Tirumala.
Texas Tech University, Lakshmi N. Tirumala, Aug. 2009
This interesting comment may imply that the globalization may have led to the Westernization of Bollywood movies that cause the loss of unique culture and traditions. Still, the majority of the participants expressed that Bollywood is one of the better ways to learn about Indian culture and how they are being practiced in the society. This suggested that among different mediums, Bollywood movies in fact had the strongest influence on second-generation Indian Americans in learning and maintaining the Indian culture and traditions.
Texas Tech University, Lakshmi N. Tirumala, Aug. 2009
Chapter VI Conclusion and Limitations
This research study found that family, institutions like temples, religion classes, and student organizations, and friends play a predominant role in the identity construction of second-generation Indian Americans. While examining the media’s role in identity construction, influence of print media and radio seemed very limited due to language barriers and lack of visuals respectively. On the other hand television proved to be very influential as they telecast cultural programs and play Indian movies frequently. Interestingly, among the different mediums, Bollywood movies and entertainment programs that are related to Bollywood took a significant role in informing secondgeneration Indian Americans about Indian traditions and value system. The following table outlines the summary of major findings from the current research study.
Texas Tech University, Lakshmi N. Tirumala, Aug. 2009
Table 3. Summary of research findings Research Questions 1. Factors influencing identity construction of second-generation Indian Americans 2. The role of media, excluding movies, in identity construction of second-generation Indian Americans • • • • • • • Family Institutions Peer Groups and Media Print – influence seems limited due to reported language barrier Radio – influence seems limited due to lack of visuals Television – seems very influential through ethnic programs and Indian movies • 3. Role of Bollywood movies in identity construction Internet – a very limited influence Influential due to • • • • No language barrier (subtitles) Showcasing of family values and religion Portrayal of Indian society and traditions Transmission of Indian culture in an engaging fashion Findings
The results of this study show that the cultural identity of Indian American students is constructed and maintained through various interpersonal and mediated 72
institutions. Tirumala. This factor played a crucial role in constructing the identity and also helped to build a strong commitment towards Indian culture. The results suggested that identity construction and maintenance in second-generation Indian Americans is an ongoing process. Aug. 2009 communicative activities such as family environment. in-group and outgroup interactions and the media. Lee (2000). second-generation Indian American students’ strong commitment to Indian culture was reflected in their daily activities with family and peer groups. Korea and Nepal.Texas Tech University. Students get together often to watch Indian movies. which reflects various social and cultural factors. Lakshmi N. listen to Indian music. First. which largely supports the previous research findings of Jung and Lee (2004). One interesting factor to observe here is that Indian Americans get along well with other Asian American students from China. and Durham (2004) who studied other AsianAmerican populations. Apart from family. Student organizations also played a crucial role in maintaining the identity and staying connected to the home culture by giving second-generation Indian Americans a chance to socialize with other Indian Americans and Indians. They enjoy hanging out with 73 . student associations like South Asian Students Association (SASA) and Indian Students Association (ISA) provide opportunities for them to meet and interact with peers having the same ethnic background. visit temples or eat ethnic food. They seem to talk to family members almost every day and most often use ethnic language blended with English while communicating with parents.
With regard to media influence on cultural identities. Aug. who claimed that people would gravitate toward media from their own culture. This appeared to be true in this case of secondgeneration Indian Americans as well. Print (newspapers and magazines) did not seem to have a major impact on how Indian American students learned about Indian culture. information regarding various ethnic groups is being documented and commented upon by the media today. In fact most of the Indian American students admitted that they sometimes follow Indian soap operas and love Indian music. Most of the Indian American students readily associated these dance forms with Indian culture and stated that they watched these cultural artifacts at least once. however.Texas Tech University. 74 . All Indian American students stated that they feel comfortable with Indian music and television shows. It was learned through this research study that Indian American parents try to create an interest among their children towards classical dance and singing forms by taking them to such cultural events or discussing them when they appear on television. Tirumala. They also showed a great interest in learning Indian classical dance forms like Bharatnatyam and Kuchipudi. 2008). Lakshmi N. 2009 Chinese Americans or Korean Americans as there is a cultural proximity within the Asian culture (Ksiazek and Webster. Lee (2004) argued that media played a significant role in constructing and maintaining cultural identities because. This again supported the notion of cultural proximity by Straubhaar (2003). Indian Americans do not read ethnic news papers due to the language barrier. This suggested that there was a very little cultural loss when Indian American students are able to consume Indian media products.
Indian music has a distinct style and it succeeds in reminding second-generation Indian American students about Indian culture. which keep them connected to the Indian society and culture through its characters and scenarios. Tirumala. Lakshmi N. As said earlier. the Internet was the only variable that did not agree with the research literature because most of the Indian American students preferred direct interaction with peer groups compared to technology enhanced communication process. which has appeared to bridge the gap. Thus. Most of these Indian Americans listen to Hindi music on radio and through the Internet. of all the variables that were explored and examined in this study. Indian Americans watched cultural shows dealing with ethnic dance forms. Aug. Another finding from the interviews and focus groups was that television played a crucial role in bridging the connections between Indian Americans and home culture through various entertainment programs and movies. The Internet extends communication capacity by facilitating interactive communicative channel. 75 . Though there are no Indian radio stations in this West Texas region. Interestingly. which helps to create an ethnic community. Indian American students are able to listen to Indian music through the Internet. 2009 very few Indian Americans read books written in English by Indian authors. The Internet was used less frequently than the researcher anticipated for news and other news related information from India.Texas Tech University. Bollywood movies and other ethnic programs that created an ample opportunity to stay connected with the Indian culture and traditions. Indian Americans did not see the Internet as a potential opportunity to improve ethnic community relations and to maintain Indian identity.
Tirumala. By consuming Bollywood movies. Of all the media. however. The findings suggested that secondgeneration Indian Americans grew up consuming Bollywood movies and constructed and 76 . festivities. Interestingly. Participants watched Indian movies regularly and majority of them kept up with latest Bollywood movies and cinema news. a strong sense of religion. Bollywood movies appeared to serve as the most influential communication medium in constructing and maintaining the cultural identity of the second-generation Indian American students. and distinctly Indian attitudes and behaviors. 2009 Parents made their children watch ethnic programs and mythological serials like Ramayana and Mahabharata that taught morals and value system. television appeared to play an important role in identity construction and maintenance process. Lakshmi N. Through the movies. the Internet and DVDs played a tremendous role in constructing and maintaining the cultural identity as they provided an easy access to Bollywood movies. Indian American students learned about Indian traditions and customs. Aug. The new communication technologies like satellite televison. second-generation Indian Americans identified Indian culture with family togetherness. As suggested in the literature. second-generation Indian Americans were also able to identify with Bollywood movie characters and scenarios that remind them of their identity and give them information to use in their own lives. which help them in maintaining the Indian identity. Second-generation Indian Americans seemed to consider Bollywood movies as a vehicle for showcasing Indian culture and traditions.Texas Tech University.
which are otherwise considered to be clichéd by many Indians.” Another finding from this research study was that the Bollywood movies appeared to have a major influence on second-generation Indian American students in maintaining the identity. This factor explains the popularity of Bollywood even amongst the Indian diaspora communities. Bollywood movies not only act as a bridge between home and diaspora but also transmit cultural and traditions that play a crucial role in constructing and maintaining the identity in second-generation Indian American students. Indian American students did not like the idea of Bollywood movies deviating from Indian culture and becoming more Westernized. However. Aug. It is safe to assume that Bollywood movies act as an additional push in identity construction process amongst second-generation Indian American students. Lakshmi N. Tirumala. To sum up. 77 . all is not well with the current Bollywood trend.Texas Tech University. This suggested that movies with strong family values and traditions might have a greater affinity with diaspora communities compared to the movies that are influenced by Western scripts. Bollywood movies along with other social communicative contexts like family. religion and peer groups enabled second-generation Indian Americans to construct and maintain their “Indianness. They preferred Bollywood movies that depict family togetherness and other cultural aspects. Thus. especially when they are living away from home. 2009 maintained the cultural identity by learning values and traditions that were reflected in these movies.
This study was a good starting point to focus more 78 . However. To produce more consistent results. extensive research. Another drawback of this study is that participants were frequent consumers of Bollywood movies and results may have been different if the study has looked at Indian Americans who watch Bollywood movies less frequently. First. it is important to understand that nothing can be said about the magnitude and statistical significance of this influence. Aug. some form of quantification techniques needs to be administered to support the findings and generalize the results. Lakshmi N.Texas Tech University. Ethnography of second-generation Indian Americans might shed more light on their daily activities that maintain cultural identity. his Indian identity may in fact have influenced some participants to give socially desirable responses. The study should have administered more than one focus group session to get diverse views and ideas on Bollywood movies and cultural representation. Though utmost care was taken to not let researcher’s bias influence the study in any kind. Tirumala. with a large number of participants. Although statements about the influence of media and Bollywood on identity construction were made in this study. needs to be conducted at more universities. 2009 Despite many important findings. both in-depth interviews and surveys. it was very difficult to generalize the results because the research is based on qualitative studies and was conducted only in one university with a relatively few number of participants and for a short length of time. In future research. The final drawback of this study was that the volunteers may have participated with predetermined mindsets and shared biased opinions. the research study has its own limitations.
The findings of this study are in line with cultural studies perspective in terms of defining cultural identity as a product of both interpersonal and mediated interactions. In conclusion. the research study successfully tried to answer all the important questions and provided insight into second-generation Indian American student’s attitudes and their take on Indian culture. Importantly. 2009 on second-generation Indian American students in areas like gender difference in understanding culture. which is defined and re-defined by social interactions and media. future research works in this area need to examine how different female audience associate Bollywood texts to the Indian culture and traditions from their male counterparts. Lakshmi N. Bollywood narratives and their influence in maintaining the identity. as the Indian media tend to portray Indian Americans in negative contexts and describe some of them as American Born Confused Desi (ABCD). Aug. especially through Bollywood movies. Tirumala.Texas Tech University. However. Finally. 79 . one who tries to avoid their home country identity and assimilate into the host culture. The study also found that second-generation Indian Americans are surprisingly similar to Indians with respect to the knowledge about Indian culture and traditions. this study found that most of the second-generation Indian American students who participated take pride in their identity and follow Indian traditions and customs with utmost respect and sincerity. It is an interesting finding. the cultural identity of the second-generation Indian Americans living in diasporic intercultural contexts is an ongoing process.
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Anjali's sister have no place to go. He enrolls at a university where Pooja is a student. who believes in maintaining traditions. As soon as Rohan arrives in London. however. he finds out from his grandmothers the reasons behind the split. Yash plans to get Rahul married off to his friend's daughter. This results in Yash asking Rahul to leave his home. Lakshmi N. Rahul goes to inform Anjali that he wont be able to marry her. this angers Yash and berates Rahul for not taking family traditions into consideration. Yashovardhan (Yash) is a popular businessman in India. but only to find that her father has passed away. Rohan also learns that Rahul and Anjali are living in London. has never learned why Rahul left home. After realizing that Anjali and Pooja (Kareena Kapoor). He tells her who he is and asks her help to bring the family back together.Texas Tech University. 2009 Appendix A Plot Summaries Following are the plot summaries of few films that are mentioned in the study: Khabhi Khushi Kabhie Gham (2001) This film revolves around Rahul (Shahrukh Khan) who is the adopted son of Yashvardhan Raichand (Amitabh Bachchan) and his wife Nandini (Jaya Bachchan). he finds out Rahul's address. Rahul tells his father that he is in love with Anjali and wishes to marry her. However. However. Tirumala. he decided to marry Anjali. Aug. Naina (Rani Mukherji). Pooja tells Rahul that Rohan is from India and 88 . Rohan. Rahul chances upon Anjali (Kajol) and falls in love with her.
Aslam (Kunal Kapoor). Lakshmi N. He has no girlfriend and rues (quite portentously) that he would die a 89 . Aug. Rang De Basanti (2006) Sue (Alice Patten) comes to India to make a documentary on some freedom fighters about whom she gets to know from the diary of her late grandfather who was a British officer in India before 1947. he reveals his identity and convinces Rahul to go back to India. Yash apologizes to Rahul and berates him for not coming home sooner.After having auditioned many in vain for her movie. Eventually. DJ is originally Daljeet Singh from a Punjabi family consisting of a loving mother (excellently portrayed by Kiron Kher). Karan is the silent one. He is rich but has a dry. 2009 he is looking for some place to live. Rahul and Angali let Rohan stay at their place. The group consists of DJ (Aamir Khan).Texas Tech University. DJ starts hitting on Sue the minute he sees her. Sue. Sukhi is full of fun and frolic. meets a group of friends in whom she sees the characters of her documentary. aided by Sonia (Soha Ali Khan). Karan (Siddharth) and Sukhi (Sharman Joshi). He smokes heavily and seeks happiness among his friends. loveless life. Rohan finally convinces Rahul to speak to Yash. A beer guzzler who is never serious about anything in life. Rahul goes back to India to participate in his paternal grandmother's funeral but never speaks to his father. Tirumala.Aslam comes from a Muslim family and refuses to endorse the opinion that Muslims ought not mingle with Hindus. Things end on a happy note.
Ajay’s mother (Waheeda Rahman) and Pandey (Atul Kulkarni) lead the protest against the Defence Minister to get Ajay the honour he deserved. the love of Sonia (Soha).Texas Tech University. 2009 kunwara. Tirumala. He is the only one in the group who has dedication to serve the country. they still cannot accept the virtues of the characters (of the freedom fighters) they play. Lakshmi N.Even as the five friends agree to be a part of her movie. Aslam. Sukhi. where he worked as an engineer in NASA. In Karan she sees Bhagat Singh and in Aslam she sees Ashfak. Ajay dies in a MiG crash and is labeled as a rookie pilot by the Defence Minister who is unwilling to accept shortcomings in the MiG aircrafts. Sonia. None of the friends is serious enough to be a part of Sue’s documentary. To them values like patriotism. But then. In DJ she sees Chandrashekhar Azad. Lft. Karan. Swades: We. But they choose a very extreme way to do it (Deoshi. after a few years Mohan becomes nostalgic for his home and takes a 90 . sacrificing oneself for the sake of country are just beautiful words they cannot relate to. Ajay’s mother goes into coma. But. 2008). Also part of the group is Fl. Aug. the people (2004) Mohan Bhargava (Sharukh Khan) left the small village in India where he was born and raised to go to the United States. DJ and friends decide to bring the truth to light. But Sue can see the characters of her movie in them. Ajay Rathod (Madhavan). But they are beaten mercilessly by the cops. DJ.
Mohan becomes reacquainted with Gita (Gayatri Joshi). Gita thinks little of Mohan's desire to bring Kaveri back to the United States with him. 2009 leave of absence in order to visit Kaveri (Kishori Ballal).d. and the two build a relationship.Texas Tech University.) 91 . Aug. While searching for Kaveri. Lakshmi N. one of his childhood friends who had stayed behind to serve the community as a teacher. But many in the community have little regard for Mohan's accomplishments in the United States until he steps forward to help his old neighbors by revamping the village's antiquated electrical system and increase the rate of literacy (Deming. a woman who helped to raise him as a boy. Tirumala. n. but she also finds herself struck by the charm and intelligence of the adult Mohan.
Do you see any difference in Indian Culture from Indian American culture? (If yes. How do you culturally identify yourself? b. What role do mass media play in second-generation Indian Americans identity construction? a. What are some of the differences you find in Indian magazines/news papers produced in India from that of United States? 92 . 2009 Appendix B Discussion Guide Discussion guide for in-depth interviews and focus groups: 1. What are your general impressions on Indian Culture? d. What does being Indian/Indian-American/American mean to you? c. What role does family and friends play in your life with respect to your cultural identity? 2. Name some activities that influence you in learning about Indian culture? f. Aug. What factors do second-generaton Indian Americans identify as influencing their identity construction? a.Texas Tech University. Lakshmi N. what are they?) e. Tirumala. What media do you use in general? b.
How often do you listen to Indian radio stations and what kind of influence do you think they have on you in learning about culture and traditions? d. Do you find yourself identifying with the movie characters and plots? e. Aug. How does your use of Bollywood movies differ from your parents use? d. 2009 c. Tirumala. What roles does Bollywood in particular play in the process of identity construction among second-generation Indian Americans? a. What cultural aspects do you learn from Bollywood movies? Any specifics that you can think of? g. What Indian television channels you watch regularly? What cultural aspects have you picked up from those various programs? e.Texas Tech University. Lakshmi N. How often do you watch Indian movies? Who do you watch these movies with? b. What is your general impression of Bollywood movies? c. Would you say that Bollywood movies represent Indian traditions and values? f. How often do you use the Internet to know about India and culture? 3. What is your opinion on the culture portrayed in Bollywood movies? Do you think they represent the reality? 93 .
Lakshmi N. Lakshmi N.00 for your time in participating in the study. More precisely. 94 . This study is being conducted for academic purposes and has been approved by the Institutional Review Board of the Office of Research Services at Texas Tech University. Tirumala. Aug. 2009 Appendix C Interview Consent Form Hi. Thanks for your cooperation. we are interested in your opinions regarding Bollywood movies and its influence in maintaining the Indian culture and traditions. I am here to invite you to participate in a research study that I designed to understand the role of Bollywood movies in cultural identity construction. Tirumala College of Mass Communications Texas Tech University. All responses will be kept confidential and no identifying personal factors will be used in reporting the results of this study. In order to do this. You will be compensated $20.Texas Tech University. you will be asked to participate in in-depth interview session that would last no more than an hour.
we are interested in your opinions regarding Bollywood movies and its influence in maintaining the Indian culture and traditions. Tirumala College of Mass Communications Texas Tech University. I am here to invite you to participate in a research study that I designed to understand the role of Bollywood movies in cultural identity construction. In order to do this. 95 . Tirumala. Aug.00 for your time in participating in the study.Texas Tech University. You will be compensated $10. Thanks for your cooperation. 2009 Appendix D Focus group Consent Form Hi. you will be asked to participate in a focus group session that would last no more than an hour. This study is being conducted for academic purposes and has been approved by the Institutional Review Board of the Office of Research Services at Texas Tech University. Lakshmi N. Lakshmi N. More precisely. All responses will be kept confidential and no identifying personal factors will be used in reporting the results of this study.
Tirumala Student Signature 07-26-09 Date .) Student Signature 07-26-09 Date Disagree (Permission is not granted. Tirumala. Permission to copy this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Director of the Library or my major professor.Texas Tech University. Agree (Permission is granted. 2009 Permission to Copy In presenting this thesis in partial fulfillment of the requirements for a master’s degree at Texas Tech University or Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center.) _____ Lakshmi N. I agree that the Library and my major department shall make it freely available for research purposes. Aug. It is understood that any copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my further written permission and that any user may be liable for copyright infringement. Lakshmi N.
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