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A Thesis In MASS COMMUNICATIONS Submitted to the Graduate Faculty of Texas Tech University in Partial Fulfillment of The Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF ARTS Approved Harsha Gangadharbatla Committee Chair Todd Chambers Kent Wilkinson Fred Hartmeister Dean of the Graduate School August, 2009
Copyright 2009, Lakshmi N. Tirumala
Texas Tech University, Lakshmi N. Tirumala, Aug. 2009
I acknowledge my family who supported me throughout this study. I would like to thank my parents for their emotional support during stressful times, and my brother and sister-in-law for their patience, critiques and valuable inputs. I would also like to acknowledge Dr. Todd Chambers, who served the roles of a Chairperson, mentor and friend throughout my masters program at Texas Tech. His very presence and positive encouragement gave me the much needed motivation and mental strength to continue with the research at times when I was completely lost. He was always there to assist me with my academic and personal growth, and I am very grateful for his invaluable guidance throughout this process. Also, I would like to acknowledge Dr. Kent Wilkinson, whose support and encouragements gave me the confidence to take on any daunting tasks. He was able to find time to listen to my ideas and lead me towards the right path when I was completely clueless. I am very thankful to him for being there whenever I needed him. Also, other faculty members and staff in the College of Mass Communications at Texas Tech University should be acknowledged for their help and encouragements throughout my graduate program. Specifically, I would like to thank Dr. Michael Parkinson, one of the best graduate student advisors the college could ever find, for his support. A special thanks goes out to Dr. Harsha Gangadharbhatla who served as much more than a primary thesis advisor, but also the role of a friend throughout my masters program. And lastly, thanks to Josh Robinson, Randy Hays, Jessica Robinson, and Brian who were always willing to help whenever called upon. Finally, my good friends Andrea Smith, Anthony Galvez, Arijit Basu, Emily Buck, and Philip Madison who helped with providing the much needed laughs and memories. Thank you for understanding and being there for me. ii
....................................................22 United Kingdom and Europe ..................... 2009 Table of Contents Acknowledgements ........................................................... ii Abstract ...............................26 The Concept of Ethnic Identity.......................................................................................................37 iii ...................................................1 Reasons for the Popularity..........................................................15 A Brief History of Bollywood Industry ......................................22 Bollywood in United States ..............................................................................25 The Circuit of Culture........31 IV.............................................23 III......................Texas Tech University..................................5 On being “Indian”.........................................................................37 Qualitative research ......................................20 Asia ......v List of Tables.......................12 II.................................... vi I........................................................................................................................... Aug...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Literature Review ......................................................................................................................25 Cultural Studies ....................................................... Tirumala...............11 Cultural Identity................................................................................................................................................. Theoretical Framework ..............................................15 Bollywood & Diaspora ................................................................................................................................28 Cultural Identity of Asian Americans......................21 Africa and Russia.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Methodology ..............................................................................................21 Oceania .............................................................. Lakshmi N.....................................................................................10 The Indian Diaspora .... Introduction ..................................................................................................1 Bollywood Movies and Identity .....................................................................
............................................55 Media ................................................................ Findings and Discussion ........................................................................................................................ Tirumala......................................................88 B.............................................................................................................. Interview Consent form ...........................................................................................80 A..........43 V.........................................94 D...................................................................................................................................... Conclusion and Limitations ................................................................64 VI.........................58 The influence of Bollywood movies on cultural identity .............................................................71 References...................................................................53 Friends ............................................. Plot Summaries ........................................39 Focus Groups ......................50 Institutions ................................................................................................................... Aug................................... 2009 In-depth interviews .. Focus group Consent form ......... Lakshmi N...................44 Constructing Identity ................92 C...........................................41 Coding ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................Texas Tech University..............................................................46 Family ...........95 iv ...................................................................... Discussion Guide ...................................................
Bollywood movies not only act as a bridge between home and diaspora. Aug.Texas Tech University.” among second-generation Indian Americans. 2009 Abstract Indian cinema has been one of the most dominant and distinguishing features of the subcontinent’s culture for the past sixty years. Lakshmi N. but they help transmit the culture and traditions that play a crucial role in maintaining the “Indianness.” Discussions generated across in-depth interviews (N = 8) and focus groups (N = 8) about the process of participants’ cultural identity construction and maintenance showed that the cultural identity of second-generation Indian Americans depended on various interpersonal and mediated communication activities. And. Bollywood movies appeared to have a significant influence on second-generation Indian Americans in maintaining those identities. Tirumala. they are bringing these cultural artifacts with them. the study found that though social factors such as family and peer groups have played a dominant role in constructing the Indian identity. v . In particular. This thesis explores the role of Bollywood movies in constructing and maintaining the cultural identity among secondgeneration Indian Americans. as Indians continue to seek out jobs and educational opportunities worldwide. this study seeks to demonstrate how Bollywood film viewing practices of the second-generation Indian Americans intersect to create a notion of “Indianness. Interestingly. Previous research suggests that the Indian Diaspora may use these types of media products as a form of cultural maintenance.
...................................................Texas Tech University...........................72 vi ........3 2. 2009 List of Tables 1.. Aug.....................................45 3.............. Demographics and movie watching frequency ................. Summary of research findings....... Lakshmi N... Indian Film Industry vs Hollywood in 2008 ................................. Tirumala.......................
Beard (1994) observed that films are among the most common artifacts of modern popular culture that generate and reflect diverse cultures and the traditional values of a society. and representation) are explored through in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with secondgeneration Indian Americans. using the circuit of culture (du Gay. a great deal has 1 . Mackay. Consequently films have become a major part of modern society. and information across the United States. In recent times. Bollywood Movies and Identity In today’s world of global movement and cultural hybridity. Aug. Janes. and characters. and the connections that viewers make with the movies themes. Lakshmi N.Texas Tech University. representations of the Indian culture in the movies. plots. 1997). and Negus. Hall. education. This qualitative research study is based on cultural studies and seeks to explore the role of Bollywood movies in identity construction among second-generation Indian Americans. through which people are becoming aware of different cultures from all over the world. 2009 Chapter I Introduction Films are a common source of entertainment. identity. our personal identities are in constant flux. The circuit of culture suits the proposed study well because of the consumption of Bollywood movies by second-generation Indian Americans. The three moments from the circuit of culture (consumption. So. Tirumala. ‘What is my true “identity”?’ has become a fundamental and yet significant question in one’s life.
and especially the phenomenal success of Hindi movies (also known as Bollywood) among the Indian diaspora (Dudrah. before we look into the significance of Bollywood movies. Palmer. Appadurai. However. 2006.Texas Tech University. Tirumala. it is important to study the role of Bollywood movies in Indian diasporic identity construction. However. 1996). Uberoi. 1990. with technological advancements. With the increasing popularity of electronic media. 2008. While commenting on the influence of electronic media on the diapsoric community. 2009 been studied in the area of “cultural identity” and on the concept “home” with some of the most important contributions towards this research study coming from cultural studies area (Bandyopadhyay. The Indian cinema industry. Lakshmi N. 1990. 1999). electronic media provide diapsoric communities with resources for self-imagining that help maintain the identity” (Appadurai. Appadurai has argued that “because of its sheer multiplicity in which they appear (films. Indian cinema has been one of the most dominant and distinguishing features of the subcontinent’s popular culture for the past sixty years. most commonly known as Bollywood (although Bollywood represents Hindi film 2 . it is essential for us to know about Indian cinema and the reasons for its popularity among Indians as well as for the Indian diaspora.4). According to Basu (2004). 1998). preserving and maintaining one’s own culture and identity has become a serious challenge. p. Electronic media have been the essential tools for the diaspora in re-rooting their identities (Appadurai. in this globalized world. diasporic communities are able to stay connected with their homeland and maintain their self-identity. Aug. internet and telephones) and because of the rapid way in which they move through daily life. TV.
2 billion U. Table 1. 1995).100 4 billion U. Aug. and Kerala also produce films in regional languages (Booth.S $ 2. Table 1 compared the size and global reach of the two most prolific film industries. Pricewaterhouse Coopers Ltd (FICCI-Pricewaterhouse. Though Bollywood is the best-known Indian film industry. 2008) Unlike Hollywood. Mumbai.S $ 56 billion U. To satisfy the 14 million Indians who go to the cinema every day. or ‘Bollywood’ as it is commonly called. 2006). 2002). Karnataka. Lakshmi N. individual states such as West Bengal. 3 . the film business in India is decentralized (Srinivas. 2008) provided the following figures and estimates. though not for its financial returns (Dwyer. is the world’s largest film industry in terms of the number of films produced.S $ 3 million Hollywood 800 3 billion U. Indian Film Industry vs Hollywood in 2008 Indian Film Industry Films Produced* Tickets sold World Wide revenues** Average cost per film 1. the Indian film industry produces more than 1000 films each year compared to Hollywood. Tamil Nadu. Andhra Pradesh. 2009 industry alone). which only produces about half that number. Tirumala. which are popular throughout India and among expatriate Indians living abroad.Texas Tech University.S $60 million *National Film Production 2008 ** Estimates 2009 (FICCI-Pricewaterhouse. produces Hindi-language films.
Texas Tech University, Lakshmi N. Tirumala, Aug. 2009
Indian cinema has always found a market overseas with a limited number of films being exported to countries such as the Soviet Union, Middle East, parts of Africa, Southeast Asia, the Caribbean, the United States, Australia and Great Britain (Srinivas, 2002). Recently, western interest in Bollywood has been rapidly growing as India’s largest film industry based in Mumbai has been producing more than 400 films every year (Rao, 2007). Through the years, Bollywood’s annual output of more than 400 films a year that accumulates 3.6 billion audience members across the world has become a necessary comfort for the South Asian diaspora communities (Chopra, 2007). Through its rich cultural textures and images, Bollywood cinema has facilitated a platform by which the South Asian diaspora can stay connected to the homeland. Hindi film blockbusters are now exported in large numbers of subtitled prints to the United States, United Kingdom, and Australia. Popular newspapers such as The New York Times and The Washington Post have started publishing regular reviews of Bollywood movies. Stadtler (2005) observed that the popularity of Bollywood cinema in the United States and United Kingdom has been on the rise since the year 2000, with the exposure of South Asian popular culture reaching an all time high. As Rajadhyaksha (2003) noted, “there is a craze for ‘Bollywood’ movies that quite exceeds anything we have seen before” (p. 24). This fondness for Bollywood cinema began with films like Dilwale Dulhaniya Le Jayenge (1995), Dil To Pagal Hai (1997), Taal (1999), Lagaan (2001) and Kal Ho Na Ho (2003), which achieved success in overseas markets; in fact these movies stayed among the top ten grossing films of the 4
Texas Tech University, Lakshmi N. Tirumala, Aug. 2009
year in United States and United Kingdom (Rajadhyaksha, 2003). Since then, India’s movie exports to the United States increased dramatically from $10 million a decade ago to $2 billion last year. The following are some of the reasons for Bollywood’s everincreasing popularity. Reasons for the Popularity One of the significant reasons for the increase in popularity is due to the change in producers’ attitudes towards the motion picture business. Film producers like Ronnie Screwvala and Aditya Chopra have begun professionalizing the cinema business, bringing in outside investors and aggressively marketing films with novel plots (Gyalzen, 2007). Their production companies have successfully cut the old format of three-and-half hour movies to a fast-paced 120 minutes and have hired Hollywood scriptwriters to make films more appealing and watchable. This is particularly a significant factor in Bollywood’s popularity as the new movie format that will break into the Indian diapsora more often that the age-old Bollywood movies (Overdorf, 2007). One example for such successful collaboration was the recent blockbuster by Mira Nair’s New York based production, The Namesake, a story about the relationships and identity struggles between the son and his Indian immigrant parents. The film grossed close to $14 million at the box office with nearly 95 percent of the ticket sales generated from the United States (Overdorf, 2007). This international reach of Bollywood is rather important as it assures financial returns and
Texas Tech University, Lakshmi N. Tirumala, Aug. 2009
also increases the interest among Indian diasporic community to watch the new short and slick Bollywood movies. Second, the Indian movie industry started enjoying an impressive boom due to the improved Indian economy with a significant number of Indians getting wealthier and spending more on entertainment. Lovgren (2004) observed that the telecommunications revolution and information technology explosion witnessed an all-time growth in the Indian economy that propelled the middle class life style into newer heights. A study by the McKinsey Global Institute also discovered that Indian consumer spending increased from $250 billion in 2004 to $400 billion by 2007 (Ablett, Baijal, Beinhocker, Bose, Farrell, Gersch, Greenberg, Gupta, and Gupta, 2007). The economic boom and improved conditions of the middle class sector greatly encouraged Bollywood producers to invest more money in films and to improve technical quality in order to ensure maximum financial returns both in domestic and overseas market. According to Aditya Chopra, one of the popular Bollywood producers, as technical quality advances, moviegoers come in increasing numbers to watch these latest movies (Overdorf, 2007). Another important reason for Bollywood’s popularity can be attributed to the growing Indian population overseas. The Indian population around the world is estimated around 25 million consisting of both non-resident Indians (a.k.a. NRI) and persons of Indian origin (a.k.a. POI) (Indian diaspora, n.d.). The Indian community in the United States alone increased from 1.68 million in 2000 to close to 2.5 million in 2005 (Joseph, 2006). The U.S. census bureau found that the Indians are the fastest growing community 6
and Australia. and Australia.2 billion annual revenue comes largely from these overseas markets where Indian communities provide a great number of audiences for theatrical releases and DVD sales.S (Indian American population. Lakshmi N. Representation of the Indian diaspora. As stated earlier. 2005). the Internet. This essentially popularized Bollywood movies in countries like the United States. n. The era of globalization effectively placed Indian film industry on a global platform. Great Britain. Dave (2007) observed that roughly half of Bollywood’s estimated $2.). Researchers like Kaur and Sinha (2005) suggested that DVD. and satellite television have cultivated and increased number of fans in countries like Great Britain. Finally. Bollywood exports play an important role in Indian film industry’s growing popularity overseas. New media technologies like satellites. and foreign locations made Bollywood movies a household name amongst diasporic communities (Kaur and Sinha. the United States. Aug. 2009 among Asian communities in U.d.Texas Tech University. the Internet and digital home video devices such as DVD’s have opened new distribution channels to bring Bollywood into the living rooms. New Zealand. the most common tool for a force of bonding through entertainment media would be “Hindi cinema.” a phenomenon unique to the Indian diaspora community to stay connected to the homeland. According to the Internet Movie 7 . Thussu (2008) observed that the availability of these new delivery and distribution mechanisms have contributed to the global visibility of popular Indian cinema. Tirumala.
Although it seems a small number in comparison to Hollywood financial returns. 8 . With popular Indian television channels playing Bollywood movies at least once a day and the Internet providing various options to watch Bollywood movies. one of India’s largest film production and distribution companies. The aforementioned reasons make Bollywood films a much sought after entertainment source for Indians living in India as well as abroad. reported that Bollywood films in the United States earn approximately $100 million a year through theatre screenings. Lakshmi N. and innovative story lines (Bose. these revenues contribute significantly to drive Indian filmmaking to new heights in terms of quality. Indian heritage and culture and Indian nationhood. as the $100 million accounts to a huge amount in Indian currency. According to the table 1 estimations this $100 million represents film production costs for approximately 33 Indian films compared to about 2 films in Hollywood. one may safely assume that Bollywood movies are becoming an integral part of the Indian diaspora through which they can stay in touch and maintain Indian traditions and culture. Dissanayake (2006) argued that the diaporic communities are becoming more interested in Bollywood films that deal with Indian history. As Chopra (2007) observed Bollywood is not just a style of filmmaking. Aug. cinematography. video sales and the sale of movie soundtracks (Overdorf. 2006). films from India do more business in the United States than films from any other country (Joseph. 2009 Database. Tirumala.Texas Tech University. 2005). 2007). Yash Raj Films. it is a culture and a religion unto itself.
and rituals for both the educated person and a layman alike. Punathambekar. which is now being spread by new media technologies even within the Indian diaspora. For example. Juluri. Aug. it is surprising to see that little research work is done in the area of Bollywood movies and cultural identity formation among second-generation Indian Americans. 2009 Though some of the following will be discussed in greater detail in the next chapter. I seek to demonstrate how Hindi film viewing practices in second-generation Indian Americans intersect to create a 9 . 2005. and body language with utmost sincerity. 1998). Most studies. Considering the popularity of Bollywood movies amongst the Indian diaspora. particularly in United States. Tirumala. 1999). Therefore.Texas Tech University. 2005. however. the current study investigates the identity construction process of second-generation Indian American students. it is important to touch base with concepts such as fan culture and Indianness. In fact. who were born and brought up in the United States. living conditions and socio economic ties between home and Diaspora (Rao. cultural adjustments patterns like changes in life styles. demographic characteristics. and examines the role of Bollywood in maintaining their identities. dress styles. which relates to a concept called fan culture (Srinivas. 2007. Bollywood films strongly influence dress codes. to fill the gap in the diaporic identity literature. This suggests the emergence of a particular Bollywood culture in India. Lakshmi N. In other words. Chopra (2007) noted that members of a certain Bollywood film club from South Korea wore Sharukh Khan (a popular Bollywood actor) t-shirts and goggles while watching a Hindi film. have focused on Indian immigrants. Dawson. many ardent Indian movie fans of Indian origin copy their favorite actor’s mannerisms. language.
Taking cues from Cohn’s (1972) definition many scholars define Indianness in terms of religious tolerance and simple acceptance of unity in diversity while others define the notion focusing on the otherworldly aspects of this culture like family togetherness. In his book. sects and sub-sects. a notion of independent nation that brought the people together despite their diversity in many aspects. Aug. traditions and value system (Bhat. As Nehru (1946) stated. Indianness is nothing but a “psycho-social product of colonialism as much as post colonialism” (p.” Before examining literature on cultural identity construction. religions. From the definitions and observations it can be said that Indianness is one notion that is considered to be inherent and inseparable from all Indians. Lakshmi N. the importance of 10 . castes and sub-castes. Some key elements of Indianness are language and regions.Texas Tech University. it is important to understand the concepts like “Indianness” and cultural identity. even the universal religious faiths like Christianity and Islam will have a distinct Indian touch to it that makes them Indian Christians and Indian Muslims. described or measured. The Discovery of India. a quality that makes quintessentially India. something that can be distinctly experienced. Tirumala.” Cohn (1972) defined Indianness or being Indian as something that is unique. customs and traditions. 2009 notion of “Indianness. 2006). On Being “Indian” According to Bhat (2006). Jawaharlal Nehru (1946) defined this quality as “unity in diversity. However.243).
2006). and Illinois (How a burgeoning. language. Bhat. The reason behind such importance given to Hinduism is that many scholars believe Hinduism as an ethnic religion that has strong roots in India. 2009 Hinduism cannot be ignored or overlooked from the concept of Indianness as it plays a crucial role in unifying various castes and tribes (Singh. Religion. language and caste factors play a dominant role in the lives of U. Lakshmi N. Because this study was limited to the United States.S. it fits to discuss the Indian diaspora in the United States. This suggests that religion is a significant aspect of the notion “Indianness”. 2003. Gujarat Samaj. As Singh (2003) points out that these very elements like religion. spreading across the globe in more than 130 countries (Bhuyan. The majority of Indians who migrated to U. Many regional associations like TANA (Telugu Association of North America). along with other Indian Associations like Global Organization of People 11 .S. The Indian Diaspora Recent population estimates suggested that the Indian diaspora has reached 25 million. ATA (American Telugu Association). doctors. 2006). Indians started migrating to United States only after the Immigration and Nationality Act was revoked in 1965. lawyers or businessman (Bhat. apart from language and region. New York. New Jersey. 2006). based Indians now numbering about three million according to the United States Census calculations and are most heavily concentrated in the states of California. 2006). Aug. Texas. Tirumala.Texas Tech University. and region define the identity of Indian diasporic communities. are white-collar professionals such as engineers.
mobile phones and DVDs have helped this cause of connecting with the home culture. Lakshmi N.147). films. 2009 for Indian Origin (GOPIO) have emerged to maintain a separate identity for Indians by facilitating an opportunity to meet with people from same regions. 2006) also noted that there is a continuous effort among members of the Indian diaspora to maintain cultural identity through their activities that are distinctly Indian. it is worth exploring the cultural identity construction process among second-generation Indian Americans and the role of Bollywood in maintaining these identities. Tirumala. Rao (2008). Cultural Identity Cultural identity can simply be defined as an individual’s way of identifying himself/herself with the culture. Thus. as mentioned in this thesis. while the notion of “Indianness” becomes significant in India only when it is challenged. New communications technologies like satellite television. 2008. Bhat. electronic media in particular. Thus. Research scholars (Rao. the Internet.Texas Tech University. Aug. Jung and Lee (2004) defined cultural identity as a “socially and historically constructed outcome of locating the self in relation to interactions with others as well as to socially and culturally conditioned communicative structures within a given society” (p. whether it is a home culture or host culture. frequently enables the notion of “Indianness” through its various programs. it is a part of the Indian diaspora that comes out every time they involve and interact with other ethnic groups. etc. argued that mass media. the cultural 12 . As Bhat (2006) and Singh (2003) noted.
beliefs. These factors influence in shaping the overall cultural identity among minority individuals and make them choose to identify themselves with certain culture they often come into contact with cultural “in-groups” and “out-groups. Lee (2006) observed that when individuals with minority status. Identifying with a particular culture makes people feel they belong and gives them a sense of security. is continually negotiated between the U. and attitudes toward a particular cultural group. This thesis investigated the role of Bollywood movies in second-generation Indian Americans via in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. This study is primarily based on the second-generation Indian American undergraduate students from Texas Tech University and how they construct their cultural identity. 2009 identity of Indian Americans. especially the second-generation Indian Americans. it makes an interesting study to explore the role of Bollywood movies and factors influencing the identity construction among second-generation Indian Americans. the 13 . Cultural identity is also an important contributor to a people’s wellbeing. experience multiple cultures and are trapped by the dynamics of these cultures.” Secondgeneration Indian Americans naturally fall under this scenario by constantly experiencing the dynamics of both the Indian as well as American cultures. an individual’s identity is maintained through social interactions with others as well as with media. To accomplish this. Aug.Texas Tech University. culture and Indian culture. Tirumala. Lakshmi N. Most importantly. for example Indian Americans. they will report conflicting ideas. In fact. Hence. Moorti (2003) argued that these social interactions play a significant role in constructing and maintaining one’s identity and this holds true particularly with diasporic communities.S.
Aug. and representation) of circuit of culture. Lakshmi N. identity.Texas Tech University. Tirumala. 14 . 2009 study examined the role of Bollywood movies using three moments (consumption.
with the arrival of talkies in the early 1930s. 1996). almost 85 percent of movies shown in India were American. Lakshmi N. 2006). Indian cinema gradually took the shape of a regular industry during the late 1920s. It brought revolutionary changes in the whole set up of India’s film industry (Bose. when Lumiere Brothers’ Cinematographe unveiled six soundless short films in Bombay (Bose. The 1930s witnessed the arrival of many new production companies and filmmakers from all over the country. Due to the phenomenal expansion of Hollywood industry and lack of better Indian filmmakers. However. Raja Harishchandra (1913). Aug. Since that time cinema has been successfully engaged in defining a cultural identity that was Indian both in its shape and form (Rao. 2009 Chapter II Literature Review A Brief History of Bollywood Industry The birth of Indian cinema has coincided with the freedom struggle against British colonialism. The first exposure to motion pictures for India was in the year 1896. Alam Ara. The first Indian talkie.Texas Tech University. Tirumala. Dada Saheb Phalke was responsible for the production of country’s first silent feature film. 2007). However. the Indian film industry was able to free itself from foreign influence and produce movies that were related to Indian social and culture system (Nayar. which led to an increase in number of films being 15 . was produced by the Imperial film company and directed by Irani in 1931. which signified the birth of the Indian film industry. 2006).
had fallen within the purview of the law during the late 1930s. The Indian film industry. This is about the time when song and dance sequences were introduced in Indian films that gave the films unique and aesthetic look. Tirumala. and several other dialects around the time. have evolved in the cinematic imagination” (p. 58). westernization and indigeneity. however. Tamil. With the advent of sound. Films helped the cause by uniting Indians and getting them to think and act as citizens of a sovereign nation. 1980). which helped transform Indian movies into a commodity in later years. Indian film producers and directors were able to focus on scripts and dialogues that pertained to the Indian society and culture. Regional issues and a desire to see and hear one’s own language had spurred new regional film industries producing Bengali. This was also the period the country was united by Mahatma Gandhi’s civil disobedience and non-violence movement against the British demanding for Indian independence. 2009 made. Kannada. However. The late 1930s and early 1940s were recognized as the decade of social protests in the history of Indian cinema. with the British withdrawal from India in 1947. which gave a little chance to the filmmakers to fight against the British colonialism. The Indian audiences accepted the innovative idea with great enthusiasm.Texas Tech University. Aug. Indian cinema finally emerged as an undisputed vehicle for national unity focusing heavily on reality and aesthetics (Kalkar. From these tensions has emerged a unique ideology called Indian identity. an 16 . Three major studios during this period made some serious but entertaining films for all social classes of the Indian audience. Lakshmi N. Rao (2007) noted that it was the period when “a tension between modernity and tradition. Telugu.
and Rajesh Khanna. During the late 1960s. It was a strategy through which Hindi 17 . directors like Raj Kapoor. The first International film festival (IFF) of India that was held in early 1952 at Bombay has had a significant impact on Indian cinema and inspired filmmakers toward producing art films. The male protagonist was portrayed as a cynical and rebellious worker who was often seen fighting rich businesses and corrupt politicians (Rao. political and economic turmoil during 1970s and early 1980s saw Indian cinema return to the concept of social concerns. religion and moral values – important characteristics that movies frequently focused upon. Mehnoob Khan’s Mother India was the first Indian film to be nominated for an Oscar (Chopra. which appealed to the underprivileged sections of society (Iordanova. Tirumala. However. Aug. Lakshmi N. young man was the primary audience of these films. introducing new film stars like Shammi Kapoor. angry. Guru Dutt and Mehboob Khan made films with social messages such as Do Bigha Zamin (1953). Throughout the late 1950s. Pyaasa (1957). 2007). which positioned Indian film on the world film platform. 2006). however. Bimal Roy. Among the films. 2007). arrived in 1955 with the introduction of Satyajit Ray and his classic Pather Panchali. The tremendous success of Zanjeer (1973) introduced the figure of “angry young man” to the Indian screen. Bollywood cinema shifted its social concerns towards romantic genres. The notable turning point.Texas Tech University. and Mother India (1957) that were focused on underprivileged populations and inequities in Indian society (Jaikumar. 2003). 2009 identity that is associated with family. The poor.
but hides the way it regulate these needs and manipulates the consumers to desire what it produces (Adorno. both men and women. popular culture not only mirrors society. a phenomenon coined by Theodor Adorno and Max Horkheimer (1976). Based on this culture theory it can be assumed that the Bollywood film industry often manipulates the viewer to desire what it produces rather making films that viewers would be interested to watch. Though the Bollywood industry specializes in understanding what the audience wants. The significant changes that were brought in by the liberalization of the Indian economy throughout the 1990s enabled the already growing internationalization of the production and distribution of Hindi films (Rajadhyaksha. it succumbs to the elite whims. but also shapes the society through the process of standardization and commodification through films. interests and influences the audiences to desire what it produces.” and stated that Bollywood became a part of the culture industry. 2009 films have ensured that viewer. Tirumala. Indian filmmakers began operating in a new media landscape. Lakshmi N. Rajadhyaksha (2003) termed this shift as “Bollywoodization of the Indian cinema. Aug. radio and magazines (Adorno. According to this theory. The late 1980s and early 1990s saw the revival of the musical love stories in Hindi cinema. 1975). identified with the working and lower middle class populations. where easy access to Bollywood and Hollywood films were made available to viewers at home. more often than not. 1975). With the advent of cable and satellite television. 2003). As discussed 18 . The culture industry claims to serve the needs of the consumers for entertainment.Texas Tech University.
etc. overseas distribution rights for a big budget movie have doubled in price than that in the Indian market (Jaikumar. 2002). 2003). Dhoom (2004).27). Accordingly. Kabhi Kushi Kabhi Gham (2001). Swades (2004). 2009 earlier. from cable to radio. Lakshmi N. “Bollywood is not the Indian film industry or not the film industry alone. Black (2004). Rajadhyaksha (2003) further argued. 19 ..Texas Tech University. some of the most popular films such as Don (2006) Rang De Basanti (2005). hairstyles and even mannerisms. Kaho Na Pyar Hai (2000). that they see in Indian movies. Dil Chahta Hi (2003) (see Appendix A for some of the plot summaries) achieved success both in the domestic and overseas market alike. Bollywood as a cultural industry influences dress codes. In the past decade. hair styles. Baym and Punathambekar (2007) observed that “fandom” is a significant element of Indian film culture. from New Delhi to New York” (p. This trend based in synergies across different media platforms has encouraged Bollywood film producers to focus on urban and niche audiences who have ample disposable income and are active consumers. Aug. Moviegoers in India take pride in associating themselves with an actor or actress and diligently follow their mannerisms (Srinivas. Tirumala. Given the immense popularity of Indian film stars and the large number of fan communities that have emerged over the years. it is not surprising to see that the audience desires to imitate dress codes. It might be best seen as a more diffuse cultural conglomeration involving a range of distribution and consumption activities from websites to music cassettes. His argument about Bollywood industry was in line with the cultural industry concept of commodification. Television and music rights generated more revenues than the entire movie production cost.
Bollywood & Diaspora Following is a brief description of Bollywood’s presence in a few important regions of the world: 20 . and Danny Boyel’s Slum Dog Millionaire (2008) achieved tremendous success in the Indian diaspora. This is slowly changing as the popularity and importance of Bollywood cinema amongst the large South Asian diaspora is now being recognized as an important cultural object for scholars of socio-cultural studies. all these films featured westernized themes. These techniques demonstrated a trend toward reaching a global audience as opposed to the industry’s earlier objective of resisting western influence. The period between 2001 and 2008 is very significant with the exposure of South Asian popular culture reaching an all time high. particularly in U. These innovative strategies adopted by filmmakers by taking global formats and visual styles. Lakshmi N. The Name Sake (2006). 2009 Interestingly. foreign locations. while localizing and Indianizing them can best be labeled as “glocalization” (Ganti. both directed by Mira Nair. opened to sold-out crowds in London. 2002). Tirumala. and U. Bombay Dreams. During this period.Texas Tech University. Aug. and considerable use of English language in the dialogues.K. Movies such as Monsoon Wedding (2001). Athique (2005) noted that it is surprising to see that the Bombay cinema has not generated much interest among scholars of cultural studies. The new age film producers argue that films with western themes and usage of “Hinglish” (a blend of Hindi and English language) will not attract a large of number of the diasporic audience.S. the big budget musical drama.
Tirumala. Bollywood is not so popular in this part of the world compared to Oceania. 2005). the U. Lakshmi N. Pakistan and Bangladesh arguably enjoy an upper hand in the consumption of Bollywood movies. it has made a slow but steady progress over the years (Irodanova. Africa and Russia Bollywood is now being recognized and achieving box office success in some parts of Africa such as Nigeria. because most of the people from these countries speak/understand Hindi (Kaur and Sinha. and the U. Indian movies offer an alternative style to Hollywood movies and music videos that both Indian diaspora and African youth could follow without the fear of becoming western. According to Larkin (1997). Bollywood movies are also popular in other South Asian countries such as Nepal and Sri Lanka due to their proximity with the Indian subcontinent. n. Although Pakistan’s government banned Indian films.. 2009 Asia Among Asian countries. Iordanova (2006) noted that Bollywood movies are dubbed to Russian and shown in prominent theatres.Texas Tech University. Although.K. Bollywood films are particularly popular in the former Soviet Union.). Also Afghanistan. Morocco and South Africa because of its increasing Indian diaspora. 21 . Israel and Arab countries have been witnessing a gradual increase in popularity for Bollywood films since 2001 (Mishra.S.d. Aug. a few Bollywood films like Tajmahal (2005) were legally released in Pakistan. for the most part. Bollywood movies are watched on cable and DVDs. 2006). However.
Since 1997. United Kingdom and Europe As per industry sources. 2009 Oceania Bollywood ranks second only to Hollywood in countries such as Australia and New Zealand. 2005). Australia has been providing a backdrop for a number of Bollywood films.Texas Tech University. Many films such as Kabhi Khushi Kabhie Gham (2001). 2006). This trend was followed by most recent movies like Heyy Babyy and Chak de India (2007). 22 . Aug. Dawson observed that the Bollywood is also popular in Western Europe where India’s mega film industry has carved an identity for itself. For example. the Yash Raj film Salaam Namaste (2005) was one of the first Indian films to be shot entirely in Australia. Indian filmmakers have been attracted to the country’s diverse locations and rich landscapes to film significant number of song and dance sequences (Shah. Bend it Like Beckham (2002). thanks to its ever-increasing Indian population (Kaur and Sinha. 2006). and Bride and Prejudice (2005) have been filmed entirely in United Kingdom. 2005). Bollywood films have been gradually improving its box office revenues in the UK and it is fitting to say that the UK plays a significant role in Bollywood’s global share (Dawson. Tirumala. Two television channels—RTL II (German) and Rai Uno (Italian)—have recently started to broadcast Indian movies every week (Sheth. With the growing Indian diaspora. especially for song and dance sequences. Australia is one of the few countries where there is a large Indian diaspora. 2005). Bollywood films do exceptionally well in United Kingdom (Sheth. Lakshmi N.
During the past 10 years. many Bollywood filmmakers have been shooting significant number of scenes in America. and New York (Overdorf.Texas Tech University. Tirumala. Washington D. With ever growing numbers of South Asians immigrating to the United States.C. As mentioned in the previous chapter. the largest cable television provider in the United States (Sikka. Aug. 2007).. Bollywood started entering into American living rooms through “Bollywood On Demand” provided by Comcast Corporation. make an average of $100 million a year through theatre screenings. A few recent prominent films like Kaante (2002). video rental retailers such as Netflix are offering more Bollywood movies through their online stores. and Chocolate (2005) were shot in United States. video sales and the sale of audio tracks from the movies (Overdorf.S. reported that Bollywood films in the U. Yash Raj Films. Some of the more recent music-oriented films have 23 . Lakshmi N. With the Indian movie industry gaining popularity in the West. 2005). Also. Many big-budget Bollywood films are debuting in the top 20 box office charts in cities where the Indian diaspora is large. 2007). Kal Ho Naa Ho (2003). Indian filmmakers have set their sights on the United States when it comes to locations for filming significant scenes and song and dance sequences. Indian films do more business in the United States than films from any other country. 2009 Bollywood in United States Bollywood has been experiencing tremendous growth in revenues in North American markets and is most popular among the South Asian communities in cities such as Chicago. one of the India’s largest production houses and distributors.
24 . Aug. Tirumala. Lakshmi N.Texas Tech University. Bombay Dreams. the generation of revenues through movie ticket sales. has provided an opportunity to explore issues related to the creation and maintenance of cultural identity. There is no question that the Indian movie industry has experienced exceptional growth in the number of films produced. The next chapter examined the theoretical frameworks that could be used to analyze the relationship between Bollywood and the development of cultural identity among the secondgeneration Indian Americans. to hit Broadway during 20042005 season. The growth of the Bollywood film industry in foreign markets. 2009 influenced the first Bollywood musical. especially in the United States. raise of multiplexes. Specifically. the following chapter examines the cultural identity in terms of cultural studies. and the creation of overseas markets through the exportation of theatrical and home video consumption.
Cultural studies are the way to analyze and understand the systems and values of our daily lives. custom. in today’s global world. Additionally. and in situ. …Culture is a description of a particular way of life. 41). and it display social disparity. in their material context” (p. 25 . 41). first. According to Stuart Hall (1997). 50). and cultural anthropology to explore cultural phenomena in industrial societies. mass media play a significant role in representing and even projecting a society’s culture. …Second …is the social definition of culture. art. film/video studies. 67). Aug. He maintained that the way to understand culture as “a whole. Tirumala. 2009 Chapter III Theoretical Framework Cultural Studies Cultural studies combine sociology. it involves power structures. Lakshmi N. which expresses certain meanings and values not only in art and learning but also in institutions and ordinary behavior (p. human thought and experience are variously recorded. Johnson (1987) explained cultural studies with three main characteristics: culture is associated with social relations. Taylor (1874) defined culture as “it is that complex whole which includes knowledge. Williams (1961) conceptualized the culture “as a whole way of life” (p. Culture represents certain meanings and values of a society. law. belief systems. he positioned the culture in two general categories: There is. and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society” (p. located.Texas Tech University. the ideal in which culture is the body of intellectual and imaginative work. morals.
Aug. consumption. 1997). Hall (1982) described the role of media in the society as functional. Tirumala. Hall (1997) suggested that the audience could learn other cultural values through media and so they might recognize that they live in different cultures. cultural studies focus on how individuals understand their culture through mass media.. One explanation for this process is through the Circuit of Culture. No matter what the audience perceives about the content of mass media. It suggests that to study a cultural text or artifact. Lakshmi N. a cultural studies framework that can be used to explore and examine the process of cultural identification. Bollywood movies should provide links to the Indian culture. suggested that combining these five elements completes a circuit and to 26 . For the Indian diaspora in the United States. The Circuit of Culture Circuit of culture is a model that offers a holistic view of the process of communication. Hall (1996) explained that the media play an important role in the formation of the things that they reflect. Accordingly. social ideology is always present in culture. consciously or unconsciously. Moreover. identity. du Gay et al. Accordingly.Texas Tech University. it does not create new culture or a social phenomenon but it repackages and reforms cultural practices. However. and regulation (du Gay et al. audience could get other cultural perspectives through mass media so that they might realize that the culture they are living in differs from other cultures. 2009 Hall (1997) observed that the images and the values of a society would be provided by mass media. one needs to look at its representation. production. In short. especially electronic media.
Tirumala. 1997). identity. As Hall (1997) suggested cultural meaning is socially constructed through systems of symbolic representations. and regulation -. like Hall (2005) suggested. the communication process is much more than sending a message from point A to B. 2009 examine or analyze how cultural processes are accomplished in our daily lives. consumption. Likewise. visuals and language play a predominant role in the process of representation. the circuit examines how cultural messages affect consumers in their daily lives. On the final moment of Regulation. Production is pursued on the basis of targeted audience and at this stage we are concerned with understanding how various meanings are encoded in messages. Lakshmi N.representation. Aug. So.Texas Tech University. At the moment of identity. the circuit examines how people find similarities with themselves and messages encoded during the production.. Consumption deals with how these messages are decoded and the meaning that audiences make of them. one must take this circuit into consideration if it is to be studied adequately (du Gay et al. As indicated above. this process helps us to understand the complexity of communication. The moments of the circuit -. 27 . The circuit of culture consists of five major moments: representation is the first stage of the circuit as it is a process by which cultural meaning is generated and given a shape. production.play a significant role in how we send and receive messages. the meaning of any cultural text or artifact can be examined and understood from these five interdependent elements of the circuit of culture. Curtin and Gaither (2005) argued that the circuit of culture is a useful framework for better understanding the values and meanings of any cultural product.
ethnic. Lakshmi N. Jung and Lee (2004) observed that the definitions provided by past researchers with respect to ethnic. We may infer that diaspora identities have always been unstable because of their constant exposure to home and host culture influences. (1997) observed that people consume products to project certain cultural identities that they want others to recognize they possess. 2009 du Gay et al. The concept of ethnic identity The cultural identity of immigrated minority groups has been an issue in the fields of mass communications and social sciences (see Gillespie. and cultural identity (as referred in Jung and Lee. the current study attempted to examine whether consumption of Bollywood movies helps second-generation Indian Americans understand and maintain their cultural identity among. Aug. according to Johnson (2000).Texas Tech University. mainly focusing on the elements of representation. However. 1996). 2000). identity and consumption. 2004). racial and cultural 28 . Based on this statement. The cultural process engaged by Indian American adults was examined on the basis of circuit of culture framework. Tirumala. 2000. Scholars have defined ethnic identity in different ways and interestingly there seems to be no distinction in identity literature when it comes to defining racial. Globalization and new media technologies like the Internet and satellite television help the diaspora communities to stay connected with their ethnic roots as often as possible and restore the old traditions and value system (Appadurai. ethnic minorities are successfully finding a balance between their home and host cultures and trying not to steer away from the ancestral culture and traditions. Johnson.
Aug. ethnic language. It is not at all surprising considering the number of ethnicities and cultures in U. it is important to note that ethnic groups combine these with host culture elements to construct a third identity such as Indian American. Lakshmi N. myth and habit which bind members of an ethnic community together as a sub-cultural grouping within the territorial confines of a nation-state” (p. Tirumala. 179).Texas Tech University. Kelly (1996) defined ethnic identity as “a group’s or individual’s cultural construction of their ethnic past which is grounded in an historical context but which also responds to changes in the lives of both groups and individuals” (p. This is an important notion because the current study will also attempt to explore the role played by family and friends in understanding the Indian culture and identity.82). Language and religious customs play a crucial role in bringing together people who share similar cultural traits and form a sub-cultural group. Interacting with family and friends on a daily basis appeared to help identify and maintain the home culture. today. it only make things complicated and difficult to draw out a universal definition. Hall (1997) clearly emphasized that the cultural elements like family and peer groups play a significant role in the formation of individual’s identity. 29 . Sreberny (2000) noted “approaches to ethnicity usually focus on the common bonds of language. 2009 identities are similar.S. ethnic festivals. and most importantly through consumption of ethnic food and media. It is safe to assume that ethnic groups express their identity by choosing ethnic symbols such as ethnic clothes. However.
Thus. Aug. While in-group members often help individual maintain the culture. Lakshmi N. He suggested that there is a difference between interacting with in-group members and outgroup members. cultural identity is defined as a level of ethnic identification. For the purpose of this research. communicating with in-group and out-group members play an influential role in identifying with an individual’s ethnic culture (Durham. 2004). Indian American students in this case. For example. outgroup members constantly remind him or her of in-group identity. Chances are that new media technologies create ample opportunities for minority communities to find a new sense of connection and maintain their identities. Tirumala. to closely identify 30 . Examining the role of intergroup behavior.Texas Tech University. cultural identity is defined. 2009 Furthermore. They also argued that individuals positively differentiate their in-group from out-group on specific identity and value dimensions. produced and maintained through various social interactions inside and outside ethnic communities. which allows ethnic group members. Cultural identity formation is a complicated process. satellite television and DVD. consumption of ethnic news and entertainment through satellite channels and DVDs could serve to maintain the culture and traditions of ethnic minorities. Hall (1997) suggested that the mass media acts as a linkage between dispersed public and the homeland of cultural life that helps to create a sense of identity among the media consumers. Apart from interpersonal interactions with family and peer group the cultural identity of ethnic groups can be constructed and maintained through their constant interactions with media technologies like the Internet. Tajfel and Turner (1986) observed that the act of categorizing oneself as a particular group member would lead to a display of in-group favoritism.
As discussed in the previous chapter it is important to pay attention to Bollywood movies not only for their dynamic reach to the diaspora communities but also for their popularity among the group. associated with strict parenting style. the majority of the literature was drawn from either Asian American or Asian Britain identity construction studies. age hierarchy. Although the Asian American group does consists of Indian Americans. which facilitate the cultural contacts by erasing geographical boundaries and thereby influencing ethnic group’s identity construction and maintenance.Texas Tech University. She discovered that the majority of the participants from the study identified 31 . The current research highlights the role of Bollywood movies. Lakshmi N. was a strong force behind the identity negotiation process. 2004). none of the past studies focused particularly on Indian Americans. Durham. Jo (2000) found that Korean culture. Cultural Identity of Asian Americans As there is an absence of literature about second-generation Indian Americans and their cultural identity process. This reflects the importance of family togetherness to Asian culture in comparison to the individualistic approach of Western cultures. 2009 themselves with their cultural and traditional origins. Aug. Tirumala. In other words. and faith in religion. 2004. Prior studies found that the cultural identity of Asian Americans to be largely influenced by family and social relationships (see Jung and Lee. it reflects the collectivistic approach of Asian culture to the individualistic orientation of Western culture. In a study of ethnic identity formation process among second-generation KoreanAmericans.
Diamond. In his study of South Asian immigrant girls and diaspora identity. found that external forces such as the relationship with parents. and watching Asian films helped them stay connected to the home culture.Texas Tech University. The author argued that since the participants were brought up in a mixed culture it is understandable to see a difference in their Indianness from that of their parents. and behaviors of many Asian societies that helped reinforce cultural values. This suggested that the level of cultural identity diminishes from generation to generation in the Indian diaspora. 2009 themselves as Korean or Korean American. Interestingly. All the participants in this study reported an affinity 32 . The above studies reemphasize the fact that family and religion play a dominant role in constructing and maintaining the cultural identification. Hennick. and Cooper (1999) posited that the cultural identity of Asian teenage girls in Britain depended on their social activities and interactions. However. a majority of the girls admitted that their level of Indianness differs from that of their parents. which suggested that the second-generation Korean Americans were strongly connected to the Korean culture. attitudes. many teenagers in this study opined that Asian films mirrored the true culture and traditional aspects. Lakshmi N. Durham (2004) found that the participants classified themselves as Indians and identified that family and peer group interactions as the driving force behind their identity formation. Aug. Jung and Lee (2004). Many teenagers in the study reported that mixing with Asian friends. attending language classes. who surveyed Korean American students. Tirumala. peer group interactions and religious institutions strongly motivate the students ethnic identification process.
This suggested that apart from family and religious institutions. and satellite television to create new social realities and cultural identities within the Korean diaspora community context. Lakshmi N. 2009 towards their people of similar ethnic background. the current study seek to understand the role of family. it was important to look at the past research studies that investigated the role of media. Jung and Lee (2004) found that young Korean Americans most often rely on the distance shrinking communication technologies such as mobile phones. The study also revealed that satellite television acted as a good education tool for children to learn Korean language and culture. Because the current study examined the role of Bollywood movies. In their aforementioned ethnographic study on Korean American students. Internet. This supports Hall’s (1997) observation that mass media and communication technologies play a crucial role in enhancing the process of identity formation. Thompson’s (2002) study of media use and diaspora identity among immigrants and their children in the U. peer group interaction and entertainment industry also play a crucial role in defining one’s ethnic identity.Texas Tech University. Drawing the basis from the above research works. Tirumala. Mass media has been used as a useful communication tool for cultural identity construction and maintenance among first generation immigrants and their children. and religious institutions in constructing and maintaining the identity. Aug.K found that joint viewing of ethnic television and films are extremely important in the construction of cultural 33 . peer group interactions. Further support is provided by Lee (2004) who found that satellite television programs played an important role reinforcing the connection with Korean culture and society while looking at Korean immigrants and the role of satellite television.
This is an ample indication of Internets role in shaping and reinforcing cultural identity. Findings from this study suggested that besides family and peer group interactions. he found that the extensive use of VCR at home to watch Indian films represented a significant means for parents to maintain links with their country and culture of origin. Gillespie (1989) examined the role of the video recorder in the construction of ethnic identity among Indians in England. The study suggested that the Chinese ethnic Internet sites provided a way for Chinese to stay connected with their culture and preserve the traditional values. The majority of the parents used Indian films to cultivate certain traditional cultural values. 2009 identity. Aug. The Internet also began to play a significant role in constructing and maintaining the cultural identity of people living in ethnic diasporas.Texas Tech University. While looking specifically at Bollywood movies and identity construction. Rao (2007) researched Bollywood movies and non-elite audiences in India and found that the majority of the respondents did not identify themselves with the current 34 . Tirumala. attitudes. Gillespie observed that the parents considered Indian films to be useful and informative agents for constructing cultural identity of their children. electronic media played an important role in constructing and reinforcing the identity. Interestingly. and belief system in their children apart from teaching the Indian language.com helped by integrating all the Chinese students and scholars in the United Sates. whereas second-generation children resisted the Indian traditions and customs that were shown in films. Melkote and Liu (2000) found that Chinese ethnic Internet sites like tudou. Lakshmi N. whereas children felt little connection to the films.
The variables that were derived out of the previous research are: family. they have not explored the role of Bollywood movies in the identity construction of second-generation Indian Americans. it suggested that the Bollywood industry has been producing movies to lure diaspora communities (elite or high income groups as per Indian standards) and increase the financial returns through its exports. religious institutions. Though this study did not focus on immigrant identity. and films. Lakshmi N. previous studies showed that the cultural identity construction among second-generation populations depends on various negotiation processes through a combination of inter personal and mediated communicative interactions. Internet. 2009 Bollywood narratives. Therefore. He reasoned that while Bollywood industry has been veering towards a Western style catering to the needs of elite Indians and Indian Diasporia community. Aug. In summary. Dawson’s (2005) study of Hindi film music and the negotiation of identity among British-Asian youths resulted in positive responses from the audience. radio. Tirumala. Although the past research studies looked at the role of all the abovementioned variables in identity construction.Texas Tech University. and mass media such as print. Participants from the study also stated that the Hindi film music gave them an opportunity to stay close to the ethnic culture. in-group and out-group interactions. the movies have ignored the preferences of non-elite audiences. television. based on those findings and a significant gap in the literature the current study developed the following research questions to examine the role of Bollywood films in cultural identity formation and maintenance among second-generation Indian Americans: RQ 1: What factors do second-generation Indian Americans identify as influencing their identity construction? 35 .
Lakshmi N. Aug.Texas Tech University. 2009 RQ 2: What role do mass media play in second-generation Indian Americans identity construction? RQ 3: What roles does Bollywood in particular play in the process of identity construction among second-generation Indian Americans? 36 . Tirumala.
2009 Chapter IV Methodology This research study explored the research questions grounded in cultural studies by looking at how second-generation Indian Americans construct their identity. Qualitative research According to Denzin and Lincoln (2005). material practices that make the world visible.e. Tirumala. Aug. and memos to the self” (p. 3). A qualitative researcher is an integral part of the investigation and so it enables a researcher to examine individual motivations through which detailed information can be obtained 37 . It emphasizes the importance of observing variables in the natural setting where they are found. Lakshmi N. These practices transform the world.Texas Tech University. recordings. conversations. It consists of a set of interpretive. interviews. photographs. They turn the world into a series of representations. including field notes. Qualitative methods including in-depth interviews and focus groups were conducted to understand the role of social institutions and the mass media in general and focus on the role of Bollywood movies on the Identity process. i. “Indianness” and how Bollywood movies are used to maintain the culture and identity. Qualitative research is also defined as an inquiry in which the researcher attempts to understand some larger phenomena by investigating it in a holistic way. qualitative research is defined as… “a situated activity that located the observer in the world.
Specifically the study examined how Indian American students at Texas Tech University in Lubbock. a. and e. The following is a detailed description of each method that was used in this study. Some advantages of qualitative research are: a. (Key. Subjectivity raises the issue of reliability and validity of the approach. It examines questions that can otherwise be impossible to answer with quantitative methods.Texas Tech University. Aug. It is an in-depth examination of a phenomenon. Weinreich (1996) observed that the qualitative research helps to obtain a realistic view of the world that cannot be captured through the statistical data analysis used in quantitative research. It is impossible to replicate. and d. c. 38 . 1997). Tirumala. Comprehensive data gathering limits scope. b. b. d. It explore new areas of research. Weinreich. It uses subjective information. Texas used Bollywood movies in constructing and maintaining their identity. Lakshmi N. c. 2005. It is not limited to rigidly defined variables. This study used two of the qualitative methods to examine and analyze the identity construction process among second-generation Indian Americans. 2009 (Denizen and Lincoln. 1996). While on the flip side. Researcher bias is unavoidable.
sensitive. this research study adopted Kvale’s (1996) seven stages of the interview process as a guide: 39 . In-depth interviews provide detailed information on a particular program or idea. In-depth interviews are ideal for investigating personal. Because of the small sample size. Lakshmi N. Simply put. It is prone to bias. 2006). most of which are unsuitable to address in a group format. generalization cannot be made (Boyce and Neale. Some of the merits of indepth interview technique are a. or confidential information. Aug. People may feel more comfortable to have a conversation and share their views in person compared to filling out a survey However. b. 2006). Every effort should be made to conduct interviews with minimal bias b. Interviewer or interview responses may be biased in order to prove an idea or a situation is working.Texas Tech University. Tirumala. from conducting interviews to transcribing and analyzing the responses c. 2009 In-depth interviews Fontana and Frey (2005) observed that in-depth interviewing is a good way to understand people and their attitudes. it is one of the qualitative research techniques that involve conducting individual interviews with a small number of people to examine their perspectives on an idea or a situation (Boyce and Neale. This technique is a very time consuming process. Bearing the merits and drawbacks in mind. there are also a few disadvantages to this technique: a.
Transcribing – The data obtained through interviews are transcribed for analyzing the data. reliability. Verifying – Verify the generalizability. 1996). 6. 4. Designing – The interview is designed to achieve the objective of the study. Thematizing – This is the primary stage of the interview. All interviews lasted about an hour to hour and half. Lakshmi N. The data obtained through these interviews were then transcribed for analysis as soon as possible after each interview was conducted. 40 . were digitally recorded and the respondent’s names were changed to conceal the participants’ identity. Analyzing – Researcher decides the proper method for analysis. and validity of the interview analysis.Texas Tech University. Aug. 2008 and March 15. Reporting – Discuss the findings from the study and explain how those results follow scientific criteria and the ethical aspects (Kvale. A total of eight second-generation Indian American students were interviewed in the College of Mass Communications at Texas Tech University. 2009 1. The main objective for the interview should be clarified before the interview. 3. Interviewing – Interviews are conducted at this stage. a recognized student organization at Texas Tech University. 7. Tirumala. 2008. All individuals were initially contacted by sending personal emails to the members of South Asian Students Association (SASA). The researcher also attended few general body meetings held by SASA to explain the purpose of the study and sign up interested participants. The researcher should keep in mind what he or she wants from the interview. between February 15. requesting participation in the study. 5. 2.
Aug. A focus group typically consists of 7-10 people who share certain characteristics that relate to the topic of the discussion (Krueger. 1988). Lakshmi N. The focus group method was the second qualitative technique that was used for this study. (1995) suggested the following advantages and limitations of using focus groups are: a. knowledge. qualitative research enables researchers to examine individual motivations. Marczac and Seawell. It provides data more quickly and at lower cost than other methods 41 . A careful and systematic analysis of the discussion provides insight as to how an idea or a situation is perceived by the group. experiences. which produce detailed information that otherwise cannot be produced. People naturally interact and are influenced by others in a group environment b. 2009 These transcriptions were typed word-for-word into Microsoft Word. These transcriptions were read many times to draw patterns and common themes during the analysis stage. and attitudes towards a topic. The focus group technique is extremely useful for exploring attitudes and perceptions and is particularly useful for evaluating complex phenomena such as how audiences process and make sense of certain mediated images.Texas Tech University. The rationale behind conducting focus groups in addition to in-depth interviews was to enhance understanding the scenario in a better way and to reveal wide range of common opinions as focus groups have a focused discussion about specific topics or issues. Tirumala. Group interviews are therefore conducted to gather individuals’ opinions. Focus Groups As stated earlier.
results cannot be generalized d. Results may be biased by the presence of a dominated member (Marczac and Seawell. 1995). 2009 c. Considering the merits and challenges of focus group. this study employed Krueger’s (1988) three.phase process as a guide to conduct focus groups: 1. The interview should always include less than ten questions. Produces relatively chaotic data making analysis more difficult c. Lakshmi N. Tirumala. Analysis: The process of analyzing and reporting must be systematic and descriptive (Krueger. As in the case with in-depth interviews. Aug. individuals for the focus group session were contacted initially by sending personal emails to the members of South Asian Students Association (SASA). A total of eight second-generation Indian American students agreed to participate in a focus group 42 . 3. focus group has its own limitations: a. requesting to participate in the study.Texas Tech University. Results are easy to understand and are accessible to everyone As with any research technique. Focus groups are comparatively easy to conduct d. Researchers’ have less control over the group in general b. Conceptualization: Determine the purpose of the study and whom to study 2. Because of its small sample size. Interview: Questions should be carefully planned but appear spontaneous during the focus group discussion. Moderator may intentionally or unintentionally bias results by providing cues about desired responses e. 1998).
All the respondents’ names were changed to conceal the participants’ identity and the data thus obtained was transcribed immediately after the focus group session. Focus group discussions were transcribed word-for-word into Microsoft Word. Lakshmi N. the transcriptions from focus group were read many times to draw patterns and common themes during the analysis stage. Aug.Texas Tech University. 2009 session at the College of Mass Communications at Texas Tech University in the second week of April 2008. I coded the data by organizing and categorizing the emerging themes using highlighters. Previous research works that were based on qualitative methods suggests that the descriptions a researcher provides and the categories and themes they develop becomes the core of the analysis. Coding Once the transcriptions from both the in-depth interviews and focus groups were typed completed. Tirumala. they were read and re-read searching for common themes and patterns. As in the case with in-depth interviews. As I read and read re-read the transcriptions from my interviews and focus group session. For each new theme that emerged. The focus group session lasted for an hour and was video recorded. I used a new color to highlight it within the transcriptions. 43 .
These areas were investigated using in-depth interviews and a focus group session with second-generation Indian American students. And finally. As discussed in the previous chapter. excluding Bollywood. Factors influencing second-generation Indian Americans’ identity construction. 3. Aug. Tirumala. 44 . the roles of Bollywood movies in constructing and maintaining this identity. The themes that emerged during the reading are discussed below through the analysis of the interviews and focus group data. identity. The role of media. Lakshmi N. (1997) framework. to examine the identity construction process of second-generation Indian Americans and the role played by Bollywood movies in creating the notion of “Indianness. the analysis of this study adopted du Gay et al. each interview and focus group session were transcribed and read multiple times searching for common themes and patterns across the data. 2. in this identity construction. As suggested earlier.” The three main areas that were addressed in this research study are: 1. 2009 Chapter V Findings and Discussion The purpose of the study is to throw some light on the role of Bollywood movies in identity formation and maintenance among Indian American young adults. the circuit of culture and specifically looked at the moments of representation. and consumption.Texas Tech University.
All the names were changed to conceal the participant’s identity and they were assigned with a pseudonym: Table 2.Texas Tech University. Lakshmi N. most of the respondents claimed that they watch at least one Bollywood movie a week. Only one respondent said that he would typically watch once in two weeks. Demographics and movie watching frequency Name Puja Rahul Rupa Sandeep Deepa Gowri Hari Sree Sharukh Aishwarya Vijay Bipasha Hritik Amir Salman Kajol Deepika Age 22 23 25 22 23 22 21 24 21 22 22 22 21 22 22 21 22 Gender Female Male Female Male Female Female Male Male Male Female Male Female Male Male Male Female Female 45 Bollywood Movie Watching Frequency Twice a week Once a week Once a week Once a week Twice a week Twice a week Twice a week Thrice a week Once a week Once a week Once in two weeks Once a week Once a week Twice a week Once a week Once a week Twice a week . Aug. The information included in Table 2 outlined the basic demographics of the participants and their reported Bollywood movie viewing frequency. 2009 While exploring general media habits and Bollywood viewing habits in particular. Tirumala.
The following section examined what being an “Indian” meant to secondgeneration Indian American Students in Texas Tech University. I have all the cultural similarities. religion. they still identify with their ethnic roots and keep the “Indianness” alive. same religious views and attitudes. They expressed that maintaining the culture and traditions is very important and it is something that they definitely want to pass it on to their children. This suggested that although all participants were born and brought up in the U. Lakshmi N. 23) responded as follows: I see myself as Indian/Indian American because though I was born here I was still brought up as if I was from there. the average age of the participants was 21 and on an average they watched at least one Bollywood movie a week. All of them visited India at least once and learned about Indian traditions and culture. 2009 According to the basic demographics included in Table 2. Tirumala. My parents pressed the culture upon me and I try to keep the traditions alive and pass it on to the next generation. Aug.Texas Tech University.S. 22) said the following: 46 . Asked why it is important to maintain the culture. Puja (female. Constructing Identity All research participants were self-identified as either Indian American or Indian. festivities and weddings. All the interviewees associated the Indian culture with family togetherness. but not American. Rahul (male. Asked what it means to be an Indian.
25) remembered discovering her identity as Indian through her interactions with other ethnic group members. another interview participant Rupa (female. Talking about the marriage system. since nobody really recognizes me as an American.Texas Tech University. a focus group respondent said the following: I obviously want to marry a Indian because I feel it’s important to marry an Indian because there are so many things that you do not understand if you are married to someone who is not an Indian. Aug. and these comments clearly reveal that most of the secondgeneration Indian American participants try to stay connected with their home culture and traditional values.” This response suggested that though Rupa was born and brought up in 47 . Gowri (female. All focus group respondents also shared similar views on the importance of maintaining the culture. 2009 I think maintaining culture is extremely important to me because that’s who you are and always will be even if you live the rest of your life here in America. She observed “interacting with out-group members constantly reminds me of being an Indian. Tirumala. a majority of the focus group respondents expressed their desire to marry an Indian guy or a girl. The research shows that ethnic distinction plays a critical role in constructing Indian identity among Indian American students. Apart from religion and family togetherness. I know that I want my children to be Indian and want them to know values and beliefs that I have been raised with. which suggested that these participants not only maintain the cultural identity but also want to pass it on to future generations. Lakshmi N. 22). For example.
an interesting discussion emerged from the focus group session that focused on the fact that few Indian American students. as the researcher did not explore in this area. most of the Indian American students. Sandeep actively participates in SASA and try to create awareness about the Indian culture on campus. a member of South Asian Students Association (SASA) at Tech said the following: “Me and some of my SASA friends always hang out together and have fun like celebrating holi (festival of colors) or eat Indian food. 2009 America and speaks English like any other American she will never be accepted as an American because of her ethnic background. Tirumala.” Having born and brought up in America. Lakshmi N. Interactions with both “in-group” and “out-group” members play a significant role in inter-cultural identity negotiation process and most importantly remind secondgeneration Indian Americans of their ethnic roots and cultural background. Accordingly. despite their being born in America and fluent in English. there is no evidence to support this assumption. While there is a possibility that the race of these respondents may also be a factor for not being accepted as Americans. Sandeep (male. Aug. who are frequently and pejoratively identified as ABCD’s (American Born Confused Desi) by Indian media 48 . On the other hand. which constantly reminds me of my ethnic background. Most of the interview participants identified student associations as playing a dominant role in maintaining one’s cultural identity because they facilitate a constant interaction with peer group members.Texas Tech University. 22). do not veer away from Indian culture due to their interactions with peer group members and taking part in Indian cultural events.
assimilate toward American culture and do not like to identify themselves with Indian roots. they will talk about how they are American more than an Indian because they do not learn anything about cultural background or traditions. A focus group respondent Hritik (male. Lakshmi N.Texas Tech University. 2009 and peer groups. 23) a focus group participant. This suggested that the social and cultural interactions play a key role in defining and maintaining the cultural identity amongst second-generation Indian American students. Aug. Deepa (female. When asked for the reason. responded as follows: Some just ignore the whole fact that they are Indian. It’s because their parents do not talk about the importance of culture. or interact with us and they lose everything and start acting as Americans. While none of the respondents of both interviews and focus groups identified themselves as ABCDs. 21) observed the following: So they often hangout with Americans and do stuff together but they always come back to us when they want to share things about their families because they do not identify this aspect of sharing with their American friends. they observed that even the so called “ABCDs” come around and interact with them whenever they feel like talking about their families and parents because of the cultural differences they experience when talking with their American peers. Tirumala. 49 . so as soon as they leave from home they don’t get involved in any Indian events.
” it is important to learn how it is constructed and maintained by secondgeneration Indian Americans. Each of these factors is discussed at length in the following sub sections. Gowri (female. The four major factors are family. 22) said the following: 50 . During the examination of the first research question. As Kelly (1996) and Jung and Lee (2004) pointed out. The in-depth interviews and focus group suggests that identity construction process among second-generation Indian Americans is based on four major factors. 2009 Now that we have looked at participant’s observations on the notion of “Indianness. Aug. and friends emerged out of the interviews and focus group sessions. A majority of the interviewees pointed out that their parents speak to them in their native language and observed that it was necessary for their own children to be able to understand and converse in their native tongue. institutions. three themes including family. families play a pivotal role in constructing and maintaining the ethnic roots and identities because they keep the traditions and rituals alive by continuing to follow them and also having their children to take part in these rituals and other celebrations. Tirumala. Following is the synthesis of these three themes.Texas Tech University. and media. Parents teaching Indian culture at home and/or asking their children to speak in their native language are the most commonly identified activities that influence the identity formation of Indian American students. friends. institutions. Lakshmi N. Family Interviews from this study indicated that the family plays a significant role in the cultural identity formation among second-generation Indian Americans.
Whenever I ask my mom something. 23) speaks to his mom and dad in Gujarathi at home. 51 . praying once a day and eating Indian food are few things that second-generation Indian Americans learned from their families. Aug. It suggested that family members do things in certain way that goes along with culture and tradition. 2009 I thank my family for teaching me how to speak in Hindi when I was young.Texas Tech University. 23) said the following: Being around my family makes me think of the Indian culture and traditions. Lakshmi N. it can be assumed that staying away from ethnic language makes second-generation Indian Americans fallout from learning about the culture and there by loose their identity. Tirumala. So. Whenever they watch Indian programs like television soap operas or movies. The majority of the focus group participants also maintained that just being around family members reminds them of Indian culture and traditions. you know she does not want me to lose the language. Likewise Rahul (male. We usually eat Indian food and do aarti (light a candle) and pray for a while. he would ask his parents about the meaning of phrases he could not understand. Also cultural aspects like respect for elders. Deepa (female. And whenever I go home me and my family goes to an Indian restaurant and then may be watch Indian movies. she’s always like why don’t you tell me in Hindi/Gujarathi. I now take pride in saying that I can speak Hindi very fluently and some of the Indian Americans who cannot do so look up to me.
I mean I was always around the culture because my parents took me to all the events and made me involve in all those things. Aug. Lakshmi N. institutions also played a major role in constructing and maintaining the identity among these students. 52 . played Indian music all the time in cars when we were driving somewhere and they took us to festivals. Vijay (male. Parents play a dominant role in the identity construction of secondgeneration Indian Americans because they are the ones who teach and instill the idea of culture and value system through various activities. It is observed that participants give priority to their parents and seek their acceptance before taking any important decisions. 2009 All participants from both the interviews and focus groups maintained that family was the most influential factor in constructing and maintaining identity. The following are the ideas and views on the role of institution in maintaining the cultural identity. To sum up. Thus family clearly plays a predominant role in constructing the identity in second-generation Indian American students. Tirumala. 22). they rented Bollywood movies to watch with us. most of the participants from this study stated that family has the biggest influence on their identity construction and keep them motivated to participate in the culture and traditions. an interview participant said the following: My parents took me to temple. As seen earlier in this chapter.Texas Tech University.
said the following: When I was growing up. 2009 Institutions The interview participants from this study indicated that in addition to the family and language. Jung and Lee (2004) emphasized that the ethnic church played a crucial role in constructing a social network among Korean Americans. I think these activities contribute a lot in preserving our culture and identity. Aug. religious institutions like temples and religious classes play an important role in identity formation of the second-generation Indian Americans. Tirumala. we did this thing called puja once every week and it would have Bhagavadgeetha and Ramayana (religious scriptures) classes and we all kids sit together and learn about those stories. which teach you about moral values and traditions. 24). We also play holi and diwali every year and have a lot of social events to create awareness about Indian culture and traditions in the University. Similarly. who was the vice president of South Asian Students Association. Lakshmi N.Texas Tech University. going to religious events and participating in traditional functions give Indian Americans a chance to socialize with people from the same cultural background and stay connected with their ethnic roots. The majority of the interview participants also observed that they pray every day and wear ethnic clothes to traditional events. Sree (male. Most of the respondents from interviews and the focus group claimed that they participate in all the traditional celebrations and attend Hindu temple on a regular basis. This is a very interesting scenario because many people living in India do not seem to give importance to ethnic wear while second53 .
This suggested that a participant’s religious faith is deeply rooted by going to a temple and learning it from a religious guru as well as involving in religious events. 24) said the following: 54 . 21) said the following: We are strong in maintaining the religious traditions.Texas Tech University. And if I go to traditional events like garbha or something I feel awkward if I don’t wear Indian clothes. Most participants from interviews stated that their parents always wanted them to focus on religion and know everything about it by visiting temple and religious classes. participants from the focus group observed that religious classes played an important role in learning about values and customs. it was only in the later stage that they realized the value of religion and importance of maintaining it. I think it is because we are so far away from India we try to preserve and keep the culture alive by doing certain things. Sree (male. This factor enables them to keep in tune with their religion and stay connected with their culture and identity. All participants expressed pride in learning and maintaining the religious faith and keeping in touch with their inner self. Lakshmi N. 2009 generation Indian Americans emphasize it as a symbol for their identity. We celebrate all Indian festivals and go to temple regularly. Kajol (female. They maintained that though they never took it seriously and understood the importance behind knowing about one’s religion and traditions initially. Tirumala. Likewise. But my Indian cousins say they do not wear traditional clothes often. Aug.
Tirumala. Most of the interviewees point out that they socialize with other Indian 55 . They talked about Hinduism and what you are supposed to do and it helped some to know about culture.Texas Tech University. This again suggested that institutions like religious classes and student organizations contribute a lot in identity formation and maintenance among second-generation Indian American students. Lakshmi N. I realized the importance of maintaining the religious values because it is your identity. But after I grew up and started going to geetha classes. Aug. Most participants from both interviews and the focus group observed that members of these associations arrange cultural events that help second-generation Indian Americans stay connected to the home culture. It can be assumed that these associations act as an additional push to identify and maintain the culture and traditions in secondgeneration Indian Americans. Organizations such as South Asian Students Association (SASA). They taught a lot about Indian values and traditions. Friends All the participants from interviews and the focus group observed that they began to take more interest towards Indian culture and traditions after they entered the university. University student organizations like SASA and ISA provided them with an opportunity to mix with fellow Indian Americans and Indian students who share similar views and ideas. Indian Students Association (ISA) also played an important role in preserving and maintaining the culture and identity. 2009 I did Sunday school for couple of years but I never took it seriously at all because I have never realized the importance of it.
listening to Bollywood music. Gowri (female. Hritik’s statement suggested that friends play an influential role in maintaining ethnic roots among Indian American students when they are away from home. watching Indian television channels. Asked how important friends are in maintaining the culture. listening to Indian songs etc and I am able to do all that because I am constantly with my Indian friends and I do not think I would have done that if I were not around them. attending Indian weddings. and watching Bollywood movies were some of the activities Indian American students keenly involved. “When you meet someone from similar cultural background. They also let me keep the traditions alive and help me keep me in check just by being around them.Texas Tech University. Tirumala. Hritik (male. you have already broken the ice and it makes easy to talk to because you already know that you have so much in common traditionally and culturally” said Kajol (female. Aug. 2009 American students and Indian students alike. 21). Going to temple. Lakshmi N. Indian American students also participate in all the traditional events like diwali (festival of lights). 21) said the following: We all try to maintain the Indian spirit by watching Indian movies. garbha (religious event) and movie night. eating Indian food. Participants from the focus group session also expressed that they were able to maintain the culture as Indian friends surround them all the time. 22) responded the following 56 .
23) observed the following: One of my mom’s friends. The majority of the focus group participants observed that unlike peer groups. She also tells us to remember who we are and where we come from. Lakshmi N. I mean they come only next to family. She always tells us about what’s going on and how we need to be sure and not forget our roots. They noted that family friends try to teach them about values and traditions by inviting them to different functions like house warming or a religious puja (prayer). I mean I did not have too many Indian friends when I was younger and I think I did not understand a lot about the culture and traditions but now I have a lot of Indian friends and that influences me in knowing and understanding about some things like customs and values. “Through my family friends I have learned some stuff about culture. They taught me a lot about our traditions and what’s right and what’s wrong by 57 . she is very culturally sound and very religious and she always tries to keep us that way. Aug.Texas Tech University. The interviewees and focus group participants stated that family friends also play a significant role in learning and maintaining Indian traditions and values. 2009 They are extremely important. This showed that friends and family friends were equally important in maintaining Indian culture among second-generation Indian American students. Tirumala. family friends give them an extra push to learn about religious stories and moral values by making them read religious books. Deepa (female.
Following is the analysis that examined the research question 2: What role do mass media play in second-generation Indian Americans identity construction? Media Although the interviewees did not read ethnic newspapers regularly due to language barriers. Apart from family. 23). some found them to be valuable sources of information especially 58 . The findings discussed above suggest that family friends and peer groups play a crucial role in constructing and maintaining an individual’s identity. and friends. Therefore. Lakshmi N. it is better to focus on mediated sources of influence differentiated from the interpersonal ones just discussed. Tirumala. Aug. although this seems to depend on the right set of friends who share similar attitudes and a common believe system. media influence cannot be taken lightly in identity construction process among secondgeneration Indian Americans. 2009 reading books like Bhagavadgeetha and Ramayana to me when I was little. He continued saying: I used to go to family friends’ house and hang out with them all the time. They always told me not to forget my religious background and today they are one of the reasons my faith is really strong. We usually play.Texas Tech University. watch Indian movies and have fun. I actually learned cooking Indian food from these family friends. eat Indian food.” stated Rahul (male. The mere presence of them helps second-generation Indian Americans remain cognizant of their culture and traditions. religion.
Lakshmi N. 21) stated: I love reading Indian books all the time because they have so much information about the Indian society and traditions. Tirumala. Kajol (female. 25).Texas Tech University. Indian American students can occasionally learn about society and culture through newspapers as they focus on traditional events like holi and diwali and write articles about them. Interestingly. very few interviewees claimed to have read Indian English newspapers and magazines to check out information on films and sports. but I read English newspapers like “The Hindu” or “Times of India” to check out the cricket scores and read Bollywood news because everything else is about politics. They acknowledged that the Indian music played through these stations reminds them of India and the culture in a 59 . “I hardly read Indian newspapers because I do not understand the language fully. which I am not interested in. many participants from interviews as well as the focus group noted that they read books written by Indian authors like “The Namesake” and “Shantaram” and admitted that they can identify with the plots and characters of these novels. Focus group participants observed that even though newspapers and magazines focus on politics. 2009 about sports and movies. I read the book “The Namesake” and can actually identify with it because my parents moved to United States and I was born here and I can identify with the family morals and values. Aug. However. All the participants listened to Indian radio stations when they are available and liked listening to Bollywood music and Indi pop albums.” said Rupa (female.
23). Although a lack of research work on Indian American radio makes it impossible to corroborate.” On the other hand. Tirumala. Rupa (female. “All these radio channels play Hindi music but again the radio jockeys have American accents which is weird. Though they spoke Hindi and Gujarathi they still have fake accents when it comes to English. Aug. 22) said the following: “One of the time slots is about religion and they will do like mythology stories. another interview participant responded in the following: I love listening to Indian radio channels because they play Hindi music all the time. the above responses suggested that though radio channels play Hindi music for a majority of time. Lakshmi N. Puja (female. Very few focus group participants mentioned that they listen to religious talk shows and programs about traditional celebrations on radio to learn about customs and values. We always turn that program on and listen to the stories and it’s really about values and traditions. Asked how different the Indian music is. 25).” reported Deepa (female. 2009 subtle way.Texas Tech University. It is just kind of calm and peaceful and reminds me of India. one interviewee had a different take on these radio channels and especially about RJ’s (radio jockey). I think you can learn about traditions like arranged marriages because half the time most of the songs talk about arranged marriages and religion. they still open a few spots to focus on religion and 60 .
Hritik (male. did not like the soap operas and melodramatic plots of many daily serial programs but they all expressed a positive attitude towards the message these programs are trying to send across. Teja. but not in Lubbock. but I guess they are trying to send this message that no one is going to have a perfect life. All interviewees and focus group participants have subscriptions to satellite channels like Zee. Who wants to be lakhpathi etc.Texas Tech University. they only have access to these channels at home. They are some cool programs like Mahabharata. Sahara. Most of the participants stated that they learn few things about culture and traditions through radio. Television played a pivotal role in bringing the Indian culture and traditions into the lives of Indians in the U. which reminds me of Indian culture. 2009 traditions. All the participants maintained that their parents were the primary consumers of Indian television channels but they made the respondents watch Indian programs and movies that are culturally rich. there are going to be 61 . however. Most of the interviewees. and other areas of the diaspora through various programs and movies. Star plus and Sony. Lakshmi N. Gemini. Aishwarya (female. 21) said the following about these programs: All these television programs are bunch of melodramas and they are bad compared to the American Television programs.S. but that it keeps their Indian identity alive and active. Aug. however. Tirumala. 22) said the following: My parents watch all the Indian channels and I watch with them whenever I am at home.
Lakshmi N. Accordingly. 21) characterized cultural maintenance as follows: I guess. Aug. Most of the participants agreed that television helps in maintaining the cultural identity and stay in tune with the traditions and societal standards. you can actually learn about family values and to respect your in-laws and older people. Gowri (female. the importance of religion and traditions. I guess television is our way to stay in tune with the Indian culture while we are here. I think we can definitely learn about family values. entertainment programs are rather popular compared to news programs among participants because a majority of the participants said that they don’t learn about Indian culture through news. Sharukh (male. religion and also language”. a focus group participant observed the following when asked about her impression of Indian television channels “[they] throw a lot of culture and traditions at you and they try to teach us all kids about values and traditions through some of their programs. which helps a lot in keeping that part of us alive. 2009 lot of problems and adversaries and you will have to stick together to get through the situation. 62 . as they don’t watch news programs very often. The focus group participants had particularly strong memories of their parents telling them about the culture and traditional values through television programs when they were little. Tirumala.Texas Tech University. All the participants from the interviews and the focus group expressed that the television channels try to teach Indian American students a lot about family values. Half the stuff gets broadcast from India and you get to see parts of India. 22).
Most of the existing research literature on Asian Americans identifies the Internet as a major contributor in cultural identity because of its link to vast information like online news papers. Lakshmi N. However. Aug. 2009 Interestingly. The majority of the focus group participants stated that they don’t learn about Indian culture through the internet because they would rather ask their parents or friends if they did not understand something than going online and reading about it.” However. he expressed that going to those sites reminds him of India just because of the Indian media. 21) observed that “Basically the only Indian website I have ever gone on to is movie websites and music sites. Tirumala. all the participants from interviews and focus groups noted that they use social networking sites such as Facebook and Myspace to stay in touch with other Indian Americans and Indian friends. most of the participants from interviews and the focus groups noted that they do not go online to check information regarding the Indian culture. Given the importance of electronic media among young adults it was surprising how second-generation Indian Americans did not find the Internet a significant vehicle to maintain and stay connected with their culture. the secondgeneration Indian Americans at Texas Tech University who participated in this study did not see the Internet as a potential medium to keep connected to the home culture. But at the same time they also observed that the Internet does not specifically contribute towards strengthening their Indian identity as 63 .Texas Tech University. that created new opportunities to stay connected to the homeland. email and chat facilities etc. Interestingly. Hritik (male.
Following is the analysis that looked at research question 3: What role does Bollywood in particular play in the process of identity construction among secondgeneration Indian Americans? The influence of Bollywood movies on cultural identity Among the many different entertainment media. and national values and culture in film narratives. Participants stated that on average they watch Bollywood movies once or twice a week and mostly with friends and family. such as attending church and celebrating Christmas. It was found that among the Indian American students included in this study Texas Tech. Aug. in the identity formation of Indian American students. 64 . All the participants from interviews and the focus group observed that Bollywood movies play a crucial role in cultural identity maintenance. 2009 they regularly meet up with most of their Facebook/Myspace friends through various ISA and SASA events and meetings. Accordingly.Texas Tech University. Lakshmi N. most of which are produced and circulated in India at the same time. they rented Bollywood film DVD’s from local Indian stores. Ghahghaei (2007) stated that Hollywood movies play a major role in identity formation among Americans. traditions and culture through its variety of plots and characters. Tirumala. the world’s second largest film industry. movies play an active role that transmit ideas. this research study focused on the role played by Bollywood movies. He observed that importance has been given to religious activities.
because it focuses on what’s really important to Indian people. According to one interview participant. Gowri (female. I think it is important because I have been raised with same values and 65 . Swades. and Rang De Basanti (See Appendix A for plot summaries) as their favorite movies and stated that they learned a lot by watching these movies. Dilwale Dulhaniya Lejayenge. Kuch Kuch Hota Hai. 2009 All participants preferred watching movies on DVDs to a theatre because movies on DVD have subtitles and are easy to read. Bipasha (female. Lakshmi N. Aug. This is the common view shared among all the participants of interviews and focus groups. Indian movies played in mediocre theatres. They further added that most of the times. Indian movies focused on family values and they try to show that parents are important and they are always right. 22). 22) said the following: I actually identify with Kabhi Khushi Kabhi Ghum. where it was harder to read the subtitles. Few participants mentioned that it was irritating to watch movies in theatres with subtitles on because half the time they cannot read the subtitles. moral values and traditions. participants associated Indian movies with strong family values. religion and moral values. understand and embrace the culture. They believed that movies with strong traditions and cultural values help the ABCD’s (American Born Confused Desi).Texas Tech University. However. who veered away from the Indian culture. to come around. and traditional Indian weddings. Most of the participants mentioned Kabhi Kushi Kabhi Ghum. song and dance sequences. like acceptance of family. Tirumala.
In addition to Bollywood movies. Sandeep (male. I look up to these movies and it is heartwarming to know that this is true and this is right. praying etc. all participants maintained that U. Most of the participants stated that they could identify with these movies since they 66 . Most of the focus group participants stated that they identify a lot with Indian movies and their narrations. 22) said: I identify a lot with these movies. Deepa (female. culture and religious things like visiting temples. 2009 morals and I agree with the things they show in movies. Lakshmi N. I think they in a way help me keep my culture and traditions alive because all these movies usually has something to do with festivals or religion and they do things that help me remember and maintain it. Aug. Tirumala. I mean I have couple of friends who married to an outsider and not being accepted by the family and you see this all the time in Hindi movies where parents are not accepting of it. 22). Interestingly all the other participants also shared similar views as Sandeep (male. Most of them show values.S.Texas Tech University. produced Indian American movies do a good job in teaching Indian culture and value system. 23) said the following: I think they are really good and a doing a great job in portraying Indian culture and traditions. The majority of the interview participants expressed that Indian movie’s doing a decent job in portraying a true Indian society and culture. This teaches you that family is very important and you are not supposed to go against their wish.
all participants from interviews and the focus group stated that they feel very uncomfortable if there was a kissing scene or a sex scene in a movie whenever they watch with parents. He always hung out with Americans and did not really make any friends with Indians but then he moved to Austin and was surrounded by Indians and finally transformed into a Desi. Asked why they felt uncomfortable. I mean that’s something you don’t talk about with your parents and it’s really weird to watch when your parents are around because they don’t believe in pre marital sex 67 . I felt weird.Texas Tech University. 21) shared her experience in the following: I have watched American Desi and that’s exactly how my brother was when he was a kid. Participants from interviews and the focus group alike noted that there is not much of a difference in watching movies with parents and friends because they watch for entertainment and fun. a interview participant responded: I was watching this movie “Salaam Namaste” with my parents and then there was this scene in which Saif and Perity are having sex and I was like O’ my gosh they are having sex. 22). However. Aug. Few participants described that these Indian American movies like “ABCD” and “Where is the party yaar” are stereotyped and funny. but they all show a common theme of how the male protagonist in the movie hates everything about Indians but finally comes around and starts respecting the culture. I flipped out and fast forwarded the movie. Amir (male. Kajol (female. 2009 represent Indian Americans and their life styles. Now he likes everything about India and gets involved in all the Indian events and cultural programs. Tirumala. Lakshmi N.
” All participants expressed that Bollywood helps them keep their traditions and values alive by representing the culture in movies and reinforcing the importance of maintaining and passing it on to the future generations. But you don’t have to feel awkward when you are watching it with your friends. Sree (male. Participants noted that they all learned a lot about festivities and weddings as most of the movies have plots and themes that revolve around these cultural elements. because my parents are not really big about participating in these events. observed most of the participants from interviews and focus groups. 25) reported: Culturally. So I learned a lot about festivities like holi. it seems big in almost every movie. It gave me an incentive to involve more in it. 22) stated: 68 . diwali. and rakshabandhan watching it in movies. I got enough religious aspects out of watching it in movies. Rupa (female. 2009 and also do not approve of it. I mean if I was watching with my kids I would fast forward it because it is weird. Religion and togetherness are the other things they learn through Bollywood movies. 24) a focus group participant also observed that “Most of the Hindi movies have to show some form of wedding and I guess that is kind of cool because we miss out on these big family gatherings and weddings and it’s great to watch it in movies. Puja (female. Lakshmi N. It helps me stay connected to the culture and ethnic roots. Tirumala.Texas Tech University. And then there is religion. the biggest thing I probably learned through movies is festivities and weddings. Aug.
and general life style. Deepika (female. one parent would try to explain the reasons behind a particular theme. They are kind of showing more affection’s in the movies like kissing scenes and love making scenes. Most of the participants from interviews said that whenever they watch movies with their parents. a few participants from interviews argued that the Bollywood movies are becoming more and more Westernized in respect to public affection. However. sexually-suggestive clothing. They also show these characters talk in English. 2009 One thing that I have noticed is that Indians have close knit families and all the neighbors always know each other and that’s the kind of values brought in through movies and that is really important for all these Indian Americans. Lakshmi N. 22) observed: Bollywood is really pushing towards the American way. 69 . Finally. drug use. the majority of the participants observed that the culture and traditions portrayed by Bollywood movies were precise and true to what’s being practiced among the Indian families.Texas Tech University. because they get to learn something and will be able to pass it on to their kids. Aug. violence and all kinds of crazy stuff that they never showed before. They also maintained that their parents talk about traditions and values whenever they watch Indian movies. Tirumala. which help Indian American’s become aware of Indian culture and traditions.
Texas Tech University, Lakshmi N. Tirumala, Aug. 2009
This interesting comment may imply that the globalization may have led to the Westernization of Bollywood movies that cause the loss of unique culture and traditions. Still, the majority of the participants expressed that Bollywood is one of the better ways to learn about Indian culture and how they are being practiced in the society. This suggested that among different mediums, Bollywood movies in fact had the strongest influence on second-generation Indian Americans in learning and maintaining the Indian culture and traditions.
Texas Tech University, Lakshmi N. Tirumala, Aug. 2009
Chapter VI Conclusion and Limitations
This research study found that family, institutions like temples, religion classes, and student organizations, and friends play a predominant role in the identity construction of second-generation Indian Americans. While examining the media’s role in identity construction, influence of print media and radio seemed very limited due to language barriers and lack of visuals respectively. On the other hand television proved to be very influential as they telecast cultural programs and play Indian movies frequently. Interestingly, among the different mediums, Bollywood movies and entertainment programs that are related to Bollywood took a significant role in informing secondgeneration Indian Americans about Indian traditions and value system. The following table outlines the summary of major findings from the current research study.
Texas Tech University, Lakshmi N. Tirumala, Aug. 2009
Table 3. Summary of research findings Research Questions 1. Factors influencing identity construction of second-generation Indian Americans 2. The role of media, excluding movies, in identity construction of second-generation Indian Americans • • • • • • • Family Institutions Peer Groups and Media Print – influence seems limited due to reported language barrier Radio – influence seems limited due to lack of visuals Television – seems very influential through ethnic programs and Indian movies • 3. Role of Bollywood movies in identity construction Internet – a very limited influence Influential due to • • • • No language barrier (subtitles) Showcasing of family values and religion Portrayal of Indian society and traditions Transmission of Indian culture in an engaging fashion Findings
The results of this study show that the cultural identity of Indian American students is constructed and maintained through various interpersonal and mediated 72
which largely supports the previous research findings of Jung and Lee (2004). which reflects various social and cultural factors. 2009 communicative activities such as family environment. Lakshmi N. Aug. and Durham (2004) who studied other AsianAmerican populations. First. second-generation Indian American students’ strong commitment to Indian culture was reflected in their daily activities with family and peer groups. Korea and Nepal. This factor played a crucial role in constructing the identity and also helped to build a strong commitment towards Indian culture. Students get together often to watch Indian movies.Texas Tech University. The results suggested that identity construction and maintenance in second-generation Indian Americans is an ongoing process. Student organizations also played a crucial role in maintaining the identity and staying connected to the home culture by giving second-generation Indian Americans a chance to socialize with other Indian Americans and Indians. Tirumala. visit temples or eat ethnic food. student associations like South Asian Students Association (SASA) and Indian Students Association (ISA) provide opportunities for them to meet and interact with peers having the same ethnic background. One interesting factor to observe here is that Indian Americans get along well with other Asian American students from China. institutions. Lee (2000). They seem to talk to family members almost every day and most often use ethnic language blended with English while communicating with parents. They enjoy hanging out with 73 . Apart from family. in-group and outgroup interactions and the media. listen to Indian music.
information regarding various ethnic groups is being documented and commented upon by the media today. who claimed that people would gravitate toward media from their own culture. 2009 Chinese Americans or Korean Americans as there is a cultural proximity within the Asian culture (Ksiazek and Webster. 74 . Print (newspapers and magazines) did not seem to have a major impact on how Indian American students learned about Indian culture. Most of the Indian American students readily associated these dance forms with Indian culture and stated that they watched these cultural artifacts at least once. Lakshmi N. They also showed a great interest in learning Indian classical dance forms like Bharatnatyam and Kuchipudi. All Indian American students stated that they feel comfortable with Indian music and television shows. It was learned through this research study that Indian American parents try to create an interest among their children towards classical dance and singing forms by taking them to such cultural events or discussing them when they appear on television. This again supported the notion of cultural proximity by Straubhaar (2003). Tirumala. however. This appeared to be true in this case of secondgeneration Indian Americans as well. With regard to media influence on cultural identities. Aug. Lee (2004) argued that media played a significant role in constructing and maintaining cultural identities because.Texas Tech University. Indian Americans do not read ethnic news papers due to the language barrier. In fact most of the Indian American students admitted that they sometimes follow Indian soap operas and love Indian music. This suggested that there was a very little cultural loss when Indian American students are able to consume Indian media products. 2008).
of all the variables that were explored and examined in this study. Thus. As said earlier. Lakshmi N. Most of these Indian Americans listen to Hindi music on radio and through the Internet. Bollywood movies and other ethnic programs that created an ample opportunity to stay connected with the Indian culture and traditions. Indian American students are able to listen to Indian music through the Internet. which helps to create an ethnic community. Interestingly. Though there are no Indian radio stations in this West Texas region. which keep them connected to the Indian society and culture through its characters and scenarios. Tirumala. The Internet was used less frequently than the researcher anticipated for news and other news related information from India.Texas Tech University. The Internet extends communication capacity by facilitating interactive communicative channel. which has appeared to bridge the gap. Indian Americans did not see the Internet as a potential opportunity to improve ethnic community relations and to maintain Indian identity. Another finding from the interviews and focus groups was that television played a crucial role in bridging the connections between Indian Americans and home culture through various entertainment programs and movies. the Internet was the only variable that did not agree with the research literature because most of the Indian American students preferred direct interaction with peer groups compared to technology enhanced communication process. 75 . 2009 very few Indian Americans read books written in English by Indian authors. Indian music has a distinct style and it succeeds in reminding second-generation Indian American students about Indian culture. Indian Americans watched cultural shows dealing with ethnic dance forms. Aug.
which help them in maintaining the Indian identity. the Internet and DVDs played a tremendous role in constructing and maintaining the cultural identity as they provided an easy access to Bollywood movies. Interestingly. By consuming Bollywood movies. Of all the media. Through the movies. Aug.Texas Tech University. festivities. a strong sense of religion. second-generation Indian Americans identified Indian culture with family togetherness. Second-generation Indian Americans seemed to consider Bollywood movies as a vehicle for showcasing Indian culture and traditions. and distinctly Indian attitudes and behaviors. Indian American students learned about Indian traditions and customs. The findings suggested that secondgeneration Indian Americans grew up consuming Bollywood movies and constructed and 76 . Lakshmi N. Bollywood movies appeared to serve as the most influential communication medium in constructing and maintaining the cultural identity of the second-generation Indian American students. television appeared to play an important role in identity construction and maintenance process. Participants watched Indian movies regularly and majority of them kept up with latest Bollywood movies and cinema news. The new communication technologies like satellite televison. As suggested in the literature. second-generation Indian Americans were also able to identify with Bollywood movie characters and scenarios that remind them of their identity and give them information to use in their own lives. 2009 Parents made their children watch ethnic programs and mythological serials like Ramayana and Mahabharata that taught morals and value system. Tirumala. however.
especially when they are living away from home. 77 . It is safe to assume that Bollywood movies act as an additional push in identity construction process amongst second-generation Indian American students. religion and peer groups enabled second-generation Indian Americans to construct and maintain their “Indianness. This factor explains the popularity of Bollywood even amongst the Indian diaspora communities. To sum up. Bollywood movies along with other social communicative contexts like family. Tirumala. Lakshmi N. Thus. which are otherwise considered to be clichéd by many Indians. all is not well with the current Bollywood trend. However. Aug. They preferred Bollywood movies that depict family togetherness and other cultural aspects.Texas Tech University. This suggested that movies with strong family values and traditions might have a greater affinity with diaspora communities compared to the movies that are influenced by Western scripts. Indian American students did not like the idea of Bollywood movies deviating from Indian culture and becoming more Westernized. 2009 maintained the cultural identity by learning values and traditions that were reflected in these movies. Bollywood movies not only act as a bridge between home and diaspora but also transmit cultural and traditions that play a crucial role in constructing and maintaining the identity in second-generation Indian American students.” Another finding from this research study was that the Bollywood movies appeared to have a major influence on second-generation Indian American students in maintaining the identity.
However. his Indian identity may in fact have influenced some participants to give socially desirable responses.Texas Tech University. The final drawback of this study was that the volunteers may have participated with predetermined mindsets and shared biased opinions. Though utmost care was taken to not let researcher’s bias influence the study in any kind. the research study has its own limitations. it was very difficult to generalize the results because the research is based on qualitative studies and was conducted only in one university with a relatively few number of participants and for a short length of time. some form of quantification techniques needs to be administered to support the findings and generalize the results. The study should have administered more than one focus group session to get diverse views and ideas on Bollywood movies and cultural representation. Tirumala. with a large number of participants. Another drawback of this study is that participants were frequent consumers of Bollywood movies and results may have been different if the study has looked at Indian Americans who watch Bollywood movies less frequently. needs to be conducted at more universities. Aug. Ethnography of second-generation Indian Americans might shed more light on their daily activities that maintain cultural identity. it is important to understand that nothing can be said about the magnitude and statistical significance of this influence. To produce more consistent results. First. extensive research. 2009 Despite many important findings. This study was a good starting point to focus more 78 . both in-depth interviews and surveys. Lakshmi N. In future research. Although statements about the influence of media and Bollywood on identity construction were made in this study.
The findings of this study are in line with cultural studies perspective in terms of defining cultural identity as a product of both interpersonal and mediated interactions. future research works in this area need to examine how different female audience associate Bollywood texts to the Indian culture and traditions from their male counterparts. Importantly. It is an interesting finding. this study found that most of the second-generation Indian American students who participated take pride in their identity and follow Indian traditions and customs with utmost respect and sincerity. the cultural identity of the second-generation Indian Americans living in diasporic intercultural contexts is an ongoing process. Bollywood narratives and their influence in maintaining the identity. especially through Bollywood movies. which is defined and re-defined by social interactions and media. 79 . as the Indian media tend to portray Indian Americans in negative contexts and describe some of them as American Born Confused Desi (ABCD). the research study successfully tried to answer all the important questions and provided insight into second-generation Indian American student’s attitudes and their take on Indian culture. However.Texas Tech University. In conclusion. Tirumala. Finally. Aug. one who tries to avoid their home country identity and assimilate into the host culture. Lakshmi N. 2009 on second-generation Indian American students in areas like gender difference in understanding culture. The study also found that second-generation Indian Americans are surprisingly similar to Indians with respect to the knowledge about Indian culture and traditions.
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however. has never learned why Rahul left home. However. Pooja tells Rahul that Rohan is from India and 88 . he finds out Rahul's address. Yashovardhan (Yash) is a popular businessman in India. he finds out from his grandmothers the reasons behind the split. Anjali's sister have no place to go. Rahul chances upon Anjali (Kajol) and falls in love with her. As soon as Rohan arrives in London.Texas Tech University. Lakshmi N. He enrolls at a university where Pooja is a student. Tirumala. Aug. Rahul tells his father that he is in love with Anjali and wishes to marry her. who believes in maintaining traditions. He tells her who he is and asks her help to bring the family back together. This results in Yash asking Rahul to leave his home. Yash plans to get Rahul married off to his friend's daughter. After realizing that Anjali and Pooja (Kareena Kapoor). but only to find that her father has passed away. this angers Yash and berates Rahul for not taking family traditions into consideration. Rahul goes to inform Anjali that he wont be able to marry her. Rohan. 2009 Appendix A Plot Summaries Following are the plot summaries of few films that are mentioned in the study: Khabhi Khushi Kabhie Gham (2001) This film revolves around Rahul (Shahrukh Khan) who is the adopted son of Yashvardhan Raichand (Amitabh Bachchan) and his wife Nandini (Jaya Bachchan). he decided to marry Anjali. However. Naina (Rani Mukherji). Rohan also learns that Rahul and Anjali are living in London.
Aslam (Kunal Kapoor). He smokes heavily and seeks happiness among his friends. Karan (Siddharth) and Sukhi (Sharman Joshi). He has no girlfriend and rues (quite portentously) that he would die a 89 .Texas Tech University. meets a group of friends in whom she sees the characters of her documentary. Lakshmi N. The group consists of DJ (Aamir Khan). Sue. aided by Sonia (Soha Ali Khan). Eventually. Things end on a happy note. Rang De Basanti (2006) Sue (Alice Patten) comes to India to make a documentary on some freedom fighters about whom she gets to know from the diary of her late grandfather who was a British officer in India before 1947. Sukhi is full of fun and frolic. Yash apologizes to Rahul and berates him for not coming home sooner. Rahul and Angali let Rohan stay at their place. Karan is the silent one.Aslam comes from a Muslim family and refuses to endorse the opinion that Muslims ought not mingle with Hindus. Tirumala. loveless life.After having auditioned many in vain for her movie. DJ is originally Daljeet Singh from a Punjabi family consisting of a loving mother (excellently portrayed by Kiron Kher). A beer guzzler who is never serious about anything in life. 2009 he is looking for some place to live. Rahul goes back to India to participate in his paternal grandmother's funeral but never speaks to his father. Rohan finally convinces Rahul to speak to Yash. Aug. He is rich but has a dry. DJ starts hitting on Sue the minute he sees her. he reveals his identity and convinces Rahul to go back to India.
where he worked as an engineer in NASA. the love of Sonia (Soha). But Sue can see the characters of her movie in them. Lakshmi N.Even as the five friends agree to be a part of her movie. Sonia. Lft. To them values like patriotism. 2009 kunwara. 2008). DJ. In DJ she sees Chandrashekhar Azad. Also part of the group is Fl. He is the only one in the group who has dedication to serve the country. But they choose a very extreme way to do it (Deoshi. they still cannot accept the virtues of the characters (of the freedom fighters) they play. Aug. None of the friends is serious enough to be a part of Sue’s documentary. But they are beaten mercilessly by the cops. Swades: We. Ajay’s mother (Waheeda Rahman) and Pandey (Atul Kulkarni) lead the protest against the Defence Minister to get Ajay the honour he deserved. Karan. Ajay dies in a MiG crash and is labeled as a rookie pilot by the Defence Minister who is unwilling to accept shortcomings in the MiG aircrafts. Aslam. Tirumala. But. DJ and friends decide to bring the truth to light. Sukhi. Ajay’s mother goes into coma.Texas Tech University. sacrificing oneself for the sake of country are just beautiful words they cannot relate to. the people (2004) Mohan Bhargava (Sharukh Khan) left the small village in India where he was born and raised to go to the United States. after a few years Mohan becomes nostalgic for his home and takes a 90 . But then. In Karan she sees Bhagat Singh and in Aslam she sees Ashfak. Ajay Rathod (Madhavan).
Lakshmi N.Texas Tech University. Gita thinks little of Mohan's desire to bring Kaveri back to the United States with him. but she also finds herself struck by the charm and intelligence of the adult Mohan. n. Tirumala. Aug. 2009 leave of absence in order to visit Kaveri (Kishori Ballal). and the two build a relationship. Mohan becomes reacquainted with Gita (Gayatri Joshi).) 91 . While searching for Kaveri. a woman who helped to raise him as a boy. one of his childhood friends who had stayed behind to serve the community as a teacher.d. But many in the community have little regard for Mohan's accomplishments in the United States until he steps forward to help his old neighbors by revamping the village's antiquated electrical system and increase the rate of literacy (Deming.
2009 Appendix B Discussion Guide Discussion guide for in-depth interviews and focus groups: 1. What are some of the differences you find in Indian magazines/news papers produced in India from that of United States? 92 . Do you see any difference in Indian Culture from Indian American culture? (If yes. What factors do second-generaton Indian Americans identify as influencing their identity construction? a. What media do you use in general? b. Name some activities that influence you in learning about Indian culture? f. What role does family and friends play in your life with respect to your cultural identity? 2. What role do mass media play in second-generation Indian Americans identity construction? a. what are they?) e. What does being Indian/Indian-American/American mean to you? c. Aug.Texas Tech University. Tirumala. What are your general impressions on Indian Culture? d. Lakshmi N. How do you culturally identify yourself? b.
How often do you listen to Indian radio stations and what kind of influence do you think they have on you in learning about culture and traditions? d. Would you say that Bollywood movies represent Indian traditions and values? f. Lakshmi N. How often do you use the Internet to know about India and culture? 3. How often do you watch Indian movies? Who do you watch these movies with? b. Aug. Do you find yourself identifying with the movie characters and plots? e. What roles does Bollywood in particular play in the process of identity construction among second-generation Indian Americans? a. How does your use of Bollywood movies differ from your parents use? d. What is your opinion on the culture portrayed in Bollywood movies? Do you think they represent the reality? 93 . Tirumala. 2009 c. What Indian television channels you watch regularly? What cultural aspects have you picked up from those various programs? e.Texas Tech University. What is your general impression of Bollywood movies? c. What cultural aspects do you learn from Bollywood movies? Any specifics that you can think of? g.
Lakshmi N. Lakshmi N. You will be compensated $20. Tirumala College of Mass Communications Texas Tech University.00 for your time in participating in the study. 94 . This study is being conducted for academic purposes and has been approved by the Institutional Review Board of the Office of Research Services at Texas Tech University. All responses will be kept confidential and no identifying personal factors will be used in reporting the results of this study. More precisely.Texas Tech University. 2009 Appendix C Interview Consent Form Hi. we are interested in your opinions regarding Bollywood movies and its influence in maintaining the Indian culture and traditions. Thanks for your cooperation. I am here to invite you to participate in a research study that I designed to understand the role of Bollywood movies in cultural identity construction. you will be asked to participate in in-depth interview session that would last no more than an hour. Aug. In order to do this. Tirumala.
All responses will be kept confidential and no identifying personal factors will be used in reporting the results of this study. Aug.Texas Tech University. I am here to invite you to participate in a research study that I designed to understand the role of Bollywood movies in cultural identity construction. This study is being conducted for academic purposes and has been approved by the Institutional Review Board of the Office of Research Services at Texas Tech University. 2009 Appendix D Focus group Consent Form Hi. Tirumala College of Mass Communications Texas Tech University. 95 .00 for your time in participating in the study. we are interested in your opinions regarding Bollywood movies and its influence in maintaining the Indian culture and traditions. In order to do this. Tirumala. you will be asked to participate in a focus group session that would last no more than an hour. More precisely. Thanks for your cooperation. You will be compensated $10. Lakshmi N. Lakshmi N.
Texas Tech University. It is understood that any copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my further written permission and that any user may be liable for copyright infringement.) Student Signature 07-26-09 Date Disagree (Permission is not granted. 2009 Permission to Copy In presenting this thesis in partial fulfillment of the requirements for a master’s degree at Texas Tech University or Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center. Permission to copy this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Director of the Library or my major professor.) _____ Lakshmi N. Tirumala. Agree (Permission is granted. Tirumala Student Signature 07-26-09 Date . Aug. I agree that the Library and my major department shall make it freely available for research purposes. Lakshmi N.
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