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Enterprise Mobility Management: High-impact Strategies - What You Need to Know: Definitions, Adoptions, Impact, Benefits, Maturity, Vendors

Enterprise Mobility Management: High-impact Strategies - What You Need to Know: Definitions, Adoptions, Impact, Benefits, Maturity, Vendors

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Publicado porEmereo Publishing
Enterprise Mobility Management is the set of people, processes and technology focused on managing the increasing array of mobile devices, wireless networks, and related services. This is an emerging discipline within the enterprise that has become increasingly important over the past few years. According to recent research, subscriber penetration in the US market shows that approximately 85% of the population owns a mobile device. This market is expected to reach 90% penetration in late 2008-2009. By 2012, business mobile users will make up more than 30% of all subscribers in the United States. Just as companies rely on human resource, financial management and CRM software, mobility management software will quickly earn its place in the portfolio of enterprise software solutions. The cost, risks and mission critical nature of mobility has accelerated the pace of sophisticated solutions and weighs heavily on the minds of CIOs.

This book is your ultimate resource for Enterprise Mobility Management. Here you will find the most up-to-date information, analysis, background and everything you need to know.

In easy to read chapters, with extensive references and links to get you to know all there is to know about Enterprise Mobility Management right away, covering: Enterprise Mobility Management, Mobile technology, 2-way iSMS, 2degrees, Access Stratum, Adaptxt, Advanced Wireless Services, AskMeNow, Assisted GPS, Audience (telecom company), Azimuth Systems, Basic Trading Area, Cablefree, CDMA Chipsets, Cel-Fi, Cell of origin (telecommunications), Cell on wheels, Cellular repeater, CIMD, Closed User Group (CUG), Columbitech, Communication Linking Protocol, Context-aware services, Coverage map, DataSplice, DigRF, Drive testing, Dual mode mobile, Dumb pipe, Dynamic Link Adaptation, E-OTD, Electronic Serial Number, EMBARC, EMI (protocol), Enhanced GPS, ERMES, ESME, EUIMID, Face2face, FLEX (protocol), General content descriptor, Generic Bootstrapping Architecture, Matt Gillin, GMLC, GoTV Networks, Handheld television, Handover, Hardlink (homonymy), IControlPad, IDT Spectrum, Image share, Instant message service center, Inter standard roaming, Interference in mobile communications, IP Multimedia Subsystem, Ip.access, IQAN, IST-Plastic, ITap, July Systems, Jumptap, Librestream, List of devices with Assisted GPS, Local number portability, Location awareness, MLearning, Macrocell, Manitoba (computer chip), Microcell, MINDS, Mobify, Mobile Access Protocol, Mobile Alliance Against Child Sexual Abuse Content, Mobile Architecture, Mobile Assisted Language Learning, Mobile collaboration, Mobile commerce, Mobile database, Mobile Enterprise Asset Management, Mobile Equipment Identifier, Mobile IPTV, Mobile network operator, Mobile phone tracking, Mobile radio, Mobile search, Mobile technology in Africa, Mobile Telephone Switching Office, Mobile ticketing, Mobile virtual network operator, Mobile virtual private network, Mobile workflow, Mobile-to-mobile convergence, Mobile.info, Mobispine, Modu, Motorola Pageboy, Motricity, MSRN, MTV-1, Multi-band, Multiuser detection, MVDS, Mxim, Navizon, Near-field magnetic induction communication, NetMotion Wireless, Network on Terminal Architecture, Non Access Stratum, Number Assignment Module, Online charging system, Open Handset Alliance, Optpcs, ORFS, Over-the-air programming, P2000 (network), PacketVideo, Pager, PCS switching center, Peer-to-peer video sharing, Personal Communications Service, Phizzle, Helio Ocean, Picket-fencing, Picocell, Predictive text, Proximity marketing, Public land mobile network, PuppetMaster (application), Push Proxy Gateway, Kamal Quadir, Paul Raden...and much more

This book explains in-depth the real drivers and workings of Enterprise Mobility Management. It reduces the risk of your technology, time and resources investment decisions by enabling you to compare your understanding of Enterprise Mobility Management with the objectivity of experienced professionals.
Enterprise Mobility Management is the set of people, processes and technology focused on managing the increasing array of mobile devices, wireless networks, and related services. This is an emerging discipline within the enterprise that has become increasingly important over the past few years. According to recent research, subscriber penetration in the US market shows that approximately 85% of the population owns a mobile device. This market is expected to reach 90% penetration in late 2008-2009. By 2012, business mobile users will make up more than 30% of all subscribers in the United States. Just as companies rely on human resource, financial management and CRM software, mobility management software will quickly earn its place in the portfolio of enterprise software solutions. The cost, risks and mission critical nature of mobility has accelerated the pace of sophisticated solutions and weighs heavily on the minds of CIOs.

This book is your ultimate resource for Enterprise Mobility Management. Here you will find the most up-to-date information, analysis, background and everything you need to know.

In easy to read chapters, with extensive references and links to get you to know all there is to know about Enterprise Mobility Management right away, covering: Enterprise Mobility Management, Mobile technology, 2-way iSMS, 2degrees, Access Stratum, Adaptxt, Advanced Wireless Services, AskMeNow, Assisted GPS, Audience (telecom company), Azimuth Systems, Basic Trading Area, Cablefree, CDMA Chipsets, Cel-Fi, Cell of origin (telecommunications), Cell on wheels, Cellular repeater, CIMD, Closed User Group (CUG), Columbitech, Communication Linking Protocol, Context-aware services, Coverage map, DataSplice, DigRF, Drive testing, Dual mode mobile, Dumb pipe, Dynamic Link Adaptation, E-OTD, Electronic Serial Number, EMBARC, EMI (protocol), Enhanced GPS, ERMES, ESME, EUIMID, Face2face, FLEX (protocol), General content descriptor, Generic Bootstrapping Architecture, Matt Gillin, GMLC, GoTV Networks, Handheld television, Handover, Hardlink (homonymy), IControlPad, IDT Spectrum, Image share, Instant message service center, Inter standard roaming, Interference in mobile communications, IP Multimedia Subsystem, Ip.access, IQAN, IST-Plastic, ITap, July Systems, Jumptap, Librestream, List of devices with Assisted GPS, Local number portability, Location awareness, MLearning, Macrocell, Manitoba (computer chip), Microcell, MINDS, Mobify, Mobile Access Protocol, Mobile Alliance Against Child Sexual Abuse Content, Mobile Architecture, Mobile Assisted Language Learning, Mobile collaboration, Mobile commerce, Mobile database, Mobile Enterprise Asset Management, Mobile Equipment Identifier, Mobile IPTV, Mobile network operator, Mobile phone tracking, Mobile radio, Mobile search, Mobile technology in Africa, Mobile Telephone Switching Office, Mobile ticketing, Mobile virtual network operator, Mobile virtual private network, Mobile workflow, Mobile-to-mobile convergence, Mobile.info, Mobispine, Modu, Motorola Pageboy, Motricity, MSRN, MTV-1, Multi-band, Multiuser detection, MVDS, Mxim, Navizon, Near-field magnetic induction communication, NetMotion Wireless, Network on Terminal Architecture, Non Access Stratum, Number Assignment Module, Online charging system, Open Handset Alliance, Optpcs, ORFS, Over-the-air programming, P2000 (network), PacketVideo, Pager, PCS switching center, Peer-to-peer video sharing, Personal Communications Service, Phizzle, Helio Ocean, Picket-fencing, Picocell, Predictive text, Proximity marketing, Public land mobile network, PuppetMaster (application), Push Proxy Gateway, Kamal Quadir, Paul Raden...and much more

This book explains in-depth the real drivers and workings of Enterprise Mobility Management. It reduces the risk of your technology, time and resources investment decisions by enabling you to compare your understanding of Enterprise Mobility Management with the objectivity of experienced professionals.

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Published by: Emereo Publishing on Aug 23, 2011
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  • Enterprise Mobility Management
  • Mobile technology
  • 2-way iSMS
  • 2degrees
  • Access Stratum
  • Adaptxt
  • Advanced Wireless Services
  • AskMeNow
  • Assisted GPS
  • Audience (telecom company)
  • Azimuth Systems
  • Basic Trading Area
  • Basic Trading Area MTA
  • Cablefree
  • CDMA Chipsets
  • Cel-Fi
  • Cell of origin (telecommunications)
  • Cell on wheels
  • Cellular repeater
  • CIMD
  • Closed User Group (CUG)
  • Columbitech
  • Communication Linking Protocol
  • Context-aware services
  • Coverage map
  • DataSplice
  • DigRF
  • Drive testing
  • Dual mode mobile
  • Dumb pipe
  • Dynamic Link Adaptation
  • E-OTD
  • Electronic Serial Number
  • EMI (protocol)
  • Enhanced GPS
  • ESME
  • face2face
  • FLEX (protocol)
  • General content descriptor
  • Generic Bootstrapping Architecture
  • Matt Gillin
  • GMLC
  • GoTV Networks
  • Handheld television
  • Handover
  • Hardlink (homonymy)
  • iControlPad
  • IDT Spectrum
  • Image share
  • Instant message service center
  • Inter standard roaming
  • Interference in mobile communications
  • interference in mobile communications
  • IP Multimedia Subsystem
  • ip.access
  • IQAN
  • IST-Plastic
  • iTap
  • July Systems
  • Jumptap
  • Librestream
  • List of devices with Assisted GPS
  • List of devices with Assisted GPS:
  • Local number portability
  • Location awareness
  • MLearning
  • Macrocell
  • Manitoba (computer chip)
  • Microcell
  • Mobify
  • Mobile Access Protocol
  • Mobile Alliance Against Child Sexual Abuse Content
  • Mobile Architecture
  • Mobile Assisted Language Learning
  • Mobile collaboration
  • Mobile commerce
  • Mobile database
  • Mobile Enterprise Asset Management
  • Mobile Equipment Identifier
  • Mobile IPTV
  • Mobile network operator
  • Mobile phone tracking
  • Mobile radio
  • Mobile search
  • Mobile technology in Africa
  • Mobile Telephone Switching Office
  • Mobile ticketing
  • Mobile virtual network operator
  • Mobile virtual private network
  • Mobile workflow
  • Mobile-to-mobile convergence
  • Mobile.info
  • Mobispine
  • modu
  • Motorola Pageboy
  • Motricity
  • MSRN
  • MTV-1
  • Multi-band
  • Multiuser detection
  • MVDS
  • Mxim
  • Navizon
  • Near-field magnetic induction communication
  • NetMotion Wireless
  • Network on Terminal Architecture
  • Non Access Stratum
  • Number Assignment Module
  • Online charging system
  • Open Handset Alliance
  • Optpcs
  • ORFS
  • Over-the-air programming
  • P2000 (network)
  • PacketVideo
  • Pager
  • PCS switching center
  • Peer-to-peer video sharing
  • Personal Communications Service
  • Phizzle
  • Helio Ocean
  • Picket-fencing
  • Picocell
  • Predictive text
  • Proximity marketing
  • Public land mobile network
  • PuppetMaster (application)
  • Push Proxy Gateway
  • Kamal Quadir
  • Paul Raden
  • Radio Interface Layer
  • ReCellular, Inc
  • ReFLEX
  • REVIVAL Mobile Management Suite
  • Rich Communication Suite
  • RingGo
  • Roaming
  • RTMI
  • Rxqual
  • S-GPS
  • SEVEN Networks
  • Sha-Mail
  • ShapeWriter
  • Short code
  • Short message peer-to-peer protocol
  • Short message service center
  • Signal strength
  • SlideIT
  • Smart pipe
  • SMS banking
  • SMS hubbing
  • SMS spoofing
  • Social positioning method
  • Soft handover
  • Solaris Mobile
  • Sony Watchman
  • Swype
  • Syclo
  • T9 (predictive text)
  • Taptu
  • Technology and mental health issues
  • Telelocator Alphanumeric Protocol
  • Tethering
  • Thumbcast
  • TouchPal
  • Tower Mounted Amplifier
  • Transatel
  • Transatel
  • Tri-cell
  • Universal Handy Interface
  • Upsnap
  • Video share
  • VoiceMode
  • W-SIM
  • WarViewing
  • WidSets
  • Wireless Informatics
  • World Mobile Congress
  • Article Sources and Contributors
  • Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
  • License

Enterprise Mobility Management


Kevin Roebuck



High-impact Strategies - What You Need to Know: Definitions, Adoptions, Impact, Benefits, Maturity, Vendors

Topic relevant selected content from the highest rated entries, typeset, printed and shipped. Combine the advantages of up-to-date and in-depth knowledge with the convenience of printed books. A portion of the proceeds of each book will be donated to the Wikimedia Foundation to support their mission: to empower and engage people around the world to collect and develop educational content under a free license or in the public domain, and to disseminate it effectively and globally. The content within this book was generated collaboratively by volunteers. Please be advised that nothing found here has necessarily been reviewed by people with the expertise required to provide you with complete, accurate or reliable information. Some information in this book maybe misleading or simply wrong. The publisher does not guarantee the validity of the information found here. If you need specific advice (for example, medical, legal, financial, or risk management) please seek a professional who is licensed or knowledgeable in that area. Sources, licenses and contributors of the articles and images are listed in the section entitled “References”. Parts of the books may be licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. A copy of this license is included in the section entitled “GNU Free Documentation License” All used third-party trademarks belong to their respective owners.

Enterprise Mobility Management Mobile technology 2-way iSMS 2degrees Access Stratum Adaptxt Advanced Wireless Services AskMeNow Assisted GPS Audience (telecom company) Azimuth Systems Basic Trading Area Cablefree CDMA Chipsets Cel-Fi Cell of origin (telecommunications) Cell on wheels Cellular repeater CIMD Closed User Group (CUG) Columbitech Communication Linking Protocol Context-aware services Coverage map DataSplice DigRF Drive testing Dual mode mobile Dumb pipe Dynamic Link Adaptation E-OTD Electronic Serial Number EMBARC EMI (protocol) 1 2 4 6 10 10 12 17 18 20 21 22 36 37 37 38 39 41 45 46 47 48 48 49 51 52 53 55 56 57 57 59 60 60

Enhanced GPS ERMES ESME EUIMID face2face FLEX (protocol) General content descriptor Generic Bootstrapping Architecture Matt Gillin GMLC GoTV Networks Handheld television Handover Hardlink (homonymy) iControlPad IDT Spectrum Image share Instant message service center Inter standard roaming Interference in mobile communications IP Multimedia Subsystem ip.access IQAN IST-Plastic iTap July Systems Jumptap Librestream List of devices with Assisted GPS Local number portability Location awareness MLearning Macrocell Manitoba (computer chip) Microcell MINDS Mobify Mobile Access Protocol 62 63 64 64 66 67 68 68 71 73 73 74 75 79 80 84 85 86 87 87 87 98 103 104 107 108 110 112 114 120 131 134 141 141 142 143 145 146 .

info Mobispine modu Motorola Pageboy Motricity MSRN MTV-1 Multi-band Multiuser detection MVDS Mxim Navizon Near-field magnetic induction communication NetMotion Wireless Network on Terminal Architecture Non Access Stratum Number Assignment Module Online charging system 146 147 148 153 155 160 164 166 168 172 172 176 181 187 189 190 199 208 211 212 212 214 215 218 219 221 221 222 223 223 224 225 227 229 232 235 236 236 .Mobile Alliance Against Child Sexual Abuse Content Mobile Architecture Mobile Assisted Language Learning Mobile collaboration Mobile commerce Mobile database Mobile Enterprise Asset Management Mobile Equipment Identifier Mobile IPTV Mobile network operator Mobile phone tracking Mobile radio Mobile search Mobile technology in Africa Mobile Telephone Switching Office Mobile ticketing Mobile virtual network operator Mobile virtual private network Mobile workflow Mobile-to-mobile convergence Mobile.

ReFLEX REVIVAL Mobile Management Suite Rich Communication Suite RingGo Roaming RTMI Rxqual S-GPS SEVEN Networks Sha-Mail ShapeWriter Short code Short message peer-to-peer protocol Short message service center Signal strength 239 242 242 243 245 246 247 251 251 253 255 257 260 260 261 265 266 270 270 274 277 279 281 282 283 284 286 288 293 293 294 295 297 298 299 305 307 308 .Open Handset Alliance Optpcs ORFS Over-the-air programming P2000 (network) PacketVideo Pager PCS switching center Peer-to-peer video sharing Personal Communications Service Phizzle Helio Ocean Picket-fencing Picocell Predictive text Proximity marketing Public land mobile network PuppetMaster (application) Push Proxy Gateway Kamal Quadir Paul Raden Radio Interface Layer ReCellular. Inc.

SlideIT Smart pipe SMS banking SMS hubbing SMS spoofing Social positioning method Soft handover Solaris Mobile Sony Watchman Swype Syclo T9 (predictive text) Taptu Technology and mental health issues Telelocator Alphanumeric Protocol Tethering Thumbcast TouchPal Tower Mounted Amplifier Transatel Tri-cell UIMID Universal Handy Interface Upsnap Video share VoiceMode W-SIM WarViewing WidSets Wireless Informatics World Mobile Congress 310 312 314 317 319 321 321 323 326 328 332 334 336 338 339 340 341 342 343 346 347 348 349 349 350 357 358 359 360 361 362 References Article Sources and Contributors Image Sources. Licenses and Contributors 363 370 Article Licenses License 372 .

0 IT Management 3.. subscriber penetration in the US market shows that approximately 85% of the population owns a mobile device.5 Vendor Mgmt/Contract Negotiations 4.plans.3 Wireless Infrastructure Management 3. features.2 Device Management 3. The scope of Enterprise Mobility in this entry includes those mobile devices and related services provisioned to the workforce. mobility management software will quickly earn its place in the portfolio of enterprise software solutions. Administration. According to recent research. financial management and CRM software. and related services.3 End-user training .[1] Just as companies rely on human resource. Programs) 1.1 Mobile Devices & Accessories (cell phones. wireless networks.2 Procurement and Provisioning 4.0 Strategy and Governance 1. Enterprise Mobility Management has several dimensions including: 1. and aircards .1 Priorities & Objectives (Identify and Quantify) 1.2 Planning (Projects..0 Financial Management 4.1 Inventory Management 3. business mobile users will make up more than 30% of all subscribers in the United States.1 End-user acceptance and compliance monitoring of Mobility Policies/Budgets 5.types and quantity) 2.1 Budget and Controls 4. smartphones.3 Mobile Applications 3. processes and technology focused on managing the increasing array of mobile devices. Enforcement and Compliance Monitoring 2. This market is expected to reach 90% penetration in late 2008-2009.5 Application Management 3.4 Policy Definition. This is an emerging discipline within the enterprise that has become increasingly important over the past few years.Management.0 Mobile Workforce Enablement 5.3 Monthly Carrier Invoice Processing 4. risks and mission critical nature of mobility has accelerated the pace of sophisticated solutions and weighs heavily on the minds of CIOs.2 End user allocation of mobile devices and related services 5.6 End-User Technical Support/Help Desk 4.0 Mobility Portfolio Management 2.2 Wireless Networks (Private and Public.6 Periodic Management Reporting 5.3 People . By 2012.Enterprise Mobility Management 1 Enterprise Mobility Management Enterprise Mobility Management is the set of people.4 Security Management 3. Governance 1.4 Audits and Optimization 4. etc) 2. The cost.

2008. Operating systems There are many types of Smartphone operating systems available. Apple iOS. Any user can also create their own Apps and publish them to Apple's App Store. com/ staging/ images/ pdfs/ mobilitymanagementwhitepaper. WebOS. Many experts argue that the future of computer technology rests in mobile/wireless computing. and Instant Messenger client. Priorities and Imperatives [5]. within a very short time to make the detections of each packet flawlessly and even to reduce the clutter of traffic. where transactions of short packets will be the major part of the traffic in the channels. com/ staging/ images/ pdfs/ mobilitymanagementwhitepaper. the detection of very short bursts will be a serious problem due to their very poor partial correlation properties. References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] ["http:/ / www. Android is the first completely open source mobile OS. the receiver should execute all necessary algorithms. pdf"]. and a hand-held video gaming system. because of its customizable OS which you can use to download applications made by Apple (often referred to simply as "Apps") like games. The Palm Pre using WebOS has functionality over the Internet and is . boxtone. mobidm. Android. Utilities. visagemobile. Recent study has indicated that traditional multi-layer network architecture based on the OSI model may not be well suited for 4G mobile network. visagemobile. Among the most popular are the Apple iPhone. such as channel estimation. Windows Mobile Standard (non-touch screen) and Bada OS. an embedded web browser. which has several OSs like the 3G and 3G S. usage and spend 2 Vendors offering Enterprise Managed Mobility solutions • MobiDM [2] • ITR Mobility [3] • BoxTone [4] Notes Alms. Since the beginning of this millennium. Mobile CDMA technology has evolved quite rapidly over the past few years. com http:/ / www. including: Symbian. meaning that it is free to any cell phone carrier. The same codes used in the 2G-3G networks will be applied to future 4G mobile or wireless networks.4 End-User validation of allocation. Blackberry. itr-mobility. pdf Mobile technology Mobile technology is a collective term used to describe the various types of cellular communication technology.Android. Understanding Mobility Management: Trends. a standard mobile device has gone from being no more than a simple two-way pager to being a cellular phone. As the packets from different mobiles carry completely different channel characteristics. The Apple iPhone. 4G networking One of the most important features in the 4G mobile networks is the domination of high-speed packet transmissions or burst traffic in the channels.Enterprise Mobility Management 5. http:/ / www. and the newest . visagemobile. GPS. Windows Mobile Professional (touch screen).com. com http:/ / www. interactions with all upper layers and so on. Dean. GPS navigation system. is the most popular smart phone at this time. Android is a mobile operating system (OS) developed by Google. com http:/ / www. and other tools.

com/ article/ 140078/ 2009/ 04/ seidenberg. as there are simply too many fundamental differences between wireless networking and other means of Internet access. Symbian is the original smartphone OS. and JavaScript. macworld. org/ science/ technology/ next-genration-smart-phones1421. taking advantage of the growing availability of embedded physical sensors and data exchange capabilities. but adapt to anticipate the information you will need based on your intentions. pri. If wireless vendors do not realize these differences and bandwidth limitations. etc. the normal web surfer would want to look at a new web page every minute or so at 100kbs you could get your page pretty quickly. It then became apparent that it would keep any of their users from using their iTunes programs. touchpad. One thing companies are developing software to take advantage of more accurate location-sensing data. and previously Motorola) release a wide variety of Symbian models every year which gives Symbian the greatest marketshare. HTML. The users would then be forced to find a Wi-Fi hotspot in order to be able to download their music. There are going to be all new applications coming out with the new phones. The limitations of wireless networking will not be cured by 4G. Nokia and other manufacturers (currently including Sony Ericsson and Samsung. One of the main features applying to this is that the phones are going to start keeping track of your personal data. rockers. com/ 2009/ 07/ 10/ t-mobile-and-google-promote-the-next-generation-of-android-phones/ http:/ / www. one of which is an X-Ray device that reveals information about any location at which you point your phone. com/ article/ 133755/ 2008/ 06/ cio_iphonewishlist.Mobile technology able to support Internet-based programming languages such as CSS. AT&T claimed that they would ban any of their users that they caught using "peer-to-peer" (P2P) file sharing applications on their 3G network. How they described it was as wanting to make the phone a virtual mouse able to click the real world. html . External links • • • • Next generation SmartPhones[1] What Apple Wants to add to the iPhone[2] Android Mobile Operating System[3] About 4G iPhone[4] References [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / www. Although no single Symbian device has sold as many units as the iPhone. html http:/ / venturebeat. The Windows Mobile Standard does not have a touch screen but uses a trackball. html http:/ / www. The BlackBerry RIM is a SmartPhone that has a multimedia player and third-party software installation. with the richest history and the largest marketshare. future wireless customers will find themselves quite disappointed and the market will suffer quite a setback. Because of the changes to the security of wireless networks you will not be able to do huge file transfers because the service providers want to cut down on channel hogging. The Windows Mobile Professional Smartphones (Pocket PC or Windows Mobile PDA) are like that of a PDA and have touchscreen capabilities. macworld. Future of smartphone The next generation of smartphones is going to be context-aware. 3 Channel hogging & file sharing There will be a hit to file sharing. An example of this is where you can point the phones camera while having the live feed open and it will show text with the building and saving the location of the building for future use.

The iSMS technology has been developed and patented by a Finnish high tech company called BookIT. The iSMS powered solutions also work on all mobile phones and all networks without installing software or configurations to the phone because the iSMS messages are delivered as standard SMS messages. The passengers are extremely satisfied since they avoid queuing and can proceed directly to the gate because the iSMS service completes the dialogue by sending an iSMS boarding pass directly to the screen of a mobile phone. the founder of SMS. This together with the open and universal SMS connectivity enables it’s rapid deployment. for example between organizations and their customers or employees. says that the iSMS is delivering his vision of mobile phone based bookiting transactions. passwords or special authentication procedures. The network does not notice these secret fingerprints and as a result the iSMS service can be used by any of the existing 3. which can be answered by using the “single button” principle. Mr Matti Makkonen says Bookit’s innovation is very clever because it uses the benefits of an already existing SMS standard but manages SMS transactions intelligently by adding “finger prints” to each message. which enables iSMS–powered solutions to perform interactive iSMS-dialogues between sender and receiver. This Finnair's service is called Check-in via text message -service [2]. For example. It includes session management and automatic secure authentication to enable easy-to-use and secure transactions between applications and mobile phones. Application-to-person dialogues and transactions and asynchronous iSMS sessions are managed by a unique and patented BookIT DDM method. which enhances the global standard SMS infrastructure with a unique iSMS business transaction capability. iSMS technology The iSMS technology is based on patented BookIT DDM (Dynamic Dialogue Matrix) -method. where people are using the iSMS for different types of easy to use bookings. . who received The Economist’s Innovation Award 2008[3] for his work on Short Message Service (SMS) text messaging. Mr. The service is very easy to use since the user automatically receives a check-in request from the iSMS service and can then do the check-in simply by one-button-reply with his/her mobile phone.2-way iSMS 4 2-way iSMS The iSMS® is a patented next generation interactive version of the traditional SMS text message and a trademark.7 billion SMS users internationally and on any phone. Matti Makkonen. The authentication of users is secured so customers do not need to remember user names. that this interactive version of SMS is quickly gaining popularity because it works on any mobile phone and on any mobile network without installing any software on the phone. The iSMS has become very popular in BookIT’s home country Finland. in 2004 Finnair[1] was the first airline in the world to enable passengers to check-in in advance for flights with iSMS text messages. it’s very easy to reply to iSMS messages because they all include predefined choices. For the receivers. Makkonen says. In these iSMS powered solutions and applications the iSMS technology establishes a session with the user and manages the flow of SMS messages between the application and users so that right responses are linked to the right application even if several simultaneous sessions are established. The BookIT DDM technology is implemented on industry standard application server platforms and protocols for internet. In 2008 more than half of the Finnair’s airline passengers do their check-in with iSMS. Matti Makkonen and iSMS Mr.

bookit. finnair. com/ science/ tq/ displayStory. economist. net/ Solutions_1/ en_GB/ 1132180885579/ [5] http:/ / www. com [2] http:/ / www.2-way iSMS 5 External links • Bookit solutions [4] • Bookit. fi/ finnaircom/ wps/ portal/ finnair/ kcxml/ 04_Sj9SPykssy0xPLMnMz0vM0Y_QjzKL9473DAbJgFguPvqRqCLOnqgiLvHO3nARX4_83FT9oNS8eDdPfW_9AP2C3NDQiHJHRQBuqQpr/ delta/ base64xml/ L3dJdyEvd0ZNQUFzQUMvNElVRS82X0tfM1VF [3] http:/ / www. finnair. net/ .com [1] References [1] http:/ / www. cfm?source=hptextfeature& story_id=10676339 [4] http:/ / www.net [5] • Finnair. bookit.

. Planning began in 2000 but details were not revealed until 11 May 2009 and pricing was announced a day before launch. New Zealand GSM and UMTS (3G) mobile networks and retail 2degrees Homepage [1] 2degrees is a U. plus the tourist destination Queenstown. and British owned[2] [3] mobile phone provider operating in New Zealand with 580. they introduced mobile broadband on their UMTS 2100 MHz. in selected areas. Wellington and Christchurch.5% of New Zealand's population).[7] The network has a few hundreds of cell sites installed.[5] Network 2degrees was formerly known as NZ Communications and previously as Econet Wireless.112 customers[4] (12. Standards and technologies The company provides GSM 900 MHz (and. Their GSM network supports EDGE. Naming The name of the company refers to a local variation of the six degrees of separation concept.[6] a feature not supported by any other network in New Zealand. which has cost approximately NZ$250 million to develop.[8] They have a national roaming agreement with Vodafone to provide seamless nationwide coverage even though they have only built towers in 4 cities. 1800 MHz) services on its own cellular network. They launched on 5 August 2009 after 9 years of planning. Their network will work with GSM and UMTS mobiles compatible with the competing Vodafone and Telecom XT networks. In areas without 2degrees coverage handsets will roam on Vodafone's GSM and UMTS network.S. In August 2010.2degrees 6 2degrees Two Degrees Mobile Limited Type Industry Founded Headquarters Products Website Private Mobile telecommunications 2009 Auckland. 2degrees currently offers prepaid and pay monthly mobile services. 2degrees has spent $250 million building its network in the main city centres of Auckland.

on 17 September 2010. a Hong Kong based private equity fund percent shares to Trilogy. Te Huarahi Tika Trust (20.[18] In July 2009. Rangiaho Everton claimed that the auction breached the Treaty of Waitangi because she believed radio spectrum is taonga and the government has no right to sell it. the 2degrees Pay Monthly minutes carryover to the following months meaning that users can keep unused minutes for up to a year. including: • Using USSD to check and top up account balance • The ability to get settings from the SIM Menu • EDGE data services MNC and dialing codes The mobile network code is 530-24. No particular details were forthcoming.52%)[15] . Communication Venture Partners.[10] These foreign customers can place calls using 2degrees cell sites in major New Zealand cities.14%)[17] and KLR Hong Kong. General Enterprise Management Services. Pay Monthly 2degrees launched its first monthly postpaid plan. aptly named Pay Monthly. New Zealand has number portability. The plan ties the user into a month by month contract meaning that the maximum cancellation period is 30 days. Currently. sold its 25. including Three. a US venture capital firm specializing in mobile networks (51. a London-based company that invests in telecommunications and related software businesses (25.2degrees 7 New Features 2degrees have a number of new features not found on other New Zealand mobile phone networks. Expansion In February 2011 2degrees announced[11] that they had obtained financing for a further $100 million network expansion. [19] . NZ-24 or NZ Comms may be displayed on the mobile phones network list. which was upheld. Telstra and Orange UK. 2500 texts to any network and 50 mega bytes of data for $29 a month with a special offer of an extra 60 minutes each month for 12 months. but 2degrees has obtained government licenses for wireless spectrum in the Hamilton and Tauranga regions which seem likely areas[12] for new cell towers. Inbound Roaming 2degrees (still called NZ Communications on the Three website and Telstra roaming site) is open to customers with handsets from some foreign networks. so customers switching from other networks may keep their existing mobile number. 2degrees is owned by Trilogy International Partners. (Wai 776) The National government of the day ignored the Waitangi Tribunal and kept on auctioning the spectrum.76 .76%)[16] . Everton lodged a claim with the Waitangi Tribunal. the New Zealand Government auctioned off 3G spectrum radio spectrum licence. The current 'entry' plan offers 60 minutes. History In 1999. It was not until Labour won the 1999 election that Māori were allocated one of the four 2 GHz 3G spectrum licences at a [13] [14] discounted price plus $5 million to develop it. The native STD prefix for the network is 022 [9] . Differing from other network plans in New Zealand.

[23] Also.[25] Phone numbers 2degrees auctioned 85 special numbers on New Zealand auction website TradeMe for charity.[27] [28] New customers can choose their own number.2degrees 8 Phones 2degrees offers mobile phones from $49 [20] The iPhone will work on the network. one in the Sylvia Park Shopping Mall. Currently Vodafone NZ offers $12 for 2500 any network SMS messages on a prepay plan. They also gave away free SIMs as part of their Chinwag & launch week campaigns and give them away with most new handsets. and now 2500 texts). with plans to open more stores nationwide. Customers will receive 100 to 500 free SMS messages per $20–$50 prepay top-up. if details are registered online). $10 txt ($10 for 500 any network text messages. and Telecom's XT Network offers a $12 2500 any network text prepay plan. as well as 2 cents per on-network SMS.000[26] . one in Wellington.[29] Marketing 2degrees is currently running commercials featuring Rhys Darby. however.[21] 2degrees currently has 5 retail stores open. customers will receive a special rate of 22 cents for on-network and landline calls. 2000. 2degrees also sold $2 SIM cards with $2 credit. with voice calls costing 44 cents compared to 89 cents being charged by Telecom. likely due to the number eight being considered lucky in some Asian cultures. SMS messages are charged at 9 cents compared to 20 cents on Vodafone and Telecom customers without a text plan. and some calling plans. 2degrees announced several new plans. as well as Sylvia Park Shopping Mall in Auckland.[30] 2degrees SIM card and packaging . $6 for 50 MB of mobile data.[22] They also have a kiosk store in St Lukes Shopping Centre. SIM cards are available for $5 instead of $30 charged by the other two companies. provided they have topped up within the last 30 days. $10 for 100 MB of mobile data. a comedian who tends to make jokes and sketches about New Zealand life. one in in Newmarket. Services 2degrees halved the prevalent pricing for prepay mobile in the New Zealand market. on the 2degrees website.[24] On 25 May 2010. one in Hamilton and one in Westfield Riccarton in Christchurch. both in Auckland. The highest selling number was 022 888 8888. raising over $65. $6 Data Bundles. 2degrees are currently deploying their 3G network better suited to the iPhone. petrol stations and convenience stores. 2degrees have recently activated Vodafone's 3G network as part of their nationwide roaming agreement. They also offer their products at supermarkets. they only come with $1 credit compared with the $10 provided from the other networks (+$10. later upgrading to 1000.

nz/ media/ 2degrees-invests-in-network-and-future-growth/ [12] http:/ / computerworld.nz/technology/164209) • Third mobile telco rebrands as 2degrees (http://tvnz.co.Business . three. co. nz/ business/ news/ article. php) [4] http:/ / www. 2degreesmobile. thtt. nz/ 200907313418/ 2degrees-targets-$100m-market-for-roaming-tourists. co. com/ watch?v=QzCeeuwm6aA) External links • 2degrees mobile (http://www.co. co. php) [16] (http:/ / www. hk/ portfolio/ NZC. nz/ business-news/ 2degrees-launches-mobile-pricing-2886330/ video [22] http:/ / www. 2degreesmobile. nz/ news. nz/ business-news/ third-mobile-telco-rebrands-2degrees-2724433 [10] http:/ / www. com/ 2degrees. nz/ marae/ s2009-e21-video-2851310) [14] http:/ / www. nz/ speakers/ ) [17] (http:/ / www. htm) [20] https:/ / www. php [8] http:/ / www. co. stuff. co.2degrees 9 References [1] http:/ / www.Comcel (http:/ / www. co. 2degreesmobile. co.nz/BarTender/7403) . telecommunicationsreview. nzherald. nz/ forums.NZ Herald News (http:/ / www. co. nz/ shop?p_p_id=konakart_portlet_WAR_konakart_portlet& p_p_lifecycle=1& p_p_state=normal& p_p_mode=view& p_p_col_id=column-1& p_p_col_count=1& _konakart_portlet_WAR_konakart_portlet__spage=%2FSelectProd. co. cfm?c_id=3& objectid=10588590 [24] http:/ / www. nz/ ) [18] http:/ / www. co. nbr. com/ country/ new_zealand. nz/ magic-top-up [25] http:/ / www. asp?forumid=85& topicid=37534& page_no=1#238184 [7] http:/ / www. nz/ [2] Telco in shake-up weeks from launch . morgo. uk/ Help_Support/ International/ Going_abroad_Pay_Monthly/ Destination_Details?content_aid=1214306364761 [11] http:/ / blog. co. nz/ technology/ 2400954/ Wellington-Manukau-frustrate-2degrees [6] http:/ / www. co.co. co. nz/ lost-sim [26] http:/ / www. co. 3gnewsroom. com/ 2degreesmobile?v=feed& story_fbid=149232068135 [27] Numbers in Chinese culture [28] (http:/ / www. 2degreesmobile. nz/ Browse/ Listing. cfm?c_id=3& objectid=10713109 [5] http:/ / www. co. nz/ nzc-theme/ pdf/ 2degrees-press-release7. 2degreesmobile. geekzone. nzherald. do%3FprodId%3D76& _konakart_portlet_WAR_konakart_portlet_prodId=76& _konakart_portlet_WAR_konakart_portlet__sorig=%2FSelectCat. facebook. trilogyinternationalpartners.nz/business-news/ third-mobile-telco-rebrands-2degrees-2724433) • 2Degrees cell tower map (http://www. pdf [30] YouTube . shtml [15] (http:/ / www. co. co.Stay 2degrees (http:/ / www. com/ 2degrees. 2degreesmobile.nz/) • NZ Communications roaming deal (http://www. nz/ article/ breaking-news-2degress-boss-quits-just-ahead-launch-105566 [19] (http:/ / www. nz/ business/ news/ article. gems. cfm?c_id=3& objectid=10571640 [9] http:/ / tvnz. nz/ business/ news/ article. co. co.stuff. trilogyinternationalpartners. co. pdf [23] http:/ / www. com. nz/ mail-images/ 2degrees-press-release10.co. youtube. co. nsf/ telecommunications/ slowly-cautiously-2degrees-rolls-out-3g [13] TVNZ Marae episode 21 (http:/ / tvnz.geekzone. nz/ business/ news/ article. co.2degreesmobile. 2degreesmobile. nzherald. cfm?c_id=3& objectid=10584744) [3] Trilogy . trademe. do%3FcatId%3D21 [21] http:/ / tvnz. co. aspx?id=233267560) [29] http:/ / www. nzherald.

KeyPoint also claims that Adaptxt users can type in any of the installed languages without changing their keyboard language or dictionary....| Channels +....-+ | Internet | +..[1] The application stores the new words in the user’s personal dictionary. The radio network is also called access network... Automated correction of spelling mistakes were also made available. The application is designed to improve text entry on mobile devices by making it faster and error-free.-+ | Link Layer | +. personal dictionary.. The “Scan Facebook” feature learns words from the user’s Facebook profile... continuously adapting to the user's personal writing style and vocabulary.... where they can be edited..[4] Later that year..Access Stratum 10 Access Stratum Access Stratum (AS) is a functional layer in the Wireless Telecom protocol stack between Radio Network and User Equipment..-+ Adaptxt Adaptxt is a predictive text application for mobile phones.. SMS and email inbox and sent items. It is said to achieve this by predicting the next word as well as the word currently being typed. conversion from SMS language to standard English and vice versa.[3] In April 2009.-+ | Transport | +. with improved support for third-party applications.. including calendar entries. phonebook contacts. This feature is supposed to be an added [2] value for users who are bi-lingual or occasionally type in a foreign language...-+ | Network Layer| +....-+ | Physical | +....-+ | -+ | -+ | -+ | -+ | -+ | -+ +.| IP +. multilingual text entry and a feature that learns new words and context while typing. History and Product Features Launched at a press conference in 2006.. This feature provides alternative suggestions for incorrect spellings. thanks to an engine capable of recognizing the language in use..| AS +.. dynamic language detection.| TCP +. with an option to revert to the exact word entered by the user in case of unwanted corrections... The new words learnt are added to the personal dictionary and offered as suggestions during text entry.... word completion. Adaptxt initially supported Windows Mobile smartphones only. All these features can now be found in the Symbian version of the product and most of them can also be found in the Windows Mobile . KeyPoint also launched a new version of Adaptxt with error correction... developed by KeyPoint Technologies..... a UK-based software company....-+ | Application | +....... +...| HTTP +. A version for Symbian S60 smartphones was released in 2008. KeyPoint introduced a feature to scan personal data.| NAS +.. Adaptxt was probably the first text entry application for mobile phones to provide features such as: context-based next-word suggestions...

On 12-key phones. 11 Comparison with other applications KeyPoint Technologies claims that Adaptxt has higher accuracy than traditional predictive text thanks to its context awareness and that can cut down keystrokes by up to 60% when compared to traditional text entry (multitap). business and finance.[5] KeyPoint was also the first software company to introduce professional add-on dictionaries that provide industry-specific word and phrase suggestions related to a particular profession. Turkish. Latin-American Spanish. html http:/ / www.[5] Users can download additional language and professional dictionaries from the product website directly to their devices. An Android-compatible version of the application is due to be released in 2011. Slovak. Adaptxt offers both Multi-tap and Predictive entry modes.Adaptxt version. Croatian. com/ External links • Adaptxt official website (http://www. European French. Adaptxt learning feature is said to improve accuracy of predicted words.[5] Adaptxt supports both touch-screen and hard-keyboard devices with 12-key. Malay and Vietnamese. Galician.[1] Keypoint also claims that Adaptxt has a wider language coverage than most competitors and assists business users by providing domain-specific vertical dictionaries. Indonesian. Serbian. IT and telecommunications. German. stm http:/ / www. Brazilian Portuguese.adaptxt. co. 20-key or QWERTY layouts. bgr. Romanian. Bulgarian. Hungarian. Latvian. com/ kpt-identifies-351m-untapped-market-for-language-dictionaries-on-mobile-phones/ http:/ / www. Danish. Russian. English UK. Filipino. The following 38 languages and respective keyboard layouts are currently supported by Adaptxt: English US. Estonian. Ukrainian. Polish. uk/ 1/ hi/ scotland/ glasgow_and_west/ 6121806. Czech. gomonews. Italian. Finnish. com/ 2008/ 04/ 01/ keypoint-releases-new-adaptxt-beta-for-s60/ http:/ / predictivetext. Swedish. com/ 2009/ 06/ adaptxt-for-nokia-s60-smartphone-beta. law. Catalan. such as medicine. blogspot. European Spanish. Greek. References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] http:/ / news. Norwegian. adaptxt. European Portuguese.com/) . Canadian French. Slovenian. Basque. Icelandic. Lithuanian. bbc.

Rogers Wireless . The AWS band uses microwave frequencies in two segments: from 1710 to 1755 MHz for uplink. . This move effectively kills the former MMDS and/or Wireless Cable service in the United States. Industry Canada held the auction for AWS spectrum in 2008. as well as Cricket's and MetroPCS' CDMA networks. Videotron — September 9. Quebecor licensed AWS spectrum throughout the province of Quebec and began offering service with its Videotron brand on September 9. but has not yet launched its wireless services as of June 2011.[5] and has not yet launched services as of June 2011.[4] Halifax-based EastLink obtained licenses in eastern Canada. video. Operators The following mobile network operators are known to use AWS. 2009. and began offering voice and data services on December 16. sometimes referred to as Wireless Cable. Canada • • • • Wind Mobile — December 16. Canada In Canada. It replaces the spectrum formerly allocated to Multipoint Multichannel Distribution Service (MMDS). The service is intended to be used by mobile devices such as wireless phones for mobile data.July 7. Deployed under Long Term Evolution (LTE). Bidding for this new spectrum started on August 9. and from 2110 to 2155 MHz for downlink[1] . is a wireless telecommunications spectrum band used for mobile voice and data services. and messaging services. Other networks that use the AWS band for services in the United States are i wireless' UMTS 3g network[6] . 2009 in Toronto.[2] Wind Mobile has licensed AWS spectrum in every province aside from Quebec. United States In the USA. 2006 and the majority of the frequency blocks were sold to T-Mobile USA to deploy their 3G wireless network in the United States. Mobilicity also uses the AWS spectrum and began offering services in May 2010. 2010. the service is administered by the Federal Communications Commission.[3] Shaw Communications licensed AWS spectrum in western Canada and northern Ontario. video. 2010 in Montreal and Québec City. Other cities coming later on in 2011/2012. Mobilicity — May 15. also known as AWS-1 or UMTS band IV. Indicated in the list are the launch date and city. 2011 in Ottawa. 2010 in Toronto. and messaging.Advanced Wireless Services 12 Advanced Wireless Services Advanced Wireless Services. AWS-1 is used in the United States and Canada.

2008: Launched in Oklahoma City. 2008. smartphones and modems that supports the AWS frequency. Alcatel • OT-981A • 990S One Touch Research In Motion (BlackBerry) • • • • Bold 9780 Bold 9700 Pearl 9100 Curve 3G (9300) Garmin • Nüvifone A50 / Garminfone HTC • • • • • • • • • • • • Google Nexus One HD2 HD7 T-Mobile Touch Pro2 G2 Dream myTouch 3G myTouch 4G (sold as Panache in Canada) Incredible S Maple/Snap Sensation HTC Flyer (3G version) . first AWS service in North America T-Mobile USA — May 1. in New York City MetroPCS Cincinnati Bell Compatible devices A list of phones.Advanced Wireless Services 13 United States • • • • Cricket Communications — April 8.

Advanced Wireless Services 14 Huawei • • • • • • • • • E138 USB modem E181 USB modem E1691 USB modem U1250 U3200 U7519 marketed as T-Mobile Tap U8100-9 U8500 IDEOS [7] Ascend X / U9000 / U9000-81 LG • • • • • • • Optimus 2X Optimus T [8] Sentio [9] dLite [10] C729 GU927 P920 Motorola • • • • • • • Charm Cliq CLIQ XT also known as Quench Cliq2 Defy Motorola Milestone XT720 Motorola XT300 [11] also known as Spice (launched late Dec 2010) Nokia • • • • • • • • • • 5230 E73 almost same as E72 with AWS support N950 (developer device) N900 N8 C5-04 C6-01 (FCC ID: QXFRM-609) 3555b 3711 Nokia_C7-00 .

Advanced Wireless Services 15 Option • iCon 452 Samsung • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • SGH-C414Y / SGH-C414V (FCC ID: A3LSGHC414Y. not A3LSGHC414) SGH-T259 SGH-T359 :) Smiley SGH-T379 SGH-T469 Gravity 2 SGH-T479 Gravity 3 (Not the SGH-T479B) SGH-T499 Dart SGH-T559 Comeback SGH-T589 Gravity Smart SGH-T636 (Cincinnati Bell) SGH-T639 SGH-T659 SGH-T669 Gravity T (Not the SGH-T669B) SGH-T749 Highlight SGH-T759 Exhibit SGH-T819 SGH-T839 Sidekick 4G SGH-T919 Behold SGH-T929 Memoir SGH-T939 Behold II SGH-T959 Galaxy S "Vibrant" SGH-T959V Galaxy S 4G (not SGH-T959P) Galaxy Tab™ Nexus S Model GT-19020T (FCC ID: AL3GT19020T or A3LGTI9020. not A3L9020A) G-Touch (Mobilicity Canada) Google Nexus S Caliber Code i7500 (Galaxy) Freeform Freeform II Stunt .

asp?pf_id=43695M External links • • • • • • FCC: Advanced Wireless Services (http://wireless. do?pinfoId=2831& directoryId=2037& treeId=37 [8] http:/ / www. com/ business/ companies/ article/ 974406--shaw-rethinking-wireless-strategy) [5] EastLink Planning To Go Wireless After Success In Spectrum Auction (http:/ / ogov. jsp [9] http:/ / www. Retrieved 2010-04-28. com/ us/ mobile-phones/ LG-P509-Titanium. newswire. asp?promo=3G). .fcc. ca/ en/ releases/ archive/ September2010/ 07/ c7478.com/shop/Phones/CompareFull. ic. com/ us/ mobile-phones/ LG-GS505. iwireless. rfsworld.phonescoop. [7] http:/ / www.windmobile. html) [3] Media Advisory . lg. thestar.php3?chkHSDPA1700=selected) . ca/ eic/ site/ smt-gst.htm?job=service_home&id=aws) PhoneScoop's Visual Guide to AWS (http://www. newswire. html) [6] "i Wireless rolls out 3g" (http:/ / www. jsp [10] http:/ / www.com/results.Advanced Wireless Services 16 Sony Ericsson • TM506 • TM717 Equinox • X10i Zoom Telephonics • Zoom 4597 3G+ Freedom Modem References [1] http:/ / www. com/ promoform. php?p=657& l=1& listName=stayconnected_en_articles& indexVal=651 [2] Industry Canada .Quebecor Media and Videotron invite you to the dawn of a new era (http:/ / www.aspx) Videotron Mobile Handsets (http://www. jsp [11] http:/ / store. html) [4] Shaw Re-thinking Wireless Strategy (http:/ / www. mobilicity. com/ worldwide/ productFeatures.com/service/mobile/handsets) GSM Arena: AWS equipment list (http://www. com/ us/ mobile-phones/ LG-GD570-Blue. ca/ product.videotron.t-mobile.gsmarena. nsf/ eng/ h_sf08891. huaweidevice. gc. lg.ca/support/faq/phones-wind/#question-5 T-Mobile cell phones comparison (http://www. ca/ en/ releases/ archive/ July2008/ 21/ c6290. lg. com/ stayconnected/ index.gov/services/index.Spectrum Management and Telecommunications Auction of Spectrum Licences for Advanced Wireless Services and Other Spectrum in the 2 GHz Range (http:/ / www.com/articles/aws/) Wind Mobile FAQ on phone compatibility http://www.

was an American public corporation. California based company officially launched in November 2005 and ceased operations in late 2008. [2] The contract between AskMeNow and Wikimedia was rescinded after Jimmy Wales announced his own for profit search engine named Wikia. AskWiki. AskMeNow's primary offering was a consumer mobile search product which utilized proprietary technology to offer a natural language based interaction and dynamic content provision platform. mobile content distribution. California Area served Key people Products Services North America Darryl Cohen . The beta product. . The Irvine.AskMeNow 17 AskMeNow AskMeNow Inc. integrated some of the semantic web and natural language features of AskMeNow into Wikipedia searches.Enterprise Semantic Search Solution SMS-based question answering. specializing in mobile search and mobile advertising. AskWiki AskMeNow signed a partnership agreement with the Wikimedia Foundation to bring natural language processing to Wikipedia. The AskWiki engine was able to parse natural language statements and return specific answers rather than just relevant articles. Former type Industry Fate Founded Defunct Public (Pink Sheets: AKMN Search Dissolved November 2005 2008 [1] ) Headquarters Irvine.CEO S3 . mobile advertising AskMeNow Inc.

Retrieved May 07. It is used extensively with GPS-capable cellular phones as its development was accelerated by the U. 2010. ob8-k. "Encyclopaedia Britannica Selects AskMeNow to Launch Mobile Encyclopedia" (http:/ / www. com/ iw/ 070109/ 0200987. These partnerships included National Hockey League.[3] Merriam-Webster. When first turned on in these conditions. engadgetmobile. or time-to-first-fix (TTFF) of a GPS satellite-based positioning system. com/ e/ 080213/ akmn. html) [7] Alltel offers AskMeNow mobile answer service (http:/ / www. com/ 2007/ 03/ 02/ alltel-offers-askmenow-mobile-answer-service/ ) [8] 8-K Filing (http:/ / biz. 2007). enabling the GPS receiver to lock to the satellites more rapidly in some cases. com/ 2007/ 11/ askwiki_wikipedia_knows_what_you_re_thinking/ Puck drops on AskMeNow/NHL deal (http:/ / www. com/ iw/ 070214/ 0215510. For billing purposes. is a system which can. html) Assisted GPS Assisted GPS. with approximate time. Information used to more quickly acquire satellites • It can supply orbital data or almanac for the GPS satellites to the GPS receiver. rendering them unable to function until a clear signal can be received continuously for up to 12. jspx). or be weakened by passing through atmospheric conditions. com/ stock/ AKMN/ quote http:/ / www. webmonkey.[6] AskMeNow had established distribution partnerships with Alltel[7] in the US and Rogers Wireless andBell Mobility[8] in Canada. under certain conditions. [6] Guinness World Records(TM) Selects AskMeNow to Provide Mobile Access to Its Extensive World Record Database (http:/ / biz. mirror99. Press release. • The device captures a snapshot of the GPS signal. these signals may suffer multipath propagation where signals bounce off buildings. fiercemobilecontent. which can cost money depending on the plan. for the server to later process into a position.5 [2] minutes (the time needed to download the GPS almanac and ephemeris). otcmarkets. com/ story/ puck-drops-on-askmenownhl-deal/ 2007-04-12) AskMeNow and Merriam-Webster Launch Mobile Dictionary (http:/ / biz. some standalone GPS navigation devices may not be able to work out a position due to the fragmentary signal. yahoo. html) World's Technology News (February 21.[4] Encyclopædia Britannica. An Assisted GPS system can address these problems by using data available from a network. for example in a city. FCC's 911 mandate making the location of a cell phone available to emergency call dispatchers.[3] Assistance falls into two categories: 1. .[5] and Guinness World Records. com/ 20070221/ encyclopaedia_britannica_selects_askmenow_to_launch_mobile_geae. network providers often count this as a data access. yahoo.S. . In very poor signal conditions. improve the startup performance. walls or tree cover. A-GPS additionally uses network resources to locate and utilize the satellites faster as well as better in poor signal conditions. References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] http:/ / www. • The network can provide precise time. generally abbreviated as A-GPS or aGPS.AskMeNow 18 Partnerships AskMeNow partnered with a variety of content publishers to offer mobile access to these publishers’ content. yahoo.[1] Description "Standalone" or "Autonomous" GPS operation uses radio signals from satellites alone.

AGPS has two modes of operation: 1. known as "MS-Assisted. the A-GPS capable device receives acquisition assistance. The data rate of the satellite signal is only 50 b/s. . Mobile Station Assisted (MSA) . the A-GPS device receives signals from the visible satellites and send the measurements to the A-GPS server. reference time and other optional assistance data from the A-GPS server. (See also Wide Area Augmentation System) 2.[3] Some aGPS devices do not have the option of falling back to standalone or autonomous GPS. Different modes of AGPS operation With Respect to Assistance data and position calculation. 19 Basic Concepts of AGPS Standalone GPS provides first position in approximately 30-40 seconds. Many mobile phones combine A-GPS and other location services including Wi-Fi Positioning System and cell-site triangulation and sometimes a hybrid positioning system. surveyed coordinates for the cell site towers allow better knowledge of local ionospheric conditions and other conditions affecting the GPS signal than the GPS receiver alone. Usually the data rate of these bearers is high." the amount of CPU and programming required for a GPS receiver is reduced by offloading most of the work onto the assistance server. WCDMA. the A-GPS device receives ephemeris. hence downloading orbital information takes less time. the A-GPS device receives signals from the visible satellites and calculates the position.Assisted GPS • Accurate. With the help of the above data. which is sometimes slower on time to first fix.In MSB mode A-GPS operation. An AGPS capable device can connect to these servers and download this information using Mobile Network radio bearers such as GSM. Mobile Station Based (MSB) . it may use standalone GPS. If it also has functioning autonomous GPS. 2. Network Operator deploys AGPS server. in some A-GPS device implementations. With the help of the above data. However. A typical A-GPS-enabled receiver will use a data connection (Internet or other) to contact the assistance server for aGPS information. and without incurring data usage fees. and plentiful computation power. These AGPS servers download the orbital information from the satellite and store it in the database. Calculation of position by the server using information from the GPS receiver • The assistance server has a good satellite signal. high-sensitivity GPS cannot provide a fix instantaneously when the GPS receiver has been off for some time. but does not depend on the network.[4] High Sensitivity GPS is an allied technology that addresses some of these issues in a way that does not require additional infrastructure. so downloading orbital information like ephemeris and almanac directly from satellites typically takes a long time. and therefore can work beyond network range. so it can compare fragmentary signals relayed to it As an additional benefit. unlike some forms of A-GPS. enabling more precise calculation of position. In AGPS. CDMA. The A-GPS server calculates the position and sends it back to the A-GPS device.In MSA mode A-GPS operation. A Standalone GPS system needs orbital information of the satellites to calculate the current position. LTE or even using other wireless radio bearers such as WIFI. reference location. reference time and other optional assistance data from the A-GPS server.

gov/ pubs/ gps/ gpsuser/ gpsuser. cnet. 3.3 Almanac Collection [3] Watch out for data charges on your GPS phone (http:/ / www. August 2007 [4] Networking iPhone A-GPS (http:/ / www. They specialize in noise suppression for cellular phones to improve voice clarity. SUPL V1. 4. California.It is defined by OMA to support positioning protocols in Packet Switched Networks. Awards Audience was the Silver Winner in the 2008 Wall Street Journal Technology Innovation Awards and the Winner of the Semiconductor category. pdf) NavCen GPS User.00. They are one of the 34 founding members of The Open Handset Alliance. The technology is applicable across a broad range of consumer products where voice needs to be intelligible in noisy environments.239025953. They partnered with HTC to integrate their noise suppression technology into the Google Nexus One smartphone. Retrieved 2008-06-11. au/ mobilephones/ phones/ 0.” External links • Official website [1] • Google Nexus One Press Release [2] . Two generations of User plane Protocol has evolved. htm). Following positioning protocol has been defined.3gpp defined LPP or LTE positioning protocol for LTE Networks. 2. gpsworld. March 1. 1. Control Plane Protocol .3gpp defined this protocol as part of the RRC standard for UMTS network. SUPL V2. User Plane Protocol .3gpp defined RRLP or Radio resource location protocol to support positioning protocol on GSM networks. LPP . 1.339281483. The company was included in Gartner’s “Cool Vendors in Semiconductors. 2. 2008” and selected as the Most Innovative True Mobile Start-Up for the “2008 GSMA Mobile Innovation Global Awards. . 2002. com/ iphone. 1. 3gpp and Open Mobile Alliance(OMA).0 2. 3.Assisted GPS 20 AGPS Standards AGPS protocols are part of Positioning Protocol defined by two different standardization body.0 References [1] "Assisted GPS: A Low-Infrastructure Approach" (http:/ / www. RRLP . GPS World. [2] (http:/ / www. html#iPhone) Hybrid system Audience (telecom company) Audience is a telecommunications company based in Mountain View. com/ gps/ assisted-gps-a-low-infrastructure-approach-734). navcen. These protocols are defined for Circuit Switched Networks.It is defined by 3gpp for various generations of mobile phone system. edepot. uscg. com. TIA 801 .CDMA2000 family defined this protocol for CDMA 2000 networks. RRC position protocol .5. CNET.

Test and Measurement World. [4] Friedrich.Audience (telecom company) 21 References [1] http:/ / www. . Microwaves and RF. 2G/3G cellular and Wi-Fi networks. com/ Articles/ Index. Retrieved 2010-03-01.com [2] Website Azimuth Systems is a privately-held company located near Boston. com/ article/ idUS126970+ 28-Jul-2009+ MW20090728). [6] "T&MW announces 2010 award winners" (http:/ / www. . in 2009. tmworld. htm). 2010-04-01. Retrieved 2010-03-01. reuters. [2] http:/ / www. html). Retrieved 2010-04-26. Electronics Design.[7] References [1] Scheiber.[6] Also. . com/ article/ 453942-T_MW_announces_2010_award_winners. 2009-07-28. com/ [3] "Azimuth Systems Marks the First Half of 2009 With Record Growth and Expansion Into the MIMO and Cellular Markets" (http:/ / www. . azimuthsystems. Strategy and News. 2009-10-29. Reuters. Massachusetts. com/ article/ CA6632270. com/ intl/ en/ press/ pressrel/ 20100105_phone. Retrieved 2010-03-01. htm.[3] In 2009 Azimuth Systems wrote a White paper entitled Improving 4G Wireless Broadband Product Design through Effective Channel Emulation Testing. "Getting to 4G through design and test" (http:/ / www. "Channel Emulation Supports Mobile MIMO" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2010-03-01. com [2] http:/ / www. html Azimuth Systems Azimuth Systems Type Industry Private Wireless Test Equipment Headquarters Acton. Steve (2009-04-09). tmworld. TMC Net. "Channel-Emulation Testing Aids 4G Product Design" (http:/ / www. Azimuth Systems was awarded the 4G Wireless Evolution LTE Visionary Awardby TMC. Retrieved 2010-03-01. com/ article/ CA6648778. Rick (2009-02-01). tmworld. cfm?Ad=1& ArticleID=20604). Nancy (2009-01-01). Paglia (Vice President of Sales and Business Development) [1] George Reed (Vice President of Marketing and Product Management) www. audience. com/ usubmit/ 2009/ 10/ 29/ 4452731.net. . Massachusetts Key people Jim Iuliano (President and CEO) Chris Gollihur (Vice President of Finance and Administration) John Griesing (Vice President of R&D) Peter M. php).com. . Azimuth Systems was awarded the Best in Test award from Test & Measurement World Magazine. [5] Nelson. tmcnet.[4] [5] In April 2010. . edn. The company’s primary products include wireless channel emulators and wireless test equipment for LTE.com. [7] "Azimuth Systems Receives 2009 4G Wireless Evolution LTE Visionary Award" (http:/ / www. html?nid=3370& rid=6559034). google.azimuthsystems. WiMAX. mwrf.

Texas Ada.[1] It consists of the counties surrounding a city designated as the basic trading center. New Jersey Augusta. Texas Anchorage. Alabama Appleton—Oshkosh. Michigan Altoona. New Mexico Alexandria. Pennsylvania Amarillo. Georgia Athens. Georgia Austin.com/) Basic Trading Area In the US. North Carolina Ashtabula. Michigan Albany—Tifton. South Dakota Aberdeen. Oklahoma Asheville—Hendersonville.[2] List of Basic Trading Areas BTA # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 Basic Trading Area MTA # 27 42 10 31 13 1 30 14 29 30 13 35 10 42 17 5 2 26 31 5 8 1 9 1 33 1 10 Major Trading Area Aberdeen. Paul Seattle—Tacoma Dallas—Fort Worth Oklahoma City Detroit Atlanta New York El Paso—Albuquerque New Orleans—Baton Rouge New York Detroit Pittsburgh Dallas—Fort Worth Seattle—Tacoma Indianapolis Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh Birmingham Milwaukee Oklahoma City Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh Cleveland Atlanta Columbus Atlanta Philadelphia Atlanta Dallas—Fort Worth . Louisiana Allentown—Bethlehem—Easton. Georgia Albany—Schenectady. South Carolina Anniston. Ohio Atlanta.Azimuth Systems 22 External links • Azimuth Systems Website (http://www. Texas Minneapolis—St. New York Albuquerque. Wisconsin Ardmore. Ohio Athens. Washington Abilene. Pennsylvania Alpena. Georgia Atlantic City. Alaska Anderson.azimuthsystems. Indiana Anderson. a Basic Trading Area is a geographic region defined originally in the Rand McNally Commercial Atlas and Marketing Guide and used by the FCC where a Personal Communications Service can operate. Oklahoma Adrian.

Kentucky Bozeman. Michigan Big Spring. Louis 23 .Basic Trading Area 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 Bakersfield. Texas Brownwood. New York Burlington. North Dakota Bloomington. Texas Brunswick. Illinois Bloomington—Bedford. Paul Portland Chicago Dallas—Fort Worth Spokane—Billings New Orleans—Baton Rouge New York Birmingham Minneapolis—St. Washington Brownsville—Harlingen. Idaho Boston. New York Birmingham. West Virginia Blytheville. Maine Bartlesville. Minnesota Bend. Texas Beckley. Missouri 22 46 3 45 29 13 16 7 42 27 36 6 10 43 29 30 2 27 6 17 7 24 39 3 23 43 27 42 40 10 18 16 4 12 5 30 43 8 38 Los Angeles—San Diego Washington—Baltimore Boston—Providence Tulsa New Orleans—Baton Rouge Detroit Houston Cincinnati—Dayton Seattle—Tacoma Minneapolis—St. Oregon Benton Harbor. Arkansas Boise—Nampa. Paul Seattle—Tacoma San Antonio Dallas—Fort Worth Jacksonville Houston Buffalo—Rochester Des Moines—Quad Cities Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh New York Spokane—Billings Cleveland St. Maryland Bangor. Paul Chicago Indianapolis Cincinnati—Dayton Memphis—Jackson Salt Lake City Boston—Providence Louisville—Lexington—Evansville Spokane—Billings Minneapolis—St. Oklahoma Baton Rouge. Indiana Bluefield. Montana Biloxi—Gulfport—Pascagoula. Montana Canton—New Philadelphia. Montana Brainerd. Georgia Bryan—College Station. Mississippi Binghamton. Vermont Butte. Massachusetts Bowling Green—Glasgow. Iowa Burlington. California Baltimore. Texas Buffalo—Niagara Falls. Michigan Beaumont—Port Arthur. Ohio Cape Girardeau—Sikeston. West Virginia Bellingham. Louisiana Battle Creek. Alabama Bismarck. Minnesota Bremerton. Texas Billings. Washington Bemidji. North Carolina Burlington.

Iowa—Moline. North Carolina Charlottesville. Oregon Corbin. Colorado Columbia. Indiana Columbus—Starkville. Georgia Columbus. West Virginia Clarksville. Wyoming Cedar Rapids. South Carolina Columbus. Ohio Cookeville. Tennessee Cheyenne. Tennessee Coos Bay—North Bend. Ohio Cincinnati. Illinois Charleston. Illinois 38 14 11 12 6 5 7 5 46 1 11 6 41 9 7 35 28 8 1 12 10 45 11 38 5 1 17 24 9 28 36 23 40 46 10 1 6 37 12 St. Tennessee Clinton. Illinois Clovis. Louis Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh Atlanta Indianapolis Memphis—Jackson Columbus Nashville Portland Louisville—Lexington—Evansville San Antonio Washington—Baltimore Dallas—Fort Worth Atlanta Chicago Richmond—Norfolk Des Moines—Quad Cities 24 . Illinois Danville.Basic Trading Area 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 Carbondale—Marion. Iowa—Sterling. Virginia Chattanooga. Wyoming Chicago. Texas Cumberland. Illinois Chico—Oroville. Texas Dalton. Kansas Colorado Springs. South Carolina Charleston. West Virginia Charlotte—Gastonia. Ohio Cleveland. Virginia Davenport. New Mexico Coffeyville. New Mexico Casper—Gillette. Maryland Dallas—Fort Worth. Louis El Paso—Albuquerque Denver Des Moines—Quad Cities Chicago Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh Cincinnati—Dayton Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh Washington—Baltimore Atlanta Denver Chicago San Francisco—Oakland—San Jose Columbus Cincinnati—Dayton Pittsburgh Nashville Cleveland Atlanta Des Moines—Quad Cities Dallas—Fort Worth Tulsa Denver St. Missouri Columbia. Illinois Carlsbad. Georgia Danville. Kentucky Cleveland—Akron. Mississippi Columbus. Tennessee—Hopkinsville. Kentucky Corpus Christi. California Chillicothe. Ohio Clarksburg—Elkins. Iowa Champaign—Urbana.

Pennsylvania Dubuque. Pennsylvania Escanaba. Paul El Paso—Albuquerque Little Rock Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh Minneapolis—St. North Carolina Fergus Falls.Basic Trading Area 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 Dayton—Springfield. North Dakota Dodge City. Arizona 7 44 2 6 11 12 13 27 47 2 33 35 12 27 24 40 8 27 22 21 6 30 14 19 31 8 26 36 41 23 42 35 27 14 21 5 27 13 34 Cincinnati—Dayton Tampa—St. Florida Decatur. Minnesota Dyersburg—Union City. Alaska Fairmont. Delaware Du Bois—Clearfield. Indiana Fairbanks. Paul Los Angeles—San Diego Little Rock Chicago New York El Paso—Albuquerque Kansas City Oklahoma City Cleveland Milwaukee Portland San Francisco—Oakland—San Jose Louisville—Lexington—Evansville Seattle—Tacoma Pittsburgh Minneapolis—St. Paul Wichita Birmingham Philadelphia Pittsburgh Des Moines—Quad Cities Minneapolis—St. West Virginia Fargo. Ohio Flagstaff. New Mexico—Durango. California El Dorado—Magnolia—Camden. Colorado Fayetteville—Springdale—Rogers. Texas Emporia. Paul Memphis—Jackson San Antonio Cleveland Minneapolis—St. North Dakota Farmington. Paul Detroit Phoenix 25 . Oregon Eureka. Kansas Dothan—Enterprise. Kansas Enid. Iowa Duluth. Tennessee Eagle Pass—Del Rio. Minnesota Findlay—Tiffin. California Evansville. Alabama Decatur—Effingham. Arkansas Fayetteville—Lumberton. Michigan Eugene—Springfield. Iowa Detroit. Ohio Eau Claire. Petersburg—Orlando Birmingham Chicago Denver Des Moines—Quad Cities Detroit Minneapolis—St. New York El Paso. Michigan Dickinson. Alabama Dover. Colorado Des Moines. Oklahoma Erie. Texas East Liverpool—Salem. Wisconsin El Centro—Calexico. Indiana Elmira—Corning—Hornell. Illinois Denver. Arkansas Elkhart. Ohio Daytona Beach.

Indiana Fredericksburg. Michigan Great Bend. New York Goldsboro—Kinston. New Mexico Garden City. California Gadsden. Georgia Galesburg. Florida Fort Smith. Mississippi Greenville—Washington. North Carolina Grand Forks. Michigan Florence. Wisconsin Fort Collins—Loveland. Arkansas Harrisonburg. Colorado Fort Dodge. South Carolina Greenwood. North Carolina Greenville—Greenwood. Montana Greeley. Wisconsin Greensboro—Winston-Salem—High Point. Kansas Great Falls. Colorado Grand Rapids. South Carolina Hagerstown.Basic Trading Area 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 Flint. Louisiana Harrisburg. Maryland—Chambersburg. Illinois Gallup. Florida Fort Pierce—Vero Beach—Stuart. Virginia 13 2 5 26 11 12 25 25 21 29 6 46 41 2 18 1 6 14 47 30 5 27 32 11 13 47 43 11 26 5 24 5 5 5 46 29 33 21 46 Detroit Birmingham Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh Milwaukee Denver Des Moines—Quad Cities Miami—Fort Lauderdale Miami—Fort Lauderdale Little Rock New Orleans—Baton Rouge Chicago Washington—Baltimore San Francisco—Oakland—San Jose Birmingham Jacksonville Atlanta Chicago El Paso—Albuquerque Wichita New York Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh Minneapolis—St. Nebraska Grand Junction. Florida Gainesville. Alabama Florence. North Carolina Greenville—Spartanburg. Virginia Fresno. Colorado Green Bay. Arkansas Fort Walton Beach. Paul Omaha Denver Detroit Wichita Spokane—Billings Denver Milwaukee Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh Memphis—Jackson Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh Washington—Baltimore New Orleans—Baton Rouge Philadelphia Little Rock Washington—Baltimore 26 . North Dakota Grand Island—Kearney. Iowa Fort Myers. Kansas Glens Falls. West Virginia Hammond. South Carolina Fond du Lac. Alabama Gainesville. Florida Fort Wayne. Pennsylvania—Martinsburg. Pennsylvania Harrison.

Michigan Houma—Thibodaux. Missouri—Miami. Mississippi Jackson. New York Janesville—Beloit. Alabama Huron. New Mexico Honolulu. Texas Huntington. Kansas Helena. Kansas Hyannis. Michigan Jackson. Paul New York Detroit Memphis—Jackson Memphis—Jackson Jacksonville Chicago Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh Buffalo—Rochester Milwaukee St. Mississippi Hays. Kentucky Huntsville. Iowa Iron Mountain. Pennsylvania Indianapolis. Indiana Iowa City. Arkansas Joplin. Nebraska Hattiesburg. Hawaii 30 32 29 47 43 5 15 10 15 21 26 29 16 7 2 27 47 3 39 35 17 12 26 27 30 13 24 24 18 6 5 4 26 38 35 21 19 42 15 New York Omaha New Orleans—Baton Rouge Wichita Spokane—Billings Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh Honolulu Dallas—Fort Worth Honolulu Little Rock Milwaukee New Orleans—Baton Rouge Houston Cincinnati—Dayton Birmingham Minneapolis—St. Massachusetts Idaho Falls. Illinois Jacksonville. Michigan Ithaca. West Virginia—Ashland. Idaho Indiana.Basic Trading Area 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 Hartford. North Carolina Hilo. Montana Hickory—Lenoir—Morganton. North Carolina Jamestown. South Dakota Hutchinson. Wisconsin Jefferson City. Pennsylvania—Dunkirk. Connecticut Hastings. New York—Warren. Oklahoma Juneau—Ketchikan. Pennsylvania Jonesboro—Paragould. Hawaii Hobbs. Arkansas Houghton. Hawaii Hot Springs. Florida Jacksonville. New York Jackson. Alaska Kahului—Wailuku—Lahaina. Missouri Johnstown. Paul Wichita Boston—Providence Salt Lake City Pittsburgh Indianapolis Des Moines—Quad Cities Milwaukee Minneapolis—St. Louisiana Houston. Tennessee Jacksonville. Michigan Ironwood. Louis Pittsburgh Little Rock Kansas City Seattle—Tacoma Honolulu 27 .

Wisconsin—Winona. Georgia Lake Charles.Basic Trading Area 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 Kalamazoo. Michigan Kalispell. Minnesota Lafayette. Kansas Lihue. Washington 13 43 6 19 3 43 20 38 36 20 17 26 17 29 1 16 44 33 13 40 6 14 22 29 19 31 3 43 3 23 47 15 13 32 21 39 7 10 36 Detroit Spokane—Billings Chicago Kansas City Boston—Providence Spokane—Billings Knoxville St. Louisiana La Grange. Illinois Kansas City. Indiana La Crosse. Louisiana Lakeland—Winter Haven. Hawaii Lima. Arkansas Logan. Indiana Lafayette—New Iberia. Tennessee—Johnson City. Utah Logan. Nevada Laurel. Louis Portland Knoxville Indianapolis Milwaukee Indianapolis New Orleans—Baton Rouge Atlanta Houston Tampa—St. Texas Longview. Petersburg—Orlando Philadelphia Detroit San Antonio Chicago El Paso—Albuquerque Los Angeles—San Diego New Orleans—Baton Rouge Kansas City Oklahoma City Boston—Providence Spokane—Billings Boston—Providence Louisville—Lexington—Evansville Wichita Honolulu Detroit Omaha Little Rock Salt Lake City Cincinnati—Dayton Dallas—Fort Worth Portland 28 . Montana Kankakee. Michigan Laredo. West Virginia Longview—Marshall. Oregon Knoxville. Illinois Las Cruces. Mississippi Lawrence. Nebraska Little Rock. Virginia-Tennessee Kirksville. Florida Lancaster. Missouri Klamath Falls. Oklahoma Lebanon—Claremont. Washington Kingsport. Pennsylvania Lansing. Ohio Lincoln. New Hampshire Lewiston—Moscow. Tennessee Kokomo—Logansport. New Mexico Las Vegas. New Hampshire Kennewick—Pasco—Richland. Kansas Lawton—Duncan. Maine Lexington. Kentucky Liberal. Idaho Lewiston—Auburn. Texas La Salle—Peru—Ottawa—Streator. Missouri Keene. Tennessee—Bristol.

Virginia Mason City. Tennessee Merced. Indiana Middlesboro—Harlan. Texas McComb—Brookhaven. Michigan Marion. Mississippi Miami—Fort Lauderdale. Kansas Manitowoc. Minnesota Mansfield. Nebraska Macon—Warner Robins. Oregon Melbourne—Titusville. Iowa Mattoon. Texas Lufkin—Nacogdoches. Pennsylvania Medford—Grants Pass. Florida Memphis. Texas Milwaukee. California Meridian. Petersburg—Orlando Memphis—Jackson San Francisco—Oakland—San Jose Memphis—Jackson Miami—Fort Lauderdale Chicago Knoxville Dallas—Fort Worth Milwaukee Minneapolis—St. Mississippi McCook. Kentucky Manchester—Nashua—Concord. Minnesota Minot. Iowa Martinsville. Paul. Paul Cleveland Milwaukee Indianapolis Columbus Milwaukee Des Moines—Quad Cities Richmond—Norfolk Des Moines—Quad Cities Chicago Cleveland Portland Tampa—St. Wisconsin—Menominee. Indiana Marion. Texas Lynchburg. Wisconsin Mankato—Fairmont. Oklahoma McAllen. Paul Minneapolis—St. Florida Michigan City—La Porte. Paul Spokane—Billings 29 . Kentucky Lubbock.Basic Trading Area 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 Los Angeles. Wisconsin Minneapolis—St. New Hampshire Manhattan—Junction City. Illinois Meadville. Ohio Marquette. Montana 22 23 10 16 37 31 40 29 32 1 26 23 3 19 26 27 8 26 17 9 26 12 37 12 6 8 36 44 24 41 24 25 6 20 10 26 27 27 43 Los Angeles—San Diego Louisville—Lexington—Evansville Dallas—Fort Worth Houston Richmond—Norfolk Oklahoma City San Antonio New Orleans—Baton Rouge Omaha Atlanta Milwaukee Louisville—Lexington—Evansville Boston—Providence Kansas City Milwaukee Minneapolis—St. North Dakota Missoula. Virginia McAlester. Ohio Marinette. California Louisville. Michigan Marshalltown. Kentucky Midland. Wisconsin Madisonville. Georgia Madison.

South Carolina Naples. Iowa Owensboro. Mississippi New Bern. Louis Indianapolis Detroit Tulsa Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh Miami—Fort Lauderdale Nashville Memphis—Jackson Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh Pittsburgh New York New York New Orleans—Baton Rouge New York Phoenix Omaha Richmond—Norfolk Omaha Tampa—St. Michigan Muskogee. Texas Oil City—Franklin. Petersburg—Orlando Dallas—Fort Worth Pittsburgh Oklahoma City Buffalo—Rochester Seattle—Tacoma Omaha New York Atlanta Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh Tampa—St. Virginia North Platte. Alabama Modesto. Alabama Morgantown. Nebraska Ocala. Florida Nashville. Tennessee Natchez.Basic Trading Area 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 Mitchell. Pennsylvania Oklahoma City. North Carolina New Castle. Pennsylvania New Haven—Waterbury—Meriden. Connecticut New Orleans. West Virginia Mount Pleasant. Kentucky Paducah—Murray—Mayfield. Florida Ottumwa. Alabama Orangeburg. Nebraska Norfolk—Virginia Beach—Newport News—Hampton. Kentucky 27 29 41 10 2 35 13 38 17 13 45 5 25 28 24 5 35 30 30 29 30 34 32 37 32 44 10 35 31 4 42 32 30 1 5 44 12 23 23 Minneapolis—St. New York—Bradford. Indiana Muskegon. Pennsylvania Olympia—Centralia. Arizona Norfolk. Petersburg—Orlando Des Moines—Quad Cities Louisville—Lexington—Evansville Louisville—Lexington—Evansville 30 . Nebraska Oneonta. California Monroe. South Carolina Orlando. Michigan Mount Vernon—Centralia. New York Nogales. Oklahoma Olean. Washington Omaha. Florida Odessa. Louisiana Montgomery. Oklahoma Myrtle Beach. Connecticut New London—Norwich. Paul New Orleans—Baton Rouge San Francisco—Oakland—San Jose Dallas—Fort Worth Birmingham Pittsburgh Detroit St. South Dakota Mobile. New York Opelika—Auburn. Illinois Muncie. Louisiana New York.

Kansas Pittsburgh. Massachusetts Plattsburgh. Texas Parkersburg. New Jersey Phoenix. Louis Seattle—Tacoma Boston—Providence Portland Cincinnati—Dayton Philadelphia New York Phoenix Boston—Providence Boston—Providence Salt Lake City Denver St. Minnesota 18 10 9 29 6 13 33 34 21 19 35 3 30 39 31 38 42 3 36 7 33 30 34 3 3 39 11 38 5 11 33 41 41 17 37 11 37 5 27 Jacksonville Dallas—Fort Worth Columbus New Orleans—Baton Rouge Chicago Detroit Philadelphia Phoenix Little Rock Kansas City Pittsburgh Boston—Providence New York Salt Lake City Oklahoma City St. Colorado Quincy. Rhode Island—New Bedford—Fall River. Missouri Raleigh—Durham. California Reno. Pennsylvania Pittsfield. Ohio Pottsville. Oklahoma Poplar Bluff. Maine Providence—Pawtucket. Pennsylvania Poughkeepsie—Kingston. Missouri Port Angeles. Utah Pueblo. Maine Portland. Oregon Portsmouth. Florida Peoria. Illinois Petoskey. Delaware—Trenton. Washington Portland—Brunswick. Arizona Presque Isle. Idaho Ponca City. Virginia Riverton. Indiana Richmond—Petersburg. Wyoming Roanoke. South Dakota Reading. Virginia Roanoke Rapids. Arizona Pine Bluff. Pennsylvania—Wilmington. West Virginia—Marietta. North Carolina Rapid City. New York Prescott. Illinois—Hannibal. Florida Paris. Nevada Richmond. Paul 31 . Louis Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh Denver Philadelphia San Francisco—Oakland—San Jose San Francisco—Oakland—San Jose Indianapolis Richmond—Norfolk Denver Richmond—Norfolk Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh Minneapolis—St.Basic Trading Area 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 370 371 372 373 374 375 376 377 378 Panama City. North Carolina Rochester—Austin—Albert Lea. Arkansas Pittsburg—Parsons. Ohio Pensacola. Michigan Philadelphia. Massachusetts Provo—Orem. Pennsylvania Redding. New York Pocatello.

California Sandusky. Vermont Sacramento. Cloud. Arkansas Rutland—Bennington. Oregon Roswell. Missouri St. Wisconsin 4 6 11 5 38 1 36 14 21 30 41 13 27 39 19 38 36 47 41 46 39 10 40 22 8 41 22 22 14 44 13 1 11 30 42 19 2 8 26 Buffalo—Rochester Chicago Denver Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh St. Paul Salt Lake City Kansas City St. New York Rockford. Louis Atlanta Portland El Paso—Albuquerque Little Rock New York San Francisco—Oakland—San Jose Detroit Minneapolis—St. Missouri Salem—Albany—Corvallis. Maryland Salt Lake City—Ogden. Utah San Angelo. Louis Portland Wichita San Francisco—Oakland—San Jose Washington—Baltimore Salt Lake City Dallas—Fort Worth San Antonio Los Angeles—San Diego Cleveland San Francisco—Oakland—San Jose Los Angeles—San Diego Los Angeles—San Diego El Paso—Albuquerque Tampa—St. California Salisbury. Pennsylvania Sheboygan. Florida Sault Ste. Kansas Salinas—Monterey. Ohio San Francisco—Oakland—San Jose. New Mexico Russellville. Texas San Antonio. Georgia Roseburg. George. Michigan St. Missouri Rome. Georgia Scottsbluff. Wyoming Rocky Mount—Wilson. Utah St. California San Luis Obispo. Pennsylvania Seattle—Tacoma. Marie. Washington Sedalia. Oregon Salina. Alabama Sharon. Michigan Savannah.Basic Trading Area 379 380 381 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 390 391 392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399 400 401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 Rochester. Petersburg—Orlando Detroit Atlanta Denver New York Seattle—Tacoma Kansas City Birmingham Cleveland Milwaukee 32 . Illinois Rock Springs. Louis. Joseph. North Carolina Rolla. New Mexico Sarasota—Bradenton. Nebraska Scranton—Wilkes-Barre—Hazleton. California Santa Barbara—Santa Maria. California Santa Fe. Texas San Diego. Missouri Selma. Minnesota St. California Saginaw—Bay City.

Florida Temple—Killeen. Alabama Twin Falls. Kansas Traverse City. Georgia Vicksburg. Paul Louisville—Lexington—Evansville Chicago Spokane—Billings Chicago Boston—Providence St. New York Valdosta. Ohio Topeka. Massachusetts Springfield. Indiana Texarkana. Pennsylvania Staunton—Waynesboro. Texas Utica—Rome. Illinois Springfield—Holyoke. Pennsylvania Syracuse. New York Tallahassee. Texas Terre Haute. South Dakota Somerset. Washington Springfield. Missouri State College. Oklahoma Tupelo—Corinth. Indiana Spokane. Wisconsin Stillwater. Florida Tampa—St. Texas-Arkansas Toledo.Basic Trading Area 418 419 420 421 422 423 424 425 426 427 428 429 430 431 432 433 434 435 436 437 438 439 440 441 442 443 444 445 446 447 448 449 450 451 452 453 454 455 456 Sherman—Denison. Petersburg—Clearwater. Mississippi Victoria. Arizona Tulsa. California Stroudsburg. Virginia Steubenville. Louis Philadelphia Richmond—Norfolk Pittsburgh Milwaukee Oklahoma City San Francisco—Oakland—San Jose New York Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh Philadelphia New York Jacksonville Tampa—St. Kentucky South Bend—Mishawaka. Mississippi Tuscaloosa. Iowa Sioux Falls. Petersburg—Orlando Dallas—Fort Worth Indianapolis Dallas—Fort Worth Detroit Kansas City Detroit Phoenix Tulsa Memphis—Jackson Birmingham Salt Lake City Dallas—Fort Worth New York Jacksonville Memphis—Jackson Houston 33 . Arizona Sioux City. Michigan Tucson. Idaho Tyler. Texas Shreveport. Pennsylvania Sumter. Louisiana Sierra Vista—Douglas. Oklahoma Stockton. South Carolina Sunbury—Shamokin. Texas 10 10 34 12 27 23 6 43 6 3 38 33 37 35 26 31 41 30 5 33 30 18 44 10 17 10 13 19 13 34 45 24 2 39 10 30 18 24 16 Dallas—Fort Worth Dallas—Fort Worth Phoenix Des Moines—Quad Cities Minneapolis—St. Ohio—Weirton. West Virginia Stevens Point—Marshfield—Wisconsin Rapids.

Oregon Washington. Texas Walla Walla. rather than population. Minnesota Yakima. Iowa Watertown. . Paul Seattle—Tacoma Philadelphia Cleveland San Francisco—Oakland—San Jose Phoenix Columbus 34 • Source: [3] • Note: The Major Trading Area (MTA) numbers in this table are based on alphabetical sorting. Washington York—Hanover. Paul Minneapolis—St. Kentucky Williamsport. Minnesota Wilmington. Paul Boston—Providence Milwaukee Jacksonville Seattle—Tacoma Miami—Fort Lauderdale St.Basic Trading Area 457 458 459 460 461 462 463 464 465 466 467 468 469 470 471 472 473 474 475 476 477 478 479 480 481 482 483 484 485 486 487 Vincennes—Washington. DC Waterloo—Cedar Falls. Wisconsin Waycross. West Virginia—Pikeville. Virginia Worcester—Fitchburg—Leominster. Paul Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh Washington—Baltimore Boston—Providence Minneapolis—St. Missouri Wheeling. Kansas Wichita Falls. Ohio 17 41 10 43 46 12 30 27 3 26 18 42 25 38 35 47 10 7 33 27 27 5 46 3 27 42 33 8 41 34 9 Indianapolis San Francisco—Oakland—San Jose Dallas—Fort Worth Spokane—Billings Washington—Baltimore Des Moines—Quad Cities New York Minneapolis—St. Louis Pittsburgh Wichita Dallas—Fort Worth Cincinnati—Dayton Philadelphia Minneapolis—St. North Dakota Willmar—Marshall. Ohio Yuba City—Marysville. Indiana Visalia—Porterville—Hanford. North Carolina Winchester. California Yuma. Arizona Zanesville—Cambridge. New York Watertown. South Dakota Waterville—Augusta. West Virginia Wichita. Texas Williamson. Washington—Pendleton. Massachusetts Worthington. Pennsylvania Youngstown—Warren. Washington West Palm Beach—Boca Raton. Maine Wausau—Rhinelander. Pennsylvania Williston. Florida West Plains. Georgia Wenatchee. California Waco.

html). com/ wireless/ BTA. fcc. mobiledia. javvin. 2006. [2] "Basic Trading Area (BTA) .Basic Trading Area 35 References [1] "BTA: Basic Trading Area" (http:/ / www. . Retrieved 2006-11-28. Retrieved 2010-08-11. .Cell Phone Glossary . htm?job=btaform). Federal Communications Commission. com/ glossary/ 36. gov/ uls/ index. Mobiledia. Javvin. html).Mobiledia" (http:/ / www. . [3] "FCC Universal Licensing System (ULS) BTA Form" (http:/ / wireless. Retrieved 2006-11-28. .

manufactures and sells high-capacity wireless communication systems for outdoor wireless networks covering urban. Corporate history Established in 1997 by private investors. microwave.5 Gbit/s per link. Africa. CableFree's products deliver high capacity voice.org [4] Listing in OFCOM/BT Wireless Ethernet Lan Extension Services [5] External links • • • • CableFree Solutions [6] CableFree UK website [7] Wireless Excellence [8] KMH Group website [9] . Asia and Australasia. The company provides a range of wireless products including diverse mix of radio.cablefreesolutions. Wi-Fi and other technologies with speeds ranging from 2 Mbit/s up to 1. Americas. CCTV and Broadcast customers. Education. data and video and internet connectivity for metropolitan-area. rural and country-scale IP networks.com [1] CableFree provides high-capacity wireless Ethernet and TDM wireless backhaul solutions to cellular network operators. Government. rural and national-scale connectivity. Healthcare. Middle East. CableFree designs. United Kingdom Networking www. IP service providers. free space optics. Financial. References • • • • CableFree article in Broadband Wireless Exchange Magazine [2] CableFree article in Lightreading [3] CableFree entry in optics. millimeter-wave. CableFree sells through a distribution and reseller network with channel partners throughout Europe. WISPs.Cablefree 36 Cablefree Cablefree Type Industry Founded Headquarters Products Website Private Technology 1997 London.

Paul (May 14. co.com/technology-news/ nextivity-aims-to-boost-indoor-cell-phone-signal). June 04. the Cel-Fi systems are designed with smart antenna technology to seek out the best available signal to maximize signal gain to phone user. kmhgroup. org. 2011. com/ document. • Scardino. similar to a cellular repeater. Created by Nextivity. asp http:/ / www. 2010. lightreading. 2011. Advanced Technology Ventures. Retrieved Feb 12. 2011. designed to eliminate in-building dead zones and improve indoor mobile phone reception.geardiary.co. asp?doc_id=35995& site=lightreading http:/ / optics. • "Nextivity Cel-Fi 3G signal boosters – available from Frequency Telecom" (http://www. com/ pubs/ 2007/ 11/ 06/ page1369-1193158.com/mobile-amp-wireless/125524/ t-mobile-quietly-testing-cel-fi-femtocell-alternative-customers-signal-ch).org/ 10717005-nextivity-cel-fi-3g-signal-boosters-available-from-frequency-telecom. uk/realworld/357955/the-legal-ways-to-boost-your-mobile-phone-reception/2). which converts it and amplifies it. Trialled in both the US and UK by T-Mobile. com/ http:/ / www. "T-Mobile quietly testing Cel-Fi femtocell alternative for customers in signal-challenged areas" (http://www. com http:/ / www. 2010). . Business Wire (Press Release). PR Log (Press Release).html). 2008..thestreet. Retrieved Feb 12. 2. wirelessexcellence. 2010). Retrieved Feb 12. com http:/ / www. com CDMA Chipsets CDMA Chipsets is a popular Chipsets used in 3G and 2G mobile phones manufactured by Qualcomm Inc.com/ story/10678985/nextivity-and-netgear-collaborate-for-indoor-mobile-coverage-solutions. IT World. The window unit receives the signal and relays it to the receiver. References • Faas. San Diego Business Journal. ofcom. The Cel-Fi consists of two wireless devices. uk/ consult/ condocs/ llmr/ responses/ bt/ bt_annex_g. Ryan (October 27. bbwexchange. Retrieved Feb 12. org/ cws/ company/ B000013460 http:/ / www. "T-Mobile Currently Testing Cel-Fi Signal Booster to Maximize 3G Data Service In Homes" (http://www.com/2010/10/26/ t-mobile-currently-testing-cel-fi-signal-booster-to-maximizes-3g-data-service-in-homes/). Feb. 2010).atvcapital. a Window Unit and Coverage Unit that work jointly to increase 3G and 4G mobile broadband connectivity throughout the building. cablefreesolutions. uk http:/ / www. Cel-Fi Cel-Fi is a device. 2011. cablefreesolutions.prlog. • "Nextivity Aims to Boost Indoor Cell Phone Signal" (http://www.itworld. 2010. Gear Diary. Cel-Fi systems are comparable to mobile phone repeaters and femtocell technology. "The legal ways to boost your mobile phone reception" (http://www. November 21. • Ockenden.html). 2011. Retrieved Feb 12. Retrieved Feb 12.Cablefree 37 References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] http:/ / www. 2011. Francis (October 26. PC Pro. cablefree. • "Nextivity And NETGEAR Collaborate For Indoor Mobile Coverage Solutions" (http://www. pdf http:/ / www. Inc.pcpro.

Overview Crude COO positioning considers the location of the base station to be the location of the caller. Commercial services have been slower to take off than many in the industry expected. Most networks endeavour to optimise for minimum power consumption.. rather than the centre.youtube. 38 External links • Nextivity.nextivityinc. In practice a network offering location services to third parties will present an API to which queries can be sent by validated users. Retrieved Feb 12.com/) Cell of origin (telecommunications) Cell of Origin (COO) is a mobile positioning technique for finding a caller's cell (the basic geographical coverage unit of a cellular telephone system) location. The underlying issue is that mobile phone networks are optimised for capacity and call handling rather than locating phones.e. Omnidirectional cells may be used in rural locations (which typically have large ranges and hence uncertain locations for phones within them) and in cities (where they may have ranges of a few hundred metres). three mounted on a mast to give complete coverage) giving a signal coverage area with the base station at one corner. Most commercially implemented systems rely on 'enhanced' COO.Cel-Fi • "Video: T-Mobile 3G Cel-Fi Signal Booster Unboxing (junkdruggler)" (http://www.femtohub.com/ watch?v=Waxl7FrPk-c).. One of the first services to make widespread use of COO based mobile location was the Zingo taxi hailing system. when precision is important COO is often used in conjunction with some other technology. but the overall effect approximates to each phone locking onto the strongest signal). In the GSM system this relies on the fact that the phones constantly measure the signal strength from the closest 6 base stations and lock on to the strongest signal (the reality is slightly more complex than this and includes parameters that each individual network can optimise. rather than a circle). as the majority of mobile network cells are projected from an antenna with a spread of 120º (i. These maps can be processed to analyse the area which will be dominated by each base station and to approximate each area by a circle (the actual area of coverage may not be exactly where predicted. COO is the only positioning technique that is widely used in wireless networks and is used for Phase 1 of 911 service in the United States. official web site (http://www. to which a reply will be sent comprising the centre of a circle and a radius representing the expected error (the size of the circle in which the phone is expected to be). 2011.com/) • Femtohub (http://www. and in any case will be an irregular shape. such as the Global Positioning System (GPS) or Time of Arrival (TOA). You Tube. launched in London in 2003 . including signal quality and variability. Location service using COO have been adopted by the emergency services in many countries. This is not very accurate. Inc. All networks generate 'splash maps' predicting signal coverage when planning and managing their networks. For this reason.

California for the Manhattan to support the U. Federal Emergency 2005 Rose Bowl game. but the remaining budget is inadequate to fund the construction for a fiscal quarter or even longer. Tower types vary from one manufacturer to another. Many telecommunications companies also use COWs for long-term placement when financing or infrastructure considerations prevent building a permanent site at the location. with its own power generator Management Agency (FEMA) and provide critical phone service to rescue and recovery workers. For instance. guyed vs. or existing wired infrastructure. and may require the use of non-permanent facilities. 2001 in Lower COW in parking lot of the Rose Bowl. 36 cellular COWs were deployed by September 14. and backhaul. in the Gulf Coast after Hurricane Katrina). Not all portable communication centers are created equally.Cell on wheels 39 Cell on wheels A cell on wheels. usually referred to as a COW. a carrier may have approved the placement of a cell site for coverage reasons... . communication satellite. is a mobile cell site that consists of a cellular antenna tower and electronic radio transceiver equipment on a truck or trailer. A COW may also be referred to as a site on wheels (SOW). in a wilderness area where firefighters have set up a command center during a major forest fire) or was compromised by the disaster (e. World Series.g. unguyed. The backhaul to the network can be via terrestrial microwave.g. Installations on government or military facilities may be granted only on a temporary basis. methods of deploying the tower. The decision to use a COW for an extended period of time may also be driven by the property owner. An engineering team may be able to place a COW on location to provide immediate coverage with few costs other than leasing. or in disaster areas where cellular coverage either was never present (e.[2] 26 Cell on Wheels towers were put in place in Washington. designed to be part of a cellular network.S.C. whether it meets TIA/EIA specifications. Rose Bowl). Many COWs do not protect their sensitive equipment from the effects of lightning or power surges. Many are nothing more than a cargo trailer or box that has been modified to hold communication equipment and have an antenna tower. for the inauguration of Barack Obama in January 2009 to handle the millions of extra people and calls in the city. especially on and near the National Mall. Pasadena. major conventions.[1] Expanded or emergency service COWs are used to provide expanded cellular network coverage and/or capacity at special events such as major sporting events (Super Bowl. Following the September 11 attacks on New York City in 2001. D. electricity. COWs provided cellular service in Southwest Florida the aftermath of Hurricane Charley in 2004 with most of the area's stationary cell towers destroyed.

html). Cell on Light Trucks (COLTs) COLTs are on smaller box trucks and are limited with respect to the cell phone network. Retrieved on January 28. Verizon Wireless Network specifications.html). com/ 2009/ 01/ 19/ technology/ 19cell. com/ 2004/ 08/ mobile_carriers.calzavara.it/lang/en/products/ telecommunications/emergency_mobile_station_with_self_mounting_pole. CIAB (Cell-in-a-Box) External links On a manufacturer’s site (http://www.it/?lang=en): • CIAB (http://www. • mobile trucks with container and self-mounting telescopic mast (http://www.calzavara. • with compact self mounting pole and special two-axle trailer (http://www. operationgadget. vzw. 2010. nytimes. • different types of COW: • with flanged pole (http://www. html [3] (http:/ / aboutus.it/lang/en/products/telecommunications/radio_station_kit. CIABs provide temporary service with temporary equipment.calzavara.it/lang/en/products/ telecommunications/mobitower. html). The main difference is that a CIAB is typically placed for a longer period of time than a COW. Cell In A Box.calzavara.it/lang/en/products/telecommunications/ emergency_mobile_station_with_flanged_pole. . com/ bestnetwork/ network_facts. Like COWs.calzavara.html). "Inauguration Crowd Will Test Cellphone Networks" (http:/ / www. [2] http:/ / www.Cell on wheels 40 Cell in a box (CIAB) Related to a COW is a CIAB (cell in a box). as opposed to the fully functional COW. URL retrieved 19 January 2009.html).[3] References [1] New York Times.html).

Even the cheaper home-use models (typically band selective) now provide 20dB . However. or wireless cellular signal booster. These are similar to the cellular broadcast towers used for broadcasting by the network providers. correctly oriented external antenna should provide better signal than the internal antenna on any cell phone.although within reasonable proximity the booster's signal will be strong enough that the orientation of the cell phone's antenna will not make a significant difference in usability. which is then transmitted to an amplifier unit which amplifies the signal. due to its proximity to the phone. directional antenna to collect the best cellular signal. Typical components External directional antenna Although some of the less expensive models do not include an external directional antenna they are crucial to providing significant signal strength gain. cell phones perform best when their antennas are oriented parallel to the booster's antenna .Cellular repeater 41 Cellular repeater A cellular repeater. The systems usually use an external.although even a small. The more advanced models often also allow multiple cell phones to use the same repeater at the same time. a type of bi-directional amplifier (BDA) as commonly named in the wireless telecommunications industry. This is due to the combination of the poor network coverage in some areas. Excellent high-power models (not home usage . The CTIA – The Wireless Association (formerly the Cellular Telecommunications & Internet Association) had predicted that by 2007 30% of phone users in the US would be mobile only . of course. since the decibel scale is measured on a logarithmic scale a 30dB gain represents a one thousandfold signal power increase .both caused by the lower power required to broadcast the signal to the local bi-directional amplifier.50dB gain and many of the more expensive models provide over 50dB. Modern cellular repeater amplifiers rebroadcast cellular signals inside the building. These can either be fitted by professionals or will include a signal strength monitor for easy alignment. and retransmits it locally. Internal rebroadcast antenna The better systems will generally include an internal monopole antenna (although the type of antenna is far from standardised) for rebroadcasting the signal internally .more than 60 million lines. providing significantly improved signal strength. Generally speaking the larger the external antenna the better the signal . so are suitable for commercial as well as home use.the advantage of using a monopole antenna is that the signal will be equally distributed in all directions (subject.smart and expensive technology of the operators) offering gain around 100dBm (ICE function is welcomed as an improvement of the radio isolation between donor and service antenna). This combined with the low population density (compared with Europe and Japan) means that many people will have to use some method to improve their home signal. and the large scale departure from the land-line system. but are much smaller. particularly in the USA. a signal amplifier and an internal rebroadcast antenna. This is because the antenna can be oriented and located outside to provide the best possible signal. usually intended for use in one building. Signal amplifier All models will include a signal amplifier. usually aligned with the nearest cell tower.meaning . cell phone repeater. The market for cellular repeaters is expected to grow rapidly over the coming years. to attenuation from obstacles). Other advantages of cellular repeaters include an increase in the cell phone's battery life and a lower level of radiation emitted by the handset . is a device used for boosting the cell phone reception to the local area by the usage of a reception antenna. Because all radio antennas are intrinsically polarized.

g. When the isolation is lower than actual gain + reserve (typically 5-15dB) then repeaters is in loop oscillation. This is due to the difficulty of filtering the correct signal out from the background noise... • Use of a poor device for signal generation. There is also problem with noise amplification (especially in UL) and desensitization of the donor site. inserting of the attenuating environment (smart placement of the donor and service antenna. being shaded by buildings (e.g.Cellular repeater the total amplification of a repeater with greater than around 50dB is likely to be useless without a good. such as in cases where the operator is using wider band (e. Because of the cellular network has form principle reduced cell size (depends on the technology and activated features typically X*10 km (for standard GSM 35 km).2 mW)). high power repeaters (e. reduction of reflections . Operators can operate also EGSM or GSM900+GSM1800 layers with single BCCH (Siemens(SAG) commonly supports the BCCH feature.. +5us up to standard rep. Additional delay form point of view of propagation means additional distance.g.)) and without sense to donor site selection. Standard GSM channel selective repeater (operated by telecommunication operators for coverage of large areas and big buildings) has output power around 2W. Isolation can be also improved by integrated feature called ICE (interference cancellation equipment) offered in some products (e. By amplification and filtration there is some delay (typically between 5us to 15us). glasshouse. metal-sheet building.3us/km). etc. In the case of improper repeater support.. where could be repeater used. In case of poor isolation the device works but with low gain.g. delay) and consequently to shorter radius from donor site. User is from network point of view too far.. between donor and service antenna is wall.g. and coverage is poor. . The power gain is calculated by the following equation: 42 For repeater is needed to secure sufficient isolation between donor and service antenna.in front of the donor antenna no near obstacle (like tree. and the limiting maximum signal power of the amplifier (for picorepeaters typically from around 5 dBm (3. causing noise and inter-modulation products. Amateur installation of the pico/mini repeaters can be harmful for many reasons: • Poor choice of donor site may not improve signal • Using the wrong antenna and improperly installing the repeater without paying attention to minimizing interference (e. well aligned antenna. e. which will be amplified equally. installing the repeater in a higher place than necessary. Also cheap models are equipped by automatic gain reduction in case of poor or weak isolation. The isolation is possible to improve by antenna type selection. RFWindow). many calls may drop). by wall installation or suppression of side/back lobes by chimney. space separation (typically vertical distance in case of the tower installation between donor and service antenna is several meters). or house)).g. It depends on the type of repeater and used features. urban FDD/TDD network 20 km) usage of repeater virtually moving user to bigger distance: radio distance = real distance + (repeater delay) *3. in macro environment by angle between donor and service antenna (ideally 180°). placement of the metal mesh). It is reason why somewhere with sufficient levels repeater doesn't work. EGSM) or more bands and the repeater does not support EGSM or is only for 900GSM. NodeG.3 km (delay of RF signal in air is 3. After repeating you have better (or excellent) coverage but you can't access to network. Activating of this feature has negative impact to internal delay (higher delay => prox. • Repeating only part of the band. NodeG from Andrew) offering output power around 10W).

and tri-band systems cost significantly more. This is caused by both the fact that the signal is attenuated heavily as it enters the building and the interference as the signal is reflected by the objects inside the building. Repeater systems are available for certain Satellite phone systems. Low signal strength is also often the case in underground areas such as basements and in shops and restaurants located towards the centre of shopping malls. . so will just be heavily attenuated by the distance. For this reason in these cases an external antenna is usually desirable. often have no cellular reception further than a few meters from the outside wall. Building size Large buildings.Cellular repeater 43 Reasons for weak signal Rural areas In many rural areas the housing density is too low to make construction of a new base station commercially viable. As a result. In flat rural areas the signal is unlikely to suffer from multipath interference. Building construction material Some construction materials very rapidly attenuate cell phone signal strength. hospitals and factories. Older buildings. Any building which has a significant thickness of concrete or amount of metal used in its production will attenuate the signal. allowing the satphones to be used indoors without a clear line of sight to the satellite. Multipath interference Even in urban areas which usually have strong cellular signals throughout. the only way to obtain strong cell phone signal in these areas is usually to install a home cellular repeater. which use lead in their roofing material will very effectively block any signal. Some materials have peaks in their absorption spectra which massively decrease signal strength. such as warehouses. In these cases the installation of a cellular repeater will generally massively increase signal strength just due to the amplifier. See Multipath interference for more. In these cases it is unlikely that the service provider will do anything to improve reception. cell phone waves cannot travel via the ionospohere. Concrete floors are often poured onto a metal pan which completely blocks most radio signals. but still attenuate significantly. Energy efficient windows and metal window screens are also very effective at blocking radio signals. Some solid foam insulation and some fiberglass insulation used in roofs or exterior walls has foil backing. Diffraction and general attenuation The longer wavelengths have the advantage of being able to diffract to a greater degree so are less reliant on line of sight to obtain a good signal. This is because the different wavelengths of the different frequencies interfere destructively at different points. Directional antennas are very helpful at overcoming this since they can be placed at points of constructive interference and aligned so as not to receive the destructive signal. Because the frequencies which cell phones use are too high to reflect off the ionosphere as shortwave radio waves do. such as churches. which can reduce transmittance. there are often dead zones caused by destructive interference of waves which have taken different paths (caused by the signal bouncing off buildings etc.) These usually have an area of a few blocks and will usually only affect one of the two frequency ranges used by cell phones. even a great distance from the broadcast towers. some repeaters will handle different types of network such as multi-mode GSM and UMTS repeaters however dual. See Diffraction and Attenuation for more. due to the high cost of erecting a new tower. Different operating frequencies Repeaters are available for all the different GSM frequency bands.

Some network operators have dedicated teams that will visit a customers site to assess the cause of the problems experienced and offer to put in place a soltion provided by a third party vendor. shops." At present. etc. they should have no problem gaining it. the willingness and capability of network operators to initiate the process to providing an in building solution varies greatly. The disparity in approach and the lack of a cross network operator working group means that sites requiring a 'wideband' coverage solution for all networks is not currently possible. is likely passed as the quantity of repeaters already shipped and in place in the UK is estimated at the tens of thousands.). The use of materials that mitigate heat loss such as metallic foil laminated insulation board and energy efficient glazing with a metallic anodised coating also have high signal attenuation properties.Cellular repeater 44 Approval in the USA by the FCC Although there are some products on the market in the USA which are still pending Federal Communications Commission (FCC) approval. . the use of devices ranging from small mobile signal boosters to high power repeaters can cause loss of coverage through interference and desensitisation of the cells. The window for any such regulation of the UK market as in the US. Repeaters operating in rural and less densely populated areas do not pose a quantifiable problem. Ofcom specifically states that. it is legal to use the low power devices available today for home and small scale use in commercial areas (offices. The lack of regulatory guidance has led to the situation where most installtions are simply 'plug and play' and have been installed by non technical persons who have no appreciation or understanding of even the most basic RF principles. This has largely been driven by the tightening of energy efficicency regulations in building construction. There are well established vendors who have worked for some time in this area who work for. Many models already have FCC approval. Ofcom suggest that "Anyone wishing to improve coverage in a particular area is advised to contact their network provider. and with the networks to provide in building coverage solutions. with the expense being borne by the client. Although a license was originally required to broadcast at cell phone frequencies. However this is generally limited to large corporates and the public sector." This has not detered the UK market for signal boosters with an explosion of web retailers offering a wide range of solutions from DIY installs to installations. bars. However. Approval in the UK by Ofcom and the UK market In the UK there is no third party licencing regime in place even for low powered devices for home use. The UK regulator. Only the mobile network operators are licensed to use equipment that transmits in these bands. The use of a mobile signal booster in the UK is only permitted by the mobile networks who hold the licences in the cellular bands. "Repeater devices transmit or re-transmit in the cellular frequency bands. Installation or use of repeater devices by anyone without a licence is a criminal offence under Section 8 of the WT Act 2006. in cities and areas where many cells exist from each operator.

Response code 53 with a field 060 time stamp indicates that the message was accepted.CIMD 45 CIMD Computer Interface to Message Distribution (CIMD) is a proprietary short message service centre protocol developed by Nokia for their SMSC (now: Nokia Siemens Networks). kannel. nokia. consists of a parameter type. nokia. com/ id/ 7a27b9e7-7cdd-4456-b630-3d7c35f30a4f/ CIMD_Interface_Specification_SC80. com/ id/ a58b0133-4ffa-4e17-8b3b-77877688660f/ CIMD_Interface_Specification_SC70.3 and CIMD 2. org . References [1] http:/ / sw. the operation code 03 means submit message. A good number of supporting software to implement CIMD is available from Nokia's Web site to build CIMD client. The response code (acknowledgement) of the message is equal to the operation code plus 50. Open-Source WAP and SMS Gateway with CIMD 1. Each field. In the example above. the SMSC would reply with field 900 (error code) instead. The number after the operation code is the sequence number used to match an operation to its response. a colon (:). Note that the last field must also be terminated with a TAB before the ETX. if the message failed.0 [2] Software • Kannel [3] . Field 021 defines the destination address (telephone number). with field 033 is the user data (content) of the message. pdf [2] http:/ / sw. Syntax An example CIMD exchange looks like the following: <STX>03:007<TAB>021:12345678<TAB>033:hello<TAB><ETX> <STX>53:007<TAB>021:12345678<TAB>060:971107131212<TAB><ETX> Each packet starts with STX (hex 02) and ends with ETX (hex 03). You can fire SMS from message center with the help of CIMD client tools.0 [1] • Nokia: CIMD specification for SC v8. pdf [3] http:/ / www. and the parameter value. External links • Nokia: CIMD specification for SC v7. Two-digit parameter types are operation codes and each message must have exactly one.0 support. in turn. The content of the packet consists of fields separated by TAB (hex 09).

• His peer group of senior Pizza delivery executives. org/ ftp/ Specs/ 1999-10/ 22_series/ 22085-301. could be a member of two closed user group: • His own team of Pizza delivery agents. A subscriber may: • • • • Be a member of more than one but not more than ten Closed User Groups. However. it would be indicated to him by the network as to which user group the call originated from. org/ ftp/ Specs/ 2004-03/ Rel-4/ 24_series/ 24085-401. and to suppress the Outgoing Access permission i. Technical references • 3GPP 22. zip [2] http:/ / www. If the user is a member of multiple Closed User Groups there will be a Preferred CUG assigned by the network that will be used by default. This service is NOT applicable to Short messaging service (SMS).e.085 Closed User Group (CUG) supplementary services. But based on whom Mr Rao is calling he can either suppress or enable the preferred CUG.e.Closed User Group (CUG) 46 Closed User Group (CUG) Closed User Groups are groups of GSM mobile telephone subscribers who can only make calls and receive calls from members within the group. Be allowed to make emergency calls irrespective of the group subscription. When an incoming call is received it is possible for the network to indicate the Closed User Group that is being applied to the call to the called user.085 Closed User Group (CUG) Supplementary Services. when Mr Rao receives a call. and is not for use by the general public. act as if the user is not a member of the Closed User Group. a senior member at a Pizza delivery outlet. For example: Mr Rao. it is possible on a per-call basis to specify a different Closed User Group (of which the user is a member) for the call. zip . 3gpp. to insist that the call only go through if the destination is a member of the CUG. Be permitted to receive calls from outside of the Closed User Group (Incoming Access). 3gpp. Any other calls would be rejected. there are handsets that support Closed User Group applications. It is also possible on a per-call basis to suppress the use of the Preferred CUG i. Stage 1 [1] • 3GPP 24. However. this Supplementary Service is restricted in use only by organizations. Be permitted to make calls outside of the Closed User Group (Outgoing Access). Mr Rao's Preferred CUG would be that of his team. Stage 3 [2] References [1] http:/ / www. As can be seen. Also.

com/ [2] "Lost Connections". The technology is utilized in the retail industry to meet PCI DSS requirements. corporate WLAN users and telecommuters – mobilizing the enterprise. com/ ME2/ dirmod. mobileenterprisemag. Wall Street Journal. Columbitech Mobile VPN The Columbitech mobile VPN provides remote network access to field mobility users.[3] The solution is encrypted on standards-based Wireless Transport Layer Security (WTLS) and holds a FIPS 140-2 certification. 4G and WiMAX.Columbitech 47 Columbitech Columbitech Type Industry Founded Private Mobile Communication 2000 Headquarters Stockholm. asp). [3] "Mobile VPN for the Field". The company is headquartered in Stockholm. including 3G.[2] with support for WLAN and public networks. wsj. References [1] http:/ / www. [4] "LINUX-based VPN system has NEXCOM running a tight ship". com/ article/ SB119717610996418467. Sweden with offices in New York City. December 11 2007 (http:/ / online. May 2008 (http:/ / www. stores. February 2008 (http:/ / www. columbitech. provides wireless security to secure mobile devices. asp?sid=& nm=& type=Publishing& mod=Publications::Article& mid=8F3A7027421841978F18BE895F87F791& tier=4& id=D7B7F1A7229743C1A55EFC1BD55DF05F). founded in 2000. Stores Magazine.[4] and in other industries where mobile devices are used over wireless networks. Mobile Enterprise. Sweden Products Website Columbitech Mobile VPN [1] Columbitech. org/ LPinformation_new/ 2008/ 05/ LPiEdit2. . html).

Communication Linking Protocol


Communication Linking Protocol
Communication Linking Protocol (CLP) is a communications protocol used to communicate with many devices using the Motorola ReFLEX network. CLP allows a user to direct a ReFLEX capable device to send or receive messages. CLP is used by Advantra's ReFLEX devices. Advantra's ReFLEX product line was purchased by Inilex who now manufactures the devices.

External links
• • • • • • ReFLEX White Paper [1] Two Way Paging Article [2] Article [3] Barran Device [4] Karli Device [5] Wirlki Device [6]

[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] http:/ / content. arch. com/ whitepaper/ reflexwhitepaper. pdf http:/ / www. rysavy. com/ Articles/ twoway. htm http:/ / www. leapforum. org/ published/ internetworkMobility/ split/ node115. html#SECTION001432100000000000000 http:/ / inilex. com/ telemetry-barran. asp http:/ / inilex. com/ telemetry-karli. asp http:/ / inilex. com/ telemetry-wirlki. asp

Context-aware services
Context-aware services is a computing technology which incorporates information about the current location of a mobile user to provide more relevant services to the user.[1] An example of a context-aware service could be a real-time traffic update or even a live video feed of a planned route for a motor vehicle user. Context can refer to real-world characteristics, such as temperature, time or location. This information can be updated by the user (manually) or from communication with other devices and applications or sensors on the mobile device. also see Context aware delegation.

[1] "Building a context-aware service architecture" (http:/ / www. ibm. com/ developerworks/ architecture/ library/ ar-conawserv/ index. html?ca=drs-). Developer Works (IBM). . Retrieved 4 January 2010.

Coverage map


Coverage map
Coverage maps are designed to indicate the service areas of radiocommunication transmitting stations. Typically these may be produced for radio or television stations, for mobile telephone networks and for satellite networks. Such maps are alternatively known as propagation maps. For satellite networks, a coverage map is often known as a footprint.

Definition of coverage
Typically a coverage map will indicate the area within which the user can expect to obtain good reception of the service in question using standard equipment under normal operating conditions. Additionally, the map may also separately denote supplementary service areas where good reception may be obtained but other stations may be stronger, or where reception may variable but the service may still be usable.

Technical details
The field strength that the marked service boundary on a coverage map represents will be defined by whoever produces the map, but typical examples are as follows:

VHF(FM) / Band II
For VHF(FM) / Band II, the BBC defines the service area boundary as corresponding to an average field strength of 54 dB (relative to 1 µV/m) at a height of 10 m above ground level.

MF / Mediumwave
For MF / Mediumwave, the BBC defines the daytime service area boundary as a minimum field strength of 2 mV/m. At night, the service area of mediumwave services can be drastically reduced by co-channel interference from distant stations.

Often coverage maps show general coverage for large regions and therefore any boundary indicated should not be interpreted as a rigid limit. The quality of reception can be very different at places only short distances apart, and this phenomenon is more apparent as the transmission frequency increases. Inevitably small pockets of poor reception may exist within the main service area that cannot be shown on the map due to scale issues. Conversely, the use of sensitive equipment, high gain antennas, or simply being located on high ground can yield good signal strengths well outside the indicated area. The significance of local geographical conditions cannot be over emphasised and this was [1] which revealed the signal reception conditions around a typical house. The site did underlined by an experiment not have the critical "line-of-sight propagation" to the transmitter. Average signal levels, taken at the same height, varied by up to 6dB, and for individual frequencies by up to 14dB. In RF reception terms these figures are huge differences. Although carriers and broadcasters attempt to design their networks to eliminate dead zones, no network is perfect, so coverage breaks within the general coverage areas are still possible. Often companies will construct low power satellite stations to fill in bad reception areas that become apparent once the high power transmitter's coverage map has identified where the network is deficient.

Coverage map


External links
• The Transmission Gallery: Index of UK TV coverage maps [2] • TV Fool: Index of US TV coverage maps [3]

[1] http:/ / www. aerialsandtv. com/ loftaerials. html#BlackArtOfRF [2] http:/ / tx. mb21. co. uk/ mapsys/ anatv/ [3] http:/ / www. tvfool. com/ index. php?option=com_content& task=view& id=15

com [1] Website DataSplice.NET framework’s ADO. and Oregon Key people Products Scott Kunze. including a remote client (for handheld and/or desktop use). aerospace and other markets which utilizes field service management systems which require tracking. asset management and regulatory accountability. smartphones. defense. LLC Type Industry Founded privately held company (LLC) computer software 2001 Headquarters Fort Collins. and Enterprise Asset Management (EAM). inventory specialists and inspectors. Colorado and offers mobile applications which extend enterprise systems. which allows for connectivity to different database systems such as MySQL and Oracle. The product runs on the Microsoft Windows operating system DataSplice Architecture . It may also be used on a desktop system as a unified/simplified interface for multiple systems. The extensible system consists of three components.DataSplice 51 DataSplice DataSplice. CO (additional offices in Massachusetts. California. The software offered is a mobile middleware. LLC is a mobile software company headquartered in Fort Collins. and an administration client for configuring the system. DataSplice does not use a proprietary software platform. with an emphasis on IBM's Maximo EAM system. a server which communicates with the primary EAM. gas/oil. The software provides an interface from these systems to handhelds. including packaged software for Computerized Maintenance Management Systems (CMMS).NET. Its primary client base is focused on utilities. tablet_computers and mobile computers for field technicians. but rather utilizes the Common Language Infrastructure (CLI) of Microsoft. President/CEO DataSplice Mobile Integration Suite CMMS_EAM Total Maintenance Inspections (TMI) datasplice.

In addition. Inspections. Products The product's main emphasis is providing a simplified mobile interface into IBM Maximo[2] . ibm. com/ article. and with sufficient rigor that implementations of the interface from different suppliers are fully compatible at the physical level. Partners DataSplice is an IBM Advanced Partner. DigRF v3. and safety inspections. The longer term development will focus on future air interface standards which promise further improvements in high speed. such as substations. power generation. . do?solution=37287& lc=en& stateCd=P& page=2& print=true). com/ [2] "Global Solutions Directory" (http:/ / www-304. DigRF The DigRF working group was formed as a MIPI Alliance (MIPI) working group in April 2007.12 for usage in GSM/EDGE handsets. The group is focused on developing specifications for wireless mobile RFIC to base-band IC (BBIC) interfaces in mobile devices. Work Orders. In 2010. which was founded in 1991. electrical and timing characteristics of the digital RF-BB Interface with sufficient detail to allow physical implementation of the interface.09 from the year 2006 with its 312Mbit/s can additionally handle UMTS. The primary modules[3] are Inventory. which was specified in 2004. DataSplice introduced InspecTMI. Field Technologies Online. The flagship Mobile Integraton Suite consists of three components: Remote Client. Retrieved 28 June 2011. There is DigRF version v1. Condition Monitoring and Asset Management. a field inspections and operator rounds mobile collection system geared toward highly regulated inspection scenarios. . The group's current charter is split into short and long term development efforts. [3] "DataSplice Mobile Computing Solutions: Inventory and Work Orders" (http:/ / www.DataSplice 52 History Originally known as Optimization Resources. com/ partnerworld/ gsd/ solutiondetails. and a Microsoft Silver ISV Partner. These specifications will describe the logical. the future work will seek to harmonize efforts with the MIPI's PHY and UniPro working groups. data optimized traffic. mvc/ DataSplice-Mobile-Computing-Solutions-Invento-0001). References [1] http:/ / www. The original management and development staff continue to be engaged daily operations. DataSplice is a privately held company. datasplice. The short term development will focus on a specification targeted for completion by end of 2007 for LTE and WiMax air interface standards. fieldtechnologiesonline. . DataSplice was spun off as both a company and product in 2001. IBM.DataSplice Mobile Integration. Administration Client and the Server. Present DigRF v4 draft offers Gbit/s bandwidth for LTE and WiMax. IBM .

org/ digrf. services running on the network such as voice or data services. This ensures measurements are realistic and comparable to actual user experiences. radio frequency scanner information and GPS information to provide location logging.DigRF 53 External links • About DigRF Alliance [1] References [1] http:/ / www. By measuring what a wireless network subscriber would experience in any specific area. Drive testing requires a mobile vehicle outfitted with drive testing measurement equipment. These equipments are usually highly specialized electronic devices that interface to OEM mobile handsets. Data Collected during Drive Testing Drive test equipment typically collects data relating to the network itself. shtml Drive testing Drive testing is a method of measuring and assessing the coverage. The dataset collected during drive testing field measurements can include information such as: • • • • • • • • • • • • Signal intensity Signal quality Interference Dropped calls Blocked calls Anomalous events Call statistics Service level statistics QoS information Handover information Neighbouring cell information GPS location co-ordinates . The technique consists of using a motor vehicle containing mobile radio network air interface measurement equipment that can detect and record a wide variety of the physical and virtual parameters of mobile cellular service in a given geographical area. capacity and Quality of Service (QoS) of a mobile radio network. wireless carriers can make directed changes to their networks that provide better coverage and service to their customers. mipi.

sophisticated multi-channel tools such as Ascom's Symphony or SwissQual's Diversity Benchmarker are used to measure several network technologies and service types simultaneously to very high accuracy. are frequently used in marketing campaigns.com) 1. Drive testing to gather networking benchmarking data is the only way mobile network operators can collect accurate competitive data on the true level of their own and their competitors technical performance and quality levels. typically localized. Results from benchmarking activities.com/anite/en/home/. Quality monitoring focuses on the end user experience of the service. network issues such as dropped calls or missing neighbour cell assignments. Optimization & Troubleshooting Optimization and troubleshooting information is more typically used to aid in finding specific problems during the rollout phases of new networks or to observe specific problems reported by consumers during the operational phase of the network lifecycle. a supplier of drive testing equipment (http://www. a supplier of drive testing equipment (http://www.com) • SwissQual. Drive Testing can be conducted at any time on a live network and very rarely will there be any network intrusion. taxis or buses. and allows mobile network operators to react to what effectively subjective quality degradations by investigating the technical cause of the problem in time-correlated data collected during the drive test.Drive testing 54 Types of Drive Testing Drive testing can broadly be categorized into three distinct topics: • Network Benchmarking • Optimization & Troubleshooting • Service Quality Monitoring The resulting oduced by drive testing for each of these purposes is different. a supplier of drive testing equipment (http://www. In this mode drive testing data is used to diagnose the root cause of specific. using devices that run largely without human intervention carried in vehicles that regularly ply typical drive testing routes such as garbage collection vehicles.anite. Service quality monitoring is typically carried out in an automated fashion. to provide directly comparable information regarding competitive strengths and weaknesses. Service Quality Monitoring Service quality monitoring typically involves making test calls across the network to a fixed test unit to assess the relative quality of various services using Mean opinion score (MOS). References External links • Ascom.ascom.swissqual. Network Benchmarking For network benchmarking.such a comparative coverage analysis or comparative data network speed analysis.) .

Dual mode mobile


Dual mode mobile
Dual mode mobiles refer to mobile phones that are compatible with more than one form of data transmission or network.

Dual-Mode Phone
A dual-mode phone is a telephone which uses more than one technique for sending and receiving voice and data. This could be for wireless mobile phones or for wired phones. There are three types of dual mode phones.

Network Compatibility
Mobile phones containing two types of cellular radios for voice and data. These phones include combination of GSM and [[CDMAg ]] technology. They can be used as a GSM or CDMA phone according to your preference. These handsets are also called global phones. A good example of this kind of phones are Spice D1111 [1] and the Samsung SCH-a790.Recently Lg released a handset named Fathom which is capable of dual mode but with a single sim slot. These dual mode handsets are compatible with both GSM and CDMA networks and are essentially 2 phones in one device. Such phones make sense in those countries that have both GSM & CDMA networks or international CDMA roamers who want to keep a single handset with 2 numbers on it. All dual mode handsets require two identifying cards (one SIM and one RUIM) but not all dual SIM handsets are dual mode (for example dual SIM GSM phones).

Cellular and Non-cellular Radios
Mobile phones containing both cellular and non-cellular radios used for voice and data communication. There are also 2 types of dual mode phones which use cellular radio which will contain GSM/CDMA/W-CDMA as well as other technology like IEEE 802.11 (Wi-Fi) radio or DECT (Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications) radio. These phones can be used as cellular phones when connected to a wide area cellular network. When within range of a suitable WiFi or DECT network, the phone can be used as a WiFi/DECT phone for all communications purposes. This method of operation can reduce cost (for both the network operator and the subscriber), improve indoor coverage and increase data access speeds.

Wired Phones
Wired phones with VoIP and POTS technology. These phones can be used for making VoIP calls and also used for phones on the circuit switchnetwork. These phones require compatible routers and modem to make VoIP calls.

External links
• China Wireless [2] (Market Research) • Eurodualsim technologie [3]

[1] http:/ / www. spice-mobile. com/ model_fer_D1111. aspx [2] http:/ / www. instat. com/ abstract. asp?id=279& SKU=IN0703903CWW [3] http:/ / www. eurodualsim. com/

Dumb pipe


Dumb pipe
With regards to a mobile network operator (MNO, or operator), the term dumb pipe refers to an operator’s network being used simply to transfer bytes between the customer’s device and the Internet. The use of the term “dumb” refers to the inability of the operator to restrict services and applications to its own portal and primarily just provide simple bandwidth and network speed. The dumb pipe is one of the commonly understood operational models for a MNO, including the walled garden, and the smart pipe.

One widely regarded example of the operator “dumb pipe” scenario is Apple’s iPhone. The iPhone enables its users to directly surf the Internet with its mobile Safari browser and connects to Apple’s ITunes store for purchasing ringtones and music instead of the operator’s own portal[1] . Operators such as AT&T Mobility cannot offer their traditional services (such as downloads of wallpapers, ringtones, games, applications, etc.) as Apple controls the total iPhone user experience. Operators must be content to provide only the network connectivity and bandwidth which the iPhone has tripled in some cities[2] . In addition to losing valuable revenue opportunities with the customer, operators are rumored to pay Apple a percentage of the customer’s monthly bill as well[3] [4] . While the iPhone is a good example of the dumb pipe, not everyone believes it will ultimately be bad for operators[5] . Another example of the operator dumb pipe / smart pipe dilemma is the upcoming deployment of WiMAX technology. Companies such as Sprint Nextel and Clearwire are looking into ways to deploy WiMAX with additional services to keep them from becoming dumb pipes[6] .

Further reading
While there is no real industry standard definition of dumb pipe, it is a generally understood term in the mobile industry. There are numerous blog postings and trade articles which refer to the operator dumb pipe dilemma, some of which are referenced in this article. Others include: • The Operators vs. the Media Brands [7] • The Pipe Is Only Dumb If You Make It That Way [8] • Staying Relevant In A Dumb Pipe Era [9] A reference which describes the dumb pipe, operator portal (or walled garden), as well as the smart pipe is a report from Juniper Research titled Business Models for Mobile Content Players, Strategic Options & Scenarios 2007-2012: • Juniper Research Report [10] The author is not affiliated with Juniper in any way, and although the full report requires purchase, there are a number of summaries available on the web: • Smart-Pipe Strategy to Provide MNOs with 31% Share of $188bn Mobile Content Market by 2012 [11] • Study About MNOs Share of Mobile Content Market [12] • Mobile Entertainment in Western Europe [13] A Google search will list several more: • Google Search of Juniper Report [14]

Dumb pipe


Apple adds iPhone ringtones to iTunes (http:/ / www. engadget. com/ 2007/ 09/ 05/ apple-adds-iphone-ringtones-to-itunes/ ) iPhone Triples AT&T's Data Traffic (http:/ / www. shaiberger. com/ ?p=52) Apple's European iPhone Deals (http:/ / blogs. ft. com/ techblog/ 2007/ 08/ apples-european. html) Inside Apple: An iPhone Invasion (http:/ / www. pcmag. com/ article2/ 0,2704,2185225,00. asp) Wired: How the iPhone Blew Up the Wireless Industry (http:/ / www. wired. com/ gadgets/ wireless/ magazine/ 16-02/ ff_iphone?currentPage=all) [6] WiMAX Carriers Risk Becoming Dumb Pipes (http:/ / www. fiercebroadbandwireless. com/ story/ analysys-wimax-carriers-risk-becoming-dumb-pipes/ 2007-07-16) [7] http:/ / gigaom. com/ 2008/ 01/ 13/ the-operators-vs-the-media-brands/ [8] http:/ / mobhappy. com/ blog1/ 2008/ 01/ 14/ the-pipe-is-only-dumb-if-you-make-it-that-way/ [9] http:/ / www. wirelessweek. com/ staying-relevant-in-a-dumb-pipe. aspx [10] http:/ / www. juniperresearch. com/ shop/ viewreport. php?id=91 [11] http:/ / www. sourcewire. com/ releases/ rel_display. php?relid=iiLmi [12] http:/ / news. soft32. com/ juniper-research%E2%80%99s-study-about-mnos-share-of-mobile-content-market-by-2012_5106. html [13] http:/ / research. analysys. com/ default. asp?Mode=article& iLeftArticle=2179& m=& n= [14] http:/ / www. google. com/ search?hl=en& q=juniper+ research+ business+ models+ for+ mobile+ content+ players& btnG=Google+ Search [1] [2] [3] [4] [5]

Dynamic Link Adaptation
In mobile telephony, Dynamic Link Adaptation is a method and strategy by which cellular networks can dynamically adapt a radio link according to changing conditions of interference. In particular, the method applies to uplink time slots in UMTS-TDD systems. A preferred embodiment describes performing dynamic link adaptation when a UE has two CCTrCHs in an uplink time slot. The method and strategy of the invention are applicable for UMTS-FDD, CDMA-2000, and other systems as well.

E-OTD is the acronym for the Enhanced Observed Time Difference. Enhanced Observed Time Difference (E-OTD) is a standard for the location of mobile telephones. The location method works by multilateration. The standardisation was first carried out for GSM by the GSM standard committees (T1P1.5 and ETIS) in LCS Release 98 and Release 99[1] . The standardisation was continued for 3G and WCDMA mobile telephones by 3GPP[2] . Conceptually, the method is similar to U-TDOA, however, it involves time difference measurements being made in the handset rather than the network, and a mechanism to pseudo-synchronise the network. The handset makes an observation of the time difference of arrival of signals from two different base stations. These observations are known as Observed Time Difference (OTD). The handset measures the OTD between a number of different base stations. If the base stations were synchronised, then a single OTD defines a hyperbolic locus. A second, independent OTD, for which one of the observed base stations is spatially distinct from those in the first OTD, would provide a second hyperbolic locus, and the intersection of the two loci gives an estimate of the location of the mobile. If more than two independent OTDs are available, then the measurements can be combined to yield a more accurate measurement. However, GSM and 3G networks are not necessarily synchronised, so further information is needed. The E-OTD standard provides a method for pseudo-synchronisation. A Location Measurement Unit (LMU) can be used to estimate the transmission time offset between two base stations. This measurement is known as the Real Time Difference (RTD). The RTD for two base stations can then be subtracted from the OTD for the same two base stations to produce the Geometric Time Difference (GTD). The GTD is the time difference that would have been measured by the mobile if the network was perfectly synchronised. Accordingly, the application of the RTD

then the additional information can be used to estimate the RTDs. com/ contents/ pdf/ 6623767. if there are sufficient independent OTD measurements such that the equation system is over-determined.pdf) E-OTD compliance check in lab environment (http:/ / wireless. tmworld. 5084. The deployment of LMUs can be expensive.php?gid=188) Advertisement of the E-OTD capability (http:/ / www. In essence. a 2003 paper[4] describes a method of operating E-OTD without LMUs. gov/ pshs/ services/ 911-services/ enhanced911/ archives/ aerial. E-OTD positioning system has been less commonly used than the U-TDOA positioning system. [4] “Mobile location without network-based synchronization or How to do E-OTD without LMUs”. com/ rfcomms/ refdocs/ gsmgprs/ gprsla_gen_bse_eotd. as the time offsets will be changing due to the clock drift in each base station[3] . SPIE. CPS was acquired by CSR. html) External links Encyclopedic article from Phone Scoop (http://www. cnet. In 2007. Proc. An active proponent and developer of E-OTD was Cambridge Positioning Systems (CPS)[5] . pdf) [3] “Mobile Phone Location Determination and Its Impact on Intelligent Transportation Systems” IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems. pp 55 – 64. 1. and presents results of an operational trial.com/contents/pdf/6623767. If the base station clocks are not synchronised to a common source. In 2009. However. and so is a drawback of E-OTD. com/ 2100-1033-928153.E-OTD provides a pseudo-synchronisation. E-OTD was considered for the Enhanced 911 mandate. but ultimately was not a successful contender for this application. No. An LMU is a receiver that is placed in a position in the network that is able to report the RTDs of a number of different base stations.php) .pdf) Manual for the E-ODT compliance check (http://www. [5] “Last Chance for E911 Technology” (http:/ / news. CSR merged with SIRF.com/glossary/term. Vol 1. org/ workshop/ Archive/ 0101LCS/ Docs/ PDF/ LCS-010019. fcc. 2000. pdf) [2] “Testing E-ODT” (Manual for the E-ODT compliance check) (http:/ / www. March.phonescoop.tmworld. Vol. Because E-OTD requires a software modification to be included in the mobile phone. 3gpp. 59 (2003). agilent. then it is necessary to continuously update the RTDs. 58 References [1] “Overview of 2G LCS Technologies and Standards” (ftp:/ / ftp.

5 hexadecimal digits.S. Codes are assigned according to industry guidelines. MEID. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to uniquely identify mobile devices. but 14 bit codes are not displayed as separate digits. 2009-09 (http:/ / www.org/standards/resources/esn/) .[3] Applications for assignments were accepted until June 30. MEID was created to be a superset of IMEI. Reclaimed codes have also been used for UIMID assignments.0. org/ ftp/ Specs/ html-info/ 23003. cfm) 3GPP TS 23. leaving 18 bits for the manufacturer to assign up to 262. 2010 using reclaimed ESN codes. The main difference between MEID and IMEI is that the MEID allows hexadecimal digits while IMEI allows only decimal digits .[2] The last of the virgin (never before used) ESN codes was allocated in November 2008. For the decimal format the first three digits are the decimal representation of the first 8 bits (between 000 and 255 inclusive) and the next 8 digits are derived from the remaining 24 bits and will be between 00000000 and 16777215 inclusive. Pseudo-ESNs are not guaranteed to be unique (the MEID is the unique identifier if the phone has a pseudo-ESN). Version 1. leaving 24 bits for the manufacturer to assign up to 16. V9. Manufacturer code 0x80 is reserved from assignment and is used instead as an 8-bit prefix for pseudo-ESNs (pESN).144 codes. ESNs are mainly used with CDMA phones (and were previously used by AMPS and TDMA phones). The remaining 24 bits are the least significant bits of the SHA-1 hash of a Mobile Equipment Identifier (MEID). tiaonline. org/ standards/ resources/ esn/ documents/ ESN_Guidelines_v1. pdf) External links • Official TIA Resource Page for ESN and UIMID (http://www. tiaonline. The administrative role was taken over by the Telecommunications Industry Association in 1997 and is still maintained by them. pdf ESN Assignment Guidelines and Procedures. those previously assigned to AMPS or TDMA phones and therefore not present on CDMA2000 systems. was created and was first implemented by Verizon in 2006."IMSI shall consist of decimal digits (0 through 9) only". in fact. MEIDs are 56 bits long. the same length as the IMEI and. 3gpp. org/ standards/ resources/ esn/ documents/ esn_meid_milestones_timeline. The decimal format separately displays 8 bit manufacturer codes in the first 3 digits.[1] The first 8 bits of the ESN was originally the manufacturer code. from the days of AMPS in the United States from the early 1980s.[4] References [1] [2] [3] [4] Electronic Serial Numbers (ESN) (http:/ / www.Electronic Serial Number 59 Electronic Serial Number Electronic Serial Numbers (ESNs) were created by the U. The decimal format of pseudo ESNs will therefore begin with 128. a new serial number format.0. ESNs are often represented as either 11 digit decimal numbers or 8 digit hexadecimal numbers.215 codes to mobiles. htm) http:/ / www. The hexadecimal format displays an ESN as 8 digits and also does not separately display 14 bit manufacturer codes which occupy 3.777.003. To allow more than 256 manufacturers to be identified the manufacturer code was extended to 14 bits. May 2007 (http:/ / tiaonline.9c. org/ standards/ resources/ esn/ index. As ESNs have essentially run out.tiaonline. compared to International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI) numbers used by all GSM phones. 9c.

 92. 1996[1] and Motorola sold their national paging license. a national carrier for pagers in the 900 MHz band. The subsequent fields are dependent on the operation. the third is the operation type (O for operation.[2] In 1996. EMI (protocol) External Machine Interface (EMI). Syntax A typical EMI/UCP exchange looks like this : ^B01/00045/O/30/66677789///1//////68656C6C6F/CE^C ^B01/00041/R/30/A//66677789:180594141236/F3^C The start of the packet is signaled by ^B (STX. but registration is required. Wireless Computing: A Manager's Guide to Wireless Networking. [2] Brodsky. receivers of service requests. The final field is the checksum. The wireless data handbook (http:/ / books. the EMBARC enterprise failed in April. The most likely users of this service were thought to be sales people operating in the field. with the charge being more cost effective for larger numbers of clients. John Wiley and Sons. They decided instead to focus on hardware manufacturing. The deliveries were charged based on time until reception.500 characters long to portable computers that were equipped to receive the messages. The second line is the response with a matching transaction reference number. an extension to Universal Computer Protocol (UCP). James F. now part of Acision. In the first line above. Communications Series. Ira (1997). Retrieved 2011-05-06. It was established in 1990 after Motorola purchased Contemporary Communications. and a timestamp is suffixed to the phone number to show time of delivery. '66677789' is the recipient's address (telephone number) and '68656C6C6F' is the content of the message. where 'A' indicates that the message was successfully acknowledged by the SMSC. com/ books?id=jbXEy2FRAnIC& pg=PA26) (4th ed. John Wiley and Sons. Motorola attempted to use EMBARC to penetrate a different market: broadcasting current sports scores. It could send messages up to 1.[2] References [1] DeRose. The first four fields form the mandatory header.EMBARC 60 EMBARC EMBARC (Electronic Mail Broadcast to A Roaming Computer) was a business enterprise of the Motorola company that provided wireless broadcast of e-mail and news to mobile subscribers. Unfortunately. ISBN 0471286567. is a protocol primarily used to connect to short message service centres (SMSCs) for mobile telephones. ISBN 0471316512. p. google. Fields within the packet are separated by / characters. .). "short message transfer"). hex 02) and the end with ^C (ETX. R for result).[2] However. The full specification is available on the LogicaCMG website developers' forum. p. 26. . in this case the ASCII string "hello".5 kW ground transmitters. and the fourth is the operation (here 30.200 bps from 3. hex 03). The protocol was developed by CMG Wireless Data Solutions. It was useful for sending a simultaneous message or memo to up to 500 mobile users. alphanumeric pagers did not show rapid growth in the market. calculated simply by summing all bytes in the packet (including slashes) and taking the 8 least significant bits from the result.[1] The EMBARC service could feed data at 1. (1999). and the transportation industry. forming less than 5% of all pagers by 1991.

org/ ~nemux/ . logicacmg. com/ discus/ messages/ 1/ EMI_UCP_Specification_40-8156. except few characters (for example '_' underline).0 support. pdf http:/ / www. pdf http:/ / search. vodafone. In practice default alphabet is GSM-7. The default alphabet . with number of window bigger than 100). In practice it does not have any impact on delivery throughput. cpan. de/ downloadarea/ EmiSpec_43d.EMI (protocol) 61 Technical Limitations The two digit transaction reference number means that an entity sending text messages can only have 100 outstanding messages (per session). but only if you have very slow network and incorrectly configure your application on your SMSC (for example one session. com/ Telecoms/ 350234223 http:/ / www. this can limit performance. which is almost the same as ASCII on 7 bit. Open-Source WAP and SMS Gateway with UCP/EMI 4. nowsms. Alternatives • Short message peer-to-peer protocol (SMPP) also provides SMS over TCP/IP. • Computer Interface for Message Distribution (CIMD) developed by Nokia External links • LogicaCMG: Downloads for developers [1] (link no longer active as of 2007-12-24) • UCP Specification (Vodafone Germany) [2] • A more detailed UCP Specification [3] • UCP Perl implementation (for developers) [4] • Kannel [3]. References [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / www.interesting is that in EMI UCP documentation default alphabet is IRA (eq ASCII on 7bit).

EGPS technologies are due in 2008.uk/PR/ April2006/2970. trademarked as eGPS) is a technology designed for mobile phones on GSM and W-CDMA networks.com/2008/02/10/ csr-shows-off-egps-says-its-superior-to-a-gps/) • E-GPS High Accuracy Mobile Location Technology for GSM / 3G W-CDMA (http://www. to quickly acquire satellite information within seconds. EGPS delivers a "universal positioning capability that will not only work reliably indoors and in zero GPS signal conditions. E-GPS combines CSR's "Matrix" technology with GPS – when a user initiates a location request they get a Matrix location instantly using cell tower information." CSR is hoping to add eGPS capabilities to handsets for less than $1 per unit. and that eGPS is superior to Assisted GPS. says it's superior to aGPS (http://www.Enhanced GPS 62 Enhanced GPS Enhanced GPS (or E-GPS. to augment GPS signals to deliver faster location fixes.The E-GPS system was first announced by developers CPS (Cambridge Positioning Systems Ltd)[1] • January 2007 . accurate to within 100m. a manufacturer of bluetooth and wireless chips for mobile handsets • January 2008 . lower cost implementations and reduced power and processing requirements. but greatly speed time to fix in poor GPS reception areas where most handsets are used.CSR & Motorola announce that they intend to create an open industry forum for EGPS technologies References [1] CSR announcement Feb 2005 (http:/ / www. palminfocenter. According to CSR.co. com/ news/ 7557/ egps-offers-more-accurate-handset-locating/ ) External links • The EGPS Forum . Timeline • February 2005 .engadget. and reliable location sensing when GPS signals are weak or unavailable." More specifically.egpsforum. fast.Motorola and CSR (http://www. it can "exploit data available from the cellular network to speed GPS fixes and provide complementary.3g.htm) . It is being developed by CSR who has partnered with Motorola – together they intend to create an open industry forum.CPS is purchased by CSR.org/) • CSR shows off eGPS. Then CSR's "Fine Time Aiding" helps the device know where to look for a GPS signal. CSR claim that this enables software-only GPS solutions to operate reliably in all environments. EGPS. Fine Time Aiding enables a more aggressive search and is claimed to be equivalent to 6 dB more sensitivity than can be achieved by any GPS hardware correlator in the terminal.

europa.. uk/ static/ archive/ ra/ topics/ paging/ document/ pwa-paging. gsm-antennes.4125-169. htm) [3] Commission Decision of 20 December 2005 on the harmonisation of the 169. • ERMES uses Frequency Shift Keying (4-FSK) modulation. Related websites • PDW Paging Decoder [4] freeware • Audio samples including ERMES. [5] References [1] Council Directive 90/544/EEC of 9 October 1990 on the frequency bands designated for the coordinated introduction of pan-European land-based public radio paging in the Community (http:/ / eur-lex.. php?lang=eng [5] http:/ / kb9ukd. • Each pager group is allocated to one of the 16 transmission batches [A. eu/ LexUriServ/ LexUriServ. Transmission parameters.[1] ERMES failed to develop[2] and its frequency band has been reassigned to different use. European Telecommunications Standard Institute (ETSI) has developed the European Telecommunications Standard ETS 300 133 for ERMES operating in the frequency band 169. Pager interrogation • The pager population is divided into 16 groups..[3] Technical specification Transmission parameters • ERMES transmits the data at 6250 bit/s. com/ digital/ . This scheduling allocation protocol extends the battery life of the pager by several orders of magnitude. do?uri=OJ:L:2005:344:0047:01:EN:HTML) [4] http:/ / www. pager interrogation • Each paging transmission is divided into 60 cycles of 1 minute in length. nl/ PDW/ pdw. do?uri=CELEX:31990L0544:EN:HTML) [2] Ofcom's Public Wide Area Paging Information (http:/ / www. europa.. ofcom.ERMES 63 ERMES ERMES (European Radio Messaging System) is a pan-European radio paging system.P]. Radio paging services depend on the allocation and availability of appropriate frequencies in order to transmit and receive between fixed-base stations and radio paging receivers respectively. org. eu/ LexUriServ/ LexUriServ. • Each cycle is divided into 5 subsequences of 12 seconds. • Each subsequence is further divided into 16 batches. • The pager needs only to be active during the period it has been allocated to.8125 MHz frequency band in the Community (http:/ / eur-lex. labeled A through P. allowing it to go into sleep mode 15/16 (~=93%) of the time (a ~7% duty cycle). GOLAY etc.4-169.8125 MHz.

ESME (pronounced EZ-mee) is essentially one of these but without all the wireless aspects. the TIA. Big Brother). OIS. CIMD.e. EUIMID EUIMID (expanded UIMID) is a unique identifier for an R-UIM (Removable User Identity Module) or CSIM (CDMA SIM application) card in CDMA2000 cellular systems that replaces the older UIMID identifier.0 (or higher) [1]. anytime a mobile user sends or receives a message where the other party was not another real mobile user.S0023-C v1. The SF_EUIMID has the unique ability to override the phone’s own MEID in signaling. Both forms produce a 32-bit pseudo-UIMID (pUIMID) with 0x80 in the upper 8 bits and the least significant 24 bits of the SHA-1 hash of the entire SF_EUIMID or the entire ICCID EF (for LF_EUIMID) in the lower 24 bits. another unique identifier should be used instead or the requirement for uniqueness should be removed. . it is connected via TCP/IP. SMSC uses protocols such as SMPP. SMCI all of which denote the concept of an ESME connecting to an SMSC. X. The pseudo-UIMID is not unique. Basically. i. This tradeoff was removed in 2008 by the ability to specify MEID or EUIMID in OTASP signaling and in 2009 by the addition of these options to the CDMA air interface StatusRequest message. it is likely that the other sender/receiver is an ESME. This may make it easier to provision a R-UIM that is manufactured without other unique identifiers (such as MIN or IMSI). Secondly. SME is a term used in many cellular circles to describe a network entity (mobile/cell phone) that can send/receive messages. This is controlled by a flag inside the R-UIM stored in bit 2 of the UsgInd (Usage Indicator) elementary file (EF). etc. Short Form EUIMID (SF_EUIMID) The Short Form EUIMID is based on the 56-bit MEID and is allocated from the same numbering space by the current Global Hexadecimal Administrator (GHA). Their most important characteristic is that they are globally unique. Typical examples of ESMEs are systems that send automated marketing messages to mobile users. they can identify the issuer of the code (likely a mobile phone operator in the case of EUIMID. voting systems that process SMS votes (Pop Idol.25 or similar. This form requires new files within the R-UIM defined in 3GPP2 specification C. known as Short Form (SF_EUIMID) and Long Form (LF_EUIMID). There are two forms of EUIMID. and an R-UIM or CSIM manufacturer in the case of UIMID). no two R-UIM devices should ever be given the same number. The tradeoff is that the phone hardware cannot be easily identified.[2] This was published by the TIA as TIA-820-C. or not desirable.ESME 64 ESME External Short Messaging Entity (ESME) is a term originally coined by Aldiscon to describe an external application that connects to an SMSC to engage in the sending and/or receiving of SMS messages. but can satisfy most uses of UIMID. UCP. The EUIMID (and UIMID) are hardware identifiers that do not change throughout the life of the device they identify. Where this is not possible.

S0023-C v2.0. 3gpp2. S0066-0_v2. including the SIM cards for GSM. the CDMA air interface was also upgraded to the so-called 'Release E' which allows the transmission of all available identifiers in the StatusRequest message. pdf) [4] C. S0023-C_v1. org/ Public_html/ specs/ C. org/ Public_html/ SC/ C. 3gpp2. pdf) . Over-the-Air Service Provisioning for MEID-Equipped Mobile Stations in Spread Spectrum Systems. (http:/ / www. S0023-C_v2.up to 72 bits.S0023-C[3] that the pseudo-UIMID is generated from all 80 stored bits.S0023-C v2. Until the publication of C. The storage allocated for the ICCID is. (http:/ / www. 2008. Publication pending. org/ Public_html/ specs/ C. so it is recommended that the Luhn check digit be included plus a padding digit (0xf).0 of C. 0_080729. however. [4] In 2009. (http:/ / www.0 there were no CDMA2000 protocols that provided visibility of the ICCID outside the R-UIM. Removable User Identity Module for Spread Spectrum Systems. org/ Public_html/ specs/ C. 80 bits. This is composed of up to 18 BCD digits -. pdf [2] C. Removable User Identity Module for Spread Spectrum Systems. 3GPP2. 3GPP2. 3gpp2. References [1] http:/ / www. 0_060530. In Press. it is recommended in Version 2.S0066-0 v2. 0_081031. Importantly. pdf) [3] C.0. S0023-C_v2.S0066-0 v2.EUIMID 65 Long Form EUIMID (LF_EUIMID) The Long Form EUIMID is the ICCID that has been present in many generations of smart cards. If an R-UIM or CSIM with Expanded UIMID is inserted in a phone the identifier that is usually transmitted as the 'ESN' over the radio interface is the 32-bit pseudo-UIMID. 3GPP2. 3gpp2. 0_081031.0.

BlackBerry. and many J2ME-compatible devices.[3] although it does not reveal users' exact locations. html). face2face had 10.35 6. Retrieved 2010-09-19. Retrieved 2010-09-19. and many J2ME-compatible devices. face2face. prnewswire. Venture Beat.ws [1] face2face is a proprietary proximity-based mobile application developed by Proximate Global Inc. html).[3] face2face populates content based on users' news feed. MySpace.[3] Privacy and security Responding to growing concerns about location-based apps revealing too much information about a user's whereabouts. and Twitter[8] and enables users to see when members of these networks are in close proximity. face2face incorporates "reciprocal sharing functionality" so that only users who make themselves known to each other share location data.[7] Overview face2face compiles existing online social and business networks including Facebook. . Awards face2face earned Mashable's "Spark of Genius" award in July 2010. protecting their privacy. com/ external/ venturebeat/ 2010/ 07/ 08/ 08venturebeat-face2face-brings-privacy-to-location-by-appr-41496. [4] JP Manninen (2010-07-08). It works on BlackBerry. iPhone. without sacrificing privacy.face2face 66 face2face Original author(s) Proximate Global Inc.[2] that allows users to identify when members of their social networks are nearby. and proximity. ws [2] "Proximate Global Introduces face2face" (http:/ / www. although its technology gathers that data. within walking distance.9 MB English social networking www. 2010-07-08. Mashable.[3] [4] [5] [6] face2face was launched in July 2010[2] for smartphones including the iPhone.[5] [9] References [1] http:/ / www. [3] Jennifer Van Grove (2010-07-10). Users can also update their own statuses and share news across all of their social networks.face2face. . nytimes. "Mobile App Pinpoints Nearby Facebook and Twitter Friends" (http:/ / mashable. New York: PR Newswire. Initial release Stable release Size Available in Type Website July 2010 1. LinkedIn.2. face2face allows users to choose with which members of their social networks they share location information.[4] [6] face2face does not reveal precise location coordinates. In its first month (July 2010). Android.5.000+ app downloads. com/ 2010/ 07/ 10/ face2face/ ). people not in one of their networks cannot see the information. Android. Those users are then connected to 3.5 million friends of friends. The New York . statuses. "Face2face Brings Privacy to Location by Approximating Friends' Whereabouts" (http:/ / www. com/ news-releases/ proximate-global-introduces-face2face-98015299.

and can be monitored through several websites. At 3200/4. MFS and SAAS) is run on the FLEX 1600 protocol. . . technologyreview. ws/ faqs). 3200 or 6400 bits per second respectively. uk/ news/ archive/ 2010-07/ 26/ face2face-social-network). Face2face. 3200/2. The traffic on this network can be monitored via several websites. In South Australia the State's SAGRN network for the Emergency Services paging system (CFS.face2face. . 512 or 1024 bits for 1600. news organizations. gomonews. The data blocks contain 256. Retrieved 2010-09-19. At 3200/2. 67 External links • Official site (http://www. intomobile. Intomobile. . A BCH type ECC is used to improve the integrity of the data. At 1600/2 this is on a 2 level FSK signal transmitted at 1600 bits per second. co. The standard has been designed to allow the pager's receiver to be turned off for a high percentage of the time and therefore save on battery usage. Each frame contains a sync followed by 10 data blocks.uk. LinkedIn. but a related protocol called ReFLEX provides two-way messaging. Proximate Global Inc.. Retrieved 2010-09-19.ws) FLEX (protocol) FLEX is a communications protocol developed by Motorola and used in many pagers. etc. At 6400/4. Each 4 level symbol represents two bits for a bit rate of 3200 bits per second. Retrieved 2010-09-19. There have been reported instances of individuals actively listening to pager traffic (private investigators. [6] Olivia Solon (2010-07-26). or 6400/4. All modes use FSK modulation.face2face Times. "Proximity-based 'Face2face' app assuages privacy fears" (http:/ / www.). . this is a 4 level FSK signal transmitted at 1600 symbols per second. this is a 4 level FSK signal transmitted at 3200 symbols per second or 6400 bits per second. [5] Naone. Twitter and MySpace on a single platform" (http:/ / www. wired. Data is transmitted in a set of 128 frames that takes 4 minutes to complete. Erica (2010-07-26). 2010-08-10. Technology Review. 2010-07-29.co. FLEX provides one-way communication only (from the provider to the pager device). MIT. [7] "Mobile location and privacy in one network: Face2Face" (http:/ / www. "App Lets You Know When Friends Are Nearby" (http:/ / www.com. In The Netherlands the emergency services use the Flex-protocol in the nationwide P2000 network for pagers. Retrieved 2010-09-19. Retrieved 2010-09-19. this is a 2 level FSK signal transmitted at 3200 bits per second. com/ mobile-location-and-privacy-in-one-network-face2face/ ). transmitting private information over it should be done with caution. 3200/4. Wired. com/ computing/ 25855/ ?a=f). Security Since data transmission over FLEX is unencrypted and insecure. Transmission of message data occurs in one of four modes: 1600/2. Retrieved 2010-09-19. [9] "FAQs" (http:/ / face2face. com/ 2010/ 07/ 29/ face2face-consolidates-facebook-linkedin-twitter-and-myspace-on-a-single-platform/ ). .ws. [8] "Face2face consolidates Facebook. . SES. GoMo News.

net/ FLEX_Technologies.gcd" extension. Generic Bootstrapping Architecture Introduction In mobile phones. Instead of asking the service provider to trust the BSF and relying on it for every authentication request. html General content descriptor A General Content Descriptor (GCD) is a file which describes downloads like ringtones and pictures to wireless devices. org/ ftp/ Specs/ html-info/ 33220. The name of the file will end with a ". They are required by many wireless carriers to install applications on devices. htm) . This authentication is possible if the user owns a valid identity on an HLR Home Location Register or a Home Subscriber Server GBA is standardized at the 3GPP (http:/ / www. nettwerked.FLEX (protocol) 68 External links • FLEX Technology: Paging Protocol [1] References [1] http:/ / www. Generic Bootstrapping Architecture (GBA) is one technology enabling the authentication of a user. 3gpp. This shared secret is limited in time and for a specific domain. the BSF establishes a shared secret between the simcard card and the service provider. GCD's are plain text files. The user authentication is instantiated by a shared secret. . GBA authenticates by making a network component challenge the simcard card and verify that the answer is similar by the one predicted by the HLR/HSS. one in the smartcard inside the mobile phone and the other is on the HLR/HSS.

Every Web server already implement HTTP digest authentication and the effort to implement GBA on top of digest authentication is minimal. .There is no need for user enrollment phase nor secure deployment of keys. . no/ simplesamlphp with 500 PHP lines of code and only a few tens of lines of code are Service Provider specific making it really easy to port it to another Web site. either Bluetooth SAP or a Java or native application could be used to serve the request coming from the browser. as it is based on HTTP's well known "Digest access authentication". feide. For example it could be implemented on SimpleSAMLPhP http:/ / rnd. • A means to dialog with a smartcard and signed the challenge sent by the BSF.Generic Bootstrapping Architecture 69 Strong points This solution has some strong points of certificate and shared secrets without having some of their weaknesses: . making this solution a very low cost one when compared to PKI.On device side is needed: • A Web browser (in fact an HTTP client) implementing digest authentication and the special case designed by a "3gpp" string in the HTTP header. .Another advantage is the ease with which the authentication method may be integrated into terminals and service providers.

the services can retrieve the session keys from the operator. There are two ways to use GAA (Generic Authentication Architecture). using the Digest access authentication AKA protocol.org/demos/demo3.htm. is based on public-private key pairs and digital certificates. In the shared secret cases.Presentation at ICIN 2008 by Peter Weik [2] • The Open Mobile Terminal Platform http://www. Optional entities are drawn with lines network and borders dotted the scoreboard. pdf%20 [3] OMTP Advanced Trusted Environment: OMTP TR1 (http:/ / www. pdf) [2] http:/ / www.omtp. If there are several HSS in the network. omtp. • The first. Helsinki University of Technology (http:/ / www. tkk.de developed an OpenID extension for Firefox which uses GBA authentication. for example. • The Fraunhofer Fokus http://www.Generic Bootstrapping Architecture 70 Technical overview Actually. it must use a Zn-proxy to contact BSF . over the Ua [4] interface. icin. BSF must first know which one to use. biz/ files/ 2008papers/ Session5A-2. Uses • The SPICE project developed an extended Use Case named "split terminal" where a user on a PC can authenticate with her mobile phone: http://www. Later a partner developed a "zero installation" concept.ist-spice. NAFs recover the key session of BSF during the Zn [5] interface. SSC. fi/ Publications/ C/ 22/ papers/ Olkkonen_final. This can be done by either setting up a pre-defined HSS to BSF.The NAF was developed on SimpleSAMLPhP and a Firefox extension was developed to process the GBA digest authencation request from the BSF. After that. first released in May 2008. or by querying the Subscriber Locator Function (SLF).org references GBA in its Advanced Trusted Environment: OMTP TR1[3] recommendation. aspx?Id=24ad518b-6dba-4155-ad51-3143bd43a234) .fraunhofer. References [1] Generic Authentication Architecture by Timo Olkkonen. which also uses the diameter at the base Protocol.fokus. and they can be used in some application specific protocol between the client and services. which are the implementation servers. BSF retrieves data from the subscriber from the Home Subscriber Server (HSS) during the Zh [3] interface. is based on a shared secret between the client and server • The second. Figure above shows the network GAA entities and interfaces between them. which can use any specific application protocol necessary. The UE and Bootstrapping function server (BSF) mutually authenticate themselves during the Ub (number [2] above) interface. GBA. Bluetooth SIM Access Profile was used between the Firefox browser and the mobile phone. The UE also communicates with the Network Application Functions (NAF). This is called bootstrapping. org/ Publications/ Display. tml. which uses the Diameter Base Protocol. the user's mobile phone. the customer and the operator are first mutually authenticated through 3G and Authentication Key (AKA) and they agree on session keys which can then be used between the client and services that the customer wants to use. contents in this section are from external literature [1] . If NAF is not in the home network. The User Equipment (UE) is.

Amazon. founded Ecount – an electronic payments company. Hotmail and Citysearch. Gillin remained as CEO of the renamed business. Ecount was issuing more than US $4 billion in payments worldwide. Philadelphia Business Journal Best Places to Work[7] . Pennsylvania. Gillin sold Ecount to Citi for US $200 million.5 billion for companies including Microsoft. relaynetwork. In 2007.[1] He is currently CEO and co-founder of his third business venture. and is the recipient of multiple national and local awards including Ernst & Young Entrepreneur of the Year [3] . Relay Type Industry Founded Startup company Technology. Mobile 2009 Headquarters Radnor. Eastern Technology Council Technology CEO of the Year [4] and Philadelphia Business Journal "40 Under 40". C/Base designed programs valued at over US $1. At the time of its acquisition. inventor. Biography Gillin was born in Philadelphia. a corporate prepaid card provider. Paul Raden. Gillin co-founded C/Base – an Internet partnership marketing consultancy. Gillin founded Relay. Citi Prepaid Services. and Pete Flick. In 1997 Gillin and business partner. Deloitte Fast 500[6] . Ecount was one of the first providers of corporate prepaid card solutions for the purpose of replacing paper checks and other inefficient payment methods. Pennsylvania Area served Website United States http:/ / www. Gillin is best known as the co-founder of Ecount. Ohio. In 2009. com . as well as numerous other recognitions for his companies including being named Deloitte Fast 50[5] . together with Paul Raden. He attended Denison University in Granville. Gillin holds two patents in the US Patent Office for his inventions around electronic payments. and philanthropist. a company that helps businesses shift to mobile communications. After the sale.Matt Gillin 71 Matt Gillin Matthew Gillin is an American entrepreneur. Ecount was sold to Citi for US $200 million to integrate into Citi’s global transaction services business. and Forbes "Best of The Web. Steve Gillin. Relay."[8] Matt serves on the board of SpeakUp! and AidsAlive. In 2007.[2] until 2009. In 1995. At the time.

corp.php) • Citi Prepaid Services (formerly Ecount) website (http://www. forbes. com/ about/ 2008news/ sept-1-2008. prepaid.com). Relay helps companies reach their customers through their mobile devices with their consent. . -a087964372) [4] Eastern Technology Council Technology CEO of the Year (http:/ / www.citiprepaid. easterntechnologycouncil. html) [2] Ecount renames to Citi Prepaid Services (http:/ / www.Matt Gillin 72 Current work Gillin is currently CEO and co-founder of Relay. jhtml?id=190)] "Best of the Web" Award] External links • Matt Gillin’s interview (http://www. deloitte.aidsalive. thefreelibrary. deloitte. xacp.allbusiness.relaynetwork. html) [8] [[Forbes (http:/ / www.org/) . com/ assets/ Dcom-UnitedStates/ Local Assets/ Documents/ us_tmt_fast_Greater Phil.org/) • AidsAlive (http://www. com/ 9_21_06. pdf)]] [7] Philadelphia Business Journal "Best Places to Work" (http:/ / www. . Pennsylvania with his wife and two children.com/management.linkedin. References [1] The New York Times article on Ecount's acquisition by Citi (http:/ / www. com/ bow/ b2c/ category. aspx) [5] [[Deloitte (http:/ / www.com/profile/view?id=196368&authType=name& authToken=uFLx&pvs=pp&trk=ppro_viewmore) with his positions and start-up history • Management Page on Relay website (http://www. html) with Smart Business Philadelphia • Matt Gillin’s public profile (http://www.speakup. which Gillin founded prior to Relay • SpeakUp! (http://www. citi. com/ 2007/ 03/ 01/ business/ 01citi.com/human-resources/workforce-management/4059319-1. com/ Greater+ Philadelphia's+ 2002+ Ernst+ & + Young+ Entrepreneur+ Of+ The+ Year(R). nytimes. Gillin currently lives in a suburb of Philadelphia. html) [3] Ernst & Young Entrepreneur of the Year Award (http:/ / www. pdf)] Fast 50] [6] [[Deloitte Fast 500 (http:/ / www. org/ ea/ winners. com/ assets/ Dcom-UnitedStates/ Local Assets/ Documents/ TMT_us_tmt/ us_tmt_2006TechnologyFast500WinnersBrochure.

GoTV Networks GoTV Networks. the company’s wholly owned production studio. there may be more than one GMLC. GoTV is headquartered in Los Angeles. the company’s wholly owned studio is also located in Los Angeles. From mobile and broadband to broadcast and HD. regional wireless carriers and online-mobile third-party distributors. personalized. Some of GoTV’s mobile products/partners include: Astrology Zone Premier Bible-in-a-Year Call On Jesus Cracked NASCAR Sprint Cup Mobile℠ NBA2Go NHRA Mobile Oprah Mobile Revolver TV Romancing Royalty Sony's Crackle . The company’s mobile technology lab is located in San Diego. highly engaged content experiences through feature-rich smart applications distributed to the widest audience possible. and Kansas City. GoTV enables media owners and brands to deliver compelling. GoTV’s rich application technologies deliver engaging experiences that connect brand and media partners with their audiences via mobile. GoTV’s technology. agencies and media owners.5 to 4 minutes per segment. A full suite of feature-rich custom applications and widgets meets specific partner requirements. GoTV’s wide distribution network enables broad syndication of content to the widest audience possible. major wireless carriers.GMLC 73 GMLC The Gateway Mobile Location Centre contains functionality required to support LCS (LoCation Services). SGSN (Serving GPRS Support Node) or MSC (Mobile Switching Centre) Server and receives final location estimates from the corresponding entity. This network includes all major application storefronts. After performing registration authorization. In one PLMN (Public Land Mobile Network). Seattle. syndication and production studio capabilities make GoTV the go-to partner for brands. CA. GoTV Studios creates critically acclaimed original programming. creates and syndicates original content to mobile. GoTV Studios. the industry’s largest mobile media network. GoTV Studios delivers new media content to multiple platforms for today’s consumer. GoTV Studios. reaching new audiences in innovative new ways. The GMLC may request routing information from the HLR (Home Location register) or HSS (Home Subscriber Server). GoTV has the most music channels in the US mobile marketplace. The GMLC is the first node an external LCS client accesses in a GSM or UMTS network. develops hundreds of original and custom shows every month ranging from 2. Syndication & Distribution sales offices are strategically located to serve mobile and broadband partners in Los Angeles. ranking in the top 10 of all music channels available on US carriers. San Francisco. it sends positioning requests to either the VMSC (Visited Mobile Switching Centre).

but often run on batteries and includes a car lighter plug. It had grayscale video at first. USB and SD ports. also. com/ Handheld television A Handheld television is a portable device that usually uses a TFT LCD or Organic light-emitting diode color display. some cell phones have an integrated television receiver feature. History In the 1970s and early 1980s. Nowadays. a color model with an active-matrix LCD was released. Hardware These devices often have stereo 1⁄8 inches (3.GoTV Networks Sprint Exclusive Entertainment Sprint Football Live Univision V CAST Young Hollywood ES Música Hip Hop Official True Country 74 External links • GoTV Networks Website [1] References [1] http:/ / www. Sony released the first model of the Watchman. . Many of these devices resemble handheld transistor radios. Panasonic and Sinclair Research released the first TVs which were small enough to fit in a large pocket. Some handheld televisions also double as portable DVD players and USB PVR . Later in 1982. Some include HDMI. Several years later. Screen sizes vary from 1. a pun on Walkman.2 mm) phono plugs for composite video~analog mono audio relay to serve them as composite monitors. Since LCD technology was not yet mature at the time. the TV used a minuscule CRT which set the record for being the smallest CRT on a commercially marketed product. gotvnetworks. called the Panasonic IC TV MODEL TR-001 and MTV-1. Pocket These TVs fit in your pocket Wearable These TVs sometimes are made in the form of a wristwatch.3 to 5 inches (33 to 130 mm). Size spectrum Portable These TVs cannot fit in your pocket. some models have mono 1/8" jacks for the broadcast signal that is usually relayed via F connector on standard television models.

htm Handover In cellular telecommunications. Purpose In telecommunications there may be different reasons why a handover might be conducted: • when the phone is moving away from the area covered by one cell and entering the area covered by another cell the call is transferred to the second cell in order to avoid call termination when the phone gets outside the range of the first cell.net/journal/time-line/ References [1] http:/ / www. guenthoer. • when the capacity for connecting new calls of a given cell is used up and an existing or new call from a phone. and standardised within European originated standards such as GSM and UMTS. • in non-CDMA networks when the channel used by the phone becomes interfered by another phone using the same channel in a different cell. ETSI and 3GPP. IETF. the call is transferred to a different channel in the same cell or to a different channel in another cell in order to avoid the interference. and this is most commonly used within some American organizations such as 3GPP2 and in American originated technologies such as CDMA2000. . Handover or handoff American English tends to use the term handoff.visions4. External links • History of the pocket TV [1] • Vintage Micro Television http://www. NEC TurboExpress game console Sega Game Gear TV tuner accessory Sony Watchman Similar types Some handheld televisions are wearable. while handoff is slightly more common within the IEEE and ANSI organisations. which is located in an area overlapped by another cell. a few models are in the form of a wristwatch. The term handover is more common than handoff in academic research publications and literature. and is used within international and European organisations such as ITU-T.Handheld television 75 Notable brands and models for handheld televisions • • • • • Casio Citizen Watch Co. the term handover or handoff refers to the process of transferring an ongoing call or data session from one channel connected to the core network to another. is transferred to that cell in order to free-up some capacity in the first cell for other users. who can only be connected to that cell. In British English the term handover is more common. de/ e-history. In satellite communications it is the process of transferring satellite control responsibility from one earth station to another without loss or interruption of service.

when a user is detected to be moving faster than a certain threshold. Hard handovers are intended to be instantaneous in order to minimize the disruption to the call. connected to a large. they also can be divided into hard and soft handovers: • A hard handover [1] is one in which the channel in the source cell is released and only then the channel in the target cell is engaged. four or more cells can be maintained by one phone at the same time. which may be interfered or fading with a new clearer or less fading channel. • A soft handover is one in which the channel in the source cell is retained and used for a while in parallel with the channel in the target cell. e. umbrella-type of cell. The most basic form of handover is when a phone call in progress is redirected from its current cell (called source) and its used channel in that cell to a new cell (called target) and a new channel. This is called ping-ponging. The interval. in which the source and the target are different cells (even if they are on the same cell site) is called inter-cell handover. The purpose of intra-cell handover is to change one channel. In this case the connection to the target is established before the connection to the source is broken. Soft handovers may involve using connections to more than two cells: connections to three. The latter is more advantageous. A special case is possible.Handover • again in non-CDMA networks when the user behaviour changes. The purpose of inter-cell handover is to maintain the call as the subscriber is moving out of the area covered by the source cell and entering the area of the target cell. For this reason the soft handover is perceived by network engineers as a state of the call. is called intra-cell handover. Such a handover. In terrestrial networks the source and the target cells may be served from two different cell sites or from one and the same cell site (in the latter case the two cells are usually referred to as two sectors on that cell site). It requires the least processing by the network providing service. Such a handover. so the base stations bounce the link with the mobile back and forth. Thus the connection to the source is broken before or 'as' the connection to the target is made—for this reason such handovers are also known as break-before-make. during which the two connections are used in parallel. When a call is in a state of soft handover. 76 Types of handover In addition to the above classification of inter-cell and intra-cell classification of handovers. in which the source and the target are one and the same cell and only the used channel is changed during the handover. when a fast-travelling user. A hard handover is perceived by network engineers as an event during the call. the signal of the best of all used channels can be utilised for the call at a given moment or all the signals can be combined to produce a clearer copy of the signal. stops then the call may be transferred to a smaller macro cell or even to a micro cell in order to free capacity on the umbrella cell for other fast-traveling users and to reduce the potential interference to other cells or users (this works in reverse too. may be brief or substantial.g. and when such combining is performed both in the downlink (forward link) and the uplink (reverse link) the handover is termed as softer. • etc. rather than a brief event. Softer handovers are possible when the cells involved in the handovers have a single cell site. • in CDMA networks a (see further down) may be induced in order to reduce the interference to a smaller neighboring cell due to the "near-far" effect even when the phone still has an excellent connection to its current cell. in which the cell is not changed. hence this handover is called make-before-break. . the call can be transferred to a larger umbrella-type of cell in order to minimize the frequency of the handovers due to this movement). When the mobile is between base stations. then the mobile can switch with any of the base stations.

AMPS. etc. the cost of implementing them for analog technologies is prohibitively high and none of the technologies that were commercially successful in the past (e. A disadvantage is that if a handover fails the call may be temporarily disrupted or even terminated abnormally. In all current commercial technologies based on FDMA or on a combination of TDMA/FDMA (e. analog or digital. in which they occur. which utilise hard handovers. which makes it cheaper and simpler. By adjusting the duration of soft handovers and the size of the areas. which must be capable of processing several channels in parallel.g. GSM. this is necessitated by the fact that without soft handovers CDMA networks may suffer from substantial interference arising due to the so-called "near-far" effect. This reduces the number of remaining free channels and thus reduces the capacity of the network. Possibility of handover While theoretically speaking soft handovers are possible in any technology. Another price to pay for soft handovers is use of several channels in the network to support just a single call. GSM. this is facilitated by the possibility to design not so expensive phone hardware supporting soft handovers for CDMA and on the other hand.g. in digital systems it is unnoticeable. have soft handovers. in principle. TACS. by far a bigger advantage comes from the mere fact that simultaneously channels in multiple cells are maintained and the call could only fail if all of the channels are interfered or fade at the same time. . etc. However. AMPS. Technologies. Fading and interference in different channels are unrelated and therefore the probability of them taking place at the same moment in all channels is very low. D-AMPS/IS-136. IS-136/DAMPS. the network engineers can balance the benefit of extra call reliability against the price of reduced capacity.) changing the channel during a hard handover is realised by changing the pair of used transmit/receive frequencies. However re-establishing this connection may not always be possible (in which case the call will be terminated) and even when possible the procedure may cause a temporary interruption to the call. However. usually have procedures which can re-establish the connection to the source cell if the connection to the target cell cannot be made. NMT. none of the 2G (second-generation) technologies have this feature (e. all CDMA based technologies.). 2G and 3G (third-generation). Thus the reliability of the connection becomes higher when the call is in a soft handover. Of the digital technologies. where calls would frequently become unreliable when their channel is interfered or fading.) had this feature. This advantage comes at the cost of more complex hardware in the phone. One advantage of the soft handovers is that the connection to the source cell is broken only when a reliable connection to the target cell has been established and therefore the chances that the call will be terminated abnormally due to failed handovers are lower. Another advantage of the hard handoff is that the phone's hardware does not need to be capable of receiving two or more channels in parallel. etc.g. those based on FDMA also face a higher cost for the phones (due to the need to have multiple parallel radio-frequency modules) and those based on TDMA or a combination of TDMA/FDMA. soft handovers bring a significant improvement to the reliability of the calls in these places by making the interference or the fading in a single channel not critical. The hard handover event is indeed very short and usually is not perceptible by the user. In the old analog systems it could be heard as a click or a very short beep. On one hand. allow not so expensive implementation of soft handovers. On the other hand.Handover 77 Comparison of handovers An advantage of the hard handover is that at any moment in time one call uses only one channel. Because in a cellular network the majority of the handovers occur in places of poor coverage.

The cells in the neighbour list (called in CDMA neighbouring set) are checked more frequently than the rest and thus a handoff with a neighbouring cell is more likely. In CDMA systems. 2G and 3G. NMT. by a BTS of a neighbouring cell. whose signals are used during a soft handoff. is referred to as the "active set". The set of cells. This is done in an effort to reduce the probability of interference due to the aforementioned "near-far" effect.). received quality of speech (RxQual). bit error rate (BER) and block error/erasure rate (BLER). In analog systems the parameters used as criteria for requesting a hard handover are usually the received signal power and the received signal-to-noise ratio (the latter may be estimated in an analog system by inserting additional tones. If the search finger finds a sufficiently-strong signal (in terms of high Ec/Io or RSCP) from a new cell this cell is added to the active set. A usual design of a rake receiver in mobile phones includes three or more rake fingers used in soft handoff state for processing signals from as many cells and one additional finger used to search for signals from other cells. The downlink (forward link) and/or uplink (reverse link) directions may be monitored. Because frequencies cannot be reused in adjacent cells. These potential target cells are called neighbours and the list is called neighbour list. In non-CDMA 2G digital systems the criteria for requesting hard handover may be based on estimates of the received signal power. In CDMA systems. distance between the phone and the BTS (estimated from the radio signal propagation delay) and others. a target candidate may be selected among the cells which are not in the neighbour list. . however a handoff with others cells outside the neighbor list is also allowed (unlike in GSM. Lots of research was conducted regarding this. They implement different algorithms and may use for input data from field measurements or computer predictions of radio wave propagation in the areas covered by the cells. with frequencies just outside the captured voice-frequency band at the transmitter and assessing the form of these tones at the receiver). a new frequency must be allocated for the call. etc. it processes the received in parallel signals using a rake receiver.Handover 78 Implementations For the practical realisation of handoffs in a cellular network each cell is assigned a list of potential target cells. In the late 80's the main reason was found out. the user’s call must be terminated. If a user moves into a cell when all available channels are in use. AMPS. The phone and the BTSs of the neighbouring cells monitor each other others' signals and the best target candidates are selected among the neighbouring cells. Creating such a list for a given cell is not trivial and specialised computer tools are used. Reasons for failure There are occurrences where a handoff is unsuccessful. The handover may be requested by the phone or by the base station (BTS) of its source cell and. In some systems. Also. During a call one or more parameters of the signal in the channel in the source cell are monitored and assessed in order to decide when a handover may be necessary. when the phone in soft or softer handoff is connected to several cells simultaneously. in some systems. IS-136/DAMPS. when a user moves from one cell to another. the most common criterion for requesting a handover is Ec/Io ratio measured in the pilot channel (CPICH) and/or RSCP. which can be used for handing-off calls from this source cell to them. there is the problem of signal interference where adjacent cells overpower each other resulting in receiver desensitization. mainly based on CDMA. Each signal is processed by a module called rake finger.

References [1] WSJ Online 2006. and enters some alphanumeric sequence found on the target object. html) .Handover 79 Vertical handover There are also inter-technology handovers where a call's connection is transferred from one access technology to another.S. 1970. ylesstech. e. This concept is also known as 'physical world connection'. but does require the phone be internet enabled. pdf http:/ / www. issued May 16. php/ Hard_handoff http:/ / www. The hardlink method establishes a reference link between a physical world object and a . JESSICA E. google. A common cell phone is the medium of this information exchange that is initiated whenever a user makes a connection with a hardlink database. The hardlink method does not require a graphical object tag or any special software be loaded on the users cell phone. with a [1] slightly larger audience of users in some eastern countries. This topic is not to be confused with. wsj.g. Unlike Japan.mobi web page just as a traditional hyperlink establishes an electronic reference to information on a Web page. Patent 3663762 [5]: Cellular Mobile Communication System — Amos Edward Joel (Bell Labs). toolbox. a hard link (two words) which is Unix terminology for a pointer to physical data on a storage volume. com/ terminology. com/ article_email/ SB114843472842861406-lMyQjAxMDE2NDI4NDQyMzQ0Wj. The 3GPP UMA/GAN standard enables GSM/UMTS handoff to Wi-Fi and vice-versa. External links • • • • Intra-MSC GSM Handover Call Flow [2] Inter-MSC GSM Handover Call Flow [3] Handoff protocols [4] U. 1972 References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] http:/ / it. (http:/ / online. SMS tags and RFID tags. pdf http:/ / www. com/ patents?vid=3663762 Hardlink (homonymy) A hardlink (one word) is one of several methods of object hyperlinking including graphical tags (2D barcodes). com/ RealtimeMantra/ Telecom/ GSM_Inter_MSC_Handover_Call_Flow.S. eventhelix. a call being transferred from GSM to UMTS or from CDMA IS-95 to cdma2000. non-standardized methods of creating this connection.mobi. com/ RealtimeMantra/ Telecom/ GSM_Handover_Call_Flow. This alphanumeric sequence may be the objects part number or common name. few US cell phone providers currently offer graphical tag readers or other support for object hyperlinking methods and this will likely continue until a clear linking method becomes dominate. eventhelix. com/ wiki/ index. such as Objecs. The Bar Code Gets a Hip New Life. filed December 21. php?letter=all& id=1 http:/ / www. what are currently. Object hyperlinking and Physical world hyperlinks with a number of companies developing. VASCELLARO. The consumer use and market for object hyperlinking methods is a very small and limited one in the U.

[1] Video game controller 1 × 1500mAH cell • • • 8 × Digital buttons (A.[2] Due to the iControlPad's ability to operate as a Bluetooth keyboard—by mapping the D-pad and buttons to standard keyboard keys—it is able to communicate with devices such as those running Apple's iOS.[2] In this way. using a clamp system. six digital face buttons. a Bluetooth device.[2] A mini USB port on the bottom of the iControlPad can be used to charge the internal 1500mAh battery. Select) Digital D-pad 2 × analog nubs Website [icontrolpad. including as a HID keyboard. for using the controller as a standard wireless gamepad.[3] Overview The iControlPad's input controls include an eight-directional D-pad. X. update the device's firmware. dual analog nubs. joystick. can be run in a wide variety of modes. such as a smartphone or iPod Touch.[1] The iControlPad. facilitating compatibility between apps designed for the iCade and the iControlPad hardware. Y. mouse. or plastic clamps. allowing compatibility with equipment which is limited to only certain types of input. apps can be developed . with two different attachment types: rubber grips. R.[1] One of the iControlPad's modes mimics the protocol used by the iCade.com icontrolpad. The sides of the iControlPad are detachable. such as the iPhone. Manufacturer Type Power Input iControlPad Ltd.com] The iControlPad is a wireless game controller compatible with a variety of smartphones. for connecting with a suitable handheld.[4] Since iOS natively supports keyboards. tablet PCs and personal computers. among others. and gamepad. and charge attached devices using a USB On-The-Go connection and an appropriate adapter. L .iControlPad 80 iControlPad iControlPad The iControlPad in its standalone and clamp-on configurations (with iPhone 4). the iControlPad is able to add traditional physical gaming controls to devices which otherwise rely on inputs such as touchscreens and accelerometers. B. including the iPhone and iPad. which do not support Bluetooth gamepads. and two digital trigger buttons on the gamepad's reverse. Start. It is designed for use as either a standalone gamepad or attached to appropriately sized devices. an arcade cabinet released for the Apple iPad.

[23] Supported since version 1.2.7. using a design styled after the Sony PSP.3. was much closer to the version that was ultimately released.[5] 81 Development Development of the iControlPad began in 2007. Thus. This earliest concept was a one-piece case enveloping the iPhone. • b Only on iPad.[14] Supported apps Apple iOS Title Atari's Greatest Hits a b Compression HD a HungryMaster a iMAME4All a c IronStar Arena a Mos Speedrun a Sideways Racing a Velocispider a Developer Atari Release date 06 Apr 2011 Notes [15] Supported since launch. Little White Bear Studios 17 May 2010 xionchannel David Valdeita Appracatappra Physmo Bjango Retro Dreamer 02 Jul 2011 16 Aug 2010 Supported since version 1.12. • c Requires jailbreaking on iOS. [21] Supported since version 1.00.[10] This design.[11] However. and would soon go into production. one large change was to occur very late in development. the iControlPad team were forced to adapt to use the Bluetooth connection for the iPhone. the first prototype iControlPad was produced. . suing an unlicensed accessory maker. This much larger version moved the controls below the screen and added two analog nubs and two trigger buttons to the controller. with a D-pad on the left side. the iControlPad is able to control video games and video game console emulators across multiple platforms. Thus. [22] Supported since version 1. and four face buttons on the right in a landscape orientation.[12] This proved fortunate when Apple began exercising its rights over the dock connector. which featured clamps to attach it to the iPhone.[18] [19] 06 May 2011 06 Apr 2011 23 May 2011 31 May 2011 [20] Supported since version 02. [16] Supported since version 1. • a Supported via iControlPad's iCade mode.[6] Once the serial connection was working.iControlPad with iControlPad compatibility using either its own protocol or that of the iCade. with testing using a hacked SNES gamepad to connect to an iPhone over the dock connection.[13] and it was this version which finally became available for order in February 2011. [17] Supported since version 1.2.[7] and was first revealed in 2008.[8] [9] By November 2009. a completely redesigned iControlPad prototype was under development.4. in order to increase compatibility beyond the iPhone and its proprietary connection. The team had secretly added Bluetooth support to the iControlPad.0.

13.emu a MD."[2] .[26] [27] Snes9x EX a Robert Broglia 16 Mar 2011 Android.3. Register Hardware said "the analogue nubs and face buttons work extremely well".emu a Developer Release date Platform Notes Robert Broglia 23 Apr 2011 Android. [28] Support expected at launch. conversely.iControlPad 82 Multiplatform Title GBC. the iControlPad "almost perfectly solves the touchscreen game control conundrum". In their review. iOS. with DroidGamers describing them as "very loose"[5] . webOS Supported since 1.] for emulation on the go". webOS Supported since 1.[32] Early reviews were mixed on the quality of the controls.[25] Robert Broglia 27 Aug 2010 Android. Future releases Apple iOS Title Commodore 64 iAmiga Developer Manomio Manomio Release date 05 Sep 2009 TBA Notes [28] Support expected in next update.[24] Robert Broglia Robert Broglia 28 Jun 2011 09 Feb 2011 Android. • a Requires jailbreaking on iOS. Android. Register Hardware noted that while "patience and geekery" were required to get the controller working." due to its limited support on the iTunes App Store. webOS Supported since launch.13. remarking that it was "awesome [. iOS. while.[31] The controls' responsiveness was later improved by replacing the original rubber keymat with a larger one.[31] Gadgetoid honed in on the device's usefulness for classic gaming. iOS.emu a PCE. but that "[he couldn't] recommend that the typical gamer run out right now and grab one. webOS Supported since launch.[2] TouchArcade's reviewer said of playing games with the iControlPad that "the experience feels great".[30] • a Supported via iControlPad's iCade mode. Gadgetoid lauded the inputs as having "a great tactile feel and a liberal amount of travel with a good response.[29] No Gravity a Realtech VR 24 Mar 2011 Support expected in next update. iOS. webOS Supported since launch. Interstellar Force David Molnar 10 Mar 2011 Support expected in next update... Reception Reception for the iControlPad has been mostly positive.emu a NES.3. iOS.

com/ gadgetlab/ 2011/ 02/ icontrolpad-for-iphone-finally-shipping-adds-support-for-all-phones/ ). AOL. Samia (February 8. engadget. blogspot. Retrieved 2011-07-04. 2010). Carter (June 30. [27] Broglia. explusalpha. Mobile Magazine. 148apps. Retrieved 2011-07-12. . [20] "IronStar Arena for iCade" (http:/ / appracatappra. 2011. Adds Support for All Phones" (http:/ / www. 148Apps. Nilay (November 8. . [. slashgear. com/ icontrolpad-for-iphone-production-parts-now-shipping-2398553/ ). you’ll still be able to take advantage of anything on the touchscreen [. com/ icontrolpad-dumps-dock-connector-for-bluetooth-over-apple-legal-fears-android-bt-confirmed-28104830/ ).. com/ icontrolpad-with-bluetooth-shipping-this-month-08131711/ ). ars).biz. Gadgetoid.12" (http:/ / xionchannel. Google Code. com/ 2011/ 07/ 10/ imame4all-gains-experimental-support-for-icade-ios-gamers-gain/ ). . org/ web/ 20090316081844/ http:/ / www. Robert (April 23. almost. php/ game-news/ hardware-a-devices/ 1493-icontrolpad-for-android-review-its-as-easy-as-a-b-x-y-).Add real gaming controls to your iPhone!" (http:/ / web. com/ 2011/ 07/ hungrymaster-112. [3] Kwan. archive. com/ blog/ 2011/ 07/ velocispider-v1-2-out-now/ ). .. 2011). Charlie (2011-02-09). uk/ mobiles/ icontrolpad-unofficial-iphone-gamepad-coming-soon-50000514/ ). Well. Chris (September 28. Craig (September 29. Retrieved 2011-07-18. long last the iControlPad – a hardware gamepad for the iPhone – can be bought. [6] "iControlPad . [18] Murph. "GBC. 2011). 2011. com/ 2011/ 06/ what-we-are-up-to. Retrieved 2011-07-17. "Something we kept secret . [25] Broglia. . . Engadget. . [2] "iControlPad Review" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2011-07-12. 2011). cnet. . "iControlPad for iPhone production parts now shipping" (http:/ / www.. B. 2011). June 25.iControlPad 83 References [1] "iControlPad Quick Start Guide" (http:/ / icontrolpad. [26] Broglia. 2008). July 16. "Velocispider V1. [17] "HungryMaster 1. Retrieved 2011-07-18. Retrieved 2011-07-18. Gavin (July 27.]" [10] Patel. com/ news/ gaming-ios-physical-variety-external-joystick-gamepad-solutions/ ). mobilemag. warms hearts" (http:/ / www. . "Gaming on iOS is About to Get Physical With a Variety of External Joystick and Gamepad Solutions..]" [9] Sorrel. [24] Broglia. com/ 2011/ 07/ 09/ icontrolpad-review/ ). .. iOS gamers gain infinite happiness" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2011-07-18. "Latest iControlPad prototype bulks up. Wired (magazine). "iControlPad unofficial iPhone gamepad coming soon" (http:/ / crave. 2011). "Naturally. com/ home/ gbc-emu/ updates). 2011. 2009). engadget. 2011. "imame4all . com/ index. Retrieved 2011-07-18. Android BT confirmed" (http:/ / www. 2011).. co. Retrieved 2011-07-04. Robert (February 28.. [23] Bowman. Engadget. . Physmo. "At long. com/ archives/ 985). explusalpha. [22] "Version history for Sideways Racing. . Retro Dreamer. gets handled on video" (http:/ / www. slashgear. 2009. Retrieved 2011-07-18. iControlPad Ltd. . Retrieved 2011-07-18. com/ gaming/ news/ 2011/ 04/ 100-classic-atari-games-for-ios-out-now-icade-cabinet-coming-in-june. 2010). Darren (July 10. . . com/ Craigix/ statuses/ 25788017664). com/ ). Ex Plus Alpha. html). .] using the accelerometer. com/ 2009/ 11/ 08/ latest-icontrolpad-prototype-bulks-up-gets-handled-on-video/ ). [11] Davies. com/ home/ pce-emu/ updates). iCade cabinet coming in June" (http:/ / arstechnica. but having “real” gaming controls is a great option as well. gadgetoid. Robert (February 28. "The device has been in development for some time. . Retrieved 2011-07-04. Chris (April 6. [12] Rothwell. com/ 2008/ 12/ 23/ game-for-real-with-iphone-icontrolpad/ ). "NES. com/ home/ snes9x-ex/ updates). [21] "What we are up to. R3 Media LLC. [8] Wattanajantra. Ars Technica. 2011).. Michael (2008-12-23). Chris (August 23. . "iControlPad for Android Review: It's as easy as A. ." (http:/ / www. an iPad game" (http:/ / bjango. "Compression HD Gets Support for iCade" (http:/ / www. Robert (March 16. "PCE. "100 classic Atari games for iOS out now. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. Twitter. . engadget. July 9. 2010). You can order today for a delivery next week [. 2011). 148Apps. [5] Grace. SlashGear. . slashgear. "Snes9x EX Updates" (http:/ / www. com/ downloads/ icp_manual3. . Retrieved 2011-07-04. David. Tim (December 12. Retrieved 2011-07-21. SlashGear. Ex Plus Alpha. Pilato Private Consulting. "iControlPad for iPhone Finally Shipping. . Retrieved 2011-07-18. Carter (February 14. Y. com/ news/ compression-hd-support-icade/ ). com/ p/ imame4all/ ). google..2 Out Now" (http:/ / retrodreamer. Retrieved 2011-07-12. Retrieved 2011-07-18." [15] Foresman. X. "iControlPad with Bluetooth Shipping This Month" (http:/ / www. Ex Plus Alpha. July 21. com/ ) on March 16. iControlPad Ltd. Bjango. pdf). .MAME for ALL iOS devices" (http:/ / code. [16] Dotson." (http:/ / physmonews. Retrieved 2011-07-21. Appracatappra. 2011).." [4] Dotson. SlashGear. [7] Stevens. Asavin (2010-08-27)." (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2011-07-12. [14] Perkins. explusalpha. com/ ipad/ sideways/ versionhistory/ ). "The new iControlPad with Bluetooth is scheduled to ship February 16th. icontrolpad.emu Updates" (http:/ / www. Engadget. xionchannel.] A different form of the iControlPad appeared before in 2008 [. icontrolpad. Retrieved 2011-07-28. wired. Retrieved 2011-07-18. blogspot. 2011).emu Updates" (http:/ / www. "iControlPad dumps Dock Connector for Bluetooth over Apple legal fears. Tom (April 13. Retrieved 2011-07-12.. Retrieved 2011-07-18. "iControlPad gamepad heads to production. DroidGamers. html) (in Japanese). explusalpha. "iMAME4All gains experimental support for iCade.emu Updates" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2011-07-18. . Retrieved 2011-07-04. CNET." (http:/ / twitter.. [13] Davies. . com/ home/ nes-emu/ updates). "Game for Real with iPhone iControlPad" (http:/ / www. . Ex Plus Alpha. . com/ 2008/ 12/ 23/ icontrolpad-gamepad-heads-to-production-warms-hearts/ ). 2011). Retrieved 2011-07-18. droidgamers. 148apps. [19] Valdeita.

aspx?ColLeft=3c2bcac1-dbf5-4776-9d3b-89001baee8d5& ColRight=76baaeb6-2549-44f5-8e1d-cd700701e704& cikid=683957&tabIndex=2&coname=IDT+SPECTRUM%2C+INC.&fnid=46162&ipo=1 Current Holdings IDT Spectrum. which now expire in October of 2020. holds and leases fixed wireless spectrum. plus the surrounding counties that are economically related to these areas. or EAs. and IDT Spectrum.fcc. [31] Bailey. to hold its spectrum licenses and then caused the spectrum licenses to be assigned to it. LLC to transfer and assign to IDT Spectrum. 2011. LLC all of its FCC licenses except for six point-to-point licenses that are not used in our business. Retrieved 2011-07-19. TouchArcade. Winstar Holdings formed IDT Spectrum. com/ 2011/ 06/ 18/ manomio-demonstrates-icade-support-for-iamiga-emulator/ ). Winstar Holdings formed a subsidiary company. edgar-online. The majority of IDT Spectrum's 28 GHz LMDS licenses expire in October of 2018. are subsidiaries of IDT Corporation (NYSE: IDT). 84 IDT Spectrum IDT Spectrum. On average. acquired FCC spectrum licenses and other assets from the bankruptcy estate of Winstar Communications. (including Alaska. EAs are delineated by the Regional Analysis Division. Register Hardware. . "A Close Look at the 'iControlPad' Bluetooth Control Accessory" (http:/ / toucharcade. [29] "I'm working on adding . IDT Spectrum renewed 633 of its 39 GHz licenses. an international holding company. As part of an internal corporate reorganization. idt. History IDT Spectrum. com/ finance?q=NYSE%3AIDT In December of 2001. Retrieved 2011-07-17. reghardware. July 16. The licenses held by IDT Spectrum are suited for high bandwidth point to point applications. com/ David994A/ status/ 92753291959742464).. net/ about/ press/ story. In January 2005. com/ ic/ 140/ 140181. . IDT Spectrum's 39 GHz holdings–are contiguous across the United States / pro. http://wireless2. including the needs of wireless operators to carry traffic from cell sites to network access points–referred to in the industry as backhaul.http:/ aspx?ColLeft=3c2bcac1-dbf5-4776-9d3b-89001baee8d5& ColRight=76baaeb6-2549-44f5-8e1d-cd700701e704& cikid=683957&tabIndex=2&coname=IDT+SPECTRUM%2C+INC. gov/ UlsApp/ UlsSearch/ results. LLC. . com/ 2011/ 07/ 13/ a-close-look-at-the-icontrolpad-bluetooth-control-accessory/ ). LLC. LLC. Retrieved 2011-07-19. and caused Winstar Spectrum. 2011). YouTube. IDT Corporation through its subsidiary Winstar Holdings. . in December 2004. . Department of Commerce and are based on 176 metropolitan or micropolitan statistical areas that serve as regional centers of economic activity.http:/ / www. Retrieved 2011-07-19. with interests primarily in the telecommunications and energy industries. html. as well as an additional 16 LMDS licenses in the 28 GHz band. "Manomio Demonstrates iCade Support for 'iAmiga' Emulator" (http:/ / toucharcade.S. July 18. Blake (June 18. LLC's primary holdings include 633 spectrum licenses in the 39 GHz range. a subsidiary of IDT Corporation. com/ watch?v=lNQv5rfGXzs). 2011).S. U. http:/ / biz. markets (Economic Areas by population) and approximately 940 MHz of spectrum in the top 50 U.&fnid=46162&ipo=1 In October of 2010. "iControlPad Bluetooth controller for mobile devices" (http:/ / www. [30] Nogravity iPad2 + iCade..iControlPad [28] Patterson. (http:/ / www. Andrew (May 18. as well as other assets used in its connectivity services. LLC.gov/UlsApp/UlsSearch/results. [32] Patterson. Winstar Spectrum. . com/ 2011/ 05/ 18/ review_igamer_icontrolpad/ ). Inc. edgar-online. Retrieved 2011-07-18. 2011." (http:/ / twitter. Twitter. com/ ipo. TouchArcade. IDT Spectrum holds more than 500 MHz of spectrum in the top 200 U. LLC. jsp. Winstar Holdings formed IDT Spectrum and contributed to IDT Spectrum all of its interests in IDT Spectrum.http:/ / pro. yahoo. http:/ / www. http:/ / wireless2.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis. youtube. making it the largest single holder of 39 GHz licensed auction spectrum in the United States.jsp The FCC's 39 GHz auctioned license band spectrum is primarily licensed in Economic Areas. Blake (July 13. Inc. fcc. markets. google. 2011). Use of Licenses Among other business activities. Hawaii and Puerto Rico). com/ ipo. IDT Spectrum leases the spectrum to customers who use their own microwave equipment.

If this is selected. http:/ / content. Technical Features • Interoperable multi-vendor compliant service.79 Image Share Interoperability Specification. the end-user will be presented with an option in terminal UI offering the possibility of sharing one or several images. i. Image Share can be seen as a kind of spin-off from the Video Share mobile phone service. RFC 4975) used for transporting media between the mobile phones • IETF File transfer mechanisms [2] utilized for negotiating shared images between offerer and answerer via SIP/SDP offer/answer model .279.279. After the voice call is set up. i. It has been specified for use in a 3GPP-compliant cellular network by the GSM Association in the PRD IR.e.idtspectrum.com/. terminals perform a registration to an IMS core system with apacket switched (PS) connection. TS 23. com/ topics/ article/ Michael+Rapaport/0gy2fDQeBhaNV/1 IDT Spectrum's Website is http://www. CS voice call set up required prior to sharing the images • SIP used for signaling via IMS. i.e. Video Share is commercially launched for example by AT&T in USA. i. registration for the service is performed using the capabilities offered by IMS platform with SIP protocol • MSRP (Message Session Relay Protocol. Image Share works across different mobile phones from various vendors (as long as they have the necessary software client installed) • IMS service. During this process the normal CS voice session has been ongoing continuously. thus enhancing and enriching end-users voice communication. usatoday. An Image Share session begins by end-users setting up a normal circuit switched (CS) voice call." Image Share is a service that allows two clients to share packet-switched image data during a circuit-switched call.[1] According to the specification. Then based on successful capability negotiation between the terminals.279 and TS 24. "The terminal interoperable Image Share service allows users to share Images between them over PS connection with ongoing CS call.e.e. but Image Share is not yet available from any mobile operator/service provider. then these images are transferred between the Image Share software clients located in the mobile phones using the PS connection and the recipient is able to see the images. 85 Image share Image Share is a service for sharing images between users during a mobile phone call.IDT Spectrum aspx?id=23410 Management The current President and CEO of IDT Spectrum is Michael Rapaport. 3GPP compliant IMS core system required for the service provider/operator offering Image Share • CSI (CS and IMS combinational) service compliant to 3GPP specifications TS 22.

the phone actually sends the message to the IMSC. The IMSC usually has a configurable time limit for how long it will store the message. Companies Few companies who make many of the IMSCs in use in the GSM world are Miyowa. com/ documents/ index. com/ news/ press_2007/ press07_39. shtml [2] http:/ / www.79 Image Share Interoperability Specification [1] IETF RFC 4975 Message Session Relay Protocol 3GPP TS 22. Ericsson. i. The IMSC stores the message and then delivers it to the destination user when they are available.279 Combining Circuit Switched (CS) and IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) services. gsmworld. shtml Instant message service center An Instant Message Service Center (IMSC) is a network element in the mobile telephone network which delivers instant messages. txt [3] http:/ / www. . Colibria. Feelingk and few others. Comverse Technology.Image share • Capability query performed using SIP OPTIONS method between the mobile phoness to find out whether the recipient is Image Share capable • Peer-to-peer service. Other players include Acision. Stage 1 3GPP TS 23. Stage 2 3GPP TS 24. Followap and OZ. Jinny Software. ietf. References • • • • • GSM Association PRD IR. Operation When a user sends an instant message (IM message) to another user.279 Combining Circuit Switched (CS) and IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) services. Nokia. including interworking between multiple networks.279 Combinied Circuit Switched (CS) and IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) sessions. gsmworld. Stage 3 References [1] http:/ / www.e. org/ internet-drafts/ draft-ietf-mmusic-file-transfer-mech-06. Now Wireless. No mobile operator has launched Image Share so far (as of March 2008). no server required in the network for sharing the images • Both live and pre-stored images can be shared between the participating mobile phones • Requires 3G or EDGE DTM (Dual Transfer Mode) mobile network 86 Usage According to GSMA press release [3] interoperability between different Image Share clients was successfully tested in a multi-vendor trial in May 2007.

IP Multimedia Subsystem The IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) is an architectural framework for delivering Internet Protocol (IP) multimedia services. such as Wireless LAN. It is easier to sell services than to sell the virtues of "integrated services".IP. • 3GPP2 (a different organization from 3GPP) based their CDMA2000 Multimedia Domain (MMD) on 3GPP IMS.g. which was brought to the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP). the interest of IMS is being challenged. Interference in mobile communications Interference in mobile communications refers to Co channel and Adjacent channel interference. create a form of fixed-mobile convergence (FMC). Most CDMA customers originate from the Americas or the Far East. CDMA2000 and fixed line. soft switches and "naked" SIP. Session Initiation Protocol (SIP). Alternative and overlapping technologies for access and provisioning of services across wired and wireless networks include combinations of Generic Access Network.e. formed in 1999. IMS uses IETF protocols wherever possible. as the control layer is a common horizontal layer. From a logical architecture perspective.Inter standard roaming 87 Inter standard roaming Inter Standard Roaming is a general term in wireless telecommunications that refers to roaming between two standards. This is done by having a horizontal control layer that isolates the access network from the service layer. This vision was later updated by 3GPP. To ease the integration with the Internet. Support for the older GSM and GPRS networks was also provided. i. as part of their standardization work for 3G mobile phone systems in UMTS networks. In order to enable them to roam in Europe Inter Standard Roaming is the solution. Its original formulation (3GPP R5) represented an approach to delivering "Internet services" over GPRS. when SIP-based multimedia was added. It was originally designed by the wireless standards body 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP).[1] IMS is not intended to standardize applications but rather to aid the access of multimedia and voice applications from wireless and wireline terminals. History • IMS was originally defined by an industry forum called 3G. Since it is becoming increasingly easier to access content and contacts using mechanisms outside the control of [2] traditional wireless/fixed operators. . However in implementation this does not necessarily map into greater reduced cost and complexity. but additionally the task to sell an IMS based on a single service is also difficult as there are often (cheaper) alternatives to creating and deploying that particular service. 3G. services need not have their own control functions.IP developed the initial IMS architecture. adding support for CDMA2000. The CDMA customers arriving in Europe can register on the available GSM networks. In Europe there is hardly any CDMA network. This term is now widely used in mobile communnications where especially CDMA customers want to use their phone in areas where there is no CDMA network or there is no roaming agreement in place to support roaming on the used standard. It first appeared in Release 5 (evolution from 2G to 3G networks). as a part of the vision for evolving mobile networks beyond GSM. 3GPP2 and TISPAN by requiring support of networks other than GPRS. According to the 3GPP. two types of interference in mobile communications. e.

the function of AGCF (Access Gateway control function) and PES (PSTN Emulation Service) are introduced to the wire-line network for the sake of inheritance of services which can be provided in PSTN network. routing group identities. presence. Multimedia Session Continuity. enhancements to Multimedia Telephony. IMS media plane security. • 3GPP release 9 added support for IMS emergency calls over GPRS and EPS. 88 Architecture 3GPP / TISPAN IMS Architectural Overview .1. Policy and Charging Control (PCC). Also added voice call continuity between circuit switching and packet switching domain (VCC). emergency sessions. • 3GPP release 7 added support for fixed networks. enhancements to services centralization and continuity. by working together with TISPAN release R1. enhancements to the Single Radio Voice Call Continuity (SRVCC). • 3GPP release 10 added support for inter device transfer. speech recognition and speech-enabled services (Push to talk). Inter-operability between IMS using different IP-connectivity networks. • 3GPP release 8 added support for Long Term Evolution (LTE). Enhanced emergency sessions and IMS centralized services. fixed broadband connection to the IMS. multiple registration and forking. System Architecture Evolution (SAE).IP Multimedia Subsystem • 3GPP release 6 added interworking with WLAN. enhancements to IMS emergency sessions. interworking with non-IMS networks.

. Ethernet). WLAN. which grouped form one IMS administrative network. The IP Multimedia Core Network Subsystem is a collection of different functions.g. personal digital assistants (PDAs) and computers) can register directly on an IMS network. Fixed access (e. Digital Subscriber Line (DSL). linked by standardized interfaces. cable modems. most of which use the standard Internet Protocol (IP). mobile access (e. A function is not a node (hardware box): an implementer is free to combine 2 functions in 1 node.IP Multimedia Subsystem 89 3GPP / TISPAN IMS Architectural Overview . . H. WiMAX) are all supported. even when they are roaming in another network or country (the visited network). The only requirement is that they can use IP and run Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) user agents. for dimensioning. Each node can also be present multiple times in a single network. Other phone systems like plain old telephone service (POTS—the old analogue telephones). GSM. GPRS) and wireless access (e.g. CDMA2000.323 and non IMS-compatible VoIP systems. W-CDMA. Access network The user can connect to an IMS network in various ways. or to split a single function into 2 or more nodes.g. are supported through gateways.HSS in IMS layer (as by standard) Each of the functions in the diagram is explained below. load balancing or organizational issues. IMS terminals (such as mobile phones.

subscriber service profiles. A Subscriber Location Function (SLF) is needed to map user addresses when multiple HSSs are used. is a master user database that supports the IMS network entities that actually handle calls. The use of additional SBC between the IMS terminal and the P-CSCF as such pointless and also not feasible due to the signaling being encrypted on this leg. CSCF . IMSI. The terminal discovers its P-CSCF with either DHCP.g. that can be digits (a Tel URI. like tel:+1-555-123-4567) or alphanumeric identifiers (a SIP URI. • A Proxy-CSCF (P-CSCF) is a SIP proxy that is the first point of contact for the IMS terminal. or User Profile Server Function (UPSF). The P-CSCF is at its core a specialized SBC for the User–network interface which not only protects the network. for Registration. User identities Various identities may be associated with IMS: IP Multimedia Private Identity (IMPI). like sip:john.Call Session Control Function Several roles of Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) servers or proxies. IP Multimedia Private Identity The IP Multimedia Private Identity (IMPI) is a unique permanently allocated global identity assigned by the home network operator. Globally Routable User Agent URI (GRUU). and Accounting purposes. this might be included on a business card).IP Multimedia Subsystem 90 Core network HSS . Administration. • P-GRUU reveal the IMPU and are very long lived. a single phone-number for an entire family). The HSS subscriber database contains. It is similar to the GSM Home Location Register (HLR) and Authentication Centre (AuC). Globally Routable User Agent URI Globally Routable User Agent URI (GRUU) is an identity that identifies a unique combination of IMPU and UE instance.doe@example. Authorization. Both IMPI and IMPU are not phone numbers or other series of digits. or it may be . and MSISDN. IP Multimedia Public Identity (IMPU). and can provide information about the subscriber's location and IP information. Every IMS user shall have one or more IMPI. but Uniform Resource Identifier (URIs). performs authentication and authorization of the user. so that both can be reached with the same identity (for example. are used to process SIP signalling packets in the IMS. the IMPU. IMPI. • T-GRUU do not reveal the IMPU and are valid until the contact is explicitly de-registered or the current registration expires Wildcarded Public User Identity A wildcarded Public User Identity expresses a set of IMPU grouped together. It can be located either in the visited network (in full IMS networks) or in the home network (when the visited network is not IMS compliant yet). service triggers and other information. The IMPU can also be shared with another phone. but also the IMS terminal. for example.Home Subscriber Server The Home Subscriber Server (HSS). collectively called Call Session Control Function (CSCF). There are two types of GRUU: Public-GRUU (P-GRUU) and Temporary GRUU (T-GRUU). It contains the subscription-related information (subscriber profiles). Wildcarded Public User Identity. and is used. There can be multiple IMPU per IMPI. IP Multimedia Public Identity The IP Multimedia Public Identity (IMPU) is used by any user for requesting communications to other users (e.com" ). Some networks may use a Session Border Controller for this function.

SIP UA (user agent) mode or SIP B2BUA mode. Its IP address is published in the Domain Name System (DNS) of the domain (using NAPTR and SRV type of DNS records). The PDF can also be a separate function. All necessary subscriber profile information is loaded from the HSS. • it is assigned to an IMS terminal before registration. From Release 7 onwards this "entry point" function is removed from the I-CSCF and is now part of the Interconnection Border Control Function (IBCF). and provides NAT and Firewall functions (pinholing). do not obey home network's routing policy) • it can also compress and decompress SIP messages using SigComp. which authorizes media plane resources e. in which case it's called a Topology Hiding Inter-network Gateway (THIG). it can query the HSS with the Diameter Sh or Si interfaces (for a SIP-AS). An example of an application server that is being developed in 3GPP is the Voice call continuity Function (VCC Server). which allows it to bind the user location (e. • it queries the HSS to retrieve the address of the S-CSCF and assign it to a user performing SIP registration • it also forwards SIP request or response to the S-CSCF • Up to Release 6 it can also be used to hide the internal network from the outside world (encrypting parts of the SIP message). If located in the home network.g.g. It is used for policy control. the IP address of the terminal) and the SIP address • • • • • it sits on the path of all signaling messages of the locally registered users. There are multiple options for this purpose. It uses Diameter Cx and Dx interfaces to the HSS to download user profiles and upload user-to-S-CSCF associations (the user profile is only cached locally for processing reasons only and is not changed). and interface with the S-CSCF using Session Initiation Protocol (SIP). so that remote servers can find it. quality of service (QoS) over the media plane. • it also generates charging records • A Serving-CSCF (S-CSCF) is the central node of the signalling plane. change normal signaling routes. • it handles SIP registrations. The IBCF is practically a Session Border Controller specialized for the NNI. This prevents spoofing attacks and replay attacks and protects the privacy of the subscriber. and use it as a forwarding point (e. It's the HSS that assigns the S-CSCF to a user. 91 • An Interrogating-CSCF (I-CSCF) is another SIP function located at the edge of an administrative domain. bandwidth management.g.g. but performs session control too. including a mandatory/optional capabilities to be matched between subscribers and S-CSCFs. typically using Electronic Numbering (ENUM) lookups it enforces the policy of the network operator there can be multiple S-CSCFs in the network for load distribution and high availability reasons. It is always located in the home network. . Depending on the actual service. It is a SIP server. registering) for SIP packets to this domain. • it inspects the signaling and ensures that the IMS terminals do not misbehave (e. during initial provisioning or via a 3GPP IMS Management Object (MO)) or in the ISIM or assigned in the PDP Context (in General Packet Radio Service (GPRS)). and can inspect every signal. the IMS terminal must ignore any other unencrypted signalling • it provides subscriber authentication and may establish an IPsec or TLS security association with the IMS terminal. The IBCF is used as gateway to external networks. in order to provide their services it provides routing services.g. Application servers SIP Application servers (AS) host and execute services. and can inspect every message it decides to which application server(s) the SIP message will be forwarded. which reduces the round-trip over slow radio links • it may include a Policy Decision Function (PDF). the AS can operate in SIP proxy mode. when it's queried by the I-CSCF. etc.IP Multimedia Subsystem configured (e. An AS can be located in the home network or in an external third-party network. and does not change for the duration of the registration • it sits on the path of all signalling.

It transforms lower layer protocols as Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP. Each MRF is further divided into a Media Resource Function Controller (MRFC) and a Media Resource Function Processor (MRFP). which are hosted by Application Servers. PSI shall take the form of either a SIP or Tel URI. As user identities. The MRB sets up the call Breakout Gateway A Breakout Gateway Control Function (BGCF) is a SIP proxy which processes requests for routing from an S-CSCF when the S-CSCF has determined that the session cannot be routed using DNS or ENUM/DNS. The AS-ILCM interfaces to the S-CSCF (ILCM) for an incoming leg and the AS-OLCM interfaces to the S-CSCF (OLCM) for an outgoing leg. For signalling. For media. Application Logic provides the service(s) and interacts between the AS-ILCM and AS-OLCM. PSIs are stored in the HSS either as a distinct PSI or as a wildcarded PSI: • a distinct PSI contains the PSI that is used in routing • a wildcarded PSI represents a collection of PSIs. to pass ISDN User Part (ISUP) from the MGCF to the CS 92 . PSTN Gateways A PSTN/CS gateway interfaces with PSTN circuit switched (CS) networks. Public Service Identity Public Service Identities (PSI) are identities that identify services. Media Servers The Media Resource Function (MRF) provides media related functions such as media manipulation (e. • A Signalling Gateway (SGW) interfaces with the signalling plane of the CS. MRB can be used in two modes: • Query mode: AS queries the MRB for media and sets up the call using the response of MRB • In-Line Mode: AS sends a SIP INVITE to the MRB.IP Multimedia Subsystem • SIP AS: Host and execute IMS specific services • IP Multimedia Service Switching Function (IM-SSF): Interfaces SIP to CAP to communicate with CAMEL Application Servers • OSA Service Capability Server (OSA SCS) : Interfaces SIP to the OSA framework Functional model The AS-ILCM and AS-OLCM store transaction state. an Internet Protocol (IP) protocol) into Message Transfer Part (MTP. an Signalling System 7 (SS7) protocol). and may optionally store session state depending on the specific service being executed. It includes routing functionality based on telephone numbers. while IMS uses Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP). It can also manage access right to shared resources. • The MRFC is a signalling plane node that interprets information coming from an AS and S-CSCF to control the MRFP • The MRFP is a media plane node used to mix. The Media Resource Broker (MRB) is a functional entity that is responsible for both collection of appropriate published MRF information and supplying of appropriate MRF information to consuming entities such as the AS. voice stream mixing) and playing of tones and announcements. CS networks use ISDN User Part (ISUP) (or BICC) over Message Transfer Part (MTP).g. source or process media streams. CS networks use Pulse-code modulation (PCM). while IMS uses Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) over IP.

QoS and security requirements are not necessarily assured. • A Media Gateway (MGW) interfaces with the media plane of the CS network. IMS might use AMR. For example. Both may be applied to the same session. The intermediate network domain(s) provide(s) transit functionality to the two other network domains. Specifically. The CCF will collect all this information. signalling (i. For instance.e. • A Media Gateway Controller Function (MGCF) is SIP endpoint that does call control protocol conversion between SIP and ISUP/BICC and interfaces with the SGW over SCTP. Each domain has its own charging network. • Connectivity oriented Interconnection (CoIx): The physical and logical linking of carriers and service providers based on simple IP connectivity irrespective of the levels of interoperability. which provides defined levels of interoperability. which is sent to the billing system (BS) of the domain.g. IMS and PES) platforms with control. this is the case of "carrier grade" voice and/or multimedia services over IP interconnection.g. or real-time credit control of postpaid services. Direct interconnection refers to the interconnection between two network domains without any intermediate network domain. I-CSCF.e. Each session carries an IMS Charging Identifier (ICID) as a unique identifier generated by the first IMS entity involved in a SIP transaction and used for the correlation with CDRs. Charging Offline charging is applied to users who pay for their services periodically (e. and build a Call Detail Record (CDR). AS) involved in the session use the Diameter Rf interface to send accounting information to a CDF located in the same domain. service specific network performance. is used for prepaid services. Different interconnection modes may be used for carrying service layer signalling and media traffic. Inter Operator Identifier (IOI) is a globally unique identifier shared between sending and receiving networks. It can also transcode when the codecs don't match (e.711). • Offline Charging : All the SIP network entities (P-CSCF. . at the end of the month). also known as credit-based charging. S-CSCF.IP Multimedia Subsystem network. This definition does not exclude that some services may provide a defined level of interoperability. MRFC. "Defined levels of interoperability" are dependent upon the service or the QoS or the Security. However only SoIx fully satisfies NGN interoperability requirements.248 interface. Indirect interconnection at one layer refers to the interconnection between two network domains with one or more intermediate network domain(s) acting as transit networks. Media Resources Media Resources are those components that operate on the media plane and are under the control of IMS Core functions. Media Server (MS) and Media gateway (MGW) 93 NGN Interconnection There are two types of Next Generation Networking Interconnection: • Service oriented Interconnection (SoIx): The physical and logical linking of NGN domains that allows carriers and service providers to offer services over NGN (i. Billing systems in different domains will also exchange information. It also controls the resources in a Media Gateway (MGW) across an H. so that roaming charges can be applied. MGCF. Charging Data Function (CDF) addresses are used for offline billing and Online Charging Function (OCF) for online billing. An NGN interconnection mode can be direct or indirect. Online charging. BGCF. as a consequence.. Charging function addresses are addresses distributed to each IMS entities and provide a common location for each entity to send charging information. PSTN might use G. by converting between RTP and PCM. an IP interconnection of this type is not aware of the specific end to end service and. etc. session based).

a number of credit units is immediately deducted from the user's account by the ECF and the MRFC or AS is then authorized to provide the service. AS Used by MRFC to fetch documents (e. TS29. OSA.PCRF S-CSCF <-> AS Reference point between S-CSCF and AS.211.212 Gq Gx ISC P-CSCF. HSS AS (SIP AS. The SCF can signal the S-CSCF to terminate the session when the user runs out of credits during a session. GGSN Diameter Dh Diameter Dx Diameter Gm Go SIP Allows operators to control QoS in a user plane and exchange COPS (Rel5). including Filter criteria and their priority. Also used for media control related commands. the reserved credit units are then cleared. Main functions are SIP to : • • • Notify the AS of the registered IMPU. the number of spent credit units is reported and deducted from the account.DH_SLF_QUERY indicates a IMPU and DX_SLF_RESP return the HSS name. The AS and MRFC use the Diameter Ro interface towards an OCF. IM-SSF) <-> SLF (I-CSCF or S-CSCF) <-> SLF UE. registration state and UE capabilities Supply the AS with information to allow it to execute multiple services Convey charging function addresses SIP SIP Ici Izi IBCFs TrGWs Used to exchange messages between an IBCF and another IBCF belonging to a different IMS network.announcement files and other resources) from an AS. • When Event Charging with Unit Reservation (ECUR) is used. S-CSCF). Diameter (Rel6+) charging correlation information between IMS and GPRS network Used to exchange policy decisions-related information between P-CSCF and PDF Used to exchange policy decisions-related information between PCEF and PCRF Diameter Diameter TS29. • When Immediate Event Charging (IEC) is used. scripts. P-CSCF PDF. Used by I-CSCF or S-CSCF to find a correct HSS in a multi-HSS environment.g. Used to forward media streams from a TrGW to another TrGW belonging to a different IMS network. After the service is over. Used to exchange messages between UE and P-CSCF TCP/SCTP channels Cx (I-CSCF.IP Multimedia Subsystem • Online charging : The S-CSCF talks to a Session Charging Function (SCF) which looks like a regular SIP application server. Used to send subscriber data to the S-CSCF. Used by AS to find the HSS holding the User Profile information in a multi-HSS environment. . the ECF first reserves a number of credit units in the user's account and then authorizes the MRFC or the AS. Also used to furnish CDF and/or OCF addresses. 94 Interfaces description Interface Name Cr IMS entities Description Protocol Technical Specification MRFC. PDF PCEF. The service is not authorized when not enough credit units are available. DX_SLF_QUERY indicates a IMPU and DX_SLF_RESP return the HSS name.

Used to exchange messages between CSCFs I-CSCF. AS P-CSCF. when the BGCF has determined that a breakout should occur in the same IMS network to send SIP message from BGCF to MGCF BGCF -> BGCF Used for the interworking with the PSTN/CS Domain. S-CSCF MRB. S-CSCF. SIP SIP Mx BGCF/CSCF. BGCF. external IP network MGCF. MRFC. This SIP message contains sufficient information to play tone and announcement or provide information to MRFC. when the BGCF has determined that a breakout should occur in the other IMS network to send SIP message from BGCF to the IBCF in the other network Mw Rc Rf P-CSCF.IP Multimedia Subsystem Ma I-CSCF <-> AS Main functions are to: • • Forward SIP requests which are destinated to a Public Service Identity hosted by the AS Originate a session on behalf of a user or Public Service Identity. IM-MGW MRFC.248 by an MRFP. I-CSCF.299 . if the AS has no knowledge of a S-CSCF assigned to that user or Public Service Identity Convey charging function addresses SIP 95 • Mg Mi Mj MGCF -> I. MGCF. S-CSCF SIP Used by the AS to request that media resources be assigned SIP. S-CSCF. AS AS. MRFC. In Query mode (Not specified) to a call when utilizing MRB In-Line mode or In Query mode Used to exchange offline charging information with CDF Diameter Ro Used to exchange online charging information with OCF Diameter TS32. MRFP S-CSCF. MRFC SIP Mn Mp Mr Mr' Allows control of user-plane resources H. MRFC AS. Used to exchange information between S-CSCF and MRFC Used to exchange session controls between AS and MRFC Application Server sends SIP message to MRFC to play tone and announcement.248 Allows an MRFC to control media stream resources provided H. so that it can ask more information from Application Server through Cr Interface.S-CSCF S-CSCF -> BGCF ISUP signalling to SIP signalling and forwards SIP signalling SIP to I-CSCF Used to exchange messages between S-CSCF and BGCF SIP SIP BGCF -> MGCF Used for the interworking with the PSTN/CS Domain. IBCF Used for the interworking with another IMS network. when the BGCF has determined that a breakout should occur in another IMS network to send SIP message from BGCF to the BGCF in the other network Used for exchanging messages between IMS and external IP networks Mk SIP Mm I-CSCF.

IP Multimedia Subsystem Rx P-CSCF. to services and settings IM-SSF) Session handling One of the most important features of IMS. all in the respective S-CSCFs. • A Trigger Point in the form of a logical condition which is verified against initial dialog creating SIP requests or stand-alone SIP requests. It is important to note that services for the originating party will be applied in the originating network.978. user service related information or user location information or charging function addresses (used when the AS has not received the third party REGISTER for a user)) between an AS (SIP AS or OSA SCS) and HSS. For this situation. 3GPP defines some security mechanisms. that of allowing for a SIP application to be dynamically and differentially (based on the user's profile) triggered. Diameter 96 Sh AS (SIP AS. OSA SCS). while the services for the terminating party will be applied in the terminating network. Also allow AS to activate/deactivate filter criteria stored in the HSS on a per subscriber basis Transports CAMEL subscription information including triggers for use by CAMEL based application services information. due to its common use for a large number of subscribers. which binds between the user's profile and its IP address. The S-CSCF might apply filter criteria to determine the need to forward SIP requests to AS. user related Diameter data. . XCAP UE. The iFC may be composed of: • An Application Server URI where the request is to be forwarded in case of a match. Used by MRFC to fetch documents (scripts and other resources) from an AS MAP Si IM-SSF.203 may not be available for a while especially because of the lack of USIM/ISIM interfaces and prevalence of devices that support IPv4. group lists. is only referenced in the Subscription Profile and provisioned on a different path between the HSS and the S-CSCF. which are informally known as "early IMS security. Security aspects of early IMS and non-3GPP systems It is envisaged that security defined in TS 33. They represent a provisioned subscription of a user to an application. to provide some protection against the most significant threats. AS (SIP AS. Initial Filter Criteria Initial Filter Criteria (iFC) are filter criteria that are stored in the HSS as part of the IMS Subscription Profile and are downloaded to the S-CSCF upon user registration (for registered users) or on processing demand (for services. This mechanism relies on the authentication performed during the network attachment procedures." in TR33. is implemented as a filter-and-redirect signalling mechanism in the S-CSCF. HSS Used to exchange User Profile information (e. This mechanism is also weak because the signaling is not protected on the User–network interface.g. PCRF Used to exchange policy and charging related information between P-CSCF and PCRF Replacement for the Gq reference point. AS HTTP HTTP(s). HSS Sr Ut MRFC. Facilitates the management of subscriber information related OSA SCS. The term Shared iFC denotes an iFC which. iFC are valid throughout the registration lifetime or until the User Profile is changed. acting as unregistered users).

which adopted also the IMS architecture but has no USIM/ISIM capabilities in their terminals. Ahson (Editor) (CRC Press. also TISPAN did a similar effort given their Fixed Networks scopes.IP Multimedia Subsystem CableLabs in PacketCable#PacketCable_2.google. ISBN 0-470-01818-6) • "The IMS: IP Multimedia Concepts and Services" by Miikka Poikselka. 3rd Generation Partnership Project [2] Alexander Harrowell. html). 2008. Although all 3 variants of Digest-MD5 authentication have the same functionality and are the same from the IMS terminal's perspective.3gpp. A Pointless Multimedia Subsystem? (http:/ / www. 2006. 97 References [1] Technical Specification Group Services and System Aspects (2006). towards a Common-IMS platform. Later 3GPP Releases have included the Digest-MD5 method. Syed A. ISBN 1-4200-6459-2) . TS 23. com/ primary-metal-manufacturing/ foundries-nonferrous/ 4104136-1. Aki Niemi. Georg Mayer (John Wiley & Sons. Hisham Khartabil. To compensate for the lack of IPsec capabilities.rennes. Mobile Communications International External links • A decent IMS tutorial (http://www. Miguel-Angel García-Martín (John Wiley & Sons. TLS has been added as an option for securing the Gm interface. Staff Writer (October 2006).228.enst-bretagne. allbusiness. IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS). yet the procedures are different. yet in its own and again different approach. Stage 2.htm Books • "The 3G IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS): Merging the Internet and the Cellular Worlds" by Gonzalo Camarillo.org/ftp/Specs/html-info/23228. ISBN 0-470-01906-9) • "IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) Handbook" by Mohammad Ilyas (Editor). 2006. published deltas to the 3GPP specifications where the Digest-MD5 is a valid authentication option.pdf) • IMS Ten Minute Gorilla School (http://docs. Later on.fr/~gbertran/files/IMS_an_overview.0. the implementations on the Cx interface between the S-CSCF and the HSS are different.com/present/ view?id=0ARnWgfNsabwWZGYycXo5aHhfMGdqNXB4ZGI&hl=en) • http://www.

where it remains. and 3G. which produces rankings of top-performing private companies in the UK. CFO nanoGSM® nano3G™ Oyster 3G™ http:/ / www. CTO Tim Arthur. Using satellite backhaul. com/ Products Website ip.5 million round of funding from Intel Capital. the company secured an £8.[7] History ip. after signing an OEM agreement with ip. To accommodate its growing staff. an annual ranking of the fastest growing public and private technology. However. manufactures.access was named in The Sunday Times Fast Tech Track 100.ip.[16] The company was also cited as the number one picocell vendor in an independent study performed by global market intelligence company. ipaccess. ip. such as business offices and retail venues. WA and New Delhi. and markets picocell and femtocell technologies and infrastructure equipment for GSM. Headquartered in Cambridge. its solutions also provide coverage to commercial passenger aircraft. GPRS. media. life sciences.access 98 ip. both Cisco Systems[13] and Qualcomm[14] also made strategic financial investments in the company in 2008. EDGE.access is a member of 3GPP. United Kingdom Area served Key people Worldwide Teresa M.access relocated to new offices in Cambourne Business Park. India.[4] European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI).access.[6] and an associate member of the Network Vendors Interoperability Testing (NVIOT) Forum.access Limited is a multinational corporation that designs. telecommunications. ABI Research in 2008. ip.[1] ships. as part of its June 2006 acquisition of TTP Communications.[18] . Cambridge.[10] and was subsequently spun off from TTP.access ip.[9] In March 2006. it was named in the Deloitte Technology Fast 500 EMEA.[3] the Cambridge Network.[17] In 2009. Nick Johnson. and green technology companies in 26 EMEA countries. Vega. Motorola gained a stake in ip. CEO Dr. Chairman Simon Brown.access combines IP and cellular technologies together to provide cost-efficient 2G and 3G coverage and capacity of mobile networks in various settings. Cambridge. Following suit.[11] In 2007. and Rothschild & Cie Gestion. ip.[5] Femto Forum. ip. in both 2007[15] and 2008.access.access also maintains operations and offices in Bellevue.access Limited Type Privately Held Company Headquarters Cambourne. Scottish Equity Partners. UK. ADC[12] made a minority interest investment in the company.[2] and users in remote rural areas.access was founded in December 1999[8] as a wholly owned subsidiary of TTP Communications PLC. ip.

nanoGSM® In 2002. access controller and element management system.access In July 2007. an organization promoting worldwide femtocell deployment. and an OMC-R management system that delivers voice. S-class [S8]. ip. and Cisco Systems.ip.[20] In March 2010.[21] organized as an ETSI Plugtests™ held to demonstrate the effectiveness of the 3GPP femtocell standards in supporting interoperability between femtocell access points and network equipment from different vendors. E16 and E24] and Small Medium Business.access nano3G Enterprise .[19] In April 2009. ip. Spain. The ip.access became a founding member of the Femto Forum. set-top boxes. E-class [E8.[27] the Oyster 3G is ip. Oyster 3G™ Technology Launched at the 2007 3GSM World Congress in Barcelona. and device-to-network standardization collaboratively with other members. providing carrier-class coverage to commercial[26] and consumer users. the company took part in the first Plugfest. messaging and data to both 2G and 3G handsets at an indoor range of up to 200m. full IP-based BSC. and other devices. 99 Products The company's technologies are employed by telecommunications firms such as AT&T.access in compliance with the Broadband Forum's TR-069[20] technical specification.access introduced the world’s first IP basestation controller for indoor GSM networks.[24] which has jointly developed a femtocell solution with ip. the company announced its Oyster 3G product would support femtocell standards published by 3GPP and the Broadband Forum.[22] which uses Oyster 3G as the core femtocell technology for its 3G MicroCell[23] product. nano3G™ nano3G is an end-to-end Femtocell system with access points for Enterprise. device provisioning. with the goal of addressing standards-oriented issues such as radio planning and control.[25] nanoGSM uses 2G picocells that leverage the standard GSM air interface.access' core 3G femtocell technology used by system integrators and OEM customers to integrate WCDMA femtocells into home gateways.

[28] Blue Ocean Wireless. or Demo)[47] Global Telecoms Business Innovation Awards .[41] Quortus.[29] Monaco Telecom.[32] Tele2.access include the following: ip.[22] Bharti Airtel. and personnel awards won by ip.[42] and TriaGnoSys.access' major customers are AT&T.[43] Awards Corporate.[42] Setcom.[38] Blue Ocean Wireless.[34] and Telia Sonera.[30] SFR.Best Radio Access Product or Service[45] The Sunday Times Fast Tech Track 100[15] World Communications Award .ip.Maritime Voice Services[48] [18] 2010 • GTB Power100[49] • World Vendor Awards .[31] SPIE SA.Best New Product (Private Company)[44] Global Mobile Awards . product.[33] Telefónica O2 Czech Republic.Femtocell or Femtocell Network Element Design and Technology Innovation[47] Femto Forum Awards .[31] T-Mobile. Prototype.access' Oyster 3G is the core technology of AT&T's 3G MicroCell 2007 • • • • Light Reading Leading Lights Awards .[37] Altobridge.[24] Private Mobile Networks.[39] Cisco Systems.Best Specialist Vendor[50] .Best Technology Foresight[46] 2008 • The Sunday Times Fast Tech Track 100[16] 2009 • • • • Deloitte Fast 500 EMEA Femto Forum Awards .access 100 Customers and Partners Among ip.Femtocell Service (Commercial.[2] Bouygues Telecom.[35] The company's technology partners[36] include AeroMobile.[40] Qualcomm.

[24] Donegan. "ATT Wireless" (http:/ / www. etsi. ip.access Organization Profile (http:/ / www. co. femtoforum. Press release. php?id=5). . Retrieved June 2. [19] ip. abiresearch.access (March 13. . telecoms.[52] References [1] ip. co. BBC News. ipaccess. asp?doc_id=25238). Light Reading Mobile.access (http:/ / edageek. 2008). Retrieved June 2. thinkfemtocell.access (February 2. [17] Picocell Equipment Vendor Matrix (http:/ / www. .ip. "ip. Retrieved June 2. [15] 2007 Tech Track 100 League Table . 2008. [16] 2008 Tech Track 100 League Table . 2011. ipaccess. 2011. June 7. org/ fem2/ pressreleases. ttp. 2011. The Sunday Times Fast Tech Track 100. "Femto Forum Completes World's First Femtocell Plugfest" (http:/ / femtoforum. 2011. 2008. . May 13.access Joins Board of the Femto Forum . ETSI. php). The Sunday Times Fast Tech Track 100. org/ femto/ membership. "Cisco Makes Strategic Investment in ip. [6] Femto Forum Members Listing (http:/ / www.access 101 2011 • Femto Forum Awards . Retrieved June 3.5 million Funding to Accelerate Growth in Cost-Effective Cellular Infrastructure for Homes and Businesses" (http:/ / www. com/ document. Retrieved June 2. 2011. Press release. 2009. aspx?objid=73435). May 21. and Femto Forum. [26] Weaver.access is a corporate supporter of East Anglia's Children's Hospices (EACH). com/ 24665/ femtocells-grow-into-the-enterprise-space/ ). php?id=51). ip. com/ att-to-deploy-femtocell-technology-from-uk-firm-ip. . Retrieved June 2. July 30. 2006. ipaccess. lightreading. GigaOM. [21] Femto Forum (March 30. com/ content/ news/ press. 2002. com/ 2008/ 05/ 21/ qualcomm-backs-femtocell-maker/ ). co. 2011. [18] 2009 Winners (http:/ / www. co. asp?Member=ALL_PARTNERS& SortMember=Name& DirMember=ASC& SortPartner=Name& DirPartner=ASC& SortMarket=Name& DirMarket=ASC& SortObserver=Name& DirObserver=ASC& SortGuest=Name& DirGuest=ASC& Name=& search=Search). Network Vendors Interoperability Testing Forum. 2009. asp?doc_id=153681). February 15. com/ document. php?id=243). . fasttrack. deloitte. com/ 2007/ 07/ 30/ ip-access-adc/ . 2011. 2011. org/ About_the_NVIOT_Forum. com/ Operators/ att-wireless. Retrieved June 3. Retrieved June 14. Retrieved June 8.access" (http:/ / newsroom.access Goes Indoors (http:/ / www. AT&T to Deploy Femtocell Technology from UK Firm ip. "ip. [9] ip. February 2. 2011. org/ 3gppmembership/ Results.). theregister.access (http:/ / www. Press release. [11] Motorola gobbles up TTPcom (http:/ / www. uk/ fast500emea/ fast-500-winners/ winners-2009/ ). 2009). Retrieved June 14. stm). biz/ ceo/ 2009/ 04/ 07/ ipaccess-demonstrates-progress-on-femtocell-standards). [14] Higginbotham. org/ Portal_IntegrateAppli/ QueryResult. ADC Makes Investment in ip.access and Altobridge Collaborate to Provide GSM ‘Sky/Sea Phone’ Services" (http:/ / www. 2011.Femtocell Network Element Design and Technology Innovation[51] Community Support ip.com. Pamela. ipaccess. 2011. com/ content/ news/ press. etsi. Retrieved June 8. Light Reading Mobile. "ip. Femtocells Grow Into the Enterprise Space (http:/ / www. 3GPP. Cambridge Network. uk/ fasttrack/ leagues/ dbIndex. [2] Mobiles Connect Across the Waves (http:/ / news. . Ken. html). [8] "About TTP" (http:/ / www.access (http:/ / gigaom. Phone News. com/ corporate/ about/ ). fasttrack. com/ content/ news/ press. access-3378/ ).access Secures £8. ABI Research. [7] NVIOT Forum Members (http:/ / www. cisco. co. "ip. [23] David Chambers. Press release. [12] Cheung. Retrieved June 14. 2008. [10] ip. Press release. 2007). php?id=27). asp?siteID=3& yr=2007& sort=num& area1=99& x=19& y=7). uk/ fasttrack/ leagues/ dbIndex. com/ dlls/ 2008/ fin_012308. Retrieved June 30. 2005). . asp?Alone=1& SortBy=& SortDirection=& Param=). [4] ip. php?id=20).access Demonstrates Progress on Femtocell Standards (http:/ / ceoworld. which provides care for children and young people with life-threatening illnesses and support for their families. Cisco. cambridgenetwork. Stacey. 2011.access (September 15. shtml#NVIOT Forum Members). [5] ETSI Member Information (http:/ / portal.access (July 06. May 1. April 07. co.access Prep Femto Combo (http:/ / www.UK (http:/ / www. uk/ 2006/ 06/ 07/ motorola_buys_ttpcom/ ). [3] 3GPP Membership (http:/ / webapp. December 3. 2011. . [20] Bhushan. Retrieved June 8. ip. uk/ directory/ orgprofile/ default. 2011. 2010). uk/ 2/ hi/ technology/ 7867091. com/ content/ news/ press. Qualcomm Backs Femtocell Maker. Michelle. 2011. phonenews. Press release. Retrieved June 2.access Moves to New Offices to Support Growth" (http:/ / www. com/ research/ 1003580-Picocell+ Equipment+ Vendor+ Matrix). html). Telecoms. 2007. TTP Group. Humberto. asp?siteID=3& yr=2008& sort=num& area1=99& x=30& y=17). bbc. CEOWorld Magazine. [13] Cisco Systems (January 23. 2006). Think Femtocell. [22] Saabedra. Deloitte. The Register. 2011. nviot-forum.UK (http:/ / www. 2011. [25] Ip. lightreading. Amarendra. 2011. Retrieved June 8. Retrieved June 9. EDAGeek.A New Body to Promote Femtocell Standardisation and Deployment" (http:/ / www.

net/ mobile/ qualcomm-ip-access-sign-femtocell-partnership). Retrieved June 8.access Signs Contract with Czech Operator Telefónica O2 to Enhance GSM In-Building Coverage" (http:/ / www. [46] "2007 World Communication Awards Winners" (http:/ / www. February 2. [35] TeliaSonera Picks ip. 2011.ip. com/ 2008/ wca/ C4415. edn.. gsmworld. tmcnet. Business Weekly. September 03. TechEye. October 23. [30] ip. com/ article/ 515584-ip_access_revs_up_coverage_for_Monaco_Telecom.access [27] Lennighan. co. businessweekly. com/ document. 2011. Light Reading Mobile. 2011. com/ femto/ aboutforum.com. com/ document. LR Names 2007 Leading Lights Winners (http:/ / www. .access. lightreading. Mobile Comms Technology. totaltele. TriaGnoSys Offer GSM Services for Brazilian Operators (http:/ / www. 2008.ipaccess. htm). Mary. [33] Tele2 Picks ip. ipaccess. Total Telecom. femtoforum. "ip. 2010. php?id=96). [41] Wilson. Telecom Paper. asp?doc_id=71508). Terrapinn Holdings ltd. cgi?number=1844337422). [32] IP. 2010. Femto Forum.Vendors (http:/ / www. html). October 22.access (http:/ / www. com/ view. uk/ 2010/ 02/ 05/ 3g-femtocell-developer-kit-available-from-ip-access/ ). com/ news/ aroso-triagnosys-offer-gsm-services-for-brazilian-operators). September 29. Retrieved June 16. php). 2003. 3G Femtocell Developer Kit Available From ip.access (http:/ / www. asp?doc_id=136327). com/ contractors/ fixed-mobile-convergence/ teleware/ press10. [48] "GTB Innovation Awards: Wireless Network Infrastructure" (http:/ / www. [36] "Femtocell and Picocell Solutions from our partners" (http:/ / www. uk/ hi-tech/ 9043-mallinson-make-telecoms-power-list). com/ Article/ 2277416/ Search/ Results/ GTB-Innovation-Awards-Wireless-network-infrastructure. com/ topics/ ip-communications/ articles/ 99565-bharti-airtel-deploys-ipaccess-nanogsm-picocell-india. com/ usubmit/ 2009/ 02/ 12/ 3984377. 2011. April 6. . telecompaper. terrapinn. 102 External links • Official Company Website (http://www. September 16. 2007. . [39] Picocelling Marine Mobile Are ip. Retrieved June 15. Light Reading Mobile.. SFR Business Team and SPIE Collaborate to Bring Picocells to French Market (http:/ / www. asp?doc_id=187958). [40] Teleware Plc Selects ip. femtoforum. com/ document. Press release. Light Reading Mobile. co. com/ file/ 98130/ tele2-picks-ipaccess-for-picocells. ip. May 21. techeye. Global Telecoms Business. Retrieved June 30. [28] Shukla. October 16. [52] "EACH Corporate Supporters" (http:/ / www. 2011. Femtocells Key for Mobile Operators . Light Reading Mobile. [49] Mallinson Makes Telecoms Power List (http:/ / www.businessweekly. [43] Aroso. [47] "Femto Forum Femtocell Awards 2009" (http:/ / www. February 05. 2003. com/ en/ femtocell-and-picocell-solutions-from-our-partners). htm). mobilecomms-technology. Press release. html). 2010. [42] Harris. each. 2011. Ray. Dean.co.access (http:/ / www. Telecom Paper. com/ cgi-bin/ story. [50] "World Vendor Awards 2010" (http:/ / www. February 15. satnews. TMCNet. January 30.com. com/ news/ ipaccess-and-altobridge-to-develop-gsm-solutions-for-ships-and-planes). [29] Bouygues Picks ip. lightreading.access and Altobridge to Develop GSM Solutions for Ships and Planes (http:/ / www. 2011.access as Picocell Supplier for Private Mobile Networks (http:/ / www. Light Reading. uk/ how-to-help/ corporate_fundraising/ each_corporate_supporters). 2010. September 2009. htm).access (February 10. [31] ip. Terrapinn Holdings ltd. ip.access Builds Up T-Mobile (http:/ / www. asp?doc_id=42398). lightreading. com/ document. Anuradha. telecomsinsight. February 3.access + Blue Ocean Wireless (http:/ / www.access (http:/ / www. [34] ip.access Profile (http://www. tmcnet. TMCNet.access Revs Up Coverage for Monaco Telecom (http:/ / www. October 13. . 2007. [51] "2011 Winners" (http:/ / www. Jan.access. 2007. php?id=13). Telecommunications Insight. techwatch. February 12. . 2009. June 12. Retrieved June 16. 2011. 2005. com/ content/ news/ press. [37] AeroMobile Flies with ip. [45] GSM Association (February 13. "GSM Association Announces 2007 Global Mobile Awards Winners" (http:/ / www. Bharti Airtel Deploys ip. Qualcomm. org.com) • Business Weekly ip. SatNews. com/ 2010/ WVA/ ). asp?doc_id=144533). 2010. Retrieved June 9.access NanoGSM Picocell in India (http:/ / ipcommunications. 2009. [38] ip. com/ newsroom/ press-releases/ 1992. lightreading. . aspx?C=0& ID=349112). stm). 2009. 2005).access Sign Femtocell Partnership (http:/ / www. . com/ document. Retrieved June 2. globaltelecomsbusiness. 2010. Retrieved June 16. TechWatch. html?Keywords=innovation& OrderType=1). EDN Magazine. [44] Le Maistre.uk/hi-tech/ 9041-company-profile-ipaccess) .access for Picocells (http:/ / www. EACH. ipaccess. 2011. .net. lightreading. telecompaper. . Retrieved June 15. 2007). Femto Forum. org/ awards2011/ 2011-winners/ ). terrapinn.

The system has been was further developed within the Parker organisation. For Bahá'u'lláh's Book of Certitude. USPTO registration No. History The CAN bus based system IQAN was developed by a small Swedish company around 1990-95. The IQAN-system was integrated into Parkers product range of system components for mobile machinery. owned by Parker Hannifin corporation. . First version was introduced on the market 1995. date November 21. VOAC Co. no longer existing company. Notes [1] USPTO registration No. 1828046. is an acronym för Volvo-Atlas Copco as well as a trademark. Source • VOAC history. 1994. IQAN is a trademark[1] for electronic control systems for mobile machinery.IQAN 103 IQAN This article is about the Parker Hannifin trademark. bought this company and in february 1996 VOAC Hydraulics was acquired by Parker Hannifin.. around 1995 the Swedish company VOAC Hydraulics Co. Shortly after. 2405313. date March 29. 2000. see Kitáb-i-Íqán.

e.and resource-aware services. Introduction to Plastic The PLASTIC platform enables robust distributed lightweight services in the B3G networking environment through three different tools • A development environment leveraging model-driven engineering for the thorough development of SLA. • Modeling tools: they are the PLASTIC service model editor and the PLASTIC SLA editor. The latter is for defining the service level specification by taking into account the feedbacks from the non-functional analysis tools. The former allows the developer to model the functional and non-functional behavior of the service. is a project that develops a design framework for mobile B3G services. a performance model based on Queueing Networks (QN). • A validation framework enabling off-line and on-line validation of networked services regarding functional and extra-functional properties. in particular assisting the development of services targeted at mobile devices. inscribed into STREP Information Society Technologies (IST). 2008 0.0. which may be deployed on the various networked nodes. Development environment The PLASTIC development environment enables the rigorous development of SLA and resource-aware services. The Plastic project belongs to the EU's Sixth Framework Programme for Research and Technology Development (RTD). 3G). The PLASTIC development environment can be organized into the following five main blocks. which may be deployed on the various networked nodes. further enabling context-aware and secure discovery and access to such services..g. The project started in January 2006 and will end in September 2008. The latter is a QN solver for performing performance . from the service model. including handheld devices. WiFi. • A service-oriented middleware leveraging multi-radio devices and multi-network environments for applications and services run on mobile devices.IST-Plastic 104 IST-Plastic PLASTIC Original author(s) Initial release Stable release Operating system Type License Website Plastic consortium April 7. The former derives. acronym of Providing Lightweight & Adaptable Service Technology for Information and Communication.1 / April 7. including handheld devices (that can exploit different network interfaces. The PLASTIC project adopts and revisits service-oriented computing for the B3G network. Bluetooth. 2008 Cross-platform ? ? [1] Plastic. • Non-functional analysis tools: they are L-to-QN and QN-Solver.

the PLASTIC middleware is mobility-aware so that its functionalities adapt to the physical mobility of both clients and services. multi-party. The lightweight WS-Security Services allow for adapting the security provision to the capacity of mobile device resources. in particular exploiting the rich multi-radio. information needed for Service Level Agreement (SLA) management and the service WSDL specification. multi-network connectivity. The PLASTIC development environment relies on the Eclipse framework. all the tools of the PLASTIC development environment are implemented as Eclipse plug-ins.e. each tool has been developed in a modular way hence providing also an API that would allow a developer to use the tool also outside Eclipse. from the resource-aware implementation of the service. Functionalities provided by the PLASTIC middleware may be used in conjunction but also in isolation according to the resource capacities of the host and the applications' requirements. The PLASTIC middleware specifically enriches the Web service architecture with key features for services to become truly pervasive by taking full benefit of the rich capacities. i. loosely coupled. • Resource-aware adaptation tools: they are an Abstract Resource Analyzer and a Customizer and are used at deployment-time in order to "extract". from the service model. The Discovery Service enables the advertising and location of networked services. in particular enabling adaptive lightweight services to be run on mobile nodes and access to services over multi-radio. the alternative that better fits the resource constraints of the device over which the service will run. This code is resource-aware in the sense that it adapts to possible different hosting devices. Implementation of the PLASTIC middleware prototype is being finalized and will soon be available for download under open source licenses. Last but not least. to support the communication modes underlying large-scale. in particular accounting for extra-functional properties. B3G SOAP in particular allows for multi-network routing of SOAP messages over the multi-radio links. • Code generation tools: UML to HUTN and UML to WSDL are used to derive. . multi-network connectivity to services through a comprehensive layered architecture: • The multi-radio device management and networking layers together abstract multi-radio connectivity.. • Resource-aware programming model: it is a resource-aware extension of Java used to write the resource-aware code of the service. The Publish-Subscribe Service enables effective event-based communication in the B3G network through CBR. complementing traditional unicast and multicast addressed-based networks. according to quality parameters. SLA monitor generator and WS-Agreement generator generate monitors in order to check SLA at run-time. multi-network links. The Context awareness Services feature concepts for managing contextual information and further easing the adaptation of services to best match user situations. • The communication layer allows for communication in the B3G networking environment according to the SOAP or CBR (content-based routing) protocols. distributed applications. However. 105 Service-oriented middleware The PLASTIC middleware empowers the service-oriented architecture with B3G networking capabilities. • The middleware services layer brings advanced distributed resource management functionalities customized for the B3G networking environment. PLASTIC model to Adaptable Java Java skeleton of the service's code. The PLASTIC middleware brings multi-radio. selecting the optimal communication link to/from nodes. including multi-radio interfaces. B3G CBR provides content-based networking. now embedded in wireless devices.IST-Plastic analysis.

carried on at development time. PLASTIC services validation is structured around two main stages: off-line validation. checking whether the responses conform to a given specification. depending on the constraints and requirements of a considered application/scenario. The validation framework is not conceived as a fixed methodology. The mock services automatically generated by Puppet exhibit a correct behaviour with respect to given extra-functional properties. repeatable process for evaluating their software on a networked testbed. it [3] http:/ / plastic. cnr. automated and. • WEEVIL: a synthetic-workload generator coupled with an environment for managing the deployment and execution of experiments. inria. fr/ plastic [2] http:/ / plastic. Events related to the extra-functional characteristics are logged and can be used to resolve controversies concerning SLA violations. expressed as a Service State Machine. performed during live usage. services are tested in a simulated environment that reproduces functional and/or extra-functional run-time conditions. isti. by means of automatically generated on-line monitors. The tools of the PLASTIC Validation Framework can be downloaded from the Tool Repository Validation Framework. During the off-line stage. cnr. The tools made available for this purpose within the PLASTIC validation framework are: • Jambition: a model-based testing tool that automatically derives and executes invocation sequences on a service. PLASTIC provides tools developed to support this phase in verifying both functional and extra-functional properties: • Dynamo-AOP: a framework for monitoring functional properties of the external services with which a BPEL process interacts to realize a composite service.0 state machines. isti. it/ wiki/ tools . Weevil is intended to facilitate experimentation activities for distributed systems by providing engineers with a flexible. [3] of the Plastic References [1] http:/ / www-c. configurable. • SLAngMon: a light-weight technology that can dynamically detect violations of extra-functional properties specified in SLAng. and on-line validation. thus. or in combination. but rather as a set of techniques/tools that can be used alternatively. On-line validation foresees testing of a service after deployment and during live usage. Jambition is equipped with a visual interface (Minerva library) based on the common formalism of UML 2.IST-Plastic 106 Validation framework The PLASTIC validation framework [2] supports the validation of networked services with regard to both functional and extra-functional properties. • PUPPET: a tool to generate stubs implementing external services invoked by the service under development.

When entering three or more characters in a row.ac. an arrow key can be pressed to highlight other words in a menu for selection. If the phone does not recognize a word it then stores the word as an optional choice. 2.cam. iTap provides suggestions for word completions after only one key press in all cases. Press direction key "up" to enter the highlighted combination when it spells a word. in order of descending commonality of their use.inference. iTap is also able to complete words and phrases. such as "progress" or words formed with different letters but requiring the same keypresses like "prohibited" or "spoil". and highlight the combination one wants. A space is automatically inserted after the word. iTap in action Enter words 1. iTap typically uses a different user interface (UI) than T9 does. However. google. T9 enables these UI decisions to be largely up to the phone manufacturer and so far none of them have chosen to mimic the UI of iTap with T9. Scroll right to view other possible combinations. When the memory space is filled the phone deletes the oldest word to make space for the new word. If a different word is desired. iTap will guess the best match based upon a built in dictionary. developed by Motorola[1] as a competitor to T9. Comparison with T9 Similar to XT9. entering "prog" will suggest "program". the phone automatically shows additional letters that form a suggested combination. However. This way the predictive guesses iTap offers are enhanced based upon context of the word that is being typed. T9 completes custom words after one key press and on most phones other words that users have entered previously can be retrieved after three key presses. This makes some of the modern mobile phones features like text messaging and note-taking easier. com/ patents?id=zQAGAAAAEBAJ) US Patent 6204848 (2001) External links • Some notes on iTap (http://www. iTap guesses the rest of the word. As the user types. 3. For example.uk/mackay/itprnn/itap/) . It was designed as a replacement for the old letter mappings on phones to help with word entry.phy. including words sharing the typed prefix. Press keypad keys (one press per letter) to begin entering a word. This dictionary also contains phrases and commonly used sentences. References [1] Data entry apparatus having a limited number of character keys and method (http:/ / www. (the most recent version of T9). T9 provides an API that can be used to create a similar UI if phone manufacturers decide to do so.iTap 107 iTap iTap is a predictive text technology for mobile phones.

Bangalore. Rajesh and the executive team built the first internet to mobile platform (1997-98).A tool with features such as push notifications and alerts 3. Studio .July Systems 108 July Systems July Systems Type Industry Founded Private Mobile Internet 2001 Headquarters Los Angeles.Atlanta. Mumbai. Analytics. Los Angeles. July Systems has offices located in Los Angeles. Kuala Lumpur Products Website Mi™ Platform . July Systems is a privately funded and backed by leading venture funds such as Intel Capital and Sequoia Capital. Company Overview July Systems provides cross-platform mobile software to businesses. After VeriSign bought Unimobile. New York. This Platform was the first internet to mobile social network (Unimobile messenger) and was used by people in 100+ countries.Studio. At present. Products July Systems’ Mi™ comprises the following tools: 1.A tool for evaluating the effectiveness and popularity of mobile sites and applications 4. Analytics . Mumbai and Kuala Lumpur with a service footprint across 150 countries. It was co-founded in 2001[2] by the Indian entrepreneurs Rajesh TS Reddy and Ashok Narasimhan[3] .An editorial and management tool set for mobile sites and applications. California Offices in . 2. New York. Rajesh and many of the same executive members started July Systems. Ad Manager – A tool to manage advertisements on the mobile inventory to support monetization . Ad Manager www.com [1] July Systems is a business that makes software for mobile telephones. Mi Console. Bangalore. Customer Relationship Management (Mi™ Console) . Atlanta.julysystems.

Inc.in/ intel-capital-invests-in-july-systems-klg-systel-and-mcx-297/) • July Systems wins Mobile Excellence Awards (http://www.com/news/ july-systems-wins-mobile-excellence-awards/726122/) External links • Official website (http://www.julysystems.financialexpress. KLG Systel and MCX (http://www.businesswire. July Systems partner to develop mobile marketing opportunity (http://www.watblog.com/265907.htm) • Watch IPL on your Mobile. julysystems. .indiatimes.com/) • Mobile Internet & Advertising Conference 2009 (http://www. Univision & Discovery (http://www. Business Week.com) . businessweek.economictimes. com/ article/ work-in-progress/ theres-something-about-rajesh/ 2372/ 1). com/ research/ stocks/ private/ snapshot. com/2010-05-04/news/28457851_1_mobile-internet-mobile-screens-gprs-handsets) • July Systems Raises 7 Million $ In Funding – Ties In ESPN. July 2009.com/news/home/20110404005613/en/ July-Systems-Powers-74-Million-Page-Views) • July Systems Launches HTML5 WebApps for Smartphones (http://www. . Forbes Magazine.pluggd. Courtesy July Systems (http://mobigyaan. asp?privcapId=1997546). ameinfo.com/ watch-ipl-on-your-mobile-courtesy-july-systems) • Bangalore-based July Systems leads in tech for live streaming on cell (http://articles.com/press-release/ july-systems-launches-html5-webapps-for-smartphones-1509173.marketwire.mia-india. in.July Systems 109 Notes [1] http:/ / www. References • Omnicom Media Group MENA. com/ [2] "July Systems." (http:/ / investing.html) • July Systems Powers Over 74 Million Page Views in a Single Game During the Cricket Championship 2011 (http://www. [3] "There's Something About Rajesh" (http:/ / business. com/2010/03/04/july-systems-raises-7-million-in-funding-ties-in-espn-univision-discovery/) • Intel Capital Invests in July Systems.

Type Industry Founded Private Mobile Advertising 2004 Headquarters Cambridge. is a mobile ad network headquartered in Cambridge.brands. wireless carriers and brand advertisers.[5] Awards and recognition In 2007. President and CEO. The company partners with digital and media agencies. app developers. Jumptap received the following awards and recognition: • Gold award for Best Advertising and Marketing Search Engine at the Visiongain Mobile Advertising and Marketing Awards[10] • AlwaysOn Northeast 100 Private Company Award[11] . Mobile Advertising Network Monetization Platform 51-200 (2011) www. Inc..Jumptap provides advertisers . Jumptap received the following notices of recognition and excellence: • • • • • AlwaysOn Top 100 Companies[6] IDC's Ten Emerging Players to Watch in 2007[7] FierceWireless Top Wireless Companies[8] Frost and Sullivan Entrepreneurial Award for Mobility Fortune Magazine Top 24 Innovators[9] In 2008.Jumptap 110 Jumptap Jumptap. with offices across North America.com [1] Employees Website Jumptap. Massachusetts. agencies and mobile shops . Adam Soroca. Lacey Brandt. Jumptap has strategic alliances with Autodesk.[3] Openwave. USA Key people Products George Bell. Inc.[2] Jumptap's network has a unique reach of over 83 million users in the U. to deliver a powerful array of mobile advertising solutions. VP and GM Search and Advertising.These companies provide (the "inventory") and can contribute data to increase advertising relevancy and profit. Jumptap received financial support of US$22 million from Valhalla Partners in 2006 as Round C financing.S. publishers. • Mobile operators (wireless carriers) & content publishers . CMO.[4] and WPP. Massachusetts. CFO.jumptap. Paran Johar. • Advertisers .with targeted advertising solutions so they can reach their audience with advertising.

co. pl?ACCT=104& STORY=/ www/ story/ 10-30-2006/ 0004462037& EDATE=).com/blog/?p=245) Google Answers Thread with discussion of the JumpTap business model (http://answers. [10] "Jumptap Wins Best Advertising and Marketing Search Engine Award" (http:/ / www.pushingthebarrier. FierceWireless .Pure Mobile Search" (http://wapreview.brand.html) Review -"JumpTap . Press release. . com/ [2] Valhalla Partners Leads $22M Series C Round in JumpTap (http:/ / findarticles.jumptap. 2007" (http:/ / www. fiercewireless. cgi?id=54846& u=pg_dtl_art_news& m=286). Tekrati. goingon. . .com/news/view/ 354) JumpTap clears $21M in financing (http://www. External links • Official website (http://http://www.typepad. .com/press-releases) Sponsored Podcasts About Timely Topics with JumpTap Executives (http://www. com/ research/ 8331/ ).com/pushing_the_barrier/2007/03/ • • • • • • • • jumptap_issues_. Inc. fortune_innovators.bizjournals. [11] "The Northeast 100 Winners" (http:/ / alwayson. prnewswire.google. Fierce Wireless. uk/ cgi-bin/ item. Fortune Magazine. [7] "IDC: Ten Emerging Mobile Players To Watch in 2007" (http:/ / vendor. [9] Ryan. edgar-online. . com/ permalink/ post/ 15899/ ). com/ 022007/ online/ openwave-jumptap-combine-context-and-profiling-for-mobile-ads/ ). Retrieved 2010-05-07. reuters.5% of the issued share capital of JumpTap. Mediasoon. [6] "The 2007 AO 100 Top Companies" (http:/ / alwayson.com/) WPP Digital has acquired 2. jumptap. AlwaysOn. com/ permalink/ post/ 25771). com/ cgi-bin/ stories.Fierce15. fortune/ 11. com/ Fierce15/ 2007/ ). com/ galleries/ 2007/ fortune/ 0704/ gallery.html) JumpTap's Product Overview (http://www. Corey. [5] "WPP bolsters digital with Jumptap stake" (http:/ / www. . [4] "Openwave Jumptap combine context and profiling for mobile ads" (http:/ / mediasoon. html). Press release. Marketing Week. tekrati.jumptap.com/product-overview) JumpTap Press Releases (http://www.msearchgroove. .dll?FetchFilingOrig1?SessionID=cXB8jAWGR6rglcG&ID=4911130) FierceMobileContent Presents JumpTap with Top App Award (http://www. com/ p/ articles/ mi_m0EIN/ is_2006_Oct_4/ ai_n27047573) [3] "Autodesk and Jumptap form Strategic Alliance to Advance Development of Location-Enabled Search Services for Mobile Operators" (http:/ / www. marketingweek. (http://businessweek. com/ article/ pressRelease/ idUS122527+ 20-Mar-2008+ BW20080320). Hajim.com/boston/stories/2005/12/05/daily15. cnn. AlwaysOn.com/EFX_dll/EDGARpro.jumptap. . . Oliver. goingon. "Top 24 Innovators" (http:/ / money.Jumptap 111 References [1] http:/ / www.com/answers/ threadview?id=754120) .generalcatalyst. [8] "Top Wireless Companies.com/) • JumpTap issues 30 new patents (http://www.

a large U. regardless of location.Librestream 112 Librestream Librestream Technologies Inc. successfully designed and developed a number of mobile devices. the team. Two years later. one of which delivered Voice over IP (VoIP). Don Freiling. venture capital backed company based in Winnipeg. In addition to Thacher. cellular and broadband technologies enabling effective collaboration independent of location. all declined. Two things were clear: the emergence and continued growth of the Internet was certain. In August 2003 Thacher left Symbol. extends traditional video conferencing and collaborative services to places previously unreachable such as an off-shore oil rig or a manufacturing plant floor a continent away. Mobile collaboration Mobile collaboration is a technology-based process of communicating utilizing electronic assets and accompanying software designed for use in remote locations. Kent Wotherspoon. The technology would extend the boundaries of traditional .. recent technological advancements have extended the capabilities of video conferencing for use with discreet. Over the next few years. Rob McConnell. Only a few weeks into AirWire’s operation. is a privately-owned. a group of eight professionals from the former Winnipeg arm of Symbol gathered to plan their next venture. and Chris Kavanagh. Later in 2003. Librestream provides technologies that enable mobile enterprise collaboration. a significant advancement in mobile device technology at that time. This activity led to the development of high-volume hand-held mobile expertise in Winnipeg for the first time. Symbol Technologies Inc. Thacher bought back the device side of the business from Continental and formed AirWire Mobile Technologies Inc. audio.[2] The system included a hand-held device designed for use by clinicians. mobile collaboration utilizes wireless. the ability to collaborate in new ways. Conway Wieler. Subsequent to successful clinical use of this system. Where traditional video conferencing has been limited to boardrooms. which continued to support the substantial base of hospitals using the technology. consisting of unique hand-held mobile devices and accompanying software. and telestration (on-screen drawing) capabilities broadcast over secure networks. and there existed a tangible [3] opportunity to develop enhanced video-handling capabilities for a next generation of hand-held devices. Differing from traditional video conferencing. In 1999. permitting true mobile collaborative possibilities. and weeks later Symbol closed its Winnipeg office. a capability that would later form the foundation for the creation of Librestream. Ubitrex was sold in 1994 to U. continuing to operate out of Winnipeg. enabling multi-party conferencing in real time. Librestream is notable in that its technology. Canada. Newest generation hand-held electronic devices include video. a small high-tech start-up that designed and developed a clinical information system for use in hospitals to capture patient data. offices. this group included Bill Gillanders.[1] Company history The origins of Librestream date back to the late 1980s in Winnipeg. took notice of AirWire’s unique expertise and contracted with Airwire to create a product to help Symbol pursue the healthcare market. Although many of the engineers received offers from Symbol to re-locate to New York. The group was convinced that together they could design and develop the necessary technology to allow individuals. hand-held mobile devices. Canada. Symbol bought AirWire. Tim Braun.S-based Continental Healthcare Systems. when Kerry Thacher co-founded Ubitrex Corporation.S-based manufacturer of mobile devices. and lecture theatres.

"Virtually On-sight" (http:/ / www. 2010). librestream. com/ pastissues/ JFCD2009/ JFCD-Mar-Apr2009. 22. com/ issues/ story. 2010). Anil (2010).[10] Business processes are optimized through accelerated problem resolution. htm). . Control Engineering. In 2006. Backed by venture capital and individual investors.[4] Led by the founding team’s vision.[13] References [1] Herrell. Winnipeg Free Press. Renee (May 28. controleng. php/ 3872836/ Secure-Wi-Fi-Video-On-The-Battlefield. php?id=2819& tx_ttnews[tt_news]=11999& cHash=0387e9884a). e-security Planet. "New hand-held device targets work on shop floor: veteran high-tech team launches new venture" (http:/ / www. bodyshopbiz. librestream. Renee (May 28. "New hand-held device targets work on shop floor: veteran high-tech team launches new venture" (http:/ / www. The desktop collaboration software evolved into the Onsight Expert application. php?id=2819& tx_ttnews[tt_news]=11999& cHash=0387e9884a). "Mobile video system visually connects global plant floor engineers" (http:/ / m. "Enterprise Communications: The Next Decade" (http:/ / www. many of them Fortune 500 firms. Gerry (March 25. With Cisco Systems. visual interaction removes traditional restrictions of distance and time. com/ News/ July_11_2005. 2009). com/ v4erizonb8usin4essa17com/ Enterprise-communications-the-next-decade. "Secure Wi-Fi Video on the Battlefield" (http:/ / www. html). The arrangement offered Librestream industry exposure and allowed the breadth and depth of the product to grow in response to evolving requirements. "Estimating from a distance now possible" (http:/ / www. 2009). . com/ index. pp. pdf). html). the MCD-1000. Librestream’s customer base grew to include global enterprises. By 2010. Forrester Research White Paper. . "Being in Two Places At One Time" (http:/ / www. Energy Manufacturing. aspx?aid=1000228332). Alex (March 9. [10] Robbins. com/ News/ July_11_2005.[5] energy. . html). . Martin (July 11. controleng. [6] Wadhwa. . Cindy (December 2008). Winnipeg Free Press. com/ trends/ article. Librestream developed their first alpha product. Corey (March/April 2009). com/ pdf/ EnergyManufacturing2010. "Mobile video system visually connects global plant floor engineers" (http:/ / m. 4. esecurityplanet. Live. Librestream has successfully tested the Onsight system over the Inmarsat BGAN satellite network to provide mobile collaboration to land and maritime satellite customers. librestream. reductions in downtimes and travel. Librestream is a Registered Cisco Developer Network member. php?id=2819& tx_ttnews[tt_news]=11999& cHash=0387e9884a). one of the leading video conferencing industry players at that time. [3] Cash.[8] government and public safety. .[6] healthcare.[11] Strategic partners Librestream works with three strategic partners. [5] Robbins. Control Engineering. coupled with desktop collaboration software. in industries such as manufacturing. com/ index. Just for Canadian Doctors. pp. Librestream has tested and optimized the Onsight mobile devices for 4G LTE networks. . Control Engineering. [7] Van’t Haaff. . 2005). Bodyshop. justforcanadiandoctors. [8] Macdonald.[12] With Inmarsat. MCA. controleng. [9] Blackwell. Martin (July 11. Librestream (a combination of ‘free’ and stream’) was formed. "Mobile video system visually connects global plant floor engineers" (http:/ / m.[7] insurance. Elizabeth. Renee (May 28. [4] Robbins. After the arrangement expired in July 2010. pdf). with Whitely. 2009). [2] Cash.[9] 113 Technological advancement The impact of mobile collaboration technology is significant in its potential to change the way people work. Librestream continued to develop the technology and support their growing customer base. . com/ index. one of multiple rugged hand-held devices in the Onsight product line. With Verizon Wireless. in 2006. and Onsight is a core component of the Cisco Manufacturing Mobile Video Collaboration (MMVC) solution. 2005). downloadic. . Librestream formed a marketing partnership with Tandberg. improvements in customer service and increased productivity.Librestream video-conferencing beyond the boardroom to workplaces previously unreachable such as a manufacturing plant floor a continent away. Robert and Crumb. Eventually the mobile collaborative device evolved into the Onsight 1000.

. Brian (January 5. with Whitely. [13] Santo. 114 List of devices with Assisted GPS List of devices with Assisted GPS: Apple • • • • • Apple iPad[1] Apple iPad 2 Apple iPhone 3G[2] Apple iPhone 3GS Apple iPhone 4 BlackBerry (RIM) • BlackBerry Bold[3] • BlackBerry Curve 8900[4] • BlackBerry Storm[5] • BlackBerry Storm 2 Dell • Dell Inspiron 1110 (Inspiron 11z) • Dell Streak E-TEN • E-TEN Glofiish X500 • E-TEN Glofiish M700 ESCORT • ESCORT Entourage CIS[6] • ESCORT Entourage PS[7] Google • Nexus One • Nexus S Hewlett Packard (HP) • Hewlett Packard IPAQ 614c • Hewlett Packard IPAQ 914 • Hewlett-Packard Veer HTC • • • • • • HTC Advantage X7500 (HTC Athena 100) HTC Advantage X7501 (HTC Athena) [8] HTC Advantage X7510 HTC Artemis 100[9] (HTC P3300) HTC Census (HTC P6000) HTC Desire[10] . aspx). cedmagazine.Librestream [11] Herrell. [12] Presher. "TelePresence in Manufacturing: IP-based video conferencing provides effective tools for remote collaboration" (http:/ / www. Alex (March 9. com/ v4erizonb8usin4essa17com/ Enterprise-communications-the-next-decade. html). html). allitwares. "Verizon Wireless Plays Full-Court Press on Broadband" (http:/ / www. 2010). . "Enterprise Communications: The Next Decade" (http:/ / www. com/ featured-articles-body-TelePresence-in-Manufacturing-523-1. . Robert and Crumb. com/ News/ 2011/ 01/ Verizon-LTE-CES-broadband-Hitachi-Alcatel-Sierra-Motorola. Automation and Control – Design News. Al (December 2010). 2011). Elizabeth. Forrester Research White Paper. CEDMagazine. downloadic.

5)[11] HTC EVO 4G HTC Hero HTC HD2 HTC Legend[12] HTC Magic HTC Omni HTC P3600i HTC Pharos 100[13] (HTC P3470) HTC Sedna 100 (HTC P6550) HTC Sirius 100[14] (HTC P6500) HTC Surround HTC Titan 100[15] (HTC P4000. HTC P3700) HTC Touch Find (HTC Polaris 200) HTC Touch HD (HTC Blackstone) HTC Touch Pro[19] (HTC Raphael 100) 115 • HTC Trinity 100 (HTC P3600) • HTC TyTN II[20] (AT&T Tilt.List of devices with Assisted GPS • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • HTC Desire HD HTC Desire Z HTC Dream (with Android software release 1. HTC Polaris 100) HTC Touch Diamond[18] (HTC Diamond. Sprint Mogul PPC-6800. HTC P4550) • HTC Wildfire[21] Land Rover (vehicle) • Land Rover S1 LG • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • LG KC910 LG KM900 Arena Lg Incite Lg Rumor2 Lg GT505 Pathfinder LG Optimus Android GT540 LG Sentio Motorola A3100 Motorola A1600 Motorola A1000 Motorola A925 Motorola A835 Motorola MT710 Motorola Droid/Milestone Motorola Droid 2 Motorola Droid X Motorola Neo • Neo 1973 . Verizon Wireless XV6800) HTC Touch2 [16] HTC Touch Cruise[17] (HTC P3650. HTC Kaiser 120.

List of devices with Assisted GPS • Neo FreeRunner Nikon • Nikon Coolpix P6000 Compact Digital Camera[22] Nokia • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Nokia 5230 Nokia 5800 Xpress Music Nokia 6110 Navigator Nokia 6210 Navigator Nokia 6220 Classic Nokia 6650 fold Nokia 6700 Classic Nokia 6710 Navigator Nokia E5-00 Nokia E52 Nokia E55 Nokia E66 (Dora) Nokia E71 Nokia E72 Nokia E75 Nokia E90 Communicator Nokia N78 Nokia N79 Nokia N8 Nokia N82 Nokia N85 Nokia N86 8MP Nokia N95 Nokia N95-3 North America Nokia N95 8GB Nokia N95 8GB North America Nokia N96 Nokia N97. Nokia N97 Mini Nokia N810 (with Diablo firmware upgrade) Nokia N900 Nokia X6 Nokia C5 Nokia C6 Nokia C7 116 Novatel • Novatel X720 • MiFi (tethering devices) • Novatel MiFi 2200 • Novatel MiFi 23xx series Orange • Orange San Francisco .

List of devices with Assisted GPS Palm • Palm Pre • Palm Treo 800w • Palm Treo Pro Sony • Sony HDR-XR520V Handycam Camcorder with built-in GPS receiver[23] Sony Ericsson • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Sony Ericsson Satio Sony Ericsson XPERIA X1 Sony Ericsson XPERIA X2[24] Sony Ericsson Xperia X8[25] Sony Ericsson XPERIA X10[26] Sony Ericsson Xperia X10 mini[27] Sony Ericsson Xperia X10 mini pro[28] Sony Ericsson XPERIA Arc Sony Ericsson Aino[29] Sony Ericsson C702 Sony Ericsson C905 Sony Ericsson G705 Sony Ericsson TM506 Sony Ericsson W715[30] Sony Ericsson W760 Sony Ericsson W995 Sony Ericsson Z780 Sony Ericsson Elm 117 BlackJack • Samsung Blackjack II Samsung • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Samsung Focus[31] Samsung i5700 Samsung Galaxy 3 Samsung Galaxy 5 Samsung Galaxy Fit Samsung Galaxy S Samsung Galaxy Tab Samsung Galaxy Ace Samsung GT-i8510 INNOV8 Samsung i8910 Samsung Monte S5620 Samsung Mythic (SGH-A897) Samsung Omnia Samsung Omnia Pro 7320 Samsung Omnia II Samsung Omnia 7 [32] Samsung SGH-i550 .

php) [13] HTC – Touch Phone.Storm Specs for 9550 and 9530 (http:/ / us. htc. Mobile Computer: Products – HTC P6500: Overview (http:/ / www.iPhone 3G (http:/ / store. aspx?id=526) [15] HTC . Smartphone. Mobile Computer (http:/ / www. blackberry. escortradar. PDA Phone. Mobile Computer: Products – HTC Advantage: Overview (http:/ / www.List of devices with Assisted GPS • • • • Samsung SGH-i780 Samsung Galaxy Pop S5570 Samsung Nexus S I9023 Samsung Wave S5253 118 • Samsung Transform[33] Sierra Wireless • Sierra Wireless (some devices) Spice • Spice Mi-300[34] Sonim • • • • Sonim Technologies XP3. com/ blackberrybold/ http:/ / en. PDA Phone. com/ entourage/ ) HTC – Touch Phone. Mobile Computer: Products – HTC P3470: Overview (http:/ / www. apple. aspx?id=436) [9] HTC – Touch Phone. Smartphone. escortradar. Smartphone. com/ www/ product. com/ entourage/ ) ESCORT Entourage PS portable vehicle security and location awareness (http:/ / www.Touch Phone.20-A QUEST Sonim Technologies Ingrid Sonim Technologies XP 3300 Force Sprint • Sprint Navigation Synapse-Phones • Synapse One Teltonika • Teltonika GH3000[35] Toshiba • Toshiba TG01 Tracker • Tracker G400 Zoombak • Zoombak tracking devices[36] References -iPad (http:/ / www. PDA Phone. apple. aspx?p_id=75& act=sd) [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] . aspx?id=32678) [14] HTC – Touch Phone. htc. Smartphone. com/ htc_desire-3077. gsmarena. html#perf) [12] (http:/ / www. php) [11] Android 1. com/ us/ browse/ home/ shop_iphone/ family/ iphone) http:/ / www. com/ sdk/ android-1. blackberry. Mobile Computer: Products – HTC P3300: Overview (http:/ / www. com/ htc_legend-3141. gsmarena. PDA Phone. wikipedia.5 Platform Highlights (http:/ / developer. android. com/ www/ product.20-E QUEST Sonim Technologies XP3.S. com/ www/ product. PDA Phone. com/ us/ FAQ_Detail. com/ smartphones/ blackberrystorm/ storm_specifications. org/ wiki/ BlackBerry_Curve_8900/ BlackBerry . htc. 5-highlights. aspx?id=392) [10] (http:/ / www. jsp) ESCORT Entourage CIS GPS vehicle security. htc.) . com/ www/ product. htc. recovery and location awareness (http:/ / www. com/ ipad/ ) Apple Store (U. Smartphone.

aspx?id=167) (http:/ / www. aspx?id=794) [18] HTC – Touch Phone. Mobile Computer: Products – HTC TyTN II: Overview (http:/ / www. spicecorp. com/ www/ product. PDA Phone. sonystyle. aspx?id=640) [21] (http:/ / www. com/ Find-Your-Nikon/ Product/ Digital-Camera/ 26135/ COOLPIX-P6000. htc. html [17] HTC – Touch Phone. teltonika. com/ wportal/ devworld/ downloads/ download/ x8wp1?cc=gb& lc=en) Sony Ericsson X8 White Paper [26] (http:/ / developer. com/ wportal/ devworld/ downloads/ download/ dw-300004-wpx10minipro1?cc=gb& lc=en) Sony Ericsson X10 mini pro White Paper [29] (http:/ / www. com/ mobile/ samsung/ reviews/ 92412. com/ www/ product. PDA Phone. Mobile Computer: Products – HTC Touch Cruise: Overview (http:/ / www. com/ cws/ products/ mobilephones/ overview/ x2?cc=ro& lc=ro) Sony Ericsson XPERIA X2 [25] (http:/ / developer. gsmarena. htc. htc. com/ wportal/ devworld/ downloads/ download/ dw-300003-wpx10minia1?cc=gb& lc=en) Sony Ericsson X10 mini White Paper [28] (http:/ / developer. htc. PDA Phone. sonyericsson. com/ cws/ products/ mobilephones/ overview/ aino?cc=ro& lc=ro) Sony Ericsson Aino [30] [31] [32] [33] [34] [35] [36] SE W715 in GSM Arena (http:/ / www. htc. zoombak. PDA Phone. Smartphone. com/ wportal/ devworld/ downloads/ download/ dw-102192-wpx102?cc=gb& lc=en) Sony Ericsson X10 White Paper [27] (http:/ / developer. brighthub. Mobile Computer: Products – HTC Touch Diamond: Specification (http:/ / www. sonyericsson. aspx?id=46286) [19] HTC – Touch Phone. com) 119 . Smartphone. Mobile Computer: Products – HTC Touch Pro: Specification (http:/ / www. sonyericsson. com/ samsung_i550-2115. php) (http:/ / www. com/ www/ product. gsmarena. sonyericsson. sonyericsson. php) Samsung Focus Samsung SGH-i550 in GSM Arena (http:/ / www. com/ htc_wildfire-3337. in/ spicemobiles/ Model. Smartphone. com/ sea/ product/ touch2/ overview. Car Security Device (http:/ / www.List of devices with Assisted GPS [16] http:/ / www. com/ www/ product. sonyericsson. aspx?id=49524) [20] HTC – Touch Phone. nikonusa. aspx) (http:/ / www. eu/ en/ pages/ view/ ?id=982) Zoombak GPS Auto & Vehicle Tracker. Smartphone. Dog & Pet Tracking. html) [23] HDR-XR520V 240GB High Definition Handycam Camcorder with built-in GPS receiver (http:/ / www. gsmarena. com/ webapp/ wcs/ stores/ servlet/ ProductDisplay?catalogId=1& storeId=10151& langId=-1& productId=8198552921665736672& SR=sony_search_seo& SQS=HDR-XR520V) [24] (http:/ / www. com/ sony_ericsson_w715-2642. php) [22] Product's official page (http:/ / www.

and most European countries including Britain. . thus hindering competition. and full mobile number portability (FMNP) for mobile phone lines. there are limitations to transferability with regards to geography. Canada. while others argue that it prevents vendor lock-in and allows them to compete fairly on price and service.[2] Wireless Number Portability is available in some parts of Africa. in other countries all mobile numbers are placed in higher priced mobile-dedicated area codes and the originator of the call to the mobile phone pays for the call. In the US. number portability is usually mandated for all operators by telecommunications regulatory authorities. The ability to keep a number while switching providers is thought to be attractive to consumers. especially incumbent operators with large existing subscriber bases. number portability became popular with the advent of mobile telephones. and the United States are the only countries in the world that offer full number portability transfers between both fixed lines and mobile phone lines. this service is still not available (see below for details). [1] In the United States and Canada. however. and are billed identically for the calling party. This latest mandate included carriers outside the top 100 MSAs that theretofore enjoyed a rural carrier exemption. refers to the ability to transfer either an existing fixed-line or mobile telephone number assigned by a local exchange carrier (LEC) and reassign it to another carrier. mobile number portability is referred to simply as WNP or WLNP (Wireless LNP) . changing one's operator would require changing one's number. Some cellular telephone companies will charge for this conversion as a regulatory cost recovery fee. since in most countries different mobile operators are provided with different area codes and. Although Hong Kong government approved for fixed-mobile number portability. Some operators. Details regarding the reasons for LNP and how it is to be implemented can be found in the First Report and Order referenced above. this relates to transferability between mobile phone lines only. service area coverage and technology. Due to this conflict of interest. and mobile user pays for incoming calls). (MNP). without portability.[3] because mobile and fixed line numbers are mixed in the same area codes. The mandate required all carriers in the top 100 MSAs (metropolitan statistical areas) to be "LNP-capable" and port numbers to any carriers sending a BFR (bona fide request). History Though it was introduced as a tool to promote competition in the heavily monopolized wireline telecommunications industry (see the First Report and Order on LNP and Number Pooling [4]). the mobile user usually pays for incoming calls. Asia. have argued against portability on the grounds that providing this service incurs considerable overhead. LNP was required for all landline and wireless common carriers. As of late November 2003. the FCC has mandated this in order to increase competition among providers. Australia. In the rest of the world it is referred to as mobile number portability. It was also a major point made by CLECs (Competitive Local Exchange Carriers) preventing customers from leaving ILECs (Incumbent Line Exchange Carriers). call billings are identical no matter for calling to fixed or mobile.Local number portability 120 Local number portability Local number portability (LNP) for fixed lines. In the US. In most cases. so long as the number is being ported to the same geographical area or telephone exchange. Hong Kong also fulfills the criteria listed above (no area code in Hong Kong. LNP was mandated by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in 1996 with the First Report and Order on LNP and Number Pooling [4] .

numbers were assigned to various operators in blocks. Query on Release (QoR) The operator that originates the call first checks with the operator to which the number initially belonged. The situation is slightly more complex if the user leaves the first operator for a second and then subsequently elects to use a third operator. The operator that originates the call then checks the centralized database. If a number is dialed it is necessary to be able to determine where in the network the mobile station exists. In number portability the “donor network” provides the number and the “recipient network” accepts the number.Local number portability 121 Portability schemes There are four main methods to route a number whose operator has changed[5] . This model is called indirect routing.[6] All Call Query (ACQ) The operator that originates the call always check a centralized database and obtains the route to the call. as is done with ACQ. see the article on the GSM network. (For an example of such a system. Some mechanism for such forwarding must exist. The operator that originates the call first checks with the donor operator. as well as NANPA and the ATIS [8] which are agreed upon by all member providers to help make LNP as cost-efficient and expedient as possible while still retaining a healthy level security for all providers and in respect of the highest level of customer service. In this case the second operator will return the number to the first and then it is assigned to the third. Technical issues Complexity for number portability can come from many sources. With number portability. If the subscriber ceases to need the number then it is normal that the original donor receives the number back and “snaps back” the number to its network.gov). the system worked quite well in a fixed line environment since everyone was attached to the same infrastructure. The operator that originates the call then uses this route to forward the call. Historically. first defined in the 1st. The operator to which the number was designated routes itself the call to the new operator. the donor operator. Onward Routing (OR) The operator that originates the call checks with the donor operator. With phone numbers assigned to various operators in blocks. The operation of donating a number requires that a number is “snapped out” from a network and “snapped into” the receiving network. The donor operator checks its own database and provides a new route. The operators. Call Dropback Also known as Return to Pivot (RoP). then provided these numbers to the subscribers of telephone services. there are standards for portability defined by the FCC and the LNPA. are further detailed by the LNPA in order to ensure any provider can successfully port numbers to any other provider. The donor operator verifies the call and informs that it no longer possesses the number.) In the US. [7] . it is envisioned that the size of these blocks may grow smaller or even to single numbers. No central database is consulted. Numbers were also recycled in blocks. who were often also service providers. 2nd and 3rd Reports and Orders by the FCC (publicly available at fcc. These rules. The situation becomes somewhat more complex in a wireless environment such as that created by cellular communications. In cellular communications the concept of a location registry exists to tie a “mobile station” (such as a cellular phone) to the number. Once this occurs the granularity of such operations will represent a greater workload for the telecommunications provider. The donor operator checks its own database and obtains a new route.

As of March 14. Calls to ported numbers are completed when a customer who calls a ported number sends the dialed number to a provider's SSP (Service Switch Point). it is a "push. If the call is local. Providers can also make these requests within the NPAC database directly. 2011.Local number portability NeuStar provides a national database called the NPAC [9] (National Portability Administration Center) which contains the correct routing information for all ported and pooled numbers in the US and Canada. If it is not a local number.[12] Mobile Number Portability was officially [13] launched in April 1. Much of this process is duplicated in intermodal portability (porting between wireline and wireless providers). 2005 and fixed-line number portability as of July 1. When the Old Provider receives this request. the switch has the NPA-NXX in its routing table as portable. where it is identified either as a local call or not. If routing information is found. the call is passed on to the STP and routed until it gets to a local carrier who will perform the "query" mentioned earlier and route the call accordingly. it sends back FOC (Firm Order Confirmation) and the process of porting the number(s) begins. The NANC [10] maintains detailed documentation [11] of the procedure common among US carriers to port numbers as described here. The Americas Canada In Canada. however. it is called a "pull. LIDB. The routing information necessary to complete these calls is known as an LRN (Local Routing Number). Providers use SS7 to route calls throughout the US/Canada network. 2007. so it sends a routing request to the STP (Signal Transfer Point) which accesses a local database that is updated by an LSMS (Local Service Management System) which holds all routing for all ported numbers to which the carrier is responsible for completing calls. When a provider receives a request to port a telephone number from a new customer. the number is ported. 122 Portability by country Africa Kenya The Communications Commission of Kenya announced in 2004 that mobile number portability would be available as of July 1.[14] . There are a few technical differences. The LRN is no more than a simple 10-digit telephone number that resides in the switch of the service provider currently providing service for the ported telephone number. in WLNP—Especially with concern to the time intervals allowed. wireline/competitive local exchange carriers must provide portability. CLASS and." Once the number is pulled or pushed. LNP. At the point this is completed. that provider sends an industry-standard LSR (Local Service Request) to the existing (or "old") provider. Either provider can initiate the port using a SOA or LSOA (Service Order Activator) which directly edits the NPAC database mentioned before. If the new provider initiates the port. 2006. wireless carriers must provide portability in most of Canada. the providers must concur the request and the new provider must "activate" the number using the LRN of the switch serving the customer on the agreed due date. of course." and if the old provider initiates. a response is sent to the "query" containing the information necessary to properly route the call. SS7 accesses databases for various services such as CNAM.

the introduction of this service shall be decided by the fixed/mobile carriers in a voluntary basis. 1999. as switches and telephone networks were upgraded with Local Routing Number (LRN) capability. the FCC made clear that the obligation to provide LNP extends to VoIP providers. Mobile Number Portability has been available since 12.e. LNP was first implemented in the U. Thereafter. fixed line number portability is available since July 1.[16] The handling of the service is handled by Telcordia Technologies. fixed-mobile number portability is not available. It was also one condition for Telmex. and allowed operators to charge an additional monthly Long-Term Telephone Number Portability End-Use Charge as compensation. However. In March. the FCC first mandated LNP among wireline carriers in 1997. October 2009. as well. FCC since has mandated Wireless Local Number Portability starting November 24.[23] Mobile number portability is available since March 1. As of October 2009.[25] . 2003. 1995. LNP was deployed sequentially to the remaining RBOC areas.S. This service covered select rate centers in the Ameritech region. on October 31.[19] Ecuador In Ecuador. if the Mexican company wanted to enter to the video market Triple play (telecommunications). The number portability is available since July 5 of 2008. the Dominican Telecommunications Institute (INDOTEL) selected Informática El Corte Inglés to administer the number portability. 2003 (in metropolitan areas).S.[15] Mexico Mexico is the first Latin American country to have number portability in both mobile and local telephony. reversal of franchised monopoly).Local number portability United States In the United States. the "Concorcio Systor [20] Telconet [21] JR Electric Supply [22]" has implemented and is operating the ASCP (Administrador del Sistema Central de Portabilidad). The U. which was a requirement from the government. it's not possible to port a fixed line number to a mobile line number and vice-versa[18] . the FCC additionally ruled that number portability applies to landline numbers moving to mobile telephones and.[24] Although the government allowed porting a fixed line number to a mobile carrier or vice versa. On November 10.[17] Brazil In Brazil.[16] The Federal Commission of Telecommunications (COFETEL) applied this law. 2007. 2009. 123 Asia Hong Kong In Hong Kong. A neutral third party. Illinois in 1998. 2009.[16] Dominican Republic In the Dominican Republic. number portability in both mobile and local telephony was launched September 30. in defense and regulation of the great monopoly that Telmex has. number portability (both fixed and mobile) is available nationwide since March. 2009. the same day of fixed line telephone market liberalization (i. upon the establishment of the original Number Portability Administration Center (NPAC) in Chicago.

A centralized number portability clearinghouse (NPC) solution was implemented by CITC [30](the telecom regulation authority) and the two mobile phone operators were obliged to implement the MNP solution in their networks and to interface with the NPC.com launched in India in Haryana state on November 25. Malaysia In Malaysia. to be the first country to launch this service in the ME region. the service was provided to the mobile subscribers for free. Mobile number portability was launched on August 26. 2006. according to an article on the National News Agency Bernama [29] Saudi Arabia In Saudi Arabia. via the licenses issued to them by the Telecommunications Regulatory Authority (TRA). 2007. and the significance of mobile Internet mail. but it was of little effect due to already competitive price plans and customer loyalty. ‫ﻥ ﻥﻥ‬the PTA mandated mobile number portability on March 23.[31] Pakistan In Pakistan. 2006. 2006. because of high transition costs for the customer due to SIM lock. Mobile Number Portability was mandated on the Public Mobile Operators. Users are able to change their ‫ﻥﻥﻥﻥ‬ cellular phone service for a free. Overall. Users are able to change cellular phone carriers without changing their number for a nominal fee of 3 OMR. NTT DoCoMo. They just have to pay the charges of new sim cards depending upon the provider they are migrating [32] 124 . As a result. 2010. fixed line portability began in March. phone carriers without changing their number for a fee of 5000 yen. The Japanese Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (MIC) spent three years to put mobile number portability into practice. allowing operators to fence in subscribers with price plans. KDDI and Softbank accelerated the price battle. the long time it took to establish mobile number portability. 2001. Oman In Oman. and music/data downloaded may not be used. e-mail addresses are subject to change. MNP was launched in July 8. since its initial workgroup started in November. 番 号 ポ ー タ ビ リ テ ィ ー 制 度 (bangō portability seido – [27] [28] Users are able to change cellular commonly referred to as portability or MNP) began on October 24. 2003. However. mobile number portability in Japan was not very successful. Japan In Japan.Local number portability India Mobile number portability www.[26] It was finally launched all over India on January 20.mnp-india. Nawras and Oman Mobile. mobile number portability plan to start by mid 2008. 2011.

Cyprus In Cyprus.000 and the number of mobile lines was 5. This is currently implemented through voice call & SMS forwarding. 2003. Elisa and DNA fell from 98. number portability was implemented in Oct 2004. Considering that the number of fixed lines by the end of 2006 was 2. [33] South Korea In South Korea. geographic. 2001.293 fixed lines were ported.[40] . Estonia In Estonia. Belgium In Belgium.[38] roughly 7. the combined market share of TeliaSonera. the dominant operator which has over 50% of market share.9% of lines were ported in 2006. number portability was implemented in Oct 2002.974.000.828. 2004. 2004. True number portability will be realized from June 13.[39] The impact of mobile number portability in Finland exceeds that of other countries. non-geographic and mobile number portability is required as of July 12.Local number portability Singapore Singapore was one of the first countries to introduce number portability for mobile telephones in 1997. To prevent users' churning to the dominant operator. mobile number portability was implemented on July 25. respectively.7% to 87. Mobile number portability was implemented on July 1. In one year (June 2003 – June 2004). with the implementation of a Centralised Number Portability Database Solution. As a result. only SK Telecom's subscribers could move to other operators during the first six months. 2004. all telephone providers are required to provide number portability under the Universal Services Directive (2002/22/EU). mobile number portability service started from January 1. This is supported by Sri Lanka Telecom owned Mobitel Lanka and other cellular operators. 2001. One thing different from other countries is that it started from SK Telecom.9%.[36] Denmark In Denmark. 2008. as proposed by the Infocomm Development Authority (IDA) of Singapore. 2004 and should be required from mobile operators as from January 1.[37] In 2006.159 mobile lines.[34] Fixed-line portability began as of August 1. the government gave six months' and one year's delay to the second and the third operator. portability of fixed line numbers and ISDN was implemented on January 1. along with 456. number portability is required from fixed operators since January 1.[35] Sri Lanka The Sri Lankan government made a policy decision in August 2007 to introduce number portability for cellular phones in Sri Lanka. 2005. 125 Europe In the European Union. Austria In Austria. 238.[36] Finland In Finland.

[44] Luxembourg MNP was introduced in Luxembourg in June 2004. number portability was implemented in Jul 2003. geographic number portability has been available since January 1. As of January 1.[36] Greece In Greece. 2002. mobile number portability is available since April 30. Portability for non-geographic numbers (including mobile numbers) is available since May 1. The Mobile Number Portability Central (MNPC) managed by the G.I. 2004. 1998. one year before the introduction of mobile number portability.[41] Mobile number portability was introduced on June 30. 2004. Norway Fixed number portability was introduced in Norway in 2000. 2004. [45] operator group and developed. Mobile number portability was implemented on March 1. the National Reference Database (NRDB). fixed number portability was introduced on January 1. 126 .[42] However. Italy In Italy. was put into commercial operations from February 2005.[36] Ireland In Ireland. The NRDB is owned and managed by the 8 largest network operators in Norway through the company NRDB AS. 2001. installed and operated by Systor Trondheim AS [20] of Norway.[43] Germany In Germany. The reference database was developed. for geographic numbers and numbers for non-geographic services. 2007 with two objectives: having a single contact for the customer (the new operator should take all the steps towards mobile number portability) and a maximum period of ten days for mobile number portability to have effect. was put into service in 2000. a new system was launched on May 21. portability exists for geographic numbers since January 1. it became possible to change geographic location or operator while keeping the same number. installed and is presently operated by Systor Trondheim AS [20]. The administrative solution for fixed and mobile number portability in Norway.G.Local number portability France In France. 2003. Mobile number portability was implemented on November 1. due to its lack of effectiveness. 2003. 2002.I. 1998. fixed number portability is available since January 1.E Telcom E.[36] Hungary In Hungary.

many users have no actual chance of applying for "true" fixed number portability. In the end. Mobile number portability has been available since January 1. where the calling party assumes the full cost of the call. Full number portability in which a customer transfers a cell to a fixed number or vice versa is thus not possible. a joint venture between the internationally well known companies Logica [48] and Systor Trondheim AS [20]. As of August 2004. ) and fixed numbers (usually beginning with 9 or 8). The technical details for the process are regulated by the CMT (Comisión del Mercado de las Telecomunicaciones or Telecoms Market Commission) and all carriers are obliged to comply with their requirements. giving up Telefónica's service altogether. Slovakia In Slovakia.[46] The administrative Reference Entity (Entidade de Referencia (ER)) interconnecting all network operators and service providers is operated by a local third party. as Telefónica set up a reselling program for their fixed lines and DSL internet access.041. without any cost to the end user. number portability is also available since year 2000. fixed number portability was implemented on June 30. See Telephone numbering in Spain for more information. number portability among cell phone carriers is available since October 1. The sole of them operating statewide—Telefónica—is obliged to provide other firms with access to their exchange facilities or rental/transfer of their copper last-mile loops.[51] Fixed line market is peculiar in Spain. portability has been widely used by the competing carriers as a way to steal each other's customers. Telefónica was fined in excess of €152 million by the European Commission on July 4. "73" or "74". with the actual switch occurring late at night to avoid missing any calls.[50] As for the fixed line market. 2007 on ground of "impeding competition on the Spanish broadband internet access market for more than five years. a distinction must be made between cellphone numbers (beginning with "6" or. the former monopoly is still much in control of the fixed line market. from October 2011. "71".A. with 107 lines per 100 inhabitants [49] 127 . Spain In Spain. 2000. excluding weekends) from the moment the request is confirmed by the customer. [47]. As of August 2007. 3. number portability was implemented in May 2004.246 fixed line switches were completed. 1. since only two local loop providers can operate at each particular region (or demarcación as regulated by the CMT): a cable carrier (such as Ono. In fact. 2002. with more than 9 million carrier switches completed as of April 2007. and calling a cellphone is usually more expensive than calling a fixed line. with the customer receiving a single bill. that is.556 cell phone lines switched carriers via this proceeding.[49] Spain is the one country in the European Union where more customers have switched cell phone providers.[52] Due to the billing scheme used in the Spanish phone call market. but weaker competition meant that actual adoption of the fixed number portability process was quite sluggish. "72". about 10% of all cellular lines in use. and so depriving consumers and business of a choice of broadband suppliers". ).e. cell number portability must complete in 5 business days (i. including profitable broadband access. As cable providers do not have a statewide footprint. R and many others) and the former State monopoly (Telefónica). In the mature Spanish cell phone market (as of June 2007.957. Some of them can however get their service from a third company who will bill the service and then pay Telefónica for the copper pair rental and maintenance fees. at fees regulated by the CMT (practice known as local loop unbundling). From June 2006 to June 2007 alone.Local number portability Portugal In Portugal. Portabil S. The user wakes up using a new SIM-card from the new cell provider while keeping the number. 2001. usually offering them free handsets or extra credit.

2001. mobile phone providers and broadband service providers to provide number portability under the Porting Authorisation Code rules and Migration Authorisation Code code of practice respectively. 2009. According to ACMA. faqs. mobile number portability was implemented in Nov 2008. sympatico. it was not until September 9. . Fixed number portability was initially planned to take place exactly 6 months following the mobile number portability. gov/ wlnp/ [2] "MNP Introduction" (http:/ / www. 2001. "RFC 3482 – Number Portability in the Global Switched Telephone Network (GSTN): An Overview" (http:/ / www. References [1] http:/ / wireless. nanpa. pdf) (PDF). gov. on May 9. Ofcom directs fixed-line telephone network providers. As the UK is an EU member country. Yu. there is still progress to be made and the progress for fixed number portability has not proved to be going ahead as in-time as the mobile number portability.One [56]. msn. fixed and mobile operators. M. The porting process is based on a peer to peer file exchange between fixed line operators.[53] [54] Turkey In Turkey. local telephone numbers have been portable since 1999. T. asp). "Portabilidade Numérica (in Portuguese)" (http:/ / www. SNPAC CRDB. org/ rfcs/ rfc3482. . gov/ Bureaus/ Common_Carrier/ Orders/ 1996/ fcc96286. 2007. or use a third party LNP provider such as Paradigm. org/ . Sympatico MSN. 2008. pk/ media/ mnp_intro_080807. Retrieved April 2. [7] http:/ / www. 2008. aspx?isfa=1& newsitemid=ab2bc4b4-6274-4552-8317-ef1ee2227a07& feedname=MARC-SALTZMAN& show=False& number=0& showbyline=True& subtitle=& detect=& abc=abc). br/ tutoriais/ tutorialport/ pagina_3. [3] Saltzman. For service providers who require knowledge of porting activity to enable them to deliver voice calls directly to the current "network owner". "'Wireless number portability' arrives in Canada" (http:/ / technology. atis. However. Since then. Network Working Group. fixed line portability was implemented in 1999 and mobile number portability was implemented on September 1. However.Local number portability Sweden In Sweden. Pakistan Telecommunication Authority (PTA).. which is a central reference database now containing both the fixed and mobile portings. they can either form agreements with all of the fixed line operators. 128 Oceania Australia In Australia. are working to get the process going and performing interoperability tests. txt [5] Mello. . local number portability came into full effect at the start of 2000. local and mobile number portability began on April 1. Retrieved April 4. pta. . the Ofcom direction is intended to reflect the requirements of EU Directive 2002/22/EU. [4] http:/ / www. José Barbosa. At the introduction of mobile number portability the Swedish operators joined forces and procured a central solution. McGarry. 2008. html). . and the incumbent. Retrieved April 4. 2009 that the regulator approved the procedure for fixed number portability.[57] New Zealand In New Zealand. Marc.[55] United Kingdom In the United Kingdom. fcc. com/ [8] http:/ / www. 2008. ca/ Wireless+ number+ portability+ arrives+ in+ Canada/ How-To/ ContentPosting_MS. Retrieved March 31. Mobile number portability has been available as of September 25. teleco. [6] Foster. fcc. J. com.

[16] "Desde el 5 de julio regirá la portabilidad numérica" (http:/ / www. aspx [34] "Demand for Number Portability in the Korean Telecommunications Market: Contingent Valuation Approach" (http:/ / sce. 2008. 1995). 2008. ofta. brand. do?acao=& codItemCanal=1362& codigoVisao=4& nomeVisao=Cidadão& nomeCanal=Telefonia Fixa& nomeItemCanal=Portabilidade). itst. [29] http:/ / www. go. [28] "FY 2007 Outline of Japan's Info-Communications Policies" (http:/ / www. pdf). "MNP-Japan Case" (http:/ / www. . [37] "Number Portability" (http:/ / web. crtc. [19] "Portabilidade (in Portuguese)" (http:/ / www. soumu. National IT and Telecom Agency (Denmark). mx/ 2008/ 04/ 15/ index. Retrieved November 19. Retrieved March 18.com. html). 2008. 2009. Edgar-Online. gov. archive. jp/ menu_05/ kouhoushi/ pdf/ 060530-e_1. itst. hk/ en/ ca_bd/ mnp. gov. FCC. 129 . . int/ ITU-T/ inr/ misc/ files/ bdt_numbsurvey-en. htm) [15] "FCC Expands Local Number Portability to VoIP" (http:/ / hraunfoss.. doc) (DOC). bernama. . unam. Timo. org/ web/ 20080309125104/ http:/ / en. Izumi. gov. pdf) (PDF). sg/ News%20and%20Events/ 20080416085608. . 2008. Retrieved March 18. pdf) (PDF). ofta. anatel. sa [31] (http:/ / www. ida. fcc. [40] Smura. . . "Business News Americas". Office of the Telecommunications Authority (OFTA). com/ cmas/ documents. ke/ links/ consultations/ closed_consultations/ Number_portability2. Retrieved March 19. systor. Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK). Autorité de Régulation des Communications Életroniques et des Postes (ARCEP). go. [17] "Number portability launched. gov/ edocs_public/ attachmatch/ DOC-277752A1. 2008. php?id=295374 [30] http:/ / www. Retrieved March 18. com [27] Takeuchi. Retrieved October 19. gov. edu/ cs/ pub/ Kim_J6_JGIM. pdf). pdf [33] http:/ / www. 2008. . htm). 2008. 2010. Statement No 1" (http:/ / www. arcep. . com/ bernama/ v3/ news_lite. [41] "Results of the Public Consultation on the implementation of number portability" (http:/ / www. 2008. Office of the Telecommunications Authority (OFTA). 2009. br/ Portal/ exibirPortalPaginaEspecial. . om/ test1/ pressroom. La Jornada. [18] "Portabilidade numérica é aprovada e será assegurada inicialmente ao usuário que solicitar mudança de endereço (in Portuguese)" (http:/ / www. html). ficora. Inc. Retrieved November 5. html). ke/ links/ consultations/ closed_consultations/ unified_licensing/ Extracts_stakeholders_2008. . [35] "SK Telecom Co Ltd: Company Information" (http:/ / google. cck. pdf). Finnish Communications Regulatory Authority (FICORA). com [10] http:/ / www. 2008. nanc-chair._regulator_wants_*war_of_competition*). ca/ eng/ INFO_SHT/ t1021. do?caminhoRel=Cidadao& codigoDocumento=139897). 2008. st [21] http:/ / www. Retrieved June 5. Retrieved November 5. telconet. gov. 2008. shtml#Misc [12] "Regulations Governing Number Portability (2004)" (http:/ / www. jornada. gov. Frost & Sullivan. Hong Kong Government (March 28. [14] Cellular (wireless) telephone services (http:/ / www. Retrieved March 18.Local number portability [9] http:/ / www. [39] "Mobile Number Portability" (http:/ / www. com/ news/ telecommunications/ Number_portability_launched. 2010. Agência NAcional de Telecomunicações (ANATEL). ofta. html). fi/ en/ index/ palvelut/ palvelutaiheittain/ numerointi/ siirrettavyys/ matkapuhsiirrettavyys. Retrieved November 5. dk/ statistics/ telestatistik/ halvarsstatistik/ 2007/ first-part-of-2007-1/ Telestatistik for 1 Halvar 2007. net [22] http:/ / www. . itst. Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK). 2009. htm) [32] http:/ / www. Retrieved March 18. cck. Retrieved July 28. gov. mnp-india. Retrieved November 5. com/ prod/ servlet/ market-insight-top. [13] "Extracts of the Stakeholders Forum on the Unified Licensing Framework and New Market Structure Held on Thursday 19th March 2008 at KCCT" (http:/ / www. gc. Retrieved September 29. org/ [11] http:/ / www. hut. [24] "Mobile Number Portability in Hong Kong" (http:/ / www. 2009. . . pk/ media/ Code_of_practic_22-03-2007. [25] "Press Release – Voluntary Implementation of Fixed Mobile Number Portability" (http:/ / www. . hk/ en/ tas/ interconnect/ ta950328. Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (MIC). citc. com/ EFX_dll/ EDGARpro. Idea Group. anatel. 2010. pag?docid=99382528). gov. com [23] Office of the Telecommunications Authority. dll?FetchFilingHtmlSection1?SectionID=6677886-127408-269887& SessionID=0gHoHv7tKXdQl77). [38] "Telecom Statistics – First Half of 2007" (http:/ / en. Archived from the original (http:/ / en. pdf) (PDF). hk/ en/ press_rel/ 2009/ Jul_2009_r1. uhcl. Retrieved March 18. International Telecommunication Union (ITU). frost. dk/ numbering-issues-and-domain-aspects/ numbering-issues/ number-portability) on March 9. jrelectricsupply. [36] "Replies to Telecommunication Regulatory Survey" (http:/ / www. npac. "Mobile Number Portability: Case Finland" (http:/ / www. 2010. dk/ numbering-issues-and-domain-aspects/ numbering-issues/ number-portability). regulator wants "war of competition"" (http:/ / www. go. [20] http:/ / www. br/ Portal/ exibirPortalRedireciona. tct. Agência Nacional de Telecomunicações (ANATEL). itu. National IT and Telecom Agency (Denmark). fi/ opetus/ / s38042/ s04/ Presentations/ 06102004_Smura/ Smura_paper. . . Retrieved March 19. . 2008. . pdf). . pta. [26] http:/ / www. npac. Retrieved March 31. . tra. php?section=economia& article=024n2eco). gov. Retrieved March 18. Retrieved August 6. edgar-online. bnamericas. fr/ fileadmin/ reprise/ publications/ resportabili-gb. 2010. "Interconnection and Related Competition Issues.

Autorité de Régulation des Communications Életroniques et des Postes (ARCEP).crtc.uk) .com/number_portability. .pk/index.gov/wlnp/ http://www.fcc.org/ • Mobile Number Portability Launched in India (http://www. [55] "Annual Work Plan (2008)" (http:/ / www. fr/ fileadmin/ reprise/ dossiers/ marches/ questionnaire/ quest-comm-mobiles-ang.com/index3. arcep.27257. 2008.pk/media/Code_of_practic_22-03-2007. pdf) (PDF). pts. . consumer. [44] "Actions Undertaken by the Authority" (http:/ / www. jsp?categoryId=160182& contentId=289489) on October 20.uk UK guide to mobile number porting (http://www.25514. do?reference=SPEECH/ 07/ 460& format=HTML& aged=0& language=EN& guiLanguage=en). 2008. 2007.portnumber. cz/ default. 2008. pdf) (PDF).pk/index.crtc. . Press conference on Telefónica decision (http:/ / www. [45] http:/ / www. 2008.html) • http://www. pdf) [50] AECOMO Spanish Mobile Communications Association news report (in Spanish) (http:/ / www. Autorità per le Garanzie nelle Comunicazioni.gc.25381.pdf) (March 2007) External links • • • • http://wireless. Retrieved April 4.gov. Retrieved March 31. . Autorité de Régulation des Communications Életroniques et des Postes (ARCEP).mnp-india.Local number portability [42] "Mobile Communications Services Qualitative Questionnaire" (http:/ / www. 2008. . Retrieved March 18. Retrieved April 4. 2008.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=870&Itemid=636 • An excellent single source of links to authentic regulatory and procedural documentation for LNP in the US (http://ported. cmt.htm) (March 2006) • (http://www. europa.25552.com/) • http://gsmsignalling. 58/2005. php) [52] Neelie Kroes. asp?ContentTypeID=2& ContentID=7422& CatTypeId=2& CatId=148) [51] Consumer magazine (in Spanish) (http:/ / www.ca//news/column/ 46e109880a010408001a024c0b8ced7d/pg0.pta.co.ca Mobile phone numbers go portable (http://www.fcc. eu/ rapid/ pressReleasesAction. asp?path=25361. fr/ index. es/ web/ es/ tecnologia/ 2005/ 04/ 16/ 141248.htm) (March 2007) • http://www. aecomo.gov. telcom. gov. European Commissioner for Competition Policy. org/ content. archive. Brussels. arcep.pta. Retrieved March 31. pt [48] http:/ / www. es/ es/ home/ novedades/ anexos/ NM_Junio07. 2008.html) • Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission – Cellular (Wireless) Telephone Services (Fact Sheet) (http://www. se/ sv/ Bransch/ Telefoni/ Nummerfragor/ Nummer--och-adressplaner/ Nummerportabilitet/ ). Archived from the original (http:/ / www. . . Swedish Post and Telecom Agency (PTS). tietoenator. Retrieved April 7. 2008. July 4. it/ rel_03/ eng/ Relaz_eng_part04. au/ LNPDatafeed. [43] "The new mobile number portability process comes into force on Monday 21 May 2007 in Metropolitan France" (http:/ / www. [56] http:/ / www.com/blog/2007/02/ are_you_ready_for_mobile_number_portability_mnp_1. 130 • Malaysia Mobile Number Portability Watch (http://jerryong.pta. TietoEnator. 2007 [53] "Nummerportabilitet (in Swedish)" (http:/ / www. Retrieved March 18. [47] http:/ / www. agcom. pt [49] CMT June 2007 monthly report (in Spanish) (http:/ / www. Autoridade Nacional de Comunicações (ANACOM). org/ web/ 20071020150339/ http:/ / www. tk. doc) (DOC). published on August 18" (http:/ / web.gov/cgb/consumerfacts/numbport.gov. Telekomünikasyon Kurumu (Telecommunications Authority). php?id=8142). jsp?categoryId=160182& contentId=289489).gc. tr/ Yayin/ Is_Planlari/ workplan2008. lu [46] "Regulation no. html [57] "Mobile number portability FAQs" (http:/ / acma. pt/ template20. pt/ template20. anacom. Retrieved March 19.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=870&Itemid=636) (March 2007) • (http://www.ca/eng/INFO_SHT/t1021.co. gov. paradigmone.ca/eng/INFO_SHT/t1021.html CRTC (Canadian) Factsheets (http://www.27273). Australian Communications and Media Authority (ACMA). com. portabil. [54] "Number portability for Telenor Mobile in Sweden" (http:/ / www. au/ WEB/ STANDARD/ pc=PC_1787).htm) (March 2006) PCWorld.php • PortNumber. . anacom.pcworld.nanc-chair. logica.

Location awareness is supported by navigation systems. e. Location awareness without the active participation of the device is known as non-cooperative locating or detection. Coordinates are relative to either a standardized system of coordinates.g.[4] Determining location Description in logical terms uses a structured textual form.[7] Location in mathematical terms offers coordinates that refer to a nominated point of reference. Index locating indicates presence at a known location. Telecommunications Signaling System#7 (SS7)[8] and mirroring ANSI Standards T1. using wireless signals or optical sighting. and notify applications when this information changes. Context models have been proposed[3] to support context-aware applications which use location to tailor interfaces. presence "near" a point of reference. Surveying equipment identifies location with respect to a well-known locationa wireless communications device. as with fixed RFID readers and RFID tags. regional or local scope. increase the precision of information retrieval.[16] Fuzzy locating offers less precision. business administration and leisure applications.. real-time locating and positioning support with global.110—General Information and subsequent standards. positioning systems and/or locating services. or a fixed object such as a building plan. especially for moving targets. Measuring wireless power levels can supply this degree of precision. make user interaction implicit and build smart environments. Navigational instruments provide location coordinates for vessels and vehicles. logistics.[9] • IEEE media access addressing according to MAC International standard ISO/IEC 10038[10] with ISO/IEC 11802[11] and ANSI/IEEE[12] edition. For example. These include: • ITU switched line access addressing according to International Telecommunications Union Q-Series standards. International standardisation offers a common method using ISO/TS 16952[5] as originated with German standards DIN EN 61346[6] and DIN EN 81346. Less sophisticated systems can use wireless distance measurements to estimate a point of reference in polar coordinates (distance and direction) from another site. discover services.[15] Variants "Crisp" locating offers precise coordinates.[1] [2] The term applies to navigating. the notion was extended to reflect movement. a location-aware mobile phone may confirm that it is currently in a building. With the advent of global positioning systems and radio-equipped mobile devices.Location awareness 131 Location awareness Location awareness refers to devices that can passively or actively determine their location.g. the term was redefined to include consumer-focused applications. WGS84. refine application-relevant data. • ISO procedure call addressing according to URN/UUID International standards ISO/IEC 11578[13] and ISO/IEC 9834[14] and IETF RFC 4122. History of terminology The term originated for configurations settings of network systems and addressed network entities. The term has been applied to traffic. Location in network terms relates to locating network nodes. e. While location awareness began as a matter of static user location. Network location awareness (NLA) services collect network configuration and location information. Real-time locating adds timely delivery of results. Network location awareness (NLA) describes the location of a node in a network. possibly with phase angle measurements. Real time locating is defined with ISO/IEC 19762-5 and ISO/IEC 24730-1.[17] .

Local Such solutions may apply concepts of RTLS and WPAN. aviators and professional drivers. wireless LAN or DECT. Such applications include publishing a user's location to appropriate members of a social network. (CSAR). or for objects moving on a fixed route. independent localized systems exist at scales ranging from one building to sub-national regions. but does not indicate that the object remains at that location.[18] Navigation Navigation and reckoning are key concerns for seafarers. and allowing retailers to publish special offers to potential customers who are near to the retailer. and is integral to ubiquitous and wearable computing.[19] Surveying Surveying is the static complement to navigating. GPS and similar systems have become ubituitous in long-haul transport operation and are becoming a standard automobile feature. The task is to dynamically determine the current location and the time. . Allegedly. such as tracking objects entering and leaving a warehouse. (SAR) and combat search and rescue. such as charging tolls for crossing a bridge. Conversely. distance and direction to destination. Applications include avalanche rescue or emergency and mountain rescue as well as with search and rescue. the device location can be disclosed to others. Local systems degrade as distance from the locality increases. with results in proprietary terms of floor plans or room numbers.[20] Business process Currently location awareness is applied to design innovative process controls. RADAR served for regional demand and NAVSTAR satellite systems for global demand. which is sufficient for applications that limit access.Location awareness 132 Applications Location-aware systems address the acquisition of coordinates in a grid (for example using distance metrics and lateration algorithms) or at least distances to reference points (for example discriminating presence at a certain choke point on a corridor or in a room of a building). On mobile devices. individuals gain self confidence with confirmation of current whereabouts.[22] [23] Consumer Location awareness enables new applications for ubiquitous computing systems and mobile phones. location aware search can prioritize results that are close to the device. Optical surveying technology preceded LASER triangulating aids. at some cost to the bearer's privacy.[21] Warehouse and routing RFID provides a time/location reference for an object.[24] Infrastructure While governments have created global systems for computing locations. It is essential for delineating land ownership and for architects and civil engineers designing construction projects.

such as 3GPP. ac. uk/ ~albrecht/ phd/ ).2190/WUQU-VT01-021N-GX33. org/ rfc/ rfc4122. edu/ ~albrecht/ publication/ huc99/ advanced_interaction_context. doi:10. Gellersen (December 1999). J. asp) [10] International Standard ISO/IEC 10038: 1993 (http:/ / www. de/ publish/ dt/ books/ bySubjectBA00/ ISBN3-527-70263-6/ ?sID=lvkjcmj8ene7n5qci56q5gqsb3).Location awareness 133 Regional This approach uses for example mobile phone systems.Teil 1: Allgemeine Regeln (IEC 81346-1:2009) (http:/ / www. [17] Sweeney. htm?csnumber=18000) [11] [ISO/IEC TR 11802-2:2005 Information technology—Telecommunications and information exchange between systems—Local and metropolitan area networks—Technical reports and guidelines—Part 2: Standard Group MAC Addresses] [12] ANSI/IEEE Std 802. com/ wiki/ Network_Location_Awareness_(NLA)) [2] Registering a Service Instance with NLA (http:/ / msdn.Reference designation system . [5] ISO/TS 16952-1:2006 Technical product documentation -. (1999). Signalling and Switching (http:/ / www. SIGMOD Rec. rlehmann. U. doi:10. M. contexts of aging. org/ iso/ iso_catalogue/ catalogue_tc/ catalogue_detail. tekelec. generally adopting WGS84 and NMEA.1361353.Computing in Context" (http:/ / www. html) [13] ISO/IEC 11578 Information technology—Open Systems Interconnection—Remote Procedure Call (RPC) (http:/ / www. 149–158. Tuomela. & Recker. txt) [16] Malik. "Ubiquitous Computing . teco. com/ en-us/ library/ ms740123(VS. htm?csnumber=2229) [14] Information technology—Open Systems Interconnection—Procedures for the operation of OSI Registration Authorities: Generation and registration of Universally Unique Identifiers (UUIDs) and their use as ASN. Petit. lancs. Van de Velde W. Takaluoma. . iso. (1989). pp. Luxembourg: Namur University Press. K. 1st International Symposium on Handheld and Ubiquitous Computing (HUC99). de/ article-00146. [24] Blank. php?option=com_content& do_pdf=1& id=76) [20] Das neue Messen (http:/ / www. [4] Schmidt. . Schreiber and Letizia Tanca (2007). . org/ iso/ iso_catalogue/ catalogue_tc/ catalogue_detail. itu.. Lancaster University. int/ rec/ T-REC-Q/ e) [9] ANSI Standard T1.Strukturierungsprinzipien und Referenzkennzeichnung . pdf) (PDF). teco. PMID 2634031. 85). org/ reading/ ieee/ std_public/ description/ lanman/ 10038-1993_desc. de/ cmd?bcrumblevel=1& contextid=dke& subcommitteeid=54759251& projid=103797592& level=tpl-proj-detailansicht& committeeid=54738887& languageid=de) [8] International Telecommunications Union Q-Series Standards. Global This approach relies on GPS technology. Anlagen und Ausrüstungen und Industrieprodukte – Strukturierungsprinzipien und Referenzkennzeichnung] [7] Industrielle Systeme. . wiley-vch. wm-user. din. Notes [1] Network location awareness (http:/ / wiki.. 1993 edition (http:/ / standards. pdf) (PDF). microsoft. (2006). "Context-aware process design: Exploring the extrinsic drivers for process flexibility". ISSN 0163-5808. pdf) (PDF). curino. org/ iso/ iso_catalogue/ catalogue_tc/ catalogue_detail. comp. GSM or LTE. PhD dissertation. "RTLS für Dummies" (http:/ / www. O. de/ ~albrecht/ publication/ draft_docs/ context-is-more-than-location. "There is more to Context than Location" (http:/ / www. uni-karlsruhe. ch/ data/ Das_neue_Messen_2-14. [19] Test TomTom Navigator 6 (http:/ / www.1145/1361348.1 Object Identifier components (http:/ / www. .1D. . de/ index2. wiley-vch. us/ documents/ curino-context2007-survey. org/ iso/ iso_catalogue/ catalogue_tc/ catalogue_detail. Vol. pp. Curino and Elisa Quintarelli and Fabio A. T.A. "RFID für Dummies" (http:/ / www. [18] Schmidt. Patrick (2006). "A data-oriented survey of context models" (http:/ / carlo. ietf.110 (http:/ / www. "Advanced Interaction in Context" (http:/ / www. com/ ss7/ itu. Elsevier 23 (6): 893–902.. dke. A. rfid-basis. html) [23] Rosemann. [22] Fünf Jahre nach dem RFID-Hype erste Ernüchterung (http:/ / www. K. pdf) [21] Albrecht Schmidt. Latour & M. Springer LNCS. iso. Michael Beigl and Hans-W. htm?csnumber=38178) [6] [DIN EN 61346 Industrielle Systeme. blackviper. aspx) [3] Cristiana Bolchini and Carlo A. and a contextual world view". "Social psychology.Part 1: General application rules (http:/ / www. Albrecht (2003). . Aidoo. 89–101. Computers & Graphics Journal. htm?csnumber=53416) [15] A Universally Unique IDentifier (UUID) URN Namespace (http:/ / www. iso. 1707. Anlagen und Ausrüstungen und Industrieprodukte .. currently supplied by NAVSTAR and may in future employ the pending Galileo (satellite navigation) system. iso. de/ publish/ dt/ books/ forthcomingTitles/ EE00/ 0-470-39868-X/ ?sID=2k2e8lg2r8ruf5ghork2ed46g1). 18th international conference on advanced information systems engineering. Van Laerhoven.. (ACM) 36 (4): 19–26. The International Journal of Aging & Human Development 29 (3): 225–239. A. Ajay (2009). ieee. proceedings of workshops and doctoral consortium. In T.. typically returning information in standardized coordinates as with WGS84 in standardized formats such as NMEA for outdoor usage or in symbolic coordinates referring to street addresses.

portable-personality. TX 78758. M-learning is convenient in that it is accessible from virtually anywhere. the Bluetooth LowEnergy based approach (http://www. NO-0314 Oslo. Using mobile tools for creating learning aides and materials becomes an important part of informal learning. it is distinct in its focus on learning across contexts and learning with mobile devices. which leads to the reception of instant feedback and tips. and learning that reflects a focus on how society and its institutions can accommodate and support an increasingly mobile population. MP3 players. interacting with portable technologies.html) External links • Capturing Ambient Intelligence for Mobile Communications through Wireless Sensor Networks (http://www.org/) (Research Project) • Middleware for context collection and personal profile exchange (http://www.Location awareness 134 References • Sonitor Technologies. or learning that happens when the learner takes advantage of the learning opportunities offered by mobile technologies.org) (Research Project) • Middleware Platform for Developing and Deploying Advanced Mobile Services (http://www. like other forms of E-learning. Wikipedia on Nokia 770 is an example of mobile learning The term covers: learning with portable technologies including but not limited to handheld computers. sonitor.albistechnologies.org/) MLearning The term M-Learning.com/ products/zone_monitoring/index. notebooks and mobile phones. There is also a new direction in MLearning that adds mobility of the instructor and includes creation of learning materials "on-the-spot. "in the field" using predominately smartphone with special software such as AHG Cloud Note. Although related to e-learning and distance education. .[1] In other words mobile learning decreases limitation of learning location with the mobility of general portable devices. Norway: SONITOR Ultra sound proprietary approach (http://www. M-Learning. ist-e-sense.tokloc. M-Learning also brings strong portability by replacing books and notes with small RAMs. it is simple to utilize mobile learning for a more effective and entertaining experience. USA: RF Code 433 MHz proprietary approach (http://www.ist-mobilife.ist-midas.us/patents/7228136. or "mobile learning". filled with tailored learning contents.org/) (Research Project) • Bring advances in mobile applications and services within the reach of users (http://www. In addition.com. M-learning focuses on the mobility of the learner. has different meanings for different communities.rfcode. Austin.) • ReadPost Bremerhaven Germany: TokLoc. sharing is almost instantaneous among everyone using the same content. One definition of mobile learning is: Any sort of learning that happens when the learner is not at a fixed.patentstorm.de/ tokloc/tokloclocating/mission/mission.html) • Albis Zurich Switzerland: ZOMOFI Microwave proprietary approach (http://www.com) • RF Code. is also collaborative.php) • Location estimation in wireless telecommunication networks: Ekahau proprietary modified WLAN fuzzy locating system (http://www. predetermined location.

according to the groups of students involved. Palm corporation offers grants to universities and companies who create and test the use of Mobile Learning on the PalmOS platform. • Mobile learning needs to be used appropriately. WMUTE. Knowledgility creates the first mobile learning modules for CCNA. Their interim Dynabooks are the first networked workstations 1990s In May 1991. • It will be more light weight device compare to books. • Mobile learning can be used as a ‘hook’ to re-engage disaffected youth. • It is important to bring new technology into the classroom. 8 track tape. use mobile computers connected by wireless networks for the 'Wireless Coyote' project. ICML in Jordan. Delivery and Tracking 3. A+ and MCSE certification using the core tools that later became LMA. for SMS and MMS this might be dependent on the students’ specific disabilities or difficulties involved. Apple Classrooms of Tomorrow (ACOT) in partnership with Orange Grove Middle School of Tucson. including: mLearn.MLearning 135 History Pre-1970s Arguably the first instance of mobile learning goes back as far as 1901 when Linguaphone released a series of language lessons on wax cylinders. 1980s Alan Kay and his colleagues in the Learning Research Group at Xerox Palo Alto Research Center [PARC] propose the Dynabook as a book-sized computer to run dynamic simulations for learning. Handheld Learning in London. • Good IT support is needed. However. Companies were formed that specialize in three core areas of mobile learning. and CDs[2] 1970s. • Mobile learning could be utilised as part of a learning approach which uses different types of activities (or a blended learning approach). and IADIS Mobile Learning international conference series. SALT Mobile in USA. etc. • Mobile learning supports the learning process rather than being integral to it. Content Development Conferences and trade shows were created to specifically deal with mobile learning and handheld education. • It is necessary to have enough devices for classroom use . to cover compact cassette tapes. . Arizona. 2000s The European Commission funds the major multi-national MOBIlearn and M-Learning [4] projects. Mobile Learning in Malaysia. Analysis (costs / benefits. • Mobile learning can be a useful add-on tool for students with special needs. 1. This was followed up in later years as technology improved. PCs. Authoring and publishing 2.[3] Universities in Europe and Asia develop and evaluate mobile learning for students. forecast) Value The value of mobile learning[5] --Tutors commented on the value of mobile learning as follows.

museums. content conversion. differences between academia and industry. surveys. The data indicate that the demand is relatively immune from the recession.T.I. Developing an appropriate theory of learning for the mobile age Conceptual differences between e. The mLearning community is still fragmented.) learning Location-based and contextual learning Social-networked mobile learning Mobile educational gaming Deliver M-Learning to cellular phones using two way SMS messaging and voice-based CellCasting (podcasting to phones with interactive assessments) According to a report by Ambient Insight in 2008. workplaces. job aids and just-in-time (J. and media services and that the healthcare sector accounts for 20% of the total US market for mobile learning. and between the school. cities and rural areas around the world. "the US market for Mobile Learning products and services is growing at a five-year compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 21."[11] The findings of the report indicate that the largest demand throughout the forecast period is for custom development services.7% and revenues reached $538 million in 2007.MLearning 136 Challenges Technical challenges include • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Connectivity and battery life Screen size and key size[6] Ability for authors to visualize mobile phones for delivery Possibilities to meet required bandwidth for nonstop/fast streaming Number of file/assets' formats supported by a specific device Content security or copyright issue from authoring group Multiple standards. . with different national perspectives. How to assess learning outside the classroom How to support learning across many contexts Content's security (or) pirating issues Frequent changes in device models/technologies/functionality etc. multiple screen sizes.and m-learning Design of technology to support a lifetime of learning[7] [8] Tracking of results and proper use of this information No restriction on learning timetable Personal and private information and content No demographic boundary Disruption of students' personal and academic lives[9] Access to and use of the technology in developing countries[10] Social and educational challenges include Growth Over the past ten years mobile learning has grown from a minor research interest to a set of significant projects in schools. higher education and lifelong learning sectors. Current areas of growth include: • • • • • Testing. multiple operating systems Reworking existing e-Learning materials for mobile platforms Accessibility and cost barriers for end users: Digital divide.

tests. and certifications).MLearning 137 Future Technologies currently being researched for mobile learning include:[12] • • • • • • • • Location aware learning Point-and-shoot learning with camera phones and 2D codes Near Field Communications (NFC) secure transactions Sensors and accelerometers in mobile devices in behavioral based learning Mobile content creation (including user generated content) Games and simulation for learning on mobile devices Context-aware ubiquitous learning Augmented reality on mobile devices Delivery While many think of mobile learning as delivering eLearning on small form factor devices. making it more portable and accessible. In these ways. It includes the use of mobile/handheld devices to perform any of the following: • • • • • Deliver Education/Learning Foster Communications/Collaboration Conduct Assessments/Evaluations Provide Access to Performance Support/Knowledge Capture Evidence of Learning Activity Today. or parts of courses.. any number of portable devices can quickly and easily deliver and support these functions. update alerts. forms and checklists. surveys/polls. or wireless single-purpose devices can help deliver coaching and mentoring. quizzes. personal digital assistants (PDAs). Mobile devices can also serve as powerful data collection tools and facilitate the capture of user created content.g. multi-game devices. personal media players (PMPs). and deliver podcasts. education and references. conduct assessments and evaluations (e. or often referred to as eLearning “lite”. mobile learning can enhance and support more traditional learning modes. it has the potential to do much more than deliver courses.[12] . provide on-the-job support and access to information. Smartphones are one of the platforms used for mobile learning. Cell or smartphones.

Podcasting Podcasting consists of listening to audio recordings of lectures. • Continuous learning and portable tools for military personnel.MLearning 138 Approaches In the classroom • Students using handheld computers.g. Miller & Newnham 2009). . but only in cases in which students take notes (Callaway & Ewen 2009). smartphones or handheld voting systems (such as clickers) in a classroom or lecture room (Tremblay 2010). venue changes and cancellations. etc. For blended learning Mobile learning can provide support that enhances training in a corporate business or other classroom environment. although it should be noted that this method of delivery is not always easily adopted (Lee. It can also be of value to business people e. Outdoor • Learning in museums or galleries with handheld or wearable technologies • Learning outdoors. At work • On the job training for someone who accesses training on a mobile device "just in time" to solve a problem or gain an update. The use of mobile learning in the military is becoming increasingly common due to low cost and high portability. Podcasts may also provide supplemental information to enhance traditional lectures (McGarr 2009) (Steven & Teasley 2009). PDAs. Class management The mobile phone (through text SMS notices) can be used especially for distance education or with students whose course requires them to be highly mobile and in particular to communicate information regarding availability of assignment results. and can be used to review live lectures (Clark & Westcott (2007) and to provide opportunities for students to rehearse oral presentations. Podcasts maybe be delivered using syndication. Psychological research suggests that university students who download podcast lectures achieve substantially higher exam results than those who attend the lecture in person. sales representatives who do not wish to waste time away from their busy schedules to attend formal training events. • Students using mobile devices(such as a Pocket PC) in the classroom to enhance group collaboration among students and instructors. for example on field trips.

or exporting audio files from a learning platform to your phone) Technologies Mobile devices and personal technologies that can support mobile learning.: sending media or texts into a central portfolio. but also podcasting (Horkoff Kayes2008) have been used for helping people to acquire a language. i. mobile phone. for listening to audio recordings of lectures (podcasting) Personal Digital Assistant. e. such as using handheld dictionaries and other devices for language learning. Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL).g. Java ME and Smartphone Relevant organisations • The International Association for Mobile Learning[13] • The International Association for Mobile Learning (IAMLearn) has been formed as a membership organization to promote excellence in research.MLearning 139 Lifelong learning and self-learning The use of personal technology to support informal or lifelong learning.g. For instance handheld computers. and teaching resources.e. . provides high speed connection and data transfer rate • Wi-Fi gives access to instructors and resources via internet Authoring: • Learning Mobile Author. • Using the communication features of a mobile phone as part of a larger learning activity (e.g. in museums and galleries Handheld game console. modern gaming consoles such as Sony PSP or Nintendo DS Personal audio player. are also used to assist in language learning. include: • • • • • • • E-book Handheld audio and multimedia guides. Mobile technologies and approaches. for authoring and publishing WAP. emerging technologies. e. It organizes the annual mLearn international conference series. in the classroom and outdoors Tablet PC UMPC. numeracy and participation in education amongst young adults. development and application of mobile and contextual learning. camera phone and SmartPhone Technical and delivery support for mobile learning: • 3GP For compression and delivery method of audiovisual content associated with Mobile Learning • GPRS mobile data service. Other • Improving levels of literacy. cell phones. IAMLearn manages a website to collate and disseminate information about new projects.

06. "The effect of mobile phone screen size on video based learning". "Educating the Mobile Generation – using personal cell phones as audience response systems in post-secondary science teaching" (http://www. noe-kaleidoscope.1016/j.au/ajet/ajet25/mcgarr. [2] "Mobile Learning Community" (http:/ / trainandgo. L. acm. Ambient Insight. Portugal. K. 2009. Ewen (18 February 2009). pp.1016/j. (2000). 29(2). MOBIlearn. . C. October 2003. Learning in the Mobile Age. Barcelona.002. . Ng'ambi D. .. K.S. New Scientist. 2009. (2005). N. Wireless Coyote: A Computer-Supported Field Trip. 171–175. Communications of the ACM . Stephanie D.C.. J. S. E. Spain. Understanding. 217-227. [10] Masters. blogspot. 3. pdf). 2008. [7] Sharples. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology 25 (3): 309–321. 57-59 [4] http:/ / www.MLearning 140 Relevant journals • International Journal of Mobile and Blended Learning • International Journal of Mobile Learning and Organisation References [1] "Guidelines for learning/teaching/tutoring in a mobile environment" (http:/ / www. The Internet and Higher Education 12 (1): 53–59. [9] Masters.Savill etc. Seeing. Lonn. Hungary. ecs. org/ download/ results/ guidelines. fil. Bennett. • Steven. M.. The University of Sydney Symposium. 17. Grant. "After the broadcast: disrupting health sciences’ students' lives with SMS". uk/ 17441/ ). The Internet and Higher Education 12 (2): 88–92. org/ ) Bibliography • Callaway. (1993). • Horkoff. S.edu. May 1993. Computers & Education 34 (3-4): 177–193. com/article/dn16624-itunes-university-better-than-the-real-thing. • Lee. "Using short podcasts to reinforce lectures" (http://science.001. ISBN 978-972-8924-36-2. Journal of Software 3 (4): 51–61. Proceedings of IADIS International Conference Mobile Learning. 5–13.2009. pdf). Chesapeake. [13] The International Association for Mobile Learning (http:/ / mlearning. "The design of personal mobile technologies for lifelong learning". Jonathan M. Budapest. Kayes. Oliver (2009). Miller. "Language Learning by iPod: An Emerging Model" (http://www. "Podcasting in higher education: What are the implications for teaching and learning?".2008. (2009). m-learning.pdf). doi:10.p8 [6] Maniar. pdf). com/ p7/ MobileLearningUpdate. [3] Wireless Coyote (http:/ / portal. [8] Moore. masie. April 2005. "'iTunes university' better than the real thing" (http://www. [11] Adkins. (December 2008). Eric (2010). 6. Retrieved June 9.iheduc. . (2009).. VA: AACE.newscientist.htm). • McGarr.html). Learning Consortium Perspectives. Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching.org/p/32314).editlib. .. hu/ mobil/ 2005/ Masters_final. Retrieved June 8. Volume 36 Issue 5. M. "The US Market for Mobile Learning Products and Services: 2008-2013 Forecast and Analysis" (http:/ / www. Lisbon.htm). (2008). Teasley. doi:10.ascilite. pp. 5.. J. M. pp. "A portable document search engine to support off-line mobile learning" (http:/ / eprints. . org/ archive [5] Mobile learning in practice:Piloting a mobile learning teachers’ toolkit in further education colleges. Proceedings of IADIS International Conference Mobile Learning. Westcott. Mobile Learning History. com/ Resources/ Documents/ AmbientInsight_2008-2013_US_MobileLearning_Forecast_ExecutiveOverview. [12] "Mobile Learning Update" (http:/ / masieweb. "Podcasting syndication services and university students: Why don't they subscribe?". Hank. (2007).1016/S0360-1315(99)00044-5. S.. & Allan. ac. • Tremblay. doi:10. . pdf).iheduc.au/ pubs/procs/2007/08. 2009.com/Research-Articles/language-learning-by-ipod-an-emerging-model.10. (2009).Special issue on technology in K–12 education. "A review of podcasting in higher education: Its influence on the traditional lecture" (http://www. org/ citation. ambientinsight.org. "Low-key m-learning: a realistic introduction of m-learning to developing countries" (http:/ / www. Hand. • Clark. html). pp. W. (2007). 28 September 2007. cfm?id=155062) Wayne C. soton. mobilearn. Retrieved June 8. The MASIE Center.uniserve. 2010. G (2008). com/ 2010/ 01/ mobile-learning-in-cortina. Newnham.

[1] Scale The term macrocell is used to describe the widest range of cell sizes. the business was sold to Marvell in 2006 for $600 million. at a height that provides a clear view over the surrounding buildings and terrain. org. CNet Asia. rooftops and other existing structures. or train station. com/ displayarticle19.uk/sitefinder/glossary/jargon/) • White Paper: The Business Case for Metrocells (http://www. References [1] Manitoba. Macrocell base stations have power outputs of typically tens of watts. Generally. . Over a smaller cell area. a mall.org. wi-fitechnology.alcatel-lucent. References [1] Mobile Phones: Jargon Explained (http:/ / stakeholders. The antennas for macrocells are mounted on ground-based masts. Intel's smart-phone "wireless Internet on a chip" is here (http:/ / www. ofcom.ofcom. Macrocells are found in rural areas or along highways.[1] After the chip's failure in the marketplace. 2003. html). Picocells are for areas even smaller than microcells. uk/ sitefinder/ glossary/ jargon/ ) External links • Mobile Phones: Jargon Explained (http://stakeholders. a microcell is used in a densely populated urban area. html) Manitoba (computer chip) Manitoba was a system-on-a-chip (SoC) introduced by Intel Corporation in 2003. macrocells provide coverage larger than microcell.com/wireless/femto_small_cells. February 13.Macrocell 141 Macrocell A macrocell is a cell in a mobile phone network that provides radio coverage served by a high power cellular base station (tower). It was a mostly unsuccessful attempt by Intel to break into the smart phones market. An example of usage would be a large office. Matthew Broersma. Currently the smallest area of coverage can be implemented with a femtocell: used in homes or small offices. The chip integrated flash memory. a digital signal processor and an XScale processor core.

microcells are usually used to add network capacity in areas with very dense phone usage. Microcellular systems are typically used to provide low cost mobile phone systems in high-density environments such as large cities. such as train stations. was provided with an interworking profile. Typically the range of a microcell is less than two kilometers wide. cordless phone system where its low power profile ensures that nearby DECT systems do not interfere with each other. a cellular network operator can optimize the use of spectrum and ensure capacity can grow. and the ability of GSM to support microcells without using alternative technologies. again with base stations deployed in areas where large numbers of people might need to make calls.[1] although AT&T calls its product. DECT is used by many businesses to deploy private license-free microcellular networks within large campuses where wireline phone service is less useful. though the distinction is not always clear. Power controls implemented on digital networks make it easier to prevent interference from nearby cells using the same frequencies. Microcell/picocell-only networks Certain mobile phone systems. older analog systems have fixed limits beyond which attempts to subdivide cells simply would result in an unacceptable level of interference. with a range of 40 feet (12 m). which provided access to a looser network (without handover). A microcell uses power control to limit the radius of its coverage area. a "microcell". CT2's limitations ensured the concept never took off. non-networked. only provide microcellular (and picocellular) coverage. covering a limited area such as a mall. DECT. Cell size flexibility is a feature of 2G (and later) networks and is a significant part of how such networks have been able to improve capacity. and creating more cells to help serve high density areas. A forerunner of these types of network was the CT2 cordless phone system. including use as cordless phone systems. a hotel. A microcell is usually larger than a picocell. and DECT's use in general was limited to non-GSM private networks..[2] A micro cellular network is a radio network composed of microcells. meant GIP was rarely used. Microcells are often deployed temporarily during sporting events and other occasions in which extra capacity is known to be needed at a specific location in advance. or a transportation hub. CT2's successor. . a picocell is 200 meters or less.Microcell 142 Microcell A microcell is a cell in a mobile phone network served by a low power cellular base station (tower). but in practice the success of GSM within Europe. Rationale Like picocells. DECT is also used as a private. GIP so that GSM networks could make use of it for microcellular access. By subdividing cells. PHS is deployed throughout major cities in Japan as an alternative to ordinary cellular service. and a femtocell is on the order of 10 meters. By comparison. notably PHS and DECT.

MINDS International (Mobile Information and News Data Services) was founded as an Association in fall 2007 by 11 news agencies from Europe and the USA.Algemeen Nederlands Persbureau (The Netherlands) AP .Polska Agencja Prasowa (Poland) PA . com/ EUROPE_NOKIA_COM_3/ r2/ support/ tutorials/ 7200/ english/ glossary.Ritzaus Bureau I/S (Denmark) SDA . com/ learn/ why/ 3gmicrocell/ faq. . wireless.Yonhap News (South Korea) MINDS’ Mission Statement: MINDS International is a global network and platform of equal news agencies sharing ideas and exchanging knowledge to put business concepts forward in order to raise revenues and save costs in digital markets.australian associated press (Australia) AFP .Agência de Notícias de Portugal (Portugal) MTI . ericsson. com/ ericsson/ press/ releases/ 20070209-1103860. att.Norsk Telegrambyrå (Norway) PAP .Austria Presse Agentur (Austria) Belga .Agence France-Presse (France) ANP . com/ blog/ 2007/ 12/ do-we-really-need-femto-cells/ http:/ / www.Microcell 143 External links • Ericsson press release describing a GSM/UMTS picocell base station intended for residential use [3] • Nokia 7200 Tutorial including definition of "Micro Cellular Network" [4] References [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / www.Agencia EFE (Spain) Kyodo .Suomen Tietotoimisto (Finland) TM News (Italy) TT .Associated Press (USA) APA . html#2 MINDS Initiated as an EU-funded project in 2004. The MINDS network comprises the following agency partners: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • aap .Tidningarnas Telegrambyrå AB (Sweden) Yonhap . visionmobile. nokia.Press Association (UK) RIA Novosti . jsp http:/ / www.Česká tisková kancelář (Czech Republic) dpa .Russian News and Information Agency (Russia) Ritzau .Agence Telegraphique Belge de Presse (Belgium) CTK .Kyodo News (Japan) Lusa .Magyar Távirati Iroda (Hungary) NTB .Schweizerische Depeschenagentur (Switzerland) STT . MINDS International acts as a research and development unit for innovations in the field of digital information and communication solutions for the media industry and supports technology exchange between the agencies. shtml http:/ / www.Deutsche Presse-Agentur (Germany) EFE .

minds-international. com .MINDS 144 External links MINDS International website [1] References [1] http:/ / www.

Mobify was named one of the “Top 25 Up and Comers”[1] in Backbone Magazine’s annual ranking of Canadian technology companies. backbonemag. In May 2010.com) . References [1] Backbone Magazine Top 25 Up and Comers (http:/ / www. com/ Magazine/ 2010-04/ Top300-2010/ top-25-up-and-comers. me Mobify is a mobile web company providing an interface to convert existing websites into a version optimized for mobile phones. aspx) External links • Mobify corporate site (http://mobify. mobify.Mobify 145 Mobify Mobify Type Industry Founded Mobile publishing & m-commerce Wireless 2007 Headquarters Vancouver. Canada Employees Website 20 http:/ / www.

or profiting from not approved content. Through a combination of technical measures. Member commitments Members of the Alliance agree to. among other measures: · support and promote ‘hotlines’ or other mechanisms for customers to report child sexual abuse content discovered on the Internet or on mobile content services. Goal of the Alliance The Alliance’s ultimate aim is to help stem. While the vast majority of child sexual abuse content (child pornography) is today accessed through conventional connections to the Internet. the growth of non approved content around the world. Founding members The founding members of the Mobile Alliance were: • • • • • • • • • GSMA Hutchison 3G Europe mobilkom austria Orange FT Group Telecom Italia Telefonica/02 Telenor Group TeliaSonera T-Mobile Group . to participate in the Alliance.Mobile Access Protocol 146 Mobile Access Protocol MAP27 Mobile Access Protocol for MPT 1327 equipment This standard specifies an interface between a mobile radio and a data terminal equipment. accessing. co-operation and information sharing. A conformance test definition is outside the scope of this standard. · implement notice and take down processes to enable the removal of any child sexual abuse content posted on their own services · implement technical mechanisms to prevent access to websites identified by an appropriate agency as hosting child sexual abuse content The Alliance encourages all mobile operators worldwide. and ultimately reverse. regardless of access technology. there is a danger that broadband networks now being rolled out by mobile operators could be misused in the same way. This interface gives access to and defines network layer procedures for call set-up and data transfer as specified in MPT 1327 and MPT 1343 or derivations thereof. Mobile Alliance Against Child Sexual Abuse Content The Mobile Alliance Against Child Sexual Abuse Content was founded in 2008 by an international group of mobile operators within the GSM Association [1] to work collectively on obstructing the use of the mobile environment by individuals or organisations wishing to consume or profit from child sexual abuse content. the Alliance seeks to create significant barriers to the misuse of mobile networks and services for hosting.

protocols and interfaces and are not locked to proprietary technologies. CDMA. There will be support for interoperability of applications and platforms. gsmworld. seamless geographic and intergenerational roaming. global standards. Each day the number of mobile devices is increasing. GPRS. . EDGE. Currently there is a lack of uniform interoperability plans and implementation. UMTS). shtml) Mobile Architecture In the past computers needed to be disconnected from their internal network if they needed to be taken or moved anywhere. • Secure – Encryption is important. An open approach is required across all industries to achieve same end results and services. The architecture framework and service enablers will be independent of Operating Systems (OS). Mobile architecture allows maintaining this connection whilst during transit[1] . Important Components of a Mobile Architecture • Scalability – A Mobile Architecture must be able to be utilized with all recovery requirements on both large and small scale. mobile architecture is the pieces of technology needed to create a rich. There is a lack of common industry view on architectural framework. The applications layer to be bearer agnostic (examples: GSM. This increases costs and slows down 3rd party mobile development. transmission protocols must support encryption (SSL) via secure transit such as HTTPS • Reliable – Reliability is always important in all technologies and Mobile Architecture is no different Best Practices • • • • Data should be populated for database views Use version numbers to track updates during synchronization Maintain only necessary user details in middle ware The application should recognize when CPU battery is low and adjust background running to low to extend battery power • UI on multiple screens should have common elements[2] Future of Mobile Architecture A consortium of companies are pushing for products and services to be based on open.Mobile Alliance Against Child Sexual Abuse Content • Vodafone Group • dotMobi 147 References [1] GSMA Press Release 2008 . com/ news/ press_2008/ press08_09. connected user experience.GSMA Selects LG Handsets to Lead ‘Horizon Phone’ Campaign (http:/ / www.

Mobile Architecture 148 References [1] A Proposed Mobile Architecture for Distributed Database Environment (http:/ / citeseer.(transform. msarchitecturejournal. com/ pdf/ Journal14.[1] [2] MALL is a subset of both Mobile Learning (m-learning) and Computer-assisted language learning (CALL). anywhere. 2003. which utilized both their listening and recording capabilities (Belanger. developed several foreign language courses which have used wireless handheld computers for various classroom activities (Samuels. interact) Mobile Assisted Language Learning Definition Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL) describes an approach to language learning that is assisted or enhanced through the use of a handheld mobile device. 1990s • Instructors at Brigham Young University-Hawaii taught a distance education English course from Hawaii to Tonga via telephone and computer (Green. 2005). P. University of Wisconsin–Madison. 2001) 2000s • Dickey (2001) utilized teleconferencing to teach an English conversation course to students in South Korea. History 1980s • Twarog and Pereszlenyi Pinter used telephones to provide distant language learners with feedback and assistance. 2005). Amongst the pilot courses utilizing the players were several language courses. Crawley [2] Best Practices: Extending Enterprise Applications to Mobile Devices (http:/ / www. MP3 and MP4 players. The Open University also recently used mobile phones for language learning[4] • • • • • A project in Ireland used MALL for Irish Language learning and assessment [5] [6] • The Le@rning Federation (TLF) used MALL for Indonesian Language learning across three states[7] [8] . Poodle. They also developed a course management system. Bukhres. United Kingdom’s Open University used voice recorders and mini-camcorders to record interviews with other students and locals and to create audiovisual tours in distance-learning German and Spanish course (Kukulska-Hulme. move. a tipe of building or building components. Vanderdijs. & Evans. S.architecture. • 2001). 2003). MALL has evolved to support students’ language learning with the increased use of mobile technologies such as mobile phones (cellphones). edu/ bukhres97proposed. • Stanford University learning lab used integrated mobile phones in a Spanish learning program in 2001 (Brown. 2005). With MALL. C. psu. Zhang. ist. Morton. students are able to access language learning materials and to communicate with their teachers and peers at any time. E. adapt. Collier. City College Southampton [3] developed a web based “media board” (similar to a web-board but supporting Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS) as well as Short Message Service (SMS) and supplied learners of English as a Second Language (ESL) with mobile phones with inbuilt cameras and voice recording facilities (JISC. html) (1997) O. Thornton and Houser (2002. to facilitate deploying language learning material to mobile phones. pdf) (1997) The Architecture Journal : Journal 14 Kulathumani Hariharan Also: Mobile Architecture . Duke University provided all incoming freshmen with free iPods equipped with voice recorders. 2005) developed several innovative projects using mobile phones to teach English at a Japanese university. PDAs and devices such as the iPhone or iPad.

iPods. learners are able to keep their linguistic talents sharp while reducing the risk of degradation of valuable knowledge.com) . hand-held computers.uk/ • SALT conference include sessions on learning languages over mobile phones • Mobile Learning Global Consortium – This LinkedIn group serves as a collaborative forum for the ways and methods being used to push the envelope beyond the cutting edge of mobility. and the mass consumer market. from very-short tutorials to full courses. Their conference is the international signature event for learning using mobile or ubiquitous technologies. and achieve. MALL is available through numerous devices including mobile phones.Mobile Assisted Language Learning • The first mobile phone language learning service. PDAs. as it relates to academia.com opens for business in English providing lessons in Italian. In the future. MALL currently serves not only as a primary source of language education for students but also supports the retention and utilization of newly-acquired language skills—however they were acquired. http://www. German and French. flexible and collaborative learning strategies. demand and the advent of content generation tools that simplify the programming process through the use of templates and macros. media-rich. government. industry. The increasing number of possible delivery tools has spawned a wide-range of mobile language learning programs. (Search for the group at http://www. the time necessary for formal. Spanish. With people working longer hours. due to the growth of wireless and emerging technologies. It is expected that designers will capitalize on this increase in quality—designing MALL programs that employ student-focused. handheldlearning. MALL Professional Organizations At the writing of this article. What mobile devices lack in capability (regarding sound and video quality and screen size) they make up for in portability. connect.language2yourphone. Other resources are primarily educational technology websites that dedicate some of their efforts to language learning. skills and abilities. providing 60 text message (SMS) lessons for €9. The number of people capable of producing MALL content is also on the rise. changes in the cost and availability of wireless service—a luxury to most in the not-too-distant past—will make MALL available to a far wider and diverse audience. MP3 players. MALL will be an ideal solution to busy students and professionals seeking to acquire one or more new languages. traditional classroom-based or even standard online courses will decrease. which help people learn. Through mobile participation in short exercises and tasks. tablet PCs. we can expect mobile devices to deliver better quality than is currently available among most mobile devices. • Handheld Learning – Promotes learning with mobile or ubiquitous technologies. Additionally. 149 Current Trends Today. Some of the resources for MALL are primarily language learning websites with some space dedicated to technology in language learning. Smartphones and more.linkedin. Predicted growth is reinforced by the overall decrease in free time. it is difficult to find organizations that focus specifically on Mobile Assisted Language Learning.co. http://www. The Future of MALL Consensus among the limited literature and studies available specifically about MALL indicate that the demand for it will only increase—along with the demand for second language acquisition and learning flexibility. however. due largely to a combination of increased popularity. MALL designers have begun to move away from merely copying the traditions of standard non-mobile language learning and are implementing techniques that maximize the benefits of these new devices.

environment and time. be they phones. In the same way. there are some constraints to m-learning that limit what can be done in language acquisition through m-learning compared to traditional e-learning or classroom learning. particularly those taking a language course. Among the most noted affordances for MALL is ubiquitous access to learning anytime at any place that the user has reception. and for researchers to be acquainted with the market needs related to mobile learning. et al. In each instance learning can take place but the phones serve only as the delivery method for that information. Some of these affordances are even unique to m-learning compared to regular e-learning. like a pencil or calculator. WMUTE provides opportunity for communication among local and international researchers. The university provided a new tool for the students. Kloper et al. • Social interactivity-data exchange and collaboration with other learners can happen face-to-face. Mobile and Ubiquitous Technologies in Education. the user does not need to be sitting in a classroom or at a computer to access learning materials. store and listen to songs in the language they were learning. The effectiveness of collaborating varies on the project and mobile device. find information from multiple sources to build ideas with partners. The students would record themselves completing an oral assignment and the tutors provided feedback on their assignment. The devices. http://www. Collaborating on mobile devices is dependent on the device. downloading podcasts.Mobile Assisted Language Learning • WMUTE . A language can be learned through collaborative learning with the use of mobile devices But mobile devices don’t actually drive the learning. skills or attitudes occurring in individuals as a result of group interaction. Duke University's use of iPods in 2004 is an example of using collaborative learning in MALL. The students also used the iPods to record conversations in the language they were learning.org/index.htm 150 Collaborative Learning in MALL Collaborative learning is the acquisition of knowledge. Handheld delivery also affords new dynamics for collaborative learning as users can share the language learning process in small synchronous groups (Nah. • A tablet PC or a PDA can allow learners to collaborate on documents while at different locations. The following are examples of collaborative learning using mobile devices: • Collaboration on a mobile phone can be achieved by asynchronous text messaging and instant messaging or a phone conversation. [9] Collaborative learning is a student-centered approach to learning where the instructor is more like a facilitator than a teacher. The students in language courses used the iPods in various ways. (2002) claimed 5 properties of mobile devices which can produce unique educational affordances: • Portability-the small size and weight of mobile devices means they can be taken to different sites or moved around within a site. Affordances and Constraints Enhancing language learning through MALL affords some dynamics not available through the traditional classroom that the language learner can take advantage of. learners do.Wireless. to accentuate or aid the learning process. This enables users to brush up on language skills just before or just after a conversation in the language they are learning. and make information about learning activities portable and easily accessible. Compared to classroom or e-learning. palm pilots or laptops. 2008). Unlike other techniques collaborative learning encourages all involved to help support and motivate each other to achieve the learning goal. are used as tools. . • Context sensitivity-mobile devices can both gather and respond to real or simulated data unique to the current location. including working collaboratively with language tutors.wmute2008. Because the collaborative learning is student-centered it often succeeds in engaging the learner.

com/ journal. Distance-. 2008). 2005 vol.scaffolding for difficult activities can be customized for individual learners. H. drawing on course-level feedback.pdf BJET .earning program (pp. 2008. having functions and capacities similar to laptop computers (Nah.. administrators and important campus stakeholder groups. VA: Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Language. (Ed. uk/ uploaded_documents/ southampton. Inc. resources that focus specifically on Mobile Assisted Language Learning are not common (check Augmented Reality Language Learning).). Eric." Routledge.edu/ [REPORT] Menzies. asp?ref=0266-4909&site=1 (2003 vol. http://llt. "Mobile Learning: A Handbook For Educators and Trainers (The Open and Flexible Learning Series). Innovative Practices with Elearning. larger screens.2005. ac. other devices or to a common network. 2005.A. blackwellpublishing. Y." Proceedings of IEEE International Workshop on Wireless and Mobile Technologies in Education. • Individuality. http:/ / cit. Case studies: Anytime. David. 151 MALL Resources As with Professional Organizations. 2) JCAL . We more often find resources that are primarily language learning websites with some space dedicated to technology in language learning and vice-versa. a broad survey of first-year students and faculty. 95-98 2002 [20] [19] [18] [17] [16] [15] [14] [BOOK] Kululska-Hulme. K and Jenkins. The most notable constraints for earlier MALL include poor sound and display quality coupled with very limited devices and download speeds. N." MIT Press. 2001 IJEL . duke. John. Agnes. K. 21) JISC . "Duke University iPod First-Year Experience. Language Learning & Technology . Vaxjo. student and faculty focus groups."http:/ / sll.J. "Environmental Detectives: PDAs as a window into a virtual simulated world.E. This report summarizes the main findings of [21] [22] . Traxler." In L. Sweden: IEEE Computer Society. E. 2005 http:/ / www. Klopfer. & Evans. 39) Brown. 8.Collier. et al. aace.pdf [BOOK] Klopfer.msu. E. stanford.html2001 [13] [12] [11] [10] Green. "Augmented Learning: Research and Design of Mobile Educational Games.Journal of Computer Assisted Learning http:/ / www. Newer integrated PDA devices have narrowed the gap with higher access speeds. edu/ pdf/ipod_initiative_04_05. org/ pubs/ IJEL/ (Specific volumes dedicated to m-learning) IRRODL . Multimedia learning with mobile phones. blackwellpublishing. irrodl.Mobile Assisted Language Learning • Connectivity-a shared network can be created by connecting mobile devices to data collection devices." Duke's University Center for Instructional Technology coordinated an evaluation of the academic use of iPod.International Journal on e-Learning http:/ / www.Language Learning & Technology is a refereed journal which began publication in July 1997. jisc. Alexandria.Joint Information Systems Committee. org/ (2007 Vol.British Journal of Educational Technology http:/ / www. any place Learning.. "Teaching tomorrow's class today:English by telephone and computer from Hawaii to Tonga. Belanger. 19. Squire. asp?ref=0007-1013 (2008 vol. and discussions and feedback among staff. Henrichsen (Ed. com/ journal.) "Mobile learning explorations at Stanford Learning Lab. edu/ projects/ tomprof/newtomprof/postings/290. 71–82). B. This evaluation focused on the feasibility and effectiveness of the iPod as a tool for faculty and student academic use. "Duke University iPod first year experience final evaluation report". No. The journal seeks to disseminate research to foreign and second language educators in the US and around the world on issues related to technology and language education.International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning http:/ / www.

html [31] [30] Askraba. Mobile Assisted Language Learning and its Impact on Student Motivation and Acquisition." ReCALL. V. McNamara and E. (2008). http://www.). " In B. 229–243). (eds. 21. 2005 Nah. 426-434. P. L. 72. C. com/ Open University Mobile Phone based language learning [5] http:/ / foghlaim. you can enter “language learning” as an exact phrase and turn up some resources specific to MALL. & Houser. http://mlearnopedia. "Wireless and handheld devices for language learning. "M-learning in transit. edu/ Library/ Abstract/ DukeUniversityiPodFirstYe/ 36325 [23] 152 [BOOK] Metcalf. E. WI. com/ go/ client-ncca-ireland/ Learnosity Voice with Irish language learners [7] http:/ / thelearningfederation. learnosity." The Modern Language Journal. Untangling the Web: Establishing Learning Links. au/ for_jurisdictions/ research_and_trials/ research2009. C. uwex.net References [1] Chinnery G. & G. com/ blog/ index. 3: 2008) on Mobile Assisted Language Learning: http:/ / www. html [8] http:/ / www. Australia. cfm/ tlf The Le@rning Federation (TLF) MALL Project [9] 17 [10] 1 [11] 2 [12] 3 [13] 4 [14] 5 [15] 6 [16] 7 [17] 8 [18] 9 [19] 10 . 20 (3): 331-347 2008 http:/ / www. learnosity. http:/ / connect. MNetComp Thesis. Proceedings ASET Conference 2002. org/ NCCA MALL/ FÓN Project [6] http:/ / www. "Using mobile phones in English Education in Japan. & Houser.. "mLearning: Mobile Learning and Performance in the Palm of Your Hand. Monash University. Directions in CALL: Experience. uk/ innoprac/ learner/ southampton. Lewis (Ed. edu. Peter. ac. html [2] Shield L. J. edu/ disted/ conference/ Resource_library/proceedings/03_50.aset.monashmall. 7-10 July. C. "Using mobile web and video phones in English language teaching: Projects with Japanese college students. David S. Morrison. http:/ / www. html#sep08 [3] http:/ / www. & Kukulska-Hulme A. & Houser. [Online]: http:/ / llt. Madison. The changing face of CALL(pp.. & Pereszlenyi-Pinter.. 2003 [29] [28] Thornton. experiments & evaluation (pp. edu/ vol10num1/ emerging/ default. 2006 mLearnopedia – By using the “search” function. educause. html [4] http:/ / openuniuk. "Telephone-assisted language study and Ohio University: A report. White. Ki-Chune. Green.. 217-228. http://www. "The Potential of Using mobile Phone to Access the Internet for Learning EFL Listening Skills Within a Korean Context." HRD Press. Language Learning & Technology 10.com/ Samuels.Mobile Assisted Language Learning this collaborative assessment effort. C. elearning. Roland." In P." In S. (2002). 1: 9-16." Journal of Computer Assisted Learning. and Sussex. org/ recall/ r_contents. edublogs. 2006 [26] [27] Thornton. Motteram (Eds. Melbourne.org. "Learning links online: Establishing constructivist and collaborative learning environments.) (2008) Special edition of ReCALL (20. msu.html Twarong. eurocall-languages. P.au/confs/2002/stacey.). (2006) "Going to the MALL: Mobile Assisted Language Learning". 2003. 207–224). learnosity. 2002 Thornton. eurocall-languages. Stacey (Eds)." Proceedings of the 19th Annual Conference on Distance Teaching and Learning. M. P.pdf [9] [25] [24] Stacey.org/recall/index.

[8] Mobile collaboration allows multiple users in multiple locations the ability to synergistically combine their input while working towards the resolution of problems or issues in today’s complex work environments. and other UC features within a few years.[7] government and public safety. the use of mobile collaboration technology extends to industries as diverse as manufacturing.[4] energy. audio. and mobility. cellular and broadband technologies enabling effective collaboration independent of location.[1] Scope The scope of mobile collaboration takes into account a number of elements that continue to evolve in their sophistication and complexity: video. transmission technologies. comparable to working together in the same room but without the associated expense and downtime typically involved in getting the experts to remote locations. conferencing and telepresence systems. hand-held mobile devices. Forecasts Cisco Systems predicts “two-thirds of the world’s mobile data traffic will be video by 2015.[9] . mobile collaboration utilizes wireless. permitting true mobile collaborative possibilities. offices. recent technological advancements have extended the capabilities of video conferencing for use with discreet. No segment is growing faster than mobile communications. and lecture theatres.Mobile Assisted Language Learning [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] [25] [26] [27] [28] [29] [30] [31] 11 12 13 14 15 16 18 19 20 21 22 23 153 Mobile collaboration Mobile collaboration is a technology-based process of communicating utilizing electronic assets and accompanying software designed for use in remote locations. Differing from traditional video conferencing. Where traditional video conferencing has been limited to boardrooms. collaboration tools.”[2] The Unified Communications Interoperability Forum (UCIF). enabling multi-party conferencing in real time.[5] healthcare.”[3] Impact on industry To date.[6] insurance. and virtually every smart phone will be equipped with video chat. and telestration (on-screen drawing) capabilities broadcast over secure networks. IM. audio and telestration capabilities. This can be done in real time with advanced video. Newest generation hand-held electronic devices feature video. audio and telestrator capabilities. a non-profit alliance of technology vendors states that “one important driver for the growth of UC (unified communications) is mobility and the remote worker. directory.

justforcanadiandoctors. and inspected. html). while making its delivery more cost-effective. will most certainly also benifit from this development in mobile education. Recent trends in globalization and outsourcing in particular. Just for Canadian Doctors. Automation and Control – Design News. .[13] Education Mobile callaboration technology might also be used for remote education. [3] "UC: Driving the Next Step to Interoperability" (http:/ / www. com/ en/ US/ solutions/ collateral/ ns341/ ns525/ ns537/ ns705/ ns827/ white_paper_c11-520862. repair and overhaul work. Al (December 2010). [2] "CISCO Visual Networking Index: Global Mobile Data Traffic Forecast Update. com/ v4erizonb8usin4essa17com/ Enterprise-communications-the-next-decade. inluding higher education.[12] Healthcare Although telemedicine technology has been in use for a number of years in the healthcare sector. CISCO White Paper. or a patient’s home. aspx).Mobile collaboration 154 Manufacturing Manufacturers of all kinds use mobile collaboration technology in a number of ways. com/ pdf/ EnergyManufacturing2010. com/ featured-articles-body-TelePresence-in-Manufacturing-523-1. pdf). 22. Alex (March 9. From one on one tutoring to large classes it has many uses. discuss.[10] The flexibility of hand-held mobile collaboration devices allow real-time communication to take place at any location where products are being designed. "Virtually On-sight" (http:/ / www. cisco. Energy Manufacturing. "Estimating from a distance now possible" (http:/ / www. built. org/ Resources/ whitepapers. pp. the vast distances between a head office and the remote. allitwares. with Whitely. Elizabeth. have meant that companies need to communicate with employees. Bodyshop. as well as the often inadequacies or absence of necessary transmission networks. . Robert and Crumb. such as an automotive assembly plant a continent away. as well as IT/communication infrastructure troubleshooting. [5] Wadhwa. safety audits. librestream. Cindy (December 2008). com/ pastissues/ JFCD2009/ JFCD-Mar-Apr2009. for example. pdf). . html). 2010). supply chain management and equipment field service. 2010-2015" (http:/ / www.[14] References [1] Herrell. "Enterprise Communications: The Next Decade" (http:/ / www. [7] Macdonald. html). . "Being in Two Places At One Time" (http:/ / www. and customers the world over. bodyshopbiz. [6] Van’t Haaff. suppliers. Homeschooling could really benifit from this technology as you participate in a lecture from anywhere in the world. Corey (March/April 2009). pp. "TelePresence in Manufacturing: IP-based video conferencing provides effective tools for remote collaboration" (http:/ / www. Most useful you can record your classes or lectures and review them. ucif. . com/ issues/ story. 2011. downloadic. Improved communication through mobile collaboration affects many aspects of complex manufacturing such as production line maintenance. Anil (2010). Recent advancements in mobile collaboration technology and transmission networks are making it possible for employees in these situations to collaborate in secure and reliable ways with colleagues thousands of miles away. [4] Presher. Healthcare professionals in multiple locations can together view. Though these methods are not widely used they are quite useful and most likely will become widely popular. long-term care facility.[11] Energy Companies in the energy sector face unique challenges due to. 2011. The use of mobile collaboration technology within the heathcare sector has the potential to improve the quality and access to care. Internet schools. 4. . The use of mobile collaboration in the energy sector is enabling companies to conduct remote inspections. UCIForum White Paper. aspx?aid=1000228332). mobile collaboration technology extends these capabilities to locations now reachable through the use of hand-held devices such as a remote community. maintenance. . February 1. harsh environment of an offshore oil rig. . and assess patient issues. Forrester Research White Paper.

librestream. "Case Study: Winnipeg Health Sciences Centre. Austria offered train ticketing via mobile device. org/ portal/ web/ csdl/ doi/ 10. Peter (October 8. IEEE Computer Society.Mobile collaboration [8] Blackwell. December 3. 2003. 2009). Control Engineering. com/ issues/ story. [11] Robbins.[2] PDAs and cellular phones have become so popular that many businesses are beginning to use mobile commerce as a more efficient way to communicate with their customers." (http:/ / www. Renee (May 28. . newtechmagazine. Mobile Commerce has been defined as follows: "Mobile Commerce is any transaction. the first sales of digital content as downloads to mobile phones were made possible when the first commercial downloadable ringtones were launched in Finland by Radiolinja (now part of Elisa Oyj). php/ 3872836/ Secure-Wi-Fi-Video-On-The-Battlefield. The machines accepted payment via SMS text messages. As of 2008. UCL Computer Science and Peter J. pdf). com/ Brochures/ PR/ GovernmentPurchasing. also known as M-Commerce or mCommerce. Forrester Research White Paper. com/ index. com. pdf). Two major national commercial platforms for mobile commerce were launched in 1999: Smart Money (http:/ / smart. esecurityplanet. "Enterprise Communications: The Next Decade" (http:/ / www. and returned 91 percent to the content owner. a smartphone. Motorola. The first conference dedicated to mobile commerce was held in London in July 2001. The first book to cover mobile commerce was Tomi Ahonen's M-profits in 2002. Sanders. 155 Mobile commerce Mobile Commerce. Japan offered mobile purchases of airline tickets. 2009). "Mobile video system visually connects global plant floor engineers" (http:/ / m. Elizabeth. downloadic. . and NTT DoCoMo's i-Mode Internet service in Japan. with Whitely. com/ Brochures/ PR/ DreamlinerUseofMobile Video. mobile phone manufacturers such as Nokia. is the ability to conduct commerce using a mobile device. Ericsson. The first mobile phone-based banking service was launched in 1997 by Merita Bank of Finland. i-Mode offered a revolutionary revenue-sharing plan where NTT DoCoMo kept 9 percent of the fee users paid for content. involving the transfer of ownership or rights to use goods and services. In order to exploit the potential mobile commerce market. "Secure Wi-Fi Video on the Battlefield" (http:/ / www. Peter (November 2009). Mobile commerce was born in 1997 when the first two mobile-phone enabled Coca Cola vending machines were installed in the Helsinki area in Finland. . com/ trends/ article. "Dreamliner Production Gets Closer Monitoring" (http:/ / www. [14] "Mobile Collaboration Tool for University Education" (http:/ / www. and Qualcomm are working with carriers such as AT&T Wireless and Sprint to develop WAP-enabled . The Wall Street Journal. such as a mobile phone. New Technology Magazine. 10002). with Tomi Ahonen and Steve Jones lecturing. [10] Michaels. In 1998."[1] History First thought up by Matt Wilson. 2010). controleng. 2003. computer. Norway launched mobile parking payments. Daniel. which is initiated and/or completed by using mobile access to computer-mediated networks with the help of an electronic device. also using SMS. Robert and Crumb. [13] Saunders. [12] "RigNet Signs Deal with Librestream for Onsight Mobile Collaboration System" (http:/ / www. aspx?aid=1000395046). The first university short course to discuss mobile commerce was held at the University of Oxford in 2003. 2010). Surgeons Using Wireless Mobile Communications in a New Assessment and Support System. htm). php?id=2819& tx_ttnews[tt_news]=11999& cHash=0387e9884a). Mobile-commerce-related services spread rapidly in early 2000. com/ v4erizonb8usin4essa17com/ Enterprise-communications-the-next-decade. [9] Herrell. Government Purchasing Guide. ph/ money/ ) in the Philippines. Bentley demonstrated the potential for medical applications on mobile devices. html). Alex (March 9. . e-security Planet. 1109/ WETICE. . . or other emerging mobile equipment such as dashtop mobile devices. a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA). 2010. Gerry (March 25. librestream. .

These items are represented by a virtual token that is sent to the mobile phone. and video players into a single device is increasing the purchase and delivery of full-length music tracks and video. improvements in the capabilities of modern mobile devices make it prudent to place more of the resource burden on the mobile device. e-mail. Location-based services The location of the mobile phone user is an important piece of information used during mobile commerce transactions. coupons. wallpapers. This is seen as a bridge between the gap created by e-commerce and in-store shopping.Mobile commerce smartphones. even though it is widely available and accessible. which are the least price sensitive. and coupons) while still shopping in the physical store. Knowing the location of the user allows for location-based services such • Local discount offers • Local weather • Tracking and monitoring of people . by presenting their phones at the venue. The download speeds available with 4G networks make it possible to buy a movie on a mobile device in a couple of seconds. brick and mortar business owners. barcode scanning. such as the youth market. 156 Products and services available Mobile ticketing Tickets can be sent to mobile phones using a variety of technologies. and games for mobile phones. Mobile vouchers. and phone capabilities. SMS has significant security vulnerabilities and congestion problems. and loyalty cards. information. mobile commerce has moved away from SMS systems and into actual applications. have made an effort to take advantage of mobile commerce by utilizing a number of mobile capabilities such as location based services. physical retailers can allow customers to access the common benefits of shopping online (such as product reviews. and big-box retailers in particular. portable audio players. Content purchase and delivery Currently. must also be a key target for device vendors. and is being utilized by physical retailers as a way to compete with the lower prices typically seen through online retailers. Tickets can be booked and cancelled on the mobile device with the help of simple application downloads. and push notifications to improve the customer experience of shopping in physical stores. More recently. "Profitability for device vendors and carriers hinges on high-end mobile devices and the accompanying killer applications. In addition. Smartphones offer fax. Since the launch of the iPhone. Stores may send coupons to customers using location-based services to determine when the customer is nearby. as well as more open to premium mobile content and applications. A customer presenting a mobile phone with one of these tokens at the point of sale receives the same benefits as if they had the traditional token. Users are then able to use their tickets immediately. By creating what is referred to as a 'bricks & clicks' environment. The convergence of mobile phones. coupons and loyalty cards Mobile ticketing technology can also be used for the distribution of vouchers." said Burchett. or by accessing the WAP portals of various travel agents or direct service providers. mobile content purchase and delivery mainly consists of the sale of ring-tones. Perennial early adopters.

reverse auctions offer a high return for the mobile vendor as they require the consumer to make multiple transactions over a long period of time. mobile is going to get a lot bigger in the ecommerce market. but was impractical before the invention of modern mobile devices due to the bandwidth requirements. remitting money. This customized data is more useful than a generic traffic-report broadcast. They allow the subscriber to react to market developments in a timely fashion and irrespective of their physical location. Some merchants provide mobile websites that are customized for the smaller screen and limited user interface of a mobile device. can be sent to a mobile device. Unlike traditional auctions. such as purchasing stocks. the merchant may even deliver the catalog electronically. This service is often referred to as Mobile Banking. or M-Banking. however. Mobile Browsing Using a mobile browser—a World Wide Web browser on a mobile device—customers can shop online without having to be at their personal computer. These services include: • • • • • News Stock quotes Sports scores Financial records Traffic reporting Customized traffic information. . $119bn worth of goods and services will be purchased via a mobile phone. Mobile StoreFront The reinvention of the mobile phone as a touch sensitive handheld computer has for the first time made mobile commerce practically feasible. 'According to ABI Research. Many mobile SMS commerce solutions rely on a one-time purchase or one-time subscription. Mobile banking Banks and other financial institutions use mobile commerce to allow their customers to access account information and make transactions. The research firm is predicting that in 2015.' Mobile brokerage Stock market services offered via mobile devices have also become more popular and are known as Mobile Brokerage. Mobile Purchase Catalog merchants can accept orders from customers electronically. In some cases. Auctions Over the past three years mobile reverse auction solutions have grown in popularity. based on a user's actual travel patterns. via the customer's mobile device. the reverse auction (or low-bid auction) bills the consumer's phone each time they place a bid.Mobile commerce 157 Information services A wide variety of information services can be delivered to mobile phone users in much the same way as it is delivered to PCs. rather than mailing a paper catalog to the customer.

along with others. was used to attract and retain an audience. These studies were commissioned by top mobile providers like Deutsche Telekom (operator of T-Mobile) and Orange. based on their experience with previous generations of South Koreans. Mobile companies in South Korea believed that mobile technology would become synonymous with youth life style. developed methods deployed globally through concerts and events involving any form of youth culture in 2008. 2010. Casual Collapse. who tend to be early adopters of any form of social technology services. and Celebrity. images. The Term is now globally The GENERATION C phenomenon captures the an avalanche of consumer generated 'content' that is building on the Web. The two tested a theory of rapid memetic dissemination. They observed the youth cultural styles and trends. Companies have reported that they see better response from mobile marketing campaigns than from traditional campaigns. such as WiMax. Youpark ApS. Early pioneers in mobile advertising include Vodafone. and Japan involving viral mobile direct-marketing campaigns delivering products and coupons with instant savings to mobile devices. and the sales of three different viable youth products to over 200. adding tera-peta bytes of new text. but until now we neither had .. "Profitability for device vendors and carriers hinges on high-end mobile devices and the accompanying killer applications. Mobile campaigns must be based on the global Content Generationor what is called Generation C and four other 'C's: Creativity. audio and video on an ongoing basis. formal requirements and laws modern societies have held dear. Mobile devices are heavily used in South Korea to conduct mobile commerce. the link with GENERATION C is obvious. The two main drivers fuelling this trend? (1) The creative urges each consumer undeniably possesses. Which then brings us to Casual Collapse: the ongoing demise of many beliefs. mobile marketing refers to marketing sent to mobile devices. in the form of mobile commercials (or "mobisodes"). This demonstrated how the global youth mobile market can react autonomously and create trends. rituals. Orange. From women's rights to gay marriage to not wearing a tie to work if you don't feel like it!ref>"Increasing Trend of Mobile Marketing" [3]. we're all creatives. Creativity: let's face it.. The experiments used disc jockeys and mobile youth street teams to drive instant purchases of event-ticket sales. A brief introduction. It also showed how products take on new life because of the mindset of the young. Memetic research Leveious Rolando.Mobile commerce 158 Mobile marketing and advertising In the context of mobile commerce. On a 2007 trip to South Korea. The diagram explained vital aspects of mobile adoption and sales of mobile global products and services. One group of subjects were given words and phrases to be used regularly in conversation.000 end-users in eight days. South Korea. Rolando created a Venn-diagram model of rapidly evolving youth lifestyle trends. Rolando conducted other experiments in Europe. Control.com defined Content Generation a description of those born of the digital age of content and how their brains were re wired to think in real time content exchange. combined with the rate at which the test subjects passed on particular information to others. We're all artists. if not artists! (Notice we didn't mean talented artists . in partnership with leading mobile software and network providers. New technologies. The control group was not given such a list This experiment measured the rate at which ideas and phrases were typically transmitted.-). which continue to 'collapse' without causing the apocalyptic aftermath often predicted by conservative minds." said Gibran Burchett. These researchers. Leveious and others members of Trendwatching. Retrieved August 23.</ref> Influence on youth markets Mobile media is a rapidly changing field. act to accelerate innovation in mobile commerce. And as creativity normally leads to content. Youpark. and SK Telecom. John Sokol and Gibran Burchett are memetic researchers who pioneered mobile advertising with their early experimentation of DVB-H in 1999 with Sony BMG recording artist Wu-Tang Clan. Rolando and his colleagues performed an experiment in which viral marketing.

net/techmon/06sep_oct/tm/pdf/06sep_oct_sf4.50 External links • Greene. often used with mobile-device application stores or music stores References [1] Tiwari.com/hot-news. . Herald Leader.thefango. 2010. com/ Blog/ ?e=53483& d=08/ 29/ 2010& s=iStethoscope Pro in a medical journal). com/ url?sa=t& source=web& cd=1& ved=0CBkQFjAA& url=http:/ / citeseerx. using -. 2010. 46& rep=rep1& type=pdf& ei=r_pxTPS7IYOBlAfWz4yJDg& usg=AFQjCNFiJARcpjsvcpZg5lzSoaXsgik8Mw) (PDF). 1. to listen. • Jordan.thefango. "New arena service testing delivery to your seat" (http://www. html).their ever cheaper. including deductions to pre-paid calling plans • Credit cards • Some providers allow credit cards to be linked to a phone's SIM card • Micropayment services • Stored-value cards. (2007). Buse.Mobile commerce the guts nor the means to go all out. Rory (2008).pdf) • Troutman. Hamburg: Hamburg University Press. Stephan. peterjbentley. Buse. ISSN 1525-2019. . [2] "iStethoscope in Medical Journal" (http:/ / apps. Herstatt. and to participate. edu/ viewdoc/ download?doi=10.mobilestarterstore. ist. (2) The manufacturers of content-creating tools. [3] http:/ / youpark. Cornelius (Sept-Oct 2006). Instead of asking consumers to watch. R.. google. "Concessions one button away" (http://www.techmonitor. Mobile Commerce News. Retrieved November 23. "From electronic to mobile commerce: opportunites through technology convergence for business services" (http://www. p. 1. The Mobile Commerce Prospects: A strategic analysis of opportunities in the banking sector (http:/ / www. to play. 33. psu. who relentlessly push us to unleash that creativity.com/hot-news.pdf) (PDF). Journal of Interactive Advertising 9 (1): 65–70.html). 2010. Timpson. 2010. ever more powerful gadgets and gizmos. Asia Pacific Tech Monitor (New Delhi (India) 23 (5): 38–45. "Effective Optimization of Web Sites for Mobile Access: the transition from eCommerce to mCommerce" (http://jiad. com/ blog/ index. ISBN 978-3-937816-31-9. • "Mobile Storefront" (http://www.global-innovation. to produce. Rajnish. including: • Premium-rate telephone numbers'. the race is on to get them to create. Marci. 159 Payment methods Consumers can use many forms of payment in mobile commerce. Jim (2008). S. Retrieved August 23.com/index. Retrieved August 23.php?option=com_content&view=category& layout=blog&id=1&Itemid=50). to passively consume. • (http://www. 94. Steve (Fall 2008). Kentucky Kernel. which apply charges to the consumer's long-distance bill • Charges added to the consumer's mobile telephone bill. .org/article111).of course -.net/ publications/PDF/APTM2006. php?p=21 • Tiwari. Retrieved August 23.

Mobile database system architecture For any mobile architecture.Mobile database 160 Mobile database A mobile database is a database that can be connected to by a mobile computing device over a mobile network. • Applications must be able to access local device/vehicle hardware. A cache is maintained to hold frequent data and transactions so that they are not lost due to connection failure. Need for mobile databases • Mobile users must be able to work without a wireless connection due to poor or even non-existent connections. This type of access and work load generated by such users is different from the traditional workloads seen in client–server systems of today. The client and server have wireless connections. or wireless routers.) Base stations are two-way radios. Mobile units are portable computers that move around a geographical region that includes the cellular network (or "cells") that these units use to communicate to base stations. or GPS units (for mapping or Automatic Vehicle Location systems). • Applications must provide significant interactivity. They are typically low-power devices such as mobile phones. it is clear that a large percentage will require the use of a database of some sort. mobile units. the chances are good that you will be required to build a mobile database application with synchronization. • Users don't require access to truly live data. portable Wireless networks Mobile computing constraints Three parties Mobile databases typically involve three parties: fixed hosts. things to be considered are: • • • • Users are not attached to a fixed geographical location Mobile computing devices: low-power. Information can be synchronized with a server database at a later time. This could be a list of contacts. and base stations. price information or distance travelled. portable phones. A database is a structured way to organize information. In this scenario user would require to access and update information from files in the home directories on a server or customer records from a database. that pass communications with the mobile units to and from the fixed hosts. . An example of this is a mobile workforce. While those same analysts can’t tell us exactly which applications will be the most popular. low-cost. only recently modified data. mobiles and PDAs is increasing and likely to increase in the future with more and more applications residing in the mobile systems.[1] The use of laptops. • Bandwidth must be conserved (a common requirement on wireless networks that charge per megabyte or data transferred). (Note that these networks need not be cellular telephone networks. Fixed hosts perform the transaction and data management functions with the help of database servers. Mobile databases let employees enter data on the fly. Many applications such as databases would require the ability to download information from an information repository and operate on this information even when out of range or disconnected. bar code scanners. With the advent of mobile databases. such as printers. installations in fixed locations. • Limited life of power supply(battery) • The changing topology of network If your application meets any of those requirements. now users can load up their smart phones or PDAs with mobile databases to exchange mission-critical data remotely without worrying about time or distance.

might serve your needs equally well.. that station transparently transfers the responsibility for the mobile unit's transaction and data support to whichever base station covers the mobile unit's new location. such as SQLBase from Gupta Technologies LLC of Redwood Shores. Sybase's SQL Anywhere SQL Anywhere offers enterprise-caliber databases that scale from 64-bit servers with thousands of users down to small handheld devices.Mobile database 161 When a mobile unit leaves a cell serviced by a particular base station.’s SQL Anywhere dominates the mobile-database field. . Design and management tools within SQL Anywhere enable developers to implement and deploy frontline applications and equip administrators to easily manage and support them. Fla. HanDBase from DDH Software Inc. Microsoft SQL Server Compact and Oracle9i Lite are similar mobile databases. Products from lesser-known vendors. of Lake Worth. SQL Anywhere’s data exchange technologies extend information in corporate applications and enterprise systems to databases running in mission-critical frontline environments. Products Sybase Inc. IBM’s DB2 Everyplace is a relational database and enterprise synchronization server that extends enterprise applications to mobile devices. Calif. with about 68 percent of the mobile database market.and Cellica Database from Cellica Corporation NY [2].

. Windows CE and embedded Linux DB2e on the handheld device includes: • IBM DB2 Database Engine • IBM Sync • Query By Example (QBE) DB2e includes a component called Synchronization Server. zero-administration environments. session-based synchronization technology for exchanging data among relational databases and other non-relational data sources. Neutrino.1. which: • • • • Allows synchronization between DB2e and server database Mobile Device Administration Center (MDAC) Table encryption for version 8. integration with Oracle's Advanced Queuing (AQ) mechanism. organizes and manages data on a handheld device. and so on). Oracle9i Lite This is a complete solution for mobile or wireless applications that require the use of a relational database on the mobile client. DB2e is currently available for Palm OS. SQL Remote: SQL Remote technology is based on a store and forward architecture that allows occasionally connected users to synchronize data between SQL Anywhere databases using a file or message transfer mechanism. Mobilink: MobiLink is a highly-scalable. It provides synchronization with Microsoft SQL Server. programming APIs. The database supports 100% Java development (through JDBC drivers and the database's native support for embedded SQLJ and Java stored procedures) as well as programming from any development tool that supports ODBC (Visual Basic. PalmOS. C++. QAnywhere: QAnywhere facilitates the development of robust and secure store-and-forward mobile messaging applications. Windows CE. integrated development experience through Visual Studio and a Management Studio. The data on the handheld device is synchronized to a server-based relational database management system (RDMS). and data and application synchronization software (to enterprise Oracle databases. Delphi. IBM DB2 Everyplace (DB2e) DB2e stores.Mobile database 162 SQL Anywhere Technologies SQL Anywhere Server is a high performing and embeddable relational database-management system (RDBMS) that scales from thousands of users in server environments down to desktop and mobile applications used in widely deployed. It includes support for Win32. The Oracle9i Lite relational database is surprisingly powerful. retrieves. EPOC. and EPOC database clients. Ultralite: UltraLite is a database-management system designed for small-footprint mobile devices such as PDAs and smart phones.1 Java ME Sync Client for cell phones and pagers Microsoft SQL Server Compact (formerly SQL Server 2005 Mobile Edition) Microsoft SQL Server Compact (SSC) is a small footprint embedded database designed for developers who target Microsoft Windows mobile-based devices or desktops.

microsoft. thereby also providing close integration to legacy information systems. and Web server applications. mobile. retrieved 14/12/08 (http:/ / www. a research project that aims to support the development of SQL based applications for mobile environments.asc. com External links • • • • • • • • SQL Anywhere Official Site (http://www.com/product_cf. scalability. mspx) [2] http:/ / www.com/articles/article.co. requires practically zero maintenance.pdf http://www. Kevin Ebi.pt/dagora/docs/papers/epcm99-np. and delivers the performance.mcobject.com/articles/article.informit.di. the JDataStore database features a very small footprint. versatile Java database for truly portable embedded. cellica.com http://www. and synchronization capabilities of a full-power database.informit. Compliant with Java and SQL92 standards. It is increasingly being used in aviation and transportation industry. MobiSnap aims at developing a middle-ware infrastructure that allows access to relational database systems from mobile computers with a clear semantics in all operational scenarios (from high to unavailable connectivity).aspx?p=26223&seqNum=3 http://www.unl.effiproz.sybase.dooyoo. MobiSnap MobiSnap.com/mobile_database http://www.Mobile database 163 Others Borland's JDataStore Borland JDataStore 6 is a fast. com/ windowsmobile/ en-us/ business/ solutions/ small-business-database.softpedia. providing conquerable support for data divergence control and connectivity abstractions. MobiSnap will be based on SQL.com. Microsoft.fct.aspx?p=25328 http://www.uk/programming-languages/jdatastore-developer-edition http://www. References [1] Organize your business with a mobile database.com/products/databasemanagement/sqlanywhere) http://www. focusing only on application specific problems. This platform will isolate programmers from the problems related to mobility and disconnection. allowing them to easily develop new applications for mobile environments.aspx . Uses Mobile databases are highly concentrated in the retail and logistic industry.

asset managers can expect an ever more tech-savvy workforce. which thereby improves capital and labor allocation decision processes (including an ability to schedule more planned/preventive maintenance work). accurate data flow between their remote workers and central management such as planners and schedulers. The idea behind mobile EAM as a business practice is that it enables remote workers – employees who spend part or all of their time away from a central office – access to data from the organization’s computer application software for enterprise asset management (commonly referred to as an enterprise system. In the mobile EAM process. replacement. mobile enterprise asset management is focused. instruments and containers organizations use to track and secure equipment and other such assets frequently on the move. Developing and implementing a mobile application architecture on the enterprise scale is not an easy undertaking by any means. output media (voice and data) and connectivity methods. docking station or other synchronization method. giving a maintenance technician or other remote worker more detailed asset information as well as the ability to transmit work data to the organization’s enterprise system when completed – through a wireless network. typically using a handheld or other mobile computer. . as mobile applications are faced with a diversity of device operating systems. This is to distinguish from the term mobile asset management. the organization eliminates a need for paper forms or other data reporting and communication methods (push-to-talk and radio) to move work order information to and from the point where the work is being performed. mobile work order applications provide details such as location. Challenges Nearly all challenges in mobile EAM practices can be traced to two factors: time and labor resources (including IT or information technology management) and investment costs. contrasting with a PC (personal computer) environment where in most cases software requires relatively few. break/fix or service requests) via communication between a mobilized workforce and computer systems to maintain an organization’s facilities. operations and repair of corporate or public-entity physical assets. structures and other assets. redundancy setup and maintenance budgets. by definition. strictly on the wireless automation of asset management data for such processes. lock-outs and prior work history on the asset. stepwise job plans. While enterprise asset management encompasses the management of an organization’s entire asset portfolio across processes including equipment addition/ reduction.Mobile Enterprise Asset Management 164 Mobile Enterprise Asset Management Mobile enterprise asset management (or mobile EAM) refers to the mobile extension of work processes for maintenance. organizations often report such advantages as an increase in timely. workflow-specific mobile applications. EAM system or backend system). safety alerts. updates and lower upfront costs. Organizations looking to implement mobile EAM applications often seek the help of technology consulting firms and spend months researching. planning and selecting an implementation strategy. which refers more broadly to the actual tools. With the proliferation of smartphone and other mobile computing technologies. buildings and grounds. if major. Using computer software to achieve standard mobile EAM practices. Mobile EAM technology When viewed and used on a handheld device. lower costs in mobile devices and a higher propensity of feature-rich. equipment. It involves management of work orders (planned. over-hauling.

These industries can include: • • • • • • • Facilities Management Utilities Life Sciences Government organizations Manufacturing Oil & Gas industry Transportation industry In such high-value asset scenarios. this means that an increasing proportion of organizations in capital-intensive industry sectors (such as those above) are adopting mobile technology as an integral part of their enterprise asset management strategy – corresponding with an enterprise-wide emphasis on whole life planning. Market growth In a 2009 study[1] . com/ DisplayDocument?doc_cd=172728 [2] http:/ / www. gartner. mobile EAM application. Enterprise Systems Mobilized The enterprise systems you will find most often mobilized are: • • • • • • SAP Maximo Oracle TRIRIGA Datastream Ventyx References [1] http:/ / www.). GIS. etc.” Gartner attributes this anticipated growth to enterprises’ increasing willingness (and ability) to extend decision-relevant information to employees. who are themselves increasingly mobile. mobileenterprisemag. market analyst Gartner. asp?sid=& nm=& type=MultiPublishing& mod=PublishingTitles& mid=B4771C6F22F34E4CA3FFFDA61E0EA2C5& tier=4& id=CEFEEBFEA2484118849FC7820858E920 .Mobile Enterprise Asset Management 165 Industries using mobile EAM The use of mobile enterprise application platforms (MEAPs)[1] . “for the MEAP and packaged mobile application market…we now expect market growth annually of 15 to 20% through 2013. For EAM practices as a whole. particularly in industries where physical assets form a significant cost proportion of organizations’ total assets. Inc. particularly when part of an enterprise-wide capital and labor management strategy that integrates multiple systems in an enterprise architecture (EAM system. designed around service-oriented architecture principles for multiple systems integration and custom modification. life cycle costing. and other forms of wireless computing technology for mobile EAM solutions[2] is growing rapidly. labor dispatch/scheduling software. the asset lifecycle improvements introduced by the increase in enterprise data flow of mobile EAM processes can bring significant savings. planned and proactive maintenance and other industry best practices. forecasted. com/ ME2/ dirmod.

including an 8-bit regional code (RR). Since they must have all decimal digits the GHA has opened up the range '99' for these assignments. The hexadecimal form is specified to be 14 digits grouped together where at least one of the first two ('RR') digits is in the range 'A' through 'F'. It consists of three fields. The check-digit is never transmitted or stored.S0008 [4]. and a 24-bit manufacturer-assigned serial number. The MEID was created to replace ESNs. devices with an MEID can use a pseudo ESN (pESN). . the ESN is still a required field in many messages—for compatibility. Consequently it may be printed on phones or their packaging in case of manual entry of an MEID (e. There are two administrators: the Global Decimal Administrator (GDA) for IMEIs and the Global Hexadecimal Administrator (GHA).g.[3] Administration The separation between International Mobile Equipment Identifiers (IMEIs) used by GSM/UTMS and MEIDs is based on the number ranges. and the GSM Association acts as the Global Decimal Administrator. it is not intended to be a checksum or CRC to detect transmission errors. com/ gsm-imei-number-allocation. which is a manufacturer code of 0x80 (formerly reserved) followed by the least significant 24 bits of the SHA-1 hash of the MEID. The check digit (CD) is not considered part of the MEID.Mobile Equipment Identifier 166 Mobile Equipment Identifier A Mobile Equipment Identifier (MEID) is a globally unique number identifying a physical piece of CDMA mobile station equipment. A check-digit can be calculated from the 18 digit result using the standard base 10 Luhn algorithm and appended to the end. The number format is defined by the 3GPP2 report S. In this case. whose virgin form was exhausted in November 2008 [2] .asp The middle ground between IMEIs and MEIDs is for inter-standard "worldphone" devices. and both can include an optional check-digit. It is intended to detect most (but not all) input errors. the TIA acts as the Global Hexadecimal Administrator (GHA) to assign MEID code prefixes (0xA0 and up). If both the first two digits are in the range '0' through '9' then the check digit is calculated using the standard base 10 Luhn algorithm as the number meets the definition of IMEI. http:/ / www. As of TIA/EIA/IS-41 Revision D and TIA/EIA/IS-2000 Rev C. Display formats There are two standard formats for MEIDs. babt. As of August 2006. This is defined by 3GPP2 standard X. the check-digit is calculated using a modified (base 16) Luhn algorithm. The decimal form is specified to be 18 digits grouped in a 5 5 4 4 pattern and is calculated by converting the manufacturer code portion (32 bits) to decimal and padding on the left with '0' digits to 10 digits and separately converting the serial number portion to decimal and padding on the left to 8 digits.R0048 [1] but in practical terms it can be seen as an IMEI but with hexadecimal digits. IMEI administrators can just assign numbers for dual-technology phones out of their existing ranges. Regional code R R Manufacturer code Serial number CD C X X X X X X Z Z Z Z Z Z An MEID is 56 bits long (14 hex digits). These devices will have all decimal digits and can be allocated by any administration. because there is no bar code or the bar code is unreadable). a 24-bit manufacturer code.

0_050630.decode('hex')) #decode the hex MEID (convert it to binary!) pesn = "80" + s. org/ Public_html/ specs/ C. pdf Pellegrino G. 0_051018. 26 May 2005. pdf) [6] http:/ / www. import hashlib meid = raw_input("Enter an MEID: "). pdf [7] http:/ / www.hexdigest()[-6:]. Another problem is that messages delivered on the forward paging channel using the pESN as an address could be delivered to multiple mobiles seemingly randomly.upper() #put the last 6 digits of the hash after 80 print "pESN: " + pesn References http:/ / www. 3GPP2 specifications C. This specification also allows the PLCM to be based on the MEID or IMSI. These will cause an extremely rare condition known as a 'collision' on a pure ESN-only network as the ESN is used for the calculation of the Public Long Code Mask (PLCM) used for communication with the base-station. org/ standards/ resources/ esn/ documents/ Collisions_pESN_wp. S0072-0_v1. White Paper on Pseudo-ESN Collisions. it is estimated that even on a heavily loaded network the frequency of this situation is closer to 1 out of 1 million calls than to 1 out of 100 000. 3GPP2 specification C. 3gpp2. org/ standards/ resources/ esn/ documents/ esn_meid_milestones_timeline. In this situation. pdf http:/ / www. org/ meid) http:/ / www. pdf [8] http:/ / www. tiaonline.S0072 [6] provides a solution to this problem by allowing the PLCM to be established by the base station. 3gpp2. 3gpp2. A different problem occurs when ESN codes are stored in a database (such as for OTASP). the risk of at least two phones having the same pseudo-ESN can be calculated using the birthday paradox and works out to about a 50 per cent probability in a database with 4. S0016-C_v1. Quick F. pdf CDG Resources on MEID and EUIMID (http:/ / cdg.S0066 [8] have been modified to allow the replacement MEID identifier to be transmitted. This problem can be avoided by using MIN or IMSI based addressing instead. org/ Public_html/ specs/ C. tiaonline. org/ Public_html/ specs/ C.sha1(meid. 0_041025. resolving this problem. 0_040830. Code to convert This short Python script will convert an MEID to a pESN. 3gpp2. S0066-0_v1.S0016 [7] (Revision C or higher) and C. It is easy for the base station to ensure that all PLCM codes are unique when this is done. TIA. R0048-A_v4. Roughly. pdf [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] . 0_050727. org/ Public_html/ specs/ S.upper() s = hashlib. (http:/ / www. org/ Public_html/ specs/ X. The probability of a collision has been carefully examined [5] .800 pseudo-ESN entries. 3gpp2. S0008-0_v2. Two mobiles using the same pESN within the same base-station area (operating on the same frequency) can result in call setup and page failures.Mobile Equipment Identifier 167 pESN conflicts Because the pESN is formed by a hash on the MEID there is the potential for hash collisions.

ITU-T FG IPTV is collecting requirements regarding mobility and wireless characteristics. . The development of Mobile IPTV specification is at an early stage. In addition. Open IPTV Forum. graphics and other broadband data services to the user on the move. and interactive functions. IPTV is currently dominated by Telco giants in an attempt to find a new source of cash-in.org/standards/resources/meid/) • PhoneScoop MEID article (http://www.com/articles/meid/) • CDMA Development Group MEID resource page (http://www. This is a prime example of the increasing convergence of broadcasting.phonescoop. IPTV plus Mobile approach Although many think that “networked TV” will be the future of television.tiaonline. Currently. audio. The outstanding activities are ATIS in the US. In Open IPTV Forum. text and graphic services through IP-based the wired and wireless networks with support for Quality of Service/QoE.cdg. WorldDAB Forum is enhancing and extending Eureka 147 to support IP based services. DVB-CBMS is developing bi-directional mobile IP based broadcasting protocol specifications over DVB-H. however. To make this approach more attractive. The reason why it is pursued is to build a content environment that combines the stability and usability of broadcasting and the diverse services of Internet. mobility. video. Technical approaches to Mobile IPTV Mobile TV plus IP This approach uses the traditional digital broadcast networks to deliver IP-based audio. DVB-IPI (IPI: IP Infrastructure) (is an open DVB standard that enables audio/video services to be delivered to and through the mobile device via IP networking.org/meid) Mobile IPTV Mobile IPTV is a technology that enables users to transmit and receive multimedia traffic including television signal. the usage of broadcasting networks may incur the loss of individuality of IP. mobility service entirely based on IMS (IP Multimedia Subsystem) which is a set of specification from 3GPP for delivering IP multimedia to mobile users will be forthcoming. Through Mobile IPTV. wide area wireless networks such as cellular networks are integrated to support interactivity. users can enjoy IPTV services anywhere and even while on the move. telecommunications and computing. security. and ITU-T FG IPTV internationally. Even though this approach is classified as Mobile IPTV technically. video. Eureka 147 was originally developed for digital radio applications and extended to support video services. issues on the requirements for mobility support were raised as an out-growth under the auspices of the Fixed-Mobile Convergence (FMC) trend. ATIS has not shown any interest in mobility support yet. The outstanding activities in this approach are Digital Video Broadcast (DVB)-CBMS (Convergence of Broadcasting and Mobile Services) and WorldDAB (DAB: Digital Audio Broadcasting) Forum.Mobile Equipment Identifier 168 External links • Official TIA Resource Page for MEID (http://www. IPTV services are originally targeted to fixed terminals such as set-top boxes. DVB-CBMS already finished Phase I and currently is working in Phase II.

Its features are bearer agnostic. this approach may be dominant in the near future. There are many obstacles on the path to the successful launch and widespread use of Mobile IPTV businesses. users can access an IPTV service through various wireless access networks. considering its rapid adaptation to customer needs. is only applicable to mobile terminals up to now and showing interest in expanding its specification to cover fixed terminals in Phase II. These are outgrown for a niche entertainment business. and be short of bandwidth. OMA BCAST. there can be quite different models developing on the business type and infrastructure used. As for business perspective. content might be a major player. The wireless link will always have less bandwidth than the wired link. For the second obstacle. This mainly ascribes to portability considerations. Even when the 4G wireless network is available. customer needs for watching TV programs on the go seems not to be so high. They are usually termed as Internet TV or Web TV. due to the characteristics of the IPTV service. This resulted in a universe of highly diversified and dynamically independent production. Wireless technologies for short-range use or control purposes are not fully considered yet. stream server) and the destination (e. Capability limitation Most of the mobile terminals have limited capabilities compared to fixed terminals. or simply a consumer. mobile terminal). Internet approach There are already countless Internet video services worldwide. Mobile IPTV has at least one wireless interface with a device. which lead to small displays. light-weightiness is essential. However. bandwidth greedy applications will come out: such as Ultra High Definition quality video services. however.Mobile IPTV 169 Cellular approach Open Mobile Alliance (OMA) BCAST is working for IP based mobile broadcasting networks. a service provider. Obstacles In addition. Since Mobile IPTV assumes at least one wireless link between the source (e.g. Mobile IPTV Use Bandwidth Minimum 2-3 Mbps . Bandwidth limitation Even though the effective bandwidth of wireless links is growing rapidly. In addition. and limited storage.g. A minimum of 2–3 Mbit/s of bandwidth needs to be provided. However this Internet approach has a shortcoming that the quality of services is not guaranteed since it is based on the best effort service model. it’s not until the 4G wireless network is fully deployed that the wireless link bandwidth becomes broad enough to accommodate High Definition quality video services. most of the technical obstacles are related to the usage of the wireless link. This approach is open for anybody to play a role in the value chain: anybody can be a content provider. Capability limitations implicate very strict requirements that only a restricted set of technologies can be considered as possible Mobile IPTV solutions. With this approach. the openness gives global reach. which means any Broadcast Distribution Network can be adopted as its transport means. One group of obstacles is technical and the other business. low power processors. Its goals are to define an end-to-end framework for mobile broadcast and compile the set of necessary enablers. As long as mobile devices use the Internet.

Mobile IPTV 170 Vulnerable wireless link The wireless link is very vulnerable. . random and short watching time should be considered. there are several well known middleware solutions on a set-top box. the coverage issue can be considerably mitigated. small display sizes. Usability is another main obstacle for the success of Mobile IPTV business. middleware acts as a transparent solution for adopting IPTV services on to various and different platforms. The lack of mobile contents frustrates the early adopters of Mobile TV. Even if mobile terminals are stationary. vertical handover can change almost everything—the whole path between the sources and the sink. Contents must be tailored for mobile environments. IP address—in a blink. Due to the small form factor of mobile devices. it is not possible to adopt fancy User Interface methods. New killer features are required. Coverage implication The main reason for carrying mobile terminals is to get access to the services any time and any where. however. By deploying middleware. PHY/MAC. This requires Mobile IPTV services to be far more attractive than the consumers’ expectation. etc. This is mainly because there is limited time for enjoying visual services on the go. For example. services are restricted in some areas. However. A highly creative and new way of interfacing is required. fast/slow fading. Also. This means the liveness of TV programs become less and less important except for some events such as sports. Therefore many solutions devised for the relatively static wired computer network environment may not work properly. customers have many channels to enjoy their favourite TV programs whenever they want. Currently. Middleware concern Middleware is one of the key functions of the IPTV service. these may be able to be applied to Mobile IPTV. packets delivered through the wireless link are exposed to a variety of signal degradation such as shadowing. It is. So far. Considering the movement of mobile terminals. For example. too heavy to be implemented on a mobile device. Business issue The most significant problem of the Mobile IPTV business (this applies to Mobile TV in the same way) is that the consumer need for watching TV program on the go is not so high. Because it is practically impossible to deploy wireless networks to cover all geographical areas with no dead spots. Watching favourite TV programs live may be the most attractive feature of Mobile IPTV. The characteristics of the wireless can vary due to a variety of causes and the rate of change is very abrupt. temporal reflectors and obstacles around the mobile terminals can affect the received signal and cause burst packet losses. By slimming down the existing middleware. bandwidth. a service provider can control the usage of IPTV service remotely. by adopting vertical hand-overs (hand-overs between different networks). Dynamic environment The wireless link is highly dynamic compared to the wired link. Packet losses are intrinsic and inevitable in the wireless link.

vol.4493663) • Carlsson. 51–60.1109/ICN. Mobile IPTV Requirements for Non-NGN.0001). Mobile TV–To Live or Die by Content. pp. IEEE 40th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences.Mobile IPTV 171 References Related publications • Soohong Park and Seong-Ho Jeong.or.org/) . IEEE Communications Magazine. 1. Issue 3.1109/AICCSA. pp. Mobile IPTV Expanding the Value of IPTV. A Cross-Layer Interworking of DVBT and WLAN for Mobile IPTV Service Delivery. “IPTV over WiMAX: Key Success Factors. P. She.2008. IEEE/ACS International Conference on March 31. al. "Mobile IPTV: Approaches.Mobile IPTV Working Group (http://www. I and Ahmed. 53. P2P-based mobile IPTV: Challenges and opportunities.kr/) • Internet Protocol Television Global Standards Initiative (http://www. IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting. Seong-Ho Jeong and Cheolju Hwang. 45. 2008. 382–390. February 2008 • Djama. Cheolju Hwang and el. 23–31. 8. Challenges. 2007 • Mushtaq.int/ITU-T/gsi/iptv/) • Open IPTV Forum (http://www. Ahmed.tta. 296–301. TTA Technical Report (TTAR-08.openiptvforum. pp. (DOI 10. 2008 Page(s):975 . and L.itu. Standards and QoS Support". Computer Systems and Applications. AICCSA 2008. 87–93. The seventh International Conference on Networking. May–June 2009 • Soohong Park.8) • Soohong Park. Aug.2008.–L. Ho. Mubashar. 13.-H. Vol. No. 2007 • J. F. Toufik. IEEE Internet Computing. 2007 Related standard activities • TTA PG 219. WG 2193 . pp.980 (DOI 10. P. Vol. 2008-April 4. no. C and Walden. pp. Challenges and Solutions”. Hou. 2008. T. Xie.

other service platforms such as voicemail and SMS centre will be deployed as well as billing and Customer Relationship Management (CRM) systems. is a technology used by telecommunication companies to approximate where a mobile phone. Localization may occur either via multilateration of radio signals between (several) radio towers of the network and the phone. Advanced systems determine the sector in which the mobile phone resides and roughly estimate also the distance to the base station. stationary or moving. which includes location based service that discloses the actual coordinates of a mobile phone bearer. most notably the radio transmitter network and the core network. However the operator must also deploy essential equipment in order to offer the services. but the process does not require an active call.[2] Technology The technology of locating is based on measuring power levels and antenna patterns and uses the concept that a mobile phone always communicates wirelessly with one of the closest base stations. GSM localization is the use of multilateration to determine the location of GSM mobile phones. usually with the intent to locate the user. For example. temporarily resides. although the most common method is an auction. wireless service provider. so if you know which base station the phone communicates with. also known as mobile phone operator (or simply mobile operator or mobo ). Rural and desolate areas may see miles between base stations and therefore determine locations less precisely. it must emit at least the roaming signal to contact the next nearby antenna tower.[1] Mobile positioning. Further approximation can be done by interpolating signals between adjacent antenna towers.[3] Localization-Based Systems can be broadly divided into: • • • • Network-based Handset-based SIM-based Hybrid . a Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) network operator will require a GSM frequency range. or cellular company. you know that the phone is close to the respective base station. Such service is offered as an option of the class of location-based services (LBS). Recent allocation of 3G and WiMax licenses in Europe and India (only 3G in India) have been auctioned. One essential characteristic that defines a mobile network operator is that they must have acquired a radio spectrum license from the government before they can clear mobile phone service within a country. carrier service provider (CSP). The government allocates spectrum using whichever method it chooses. and thereby also its user (bearer). or simply via GPS. is a telephone company that provides services for mobile phone subscribers. Mobile phone tracking Mobile phone tracking refers to the attaining of the current position of a mobile phone.Mobile network operator 172 Mobile network operator A mobile network operator (MNO). The more properly applied term locating refers to the purpose rather than a positioning process. GSM is based on the signal strength to nearby antenna masts. Qualified services may achieve a precision of down to 50 meters in urban areas where mobile traffic and density of antenna towers (base stations) is sufficiently high. wireless carrier. In addition. The precise spectrum obtained does depend on the type of mobile phone technology the operator intends to deploy. To locate the phone using multilateration of radio signals.

Windows Mobile.[4] [5] The measurements that are available can include the serving Cell-ID. Often. instaMapper. The accuracy of network-based techniques is both dependent on the concentration of base station cells. BlackBerry OS. Services allowing such cellphone tracking are Mologogo. which is continuously sent to the carrier. and then having the information sent via the network to the person that is trying to locate the telephone. The key disadvantage of this technique (from mobile operator's point of view) is the necessity of installing software on the handset. Windows Phone. yet still obtain measurements via the SIM. One of the key challenges of network-based techniques is the requirement to work closely with the service provider. This avenue has not made significant headway. with urban environments achieving the highest possible accuracy. it is possible to obtain raw radio measurements from the handset. This technique determines the location of the handset by computing its location by cell identification. Hybrid Hybrid positioning systems use a combination of network-based and handset-based technologies for location determination. Buddyway and Google Latitude. a legislative framework. as it entails the installation of hardware and software within the operator's infrastructure. SIM-based Using the SIM in GSM and UMTS handsets. Handset-based Handset-based technology requires the installation of client software on the handset to determine its location. such as one based on Symbian. would be able to run such software. due to the difficulty of convincing different manufacturers to cooperate on a common mechanism and to address the cost issue.Mobile phone tracking 173 Network-based Network-based techniques utilize the service provider's network infrastructure to identify the location of the handset. Alternatively tracking with both systems can also occur by having the phone attain his GPS-location directly from the satellites. Both types of data are thus used by the telephone to make the location more accurate (ie A-GPS). would need to be in place to compel the cooperation of the service provider as well as to safeguard the privacy of the information. if the handset is also equipped with GPS then significantly more precise location information is then sent from the handset to the carrier. and newer "Forward Link" timing methods as the most accurate. which can both use GPS and network information to compute the location. One proposed work-around is the installation of embedded hardware or software on the handset by the manufacturers.g. smart phones. and the implementation of the most current timing methods. The accuracy of network-based techniques varies. The advantage of network-based techniques (from mobile operator's point of view) is that they can be implemented non-intrusively. Another difficulty would be to address the issue of foreign handsets that are roaming in the network. For example. round trip time and signal strength. e. In addition. it may not be possible to obtain any raw measurements from the handset directly.[6] [7] [8] . or Android. Typically. The type of information obtained via the SIM can differ from what is available from the handset. It requires the active cooperation of the mobile subscriber as well as software that must be able to handle the different operating systems of the handsets. without affecting the handsets. signal strengths of the home and neighboring cells. such as E911. One example would be some modes of Assisted GPS. with cell identification as the least accurate and triangulation as moderately accurate. E-OTD. iPhone.

Officially. so use of location data is limited by law. The U.Mobile phone tracking 174 Operational purpose In order to route calls to a phone the cell towers listen for a signal sent from the phone and negotiate which tower is best able to communicate with the phone. Justice Department has argued that current laws allow them to track suspects without having probable cause to suspect a law is being violated. where most countries have a constitutional guarantee on the secrecy of correspondence. since it enables someone to check where a person is without the person's consent. the antenna towers monitor the signal and the phone is roamed to an adjacent tower as appropriate. This results from the roaming procedures that perform hand over of the phone from one base station to another.[14] [12] . As the phone changes location. By comparing the relative signal strength from multiple antenna towers a general location of a phone can be roughly determined. including USA v. and the user must give an informed. Privacy Locating or positioning touches upon delicate privacy issues. In Europe.S. location data obtained from mobile phone networks is usually given the same protection as the communication itself. Pen Register government tracking of individuals. Newer phones may have built-in GPS receivers which could be used in a similar fashion. as in Germany. .[11] The Electronic Frontier Foundation is tracking some cases. Other means is the antenna pattern that supports angular determination and phase discrimination.[10] In some instances law enforcement may even access a mobile phone's internal microphone to eavesdrop on local conversations while the phone is switched off. With tolling systems.[9] Bearer interest A phone's location can be uploaded to a common web site where one's "friends and family" can view one's last reported position.[13] China has proposed using this technology to track commuting patterns of Beijing city residents. although such a use is technically possible. Newer phones may also allow the tracking of the phone even when turned on and not active in a telephone call-. Strict ethics and security measures are strongly recommended for services that employ positioning. the locating of vehicles is equally sensitive to the constitutional guarantee on the secrecy of correspondence and thus any further use of tolling information beyond deducting the road fee is prohibited. explicit consent to a service provider before the service provider can compute positioning data from the user's mobile phone. the authorities (like the police) can obtain permission to position phones in emergency cases where people (including criminals) are missing. Even obviously criminal intent may not be inferred by such means. The United States however has no explicit constitutional guarantee on the privacy of telecommunications. but with much higher accuracy. regarding Some "Free" tracking services allow the cellular telephone number being tracked to be added to telemarketers' lists.

cellreception.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/11/ 22/AR2007112201444. China [4] ETSI TS 102 223 V9. googlepages.Google maps API to locate cell towers in the United States • Cellphone Tracking Powers on Request (http://www. html). wired. Yi. Jungwon Min and Byung K. . . sparking human rights concerns" (http:/ / voices. for instance. "Kaplan's opinion said that the eavesdropping technique "functioned whether the phone was powered on or off. mologogo. "Cell-Phone Tracking: Laws Needed" (http:/ / www.com • GSM Localization on Mobile Phones (http://www. washingtonpost. BBC News.edu/~walex/papers/ are_gsm_phones_the_solution_for_localization_wmcsa2006.org/fs/fs2b-cellprivacy. December 1.1. 2006). com/ ) [9] "Roving Bug in Cell Phones Used By FBI to Eavesdrop on Syndicate" (http:/ / www.com/techtopics/mobility/apis/articles/location/) • Location API for J2ME (http://www-users. swang. nsf/ mobwire/ F41D663EAD41BC01CC2574B000133BB3) PC World. .com) • J2ME and Location-Based Services (http://developers. html). pdf). googlepages. com/ politics/ security/ news/ 2006/ 05/ 70829). [15] WhereAreYou? GPS. (http:/ / www. com/ 2100-1029_3-6140191. Shu Wang. eff.Mobile phone tracking 175 References [15] [1] "Tracking a suspect by mobile phone: Tracking SIM and handset" (http:/ / news. org/ issues/ cell-tracking [14] Cecilia Kang (March 3.toronto.htm#5) . [2] "Location Based Services for Mobiles: Technologies and Standards“ (http:/ / to. Retrieved 2010-01-02.edu/~czhou/docs/jsr179/lapi/) • openBmap: Map and tools for a free and open Cell ID database in GPL and Creative Common Licence (http:// www.opencellid. thechicagosyndicate. co. FREE Phone Tracking System. [6] InstaMapper (http:/ / www. com/ ) [7] Mologogo (http:/ / www." [12] http:/ / www.html?hpid=topnews). com/ posttech/ 2011/ 03/ china_said_it_may_begin. eff.Protecting Your Privacy in the Age of the Super-Phone • Cell Reception (http://www. stm). org/ ). Wired. Beijing. cnet. com/ ICC2008LBSforMobilessimplifiedR2. whereareyougps. swang. com/ ) [8] Buddyway (http:/ / www.openBmap. uk/ 1/ hi/ technology/ 4738219. instamapper. . pdf). ieee-icc. IEEE International Conference on Communication (ICC) 2008. 2011). Retrieved June 24. com/ 2006/ 12/ roving-bug-in-cell-phones-used-by-fbi. some Nokia models will wake up when turned off if an alarm is set. nz/ pcworld/ pcw. The Washington Post.html) • OpenCellID: An OpenSource CellID database (http://www. washingtonpost. 2010. Beijing.org (http://www. "China plans to track cellphone users. 2006. IEEE International Conference on Communication (ICC) 2008 (http:/ / www.cellspotting. 2005-08-03. org/ legal/ cases/ USA_v_PenRegister/ [13] http:/ / www. [10] Ryan Singel (May 8.umn. Cnet.0 SIM standard [5] Vodafone Local Zone (http:/ / pcworld.com/towers/) .cs. Yi.org) • CellSpotting: A Global Cell Id-Based Information Service (http://www.sun. html). co. com/ ICC2008LBSforMobilessimplifiedR2. bbc. com) External links • privacyrights. .org) . Shu Wang. buddyway." Some handsets can't be fully powered down without removing the battery.washingtonpost. [11] "FBI taps cell phone mic as eavesdropping tool" (http:/ / news. Jungwon Min and Byung K. The Chicago Syndicate.cs. China [3] "Location Based Services for Mobiles: Technologies and Standards“ (http:/ / to.privacyrights.

For mobile radios used in amateur radio. (1. There are a variety of views about what constitutes mobile equipment. An obsolete term is radiophone. circuit switched. MPT-1327. such a device is typically powered by the host vehicle's 12 volt electrical system. Mobile radios are mounted to a motor vehicle usually with the microphone and control panel in reach of the driver. and primarily communicate with telephones connected to the public switched telephone network. In time. They run on telephony-based infrastructure such as AMPS or GSM. In the US. For example. Early mobile radios used amplitude modulation (AM) to convey intelligence through the communications channel. The frequency range used by most early radio systems. 25 to 50 MHz (vhf "low band") is particularly susceptible to the problem of electrical noise. and primarily intended to communicate with other radios rather than telephones. Early police radio systems were initially one way using MF frequencies above the AM broadcast band. Enhanced Specialized Mobile Radio (ESMR) or conventional two-way systems. problems with sources of electrical noise showed that frequency modulation (FM) was superior for its ability to cope with vehicle ignition and power line noise. (aeronautical mobile). For US licensing purposes. These systems used one-way broadcasting instead of two-way conversations. Instead of hanging out of a locomotive cab and grabbing train orders while rolling past a station. (called crossband). Railroads used medium frequency range (MF) communications (similar to the AM broadcast band) to improve safety. These systems run on push-to-talk-based infrastructure such as Nextel's iDEN. Radiotelephones are full-duplex (simultaneous talk and listen). [1] A sales person or radio repair shop would understand the word mobile to mean vehicle-mounted: a transmitter-receiver (transceiver) used for radio communications from a vehicle. (sometimes called portable). A parallel to this concept is the convergence of computing and telephones. The backbone or infrastructure supporting the system defines which category or taxonomy applies.Mobile radio 176 Mobile radio This article is about professional equipment. History Early users of mobile radio equipment included transportation and government. shipboard. Disambiguation: Two-way versus telephone The distinction between radiotelephones and two-way radio is becoming blurred as the two technologies merge. The connection sets up based on the user dialing. Two-way radio is primarily a dispatch tool intended to communicate in simplex or half-duplex modes using push-to-talk. Radios linked the caboose with the locomotive cab. or railroad locomotives. Mobile radio or mobiles refer to wireless communications systems and devices which are based on radio frequencies.7 MHz). This plus the need for more channels led to the eventual expansion of two-way radio communications into the VHF "high band" (150 to 174 . on motorcycles. (maritime mobile). Certain modern two-way radio systems may have full-duplex telephone capability. equipment. The connection is taken down when the end button is pressed. Specialized Mobile Radio (SMR). mobiles may include hand-carried. see amateur radio mobile operation. and where the path of communications is movable on either end. a mobile radio installed in a locomotive would run off of 72. Some mobile radios are mounted in aircraft. voice communications with rolling trains became possible. A large ship with 117V AC power might have a base station mounted on the ship's bridge.or 30-volt DC power. Power may vary with each platform. Some early systems talked back to dispatch on a 30-50 MHz link.

Manufacturers of mobile radios built customized equipment for large radio fleets such as the California Department of Forestry and the California Highway Patrol. These circuits. a generator or alternator upgrade was needed to support the current required for a tube-type mobile radio. Equipment had to be "type accepted". with more efficient circuitry and smaller size. or technically approved. then solid-state power supplies to provide high voltage for the vacuum tubes. tube-type transmitter power amplifiers had been replaced with high-power transistors. The power supplies needed to power vacuum tube radios resulted in a common trait of tube-type mobile radios: their heavy weight due to the iron-core transformers in the power supplies. Early tube-type radios used dynamotors .essentially a six or twelve volt motor that turned a generator to provide the high voltages required by the vacuum tubes. taxing vehicle electrical systems. and the filaments of the vacuum tubes added to current demands. This was partly dictated by Federal Communications Commission (FCC) regulations. These high voltage power supplies were inefficient. scanning. usually green or yellow. Persons without a key to the vehicle could not transmit. named for its "universal" 6 or 12 Volt power supply General Electric Progress Line (Early models without "T-Power" power supply) Kaar Engineering Model 501 177 Equipment from different US manufacturers had similar traits. These traits continue in the design of modern radios. the California Department of Forestry requirement for 6-frequency rapidly growing national group of transmit. changed the 6V or 12V direct current (DC) to alternating current (AC) which could be passed through a transformer to make high voltage. and a 5-tone burst encoder was unusual. Early tube-type radios operated on 50 kHz channel spacing with plus-or-minus fifteen kilohertz modulation deviation. by the FCC before it could be offered for sale. power supply technology evolved to use first electromechanical vibrators. The requirement that unauthorized persons be prohibited from using the radio transmitter meant that many radios were wired so they could not transmit unless the vehicle ignition was on. called "inverters". In order to be type accepted. Examples of US 1950s-1960s tube-type mobile radios with no transistors: • • • • Motorola FMTRU-140D (dynamotor powered) Motorola Twin-V. leading two-way radio users. The power supply then rectified this high voltage to make the high voltage DC required for the vacuum tubes. Radios were also required to have a lamp (usually red) indicating when the transmitter was on. From the 1960s to the 1980s. dictated by the bandwidth of the signal on each channel. One of the major challenges in early mobile radio technology was that of converting the six or twelve volt power supply of the vehicle to the high voltage needed to operate the vacuum tubes in the radio. Solid state equipment arrived in the 1960s. As time went on. The UHF band has since been expanded again. the radio set had to be equipped with an indicator light. Channel spacing narrowed to 20-30 kHz with modulation deviation dropping to plus-or-minus five kilohertz. Sometimes. 3-frequency receive. By the mid to this custom-built mobile radio. 1970s. Systems with multiple-CTCSS tone encoders and more than two channels were unusual. . Some early mobile radios were the size of a suitcase or had separate boxes for the transmitter and receiver. This was done to allow more radio spectrum availability to accommodate the In the early 1970s. that showed power was applied and the radio was ready to transmit. (called valves in British English).Mobile radio MHz) and UHF (450 to 470 MHz). large system users with specialized requirements often had custom built radios designed for their unique systems. This meant that the number of radio channels that could be accommodated in the available radio frequency spectrum were limited to a certain number.

Some mobile radios have alphanumeric displays that translate channel numbers (F1. more economical vehicles. out-of-phase. Menus of options may be several levels deep and offer a complicated array of possibilities.Mobile radio Examples of US hybrid partially solid state mobile radios: • • • • • Motorola Motrac Motorola MJ IMTS Car Telephone (1963) General Electric Transistorized Progress Line General Electric MASTR Professional and MASTR Executive RCA Super Carfone 178 Today Custom design for a particular customer is a thing of the past. Large fleet users may buy radios directly from an equipment manufacturer and may even employ their own technical staff for installation and maintenance. Ideally. today's radios are trending toward radically smaller sizes than their tube-type ancestors.5 kilohertz. Most fire engines and radios in heavy equipment use noise-canceling headsets. These protect the occupant's hearing and reduce background noise in the transmitted audio. etc. For example. Some models may have an external. This is applied. Shock mounting systems are used to reduce the radio's exposure to vibration imparted by the motorcycle's modal. electronic engine management system. Noise-canceling microphones require the operator speak directly into the front of the microphone.5-15 kHz with modulation deviation dropping to plus-or-minus 2. Modern mobile radio equipment is "feature rich". Mobile radios installed on motorcycles are subject to extreme vibration and weather. be microprocessor controlled and have built-in options such as unit ID. such as "Providence Base". The installer would have to locate this equipment in a way that does not interfere with the vehicle's sun roof. to the back of the microphone. A mobile radio may have 100 or more channels. A computer and software is typically required to program the features and channels of the mobile radio. Hole arrays in the back of the microphone pick up ambient noise. separate speaker which can be positioned and oriented facing the driver to overcome ambient road noise present when driving. Some mobile radios use noise-canceling microphones or headsets. Professional equipment designed for use on motorcycles is weather and vibration resistant. or air bags. or resonant. vehicle stability computer. A modern mobile radio consists of a radio transceiver. Examples of US microprocessor-controlled mobile radios: • Motorola Astro Digital Spectra W9 • Kenwood TK-690 As use of mobile radio equipment has virtually exploded. In order to fit into smaller. . Details Commercial and professional mobile radios are often purchased from an equipment supplier or dealer whose staff will install the equipment into the user's vehicles. housed in a single box. the ambient road and wind noise can make radio communications difficult to understand. effectively reducing or canceling any sound which is present both in front and back of the microphone. "Boston Base". Radios are now designed with a myriad of features to preclude the need for custom design. Each installation would also have a vehicle-mounted antenna connected to the transceiver by a coaxial cable. and a microphone with a push-to-talk button. shaking. At speeds over 100 MPH. channel spacing has had to be narrowed again to 12. California Highway Patrol mobile radios have noise-canceling microphones which reduce road and siren noise heard by the dispatcher. F2) to a phrase more meaningful to the user. only the voice present on the front side of the microphone goes out on the air.

Large fleets usually test a few vehicles before making a commitment to a certain antenna location or type. a driver may be upset when a dispatcher assigns a call (s)he wanted to another driver and may deliberately hold the transmit button down (for which the owner can be fined by the FCC). usually 30. (Read the OSHA guidelines before attempting to install an antenna. An operator tossed the mike into the glove box and shut it. with stiff suspensions. a rearview mirror. A transit bus may have a ruggedized antenna. A bane of push-to-talk systems is the stuck microphone: a radio locked on transmit which disrupts communications on a two-way radio system. Aircraft antennas look like blades or fins.Mobile radio Many radios are equipped with transmitter time-out timers which limit the length of a transmission. or may be installed inside windows. 179 Antenna A mobile radio must have an associated antenna. after which the transmitter automatically turns off and a loud tone comes out of the radio speaker. or rough diesel engine idle vibrations may damage antennas quickly. Physics defines the antenna length: length relates to frequency and cannot be arbitrarily lengthened or shortened (more likely) by the end user. . the tone stops and the timer resets. Some vehicles with concealed radio installations have antennas designed to look like the original AM/FM antenna. tall heights. All specifications should be reviewed by radio system engineers to ensure that appropriate equipment is used to meet the end user's needs. A 900 MHz antenna may be three inches long for a quarter wavelength. causing the push-to-talk button to be depressed and locking the transmitter on. on its roof. Microwave antennas may look like flat panels on the aircraft's skin. Radios with time-out timers transmit for the preset amount of time. Mobile radio equipment is manufactured to specifications developed by the Electronics Industries Association/Telecommunications Industries Association (EIA/TIA). but also to prevent the sale and distribution of inferior equipment which could degrade communications. One example of this problem occurred in a car with a concealed two-way radio installation where the microphone and coiled cord were hidden inside the glove box. Though initially relatively inexpensive mobile radio system components. Some types of vehicles in 24-hour use. which looks like a white plastic blade or fin.) This rule of thumb is intended to result in passengers being exposed to safe levels of radio frequency energy in the event the radio transmits. On taxi systems.or 60-seconds. As soon as the push-to-talk button is released. The standard "quarter wave" antenna in the 25-50 MHz range can be over nine feet long. US Occupational Safety and Health Administration guidelines for non-ionizing radio energy generally say the radio antenna must be two feet from any vehicle occupants. the size and shape being determined by frequencies used. These specifications have been developed to help ensure that mobile radio equipment not only performs as expected by the user. The most common antennas are stainless steel wire or rod whips which protrude vertically from the vehicle. The location and type of antenna can affect system performance drastically. frequently damaged antennas can be costly to replace since they are usually not included in maintenance contracts for mobile radio fleets. Temporary installations may have antennas which clip on to vehicle parts or are attached to steel body parts by a strong magnet. or hidden on the floor pan or underside of a vehicle. The volume level of the tone on some radios is loud and cannot be adjusted.

this means data and voice communication can take place simultaneously over a separate radio. 2) connects an amplified speaker. such as tow cars or ambulances. take place over the separate radio. Each radio user is issued a walkie talkie. [4] The weak point of these systems has been connector technology which has been proven unreliable in some installations. 3) connects a mobile microphone. These installations are sometimes referred to as jerk-and-run systems. The charger or converter 1) connects the walkie talkie to the vehicle's two-way radio antenna. and 4) charges the walkie talkie's battery. If a tow car company had a frequency on the same band as its auto club. Ambulances may have a similar arrangement with one radio for government emergency medical services dispatch and one for company dispatch. microphones US ambulances often have radios with dual controls and dual microphones allowing the radio to be used from the patient care area in the rear or from the vehicle's cab. Since a mobile radio typically works on a single frequency band. In the same way that a facsimile machine has a separate phone line. The walkie talkie inserted into a vehicular charger or converter while the user is in the vehicle. multiple radios may be required in cases where communications take place over systems on [3] more than one frequency band. Multiple controls.[2] Data radio Both tow cars and ambulances may have an additional radio which transmits and receives to support a mobile data terminal. allowed voice communication to the dispatch center. A data terminal A mobile radio in a US ambulance often has two sets of controls: one in the patient area radio allows data communications to and another near the driver. Walkie talkie converters in place of mobile radios Intended as a cost savings. a single radio with scanning might be employed for both systems. Receiver performance is a problem in congested radio signal and urban areas. Each radio works over a single band of frequencies. may have several radios in each vehicle. . tow cars may have one radio for towing company communications and a second for emergency road service communications. when acknowledged. Early Federal Express (FedEx) radio systems used a single radio for data and voice. some systems employ vehicular chargers instead of a mobile radio. For example. The radio had a request-to-speak button which. Each vehicle is equipped with a charger system console.Mobile radio 180 Multiple radio sets Dispatch-reliant services.

45-49. Macro Corporation and The State of Arizona." Planning Emergency Medical Communications: Volume 2. 1995) pp.5 billion by 2011 (from Informa Telecoms & Media) to over $11 billion by 2008 (according to Piper Jaffray). The Oxford English Dictionary conflicts with some uses. mobile search is not just a spatial shift of PC web search to mobile equipment.[2] Mobile Search is important for the usability of mobile content for the same reasons as internet search engines became important to the usability of internet content. Gómez-Barroso.[1] Depending on a researcher's particular bias toward telecom. Simply put. State of California Radio Communications System. The 11th edition of Newton's Telecom Dictionary says radiophone is an. and also present an in-depth study of user patterns. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. DC: Department of Transportation." Planning Emergency Medical Communications: Volume 2. One example is the title on a Special Products service manual Model T31BAT-3100B-SP3 'Dispatcher' Radiophone 25-54 MC 12 W RF Power 12VDC.Mobile radio 181 Notes [1] Cited in many references including on escutcheons and silk-screened face plates on 1960s Motorola products including early HT-200 and Dispatcher-series mobiles. 1995) pp. One historic example is the NLN-4470A for MT-500 series radios.[3] There is a similar situation developing in the mobile content industry. DC: Department of Transportation. Later HT-200s dropped the term. according to a leading market research firm. Web or technology factors.this being the expected time users expect to find content in. Regional-level Planning Guide. given the limitations of a mobile phones screen size and general navigability." [2] "Evaluating Regional Alternatives. There are now few large organizations that do not offer a mobile service of some sort. As a result Internet web search engines such as Google and AltaVista proved popular as a way of allowing users to find the increasingly specialist content they were looking for. 15. Market description "Competition for the US mobile search market promises to be fierce. As the depth of available content grew. they also emphasize that future developments of mobile search must be sensitive to the mobile logic. 1965). As this happens mobile content shows a media shift toward mobile multimedia. Mobile search Mobile search is an evolving branch of information retrieval services that is centered around the convergence of mobile platforms and mobile phones and other mobile devices. By 2011. Web search engine ability in a mobile form allows users to find mobile content on websites which are available to mobile devices on mobile networks. Given early adopter usage of mobile services. saying radiophone is interchangeable with radiotelephone. They conclude that mobile search has started to change mobile media consumption patters radically.7 billion". most of available content that has been written for mobile users is effectively invisible to users. thanks to the large US online ad market and strong pushes by portals. (Chicago: Motorola Communications Division. Some Converta-Com systems allow the attachment of signaling devices or external devices not usually compatible with walkie talkies. there has been a vast increase in the depth of content developed for mobile phones. and Feijóo(2011) outline a through review of research on mobile search usage. Motorola has trademarked the name Converta-Com for a system which accomplishes all three of these tasks. Compañó. mobile search will account for around $715 million. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. 45-49. 2004. However. Most of the operators run their own portals that showcase the best available content. Early internet content was largely provided by portals such as Netscape. Research from Qpass suggests that less than 36% of an operator's portal is within 30 seconds navigation distance for the user . (Washington. (Washington. [3] Paragraph 2. or almost 15% of a total mobile advertising market worth nearly $4. "obsolete term. Westlund. pp. [4] For example. portals were unable to provide total coverage. but is witnessing more of treelike branching into specialized segments of mobile broadband and mobile content. Regional-level Planning Guide. both of which show a fast-paced evolution. and "Evaluating Regional Alternatives. In a international journal article. . Arizona Phase II Final Report: Statewide Radio Interoperability Needs Assessment.'Exploring the logic of mobile search'. the published forecasts for global mobile search vary from $1.4(e). It was also seen on some Kaar Engineering mobile products.

Yahoo has launched a product branded as Yahoo [OneSearch][6] and Google has launched a mobile friendly version of their search engine as well. Most mobile 'Q&A' services are powered by human researchers and are therefore a type of organic search engine. Mobile Search: Clash of the Titans. These parameters are evolving. current. MLS can occupy several application categories/directories simultaneously. weather and sports." says John du Pre Gauntt.[4] Thus. "Whoever cracks the consumer and commercial code for delivering and monetizing relevant answers for people on the go will secure a license to print money. and actions that are relevant to the searcher’s past. financial media analysts. "What they're trying to do is take that core search capability and just jam it onto the phone. "That's probably not the right approach. For example. says the Internet search giants aren't yet delivering the kind of results the mobile content industry wants. where every question is answered via text message. they are more likely to use cell phones to find targeted information like news. individuals. there are a range of services. Given the relative immaturity of the market. Cell phones also offer much less space to enter in search terms and smaller screens to display results. These parameters provide structure to vertically deep and horizontally broad data categories that can stand-alone or are combined to comprise searchable directories.[5] The early deals are taking place as cell phone operators recognize that mobile Internet search is an inherently different business than its desktop counterpart. and future location. Mobile optimized search engines — Most major search engines have implemented a mobile optimized version of their products that take into consideration bandwidth and form factor limitations of the mobile platform. on the couch where mobiles are being used to surf for information in between watching TV and engaging in other mobile communication such as sms or using social networks. A usage example would be a user that wants to know the answer to a very specific question but is not in front of his/her computer. at least for a time. Alltel's group president of operations. on the move/commuting where there the context of local and immediate is inherent in the searcher's need and 2." 182 Types of mobile search Within the broad umbrella of mobile search (the ability to browse for mobile specific content). Searcher behaviour on mobiles is markedly different than on desktop machines. don't apply in the mobile world since people aren't searching for Web sites as much as answers to specific questions. Some of the advances by the major portals in Internet search. places. analytic engines." Mr. eMarketer Senior Analyst and the author of the new report. and media planners and buyers needing to evaluate one category with another or one directory with another. The lack of clean comparative analysis based upon application occupancy of an individual category creates a challenge for marketers looking to maximize the value of applications to the supply chain including brand marketers looking to embed advertising within an application. Mobile question and answer services — These services allow a user to text a question to a central database and receive a reply using text. neighborhoods. Mobile Local Search is 30% of all digital searches with a surge in growth expected world-wide in 2010." "Mobile search is a battle to define perhaps the most important new interface with the consumer. Whereas people might use a Web-connected personal computer to search for information about an 18th-century British author. Today they include social networks. What is Mobile Local Search (MLS)? Are all searches local? What are the component technologies of a powerful MLS application? How can advertisers purchase inventory ad units available within the application structure? Mobile Local Search is the search and discovery of persons. This is a double-edge sword for product designers and developers. An example of such a service in the US is Question Mania [7]. Kevin Beebe. by a real person.Mobile search Beyond navigation is location-aware technology for mobile search. not all of these can be expected to become the industry standards. and things within an identifiable space defined by distinct parameters. Searches can be seen to fall into two categories 1. Beebe said. landmarks. such as Google's famous page-ranking scheme. cities. The algorithms for mobile search engine results are thought to be evoloving and aspects such as location and predicitive searching will become increasingly important. A new approach by AskMeNow and MobileBits is to .

They operate. typically in minutes. or page-scrolling. Mobile directory search — This service is known by different names dependent on country and operator. The information contains a text reminder of the requested information as well as links to local businesses. It can also be known as 'Find My Nearest' or 'Mobile Yellow Pages' services. .. Orange sends the information in text format to the users mobile phone.Mobile search use Semantic Web technology to automate the process. result review. search.com. in a mobile context. questions may range from settling pub quizzes to standard directory enquiries. An example is the service offered by Yell in the UK which is powered by MobilePeople's technology. It was the first company to provide such a service using only a premium short code and not a mix of shortcode and keyword. 183 Main providers Name & Mobile URL 199QUERY SMS# 19978379AUS 272NZ AU C. Description Founded by Seb Maslin. An example of usage would be a user looking for a local cab or taxi company after a night out. Widget app for Android-based smartphones allowing one-button [10] access to any of 260 search engines. reverse billed SMS messages by using VoIP to connect the Caller directly to the Human search agent. Callers to the Orange landline DQ service are given the business and residential numbers they have requested verbally by an operator. 199QUERY is the premier Australian and New Zealand Text service that answers any question sent to it by SMS using a mix of human experts and intelligent organic search engine. services and other interesting information in the local area that the user has searched on. In addition. without the need for text entry. They index the content already on the operators' portal but also provide users access to mobile specific content that is available outside the confines of the portal. Free service where real people research questions and deliver [12] answers. An example of such search tools is the Worldport Navigator [8] for the iPhone.com askdroid. which provides users with a push-button experience of selecting from thousands of human-screened and categorized Web selections in three or four seconds.. Mobile discovery services These services offer users recommendations on what they should do next. An example of real usage is the Directory Enquiries (DQ) service operated by Orange in the UK.mobi US answerly. Launch April [9] 2006 4info 44636 4Info. The basics of the services allow users to find local services in the vicinity of their current location.sadko. Uses real humans to answer any questions sent to the shortcode 66666.com UK IE Founded by ex-Symbian and Psion CEO Colly Myers. Services also usually come with a map and directions to help the user. An example would be recommending a user a similar ringtone to the one that s/he has just browsed for. AQA uses human researchers to provide answers to any free form search queries or customer questions.com US . More details can be found in mobile local search. Mobile navigation services — These services provide the indexing structure to the portals provided by mobile operators. Unique in that SMS messages are then broadcast on TV. The services often use location-based technology to pinpoint exactly where the user currently is. no keyword needed. in a similar way to the recommendation engines provided by internet retail shops such as Amazon. October 2010 October [13] 2008 2004 Any Question Answered 63336UK 57275IE Ask Any Question 66666UK UK AskDroid Desktop Search Widget [11] Answerly. Dynamic Mobile Selection Interface Services — A new category of mobile search tool that is emerging is one in which a pre-selected set of possible search content is downloaded in advance by a mobile user and then allows for a final internet search step. Some emerging services such as MyHelpa in the UK address the perceived limitations of one-shot.

from any phone. China Mobile. WAP and on-phone applet. Offers Google SMS which allows users to obtain information by texting in structured syntax to an SMS shortcode.com 1066958866(Chinese) 106695882929(English) China mInfo is a mobile search provider based in China. DOTGO is an extension of the internet to cell phone text messaging. May 2009 Interchan www. and search by voice.com. the service is made available to multiple customers under each customer's own brand. ? 2006-11 mInfo wap. and KDDI Corp. innovative because it enables Internet users (only with a US work permit) to earn money by finding answers.com Google m. They offer 2005-11 services on SMS. AskMeNow has a carrier deals with Rogers Wireless and Bell Mobility in Canada and Alltel Wireless in the United States. Infospace also provides local search services and offers many of these serivces to mobile carriers. Limited to the categorical information they offer.minfo. . Has an exclusive deal with China Telecom to power its Omni-search platform. Google has carrier deals with Britain's Vodafone. or mobile applications. 2004.tw [21] Jumptap Microsoft Live Search for Mobile (also Bing [22] Mobile ) 55155 Taiwan ? 1 800 CALL 411 (dial-in. by calling a toll-free number. An SMS and voice natural language-based question answering service by ChaCha (search engine).com 27563 (ASKME) 184 US CA Gives users the option of searching for information using an SMS short code.com [16] DOTCOM (368266) DOTEDU (368338) DOTGOV (368468) DOTNET (368638) DOTORG (368674) US 2008 Fabasoft Mindbreeze [17] mindbreeze. in Japan but not specifically for the SMS product.0 site m. not an SMS#) ? US? JumpTap offers white-label mobile search.55155. such as T-Mobile as the 'T-Mobile Cheat Service'. Yahoo. in association with GamePlayer magazine. Totally free mobile search which also enables free connect function. 2005 ChaCha [15] www. Designed for all mobile devices. appeared in the [19] magazine in May.com. Launched by AlienPants initially as a generalised service but later deliberately limited to computer game cheats.google. a technology by which they search the ? search engines and allow users the ability to search Google. download client applications specifically designed for Windows Mobile and BlackBerry devices (download [24] ). allows users on any carrier network to ask any question on any subject and the answer is provided by a human "guide". Ask and Microsoft at the same time.com [18] 466453 AT Mindbreeze takes care of mobile information access to all 2005 enterprise ressources including content conversion to fit all kinds of mobile devices. in a white labeled approach.Mobile search AskMeNow [14] askmenow. or as GuruGold in support of the on-screen 'Games Guru' on Sky One's primetime computer games program 'Gamezville'.com Text 242 242 or voice 800-2ChaCha US 2008-01-03 DOTGO dotgo.askmenow. ? US GTIP and other co-branded customer implementations 61199 81444DE WAPUK/DE 82149IE(closed) 83246UK(closed) 83149UK(closed) UK UK IE DE January [20] 2003 Infospace ? ? Provider of meta-search. a WAP 2. Available on all three mobile carriers. Users have the option of searching from their mobile browsers [23] (homepage ). Uses natural language search that allows users to ask a question and receive an answer. first in-print co-branded service.chacha.

mshd. The company builds mobile presence. Designed for Windows Mobile and Nokia devices. which include restaurant guides. also offers refined searches for images.. Eniro (DK). built from the bottom up for mobile uses. distribution and advertising utilising its award winning liquid Mobile Platform. Mobile specific. Inc. It's similar to ChaCha except the answers are provided by the community as opposed to paid searchers. image.Mobile search mshd. Sarah McVittie. Yahoo! has a search deal with British carrier Hutchison 3G UK Ltd. Golden Pages (IE). music. Schibsted (NO). [31] 92466US (YAHOO) [8] www. videos. a unique mix of data access engine and mobile search abilities. It's differentiated from Google's and Yahoo's mobile search in that it only returns mobile results whereas the others may return links to non-mobile websites which may not render properly on a mobile phone. Denver (US) and Melbourne (AUS).com China Roboo is a mobile search provider based in China. and price comparison shopping tools. Yellow Pages Group (NZ) and Local Matters (USA). Nokia.com [28] ? ? US UK Texperts (formerly Re5ult and 82ASK) 66000 UK 2003-06 or 08? 2008 Towza m.worldport. Users upload an image from their mobile phones and search for relevant resources. A mobile local search that is offered via mobile applications. according to the developer's most recent 2009 test results. Schibsted (SE). its graphical user interface (GUI) includes an unusual hexagonal ring structure to enable faster selection of options than with conventional mobile search systems. com (WAP) http:/ / www. Yahoo.com [29] US & Intl Aggregates results from multiple search engines. January 2008 2008 Picollator http:/ / [27] picollator. mobilePeople is headquartered in Copenhagen (DK) and has regional offices in London (UK).towza.net Question Answering Serive [25] www. EDC (DK). Google. including ring. SMS-based service that uses a mix of human experts and sophisticated algorithms to provide bespoke answers to any customer query. Worldport Navigator users can access data up to 50 times faster than with other search engines. ? . mobi Taptu taptu.net Roboo 413-648-7141 347-mshdnet US Free Question answering service 2010 185 http:/ / roboo. also has a directory listing of the mobile specific versions of popular websites.net Worldport Navigator 2009 Yahoo! oneSearch [30] UK US . Yell (UK). Mosio is a mobile community based "question & answer" / search service. Promedia (BE). Eniro (NO). They focus on entertainment resources. Gouden Gids (NL).com [26] US 2008 MobilePeople A/S Leading provider of Local search and advertising solution for mobiles ? DK mobilePeople is a private independent global leader in local mobile 2002-01 search and advertising solutions for directory publishers and directory assistance providers. theme. LG and Samsung.. It caters for any handset including iPhone. SonyEricsson. roboo.mosio. com sms to ask@mosio. founded by Thomas Roberts. Mosio won the best mobile app award at SXSW in 2008. By providing a mix of extensive cached pre-selected common data search options (so that direct access to the internet is only needed for the final search option selected) plus a more intuitive GUI. It is currently available for the iPhone. HTC. Páginas Amarelas (PT). video etc. Sensis (AUS). Blackberry. music. Global customers include. Motorola. 2006-11 Mosio m. US & Intl Developed by Incandescent.. Wikipedia.

Behaviour & Information Technology' 'http://www. com/ p/ search [7] http:/ / www.com (http:/ / www. Ramón and Feijóo. com/ news/ prevreleases/ 06-01-03-smscheats. com [19] http:/ / www. mobi/ [28] http:/ / taptu. worldport. and Search Application Developers (http:/ / www. live. emarketer.html) • Mobile Search in the US (http://www. net [26] http:/ / m. Search and navigate results specifically designed for mobile cellular phones. queryable.com (http:/ / www.com review on KillerStartups. com/ onesearch) [32] http:/ / www. com/ Article. Advertisers. m. tw/ [22] http:/ / m.com/ Mobile Phone Search Engine US & Intl Frompo. [10] https:/ / market. com/ press-releases/ mobile-local-search-saturates-profit-over-lbs-vendors-advertisers-and-search-applicat) [6] http:/ / us.com/smpp/ content~db=all~content=a927256739~frm=abslink • Prospects of mobile search. killerstartups. com/ Article.php?article_id=128&page=13& action=article&) . Claudio (2011) 'Exploring the logic of mobile search'..37634. and Search Application Developers (http:/ / www. 2006-04-01. com [15] http:/ / www. Ltd. Compano & Feijo. yahoo. android.com/Article. emarketer. com/ External links • Forrester research on Western European Mobile internet usage (http://www. com/ User-Gen-Content/ answerly-com-all-you-have-to-do-is-ask) [13] (http:/ / www. net [9] "Question Answer SMS Service Launched in Australia" (http:/ / 199query. alienpants. aspx?id=1005170& src=article1_newsltr) eMarketer . mosio. 2010 186 References [1] [2] [3] [4] eMarketer . com/ ) [12] Answerly. Get answers with search designed for mobile (http:/ / mobile. com/ news. com/ [18] http:/ / m.forrester.informaworld. com [30] http:/ / mobile. Advertisers. yahoo. live. bing. com [29] http:/ / m.emarketer. com [8] http:/ / www. frompo.7211. mshd.The Search Wars Are Going Mobile (http:/ / www. José-Luis . com [24] http:/ / wls.eu/index. alienpants.com provides a comprehensive search engine for Iphones. com [16] http:/ / dotgo. com/ [27] http:/ / picollator. fiercewireless. aspx?id=1005083) (Westlund. Blackberrys and cellular phones.aspx?id=1005170&src=article1_newsltr) • Mobile Local Search 2010 (http://mobilelocation. answerly. com/ [17] http:/ / mindbreeze. (http:/ / www. com/ ) [14] http:/ / askmenow. php [21] http:/ / www. Compañó. com/ details?id=com. php [20] http:/ / www. Mobile Local Search Saturates Profit over LBS Vendors. towza. com/ news/ prevreleases/ 21-05-04-gameplayer. fiercewireless. com.com/Research/ Document/Excerpt/0. Retrieved 2008-02-10. google. Gomez-Barroso.answerly. questionmania. askdroid [11] www. com/ [31] Yahoo! oneSearch. 199QUERY Pty. 55155.Mobile Search in the US.heroku. Oscar . yahoo. php?release=1).frompo.Mobile search [32] www. 2010 (http://avmediasearch. . com [25] http:/ / www. Gómez-Barroso.00. com [23] http:/ / m.com/reports/ 1-mobile_local_search_2010_locationbased_search_market) • Westlund. com/ press-releases/ mobile-local-search-saturates-profit-over-lbs-vendors-advertisers-and-search-applicat) [5] Mobile Local Search Saturates Profit over LBS Vendors. chacha. sadko. 2011).

Non-profit mobile technology Thus mobile technology can be used. relationships and sex and HIV/AIDS. education. One of the mobile technologies developed by Praekelt Foundation is a mobile community called YoungAfricaLive (YAL). Their programmes have currently reached 50 million people across 15 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. and mobile telemedicine (49%).[2] Only 10% of Africans have access to the internet. but to provide information and create social change for low income groups. where mobile technology often represents the first modern infrastructure of any kind. and their penetration is expanding rapidly. community mobilization and health promotion. The ultimate aim of non-profit mobile technology is to make it free. FrontlineSMS. Internationally. RapidSMS.[1] Nowhere is the effect more dramatic than in Africa. or as near to free for the end user.[4] This means that mobile technology is the largest platform in Africa. the lowest percentage in the world. emergency toll-free telephone services (55%). mobi-sites and mobile communities. Users do not need to have airtime or data bundles on their phones to use it. people who are very poor have very basic phones. health surveys.[3] However. However. Promote health mHealth is using mobile technology to provide groups with health information. health call centres. mHealth initiatives were health call centres (59%).[6] In June 2011 the first African mobile health summit was held in Cape Town. and can access a wide range of income groups.” says Marcha Neethling. Thus non-profit mobile technology is not aimed at advanced smart phones.[7] Fight HIV/Aids The Praekelt Foundation is a South African example of a non profit organisation that is using mobile technology to create social change.[9] . the majority of mHealth activities were limited in size and scope. emergency toll-free telephone services. companies such as TextToChange. At the summit the World Health Organization (WHO) released a report stating that eighty-three per cent of governments surveyed had at least one mHealth project in their country. finances or to access specific groups such as the youth. However. In South Africa. information initiatives and patient monitoring among others. 50% of Africans have mobile phones. who then joined with other partners in forging the mHealth Alliance.[8] The founders saw that the technology they were creating for corporate clients could be useful for NGOs to provide information to their target markets. It was pioneered in part by the UN Foundation and Vodafone Foundation through partnerships with WHO and the social enterprise DataDyne. For example mobile technology is used to provide information on health. disaster relief and aid management. The aim of the mobile community was to create a space that would be interactive and fun where young people could talk candidly and learn about love. This means enlisting donors and getting mobile networks on board. Ushahidi all work with mobiles in health. head of operations at Praekelt Foundation. not only to generate profit from high income groups. companies like Cell-Life and GeoMed and HealthSMS use mobile technology for health. “Full profit want to reach people for different reasons. managing emergencies and disasters (54%).[5] mHealth activities come in the form of appointment reminders. but people should not be charged for having access to life saving information. but ranges from sending out bulk SMSs to USSD.Mobile technology in Africa 187 Mobile technology in Africa Mobile technology in Africa is a fastest growing market.

budde. Experts come on to the chat rooms to discuss sexual topics and allow users to ask personal questions anonymously. mhealthalliance. Vodacom’s mobile platform. org/ news/ mobile-health-activity-spreads-over-4-5-countries-remains-limited-small-scale-and-single-issue[7] http:/ / www. html [6] http:/ / www. watch videos that link to stories and can engage in anonymous chat rooms. businessweek. For example well known South African sexologist Dr Eve hosts live chats once a week. org/ our-solutions/ mobile-technology/ tech4dev/ index. making them proud of their status and encouraging them to be responsible around sex. The project is based in the Phomolong area of Tembisa. was receiving 3. com/ stats1. interview members of the community and create video clips.Mobile technology in Africa The mobile community is unique to the Vodacom network.[10] As (young) people were already using mobile technology to surf the net and download songs etc it seemed the perfect place to engage with this target group. as well as update the community on current events.. . html [5] http:/ / www.2 million unique users monthly. These are used by the young patrollers in the community to keep in touch and to report all crime incidents. org/ global-issues/ technology/ mobile-health-for-development. At the end of 2010. org/ [9] http:/ / www. praekeltfoundation. htm https:/ / www. which is a massive investment. Vodafone Live. com/ magazine/ content/ 07_39/ b4051054. References [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / aiti. The ongoing challenge with free mobile communities and technology is continuing to engage the service provider to allow the community to be entirely free. org/ [10] http:/ / www. “With YoungAfricaLive South Africa. edu/ http:/ / www. which is notorious for high levels of criminal activity. co. habarimedia. za/ mobile/ vodafone-live [11] South African sexologist Dr Eve [12] http:/ / www. com/ news_article. they participate in polls. The community is aimed at users between 16 and 24 and users receive daily news and celeb stories. vodacom. Vodacom is sponsoring the bandwidth. Johannesburg and donated a computer and seven mobile phones to the Club. internetworldstats. All with a social call to action at the end. Users have commented saying YoungAfricaLive creates a platform for them to express their ideas. php?articleID=958& pid=press_releases . (thus) sustainability is always a question. unfoundation. praekeltfoundation. html [8] http:/ / www. com.”[11] 188 Community crime fighting In 2011 Vodacom pioneered a project in South Africa to fight crime using mobile phones.[12] They partnered with The Khulisa's Youth out of School Ubuntu Club in Tembisa. unfoundation. Users have engaged with the community and many of the updated features of the community have come directly from user suggestions. The South African Police Service also runs a national crime line which they encourage citizens to SMS in and report crimes in their communities. au/ Research/ 2010-Global-Mobile-Communications-Key-Trends-and-Growth-in-a-Challenging-Environment. mit. htm http:/ / www. These will be uploaded to their Facebook page and website all in an effort to report on criminal activity in the community. Each mobile phone donated has internet capabilities and the members of the Club will be allocated a mobile phone that they will use to capture events.

can be switched automatically to a channel in the next cell. The systems in the MTSO are the heart of a cellular system. authentication. The region to be served by a Cellular Geographic Serving Area(CGSA) is split into geographic cells. there has to be a method of connectivity between the MTSO and the cell site. It also contains the equipment for controlling the cell sites that are connected to the MSC.Mobile Telephone Switching Office 189 Mobile Telephone Switching Office The Mobile Telephone Switching Office (MTSO) is the mobile equivalent to a PSTN Central Office. compiling billing information (with the help of its CBM/SDM). When the MSC gets the call.Area server by cluster of BTS/cell sites) CID (Cell ID) as well as a list of allowed and disallowed services/features and other information. It is responsible for interconnecting calls with the local and long distance landline telephone companies. and once the phone and the tower switch on those frequencies. A subscriber's VLR profile has a LAC(Location Area Code . If the subscriber is unknown to the MSCs VLR. it checks its database for the location of the phone. Subscriber Registration The MSC also plays a major role in call routing. recording billing data and processing data from the cell site controllers. The MTSO contains the switching equipment or Mobile Switching Center (MSC) for routing mobile phone calls. DS3. it listens for the network operator's SID (System Identification Code) on the control channel. The MSC is responsible for switching calls to mobile units as well as to the local telephone system. If the subscriber has previously registered to a particular MSC then the MSC will have a record in its VLR and will therefore know the subscriber last registered location. The MSC is connected to a close telephone exchange by a trunk group. etc. This provides an interface to the (Public Switched Telephone Network) (PSTN). When a mobile phone is turned on. Other MTSO equipment. Its subordinate BSC/RNC are responsible for assigning frequencies to each call. the call is connected. To achieve this. All cellular systems have at least one MTSO which will contain at least one MSC. OCn or Ethernet circuits. This may be by DS1. It also provides connectivity to the PSTN. Then it picks a frequency pair the phone will use in that cell to take the call. it will query the HLR to obtain the subscriber's profile and save it for a set length of time in its VLR. If it finds a control channel to listen to. These cells are ideally hexagonal in shape and they are initially laid out with their centers about 4 to 8 miles apart from each other. the cell site controllers provide control functions for a group of cell sites and actions of mobile phones through command and control data channels. reassigning frequencies for handoffs. . This will help when a call is received outside of the MSC's coverage area or for an incoming PSTN call. If it cannot find any control channels to listen to then it assumes it is outside the range and displays a message indicating no service. The MSC communicates with the phone over the control channel to tell it which frequencies to use. If both SIDs match then it knows that it is communicating with a cell in its home system. With the subscriber's VLR Profile the MSC can determine the last known LAC/CID for this subscriber and knows which BTS to use when it needs to ring/page that phone for an incoming call. location updating and call routing. receives the SID and then compares it to the SID programmed into the phone. It also provides resources needed to efficiently serve a mobile subscriber such as registration. controlling handoffs so a mobile phone leaving one cell (formally known as BTS)'s coverage area. The phone also transmits a registration request along with the SID. Anytime a MSC successfully registers a subscriber the HLR record is also updated.

Mobile ticketing is the process whereby customers can order. The remaining functions of a MSC are identical to a PSTN switch. Wireless A to Z. The returning instructions for handoff sent during a call must use the voice channel.[1] Applications for Mobile Tickets • • • • • • Airline check-in Cinema ticketing Concert/Event ticketing Consumer voucher distribution Mass transit Trade shows . place by analyzing measurements of radio signal strength made by the present controlling cell site and by its neighbors. • Roger L. The above in a MSC is what's considered as it's mobility management. will reduce the geographic coverage of a DMSC. McGraw-Hill Professional. pay for. The BTS. Freeman (2004). 2. Muller (2003). This process is called handoff. if the SID on the control channel does not match the SID programmed into the phone. Mobile ticketing 1. then print a hard copy for the offender.Mobile Telephone Switching Office 190 Handovers As a mob unit engaged in a call moves away from a cell site or formally known as Base transceiver station and its signal weakens. After handoff. BSC/RNC are the RAN/UTRAN (Radio Access Network & UMTS Radio Access Network) subset in the mobile network. Mobile tickets reduce the production and distribution costs connected with traditional paper-based ticketing channels and increase customer convenience by providing new and simple ways to purchase tickets. then the phone assumes that it is roaming. • James Harry Green (2005). John Wiley and Sons. References • Nathan J. McGraw-Hill Professional. reduced chance of tickets being made void by human error and immediate accessibility of citation information by other departments. Mobile ticketing is a method by which law enforcement agencies use in-car computers to create traffic citations in the field. Fundamentals of telecommunications. As a result a MSC can serve a large are typically hundreds of miles. John Wiley and Sons. Freeman (2005). Highly populated areas require more BTSs and BSCs/RNCs which will in turn obviously. The MSC also performs handovers/handoffs which occurs when a call needs to be handed off to a different BSC/RNC it serves or to completely new MSC. obtain and validate tickets from any location and at any time using mobile phones or other mobile handsets. • Roger L. Telecommunication system engineering. The data regarding the new channel are sent rapidly (in about 50 milliseconds). the BSC(GSM) or RNC(3G UMTS) will automatically instruct it to tune to a different frequency. one assigned to the newly entered BTS. and the entire returning process takes only about 300 milliseconds. The Irwin handbook of telecommunications. A MSC can serve many BSCs/RNCs which in turn server many BTS. The advantages of mobile ticketing include reduced paperwork time. Mobile ticketing is a prime example of horizontal telecommunication convergence.

The International Air Transport Association (IATA) 2007 announced a global standard that paves the way for global mobile phone check-in using two-dimensional (2D) bar codes. BCBP is said to be able to save the industry over US $500 million annually. which is not viable when the ticket has a conventional profit margin.[2] Mobile Tickets can be purchased in a variety of ways including online. The main business limitation is that when premium SMS is used for billing. or a secure mobile application.g. This trend will be accelerated by the increased functionality of today's mobile devices. around 40% of the transaction value is retained by the mobile operator and sms aggregator. via text messaging or over the phone from a voice call. The revenue share model need to be re-negoatiated separately with teleoperators to suit for mobile ticketing. The price of the ticket can be added to the users mobile phone bill or debited from their pre-paid service using premium SMS billing. or any credit card purchase has to be achieved through a web page as the SMS has no security suitable for credit card entry. with many consumers becoming increasingly comfortable with purchasing online. The industry has set a deadline of the end of 2010 to implement 100% bar coded boarding passes (BCBP). Other methods for billing include having a mobile wallet that allows the phone user to charge their credit card. and very few ticket choices can be easily remembered and entered by SMS. WAP page. but the limitation is the low usage volume of these kind of payment solutions. SMS Purchase SMS purchase is usually achieved by sending an SMS message containing a short code (e. Different ticket types can be ordered with a different code (e. Sweden) to a service number.or distance based pricing and different zone systems. either time. The drawbacks to text message purchasing is that either the vendor loses 40% of their revenue to the mobile operator. mobile applications or text messaging are good options. The use of different ordering codes enables creating a variety of ticket types. For repeated purchases such as daily train tickets. The next logical step for consumers who are looking for even more convenient methods of doing business is mobile purchase. A return message is sent containing the mobile ticket. Upon full implementation. GV for a single adult ticket in Gothenburg. GU for a youth ticket or GN as a night tariff ticket in Gothenburg).Mobile ticketing 191 Advantage of mobile tickets • • • • Improved consumer convenience Increased revenue by increasing accessibility of tickets Reduced infrastructure costs (scanners retail at 30 times the cost of 1d scanners) Reduced ticket printing/mailing cost Using Mobile Tickets Mobile Purchase Over the past 10 years.g. e-commerce has exploded. .

EMS. Optically reading the display of a cell phone is heavily influenced by the quality of the display (resolution. and the portable venue or on-vehicle scanning devices cannot always have a connection to the live ticket database. Other forms of mobile ticket systems contact a server that is able to verify the ticket and record that it has been used.This is the method proposed under the Near Field Communication (NFC) specification but not yet in general use. meaning faster and more successful scanning. Bluetooth. which is especially important if users are purchasing tickets immediately prior to use. RFID is only supported by a very few phones yet. Mobile Ticket Scanning Visually validated mobile tickets do not require a scan device. Most forms of mobile tickets require some form of device to read the ticket from the user's device.visual inspection or OCR Picture messaging (SMS. (Many transport ticketing systems. Text-only messaging is supported by all mobile phones and is the simplest method of delivery. Picture messaging is supported by almost all phones and is generally the delivery method of choice. Near Field Communication devices scan using an RFID reader. IRDA or RFID. Text-based codes use OCR software. Picture-based messages require a laser scanner (for 1-dimensional/linear barcodes) or camera based imager (for 2-dimensional barcodes) to photograph the message and decode it into a ticket ID. reflections). A dedicated mobile application can also help the user to organise and sort their tickets better than when an SMS or MMS inbox is full of similar tickets.visual inspection or OCR Text messaging with WAP Push . Barcodes rendered on the device by a dedicated application have the advantage of being full screen without clutter. Mobile Ticket Redemption Visually validated mobile tickets are validated without connection to a back office system. It usually requires the sender to know the phone model in advance so that the picture is rendered at the correct resolution. such as the London Oyster card travel system and the M-PhaTic system of the Swedish state railways SJ are designed so that scanners can operate as disconnected islands when connectivity to central systems is lost. Very few phones outside Japan have RFID/NFC tags and so this method of delivery is largely unsupported. Each of the above methods has its specific benefits and drawbacks. 192 Mobile Ticket Delivery Delivery of tickets to mobile phones can be done in a variety of ways: • • • • Text messaging (SMS) . WAP Push and MMS) . size of pixels. except of Japanese Osaifu-Keitai. Southend United Football Club is currently the only team in the UK to have a mobile ticketing facility offered to fans.Mobile ticketing Online Purchase Online purchase is still an option for mobile tickets.usually uses a barcode Dedicated Mobile application . which is especially useful for transport tickets. GPRS.) . New systems that make use of encryption of the data inside the barcode enable off-line scanning and validation.which can store and render barcodes delivered via SMS. allowing the user to setup an account and choosing payment options etc. • Device RFID .

Secure real time redemption of ticket. secure & also working customizable on Mobile Tickets in Facebook App Offices: Sofia/Bulgaria.. United States scanner devices. bCode Text-based SMS. PDA or Chip and PIN handset. Remote or World wide delivery local server. Customer types unique code into kiosk. Eagle Eye Solutions Limited Central server lookup utilising either internet or existing financial networks. validated in real-time. reliable. Utilises existing Chip and PIN technology for ticket code capture and data transfer. PDA communicate with BO via WiFi/GPRS connection. Worldwide. strong device support. Asia and Tickets. Unique and multi use tickets available. Barcode 1D and 2D delivered via secure encrypted SMS or GPRS. using a 3kb Java Platform Providers of the first ever Twitter to Mobile Barcode delivery solution Consulting on Offices based in London (UK). WAP Purchase. Secure. Electronically (camera). Remote or local server. The solution is used to sales tickets on move. possible. Remote or local server. integrated thermal printer. Capture of significant customer data.Mobile ticketing 193 Solutions Company Delivery Method Scanning Method Validation Method Advantages Disadvantages Location Mobile Ticketing Solution Bissano Software ltd Worldwide delivery! Barcode scanner.Brisbane/Australia Mobile Tickets Ltd In-Mobile Application. also offering solutions for the purchase of turnstiles. Secure. dynamic user experience.. For budget-conscious (scanner already in pocket). scanner and kiosk equipment required for Mobile Ticketing Investment for Australia. Mobile with partners in Europe. PDA or kiosk rental costs. text push. Integration into Chip and PIN system. Requires Worldwide. North America Banking and Payments. . iPhone at point of entry. The solution includes PDA software and Back Office system. Text-based SMS as response to text in. codeREADr Barcode:1D and Embedded data 2D print or virtual. fast.

integration with ticketing. API to integrate to existing ticketing solutions Rental of or investment for scanner devices.strong device support. Europe. Integration with proximity couponing via Bluetooth own servers. No settings or pre-registration needed. Finland. Codes validated with mBARC/Newland scan engine. Sweden. including handheld units from well-known brands. Remote or local server.Mobile ticketing GEAR. single SMS. local server as ticket code contains full information Investment in scanner devices required if existing units cannot be used. barcode 1D and 2D. optional extra verification by phone. API integration into existing systems Rental of or investment for scanner devices.it Barcode-based MMS. INA secure server and/or local server. CRM and access management solutions. Worldwide Impact Mobile Barcode-based SMS w/WAPpush or MMS. Secure. Investment in scanner devices required if existing units cannot be used. EXIO & MD-20 barcode scanners. range of scanners for different use-cases. live voucher. SMS. Visually / validators. Secure and easy. Secure control code system for visual validation. although implementation possible. no phone settings or pre-registration required. strong device support. Remote or local server. Off-the shelf image scanner. Italy 194 Gavitec AG Barcode-based SMS. EMS or MMS. fraud prevention. Investment for scanner devices. Secure. wide-reach. InMoDo (M-PhaTic) Text-based SMS. (service worldwide) INA Finland Text-based SMS w/WAPpush. Secure.reliable. integrated marketing services. No investment for scanner devices. Secure. RFID Imager/Camera-based Remote or scanners. single SMS. Email. High telecom costs of MMS messages. No visual validation. Remote or local server. Tampere. worldwide . Problem with several phone models.

United Kingdom. WAP Push or MMS Remote or local server Integrated branding Phone model and marketing required solution. Worldwide deployments Micket Mobile Ticket Barcode-based SMS. Integration with Facebook. integrated marketing services. barcode tickets delivered via encrypted SMS or GPRS Any 2D barcode scanner. Mobile and Event Ticketing Solutions Secure. Mobimatics Caching GPRS manifest downloads stored on local devices. Barcodes delivered in a single SMS. WAP Push or MMS. without any sign-up process or passwords. optimised barcode tailored to the mobile to ensure successful scanning - Worldwide Moo! Mobile Technology Barcode-based 2D barcode scanner SMS. wide-reach. Airline Tickets / 2D Barcode Off-the shelf barcode Remote or scanner local server World wide delivery. local server. NOKIA SMART. API integration into existing systems Removal of human visual validation. optimised 1D and 2D barcodes tailored to the mobile to ensure successful scanning Secure ticket purchase and delivery from the mobile. visual ID included. (SMS. Worldwide delivery. WAP. MMS. visual ID included. MMS. Rental of or Worldwide Investment for scanner devices. More reliable barcode scanning because of full-screen rendering of the barcode.Mobile ticketing Liquid Barcodes Barcode. MBO Barcode-based Off the shelf image SMS. API available. Nokia Smart. total fraud prevention. Keyword Text-In/Push/WAP Purchase/Secure Interfaces Barcode SMS 1D. 2D barcodes on mobiles Remote or local server Investment for scanner devices. Encrypted/Plain text QR code. Netherlands. Mobile application must be installed on phone by the user or the operator Norway 195 Masabi Dedicated mobile application. Off-the shelf barcode Remote or scanner. Secure. Micro Edition. EMS). MMS. Secure and Encrypted. or on-line validation. EMS. Mobiqa Barcode-based SMS. usually Java Platform. scanner / visually WAP. fraud prevention. Handheld QR code scanners. Secure. Investment for scanner devices. Twitter. secure. including using other mobile phones as the inspection device Encrypted barcode contents enable off-line validation without synchronising ticket databases onto the local scanner. Remote or local server. 2D M-Scan Validator 1D. live voucher. Worldwide .

even an Android smart phone with camera and downloadable software can be used as handheld validator. secure solutions Rental of or investment for scanner devices - Global. Patented control code system for visual validation. easy integration of API. binary SMS to carry bar codes) Visually (naked eye) or validators reading textual content Remote or local server.Mobile ticketing MogoTix QR code-based ticket delivered through SMS Validated using MogoTix iPhone or Android apps Remote or local server Self-service ticketing. all options available Delivers tickets via SMS text message PCT patent pending On Device Verification® and dynamic elements on tickets and coupons. system works in all mobile phone models without registration or even data settings requirements. no need for e. global delivery. ScreenTicket SMS with link delivered to web based mobile tickets and coupons. data necessary On Device None Verification®. fast setup. Operated since 2001 with over 60 million tickets sold.g. based out of Denmark ShowClix Ticketing LLC Remote server United States . Fixed and handheld scanners available. Investment for Worldwide scanners needed (but only if automatic validation is required). tested with 2 optional scanner/validator systems. phones. Still often uses paper ticket for confirmation. No scanners needed Off-the shelf image scanner Remote server. As textual SMS used. Credit card registration needed. downloaded to RFID chip (Mobile FeliCa) RFID reader (PaSoRi) Online lookup Secure RFID system Not usable for without visual non-compliant scanning. Plusdial SMS text message (one SMS is enough. event organizers can sign up to quickly sell mobile tickets to events iPhone or Worldwide Android phone required to scan tickets 196 NTT DoCoMo (Osaifu-Keitai) Online purchase. No investment needed when using visual checking.

authentication and redemption. Bangalore.can integrate with any coupon/ticket/loyalty programme. MMS.Chamrajpet. integration with ticketing. PDA MMS. NOKIA SMART. barcode scanners (1D. Strong device support. Airline Tickets / 2D Barcode Any 2D barcode scanner Online. MMS specialist. Keyword Text-In/Push/WAP Purchase/Secure Interfaces Barcode. EMS). MMS. NOKIA SMART. (SMS. Worldwide Timoco Off-the shelf barcode Remote or scanner. Barcode reader. . end-to-end. WAP Push. local database or custom integration Open system . custom built local server. Read paper and mobile barcodes. Rental of or investment for scanners needed. optional printer dock. Free software tyntec Secure. 2D) Online lookup. Connectivity. visual ID included. Secure. EMS). to scan/read 2D barcodes. enterprise solution. Smartmachine CCD-camera based Online or barcode scanner. Strategic partnership with IATA for mobile boarding passes. Cross carrier (US). Secure. United Kingdom 197 Skycore LLC 2D barcode creation. Barcode-based SMS. Wifi and GPRS Online. remote or local. local. NFC. WAP Push or MMS. Ltd Barcode. USA. Rental of or investment for scanners needed. strong device support. API option. Airline Tickets / 2D Barcode Any 2D barcode scanner Removal of human visual validation. Strong device support. Highest scanner privacy protection devices. Off-the-shelf 2D Local or scanners and/or smart Remote phones authenticated Server. delivery and redemption. 2D-Barcode-based SMS. WAP. total fraud prevention. Investment in traditional 2D scanners or smart phones. local server or trickle fed PDA database. delivery. 2D-Barcode via Mail to BlackBerry/PDA. CRM and access management solutions. WAP. Western Europe Trinity Mobile Limited Barcode (SMS. Pyrumas Software Pvt. remote or local. Secure RFID/NFC reader with dual SAM slots. Secure. unique one time use codes. Scalable worldwide with connectivity. (SMS. through end-to-end control over the entire GSM delivery path. WAP. Content sent via WAP and embedded email 2D barcode. Investment for scanner devices. wide-reach. NFC or RFID via Sincoda terminal. EMS).Mobile ticketing Sincoda Limited 2D barcode creation. scanner Highest privacy devices. protection through end-to-end control over the entire GSM delivery path. Content sent via SMS/WAP Push. Customised version for car parks Online lookup via GPRS or WiFi. MMS. Worldwide Investment for Worldwide availability. Indian Investment for India . attached to an access control reader or built into a kiosk. or Kiosk NOKIA. MMS and Email.

Ikôn. Off-the shelf.Mobile ticketing Unwire SMS. integrated thermal printer. com/ index. PDA communicate with BO via WiFi/GPRS connection.mTicket. World wide delivery Investment Offices: Finland. WAP and EMAIL(Optional for Smartphones). WiFi. highly flexible ticket product types Secure. DataTEK Group. and remote or imager/camera-based local scanners No sign-up needed. Investment for EU base and soon Worldwide No phone settings or scanner Partner. secure & required for America customizable customization and messaging service White label solution. rental of scanner units available (South Africa Only) Investment for South Africa scanner devices. WAP & Mobile Web Interfaces Premium and Standard Rate SMS Connections to 30+ Carriers Handheld units IPhone. required. 198 Wayin Solutions 1D and 2D Barcode-based message (SMS. pl?ACCT=109& STORY=/ www/ story/ 03-11-2008/ 0004771817& EDATE= [2] http:/ / mttnow. No need additional software to install on the phone. Latin possible. Smart camera image scanner. code lookup Online. integrated marketing services. Purchase Conf# or Barcode delivered to handset Remote or local server validation. Mobile Ticketing Solution The solution includes PDA software and Back Office system. fraud prevention. strong devices device support.only SMS.Secure. com/ cgi-bin/ stories. API integration into existing systems. The solution is used to sales tickets on move. USA. Romania. Investment for Europe multiple payment scanner methods. smartphone apps and mobile web Visual. EMS. prnewswire.strong and reliable device support . Android.co Text base SMS 100% compatible with all mobile handsets. Inc. www. 3G. Worldwide delivery! Offices: Sofia/Bulgaria. Easy integration of api.Brisbane/Australia References [1] http:/ / www.MMS. custom Remote or built barcode local server scanners (1D . php?pageID=14 . pre-registration devices. Motorola . Barcode scanner. live voucher. 2D) WapOneline SMS.

country. the MVNO appears as a roaming partner to other networks abroad. The situation created was one of a reluctant HNO which felt that it was being forced into a commercial relationship that would eventually have a negative impact on its revenues. which allows more flexibility and ownership of the subscriber's mobile phone number (MSISDN). or other core mobile network related infrastructure.[3] launched in 1999 and currently has over 4 million customers in the UK. nor does it have the time consuming task of rolling out extensive radio infrastructure. which presented a more favorable environment for a potential MVNO. The efficiency is obtained by the nature of the MVNO business model. The first commercially successful MVNO in the United Kingdom was Virgin Mobile UK. Virgin replicated its UK success through its US operation Virgin . Some may own their own home location register. nor does it necessarily have all of the infrastructure required to provide mobile telephone service. a company that does have frequency allocation(s) and all the required infrastructure to run an independent mobile network is known simply as a mobile network operator (MNO). Usually. In many of the early markets the regulator forced Host Network Operators (HNO's) to open their network to a potential competitor.Mobile virtual network operator 199 Mobile virtual network operator A mobile virtual network operator (MVNO) is a company that provides mobile phone services but does not have its own licensed frequency allocation of radio spectrum. such as in the Scandinavia region. the regulatory authority sought to introduce the MVNO/wholesale model to drive competition into a market that was considered to involve significant market power which existed for early entrant MNO's in those countries. or HLR. an MVNO is an entity or company that works independently of the mobile network operator and can set its own pricing structures that are subject to the rates agreed with the MNO. Many use a Mobile Virtual Network Enabler. In general. There is a distinction between MVNOs and service providers.[2] Background and history The emergence of the MVNO model in a market is often a result of one of two factors. Conversely and more recently many mobile network operators believe that there is merit in operating a wholesale MVNO business unit to complement their retail model. And have therefore either openly embraced potential MVNO partners or endeavored to launch their own branded MVNOs. and as a network within its own region. in that an MVNO doesn’t incur the significant capital expenditure on spectrum and infrastructure that an MNO does. Regulatory intervention designed to lower the barriers for market entry and ultimately increase competition or a strategic decision by an MNO looking to extend its existing operations and target niche or underserved segments through a second or perhaps multiple brands. the MVNO does not own any GSM. CDMA.[1] Conversely. This resistance presented a challenging operating environment for the MVNO. Service providers generally do not have their own SIM cards. An MNO that does not have a frequency spectrum allocation in a particular geographical region may operate as an MVNO in that region. An MVNO's roles and relationship to the MNO vary by market. such as mobile switching centers (MSCs) or a radio access network. and the services they provide depend on the services of the hosting MNOs or MVNOs. For some of the earlier markets that embraced the MVNO model. MVNOs are roughly equivalent to the "switchless resellers" of the traditional landline telephone market. and the individual situations of the MNO and MVNO. Some MVNOs run their own billing and customer care solutions known as business support systems (BSS). The regulatory perception was that the MVNO model would be a time efficient and cost effective route for telecoms companies to enter the market and therefore bring increased competition for the benefit of the consumer. who purchase wholesale mobile minutes and resell to end-users. in this case. most notably with regard to negotiating the best wholesale deal possible.

ASPIDER Solutions. consolidation will take place on the market.[5] MVNOs target both the consumer and enterprise markets. and Baraka Telecom in Asia. distribution and customer care systems. The voice-centric. Martin Dawes Systems. and have complemented them with partnerships to provide end-to-end enablement services. but they tend to opt for specialised ones with best-of-breed solutions and a strong reputation. operationally light MVNOs of today have generally worked with an aggregator MVNE that managed the limited back-end operations on behalf of the MVNO. LogicStar. and mobile virtual network enabler (MVNE). They still work with MVNEs. data platforms and billing solutions. which in turn are operated by 515 companies (some companies operate multiple MVNOs in the same country). Most industry observers believe that over time. aql. roaming mobile virtual networks operators (rMVNO). This model formed the basis between the co-operation between Tele2 in Sweden and Telia. strong brand MVNO is transforming the dynamics of the MVNE market. Virgin ran using a service provider model—essentially reselling capacity on T-Mobile. The new breed high-end. These are distinct from domestic MVNO agreements and are intended to provide transparency of international tariffs. 6GMOBILE. Elephant Talk. Cognatel. These promote their ability to quickly provide order-to-cash solutions to MVNOs. 200 MVNOs worldwide As of May 2011 there are 645 active MVNO operations in the world. and failed in Singapore. created when Telia failed to obtain a 3G license in their home market.[4] However ventures in Australia have not been so successful. according to their MVNO solutions: Aggregator MVNEs these offer consulting and integration services and have bundled all of the back-office network components through alliances. while others will go out of business (examples are Disney Mobile and Helio in the USA and easyMobile in Europe). including MVNO. Besides leveraging their own existing assets. ASPIDER Solutions. and subsequently rolled out in several European markets. However the majority of MVNOs are consumer-focused and most have a focus on price as their unique selling point. Initially. Examples of a non-consumer MVNO being wireless maingate and white Machine-to-Machine (M2M) data-based MVNOs.Telogic Teleena. Qualution. 6GMOBILE. Convergys. According to Pyramid Research. txtNation. The first MVNO was created by Tele2 in Denmark. Companies include Teleena. 120 MVNOs now offer mobile broadband services. Transatel. One specific sector of MVNO operations focuses on international. Transatel. which was acquired by Sprint Nextel for a total equity value of approximately USD$483 million. rMVNOs. Specialised enablers these offer only parts of the back-office network such as messaging platforms. Tyntec. Companies include [7] Cognatel. Elephant Talk. . they choose to own more of their platforms. Companies include Ztar and TMNG. there are three main categories of MVNEs. They are not solely focused on the MVNO market.Mobile virtual network operator Mobile USA. and Baraka Telecom in Asia. particularly their logistics. Effortel. Aggregator MVNEs with their own platforms this includes aggregators which have developed one or more back-office solutions internally. albeit with a different strategy. [6] Terminology The industry is going through stages characterized by alphabet soup nomenclature.

Mobile virtual network operator Exploiting the wireless IP networks competing infrastructure bandwidth with low traffic due to the lack of Mobile Driven Content. . and segment needs–especially in new areas like 3G. They usually host their services in one location. product. Lifestyle MVNOs like Helio focus on specific niche market demographics. Network utilisation-driven strategies Many mobile operators have capacity. Discount MVNOs provide cut-price call rates to market segments. and content to their subscribers. The opportunity for mobile operators to take advantage of MVNOs generally outweighs the competitive threat. text. along with specific domain knowledge software applications with specific content. help fight churn. Ethnic MVNOs like Lebara iCard Mobile and Globalcell Mobile who target ethnic communities by providing inexpensive calls to their home country. other Global Service or specialized application based MVNO are also growing. customer service. such as GPRS. An MVNO strategy can generate economies of scale for better network utilisation. MVNOs are a way to implement a more specific marketing mix. These companies are pushing their own business model as content driven MVNO. These are generally: Segmentation-driven strategies mobile operators often find it difficult to succeed in all customer segments. EVDO. whether alone or with partners and they can help attack targeted segments. grow average revenue per user by providing new applications and tariff plans and also can help with difficult issues like how to deal with fixed-mobile convergence by allowing MVNOs to try out more experimental projects and applications. Product-driven strategies MVNOs can help mobile operators target customers with specialised service requirements and get to customer niches that mobile operators cannot get to. Mobile operators and MVNOs There are three primary motivations for mobile operators to allow MVNOs on their networks. MVNO models mean lower operational costs for mobile operators (billing. and provide access to their content in different countries via specialized Mobiles and existing IP coverage. sales. marketing). Advertising-funded MVNOs like Blyk or MOSH Mobile build revenues from advertising to give a set amount of free voice. 201 MVNO classification Business MVNOs like BeyondMobile and Abica provide bespoke services to businesses.

A typical MVNE will handle customer service.Mobile virtual network operator 202 Understanding the MVNO value chain Mobile network operator (MNO) The traditional MNO is characterised by having their own mobile licence.no direct customer relationship with the end user. Mobile shared spectrum enabler (MSSE) The MSSE has no mobile infrastructure of its own. customer billing. SMS and MMS messaging and data traffic themselves. and operating within the MNO's spectrum license.and Femto-cell technologies. Using its agreement with the MNO. The MVNO is often able to produce and distribute for example voice minutes and data traffic. typically by tagging onto their existing fixed line operation. and the MVNO will typically be able to handle producing SMS and MMS messages. but the MNE has . The MNO can handle Network Routing and will usually have roaming deals with foreign MNOs. their own mobile infrastructure and direct customer relationship to the end user. this is a task for the MNE's wholesale customers. The MVNE handles the technical side and often also tasks like customer service and legal assistance for mobile providers without their own network. The MNE will not handle marketing and sales to end-users. using Pico. but the MVNE will typically be able to handle producing SMS and MMS messages. Mobile network enabler (MNE) An MNE is characterised by having their own mobile licence and own mobile infrastructure. while preserving and enhancing the relationship between MVNO and MNO. Additionally the MVNE will not handle marketing and sales to end-users. A typical MVNO will be able to handle customer service. customer billing and collection of consumption data and handset management. It is therefore only an MNO that can establish themselves as an MNE. if it chooses. but the MVNO has the direct customer relationship with the end user. The MNE handles the technical side of the business and often also handles areas like customer service and legal assistance for mobile providers without their own network. collection of consumption data and mobile handset management. Additionally the MNO will usually handle marketing and sales to end users themselves. extend the reach of the its network at no cost. SMS and MMS messages and data traffic. Furthermore the MVNO will usually handle marketing and sales to end-users them self. The MNO can produce and distribute for example voice-minutes. but is a technology provider that uses innovative hardware and software to enable MVNOs to create their own actual mini-networks. The MNE is able to produce and distribute for example voice minutes. customer billing and collection of consumption data and mobile handset management. There is no impact on the MNO's mainstream network and it can. The MVNE is not capable of producing and distributing for example voice minutes and data traffic. The MNE is capable of handling Network Routing themselves and the MNE will typically have roaming deals with foreign MNOs. the MSSE helps the MVNO to deploy its own network of low-power base-stations into areas the MNO could not justify. Mobile virtual network enabler (MVNE) MVNEs are characterised by neither having a mobile licence nor mobile infrastructure or any direct customer relationship with the end-users.unlike the MNO . . while the MVNO can improve its profitability by offering specialist and niche mobile solutions. The MNE will typically be able to handle customer relationship. invoicing and collect consumption data and handle handset management themselves. The MNO can typically handle customer service. Mobile virtual network operator (MVNO) An MVNO is characterised by neither having their own mobile licence nor own mobile infrastructure. The MVNE is capable of handling Network Routing and the MVNE has typically entered into roaming deals with foreign MNOs. The MVNO is able to handle Network Routing themselves and will typically have entered into roaming deals with foreign MNOs. The MVNE functions as a middleman between the MNO and the mobile providers without their own networks. this is a task for the MVNE's wholesale customers.

Full MVNO On-Brand • The MVNO has all the full-scale operator technology of a mobile operator (including own SIM Card. This partner allocate a specific IMSI range. and the vocabulary must be technical in order to split the different models. the SP will typically handle their own marketing and sales to end-users. @IP allocation and APN numbers are arranged by MVNO • The MVNO own in the country national Point Code. own subscriber provisioning. The Host-MNO is seen as a utility in order to initiate a national mobile originating call without host-MNO Intelligent Network triggering • The MVNO numbering plan is completely independent from the MNO numbering plan. Example : 6GMOBILE (The Netherlands) aql (UK) [8] . 203 MVNO models and value chain As such. • IMSIs are from MVNO for national call (with its Mobile Network Code in the country) and roaming agreement is negotiated with a roaming partner. in order to control traffic and subscriber services. customer billing consumption data and handset management themselves. MNP. customer billing or collection of consumption data and handset management themselves. HLR. there are several models of MVNO. but their distribution power will also be a central asset for many Branded Resellers. The MVNO is as such as possible independent from the host-MNO. The BR cannot handle Network Routing themselves and the BR will not enter into roaming deals with foreign MNOs. and manage the IMSI translation between national and roaming cases. but the SP has the direct customer relationship with the end user. IMSI. or other mobile/fixed operator based on "traffic wholesale" model. or mobile shared spectrum enabler (MSSE) This model is the most independent full MVNO model. and core network elements (MSC. and own roaming agreement). but has the direct customer relationship to end-users. The BR cannot produce and distribute for example voice minutes and data traffic themselves and are not able to produce SMS or MMS messages. and have an independent SCCP layer compared to external mobile network (MNOs or roaming) • The MVNO can arrange interconnection agreement with one or several MVNO(s) on a "traffic wholesale" model (this traffic can be qualified by the MVNO for voice/data/SMS/MMS) • The MVNO can negotiate specific and direct interconnection agreement with any carrier. GGSN). Additionally. the MVNO own its SIM card. • The MVNO is able to route and bill "on-net" call. • Interconnect. Branded reseller (BR) A BR has neither a mobile licence nor own mobile infrastructure. The BR will primarily concentrate their activities around marketing and sales to end-users. The SP will typically handle customer relationship. The BRs' positive contribution to the value chain is (naturally) their "brand". own billing.Mobile virtual network operator Service provider (SP) An SP has neither a mobile licence nor own mobile infrastructure. An SP is not able to handle Network Routing themselves and a SP will not enter into roaming deals with foreign MNOs. A typical BR will not handle customer service. AuC. The SP is not able to produce and distribute for example voice minutes and data traffic and cannot produce SMS or MMS messages themselves. • The MVNO can be extended in future as MNO. MSISDN.

or Mobile shared spectrum enabler (MSSE) Example : KPN Spain. @IP allocation and APN numbers are arranged by MVNO • MSISDN can be arranged by MVNO or host operator MNO • The MVNO own in the country National Point Code. MNP. • The MVNO is not able to route and bill "on-net" call. • Interconnect. MSISDN. or other mobile/fixe operator based on "traffic wholesale" model. • Interconnect. own billing. • The MVNO numbering plan is not completely independent from the MNO numbering plan. AuC. IMSI are arranged by host operator MNO • MNP. • The MVNO is not able to route and bill "on-net" call. The Host-MNO is yet controlling a national mobile originating call via Intelligent Network triggering. • IMSIs are from MVNO for national call (with its Mobile Network Code in the Country)and Roaming agreement is negotiated with a roaming partner. and have an independent SCCP layer compared to external mobile network (MNOs or roaming) • The MVNO can not arrange interconnection agreement with one or several MVNO(s) on a "traffic wholesale" model (this traffic can not be qualified by the MVNO for Voice/Data/SMS/MMS) • The MVNO can negotiate specific and direct interconnection agreement with any carrier.Mobile virtual network operator 204 Full MVNO Basic • The MVNO has all the full-scale operator technology of a mobile operator (including own SIM Card. • IMSIs are from one and only one host operator MNO and thus roaming service. AuC. • The MVNO numbering plan is not completely independent from the MNO numbering plan. • The MVNO can not be extended in future as MNO. Telecable (Spain) Full MVNO Mono-IMSI • The MVNO has all the full-scale operator technology of a mobile operator (including own SIM Card. or Mobile shared spectrum enabler (MSSE) . This partner allocate a specific IMSI range. and own roaming agreement). • The MVNO can not be extended in future as MNO. and have an independent SCCP layer compared to external mobile network (MNOs or roaming) • The MVNO can not arrange interconnection agreement with one or several MVNO(s) on a "traffic wholesale" model (this traffic can not be qualified by the MVNO for Voice/Data/SMS/MMS) • The MVNO can negotiate specific and direct interconnection agreement with any carrier. but not its own roaming agreement. own billing). IMSI. The Host-MNO is yet controlling a national mobile originating call via Intelligent Network triggering. and manage the IMSI translation between national and roaming cases. own subscriber provisioning. own subscriber provisioning. or other mobile/fixe operator based on "traffic wholesale" model. @IP allocation and APN numbers are arranged by MVNO • The MVNO own in the country National Point Code.

and partially the subscriber provisioning. • Interconnect. MNP. • Roaming agreement is negotiated by Host-MNO. but not its own roaming agreement. and can be seen as an extension of the host-MNO • The MVNO can not arrange interconnection agreement with one or several MVNO(s) on a "traffic wholesale" model (this traffic can not be qualified by the MVNO for Voice/Data/SMS/MMS) • The MVNO can not negotiate specific and direct interconnection agreement with any carrier. The MVNO is not able to route and bill "on-net" call. and can be seen as an extension of the host-MNO The MVNO can not arrange interconnection agreement with one or several MVNO(s) on a "traffic wholesale" model (this traffic can not be qualified by the MVNO for Voice/Data/SMS/MMS) The MVNO can not negotiate specific and direct interconnection agreement with any carrier.Mobile virtual network operator 205 Complete or extended MVNO • The MVNO has all the full-scale operator technology of a mobile operator (including own SIM Card. . own subscriber provisioning. The Host-MNO is completely controlling mobile calls via Intelligent Network triggering. The MVNO can not be extended in future as MNO. The MVNO numbering plan is not completely independent from the MNO numbering plan. • IMSIs are from one and only one host operator MNO and thus roaming service. or Mobile shared spectrum enabler (MSSE) Medium MVNO • • • • • • • • • • • The MVNO has not all the full-scale operator technology IMSIs are from one and only one host operator MNO and thus roaming service. or other mobile/fixe operator based on "traffic wholesale" model. The MVNO owns HLR and IN. or other mobile/fixe operator based on "traffic wholesale" model. @IP allocation and APN numbers are arranged by MVNO MSISDN can be arranged by MVNO or host operator MNO The MVNO have not an independent SCCP layer compared to external mobile network (MNOs or roaming). Interconnect. @IP allocation and APN numbers are arranged by MVNO • MSISDN can be arranged by MVNO or host operator MNO • The MVNO have not an independent SCCP layer compared to external mobile network (MNOs or roaming). • The MVNO can not be extended in future as MNO. or Mobile shared spectrum enabler (MSSE) This is Complete MVNO without any routing capabilities (no MSC in the MVNO network). • The MVNO is not able to route and bill "on-net" call. are arranged by host operator MNO • AuC. IMSI. The Host-MNO is yet controlling a national mobile originating call via Intelligent Network triggering. MNP are arranged by host operator MNO AuC. • The MVNO numbering plan is not completely independent from the MNO numbering plan. own billing). IMSI.

Interconnect. Interconnect. The MVNO is not able to route and bill "on-net" call. KPN France. The MVNO can not be extended in future as MNO. Auc. The MVNO owns only Rating capabilities via Host-MNO Diameter oriented interfaces. Auc. The Host-MNO is completely controlling mobile calls via Intelligent Network triggering.Mobile virtual network operator 206 IN MVNO • • • • • • • • • • The MVNO has not all the full-scale operator technology IMSIs are from one and only one host operator MNO and thus roaming service. The Host-MNO is completely controlling all mobile calls andIntelligent Network triggering. Example : Fastweb (Italy). no HLR in the MVNO network). The MVNO numbering plan is not completely independent from the MNO numbering plan. @IP allocation and APN numbers are arranged by host operator MNO MSISDN can be arranged by MVNO or host operator MNO The MVNO have not an independent SCCP layer compared to external mobile network (MNOs or roaming). Example : Sisteer (France) . and can be seen as an extension of the host-MNO The MVNO can not arrange interconnection agreement with one or several MVNO(s) on a "traffic wholesale" model (this traffic can not be qualified by the MVNO for Voice/Data/SMS/MMS) The MVNO can not negotiate specific and direct interconnection agreement with any carrier. The MVNO can not be extended in future as MNO. The MVNO numbering plan is not completely independent from the MNO numbering plan. IMSI. and can be seen as an extension of the host-MNO The MVNO can not arrange interconnection agreement with one or several MVNO(s) on a "traffic wholesale" model (this traffic can not be qualified by the MVNO for Voice/Data/SMS/MMS) The MVNO can not negotiate specific and direct interconnection agreement with any carrier. Transatel (France). or Mobile shared spectrum enabler (MSSE) This is Medium MVNO without any routing capabilities (no MSC. The MVNO is not able to route and bill "on-net" call. The MNO owns the MVNO SIM Card. IMSI. or other mobile/fixe operator based on "traffic wholesale" model. or other mobile/fixe operator based on "traffic wholesale" model. no HLR in the MVNO network). MNP. Effortel Diameter MVNO • • • • • • • • • • The MVNO has not all the full-scale operator technology IMSIs are from one and only one host operator MNO and thus roaming service. The MVNO owns only IN. @IP allocation and APN numbers are arranged by host operator MNO MSISDN can be arranged by MVNO or host operator MNO The MVNO have not an independent SCCP layer compared to external mobile network (MNOs or roaming). MNP. R (cable operator) (Spain). or Mobile shared spectrum enabler (MSSE) This is IN MVNO without any charging capabilities (no MSC. The MNO owns the MVNO SIM Card.

or Mobile shared spectrum enabler (MSSE) Known also as reseller or service provider model. IMSI. 2011-05-20. dk [8] http:/ / www. The MVNO is not able to route and bill "on-net" call. 2011-05-31. Interconnect. "Sprint Nextel to Acquire Virgin Mobile USA" (http:/ / www. virginmobile. [7] http:/ / www. The Host-MNO is completely controlling all mobile calls and Intelligent Network triggering. Retrieved 21 Mar 2011. html). The study resulted in new legislation from NRAs in countries like Ireland and France forcing operators to open up their network to MVNOs. aql. ofcom. in 2003.com) • ZyAir Wireless (http://www. telecomsnetworks. the European Commission issued a recommendation to national telecom regulators (NRAs) to examine the competitiveness of the market for wholesale access and call origination on public mobile telephone networks. [6] "1 in 4 MVNOs upgraded to offering mobile broadband" (http:/ / www. com/ home/ mvno-directory/ press-releases). In the Middle East. MNP. . com/ home/ mvno-directory). @IP allocation and APN numbers are arranged by host operator MNO MSISDN can be arranged by MVNO or host operator MNO The MVNO have not an independent SCCP layer compared to external mobile network (MNOs or roaming).Mobile virtual network operator 207 Light MVNO • • • • • • • • • • The MVNO has not all the full-scale operator technology IMSIs are from one and only one host operator MNO and thus roaming service. telecomsnetworks. The MNO owns the MVNO SIM Card. References [2] Liikenne. Blycroft. com [1] OFCOM report (http:/ / www. .zyairwireless. washingtonpost. lvm. org. virginmobile. Retrieved 2011-05-31. the MVNO was regulated by Anatel. Retrieved 2011-05-20. pdf) (Swedish) [3] About Virgin Mobile.Etusivu (http:/ / www. [5] "MVNO Directory" (http:/ / www. or other mobile/fixe operator based on "traffic wholesale" model. and can be seen as an extension of the host-MNO The MVNO can not arrange interconnection agreement with one or several MVNO(s) on a "traffic wholesale" model (this traffic can not be qualified by the MVNO for Voice/Data/SMS/MMS) The MVNO can not negotiate specific and direct interconnection agreement with any carrier. The MVNO owns only marketing.com (http:/ / about. Legislation Presently many companies and regulatory bodies are strongly in favour of MVNOs. AuC. The MVNO numbering plan is not completely independent from the MNO numbering plan. telogic. uk/ consult/ condocs/ mobile_call_termination/ wmvct/ annexf/ ) • Understanding MVNOs (http://www. com/ aboutus/ media/ news/ 2001/ 2001-06-25/ ) [4] Cecilia Kang (28 July 2009).ja viestintäministeriö . com/ wp-dyn/ content/ article/ 2009/ 07/ 28/ AR2009072800878. and sometimes billing and provisioning. Washington Post. fi/ fileserver/ mvno pricing structures in finland.com) . Blycroft. For example. . the Brazilian Agency of Telecommunications in November 2010. Jordan's TRA has issued its first MVNO regulations in 2008 facilitating the entrance of the first MVNO in the region.understandingmvno. The MVNO can not be extended in future as MNO. In Brazil.

the Internet. home care.[4] A remote-access user typically establishes a connection from a fixed endpoint. encounter gaps in coverage. time out. utilities and other industries. required by some regulations.[5] Mobile VPN functions The following are functions common to mobile VPNs. a laptop goes into hibernation. A conventional VPN cannot survive such events because the network tunnel is disrupted. especially on cellular networks where bandwidth may be constrained.Mobile virtual private network 208 Mobile virtual private network A mobile virtual private network (mobile VPN or mVPN) provides mobile devices with access to network resources and software applications on their home network. or even the computing device itself to crash. handling the necessary network logins in a manner transparent to the user. fail. which provide for access through a Web browser and are commonly used by remote workers (telecommuting workers or business travelers). the device.[3] Increasingly. or a handheld user suspends and resumes the device Underlying virtual connection remains intact when the device switches to a different network. In a mobile environment. or both. which are useful for point-to-point connections when the network endpoints are known and remain fixed. or SSL VPNs. hospital settings. as users roam between different cellular networks or Wi-Fi access points). launches applications that connect to corporate resources as needed.[4] Makers of mobile VPNs draw a distinction between remote access and mobile environments. as well as encryption of the data traffic in compliance with security standards such as FIPS 140-2 Link optimization and data compression improve performance over wireless networks.) Other VPN types are IPsec VPNs.[2] Mobile VPNs are commonly used in public safety. Mobile VPNs are used in environments where workers need to keep application sessions open at all times. encrypted tunnel for securely passing data traffic over public networks (typically. open and available when the wireless connection changes or is interrupted.[1] . or suspend-and-resume their devices to preserve battery life.[2] Comparison with other VPN types A VPN maintains an authenticated. causing applications to disconnect. and then logs off. A mobile VPN maintains a virtual connection to the application at all times as the endpoint changes. as they connect via various wireless networks. the endpoint changes constantly (for instance. throughout the working day. smart card. when they connect via other wireless or wired networks. field service management. the mobile VPN handles the logins automatically Software applications that run in an "always-connected" wired LAN environment run over the mobile VPN without modification Enforces authentication of the user. notably for access to CJIS systems in law enforcement . Enforces two-factor authentication or multi-factor authentication using some combination of a password.[6] Function Persistence Roaming Application compatibility Security Acceleration Strong authentication Description Open applications remain active. they are being adopted by mobile professionals and white-collar workers as well. public key certificate or biometric device.

patient registration. on layer-3 attributes (IP address. firefighters.). Computerized physician order entry. installation and repair technicians. Electronic medical records. and in some VPNs. customer-service. parts ordering. scheduling and billing applications Hospitals and Clinics Field Service Electronic health records. emergency Computer-assisted dispatch. and optionally may integrate with policies to remediate the device automatically Gives administrators a view into how wireless networks and devices are used Alerts administrators of security concerns or connection problems that impact users.[7] Function Management console Description Displays status of devices and users. automatic vehicle location. and historical customer service data as well as databases of customer-premises equipment. parts ordering. order fulfillment Dispatch. departmental intranet Visiting nurses.[8] Industry Public Safety Home Care Workers Applications Police officers. scheduling. the ability to control access by individual application software Quality of service Specifies the priority that different applications or services should receive when contending for available wireless bandwidth. estimating applications Field-service engineers. dashcam software. documentation access Customer relationship management. work-order management. asset tracking. accounting Field Service Management which can include customer relationship management. home care aides and hospice workers Physicians. time of day. anti-virus and anti-spyware protection status. TCP and UDP port. access requirements. work order management. this is useful for ensuring delivery of the essential "mission-critical" applications (such as computer-assisted dispatch for public safety) or giving priority to streaming media or voice-over-IP Evaluates the patch status. dispatch. delivered via SMTP. geographic information systems. repair technicians Field Sales Utilities Insurance Sales representatives Linemen. in-home physical therapists and occupational therapists. housekeeping. first responders registration plate databases. electronic medical records.Mobile virtual private network 209 Mobile VPN management Some mobile VPNs offer additional "mobile-aware" management and security functions. giving information technology departments visibility and control over devices that may not be on the corporate premises or that connect through networks outside IT's direct control. scheduling. and other aspects of the "health" of the device before allowing a connection. criminal databases including the CJIS system. billing. etc. pharmacy. Picture archiving and communications systems. and offers the ability to quarantine a device if there is possibility that it may have been lost or stolen Policy Management Enforces access policies based on the network in use. where they give mobile workers access to software applications. inventory. field-service engineers Claims adjusters . testing and training applications Claims systems. nurses and other staff Electronic health records. state driver's license and vehicle services personnel. maintenance tracking. and parts inventory. SNMP or syslog Network Access Control (NAC) Mobile Analytics Notifications Mobile VPN industries and applications Mobile VPNs have found uses in a variety of industries. bandwidth of the connection.

289483. it connects remote and mobile users with the company. com/ industries/ default. 2007. Lisa. Through a connection between a leased line (E1/T1) and an enterprise PABX (Private Automatic Branch Exchange) system. com [10] http:/ / www. Roger. com/ resources/ case_studies. com [7] http:/ / www. netmotionwireless.[12] Using mVPNs the company has the following advantages:[13] • Direct connectivity – the corporate network becomes part of mobile operator's network through direct connection • Private numbering plan – the communication is tailored to company organisation • Corporate Business Group – all offices and employees are part of one common group. weather extremes or other conditions encountered outdoors or in the field. wsj. aspx [9] http:/ / www. Simultaneously mVPN makes internal communication more efficient.com.[9] Various handhelds and smartphones may also be used. Some manufacturers create ruggedized computers. com. techtarget. http:/ / www. html [6] http:/ / www. html). aspx .Mobile virtual private network 210 Mobile VPN devices Some mobile environments call for devices built to handle physical shock. 2006. "Lost Connections" (http:/ / online. http:/ / www.289483. com/ tip/ 0. such as the Panasonic Toughbook or the Itronix GoBook. techtarget.[10] Mobile VPN is available for all Symbian OS based smartphones by Nokia.[11] Mobile VPNs in telecommunications In telecommunication. columbitech. com/ article/ SB119717610996418467. aspx [4] http:/ / www. Vendors • • • • • • • Birdstep Technology ERICSSON Radio IP Software Columbitech NeoAccel NetMotion Wireless Nokia References [1] Phifer. no meter on his mobile or desk phone • Smart Divert – easy divert within company group • Groups and subgroups – Several sub-groups could be defined within the group with different changing as well as with separate numbering plan • Calls control – certain destinations could be allowed or barred both on mobile and desk phones. including special mobile-capable versions such as Windows CE and Windows Mobile. The Wall Street Journal.sid40_gci1210989_mem1. com [8] http:/ / www. netmotionwireless. com/ business/ Toughbook. netmotionwireless. netmotionwireless.00. panasonic. [2] Cheng. SearchMobileComputing. aspx [5] http:/ / searchmobilecomputing. com. by providing additional services and guarantees high quality for best value. a mobile VPN is a solution that integrates all offices and employees in a common network that includes all mobile and desk phones. December 11. netmotionwireless. "Mobile VPN: Closing the Gap" (http:/ / searchmobilecomputing. netmotionwireless. July 16. Operating systems are typically Microsoft Windows-based. html). radio-ip. http:/ / www.00. com/ tip/ 0. com/ products/ mobilevsssl. com/ support/ technotes/ 1515. [3] http:/ / www. that includes all mobile and desk phones • Short dialling – a short number to access each employee. gd-itronix.sid40_gci1210989_mem1. in laptop or Tablet PC configurations.

com/en-us/magazine/ee412260. • "Modeling and Generating Mobile Business Processes". com/ product_data/ excerpt/ 10/ 04712190/ 0471219010. Germany. Lasse Pajunen. Maryland. do?id=131& cid=79& pid=61 211 External links • VPN Consortium (http://www.An unified Messaging Interface".html) • "Face-off: Mobile VPN is a better choice than an SSL VPN" (http://www. Mobile Process .vpnc. nokia. Sameh Galal. com/ mobilevpn [12] http:/ / media.techtarget. Lasse Pajunen. Sameh Galal. Anna Ruokonen.microsoft.Lasse Pajunen. Vila Real. Suresh Chande. • "Mobile Process Forms . September 2009 • Search Mobile Computing: mobile VPN (http://searchmobilecomputing. WWW/internet 2007. 15–19 October 2007.com/columnists/ 2006/112706-mobile-ssl-vpn-yes.html) by Tom Johnaton.The 6th International Conference on mobile business ICMB 2007. nokia. com/ projects/ mobile_business_processes . USA. • "Designing User Interfaces for Mobile Business Processes using Messaging Interfaces". MSDN Magazine. Leipzig. Suresh Chande. July 9–11.290660. Toronto Canada. In the proceedings of The IEEE International Conference on Web Services (ICWS).00. Suresh Chande.org/) • "An Introduction to IPsec VPNs on Mobile Phones" (http://msdn. USA. The 11th International conference on EDOC-2007. Network World (24 November 2006) Mobile workflow Mobile Workflows can be defined as specialized Workflows aimed to address deployment of workflows in mobile device infrastructure enabling automation of process interaction with traditional business processes from within the device. Portugal. 5–8 October 2007 • "ActiveForms: A Runtime for Mobile Application Forms".Workflows for Mobile centric services composition [1] • "Developing Workflow Engine for Mobile Devices".networkworld. aspx) by Ramon Arja. Utah. pdf [13] http:/ / www.Mobile virtual private network [11] http:/ / www. com/ publications/ view. 24–27 September 2007. Suresh Chande. wiley. huawei. Lasse Pajunen. Annapolis.com/sDefinition/ 0. Lasse Pajunen. July 2007 References [1] http:/ / research. Salt Lake City.sid40_gci1227022. SABRE.

Mobile to mobile convergence (MMC) is a term to describe a technology used in modern computing and telephony. This is viewed as a more efficient use of networking technology than standard FMC solutions that are available as well. In theory. The term is an offshoot of fixed mobile convergence (FMC) and uses dual mode (cellular network and WiFi) phones with a special software client and an application server to connect voice calls and business applications via a VoWLAN and/or through a cellular service. iOS and Android. They offer a MMC solution on Symbian.Mobile-to-mobile convergence 212 Mobile-to-mobile convergence The term mobile to mobile calling is used in many mobile phone plans to refer to making calls to other mobile phones using the same provider's network--which is often cheaper than other calls.info Mobile. The first offering known in the market successfully deploying MMC is beCherry. it also provides the capability of providing a greater voice coverage area than either carrier or WLAN technology alone since some areas do not have cellular service coverage and others do not have WiFi. Media & Broadcast [12] Volkswagen AG [13] WDR [14] The project management and administration was performed by K&S GmbH Projektmanagement [15]. Mobile to mobile convergence differs from conventional FMC in that the technology uses the WLAN to route calls via the internet as a primary function.Info platform: • Audi AG [1] • Bayern Digital Radio GmbH [2] • Bayerische Motoren Werke AG [3] • • • • • • • • • • • Blaupunkt GmbH [4] Daimler AG [5] DDG Gesellschaft für Verkehrsdaten mbH [6] GEWI Hard. It was developed between 2004 and 2006 by an industry consortium and successfully tested during 2007 in a series of large-scale field trials.Info is a technical platform for the distribution of traffic information and other location-coded services. and uses the wireless carrier network if the WLAN is not present as a secondary function.Info consortium The following companies were involved in the development of the Mobile. Mobile. The Mobile. The introduction of first operational services is expected for 2008.und Software Entwicklungsgesellschaft [7] Fraunhofer Institut Integrierte Schaltung [8] Navteq [9] Siemens VDO Automotiv AG [10] Teleatlas [11] T-Systems International GmbH. . since most of the latter use the carrier network as the primary means of communication and do not leverage the lower cost and controls of internet protocol-based networks that are generally installed at most modern businesses. It is significant since it is viewed as a means to compete with carrier companies since the calls are routed around the cellular network. which is delivered by Belgian company Mondial Telecom. Other smartphone OS's are also considered.

com/ [10] http:/ / www. com/ [14] http:/ / www. specifically the development and standardization of new services and applications. siemensvdo. com/ http:/ / www. com/ [12] http:/ / www. is from 2008 on continued within the Traveller Information Services Association TISA [16]. com/ [13] http:/ / www. teleatlas. tpeg. tmcforum. com/ http:/ / www.info 213 Future development The work of the Mobile. blaupunkt. volkswagenag. audi. ks-pm.Info consortium. bmwgroup. com/ [11] http:/ / www. de/ [15] http:/ / www. iis. tisa. wdr.Mobile. mobile-info. com/ [19] http:/ / www. de/ [9] http:/ / www. com/ http:/ / www. org/ . bayerndigitalradio. org/ [17] http:/ / www. de/ [16] http:/ / www. de/ http:/ / www. fraunhofer. de/ http:/ / www. com/ http:/ / www.Info [17] TISA [16] TMC Forum [18] TPEG Forum [19] References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] http:/ / www. External links • • • • Mobile. navteq. org [18] http:/ / www. t-systems-mediabroadcast. com http:/ / www. gewi. daimlerchrysler. ddg.

com/ . Romania and Kiev. Currently we employ 25 people and the organization is constantly growing. mobispine. Sweden with development offices in Cluj. Products also come in line with iPhone MMS sending and receiving and also User Generated Content products that the mobile operators can benefit from. provides services for operators and end-users. Corporate headquarter is in Stockholm. Ukraine.Mobispine 214 Mobispine Mobispine a Value Added Services (VAS) company. External links • Mobispine home page [1] References [1] http:/ / www. The services including eSMS (Executive Short Message System) service enabling users to send messages from PCs to mobile phones and aggregation of news and content via its Really Simple Syndication (RSS) based news reader.

the modu phone essentially “changes” functionality and shape according to the user’s different needs and desires throughout the day.[2] . . Each modu jacket has its own style and unique functions. In mid May 2011 Google acquired several patents of Modu Mobile for 4. Israel. modu is headquartered in Kfar-Saba.8 millimeters). The modu phone is the opposite: small and compact (it holds the Guinness world record for most compact phone at a depth of 7.modu 215 modu modu Industry Founder(s) Telecommunications Dov Moran Headquarters Kfar Saba.9 million $[3] Concept Today's modular phones are designed to pack in as many applications as possible. known as modu jackets. modu company holds the record for the world’s lightest mobile phone. The modu phone enables users to personalize their mobile's looks and features in a simple way by inserting it into a range of unique phone enclosures. On January 14 2011. The concept behind this design is that the phone is small enough to fit into any jeans pocket. Israel Area served Services Employees Website Israel and worldwide Mobile phone services 130+ [1] modu is an Israeli mobile phone company that was founded in 2007 by Dov Moran. and are thus larger in size. it was announced that modu will be ceasing operations in February 2011 as it attempts to pay back debts and salaries owed to its workers. and can be inserted into a variety of modu jackets. In this way. most of whom are suing the company in order to receive back pay. and has over 130 employees.

and shiny jackets offer enhanced mobile interfaces and experiences along with an ample range of fun new applications. The modu jacket. which also acts as a charger. calls. yet fully functional and innovative. It contains 2GB of internal memory and a music player. It is scheduled for distribution winter 2010 and holds the record for the lightest touch phone in the world. the modu sport jacket offers extended functionalities for training sessions. It can also be operated with a remote control. each surface creates a unique sound according to the density of the material from which it is made.75G or 3. plays music and ensures that the user is available when needed. Incredibly light. Further models are planned for the future. the phone will include a music player and a mass storage device of either 2. The photo frame jacket enables hands-free conversation and features a practical keypad that allows easy dialing and navigation through the modu phone menu.modu 216 Core: The modu 1 Phone The modu 1 phone is the heart of the modu jacket ecosystem and is the world’s lightest. With each individual modu jacket. cool and designed surround lighting and a camera. The i-mu speaker.5G. modu jackets Seven types of modu jackets are currently available. the modu phone adopts a new interface and range of functions. including the new generation of the modu phone – modu T phone. uses innovative technology to turn any surface on which it is placed into a resonance amplifier. speedy. fully functional phone and a record holder of the Guinness Book of Records™. Designed especially for exercisers. Hence. and Bluetooth™ applications. included in the product box. modu 1 phone Alternatively. monitors workouts. The modu express. The modu phone enables complete mobile functionality – texts. modu sport jacket modu express jacket modu night jacket modu shiny jacket modu speedy jacket photo frame jacket i-mu speaker . the modu night jacket turns the modu phone into a stylish device with a distinctive angled keyboard. The photo frame jacket serves as a desktop companion that charges the modu phone while displaying pictures and playing music. which wraps easily around the arm. as cited by the Guinness Book of World Records™.

Retrieved 2011-01-14. modumobile. [3] "Google acquires Modu" (http:/ / news. Engadget. Guatemala. Peru. com/ 2011/ 01/ 14/ modu-closing-up-shop-in-february/ ).Nigeria Globe . cnet.Philippines Mobicity .Romania Micromax . References • crunchgear entry (http://www.modu 217 Partnerships modu partners include: BUG . com/ 8301-13506_3-20064624-17. Retrieved 2011-05-20.Israel Claro . cnet. engadget.Brazil.com/) • Official modu blog (http://blog. .modumobile.com) .modumobile. com/ [2] "Modu closing up shop in February" (http:/ / www.online sales in Australia PurelyGadgets .techcrunch.online sales in United Kingdom TDT Distribution .India Notes [1] http:/ / www.com/353637/modu-cellphone-changes-function-with-jackets) • News stream about modu from TalkingMobile (http://talkingmobile. html). Honduras Conoxel .com/?s=modu) External links • modu entry (http://www. .com/2008/02/07/modu-revealed/) • Gizmodo entry (http://gizmodo. El Salvador.

Technical information on protocols. model H03BNC1102D0 External links • • • • • MULTITONE ELECTRONICS Inventors & manufacturers of paging systems [1] A Timeline of Motorola Milestones and Innovations (PDF) [2] POCSAG and FLeX pager gallery [3] NotePage technical support [4] . htm http:/ / www. the first pager that we would today recognize as such was Motorola's Pageboy I. motorola. pdf http:/ / www. it was portable and notified the wearer that a message had been sent. pagers quickly began to replace public announcement systems in hospital and factories.4 Volt mercury or 3. thanks largely to the success of this initial venture. Later versions of the Pageboy were able to deliver tone & voice. It used a UHF frequency from 464 to 475 MHz. The Motorola Pageboy used to be very popular with fire brigades as an alarm receiver and. ru/ pagers/ pagers. had no display and could not store messages. The first pager-like system was used in 1921 by the Detroit Police Department. The first implementation of the Pageboy alarm receiver could only give an attention tone. The successor of this device was the Motorola Pageboy II. infostream. com/ support. notepager. It was introduced in 1974 by the company and could selectively deliver a radio message to a particular individual. com/ mot/ doc/ 0/ 613_MotDoc. Motorola Pageboy. au/ . and they ran on a rechargeable 4. The pager was activated by a 5-tone code. multitone. However. com. carriers. starboy. html http:/ / www.6 Volt nickel-cadmium battery (NiCd). after the less known 1955 (not 1956 as believed) Pager called "Handie-Talkie Radio Pocket Pager". after which a voice message was transmitted.Motorola Pageboy 218 Motorola Pageboy Motorola Pageboy was the second pager ever produced by Motorola with individual-unit addressing. However. Infostream designer of pagers [5] Technical information on pager products References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] http:/ / www. etc. com/ http:/ / www.

The name Motricity is a combination of the words mobile and electricity. led by Advanced Equities Inc. Washington. information and education for hand-held and mobile devices. • $40 million in April 2006. In October 2004. New Enterprise Associates. from Chicago–based Advanced Equities Inc. Wuerch founded PowerByHand. the company changed its name to Motricity in October 2004 after its merger with Pinpoint Networks.. with participation from other existing investors.net in March 2004. eReader. Inc.. Private Funding • USD$27 million in July 2004. PowerByHand merged with Pinpoint Networks. one of the largest amounts of capital ever raised by a private company in North Carolina. led by Advanced Equities Inc. a European mobile content portal. with the smartphone applications business going to the newly created Pocketgear. with participation from other existing investors. in June.com in September 2003. These rounds raised the company's total funding to over USD$150 million. and Smartphone. including New Enterprise Associates and Technology Crossover Ventures. Corporate history In 2001.com in October 2002.Motricity 219 Motricity Motricity. Additional funding came from Carl Icahn in the form of USD$50 million in March 2007 and another USD$50 million in October of that same year.motricity. Originally formed as PowerByHand.. North Carolina and London. including PalmGear. with offices in Morrisville. the company changed its name to Motricity and announced the acquisition of Mobile2Day. • USD$30 million in July 2005. Washington. Type Founded Founder(s) Public (NASDAQ: MOTR 2001 Ryan Weurch [1] ) Headquarters Bellevue. and PocketGear. and Intel Capital.com [2] Motricity was formed in 2001 by Ryan Wuerch to provide integrated mobile content solutions for handheld and mobile devices. led by Silicon Valley-based Technology Crossover Ventures.de [3]. a company that provides content. as well as such existing investors as Technology Crossover Ventures.com. 2008[4] . to focus the company on mobile content delivery services. • USD$32 million in August 2006. PowerByHand acquired a number of commercial Internet companies. Advanced Equities . Motricity later sold off these acquired units. Inc. a provider of software and services for the management and delivery of mobile data services. The company currently has over 300 employees and is headquartered in Bellevue. This last was part of a USD$185 million round of funding. USA Key people Services Website Ryan Weurch (Chairman and CEO) Mobile Portal Services www. In April 2004.

BusinessWire. Pimentel. . Retrieved 2008-09-02. 2008-06-04. Kincaid. The total raised by this point in time was reported to be USD$405 million.com/) . newsobserver. MarketWatch. "Motricity to buy InfoSpace unit for $135 million" (http:/ / www. Norton. Retrieved 2008-09-02. PocketGear" (http:/ / www.000 shares at US$10 per share[8] . Benjamin (2010-06-18). The News & Observer. Motricity found that the mCore storefront acquired from InfoSpace was more technically appealing. newsobserver. adding to its USD$50 million already invested. "Mobile Tech Developer Motricity Files For $250 Million IPO" (http:/ / www. 220 Acquisition of InfoSpace Mobile Division and Future Direction The October 2007 round of funding was used in large part to finance the January 2008 acquisition of the mobile division of Seattle based Infospace for a reported USD$135 million[5] . com/ asp/ SummaryQuote. "Motricity shares fall in IPO despite reduced price range" (http:/ / www. Shortly after the InfoSpace acquisition was completed. References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] http:/ / quotes. The News & Observer. com/ http:/ / mobile2day. . 2010. and decided to move forward with that solution. 2010 the company filed for a $250 million IPO[7] . nasdaq. WA. . de/ "Motricity Co-Founder Launches New Venture. External links • Official website (http://www. TechCrunch. html). com/ business/ story/ 737571. The initial strategy of the company was to leverage the Fuel storefront solution with the newly acquired mCore mobile portal solution to present a total solution for mobile providers. html). com/ business/ story/ 980542. Frank (2008-03-04). businesswire. Jason (2010-01-22). Wolf. and the corporate headquarters moved to Bellevue. motricity. offering 6. The company went public on June 18. raised its investment by another USD$100 million. marketwatch. com/ news/ google/ 20080604005431/ en).Motricity Inc. . IPO On January 22. com/ story/ motricity-shares-fall-in-ipo-2010-06-18). . asp?symbol=MOTR& selected=MOTR http:/ / www. leaving approximately 100 employees remaining in Durham[6] . move headquarters" (http:/ / www.000. techcrunch. com/ 2010/ 01/ 22/ motricity-ipo).motricity. Retrieved 2010-07-29. "Motricity to slash 250 jobs. Retrieved 2010-01-24. This was followed shortly by the announcement that 250 employees based in Durham would be laid-off. Alan (2007-10-15). Retrieved 2008-09-02.

the MSRN is one of the returned parameters into SRI_ACK message. In particular the MSRN is used into an MNP scenario (in this case it can be modified as 'RgN + MSISDN').[2] . The MTV-1 used a minuscule 2" CRT. It can also be defined as a directory number temporarily assigned to a mobile for a mobile terminated call. Another temporary address that hides the identity of a subscriber. making it the smallest CRT built onto a commercially marketed product. the GSM specification indicates that the MSC and VLR (Visitor Location Register) do not need to reside on the same switch. Its physical size is almost identical to the Sinclair MTV1. A MSRN is assigned for every mobile terminated call. They are considered two different nodes as they have their own routing addresses. the visitor national destination code (VNDC). MSRN contains the current visitor country code(VCC). the identification of the current MSC together with the subscriber number. It was developed by Clive Sinclair and was released in 1978. not only the calls where the terminating MS lives on a different MSC than the originating MS. MTV-1 The MTV-1 was the first model of a near-pocket sized television.e. • Consider the Panasonic IC TV MODEL TR-001 introduced in 1970 as the first in this category.MSRN 221 MSRN MSRN . i. The VLR generates this address on request from the MSC. Sources • Retro thing [1] This device was uniquely small for a CRT-based television. the MTV-1A could receive PAL or NTSC transmissions on VHF or UHF. There were two versions. while the MTV-1B would only work with British and South African UHF PAL signals. If we have all the MSC working as a GMSC like the latest technologies so what would be the states of the MSRN ? we can use it only for test to route the calls to a specific MSC otherwise we don't need it to use it.Mobile Station Roaming Number The Mobile Station Roaming Number is an E. Although this seems unnecessary since many vendors' VLR's are integrated with the MSC.214 defined telephone number used to route telephone calls in a mobile network from a GMSC (Gateway Mobile Switching Centre) to the target MSC (see Network Switching Subsystem).and the address is also stored in the HLR.

htm Multi-band In telecommunications.visions4. the first tri-band mobile phone (1999) . guenthoer. net/ journal/ time-line/ http:/ / www. the purpose of doing so is to support roaming between different countries/regions whose infrastructure cannot support mobile services in the same frequency range. visions4. tri-band.MTV-1 222 External links • Franks Handheld TV Pages-Part 2 [3] • Franks Handheld TV Pages-Internal Pictures [4] • Vintage Micro Television http://www. dual-band. Motorola Timeport. retrothing. quad-band and penta-band refer to a device (especially a mobile phone) supporting multiple frequencies used for communication. de/ e-tube. de/ mtv1/ index. the terms multi-band. com/ video_tv/ index.net/journal/time-line/ References [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / www. In the mobile case. guenthoer. htm http:/ / www. html http:/ / www.

5 . . Toward Forward Link Interference Cancellation (http:/ / to. cdg. Soonyil Kwon. The near-far is more serious in CDMA-liked wireless multi-user communication systems. Standards ETSI • EN 300 748 • EN 301 215-3 • EN 301 997-2 UK Standards • MPT 1550 (obsolete) • MPT 1560 (obsolete) CEPT • ERC/DEC/(99)15 • ECC/REC/(01)04 Manufacturers of MVDS equipment • • • • • • • MDS America Inc Newtec EF Data BluWan Philips Broadband Network Hughes Network systems Thales Group (Thomson) . CA: CDMA Development Group Technology Forum (http:/ / www. MVDS MVDS is an acronym for terrestrial Multipoint Video Distribution System. Kim. com/ CDG-TowardForwardLinkInterferenceCan. swang. Research for 42 GHz frequency has been done under the European Commition EMBRACE (Efficient Millimetre Broadband Radio Access for Convergence and Evolution) initiative. googlepages. And multiuser detection techniques can help the receiver solve this problem [1] . In European Union MWS works in 10. where a near-by or strong signal source may block the signal receiption of far-away or weak user(s). & Hobin Kim (2006).7 .5 and 40. San Francisco.5 GHz frequency bands. References [1] Shu Wang. Traditionally single-user receiver is known suffering from the so-called near-far problem. Sang G.13. org/ news/ events/ CDMASeminar/ 060420_NetworkCap/ ).43.Multiuser detection 223 Multiuser detection Multiuser detection (also known as joint detection) is one of the receiver design technology for detecting desired signal(s) from interference and noise. MVDS currently is a part of broader MWS (Multimedia Wireless System) standards. pdf).

External links • Official Site [1] • Mxim hosting servers [1] References [1] http:/ / www. It allows web developers can work using mxml to port web sites to the mobile applications. com . How it works? Mxim applications can develop using mxml and Mxim server renders mxml application user interface. It works with Java enabled devices.p. Mxim Content Server Mxim Content Server is content serving solution for mxim applications. Mxim. and behaves nearly like a web solutions including device level controls. Overview Mxim Framework is application development framework for mobile phones.A (TDN) Marconi Technology Centres (GMTT) United Monolithic Semiconductors (UMS) DOK Ltd (Elvalink) Q-par Angus Ltd 224 Mxim Mxim (Method to serve text and images) is an application development framework for hand held devices. mximframework. It is a benchmark architecture for serving browseable content on cross platform devices. browseable content serving technology for hand held devices.MVDS • • • • • • Trophy electronics Technosystem Digital Network S.

navizon. Navizon has the ability to run in the background. iPhone. Inc Type Industry Founded Founder(s) Inc Telecommunications 2005 Cyril Houri Headquarters New York. NY. It can also be used as an alternative to GPS on devices that don't have a GPS chip but have a Wi-Fi or Cellular radio.S.app The software uses a unique technology to improve the coverage and accuracy of the system and covers the U. Navizon was the first virtual GPS available for a jailbroken iPhone and the most downloaded through Installer. Moreover. Mexens Technology Inc has received a Patent for its “System and Method for Enabling Continuous Geographic Location Estimation for Wireless Computing Devices” [2] (US Patent No. Wi-Fi and Cellular triangulation techniques. 7397424). com [1] Navizon is a hybrid positioning system combining GPS. It calculates the geographic location of a wireless device by analyzing the signals from nearby Wi-Fi access points and cellular towers and comparing it against a database of known data points. It can also be used to improve the time of acquisition of a position fix which can take up to 5 minutes with a standard GPS and less than one second with Wi-Fi or Cellular triangulation. The software can be installed on several platforms such as Windows Mobile. trail logging capability and MobiFindr that lets a user get a device's location just by sending a text message to it. Applications Navizon includes some built-in features such as the Buddy Finder. allowing the user to open other applications on his device at the same time. Europe and urban areas worldwide.. Symbian S60 and some Java ME phones. Technology Navizon is an open system with a collaborative approach: it uses the data collected by users with a GPS device to improve the coverage and accuracy of the system when used in Wi-Fi or Cellular positioning modes. the Alert System (also known as Geofencing). . United States Key people Products Services Website Cyril Houri.Navizon 225 Navizon Mexens Technology. BlackBerry. It can be used as an Assisted GPS by switching to Wi-Fi or Cellular positioning modes when GPS signals are weak or unavailable such as in an indoors environment. CEO Navizon Virtual GPS Location-Based Services & Positioning Technologies http:/ / www.

com/2008/06/04/ location-technologies-primer/) • Navizon updates (http://www.intomobile.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PALL&p=1& u=/netahtml/PTO/srchnum.com/ gadgets/notag/iphone-faux+gps-hack-works-and-is-awesome-301459. & OS=PN/ 7397424& RS=PN/ 7397424 • Gizmodo September 2007 -Navizon faux GPS Hacks for IPhone works and is awesome (http://gizmodo.PN.html) • Navizon Patent (http://patft. The application runs in the background of the device allowing the location to be updated while other applications are running. uspto.php) • Engadget Mobile June 2008 -"Navizon's Mobfindr gets your phone to text home" (http://www. gov/ netacgi/ nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1& Sect2=HITOFF& d=PALL& p=1& u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.com) • Navizon Official Blog (http://navizon.&OS=PN/7397424&RS=PN/ 7397424) External links • Navizon Official Website (http://www. com/2008/06/29/navizons-mobfindr-gets-your-phone-to-text-home/) • Techcrunch June 2008 .000 people are registered worldwide thus improving every day the precision of the navigation system.Navizon 226 Community Navizon's strong growing community is unique by its diversity of cross-platforms and cross-carriers users.techcrunch. navizon. htm& r=1& f=G& l=50& s1=7397424. Development The Navizon Software Development Kit (SDK) allows developers to include the Navizon positioning system into their own application. 700.uspto.com) .htm&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=7397424."Location Technologies Primer" (http://www. com [2] http:/ / patft.com/2008/02/11/ navizon-updated-to-include-moving-mode-alerts-and-more. References [1] http:/ / www.engadgetmobile.typepad. Contributors are rewarded when they discover new Wi-Fi access points or new cell towers. PN. This is one of the key factor of the community growth.navizon.

the carrier frequency is 13. The standard modulation schemes used in typical RF communications (amplitude modulation.000 times) lower than an equivalent intentional far-field system. is immune from radio frequency (RF) interference and virtually secure from eavesdropping. Uses Near Field Magnetic Induction technology secures wireless communication between two-way radio accessories by creating a magnetic communication "bubble" around headsets. This type of transmission is referred to as "far-field. NFMI systems are designed to contain transmission energy within the localized magnetic field. the power density of far-field transmissions attenuates or rolls off at a rate proportional to the inverse of the range to the second power (1/range2) or -20dB per decade. phase modulation." According to Maxwell's equation for a radiating wire. to intercept wireless transmissions to and from a microphone or headset. the power density of near-field transmissions is extremely restrictive and attenuates or rolls off at a rate proportional to the inverse of the range to the sixth power (1/range6) or -60dB per decade. wireless safety and wireless security with portable radio accessories. low-power.52 meters. and frequency modulation) can be used in near-field magnetic induction systems. In these types of systems all of the transmission energy is designed to radiate into free space. Background: technical concepts Near field magnetic induction communication (NFMIC) systems differ from other wireless communications in that most conventional wireless RF systems use an antenna to generate and transmit a propagated electromagnetic wave. at which point the propagating energy from the NFMI system conforms to the same propagation rules as any far-field system. The crossover point between near-field and far-field occurs at approximately _/2_. non-propagating magnetic field between devices. The concept is for a transmitter coil in one device to modulate a magnetic field which is measured by means of a receiver coil in another device. In Diagram 2. This magnetic field energy resonates around the communication system. non-propagating magnetic field between devices.Near-field magnetic induction communication 227 Near-field magnetic induction communication A near field magnetic induction communication system is a short range wireless physical layer that communicates by coupling a tight. At this frequency the crossover occurs at 3.000. rolling off at -20dB per decade. but does not radiate into free space. The system uses a short range (less than 2 meters) wireless physical layer that communicates by coupling a tight." As shown in the graph below. This slow attenuation over distance allows far-field transmissions to communicate effectively over a long range. This type of transmission is referred to as "near-field. Near Field Magnetic Induction Communication technology enables users of two-way radios to experience wireless mobility. This magnetic bubble has a radius of approximately 1.5 meters. An eavesdropper would have to be standing next to the radio. At this distance the propagated energy levels are -40dB to -60dB (10.000 to 1. low-power. within the magnetic bubble. .56MHz and has a wavelength (_) of 22 meters. speaker-microphones and radios. The properties that make long range communication possible are a disadvantage for short range communication systems. The concept is for a transmitter coil in one device to modulate a magnetic field which is measured by means of a receiver coil in another device.

pdf http:/ / www. freelinc. com/ downloads/ LawOrder_Aug2006_1-18103181-eprint.Near-field magnetic induction communication 228 References • • • • • FreeLinc [1] Near-Field Magnetic Induction Technology [2] Law and Order: The Magazine for Police Management [3] Two-way Radio Wireless Communication Accessories: Technology & Company Abstract [4] United States Patent and Trademark Office [5] References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] http:/ / www. pdf http:/ / www. com/ downloads/ FreeLinc%20NFMI%20White%20Paper. freelinc. pdf http:/ / www. com/ downloads/ FreeLinc_Intro_WhitePaper_8-01-06. com http:/ / www. freelinc. gov/ . uspto. freelinc.

Avaya. Datastrip. Inc.[7] Operations The bulk of the company's operations are located at the North American headquarters in Seattle. healthcare. Washington Products Employees Website Mobile VPN Software ~100 [1] NetMotion Wireless is a privately-held software company. In 2005.[2] History The company was formed in 2001 as a spin off from WRQ. a private equity firm with more than $1 billion under management. as one of the fastest-growing private companies in America. Three sales offices in Europe handle international sales including sales into Australia. Motion Computing. TELELOGOS. Intermec. focusing on productivity and management.[8] NetMotion Wireless has an intellectual property portfolio of a dozen U. wireless industry executive Bob Hunsberger became CEO. Ipelium. New Zealand and several African countries. insurance. Microsoft. Inc.[2] In September of 2010. public safety. Its software is used in public utilities.NetMotion Wireless 229 NetMotion Wireless NetMotion Wireless Type Industry Private Computer software technology services Seattle. RSA. Sierra Wireless. system integrators and standards and certification bodies. Washington. OESIS OK.[3] In 2006. hardware manufacturers. founded in 2001 and based in Seattle. Scientel Wireless. to help those organizations secure and optimize their investments in wireless data networking. InfoExpress.S. Motorola. NetMotion merged with Padcom. T-Mobile and Verizon Wireless. Washington (2001) Founded Headquarters Seattle.[4] The majority shareholder became Liberty Partners[5] . These partners include AT&T. field service. transportation and other industries.[9] It also has strategic alliances with cellular carriers. NetMotion Wireless develops software and solutions for organizations with mobile workforces. Washington. Sprint. Palm.[10] . telecommunications. Sybase iAnywhere. software developers.[6] Other venture firms hold minority positions. the company was recognized by Inc. patents. knk.

6 . maintains and optimizes data connections for these workers as they move in and out of wireless coverage areas and roam between networks. City of Hays (KS). Ameren Corporation. Visiting Nurses of New York. St. Puget Sound Blood Center.FIPS 140-2 validated encryption • Version 7. TSI Terminal Systems Inc. for greater security and integration with systems management software • Version 9.5 . while resolving performance and security issues.5 .Support for Windows 7 64-bit client and Windows Server 2008 R2 and additional support for FIPS 140-2 Customers Among the 1. James Parish (LA). Wichita Clinic.[18] Industry Awards and Recognition NetMotion has been named as one of the fastest-growing wireless companies in the U. Southeast Water (UK). including: • Ranked on the Deloitte LLP list of the fastest growing technology.NetMotion Wireless 230 Products NetMotion’s primary product is Mobility XE. Beckman Coulter. JEA. Mobile County (AL). Strack.000 concurrent device sessions and support for RSA SecurID two-factor authentication • Version 7. Marshfield Clinic. • Named on the Inc. It secures. Grange Insurance..[15] Mobility XE Releases:[16] • Version 6.Authentication of the device as well as the user. Comcast.2 . MHMR Centers of Texas.900 organizations and more than 500. Continental Airlines. Colorado Springs Police Department.Analytics Module and support for two-factor authentication via smart cards and X. Johnson County (KS).[14] It also includes management features that give administrators visibility and control over those mobile devices. a Mobile VPN for mobile workers who use computing devices.Web acceleration and new policy management features for controlling access from/to specific applications and networks • Version 6.000 mobile workers. Ltd. and their network connections and application sessions alive as they encounter coverage gaps and interruptions and roam between networks.900 customers of NetMotion Wireless are Advocate Health Care. 500 | 5000 list of America's Fastest-Growing Private Companies[7] • Recognized as one of Washington State's 100 Fastest-Growing Private Companies[21] • Voted one of Washington State's 100 Best Companies to Work For[2] • Microsoft Gold Certified Partner for Mobility Solutions[22] .[8] The essential functionality of the product is its ability to keep workers continuously logged in. Orange County Sheriff’s Department.QoS capability for real-time applications such as VoIP • Version 8.Network Access Control and recovery from Packet loss for real-time applications[17] • Version 8. Birmingham City Council (UK). Gallatin County (MT).509v3 digital certificates • Version 9. Cox Communications. New York State Police. Diamond Management and Technology Consultants. telecommunications. Luke Medical System. Hertz. City of Aurora (CO). Windstream Communications. Optident. Monroe County Sheriff’s Department (FL). and has earned more than 25 industry awards[2] . City of Orlando.0 . and Worksafe BC. Bell Ambulance.0 . Joseph’s Hospital (WI).[11] [12] [13] Mobility XE is used by more than 1. media.0 ..S. Trican Well Service. Unilever.Expanded capacity of up to 15. Florida Highway Patrol. life sciences and clean technology companies in North America in 2009[19] and 2010[20] . St. St. Lee Memorial Health System.1 .

2005 (retrieved December 10. libertypartners. netmotionwireless. [14] Phifer. retrieved December 10. September 17. February 8. [18] www. VoIP Planet. cfm/ Fuseaction/ Portfolio.com/partners/alliances.com.netmotionwireless. viewCompany/ companyID/ 31. com/ magazine/ 20100901/ index. [19] "Deloitte's 2009 Technology Fast 500" (http:/ / www. 2010) External Links • Official website (http://www. 2010) [22] "NetMotion Wireless Attains Gold Certified Partner Status in Microsoft Partner Program" (http:/ / www. 2008-05-07 (http:/ / www.netmotionwireless. 2010 (retrieved December 10. techtarget. 2010. netmotionwireless. 2010 [21] "Washington's 100 Fastest-Growing Private Companies revealed" (http:/ / www. July 16. retrieved December 11. com/ partners/ alliances. netmotionwireless. html). pdf) [16] Release history on NetMotion Web site (http:/ / www. com/ index. html). 2010. hoovers.com/) • Strategic Alliance and Marketing Partners (http://www. html). [23] "Enterprise Mobility Validated Solutions Search (http:/ / www. 2006.com (http:/ / www. bizjournals. com/ assets/ Dcom-UnitedStates/ Local Assets/ Documents/ TMT_us_tmt/ us_tmt_2010 Technology Fast 500 Winners Brochure_191010. com/ seattle/ stories/ 2010/ 09/ 13/ daily35. com/ company/ press/ 09_01_2009. aspx?LinkIdentifier=id& ItemID=1381) [3] NetMotion Wireless Achieves Record Growth in Second Half of 2004. netmotionwireless. [13] Hoover's company profile (http:/ / www. com [2] NetMotion Company Backgrounder (http:/ / www. html). retrieved December 10. 2010. rcrwireless. [4] "NetMotion. com/ tip/ 0. Lisa. com/ assets/ Dcom-UnitedStates/ Local Assets/ Documents/ TMT_us_tmt/ us_tmt_Fast500winners_101509. 2010. com/ uploadedFiles/ Resources/ Collateral/ NetMotion-Wireless_Mobility-XE_9. pdf) [9] What's New in Mobility XE 9. (searched/confirmed December 10. com/ WorkArea/ linkit.NetMotion Wireless • Motorola Enterprise Mobility Validated Solution[23] 231 References [1] http:/ / www. com/ uploadedFiles/ Resources/ Collateral/ NetMotion-Wireless_Fact-Sheet_CO. com/ solutions/ article.289483. RCR Wireless News. deloitte. com) [7] "Meet the 2010 Inc. com). netmotionwireless. com/ company/ NetMotion_Wireless_Inc/ ryrchri-1.sid40_gci1210989_mem1. [15] Product Datasheet. amalgamated from case studies and press releases. php/ 3745401). libertypartners.netmotionwireless. com/ Business/ US-EN/ Channel+ Partners/ PartnerSelect/ Motorola+ Validated+ Solutions/ Enterprise+ Mobility+ Validated+ Solutions). SearchMobileComputing. retrieved December 10.aspx) • Customer Case Studies (http://www. html). NetMotion Web site (http:/ / www. deloitte. September 2010 (retrieved December 10. aspx). [10] Strategic Alliance and Marketing Partners (http:/ / www. retrieved December 11. pdf).netmotionwireless. com/ products/ whatsnew. netmotionwireless.libertypartners. com/ assets/ MobilityXE_datasheet. [5] NetMotion Wireless page on Liberty Partners site (http:/ / www.aspx) . 2-Whats-New_2010. pdf). com/ corporate/ company/ 12369/ Netmotion-Wireless. Padcom settle patent lawsuit with merger" (http:/ / www. inc.com (http:/ / www. netmotionwireless. "Mobile VPN: Closing the Gap" (http:/ / searchmobilecomputing. 2010) [8] NetMotion Wireless Company Fact Sheet (http:/ / www. Adds Industry Veteran as New Chief Executive (http:/ / www. retrieved December 10. netmotionwireless. 2010). retrieved December 10. aspx). aspx) [17] "NetMotion Brings Cross-Network Support to Wireless VoIP". [11] BioPortfolio company profile (http:/ / www. com/ article/ 20060615/ SUB/ 606150710). com/ company/ press/ 02_2005. [12] CrunchBase company profile (http:/ / www. pdf) [20] "Deloitte's 2010 Technology Fast 500" (http:/ / www. aspx). 2010. 2010.00.2 (http:/ / www. crunchbase. voipplanet. netmotionwireless.com/resources/case_studies. cfm) [6] www. 5000 | A List of America's Fastest-Growing Private Companies" (http:/ / www. motorola. bioportfolio. com/ company/ netmotion-wireless). 2006-06-15. netmotionwireless.

The latter one is uni-directional and used for large amounts of data like media content.) needed to implement the defined Nodes. The only means for a sub-system to use the other Sub-systems' resources is via Service Nodes. Low Interconnect provides network socket interface with uniform addressing mechanism. namely High Interconnect (H_IN) and Low Interconnect (L_IN). controllers. NoTA device consists of Service Nodes (SN) and Application Nodes (AN) that communicate through logical Interconnect (IN). Service Nodes have unique Service Identifier (SID). The former provides means for service activation and deactivation as well as service and stream accesses. Interconnect is divided into two layers. memories. NoTA principles • • • • • Loosely coupled Service based Interconnect centric Message & data driven (GALS) Implementation-wise heterogeneous . namely message based and streaming type. L_IN internally can be divided into transport network independent and dependent [1] parts. Sub-system consists of all the software and hardware resources (including peripherals. internal buses etc. Service Nodes and Application Nodes map into sub-systems consisting of all software and hardware resources needed to implement those. In order to maintain system level modularity. The former is bi-directional and used for Service Messages. NoTA) is a modular service based system architecture for mobile and embedded devices. Every NoTA Sub-system consists of the NoTA Interconnect stack. IN provides two basic means of communication.e. NoTA enables mobile device makers speed-up their product development by shortening the integration phase.Network on Terminal Architecture 232 Network on Terminal Architecture Network on Terminal Architecture (i. MIPI Alliance originated solutions are expected to be key enablers for wide use of NoTA. Additionally NoTA makes it possible to quickly bring-in 3rd party innovations into the products due to loosely coupled and functional-driver -less approach. the only way for a node to use SW&HW resources from other sub-systems is through Services Nodes. NoTA Main architecture NoTA Interconnect architecture NoTA Sub-system provides the physical implementation for a set of Nodes (ANs and/or SNs).

Scalability in integration level allows product companies to do fast cost optimization without major extra R&D effort. called DOA (Direct Object Access). off-chip interconnect with on-chip interconnect does not destroy the device functionality. Future Development Due to being agnostic to transport technology. An excellent outcome reveiled in the TronShow2010 [7] is the intelligent house built in Taiwan utilizing both the T-Kernel and NoTA technologies.org/nota. allows direct memory-to-memory streaming between different NoTA subsystems. activation/deactivation. NoTA type system-level modularity allows technology vendors to do the implementation and testing without heavy involvement with other Sub-system provides (e. Product vendors can purchase already productized NoTA Sub-systems removing time needed for vendor specific requirements definition. NoTA can be used for many inter-device use-cases (wireless based L_INdown). NoTA Interconnect Release 1 was released in December 2005.g. Release 1 only consisted of Service communication. Release 2 came out during the second half of 2006. the application engine). In addition. . [4] Linux Kernel optimized Debian package is also available through gitorious.org/knota [5]. In case there are no ready-made products on the market. So called NoTA Virtual Device (NVD) is expected to provide a solution here. VTT (Technical Research Center of Finland) has demonstrated their NoTA (and Smart M3) based intelligent Greenhouse. as well as prepare the company to face the expected horizontalization and digital convergence. Through the NVD one can build combined service platforms where the services can be running intra-device.org [3] or gitorious. Product companies are more agile to adopt new technology or technology that better meets users' needs in digital convergence devices. in Finland (SHOK DIEM [6]) and in Japan to aply NoTA in the ubiquitous world. Firstly system-level modularity allows free and fair competition between different technology vendors reducing Sub-system costs. This functionality. More practical example is to integrate multiple ICs into the same package (e. NoTA core is physical interconnect agnostic and hence replacing e.Network on Terminal Architecture 233 History The NoTA concept and the first implementations were the result of internal Nokia Research Center [2] activities started in 2003.g.notaworld. discovery and access. Performance and features meeting end-user needs.g. implementation and integration phases. Benefits in product development Fast-time-to-market is possible due to multiple reasons. Reference implemenation source code packages (user-space) can be downloaded from either www. The objective of this work was to develop a novel embedded device architecture that could solve the existing R&D challenges. through stacking) and use package internal interconnect technologies. with a handle based stream referencing approach. Secondly in many cases product vendors do not have to bear costs incurring from sub-system adaptation work specific to their technologies. Cost reduction in product development can be achieved in two dimensions. There are currently projects running e. Release 3 became the official public release comprising all the essential functionalities. The NoTA basic framework was strongly influenced by Network-on-Chip (NoC) and Web Services research.g. Release 2 added efficient data communication means. [8] Extending NoTA to the Internet is one of the research topics. inter-device and/or in the Internet.

Rakkola. J. et al. mipi. org/ knota/ [6] http:/ / www.S. pdf [15] http:/ / akseli. fi/ en/ device [7] http:/ / www. fi/ proj/ notaconference2009/ index. WWRF-16.1st Oct. TUCS Technical Report No. tekes. tivit. forum. Risto Suoranta.841. • Mobile Device Industry Goes Horizontal. Risto Suoranta.notaworld. Dragos Truscan. ac. Samu Kontinen. jsp?lang=en [10] http:/ / www. Ian Oliver and Timo Eriksson. php?fname=TR841. MARTES Finnish Partners’ Workshop Tampere. D. jsp?lang=en [11] https:/ / projects.Network on Terminal Architecture 234 Events • NoTA2008 .Truscan. pdf [13] http:/ / www. vtt. Artist workshop on Foundations of Component-Based Design. May 17.Lilius. youtube. uk/ deliverables/ rodinD8.2nd International NoTA Conference. fi/ proj/ notaconference/ index. 30th Sept. U. 11th June 2008 [9] • NoTA2009 . CA.Lindqvist. Jörg Brakensiek. Johan Lilius. J. org/ [2] http:/ / research.1st International NoTA Conference. Turku Centre for Computing Sciences. Johan Lindqvist. 4th Oct. Klaus Kronlöf. Finland. Ivan Porres and Timo O. pdf . 2009 [10] References • NoTA Rel3 Specifications. Ian Oliver. Keynote material. fi/ publications/ attachment. artist-embedded. cs. I. UBIQ Seminar. • Mobile Service based Platform Architecture for Mobile Devices. nokia. ISQED 2006. Shanghai. Samu Kontinen. .Latva-Aho.Eriksson. Report on the case study: Formal Techniques in MDA context. com/ watch?v=bBiZKInFm-8 [9] http:/ / www3. tronshow. fi/ opencms/ opencms/ OhjelmaPortaali/ ohjelmat/ ELMO/ fi/ Dokumenttiarkisto/ Viestinta_ja_aktivointi/ Seminaarit/ MARTES_seminar_2006/ MARTES_Tampere_170506. • New Directions in Mobile Device Architectures. Helsinki. Springer Netherlands.. J.org [3] • Testable Specifications of NoTA-based Modular Embedded Systems. Klaus Kronlöf. • Specification and Validation of Non-Functional Constraints. nokia. vtt.Porres. org/ index-e. com/ NoTA/ wiki#no1 [12] http:/ / www. Advances in Design and Specification Languages for Embedded Systems. tucs. org/ docs/ Events/ 2007/ Components/ Slides/ JohanLilius. 2007.A. September 2007 [12] • Distributed intelligence – From devices to Smart spaces. 2007 [13] • Section 4. 2006 [15]. [11] • http://www. 9th EUROMICRO Conference. • Use Case Driven Platform Development. ncl. html [8] http:/ / www. San Jose. DSD 2006 • A Method for Mobile Terminal Platform Architecture Development. pdf [14] http:/ / rodin. 9 May 2007. Vesa Luukkala. org [4] http:/ / gitorious. Risto Suoranta. References [1] http:/ / www. com/ [3] http:/ / www. Rodin Project IST-511599 [14]. T. A. org/ nota/ [5] http:/ / gitorious. 2006. notaworld. Eriksson. Dr.

.-+ | Application | +....-+ | Physical | +.-+ | Network Layer| +............-+ | -+ | -+ | -+ | -+ | -+ | -+ +..| AS +....| Channels +....| HTTP +.-+ Functionality Following form the part of Non Access Stratum • • • • Mobility management Call control Session management Identity management .| IP +..........-+ | Internet | +..........-+ | Link Layer | +.....Non Access Stratum 235 Non Access Stratum Non Access Stratum (NAS) is a functional layer in the Wireless Telecom protocol stack between Core Network and User Equipment........ +..| TCP +...| NAS +. The layer supports signalling and traffic between those two elements...-+ | Transport | +.

With the OCS. This leads to a stable but versatile system infrastructure. . It handles non real-time charging requirements. and its charging execution process is not directly involved in service application control. The OCS offers unprecedented flexibility and extendibility. gives the ball to the marketing department to run with it. Phones with dual. The traditional billing system is always offline based on CDR file processing. The OCS is oriented to all subscriber types and service types. Versatile system infrastructure The OCS has abstracted major objects of all charging processes as the pillars of its infrastructure and adopts customer-oriented design ideas. making it a core basis for convergent billing in the network. based on service usage Architecture Functions within the OCS Online Charging Functions Characteristics Unified charging engine for all services The traditional IN provides real-time charging & rating capabilities only to prepaid subscribers. or you could say. and the product launch period is greatly shortened. It is based on a model that separates subscribers from accounts as well as features an off-the-shelf product management mode. It completely breaks away from the traditional offline hard coding development mode based on service flow. Rapidly boosted marketing capabilities Both the traditional IN and the billing system are somewhat passive support systems for market promotion with the limited charging capabilities. in real time. Online charging system Online charging system (OCS) is a system allowing a Communications service provider to charge their customers. which enables online tariff configurations through rule-driven engine technology.The NAM is the electronic memory in the cellular phone that stores the telephone number and an Electronic Serial Number.or multi-NAM features offer users the option of registering the phone with a local number in more than one market. the marketing department can really explore network resource potentials and the desires of subscribers. to create personalized and feasible promotion strategies that meet the marketing objectives.Number Assignment Module 236 Number Assignment Module Number Assignment Module (NAM) . offers unified online charging and online control capabilities and can be used as a unified charging engine for all network services.

and interwork with subscribers in real time. Suppose that end users receive SMSs from the mobile operator. but also according to cultures. a subscriber can be charged according to how long he/she has used the service. telecom product pricing is much more diversified. A couple of years ago. price is usually the most important consideration when subscribers make their final choices. and explosive growth of service innovations. while improving subscriber experiences. The operator can then accurately work out differentiated pricing policies based on customer segmentation. Based on real applications Due to the development of new communications technologies. occupations and income. there are a variety of new elements including: location. It has helped many operators to accumulate valuable experience. etc. and revenue distribution in the value chain. or even to the status of a single user. Based on various occasions Promotion offers can also be implemented from periodic holidays for the whole customer base. Its billing system can offer superb flexibility and a much wider billing space. Canada. the Director of Service Architecture. Telus. informing them that since they have used the network for 300 days. wide-range penetration of the Internet. but now many of them are busy figuring out how they could implement the OCS in their existing networks. simpler and more effective than innovating service functions. or accumulation of usage. frequency and traffic. their recharge value on that day would be doubled as a bonus. The communications market might be the most complicated and flexible in product pricing among all the consumable industries. to some particular local events for a group of users. Although various bells and whistles influence some customers. Based on customer segmentation As market competition heats up.Online charging system 237 Seizing earlier market opportunities Innovating tariff policies is much easier. operators can be proactive in the battle with changing market environments. For example. operators were wondering whether or not they needed the OCS. As a matter of fact. but a practical scheme that can be integrated into the existing network environment. to satisfy the value perceptions of different subscribers. and they would be entitled to new discounts on each 100th day thereafter. Successful operations remain the biggest concern for operators. end users can be segmented not only according to their ages. In this way. Many operators show far more enthusiasm towards new services than towards tariff policies when choosing from the two core parts of communications products. the operator can create differentiated pricing policies that meet market needs while increasing customer satisfaction and generating word-of-mouth advertising. multi-service association. Most likely they would be happy to keep the subscription and tell their friends what a great deal it is. Worldwide commercial successes Presently. even based on his/her birthday. bearer type. "What we need is not a new technology. to achieve the marketing targets. . nationalities and behavioral patterns and so on." said Shane Logan. such as call duration. access channel. contents. as to be detailed below. strengthen competitiveness and win in their respective markets. it is faster and more cost-effective for operators to adjust tariff policies than to modify product functions and services. the OCS solution is quite technically mature. namely services (including tangible applications and intangible customer care) and pricing. By flexibly using these widely ranged factors and source materials. In addition to the traditional basic elements.

Charging management. htm http:/ / www. China Mobile Guangdong. the largest multinational mobile operator in the Middle East. htm http:/ / www.0 OMA Charging V1. According to experts in the telecom industry. As a result. China Mobile Guangdong has won a bigger market share and provides outstanding service to more than 80 million subscribers.Online charging system In different network environments. Asia Pacific and Africa are integrating the OCS in their networks. Charging architecture and principles 3GPP 32. and increasingly more are welcoming their debut. some operators can reconstruct their existing networks to make the networks evolve to the OCS. org/ ftp/ Specs/ html-info/ 32240. By offering more flexible tariff policies.296 [1] • 3GPP Telecommunication management. 3gpp. in Southern China has constructed the world's largest mobile IN. Their efforts were soon rewarded. and adopted the convergent billing scheme with the OCS as the core. If their existing charging systems possess strong technical capabilities and market performance.0 [3] External links • Opencharging [4] Java Open Source Online Charging System References [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / www.240 [2] • Open Mobile Alliance (OMA) Charging V1.. 3gpp. different measures should be taken to implement the OCS. aspx http:/ / www. these new operators can provide network services quickly and lower the TCO greatly. To realize convergent billing. Online Charging System (OCS): Applications and interfaces 3GPP 32. org/ . The system is able to cover the charging and billing requirements for all subscribers and services. A new operator can construct the OCS or even a comprehensive convergent billing network directly. the telecom industry has witnessed overwhelming success through commercial applications of the OCS. Operators from more than a dozen countries in Europe. 238 References • 3GPP Telecommunication management. China Mobile Guangdong completed reconstructing the existing IN and deployed the first commercial OCS in the world which meets 3GPP specifications and paved the way towards large-scale evolution for existing INs. Middle East. adopted a unified convergent billing system with the OCS as the core while constructing a new network in Nigeria. openmobilealliance. In April 2007. Etisalat. To date. org/ ftp/ Specs/ html-info/ 32296. new networks have for the most part discarded the traditional mode of constructing the IN and the billing system separately. Other operators might need to adopt a new OCS to replace the existing systems if they will not support evolution. Charging management. opencharging. org/ technical/ release_program/ charging_v1_0. China Mobile Guangdong planned to gradually integrate existing prepaid and post-paid systems into the new solution.

openhandsetalliance. Products At the same time as the announcement of the formation of the Open Handset Alliance on 5 November 2007. Dell. Handset manufacturers [www.com] The Open Handset Alliance (OHA) is a business alliance of 83 firms to develop open standards for mobile devices.[5] . Commercialization companies.com www.[4] and became available on 22 October.openhandsetalliance. Intel.Open Handset Alliance 239 Open Handset Alliance Abbreviation Formation Type OHA 2007 Open mobile platform (Android) development organization Region served Worldwide Membership Website Mobile operators. Nokia. Samsung. some mobile carriers and chip makers. the flagship software of the alliance. T-Mobile. Microsoft. Member firms include Google.(Symbian).[2] Android. LG. Research In Motion. Qualcomm. Motorola. the OHA also unveiled Android. and Samsung Electronics (bada). is based on an open source license and competes against mobile platforms from Apple. It was approved by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) on 18 August 2008.[1] An early look at the SDK was released to developers on 12 November 2007. application developers. led by Google with 34 members including mobile handset makers. HP (formerly Palm). HTC. Texas Instruments. Sony. an open source mobile phone platform based on the Linux kernel of the GNU/Linux operating system.[1] History The OHA was established on 5 November 2007. Software companies. Semiconductor companies.[3] The first commercially available phone running Android was the T-Mobile G1 (also known as the HTC Dream). Nvidia. and Wind River Systems. Sony Ericsson.

(joined as SiRF) Intel Corporation Marvell Technology Group Nvidia Corporation Qualcomm Synaptics Texas Instruments AKM Semiconductor ARM Atheros Communications ST-Ericsson (joined as Ericsson Mobile Platforms) HTC LG Sony Motorola Samsung Electronics December [7] 2008 • • Vodafone Softbank Borqs Teleca • • • • • • • • • • ASUSTek Garmin Huawei Technologies Sony Ericsson Toshiba Dell May-June 2009 September 2009 January 2010 • China Unicom [8] • SVOX [9] • • Acer [10] MIPS [11] Technologies • • Sasken Communication Technologies [12] Limited ZTE [13] Corporation May 2010 • NXP [14] Software Access [15] [17] • July 2010 November 2010 • • MediaTek [16] VisualOn .Open Handset Alliance 240 Members The members of the Open Handset Alliance are: Joining date Mobile operators KDDI Corporation NTT DoCoMo Sprint Nextel T-Mobile China Mobile Telecom Italia Telefónica Software companies • • • • • • • • • Commercialization Semiconductor companies companies • • • • Handset manufacturers • • • • • • Founding [6] • members • • • • • Ascender Corporation eBay Google LivingImage Myriad Nuance Communications PacketVideo SkyPop SONiVOX Aplix Noser Engineering The Astonishing Tribe Wind River Systems • • • • • • • • • • • Audience Broadcom Corporation CSR Plc.

• Google enters the wireless world (http://www. [11] "MIPS Technologies Joins the Open Handset Alliance" (http:/ / www. 2008-12-09. 2009-05-27. Open Handset Alliance. . Will You Answer?" (http:/ / www. . php?sn=43). SASKEN. Acer. openhandsetalliance.nytimes. html). [6] "Open Handset Alliance Members" (http:/ / www. html?ex=1352005200&en=d7a169e184415788&ei=5088&partner=rssnyt&emc=rss) • Google's wireless initiatives go beyond Android (http://online. [7] "Open Handset Alliance announces 14 new members" (http:/ / www. Inc.. Retrieved 2007-11-05. com/ press_releases. Wipro Technologies • • • • • Cypress Semiconductor Corporation Freescale Semiconductor Gemalto Renesas Electronics Corporation Via Telecom • • • • • • • • Alcatel Mobile Phones Compal Communications Foxconn Haier Kyocera Lenovo Mobile Communication Technology Ltd NEC Sharp Corporation References [1] "Industry Leaders Announce Open Platform for Mobile Devices" (http:/ / www. Open Handset Alliance. 2010-12-27. openhandsetalliance. openhandsetalliance. cn/ en/ press_center/ press_clipping/ 201001/ t20100115_179607. [9] "SVOX announces its joining of the Open Handset Alliance" (http:/ / www. . . OMRON • • • • • • • Accenture L&T Infotech SQLStar International Inc. MIPS Technologies. com. 2008-10-15. NXP. [18] "Open Handset Alliance Members Mobile Operators" (http:/ / www. html).. com/ oha_members. . software. [13] "ZTE to launch Android handsets this quarter" (http:/ / wwwen. Engadget. . . openhandsetalliance. openhandsetalliance. 2009. Ltd. 2008-08-18. [3] "Developers" (http:/ / www. com/ News-Items-SVOX-brings-speech-solutions-to-Android. . openhandsetalliance. npr. [14] "NXP Software Joins the Open Handset Alliance" (http:/ / www. html?mod=dist_smartbrief) .wsj. com/ newsroom/ press/ 2010/ 22_Jan_2010. Retrieved 2007-11-05. html). Open Handset Alliance. html#mobile). [12] "Sasken joins Open Handset Alliance" (http:/ / www. mediatek. ZTE. [15] "Access Joins the Open Handset Alliance" (http:/ / www. Access. org/ templates/ story/ story. 2010-05-18. html).com/article/SB119517445580795065. . com/ news-events/ newsroom/ release-archive-2009/ 9_30_09. nxp. [5] "Google Is Calling. 2007-11-05.com/2007/11/05/technology/05cnd-gphone. com/ en/ news/ info. VisualOn. . dot). engadget. com/ oha_members. [17] "VisualOn Joins the Open Handset Alliance to Enhance the Multimedia Capabilities of the Android Platform" (http:/ / www. [10] "Acer announces its joining of the Open Handset Alliance" (http:/ / phandroid.Open Handset Alliance Unknown • China Telecommunications • Corporation [18] • Telus Bouygues [18] Telecom 241 Cooliris MOTOYA Co. com/ developers. 2007-11-05. com/ oha_members. . . aspx). html). 2009-06-01. htm). businesswire. com/ 2009/ 06/ 01/ acer-joins-oha-expects-end-of-year-android/ ). com/ news/ press/ ACCESS/ 2010/ 20100729_oha. pdf). com/ userfiles/ PR NXP Software_OHA_Agreement_Final(1). com/ news/ home/ 20101109005339/ en/ VisualOn-Joins-Open-Handset-Alliance-Enhance-Multimedia). com/ press_120908. access-company. php?storyId=94982690). . . html). html). openhandsetalliance. . 2010-07-12. . . html). com/ press_110507. Retrieved 2007-11-05. 2010-01-15. SVOX. 2009-09-30. 2010-01-22. Open Handset Alliance. svox. com/ 2008/ 08/ 18/ htc-dream-fcc-approved-android-clear-for-launch/ ). zte. 2010-07-91. [4] "FCC Approved HTC Dream" (http:/ / www. MediaTek. [2] "Open Handset Alliance members page" (http:/ / www. [8] "Open Handset Alliance member announcements" (http:/ / www. mips. [16] "MediaTek Joins the Open Handset Alliance Continuous Commitment to Providing Multimedia-Rich Android Solutions" (http:/ / www. Open Handset Alliance. sasken. 2007-11-05. 2010-11-09. .

g. aspx?Ticket=de5d0d74-0f06-4a4f-be8e-ec31f80ff968) (Exxplain. drive data analysis. As UMTS (3G) networks began to emerge in the U. The acronym ORFS is used in the context of mobile communication systems.g.S.S.. located in Pleasanton. ORFS . These features and functions are now extended to LTE (4G). where RF stands for Radio Frequency.. GSM.com video) Optpcs OptPCS is a 2G/3G/4G (LTE) dual band. multi-vendor wireless network optimization tool developed by Telecom Technology Services. California.com/) official site • Google's Android and the Open Handset Alliance (http://www. ORFS measurements are defined and required in order to prove conformance by various institutions.com/TrainingDetails. Lin Weng PhD in a effort to reduce the amount of time engineers spent troubleshooting and optimizing GSM (2G) networks. ORFS ORFS stands for Output RF Spectrum.exxplain. It stands for the relationship between (a) the frequency offset from the carrier and (b) the power. the U.openhandsetalliance. neighbor analysis were extended to the new standard with addition of pilot pollution analysis. produced by the mobile station due to effects in modulation and power ramping and switching. e.Open Handset Alliance 242 External links • Open Handset Alliance (http://www. parameter auditing. e. The tool was developed in 1997 by Dr. . Federal Communications Commission (FCC) or ETSI. Inc.. the features and functions of network topology creation.O-Ring Face Seal: Hydraulic sealing system for hoses and fittings. measured in a specific bandwidth and time.

Over-the-air programming 243 Over-the-air programming Over-the-air programming (OTA) may refer to either free-to-air. and put into use. OTA is taken to a new direction: for the first time OTA is applied using unlicensed frequency bands (2. Similarly Voitel Wireless that uses Verizon network uses *22890 service code to program Verizon based Voitel wireless phones. provides a number of OTA functions to its subscribers via the *228 service code. digital television. Often. OTA via SMS optimises the configuration data updates in SIM cards and handsets and enables the distribution of new software updates to mobile phones or provisioning handsets with the necessary settings with which to access services such as WAP or MMS. As an example. updating phone settings. Typically it is done via the former method to avoid service disruption at an inconvenient time. This system enables firmware upgrades without the need of physical access. or can be performed automatically. saving time and money if the nodes must be re-programmed. and manage OTA. OTA configuration has become increasingly important as new updates and services come on stream. OTA messaging provides remote control of mobile phones for service and subscription activation. personalization and programming of a new service for mobile operators and telco third parties. methods of distributing new software updates to cellphones or provisioning handsets with the necessary settings with which to access services such as WAP or MMS. with the new concepts of Wireless Sensor Networks and the Internet of Things. where the networks consist of hundreds or thousands of nodes. 868 MHz. New software is transferred to the phone. Various standardization bodies were established to help develop. Verizon Wireless in the U. the technology is often known as Device Configuration. OTA software delivery can be initiated upon action. such as a call to the provider's customer support system or other dialable service. [4] This solution allows operators to manage wireless device functionality including renumbering handsets.4 GHz. Interop Technologies provides a number of nationwide wireless operators in the US with an SS7 Based Over-the-Air device management solution. though many phones will automatically perform this action. it is sometimes called Firmware Over The Air (FOTA). Some phones with this capability are labeled as being "OTA capable. For service settings. installed. or in the mobile content world. 900 MHz) and with low consumption and low data rate transmission using protocols such as 802.[1] When OTA is used to update a phone's operating firmware. [3] Mechanism The OTA mechanism requires the existing software and hardware of the target device to support the feature.4 and ZigBee. oversee. a carrier will send a broadcast SMS text message to all subscribers (or those using a particular model of phone) asking them to dial a service number to receive a software update. It is often necessary to turn the phone off and back on for the new programming to take effect. More recently. option 2 updates the PRL. namely the receipt and installation of new software received via the wireless network from the provider. over-the-air service provisioning (OTASP). applications and subscriber data and adjusting PRL to manage cost structures.15. . Libelium has implemented a smart and easy-to-use OTA programming system for ZigBee WSN devices. Option 1 updates phone configuration.S. over-the-air provisioning (OTAP) or over-the-air parameter administration (OTAPA)." As mobile phones accumulate new applications and become more advanced. but this requires subscribers to manually call the provider. One of them is the Open Mobile Alliance (OMA). [2] Motes are often located in places that are either remote or difficult to access. Methods Depending on implementation.

com/ ota) [4] http:/ / www. the controller tells the other APs to include additional information in the Radio Resource Management Packets (RRM) that would assist a new access point in learning of the controller.48 series. the device needs to have a provisioning client capable of receiving. archive. Non-OTA options for a user are a) to go to a store and seek help b) use a PC and a cable to connect to the device and change settings on a device.this is so that the user does not have to go to a store or a service center to have applications provisioned. When enabled. Microsoft. or connectivity parameters. thus reducing the amount of time spent by both the owner and the user of the device on maintenance. References [1] "Mobile Phones . com/ wifirevolution/ articles/ 24338-alaska-digitel-buys-ota-programming-solution-from-interop. David. One of the first . com/ mobile/ phones/ mme/ default. which use TFTP as a way to remotely receive new programming. asp). add software to device.GSM 03.OTA (http:/ / www. microsoft. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. 2001. etc. Alberto. Bielsa. Genicio. libelium. Over-the-air provisioning(OTAP) is also available in wireless environments (though it is disabled by default for security reasons).15. such as cable modems. 244 OTA Standards There is number of standards that describes OTA functions. com/ libeliumworld/ articles/ 111291292000) [3] Over the Air Programming with Waspmote. libelium.OTA (http:/ / www. org/ web/ 20010811201929/ www. Retrieved 19 April 2011. tmcnet. Marcos Over the Air Programming with 802. Félix. htm . Similarities OTA is similar to firmware distribution methods used by other mass-produced consumer electronics.4 and ZigBee . asp) on 11 August 2001. It allows an access point(AP) to discover the IP address of its controller. the term OTA implies the use of wireless mechanisms to send provisioning data or update packages for firmware or software updates to a mobile device . a Device Management client in a device may be capable of receiving and provisioning applications. processing and setting the parameters. For example.Over-the-air programming To provision parameters in a mobile device OTA. Yarza.Mobile Explorer" (http:/ / web. In general. [2] Gascón. It is sent in plain text however which would make it vulnerable to sniffing and why it is disabled by default. com/ mobile/ phones/ mme/ default. parameters changed or firmware or software updated. . microsoft.

Several websites provide a live monitor for all messages on this network. A P2000 pager External links • Live P2000 monitor [1] References [1] http:/ / monitor. livep2000. The network is used by all emergency services and provides nationwide coverage. The FLEX-protocol does not provide encryption. nl/ . The P2000 network is maintained by the Ministry of the Interior and Kingdom Relations.P2000 (network) 245 P2000 (network) P2000 is a one-way communications network for pagers based on Motorola's FLEX-protocol in the Netherlands. Messages are similar to SMS-messages. Several tests have shown the network can cope with the largest disasters when large numbers of emergency personnel need to be reached. which means means any message can be read by everyone with a receiver.

Locations PacketVideo has presence in three continents.PacketVideo 246 PacketVideo PacketVideo Corporation Type Founded Privately Held San Diego. United States Key people Website James C. and consumer electronics companies. Sales and customer support centers are in San Diego. Mobile DTV Alliance. Tampere. Tampere. USA Headquarters San Diego. California on 10 August 1998 by James C. CEO and Team[1]. CORE is an established framework that can support any media services. Chicago. History PV was founded in San Diego. California. NTT DoCoMo and Orange. Boston. Tokyo. Cheuk Chan. a white-label client-server software application to develop and launch on-device portals for rich media services. Gene Wen and Mark R Banham. packetvideo. handset manufacturers. Berlin. Osama Al-shaykh. including the Open Handset Alliance. including the display of video on mobile handsets. Broadcast Mobile Convergence Forum. California. Charlotte. and Basel. Chicago. Open Mobile Alliance. Tokyo. with its headquarters in San Diego. PV's software is embedded in more than 249 million devices worldwide and more than 248 different products. Products PV's customers include mobile operators such as Verizon Wireless. and Basel. Affiliations PacketVideo is a member of industry forum and consortiums. com PacketVideo Corporation or PV is a San Diego-based company that produces software for wireless multimedia. Nice. Major product groups from PV are: • CORE. Brailean. Major development centers are in San Diego. MPEG Industry Forum. • TwonkyMedia suite of products that connect home entertainment devices. and the Digital Living Network Alliance . Chandigarh. Charlotte. In 2003 PacketVideo sold its infrastructure division to Alcatel. http:/ / www. 3rd Generation Partnership Project. FLO Forum. • MediaFusion. which provides a universal structure for mobile multimedia applications. International Multimedia Telecommunications Consortium. Brailean.

The first pager system had a range of approximately 40 km (25 mi) and the physicians paid US$12 per month for the service. pagers mainly support the "critical messaging" markets. Function and operation Paging is a subscription service offered in a variety of plans and options to meet the needs of a subscriber and the type of device used.PacketVideo 247 References [1] http:/ / www.[1] The first practical pager was introduced in 1950 by physicians in the New York City area. • Beepers were the first and are the simplest form of paging. and SMS messages. In general. and sometimes giving the caller an option to leave a voice mail message. Generally. all pagers are given unique phone numbers while alphanumeric pagers are given an email address. They were named beepers because they originally made a beeping noise. When calling a phone number assigned to a pager.[2] A Motorola alphanumeric pager used in Brazil in the 1990s. typically a phone number that the user is then requested to call. usually consisting of the phone number. In the case of email paging. the calling party reaches a recorded greeting asking the caller to enter a numeric message. pagers filled the role of common personal and mobile communications. The current numeric pager . but current pagers in this category use other forms of alert as well. The actual pager device was developed and manufactured by Reevesound Company of New York and weighed approximately 200 grams (6 oz). Some use audio signals. com/ management_team. A one-way numeric pager can only receive a message consisting of a few digits.packetvideo. Alphanumeric pagers are available. the text is displayed.com/) Pager A pager (often called a beeper) is a simple personal telecommunications device for short messages. packetvideo. The numeric message given is usually a phone number. The majority of restaurant pagers fall into this category. operated by Teletrim Until the popular adoption of mobile phones in the 1990s. numeric pages. others light up and some vibrate. the paged person will receive an alert from the pager with the phone number and/or a pager code within a few minutes. as well as two-way pagers that have the ability to send and receive email. Today. html External links • PacketVideo Corporation (http://www. often used in combination.

the units either have a small built in keypad that allows the user to input messages. flashes or beeps when a table becomes free. pagers are often used by first responders in emergencies.1 billion in revenue in 2008. This type of distributed system makes them inherently more reliable than terrestrial based cellular networks for message delivery. When terrestrial networks go down in an emergency.[3] • Numeric pagers are the type of devices offering only a numeric display of the phone number to be called and pager codes. an informal language wherein sets of numbers symbolize preset messages. where radio transmitters are thought to interfere with sensitive medical equipment and where there is a greater need of assurance for a timely delivery of a message. 248 • Two-way Alphanumeric pagers are alphanumeric pagers capable of both sending and receiving text messages and email. To do this. the functionality of the pager shifted from necessary professional use to a social tool integrated in one's personal life. and. Other pager models rely on existing message templates that the user can choose to send back .S. Increasingly. and also in places where the operation of the radio transmitters contained in mobile phones is problematic or prohibited. The front end of a numeric pager Pager use in the 21st century Pagers are still in use today in places where mobile phones typically cannot reach users. Because of superior building penetration and availability of service in disaster situations. or when their meal is ready.Pager • Voice/Tone pagers provide the ability to listen to a recorded voice message when an alert is received. two-way pagers are offered with GPS. Many paging transmitters may overlap a coverage area. down from $6. customers are given a theft-protected portable receiver which usually vibrates.[3] A dual-frequency Unication pager for use by EMS units In popular culture As is the case with many new technologies. pagers evolved from a A Skyper pager that is in use for ham radio . while cellular systems are built to fill holes in existing networks. One such type of location is a large hospital complex. where cellular coverage is often weak or nonexistent. GPS allows field agents location information to be sent back to a control centre that can use the information to send only location relevant information. satellite systems continue to perform.2 billion in 2003. Within a short timespan. or the message can be typed from a wireless keyboard and is received by the pager. usually from the beeper category. The U. paging industry generated $2.this has the advantage of standardising communications. • Alphanumeric pagers are essentially modified versions of numeric pagers with sophisticated display to accommodate text. to improve response times by designating jobs or activities only to the closest field personnel. increasing speed of a message reply and reducing the chance of a miss-communication. These devices are usually given an email address to receive text messages. Mainly used in the hospitality industry.[4] A pager technology in wide use today is the restaurant pager. Most modern paging systems use simulcast delivery by satellite controlled networks.

along with underground acts such as A Tribe Called Quest began referencing forthcoming mobile technologies. This shift accounts for Sam Flynn's amusement when Alan Bradley says "I was paged last night" in Tron: Legacy. Since a one-way pager is a passive receiver only (it sends no information back to the base station). due to the widespread adoption of email. This can result in pager messages being delayed or lost. The segment explored the device's entrance into mainstream pop culture. 249 A mid 1990s opaque black Avont pager model Original Motorola "beeper" pager. but email-based message submission methods do not usually provide any way to ensure that messages have been received by the paging network. the 30 Rock sitcom character Dennis Duffy attracts disdain and mockery for his career as a pager salesman. older forms of message submission retain their usefulness for disseminating highly-important alerts to users such as emergency services personnel. Pagers were a featured segment on the 1991 episode I Love the '90s: Part Deux. A Tribe Called Quest's single 'Skypager' directly speaks of the importance of such a wireless communication device. most notably in the 1990s hip-hop scene. Technical information Many paging network operators now allow numeric and textual pages to be submitted to the paging networks via email. this can also be disadvantageous. its location cannot be tracked. Golay. Commercial paging transmitters typically radiate 1000 watts of effective power. resulting in a much wider coverage area per . Common paging protocols include TAP. Likewise. FLEX. ReFLEX.[6] The smash hit "Bugaboo" from Destiny's Child also makes reference to pagers. Older forms of message submission using the Telocator Alphanumeric input Protocol protocol involve modem connections directly to a paging network. For this reason. in particular the pager. Thus.Pager tool for "technocratic elites" to a tool used by "kids living in the projects"[5] During the rise of the pager. Justin Timberlake states "You know I just got a page from a girl. Q-Tip conveys that the skypager "serves an important communicative function for a young professional with a full calendar". used in NYC in the late 1970s. The growing popularity of cellphones in the early 21st century was accompanied by a corresponding decline in pager use by the general population. This is convenient for many users. In the song 3-Way (The Golden Rule) by American comedy troupe The Lonely Island. if a pager has nationwide service. Past paging protocols include Two-tone and 5/6-tone. and are less subject to these delays. it also discussed the humorous use of calculator spelling to send messages through the devices. That I met last week at the Pay-less".[7] Security Pagers also have privacy advantages compared with cellular phones. POCSAG. However. a message sent to it could be intercepted by criminals or law enforcement agencies anywhere within the nationwide service area. pagers typically receive signals using the FLEX protocol in the 900 MHz band. it became the subject of various forms of media. ERMES and NTT. as a message sent to a pager must be broadcast from every paging transmitter in the pager's service area. Upcoming mainstream artists such as Ice Cube and Method Man. In the United States.

retrieved 17 January 2010 [4] AnythingResearch. htm). html [2] Pocket Radio Pages Doctors Night Or Day. one-way paging networks have no way to track whether a message has been successfully delivered to a pager. com/ books?id=ZyEDAAAAMBAJ& pg=PA104& dq=popular+ science+ 1950+ can+ our+ jets+ support& hl=en& ei=4n2-TJmUBNnhnQfCvvGJDg& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=5& ved=0CD8Q6AEwBA#v=onepage& q& f=true) [3] Tyson. and Popular Culture (p175) [6] Heckman. Although 900 MHz FLEX paging networks tend to have stronger in-building coverage than mobile phone networks. Despite the fact that the network provides world-wide coverage the messages are only sent to pre-selected message delivery areas which can be set on a web-based interface or by binding the service to a satellite phone. some paging companies began offering a service. howstuffworks. commercial paging service providers will work with large institutions to install repeater equipment in the event that service is not available in needed areas of the subscribing institution's buildings. Davin (2006). In the mid 1990s. the VHF band. Other radio bands used for pagers include the 400 MHz band.00. ‘Do You Know the Importance of a Sky Pager?’: Telecommunications. Unlike mobile phones. “‘Do You Know the Importance of a Sky Pager?’: Telecommunications. most one-way pagers do not display any information about whether a signal is being received or about the strength of the received signal. and Popular Culture. Messages can be sent in the form of SMS. How Restaurant Pagers Work (http:/ / electronics. pagercall. as it would know what number paged you even if you never actually received the page. and have numeric messages read back to them. lyricshall. 400 MHz UHF.” [7] http:/ / www. of a broadcast station.sid40_gci212739. hospitals commonly use on site paging for communication with staff and increasingly for calling waiting patients when their appointment is due (Patient Paging Systems).. which allowed a customer to call their pagernumber. This is especially critical in hospital settings where emergency staff must be able to reliably receive pages in order to respond to patient needs. email or from a web interface. com/ sDefinition/ 0.6 Watts per channel. and the FM commercial broadcast band (88-108 MHz). This was useful for times when the pager was off/out of coverage area. Since one-way pagers do not contain transmitters. uk/ sectors/ pager-patient. techtarget. htm) 2003 and 2008 research data used with permission [5] Heckman. if a one-way pager is turned off or is not receiving a usable signal at the time a message is transmitted. Other paging protocols used in the VHF. Popular Science (http:/ / books. anythingresearch. Onsite Paging Systems in Hospitals Unlike wide area paging systems on site pager systems are local area services. Pager in movies • 2001 The Debut References [1] http:/ / searchmobilecomputing. called the Subsidiary Communications Authority. google.com report on Paging Industry market size (http:/ / www. Davin (2006). African-Americans. Patient Paging Systems offer waiting patients the opportunity to leave the waiting area but still be contactable. the message will not be received and the sender of the message will not be notified of this fact. Because of this.Pager tower than a mobile phone transmitter. and 900 MHz bands include POCSAG and ERMES. co. which typically radiates around 0. African-Americans. com/ lyrics/ The+ Lonely+ Island/ 3-Way+ The+ Golden+ Rule/ [8] http:/ / www. Jeff. January 1951. Reference: Patient Paging Systems [8] 250 Satellite pager A service based on the Iridium satellite constellation uses satellites to deliver short text messages to one-way pagers similar to those used by terrestrial paging networks. asp . . com/ industry/ Paging. com/ restaurant-pager. Pagers using the commercial FM band receive a subcarrier.

One possible solution is the Early IMS Authentication method.php?main_page=page&id=25& zenid=f081fb7631873c12bf1fdddc007ec50d) • 800Beepers Enhanced Options / Services (http://www. Note 2: The term "center" does not imply a physical location. and (b) is responsible for interconnection of access and network systems to support end-to-end services. mobile operators may want to use it without username/password provisioning and the related frauds problems.php?main_page=page&id=6& zenid=f081fb7631873c12bf1fdddc007ec50d) PCS switching center PCS switching center: In personal communications service. The peer-to-peer video sharing functionality is defined by the Phase 1 of the GSMA Video Share service. For a more detailed description of the full GSMA Video Share service. References  This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the General Services Administration.com/index. too. stm) • NotePage technical support (http://www. Note 1: The PCS switching center represents a collection of one or more network elements. carriers. a facility that (a) supports access-independent call control/service control. So the IMS adds up extra security and management features that are normally required by a mobile operator by default. Actually. etc. and connection control (switching) functions. It could work with a pure IETF Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) infrastructure and simple HTTP Digest authentication.notepager.com/index.800beepers. While talking on the CS line the speaker can start in parallel a multimedia IMS session. please see the Wikipedia entry for Video Share. P2P video sharing does not require a full IMS implementation.uk/1/hi/uk/1137923. The GSM Association calls it "Video Share". Early proprietary implementations might also run a simple SIP infrastructure. It is also possible to share photos or files. with audio being optional (since there is an audio session already open on the CS domain). Peer-to-peer video sharing Peer-to-peer video sharing is a basic service on top of the IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS). • 800Beepers User Manuals (http://www.Pager 251 External links • BBC news reports closure of UK domestic pager systems in 2001 (http://news. However.Technical information on protocols.800beepers. The most basic form is typically connected to a classical circuit-switched (CS) telephone call.co. In the future USIM/ISIM based authentication could be introduced. . The session is normally a video stream.bbc.com/support. too.htm) .

Supported handsets • Nokia 6630. The 6680 is especially suited for turning on the video sharing by having a slider on top of the back-side camera. and the resulting increased revenue would be enough to cover the costs of the video sharing service.gsmworld.com/sip/e2e/videoshare.com/id/ced67f36-2a98-4f21-9277-209bb4a2429c/Video_Sharing.com/ id/ced67f36-2a98-4f21-9277-209bb4a2429c/Video_Sharing. 6680 • Nokia N70 • Nokia 5230 References [1] (http:/ / www.GSM Association Video Share homepage • http://sw. Later the Nokia N70 was added to the commercially supported handsets. since the user has to enter very complex strings into the phone book manually. Usually. Two major operators started commercial implementations: "Turbo Call" [1] from Telecom Italia Mobile (TIM) in Italy and Telecomunicações Móveis Nacionais. When the video session is triggered (by simply pulling down the back-side camera cover on a 6680). the first commercial services were based on the idea that video sharing will increase the length of the voice sessions.com/PR/200502/980522_5.nokia.com/PR/200502/980522_5.nokia. The first handsets to support P2P video sharing were the Nokia 6630 and 6680.pdf) .nokia. the video sharing client looks up the destination URI based on the MSISDN number of the B party of the current open CS voice call.com/sip/e2e/videoshare. this method is not really scalable. it is difficult to make a good business model for it. it/ consumer/ c366/ i56102/ o683_684/ servizio.gsmworld.Peer-to-peer video sharing 252 Early implementation by Nokia The early Nokia implementation requires the manual setting of an attribute in the phone book.html) Announcement of the "Turbo Call" service from TIM in cooperation with Nokia . SA (TMN) in Portugal. Because this service does not involve any application server. shtml) . The video sharing is possible only if this number has a valid entry in the phone book and a valid URI for the SIP call. However. tim.shtml (http://www.nokia. do) Service description at TIM (in Italian) External links • http://www. Popularity TIM Italy reported about 10% penetration (based on the potentially available customers with appropriate handsets). History The P2P video sharing was introduced in 2004 by Nokia.html (http://press.pdf (http://sw.Technical description on the Forum Nokia site • http://press.

launching service in 1997. Archived from the original (http://www22. launching service in November. Federal Communications Commission 2008. including services that allow people to place and receive communications while away from their home or office. Verizon Communications Inc. PCS refers to any of several types of wireless voice and/or wireless data communications systems.and digital-cellular phone systems. and service profile management. PCS and the IMT-2000 standard of which PCS is a part do not specify a particular air interface and channel access method.webcitation.org/5x7DguDqd). Sprint PCS sold the GSM radio interface network equipment to Omnipoint Communications in January 2000. Cellular Networking Perspectives Ltd. Retrieved 2011-03-11. Sprint PCS later selected CDMA as the radio interface for its nationwide network and built out a parallel CDMA network in the Baltimore-Washington area. personal mobility. Verizon Communications Inc. These frequency bands are particular to North America and other frequency bands may be designated in other regions. providing a user with an all-in-one wireless phone. Sprint PCS was the first company to build and operate a PCS network. Wireless service providers may deploy equipment using any of several air interface and channel access methods.com. First PCS Network in the United States In the United States.[1] More specifically.[6] Notes [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] Institute for Telecommunication Sciences 2011.Personal Communications Service 253 Personal Communications Service At the most basic level Personal Communications Service or PCS describes a set of wireless communications capabilities that allows some combination of terminal mobility. Cambridge Telecom Report 2000. typically incorporating digital technology. 1995 in the Baltimore-Washington metropolitan area. office buildings and other fixed locations. PCS services are provided in the 1850-1990 MHz frequency band (commonly referred to as the "1900 MHz band"). Sprint PCS originally built out the network using GSM radio interface equipment. International Telecommunications Union 1997. 2011.verizon. 2011.[4] In Canada. 2011. messaging.[5] This frequency band was designated by the United States FCC and Industry Canada to be used for new wireless services to alleviate capacity caps inherent in the original AMPS and D-AMPS cellular networks in the 800-894 MHz frequency band (commonly referred to as the "850 MHz band"). verizon. After completing the customer migration. References • "Glossary of Telecom Terms : P" (http://www. paging. In addition. PCS is a generation of wireless-phone technology that combines a range of features and services surpassing those available in analog.[3] The International Telecommunications Union describes Personal Communications Services as a component of the IMT-2000 (3G) standard. "Personal Communications Services (PCS) A new generation of wireless-phone technology that introduces a range of features and services surpassing those available in analog- . and data service. Mexico and the United States.[2] Described in more commercial terms. providing services similar to advanced cellular mobile or paging services. as long as the network meets the service description characteristics described in the standard. as well as wireless communications to homes. Sprint operated the two networks in parallel until finishing a migration of its area customers to the CDMA network.com/wholesale/glossary/?l=p) on 2011-03-11. PCS can also be used to provide other wireless communications services.

gov/glossary.1224-0-199702-I!!PDF-E. Retrieved 2011-03-11. cnp-wireless. 1850-1990 MHz" External links • United States Federal Communications Commission Broadband PCS service description (http://wireless." "Glossary of Telecommunications Terms" (http://www.bldrdoc.org/5x7DGMe4m).webcitation. personal mobility. Retrieved 2011-03-11.com. Archived from the original (http://www.webcitation. Archived from the original (http://www.itu.com/p/articles/mi_m0BFP/is_2000_Jan_3/ai_58463612/) on 2011-03-11. messaging. A set of capabilities that allows some combination of terminal mobility.webcitation." "Sprint Sells GSM Wireless Network Infrastructure in Washington/Baltimore Area To Omnipoint After Upgrading Customers to Newer CDMA System . Telecom and Computer Glossary" (http://www.itu. its. voice and/or data communications systems.org/5x7EBShz6). CBS Interactive.com/ glossary. International Telecommunications Union.Personal Communications Service and digital-cellular phone systems. 2011. "PCS system A collection of facilities which provide some combination of terminal mobility.org/5x7CwBtjf).org/5x7GHvEsu) (PDF).Company Business and Marketing" (http://www. Retrieved 2011-03-11. and data service. Retrieved 2011-03-11. Archived from the original (http://www.cnp-wireless. "An affiliate of Sprint launched the GSM system in Washington/Baltimore." • "Wireless. Retrieved 2011-03-11. Archived from the original (http:// 254 • • • • findarticles. "PCS1900 North American PCS frequencies. fcc. the nation's first PCS network. Cellular Networking Perspectives Ltd.html) on 2011-03-11.int. PCS provides the user with an all-in-one wireless phone.gov. typically incorporating digital technology.1224 Vocabulary of Terms for International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 (IMT-2000) (Question ITU-R 39/8)" (http://www.webcitation. "PCS: Abbreviation for Personal Communications Service.gov.webcitation." "PCS" (http://www.gov/fs-1037/) on 2011-03-11. paging.pdf) on 2011-03-11. www. 2000-01-03.fcc. personal mobility.fcc. Archived from the original (http://www. Federal Communications Commission." "Recommendation ITU-R M. 2010-10-07. and service profile management. 2008-11-15. org/5x7EyxALO). "PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICE (PCS) Any of several types of wireless.bldrdoc. Cambridge Telecom Report. The Institute for Telecommunication Sciences. in November 1995.int/ dms_pubrec/itu-r/rec/m/R-REC-M. 1997-07-01. gov/services/broadbandpcs/) .html#p) on 2011-03-11.its. and service profile management.

retail stores. and trivia. There are a variety of campaign types that can be set up that include alerts and subscriptions. Inc. arenas. and with such networks as Fox Sports Network[5] in regions across the US. CEO http:/ / www. TV networks. The platform does also have reach into the retail and pharmaceutical markets. The name "Phizzle" was chosen due to the futuristic nature of mobile phones and because it is slang for and a play on the word phone[7] . The platform establishes a mobile ecosystem as it provides intimate interaction for audiences and fans with their sports teams. and local advertisers to converge and deliver targeted ads to their focused audiences. The platform specifically allows for mobile marketing campaigns to be set up and run that can pass along useful information to audiences. The communication that usually transpires is by SMS (text messages). highways. fans and customers. magazine ads. to name a few. Inc. the Phizzle platform also serves as a mobile ad network for sports teams. Advertising and sponsorship can also be a part of the SMS messages or WAP sites that the Phizzle platform initiates. networks. The text messages may also have WAP push links that launch WAP sites for the audience or fan to continue further interaction with. History The idea for Phizzle came about in late 2005 after Ben Davis sold a mobile game company that he helped found in 2004. Phizzle identified the Sports/Entertainment Industry as the prime market ready for the technology and began working with the Cleveland Cavaliers in 2008. California Key people Website Benjamin Davis.0 Type Website Web application. Instead the platform user will advertise an invitation to participate to their audience where they frequent such as traditional or digital signage in venues. mobile communication Phizzle Website [1] Phizzle. brands. phizzle. etc. Phizzle has a strong Sports/Entertainment Industry focus with clients in the NBA[3] . Phizzle has been bringing in other major professional sports teams and sports networks to facilitate reach . contests and sweepstakes. NFL [4] . and local advertisers. voting and polling. Since then. The mobile platform allows the user to communicate with its audience through the opt-in campaigns. The mobile connection to audiences usually begins with a "call to action" that is not on the mobile platform itself. Thus. Type Private Headquarters San Francisco. and beyond TV networks[6] . and NHL. com [2] Phizzle is a mobile marketing technology platform that allows its users to connect with their audiences via mobile interactivity.Phizzle 255 Phizzle Phizzle Developer(s) Phizzle. After a platform build out in 2006 and 2007. or other means such as TV and radio commercials. Stable release Version 1.

digidaydaily. com/ sports/ cavs/ 44090407.shtml) . (http://www.Akron Beacon Journal Apr 30. mercurynews. trivia games.com/) • Sports Video Group . phizzle.Sports Video Group . phizzle. 2009 [5] "FSOhio connects with Cavs fans" .Mar 27.org/portal/dsports/articles/publish/ Ben_Davis_III.phizzle.OaklandRaiders. 2010 (http:/ / www. php?note_id=68283858018) [10] "Fox Sports Ohio Adds Sizzle Via Phizzle for Reds Fans" . com/ define. phizzle. 2009 (http:/ / www. facebook.Urban Dictionary (http:/ / www. com/ portal/ site/ mercurynews/ ?ndmViewId=news_view& newsId=20100309005180& newsLang=en) [7] "Phizzle" . com/ stories/ phizzle-goes-to-the-mobile-hoop-for-nba-all-star-weekend-2010/ ) [4] (http:/ / www. com/ / [2] http:/ / www. org/ portal/ artman/ publish/ printer_15041.digiday:Daily . References [1] http:/ / www. sweepstakes[9] and contests. 2009 (http:/ / findarticles.SJ Mercury News . ohio. These features allow for real-time interaction with audiences and fans while on their mobile devices.Phizzle to their audiences and fans across the US. mobile coupons.April 10. 2009 (http:/ / www. htm) "Oakland Raiders Raiders' Billboard Campaign" .Ben Davis profile (http://www. sportsvideo. com/ p/ articles/ mi_pwwi/ is_200910/ ai_n39266353/ ) [9] "FSN Wisconsin: AirTran Airways/Fox Sports Wisconsin "Text Me Out to the Ballgame Get Away Sweepstakes" Rules!" . and campaign tracking and data tools. php?term=phizzle) [8] "" BNET . 2010 (http:/ / businesswire. 2009 (http:/ / www. com [3] "Phizzle Goes To The Mobile Hoop For NBA All-Star Weekend 2010" .com July 10.sportsvideo. html) [6] "Advantage Broadcast Solutions Partners with Phizzle to Further Enhance Interactivity of Satellite Meetings" .February 12.October.March 09. com/ note. subscription alerts. WAP sites. Inc. voting and polling[10] . com/ news/ Raiders. urbandictionary. shtml) External links • Phizzle. 256 Features The Phizzle platform features the following capabilities and mobile campaign types: text2screen[8] .

"[8] . A distinctive design feature of the Ocean is its dual sliding mechanism — when slid down in the vertical position. 2007.Helio Ocean 257 Helio Ocean Helio Ocean PN-810 Compatible networks Dimensions Weight Memory Display CDMA 1xEV-DO 800/1900 MHz 4.[7] Dr. Virgin Mobile USA terminated the wireless voice and data services of those customers who had a Helio Ocean or other Helio branded devices on May 25. SDHC is not compatible 2.61 ounces / 0. it reveals a full 35-key QWERTY keyboard.[5] the Ocean was billed as "the ultimate messaging and talking machine" and "the definitive mobile social networking experience.4" QVGA display. Wonhee Sull. 2006 showed the Ocean in test apparatus documentation. bluetooth The Helio Ocean is a dual slider Internet-enabled multimedia wireless mobile device sold by mobile virtual network operator (MVNO) wireless carrier Helio. 262K color TFT-LAC. [2] and later on February 21. 2010. 240 x 320 resolution Ringtones & notifications Polyphonic ringtone Connectivity USB.35 pounds 200 MB + up to 2 GB extra memory available via microSD. When slid down in the horizontal position.[3] [4] When publicly released on Friday. it reveals a telephone keypad.20" (W) x 0. May 11. and manufactured by Pantech Curitel. President & COO of Helio. 2007 a full gallery depicting the Helio Ocean was available through the FCC website. A deactivated Helio Ocean still is able to be used as a digital camera allowing images and video files to be downloaded via the included USB interface cable directly to a computer. said that work on the Ocean device started "before Helio was officially a company.[1] Photos released on December 9. appealing to a more mainstream audience and not just the "ultra-cool hipsters" the company had previously targeted. Release The device became first known to the public on November 24. Since their acquisition by Sprint Nextel. Customers had until this date to port out their wireless phone number to another wireless carrier without a loss of service.86" (D) 5. 2006 from a FCC filing."[6] The Ocean is seen as a breakthrough device for Helio.33" (H) x 2.

GPS The device is location aware with its internal GPS. connectivity to Microsoft Exchange has been available on the Ocean since July 25. address book (with multiple online syncing abilities). The music player runs on a separate microprocessor. and WMA) and allows for over-the-air (OTA) downloads. Standard programs include an internet browser. H. 2007 Helio released a file viewer program for Ocean users. Gmail.264. only Helio phones) to broadcast their current location to each other. and Windows Live Messenger. allowing the device to be able to read a variety of popular file formats (among them DOC. Yahoo! Messenger. a voice memo recorder.[14] [15] There is also instant messaging support for AOL Instant Messenger. a calculator. Multimedia The integrated music and video player supports multiple file formats (including MP3. The Helio Ocean has a considerable amount of features at the time of its release. Additionally. MPEG-4. The Ocean is loaded with a version of Google Maps. In addition. built-in GPS. visible via MapQuest. a MPEG-4 video camera. the Ocean's functions include those of a camera phone and a portable media player. On April 23. TXT) as well as several image types in both landscape and portrait modes. the application warns users that it should not be used while driving. Windows Live Hotmail.[13] For a nominal fee per month. and AOL Mail. a 2 megapixel camera with flash. a speaker phone. HTML.[10] On November 29. 3G speed EV-DO network support.Helio Ocean 258 Features The Ocean is a prime example of a converged device. 2007. 2008 push support was added for Gmail. an alarm clock and a calendar. however. and a removable battery. which displays turn-by-turn directions. PDF. MMS support. Windows Live Hotmail. the Buddy Beacon [9] application allows friends with Buddy Beacon-enabled phones (as of Dec 2008. and Korean character set support. and two additional user-defined POP or IMAP accounts. the device includes caller ID (with support for photo caller ID). AOL Mail. Helio began adding support for push e-mail to the Helio Ocean in July 2007 with Push support for Yahoo! Mail. Helio Ocean running Google Maps in portrait mode. XLS.[11] [12] Ultimate Inbox The Helio Ocean also includes several choices of E-mail communication with support for Helio Mail. T9 Text. . EarthLink. PPT. AAC. Yahoo! Mail. For communication. The Ocean device has several advanced features such as stereo bluetooth. to telephony functions. an efficiency that allows for an estimate 15 hours of music listening on a single battery charge. along with automatic notifications for POP/IMAP accounts.

"[16] MySpace Mobile MySpace Mobile is available for the Helio Ocean. helio.net [14] Helio Launches Mail for Microsoft Exchange (http:/ / www.msn.opera. php [10] Cell industry gathers under iPhone cloud (http:/ / www.com [8] Meet the New Helio Ocean (http:/ / www. com/ 2006/ 12/ 09/ the-next-kickflip-helio-branded-pantech-in-the-wild/ ) .crave. those in the Helio community had figured out how to build custom applications (the device is Java-based) .news. the Ocean got official software support for the Opera Mini browser when Helio became the first U. com/ page?p=press_release_detail& contentid=1197419200979) . com/ pressreleases/ en/ 2008/ 03/ 19/ ) . helio. on March 19.computer-advice. download. References [1] FCC Fridays (http:/ / www. 2007. com/ page?p=press_release_detail& contentid=1174770553372) . cnet. (http:/ / www.S carrier to sign a deal with Opera.com [20] MySpace users to get their own cell phones (http:/ / www. com/ page?p=press_release_detail& contentid=1178851101604) . rate videos and use other community features. helio. com/ 2007/ 11/ 19/ helio-outs-file-viewer-for-ocean-reads-most-of-the-important-st/ ) . com/ photos/ helios-pantech-pn-810-qwerty-device-pops-up-in-fcc/ ) .helio. com/ 8301-2007_4-9754949-12.cnet.helio.crave.info [4] Helio's Pantech PN-810 QWERTY device pops up in FCC (Gallery) (http:/ / www. html) . com/ id/ 17800969) . com/ id/ 11374772) .helio. msnbc. download. Users can fully log in to personalize. html) .[18] [19] It was speculated that Helio had followed the "incredible community response to Opera Mini.com [23] Helio brightens its YouTube offering (http:/ / crave.com [16] Opera Mini for everybody! Custom apps! Yay! (http:/ / www. msn.com [12] Helio outs File Viewer for Ocean. com/ 8301-1_105-9832752-1.Helio Ocean 259 Opera Mini On August 2.com [22] Helio Launches Most Complete YouTube Experience (http:/ / www. 2008.com [18] Opera Mini Surfs on the Helio Ocean (http:/ / www.com . ulocate. reads most of the important stuff (http:/ / www. at the time the "most complete" on a mobile device. com/ page?p=press_release_detail& contentid=1185327373909) helio.[22] [23] The Ocean is able to do video capture and upload to YouTube as well as GPS tagging of videos.com [6] Ocean Media Fact Sheet (http:/ / www. com/ page?p=press_release_detail& contentid=1184806233919) .com [5] Helio Ocean now available (http:/ / www. computer-advice. helio. engadgetmobile. com/ page?p=press_release_detail& contentid=1195242138800) helio. helio. helio.com [7] Ocean smart phone could broaden Helio's appeal (http:/ / www.[16] [17] Several months later.com [2] The next Kickflip? Helio-branded Pantech in the wild (http:/ / www. leading some to refer to the Ocean as a "MySpace phone.msnbc.engadgetmobile."[20] Helio was the first cellular provider to take the MySpace experience mobile. com/ buddybeacon. html) .including Opera Mini. html) . html) . net/ 2007/ opera-mini-for-everybody-custom-apps-yay/ ) heliocity.com [13] Gmail (and POP/IMAP!) gets Push support in Ultimate Inbox (http:/ / www.cnet. cnet. net/ 2008/ gmail-gets-push-support-in-ultimate-inbox) . com/ 2006/ 11/ 24/ fcc-fridays/ ) . com/ 8301-2007_4-9897598-12. pdf) . 2007 Helio announced the launch of an improved version of Myspace Mobile that operates nearly five times faster than Helio's original self-developed application.engadgetmobile.com [21] Helio Continues to Lead Mobile Social Networking with New Myspace on Helio Application (http:/ / www. com/ 8301-1_105-9749860-1. helio. msn. com/ livefiles/ support/ ocean_fact_sheet.com [11] Helio File Viewer Now Available for Ocean Users (http:/ / www.com [19] Opera Mini officially surfs Helio's Ocean (http:/ / www.[21] YouTube On December 12. 2007 Helio announced a more enriched YouTube experience.msn.download. news. com/ Ocean-smart-phone-could-broaden-Helios-appeal/ 2100-1039_3-6171062.news. engadgetmobile. heliocity.helio.com [3] Helio's Pantech PN-810 QWERTY device pops up in FCC (http:/ / www. Opera Mini now surfing Helio's Ocean.com [9] http:/ / www. opera.com [15] The Ocean gets Exchange Activesync (http:/ / crave. info/ 2007/ 02/ 21/ helios-pantech-pn-810-qwerty-device-pops-up-in-fcc/ ) .heliocity.msnbc. engadgetmobile. On July 19.net [17] Give a wave.engadget. msnbc. engadget. heliocity.engadgetmobile.helio.

com/watch?v=e3R_ExzzF3k) . the unit contains all the capability required to connect directly to the Internet.com Unofficial Helio community (http://www.com/) . This form of picocell is sometimes called an access point base station or 'enterprise femtocell'. picocells are typically used to extend coverage to indoor areas where outdoor signals do not reach well. It is not clear if the phrase was intended to describe the loss of the speech.helio. In particular.helio ocean updates Unofficial Helio Ocean Site (http://www. Although originally deployed systems (1990s) used PDH links such as E1/T1 links.helioocean.com Helio Ocean video review (http://www.myhelioapps. "Picket fencing" refers to the way portions of speech are stripped from the conversation. which imitates the noise produced by dragging a stiff object across a picket fence. or more recently in-aircraft. the phrase was used to describe the way an FM transmitter will cut in and out as it nears the capture threshold of the receiver. In cellular wireless networks.helio. more recent systems use Ethernet cabling. or if it actually referred to the chopping sound itself. the integration of picocells with macrocells through a Heterogeneous Network can be useful in seamless handoffs and increased mobile data capacity.youtube. thus chopping the speech of the transmitting operator. etc. or (more likely) by the landline user to whom the cellphone is connected.fcc. In cellular networks.heliocity. Picocell A picocell is a small cellular basestation typically covering a small area. such as train stations. Picocells offer many of the benefits of "small cells" (similar to femtocells) in that they improve data throughput for mobile users and increase capacity in the mobile network. Aircraft use satellite links[3] .gov/prod/oet/forms/blobs/retrieve. cgi?attachment_id=731378&native_or_pdf=pdf) . More recent work has developed the concept towards a head unit containing not only a picocell. and aggregates data to be passed to the Mobile Switching Centre (MSC) and/or the Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN).net) .com Internal photographs of the Ocean (https://fjallfoss. such as in-building (offices. and hearing a conversation on the other side that changes audibily depending on the position of the pickets relative to the listener.com) . without the need for the BSC/MSC infrastructure.gov Picket-fencing Picket fencing is slang for the chopping effect sometimes heard by cell phone users at the edge of a cell's coverage area.Helio Ocean 260 External links • • • • • • • Helio Ocean updates (http://www. Connectivity between the picocell heads and the BSC typically consists of in-building wiring. reasonably simple unit that connects to a Base Station Controller (BSC). train stations. small (typically the size of a ream of A4 paper).fcc.heliocity. or to add network capacity in areas with very dense phone usage.myhelioapps. Picocells provide coverage and capacity in areas difficult or expensive to reach using the more traditional Macrocell approach[1] .com Compare AT&T iPhone to Helio Ocean (http://compare. This is potentially a more cost effective approach. the picocell base station[2] is typically a low cost. such as GSM. as if the listener was walking by a picket fence.com) .youtube.helioocean.net Custom community-maintained applications (http://www.[4] . Multiple picocell 'heads' connect to each BSC: the BSC performs radio resource management and hand-over functions.com/) . In this case. shopping malls. but also many of the functions of the BSC and some of the MSC.helio-ocean2.). Originally from amateur radio.

ZTE. php). Each key press results in a prediction rather than repeatedly sequencing through the same group of "letters" it represents. . Theoretically the number of keystrokes required per desired character in the finished writing is. and so generally. punctuation is ignored. an address book. jsp Predictive text Predictive text is an input technology used where one key or button represents many letters. and a femtocell is on the order of 10 meters. [2] "ip. The most widely used. [5] "picocell vendor matrix" (http:/ / www. if the user is not careful to review. php?products_id=41). com/ picocells/ nanoBTS_picocells.[2] The theoretical keystrokes per character. versus multi-tap systems.[1] In practice. Most predictive text systems have a user database to facilitate this process. such as on mobile phones and in accessibility technologies.[6] . This learning adapts. such as pressing a "next" key to get to the intention. Retrieved 2010-12-21. a picocell is 200 meters or less. result in transmitting misinformation. invariable order. a "microcell". eetimes. ipaccess. The choice of which predictive text system is the best to use involves matching the user's preferred interface style. [6] http:/ / www. com/ analysis/ satellite/ 2010-04/ thales-in-flight-connectivity. although AT&T calls its product. the user's level of learned ability to operate predictive text software. . wireless. Predictive text could allow for an entire word to be input by single keypress. an e-mail.access. Typically the range of a microcell is less than two kilometers wide. and the like. UMTS and LTE from manufacturers including ip. to a user's disambiguating feedback that results in corrective key presses. net/ product_info. general. and no input mistakes are made typing or spelling. with a range of 40 feet (12 m). linguistic settings that offer predictions that are re-prioritized to adapt to each user. com/ research/ 1003580-Picocell+ Equipment+ Vendor+ Matrix).Picocell Picocells are available for most cellular technologies including GSM. a calendar.03. abiresearch. but all predictive text systems have initial. There are various levels of risk in predictive text systems. Eetimes. KSPC.access nanoBTS picocell" (http:/ / www. att. Retrieved 2010-12-21. Huawei and Airwalk[5] . Retrieved 2010-12-21. on average. . because the predicted text that is automatically written that provide the speed and mechanical efficiency benefit. CDMA. and LetterWise/WordWise.15" for English. ABI Research. php). iTap. Eatoni' LetterWise is a predictive multi-tap hybrid. com/ design/ audio-design/ 4012603/ A-picocell-primer). could. of a keyboard is KSPC=1. visionmobile.access. which when operating on a standard telephone keypad achieves "KSPC=1. Predictive text systems take time to learn to use well. . [4] "Mobile Experts Picocell Forecast" (http:/ / mobile-experts. these factors are found to cause tremendous variance in the efficiency gain. . com/ blog/ 2007/ 12/ do-we-really-need-femto-cells/ [7] http:/ / www. predictive text systems are T9. by way of the device memory. Predictive text makes efficient use of fewer device keys to input writing into a text message. This is approximately true providing that all words used are in its database. radio-electronics. com/ learn/ why/ 3gmicrocell/ faq. There are many unique ways to build a device that predicts text. ip. and of multi-tap is KSPC=2.00.[7] 261 References [1] "picocell primer" (http:/ / www. and the user's efficiency goal. [3] "In-flight picocell connectivity" (http:/ / www. . a device's system has user options to setup the choice of multi-tap or of any one of several schools of predictive text methods. in the same. Retrieved 2010-12-21. comparable to using a keyboard.

1971). hood. The user can then confirm the selection and move on. which can be further classified as a "learning" system when words or phrases are entered into the user database without direct user intervention. Dictionary vs.474) [4]. as the user presses the number buttons. Aspects of predictive text have been patented for instance by Kondraske(1985) [3]. SMSes. and the Eatoni Ergonomics' LetterWise and WordWise. urls. Predictive text was mainly used to look up names in directories over the phone. The most widely used systems of predictive text are Tegic's T9. Some disambiguation systems further attempt to correct spelling. requiring potentially many keystrokes to enter a single letter. or use a key to cycle through the possible combinations. but Eatoni Ergonomics' products uses a disambiguation process. The user database is for storing words or phrases which are not well-disambiguated by the pre-supplied database. Motorola's iTap. The ideal dictionary would include all slang. History Predictive entry of text from a telephone keypad has been known at least since the 1970s (Smith and Goodwin. disambiguation may be combined with a word completion facility. A non-dictionary system constructs words and other sequences of letters from the statistics of word parts. punctuation is ignored. a key is pressed multiple times to access the list of letters on that key. This ideal circumstance gives predicive text software the reduction in the number of key strokes a user is required to enter a word. . However. In ideal predictive text entry. provided that a linguistic database in English is currently in use. no spelling mistakes are made. A user can type by pressing an alphanumeric keypad without looking at the electronic equipment display. it will appear. until mobile phone text messaging came into widespread use. and offers up the most probable choice. Using multi-tap. The most common system of SMS text input is referred to as "multi-tap".Predictive text 262 Background Short message service (SMS) permits a mobile phone user to send text messages. all words used are in the dictionary. For instance. To attempt predictions of the intended result of keystrokes not yet entered. All predictive text systems requires a linguistic database for every supported input language.754. multi-tap is not very efficient. (also called messages. hoof are also valid disambiguations of the sequence of key strokes. The user presses the number corresponding to each letter and. an algorithm searches the dictionary for a list of possible words that match the keypress combination. To enter two successive letters that are on the same key. and no typing mistakes are made. texts. proper nouns. non-dictionary systems Traditional disambiguation works by referencing a dictionary of commonly used words. In dictionary-based systems. as long as the word exists in the predictive text dictionary. though alternatives such as home. format text or perform other automatic rewrites. or is correctly disambiguated by non-dictionary systems. Either system (disambiguation or predictive) may include a user database. multi-tap is easy to understand. a set of statistical rules to recreate words from keystroke sequences. pressing "4663" will typically be disambiguated as the word "good". the user must either pause or hit a "next" button. with the risky effect of either enhancing or frustrating user efforts to enter text. though Eatoni offers a dictionary-less disambiguation system. abbreviations. twice displays a "b" and three times displays a "c". and txts) as a short message. For instance. Thus. foreign-language words and other user-unique words. T9 and iTap use dictionaries. pressing the"2" key once displays an "a". and as a fully functional keypad to text system for communicating with deaf people via phone in 1988 (Roy Feinson #4. and can be used without any visual feedback.

it would be necessary to do the following: • Press 8 (tuv) once to select t. • Press 4 (ghi) twice to select h.[8] . WordWise (word-based prediction without a dictionary).Predictive text 263 Example Consider a typical phone keypad: Suppose a user wishes to type "The". (character. Intelab's Tauto. context. rather than word-based prediction). Xrgomics' TenGO (a six-key reduced QWERTY keyboard system). where a single word doesn't necessarily represent a single semantic entity. • Press 4 once to select the (ghi) group for the second character. EQ3 (a Qwerty-like layout compatible with regular telephone keypads). and WordLogic's patented Intelligent Input Platform™ [5](patented. provided with a linguistic database in English. dynamic key allocation). such as "home". Adaptxt (considers language.[6] Words produced by the same combination of keypresses may be referred to as "textonyms" (or "txtonyms") or "T9onyms" (pronounced "tynonyms"). Oizea Type (temporal ambiguity). That hope may be misplaced if the word differs in any way from common usage—in particular. built-in Web search and more). more complex words. • Press 3 once to select the (def) group for the third character. There is at least one reported case of a man stabbed to death in a fight caused by a text message rendered incorrectly by predictive text software. predictive text reduced the number of button presses from 5 to 3. Eatoni Ergonomic's LetterWise. A standard ITU-T E. some other mechanism must be used to enter the word. grammar and semantics).161 keypad used for text messaging Companies and products Predictive text is developed and marketed in a variety of competing products. In this case. However. Furthermore. the key sequence 4663 on a telephone keypad. Such confusions may lead to mistaken meaning even if all of the words are typed correctly and spelled correctly. the simple dictionary approach fails with agglutinative languages. is slang. Prevalent Devices's Phraze-It. layer-based advanced text prediction. "Are you home?" could be rendered as "Are you good?" This fact can lead to misunderstandings. • Press 3 (def) twice to select e. it is only necessary to: • Press 8 once to select the (tuv) group for the first character. Textonyms As mentioned above. Nuance Communications's T9 is the market leader. In these cases. or is a proper noun. "gone". Meanwhile. Clevertexting (statistical nature of the language. will generally be disambiguated as the word "good".[7] though the phenomenon has nothing to do specifically with T9 per se and occurs in other systems. the same key sequence also corresponds to other words. For example. if the word is not spelled or typed correctly. The system updates the display as each keypress is entered to show the most probable entry. Other products include Motorola's iTap. A dictionary-based predictive system is based on hope that the desired word is in the dictionary. "hood" and so on. in a phone with predictive text. dictionary less. spell-check. The effect is even greater with longer. "hoof". In a traditional "multi-tap" keypad entry system. includes multi-language dictionary.

com/ news_columnists_ezorn/ 2007/ 01/ slang_earlywarn. Computer Sci. framfab. org/ fulltext/ jcs/ jcs12189-199. for example.300) • An Australian newspaper article on textonyms (http://www.au/printpage/ 0. a Pearl . though error correction mechanisms may mitigate that effect.newscientist. It is demonstrated that KSPC is useful for a priori analyses. Smith and Nancy C. .Predictive text Reportedly. com/ 2006/ 09/ 07/ technology/ 07pogue.phy. . or even the most important issue. are words for which the disambiguation produces a single. Blogs.00. J. com/ patents?vid=4754474 [5] http:/ / wordlogic. incorrect response. [3] http:/ / www. 2007-01-19. The Mitre Corporation. PDF). ca/ mack/ hcimobile02. The system may. Nytimes. nytimes. Retrieved 1 May 2011. 112patent. textonyms may be adopted in regular speech. "Values [of KSPC] for English range from about 10 for methods using only cursor keys and a SELECT key to about 0. pdf [4] http:/ / www. 1971. . I (2):189-199. al. . are not the only issue. Sidney L. com [6] "Text row man faces jail for killing friend" (http:/ / www. 13(2) Page 189-190 External links • New Scientist article on textonyms (http://www. for example. The Bolton News.5942.com/article. com/ usp. theboltonnews. [9] http:/ / stream. when the intended word was "Blaire" or "Claire" both of which correspond to the keystroke sequence. uk/ news/ districtnews/ 8841133.com. the use of the word "book" to mean "cool" since book is debatably considered more frequent than "cool" by some predictive text systems . in this example.chicagotribune. pdf). thereby supporting the characterisation and comparison of text-entry methods before labour-intensive implementations and evaluations".[9] 264 Disambiguation failure and misspelling Textonyms in which a disambiguation systems gives more than one dictionary word for a single sequence of keystrokes. "In a Sea of Cellphones. 9 February 2011. html). Text_row_man_faces_jail_for_killing_friend/ ). yorku.com. [8] By David Pogue (2006-09-07). Retrieved 2009-07-08. When mis-typings or mis-spellings occur. found by the predictive text system.ac. More important.12730392. but are not.ns?id=mg18524832.New York Times" (http:/ / www. limiting the effectiveness of predictive text implementations. [7] "Slang early-warning alert: `Book' is the new `cat's pajamas' | Change of Subject" (http:/ / blogs.com. scipub. according to the above references. References [1] I.inference.uk/mackay/itprnn/ itap/) . . google. "Investigating Text Input Methods for Mobile Phones" (http:/ / www. Scott MacKenzie (2002).news. Goodwin. they are very unlikely to be recognized correctly by a disambiguation system. "KSPC (Keystrokes per Character) as a Characteristic of Text Entry Techniques" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2009-07-08. HUMAN FACTORS. chicagotribune.thesundaymail. com/ index.cam.5 for word prediction techniques. [2] O'Riordan et.html) • Technical notes on iTap (including lists of textonyms) (http://www. respond with "Blairf" upon input of 252473. html?ex=1315281600& en=5da0625183b88386& ei=5088& partner=rssnyt& emc=rss). Proceedings of MobileHCI 2002. 2005. co. php?/ weblog/ comments/ how_book_becomes_an_adjective/ = • "Alphabetic Data Entry Via the Touch-Tone Pad: A Comment".

• An Internet enabled device with GPS enabling it to request localized content from Internet servers." A 'discoverable' Bluetooth device within range of the server is automatically sent a message asking if the user would like to receive the free content. content at a conference venue may depend on the event in progress. . It used to be the case that due to security fears.such as posters. The location of a device may be determined by: • A cellular phone being in a particular cell • A Bluetooth or WiFi device being within range of a transmitter. Others require no handset-side software. and a majority of users now leave bluetooth switched on for easy connection with car kits and headsets. for example content in tourist hot spots may only be distributed to devices registered outside the local area. information (weblinks on local facilities). gaming and social applications.suggesting people make their Bluetooth handsets 'discoverable' in order to receive free content . Bluetooth-based systems Bluetooth. a short-range wireless system supported by many mobile devices. Distribution may be via a traditional localized broadcast. Screen sizes and supported file formats varies greatly. Other standard data exchange formats such as Vcard can also be used. or ON but not set to be 'discoverable'. Some implementations of Bluetooth proximity marketing require users to run Java applications on their phones to enable them to receive content. is one transmission medium used for proximity marketing. The diversity of mobile phones is huge. e.Proximity marketing 265 Proximity marketing Proximity marketing is the localized wireless distribution of advertising content associated with a particular place. Communications may be both time and place specific. Because of this. or more commonly is specifically targeted to devices known to be in a particular area. the Bluetooth system must be able to automatically recognize phone models and deliver the proper content automatically. To obtain the optimal user experience with Bluetooth Marketing. Current mobile phones usually have bluetooth switched ON by default. Communications may be further targeted to specific groups within a given location. and advertising. television screens or field marketing teams . or a desire to save battery life. Uses of proximity marketing include distribution of media at concerts. many users keep their Bluetooth devices in OFF mode. This has the advantage that only those who choose to will receive content.g. images.this is often referred to as a "Call-to-Action. Transmissions can be received by individuals in that location who wish to receive them and have the necessary equipment to do so. audio or video to Bluetooth enabled devices within range of the broadcast server. often regions where Bluetooth proximity marketing is in operation it is accompanied by advising via traditional media . The process of Bluetooth based proximity marketing involves setting up Bluetooth "broadcasting" equipment at a particular location and then sending information which can be text.

PSTN service may be informally called Plain Old Telephone Service or POTS. Access to PLMN services is achieved by means of an air interface involving radio communications between mobile phones or other wireless enabled user equipment and land based radio transmitters or radio base stations or even fibre optic distributed SDH network between mobile base stations and central stations via SDH equipment (ADMs) with integrated IP network services. the access network as well. It also extends into mobile as well as fixed telephones. Public switched telephone network Public Land Mobile Networks need to connect to the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) in order to route calls. Each operator providing mobile services has its own PLMN. Public land mobile network A public land mobile network (PLMN) is a regulatory term in telecommunications.Cell Broadcast (SMS-CB) allows messages (advertising. Because Internet Service Providers (ISPs) pay the long-distance carriers for access to their infrastructure. In the Philippines. The PSTN is the world's collection of interconnected voice-oriented public telephone networks. and share the circuits among many users through packet switching. the end Internet user avoids having to pay usage tolls to anyone other than their ISP. in much the same way that the Internet is the concentration of the world's public IP-based packet-switched networks. It is both commercially. .) to be broadcast to all mobile users in a specified geographical area. These links mostly incorporate SDH digital transmission networks via fibre optic on land and digital microwave links. Philippines has the world's highest traffic of SMS (locally referred to as texting). This aggregation of circuit-switching telephone networks has evolved greatly from the days of Alexander Graham Bell. GSM localization accuracy varies depending on location. Bluewater. There are provisions for "welcome" messages to be sent when entering new countries introducing networks available. a super-regional shopping centre in the UK. for the majority of users.and government-owned. A PLMN is a network that is established and operated by an administration or by a recognized operating agency (ROA) for the specific purpose of providing land mobile telecommunications services to the public. Some phones/devices have an option to turn off the receipt of such messages. GSM-based proximity broadcast systems are used by select Government Agencies for information dissemination on Government-run community-based programs to take advantage of its reach and popularity. The system enables special offer texts to be sent to the phone.41 which defines the Short Message Service .Proximity marketing 266 GSM-based systems GSM 03. It is also used for commercial service known as Proxima SMS. There are also capabilities for messages to be sent by emergency services. PLMNs interconnect with other PLMNs and Public switched telephone networks (PSTN) for telephone communications or with internet service providers for data and internet access of which links are defined as interconnect links between providers. and in the late 20th century became almost entirely digital in nature — except for the final link from the central (local) telephone office to the user (the local loop). it also allows each customer with a mobile phone to be tracked though the centre which shops they go into and for how long. etc.[1] A PLMN is identified by the Mobile Country Code (MCC) and the Mobile Network Code (MNC). The PSTN also furnishes much of the Internet's long-distance infrastructure and. has a GSM based system supplied by NTL to help its GSM coverage for calls. public information.

With respect to their functions. the PLMNs may be regarded as independent communications entities. the GSM PLMN objectives conceptually remained the same. If there are two mobile service suppliers in the same country. the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) or as an integral part of the PSTN. A PLMN may have several interfaces with the fixed network (e. Access to PLMN services is achieved by means of an air interface involving radio communications between mobile phones or other wireless enabled user equipment and land based radio transmitters or radio base stations PLMNs interconnect with other PLMNs and PSTNs for telephone communications or with internet service providers for data and internet access. Sometimes it refers to the whole circuit-switched system. e. Objectives of a GSM PLMN The general objective of a PLMN is to facilitate wireless communication and to interlink the wireless network with the fixed wired network. the Quality of Service (QoS) guarantee is one aspect that needs to be improved for Voice over IP (VOIP) technology. PLMN mostly refers to the whole system of hardware and software which enables wireless communication. Its case is same as that of PSTN. The PLMN is connected via an NCP to the PSTN/ISDN. The PSTN is largely governed by technical standards created by the ITU-T.g. that are compatible with those offered by existing networks like PSTN and ISDN. The PLMN was specified by the European Telecommunications Standard Institute (ETSI) following up with their GSM specification. they can be connected through the same PSTN/ISDN.Public land mobile network Many observers believe that the long-term future of the PSTN is to be just one application of the Internet — however.164 addresses (usually called telephone numbers) for addressing. locating and updating of mobile subscribers. 267 Specifications A GSM PLMN may be described by a limited set of access interfaces and a limited set of GSM PLMN connection types to support the telecommunication services described in the GSM 02-series of specifications. Even as times changed. PLMN is network that is established and operated by an administration or by a recognized operating agency (ROA) for the specific purpose of providing land mobile telecommunications services to the public. In fact GSM can be treated as an example of a PLMN system. A PLMN may be considered as an extension of a fixed network. This is just one view-point on PLMN. even though different PLMNs may be interconnected through the PSTN/ISDN for the forwarding of calls or network information. There are also private networks run by large companies which are linked to the PSTN. • To give access to the GSM network for a mobile subscriber in a country that operates the GSM system. A public land mobile network may be defined as a number of mobile services switching centre areas within a common numbering plan and a common routing plan. These days (as of January. but only through controlled gateways such as private branch exchanges. . both voice and non voice. and are used for military purposes (such as the Defense Switched Network). • To provide facilities for automatic roaming.g. Inter-working between two PLMNs may be performed via an international switching centre. or else specific to each country. 2006) much discussions are going on to form the structure of UMTS PLMN for the third generation systems. Sometimes separate PLMN is defined for each country or for each service provider. the Internet has some way to go before this transition can be made. irrespective of the service area or service provider.163/E. For example. one for each MSC). The MSCs of a PLMN can be interconnected similarly to allow interaction. • To provide the subscriber a wide range of services and facilities. A number of large private telephone networks are not connected to the PSTN. and uses E. PLMN is not a term specific to GSM.

2. The GIWU hardware equipment is physically located at the MSC/VLR. email. the MXE handles short message service. Various interfaces between the GSM subsystems are to be considered. voice mail. 3. Additional functional elements Other functional elements shown are as follows: • message center (MXE)-The MXE is a node that provides integrated voice. • Supplementary Services : Modify or supplement basic telecommunication services and are offered together or in association with basic communication services. • mobile service node (MSN)-The MSN is the node that handles the mobile intelligent network (IN) services. • GSM interworking unit (GIWU)-The GIWU consists of both hardware and software that provides an interface to various networks for data communications. There are three viewpoints of interoperability between PLMN and PSTN: 1. and the operation and support system (OSS).Public land mobile network 268 Services • Bearer Services : These services give the subscriber the capacity required to transmit appropriate signals between certain access points (user-network interfaces). fax mail. . and notification. • Tele Services : Provide subscriber with necessary capabilities including terminal equipment function to communicate with other subscribers. which depends on each other or connects to each other for the purpose of call routing. Each of these has various subsystems. along with the signaling system and the various components (both hardware and software). fax. extending the services offered by PSTN to wireless networks. Operation and Support System (OSS) The operations and maintenance center (OMC) is connected to all equipment in the switching system and to the BSC. The implementation of OMC is called the operation and support system (OSS). Subsystems The GSM PLMN is divided into signaling network and mobile network. cell broadcast. PLMN and PSTN can be treated as two separate systems. Through the GIWU. regional. users can alternate between speech and data during the same call. Specifically. the Base Station Subsystem (BSS). which are grouped under three major systems: the Network and Switching Subsystem (NSS). The MSC is then referred to as the GMSC. The gateway is often implemented in an MSC. Architecture GSM architecture is basically the PLMN architecture itself as the subject is GSM PLMN. PLMN can be treated as an integral part of PSTN. PSTN can be treated as an integral part of PLMN. The purpose of OSS is to offer the customer cost-effective support for centralized. • gateway mobile services switching center (GMSC)-A gateway is a node used to interconnect two networks. through which it facilitates call routing. and local operational and maintenance activities that are required for a GSM network. and data messaging. The OSS is the functional entity from which the network operator monitors and controls the system. An important function of OSS is to provide a network overview and support the maintenance activities of different operation and maintenance organizations.

bldrdoc.its.com/gsm.htm) (1996) • GSM Overview (http://www.html) .telecomspace. External links • Federal Standard 1037C (http://www.Public land mobile network 269 Conclusion A PLMN is essential for the effective working of any wireless network. References [1] This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the General Services Administration. PLMN facilitates interoperation with its own subsystems in order to perform operation of the GSM system in particular and any wired network in general.gov/fs-1037/fs-1037c. just like the need for PSTN in wireline networks.

IM. Media Player Classic. ringtone downloads. au/ PuppetMaster Push Proxy Gateway A Push Proxy Gateway is a component of WAP Gateways that pushes URL notifications to mobile handsets. or create a user-defined keymap References [1] http:/ / www. It works using Bluetooth or GPRS technology. you can: • Browse the files on your PC • Navigate the mouse on your screen with real time display feedback • Use keymaps for popular applications like VLC media player. Notifications typically include MMS. lim.PuppetMaster (application) 270 PuppetMaster (application) PuppetMaster Operating system Windows Type License Website Mobile Application Proprietary [1] PuppetMaster is an application for Windows and mobile which enables the mobile phone to be used as a universal remote control for Microsoft Windows. The notification will typically be a text string with a URL link. A PC component of the program interacts with the mobile component to facilitate the control. Technical specifications WAP Push Process .. Using the PuppetMaster. Winamp etc. and new device firmware notifications. Note that only a notification is pushed to the device. email. com. the device must do something with the notification in order to download or view the content associated with it. Most notifications will have an audible alert to the user on the device.

Push Proxy Gateway


A push message is sent as an HTTP POST to the Push Proxy Gateway. The POST will be a multipart XML document, with the first part being the PAP (Push Access Protocol) Section and the second part being either a Service Indication or a Service Loading. +---------------------------------------------+ | HTTP POST | +---------------------------------------------+ | PAP XML | +---------------------------------------------+ | Service Indication or Service Loading XML | +---------------------------------------------+ POST The POST contains at a minimum the URL being posted to (this is not standard across different PPG vendors), and the content type. An example of a PPG POST:
POST /somelocation HTTP/1.1 Host: ppg.somecarrier.com Content-Type: multipart/related; boundary=someboundarymesg; type="application/xml"

\ | | | / WAP PUSH Flow

PAP The PAP XML contains at the minimum, a <pap> element, a <push-message> element, and an <address> element. An example of a PAP XML:
--someboundarymesg Content-Type: application/xml

<?xml version="1.0"?> <!DOCTYPE pap PUBLIC "-//WAPFORUM//DTD PAP 1.0//EN" "http:/ / www. wapforum. org/ DTD/ pap_1. 0. dtd"> <pap> <push-message push-id="some_push_id"> <address address-value="WAPPUSH=+12065551212/TYPE=PLMN@ppg.somecarrier.com" /> </push-message> </pap>

The important parts of this PAP message are the address value and type. The value is typically a MSISDN and type indicates whether to send to an MSISDN (typical case) or to an IP Address. The TYPE is almost always MSISDN as the Push Initiator (PI) will not typically have the Mobile Station's IP address - which is generally dynamic. In the case of IP Address: TYPE=USER@a.b.c.d Additional capability of PAP can be found in the PAP article.

Push Proxy Gateway Service Indication A PUSH Service Indication (SI) contains at a minimum an <si> element and a <indication> element. An example of a Service Indication:
--someboundarymesg Content-Type: text/vnd.wap.si <?xml version="1.0"?>


<!DOCTYPE si PUBLIC "-//WAPFORUM//DTD SI 1.0//EN" "http:/ / www. wapforum. org/ DTD/ si. dtd"> <si> <indication si-id=345532 href="http://mmsc.somecarrier.com/CFJIOJF43F"> A new MMS has been received, download? </indication> </si>

PPG delivery to mobile station
Once a push message is received from the Push Initiator, the PPG has two avenues for delivery. If the IP address of the Mobile Station is known to the PPG, the PPG can deliver directly to the mobile station over an IP bearer. This is known as "Connection Oriented Push". If the IP address of the mobile station is not known to the PPG, the PPG will deliver over an SMS bearer. Delivery over an SMS bearer is known as "Connectionless Push". Connectionless Push In Connectionless Push, an SMSC BIND is required for the PPG to deliver its push message to the mobile station. Typically, a PPG will have a local SMS queuing mechanism running locally that it BINDs to, and which in turn BINDs to the carrier's SMSC. This mechanism should allow for queuing in the event of an SMS infrastructure outage, and also provide for message throttling. Since a WAP Push message can be larger than a single SMS message can contain, the push message may be broken up into multiple SMS messages, as a multipart SMS. Connection Oriented Push In Connection Oriented pushes (where the device supports it), an SMSC BIND is not required if the gateway is aware of the handsets IP Address. If the gateway is unable to determine the IP Address of the handset, or is unable to connect to the device, the push notification will be encoded and sent as an SMS. Connection Oriented Push is used less frequently than Connectionless Push for several reasons including: • Devices while registered to the network, may not have a data session (PDP Context in the GSM world) established. • A separate IP->MSISDN table has to be maintained in Connection Oriented Push. • Typically, the PPG or another part of the gateway has to receive RADIUS or other accounting packets in order to support Connection Oriented Push.

Push Proxy Gateway


Other PUSH Attributes
• Push notifications can be confirmed or unconfirmed. Most carriers use unconfirmed pushes due to the high volume and resource constraints related to confirmed push. This is controlled by setting confirmed in the quality-of-service tag element. • Push notifications can be set to expire if not delivered before a certain time. This is controlled by setting deliver-before-timestamp in the pushmessage element. Many other attributes exist and are detailed in the specifications at the Open Mobile Alliance and other sites.

PPG Vendors
PPG vendors include Nokia Siemens Networks, Ericsson, Bytemobile, Gemini Mobile Technologies, Openwave, Acision, Huawei, Azetti [1], Alcatel,WIT Software [2] ,ZTE ,and open source Kannel.

• OMA WAP Specifications: • Push Message (Version 22, March 2001 - ref WAP-251-PushMessage-20010322-a) [3] • Service Indication (Version 31, July 2001 - ref WAP-167-ServiceInd-20010731-a) [4] • Service Loading (Version 31, July 2001 - ref WAP-168-ServiceLoad-20010731-a) [5]

[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] http:/ / www. azetti. com http:/ / www. wit-software. com http:/ / www. openmobilealliance. org/ tech/ affiliates/ wap/ wap-251-pushmessage-20010322-a. pdf http:/ / www. openmobilealliance. org/ tech/ affiliates/ wap/ wap-167-serviceind-20010731-a. pdf http:/ / www. openmobilealliance. org/ tech/ affiliates/ wap/ wap-168-serviceload-20010731-a. pdf

[12] . Quadir is a Bangladeshi American entrepreneur and artist best known as the creator of CellBazaar. including mobile phones.bkash.[4] He is involved with Anwarul Quadir Foundation which recognizes innovations in developing countries. was acquired by Norwegian telecommunications operator Telenor in 2010. He is a First Mover Fellow of The Aspen Institute. Switzerland based organization of young thinkers. a Lausanne.[7] Kamal is currently heading bKash which provides financial services through an extensive network of community-based agents and existing technology.[8] Kamal is one of the most-cited (recently in the Wall Street Journal[9] ) thinkers in mobile innovations who has been credited for "grass-root level market creation"[10] with emerging technologies.com [5] CellBazaar Inc. [3][4] bKash Limited Industry Financial Services Website www. after reaching 4 million users.Kamal Quadir 274 Kamal Quadir Kamal Quadir Quadir in 2008 Occupation CEO of bKash Limited [1][2] Founder of CellBazaar Inc. Industry Mobile Telecommunication Website www. a mobile phone based electronic marketplace which.com [6] Kamal S. Kamal is a founding member of Open World Initiatives. In 2009. TED selected Kamal a TEDIndia Fellow[11] and the World Economic Forum recognized him as a Young Global Leader.cellbazaar.

affordable and reliable. Providing financial services using this mean can make the service more accessible and cost effective for the vast population of Bangladesh.. The service is accessible via Text message (SMS). He was also the co-founder and creative director of GlobeKids Inc. accredited CellBazaar as a door opener to mobile commerce.[14] Nokia. USA. launched in 2006 in Bangladesh. WAP or Internet enabled handset. especially in developing countries. including farmers that use the service to sell their harvest at fair market prices and struggling students that find and connect with tutors. that allows buyers and sellers to connect with one another and buy and sell goods and services using their mobile phones or computers. and there are no monthly or posting fees. an animation company. Computer or Web and Voice (IVR). ensuring access to a broader range of financial services for the people of Bangladesh is the ultimate objective of bKash. bKash bKash Limited is a joint venture between BRAC Bank Ltd. This will highly benefit the country as 83% of the population lives under $2 a day and access to finance can help in improving their economic situation. led the Business Development Division of Occidental Petroleum's initiative in Bangladesh and worked for New York City's Chamber of Commerce. and delivering products and services that improve the lives of millions of poor people. He is also an accomplished artist whose art works are in the permanent collection of the Bangladesh National Museum and the Liberation War Museum.. in their Expanding Horizons magazine. Bangladesh. CellBazaar enables entrepreneurs and small businesses in Bangladesh to start and grow operations in a market that wouldn't otherwise be available in their local community. the isolated and uninformed farmers and traders have little bargaining power with exploitative middlemen. Kamal has a BA from Oberlin College and an MBA from the MIT Sloan School of Management. . Limited communication has always been a hindrance for performing business. stimulating the economy. Users pay only the standard SMS or Internet charges for accessing the service on mobile. each of which connects to one customer-generated marketplace. CellBazaar has been credited as a revolutionary service in mobile telecommunications to have the potential to significantly contribute to socioeconomic development particularly in developing countries due to the ability to bridge non-existing wired telecommunications and transportation infrastructure and delivering various services directly to the end-user.Kamal Quadir 275 Early life Quadir was an intern at Insight Venture Partners in New York. bKash is working both as an extension of BRAC Bank and as a full-scale mobile phone-based payment switch.[15] The CellBazaar marketplace is available to more than 25 million people in Bangladesh.[13] CellBazaar CellBazaar is an electronic marketplace. In Bangladesh. and Money in Motion LLC. Less than 15% of Bangladeshis are connected to the formal financial system whereas 44% of total population are having mobile phones. It has a special focus to serve the low income people of the country and promote sustainable micro-savings to achieve broader financial inclusion by providing financial services that are convenient. thereby creating jobs.

thedailystar. cellbazaar.com/article/SB122081673203508037. com/ [7] http:/ / www. net/ content/ closing-divide-humble-phone-0) [19] http:/ / www. edu/ newsoffice/ 2005/ awards-ideas-0601.com article (http://www. bkash.quadir. com/ history/ index. com [4] Highlighted Profiles of the Young Global Leaders.weforum. edu/ office/ creativity/ speakers-and-symposia/ entrepreneurship-week. php?nid=175903 [3] http:/ / corp.edu/newsoffice/2005/awards-ideas-0601. manthanaward. php [14] Revolutionary service in mobile telecommunications [15] Expanding Horizons by Nokia & Nokia Siemens Network (http:/ / expandinghorizons.wsj. techawards.org/laureates/stories/index.manthanaward. asp?id=667 [20] http:/ / www. php?nid=175903 [9] http:/ / online.net/content/closing-divide-humble-phone-0) India's Manthan award page (http://www. com [2] http:/ / www.org) The Tech Award page (http://www.livemint. com/ article/ SB122081673203508037.telecomasia.com/person/kamal-quadir) . com/ pages/ view?id=305 [12] http:/ / new. cellbazaar.org/en/media/Latest Press Releases/PR_YGL2009) MIT Ideas award page (http://web. nokia. org/ en/ media/ Latest%20Press%20Releases/ PR_YGL2009 [17] http:/ / www. com/ [6] http:/ / www.html) Livemint. org/ section_full_story. ted. com/ issues/ ?issue=ExpandingHorizonsQ22008& page=13) [16] http:/ / www.globalmobileawards. bkash. com/ About. World Economic Forum (http:/ / www. org/ laureates/ stories/ index. mit. livemint. net/ newDesign/ news-details. dot [13] http:/ / www.com/2008/12/18222207/Making-markets-with-mobiles. weforum. html [11] http:/ / www. php?id=164 [21] http:/ / web.html) Kamal Quadir at Crunchbase (http://www. bkash. com/ 2008/ 12/ 18222207/ Making-markets-with-mobiles. globalmobileawards. vilcap.techawards. oberlin. html [10] http:/ / www.org/section_full_story.asp?id=667) World Economic Forum's Young Global Leader (YGL) of 2009 (http://www. org/ en/ Communities/ Young Global Leaders/ Whoweare/ index. shtml [18] (http:/ / www. weforum.mit.com/history/index.crunchbase. html External links • • • • • • • • • • Anuwarul Quadir Foundation (http://www.Kamal Quadir 276 Awards • Year 2009 • "Young Global Leader (YGL)" by the World Economic Forum of Davos [16] • Year 2008 • Global Mobile Award of the GSM Association in the category of "Best Use of Mobile for Social & Economic Development" [17] • Telecom Asia’s “Asian Innovation of the Year” Award [18] • India's Manthan Award for “Best E-Content for Development” [19] • Year 2007 • Tech Award for "Applying Technology to Benefit Humanity” [20] • Year 2005 • MIT Ideas Award [21] References [1] http:/ / www. telecomasia. wsj. net/ newDesign/ news-details. htm) [5] http:/ / www.php?id=164) GSMA Global Mobile Award page (http://www.shtml) Telecom Asia’s award page (http://www.html) Wall Street Journal article (http://online. com/ making-markets-mission-markets-and-better-world-books [8] http:/ / www. thedailystar.

com (http://www.[4] Philadelphia Business Journal Best Places to Work. In 1995. Hotmail and Citysearch.com) 277 Paul Raden Paul Raden is an Internet and technology entrepreneur and inventor. He attended the University of Notre Dame in Notre Dame.Kamal Quadir • CellBazaar at Crunchbase (http://www. a company that helps businesses shift to mobile communications. Citi Prepaid Services. In 1997 Raden and business partner.[1] He currently serves as co-founder of his third business venture.cellbazaar. He is a frequent guest lecturer on entrepreneurship at the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania where he received his MBA. C/Base designed programs valued at over US $1. Raden began his career teaching English in Tokyo.5 billion for companies including Microsoft. After the sale. Ecount was issuing more than US $4 billion in payments worldwide. where he served as Director of Marketing for two wholly owned subsidiaries.oberlin.com/portfolio/cellbazaar) • Corporate page at CellBazaar.edu/cidtrade/geneva/sessions/session04.[3] Deloitte Fast 500."[6] . before attending Business School at the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania."Cancun: Next Stop on the Road to the 2015 Millennium Development Goals" (http://www. Steve Gillin. Raden is best known as the co-founder of Ecount. a corporate electronic payments provider. Raden founded Relay. Raden remained as Managing Director and CMO of the renamed business. Raden sold Ecount to Citi for US $200 million.A. At the time of its acquisition. Amazon.[5] and Forbes "Best of The Web.html) • WTO Public Symposium 2003: Session IV . Raden co-founded C/Base – an Internet partnership marketing consultancy. and Pete Flick.edu (http://www.crunchbase. Ecount was one of the first providers of corporate prepaid card solutions for the purpose of replacing paper checks and other inefficient payment methods.html) • CellBazaar portfolio at Omidyar. At the time. Oberlin. In 2009. Biography Raden was born in Philadelphia.com) • Comapny page of bKash Limited (http://www.bkash. in English.com (http://corp.omidyar. Matt Gillin. Raden holds two patents in the US Patent Office for his inventions around electronic payments. founded Ecount – an electronic payments company.edu/alummag/oamcurrent/oam_winter99/profile. he served as a management consultant before joining Ocwen Financial Corporation. Ecount was sold to Citigroup for US $200 million to integrate into Citi’s global transaction services business. Indiana.[2] until 2009. Upon graduation. He then worked at Drexel Burnham Lambert. In 2007.harvard. Relay. In 2007. Raden has received numerous recognitions for his companies including being named Deloitte Fast 50.com/company/cellbazaar) • The Business of Art. where he received a B.cid. Pennsylvania. together with Matt Gillin. Japan.

jhtml?id=190)] "Best of the Web" Award] External links • Paul Raden’s public profile (http://www.edu/alumni/alumniimpact.com/watch?v=WKUg52ueZwg&feature=related) at the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania • Video interviews (http://wep. com/ 2007/ 03/ 01/ business/ 01citi.newspringcapital. com Current work Raden is currently co-founder and Chief Xperience Officer of Relay. citi. Pennsylvania Area served Website United States http:/ / www. Mobile 2009 Headquarters Radnor. relaynetwork. com/ assets/ Dcom-UnitedStates/ Local Assets/ Documents/ us_tmt_fast_Greater Phil. deloitte. References [1] [2] [3] [4] The New York Times article on Ecount's acquisition by Citi (http:/ / www.com/management. deloitte.com/EcountNew0301.upenn. which Raden founded prior to Relay • Ecount sold to Citigroup (http://www. com/ assets/ Dcom-UnitedStates/ Local Assets/ Documents/ TMT_us_tmt/ us_tmt_2006TechnologyFast500WinnersBrochure.com). html?_r=2) Ecount renames to Citi Prepaid Services (http:/ / www.com/pub/paul-raden/0/154/346) with his positions and start-up history • Management Page on Relay website (http://www. html) [6] [[Forbes (http:/ / www.htm) .aspx?aiv=2) with Paul Raden for Wharton Entrepreneurial Programs • Citi Prepaid Services (formerly Ecount) website (http://www. forbes. corp. html) [[Deloitte (http:/ / www. xacp. pdf)]] [5] Philadelphia Business Journal "Best Places to Work" (http:/ / www. com/ about/ 2008news/ sept-1-2008.citiprepaid. Relay helps companies reach their customers through their mobile devices with their consent. com/ 9_21_06.relaynetwork.youtube.linkedin.php) • Paul Raden speaks (http://www.wharton.Paul Raden 278 Relay Type Industry Founded Startup company Technology. prepaid. pdf)] Fast 50] [[Deloitte Fast 500 (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ bow/ b2c/ category.

(PPP connections initially use the RIL to establish the connection. which processes AT commands and events. Android RIL The Android Open Source Project provides a Radio Interface Layer (RIL) between Android telephony services (android. the RIL accepts and converts all direct service requests from the upper layers (i.[1] Windows Mobile RIL A RIL is a key component of Microsoft's Windows Mobile OS. The RIL provides the system interface between the CellCore layer within the Windows Mobile OS and the radio protocol stack used by the wireless modem hardware.g. and a RIL proxy.Radio Interface Layer [1] • Top ten tips for developing android handsets [2] by Wayne Lee from Qualcomm.) In essence. External links • Android Platform Development Kit . Except for PPP connections. The RIL comprises two separate components: a RIL driver.e. therefore. which manages requests from the multiple clients to the single RIL driver. It consists of a stack of two components: a RIL Daemon and a Vendor RIL. also allows OEMs to integrate a variety of modems into their equipment by providing this interface. delivered at Linux World. all interaction between the Windows Mobile OS and the device radio stack is via the RIL. The RIL Daemon talks to the telephony services and dispatches "solicited commands" to the Vendor RIL. however. but then bypass the RIL to connect directly to the virtual serial port assigned to the modem. and dispatches "unsolicited commands" up to the RIL Daemon.telephony) and the radio hardware. Instead. the final link to the modem is typically the standard serial driver provided by the OEM’s platform. 2008 • MSDN: Radio Interface Layer [3] • Windows Mobile RIL White Paper [4] • RIL Patent information [5] • MSDN: CellCore [6] • MSDN: CellCore Catalog Items [7] • MSDN: RIL Driver [8] • MSDN: RIL Proxy [9] . The RIL enables wireless voice or data applications to communicate with a GSM/GPRS or CDMA2000 1X modem on a Windows Mobile device. a mobile phone.Radio Interface Layer 279 Radio Interface Layer A Radio Interface Layer (RIL) is a layer in an operating system which provides an interface to the hardware's radio and modem on e. The RIL. TAPI) into commands supported and understood by the modem. The Vendor RIL is specific to a particular radio implementation.. Note that the RIL does not communicate directly with the modem.

microsoft. com/ en-us/ library/ aa921520. microsoft. pdf http:/ / www. com/ en-us/ library/ aa920475. freepatentsonline. com/ en-us/ library/ aa921992. microsoft. microsoft. aspx http:/ / msdn. kandroid. org/ android_pdk/ telephony. aspx . html http:/ / msdn. aspx http:/ / msdn. com/ docs/ services/ RIL_whitepaper_MS_Intrinsyc_June2004. com/ en-us/ library/ aa922988. html http:/ / www. com/ 6826762. intrinsyc.Radio Interface Layer 280 References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] http:/ / www. com/ en-us/ library/ aa919915. microsoft. aspx http:/ / msdn. aspx http:/ / www. com/ broadband-presentations/ presentations?itemid=1509 http:/ / msdn. bloobble.

including: • Wireless carriers such as AT&T Mobility and Sprint. and more than $20 million for charities since 1996.0 million for non-profit programs in 2008. including cardboard. between 100 million and 130 million cell phones are thrown away each year.ReCellular.[2] Founded in 1991. Michigan. representing an estimated 65. Collection Sources ReCellular has built a network of nearly 1. partner with ReCellular to facilitate recycling programs for their customers.[1] ReCellular collects cell phones for resale and recycling. ReCellular. In November 2006. [4] . the magazine Inc.100 collection partners. silver and palladium from circuit boards. • Grassroots and charitable organizations such as Cell Phones for Soldiers partner with ReCellular to operate donate-a-phone fundraising programs. ReCellular is headquartered in Ann Arbor. Type Private Headquarters Ann Arbor.[3] ReCellular’s zero-waste policy dictates that all donated materials are recycled. Michigan. representing nearly 40. nickel. cadmium and lead from battery packs. named ReCellular to the Green 50.. is the world's largest recycler and reseller of cell phones. such as: gold.000 phones each week. 281 ReCellular. ReCellular partners raised $4. United States ReCellular. Inc. Inc. Inc.000 tons of electronics waste.000 collection sites across the nation. collecting more than 125. On average. Many organizations use the proceeds from their wireless recycling programs to benefit charitable causes.S. In the U. and retailers such as Best Buy and Wal-Mart. American cell phone subscribers replace their cell phones every 18 months. copper wiring from phone chargers. Reuse and Recycling Approximately half of the phones ReCellular collects are reprogrammed and sold for reuse. iron. and plastic from cases and accessories. Inc. paper and plastic shipping materials – diverting more than 1 million pounds of materials from landfills per year. Obsolete or non-functional phones are dismantled and recycled to reclaim valuable materials. Used cell phones are a growing electronic waste challenge. • Individual businesses partner with ReCellular to dispose of their corporate communications equipment.

• • • • FLEX . epa.2-way up to 9600 BPS ReFLEX 2. Although ReFLEX Two-Way Paging is a rather dated technology. Later version 2.7.recellular. itworld. html External links • ReCellular (http://www.com) ReFLEX ReFLEX is a wireless protocol developed by Motorola which is used for two-way paging. Inc. Sag Harbor Group. it is finding new uses in AMR Automatic Meter Reading and low cost telemetry applications.x External links • Two Way Paging Article [2] • Article [3] • "ReFLEX Rules: The Role of Pervasive Low-Cost Networks and Devices in the Future of Mobile Data Messaging whitepaper" [1] (pdf). pdf http:/ / www. com/ green-it/ 58370/ fighting-e-waste-one-cell-phone-time http:/ / www.1-way communications 1600. Versions ReFLEX is based on the one-way FLEX protocol and originally came in two variants. com/ Infotech/ 21237/ page1/ http:/ / www. com/ magazine/ 20061101/ green50_recyclers. 2001. The Motorola PageWriter released in 1996 was one of the first devices to use the ReFLEX network protocol.7 of the ReFLEX protocol was released. 282 Data Eraser tool ReCellular also offers a Cell Phone Data Eraser tool that enables consumers to remove personal information from their old cell phones prior to recycling. pcworld.2-way up to 6400 BPS ReFLEX 50 .ReCellular. • Skytel ReFLEX Two-Way Paging Service Provider [2] • ReFLEX White Paper [1] . 3200 and 6400 BPS ReFLEX 25 . The primary difference between the ReFLEX versions are inbound speed. Devices compliant with ReFLEX 2. technologyreview.7.x can operate on both ReFLEX25 and ReFLEX50 networks.[5] References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] http:/ / www. gov/ oswer/ docs/ iwg/ CellPhones. com/ article/ 157818/ how_to_keep_your_cell_phone_info_private. html http:/ / www. ReFLEX25 and ReFLEX50. inc.

file systems and more Support cases management Mail settings for MS Exchange. 2683/ 1. idg. 342382/ de-ger-battre-koll-pa-mobilen http:/ / www. skytel. including iPhone. with a research and development office in Hong Kong. REVIVAL has been developed to support a range of mobile operating systems. php?id=27675 External links • Official website (http://www.[1] [2] The Institution was founded in 2006 and is based in Stockholm. se/ nyheter/ artikel. restore and migration [1] Remote wipe Mobile activity logging [1] Security References [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / www. Windows Mobile. configuration and handling Location based reporting [3] Backup. php?id=32645 http:/ / www. se/ 2. 351122/ smarta-telefoner-it-avdelningarnas-huvudvark http:/ / computersweden. idg.[1] [2] [3] REVIVAL Mobile Management Suite can be installed on-site at the customer’s facilities or it can be hosted by a selected hosting partner.[4] Technology The main purpose of this technology is to oversee diverse mobile device populations by securing and storing mobile phone data. 1085/ 1. using and updating mobile phones. Symbian and OMA-DM devices. telekomidag. IBM Lotus Notes. usamobility. com REVIVAL Mobile Management Suite REVIVAL Mobile Management Suite is a mobile device management tool developed and provided by The Institution.ReFLEX 283 References [1] http:/ / www.se/) . se/ nyheter/ artikel. It's features include: • • • • • • • • • • Inventory and asset control Remote control of display.[1] One of the biggest organizations connected to REVIVAL today is “SJ”. pdf [2] http:/ / www. It is also used to facilitate in handling. Swedish Railways.theinstitution. Android. com/ pdf/ reflexwhitepaper. telekomidag. Nitrodesk Touchdown among others Application deployment. se/ 2.

Rich Communication Suite 284 Rich Communication Suite Rich Communication Suite (RCS) is an industry effort focused on the use of IMS (IP Multimedia Subsystem) for providing mobile phone communication services. or the way it was deployed failed to result in great take-up by consumers. which enables multimedia content sharing during a voice call. This allows the service capabilities as well as presence information of the different recipients to be shown in the terminal phonebook application.g. but this has failed to be taken up by operators. Technical features RCS leverages the various existing standards. but has long been touted as a benefit of IMS. registration. These capabilities would be available on any type of devices using an open communication between devices and networks. with service capabilities and presence enhanced contacts information • Enhanced Messaging. which refers to the use of more than just voice for communication. Main features of RCS are: • Enhanced Phonebook. Interoperability between different terminal vendor RCS clients and RCS service interworking between operators are the key aims of RCS Initiative. video sharing and buddy lists. The core feature set of RCS includes: • Enhanced Phonebook. which enables multimedia content sharing during a voice call. which enables a large variety of messaging options including chat and messaging history • Enriched Call. "Rich Communication" in itself is meaningless jargon. Wider and large scale IMS deployment. thus RCS takes on board different services defined by e. According to the press release. which enables a large variety of messaging options including chat and messaging history • Enriched Call. Bundling this feature with the two other features may help to increase uptake. charging and routing. RCS is considered by some to be not fit for purpose [2] and has not been rolled out commercially by any major operator as of September 2010. 3GPP and OMA and combines them with the Enhanced Phonebook. However. It is to be noted that much of the capability of RCS is already available from Internet service providers.[1] from the end-user point of view RCS would enable communication such as instant messaging. The following standardized services are a part of RCS concept: • • • • • • • Presence Voice call IM Video Share Image Share SMS MMS . authorization. For many years Nokia and Ericsson have been pushing a "see what I see" capability. with service capabilities and presence enhanced contacts information • Enhanced Messaging. RCS reuses the capabilities of 3GPP specified IMS (IP Multimedia Subsystem) core system as the underlying service platform taking care of issues such as authentication.

htm) GSMA To Take Rich Communication Suite Forwards (http:/ / gsmworld. com/ newsroom/ press-releases/ 2008/ 1132. The intention was to have interoperable rich communication services available in 2008. asp?id=697) Thrutu launches RCS-lite-lite app (http:/ / www.[7] and demonstrated it at Mobile World Congress 2011. At Mobile World Congress 2009. com/ en_EN/ finance/ news/ cp090211en. sk. com/ 2009/ 08/ mobile-ims-and-lte-networks-dead-parrot. the 3 major French mobile operators. allowing the sharing features of RCS without the infrastructure. developed reference implementations of the services and conducted interoperability testing in multi-vendor environment. the HD Video Call service also supports sharing photos and sketches over an RCS-based service. com/ newsroom/ press-releases/ 2008/ 1132. as of September 2010 none of these operators have commercially deployed RCS. RCS Initiative also announced a RCS prototype interoperability demo at IMS World Forum 2008 in Paris. Current aim is that the first interoperable RCS services are set to be launched in mid 2009. However. com/ A4136001?newsid=1189463 Nokia's press release http:/ / disruptivewireless. mobileeurope. jsp SK Telecom to participate in Mobile World Congress (http:/ / www. nokia. blogspot. com/ happychannel/ news/ news_view. and SFR [6] announced intentions to offer a user trial in the second half over 2009. htm) http:/ / www.Rich Communication Suite 285 Status According to Nokia . by February 2008 the RCS Initiative has defined a core feature set. Note that membership of the RCS initiative does not imply that a company is planning significant launch. html Disruptive analysis GSMA press release about RCS integration testing (http:/ / gsmworld. Metaswitch launched the Thrutu service that has been described[8] as 'RCS-lite'. As of 15 September the RCS initiative is moved to a GSMA work program.[4] The GSMA RCS work program contains further details. htm) GSMA RCS work program webpage (http:/ / www. Bouygues Telecom. gsmworld.[5] In January 2009. Orange. francetelecom. As well as allowing users to share video. RCS Initiative demonstrated interoperability of the prototype RCS compatible terminals at the Barcelona 3GSM exhibition 2008. In March 2011. Subsequent to that event. References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] http:/ / www. com/ our-work/ mobile_lifestyle/ rcs/ gsma_rcs_project. GSMA press release [3] tells RCS integration testing takes place in Helsinki at the end of September 2008 hosted by TeliaSonera with a full update on the progress of initiative in Mobile Asia Congress during November. the first multi-operator trial took place using multiple core IMS vendors along with clients and devices. SK Telecom launched an RCS service called HD Video Call in South Korea in November 2010. there were live demonstrations and many RCS member booths featured information on RCS service components. uk/ news/ news-anaylsis/ 8635-thrutu-launches-rcs-lite-lite) . co.

several Network Rail. Phone parking has received some bad press notably in respect to the City of Westminster implementation which is not RingGo. Hounslow since December 2006. London Borough of Bromley since May 2010 and Cornwall since June 2010 Parking is a niche in which electronic money as opposed to cash-money is now making some significant advances. For contract phones the local telephone number means that it will be included in its free minutes package. March 2010 and March 2010 respectively). High Wycombe since May 7. Taunton since December 2007 Southwark since January 2008 North Cornwall since January 2008. was an early step in the fast growing trend away from the established paradigm of paying for parking using electro-mechanical machines which dispense paper tickets – the pay and display model. Sheffield since January 2010. Chiltern Railways. Luton since November 2009. Cherwell since May 2008. London Borough of Richmond upon Thames since March 2009 Wandsworth since March 2009. Middlesbrough since June 2008. National Express East Anglia. March 2010. Allerdale since August 2009. March 2010. Hartlepool since June 2008. Since then. Bristol since December 2008. October 2009. North Hertfordshire since March 2010. 60 stations were involved such as Taplow railway station. C2C. Dorset since February 2010. West Devon since January 2009 Salisbury since Feb 2009. July 2008. including: Bournemouth since July 2006. Various local authorities have rolled out RingGo. Stockton-on-Tees since June 2008. The generic advantages to car park operators are: • The reduction in theft from and vandalism to coin based machinery . Suffolk Coastal since June 2008. West Dorset since November 2009. Trafford for Old Trafford Match Day parking. Eastleigh since September 2009. Test Valley since August 2008 Havant since August 2008. The first major implementation (from June 2006) was for the First Great Western Railway. This implementation project by the First Group. North Devon since May 2009. The service is also offered in NCP operated and managed car parks since March 2010. Teignbridge since January 2010. Transpennine Express. Canterbury since December 2009. Christchurch since Feb 2007. First Capital Connect. Woking since September 2009. since August 2009. In February 2009. Reigate and Banstead since May 2009 Dover since June 2009 Torridge since June 2008. Shepway since December 2009.RingGo 286 RingGo RingGo is a pay by phone parking service currently offered in public car parks and on-street locations in the United Kingdom. Ealing in limited areas since May 7. The generic advantages to members of the public of phone parking services are: • • • • • Avoidance of the need to have coinage The ability to pay the correct amount only Security – payment can be made from within a locked car Can extend without having to go back to the car Company accounts which are available only to nominated vehicles or drivers can cut expense claim administration costs The specific disadvantages to rail users at Oxford station is that there is no alternative method of payment (apart from paying the full non-rail-user price from the machine in the car park). London Borough of Redbridge since November 2009. taking the total to 72 (although not offered at the Reading station Multi Storey Car Park due to a major investment in a chip coin system). Poole since August 2008. December 2008. the daily code number cannot be seen while queuing for a ticket (since this is only displayed on the platform to ensure a rail user discount) and there is an unavoidable phone charge for pay-as-you-go phone users. Portsmouth since July 2007. Arriva Trains Wales railway station car parks have implemented RingGo (August 2008. Brent since July 2008. further stations were added. Oxford since May 2008. South West Trains. Epping Forest since March 2010. Scarborough since June 2009.

counterfeit £1 coins and shrinkage On 1st October 2009. which can be used in the machine. pdf http:/ / www. RingGo phone parking is also now being used as a method of payment for Portsmouth City Council's Park and Ride service (since May 2010). co. uk/ 1/ hi/ england/ dorset/ 5179176. The RingGo brand is wholly owned by Cobalt Telephone Technologies Ltd. html http:/ / www. uk/ index. co. MyRingGo. bbc.RingGo • Lower capital costs when contrasted with buying new parking machines • Reduction in cash handling costs such as banking. ringgo. bis. a UK private company. 287 External links • • • • • • The RingGo website [1] and also The MyRingGo website [2] for details on how it works and where it is available First Great Western [3] BBC News item on RingGo [4] Bank for International Settlements [5] Cobalt Telephone Technologies [6] [7] References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] http:/ / www. aspx?id=185 http:/ / news. uk/ Content. firstgreatwestern. Payment of the service is either via RingGo or by a special Richmond smart card. uk http:/ / blog. co. com/ fake-one-pound-coins-part-one/ . org/ publ/ cpss38. Richmond Council introduced variable parking charges which are linked to the carbon dioxide emissions of vehicles parking there (carbon metered parking). stm http:/ / www. ctt. alism. com http:/ / www. co.

Roaming 288 Roaming In wireless telecommunications. when travelling outside the geographical coverage area of the home network.g. i. by means of using a visited network. authorization and billing procedures. such as SIM card capability. has already been described above and is likewise defined by the foreignness of the network based on the type of subscriber entry in the home subscriber register. the required subscriber data must first be requested by the visited network e. GSM Association Permanent Reference Document AA. Although these user/network scenarios focus on roaming from GSM Network Operator's network(s). Device equipment and functionality. Roaming in general Roaming is divided into "SIM-based roaming" and "Username/password-based roaming". the term "roaming" can also be applied to the CDMA technology. irrespective of access type. antenna and network interfaces. differentiation also exists. Roaming is technically supported by mobility management. The "visiting" subscriber acquires . whereby the technical term "roaming" also encompasses roaming between networks of different network standards. from the subscriber's home network in order that the subscriber can be authenticated and any authorization for using the network services can be checked. such as e. e. authentication.g. This can be done by using a communication terminal or else just by using the subscriber identity in the visited network. Service scenarios may include access to a range of different services. In terms of user service scenarios. In the case of session continuity. or • another Operator who has a roaming agreement with their GSM Operator. including home data services.39) as the ability for a cellular customer to automatically make and receive voice calls.e. • Username/password based roaming: GSM subscriber roams onto a Public WLAN operated by: • their GSM Operator. roaming is a general term referring to the extension of connectivity service in a location that is different from the home location where the service was registered. the following scenarios can be differentiated (cf. or • another Operator who has a roaming agreement with their GSM Operator. WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network) or GSM.39): • SIM-based (roaming): GSM subscriber roams onto a Public WLAN operated by: • their GSM Operator. GSM Association Permanent Reference Document AA. and • Access to public Internet. Using the example of WLAN/GSM roaming. Traditional roaming in networks of the same standard. seamless access to these services across different access types is provided. or access other services. and power management. • Access to operator walled garden services. the user can have access to the same set of services.g. Home Location Register (HLR) in GSM networks or local customer database in WLANs).g. Roaming ensures that the wireless device is kept connected to the network. If a subscriber has no entry in the home subscriber register of the network (e. determine the access possibilities. clearly roaming can be bi-directional. send and receive data. from Public WLAN Operators to GSM Networks. without losing the connection. The term "roaming" originates from the GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) sphere. Home and visited networks The differentiation between home network and visited network is technically given by the type of subscriber entry in a specific network. However. from a WLAN to a WLAN or a GSM network to a GSM network. including: • Access to corporate Intranet services.[1] Traditional GSM Roaming is defined (cf.

authorization and billing of the subscriber can be performed in the corresponding network. the term roaming is not linked to a specific network standard. A TAP/CIBER file contains details of the calls made by the subscriber viz. file and is transferred to the home network. etc. maintenance of service is impossible. called party. the possibility of assigning the subscriber data is always indispensable in order that authentication. the TADIG testing is to check the billability of the calls. The visited network contacts the home network and requests service information (including whether or not the mobile should be allowed to roam) about the roaming device using the IMSI number. this new "visited" network sees the device. If a subscriber can use his personal service profile. but rather to the type of subscriber entry in the home subscriber register of the mobile radio network. The GSM Association broadly outlines the content of such roaming agreements in standardized form for its members. the home network updates its information to indicate that the mobile is on the host network so that any information sent to that device can be correctly routed.Roaming an entry in a user database of the visited network (e. If a call is made to a roaming mobile. If there is no roaming agreement between the two networks. location. as e. For the roaming procedure in practice. 2. Visited Location Register (VLR)) and the authorized network services are enabled.g. this is tested by all the mobile phones are working in roaming condition 289 Roaming agreements The legal roaming business aspects negotiated between the roaming partners for billing of the services obtained are usually stipulated in so called roaming agreements. . and service is denied by the visited network. TAP records are generally used for wholesale Inter-Operators settlements only. a roaming agreement needs to be in place between the visited network and the home network. As recently many carriers launched own retail rate plans and bundles for Roaming. For the legal aspects of authentication.g. the roaming agreements typically can comprise minimal safety standards. Likewise. AMPS etc. who then must route it to the visited network. The home operator then bills these calls to its subscribers and may charge a mark-up/tax applicable locally. Thus. The roaming process The details of the roaming process differ among types of cellular networks. In order that a subscriber is able to "latch" on to a visited network. which he uses in the home network. which terminates at the host network and is forwarded to the mobile.. this is also referred to as Global Service Roaming Capability. That network must then provide an internal temporary phone number to the mobile. While the IREG testing is to test the proper functioning of the established communication links. time of call and duration.. Once this number is defined. If successful. This agreement is established after a series of testing processes called IREG (International Roaming Expert Group) and TADIG (Transferred Account Data Interchange Group). but in general. the home network forwards the incoming call to the temporary phone number. notices that it is not registered with its own system. 3. authorization and billing of the visiting subscriber. calling party. the process resembles the following: 1. The TAP/CIBER files are rated as per the tariffs charged by the visited operator. When the mobile device is turned on or is transferred via a handover to the network. The usage by a subscriber in a visited network is captured in a file called the TAP (Transferred Account Procedure) for GSM / CIBER (Cellular Intercarrier Billing Exchange Record) for CDMA. and attempts to identify its home network. location update procedures or financial security or warranty procedures. in the visited network as well. the public telephone network routes the call to the phone's registered service provider. the visited network begins to maintain a temporary subscriber record for the device.

The visited operator tariffs may include tax. €0.11 (excluding tax) maximum price for SMS text message included into this regulation. Several carriers in the both United States and India have eliminated these fees in their nationwide pricing plans. Russia. forcing service providers to lower their roaming fees across the 27-member bloc.[2] If the Commission is satisfied that competition will continue to keep prices at this level.49 in 2007. Initially. In a country like India. this type of roaming is not allowed unless under very specific circumstances and under regulatory scrutiny. This charge is called a flagfall charge. and would be based on duration in case of voice calls. discounts etc.15 (€0. • National roaming: This type of roaming refers to the ability to move from one mobile operator to another in the same country.excluding tax. some carriers define "nationwide" as anywhere in the U. the charging may be based on the data volume sent and received. international roaming is easiest using the GSM standard. Roaming in Europe In the European Union. An operator intending to provide roaming services to visitors publishes the tariffs that would be charged in his network at least sixty days prior to its implementation under normal situations. For example. It later also included EEA member states. operators may have provide commercial offers restricted to a region (sometimes to a town). the Regulation on roaming charges has been in force since 30 June 2007. However. etc. Some operators also charge a separate fee for call setup i. this type of roaming is common. of particular interest to international tourists and business travellers. For data calls. there may be problems. • International roaming: This type of roaming refers to the ability to move to a foreign service provider's network. as it is used by over 80% of the world's mobile operators.Roaming 290 Tariffs As we know roaming fees are traditionally charged on a per-minute basis and they are typically determined by the service provider's pricing plan. whereas others define it as anywhere within the carrier's network. €0. a subscriber of T-Mobile USA who is allowed to roam on AT&T Mobility's service would have national roaming rights. carriers define "nationwide" in different ways. €0. It is. However.19 in 2009) per minute for incoming calls . consequently. in which there are a number of regional operators. This has often taken place when a new company is assigned a mobile telephony license. for the establishment of a call. Additional notions and types of roaming • Regional roaming: This type of roaming refers to the ability of moving from one region to another region inside national coverage of the mobile operator. All of the major carriers now offer pricing plans that allow consumers to purchase nationwide roaming-free minutes. For commercial and license reasons. regional roaming is rarely offered to clients except in nations with wide geographic areas like the USA.39 (€0. where the number of regional operators is high and the country is divided into circles. the regulation will expire in mid 2012. The regulation sets a price cap of €0.24 in 2007. but the United States and some other countries in the Americas have allocated 850/1900 MHz): for a phone to work in a .43 in 2009) per minute for outgoing calls.S.. and €0. to create a more competitive market by allowing the new entrant to offer coverage comparable to that of established operators (by requiring the existing operators to allow roaming while the new entrant has time to build up its own network). India. even then. For example.e.46 in 2008. Due to the success of GSM and the decrease in cost. Since mid 2009 there is also an €0. since countries have allocated different frequency bands for GSM communications (there are two groups of countries: most GSM countries use 900/1800 MHz. €0.22 in 2008. Broadly speaking.. or lower.

software changes and a greater processing capability are required.Hence. or to get to a particular mobile phone operator's network to get free calls to other customers of that mobile phone operator through a free unlimited mobile to mobile feature.Roaming country with a different frequency allocation. or features and phones that aren't available on your local mobile phone operator. • Trombone roaming: Roaming calls within a local tariff area. there is significant challenge in achieving seamless roaming across these technologies. Most mobile phone operators will require the customer's living or billing address be inside their coverage area or less often inside the government issued radio frequency license of the mobile phone operator. and this should be transparent for the AP(reference [3]). If a potential customer's address is not within the requirements of that mobile phone operator.[5] while they can not pass that extra cost onto customers ("free roaming"). This is currently an ongoing effort. A number of the standards making industry bodies have come together to define and achieve interoperability between the technologies as a means to achieve inter-standards roaming. • Mobile Signature Roaming: The concept of Mobile signature Roaming is: an access point should be able to get a Mobile Signature from any end-user. this is usually determined by a computer estimate because it its impossible to guarantee coverage (see Dead zone (cell phone)). when at least one of the phones belong outside that area. • Inter MSC Roaming[4] Network elements belonging to the same Operator but located in different areas (a typical situation where assignment of local licenses is a common practice)pair depends on the switch and its location. • Inter-standards roaming: This type of roaming refers to the ability to move seamlessly between mobile networks of different technologies. so it is avoided. Usually implemented with trombone routing[6] also known as tromboning[7] The routing of trombone roaming. an AP would have to build commercial terms with as many MSSPs as possible. these technologies were implemented in accordance with technological standards laid down by different industry bodies and hence the name. 291 . it must support one or both of that country's frequencies. In order to permanently roam customers may use a false address and online billing. or be off-network. But this is actually a burden. This becomes possible because of the increasing popularity and availability of "free roaming" service plan. Since mobile communication technologies have evolved independently across continents. even if the AP and the end-user have not contracted a commercial relationship with the same MSSP. • Permanent Roaming: This type of roaming refers to customers who purchase service with a mobile phone operator intending to permanently roaming. or a relative or friends address which is in the required area. Otherwise. and a 3rd party billing option. they will be denied service. Most mobile phone operator discourage or prohibit permanent roaming since they must pay per minute rates to the network operator their customer is roaming onto to. To accidentally become a permanent roaming customer does not usually happen. This means that a Mobile Signature transaction issued by an Application Provider should be able to reach the appropriate MSSP. Typically. but furthermore this situation could introduce the fairly new concept of roaming on a per MSC basis instead of per Operator basis. and thus be tri or quad band. and this might be a cost burden. where there is no cost difference between on and off network usage. The benefits of getting service from a mobile phone operator that isn't local to you can include cheaper rates.

"T-Mobile Dumps Customers Who Roam Too Much" (http:/ / www. Your roaming usage allowance is equal to the lesser of (i) 300 minutes or (ii) 30% of the anytime minutes included in your plan..internationalcellphoneguide..ieee. terminate or refuse to provide a Service for the following reasons. com/ en/ legal/ legal_terms_privacy_popup. interrupt. com/ en/ infosociety/ new-caps-roaming-charges-place-august/ article-164430). phsmou.. and you may choose to terminate your Customer Agreement without incurring any additional fees for termination. Eric (Nov 20. Centennial Wireless may discontinue your service if. southernlinc.. we may.'Guide to International Cell Phone Roaming Services for Travelers • Roaming . b. wireless. com/ uscellular/ SilverStream/ Pages/ x_page. at our sole option...htm) . euractiv.ehtml?o=2101) . . Sprint may terminate service if (1) more than 800 minutes. att. shtml) Termination By Us We may limit... asp) Additional Terms . In the event that we intend to take any of the above actions. over two consecutive billing cycle..mobileeurope. or for any other good cause: . org/ xpl/ freeabs_all. org/ docbox/ EC_Files/ EC_Files/ ts_102207v010103p.. html). (http:/ / nextelonline. cdg. • GSM website. com/ cell-phone-service/ legal/ service-agreement. (http:/ / www. centennialwireless. php) [7] Competition Commission: Telephone number portability: A report on a reference under section 13 of the Telecommunications Act 1984 (http:/ / www. AT&T will provide notice that it intends to take any of the above actions. (http:/ / www.com/) . Retrieved 2008-03-15. Roaming Services. ieee.Roaming 292 References [1] CDMA Roaming (http:/ / wiki. we will provide you with prior notice. com/ blog/ main/ archives/ 2007/ 11/ tmobile_dumps_c.Trombone Rooting (http:/ / www.jsp?arnumber=686490) • Mobile Europe describes how the roaming industry will cope with pending EU legislation and the arrival of mobile VoIP (http://www. (2) a majority of minutes or (3) a majority of data kilobytes in a given month are used while roaming. com/ terms.co. • Direct access to ETSI standards publications. uscc. Your off-net usage allowance is equal to the lesser of 750 minutes or 40% of the Anytime Minutes included with your plan. AT&T may. com/ footer/ termsandconditions/ terms. nextel. alltel.com/) External links • International Cell Phone Guide (http://www. Customers must have a mailing address and live in Centennial’s Primary Service Area.eu/information_society/activities/ roaming/index_en. jsp?q_termsKey=postpaidServiceAgreement& q_termsName=Service+ Agreement) Zeman.org/xpl/freeabs_all. and you may terminate the agreement. any of the following apply: 40% of airtime minutes or 750 minutes of usage are incurred outside Centennial-owned systems. 2007). deny your continued use of roaming services.European Commission • Intra MSC Roaming (http://ieeexplore. jsp?arnumber=686490 [5] Roaming-Included Plans: .Using my mobile abroad: are prices dropping ? (http://ec. com/ customersupport/ acceptable_use_policy.europa.. etsi. (f) if the majority of your Service is used roaming on a network not owned or operated by Alltel. or change your plan to one imposing usage charges for roaming services. php) (http:/ / www. uk/ rep_pub/ reports/ 1995/ 374telephone. competition-commission. at its option terminate your service. gsmworld. informationweek. deny your continued use of other carriers' coverage or change your plan to one imposing usage charges for off-net usage. org/ wiki/ Main_Page) [2] "New caps on roaming charges in place for August" (http:/ / www. org/ newsletter/ issue40/ p2.uk/magazine/features. com/ wps/ portal/ AlltelPublic/ c1/ 04_SB8K8xLLM9MSSzPy8xBz9CP0os3hnP2-DoCBDAwN_HxcnAyNLZ0PLIE9DIN9MPxykA0mFu3eokYFRgFOwWZi7i5GBgQFE3gAHcDTQ9_PIz03VL8 dl2/ d1/ L0lDU0lKSWdrbUEhIS9JRFJBQUlpQ2dBek15cXchL1lCSkoxTkExTkk1MC01RncvN19DTkswUlIxMDBPTERCMDI5QzE5UkkxMTBHNC9JX19fXzE!/ ?WCM_PORTLET=PC_7_CNK0RR100OLDB029C19RI110G4_WCM& WCM_GLOBAL_CONTEXT=/ wps/ wcm/ connect/ Alltel/ alltel. pdf [4] http:/ / ieeexplore. [6] PHS MoU Group: Note . 8 June 2007 [3] http:/ / portal. htm) Standardisation Organizations • ETSI website. (http:/ / www. there is excessive use of free minutes from included calling features. terminate your Services. Global System for Mobile communications by the GSM Association (GSMA) (http://www. InformationWeek. html) OFF-NET USAGE If your minutes of use (including unlimited services) on other carrier networks ("off-net usage") during any two consecutive months exceed your off-net usage allowance. html?p=legal_csa) ). (http:/ / www. If your minutes of use for roaming services during any two consecutive months exceeds a reasonable roaming usage allowance or if a majority of minutes in a given month are used while roaming. org. Roaming services typically refers to coverage on another carrier’s network that we make available to you based on our agreements with other carriers. European Telecommunications Standards Institute..

com/ en/ measurements-in-investigation-2.dmoz. cn:漫 游 293 RTMI RTMI (Radio Telefono Mobile Integrato) was the first mobile communication service in Italy. . References [1] "FER. and DTX DL Rate Measurements in TEMS Investigations (Technical Paper)" (http:/ / www.Lists some of the issues in Inter-standards roaming • Local Roaming Number (http://www. RXQUAL.org) .000 customers. pdf) (PDF). In the 1980s. It operated on the 160 MHz frequency band and was used by a few people working in the public sector (public administrations and defense officials).'Money Saving Tips for Travel Phone Users.Article talk about the Local Roaming Number Value Add Service. 2009.com/roaming/gsminfo/index. which operated on the 450 MHz frequency band and attracted 100.[1] This is an integer the value of which can be between 0 and 7 and reflects the quality of voice.1st-in-cell-phones. 7 is the worst.Index of GSM operators in a country. Maintained by GSM Alliance • International Forum on ANSI-41 Standards Technology (http://www. ascom. Ascom. started in 1973. • 1st In Cell Phones (http://www.org/Science/Technology/Electrical_Engineering/Communications/ Mobile_Systems/) at the Open Directory Project . and their roaming partners indexed by country.com/) .starhome.iFast. the Radio Telephone Mobile (RTM) emerged. Retrieved 2010-08-19.aspx?Page=local_roaming_number) . 0 is the best quality.shtml) .com/Content. Rxqual RxQual is used in GSM and is a part of the Network Measurement Reports (NMR). External links • Mobile Systems (http://www.Roaming • GSM operators and their roaming agreements (http://gsmworld.

but the commercial availability of S-GPS chipsets. electronicproducts. requiring only one RF radio. from manufacturers such as Qualcomm. aspx). Simultaneous GPS allows a cellphone to receive both GPS and voice data at the same time. Avago Technologies. By using a time-multiplexed scheme called TM-GPS. . Ordinarily. The use of two radios with a single antenna imparts new design challenges. has led to adoption of the method in newer handsets. the reception of the telephone call and the GPS signal are alternated one after the other.S-GPS 294 S-GPS Simultaneous GPS or S-GPS is a method to enhance a mobile phone's satellite-based position reporting ability to a carrier. . As the name implies. com/ Improving_S-GPS_sensitivity-article-farr_avago_jun2008-html.[1] References [1] "Improving S-GPS sensitivity" (http:/ / www2. a built-in GPS device is used to determine the location of an E911 call made from CDMA phones. which improves sensitivity and allows service providers to offer location-based services.

Inc. added mobile instant messaging to its application portfolio. SEVEN mobile messaging applications.[13] . CA Worldwide SEVEN Networks. including a facility in Estonia and a green data center in the Bay Area and employs about 265 employees [4] worldwide. CA.[7] In 2006. multi-service solutions that enable operators and device manufacturers to simplify the delivery of services across a broad device portfolio while optimizing traffic on their network.[6] In 2004 the company was selected as part of FierceWireless' annual list of "The Fierce 15. Push Notifications and Open Channel. Headquartered in Redwood City. is a privately funded American corporation founded in 2000. the company announced that it was selected by Samsung Electronics to provide push technology for Samsung Social Hub.[2] SEVEN develops and markets a push-based software platform and applications. in December 2000. are turnkey multi-device.com [1] Mobile software 2000 Redwood City.[9] As of January 2010. the company has expanded its product portfolio to include support for a broad range of email services globally.[8] Since then. SEVEN provides solutions for wireless operators. the company announced Sprint as a customer. and device manufacturers with software for real-time messaging.[3] Operating on a wide range of mobile devices (from feature phones to smartphones).SEVEN Networks 295 SEVEN Networks Industry Founded Headquarters Area served Products Website Seven. which include SEVEN Mobile Applications. which claims to cuts the data consumption of smartphones and other mobile devices by up to 70 percent.[5] History The company was formerly known as Leap Corporation and changed its name to SEVEN Networks.[11] In early 2011. a social networking and integrated messaging solution that will be available worldwide on several of the company’s bada and Android handsets." which recognizes the 15 most promising and innovative wireless startups of the year. applications and social networking for a number of customers worldwide. the than eight million accounts company announced Verizon Wireless as a customer[12] and also announced its Open Channel traffic optimization software. IM and social networking. In 2010. and expanded its platform with analytics. and underlying platform. content providers. The company has research and development centers around the globe. Inc. the company claimed in a press release to have more [10] actively synchronized on mobile devices using SEVEN. Unique to SEVEN applications is their ability to deliver a desktop-like experience for core messaging applications like email.

[16] Open Channel is transparent to connected applications and requires no changes or special integration by mobile developers.php?file=SEVEN_casestudy.[15] According to early tests. retrieved 17 March 2011 [13] Light Reading Mobile (http:/ / www.[24] The firm has partnered with many of the top Internet Service Providers including Google. LG.[22] Symbian and Windows Mobile. It works by monitoring all requests for data from smartphone applications. Its systems run on commonly deployed mobile platforms including Android. seven. retrieved 20 May 2010 [3] [www. asp?privcapId=715608). html). fiercewireless. Sanyo. seven. Microsoft (Exchange and Windows Live) and Yahoo!. com/ companies/ seven-networks). com/ article/ 20110125/ ENABLERAPPS/ 110129977/ seven-networks-optimization-tool-reduces-data-traffic-improves). retrieved 17 March 2011 . to sell mobile messaging services. com/ News/ 2010/ 12/ 2-Straight-Out-10-for-Seven-Business/ ). BREW. INQ. smart signaling and other network optimizations. retrieved 17 March 2011 [11] Seven Press Release (http:/ / www. device manufacturers.[17] In February 2011. [7] Fiercewireless (http:/ / www. achievement and innovation within the mobile communications industry[18] ) for Best Mobile Technology Breakthrough.[20] bada. com/ press_releases/ 2010/ SEVENReportsaFullYearofProfitabilityasCompanysUserBaseContinuestoGrowFasterthanMarket. com/ special-reports/ seven). retrieved 17 March 2011 [5] CrunchBase (http:/ / www. Nokia. it does not require changes to the network and can work in conjunction with new standards for fast network dormancy. rcrwireless. and infrastructure providers such as Equinix. like Facebook. including: HTC. Motorola. Open Channel received the GSMA Global Mobile Award (which recognizes excellence. com/ news/ item. linkedin. com/ news.[19] Partners The firm works with mobile platform providers. with only a small fraction of them actually returning data. asp?doc_id=203580). Additionally. retrieved 17 March 2011 [4] Wireless Week (http:/ / www. retrieved 20 May 2010 [8] Mobileburn (http:/ / www. which make up to hundreds of requests per hour. com/ press-releases/ verizon-wireless-expands-push-services-using-seven-networks-technology).com/download. com/ document. retrieved 17 March 2011 [6] Businessweek (http:/ / investing. email messaging solutions and providers of services in the cloud. com/ News/ 2010/ 12/ 2-Straight-Out-10-for-Seven-Business/ ). email. php?n=5745). and Sony Ericsson. and are embedded on more than 550 device types. retrieved 17 March 2011 [14] RCR Wireless News (http:/ / www. lightreading. wirelessweek. and infrastructure partners. wirelessweek. mobileburn. Competition • • • • Apple Push Notification Service (APNs) Good Technology Nokia Messaging Research In Motion (RIM.SEVEN Networks 296 Open Channel Open Channel was launched in February 2011 in order to help carriers manage the impact of push messaging notifications on their networks. retrieved 20 May 2010 [10] Wireless Week (http:/ / www. retrieved 20 May 2010. determining when content for a particular app is available and then allowing the phone to go out and get that content.[21] J2ME. com [2] Linkedin (http:/ / www. Twitter and others. the solution can help mobile devices reduce their time on a network by up to 40 percent and help reduce mobile traffic by up to 70 percent while boosting battery life by up to 25 percent. Samsung.pdf Equinix Case Study]. com/ company/ seven). retrieved 20 May 2010. [12] FierceWireless (http:/ / www.[23] They work on products from device manufacturers. phonescoop.[25] Savvis and Oracle. jsp?Id=2916). fiercewireless.[14] The platform instead acts as a buffer in the network. crunchbase. com/ research/ stocks/ private/ snapshot. BlackBerry) References [1] http:/ / www. retrieved 20 May 2010 [9] Phonescoop (http:/ / www. businessweek.equinix.

retrieved 17 March 2011 [19] GSM World (http:/ / www. intomobile. and Mail. htm). com/ 3g4g/ news/ MWC-Network-optimization-gets-specific-0131/ index. Sha-Mail is used to send pictures and/or email through mobile handsets. retrieved 20 May 2010 [23] Gomobi (http:/ / www. equinix. seven. com/ newsroom/ press-releases/ 2010/ 5433. net/ topics/ broadband-mobile/ articles/ 39564-seven-develops-integrated-mobile-messaging-solution-qualcomms-brew. org/ email/ seven-a-free-push-mail-software-for-windows-mobile-symbian-android-palm-and-java-enable-mobile-phones. html). sha-mail refers not only to Softbank. astricon. gomobi. which is the front part of a Japanese word Shashin meaning photograph. retrieved 20 May 2010 [21] Astricon (http:/ / www.SEVEN Networks [15] Connected Planet Online (http:/ / connectedplanetonline. but has come to apply to all the mobile phone carriers. retrieved 17 March 2011 [16] GigaOM (http:/ / gigaom. It can be abbreviated to sha-me (写 メ ) . htm). html). html). gsmworld. retrieved 17 March 2011 [18] GSM World (http:/ / www. com/ about_us. gsmworld. retrieved 20 May 2010 [25] Equinix (http:/ / www. com/ Start-up-Seven-addicted-to-Java/ 2100-1041_3-5427634. com/ 2009/ 11/ 23/ seven-on-android-ah-push-it-push-it-real-good/ ). com/ 2011/ 01/ 25/ in-smartphones-seven-finds-a-new-heaven/ ). The term has come to mean not only mail with pictures attached. com/ newsroom/ press-releases/ 2011/ 6034.seven. retrieved 20 May 2010 [22] Csnet (http:/ / news. retrieved 17 March 2011 [17] IntoMobile (http:/ / www. cnet. com/ news/ press/ SEVEN-Networks-Uses-Equinix-to-Connect-to-Growing-Mobile-Ecosystem/ ) retrieved 17 March 2011 297 External links • Official website (http://http://www. htm). retrieved 17 March 2011 [20] Downloadsquad (http:/ / www. retrieved 20 May 2010 [24] Seven (http:/ / www. as well as to mail with accompanying picture sent via other hand held devices and PCs. html). In current usage.com/) Sha-Mail Sha-Mail (写 メ ー ル ) is a kind of mailing service of J-Phone (now Softbank). customers_partners. The term came into usage after Softbank (then Vodafone) introduced the service in November. but is also sometimes used to refer to the pictures themselves that have been taken with camera phones and other such devices. com/ 2011/ 01/ 28/ seven-open-channel/ ). 2000. This term is made from Sha. downloadsquad.

Inc. After some usage the user learns the movement pattern for the commonly used words and can write them faster than is possible on a traditional virtual keyboard. Shorthand Writing on Stylus Keyboard [1].5 phones including the HTC Hero and Droid Eris. P. IBM Research Report RJ10393. P. It is this system that was the basis for the software release on IBM alphaWorks that is generally associated with the term "ShapeWriter". (2006). Proc.O. • Kristensson. P. handheld PCs. There was also a Beta release for Android 1. and mobile phones invented by Shumin Zhai and Per Ola Kristensson at IBM Almaden Research Center and the Department of Computer and Information Science at Linköping University. November 1.6 or higher. ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology. CHI 2003. It was available only for Android OS versions 1. and German. Using ShapeWriter text entry software. References • Zhai. a user draws words on a graphical keyboard using a pen. (2003). and MessagEase. 2006. Introduction to Shape Writing [3].000 . 2010. is had over 50.O.ShapeWriter 298 ShapeWriter ShapeWriter (previously known as Shorthand-Aided Rapid Keyboarding (SHARK)). Android ShapeWriter software was made available as a free application for Android (operating system) smartphones through the Android Market. Instead of tapping the keys. the user draws a pen gesture that connects all the letters in the desired word. (2004). S. was purchased by Nuance Communications and the ShapeWriter software was removed from the Android Market indefinitely on June 20. S. S. The first system described by Shumin Zhai and Per Ola Kristensson (2003) was only a prototype system that could recognize about 100 pen gestures for the top 100 words used in the English language. • Zhai. SHARK²: A Large Vocabulary Shorthand Writing System for Pen-Based Computers [2]. and Kristensson.60. ShapeWriter for Android was available in 7 European languages including English.000 words with low latency. and Kristensson. . Proc. Swype.O. It used a handwriting recognition algorithm that relied on dynamic programming to recognize the word patterns drawn from a lexicon. UIST 2004.000 users on Android worldwide. ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. Competitors Other similar products include SlideIT. ShapeWriter. The next version described by Per Ola Kristensson and Shumin Zhai (2004) has a fundamentally different recognition engine that can recognize 50. Spanish. This system introduced the notion that every word in a large lexicon should be possible to write by tracing the letters. is a keyboard text input method for tablet. As a touchscreen keyboard replacement. and Zhai.

Messages sent to short code can be billed at a higher rate than a standard SMS and may even subscribe a customer to a recurring monthly service that will be added to their mobile phone bill until they text. com/ u/ zhai/ shapewriter-pubs. for example.250. html& r=1& f=G& l=50& co1=AND& d=PTXT& s1=7. shapewriter. gov/ netacgi/ nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO2& Sect2=HITOFF& p=1& u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsearch-bool.ShapeWriter 299 External links Homepage [4] Download a version of ShapeWriter for tablet PC [5] More scientific articles about ShapeWriter are available here [6] United States Patent 7. 2002 [8] • Download an email and note application using ShapeWriter for the iPhone or iPod touch (opens in iTunes) [9] • • • • • References http:/ / doi.[1] Short codes are widely used for value-added services such as television program voting. Technology Normal telephone numbers (following the E. providers generally have agreements to avoid overlaps. so the network knows the end of the dialed number. the word "STOP" to terminate the service. ibm. woa/ wa/ viewSoftware?id=285484703& mt=8 [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] Short code Short codes (also known as short numbers) are special telephone numbers. There are two types of short codes: dialing and messaging. 1145/ 1029632. dialed numbers are generally seven or ten digits long. Short codes are designed to be easier to read and remember than normal telephone numbers.938& RS=7. apple. htm http:/ / patft. com/ WebObjects/ MZStore. com/ u/ zhai/ papers/ IBM_Research_Report_ShapeWriting-rj10393. with an optional prefix of "1" (the country code for the US and Canada). some classes of numbers are inter-operator (U.S. com/ tech/ sharktext http:/ / www.250.938& OS=7. significantly shorter than full telephone numbers. such as the United States. acm. 1145/ 642611. Even so. For instance. Like telephone numbers. pdf http:/ / www. one could not use the short code 12345. 642630 http:/ / doi. and thus one can use short numbers without clashing with longer numbers. and so when dialed from landline telephones. short codes are unique to each operator at the technological level.164 standard) may be of any length.251. on a land-line phone.250. for example. gov/ netacgi/ nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO2& Sect2=HITOFF& p=1& u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsearch-bool. uspto. In some countries.938 System and method for improved user input on personal computing devices [7] US Patent 7. that can be used to address SMS and MMS messages from certain service provider's mobile phones or fixed phones. 1029640 http:/ / www. On mobile phones. System and method for recognizing word patterns based on a virtual keyboard layout. org/ 10. alphaworks. acm. the network must apply heuristics to determine when dialing is complete — in the US. uspto.250. but on a mobile phone there is no such ambiguity. almaden. numbers are terminated with the "Send" or "Call" key and sent all at once over the network. html& r=1& f=G& l=50& co1=AND& d=PTXT& s1=7251367& OS=7251367& RS=7251367# [9] http:/ / phobos. almaden. since then one could not dial the phone number 1-234-555-4626 (or any other number that shared the prefix 12345). ibm. . inter-operator numbers are called common short codes). ordering ringtones. ibm. org/ 10. charity donations and mobile services.367.938/ kumhyr [8] http:/ / patft. December 20. com/ http:/ / www.

also are known as short codes for value added service. standard rate (user is responsible for standard carrier charges). the advertisement will typically follow this format: Example 1 .[4] Chile Codes are three and four digits in length. Short code-based messages vary between zero-rated (paid for by campaign). 116xxx . e. SMS sent to 9090930 is billed for Kč30. while two or three (depending on billing type=MO/MT) trailing digits express the price. An automated program can handle the response and typically requires the sender to start the message with a command word or prefix. digits at position four and five determines the service provider registered by a network operator. You can have a look at the different categories here [3].[2] Belgium Codes are four digits in length.Short code 300 Short codes and service identifiers (prefix) Short codes are often associated with automated services. 909 for adult content and 900 for everything else).emergency helplines. . starting with the prefix "19" followed by an additional four or six digits and two. Canada Canadian Common Short Codes can be five or six digits long. Example 2 . C$1-10). starting with nine.g. Communications Alliance Ltd and WMC Global are responsible for governing premium and standard rate short codes in Australia. Dominican Republic Codes are four or five digits in length. In ads or in other printed material where a provider has to inform about both the prefix and the short code number. used by a network operators for service only purposes (operator dependent) Denmark Codes are four digits in length. Four-digit Common Short Codes are not permitted due to handset incompatibilities. This is in addition to the EU-wide emergency number 112. Australia Short codes are six or eight digits in length. Albania Short Codes are five digits in length and start with 5. Czech Republic Messages sent to/from these short codes are known as Premium Rate SMS. and premium rate (varies.Short version: football@72404 Regional differences European Union Common EU-wide codes are six digit long and start with 11.directory services. The service then responds to the command appropriately. Codes are seven digits in length for MO and five (not billed) or eight (billed) for MT direction.[2] Transactional and Subscription services require a double sms MO opt-in or Web based opt-in with an MO reply.Long version: Text Football to 72404 for latest football news. There are also other four digit shortcodes. Common Short Codes beginning with a leading '4' are reserved for private use by wireless carriers. Canadian Short codes are governed by the Canadian Wireless Telecommunications Association. Examples include: 118xxx . Leading three digits are purpose type prefixes (908 for micropayments.

whose characters. and shared codes after 1 week. The five digits can be extended by three digits further representing three additional characters. and are four digits. They all start by the digit "1". and start with 5. South Codes are generally four to six digits in length. Starting digits define the cost of the service. and reserved for public services. Hungary Codes are four or five digits in length. Germany Codes are four or five digits in length. starting from three digits up to five. usually five or six. dedicated codes are generally live in 4 weeks. Codes are MT billed so subscription services are allowed.on a monthly basis. SMS shortcodes are used for a range of purposes.60. on a typical mobile phone keypad. but few if any of these codes are used. France Codes are five digits in length. Any length of full message can be sent. start with "2" or "3". Republic of Ireland Short codes are five digits in length.[6] Morocco Code are four keys digits in length. commercial ringtones and mobile stuff download. Lithuania In Lithuania short codes also have no fixed length.30 up to 10. The Netherlands 301 . ranging from 100–500 (some providers only support). starting from three digits up to five. Malaysia Codes are five digits in length. represent short codes. Greece Codes are five digits in length.Short code Finland Codes are five or more digits in length. The second digit generally indicates the maximum price. Upon service description approval by mobile operators. Texts sent to these Short Codes are commonly referred to as Premium Rate SMS Messages and cost around Rs 1 to Rs 3 per text depending on the operator as well as the service. however short codes have no fixed length. and 7 having no maximum. with 0 = completely free.[5] Italy In Italy short codes have no fixed length. Dialing shortcodes are generally 3 digits. Widely-known short codes are in the 48xxx range. which is designated by a local telecommunications law for "network services". Codes beginning 59 are ostensibly intended for adult services. Short codes are five digits in length and have to start with the digit '5'. 3 = €0. Korea. premium pricing from RM0. Nepal Codes are three to four digits in length.00. India There are many companies in the Indian market who rent keywords. 1 = standard text rate only. which is designated by a local telecommunications law for "network services". Indonesia Codes are four digits in length with Rp2000 premium price. They all start by the digit "4".

Taiwan 302 . hence.from any type of network . their regulatory guidelines are not comprehensive when applied to shortcodes.[7] Although they are ultimately responsible for the governance of premium and non-premium shortcodes in the Philippines.[9] Russia Codes are four digits in length.2 to 300 rubles. The tariff charges can range from R0. Each short code or short code range (a range will generally be 34000 to 34009) are assigned specific tariffs or end user prices (EUP).[10] [11] Spain Codes are four digits in length. affordable and viable infrastructure and services in information and communications technology (ICT) accessible to all. The National Telecommunications Commission (NTC) is a regulatory agency providing an environment that ensures reliable. Panama Codes are four digits in length. There is relevant documentation for Bulk SMS and SPAM control via NTC's "AMENDMENT TO THE RULES AND REGULATIONS ON BROADCAST MESSAGING SERVICES". New Zealand Codes are three and four digits in length. the subscriber might need to prefix the short code with an appropriate area code.[8] however again is not directly related to premium SMS. Serbia Codes are four digits in length.00 using mobile terminated billing. Poland Commercial codes are five digit long (1xxxx) and are reachable from both mobile and fixed networks. The cost of the call or SMS to the short number varies from 1. Singapore Codes are five digits in length. Short codes will start with either a "3" or "4". You will find no information specific to running premium SMS or standard rate SMS services on NTC's website. if wishing to reach a particular geographical area. more focusing on the carriers and their technical infrastructure. 34001 or 42001.are routed based on the location of the number originating the call. Calls to short codes . depending on the number and the carrier.00 on mobile originated billing and from R0.50 to R50. and advises on the regulatory issues to consider when connecting to a short code in the Philippines is txtNation. Nigeria Codes are four to five digits in length. Sweden Codes are five digits in length. One company that maintains a list of. Norway Codes are four and five digits in length. Philippines Codes are four digits in length.50 to R30.Short code Codes are four digits in length. South Africa Codes are five digits in length. For example.

CTIA.g. 2006. UK Premium rated SMS services are regulated by PhonepayPlus. such as television voting. • Restrictive . In the US. A US short code only works in the US. are administered by NeuStar.[16] Some carriers assign a subset of their carrier-specific codes to third parties.It takes a long time to launch a short code program. Some carriers don’t support short codes. voting and quizzes. The carriers can reject your campaign at their discretion. Codes starting 7 are used by charities..[17] [18] 303 Alternatives to short codes for SMS reception An alternative to inbound SMS is based on long numbers (international number format. You can get a shared short code to lower your costs. it will cost $500 or $1. under a deal with Common Short Code Administration [15] . In the US. long before you go live. Premium services use codes that can be set to deliver a charge to a participant’s mobile phone (in accordance with the service provider’s terms of service). . which can be used in place of short codes or premium-rated short messages for SMS reception in several applications. Adult related mobile services must use codes starting with 69 or 89. but then you are sharing the number with lots of providers and do not have sole control over the number. SMS shortcodes are often owned by holding companies[13] who then lease them out to service providers and advertisers to promote SMS services.000 a month just to get a number.g. You have to pay more to an aggregator for connectivity. "Text 611 to see how many minutes you have remaining on your plan. Common short codes in the U. United States of America As of May 31. Turkey Codes are four digits in length.[12] The range of codes may be expanded in time to use other leading digits such as 4." Codes starting with 1 are not permitted. All charges and associated terms linked to a premium code should be transparent to the consumer. starting with digits "19".It costs a lot to get a dedicated short code. rather than short codes which are usually shared across a number of brands. Long Numbers address some of the disadvantages of short codes.Short Codes don’t support voice. +44 7624 805000).Short code Codes are usually four digits in length. Additionally. To stop a subscription based shortcode service text the word 'STOP' to the shortcode number. For example. mostly starting with 6 or 8. as well as enabling businesses to have their own number. if you get a short code. specifically: • Long Lead Time . Mobile operators sometimes use proprietary codes (either with a different leading digit or shorter in length for their own use). e. 4 digit codes on T-Mobile USA's network are reserved for a "Beta test service" or "Free to end user" marketing campaigns.The MMA Best Practices are a 165 pages. And you start paying from day one. • Limiting .[16] Short codes can be leased at the rate of $1000 a month for a selected code or $500 for a random code. United Kingdom Codes are five digits in length. the standard lengths for interoperable short codes are five and six digits. product promotions and campaigns. it can take 2-3 months before your campaign is live with all of the major carriers.S. long numbers are non-premium inbound numbers.[14] Carriers use short codes with fewer digits for carrier-specific programs . Long numbers are internationally available. Other codes (typically used by advertisers) can be free to receive “your standard rate applies” or free to send and receive. • Expensive .e. Shortcodes can also be used to deliver additional content or a mobile URL link that when prompted opens the mobile web browser linking the user to a mobile web page. charitable fund-raising and marketing promotions such as news alerts.

Short code


[1] Evan Neufeld, Senior Analyst, Common Short Codes: Cracking The Mobile Marketing Code (http:/ / www. youra. com/ stats/ mobileuse. pdf), October 2007 [2] http:/ / clients. txtnation. com/ entries/ 129428-australia-premium-sms-regulations [3] http:/ / www. mobileweb. be/ en/ mobileweb/ sms-numberplan. asp [4] http:/ / www. txt. ca/ [5] http:/ / www. regtel. ie [6] http:/ / clients. txtnation. com/ entries/ 182820-malaysia-premium-sms-regulations [7] http:/ / portal. ntc. gov. ph/ wps/ portal [8] http:/ / clients. txtnation. com/ attachments/ token/ 4lczcuqluzi6exm/ ?name=Phillippines_NTC_Guidelines. pdf [9] http:/ / clients. txtnation. com/ entries/ 339246-philippines-shared-short-code-requirements-and-restrictions [10] http:/ / www. waspa. org. za [11] http:/ / www. smscode. co. za [12] (http:/ / www. short-codes. com/ ) [13] A Short Guide to a (UK) Short Code (http:/ / www. smsshortcodes. co. uk/ shared-and-dedicated-shortcodes. htm) by "Steve", SMSshortcodes.co.uk March 11th, 2009 [14] Common Short Code Administration Announces Open Registration of 6-Digit Codes (http:/ / www. usshortcodes. com/ csc_press053106. html), Press Release, CTIA, May 31, 2006 [15] http:/ / usshortcodes. com [16] Decoding Short Codes (http:/ / www. wirelessweek. com/ article. aspx?id=146359), by Monica Alleven, WirelessWeek, April 15, 2007 [17] Free to end user (FTEU) (http:/ / www. mobilestorm. com/ digital-marketing-blog/ free-to-end-user-fteu/ ) by "Steve", Digitial Marketing Blog, July 23rd, 2007 [18] Personal communication, T-Mobile Customer Support

14. http://clients.txtnation.com/entries/158302-belgium-premium-sms-regulations 15. http://clients.txtnation.com/entries/158290-canada-premium-sms-regulations

External links
• UK Shortcode availability tool (http://www.availableshortcodes.com/) • Australian short code search (http://web.acma.gov.au/numb/openAccess/inquiry/viewAllocationSearch.do) (Australian Communications and Media Authority) • Short Code Management Group (http://www.short-codes.com/) (U.K.) • Common Short Code Administration (http://www.usshortcodes.com/) (U.S.) • US Short Codes WHOIS Directory (http://www.usshortcodeswhois.com/) (U.S.) • The Mobile Guide to Common Short Codes (http://www.coolshortcodes.com/) • US Shared Short Codes WHOIS Directory (http://www.sharedshortcodeswhois.com/) (U.S.) • Short code Provider in India (http://www.shortcodes.in/) (INDIA)

Short message peer-to-peer protocol


Short message peer-to-peer protocol
The Short Message Peer-to-Peer (SMPP) protocol is a telecommunications industry protocol for exchanging SMS messages between SMS peer entities such as short message service centers and/or External Short Messaging Entities. It is often used to allow third parties (e.g. value-added service providers like news organizations) to submit messages, often in bulk. SMPP was originally designed by Aldiscon, a small Irish company that was later acquired by Logica (now split off and known as Acision). The protocol was originally created by a developer, Ian J Chambers, to test functionality of the SMSC without using SS7 test equipment to submit messages. In 1999, Logica formally handed over SMPP to the SMPP Developers Forum, later renamed as The SMS Forum and now disbanded. The SMPP protocol specifications are still available through the website which also carries a notice stating that it will be taken down at the end of 2007. As part of the original handover terms, SMPP ownership has now returned to Acision due to the disbanding of the SMS forum. The protocol is based on pairs of request/response PDUs (protocol data units, or packets) exchanged over OSI layer 4 (TCP session or X.25 SVC3) connections. PDUs are binary encoded for efficiency. The most commonly used versions of SMPP are v3.3, the most widely supported standard, and v3.4, which adds transceiver support (single connections that can send and receive messages). Data exchange may be synchronous, where each peer must wait for a response for each PDU being sent, and asynchronous, where multiple requests can be issued in one go and acknowledged in a skew order by the other peer. The latest version of SMPP is v5.0. To date SMPP development is suspended and SMS forum is disbanded. From SMS forum website: July 31, 2007 - The SMS Forum, a non-profit organization with a mission to develop, foster and promote SMS (short message service) to the benefit of the global wireless industry will disband by July 27, 2007 A press release, attached to the news, also warns that site will be suspended soon. In spite of this the site is still mostly functioning and specifications can still be downloaded (as of 12 July 2011).

This is an example of the binary encoding of a 60-octet submit_sm PDU. The data is shown in Hex octet values as a single dump and followed by a header and body break-down of that PDU. This is best compared with the definition of the submit_sm PDU from the SMPP specification in order to understand how the encoding matches the field by field definition. The value break-downs are shown with decimal in parentheses and Hex values after that. Where you see one or several hex octets appended, this is because the given field size uses 1 or more octets encoding. Again, reading the definition of the submit_sm PDU from the spec will make all this clearer.

Short message peer-to-peer protocol


00 00 00 3C 00 00 00 04 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 05 00 02 08 35 35 35 00 01 01 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 0F 48 65 6C 6C 6F 20 77 69 6B 69 70 65 64 69 61

PDU Header
'command_length', (60) ... 00 00 00 3C 'command_id', (4) ... 00 00 00 04 'command_status', (0) ... 00 00 00 00 'sequence_number', (5) ... 00 00 00 05

PDU Body
'service_type', () ... 00 'source_addr_ton', (2) ... 02 'source_addr_npi', (8) ... 08 'source_addr', (555) ... 35 35 35 00 'dest_addr_ton', (1) ... 01 'dest_addr_npi', (1) ... 01 'dest_addr', (555555555) ... 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 00 'esm_class', (0) ... 00 'protocol_id', (0) ... 00 'priority_flag', (0) ... 00 'schedule_delivery_time', (0) ... 00 'validity_period', (0) ... 00 'registered_delivery', (0) ... 00 'replace_if_present_flag', (0) ... 00 'data_coding', (0) ... 00 'sm_default_msg_id', (0) ... 00 'sm_length', (15) ... 0F 'short_message', (Hello wikipedia) ... 48 65 6C 6C 6F 20 77 69 6B 69 70 65 64 69 61'

External links
• Short Message Peer-to-Peer Protocol Specification v3.4 [1] • Short message peer-to-peer protocol

at the Open Directory Project

[1] http:/ / www. spboss. com/ download/ %E8%BF%90%E8%90%A5%E5%95%86%E9%80%9A%E8%AE%AF%E5%8D%8F%E8%AE%AE/ SMPP_v3_4_Issue1_2. pdf [2] http:/ / www. dmoz. org/ Computers/ Mobile_Computing/ Wireless_Data/ Short_Messaging_Service/

It is possible to specify a cutoff period after which the SMS message will be deleted from the SMS center. when the mobile phone is switched off).. Once deleted.. 3. If the recipient is unavailable (for example. the SMS message will no longer be available for dispatch to the recipient mobile phone (even if it becomes online). References . An SMS center (SMSC) is responsible for handling the SMS operations of a wireless network. I. The main duty of an SMSC is to route SMS messages and regulate the process. it will reach an SMS center first.The SMS sender needs to set a flag in the SMS message to notify the SMS center that he wants the status report about the delivery of this SMS message.Short message service center 307 Short message service center A Short Message Service Center (SMSC) is a network element in the mobile telephone network which delivers SMS messages. The SMS center then forwards the SMS message towards the destination. Validity Period of an SMS Message . When an SMS message is sent from a mobile phone. Operation When a user sends a text message (SMS message) to another user. This status report is sent to the SMS sender in the form of an SMS.An SMS message is stored temporarily in the SMS center if the recipient mobile phone is offline. Message Status Reports . 1. 4. It will forward the SMS message when the recipient is available. the SMSC will store the SMS message.. the message gets stored in the SMSC (short message service center) which delivers it to the destination user when they are available. This is a store and forward option. II. 2.

the current distribution is essentially sinusoidal and the radiating electric field is given by Current distribution on antenna of length equal to one half wavelength ( ). In broadcasting terminology. When the antenna is viewed broadside ( maximum and given by ) the electric field is Solving this formula for the peak current yields The average power to the antenna is where one for is the center-fed half-wave antenna’s radiation resistance.1 mV/m: the minimum strength at which a station can be received with acceptable quality on most receivers Relationship to Average Radiated Power The electric field strength at a specific point can be determined from the power delivered to the transmitting antenna. such as mobile phones. If constructed from thin conductors. it is expressed in voltage per length or signal power received by a reference antenna. its geometry and radiation resistance. is the permittivity of free-space. It may also be referred to as received signal level or field strength. Examples • 100 dBµ or 100 mV/m: blanketing interference may occur on some receivers • 60 dBµ or 1. and is the distance to the antenna in meters. High-powered transmissions. 1 mV/m is 1000 µV/m or 60 dBµ (often written dBu). Typically. where is the angle between the antenna axis and the vector to the observation point. particularly in radio. is the speed of light in a vacuum. signal strength refers to the magnitude of the electric field at a reference point that is a significant distance from the transmitting antenna. is the peak current at the feed-point. such as those used in broadcasting. For very low-power systems. signal strength is usually expressed in dB-microvolts per metre (dBµV/m) or in decibels above a reference level of one milliwatt (dBm). Substituting the formula for and solving for the maximum electric field yields into the .0 mV/m: frequently considered the edge of a radio station's protected area in North America • 40 dBµ or 0. Consider the case of a center-fed half-wave dipole antenna in free space ( ). are expressed in dB-millivolts per metre (dBmV/m).Signal strength 308 Signal strength In telecommunications.

Cell phones in the U. or by the construction materials used in some buildings causing rapid attenuation of signal strength.com/) . the electric field and radiation Using a procedure similar to that above. they might not provide accurate estimates of signal strength for radio transmitters in environments where signals are scattered and absorbed by buildings. Weak signal strength can also be caused by destructive interference of the signals from local towers in urban areas. which is generally enough to turn a very weak signal into a clear one over the local area (from around a thousand square feet to over twenty thousand). although they are able to use reflection and diffraction to circumvent obstacles. then the maximum electric field at 313 m (1027 ft) is 1 mV/m (60 dBµ). operate at around 800 MHz and PCS phones at 1900 MHz.S. This has led to the rapid growth in the home cellular repeater market. Even in high reception areas it is often found that basements and the interiors of large buildings have poor reception. In this case. (http://www.com) • Global map of cell phone signal by network. For a short dipole ( resistance are ) the current distribution is nearly triangular.opensignalmaps. Consequently. the terrain and vegetation. Large buildings such as warehouses.gotreception.com/) • Cell Phone Signal Strength Map (http://www. Cellphone signals Although there are cell phone base station tower networks across many nations globally. hospitals and factories often have no usable signal further than a few metres from the outside walls. if the average power to a half-wave dipole antenna is 1 mW.Signal strength 309 Therefore. References External links • Maps of Cell Phone Signal Strength Across the United States (http://www.signalmap. there are still many areas within those nations that do not have good reception. classified as UHF and low energy microwaves respectively. Some rural areas are unlikely ever to be effectively covered since the cost of erecting a cell tower is too high for only a few customers. The more advanced models now typically include an external directional antenna and an amplifier (usually operating at 55 dB gain). the maximum electric field for a center-fed short dipole is It must be emphasized that the formulas above are illustrative and only apply when there are no conductive objects near the antenna and observation point and when the path between the two is unobstructed. Based on crowdsourced data. This is particularly true for the networks which operate at higher frequency since these are attenuated more rapidly by intervening obstacles.

ThumbKey and SlideIT. regular typing and "sliding". In 2009 the two keyboards were merged into one product branded SlideIT which offers an 'ABC' mode with the ThumbKey unique algorithm and the 'Slide' mode with the sliding algorithm. Dasur's ThumbKey used a unique algorithm that allowed users to just press in the general vicinity of the required key for the intended word to appear on the screen. Product SlideIT allows a user to enter a word by sliding a finger or stylus from letter to letter on a virtual keyboard. Main Features • Two modes for entering text.SlideIT 310 SlideIT SlideIT is a text input method for touchscreen devices developed by Dasur Ltd [1] based on pattern recognition. which can be combined (e. lifting only between words. Developer Dasur is a technology company that specializes in complex mathematical applications. which suggests words whose letters are near the ones entered. The algorithm processed the typed letters and its disambiguation feature suggested the intended word and also displayed additional possibilities next to the keyboard. SlideIT uses advanced pattern recognition and error-correction algorithms together with a complicated language model and word database to ensure maximum accuracy of outputted text while allowing the user a lot of freedom and inaccuracy in entering text. allowing numbers and symbols to be entered by drawing them (similar to handwriting recognition) • Speech recognition (only available on the Android OS) . Based on this engine. ThumbKey's technology brought the touchscreen method to a more accurate and easier level of operation with the option of using only one hand. At the end of 2010 Dasur released a new version for Symbian and in early 2011 version 3. Dasur has developed a powerful pattern recognition engine which can be the basis for many applications. type part of a word and slide the rest of it) • Predictive suggestions. allowing only part of a word to be entered • Disambiguation.g. Dasur has developed this generation of text input solutions for mobile phones and PDAs. Over the last 20 years. allowing for imprecise typing/sliding • Customizable dictionary • Available in many different languages (40+ as of February 2011) • Can use short abbreviations or other shorthand text to input a long text quickly • Automatic spacing and capitalizing • Automatically doubles letters to ease sliding (e. This allows for text input at much higher rates than normal mobile phone and other small touch-screen keyboards.0 for the Android was released.g. "Google" can be entered as "gogle") • Graffiti mode. History The first version was released on 2007 as two separate keyboards.

Windows Mobile and Symbian S60 v5. Spanish. Turkish and Ukrainian. and Karat. (1999). C. using a standard full-size QWERTY keyboard. Massachusetts: Edward Elgar Publishing. On the Reappraisal of Microeconomics: Economic Growth and Change in a Material World (http:/ / books. D. Suraqui. Cheltenham. "Reduced keyboards system using unistroke input and having automatic disambiguating and a recognition method using said system". Slovak. J. Halverson.. Romanian. Latvian. Martinás.[4] the Ovi (Nokia) store. Sliding style keyboards for touch screens can increases typing speed by 30-40% and yields potential typing speeds of more than 50 words per minute – matching the average speed of a professional typist.[2] PDAs and smartphones allow much slower speeds. Lithuanian. English (Qwerty. Finnish. com/ about. Croatian. (http://patft. Persian. Availability SlideIT can be run on any Android phone or tablet computer. google. 568–575. Katalin (2005). mobiletextinput. Bulgarian. holds the world speed record for text input into a mobile phone. types 33 words per minute. retrieved 22 November 2010 [4] SlideIT download page (http:/ / www.SlideIT 311 Languages The keyboard can be customized with a primary and secondary language. Robert U.uspto. Dutch. Russian. 41. com/ Download. p. Italian. Norwegian. . php) External links • United States Patent 7. Patterns of entry and correction in large vocabulary continuous speech recognition systems.199. Greek. Belorussian. Hebrew. php [2] Karat.[3] A sliding style keyboard. Danish. Serbian. C. com/ books?id=ksxK7J95IF8C& printsec=frontcover& dq=reappraisal+ microeconomics& hl=en& ei=ZNnqTKykO8XQcaqq1ckK& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=1& ved=0CCcQ6AEwAA#v=onepage& q& f=false). Dvorak and Colemak layouts). UK & Northampton. References [1] http:/ / www.M. Icelandic. Albanian. and the user can switch between them at any time by pressing a button. Horn. Portuguese. SlideIT for iPhone and Windows Tablet PC will be available soon. [3] Ayres. Czech. Slovenian.gov/netacgi/ nph-Parser?Sect2=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&p=1&u=/netahtml/PTO/search-bool.. CHI 99 Conference Proceedings. Estonian. com/ books?id=ksxK7J95IF8C& pg=PA41& dq=typists+ "120+ words+ per+ minute"& hl=en& ei=9sbqTL_zF4HvcMeu1YgL& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=5& ved=0CEoQ6AEwBA#v=onepage& q=typists "120 words per minute"& f=false).786. Hungarian. D. Competitors Other similar products include ShapeWriter and Swype. Indonesian. ISBN 1-84542-272-4. Arabic. Swedish. as of Late 2010. Brazilian. Catalan. and on the Android Market. There is a free demonstration version limited to 14 days and a full commercial version which is sold on Dasur's web site. google. German.html&r=1&f=G&l=50& d=PALL&RefSrch=yes&Query=PN/7199786) . Speed The average computer user. mobiletextinput. "120 wpm for very skilled typist" (http:/ / books. Polish. French. SlideIT currently has 40+ freely available language packs: Afrikaans.

and dumb pipes. and existing media companies like Google via the Android platform. to provide value beyond that of data connectivity only. Among the commonly understood operational models for a MNO are smart pipes. there are several operators. there is a set of services commonly viewed as parts of a smart pipe. such as Apple’s iPhone. types of services and content beyond bandwidth and network speed only. PayPal Mobile. and Apple via iPhone.[5] Recently. The need for operators to innovate around a smart pipe is rising as they face rising pressure from media companies[2] and new technologies. In addition to pricing. While not necessarily a full realization of a smart pipe. Yahoo via Go. and the operator’s customer relationships.Smart pipe 312 Smart pipe Smart pipe. Arun Sarin. 3 is one of the first operators to offer such a combination of bandwidth and value-added services for flat-rate pricing. walled gardens. and researchers who have described aspects of a smart pipe which are generally accepted. CEO of Vodafone. was criticized for some statements he made about how Vodafone will always have a unique relationship with its subscribers through its billing relationship. Nokia’s consumer portal Ovi. as the article points out there are several new threats to that exclusivity such as traditional credit card.S. refers to an operator’s network which leverages existing or unique service abilities. Obopay. and often unique.[6] Although Sarin’s point has been true traditionally. The use of the term “smart” refers to the operator’s ability to add value for added. and even the open-access policies of the U. mobile or application • Mobile operating systems User interfaces Personalization Application programming interfaces (APIs). for devices or networks Payment. bloggers. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) introduced around its upcoming 700 MHz spectrum auction. network operators can maintain the value of their pipes while enabling entrepreneurs to create new business models and generate entirely new revenue streams. directory services Quality of service By exposing these types of services to the mobile ecosystem. related to a mobile network operator (MNO or operator). Network operator 3 led the way with the release of its X-Series line of devices in 2006. Examples While there is no real industry standard definition of a smart pipe.[2] [3] [4] such as: • • • • • • • • • • Location-based services Presence information Customer analytics Computing platforms.[1] The X-Series platform bundles a set of services. . and provides unlimited data access in exchange for a fixed monthly premium. several of which are unique to 3. Billing Directory assistance.

Smart pipe 313 Further reading While there is no real industry standard definition of smart pipe. rcrnews. Strategic Options & Scenarios 2007-2012: • Juniper Research Report [10] The author is not affiliated with Juniper in any way. com/ staying-relevant-in-a-dumb-pipe. aspx) [5] Making Pipes Smart (http:/ / www. There are numerous blog postings and trade articles which refer to the operator dumb pipe/smart pipe dilemma. and although the full report requires purchase. omp?collcid=1019745742912& cid=1163170230108& index=1) [2] The Operators vs. com/ 2008/ 01/ 13/ the-operators-vs-the-media-brands/ ) [3] The Pipe is Only Dumb if You Make It that Way (http:/ / mobhappy. there are a number of summaries available on the web: • Smart-Pipe Strategy to Provide MNOs with 31% Share of $188bn Mobile Content Market by 2012 [11] • Study About MNOs Share of Mobile Content Market [12] • Mobile Entertainment in Western Europe [13] A Google search will list several more: • Google search of Juniper report [14] References [1] Hutchison Whampoa announces the global launch of the X-Series from 3 (http:/ / www. theregister. com/ story/ analysys-wimax-carriers-risk-becoming-dumb-pipes/ 2007-07-16 . wired. com/ blog1/ 2008/ 01/ 14/ the-pipe-is-only-dumb-if-you-make-it-that-way/ ) [4] Staying Relevant in a Dumb Pipe Era (http:/ / www. com/ gadgets/ wireless/ magazine/ 16-02/ ff_iphone?currentPage=all [8] http:/ / www. three. uk/ 2007/ 11/ 19/ vodafone_ceo_blind/ ) [7] http:/ / www. some of which are referenced in this article. co. the Media Brands (http:/ / gigaom. co. operator portal (or walled garden). Others include: • Wired: How the iPhone Blew Up the Wireless Industry [7] • WiMAX Carriers Risk Becoming Dumb Pipes [8] A reference which describes a smart pipe. fiercebroadbandwireless. dll/ article?AID=/ 20070911/ SUB/ 70911004/ 1008) [6] Vodafone CEO sticks head in sand. com/ apps/ pbcs. uk/ news/ h3gnews/ pressnewsview. and a dumb pipe is a report from Juniper Research titled Business Models for Mobile Content Players. wirelessweek. goes 'La la la' (http:/ / www. it is a generally understood term in the mobile industry.

permitting them to operate selected banking services over their mobile phones using SMS messaging. Examples of pull messages for information include an account balance enquiry. Large value payment on a credit card or out of country activity on a credit card. One-time password and authentication . etc. The bank’s customer is empowered with the capability to select the list of activities (or alerts) that he/she needs to be informed. Typical push services would include: • • • • • • • • • Periodic account balance reporting (say at the end of month). The password is expired once it has been used or once its scheduled life-cycle has expired. Typically push messages could be either Mobile marketing messages or messages alerting an event which happens in the customer's bank account. Typical push and pull services offered under SMS banking Depending on the selected extent of SMS banking transactions offered by the bank. Push and pull messages SMS banking services are operated using both push and pull messages. Pull messages are those that are initiated by the customer. Another type of push message is One-time password (OTPs). Large value withdrawals on the ATM or EFTPOS on a debit card. Instead of relying on traditional memorized passwords. OTPs are requested by consumers each time they want to perform transactions using the online or mobile banking interface. or requests for current information like currency exchange rates and deposit interest rates. without the customer initiating a request for the information. classified by push and pull services as outlined below. such as a large withdrawal of funds from the ATM or a large payment using the customer's credit card. OTPs are Screenshot of a typical SMS Banking message on the latest tool used by financial and banking service providers in the a mobile screen fight against cyber fraud. Successful or un-successful execution of a standing order.SMS banking 314 SMS banking SMS banking is a technology-enabled service offering from banks to its customers. Insufficient funds. When the request is received the password is sent to the consumer’s phone via SMS. using a mobile phone. Reporting of salary and other credits to the bank account. for obtaining information or performing a transaction in the bank account. (see section below on Typical Push and Pull messages). Large value withdrawals on an account. or both and financial and non-financial transactions. This functionality to choose activities can be done either by integrating to the internet banking channel or through the bank’s customer service call centre. a customer can be authorized to carry out either non-financial transactions. as published and updated by the bank. Successful payment of a cheque issued on the account. Push messages are those that the bank chooses to send out to a customer's mobile phone. SMS banking solutions offer customers a range of functionality.

The convenience factor The convenience of executing simple transactions and sending out information or alerting a customer on the mobile phone is often the overriding factor that dominates over the skeptics who tend to be overly bitten by security concerns. This capability mitigates the risk of fraud going unnoticed for a long time and increases customer confidence in the bank’s information systems. Requesting for an ATM card or credit card to be suspended. email. the operation of SMS banking functionality over phone key instructions makes its use very simple. De-activating a credit or debit card when it is lost or the PIN is known to be compromised. Fixed deposit interest rates enquiry. unlike other channels such as the post. Mini statement request.SMS banking Typical pull services would include: • • • • • • • • • Account balance enquiry. as they carry the mobile phone all the time no matter where they are. SLAs give the service parameters in which a messaging solution is guaranteed to perform. Transfers between customer's own accounts. The SMS banking channel also acts as the bank’s means of alerting its customers. [2] Quality of service in SMS banking Because of the concerns made explicit above. Internet. As a personalized end-user communication instrument. as SMS uses insecure encryption and is easily spoofable (see the SMS page for details). like moving money from a savings account to a current account to fund a cheque. like the ATM and internet banking. such as SMS alerts.g. Stop payment instruction on a cheque. the SMS banking channel is not intended to be used for very high-risk transactions. on which a bank's notifications to the customer involves the risk of delayed delivery and response. it is extremely important that SMS gateway providers can provide a decent quality of service for banks and financial institutions in regards to SMS services. when there is an ATM fraud happening in the region.[3] . especially in an emergency situation. as well as measurements on the speed of delivery. Besides. it is necessary to give the bank customer delivery guarantees of all messages. the provision of Service Level Agreement(SLA) is a requirement for this industry. [1] 315 Concerns and skepticism about SMS banking There is a very real possibility for fraud when SMS banking is involved. Electronic bill payment. throughput. etc. Foreign currency exchange rates enquiry. Supporters of SMS banking claim that while SMS banking is not as secure as other conventional banking channels. etc. the bank can push a mass alert (although not subscribed by all customers) or automatically alert on an individual basis when a predefined ‘abnormal’ transaction happens on a customer’s account using the ATM or credit card. urgent warning messages. are received by the customer instantaneously. today mobile phones are perhaps the easiest channel on which customers can be reached on the spot. telephone banking. Also. but has the limitation of use only when the customer has access to a computer and the Internet. e. This is quite different from internet banking which can offer broader functionality. Therefore.

Depending on the volume of messages that are require to be pushed. hicss. [3] Barnes. & Jack. p. G. and Corbitt. The lack of encryption is inherent to the SMS banking channel and several banks that use it have overcome their fears by introducing compensating controls and limiting the scope of the SMS banking application to where it offers an advantage over other channels. G. UCP etc. and to have open interfaces which allow for messaging between existing banking host systems using industry or de-facto standards. M. 7. 1 (3). (2003) Mobile banking: Concept and Potential. International Journal of Mobile Communications. means to connect to the SMSC could be different. B. There is only one open source online banking platform supporting mobile banking and sms payments called Cyclos. A usability comparison of three alternative message formats for an SMS banking service.Track 7. vol. As most banks have multiple backend hosts. These solutions are able to connect seamlessly to multiple SMSC operators in the country of operation. Martin Schurig. This concern sometimes arises within the group of the bank’s technology personnel. 2004. References [1] Peevers.. "Assessment of Today's Mobile Banking Applications from the View of Customer Requirements". due to their familiarity and past experience with encryption on the ATM and other payment channels. Most online banking platforms are owned and developed by the banks using them.70184a. 5-6. which is developed to stimulate and empower local banks in development countries. A. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies 66(2). the more advanced SMS banking systems are built to be able to work in a multi-host banking environment. such as using simple modems or connecting over leased line using low level communication protocols (like SMPP. Suppliers of SMS banking software solutions have found reliable means by which the security concerns can be addressed. . Well developed and mature SMS banking software solutions normally provide a robust control environment and a flexible and scalable operating environment. (2008). but the usage of PINs in SMS banking makes the customer's task more cumbersome. Douglas. Technologies employed for SMS banking Most SMS banking solutions are add-on products and work with the bank’s existing host systems deployed in its computer and communications environment. Advanced SMS banking solutions also cater to providing failover mechanisms and least-cost routing options.).SMS banking 316 Compensating controls for lack of encryption The lack of encryption on SMS messages is an area of concern that is often discussed. Proceedings of the 37th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS'04) . Vol. [2] Key Pousttchi. Typically the methods employed are by pre-registration and using security tokens where the transaction risk is perceived to be high. pp. Sometimes ATM type PINs are also employed.J.. S.

[1] Regardless of the maturity of the operator or number of subscribers. which are basically hubs for voice. therefore being able to route messages on behalf of the client operators. by replacing much of the unproductive. part of the Open Connectivity project. While SMS interoperability is limited to bi-lateral interworking / roaming agreements between operators. it is unlikely that full international SMS reach will be achieved by setting up more and more agreements. Every operator has the need to establish roaming agreements in order to provide subscribers with the possibility to roam outside their home network. SMS Hubbing is about providing a higher level of service to SMS. it makes sense for mobile operators to allocate SMS traffic that belongs to non-connected destinations to an SMS hub. identical investments in international agreements made traditionally by mobile operators.SMS hubbing 317 SMS hubbing SMS hubbing is a new structure for the international flow of SMS between operators. each subscriber expects to be able to send an SMS to other subscribers. It is clear that SMS Hubbing does not replace bilateral agreements. . In the same way. the revenue benefits of an extra interworking connection might not justify the investment required to set it up in the first place. which are time consuming and costly to put in place. in an attempt to fix the many interoperability problems with this messaging technology. This initiative created a new structure for international SMS interoperability. In addition to that. culminating to the development of the SMS Hubbing trials in 2006. as well as developed standards and requirements that SMS hubs should follow. reshaping the way that international mobile inter-operability works by implementing hubs to intermediate the SMS traffic and to offer a larger SMS coverage. voice traffic flows via telehouses. SMS Hubbing works with the same concept of voice connectivity model: rather than relying on costly and multiple individual agreements. meaning that international SMS can only transit from one operator to another if there is a bi-lateral roaming agreement in place. SMS Hubbing is about simplifying the SMS interworking system. The GSM Association (GSMA) found in SMS Hubbing the solution to a problem that limits the continuing growth of international SMS. SMS hubbing enables a broad international SMS coverage for mobile operators (“client operators”) through the connection to independent hubs. who have multiple agreements in place with other operators. by introducing end-to-end quality of service through Service Level Agreements (SLAs). Outside this frame of main roaming agreements that generate the majority of international traffic for voice and messaging. regardless of country and mobile network. many operators connect to hubs to transit MMS messages. Background The lack of complete international SMS interoperability is caused by the way the GSM world is interconnected: each operator has a need to establish SMS interworking with all other mobile operators. As well as this.

Other types of hubbing Beyond SMS. Business model Under the GSMA’s SMS Hubbing structure. such as MMS. Mobile operators have been gradually outsourcing non-core functions to invest on areas that need a closer management of the operator.160characters.gsmworld. The SMS Hubbing model reduces complexity for operators. References [1] Open Connectivity SMS Hubbing Architecture (http:/ / www. technical and billing relationship rather than hundreds of additional roaming agreements for SMS messaging only.com/our-work/programmes-and-initiatives/ open-connectivity-programme/sms_hubbing. as well as focusing on areas that have a direct interface to customers. com/ documents/ IR7520_unrest. The hub concept follows this trend. gsmworld. an operator looking to increase their international SMS coverage does not need to manage multiple bi-lateral agreements. As is the usual practice. a hub will negotiate a transit fee with an originating operator on a per-SMS basis for the use of the hub.htm) .php?action=view& nid=2138) • OC compliant SMS Hubs (http://www.org/news. also on a per-SMS basis. pdf) External links • GSM Association (http://www. the originating operator will also pay a termination fee to the terminating operator. Because of many interoperability problems. which route the messages more efficiently on behalf of the operator. Mobile operators can simplify this by connecting to a hub.gsmworld. removing a costly and complex area of technical interface and replacing it with a more efficient and effective outsourced solution. hubbing can be applied in different areas. 160 Characters (http://www. Mobile subscribers also take advantage of an enlarged SMS reach.com) • Making SMS Hubbing a Reality. as well the cost for SMS interworking agreements. being able to send and receive message to all countries and networks.SMS hubbing 318 Benefits With the SMS Hubbing model. Ubiquity and simplicity in increasing SMS coverage SMS Hubbing allows operators to manage a single legal. many operators generally connect to an MMS hub.

The legitimate use cases for SMS spoofing include: 1. These errors are caused by the spoofed subscriber identities. company. it may become unfeasible to block these addresses. PhonepayPlus (formerly ICSTIS) concluded a public consultation on anonymous SMS. This is a major churn risk. and operate a complaints helpline. or a product name) and illegitimate uses (such as impersonating another person. The impact of this activity is threefold: 1. Their customers may complain about being spammed. The home network can incur termination charges caused by the delivery of these messages to interconnect partners. This is a quantifiable revenue leakage. The risk therefore emerges. 2. If this situation occurs. in which they stated they were not averse to the operation of such services. Often it is done in order to impersonate a user that has roamed onto a foreign network and is submitting messages to the home network. A sender transmits an SMS message from an online computer network for lower more competitive pricing. with potentially huge impact on the brand.[1] Legality In 2007. or the content of the messages may be politically sensitive. They must spoof their own number in order to properly identify themselves. that genuine subscribers may be billed for roaming messages they did not send. How SMS spoofing is carried out SMS Spoofing occurs when a sender manipulates address information. A sender does not have a mobile phone. to set who the message appears to come from by replacing the originating mobile number (Sender ID) with alphanumeric text. An SMS Spoofing attack is often first detected by an increase in the number of SMS errors encountered during a bill-run. setting your own mobile number.SMS spoofing 319 SMS spoofing SMS spoofing is a relatively new technology which uses the short message service (SMS). available on most mobile phones and personal digital assistants. product). 3. It is illegal in Australia. the integrity of the home operator’s billing process may be compromised. but fraudsters can change addresses easily to by-pass these measures. due to the potential impact on normal interconnect services. Interconnect partners may threaten to cut off the home network unless a remedy is implemented. Spoofing has both legitimate uses (setting the company name from which the message is being sent. However. These messages can be of concern to interconnect partners. Frequently. Home subscribers will be unable to send messages into these networks. these messages are addressed to destinations outside the home network – with the home SMSC essentially being “hijacked” to send messages into other networks. and for the ease of data entry from a full size console. and they need to send an SMS from a number that they have provided the receiver in advance as a means to activate an account. If fraudsters move to using source addresses at a major interconnect partner. The UK premium rate regulator. from 2008 PhonePayPlus are introducing new regulation covering anonymous SMS which will require anonymous SMS service providers to send a follow-up message to the recipient stating that a spoofed SMS has been sent to them. there is a risk that these identities may match those of real home subscribers. While fraudsters normally used spoofed-identities to send messages. Operators can respond by blocking different source addresses in their Gateway-MSCs. 2. .

Nitesh used hoaxMail to spoof the SMS message and therefore could trick Twitter to post the message on the victims Twitter page. the local system may or may not allow the replying message to be sent through to the spoofed "origin.Q&A with Computer Crime Research Center staff (http://www. Twitter used the SMS originator to authenticate the user. they should contact both law enforcement and their cellular provider. • Skype sends messages from its users with the mobile number they registered with. asp) [2] Twitter and Jott Vulnerable to SMS and Caller ID Spoofing http:/ / www. com/ SMSSpoofing. who should be able to track where the SMS messages were actually sent from. Nitesh Dhanjani discovered a security vulnerability when sending a spoofed SMS message to Twitter. dhanjani. openmindnetworks. A user may also modify the phone's settings so that only messages from authorized numbers are allowed.[2] References [1] An overview on how to stop SMS Spoofing in mobile operator networks (September 9. 2008) (http:/ / www. The Asian School of Cyber Laws (Pune) recently conducted experiments in SMS spoofing at the national and international level." • A user who does not have a mobile phone attempts to sign up for a Foxytag account.org/interviews/ sms-spoofing-intro/) . A dynamically assigned number from an anonymous SMS service will not work because the user is not given the dynamic number in advance to register with. This is not always effective since hackers could be impersonating the user's friends as well. Examples of SMS spoofing • Messages sent from Google are sent with the Sender ID "Google". which requires an SMS from a phone number that the user registers with. com/ blog/ 2007/ 04/ twitter-and-jot. Note that when a user attempts to "reply" to the SMS.SMS spoofing 320 Protecting users from SMS spoofing If a user can prove that their SMS sessions have been spoofed. html External links • SMS spoofing . These people were using GSM based cellular phone services in various parts of India and other Asian as well as African countries. They were able to successfully spoof SMS messages and make them appear to come from other people's cellular phones.crime-research.

the boom in the generation of phones with a GPS will raise positioning accuracy. Due to the properties of the CDMA signaling scheme. If the signal power from two or more radio base stations is nearly the same. all the cell site sectors that are actively supporting a call in soft handover send the bit stream that they receive back to the Radio Network Controller (RNC). The SPM methods and experiments were developed in Estonia by Positium and Institute of Geography University of Tartu during 2003-2006 (Ahas. The biggest advantage of mobile positioning-based methods is that mobile phones are widespread. The RNC examines the quality of all these bit streams and dynamically chooses the bit stream with the highest quality. R. On the uplink (phone-to-cell-site).Social positioning method 321 Social positioning method The social positioning method (SPM) studies space-time behaviour by analysing the location coordinates of mobile phones and the social characteristics of the people carrying them. Again. it is possible for a CDMA phone to simultaneously receive signals from two or more radio base stations that are transmitting the same bit stream (using different transmission codes) on the different physical channels in the same frequency bandwidth. as well as concerns about non-authorized personal surveillance. The most important problems of SPM are related to data security. and determine whether or not to request or end soft handover with the cell sectors on the list. 547-561). References [1] http:/ / findarticles. (2005). along with information about the quality of the received bits. for IS-95/CDMA2000 CDMA cell phones continuously make power measurements of a list of neighboring cell sites. Ü. if the signal degrades rapidly. Location based services . Today mobile positioning can be applied only by obtaining participants’ personal acceptance. If any one of these signals fades significantly. it is referred to as softer handoff. Positioning data is digital. These problems can be solved with further development of location-based services (LBS) and relevant legal and organisational regulation. positioning works inside buildings. & Mark. com/ p/ articles/ mi_hb4750/ is_200508/ ai_n17323894 Soft handover Soft handover or soft handoff refers to a feature used by the CDMA and WCDMA standards. This technique is a form of mobile-assisted handover. where a cell phone is simultaneously connected to two or more cells (or cell sectors) during a call. If the sectors are from the same physical cell site (a sectorised site). it is easy to trace many people at the same time and it is possible to analyse movements in real time. the phone receiver can combine the received signals in such a way that the bit stream is decoded much more reliably than if only one base station were transmitting to the subscriber station. Soft handover results in a diversity gain called soft handover gain. there will be a relatively high probability of having adequate signal strength from one of the other radio base stations. the chance is still good that a strong signal will be available at one of the other cell sectors that is supporting the call in soft handover. and collection of movement data is done by a third party at regular intervals. The disadvantage of mobile positioning today is relatively low preciseness.new challenges for planning and public administration? [1] Futures 37. .

ugent. ibcn. pdf . be/ opnet/ OPNET-UMTS_session1.Soft handover 322 External links • Mobile and Broadband Access Networks [1] References [1] http:/ / www. intec.

The Gateway is also planned to be used in vehicles with a roof-mounted . The Gateway is a compact S-band receiver which decodes DVB-SH transmissions from the Solaris satellite and relays them over WiFi to any compatible handset with a web browser. To avoid the requirement for mobile phones with S-band reception for the satellite services. The coverage across Europe will also enable the system to be used for situations when other means of communication are not possible. Solaris Mobile has developed a 'Pocket Gateway' in conjunction with Finnish company Elekrobit. or toll payments. and support for emergency and rescue services in isolated regions. The services to be developed include video. For in-vehicle use. in the Republic of Ireland. viable at high vehicle speeds. unavailable with purely terrestrial systems. pollution) from moving vehicles. delivering high-quality live TV. "Mobile satellite services have huge potential: they can enable Europeans to access new communication services. Viviane Reding. radio and data to in-vehicle receivers and to mobile devices[2] . such as mobile phones. and deliver interactive services such as online reservations. Ireland Steve Maine (CEO) Mobile Satellite Services www. and universal coverage. The agreement to set up Solaris Mobile was reached in 2006 with the company formed in 2008. Its headquarters is in Dublin. multimedia data. portable media players and PDAs. interactive services. providing TV and other services from geostationary satellites to millions of cable and direct-to-home viewers – have so far invested €130m in the venture. the mobile satellite receivers could also double as web browsers providing full Internet access. anywhere.com [1] Solaris Mobile is a joint venture company between SES Astra and Eutelsat Communications to develop and commercialize the first geostationary satellite systems in Europe for broadcasting video. Applications The EU Telecoms Commissioner. weather. has commented.solarismobile. particularly in rural and less populated regions. emergency warnings. and SES Astra and Eutelsat – both successful European satellite operators. [4] Solaris claims the technology brings a "fully-fledged TV experience" to mobile television. and voice communications. under extreme conditions or when terrestrial networks have been compromised."[3] Solaris Mobile primarily intends to provide mobile TV and interactive services to handheld and vehicle receivers. radio.Solaris Mobile 323 Solaris Mobile Solaris Mobile Limited Type Industry Founded Headquarters Key people Products Website Privately owned joint venture Telecommunications 2008 Dublin. such as gathering data (traffic. dozens of TV channels per country. The primary aim is the delivery of mobile television any time.

[8] Regulatory On June 30. Luxembourg. Italy. Solaris Mobile filed the insurance claim. TerreStar).[15] . the company had been actively pursuing licenses from European member states and it had just been granted 18-year licences to operate Mobile Satellite Services in France.[7] Further testing of the satellite was undertaken to establish its future in the Solaris programme. and was scheduled for launch in early 2009.Solaris Mobile antenna for S-band reception with services accessed on passengers' mobile phones. Handsets equipped with the first DVB-SH chipsets were successfully demonstrated live at the Mobile World Congress in Barcelona in February 2008. 2009. However. The technology was demonstrated at the GSMA Mobile World Congress in Barcelona in February 2010.[3] [11] [12] [13] Although the EU’s decision was announced days after the apparent failure of the payload intended to serve Solaris. Sweden and Germany.00 GHz) are reserved for the exclusive use of satellite and terrestrial mobile services.[5] 324 Technology The Solaris Mobile services use DVB-SH technology to deliver IP based data and media content to handheld and in-vehicle terminals using a hybrid satellite/terrestrial system with satellite transmission serving the whole of Europe and beyond. Investigation of S-band payload has confirmed significant non-compliance from its original specifications. and sit alongside the UMTS frequencies already in use across Europe for 3G terrestrial mobile phone services. The technical findings indicate that the company should be able to offer some. the S-band payload was found to show "an anomaly" which has put in doubt the payload's capability to provide mobile satellite services for Solaris. the company remains confident of "its ability to meet the commitments made under the European Commission selection process". and Slovenia. Solaris Mobile announced that following the granting of spectrum by the European Commission. giving these operators "the right to use the specific radio frequencies identified in the Commission's decision and the right to operate their respective mobile satellite systems". and the simple incorporation of Solaris services in mobile handsets.[14] In May 2010. The operators are compelled to start operations within 24 months from the selection decision. and terrestrial repeaters for urban and indoor penetration. but not all of the services it was planning to offer. Solaris Mobile. Inmarsat. following the successful launch on April 3.[6] Solaris was intended to first use the Eutelsat W2A satellite at 10° east. allowing the reuse of existing cellular towers and antennas. EU Member States now have to ensure that the two operators have the right to use the specific radio frequencies identified in the Commission's decision and the right to operate their respective mobile satellite systems for 18 years from the selection decision. which contains an S-band payload. to add to existing licenses for Finland. Inmarsat Ventures and Solaris Mobile. The S-band frequencies used (2. 2008 the European Parliament and the Council adopted the European’s Decision to establish a single selection and authorisation process to ensure a coordinated introduction of mobile satellite services (MSS) in Europe. the European Commission selected two operators.[9] [10] In May 2009. The selection process was launched in August 2008 and attracted four applications by prospective operators (ICO. On 1 July 2009.

php?pressRelease=/ pressReleases/ pressReleaseList/ 09-05-14/ index. com/ ses/ siteSections/ newsroom/ Latest_News/ index. eu/ rapid/ pressReleasesAction. eu/ rapid/ pressReleasesAction. Solaris Mobile website.com/) • W2A satellite on Gunter's Space Page (http://space. .com) SES website (http://www. 2009). "European License Progress" (http:/ / www. ses-astra. solarismobile. 2009 [7] Solaris Mobile (May 14. 2008).htm) . "Solaris Mobile Files Insurance Claim" (http:/ / www. "Mobile Satellite Services in Europe: Frequently Asked Questions" (http:/ / europa. com/ business/ en/ news-events/ press-archive/ 2008/ 08-02-21/ index.com/) SES Astra (http://www. 2008). europa. 2009 [14] Solaris Mobile (May 14.de/doc_sdat/eutelsat-w2a. pdf). Press release. . solarismobile.com) • ICO (http://www. com/ assets/ downloads/ Statement re Solaris Mobile S-band capacity_en. php?pressRelease=/ pressReleases/ pressReleaseList/ 09-05-14/ index. com/ business/ en/ news-events/ news-latest/ index. SES ASTRA Statement on Solaris Mobile S-band capacity (http:/ / www. php) [9] European Commission (August 22. solarismobile. solarismobile. Press release. Press release. eu/ rapid/ pressReleasesAction. com/ business/ en/ news-events/ news-latest/ index. com/ media-center/ press-releases/ pocket-gateway-device). "Statement re Solaris Mobile S-band capacity" (http:/ / www. Reuters (February 6. php?pressRelease=/ pressReleases/ pressReleaseList/ 09-07-01-1/ index. 2009 [5] Solaris Mobile (February 10. "Commission boost for mobile satellite services paves the way for EU-wide high speed data communications" (http:/ / europa. com/ article/ rbssTechMediaTelecomNews/ idUSBRQ00733920090514) Reuters (May 14. php). 2010). "New Satellites for Europe: Commission starts selection procedure for operators of pan-European mobile satellite services" (http:/ / europa. 2007).ico. com/ ses/ siteSections/ newsroom/ Latest_News/ index.Solaris Mobile 325 References [1] http:/ / www. Retrieved July 27. . [10] European Commission (August 7. 2009). php). [3] European Commission (May 14. . 2010). Press release. com/ assets/ downloads/ Solaris Mobile welcomes the European Commission selection decision for the S. com/ [2] SES ASTRA (February 21. "Steve Maine Appointed By SES ASTRA And EUTELSAT As CEO Of Joint Venture For Mobile Satellite Services" (http:/ / www. . solarismobile.solarismobile. eu/ information_society/ policy/ ecomm/ current/ pan_european/ index_en.skyrocket. Press release. Press release. Press release.ses. reuters. com/ our-solutions/ mobile-tv/ ). do?reference=IP/ 07/ 1243). "European Commission paves the way for European mobile satellite services" (http:/ / europa. htm). eu/ rapid/ pressReleasesAction. "Pocket Gateway Device" (http:/ / www. "Solaris Mobile welcomes the European Commission selection decision for the S-band process" (http:/ / www. Retrieved on June 1. Press release. ses-astra. [12] Inmarsat and Solaris win EU spectrum rights (http:/ / www. com/ assets/ downloads/ SolarisMobileFilesInsuranceClaim. com/ media-center/ press-releases/ european-license-progress).Band process_en. 2009). [15] Solaris Mobile (May 11. . External links • • • • Solaris Mobile website (http://www. 2008). php) [8] Solaris Mobile (July 1. Retrieved July 27. 2009). ses-astra. solarismobile.com) Eutelsat (http://www. SES ASTRA statement: Solaris Mobile Files Insurance Claim (http:/ / www. SES Statement on Solaris Mobile S-band capacity (http:/ / www. php). . [11] European Commission (May 14. European Commission Information Society website. Press release.ses-astra. 2009). solarismobile. do?reference=IP/ 09/ 770). . . com/ article/ pressRelease/ idUS186611+ 06-Feb-2008+ PRN20080206). do?reference=IP/ 08/ 1250). pdf). [4] Broadcasting in motion (http:/ / www. reuters. Retrieved on June 1. . 2009). do?reference=MEMO/ 09/ 237). ses. 2009 [13] Pan-European numbers and services (http:/ / ec. php?pressRelease=/ pressReleases/ pressReleaseList/ 09-07-01-1/ index. pdf). [6] Major Players of the DVB-SH Ecosystem Join Forces to Demonstrate Live Mobile TV (http:/ / www. SES statement: Solaris Mobile Files Insurance Claim (http:/ / www. ses. Press release.eutelsat.

In 1990. Upon the release of further models after the FD-210. made from 1990 to 1994. FD-210 The initial model was introduced in 1982 as the FD-210. The device weighed around 650 grams. where the wrist strap served as the antenna. introduced in 1984 had a built-in AM/FM Stereo radio. introduced in 1986. The FD-30. utilizing a 4" CRT display. The FD-40 introduced a single composite A/V input. The FD-3. and new features were introduced. The device was sold in Japan with a price of 54. Roughly two years later. the display size increased. which featured an ergonomic body which made it easier to hold. which had a grayscale five centimeter display. with a measurement of 87 x 198 x 33 millimeters. the FDL 330S color Watchman TV/Monitor with LCD display was introduced. was water-resistant.(* Edit) in 1984. the FDL-310. The FD-45. a Watchman with a Sony FDL-3500 color LCD display was introduced. One of the last Watchmans was the FDL-22 introduced in 1998. The FD-40/42/44/45 were among the largest Watchmans. In 1988/1989. was the last Watchman to use a black and white CRT display. had a built-in digital clock. The FD-280/285. and introduced Sony's Straptenna. .800 yen. introduced in 1987. Sony Watchman FD210 Later Releases Sony manufactured more than 65 models of the Watchman before its discontinuation in 2000.Sony Watchman 326 Sony Watchman The Sony Watchman is a line of portable pocket televisions trademarked and produced by Sony. the device was introduced to Europe and North America.

visions4. External links • Reverse Time Page [1] • The Short History of Pocket TV [1] • Vintage Micro Television http://www.Sony Watchman 327 Legacy Due to the switch of over-the-air television to digital. most models of the Sony Watchman in the US have lost their usefulness.net/journal/time-line/ References [1] http:/ / uv201. especially the older CRT-based models. are becoming increasingly popular as collector's items. the Sony Watchman. Because of this. com/ TV_Pages/ panasonic_tr001. because they now require to be connected to a digital converter box. htm .

Swype 328 Swype Swype Original author(s) Swype Inc. Operating system Type License Website Android. a new Guinness World Record of 35. and as small as 500–900 kilobytes in most cases. The Guinness world record text message consists of 160 characters in 25 words and was typed in 25. with the chief technical officer (CTO) and founder Cliff Kushler claiming to have reached 55 words per minute. Windows Mobile Text input Proprietary [www. It also includes a tapping predictive text system in the same interface. and a manufacturer customizable interface. Symbian. .swypeinc.[2] Major components Swype consists of three major components that contribute to its accuracy and speed: an input path analyzer.[2] Swype is designed for use on touchscreen devices with a traditional QWERTY keyboard.[1] Swype was first commercially available on the Samsung Omnia II running Windows Mobile. lifting only between words. Bada.com] Swype is an input method for touchscreens developed by Swype Inc. or 370 characters per minute. It uses error-correcting algorithms and a language model to guess the intended word. such as on devices running the Windows Mobile operating system.[2] Speed The creators of Swype predict that users will achieve over 50 words per minute.54 seconds was set for the fastest text message on a touchscreen mobile phone using Swype on the Samsung Omnia II.94 seconds.[2] The software has a size of less than one megabyte.[2] Software Design Swype allows users to enter words by sliding a finger or stylus from letter to letter.swypeinc.[3] [4] On 22 March 2010. word search engine with corresponding database.com www.94 using a [6] Samsung Galaxy S.[5] and reportedly improved on 22 August of the same year to 25. which corresponds to a speed of nearly 58 words per minute.

Swype 329 Languages Swype is currently available for the following languages:[7] • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Arabic Basque Bulgarian Catalan Chinese .Mandarin (simplified) Chinese Traditional w/Bopomofo Croatian Czech Danish Dutch English .US Estonian Farsi Finnish French French Canadian Galician German Greek Hebrew Hungarian Icelandic Indonesian Italian Japanese Korean Latvian Lithuanian Malay Norwegian (Bokmål) Norwegian (Nynorsk) Polish Portuguese .Portugal Romanian Russian Serbian (Latin KB) Slovak Slovene Spanish Swedish Thai Turkish Ukrainian .Brazil Portuguese .UK English .

com/ learn-overview#/ mytouch-slide-360) [10] Samsung Omnia II Product Page (http:/ / www. html) Tech Crunch 50 Swype Presentation (http:/ / blip. and Motorola Droid 2 Android-based smartphones come with Swype pre-installed. tv/ file/ 1372350) Rafe Needleman. swype. 2011. com/ showthread. Move over T9. Motorola i1. CNet News. bbc. here comes Swype (http:/ / news. com/ shop/ Phones/ cell-phone-detail. Inc. Motorola Droid X. References Swype Home Page (http:/ / www. swypeinc. com/ b2c/ store/ controller?item=phoneFirst& action=viewPhoneDetail& selectedPhoneId=5110/ ) [11] http:/ / swypeinc. verizonwireless. t-mobile. 2010. By the end of this year. is planning to market the software to other mobile device makers and expects a widespread adoption of the software among touch-based mobile devices.[15] In December 2010. Motorola CLIQ. the Nokia 5800 Xpressmusic. co. Nokia C6-00. The software's manufacturer. It does not have input using paths. swypeinc. swype. 2010. 330 Availability Swype currently ships on the Samsung wave s8500. t-mobile. Swype was released for Symbian^3 on October 16. . Swype released a beta version for iOS (Apple) devices(iOS jailbreaking is required).[10] The most recent additions include the Samsung Galaxy S GT-i9000 and Nokia C7.g. Motorola Atrix 4G.[11] as well as the Samsung Droid Charge. Swype expects to be preloaded on over 100 million devices. html). com/ product.[16] In July 2011. Press release. aspx?cell-phone=T-Mobile-G2-with-Google) [9] T-Mobile MyTouch Slide product page (http:/ / mytouch. com/ news. manufactured by Samsung and distributed by Verizon Wireless. uk/ local/ manchester/ hi/ people_and_places/ newsid_8939000/ 8939790. Virgin Mobile USA introduced Swype on the LG Optimus V [14]. [8] T-Mobile G2 product page (http:/ / www. stm). August 24. virginmobileusa.[12] On June 16. jsp [1] [2] [3] [4] . 9 September 2008 [5] Samsung USA (March 22. 2010. and the Nokia X6.[13] The Samsung Galaxy S. com/ cell-phones/ lg-optimus-v-phone. 6 November 2010. "Samsung Mobile And Swype Set New Guinness World Record" (http:/ / www. both of which also involve tracing a path over letters on a virtual keyboard. HTC HD2 (T-Mobile USA version. com/ ) [14] http:/ / www. html) [13] (http:/ / beta.5 mm Jack and myTouch Slide 3G (the latter both by T-Mobile USA)[9] It also ships on the Omnia II mobile handset. . The manufacturer claims that the same algorithms can be applied to almost any world language. It is available on the Ovi store. 2010). allowing the keyboard to predict the next word in the sentence at a personalised level. which runs the Android OS. com/ 8301-17939_109-10037202-2.) T-Mobile G2. com/ [12] Swype News Page (http:/ / www. Swype. an update including Swype was pushed to Sprint's HTC Evo 4G users. cnet. samsungusanews. but utilises more advanced predictive software.[17] Competitors Swype is similar in concept to SlideIT and ShapeWriter.Swype • Urdu • Vietnamese Support for these languages depends on OEM and carrier decisions. Motorola DEFY. [6] "Salford woman makes bid for fastest text title" (http:/ / news. Swype opened a public beta for the Android operating system. BBC News. 2010. Swype is available for the Symbian platform S60 5th edition devices e. Motorola CLIQ XT. swypeinc. com/ 2010/ 03/ samsung-mobile-and-swype-set-new-guinness-world-record/ ). php?1493). Retrieved June 20. [7] Do Not Post requests for your device to include other languages! (http:/ / forum. Another well-known input program is SwiftKey. Retrieved July 14. com/ ) Swype product page (http:/ / www. Nokia 5230.[8] T-Mobile MyTouch 3G 3. Nokia N97 original and mini.

938&RS=7.PN.896.098.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO2&Sect2=HITOFF&p=1&u=/netahtml/PTO/search-bool.com) • United States Patent 7.896) • United States Patent 7. Kushler. talkandroid.896.098. Marsden. com/ 23747-htc-evo-4g-update-3-70-651-1-brings-swype-scan-now/ [17] http:/ / www.098.swypeinc.938&OS=7.&OS=PN/7. php [16] http:/ / www.uspto. C. html&r=1&f=G&l=50&co1=AND&d=PTXT&s1=7.250.098. com/ android-keyboard-maker-swype-closes-6-million-c-round-2011-7#ixzz1RubyKO9k 331 External links • Official website (http://www.250.uspto. "System and method for continuous stroke word-based text input".896&RS=PN/ 7.Swype [15] http:/ / www. (http://patft.htm&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=7.250. allaboutsymbian. businessinsider.938/kumhyr) .gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PALL&p=1&u=/ netahtml/PTO/srchnum. com/ news/ item/ 12198_Swype_now_available_for_Symbia.250.938 System and method for improved user input on personal computing devices (http:/ /patft. R.

Syclo offers the Agentry mobile platform. deploying. CEO Jeffrey Kleban. LLC Type Industry Founded privately held company (LLC) computer software 1995 Headquarters Hoffman Estates. an extensible framework based on fourth-generation programming language for developing. that utilize field service management processes[4] and typically have significantly valued hard assets to service and protect. a software suite built on the Agentry platform. Illinois. Alliances & Partnerships Agentry Mobile Platform Syclo SMART Mobile Suite 100+ www.com [1] Products Employees Website Syclo. enabling SAP [11] and Syclo to co-brand and offer SMART Mobile Suite applications for use with SAP ERP and SAP CRM[12] . oil and gas. Illinois. developed a computer-based wireless order system for Sprint Nextel field workers. was the first organization to deploy Syclo's SMART Mobile Suite . and life sciences. Competitive Advantage Systems. Syclo's SMART Mobile Suite of workflow-specific products. including utilities. making Syclo an integral part of SAP’s mobile business application strategy [13] . SAP AG. Syclo’s flagship Agentry mobile development platform was introduced a year later. to handhelds.Syclo 332 Syclo Syclo. [7] Chicago’s largest healthcare facility. Agentry also includes mobile device management capabilities embedded into its application platform. Illinois (additional offices in Chicago. has been implemented by more than 750 customers in 35 countries and 20 different industries[6] . and managing a wireless business application architecture[5] . Partners Syclo's partnership ecosystem is particularly important to its global reach and serving the application architecture of enterprise systems makers such as IBM [8] (IBM Maximo Asset Management). and Customer Relationship Management (CRM). TRIRIGA.syclo. and mobile computers for technicians and staff performing work away from a central office. and Oracle. LLC is a mobile enterprise application platform (MEAP)[2] [3] and software provider based in the Chicago suburb of Hoffman Estates. and Stuttgart. London. . offering mobile applications to extend enterprise systems. Richard Padula started Syclo in 1995 in Barrington. and in 1998 Rush University Medical Center. including packaged software for Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP). The company’s focus in the mobile middleware market is on business environments across industries. Enterprise Asset Management (EAM). Of note is the company’s mobile co-innovation development agreement[9] with business software firm SAP in 2009[10] . Germany) Key people Richard Padula. smartphones. EVP. History After his consulting company.

info/ sap-on-ipad-it s-all-going-mobile/32788/2) • Benedict. html) [7] Rose." Gartner. Mini (2010-09-08). eweek. William and Michael J. chicagotribune.sap.SMART Mobile Suite (http:/ / ecohub. com/ c/ a/ Mobile-and-Wireless/ App-Independence/ ) [6] "SAP." Gartner. com/ content/ pdf/ Syclo_Gartner_MEAP_Report. "Syclo Private Vendor Watchlist Profile: Mobile Middleware with Industry-Specific Focus. (http:/ / articles. Frank (2010-05-20). com/ [2] Clark. sdn. gartner. Syclo Partner for Mobile. com/ industrynews/ 2009/ 086. "SAP-Syclo Co-innovation Enhances Mobile Field Service Offerings.html) . com/ DisplayDocument?doc_cd=172728 [13] Clark. com/ getdoc. com/ 2002-04-18/ business/ 0204180344_1_keyboard-pcs-computer) [8] http:/ / www-935." TMC. plantservices. com/ services/ us/ gts/ pdf/ eus_br_driving-effiency-with-connected-field-service-workers. Jason (2001-10-08).com/) • Syclo LLC Private Company Information .info.businessweek. com/ DisplayDocument?id=930912) External links • Official website (http://www. "Magic Quadrant for Mobile Enterprise Application Platforms.) Plant Services.com/2010/05/ mobile-expert-interview-series-syclos." SAP.tmcnet.net. com/ usa/ solutions/ mobility-solutions/ syclo/ index.com/research/stocks/ private/snapshot. Barbara (2002-04-18). William and Michael Maoz (2009-04-06)." (2009-05-06. (http:// smart-products. gartner. pdf [9] SAP Eco Hub." eweek. sap. jsp?sessionId=& containerId=222007& sessionId=90D98F98A15C750D9329AE9C5C40BD02) [5] Brooks.htm) • Volkel. plantservices. com/ irj/ ecohub/ solutions/ SMARTMobileSuite) [10] http:/ / www. King (2009-12-16). ibm. com/ DisplayDocument?doc_cd=172728) [3] http:/ / www. Kevin (2010-05-07).BusinessWeek (http://investing." IDC.com/topics/smart-mobile/articles/ 100295-syclos-smart-mobile-suite-overcomes-device-diversity. "SAP on iPad: It’s All Going Mobile. "PC Prescription for Hospital's Maintenance Ills.asp?privcapId=10636008/) • Swamy. sap. syclo. com/ industrynews/ 2009/ 086. (http:/ / www. html [11] http:/ / www. idc.com. (http:/ / www. pdf [4] Drake. Stephen (2010-02). (http:/ / www. "Syclo's Smart Mobile Suite Overcomes Device Diversity. (http:/ / www. (http://mobileenterprisestrategies. (http:/ / www." MobileEntepriseStrategies.blogspot. epx [12] http:/ / www. "Mobile Expert Interview Series: Syclo's Jeff Kleban.blogspot.syclo. (http://en.Syclo 333 References [1] http:/ / www." Chicago Tribune. syclo. "App Independence. gartner.

Information about common word combinations can also be learned from the user and stored for future predictions. The user database (UDB) can be expanded via multi-tap. For instance. Features Some T9 implementations feature smart punctuation. For words entered by the user. It was also used by Texas Instruments PDA Avigo during the late '90s. "home". In later versions of T9. Another powerful feature is its ability to automatically recognise and correct typing/texting errors. the order of the words presented adapts to the usage pattern. if you often write "eat food". "hood". Its main competitors are iTap created by Motorola. it speeds up the process by offering the most frequently used words first and then lets the user access other choices with one or more presses of a predefined Next key. in addition to words and stems. enabling them to be recognized in the future. eventually the two words will switch position. The dictionary can be expanded by adding missing words. Sony Ericsson. in English.. When the user uses "home" more often than "good".g. It looks up in the dictionary all words corresponding to the sequence of keypresses and orders them by frequency of use. by looking at neighbouring keys on the keypad to ascertain an incorrect keypress. Nokia. Some implementations also learn commonly used word pairs and provide word prediction (e. When the user enters matching key-presses. while others implement one for the duration of the session. In later versions of T9.T9 (predictive text) 334 T9 (predictive text) T9. Depending on the language. "gone".[2] T9 is used on phones from LG. Sanyo. isn't as well as the possessive 's). Sagem and others. The number of words stored depends on the implementation as well as the language. the user can select a primary and secondary language and matches from both languages are presented. This feature allows the user to insert sentence and word punctuation using the '1'-key. It combines the groups of letters on each phone key with a fast-access dictionary of words. as opposed to the multi-tap approach used in the older generation of mobile phones in which several letters are associated with each key. the word "testing" would be .g. After introducing a new word. Such combinations are known as textonyms. For example. won't. Siemens. after entering "eat" the phone will suggest "food" and it can be confirmed by simply pressing next). etc. Eatoni's LetterWise and WordWise. smart punctuation inserts sentence punctuation (period) or embedded punctuation (period or hyphen) or word punctuation (apostrophe in can't. Depending on the context. T9 also supports word breaking after punctuation to support clitics such as l' and n' in French and 's in English. The UDB is an optional feature which allows words that were explicitly entered by the user to be stored for future reference. the next time the user tries to produce that word T9 will add it to the predictive dictionary. Samsung Electronics. and Intelab's Tauto. As T9 gains familiarity with the words and phrases the user commonly uses. It allows words to be entered by a single keypress for each letter. and selecting one letter often requires multiple keypresses. 4663 matches "good". NEC. is a patented[1] predictive text technology for mobile phones. This enables users to write messages in their native as well as a foreign language. Some phone manufacturers implement a permanent user database. e. SureType created by RIM. word completion can be enabled. Design T9's objective is to make it easier to type text messages. which stands for Text on 9 keys. the system will also provide completions. now part of Nuance Communications. The implementation of the user database depends on the version of T9 and how T9 is actually integrated on the device. "home" is referred to as an textonym of "good". originally developed by Tegic Communications.

google. "8278494" still results in T9 suggesting the words "tasting" (8278464).com/articles-t9. and partial words (also known as stems) but because of this compression.com/t9/) • Nuance T9 End user facing site (http://t9.g.com/) • History of T9 article at Validconcept. External links • Nuance T9 Customer facing site (http://www. e.validconcept.. Entering the same number but with two incorrect keypresses of neighbouring keys. 335 Algorithm In order to achieve compression ratios of close to 1 byte per word. and "tapping" (8277464). it over-generates words which are sometimes visible to the user as 'junk words'. T9 uses an optimized algorithm which maintains the order of words.nuance. References [1] Reduced keyboard disambiguating computer. asp) (2007). com/ news/ pressreleases/ 2007/ 20070824_tegic. nuance.T9 (predictive text) entered with the key combination "8378464". (http:/ / www.com (http://www.html/) . com/ patents?id=PmgCAAAAEBAJ) US Patent 5818437 (1998) [2] Nuance Communications press release (http:/ / www. This is a side effect of the requirements for small database sizes on the lower end embedded devices. "testing" (8378464).

” This allows it to watch web sites that have no RSS feed and no mobile presence and turn their content into streams. and most significantly on touch screen mobile devices. consumption and sharing of content across all personal screen-based devices. Its flagship product is the recently launched My Taptu. Taptu Inc Type Industry Founded Private Social Media 2007 Headquarters Cambridge. My Taptu will display a preview of the article and its source in the app itself." or what Taptu calls "app hopping. search.[1] According to Taptu. Products Taptu currently has two products. It has received [4] [5] [6] and Apple promoted the App on its UK App Store front page by selecting it as a several positive reviews. Taptu believes mixed streams put a story into a wider context. The company is based in Cambridge and Denver. My Taptu was released in the App Store and the Android Marketplace on November 9th. Taptu is a privately held company that was founded in Cambridge in 2007 and is backed by funding from Venture Capitalists including DFJ Esprit and Sofinnova. Any time someone in a user's social circle shares a link with them. Content comes from a variety of sources. a social news aggregator that draws heavily on the company’s mobile search heritage but attempts to move them beyond search. including the iPhone and Android phones. a person can add “The New York Times” breaking news as a stream. For example. management.stop app" through "streams. and help people discover content they might have not originally sought out." or what CNET describes as “content playlists. Facebook. curation. is "aimed at solving information overload. They can also add the feeds of select newsmakers or publishers that My Taptu have curated. 2010. Gizmodo. 4) Web Watcher Streams: Taptu has technology that it calls the “web watcher. and runs all of the news or content coming only from that source. the app lets users add content through: 1) Social Streams: Users can add their Twitter. recommendation."[2] It presents all the information that a person "is into" in a "one. discovery. the New York Times Bits Blog. Wall Street Journal among others. or Linked In feeds to My Taptu. which is available on the iPhone and Android devices. For example. Currently. .”[3] My Taptu has tried to separate itself in the increasingly crowded social news space by offering various ways of personalizing and building My Taptu. UK Key people Products Employees Mitch Lazar (CEO) Mobile Social News Aggregator 40-45 (2009) Taptu is a social media and technology company that builds platforms. 3) Mixed Streams: Mixed streams are curated by topic. Colorado. 2) Single Streams: The single stream of content comes from one source. Engadget. the app. feature App of the Week shortly after My Taptu launched. tools and applications that enable highly personalized creation. The company uses it to fill out their fashion streams. the technology news stream could contain news flowing from TechCrunch. Read Write Web.Taptu 336 Taptu Taptu Ltd.

Jemima (9 November 2010). MobileMonday Peer Awards. the company commissioned a series of online videos. com/ 2010/ 10/ 20/ announcing-mitch-lazar-as-taptus-new-ceo/ [10] http:/ / www. "My Taptu app takes the visual news aggregator to mobile" (http:/ / www. Highly Commended in the category of Best Mobile Start Up[18] References [1] http:/ / eu. html [4] http:/ / www. taptu. September 2008[11] Best Search Provider 2008. MEX Design Competition[14] Red Herring Top 100 European Tech Startups. April 2008[15] Global Community Award. html [5] http:/ / www. . Mobile Marketing Magazine. com/ blog/ 2008/ 09/ 28/ taptu-wins-best-search-provider-2008-at-mobile-entertainment-awards/ ). moved over to president where he remained until early 2011[9] [10] Funding Taptu is backed by Sofinnova and DFJ Esprit. mobileuserexperience. provided as a web site using html optimised for phones. [3] http:/ / www. with an announcement from Mitch Lazar stating the intention to focus on the news aggregation product. macworld. do [9] http:/ / blog.Taptu To support the launch of My Taptu. Management Mitch Lazar. uk/ 2008/ 09/ taptu-takes-mob. Mobile Entertainment Awards[12] [13] Commercial Category. com/ 2010/ 11/ 09/ mytaptu-arrives-to-take-on-flipboard-and-pulse-in-the-touch-aggregator-stakes/ [2] Kiss. laptopmag. Recognition and Awards • • • • • • • Overall Mobile Search Company of the Year. Mobile Search Awards. [12] "ME Awards 2008: The winners in full" (http:/ / www. a mobile Wikipedia service. . Taptu Blog. which bought out 3i’s investments in 2009. aspx#axzz16i3svHVa [6] http:/ / recombu. techcrunch. Winner of Content Discovery and Personalisation Award[17] TechCrunch Europas 2010. html). The videos are designed to illustrate that My Taptu had a wide enough depth and breadth of content to appeal to any niche interest or passion a person has. co. uk/ technology/ pda/ 2010/ nov/ 09/ taptu-app-aggregator). html [7] http:/ / www. Taptu first product was a mobile search engine. [14] "Day One. com/ review/ software/ my-taptu. com/ about/ press/ 2010-09-20 [11] "Taptu Takes Mobile Search Award" (http:/ / www. co. cnet. February 2008[16] Meffys 2010. Boris Johnson. Mobile User Experience. com/ 8301-19736_1-20022141-251. . co. after spending 3 months as President and COO. [13] "Taptu Wins "Best Search Provider 2008" at Mobile Entertainment Awards" (http:/ / www. com/ watch?v=4iQ0KTYdDhk [8] http:/ / www. taptu. Mobile Entertainment. One of its successful videos [7] depicts the mayor of London. biz/ news/ 31544/ ME-Awards-2008-The-winners-in-full). . com/ ?p=570). MEX 2008 & the winners of the MEX Awards" (http:/ / www. guardian.[8] 337 Other Product Taptu’s other product is Wapedia. . com/ apps/ android/ my-taptu-app-review_M12697. thisislondon. uk/ standard/ article-23900593-is-it-wheelie-him-mayor-in-boris-bike-video-stunts-on-web. youtube. founder and former CEO. He stepped into the role on 20 October 2010. Steve Ives. com/ article/ 155636/ 2010/ 11/ mytaptu. It was closed in early 2011. The Guardian (London). mobilemarketingmagazine. mobile-ent. . and dedicated "apps" for iPhone and Android. taptu. former MD of Yahoo Mobile Europe. is CEO of Taptu. riding a “Boris Bike” Danny MacAskill-style at a local London skate park.

[16] "MobileMonday Peer Awards Barcelona 2008" (http:/ / www.net (http://www. Computer games have also been used to provide therapy for adolescents. the telephone. Meffys 2010. Demo of how Taptu is way better than Google for mobiles by Robert Scoble Technology and mental health issues The use of communicative and other new technologies as a supplement to mainstream therapies for mental disorders is an emerging mental health treatment field which.Taptu blog (http://blog. instant messaging and podcasts.[5] David Haniff[6] produced a computer application that would present media to someone suffering from depression in order to lift their mood. The VR system offers a sense of realism in a safe environment. mobilemondaybarcelona. com/ 2010/ 11/ 20/ the-europas-european-startup-awards-2010-the-winners-and-finalists/ ).sky. could improve the accessibility. Rizzo et al.com) .html) • WapReview. computer programmes. social networks. blogs. By gradually exposing the person to their fear with a Virtual Environment the patient becomes accustomed to the trigger of their problem to an extent that it no longer becomes an issue.net/home/4516/ demo-of-how-taptu-is-way-better-than-google-for-mobiles). Mobile Monday Barcelona.taptu.3i. For example. counselling. [18] "TechCrunch Europas 2010" (http:/ / eu. fear of flying or arachnophobia (fear of spiders). SMS.[2] Technology and the Treatment of Mental Health Issues Traditional methods of helping people with a mental health problem have been to use approaches such as medication.com/portfolio/companies/taptu. Relatively new technology such as mobile phones have also been used to help people with mental health problems by providing timely information.Taptu [15] "Taptu honoured as recipient of Red Herring Top 100 Europe list" (http:/ / www.com/blog/?p=413) • PodTech.com) 3i investors portfolio: Taptu (http://www. New technology can also be used in conjunction with traditional methods. taptu.[3] have used Virtual Reality (VR) (simulated real environments through digital media) to successfully treat Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). . com/ peerawards/ ).uk/news_analysis/113999/ Mobile_search_company_Taptu_aims_high.html) Sky News Technofile: The Google Years: The Future of Online Search Engines (http://news. . it is argued. TechCrunch Europas 2010.com/ skynews/Home/video/Google-10-Years-The-Future-Of-Online-Search-Engines/Video/ 200809115094007?lpos=video_0&lid=VIDEO_15094007_Google+10+Years%3A+The+Future+Of+ Online+Search+Engines) • Mobile Search Company Taptu aims high (http://www. effectiveness and affordability of mental health care. Technology can therefore be used in innovative ways to provide support for those with mental health .co. anonymous and accessible way to receive therapeutic advice. com/ attend/ meffys-winners-showcase-dynamic-mobile-media-industry). This form of treatment has also been applied to other mental health problems such as phobias (where anxiety is triggered by a certain situation). Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT). techcrunch.[4] Many adolescents are reluctant to have therapy and a computer game is a fun. computer games.podtech. Taptu (http://wapreview. exercise and a healthy diet. For example. . . video conferencing. [17] "Meffys 2010" (http:/ / www.[1] Mental health technologies used by professionals as an adjunct to mainstream clinical practices include email. virtual reality. com/ blog/ 2008/ 04/ 16/ taptu-honoured-as-recipient-of-red-herring-top-100-europe-list/ ).mobileeurope. meffys. pictures of the patient's family or their voice. Taptu Blog. 338 External links • • • • Taptu homepage (http://www.taptu.

com/fileadmin/documents/tap_v1p8. google. In Kate Anthony. Ethics and Practice. B.J. Kate. [5] Goss. The Use of Technology in Mental Health: Applications. pdf). Wiederhold. DeeAnna Merz. com/ books?id=sX87shVB0ugC& printsec=frontcover& source=gbs_ge_summary_r& cad=0#v=onepage& q& f=false). Wiederhold. one size does not fit all and some technologies may not be suitable for certain people. Thomas Pub Ltd. [2] Anthony.Volume 2.net • (http://www.[1] This protocol is used to send SMS/text alerts to a cell phone or a pager. org/ upload/ pdf/ ewic_hc07_popaper4. ISBN 9780398079536. pp. .pdf . Interacting with Computers 22 (4): 243–252. The Use of Technology in Mental Health : Applications. pp. . Nisbet. Mark (July 2010). Telelocator Alphanumeric Protocol Telelocator Alphanumeric Protocol (TAP) is a protocol for submitting requests to a cellular or pager service as a numeric or alphanumeric message.. initially known as Motorola Page Entry (PET) was adopted in September 1988. uk/ modules/ F24VS2/ Resources/ RizzoVirtualRealityExposure2006. P. "Using Cell/Mobile Phone SMS to Enhance Client Crisis and Peer Support" (http:/ / books. David. [4] Coyle. Springfield.avtech. Washington D. Doherty (2005).[2] TAP. ISBN 9781902505954. sciencedirect.[3] References [1] http:/ / www. verisign. In Devian Ramduny-Ellis and Dorothy Rachovides (eds). hw. by the Personal Communication Industry Association. info/ External links • Directory of TAP Dialup Numbers (http://www. "A Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy Application for Iraq War Military Personnel with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder: From Training to Toy to Treatment" (http:/ / www. B. M. pdf). pp. Goss. Graap. pdf).. TAP defines an industry standard for sending alphanumeric messages to pagers.C: IOS Press. com/ support/ docs/ web/ Content/ 06-Notifiers/ 06-01-ConfiguringNotifications/ AlertViaCellPhone.net/tap-phone-numbers. McNerney. B (2006). [3] Rizzo. . ie/ books?id=sX87shVB0ugC& printsec=& pg=PA56). Ethics and Practice (http:/ / books. ac. bcs. 235–250. (ed. macs. tap-ixo. .htm) from notepage. hw. htm [3] http:/ / www. macs. "Mental Health Issues and Pervasive Computing" (http:/ / www. Spira. Nagel. Ferns. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Novel Approaches to the Diagnosis and Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. BCS-HCI '07 Proceedings of the 21st British HCI Group Annual Conference on People and Computers: HCI. Matthews. M. Stephen. Gavin. Manson.com/Support/TAP/index. However.). K. ac.notepage.: Charles C. M. A.picell. 171–172. D.htm) from avtech. David (2007). com/ stellent/ groups/ public/ documents/ data_sheet/ 002641. Springfield.but not as we know it . In Roy. 339 References [1] Doherty. J.Technology and mental health issues problems. pdf [2] http:/ / dartware. IL: Charles C. google. Ill. google& _acct=C000050221& _version=1& _urlVersion=0& _userid=10& md5=f5ee46f9d4213e1f3975dd8f33fefe2a& searchtype=a). Coyle. Pair. . "Personal Investigator: A therapeutic 3D game for adolecscent psychotherapy" (http:/ / www. Swindon: British Computer Society. "Design and Mental Health Guidelines for Mental Health Technologies" (http:/ / www. com/ science?_ob=ArticleURL& _udi=B6V0D-4YH568S-1& _user=10& _coverDate=07/ 31/ 2010& _rdoc=1& _fmt=high& _orig=gateway& _origin=gateway& _sort=d& _docanchor=& view=c& _searchStrId=1703402087& _rerunOrigin=scholar. . DeeAnna Merz Nagel and Stephen Goss (eds). ISBN 9780398079536. uk/ modules/ F24VS2/ Resources/ RizzoVirtualRealityExposure2006. Joe (2010). Thomas Publishers. Stephen (eds) (2010). Sharry. J. Matthews.com • Directory of TAP Dialup Numbers (http://www. 56–67. Journal of Interactive Technology & Smart Education 2 (2): 73–88. A. [6] Haniff.

2 Froyo. examples include T-Mobile in the UK. or by physical connection using a cable. This sharing can be offered over a wireless LAN (Wi-Fi). geek.com. starting [1] from version 2. androidcentral. Retrieved 2010-10-13.US" (http:/ / shop. Many mobile phones are equipped with software to offer tethered Internet access. . sprint. while others forbid tethering or impose added data charges.US" (http:/ / www. "Except with Phone-as-Modem plans. tethering may be provided at no extra cost. In the case of tethering over wireless LAN. We reserve the right to deny or terminate service without notice for any misuse or any use that adversely affects network [3] performance. using your Device as a modem or tethering your Device to a personal computer or other hardware. some carriers impose a one time charge to enable tethering. com/ articles/ mobile/ android-2-2-to-support-tethering-and-turn-your-phone-into-a-mobile-wifi-hotspot-20100514/ ) [2] http:/ / www. [4] "T-Mobile Terms & Conditions . The operating system Android supports this .com: Android 2. . sprint." T-Mobile has a similar clause in its Terms & Conditions: "Unless explicitly permitted by your Data Plan. the feature may be branded as a mobile hotspot. PDA. you may not use a phone (including a Bluetooth phone) as a modem in connection with a computer. Often phone contracts that advertise unlimited or "all you can eat" Internet and data usage will bury these hidden charges in their terms of use. As cited in Sprint Nextel's Terms of Service. or similar device. This feature was available before but only by 'rooting' devices and using the Linux iptables application. The Internet-connected mobile phone acts as a portable router when providing tethering services to others.Tethering 340 Tethering Tethering means sharing the Internet connection of an Internet-capable mobile phone with other devices. are not permitted. t-mobile. However. References [1] Geek. to support tethering (http:/ / www. . including for example." [4] Verizon Wireless and AT&T Mobility currently offer wired tethering to their plans for a fee. aspx?PAsset=Ftr_Ftr_TermsAndConditions& print=true).com. com/ en/ legal/ legal_terms_privacy_popup. com/ android-internet-tether [3] "Sprint Terms & Conditions . Retrieved 2011-03-14. or over Bluetooth. other uses.[2] Tethering in carriers' contracts Depending on the mobile phone's carrier. while Sprint Nextel offers a Wi-Fi connected "mobile hotspot" tethering feature at an added charge. t-mobile.2. com/ Templates/ Popup. shtml?ECID=vanity:termsandconditions#3).

Thumbcast 341 Thumbcast Thumbcast is a term used for the mobile delivery of text. or other mobile distribution mechanism. com/ business/ globe/ articles/ 2007/ 04/ 09/ snippets_of_news_via_cellphone/ . [2] . via cellphone" pp. E1. References Johnson. coming from the generally audio-based podcast. The company provided the following brief definition for the term: Think: podcast for your phone. Timeline • On 15 March 2007 US mobile media company 80108 Media launches their public Web site at [1]. • On 9 April 2007 the Boston Globe published an article titled Snippets of news. the input mechanisms of multi-tap and predictive text. The Boston Globe (New York Times): References [1] http:/ / www. via cellphone [2] with the following opening sentence: Thumbcasts are coming to Boston. Retrieved 2007-04-09. com [2] http:/ / www. 80108. picture.E4. The term 'thumbcast' became one of that day's 'Hot Searches' on the site. or video content via short message service. referring to the SMS subscription channels as thumbcasts. Our thumbcasts are hand-crafted by local correspondents and delivered direct to you as text messages. "Snippets of news. and the distribution of content directly to mobile phones. boston. multimedia messaging service. WAP push. Carolyn (2007-04-09). audio. The term is an evolution specialized for original mobile content.

French. 3. Below is a summary of the basic usage. Tapping on the keys directly to input predictively. and can change the keyboard layout. its virtual keyboard is resizable by finger sliding. It only supports English input.TouchPal 342 TouchPal TouchPal is an alternative software input method for mobile devices. It has many useful features such as self-defined "My Sentences" and "My Commands". TouchPal v3 has much better extensibility than the previous two versions. Besides what v1 has. Users can switch keyboard layouts by finger sweeping. together with several European input languages. Technology TouchPal default keyboard layout is designed based on the T+ technology. TouchPal v3 significantly improved the predictive algorithm by incorporating its patent pending context-based word prediction and mistyping auto-correction algorithm. The keyboard is one-layer design. Sliding on a key in four directions like a "+" to input precisely. It is an alternative text input method to the traditional physical keyboards. TouchPal v3 has a lot of new features. comprehensive content editing functions. It supports several European languages input such as English. TouchPal v3 English version was released in April 2008. Slide to the left/right to precisely input the letter on the left/right. With its SDK. and 9-key PhonePad layout. German. Compared with the previous two versions. There are not additional function keys such as Shift or Ctrl because the functions achieved by them were built-in and can be easily implemented directly by finger tapping or sliding. for example the QWERTY layout. Tap directly to input predictively. 2. Spanish. users can self develop the supported input languages. TouchPal v2 came out in late December 2007. 5. Slide up then down to input the numbers on the top. Slide up to input uppercase letters. 4. It supports three layouts on one virtual keyboard: T+ layout. and Dutch. full QWERTY layout. a patent pending technology owned by CooTek. The overall layout of all the letters follows a common computer keyboard layout. It places a virtual keyboard on the touch screen of the handhelds. Italian. It also includes customizable emoticons and a few other features. with which you can enter text by tapping on the screen. History TouchPal v1 was released in October 2007. It combines two letters and one symbol on each key. It also provides changeable keypress sound. whose layout looks like a "T". the skins. designed and developed by CooTek. . It only has the T+ layout virtual keyboard. while keeps the general computer keyboard layout. It is a software application running on Windows Mobile devices. There is cool animation effect when turning the pages or switching the layouts. 1. TouchPal v3 Chinese input version came out one month later. This makes each button big enough for thumb tapping. drag & drop buttons. Slide down to input a symbol on the bottom.

WMExperts. com/ articles/ software/ great_new_soft_keyboard. A TMA reduces the base transceiver station noise figure (NF) and therefore improve its overall sensitivity. the TMA can only partially correct.TouchPal 343 References 1. Since the transmitter is a mobile phone it cannot be easily modified to transmit stronger signals. normally referenced as unbalanced links. 2007 4.com) website Tower Mounted Amplifier A Tower Mounted Amplifier or Mast Head Amplifier is a Low-noise amplifier (LNA) mounted as close as practical to the antenna in mobile masts or Base Transceiver Stations. Dieter Bohn. This can be fixed by making the transmitter on that link stronger or the receiver more sensitive to weaker signals. 2007 External links 1.[1] There are occasions when the cable between the antenna and the receiver is so lossy (too thin or too long) that the signal weakens from the antenna before reaching the receiver. In other words. Smartphone and Pocket PC Magazine. February 10.pocketpcmag.com. therefore it may be decided to install TMAs from the start to make the system viable. Sean Cooper. which in turn implies a lower drain from its batteries. is weaker than the other. php?q=blogs/ 30/ touchpal_a_very_well_done_soft_keyboard). in other words the mobile mast is able to receive weaker signals. June/July 2008 issue (http://www.com/cms/current-issue/) 2. October 4. Nate Adcock. Crowded mast with TMAs (white rectangular boxes) mounted behind all the panel (rectangular) antennas TMAs are used in mobile networks to improve the sensitivity of the uplink in mobile phone masts. pocketpcmag. TouchPal-A Well-Done Soft Keyboard Alternative! (http:/ / www. there are occasions when one way. thus a longer battery charge. CooTek's TouchPal brings iPhone-like touchpad to Windows Mobile (http:/ / www. the link imbalance.html). com/ cms/ index. . Benefits in mobile communications In two way communications systems. TouchPal: One of the Best Soft Keyboards. or palliate. com/ 2007/ 10/ 12/ cooteks-touchpal-brings-iphone-like-touchpad-to-windows-mobile/ ). Engadget Mobile. wmexperts. one link. Smartphone and Pocket PC Magazine. CooTek (http://www. Improving the uplink translates into a combination of better coverage and mobile transmitting at less power. October 12.cootek. engadgetmobile. Nate Adcock. Great New Soft Keyboard (http:/ / www. 2008 3.

Each stage consists of a noise figure (F) and an amount of amplification. The principle can be demonstrated mathematically. with some stages producing other changes (like changing the signal's frequency). If the received signal is not weak. The receiver may alternatively be housed in a cabinet or hut at the base of the tower. unless it can be bypassed. [2] 3. The second amplifier's temperature ( ) will also influence the total but it is reduced (divided) by the gain of the first amplifier . nothing reduces its contribution to the total. The first amplifier will set the temperature ( ). IS-95 or WCDMA . therefore it is possible analyse call records and establish where TMAs are needed.[1] 1. In some mobile networks (e.and thus more expensive . 2. as it is reduced by its preceding amplifier gains . Simple phone mast with three TMAs (horizontal rectangular boxes) visible at the top of metal tower and before rectangular antennas Note that: 1.g. or gain (G). 2. There might be practical room restrictions. 3. or structural weight restrictions to install a TMA at the top of a phone mast. And so on until N stages. the receiving path starts with the signal originating at the antenna. the receiver's noise figure is calculated by modularly assessing each amplifier stage.Tower Mounted Amplifier 344 Drawbacks/pitfalls 1. 2. visual. it may render the system unusable until serviced. Servicing TMAs is harder than servicing receivers .g. So amplifier number 1 will be right after the antenna and described by and . installing a TMA will not deliver its intended benefit. [5] [6] . GSM) have a constant link. If the TMA fails.as the TMA may be dangerously near (near field) of the antenna and high up in a tower. If the received signal is strong enough. link balance changes with traffic load. Then the signal is amplified in further stages within the receiver. However. it is not simple to detect and correct unbalanced links since the link balance is not constant. The third amplifier's temperature is influencing even less. it may cause the TMA to create its own interference which is passed on to the receiver. 3. [3] [4] Mathematical principles In a receiver. The relationship of the stages is known as the Friis formula. . other mobile networks (e. It is actually not amplified all at once but in stages.aka European 3G -). 4.

Connecting Cable (stage 1) . htm).Receiver (stage 2).). The more loss. [6] This number is normally expressed in decibels (dB) thus: References [1] [2] [3] [4] Laiho.longer connecting cable (stage 3) . is from In this way. it will increase What can be done to improve the receiver to pick up very weak signals? It must have a lower noise figure. adcbroadband. (1982). pdf?refer=Library& C=Tower-Mounted+ Amplifier+ Systems& L=ClearGain+ Amplifier+ Systems). as . whose noise figure is less downgraded by the cables. London: Edward Arnold. • Stage 3: Then comes the next cable ( and ). Ltd. Powerwave. "TMA description.Tower Mounted Amplifier 345 Applying the Friis formula to TMAs Typical receiver without TMA Start with a typical receiver: Antenna . au/ reception/ tv/ mast_head. ISBN 0-471-98609-7 [7] Noise Figure of lossy stage . Simon R. Therefore: • Stage 1: • Stage 2: is equal to the loss of the cable and will increase with ambient temperature [7] will depend on the lossiness of the cable.TMA (stage 2) ... So will counteract the effects of . Novosad. the least lossy connecting cable between the antenna and the TMA. words. F. in order . but this time its noise addition ( ) is reduced by • Stage 4: Then comes the receiver. net. Ltd. installation and trouble shooter of a TMA manufacturer" (http:/ / www. .short connecting cable (stage 1) . [5] Conner.receiver (stage 4) • Stage 1: By using the shortest. London: John Wiley & Sons. Noise (2nd ed. ISBN 0-7131-3459-3 [6] Saunders. Wacker. The first stage after the antenna is actually the connecting cable. London: John Wiley & Sons. is nearly one. powerwave. the closer is to zero and the more will increase. that is when the TMA comes into use. "Product description of a TMA manufacturer" (http:/ / www. .. Typical receiver with TMA It is a chain of 4 modules: antenna . ADC. the noise figure is now: is low . and from the second cable. com/ tma. asp). • Stage 2: The TMA of noise figure and gain . net/ Library/ Techpub/ 75177. ISBN 0-471-48653-1 "TV distortion cause by too strong received signals" (http:/ / abc. Radio Network Planning and Optimisation for UMTS.R. the TMA. Since the element is lossy is less than one. Antennas and Propagation for wireless communication systems. the cable losses are now negligible and do not significantly affect the system noise figure. . Updating the Friis formula with this case.

may it be prepaid or postpaid. Transatel is the technical service provider of either the MNO or the MVNO according to their choice. from 6 to 24 months. • MVNA (Aggregator) : the MVNA purchases mobile airtime in bulk form the partner mobile operator. Activity As an MVNO. adds its service platform and wholesales this airtime to multiple MVNOs.).Tower Mounted Amplifier 346 External links • TMA test equipment (http://www.transatel. who each in turn sells the mobile service to end . in France. • LeFrenchMobile is a mobile phone service for foreign visitors coming to France for a short period of time.tmworld.transatel-solutions. On top of managing several MVNOs. with SIP services. Luxembourg. with headquarters in Paris and offices in London. B2C.com [2] . which awards the innovation policy of IT companies. the company has positioned itself on the MVNE market in Europe.. Easyborder. for all kinds of MVNOs (postpaid. prepaid.com [3] Transatel is a pan-European company founded in August 2000. Switzerland and Benelux. with services.com/article/CA221314. CEO MVNO (Easypass. Transatel proposes different mobile telephony offers in Belgium.html) Transatel Transatel Type Industry Founded Private Mobile telecommunications 2000 Headquarters 22 Place des Vosges 92979 Paris La Défense France Key people Products Revenue Employees Website Jacques Bonifay [1] . As an MVNE. and in the Netherlands. including the OSEO-DeloitteTechnology Fast 50 for the Paris region in 2007[4] . • Phonethic is a charity mobile phone offer available in Belgium. Brussels. documentation and customer service in Japanese. in Luxembourg and in the Netherlands: • The multi-country offers are dedicated to frequent travelers and inhabitants of the border area in France. www.. B2B. born from a partnership between 4 NGOs and Transatel. Transatel works with companies wanting to launch a mobile virtual network operators (MVNO) under their own brand. The MVNE activity is divided into two categories: • MVNE ASP (Application Service Provider): the MVNO signs a contract for purchasing airtime with the MNO. Transatel won several prizes in France. • Eurokeitai is an offer for the Japanese community in France. Equilibre) and MVNE 13 million EUR (2010) estimation 80 (2011) www.

Tri-cell was invented by the company Trisent [1] Communication Ltd.com) Tri-cell Tri-cell is one of several location based services technologies that are used to locate or track the location of a mobile phone.com) • Transatel. rated billing and voice/data services. transatel. The first mobile operator dedicated to crossborder workers and frequent travellers (http://www. transatel-mobile. com [4] "Transatel. based on cloud-based services. Tri-cell makes a number of measurements within the phone and sends these measurements to a central server that uses a hybrid of methods to calculate the location of the phone on a continuous basis. As an MVNA. In 2011. Transatel entered the M2M (Machine-to-Machine) market. 347 References [1] http:/ / www.Transatel users. fr/ a_la_une/ actualites/ transatel_primee_par_oseo_au_deloitte_technology_fast_50_de_2007). com . com/ fr-abonnement-equipe. transatel.transatel-m2m. com [3] http:/ / www. Oseo. References [1] http:/ / www. html [2] http:/ / www.fr (French).transatel-solutions.transatel. oseo. Transatel provides provisionning services. trisent.com) • Transatel solutions (Activities : MVNE and MVNA) (http://www. External links • Transatel – Corporate website (http://www. Other technologies include TDOA and AGPS. transatel-solutions. reusing its MVNE infrastructure across Europe to provide M2M services with similar business models. primée par OSEO au Deloitte Technology Fast 50 de 2007" (http:/ / www. The Business Model for the MVNE activity.com) • Transatel M2M (http://www.

org/ public_html/ Specs/ SC. References [1] 3GPP2 SC. The reason the UIMID is transmitted instead of the ESN is because the R-UIM contains the MIN or IMSI and devices such as the HLR running the ANSI-41 mobility management protocol insist on a static association between these identifiers.org/standards/resources/esn/) • CDMA Development Group MEID and EUIMID resource page (http://www. May.org/meid) . 3gpp2. It is given a different name to avoid confusion with the hardware ESN stored in the phone. The HLR will store the MIN or IMSI alongside the ESN in each record. The replacement identifier is EUIMID although for backwards compatibility a pseudo-UIMID (pUIMID) is still retained in cards. UIMID codes are allocated by the TIA using industry-defined guidelines and with codes that have been transferred from the ESN administrator (also the TIA). pUIMID codes are not unique as there are only 224 of them and many times more EUIMID codes.0.UIMID 348 UIMID A UIMID (user identity module identifier) is a 32-bit Electronic Serial Number (ESN) stored in a R-UIM or CSIM ('smart card') used for TDMA or CDMA2000 phones (mainly the latter). and if an ANSI-41 message is received containing a different pair it will be rejected. pdf) External links • Official TIA Resource Page for ESN and UIMID (http://www.R4004-0. 2010. In all known systems the UIMID displaces the ESN in signaling (based on the 'UsgInd' field stored in the R-UIM). User Identification Module ID Manufacturer’s Code Assignment Guidelines and Procedures (http:/ / www. Version 2.[1] ESN and UIMID codes were exhausted by late 2008 at which point only reclaimed codes could be assigned to manufacturers including portions of blocks assigned to manufacturers but never used and portions used for technologies other than CDMA2000. 2010. 0_UIM_ID_Guidelines. The pUIMID is composed of the prefix 0x80 to make it distinct from unique UIMID codes and a 24-bit SHA-1 hash of the EUIMID. The TIA stopped accepting applications for UIMID blocks on June 30. Because the UIMID is allocated from the same numbering space as ESN this is transparent to the network.cdg.tiaonline. R4004-0_v2.

the user is also given the option to receive a free call-connect via a VOIP bridge. SMS. They generate revenue via a pay-per-call model. serving close to a billion ads per month. com/ 4x4/ radio/ uhi_harness. Siemens AG. Multi-Handset Interface (MHI) is the US sales name for UHI. urbanup. aka SMS. gif Upsnap UpSNAP is the name of both a mobile-oriented search engine and the company that runs the search engine. The mobile phone is placed in a cradle connected to a telephone network unit and operated using the buttons on the multi-function steering wheel. com/ 1502912 . shtml) [2] Mercedes UHI and MHI Phone Cradles (http:/ / www. UpSNAP is the #1 direct response advertising network on mobile phones. com/ uhicradles. The company employs an intelligent query search engine to process text queries sent to the number 2SNAP (27627) and quickly returns the relevant info that the user has requested in text form. video and WAP traffic via pay per call. With the ability to deliver content and advertising solutions to all US Mobile Devices. mercupgrades. With 4-1-1 directory queries. whnet.[1] There are a large number of different cradles now available for various phones[2] . UpSNAP’s multi-modal ad platform drives performance from voice. a Motorola operating system which also allows SMS messages to be read and edited on the existing dashboard display. Products from Motorola for both pedestrians and drivers-users (http:/ / www. analogous to the pay-per-click model of internet search. Sony Ericsson. com/ exhibition/ cebit-motorola-en. External links • UpSNAP Mobile search and 411 info services [1] • Urban Dictionary definition of UpSNAP [2] References [1] http:/ / upsnap. The hands-free capability uses the car's on-board audio system and a microphone located underneath the interior roof light[3] .Universal Handy Interface 349 Universal Handy Interface Universal Handy Interface (UHI) is a Motorola designed universal interface for mobile phone use (Motorola. com [2] http:/ / upsnap. UpSNAP developed a patented method of accepting queries and producing results via text messaging. shtml) [3] http:/ / www. Nokia. Samsung) in Mercedes-Benz cars. References [1] Mobile-review. It is controlled by COMAND.com CeBIT 2003. mobile-review.

The first phase (also called Phase 1) involves sharing a simple peer-to-peer. and either the sender or recipient in a video share session can terminate the session at any time. but not synchronized to a circuit switch voice call.279 and 3GPP TS 24. unless the headset is in place. This concept is described in the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) specification documents 3GPP TS 22. one-way video stream in conjunction with. The second phase (also called Phase 2) introduces the Video Share Application Server in the solution and supports more complex features and capabilities. AT&T [3] (formerly Cingular) is one of mobile operators who have deployed the Video Share service nationwide. The Video Share Client will drop a VS session when the handset transitions from UMTS to GSM during the session. After a voice call is established. meaning that the service combines a circuit switch voice call with a packet switch multimedia session. There can be multiple video streaming sessions during a voice call. Both users will have the ability initiate a video share session. GSM Association has split the Video Share service definition [2] into 2 distinct phases. Video Share is also referred to by other names such as See What I See and Rich Voice Call.279. Any of the parties on the voice call can initiate a video streaming session. . the recipient can choose to reject the streamed video. Video share is initiated from within a voice call. In this scenario. As part of the VS invitation. Video Share is supported only in UMTS and EDGE (with DTM) networks. and integration of video share with instant messaging. The CS voice call will remain connected. It is not supported in a GPRS or a CDMA network. 3GPP TS 23. The default behavior is that the receiving handset will automatically go to speakerphone mode when video is received. In the industry. The video source can either be the camera on the phone or a pre-recorded video clip. The Video Share service requires a 3GPP compliant IMS core system. either party (calling or called) can start a Video Share (VS) session. video streaming to a web portal. such as point-to-multipoint video share calls.279. and each of these streaming sessions can be initiated by any of the parties on the voice call. The Video Share service [1] is defined by the GSM Association (GSMA). It is intended that both sender and receiver will receive feedback when the other party terminates a session or the link drops due to lack of coverage. It is often referred to as a Combinational Service. The sender will be able to see what is being streamed on their handset.Video share 350 Video share Video Share is an IP Multimedia System (IMS) enabled service for mobile networks that allows users engaged in a circuit switch voice call to add a unidirectional video streaming session over the packet network during the voice call. the sender can “narrate” over the CS audio connection while both parties view the video. along with the receiving User. The sending User is then able to stream one-way live or recorded video.

In a Video Call. Push-to-Video (P2video or PTV). Some European operators offered commercial services based on these phones already in 2005. where a video clip recorded on the phone (or resident in the network) can be shared between two parties – something not delivered in a typical Video Call implementation. 3. . Differences between video share and video call Video Share is sometimes confused with traditional two-way Video Call service. Phase 1 of the Video Share project built on and leveraged the results from the SIP trials. the intent is known upfront. Service definition for the first phase of the Video Share project was completed in September/October 2006. During the SIP trials. Splitting the screen into Picture-in-Picture (in order to display both sending and received video streams) significantly degrades the Video Call user experience on a mobile phone (Video Call with Picture-in-Picture is effective in corporate applications such as video conferencing where a large screen is used).. Display screen on a mobile phone has limited real estate. Video Calling has historically been “I see you. Video Call involves simultaneous two-way Video and Audio transmission between the 2 parties (from start to finish). Subsequently. There are other subtle differences between the two services as far as the user experience is concerned: 1. and depending on the conversation. On the other hand. Mobile operators worldwide. it may lead to one party sharing something with the other party while they talk about it (e. webcam). a video clip of kids). whereas Video Share involves adding and removing one or more one-way Video sessions to an existing voice call between the 2 parties. Parties on the call are fully aware that they are involved in a video call. etc. and the length of the video is tied to the length of the voice call. A 3-4 minute voice call may involve a minute of Video Sharing. Rich Voice Call. videophone. you see me” type of service where the camera is pointed at the parties on the call (eg. GSMA decided to create a separate project for Video Share. The camera on the sender’s mobile phone is usually pointed at some object or activity that he/she wants to share with the recipient.g. This was a proprietary solution on top of a SIP or IMS infrastructure. By contrast. 2. The GSMA Video Share service [2] was originally defined. implemented and tested during the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) trials conducted by the GSM Association in 2005/2006. the snow outside. Phase 2 of the GSMA Video Share project was kicked off in May/June 2007 and is currently in progress.Video share 351 History Peer-to-peer video sharing was introduced by Nokia phones first in 2004. a new car. have deployed the Video Share service [6] based on the Phase 1 service definition. such as AT&T. Similar services popped under the names of See What I See. a Video Sharing session starts as a normal voice conversation. the Video Share service used to demonstrate IMS interworking over SIP [4] . Video Share was also tested on the IPX [5] to prove that the service might become universally available in the future. An interoperability technical reference specification for Video Share [7] is also available from GSMA. The caller initiates the call as a Video Call. Extensions to Video Share include Video Clip Sharing. Video Sharing has no privacy implications for the recipient since the sharing of video is one-way.

Linux. The called party has the option to accept or reject a video stream at the start of the session . A user’s subscription is usually bound to their smart card (ISIM/USIM) such that the Video Share service is portable in the sense that the user may be able to send and receive video share on any capable handset. including the codecs supported • Display icon indicating the capability status of the other device (that is. IP Packet Exchange (IPX) proxies may be part of this infrastructure to allow interconnection between operators and to provide a collection point for session accounting records used for inter-operator traffic charging. the Video Share Client is implemented as a native application running on mobile operating systems such as Windows Mobile. Functionality supported by a GSMA Video Share Client includes: • Registration.Video share 352 Architecture The Phase 2 Video Share solution consists of a Client Application running on mobile handsets and an Application Server deployed in the mobile network. The Phase 1 Video Share architecture does not include an Application Server. and proprietary RTOS.e. The Video Share service uses the standard IMS Core infrastructure to transmit signaling and media traffic. Authentication and Video Share initiation • IMS registration upon power up using IMS access credentials stored in the ISIM/USIM • Video Share Capability Exchange prior to the initiation of a video share call using SIP. Typically. i. media is transferred directly between the terminals. whether the other device is VS capable or not) • Ability for the user to start and stop a VS session. VS-compliant handsets contain an ISIM/USIM properly provisioned with IMS public/private identities and access credentials. and RTP/RTCP is used for video transmission. Video Share Client The Video Share (VS) Client is a software application running on the mobile handset. SIP is used for call control and signaling. The Video Share Client supports SIP and RTP/RTCP transmission. Symbian.

Wi-Fi or both) Time-sensitive promotional period (peak. 353 Video Share Application Server The Video Share Application Server is an IMS Application Server that interfaces with the S-CSCF network element in the IMS network through the 3GPP-defined ISC interface. Video Share session control policies. NMS Communications [13]. LG [16]. (b) video transcoding. Operator-defined subscriber and service policies can be enforced even if a subscriber has modified the policy on his/her handset. such as the following. and for enforcing service policies such as admission control and registration control. RADVISION [19]. The Video Share Application Server typically runs on a carrier grade fault tolerant hardware platform. The Application Server provides a central point for service control. In some cases.Nokia [9]. Aylus Networks [17]. The Application Server makes it possible to support a range . The Application Server supports the SIP Back-to-Back User Agent (B2BUA) call control architecture that enables service policy control and enforcement capabilities of the video share session. or during session establishment by ensuring that the policy on the handset matches the operator-defined policy stored on the Server. Support for other codecs is desired but optional • Support for H263-2000 RTP payload format • Support for RTCP sender and receiver reports Vendors providing Video Share clients based on the GSMA service definition include: Alcatel Lucent [8]. Policies can be enforced by the Server in real time. Samsung [12]. this might require overwriting the policy on the handset with that on the Server. provisioning and configuration in the network. can be applied: • Call Termination • Call Barring • Call Gapping • Video Stream Quality Enforcement • Support for point-to-multipoint video share sessions by setting up multiple legs for a video share session • Enable interoperability between different clients/endpoint devices by providing client normalization functions such as (a) protocol conversion. receive-only or both) • Once these trigger conditions are met. and (c) rate adaptation • Enhanced charging capabilities. Ecrio Inc [14]. Sony Ericsson [15] . Functionality supported by the Video Share Application Server includes: • Video Share Service Control. The Application Server can be configured to include parameters in the charging records that are specific to the Video Share service. off-peak or promotional time period) IMSI or Public User Identifier (PUID) of calling or called user Location area of calling or called user Mobile originating or mobile terminating direction (send-only. PicoMobile (Marvell) [11]. A server-based application server will enforce access control and charging policies based on the following triggers: • • • • • • • • Inbound roaming access (mobile originating subscriber requests session from a visited network) Outbound roaming access (session request to a mobile terminating subscriber located in visited network) Home network access Access network type (UMTS. Motorola [10]. Comneon GmbH [18].Video share • Usability • Privacy policies that allow users to block other users from performing a Capability Exchange with their device and/or streaming video to their device • Ability for either a transmitting or receiving device to terminate a VS session at any point during the session • Ability for both transmitting and receiving devices to display the video that is being streamed • Codec Support • H.263 Profile 0 (Level 10).

PUID. and failed 2. thereby making it possible to conduct a real time Video Share session with a PC user using a web browser. • Detailed Statistics including: 1. Date. From and To header information. Connection Packet Loss – data obtained from RTCP sender and receiver reports received from the two video sharing client endpoints 2. etc. Session statistics including those established. Active Call Detail information including Time.Video share of charging plans. Service Description The basic steps involved in setting up and tearing down a Video Share session are as follows: • • • • • • Circuit Switch Call Setup Capability Query Invitation Procedure Video Transmission Teardown of Video Session Teardown of Circuit Switch Call . Contact Address. Media Stream Quality Statistics 1. User registration statistics including those registered. Aylus Networks [20] [17] 354 provides a Video Share Application Server with advanced features and capabilities. de-registered. registration rejected 3. • Ability to record and store the streamed video on a network based Video Share Storage. 4. terminated. Solaiemes sells a customizable Application Server that can be integrated by 3rd parties in enterprise and vertical markets. initiated. Jitter and Delay Statistics – data from RTCP sender and receiver reports received from the two video sharing client endpoints • Capability Exchange caching and optimization • Support for non-3G device endpoints such as a Web Portal. • Redirection of Video Share session to different endpoints based on configured service policies.

The Application Server is integrated into the operator’s IMS Core network. In the case of a Web Portal based Video Share session. After the Video Share session has been set up. Deployment Options There are multiple options for deploying the Video Share service. This is performed with the SIP OPTIONS method. • Option 2: The solution is deployed as a hosted service by a third party. Both handsets can perform this capability exchange. • Option 1: The solution is deployed in the mobile operator’s IMS network. transmission of the actual video can begin. and sign up for the service with the third party. independent of the mobile operator. The next step is the Capability Exchange in which the other handset is queried to determine if the recipient is capable of supporting a Video Share session. the session will be torn down (using RTCP BYE) and the SIP session stopped (using SIP BYE). Users sign up for the service through the operator. the video is streamed to the Portal instead of User B. The video transport is augmented by a control protocol (RTCP) to allow monitoring of the data delivery using RTCP RR (Receiver Report) and RTCP SR (Sender Report) packets. Users download the Video Share client from the third party using a well established handset application download procedure. Video is sent between Video Share clients using RTP (Real-Time Transport Protocol). After these steps the Circuit Switch voice call session still exists. The Video Share session is initiated by sending a SIP INVITE message to the called party.Video share 355 The Video Share session begins with Circuit Switch call between User A and User B. When either party decides to stop the Video Share session. and accessed using a PC with a web browser. Video Share clients are pre-loaded on selected handsets by the operator. . which is widely used in internet and mobile communities for video streaming.

motorola. aylus. com [15] http:/ / www. jsp) AT&T FAQ for Video Share (http:/ / www. com [11] http:/ / www. com/ learn/ messaging-internet/ media-entertainment/ video-share-faqs. radvision. gsmworld. lge. com/ sip/ e2e/ videoshare. pdf) Video Share Definition 2. gsmworld. pdf) IR. comneon. gsmworld. com [9] http:/ / www. gsmworld. com [10] http:/ / www. 27 March 2007 http:/ / www. GSMA Document.74 Video Share Interoperability Specification 1. nmscommunications. com [14] http:/ / www. com/ documents/ ir7412. alcatel-lucent. com [19] http:/ / www. pdf) The GSMA's SIP Trials. com [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] . 15 February 2006 (http:/ / www. com [16] http:/ / www. com [13] http:/ / www. wireless. com/ documents/ services/ se41. ecrio. com/ news/ press_2006/ press06_18. GSMA Document. gsmworld. shtml) GSMA Press Release on video share trials. att. picomobile. nokia.Video share 356 References http:/ / www. com [18] http:/ / www. com/ sip/ sip_trial_guide. com/ Products/ Developer/ Clients/ VideoShare/ [20] http:/ / www. com [17] http:/ / www. wireless. September 2008 [8] http:/ / www. February 2007 (http:/ / www. net/ [12] http:/ / www. samsung. solaiemes. jsp (http:/ / www.0. att.2. shtml (http:/ / www. com/ learn/ messaging-internet/ media-entertainment/ attvideoshare. sonyericsson.

The device-only implementation is server-based as to avoid network related interruptions and delays.0 VoiceMode 2. VoiceMode provides an easy alternative to multi-tap. .php. rather than creating messages using the keypad of most mobile devices. continuous dictation running entirely embedded in the mobile device.VoiceMode 357 VoiceMode VoiceMode Developer(s) VoiceSignal Technologies Stable release 2. and calendar appointments.voicesignal. VoiceMode 2. It allows users to dictate a messages into their mobile device. VoiceMode 2. is a speech-to-text (dictation) application that runs on a mobile phone.0 / 5 April 2006 Type License Website Automatic speech-to-text Proprietary VoiceSignal Technologies Website [1] VoiceMode.0 is fairly accurate and can be used to input text into applications running on most mobile devices including email. References [1] http:/ / voicesignal.com/solutions/voicemode.0 delivers true large vocabulary. Small Footprint It is designed specifically for the limited memory of mass market phones. T-9 or other text creation input methods.com • http://www. com/ .voicesignal. VoiceMode 2. by VoiceSignal. IM.VoiceMode 2.0 is compact and handset manufacturers often deploy it in all phone segments.0 flash demo. Other VoiceSignal Products • VSpeak • VSuite • VSearch External links • http://www. SMS.

Hand-set terminal by Net Index. though its PHS network is due to be phased out this year. • WS009KE / 9(nine) Hand-set terminal by KES. The W-SIM core module is an extended version of a SIM card. • WS004SH / W-ZERO3 Hand-set terminal(smartphone) by Sharp. a GSM version called the CM-G100 had been developed for use in other countries. in addition to standard SIM functions. containing not only user data but also all the transmission technology needed for a mobile device to work. built inside. Similar to traditional handsets made by WILLCOM. including global roaming with Taiwan and Thailand. China Netcom had W-SIMs available. A terminal device developer can build a customized terminal without the design and development of a radio module. • WS003SH / W-ZERO3 Hand-set terminal(smartphone) by Sharp. • WS002IN / "DD" Data communication terminal by Net Index. In addition. which do not have radio modules. For Mainland China. . W-SIM terminals can be used in Japan. Stylish and slender version of W-ZERO3. also has the core components of a cellular telephone (PHS). and users can change to a different radio module W-SIM without changing the terminal itself. Higher-spec version of WS003SH. such as the radio receiver/transmitter. • WS008HA / WS008HA ExpressCard data communication terminal by Hagiwara Sys-Com. • WS007SH / W-ZERO3 [es] Hand-set terminal(smartphone) by Sharp. It is currently used in some terminals (listed below). W-SIM ( RX420AL) WILLCOM branded terminals • WS001IN / "TT" Hand-set terminal by Net Index. • WS005IN / nico.W-SIM 358 W-SIM W-SIM (Willcom-SIM) is a SIM card developed by Willcom which.

These are usually broadcast from X10 cameras in major cities from traffic cameras. willcom-inc. . although longer ranges are possible with directional antennas. This is a set of international frequency allocations that are intended for a number of public uses. html http:/ / www. The internal code is WS006. External links • • • • • Willcom Inc. War Viewers will usually mount an external omni-directional antenna to a vehicle to extend the limited range of reception (much like War Drivers do). jp/ ws/ special/ index.'s page [1] Engadget entry [2] TT Phone [3] DD "Data Driver" [4] Sharp W-Zero3 PDA phone [5] References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] http:/ / www.4 GHz allocation is predominantly used for wireless cameras. engadget. but the 2.W-SIM 359 Terminals branded by other than WILLCOM • Kids Ke-tai papipo! Hand-set terminal by Bandai. WarViewing is derived from the term WarDriving (where people drive around with Wi-Fi equipment and look for wireless computer networks) which was originally derived from Wardialing (an outdated practice where people would use a modem to brute-force dial phone numbers searching for other computer modems which would answer). sharp. com/ entry/ 1234000207064450/ http:/ / www. co.4 GHz license WARspyla. or locally owned shops. com/ ja/ lineup/ rx/ 410in/ http:/ / www. lobbies.4 GHz video feeds. War viewing involves travelling around either in a vehicle or on foot and using a video receiver and screen to view transmissions (usually) in the 2. com/ ja/ lineup/ ws/ 001in/ index. higher quality equipment or particularly favourable conditions. willcom-inc. com/ ja/ lineup/ ws/ 002in/ http:/ / www.com's Warviewing box free ISM band. html WarViewing WarViewing (also known as War Watching and Warspying) is the sport and hunt for unprotected 2. willcom-inc. Expected ranges in an urban environment can be from as little as a few metres up to about 50 metres. home video senders and Wi-Fi computer networks.

an LCD screen.0 platform. and a mobile service powered by the said technology. Finds can include wireless covert surveillance cameras. X10 cameras. then sometimes a directional antenna like a patch antenna or yagi antenna is used to try and pinpoint the exact location of a transmitter.[2] The current version as of May 2008 is version 2. lead to Nokia admitting that WidSets isn't developed any longer. it is both a widget engine and a widget deployment service where mini-applications called widgets can be uploaded to WidSets servers to be compiled and then automatically deployed to MIDP 2. and was regarded as a mobile counterpart to Netvibes. based on the Java MIDP 2.on a wide variety of mobile phones. it is not illegal in the UK to receive them even if they are not intended for you.[3] Example widgets include currency converters.[1] Widsets is a combined application and service that is similar to what a Widget does on a desktop PC . and was told that Widsets was part of Ovi. Widsets like widgets. it worked on all Java MIDP 2. etc. If war viewing is done on foot. The Register asked Nokia about the status of WidSets in June 2009. and sometimes a signal booster. generally rely on some kind of web service to provide information to the user. WidSets was officially launched on October 2006. including non-Nokia ones. TV senders. The widgets are created using Extensible Markup Language (XML). Widsets are micro-applications intended to perform a single function. CCTV cameras. Further inquiries. Wi-Fi networks currently share approximately the same frequency band as the video transmissions. however. A warspyer uses a 2. which means that the antennas used are interchangeable.0 phones. com/ forum/ forum/ ?action=picasagallerybrowser& album=WarySpyingBox WidSets WidSets is a mobile runtime technology. com/ systm/ warspyingbox/ [3] http:/ / deauththis.Com's Warspying Box [3] References [1] http:/ / www.0 for both the client and the SDK.0. Cascading Style Sheets (CSS).4 GHz video receiver is usually used to see what video transmissions there are out there. 360 External links • WARspy Los Angeles [1] • Building a Warspying Box [2] • DeAuthThis. As the video signals are broadcast in a license free ISM band. com/ [2] http:/ / revision3.0 compliant mobile phones running the WidSets client software. .4 GHz video receiver. news headlines retrievers and weather forecast information. from the Finnish mobile company Nokia. and Helium scripting language. warspyla. and to cut down on interference. home video senders.WarViewing A small screen and openly available 2. a battery.

nokia.Europe (http://europe. The Register.0: Nokia launches WidSets (http:/ / radar. uk/ 2009/ 06/ 30/ widsets_killed/ print.com/A4361262) • Mobilise your Web with WidSets . trends analysis made within an existing customer care center can be applied 'upstream'. . External links • WidSets Official Website (http://www. oreilly. For example. widsets.co. html) [3] Ray. validating and disseminating knowledge.com/) • Mobilise your Web with WidSets .WidSets 361 References [1] WidSets Developer Wiki (http:/ / dev. perhaps within the organisation's product management or retail division to eliminate a troublesome component. "Nokia admits killing off Widsets" (http:/ / www. device manufacturers and service providers as a means of overcoming the negative impact of service and technology complexity on both operating costs and customer/brand loyalty. Because added complexity across mobile technologies coupled with a rise in market competition makes managing the mobile user experience through traditional support channels an increasingly complex and potentially costly business. co. com/ archives/ 2006/ 10/ mobile-20-nokia-launches-widse.widsets. theregister. Bill (2009-07-30). Wireless Informatics supports the notion of using collating.nokia. service etc before the problem erupts and drives a costly spike in support calls. Wireless Informatics 'methodologies' are being adopted by mobile operators. .uk/A4646046) Wireless Informatics Wireless Informatics describes the evolution of traditional customer support practices within the mobile industry from problem management to problem prevention. Retrieved 2009-08-29. best practices and experiences throughout the mobile value-chain as a means of mitigating end-user support requirements.UK (http://www. html). com/ wiki/ Getting_started) [2] Mobile 2.

organized and produced by China management. World Mobile Congress and Mobile World Congress will be marketed. Therefore. In middle 2009. China decided to enhance World Mobile Congress and Mobile World Congress for its long-term international strategy of the China mobile communication industry. promoted.com/ .org/wmc/main.World Mobile Congress 362 World Mobile Congress World Mobile Congress aka Mobile World Congress is a global technology and R&D platform to foster international collaboration in next generation mobile wireless communications. It was founded by Delson Group Inc. Sources • http://delson.org/wwc07/ • http://mobilecongress.htm • http://delson. and now strongly supported by China authority and leading industries.

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