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Enterprise Mobility Management: High-impact Strategies - What You Need to Know: Definitions, Adoptions, Impact, Benefits, Maturity, Vendors

Enterprise Mobility Management: High-impact Strategies - What You Need to Know: Definitions, Adoptions, Impact, Benefits, Maturity, Vendors

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Publicado porEmereo Publishing
Enterprise Mobility Management is the set of people, processes and technology focused on managing the increasing array of mobile devices, wireless networks, and related services. This is an emerging discipline within the enterprise that has become increasingly important over the past few years. According to recent research, subscriber penetration in the US market shows that approximately 85% of the population owns a mobile device. This market is expected to reach 90% penetration in late 2008-2009. By 2012, business mobile users will make up more than 30% of all subscribers in the United States. Just as companies rely on human resource, financial management and CRM software, mobility management software will quickly earn its place in the portfolio of enterprise software solutions. The cost, risks and mission critical nature of mobility has accelerated the pace of sophisticated solutions and weighs heavily on the minds of CIOs.

This book is your ultimate resource for Enterprise Mobility Management. Here you will find the most up-to-date information, analysis, background and everything you need to know.

In easy to read chapters, with extensive references and links to get you to know all there is to know about Enterprise Mobility Management right away, covering: Enterprise Mobility Management, Mobile technology, 2-way iSMS, 2degrees, Access Stratum, Adaptxt, Advanced Wireless Services, AskMeNow, Assisted GPS, Audience (telecom company), Azimuth Systems, Basic Trading Area, Cablefree, CDMA Chipsets, Cel-Fi, Cell of origin (telecommunications), Cell on wheels, Cellular repeater, CIMD, Closed User Group (CUG), Columbitech, Communication Linking Protocol, Context-aware services, Coverage map, DataSplice, DigRF, Drive testing, Dual mode mobile, Dumb pipe, Dynamic Link Adaptation, E-OTD, Electronic Serial Number, EMBARC, EMI (protocol), Enhanced GPS, ERMES, ESME, EUIMID, Face2face, FLEX (protocol), General content descriptor, Generic Bootstrapping Architecture, Matt Gillin, GMLC, GoTV Networks, Handheld television, Handover, Hardlink (homonymy), IControlPad, IDT Spectrum, Image share, Instant message service center, Inter standard roaming, Interference in mobile communications, IP Multimedia Subsystem, Ip.access, IQAN, IST-Plastic, ITap, July Systems, Jumptap, Librestream, List of devices with Assisted GPS, Local number portability, Location awareness, MLearning, Macrocell, Manitoba (computer chip), Microcell, MINDS, Mobify, Mobile Access Protocol, Mobile Alliance Against Child Sexual Abuse Content, Mobile Architecture, Mobile Assisted Language Learning, Mobile collaboration, Mobile commerce, Mobile database, Mobile Enterprise Asset Management, Mobile Equipment Identifier, Mobile IPTV, Mobile network operator, Mobile phone tracking, Mobile radio, Mobile search, Mobile technology in Africa, Mobile Telephone Switching Office, Mobile ticketing, Mobile virtual network operator, Mobile virtual private network, Mobile workflow, Mobile-to-mobile convergence, Mobile.info, Mobispine, Modu, Motorola Pageboy, Motricity, MSRN, MTV-1, Multi-band, Multiuser detection, MVDS, Mxim, Navizon, Near-field magnetic induction communication, NetMotion Wireless, Network on Terminal Architecture, Non Access Stratum, Number Assignment Module, Online charging system, Open Handset Alliance, Optpcs, ORFS, Over-the-air programming, P2000 (network), PacketVideo, Pager, PCS switching center, Peer-to-peer video sharing, Personal Communications Service, Phizzle, Helio Ocean, Picket-fencing, Picocell, Predictive text, Proximity marketing, Public land mobile network, PuppetMaster (application), Push Proxy Gateway, Kamal Quadir, Paul Raden...and much more

This book explains in-depth the real drivers and workings of Enterprise Mobility Management. It reduces the risk of your technology, time and resources investment decisions by enabling you to compare your understanding of Enterprise Mobility Management with the objectivity of experienced professionals.
Enterprise Mobility Management is the set of people, processes and technology focused on managing the increasing array of mobile devices, wireless networks, and related services. This is an emerging discipline within the enterprise that has become increasingly important over the past few years. According to recent research, subscriber penetration in the US market shows that approximately 85% of the population owns a mobile device. This market is expected to reach 90% penetration in late 2008-2009. By 2012, business mobile users will make up more than 30% of all subscribers in the United States. Just as companies rely on human resource, financial management and CRM software, mobility management software will quickly earn its place in the portfolio of enterprise software solutions. The cost, risks and mission critical nature of mobility has accelerated the pace of sophisticated solutions and weighs heavily on the minds of CIOs.

This book is your ultimate resource for Enterprise Mobility Management. Here you will find the most up-to-date information, analysis, background and everything you need to know.

In easy to read chapters, with extensive references and links to get you to know all there is to know about Enterprise Mobility Management right away, covering: Enterprise Mobility Management, Mobile technology, 2-way iSMS, 2degrees, Access Stratum, Adaptxt, Advanced Wireless Services, AskMeNow, Assisted GPS, Audience (telecom company), Azimuth Systems, Basic Trading Area, Cablefree, CDMA Chipsets, Cel-Fi, Cell of origin (telecommunications), Cell on wheels, Cellular repeater, CIMD, Closed User Group (CUG), Columbitech, Communication Linking Protocol, Context-aware services, Coverage map, DataSplice, DigRF, Drive testing, Dual mode mobile, Dumb pipe, Dynamic Link Adaptation, E-OTD, Electronic Serial Number, EMBARC, EMI (protocol), Enhanced GPS, ERMES, ESME, EUIMID, Face2face, FLEX (protocol), General content descriptor, Generic Bootstrapping Architecture, Matt Gillin, GMLC, GoTV Networks, Handheld television, Handover, Hardlink (homonymy), IControlPad, IDT Spectrum, Image share, Instant message service center, Inter standard roaming, Interference in mobile communications, IP Multimedia Subsystem, Ip.access, IQAN, IST-Plastic, ITap, July Systems, Jumptap, Librestream, List of devices with Assisted GPS, Local number portability, Location awareness, MLearning, Macrocell, Manitoba (computer chip), Microcell, MINDS, Mobify, Mobile Access Protocol, Mobile Alliance Against Child Sexual Abuse Content, Mobile Architecture, Mobile Assisted Language Learning, Mobile collaboration, Mobile commerce, Mobile database, Mobile Enterprise Asset Management, Mobile Equipment Identifier, Mobile IPTV, Mobile network operator, Mobile phone tracking, Mobile radio, Mobile search, Mobile technology in Africa, Mobile Telephone Switching Office, Mobile ticketing, Mobile virtual network operator, Mobile virtual private network, Mobile workflow, Mobile-to-mobile convergence, Mobile.info, Mobispine, Modu, Motorola Pageboy, Motricity, MSRN, MTV-1, Multi-band, Multiuser detection, MVDS, Mxim, Navizon, Near-field magnetic induction communication, NetMotion Wireless, Network on Terminal Architecture, Non Access Stratum, Number Assignment Module, Online charging system, Open Handset Alliance, Optpcs, ORFS, Over-the-air programming, P2000 (network), PacketVideo, Pager, PCS switching center, Peer-to-peer video sharing, Personal Communications Service, Phizzle, Helio Ocean, Picket-fencing, Picocell, Predictive text, Proximity marketing, Public land mobile network, PuppetMaster (application), Push Proxy Gateway, Kamal Quadir, Paul Raden...and much more

This book explains in-depth the real drivers and workings of Enterprise Mobility Management. It reduces the risk of your technology, time and resources investment decisions by enabling you to compare your understanding of Enterprise Mobility Management with the objectivity of experienced professionals.

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10/31/2014

Sections

  • Enterprise Mobility Management
  • Mobile technology
  • 2-way iSMS
  • 2degrees
  • Access Stratum
  • Adaptxt
  • Advanced Wireless Services
  • AskMeNow
  • Assisted GPS
  • Audience (telecom company)
  • Azimuth Systems
  • Basic Trading Area
  • Basic Trading Area MTA
  • Cablefree
  • CDMA Chipsets
  • Cel-Fi
  • Cell of origin (telecommunications)
  • Cell on wheels
  • Cellular repeater
  • CIMD
  • Closed User Group (CUG)
  • Columbitech
  • Communication Linking Protocol
  • Context-aware services
  • Coverage map
  • DataSplice
  • DigRF
  • Drive testing
  • Dual mode mobile
  • Dumb pipe
  • Dynamic Link Adaptation
  • E-OTD
  • Electronic Serial Number
  • EMBARC
  • EMI (protocol)
  • Enhanced GPS
  • ERMES
  • ESME
  • EUIMID
  • face2face
  • FLEX (protocol)
  • General content descriptor
  • Generic Bootstrapping Architecture
  • Matt Gillin
  • GMLC
  • GoTV Networks
  • Handheld television
  • Handover
  • Hardlink (homonymy)
  • iControlPad
  • IDT Spectrum
  • Image share
  • Instant message service center
  • Inter standard roaming
  • Interference in mobile communications
  • interference in mobile communications
  • IP Multimedia Subsystem
  • ip.access
  • IQAN
  • IST-Plastic
  • iTap
  • July Systems
  • Jumptap
  • Librestream
  • List of devices with Assisted GPS
  • List of devices with Assisted GPS:
  • Local number portability
  • Location awareness
  • MLearning
  • Macrocell
  • Manitoba (computer chip)
  • Microcell
  • MINDS
  • Mobify
  • Mobile Access Protocol
  • Mobile Alliance Against Child Sexual Abuse Content
  • Mobile Architecture
  • Mobile Assisted Language Learning
  • Mobile collaboration
  • Mobile commerce
  • Mobile database
  • Mobile Enterprise Asset Management
  • Mobile Equipment Identifier
  • Mobile IPTV
  • Mobile network operator
  • Mobile phone tracking
  • Mobile radio
  • Mobile search
  • Mobile technology in Africa
  • Mobile Telephone Switching Office
  • Mobile ticketing
  • Mobile virtual network operator
  • Mobile virtual private network
  • Mobile workflow
  • Mobile-to-mobile convergence
  • Mobile.info
  • Mobispine
  • modu
  • Motorola Pageboy
  • Motricity
  • MSRN
  • MTV-1
  • Multi-band
  • Multiuser detection
  • MVDS
  • Mxim
  • Navizon
  • Near-field magnetic induction communication
  • NetMotion Wireless
  • Network on Terminal Architecture
  • Non Access Stratum
  • Number Assignment Module
  • Online charging system
  • Open Handset Alliance
  • Optpcs
  • ORFS
  • Over-the-air programming
  • P2000 (network)
  • PacketVideo
  • Pager
  • PCS switching center
  • Peer-to-peer video sharing
  • Personal Communications Service
  • Phizzle
  • Helio Ocean
  • Picket-fencing
  • Picocell
  • Predictive text
  • Proximity marketing
  • Public land mobile network
  • PuppetMaster (application)
  • Push Proxy Gateway
  • Kamal Quadir
  • Paul Raden
  • Radio Interface Layer
  • ReCellular, Inc
  • ReFLEX
  • REVIVAL Mobile Management Suite
  • Rich Communication Suite
  • RingGo
  • Roaming
  • RTMI
  • Rxqual
  • S-GPS
  • SEVEN Networks
  • Sha-Mail
  • ShapeWriter
  • Short code
  • Short message peer-to-peer protocol
  • Short message service center
  • Signal strength
  • SlideIT
  • Smart pipe
  • SMS banking
  • SMS hubbing
  • SMS spoofing
  • Social positioning method
  • Soft handover
  • Solaris Mobile
  • Sony Watchman
  • Swype
  • Syclo
  • T9 (predictive text)
  • Taptu
  • Technology and mental health issues
  • Telelocator Alphanumeric Protocol
  • Tethering
  • Thumbcast
  • TouchPal
  • Tower Mounted Amplifier
  • Transatel
  • Transatel
  • Tri-cell
  • UIMID
  • Universal Handy Interface
  • Upsnap
  • Video share
  • VoiceMode
  • W-SIM
  • WarViewing
  • WidSets
  • Wireless Informatics
  • World Mobile Congress
  • Article Sources and Contributors
  • Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
  • License

Enterprise Mobility Management

IN-DEPTH: THE REAL DRIVERS AND
WORKINGS

Kevin Roebuck

REDUCES THE RISK OF YOUR TECHNOLOGY, TIME AND RESOURCES
INVESTMENT DECISIONS

ENABLING YOU TO COMPARE YOUR
UNDERSTANDING WITH THE OBJECTIVITY OF EXPERIENCED PROFESSIONALS

High-impact Strategies - What You Need to Know: Definitions, Adoptions, Impact, Benefits, Maturity, Vendors

Topic relevant selected content from the highest rated entries, typeset, printed and shipped. Combine the advantages of up-to-date and in-depth knowledge with the convenience of printed books. A portion of the proceeds of each book will be donated to the Wikimedia Foundation to support their mission: to empower and engage people around the world to collect and develop educational content under a free license or in the public domain, and to disseminate it effectively and globally. The content within this book was generated collaboratively by volunteers. Please be advised that nothing found here has necessarily been reviewed by people with the expertise required to provide you with complete, accurate or reliable information. Some information in this book maybe misleading or simply wrong. The publisher does not guarantee the validity of the information found here. If you need specific advice (for example, medical, legal, financial, or risk management) please seek a professional who is licensed or knowledgeable in that area. Sources, licenses and contributors of the articles and images are listed in the section entitled “References”. Parts of the books may be licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. A copy of this license is included in the section entitled “GNU Free Documentation License” All used third-party trademarks belong to their respective owners.

Contents
Articles
Enterprise Mobility Management Mobile technology 2-way iSMS 2degrees Access Stratum Adaptxt Advanced Wireless Services AskMeNow Assisted GPS Audience (telecom company) Azimuth Systems Basic Trading Area Cablefree CDMA Chipsets Cel-Fi Cell of origin (telecommunications) Cell on wheels Cellular repeater CIMD Closed User Group (CUG) Columbitech Communication Linking Protocol Context-aware services Coverage map DataSplice DigRF Drive testing Dual mode mobile Dumb pipe Dynamic Link Adaptation E-OTD Electronic Serial Number EMBARC EMI (protocol) 1 2 4 6 10 10 12 17 18 20 21 22 36 37 37 38 39 41 45 46 47 48 48 49 51 52 53 55 56 57 57 59 60 60

Enhanced GPS ERMES ESME EUIMID face2face FLEX (protocol) General content descriptor Generic Bootstrapping Architecture Matt Gillin GMLC GoTV Networks Handheld television Handover Hardlink (homonymy) iControlPad IDT Spectrum Image share Instant message service center Inter standard roaming Interference in mobile communications IP Multimedia Subsystem ip.access IQAN IST-Plastic iTap July Systems Jumptap Librestream List of devices with Assisted GPS Local number portability Location awareness MLearning Macrocell Manitoba (computer chip) Microcell MINDS Mobify Mobile Access Protocol 62 63 64 64 66 67 68 68 71 73 73 74 75 79 80 84 85 86 87 87 87 98 103 104 107 108 110 112 114 120 131 134 141 141 142 143 145 146 .

info Mobispine modu Motorola Pageboy Motricity MSRN MTV-1 Multi-band Multiuser detection MVDS Mxim Navizon Near-field magnetic induction communication NetMotion Wireless Network on Terminal Architecture Non Access Stratum Number Assignment Module Online charging system 146 147 148 153 155 160 164 166 168 172 172 176 181 187 189 190 199 208 211 212 212 214 215 218 219 221 221 222 223 223 224 225 227 229 232 235 236 236 .Mobile Alliance Against Child Sexual Abuse Content Mobile Architecture Mobile Assisted Language Learning Mobile collaboration Mobile commerce Mobile database Mobile Enterprise Asset Management Mobile Equipment Identifier Mobile IPTV Mobile network operator Mobile phone tracking Mobile radio Mobile search Mobile technology in Africa Mobile Telephone Switching Office Mobile ticketing Mobile virtual network operator Mobile virtual private network Mobile workflow Mobile-to-mobile convergence Mobile.

Open Handset Alliance Optpcs ORFS Over-the-air programming P2000 (network) PacketVideo Pager PCS switching center Peer-to-peer video sharing Personal Communications Service Phizzle Helio Ocean Picket-fencing Picocell Predictive text Proximity marketing Public land mobile network PuppetMaster (application) Push Proxy Gateway Kamal Quadir Paul Raden Radio Interface Layer ReCellular. ReFLEX REVIVAL Mobile Management Suite Rich Communication Suite RingGo Roaming RTMI Rxqual S-GPS SEVEN Networks Sha-Mail ShapeWriter Short code Short message peer-to-peer protocol Short message service center Signal strength 239 242 242 243 245 246 247 251 251 253 255 257 260 260 261 265 266 270 270 274 277 279 281 282 283 284 286 288 293 293 294 295 297 298 299 305 307 308 . Inc.

SlideIT Smart pipe SMS banking SMS hubbing SMS spoofing Social positioning method Soft handover Solaris Mobile Sony Watchman Swype Syclo T9 (predictive text) Taptu Technology and mental health issues Telelocator Alphanumeric Protocol Tethering Thumbcast TouchPal Tower Mounted Amplifier Transatel Tri-cell UIMID Universal Handy Interface Upsnap Video share VoiceMode W-SIM WarViewing WidSets Wireless Informatics World Mobile Congress 310 312 314 317 319 321 321 323 326 328 332 334 336 338 339 340 341 342 343 346 347 348 349 349 350 357 358 359 360 361 362 References Article Sources and Contributors Image Sources. Licenses and Contributors 363 370 Article Licenses License 372 .

processes and technology focused on managing the increasing array of mobile devices.Management.0 Mobile Workforce Enablement 5.Enterprise Mobility Management 1 Enterprise Mobility Management Enterprise Mobility Management is the set of people.3 Wireless Infrastructure Management 3.2 Device Management 3.1 End-user acceptance and compliance monitoring of Mobility Policies/Budgets 5.2 Planning (Projects.. Enterprise Mobility Management has several dimensions including: 1. The cost..4 Audits and Optimization 4.4 Policy Definition. According to recent research.3 End-user training .plans.5 Vendor Mgmt/Contract Negotiations 4. Enforcement and Compliance Monitoring 2.0 Mobility Portfolio Management 2.1 Inventory Management 3. The scope of Enterprise Mobility in this entry includes those mobile devices and related services provisioned to the workforce.0 Financial Management 4.5 Application Management 3. By 2012.6 Periodic Management Reporting 5.2 Procurement and Provisioning 4. and related services.1 Mobile Devices & Accessories (cell phones.0 Strategy and Governance 1.0 IT Management 3. Governance 1. Administration.6 End-User Technical Support/Help Desk 4. etc) 2.3 People . smartphones.4 Security Management 3.[1] Just as companies rely on human resource.types and quantity) 2. features.3 Monthly Carrier Invoice Processing 4.1 Budget and Controls 4.3 Mobile Applications 3.1 Priorities & Objectives (Identify and Quantify) 1. Programs) 1. wireless networks. and aircards . This market is expected to reach 90% penetration in late 2008-2009. risks and mission critical nature of mobility has accelerated the pace of sophisticated solutions and weighs heavily on the minds of CIOs.2 Wireless Networks (Private and Public. subscriber penetration in the US market shows that approximately 85% of the population owns a mobile device. This is an emerging discipline within the enterprise that has become increasingly important over the past few years. mobility management software will quickly earn its place in the portfolio of enterprise software solutions. business mobile users will make up more than 30% of all subscribers in the United States.2 End user allocation of mobile devices and related services 5. financial management and CRM software.

and other tools. including: Symbian. GPS. pdf"]. Utilities. 4G networking One of the most important features in the 4G mobile networks is the domination of high-speed packet transmissions or burst traffic in the channels. an embedded web browser. pdf Mobile technology Mobile technology is a collective term used to describe the various types of cellular communication technology. GPS navigation system. a standard mobile device has gone from being no more than a simple two-way pager to being a cellular phone. Windows Mobile Standard (non-touch screen) and Bada OS. visagemobile. Since the beginning of this millennium. the detection of very short bursts will be a serious problem due to their very poor partial correlation properties. Windows Mobile Professional (touch screen). Any user can also create their own Apps and publish them to Apple's App Store. the receiver should execute all necessary algorithms. meaning that it is free to any cell phone carrier. Recent study has indicated that traditional multi-layer network architecture based on the OSI model may not be well suited for 4G mobile network. Apple iOS.Enterprise Mobility Management 5. boxtone. The same codes used in the 2G-3G networks will be applied to future 4G mobile or wireless networks. Among the most popular are the Apple iPhone. com/ staging/ images/ pdfs/ mobilitymanagementwhitepaper. The Palm Pre using WebOS has functionality over the Internet and is . Priorities and Imperatives [5]. and a hand-held video gaming system. References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] ["http:/ / www. and Instant Messenger client. Many experts argue that the future of computer technology rests in mobile/wireless computing. where transactions of short packets will be the major part of the traffic in the channels. usage and spend 2 Vendors offering Enterprise Managed Mobility solutions • MobiDM [2] • ITR Mobility [3] • BoxTone [4] Notes Alms. Blackberry. 2008. com/ staging/ images/ pdfs/ mobilitymanagementwhitepaper. As the packets from different mobiles carry completely different channel characteristics. interactions with all upper layers and so on. visagemobile. com http:/ / www. mobidm. Operating systems There are many types of Smartphone operating systems available. and the newest . Android is the first completely open source mobile OS. http:/ / www. Dean. Understanding Mobility Management: Trends. visagemobile. itr-mobility. com http:/ / www.Android. within a very short time to make the detections of each packet flawlessly and even to reduce the clutter of traffic. The Apple iPhone.com. is the most popular smart phone at this time. because of its customizable OS which you can use to download applications made by Apple (often referred to simply as "Apps") like games. Mobile CDMA technology has evolved quite rapidly over the past few years. Android is a mobile operating system (OS) developed by Google. com http:/ / www. such as channel estimation.4 End-User validation of allocation. Android. WebOS. which has several OSs like the 3G and 3G S.

Because of the changes to the security of wireless networks you will not be able to do huge file transfers because the service providers want to cut down on channel hogging. AT&T claimed that they would ban any of their users that they caught using "peer-to-peer" (P2P) file sharing applications on their 3G network. macworld. Nokia and other manufacturers (currently including Sony Ericsson and Samsung. and previously Motorola) release a wide variety of Symbian models every year which gives Symbian the greatest marketshare. The limitations of wireless networking will not be cured by 4G. HTML. one of which is an X-Ray device that reveals information about any location at which you point your phone. macworld. rockers. The Windows Mobile Standard does not have a touch screen but uses a trackball. html http:/ / venturebeat. One of the main features applying to this is that the phones are going to start keeping track of your personal data. One thing companies are developing software to take advantage of more accurate location-sensing data. html . com/ article/ 133755/ 2008/ 06/ cio_iphonewishlist. How they described it was as wanting to make the phone a virtual mouse able to click the real world.Mobile technology able to support Internet-based programming languages such as CSS. as there are simply too many fundamental differences between wireless networking and other means of Internet access. 3 Channel hogging & file sharing There will be a hit to file sharing. org/ science/ technology/ next-genration-smart-phones1421. Future of smartphone The next generation of smartphones is going to be context-aware. touchpad. etc. An example of this is where you can point the phones camera while having the live feed open and it will show text with the building and saving the location of the building for future use. External links • • • • Next generation SmartPhones[1] What Apple Wants to add to the iPhone[2] Android Mobile Operating System[3] About 4G iPhone[4] References [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / www. with the richest history and the largest marketshare. html http:/ / www. com/ 2009/ 07/ 10/ t-mobile-and-google-promote-the-next-generation-of-android-phones/ http:/ / www. Although no single Symbian device has sold as many units as the iPhone. com/ article/ 140078/ 2009/ 04/ seidenberg. The BlackBerry RIM is a SmartPhone that has a multimedia player and third-party software installation. Symbian is the original smartphone OS. pri. but adapt to anticipate the information you will need based on your intentions. The Windows Mobile Professional Smartphones (Pocket PC or Windows Mobile PDA) are like that of a PDA and have touchscreen capabilities. The users would then be forced to find a Wi-Fi hotspot in order to be able to download their music. It then became apparent that it would keep any of their users from using their iTunes programs. the normal web surfer would want to look at a new web page every minute or so at 100kbs you could get your page pretty quickly. There are going to be all new applications coming out with the new phones. future wireless customers will find themselves quite disappointed and the market will suffer quite a setback. taking advantage of the growing availability of embedded physical sensors and data exchange capabilities. If wireless vendors do not realize these differences and bandwidth limitations. and JavaScript.

It includes session management and automatic secure authentication to enable easy-to-use and secure transactions between applications and mobile phones. The iSMS has become very popular in BookIT’s home country Finland. Matti Makkonen and iSMS Mr. it’s very easy to reply to iSMS messages because they all include predefined choices. that this interactive version of SMS is quickly gaining popularity because it works on any mobile phone and on any mobile network without installing any software on the phone. Application-to-person dialogues and transactions and asynchronous iSMS sessions are managed by a unique and patented BookIT DDM method. which can be answered by using the “single button” principle. In these iSMS powered solutions and applications the iSMS technology establishes a session with the user and manages the flow of SMS messages between the application and users so that right responses are linked to the right application even if several simultaneous sessions are established. who received The Economist’s Innovation Award 2008[3] for his work on Short Message Service (SMS) text messaging. for example between organizations and their customers or employees. where people are using the iSMS for different types of easy to use bookings. which enhances the global standard SMS infrastructure with a unique iSMS business transaction capability. in 2004 Finnair[1] was the first airline in the world to enable passengers to check-in in advance for flights with iSMS text messages.7 billion SMS users internationally and on any phone. In 2008 more than half of the Finnair’s airline passengers do their check-in with iSMS. The service is very easy to use since the user automatically receives a check-in request from the iSMS service and can then do the check-in simply by one-button-reply with his/her mobile phone. This Finnair's service is called Check-in via text message -service [2]. The network does not notice these secret fingerprints and as a result the iSMS service can be used by any of the existing 3. Mr Matti Makkonen says Bookit’s innovation is very clever because it uses the benefits of an already existing SMS standard but manages SMS transactions intelligently by adding “finger prints” to each message. . the founder of SMS. This together with the open and universal SMS connectivity enables it’s rapid deployment.2-way iSMS 4 2-way iSMS The iSMS® is a patented next generation interactive version of the traditional SMS text message and a trademark. Matti Makkonen. Mr. Makkonen says. says that the iSMS is delivering his vision of mobile phone based bookiting transactions. For the receivers. The authentication of users is secured so customers do not need to remember user names. iSMS technology The iSMS technology is based on patented BookIT DDM (Dynamic Dialogue Matrix) -method. The passengers are extremely satisfied since they avoid queuing and can proceed directly to the gate because the iSMS service completes the dialogue by sending an iSMS boarding pass directly to the screen of a mobile phone. The BookIT DDM technology is implemented on industry standard application server platforms and protocols for internet. passwords or special authentication procedures. which enables iSMS–powered solutions to perform interactive iSMS-dialogues between sender and receiver. The iSMS powered solutions also work on all mobile phones and all networks without installing software or configurations to the phone because the iSMS messages are delivered as standard SMS messages. The iSMS technology has been developed and patented by a Finnish high tech company called BookIT. For example.

com [1] References [1] http:/ / www. net/ . com/ science/ tq/ displayStory. bookit. net/ Solutions_1/ en_GB/ 1132180885579/ [5] http:/ / www. fi/ finnaircom/ wps/ portal/ finnair/ kcxml/ 04_Sj9SPykssy0xPLMnMz0vM0Y_QjzKL9473DAbJgFguPvqRqCLOnqgiLvHO3nARX4_83FT9oNS8eDdPfW_9AP2C3NDQiHJHRQBuqQpr/ delta/ base64xml/ L3dJdyEvd0ZNQUFzQUMvNElVRS82X0tfM1VF [3] http:/ / www. com [2] http:/ / www.2-way iSMS 5 External links • Bookit solutions [4] • Bookit. cfm?source=hptextfeature& story_id=10676339 [4] http:/ / www. finnair. bookit. economist. finnair.net [5] • Finnair.

in selected areas.[7] The network has a few hundreds of cell sites installed. They launched on 5 August 2009 after 9 years of planning.[5] Network 2degrees was formerly known as NZ Communications and previously as Econet Wireless.5% of New Zealand's population). 2degrees has spent $250 million building its network in the main city centres of Auckland. Naming The name of the company refers to a local variation of the six degrees of separation concept. In areas without 2degrees coverage handsets will roam on Vodafone's GSM and UMTS network.[6] a feature not supported by any other network in New Zealand.2degrees 6 2degrees Two Degrees Mobile Limited Type Industry Founded Headquarters Products Website Private Mobile telecommunications 2009 Auckland. Wellington and Christchurch. Their GSM network supports EDGE. they introduced mobile broadband on their UMTS 2100 MHz.[8] They have a national roaming agreement with Vodafone to provide seamless nationwide coverage even though they have only built towers in 4 cities. plus the tourist destination Queenstown.S. Their network will work with GSM and UMTS mobiles compatible with the competing Vodafone and Telecom XT networks. Planning began in 2000 but details were not revealed until 11 May 2009 and pricing was announced a day before launch. 2degrees currently offers prepaid and pay monthly mobile services. Standards and technologies The company provides GSM 900 MHz (and. New Zealand GSM and UMTS (3G) mobile networks and retail 2degrees Homepage [1] 2degrees is a U. . which has cost approximately NZ$250 million to develop. 1800 MHz) services on its own cellular network.112 customers[4] (12. In August 2010. and British owned[2] [3] mobile phone provider operating in New Zealand with 580.

Rangiaho Everton claimed that the auction breached the Treaty of Waitangi because she believed radio spectrum is taonga and the government has no right to sell it. NZ-24 or NZ Comms may be displayed on the mobile phones network list. 2degrees is owned by Trilogy International Partners. Communication Venture Partners. The plan ties the user into a month by month contract meaning that the maximum cancellation period is 30 days. 2500 texts to any network and 50 mega bytes of data for $29 a month with a special offer of an extra 60 minutes each month for 12 months. New Zealand has number portability. Te Huarahi Tika Trust (20. Pay Monthly 2degrees launched its first monthly postpaid plan. aptly named Pay Monthly. The native STD prefix for the network is 022 [9] . the 2degrees Pay Monthly minutes carryover to the following months meaning that users can keep unused minutes for up to a year. but 2degrees has obtained government licenses for wireless spectrum in the Hamilton and Tauranga regions which seem likely areas[12] for new cell towers. History In 1999. (Wai 776) The National government of the day ignored the Waitangi Tribunal and kept on auctioning the spectrum. General Enterprise Management Services. No particular details were forthcoming.2degrees 7 New Features 2degrees have a number of new features not found on other New Zealand mobile phone networks. Expansion In February 2011 2degrees announced[11] that they had obtained financing for a further $100 million network expansion.76 . The current 'entry' plan offers 60 minutes. the New Zealand Government auctioned off 3G spectrum radio spectrum licence. a Hong Kong based private equity fund percent shares to Trilogy. Differing from other network plans in New Zealand. Inbound Roaming 2degrees (still called NZ Communications on the Three website and Telstra roaming site) is open to customers with handsets from some foreign networks.76%)[16] . including Three. Telstra and Orange UK.52%)[15] . on 17 September 2010. including: • Using USSD to check and top up account balance • The ability to get settings from the SIM Menu • EDGE data services MNC and dialing codes The mobile network code is 530-24. [19] .14%)[17] and KLR Hong Kong. a US venture capital firm specializing in mobile networks (51.[18] In July 2009. so customers switching from other networks may keep their existing mobile number.[10] These foreign customers can place calls using 2degrees cell sites in major New Zealand cities. a London-based company that invests in telecommunications and related software businesses (25. It was not until Labour won the 1999 election that Māori were allocated one of the four 2 GHz 3G spectrum licences at a [13] [14] discounted price plus $5 million to develop it. Currently. sold its 25. which was upheld. Everton lodged a claim with the Waitangi Tribunal.

with plans to open more stores nationwide. one in Hamilton and one in Westfield Riccarton in Christchurch. $6 Data Bundles.[24] On 25 May 2010. both in Auckland.2degrees 8 Phones 2degrees offers mobile phones from $49 [20] The iPhone will work on the network. 2000. $10 for 100 MB of mobile data. The highest selling number was 022 888 8888. SIM cards are available for $5 instead of $30 charged by the other two companies. a comedian who tends to make jokes and sketches about New Zealand life. if details are registered online).[30] 2degrees SIM card and packaging . and now 2500 texts). and Telecom's XT Network offers a $12 2500 any network text prepay plan.[25] Phone numbers 2degrees auctioned 85 special numbers on New Zealand auction website TradeMe for charity.000[26] . they only come with $1 credit compared with the $10 provided from the other networks (+$10. with voice calls costing 44 cents compared to 89 cents being charged by Telecom. 2degrees also sold $2 SIM cards with $2 credit. as well as 2 cents per on-network SMS. Services 2degrees halved the prevalent pricing for prepay mobile in the New Zealand market.[27] [28] New customers can choose their own number. and some calling plans. however. customers will receive a special rate of 22 cents for on-network and landline calls. provided they have topped up within the last 30 days. one in in Newmarket. Currently Vodafone NZ offers $12 for 2500 any network SMS messages on a prepay plan. 2degrees announced several new plans. 2degrees have recently activated Vodafone's 3G network as part of their nationwide roaming agreement. as well as Sylvia Park Shopping Mall in Auckland. SMS messages are charged at 9 cents compared to 20 cents on Vodafone and Telecom customers without a text plan.[23] Also. later upgrading to 1000. They also offer their products at supermarkets. raising over $65. one in the Sylvia Park Shopping Mall.[29] Marketing 2degrees is currently running commercials featuring Rhys Darby. $6 for 50 MB of mobile data. likely due to the number eight being considered lucky in some Asian cultures. petrol stations and convenience stores. They also gave away free SIMs as part of their Chinwag & launch week campaigns and give them away with most new handsets. Customers will receive 100 to 500 free SMS messages per $20–$50 prepay top-up. $10 txt ($10 for 500 any network text messages. 2degrees are currently deploying their 3G network better suited to the iPhone. on the 2degrees website. one in Wellington.[21] 2degrees currently has 5 retail stores open.[22] They also have a kiosk store in St Lukes Shopping Centre.

2degreesmobile. 3gnewsroom. pdf [30] YouTube . 2degreesmobile. nz/ technology/ 2400954/ Wellington-Manukau-frustrate-2degrees [6] http:/ / www. com/ 2degreesmobile?v=feed& story_fbid=149232068135 [27] Numbers in Chinese culture [28] (http:/ / www. nz/ 200907313418/ 2degrees-targets-$100m-market-for-roaming-tourists.nz/technology/164209) • Third mobile telco rebrands as 2degrees (http://tvnz.co. co. nz/ speakers/ ) [17] (http:/ / www. co. youtube. trilogyinternationalpartners. nz/ mail-images/ 2degrees-press-release10. 2degreesmobile. telecommunicationsreview. shtml [15] (http:/ / www. 2degreesmobile. nz/ forums. nz/ shop?p_p_id=konakart_portlet_WAR_konakart_portlet& p_p_lifecycle=1& p_p_state=normal& p_p_mode=view& p_p_col_id=column-1& p_p_col_count=1& _konakart_portlet_WAR_konakart_portlet__spage=%2FSelectProd.co.co.Business . co. com/ watch?v=QzCeeuwm6aA) External links • 2degrees mobile (http://www. nz/ news. nz/ business-news/ third-mobile-telco-rebrands-2degrees-2724433 [10] http:/ / www.Comcel (http:/ / www. co. co. do%3FcatId%3D21 [21] http:/ / tvnz. trilogyinternationalpartners. co. co. nzherald. 2degreesmobile. nz/ business/ news/ article. nz/ media/ 2degrees-invests-in-network-and-future-growth/ [12] http:/ / computerworld. nz/ business/ news/ article. cfm?c_id=3& objectid=10713109 [5] http:/ / www.geekzone. php) [4] http:/ / www. co. nz/ lost-sim [26] http:/ / www. hk/ portfolio/ NZC. htm) [20] https:/ / www. cfm?c_id=3& objectid=10584744) [3] Trilogy . nz/ magic-top-up [25] http:/ / www.nz/business-news/ third-mobile-telco-rebrands-2degrees-2724433) • 2Degrees cell tower map (http://www. co.nz/BarTender/7403) . co. pdf [23] http:/ / www. php [8] http:/ / www. facebook. co. nzherald. geekzone. gems. co. aspx?id=233267560) [29] http:/ / www. co.Stay 2degrees (http:/ / www. co. co. co. co. co. stuff. do%3FprodId%3D76& _konakart_portlet_WAR_konakart_portlet_prodId=76& _konakart_portlet_WAR_konakart_portlet__sorig=%2FSelectCat. asp?forumid=85& topicid=37534& page_no=1#238184 [7] http:/ / www. trademe. nzherald. com/ 2degrees.nz/) • NZ Communications roaming deal (http://www. thtt. nz/ business-news/ 2degrees-launches-mobile-pricing-2886330/ video [22] http:/ / www. nbr. morgo. uk/ Help_Support/ International/ Going_abroad_Pay_Monthly/ Destination_Details?content_aid=1214306364761 [11] http:/ / blog. cfm?c_id=3& objectid=10588590 [24] http:/ / www. three. php) [16] (http:/ / www. nz/ Browse/ Listing. cfm?c_id=3& objectid=10571640 [9] http:/ / tvnz. nsf/ telecommunications/ slowly-cautiously-2degrees-rolls-out-3g [13] TVNZ Marae episode 21 (http:/ / tvnz. 2degreesmobile. 2degreesmobile.2degrees 9 References [1] http:/ / www. nz/ [2] Telco in shake-up weeks from launch .co. com/ 2degrees. co. nz/ article/ breaking-news-2degress-boss-quits-just-ahead-launch-105566 [19] (http:/ / www. nz/ business/ news/ article. com. nzherald. 2degreesmobile. co. co. co. com/ country/ new_zealand. nz/ nzc-theme/ pdf/ 2degrees-press-release7.NZ Herald News (http:/ / www. nz/ marae/ s2009-e21-video-2851310) [14] http:/ / www. co.stuff. nz/ business/ news/ article. nz/ ) [18] http:/ / www.

... personal dictionary... multilingual text entry and a feature that learns new words and context while typing.Access Stratum 10 Access Stratum Access Stratum (AS) is a functional layer in the Wireless Telecom protocol stack between Radio Network and User Equipment.. The “Scan Facebook” feature learns words from the user’s Facebook profile.| TCP +. including calendar entries.[4] Later that year........-+ Adaptxt Adaptxt is a predictive text application for mobile phones. phonebook contacts.| HTTP +....-+ | Link Layer | +.. KeyPoint also claims that Adaptxt users can type in any of the installed languages without changing their keyboard language or dictionary.. SMS and email inbox and sent items. History and Product Features Launched at a press conference in 2006.-+ | Application | +. a UK-based software company. dynamic language detection... This feature provides alternative suggestions for incorrect spellings. It is said to achieve this by predicting the next word as well as the word currently being typed...-+ | Transport | +. KeyPoint also launched a new version of Adaptxt with error correction.| AS +... where they can be edited.-+ | Internet | +. developed by KeyPoint Technologies. Automated correction of spelling mistakes were also made available. All these features can now be found in the Symbian version of the product and most of them can also be found in the Windows Mobile . The application is designed to improve text entry on mobile devices by making it faster and error-free. The radio network is also called access network... with improved support for third-party applications.. +. thanks to an engine capable of recognizing the language in use.[1] The application stores the new words in the user’s personal dictionary.-+ | -+ | -+ | -+ | -+ | -+ | -+ +....[3] In April 2009. KeyPoint introduced a feature to scan personal data.. with an option to revert to the exact word entered by the user in case of unwanted corrections.| IP +. The new words learnt are added to the personal dictionary and offered as suggestions during text entry...-+ | Network Layer| +. This feature is supposed to be an added [2] value for users who are bi-lingual or occasionally type in a foreign language. Adaptxt initially supported Windows Mobile smartphones only.| Channels +.. A version for Symbian S60 smartphones was released in 2008.......-+ | Physical | +. word completion.... Adaptxt was probably the first text entry application for mobile phones to provide features such as: context-based next-word suggestions........ conversion from SMS language to standard English and vice versa. continuously adapting to the user's personal writing style and vocabulary...| NAS +.....

Latvian. Icelandic. Finnish. gomonews. adaptxt. com/ External links • Adaptxt official website (http://www. Malay and Vietnamese. Slovak. Czech. Estonian. Italian. com/ 2009/ 06/ adaptxt-for-nokia-s60-smartphone-beta. Croatian. Norwegian. bgr. References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] http:/ / news. co. Basque. Latin-American Spanish. html http:/ / www. On 12-key phones. Turkish. Serbian. Galician. 20-key or QWERTY layouts. Filipino. European French. such as medicine. An Android-compatible version of the application is due to be released in 2011. Danish. Ukrainian. Adaptxt learning feature is said to improve accuracy of predicted words. Adaptxt offers both Multi-tap and Predictive entry modes. law. Russian. German. blogspot. bbc.[5] KeyPoint was also the first software company to introduce professional add-on dictionaries that provide industry-specific word and phrase suggestions related to a particular profession. Swedish. European Portuguese. com/ 2008/ 04/ 01/ keypoint-releases-new-adaptxt-beta-for-s60/ http:/ / predictivetext.com/) .Adaptxt version. Romanian. Bulgarian. 11 Comparison with other applications KeyPoint Technologies claims that Adaptxt has higher accuracy than traditional predictive text thanks to its context awareness and that can cut down keystrokes by up to 60% when compared to traditional text entry (multitap). The following 38 languages and respective keyboard layouts are currently supported by Adaptxt: English US.[1] Keypoint also claims that Adaptxt has a wider language coverage than most competitors and assists business users by providing domain-specific vertical dictionaries. European Spanish. stm http:/ / www. Lithuanian. Polish. business and finance.[5] Users can download additional language and professional dictionaries from the product website directly to their devices.adaptxt. Indonesian.[5] Adaptxt supports both touch-screen and hard-keyboard devices with 12-key. IT and telecommunications. com/ kpt-identifies-351m-untapped-market-for-language-dictionaries-on-mobile-phones/ http:/ / www. Brazilian Portuguese. English UK. Slovenian. Catalan. Hungarian. Canadian French. uk/ 1/ hi/ scotland/ glasgow_and_west/ 6121806. Greek.

and messaging. 2006 and the majority of the frequency blocks were sold to T-Mobile USA to deploy their 3G wireless network in the United States. and messaging services. Bidding for this new spectrum started on August 9. This move effectively kills the former MMDS and/or Wireless Cable service in the United States.[3] Shaw Communications licensed AWS spectrum in western Canada and northern Ontario. Industry Canada held the auction for AWS spectrum in 2008. It replaces the spectrum formerly allocated to Multipoint Multichannel Distribution Service (MMDS). Mobilicity also uses the AWS spectrum and began offering services in May 2010. video. is a wireless telecommunications spectrum band used for mobile voice and data services. as well as Cricket's and MetroPCS' CDMA networks. The service is intended to be used by mobile devices such as wireless phones for mobile data. Quebecor licensed AWS spectrum throughout the province of Quebec and began offering service with its Videotron brand on September 9.[4] Halifax-based EastLink obtained licenses in eastern Canada.[2] Wind Mobile has licensed AWS spectrum in every province aside from Quebec. but has not yet launched its wireless services as of June 2011. 2010. Videotron — September 9. Other networks that use the AWS band for services in the United States are i wireless' UMTS 3g network[6] .[5] and has not yet launched services as of June 2011. and began offering voice and data services on December 16. Deployed under Long Term Evolution (LTE). United States In the USA. AWS-1 is used in the United States and Canada. and from 2110 to 2155 MHz for downlink[1] . the service is administered by the Federal Communications Commission. Rogers Wireless . 2010 in Toronto. . Canada • • • • Wind Mobile — December 16.Advanced Wireless Services 12 Advanced Wireless Services Advanced Wireless Services. also known as AWS-1 or UMTS band IV. 2011 in Ottawa. Mobilicity — May 15. Canada In Canada. The AWS band uses microwave frequencies in two segments: from 1710 to 1755 MHz for uplink. 2009. 2009 in Toronto.July 7. Operators The following mobile network operators are known to use AWS. sometimes referred to as Wireless Cable. Other cities coming later on in 2011/2012. Indicated in the list are the launch date and city. 2010 in Montreal and Québec City. video.

2008: Launched in Oklahoma City.Advanced Wireless Services 13 United States • • • • Cricket Communications — April 8. Alcatel • OT-981A • 990S One Touch Research In Motion (BlackBerry) • • • • Bold 9780 Bold 9700 Pearl 9100 Curve 3G (9300) Garmin • Nüvifone A50 / Garminfone HTC • • • • • • • • • • • • Google Nexus One HD2 HD7 T-Mobile Touch Pro2 G2 Dream myTouch 3G myTouch 4G (sold as Panache in Canada) Incredible S Maple/Snap Sensation HTC Flyer (3G version) . in New York City MetroPCS Cincinnati Bell Compatible devices A list of phones. first AWS service in North America T-Mobile USA — May 1. smartphones and modems that supports the AWS frequency. 2008.

Advanced Wireless Services 14 Huawei • • • • • • • • • E138 USB modem E181 USB modem E1691 USB modem U1250 U3200 U7519 marketed as T-Mobile Tap U8100-9 U8500 IDEOS [7] Ascend X / U9000 / U9000-81 LG • • • • • • • Optimus 2X Optimus T [8] Sentio [9] dLite [10] C729 GU927 P920 Motorola • • • • • • • Charm Cliq CLIQ XT also known as Quench Cliq2 Defy Motorola Milestone XT720 Motorola XT300 [11] also known as Spice (launched late Dec 2010) Nokia • • • • • • • • • • 5230 E73 almost same as E72 with AWS support N950 (developer device) N900 N8 C5-04 C6-01 (FCC ID: QXFRM-609) 3555b 3711 Nokia_C7-00 .

not A3LSGHC414) SGH-T259 SGH-T359 :) Smiley SGH-T379 SGH-T469 Gravity 2 SGH-T479 Gravity 3 (Not the SGH-T479B) SGH-T499 Dart SGH-T559 Comeback SGH-T589 Gravity Smart SGH-T636 (Cincinnati Bell) SGH-T639 SGH-T659 SGH-T669 Gravity T (Not the SGH-T669B) SGH-T749 Highlight SGH-T759 Exhibit SGH-T819 SGH-T839 Sidekick 4G SGH-T919 Behold SGH-T929 Memoir SGH-T939 Behold II SGH-T959 Galaxy S "Vibrant" SGH-T959V Galaxy S 4G (not SGH-T959P) Galaxy Tab™ Nexus S Model GT-19020T (FCC ID: AL3GT19020T or A3LGTI9020. not A3L9020A) G-Touch (Mobilicity Canada) Google Nexus S Caliber Code i7500 (Galaxy) Freeform Freeform II Stunt .Advanced Wireless Services 15 Option • iCon 452 Samsung • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • SGH-C414Y / SGH-C414V (FCC ID: A3LSGHC414Y.

asp?promo=3G). ca/ en/ releases/ archive/ September2010/ 07/ c7478.videotron.gov/services/index.htm?job=service_home&id=aws) PhoneScoop's Visual Guide to AWS (http://www.com/shop/Phones/CompareFull.phonescoop. com/ us/ mobile-phones/ LG-P509-Titanium. nsf/ eng/ h_sf08891. .windmobile.Quebecor Media and Videotron invite you to the dawn of a new era (http:/ / www. thestar. lg. ic. newswire. ca/ product. lg. php?p=657& l=1& listName=stayconnected_en_articles& indexVal=651 [2] Industry Canada . asp?pf_id=43695M External links • • • • • • FCC: Advanced Wireless Services (http://wireless. gc.t-mobile.ca/support/faq/phones-wind/#question-5 T-Mobile cell phones comparison (http://www. com/ us/ mobile-phones/ LG-GS505. jsp [9] http:/ / www. huaweidevice. jsp [11] http:/ / store.com/articles/aws/) Wind Mobile FAQ on phone compatibility http://www. html) [4] Shaw Re-thinking Wireless Strategy (http:/ / www. ca/ eic/ site/ smt-gst. mobilicity.Advanced Wireless Services 16 Sony Ericsson • TM506 • TM717 Equinox • X10i Zoom Telephonics • Zoom 4597 3G+ Freedom Modem References [1] http:/ / www. com/ us/ mobile-phones/ LG-GD570-Blue. com/ stayconnected/ index. com/ business/ companies/ article/ 974406--shaw-rethinking-wireless-strategy) [5] EastLink Planning To Go Wireless After Success In Spectrum Auction (http:/ / ogov. lg. [7] http:/ / www.gsmarena. iwireless.fcc. com/ promoform. html) [6] "i Wireless rolls out 3g" (http:/ / www. com/ worldwide/ productFeatures. ca/ en/ releases/ archive/ July2008/ 21/ c6290. newswire. Retrieved 2010-04-28. html) [3] Media Advisory . do?pinfoId=2831& directoryId=2037& treeId=37 [8] http:/ / www.php3?chkHSDPA1700=selected) . rfsworld.com/results. jsp [10] http:/ / www.com/service/mobile/handsets) GSM Arena: AWS equipment list (http://www.aspx) Videotron Mobile Handsets (http://www.Spectrum Management and Telecommunications Auction of Spectrum Licences for Advanced Wireless Services and Other Spectrum in the 2 GHz Range (http:/ / www.

was an American public corporation. .Enterprise Semantic Search Solution SMS-based question answering. AskMeNow's primary offering was a consumer mobile search product which utilized proprietary technology to offer a natural language based interaction and dynamic content provision platform.CEO S3 . mobile content distribution. The AskWiki engine was able to parse natural language statements and return specific answers rather than just relevant articles. mobile advertising AskMeNow Inc. California based company officially launched in November 2005 and ceased operations in late 2008.AskMeNow 17 AskMeNow AskMeNow Inc. California Area served Key people Products Services North America Darryl Cohen . integrated some of the semantic web and natural language features of AskMeNow into Wikipedia searches. AskWiki AskMeNow signed a partnership agreement with the Wikimedia Foundation to bring natural language processing to Wikipedia. The beta product. Former type Industry Fate Founded Defunct Public (Pink Sheets: AKMN Search Dissolved November 2005 2008 [1] ) Headquarters Irvine. AskWiki. specializing in mobile search and mobile advertising. [2] The contract between AskMeNow and Wikimedia was rescinded after Jimmy Wales announced his own for profit search engine named Wikia. The Irvine.

otcmarkets. • The network can provide precise time.[3] Merriam-Webster. or be weakened by passing through atmospheric conditions. engadgetmobile. "Encyclopaedia Britannica Selects AskMeNow to Launch Mobile Encyclopedia" (http:/ / www. generally abbreviated as A-GPS or aGPS. jspx). enabling the GPS receiver to lock to the satellites more rapidly in some cases. walls or tree cover. for example in a city. some standalone GPS navigation devices may not be able to work out a position due to the fragmentary signal. rendering them unable to function until a clear signal can be received continuously for up to 12.[1] Description "Standalone" or "Autonomous" GPS operation uses radio signals from satellites alone. html) World's Technology News (February 21. under certain conditions. fiercemobilecontent. An Assisted GPS system can address these problems by using data available from a network. com/ story/ puck-drops-on-askmenownhl-deal/ 2007-04-12) AskMeNow and Merriam-Webster Launch Mobile Dictionary (http:/ / biz. FCC's 911 mandate making the location of a cell phone available to emergency call dispatchers. Press release. webmonkey. For billing purposes.S. yahoo. for the server to later process into a position. com/ e/ 080213/ akmn. improve the startup performance. These partnerships included National Hockey League. mirror99. com/ 20070221/ encyclopaedia_britannica_selects_askmenow_to_launch_mobile_geae. 2010. yahoo. html) Assisted GPS Assisted GPS. or time-to-first-fix (TTFF) of a GPS satellite-based positioning system. com/ stock/ AKMN/ quote http:/ / www.[5] and Guinness World Records. com/ iw/ 070109/ 0200987. is a system which can. References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] http:/ / www. com/ 2007/ 03/ 02/ alltel-offers-askmenow-mobile-answer-service/ ) [8] 8-K Filing (http:/ / biz.AskMeNow 18 Partnerships AskMeNow partnered with a variety of content publishers to offer mobile access to these publishers’ content.[3] Assistance falls into two categories: 1. com/ iw/ 070214/ 0215510. html) [7] Alltel offers AskMeNow mobile answer service (http:/ / www. . A-GPS additionally uses network resources to locate and utilize the satellites faster as well as better in poor signal conditions. In very poor signal conditions. network providers often count this as a data access. these signals may suffer multipath propagation where signals bounce off buildings. [6] Guinness World Records(TM) Selects AskMeNow to Provide Mobile Access to Its Extensive World Record Database (http:/ / biz. • The device captures a snapshot of the GPS signal. . which can cost money depending on the plan. yahoo. Information used to more quickly acquire satellites • It can supply orbital data or almanac for the GPS satellites to the GPS receiver. com/ 2007/ 11/ askwiki_wikipedia_knows_what_you_re_thinking/ Puck drops on AskMeNow/NHL deal (http:/ / www. It is used extensively with GPS-capable cellular phones as its development was accelerated by the U. with approximate time. When first turned on in these conditions. 2007).[4] Encyclopædia Britannica.5 [2] minutes (the time needed to download the GPS almanac and ephemeris). Retrieved May 07.[6] AskMeNow had established distribution partnerships with Alltel[7] in the US and Rogers Wireless andBell Mobility[8] in Canada. ob8-k.

In AGPS. Mobile Station Assisted (MSA) .[4] High Sensitivity GPS is an allied technology that addresses some of these issues in a way that does not require additional infrastructure. WCDMA. high-sensitivity GPS cannot provide a fix instantaneously when the GPS receiver has been off for some time.[3] Some aGPS devices do not have the option of falling back to standalone or autonomous GPS. Different modes of AGPS operation With Respect to Assistance data and position calculation.In MSB mode A-GPS operation. An AGPS capable device can connect to these servers and download this information using Mobile Network radio bearers such as GSM. With the help of the above data. Many mobile phones combine A-GPS and other location services including Wi-Fi Positioning System and cell-site triangulation and sometimes a hybrid positioning system. enabling more precise calculation of position. so downloading orbital information like ephemeris and almanac directly from satellites typically takes a long time. With the help of the above data. If it also has functioning autonomous GPS. Usually the data rate of these bearers is high.In MSA mode A-GPS operation. which is sometimes slower on time to first fix." the amount of CPU and programming required for a GPS receiver is reduced by offloading most of the work onto the assistance server. LTE or even using other wireless radio bearers such as WIFI. and without incurring data usage fees. and therefore can work beyond network range. (See also Wide Area Augmentation System) 2. These AGPS servers download the orbital information from the satellite and store it in the database. Network Operator deploys AGPS server. CDMA. Calculation of position by the server using information from the GPS receiver • The assistance server has a good satellite signal. the A-GPS capable device receives acquisition assistance. known as "MS-Assisted. The A-GPS server calculates the position and sends it back to the A-GPS device. The data rate of the satellite signal is only 50 b/s. 2. but does not depend on the network. the A-GPS device receives signals from the visible satellites and send the measurements to the A-GPS server. A typical A-GPS-enabled receiver will use a data connection (Internet or other) to contact the assistance server for aGPS information. reference location. 19 Basic Concepts of AGPS Standalone GPS provides first position in approximately 30-40 seconds. AGPS has two modes of operation: 1. the A-GPS device receives signals from the visible satellites and calculates the position. in some A-GPS device implementations. hence downloading orbital information takes less time. reference time and other optional assistance data from the A-GPS server. surveyed coordinates for the cell site towers allow better knowledge of local ionospheric conditions and other conditions affecting the GPS signal than the GPS receiver alone. unlike some forms of A-GPS. so it can compare fragmentary signals relayed to it As an additional benefit. the A-GPS device receives ephemeris. and plentiful computation power.Assisted GPS • Accurate. A Standalone GPS system needs orbital information of the satellites to calculate the current position. reference time and other optional assistance data from the A-GPS server. Mobile Station Based (MSB) . . However. it may use standalone GPS.

com/ iphone.CDMA2000 family defined this protocol for CDMA 2000 networks. The company was included in Gartner’s “Cool Vendors in Semiconductors. RRC position protocol . User Plane Protocol .Assisted GPS 20 AGPS Standards AGPS protocols are part of Positioning Protocol defined by two different standardization body. 2002. cnet. 4. htm). gov/ pubs/ gps/ gpsuser/ gpsuser. pdf) NavCen GPS User. au/ mobilephones/ phones/ 0. LPP . com.339281483. 2008” and selected as the Most Innovative True Mobile Start-Up for the “2008 GSMA Mobile Innovation Global Awards. 2. uscg. 1. SUPL V1. TIA 801 .239025953. August 2007 [4] Networking iPhone A-GPS (http:/ / www.It is defined by OMA to support positioning protocols in Packet Switched Networks. Control Plane Protocol .5.3gpp defined LPP or LTE positioning protocol for LTE Networks. 3. Following positioning protocol has been defined. They specialize in noise suppression for cellular phones to improve voice clarity.0 References [1] "Assisted GPS: A Low-Infrastructure Approach" (http:/ / www. California. 1. GPS World. CNET. com/ gps/ assisted-gps-a-low-infrastructure-approach-734).3 Almanac Collection [3] Watch out for data charges on your GPS phone (http:/ / www.3gpp defined RRLP or Radio resource location protocol to support positioning protocol on GSM networks. They partnered with HTC to integrate their noise suppression technology into the Google Nexus One smartphone. SUPL V2. Retrieved 2008-06-11. They are one of the 34 founding members of The Open Handset Alliance.” External links • Official website [1] • Google Nexus One Press Release [2] . The technology is applicable across a broad range of consumer products where voice needs to be intelligible in noisy environments. Awards Audience was the Silver Winner in the 2008 Wall Street Journal Technology Innovation Awards and the Winner of the Semiconductor category.3gpp defined this protocol as part of the RRC standard for UMTS network. These protocols are defined for Circuit Switched Networks.00. March 1. RRLP . . gpsworld. 3. navcen. [2] (http:/ / www. 1.0 2. Two generations of User plane Protocol has evolved. html#iPhone) Hybrid system Audience (telecom company) Audience is a telecommunications company based in Mountain View.It is defined by 3gpp for various generations of mobile phone system. 2. edepot. 3gpp and Open Mobile Alliance(OMA).

cfm?Ad=1& ArticleID=20604). tmcnet. com/ Articles/ Index. .com. Electronics Design.[7] References [1] Scheiber. com/ article/ CA6632270. tmworld. Retrieved 2010-03-01. 2009-10-29.Audience (telecom company) 21 References [1] http:/ / www. . 2010-04-01. "Channel Emulation Supports Mobile MIMO" (http:/ / www. Steve (2009-04-09).azimuthsystems. com/ usubmit/ 2009/ 10/ 29/ 4452731. google. azimuthsystems. 2009-07-28. [6] "T&MW announces 2010 award winners" (http:/ / www.[4] [5] In April 2010. WiMAX. tmworld. audience. [2] http:/ / www. com/ intl/ en/ press/ pressrel/ 20100105_phone. . Retrieved 2010-03-01. Retrieved 2010-03-01. Retrieved 2010-04-26.[3] In 2009 Azimuth Systems wrote a White paper entitled Improving 4G Wireless Broadband Product Design through Effective Channel Emulation Testing. htm). Azimuth Systems was awarded the 4G Wireless Evolution LTE Visionary Awardby TMC. html?nid=3370& rid=6559034). mwrf. . Test and Measurement World. . The company’s primary products include wireless channel emulators and wireless test equipment for LTE. [7] "Azimuth Systems Receives 2009 4G Wireless Evolution LTE Visionary Award" (http:/ / www.[6] Also. in 2009. com/ article/ 453942-T_MW_announces_2010_award_winners.com [2] Website Azimuth Systems is a privately-held company located near Boston. [5] Nelson. Nancy (2009-01-01). com/ article/ CA6648778. html). com/ [3] "Azimuth Systems Marks the First Half of 2009 With Record Growth and Expansion Into the MIMO and Cellular Markets" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2010-03-01. edn. reuters. Paglia (Vice President of Sales and Business Development) [1] George Reed (Vice President of Marketing and Product Management) www. "Channel-Emulation Testing Aids 4G Product Design" (http:/ / www.net. Rick (2009-02-01). "Getting to 4G through design and test" (http:/ / www. Azimuth Systems was awarded the Best in Test award from Test & Measurement World Magazine.com. Reuters. . 2G/3G cellular and Wi-Fi networks. tmworld. Microwaves and RF. Strategy and News. html Azimuth Systems Azimuth Systems Type Industry Private Wireless Test Equipment Headquarters Acton. Retrieved 2010-03-01. htm. Massachusetts. . TMC Net. Massachusetts Key people Jim Iuliano (President and CEO) Chris Gollihur (Vice President of Finance and Administration) John Griesing (Vice President of R&D) Peter M. [4] Friedrich. com [2] http:/ / www. php). com/ article/ idUS126970+ 28-Jul-2009+ MW20090728).

Paul Seattle—Tacoma Dallas—Fort Worth Oklahoma City Detroit Atlanta New York El Paso—Albuquerque New Orleans—Baton Rouge New York Detroit Pittsburgh Dallas—Fort Worth Seattle—Tacoma Indianapolis Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh Birmingham Milwaukee Oklahoma City Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh Cleveland Atlanta Columbus Atlanta Philadelphia Atlanta Dallas—Fort Worth . New York Albuquerque. Pennsylvania Alpena. Georgia Albany—Schenectady. Alabama Appleton—Oshkosh. Michigan Albany—Tifton. Georgia Austin. New Mexico Alexandria. Georgia Atlantic City. Oklahoma Adrian. Ohio Atlanta. Louisiana Allentown—Bethlehem—Easton. South Carolina Anniston. Georgia Athens. Wisconsin Ardmore. Texas Minneapolis—St.[1] It consists of the counties surrounding a city designated as the basic trading center.com/) Basic Trading Area In the US. Alaska Anderson. Ohio Athens. North Carolina Ashtabula. Michigan Altoona. New Jersey Augusta. Pennsylvania Amarillo.[2] List of Basic Trading Areas BTA # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 Basic Trading Area MTA # 27 42 10 31 13 1 30 14 29 30 13 35 10 42 17 5 2 26 31 5 8 1 9 1 33 1 10 Major Trading Area Aberdeen. a Basic Trading Area is a geographic region defined originally in the Rand McNally Commercial Atlas and Marketing Guide and used by the FCC where a Personal Communications Service can operate. Washington Abilene. South Dakota Aberdeen.azimuthsystems. Texas Anchorage. Indiana Anderson. Texas Ada. Oklahoma Asheville—Hendersonville.Azimuth Systems 22 External links • Azimuth Systems Website (http://www.

North Dakota Bloomington. Texas Brownwood. Oregon Benton Harbor. Washington Brownsville—Harlingen. Mississippi Binghamton. Minnesota Bremerton. Paul Chicago Indianapolis Cincinnati—Dayton Memphis—Jackson Salt Lake City Boston—Providence Louisville—Lexington—Evansville Spokane—Billings Minneapolis—St. Montana Biloxi—Gulfport—Pascagoula. Maine Bartlesville. Alabama Bismarck. Oklahoma Baton Rouge. Louis 23 . Texas Brunswick. West Virginia Blytheville. Georgia Bryan—College Station. Texas Beckley. Kentucky Bozeman. Arkansas Boise—Nampa. Minnesota Bend. Ohio Cape Girardeau—Sikeston.Basic Trading Area 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 Bakersfield. Paul Seattle—Tacoma San Antonio Dallas—Fort Worth Jacksonville Houston Buffalo—Rochester Des Moines—Quad Cities Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh New York Spokane—Billings Cleveland St. Massachusetts Bowling Green—Glasgow. Texas Billings. Michigan Big Spring. Michigan Beaumont—Port Arthur. North Carolina Burlington. Illinois Bloomington—Bedford. Indiana Bluefield. New York Birmingham. Missouri 22 46 3 45 29 13 16 7 42 27 36 6 10 43 29 30 2 27 6 17 7 24 39 3 23 43 27 42 40 10 18 16 4 12 5 30 43 8 38 Los Angeles—San Diego Washington—Baltimore Boston—Providence Tulsa New Orleans—Baton Rouge Detroit Houston Cincinnati—Dayton Seattle—Tacoma Minneapolis—St. Vermont Butte. New York Burlington. Washington Bemidji. Maryland Bangor. Idaho Boston. Iowa Burlington. Texas Buffalo—Niagara Falls. Montana Canton—New Philadelphia. California Baltimore. Paul Portland Chicago Dallas—Fort Worth Spokane—Billings New Orleans—Baton Rouge New York Birmingham Minneapolis—St. Louisiana Battle Creek. West Virginia Bellingham. Montana Brainerd.

Ohio Cleveland.Basic Trading Area 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 Carbondale—Marion. Kentucky Corpus Christi. Indiana Columbus—Starkville. Colorado Columbia. Illinois Chico—Oroville. Illinois Danville. Maryland Dallas—Fort Worth. Texas Cumberland. Illinois Clovis. California Chillicothe. North Carolina Charlottesville. Tennessee Cheyenne. Missouri Columbia. New Mexico Casper—Gillette. Ohio Cookeville. Texas Dalton. Illinois 38 14 11 12 6 5 7 5 46 1 11 6 41 9 7 35 28 8 1 12 10 45 11 38 5 1 17 24 9 28 36 23 40 46 10 1 6 37 12 St. Virginia Chattanooga. West Virginia Clarksville. Kentucky Cleveland—Akron. West Virginia Charlotte—Gastonia. Wyoming Cedar Rapids. Tennessee Coos Bay—North Bend. Tennessee—Hopkinsville. Kansas Colorado Springs. Louis Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh Atlanta Indianapolis Memphis—Jackson Columbus Nashville Portland Louisville—Lexington—Evansville San Antonio Washington—Baltimore Dallas—Fort Worth Atlanta Chicago Richmond—Norfolk Des Moines—Quad Cities 24 . Ohio Clarksburg—Elkins. Illinois Charleston. Iowa—Moline. South Carolina Columbus. Wyoming Chicago. New Mexico Coffeyville. Iowa Champaign—Urbana. Illinois Carlsbad. Mississippi Columbus. Iowa—Sterling. Oregon Corbin. South Carolina Charleston. Ohio Cincinnati. Georgia Columbus. Georgia Danville. Louis El Paso—Albuquerque Denver Des Moines—Quad Cities Chicago Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh Cincinnati—Dayton Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh Washington—Baltimore Atlanta Denver Chicago San Francisco—Oakland—San Jose Columbus Cincinnati—Dayton Pittsburgh Nashville Cleveland Atlanta Des Moines—Quad Cities Dallas—Fort Worth Tulsa Denver St. Virginia Davenport. Tennessee Clinton.

Ohio Flagstaff. Colorado Des Moines. Florida Decatur. Indiana Elmira—Corning—Hornell. Colorado Fayetteville—Springdale—Rogers. Iowa Duluth. Minnesota Dyersburg—Union City. Kansas Dothan—Enterprise. Arkansas Elkhart. Paul Los Angeles—San Diego Little Rock Chicago New York El Paso—Albuquerque Kansas City Oklahoma City Cleveland Milwaukee Portland San Francisco—Oakland—San Jose Louisville—Lexington—Evansville Seattle—Tacoma Pittsburgh Minneapolis—St. North Dakota Farmington. New York El Paso. Ohio Daytona Beach. Tennessee Eagle Pass—Del Rio. North Carolina Fergus Falls. New Mexico—Durango. Alaska Fairmont. Alabama Decatur—Effingham.Basic Trading Area 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 Dayton—Springfield. Pennsylvania Dubuque. Oregon Eureka. Paul Detroit Phoenix 25 . Iowa Detroit. Delaware Du Bois—Clearfield. Kansas Enid. Oklahoma Erie. Arkansas Fayetteville—Lumberton. Texas East Liverpool—Salem. Arizona 7 44 2 6 11 12 13 27 47 2 33 35 12 27 24 40 8 27 22 21 6 30 14 19 31 8 26 36 41 23 42 35 27 14 21 5 27 13 34 Cincinnati—Dayton Tampa—St. Petersburg—Orlando Birmingham Chicago Denver Des Moines—Quad Cities Detroit Minneapolis—St. Texas Emporia. Paul El Paso—Albuquerque Little Rock Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh Minneapolis—St. California Evansville. Illinois Denver. Michigan Eugene—Springfield. West Virginia Fargo. Pennsylvania Escanaba. North Dakota Dodge City. Alabama Dover. Indiana Fairbanks. California El Dorado—Magnolia—Camden. Ohio Eau Claire. Minnesota Findlay—Tiffin. Paul Memphis—Jackson San Antonio Cleveland Minneapolis—St. Michigan Dickinson. Wisconsin El Centro—Calexico. Paul Wichita Birmingham Philadelphia Pittsburgh Des Moines—Quad Cities Minneapolis—St.

Florida Fort Wayne. Arkansas Fort Walton Beach. Alabama Florence. Kansas Glens Falls. North Dakota Grand Island—Kearney. Pennsylvania—Martinsburg. Louisiana Harrisburg. Maryland—Chambersburg. West Virginia Hammond. Colorado Grand Rapids. Virginia 13 2 5 26 11 12 25 25 21 29 6 46 41 2 18 1 6 14 47 30 5 27 32 11 13 47 43 11 26 5 24 5 5 5 46 29 33 21 46 Detroit Birmingham Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh Milwaukee Denver Des Moines—Quad Cities Miami—Fort Lauderdale Miami—Fort Lauderdale Little Rock New Orleans—Baton Rouge Chicago Washington—Baltimore San Francisco—Oakland—San Jose Birmingham Jacksonville Atlanta Chicago El Paso—Albuquerque Wichita New York Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh Minneapolis—St. Arkansas Harrisonburg.Basic Trading Area 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 Flint. Nebraska Grand Junction. California Gadsden. Indiana Fredericksburg. North Carolina Grand Forks. Kansas Great Falls. Wisconsin Fort Collins—Loveland. South Carolina Greenwood. Mississippi Greenville—Washington. Paul Omaha Denver Detroit Wichita Spokane—Billings Denver Milwaukee Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh Memphis—Jackson Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh Washington—Baltimore New Orleans—Baton Rouge Philadelphia Little Rock Washington—Baltimore 26 . South Carolina Hagerstown. Florida Gainesville. Florida Fort Pierce—Vero Beach—Stuart. Colorado Fort Dodge. New York Goldsboro—Kinston. Montana Greeley. Virginia Fresno. Georgia Galesburg. Illinois Gallup. Michigan Great Bend. Colorado Green Bay. South Carolina Fond du Lac. New Mexico Garden City. Pennsylvania Harrison. Alabama Gainesville. Iowa Fort Myers. Wisconsin Greensboro—Winston-Salem—High Point. North Carolina Greenville—Spartanburg. Florida Fort Smith. Michigan Florence. North Carolina Greenville—Greenwood.

Louisiana Houston. Louis Pittsburgh Little Rock Kansas City Seattle—Tacoma Honolulu 27 . Michigan Houma—Thibodaux.Basic Trading Area 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 Hartford. Tennessee Jacksonville. Mississippi Hays. Missouri—Miami. Montana Hickory—Lenoir—Morganton. Alabama Huron. Kansas Hyannis. Oklahoma Juneau—Ketchikan. New York—Warren. Indiana Iowa City. Connecticut Hastings. New Mexico Honolulu. Michigan Ironwood. Pennsylvania Jonesboro—Paragould. Iowa Iron Mountain. Paul Wichita Boston—Providence Salt Lake City Pittsburgh Indianapolis Des Moines—Quad Cities Milwaukee Minneapolis—St. Texas Huntington. South Dakota Hutchinson. Pennsylvania—Dunkirk. North Carolina Hilo. Alaska Kahului—Wailuku—Lahaina. Arkansas Joplin. Idaho Indiana. Kansas Helena. Michigan Ithaca. Missouri Johnstown. Wisconsin Jefferson City. Nebraska Hattiesburg. Arkansas Houghton. Hawaii 30 32 29 47 43 5 15 10 15 21 26 29 16 7 2 27 47 3 39 35 17 12 26 27 30 13 24 24 18 6 5 4 26 38 35 21 19 42 15 New York Omaha New Orleans—Baton Rouge Wichita Spokane—Billings Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh Honolulu Dallas—Fort Worth Honolulu Little Rock Milwaukee New Orleans—Baton Rouge Houston Cincinnati—Dayton Birmingham Minneapolis—St. Michigan Jackson. Mississippi Jackson. North Carolina Jamestown. Florida Jacksonville. West Virginia—Ashland. Paul New York Detroit Memphis—Jackson Memphis—Jackson Jacksonville Chicago Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh Buffalo—Rochester Milwaukee St. Illinois Jacksonville. Hawaii Hot Springs. Hawaii Hobbs. Kentucky Huntsville. Massachusetts Idaho Falls. New York Jackson. New York Janesville—Beloit. Pennsylvania Indianapolis.

Kentucky Liberal. Arkansas Logan. Ohio Lincoln. New Mexico Las Vegas. Washington 13 43 6 19 3 43 20 38 36 20 17 26 17 29 1 16 44 33 13 40 6 14 22 29 19 31 3 43 3 23 47 15 13 32 21 39 7 10 36 Detroit Spokane—Billings Chicago Kansas City Boston—Providence Spokane—Billings Knoxville St. Nebraska Little Rock. Indiana La Crosse. Texas La Salle—Peru—Ottawa—Streator. New Hampshire Kennewick—Pasco—Richland. Wisconsin—Winona. Indiana Lafayette—New Iberia. Tennessee—Bristol. Hawaii Lima. Missouri Keene. Idaho Lewiston—Auburn. Oklahoma Lebanon—Claremont. Montana Kankakee. Kansas Lihue. Virginia-Tennessee Kirksville. Washington Kingsport. Georgia Lake Charles. Oregon Knoxville. Nevada Laurel. Tennessee Kokomo—Logansport. Maine Lexington. Louisiana La Grange. Utah Logan. Texas Longview. Illinois Kansas City. Louis Portland Knoxville Indianapolis Milwaukee Indianapolis New Orleans—Baton Rouge Atlanta Houston Tampa—St. Michigan Kalispell. Michigan Laredo. Minnesota Lafayette. New Hampshire Lewiston—Moscow. Tennessee—Johnson City. West Virginia Longview—Marshall. Petersburg—Orlando Philadelphia Detroit San Antonio Chicago El Paso—Albuquerque Los Angeles—San Diego New Orleans—Baton Rouge Kansas City Oklahoma City Boston—Providence Spokane—Billings Boston—Providence Louisville—Lexington—Evansville Wichita Honolulu Detroit Omaha Little Rock Salt Lake City Cincinnati—Dayton Dallas—Fort Worth Portland 28 .Basic Trading Area 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 Kalamazoo. Louisiana Lakeland—Winter Haven. Mississippi Lawrence. Pennsylvania Lansing. Illinois Las Cruces. Missouri Klamath Falls. Kansas Lawton—Duncan. Florida Lancaster.

Mississippi McCook. Wisconsin—Menominee. New Hampshire Manhattan—Junction City. Paul Cleveland Milwaukee Indianapolis Columbus Milwaukee Des Moines—Quad Cities Richmond—Norfolk Des Moines—Quad Cities Chicago Cleveland Portland Tampa—St. Indiana Middlesboro—Harlan. Virginia McAlester. Illinois Meadville. Georgia Madison. Indiana Marion. Texas Milwaukee. Virginia Mason City. Texas Lynchburg. Minnesota Mansfield. Michigan Marion. Wisconsin Mankato—Fairmont. Florida Michigan City—La Porte. Kentucky Midland. North Dakota Missoula. Wisconsin Madisonville. Minnesota Minot. Nebraska Macon—Warner Robins.Basic Trading Area 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 Los Angeles. California Louisville. Paul Spokane—Billings 29 . Petersburg—Orlando Memphis—Jackson San Francisco—Oakland—San Jose Memphis—Jackson Miami—Fort Lauderdale Chicago Knoxville Dallas—Fort Worth Milwaukee Minneapolis—St. Tennessee Merced. Iowa Martinsville. Iowa Mattoon. Oklahoma McAllen. Oregon Melbourne—Titusville. Kansas Manitowoc. Texas McComb—Brookhaven. Ohio Marinette. Mississippi Miami—Fort Lauderdale. Michigan Marshalltown. Florida Memphis. Kentucky Manchester—Nashua—Concord. Montana 22 23 10 16 37 31 40 29 32 1 26 23 3 19 26 27 8 26 17 9 26 12 37 12 6 8 36 44 24 41 24 25 6 20 10 26 27 27 43 Los Angeles—San Diego Louisville—Lexington—Evansville Dallas—Fort Worth Houston Richmond—Norfolk Oklahoma City San Antonio New Orleans—Baton Rouge Omaha Atlanta Milwaukee Louisville—Lexington—Evansville Boston—Providence Kansas City Milwaukee Minneapolis—St. Paul Minneapolis—St. Wisconsin Minneapolis—St. Kentucky Lubbock. Paul. California Meridian. Ohio Marquette. Pennsylvania Medford—Grants Pass. Texas Lufkin—Nacogdoches.

South Carolina Naples. Tennessee Natchez. Nebraska Ocala. Mississippi New Bern. Petersburg—Orlando Dallas—Fort Worth Pittsburgh Oklahoma City Buffalo—Rochester Seattle—Tacoma Omaha New York Atlanta Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh Tampa—St. Alabama Morgantown. North Carolina New Castle. Arizona Norfolk. Virginia North Platte. South Dakota Mobile. Oklahoma Olean. Kentucky 27 29 41 10 2 35 13 38 17 13 45 5 25 28 24 5 35 30 30 29 30 34 32 37 32 44 10 35 31 4 42 32 30 1 5 44 12 23 23 Minneapolis—St. New York—Bradford. Iowa Owensboro. South Carolina Orlando. Florida Ottumwa. Connecticut New Orleans.Basic Trading Area 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 Mitchell. Michigan Muskogee. Louisiana New York. Louisiana Montgomery. Connecticut New London—Norwich. New York Opelika—Auburn. Florida Nashville. Texas Oil City—Franklin. Alabama Orangeburg. Oklahoma Myrtle Beach. Michigan Mount Vernon—Centralia. Alabama Modesto. Kentucky Paducah—Murray—Mayfield. Florida Odessa. Illinois Muncie. California Monroe. Pennsylvania Olympia—Centralia. Paul New Orleans—Baton Rouge San Francisco—Oakland—San Jose Dallas—Fort Worth Birmingham Pittsburgh Detroit St. Pennsylvania Oklahoma City. Nebraska Norfolk—Virginia Beach—Newport News—Hampton. Washington Omaha. Indiana Muskegon. Pennsylvania New Haven—Waterbury—Meriden. New York Nogales. Louis Indianapolis Detroit Tulsa Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh Miami—Fort Lauderdale Nashville Memphis—Jackson Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh Pittsburgh New York New York New Orleans—Baton Rouge New York Phoenix Omaha Richmond—Norfolk Omaha Tampa—St. Petersburg—Orlando Des Moines—Quad Cities Louisville—Lexington—Evansville Louisville—Lexington—Evansville 30 . West Virginia Mount Pleasant. Nebraska Oneonta.

Ohio Pottsville. Delaware—Trenton. California Reno. Maine Portland. Oklahoma Poplar Bluff. Paul 31 . Florida Peoria. Ohio Pensacola. North Carolina Rochester—Austin—Albert Lea. Louis Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh Denver Philadelphia San Francisco—Oakland—San Jose San Francisco—Oakland—San Jose Indianapolis Richmond—Norfolk Denver Richmond—Norfolk Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh Minneapolis—St. Indiana Richmond—Petersburg. Washington Portland—Brunswick. Minnesota 18 10 9 29 6 13 33 34 21 19 35 3 30 39 31 38 42 3 36 7 33 30 34 3 3 39 11 38 5 11 33 41 41 17 37 11 37 5 27 Jacksonville Dallas—Fort Worth Columbus New Orleans—Baton Rouge Chicago Detroit Philadelphia Phoenix Little Rock Kansas City Pittsburgh Boston—Providence New York Salt Lake City Oklahoma City St. Texas Parkersburg. Maine Providence—Pawtucket. Nevada Richmond. Pennsylvania—Wilmington. Arizona Pine Bluff. Virginia Roanoke Rapids. Kansas Pittsburgh. Florida Paris. Massachusetts Plattsburgh. Illinois—Hannibal. Idaho Ponca City. Pennsylvania Pittsfield. New York Prescott. North Carolina Rapid City.Basic Trading Area 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 370 371 372 373 374 375 376 377 378 Panama City. New Jersey Phoenix. Arkansas Pittsburg—Parsons. Missouri Port Angeles. Louis Seattle—Tacoma Boston—Providence Portland Cincinnati—Dayton Philadelphia New York Phoenix Boston—Providence Boston—Providence Salt Lake City Denver St. Virginia Riverton. Pennsylvania Poughkeepsie—Kingston. Michigan Philadelphia. Rhode Island—New Bedford—Fall River. Colorado Quincy. Pennsylvania Redding. Oregon Portsmouth. West Virginia—Marietta. Missouri Raleigh—Durham. Massachusetts Provo—Orem. Utah Pueblo. Illinois Petoskey. New York Pocatello. South Dakota Reading. Wyoming Roanoke. Arizona Presque Isle.

Texas San Antonio. California Santa Fe.Basic Trading Area 379 380 381 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 390 391 392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399 400 401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 Rochester. Georgia Roseburg. California Santa Barbara—Santa Maria. Missouri St. Utah San Angelo. Ohio San Francisco—Oakland—San Jose. Maryland Salt Lake City—Ogden. Marie. Illinois Rock Springs. Paul Salt Lake City Kansas City St. Wyoming Rocky Mount—Wilson. California Saginaw—Bay City. Cloud. New Mexico Russellville. Georgia Scottsbluff. Louis Portland Wichita San Francisco—Oakland—San Jose Washington—Baltimore Salt Lake City Dallas—Fort Worth San Antonio Los Angeles—San Diego Cleveland San Francisco—Oakland—San Jose Los Angeles—San Diego Los Angeles—San Diego El Paso—Albuquerque Tampa—St. Petersburg—Orlando Detroit Atlanta Denver New York Seattle—Tacoma Kansas City Birmingham Cleveland Milwaukee 32 . Joseph. Texas San Diego. Vermont Sacramento. Louis. Utah St. California Sandusky. Minnesota St. Michigan Savannah. Oregon Salina. Nebraska Scranton—Wilkes-Barre—Hazleton. North Carolina Rolla. New York Rockford. Alabama Sharon. Michigan St. New Mexico Sarasota—Bradenton. George. Kansas Salinas—Monterey. Wisconsin 4 6 11 5 38 1 36 14 21 30 41 13 27 39 19 38 36 47 41 46 39 10 40 22 8 41 22 22 14 44 13 1 11 30 42 19 2 8 26 Buffalo—Rochester Chicago Denver Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh St. Pennsylvania Seattle—Tacoma. Arkansas Rutland—Bennington. Pennsylvania Sheboygan. Missouri Selma. Oregon Roswell. Louis Atlanta Portland El Paso—Albuquerque Little Rock New York San Francisco—Oakland—San Jose Detroit Minneapolis—St. California Salisbury. Florida Sault Ste. Missouri Rome. Missouri Salem—Albany—Corvallis. Washington Sedalia. California San Luis Obispo.

Mississippi Tuscaloosa. Louisiana Sierra Vista—Douglas. Idaho Tyler. Kansas Traverse City. Pennsylvania Staunton—Waynesboro. Indiana Texarkana. Florida Temple—Killeen. Alabama Twin Falls. Texas-Arkansas Toledo. South Dakota Somerset. Texas Shreveport. Indiana Spokane. Florida Tampa—St. Virginia Steubenville. Missouri State College. Wisconsin Stillwater. West Virginia Stevens Point—Marshfield—Wisconsin Rapids. Ohio—Weirton. Michigan Tucson. New York Valdosta. Texas Utica—Rome. Louis Philadelphia Richmond—Norfolk Pittsburgh Milwaukee Oklahoma City San Francisco—Oakland—San Jose New York Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh Philadelphia New York Jacksonville Tampa—St. Mississippi Victoria. Ohio Topeka. Oklahoma Stockton. South Carolina Sunbury—Shamokin. New York Tallahassee. Petersburg—Clearwater. Georgia Vicksburg. Pennsylvania Syracuse. Paul Louisville—Lexington—Evansville Chicago Spokane—Billings Chicago Boston—Providence St. Massachusetts Springfield. Arizona Sioux City. California Stroudsburg. Texas 10 10 34 12 27 23 6 43 6 3 38 33 37 35 26 31 41 30 5 33 30 18 44 10 17 10 13 19 13 34 45 24 2 39 10 30 18 24 16 Dallas—Fort Worth Dallas—Fort Worth Phoenix Des Moines—Quad Cities Minneapolis—St. Illinois Springfield—Holyoke. Washington Springfield. Arizona Tulsa. Kentucky South Bend—Mishawaka. Texas Terre Haute.Basic Trading Area 418 419 420 421 422 423 424 425 426 427 428 429 430 431 432 433 434 435 436 437 438 439 440 441 442 443 444 445 446 447 448 449 450 451 452 453 454 455 456 Sherman—Denison. Oklahoma Tupelo—Corinth. Iowa Sioux Falls. Pennsylvania Sumter. Petersburg—Orlando Dallas—Fort Worth Indianapolis Dallas—Fort Worth Detroit Kansas City Detroit Phoenix Tulsa Memphis—Jackson Birmingham Salt Lake City Dallas—Fort Worth New York Jacksonville Memphis—Jackson Houston 33 .

Paul Charlotte—Greensboro—Greenville—Raleigh Washington—Baltimore Boston—Providence Minneapolis—St. Texas Walla Walla. Indiana Visalia—Porterville—Hanford. Louis Pittsburgh Wichita Dallas—Fort Worth Cincinnati—Dayton Philadelphia Minneapolis—St. Ohio Yuba City—Marysville.Basic Trading Area 457 458 459 460 461 462 463 464 465 466 467 468 469 470 471 472 473 474 475 476 477 478 479 480 481 482 483 484 485 486 487 Vincennes—Washington. California Waco. New York Watertown. Ohio 17 41 10 43 46 12 30 27 3 26 18 42 25 38 35 47 10 7 33 27 27 5 46 3 27 42 33 8 41 34 9 Indianapolis San Francisco—Oakland—San Jose Dallas—Fort Worth Spokane—Billings Washington—Baltimore Des Moines—Quad Cities New York Minneapolis—St. North Dakota Willmar—Marshall. Minnesota Wilmington. Virginia Worcester—Fitchburg—Leominster. South Dakota Waterville—Augusta. Pennsylvania Youngstown—Warren. Washington York—Hanover. California Yuma. rather than population. Georgia Wenatchee. Paul Minneapolis—St. Texas Williamson. Minnesota Yakima. Paul Seattle—Tacoma Philadelphia Cleveland San Francisco—Oakland—San Jose Phoenix Columbus 34 • Source: [3] • Note: The Major Trading Area (MTA) numbers in this table are based on alphabetical sorting. Kansas Wichita Falls. Missouri Wheeling. Iowa Watertown. . Oregon Washington. Washington West Palm Beach—Boca Raton. West Virginia Wichita. North Carolina Winchester. Washington—Pendleton. Massachusetts Worthington. West Virginia—Pikeville. Kentucky Williamsport. DC Waterloo—Cedar Falls. Paul Boston—Providence Milwaukee Jacksonville Seattle—Tacoma Miami—Fort Lauderdale St. Maine Wausau—Rhinelander. Pennsylvania Williston. Wisconsin Waycross. Arizona Zanesville—Cambridge. Florida West Plains.

com/ glossary/ 36. 2006. html). javvin. Mobiledia. html). fcc. htm?job=btaform). . .Basic Trading Area 35 References [1] "BTA: Basic Trading Area" (http:/ / www.Mobiledia" (http:/ / www. Javvin. Retrieved 2006-11-28. [3] "FCC Universal Licensing System (ULS) BTA Form" (http:/ / wireless. Retrieved 2010-08-11. mobiledia.Cell Phone Glossary . com/ wireless/ BTA. [2] "Basic Trading Area (BTA) . Retrieved 2006-11-28. Federal Communications Commission. . . gov/ uls/ index.

Healthcare. rural and national-scale connectivity. References • • • • CableFree article in Broadband Wireless Exchange Magazine [2] CableFree article in Lightreading [3] CableFree entry in optics.org [4] Listing in OFCOM/BT Wireless Ethernet Lan Extension Services [5] External links • • • • CableFree Solutions [6] CableFree UK website [7] Wireless Excellence [8] KMH Group website [9] .cablefreesolutions. The company provides a range of wireless products including diverse mix of radio. Corporate history Established in 1997 by private investors. CableFree sells through a distribution and reseller network with channel partners throughout Europe. Asia and Australasia. rural and country-scale IP networks. Middle East. Africa. Wi-Fi and other technologies with speeds ranging from 2 Mbit/s up to 1. Financial.5 Gbit/s per link. Government. CableFree's products deliver high capacity voice. CableFree designs. microwave. CCTV and Broadcast customers. Education. Americas. data and video and internet connectivity for metropolitan-area. United Kingdom Networking www. manufactures and sells high-capacity wireless communication systems for outdoor wireless networks covering urban.Cablefree 36 Cablefree Cablefree Type Industry Founded Headquarters Products Website Private Technology 1997 London. free space optics. IP service providers.com [1] CableFree provides high-capacity wireless Ethernet and TDM wireless backhaul solutions to cellular network operators. WISPs. millimeter-wave.

2. "T-Mobile Currently Testing Cel-Fi Signal Booster to Maximize 3G Data Service In Homes" (http://www.atvcapital. cablefree. November 21. org. • "Nextivity Aims to Boost Indoor Cell Phone Signal" (http://www. June 04. Business Wire (Press Release).Cablefree 37 References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] http:/ / www. Retrieved Feb 12. 2010). uk http:/ / www. Retrieved Feb 12. Cel-Fi Cel-Fi is a device. 2011. Cel-Fi systems are comparable to mobile phone repeaters and femtocell technology. 2011. cablefreesolutions.com/mobile-amp-wireless/125524/ t-mobile-quietly-testing-cel-fi-femtocell-alternative-customers-signal-ch). San Diego Business Journal. Retrieved Feb 12.com/2010/10/26/ t-mobile-currently-testing-cel-fi-signal-booster-to-maximizes-3g-data-service-in-homes/). wirelessexcellence. pdf http:/ / www. uk/ consult/ condocs/ llmr/ responses/ bt/ bt_annex_g.html).html). PR Log (Press Release)..prlog. Paul (May 14. PC Pro. 2010. . • "Nextivity And NETGEAR Collaborate For Indoor Mobile Coverage Solutions" (http://www. 2010). the Cel-Fi systems are designed with smart antenna technology to seek out the best available signal to maximize signal gain to phone user.thestreet. uk/realworld/357955/the-legal-ways-to-boost-your-mobile-phone-reception/2). Retrieved Feb 12. com CDMA Chipsets CDMA Chipsets is a popular Chipsets used in 3G and 2G mobile phones manufactured by Qualcomm Inc.com/ story/10678985/nextivity-and-netgear-collaborate-for-indoor-mobile-coverage-solutions. 2010). 2011. Ryan (October 27.co. cablefreesolutions.pcpro. com http:/ / www. bbwexchange. which converts it and amplifies it.org/ 10717005-nextivity-cel-fi-3g-signal-boosters-available-from-frequency-telecom. • Ockenden. Created by Nextivity. com/ document. IT World. 2011. References • Faas.com/technology-news/ nextivity-aims-to-boost-indoor-cell-phone-signal). org/ cws/ company/ B000013460 http:/ / www. Feb. com http:/ / www. asp?doc_id=35995& site=lightreading http:/ / optics. Gear Diary. The window unit receives the signal and relays it to the receiver. Retrieved Feb 12. kmhgroup. Trialled in both the US and UK by T-Mobile. designed to eliminate in-building dead zones and improve indoor mobile phone reception. The Cel-Fi consists of two wireless devices. • Scardino. Advanced Technology Ventures. com/ http:/ / www.geardiary. Retrieved Feb 12. 2008. 2010. co. lightreading. 2011. ofcom. a Window Unit and Coverage Unit that work jointly to increase 3G and 4G mobile broadband connectivity throughout the building. "The legal ways to boost your mobile phone reception" (http://www. asp http:/ / www. Inc. 2011. • "Nextivity Cel-Fi 3G signal boosters – available from Frequency Telecom" (http://www. similar to a cellular repeater. "T-Mobile quietly testing Cel-Fi femtocell alternative for customers in signal-challenged areas" (http://www. com/ pubs/ 2007/ 11/ 06/ page1369-1193158.itworld. Francis (October 26.

when precision is important COO is often used in conjunction with some other technology. Omnidirectional cells may be used in rural locations (which typically have large ranges and hence uncertain locations for phones within them) and in cities (where they may have ranges of a few hundred metres). 2011.e. In the GSM system this relies on the fact that the phones constantly measure the signal strength from the closest 6 base stations and lock on to the strongest signal (the reality is slightly more complex than this and includes parameters that each individual network can optimise. as the majority of mobile network cells are projected from an antenna with a spread of 120º (i. One of the first services to make widespread use of COO based mobile location was the Zingo taxi hailing system.youtube. official web site (http://www. and in any case will be an irregular shape. Most networks endeavour to optimise for minimum power consumption. Location service using COO have been adopted by the emergency services in many countries.nextivityinc.com/) Cell of origin (telecommunications) Cell of Origin (COO) is a mobile positioning technique for finding a caller's cell (the basic geographical coverage unit of a cellular telephone system) location.com/) • Femtohub (http://www. three mounted on a mast to give complete coverage) giving a signal coverage area with the base station at one corner. rather than the centre.Cel-Fi • "Video: T-Mobile 3G Cel-Fi Signal Booster Unboxing (junkdruggler)" (http://www.. Overview Crude COO positioning considers the location of the base station to be the location of the caller. Retrieved Feb 12.femtohub. Commercial services have been slower to take off than many in the industry expected. including signal quality and variability.com/ watch?v=Waxl7FrPk-c). These maps can be processed to analyse the area which will be dominated by each base station and to approximate each area by a circle (the actual area of coverage may not be exactly where predicted. In practice a network offering location services to third parties will present an API to which queries can be sent by validated users. All networks generate 'splash maps' predicting signal coverage when planning and managing their networks. Inc.. The underlying issue is that mobile phone networks are optimised for capacity and call handling rather than locating phones. This is not very accurate. but the overall effect approximates to each phone locking onto the strongest signal). such as the Global Positioning System (GPS) or Time of Arrival (TOA). For this reason. You Tube. launched in London in 2003 . 38 External links • Nextivity. Most commercially implemented systems rely on 'enhanced' COO. to which a reply will be sent comprising the centre of a circle and a radius representing the expected error (the size of the circle in which the phone is expected to be). COO is the only positioning technique that is widely used in wireless networks and is used for Phase 1 of 911 service in the United States. rather than a circle).

A COW may also be referred to as a site on wheels (SOW).Cell on wheels 39 Cell on wheels A cell on wheels.[2] 26 Cell on Wheels towers were put in place in Washington. or in disaster areas where cellular coverage either was never present (e. Many are nothing more than a cargo trailer or box that has been modified to hold communication equipment and have an antenna tower. is a mobile cell site that consists of a cellular antenna tower and electronic radio transceiver equipment on a truck or trailer. methods of deploying the tower. in the Gulf Coast after Hurricane Katrina). electricity.S. guyed vs. The decision to use a COW for an extended period of time may also be driven by the property owner. 36 cellular COWs were deployed by September 14. Installations on government or military facilities may be granted only on a temporary basis. Pasadena. Following the September 11 attacks on New York City in 2001. Federal Emergency 2005 Rose Bowl game. For instance. or existing wired infrastructure. in a wilderness area where firefighters have set up a command center during a major forest fire) or was compromised by the disaster (e. Not all portable communication centers are created equally. Rose Bowl). a carrier may have approved the placement of a cell site for coverage reasons. especially on and near the National Mall. major conventions. communication satellite. 2001 in Lower COW in parking lot of the Rose Bowl. Many telecommunications companies also use COWs for long-term placement when financing or infrastructure considerations prevent building a permanent site at the location. COWs provided cellular service in Southwest Florida the aftermath of Hurricane Charley in 2004 with most of the area's stationary cell towers destroyed. Tower types vary from one manufacturer to another. California for the Manhattan to support the U. and backhaul. The backhaul to the network can be via terrestrial microwave. usually referred to as a COW.. designed to be part of a cellular network.g. World Series.C. whether it meets TIA/EIA specifications. with its own power generator Management Agency (FEMA) and provide critical phone service to rescue and recovery workers.. Many COWs do not protect their sensitive equipment from the effects of lightning or power surges.g. An engineering team may be able to place a COW on location to provide immediate coverage with few costs other than leasing. unguyed.[1] Expanded or emergency service COWs are used to provide expanded cellular network coverage and/or capacity at special events such as major sporting events (Super Bowl. but the remaining budget is inadequate to fund the construction for a fiscal quarter or even longer. D. . for the inauguration of Barack Obama in January 2009 to handle the millions of extra people and calls in the city. and may require the use of non-permanent facilities.

com/ 2009/ 01/ 19/ technology/ 19cell. html). "Inauguration Crowd Will Test Cellphone Networks" (http:/ / www.it/lang/en/products/telecommunications/ emergency_mobile_station_with_flanged_pole.it/lang/en/products/telecommunications/radio_station_kit. operationgadget. com/ 2004/ 08/ mobile_carriers.html). Like COWs. The main difference is that a CIAB is typically placed for a longer period of time than a COW.calzavara. Cell on Light Trucks (COLTs) COLTs are on smaller box trucks and are limited with respect to the cell phone network. as opposed to the fully functional COW. Cell In A Box. vzw. URL retrieved 19 January 2009.calzavara.html). [2] http:/ / www.calzavara. CIAB (Cell-in-a-Box) External links On a manufacturer’s site (http://www.[3] References [1] New York Times.it/lang/en/products/ telecommunications/emergency_mobile_station_with_self_mounting_pole. nytimes. • different types of COW: • with flanged pole (http://www. html). • mobile trucks with container and self-mounting telescopic mast (http://www. html [3] (http:/ / aboutus.it/?lang=en): • CIAB (http://www. Retrieved on January 28. CIABs provide temporary service with temporary equipment.calzavara. 2010.calzavara. .html). • with compact self mounting pole and special two-axle trailer (http://www. Verizon Wireless Network specifications.it/lang/en/products/ telecommunications/mobitower.Cell on wheels 40 Cell in a box (CIAB) Related to a COW is a CIAB (cell in a box).html). com/ bestnetwork/ network_facts.

due to its proximity to the phone. The systems usually use an external. of course. a signal amplifier and an internal rebroadcast antenna. which is then transmitted to an amplifier unit which amplifies the signal. providing significantly improved signal strength. correctly oriented external antenna should provide better signal than the internal antenna on any cell phone. or wireless cellular signal booster. Generally speaking the larger the external antenna the better the signal . The market for cellular repeaters is expected to grow rapidly over the coming years. However. The more advanced models often also allow multiple cell phones to use the same repeater at the same time.Cellular repeater 41 Cellular repeater A cellular repeater. This is because the antenna can be oriented and located outside to provide the best possible signal. These are similar to the cellular broadcast towers used for broadcasting by the network providers.meaning . Internal rebroadcast antenna The better systems will generally include an internal monopole antenna (although the type of antenna is far from standardised) for rebroadcasting the signal internally . is a device used for boosting the cell phone reception to the local area by the usage of a reception antenna. Even the cheaper home-use models (typically band selective) now provide 20dB . cell phone repeater.although even a small.the advantage of using a monopole antenna is that the signal will be equally distributed in all directions (subject. cell phones perform best when their antennas are oriented parallel to the booster's antenna .50dB gain and many of the more expensive models provide over 50dB. usually intended for use in one building. a type of bi-directional amplifier (BDA) as commonly named in the wireless telecommunications industry.although within reasonable proximity the booster's signal will be strong enough that the orientation of the cell phone's antenna will not make a significant difference in usability.both caused by the lower power required to broadcast the signal to the local bi-directional amplifier. Because all radio antennas are intrinsically polarized. Typical components External directional antenna Although some of the less expensive models do not include an external directional antenna they are crucial to providing significant signal strength gain. These can either be fitted by professionals or will include a signal strength monitor for easy alignment. Modern cellular repeater amplifiers rebroadcast cellular signals inside the building. The CTIA – The Wireless Association (formerly the Cellular Telecommunications & Internet Association) had predicted that by 2007 30% of phone users in the US would be mobile only . but are much smaller. to attenuation from obstacles). and retransmits it locally. This combined with the low population density (compared with Europe and Japan) means that many people will have to use some method to improve their home signal. Other advantages of cellular repeaters include an increase in the cell phone's battery life and a lower level of radiation emitted by the handset . particularly in the USA.smart and expensive technology of the operators) offering gain around 100dBm (ICE function is welcomed as an improvement of the radio isolation between donor and service antenna). since the decibel scale is measured on a logarithmic scale a 30dB gain represents a one thousandfold signal power increase . Excellent high-power models (not home usage .more than 60 million lines. directional antenna to collect the best cellular signal. usually aligned with the nearest cell tower. so are suitable for commercial as well as home use. and the large scale departure from the land-line system. Signal amplifier All models will include a signal amplifier. This is due to the combination of the poor network coverage in some areas.

NodeG from Andrew) offering output power around 10W). where could be repeater used. urban FDD/TDD network 20 km) usage of repeater virtually moving user to bigger distance: radio distance = real distance + (repeater delay) *3. many calls may drop). metal-sheet building. by wall installation or suppression of side/back lobes by chimney.)) and without sense to donor site selection.g. being shaded by buildings (e. high power repeaters (e. etc.Cellular repeater the total amplification of a repeater with greater than around 50dB is likely to be useless without a good. Also cheap models are equipped by automatic gain reduction in case of poor or weak isolation.3 km (delay of RF signal in air is 3. space separation (typically vertical distance in case of the tower installation between donor and service antenna is several meters). By amplification and filtration there is some delay (typically between 5us to 15us).g. such as in cases where the operator is using wider band (e. or house)). In case of poor isolation the device works but with low gain. between donor and service antenna is wall. reduction of reflections . Additional delay form point of view of propagation means additional distance.3us/km). Because of the cellular network has form principle reduced cell size (depends on the technology and activated features typically X*10 km (for standard GSM 35 km). Amateur installation of the pico/mini repeaters can be harmful for many reasons: • Poor choice of donor site may not improve signal • Using the wrong antenna and improperly installing the repeater without paying attention to minimizing interference (e.g. causing noise and inter-modulation products. which will be amplified equally. This is due to the difficulty of filtering the correct signal out from the background noise. Isolation can be also improved by integrated feature called ICE (interference cancellation equipment) offered in some products (e. . +5us up to standard rep. • Repeating only part of the band. EGSM) or more bands and the repeater does not support EGSM or is only for 900GSM. • Use of a poor device for signal generation. delay) and consequently to shorter radius from donor site. Standard GSM channel selective repeater (operated by telecommunication operators for coverage of large areas and big buildings) has output power around 2W.. Operators can operate also EGSM or GSM900+GSM1800 layers with single BCCH (Siemens(SAG) commonly supports the BCCH feature. NodeG. inserting of the attenuating environment (smart placement of the donor and service antenna. In the case of improper repeater support..in front of the donor antenna no near obstacle (like tree. RFWindow).g.. It depends on the type of repeater and used features. placement of the metal mesh).. in macro environment by angle between donor and service antenna (ideally 180°). glasshouse.g. It is reason why somewhere with sufficient levels repeater doesn't work. The isolation is possible to improve by antenna type selection. well aligned antenna. Activating of this feature has negative impact to internal delay (higher delay => prox.2 mW)). User is from network point of view too far. The power gain is calculated by the following equation: 42 For repeater is needed to secure sufficient isolation between donor and service antenna. and the limiting maximum signal power of the amplifier (for picorepeaters typically from around 5 dBm (3.. After repeating you have better (or excellent) coverage but you can't access to network. There is also problem with noise amplification (especially in UL) and desensitization of the donor site. e.g. When the isolation is lower than actual gain + reserve (typically 5-15dB) then repeaters is in loop oscillation. and coverage is poor. installing the repeater in a higher place than necessary.

and tri-band systems cost significantly more. In flat rural areas the signal is unlikely to suffer from multipath interference. See Diffraction and Attenuation for more. Because the frequencies which cell phones use are too high to reflect off the ionosphere as shortwave radio waves do. Different operating frequencies Repeaters are available for all the different GSM frequency bands. there are often dead zones caused by destructive interference of waves which have taken different paths (caused by the signal bouncing off buildings etc. such as warehouses. Directional antennas are very helpful at overcoming this since they can be placed at points of constructive interference and aligned so as not to receive the destructive signal. so will just be heavily attenuated by the distance. some repeaters will handle different types of network such as multi-mode GSM and UMTS repeaters however dual. In these cases it is unlikely that the service provider will do anything to improve reception. but still attenuate significantly. Low signal strength is also often the case in underground areas such as basements and in shops and restaurants located towards the centre of shopping malls. due to the high cost of erecting a new tower.) These usually have an area of a few blocks and will usually only affect one of the two frequency ranges used by cell phones. Repeater systems are available for certain Satellite phone systems.Cellular repeater 43 Reasons for weak signal Rural areas In many rural areas the housing density is too low to make construction of a new base station commercially viable. Building size Large buildings. In these cases the installation of a cellular repeater will generally massively increase signal strength just due to the amplifier. Concrete floors are often poured onto a metal pan which completely blocks most radio signals. Older buildings. hospitals and factories. often have no cellular reception further than a few meters from the outside wall. Building construction material Some construction materials very rapidly attenuate cell phone signal strength. See Multipath interference for more. . As a result. Energy efficient windows and metal window screens are also very effective at blocking radio signals. the only way to obtain strong cell phone signal in these areas is usually to install a home cellular repeater. Some solid foam insulation and some fiberglass insulation used in roofs or exterior walls has foil backing. This is caused by both the fact that the signal is attenuated heavily as it enters the building and the interference as the signal is reflected by the objects inside the building. Some materials have peaks in their absorption spectra which massively decrease signal strength. cell phone waves cannot travel via the ionospohere. allowing the satphones to be used indoors without a clear line of sight to the satellite. This is because the different wavelengths of the different frequencies interfere destructively at different points. Multipath interference Even in urban areas which usually have strong cellular signals throughout. even a great distance from the broadcast towers. Diffraction and general attenuation The longer wavelengths have the advantage of being able to diffract to a greater degree so are less reliant on line of sight to obtain a good signal. which use lead in their roofing material will very effectively block any signal. such as churches. Any building which has a significant thickness of concrete or amount of metal used in its production will attenuate the signal. For this reason in these cases an external antenna is usually desirable. which can reduce transmittance.

Ofcom specifically states that. Many models already have FCC approval. "Repeater devices transmit or re-transmit in the cellular frequency bands. The window for any such regulation of the UK market as in the US." At present. is likely passed as the quantity of repeaters already shipped and in place in the UK is estimated at the tens of thousands. they should have no problem gaining it." This has not detered the UK market for signal boosters with an explosion of web retailers offering a wide range of solutions from DIY installs to installations. There are well established vendors who have worked for some time in this area who work for. The lack of regulatory guidance has led to the situation where most installtions are simply 'plug and play' and have been installed by non technical persons who have no appreciation or understanding of even the most basic RF principles. the use of devices ranging from small mobile signal boosters to high power repeaters can cause loss of coverage through interference and desensitisation of the cells. etc. it is legal to use the low power devices available today for home and small scale use in commercial areas (offices. Ofcom suggest that "Anyone wishing to improve coverage in a particular area is advised to contact their network provider. Only the mobile network operators are licensed to use equipment that transmits in these bands. Some network operators have dedicated teams that will visit a customers site to assess the cause of the problems experienced and offer to put in place a soltion provided by a third party vendor. The use of a mobile signal booster in the UK is only permitted by the mobile networks who hold the licences in the cellular bands. This has largely been driven by the tightening of energy efficicency regulations in building construction. bars. . in cities and areas where many cells exist from each operator.Cellular repeater 44 Approval in the USA by the FCC Although there are some products on the market in the USA which are still pending Federal Communications Commission (FCC) approval. However this is generally limited to large corporates and the public sector. shops. Although a license was originally required to broadcast at cell phone frequencies. with the expense being borne by the client. Installation or use of repeater devices by anyone without a licence is a criminal offence under Section 8 of the WT Act 2006. Approval in the UK by Ofcom and the UK market In the UK there is no third party licencing regime in place even for low powered devices for home use. The use of materials that mitigate heat loss such as metallic foil laminated insulation board and energy efficient glazing with a metallic anodised coating also have high signal attenuation properties. the willingness and capability of network operators to initiate the process to providing an in building solution varies greatly. Repeaters operating in rural and less densely populated areas do not pose a quantifiable problem.). However. and with the networks to provide in building coverage solutions. The UK regulator. The disparity in approach and the lack of a cross network operator working group means that sites requiring a 'wideband' coverage solution for all networks is not currently possible.

the operation code 03 means submit message. com/ id/ 7a27b9e7-7cdd-4456-b630-3d7c35f30a4f/ CIMD_Interface_Specification_SC80. the SMSC would reply with field 900 (error code) instead. Syntax An example CIMD exchange looks like the following: <STX>03:007<TAB>021:12345678<TAB>033:hello<TAB><ETX> <STX>53:007<TAB>021:12345678<TAB>060:971107131212<TAB><ETX> Each packet starts with STX (hex 02) and ends with ETX (hex 03). Field 021 defines the destination address (telephone number). The content of the packet consists of fields separated by TAB (hex 09).0 [1] • Nokia: CIMD specification for SC v8. a colon (:). com/ id/ a58b0133-4ffa-4e17-8b3b-77877688660f/ CIMD_Interface_Specification_SC70. External links • Nokia: CIMD specification for SC v7. Open-Source WAP and SMS Gateway with CIMD 1. Response code 53 with a field 060 time stamp indicates that the message was accepted. A good number of supporting software to implement CIMD is available from Nokia's Web site to build CIMD client. org . Two-digit parameter types are operation codes and each message must have exactly one. consists of a parameter type.3 and CIMD 2. nokia.CIMD 45 CIMD Computer Interface to Message Distribution (CIMD) is a proprietary short message service centre protocol developed by Nokia for their SMSC (now: Nokia Siemens Networks).0 [2] Software • Kannel [3] . Note that the last field must also be terminated with a TAB before the ETX. The number after the operation code is the sequence number used to match an operation to its response. and the parameter value. References [1] http:/ / sw. kannel. pdf [2] http:/ / sw. nokia. Each field. You can fire SMS from message center with the help of CIMD client tools.0 support. with field 033 is the user data (content) of the message. in turn. In the example above. The response code (acknowledgement) of the message is equal to the operation code plus 50. pdf [3] http:/ / www. if the message failed.

when Mr Rao receives a call. A subscriber may: • • • • Be a member of more than one but not more than ten Closed User Groups.e. org/ ftp/ Specs/ 2004-03/ Rel-4/ 24_series/ 24085-401. It is also possible on a per-call basis to suppress the use of the Preferred CUG i. For example: Mr Rao. it is possible on a per-call basis to specify a different Closed User Group (of which the user is a member) for the call. Stage 3 [2] References [1] http:/ / www. Any other calls would be rejected.085 Closed User Group (CUG) Supplementary Services. Also. Technical references • 3GPP 22. zip [2] http:/ / www. This service is NOT applicable to Short messaging service (SMS). could be a member of two closed user group: • His own team of Pizza delivery agents. a senior member at a Pizza delivery outlet. Mr Rao's Preferred CUG would be that of his team. to insist that the call only go through if the destination is a member of the CUG.e. But based on whom Mr Rao is calling he can either suppress or enable the preferred CUG. and to suppress the Outgoing Access permission i. Stage 1 [1] • 3GPP 24. Be permitted to receive calls from outside of the Closed User Group (Incoming Access). If the user is a member of multiple Closed User Groups there will be a Preferred CUG assigned by the network that will be used by default. org/ ftp/ Specs/ 1999-10/ 22_series/ 22085-301. However. zip . When an incoming call is received it is possible for the network to indicate the Closed User Group that is being applied to the call to the called user.Closed User Group (CUG) 46 Closed User Group (CUG) Closed User Groups are groups of GSM mobile telephone subscribers who can only make calls and receive calls from members within the group. • His peer group of senior Pizza delivery executives. there are handsets that support Closed User Group applications. Be allowed to make emergency calls irrespective of the group subscription. 3gpp. it would be indicated to him by the network as to which user group the call originated from. However. this Supplementary Service is restricted in use only by organizations. Be permitted to make calls outside of the Closed User Group (Outgoing Access). 3gpp. As can be seen.085 Closed User Group (CUG) supplementary services. act as if the user is not a member of the Closed User Group. and is not for use by the general public.

org/ LPinformation_new/ 2008/ 05/ LPiEdit2. References [1] http:/ / www. founded in 2000. [4] "LINUX-based VPN system has NEXCOM running a tight ship". stores. Sweden with offices in New York City. Sweden Products Website Columbitech Mobile VPN [1] Columbitech. February 2008 (http:/ / www. The company is headquartered in Stockholm. html). provides wireless security to secure mobile devices. .[4] and in other industries where mobile devices are used over wireless networks. 4G and WiMAX. wsj. May 2008 (http:/ / www. Mobile Enterprise. Columbitech Mobile VPN The Columbitech mobile VPN provides remote network access to field mobility users.Columbitech 47 Columbitech Columbitech Type Industry Founded Private Mobile Communication 2000 Headquarters Stockholm. The technology is utilized in the retail industry to meet PCI DSS requirements. com/ article/ SB119717610996418467. December 11 2007 (http:/ / online. Wall Street Journal. com/ ME2/ dirmod.[2] with support for WLAN and public networks. com/ [2] "Lost Connections". Stores Magazine. asp). including 3G. columbitech. [3] "Mobile VPN for the Field". mobileenterprisemag. asp?sid=& nm=& type=Publishing& mod=Publications::Article& mid=8F3A7027421841978F18BE895F87F791& tier=4& id=D7B7F1A7229743C1A55EFC1BD55DF05F). corporate WLAN users and telecommuters – mobilizing the enterprise.[3] The solution is encrypted on standards-based Wireless Transport Layer Security (WTLS) and holds a FIPS 140-2 certification.

Communication Linking Protocol

48

Communication Linking Protocol
Communication Linking Protocol (CLP) is a communications protocol used to communicate with many devices using the Motorola ReFLEX network. CLP allows a user to direct a ReFLEX capable device to send or receive messages. CLP is used by Advantra's ReFLEX devices. Advantra's ReFLEX product line was purchased by Inilex who now manufactures the devices.

External links
• • • • • • ReFLEX White Paper [1] Two Way Paging Article [2] Article [3] Barran Device [4] Karli Device [5] Wirlki Device [6]

References
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] http:/ / content. arch. com/ whitepaper/ reflexwhitepaper. pdf http:/ / www. rysavy. com/ Articles/ twoway. htm http:/ / www. leapforum. org/ published/ internetworkMobility/ split/ node115. html#SECTION001432100000000000000 http:/ / inilex. com/ telemetry-barran. asp http:/ / inilex. com/ telemetry-karli. asp http:/ / inilex. com/ telemetry-wirlki. asp

Context-aware services
Context-aware services is a computing technology which incorporates information about the current location of a mobile user to provide more relevant services to the user.[1] An example of a context-aware service could be a real-time traffic update or even a live video feed of a planned route for a motor vehicle user. Context can refer to real-world characteristics, such as temperature, time or location. This information can be updated by the user (manually) or from communication with other devices and applications or sensors on the mobile device. also see Context aware delegation.

References
[1] "Building a context-aware service architecture" (http:/ / www. ibm. com/ developerworks/ architecture/ library/ ar-conawserv/ index. html?ca=drs-). Developer Works (IBM). . Retrieved 4 January 2010.

Coverage map

49

Coverage map
Coverage maps are designed to indicate the service areas of radiocommunication transmitting stations. Typically these may be produced for radio or television stations, for mobile telephone networks and for satellite networks. Such maps are alternatively known as propagation maps. For satellite networks, a coverage map is often known as a footprint.

Definition of coverage
Typically a coverage map will indicate the area within which the user can expect to obtain good reception of the service in question using standard equipment under normal operating conditions. Additionally, the map may also separately denote supplementary service areas where good reception may be obtained but other stations may be stronger, or where reception may variable but the service may still be usable.

Technical details
The field strength that the marked service boundary on a coverage map represents will be defined by whoever produces the map, but typical examples are as follows:

VHF(FM) / Band II
For VHF(FM) / Band II, the BBC defines the service area boundary as corresponding to an average field strength of 54 dB (relative to 1 µV/m) at a height of 10 m above ground level.

MF / Mediumwave
For MF / Mediumwave, the BBC defines the daytime service area boundary as a minimum field strength of 2 mV/m. At night, the service area of mediumwave services can be drastically reduced by co-channel interference from distant stations.

Limitations
Often coverage maps show general coverage for large regions and therefore any boundary indicated should not be interpreted as a rigid limit. The quality of reception can be very different at places only short distances apart, and this phenomenon is more apparent as the transmission frequency increases. Inevitably small pockets of poor reception may exist within the main service area that cannot be shown on the map due to scale issues. Conversely, the use of sensitive equipment, high gain antennas, or simply being located on high ground can yield good signal strengths well outside the indicated area. The significance of local geographical conditions cannot be over emphasised and this was [1] which revealed the signal reception conditions around a typical house. The site did underlined by an experiment not have the critical "line-of-sight propagation" to the transmitter. Average signal levels, taken at the same height, varied by up to 6dB, and for individual frequencies by up to 14dB. In RF reception terms these figures are huge differences. Although carriers and broadcasters attempt to design their networks to eliminate dead zones, no network is perfect, so coverage breaks within the general coverage areas are still possible. Often companies will construct low power satellite stations to fill in bad reception areas that become apparent once the high power transmitter's coverage map has identified where the network is deficient.

Coverage map

50

External links
• The Transmission Gallery: Index of UK TV coverage maps [2] • TV Fool: Index of US TV coverage maps [3]

References
[1] http:/ / www. aerialsandtv. com/ loftaerials. html#BlackArtOfRF [2] http:/ / tx. mb21. co. uk/ mapsys/ anatv/ [3] http:/ / www. tvfool. com/ index. php?option=com_content& task=view& id=15

with an emphasis on IBM's Maximo EAM system. The product runs on the Microsoft Windows operating system DataSplice Architecture . but rather utilizes the Common Language Infrastructure (CLI) of Microsoft. including a remote client (for handheld and/or desktop use). Colorado and offers mobile applications which extend enterprise systems. asset management and regulatory accountability. CO (additional offices in Massachusetts. including packaged software for Computerized Maintenance Management Systems (CMMS). California. Its primary client base is focused on utilities. gas/oil. It may also be used on a desktop system as a unified/simplified interface for multiple systems. and Enterprise Asset Management (EAM). LLC is a mobile software company headquartered in Fort Collins.NET framework’s ADO. DataSplice does not use a proprietary software platform. The software offered is a mobile middleware. President/CEO DataSplice Mobile Integration Suite CMMS_EAM Total Maintenance Inspections (TMI) datasplice.DataSplice 51 DataSplice DataSplice. The extensible system consists of three components. LLC Type Industry Founded privately held company (LLC) computer software 2001 Headquarters Fort Collins. a server which communicates with the primary EAM. and Oregon Key people Products Scott Kunze.com [1] Website DataSplice. and an administration client for configuring the system. smartphones. inventory specialists and inspectors. aerospace and other markets which utilizes field service management systems which require tracking. which allows for connectivity to different database systems such as MySQL and Oracle.NET. The software provides an interface from these systems to handhelds. defense. tablet_computers and mobile computers for field technicians.

The group is focused on developing specifications for wireless mobile RFIC to base-band IC (BBIC) interfaces in mobile devices. DataSplice introduced InspecTMI. Partners DataSplice is an IBM Advanced Partner. electrical and timing characteristics of the digital RF-BB Interface with sufficient detail to allow physical implementation of the interface. power generation. com/ [2] "Global Solutions Directory" (http:/ / www-304. The longer term development will focus on future air interface standards which promise further improvements in high speed. Retrieved 28 June 2011. and with sufficient rigor that implementations of the interface from different suppliers are fully compatible at the physical level. . data optimized traffic. fieldtechnologiesonline.09 from the year 2006 with its 312Mbit/s can additionally handle UMTS. DigRF v3. DataSplice is a privately held company. In 2010. Field Technologies Online. Administration Client and the Server. which was founded in 1991.DataSplice 52 History Originally known as Optimization Resources. The original management and development staff continue to be engaged daily operations. ibm. datasplice.DataSplice Mobile Integration. and a Microsoft Silver ISV Partner. IBM. com/ article. [3] "DataSplice Mobile Computing Solutions: Inventory and Work Orders" (http:/ / www. com/ partnerworld/ gsd/ solutiondetails. In addition. DigRF The DigRF working group was formed as a MIPI Alliance (MIPI) working group in April 2007. mvc/ DataSplice-Mobile-Computing-Solutions-Invento-0001). The flagship Mobile Integraton Suite consists of three components: Remote Client. IBM . Work Orders. a field inspections and operator rounds mobile collection system geared toward highly regulated inspection scenarios. There is DigRF version v1. . The group's current charter is split into short and long term development efforts. the future work will seek to harmonize efforts with the MIPI's PHY and UniPro working groups. Inspections. and safety inspections. do?solution=37287& lc=en& stateCd=P& page=2& print=true). Condition Monitoring and Asset Management. The short term development will focus on a specification targeted for completion by end of 2007 for LTE and WiMax air interface standards. which was specified in 2004. These specifications will describe the logical. . The primary modules[3] are Inventory. such as substations. Present DigRF v4 draft offers Gbit/s bandwidth for LTE and WiMax. DataSplice was spun off as both a company and product in 2001.12 for usage in GSM/EDGE handsets. References [1] http:/ / www. Products The product's main emphasis is providing a simplified mobile interface into IBM Maximo[2] .

Data Collected during Drive Testing Drive test equipment typically collects data relating to the network itself. By measuring what a wireless network subscriber would experience in any specific area. The technique consists of using a motor vehicle containing mobile radio network air interface measurement equipment that can detect and record a wide variety of the physical and virtual parameters of mobile cellular service in a given geographical area. wireless carriers can make directed changes to their networks that provide better coverage and service to their customers. The dataset collected during drive testing field measurements can include information such as: • • • • • • • • • • • • Signal intensity Signal quality Interference Dropped calls Blocked calls Anomalous events Call statistics Service level statistics QoS information Handover information Neighbouring cell information GPS location co-ordinates . Drive testing requires a mobile vehicle outfitted with drive testing measurement equipment. capacity and Quality of Service (QoS) of a mobile radio network. shtml Drive testing Drive testing is a method of measuring and assessing the coverage. radio frequency scanner information and GPS information to provide location logging. This ensures measurements are realistic and comparable to actual user experiences. These equipments are usually highly specialized electronic devices that interface to OEM mobile handsets. org/ digrf. mipi.DigRF 53 External links • About DigRF Alliance [1] References [1] http:/ / www. services running on the network such as voice or data services.

such a comparative coverage analysis or comparative data network speed analysis. are frequently used in marketing campaigns.com) • SwissQual. Results from benchmarking activities. Service Quality Monitoring Service quality monitoring typically involves making test calls across the network to a fixed test unit to assess the relative quality of various services using Mean opinion score (MOS). network issues such as dropped calls or missing neighbour cell assignments. Drive testing to gather networking benchmarking data is the only way mobile network operators can collect accurate competitive data on the true level of their own and their competitors technical performance and quality levels. a supplier of drive testing equipment (http://www. References External links • Ascom. Quality monitoring focuses on the end user experience of the service. Optimization & Troubleshooting Optimization and troubleshooting information is more typically used to aid in finding specific problems during the rollout phases of new networks or to observe specific problems reported by consumers during the operational phase of the network lifecycle.com) 1. and allows mobile network operators to react to what effectively subjective quality degradations by investigating the technical cause of the problem in time-correlated data collected during the drive test. a supplier of drive testing equipment (http://www. using devices that run largely without human intervention carried in vehicles that regularly ply typical drive testing routes such as garbage collection vehicles. Service quality monitoring is typically carried out in an automated fashion.swissqual.ascom. sophisticated multi-channel tools such as Ascom's Symphony or SwissQual's Diversity Benchmarker are used to measure several network technologies and service types simultaneously to very high accuracy. Network Benchmarking For network benchmarking. a supplier of drive testing equipment (http://www.anite. taxis or buses. to provide directly comparable information regarding competitive strengths and weaknesses.Drive testing 54 Types of Drive Testing Drive testing can broadly be categorized into three distinct topics: • Network Benchmarking • Optimization & Troubleshooting • Service Quality Monitoring The resulting oduced by drive testing for each of these purposes is different.) . Drive Testing can be conducted at any time on a live network and very rarely will there be any network intrusion. In this mode drive testing data is used to diagnose the root cause of specific.com/anite/en/home/. typically localized.

Dual mode mobile

55

Dual mode mobile
Dual mode mobiles refer to mobile phones that are compatible with more than one form of data transmission or network.

Dual-Mode Phone
A dual-mode phone is a telephone which uses more than one technique for sending and receiving voice and data. This could be for wireless mobile phones or for wired phones. There are three types of dual mode phones.

Network Compatibility
Mobile phones containing two types of cellular radios for voice and data. These phones include combination of GSM and [[CDMAg ]] technology. They can be used as a GSM or CDMA phone according to your preference. These handsets are also called global phones. A good example of this kind of phones are Spice D1111 [1] and the Samsung SCH-a790.Recently Lg released a handset named Fathom which is capable of dual mode but with a single sim slot. These dual mode handsets are compatible with both GSM and CDMA networks and are essentially 2 phones in one device. Such phones make sense in those countries that have both GSM & CDMA networks or international CDMA roamers who want to keep a single handset with 2 numbers on it. All dual mode handsets require two identifying cards (one SIM and one RUIM) but not all dual SIM handsets are dual mode (for example dual SIM GSM phones).

Cellular and Non-cellular Radios
Mobile phones containing both cellular and non-cellular radios used for voice and data communication. There are also 2 types of dual mode phones which use cellular radio which will contain GSM/CDMA/W-CDMA as well as other technology like IEEE 802.11 (Wi-Fi) radio or DECT (Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications) radio. These phones can be used as cellular phones when connected to a wide area cellular network. When within range of a suitable WiFi or DECT network, the phone can be used as a WiFi/DECT phone for all communications purposes. This method of operation can reduce cost (for both the network operator and the subscriber), improve indoor coverage and increase data access speeds.

Wired Phones
Wired phones with VoIP and POTS technology. These phones can be used for making VoIP calls and also used for phones on the circuit switchnetwork. These phones require compatible routers and modem to make VoIP calls.

External links
• China Wireless [2] (Market Research) • Eurodualsim technologie [3]

References
[1] http:/ / www. spice-mobile. com/ model_fer_D1111. aspx [2] http:/ / www. instat. com/ abstract. asp?id=279& SKU=IN0703903CWW [3] http:/ / www. eurodualsim. com/

Dumb pipe

56

Dumb pipe
With regards to a mobile network operator (MNO, or operator), the term dumb pipe refers to an operator’s network being used simply to transfer bytes between the customer’s device and the Internet. The use of the term “dumb” refers to the inability of the operator to restrict services and applications to its own portal and primarily just provide simple bandwidth and network speed. The dumb pipe is one of the commonly understood operational models for a MNO, including the walled garden, and the smart pipe.

Examples
One widely regarded example of the operator “dumb pipe” scenario is Apple’s iPhone. The iPhone enables its users to directly surf the Internet with its mobile Safari browser and connects to Apple’s ITunes store for purchasing ringtones and music instead of the operator’s own portal[1] . Operators such as AT&T Mobility cannot offer their traditional services (such as downloads of wallpapers, ringtones, games, applications, etc.) as Apple controls the total iPhone user experience. Operators must be content to provide only the network connectivity and bandwidth which the iPhone has tripled in some cities[2] . In addition to losing valuable revenue opportunities with the customer, operators are rumored to pay Apple a percentage of the customer’s monthly bill as well[3] [4] . While the iPhone is a good example of the dumb pipe, not everyone believes it will ultimately be bad for operators[5] . Another example of the operator dumb pipe / smart pipe dilemma is the upcoming deployment of WiMAX technology. Companies such as Sprint Nextel and Clearwire are looking into ways to deploy WiMAX with additional services to keep them from becoming dumb pipes[6] .

Further reading
While there is no real industry standard definition of dumb pipe, it is a generally understood term in the mobile industry. There are numerous blog postings and trade articles which refer to the operator dumb pipe dilemma, some of which are referenced in this article. Others include: • The Operators vs. the Media Brands [7] • The Pipe Is Only Dumb If You Make It That Way [8] • Staying Relevant In A Dumb Pipe Era [9] A reference which describes the dumb pipe, operator portal (or walled garden), as well as the smart pipe is a report from Juniper Research titled Business Models for Mobile Content Players, Strategic Options & Scenarios 2007-2012: • Juniper Research Report [10] The author is not affiliated with Juniper in any way, and although the full report requires purchase, there are a number of summaries available on the web: • Smart-Pipe Strategy to Provide MNOs with 31% Share of $188bn Mobile Content Market by 2012 [11] • Study About MNOs Share of Mobile Content Market [12] • Mobile Entertainment in Western Europe [13] A Google search will list several more: • Google Search of Juniper Report [14]

Dumb pipe

57

References
Apple adds iPhone ringtones to iTunes (http:/ / www. engadget. com/ 2007/ 09/ 05/ apple-adds-iphone-ringtones-to-itunes/ ) iPhone Triples AT&T's Data Traffic (http:/ / www. shaiberger. com/ ?p=52) Apple's European iPhone Deals (http:/ / blogs. ft. com/ techblog/ 2007/ 08/ apples-european. html) Inside Apple: An iPhone Invasion (http:/ / www. pcmag. com/ article2/ 0,2704,2185225,00. asp) Wired: How the iPhone Blew Up the Wireless Industry (http:/ / www. wired. com/ gadgets/ wireless/ magazine/ 16-02/ ff_iphone?currentPage=all) [6] WiMAX Carriers Risk Becoming Dumb Pipes (http:/ / www. fiercebroadbandwireless. com/ story/ analysys-wimax-carriers-risk-becoming-dumb-pipes/ 2007-07-16) [7] http:/ / gigaom. com/ 2008/ 01/ 13/ the-operators-vs-the-media-brands/ [8] http:/ / mobhappy. com/ blog1/ 2008/ 01/ 14/ the-pipe-is-only-dumb-if-you-make-it-that-way/ [9] http:/ / www. wirelessweek. com/ staying-relevant-in-a-dumb-pipe. aspx [10] http:/ / www. juniperresearch. com/ shop/ viewreport. php?id=91 [11] http:/ / www. sourcewire. com/ releases/ rel_display. php?relid=iiLmi [12] http:/ / news. soft32. com/ juniper-research%E2%80%99s-study-about-mnos-share-of-mobile-content-market-by-2012_5106. html [13] http:/ / research. analysys. com/ default. asp?Mode=article& iLeftArticle=2179& m=& n= [14] http:/ / www. google. com/ search?hl=en& q=juniper+ research+ business+ models+ for+ mobile+ content+ players& btnG=Google+ Search [1] [2] [3] [4] [5]

Dynamic Link Adaptation
In mobile telephony, Dynamic Link Adaptation is a method and strategy by which cellular networks can dynamically adapt a radio link according to changing conditions of interference. In particular, the method applies to uplink time slots in UMTS-TDD systems. A preferred embodiment describes performing dynamic link adaptation when a UE has two CCTrCHs in an uplink time slot. The method and strategy of the invention are applicable for UMTS-FDD, CDMA-2000, and other systems as well.

E-OTD
E-OTD is the acronym for the Enhanced Observed Time Difference. Enhanced Observed Time Difference (E-OTD) is a standard for the location of mobile telephones. The location method works by multilateration. The standardisation was first carried out for GSM by the GSM standard committees (T1P1.5 and ETIS) in LCS Release 98 and Release 99[1] . The standardisation was continued for 3G and WCDMA mobile telephones by 3GPP[2] . Conceptually, the method is similar to U-TDOA, however, it involves time difference measurements being made in the handset rather than the network, and a mechanism to pseudo-synchronise the network. The handset makes an observation of the time difference of arrival of signals from two different base stations. These observations are known as Observed Time Difference (OTD). The handset measures the OTD between a number of different base stations. If the base stations were synchronised, then a single OTD defines a hyperbolic locus. A second, independent OTD, for which one of the observed base stations is spatially distinct from those in the first OTD, would provide a second hyperbolic locus, and the intersection of the two loci gives an estimate of the location of the mobile. If more than two independent OTDs are available, then the measurements can be combined to yield a more accurate measurement. However, GSM and 3G networks are not necessarily synchronised, so further information is needed. The E-OTD standard provides a method for pseudo-synchronisation. A Location Measurement Unit (LMU) can be used to estimate the transmission time offset between two base stations. This measurement is known as the Real Time Difference (RTD). The RTD for two base stations can then be subtracted from the OTD for the same two base stations to produce the Geometric Time Difference (GTD). The GTD is the time difference that would have been measured by the mobile if the network was perfectly synchronised. Accordingly, the application of the RTD

pdf) Manual for the E-ODT compliance check (http://www. 58 References [1] “Overview of 2G LCS Technologies and Standards” (ftp:/ / ftp. gov/ pshs/ services/ 911-services/ enhanced911/ archives/ aerial. com/ 2100-1033-928153. and so is a drawback of E-OTD. Because E-OTD requires a software modification to be included in the mobile phone. 3gpp.php) .phonescoop. However. pdf) [2] “Testing E-ODT” (Manual for the E-ODT compliance check) (http:/ / www. Vol 1. html) External links Encyclopedic article from Phone Scoop (http://www.E-OTD provides a pseudo-synchronisation. tmworld. In 2007. if there are sufficient independent OTD measurements such that the equation system is over-determined. as the time offsets will be changing due to the clock drift in each base station[3] . com/ rfcomms/ refdocs/ gsmgprs/ gprsla_gen_bse_eotd. CPS was acquired by CSR. 2000. com/ contents/ pdf/ 6623767. org/ workshop/ Archive/ 0101LCS/ Docs/ PDF/ LCS-010019. then the additional information can be used to estimate the RTDs. cnet. 1. In essence.pdf) E-OTD compliance check in lab environment (http:/ / wireless. CSR merged with SIRF. SPIE.com/contents/pdf/6623767. Proc. a 2003 paper[4] describes a method of operating E-OTD without LMUs. Vol. 59 (2003). The deployment of LMUs can be expensive. An LMU is a receiver that is placed in a position in the network that is able to report the RTDs of a number of different base stations. In 2009. E-OTD was considered for the Enhanced 911 mandate. and presents results of an operational trial.tmworld. [4] “Mobile location without network-based synchronization or How to do E-OTD without LMUs”. E-OTD positioning system has been less commonly used than the U-TDOA positioning system. [5] “Last Chance for E911 Technology” (http:/ / news. fcc. pp 55 – 64. pdf) [3] “Mobile Phone Location Determination and Its Impact on Intelligent Transportation Systems” IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems.com/glossary/term. then it is necessary to continuously update the RTDs. An active proponent and developer of E-OTD was Cambridge Positioning Systems (CPS)[5] .php?gid=188) Advertisement of the E-OTD capability (http:/ / www. March. agilent. If the base station clocks are not synchronised to a common source. 5084. but ultimately was not a successful contender for this application. No.

Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to uniquely identify mobile devices.Electronic Serial Number 59 Electronic Serial Number Electronic Serial Numbers (ESNs) were created by the U. Version 1.5 hexadecimal digits. 3gpp.org/standards/resources/esn/) . The main difference between MEID and IMEI is that the MEID allows hexadecimal digits while IMEI allows only decimal digits . was created and was first implemented by Verizon in 2006. htm) http:/ / www.S. in fact. tiaonline.0. As ESNs have essentially run out. pdf) External links • Official TIA Resource Page for ESN and UIMID (http://www. compared to International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI) numbers used by all GSM phones. ESNs are often represented as either 11 digit decimal numbers or 8 digit hexadecimal numbers.tiaonline. org/ standards/ resources/ esn/ index. MEID was created to be a superset of IMEI. The remaining 24 bits are the least significant bits of the SHA-1 hash of a Mobile Equipment Identifier (MEID). the same length as the IMEI and. To allow more than 256 manufacturers to be identified the manufacturer code was extended to 14 bits.215 codes to mobiles. 2009-09 (http:/ / www. Reclaimed codes have also been used for UIMID assignments. The hexadecimal format displays an ESN as 8 digits and also does not separately display 14 bit manufacturer codes which occupy 3. from the days of AMPS in the United States from the early 1980s.[2] The last of the virgin (never before used) ESN codes was allocated in November 2008.777. org/ ftp/ Specs/ html-info/ 23003. but 14 bit codes are not displayed as separate digits. The administrative role was taken over by the Telecommunications Industry Association in 1997 and is still maintained by them. pdf ESN Assignment Guidelines and Procedures. tiaonline.0.[1] The first 8 bits of the ESN was originally the manufacturer code.144 codes. May 2007 (http:/ / tiaonline. leaving 18 bits for the manufacturer to assign up to 262. Manufacturer code 0x80 is reserved from assignment and is used instead as an 8-bit prefix for pseudo-ESNs (pESN). The decimal format separately displays 8 bit manufacturer codes in the first 3 digits.9c. 9c. org/ standards/ resources/ esn/ documents/ esn_meid_milestones_timeline. V9. leaving 24 bits for the manufacturer to assign up to 16. Codes are assigned according to industry guidelines. org/ standards/ resources/ esn/ documents/ ESN_Guidelines_v1.003. For the decimal format the first three digits are the decimal representation of the first 8 bits (between 000 and 255 inclusive) and the next 8 digits are derived from the remaining 24 bits and will be between 00000000 and 16777215 inclusive. cfm) 3GPP TS 23.[3] Applications for assignments were accepted until June 30. MEIDs are 56 bits long. 2010 using reclaimed ESN codes. Pseudo-ESNs are not guaranteed to be unique (the MEID is the unique identifier if the phone has a pseudo-ESN).[4] References [1] [2] [3] [4] Electronic Serial Numbers (ESN) (http:/ / www. MEID. ESNs are mainly used with CDMA phones (and were previously used by AMPS and TDMA phones). those previously assigned to AMPS or TDMA phones and therefore not present on CDMA2000 systems. a new serial number format."IMSI shall consist of decimal digits (0 through 9) only". The decimal format of pseudo ESNs will therefore begin with 128.

EMI (protocol) External Machine Interface (EMI). They decided instead to focus on hardware manufacturing. Wireless Computing: A Manager's Guide to Wireless Networking. '66677789' is the recipient's address (telephone number) and '68656C6C6F' is the content of the message. forming less than 5% of all pagers by 1991. the third is the operation type (O for operation. John Wiley and Sons.). hex 02) and the end with ^C (ETX. Syntax A typical EMI/UCP exchange looks like this : ^B01/00045/O/30/66677789///1//////68656C6C6F/CE^C ^B01/00041/R/30/A//66677789:180594141236/F3^C The start of the packet is signaled by ^B (STX. the EMBARC enterprise failed in April. in this case the ASCII string "hello". receivers of service requests. The wireless data handbook (http:/ / books. "short message transfer"). 1996[1] and Motorola sold their national paging license. It was established in 1990 after Motorola purchased Contemporary Communications. and the fourth is the operation (here 30. ISBN 0471286567. p. and a timestamp is suffixed to the phone number to show time of delivery. It was useful for sending a simultaneous message or memo to up to 500 mobile users.[2] In 1996. with the charge being more cost effective for larger numbers of clients. Motorola attempted to use EMBARC to penetrate a different market: broadcasting current sports scores. an extension to Universal Computer Protocol (UCP). alphanumeric pagers did not show rapid growth in the market. The second line is the response with a matching transaction reference number.200 bps from 3. The full specification is available on the LogicaCMG website developers' forum.5 kW ground transmitters. a national carrier for pagers in the 900 MHz band.[2] References [1] DeRose. [2] Brodsky. . It could send messages up to 1. 92. The first four fields form the mandatory header. 26.500 characters long to portable computers that were equipped to receive the messages. Communications Series. Fields within the packet are separated by / characters. calculated simply by summing all bytes in the packet (including slashes) and taking the 8 least significant bits from the result. p. Retrieved 2011-05-06. and the transportation industry. . Unfortunately. Ira (1997). google.[1] The EMBARC service could feed data at 1. The final field is the checksum. but registration is required.[2] However. now part of Acision. hex 03). James F. com/ books?id=jbXEy2FRAnIC& pg=PA26) (4th ed. In the first line above. John Wiley and Sons. The deliveries were charged based on time until reception. The subsequent fields are dependent on the operation. The most likely users of this service were thought to be sales people operating in the field. (1999). The protocol was developed by CMG Wireless Data Solutions.EMBARC 60 EMBARC EMBARC (Electronic Mail Broadcast to A Roaming Computer) was a business enterprise of the Motorola company that provided wireless broadcast of e-mail and news to mobile subscribers. is a protocol primarily used to connect to short message service centres (SMSCs) for mobile telephones. where 'A' indicates that the message was successfully acknowledged by the SMSC. R for result). ISBN 0471316512.

pdf http:/ / www. In practice default alphabet is GSM-7. with number of window bigger than 100). cpan. but only if you have very slow network and incorrectly configure your application on your SMSC (for example one session. com/ Telecoms/ 350234223 http:/ / www. • Computer Interface for Message Distribution (CIMD) developed by Nokia External links • LogicaCMG: Downloads for developers [1] (link no longer active as of 2007-12-24) • UCP Specification (Vodafone Germany) [2] • A more detailed UCP Specification [3] • UCP Perl implementation (for developers) [4] • Kannel [3]. Open-Source WAP and SMS Gateway with UCP/EMI 4. de/ downloadarea/ EmiSpec_43d. References [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / www. nowsms.interesting is that in EMI UCP documentation default alphabet is IRA (eq ASCII on 7bit). vodafone. which is almost the same as ASCII on 7 bit.EMI (protocol) 61 Technical Limitations The two digit transaction reference number means that an entity sending text messages can only have 100 outstanding messages (per session). org/ ~nemux/ . In practice it does not have any impact on delivery throughput. except few characters (for example '_' underline). logicacmg. pdf http:/ / search. Alternatives • Short message peer-to-peer protocol (SMPP) also provides SMS over TCP/IP. com/ discus/ messages/ 1/ EMI_UCP_Specification_40-8156.0 support. this can limit performance. The default alphabet .

According to CSR. lower cost implementations and reduced power and processing requirements. and reliable location sensing when GPS signals are weak or unavailable. EGPS. EGPS technologies are due in 2008.The E-GPS system was first announced by developers CPS (Cambridge Positioning Systems Ltd)[1] • January 2007 . and that eGPS is superior to Assisted GPS. trademarked as eGPS) is a technology designed for mobile phones on GSM and W-CDMA networks. Timeline • February 2005 . to augment GPS signals to deliver faster location fixes.uk/PR/ April2006/2970. It is being developed by CSR who has partnered with Motorola – together they intend to create an open industry forum. CSR claim that this enables software-only GPS solutions to operate reliably in all environments.engadget.com/2008/02/10/ csr-shows-off-egps-says-its-superior-to-a-gps/) • E-GPS High Accuracy Mobile Location Technology for GSM / 3G W-CDMA (http://www.CSR & Motorola announce that they intend to create an open industry forum for EGPS technologies References [1] CSR announcement Feb 2005 (http:/ / www. says it's superior to aGPS (http://www. palminfocenter." CSR is hoping to add eGPS capabilities to handsets for less than $1 per unit." More specifically.org/) • CSR shows off eGPS. com/ news/ 7557/ egps-offers-more-accurate-handset-locating/ ) External links • The EGPS Forum .Enhanced GPS 62 Enhanced GPS Enhanced GPS (or E-GPS. EGPS delivers a "universal positioning capability that will not only work reliably indoors and in zero GPS signal conditions.CPS is purchased by CSR.htm) .co.egpsforum. but greatly speed time to fix in poor GPS reception areas where most handsets are used.3g.Motorola and CSR (http://www. Fine Time Aiding enables a more aggressive search and is claimed to be equivalent to 6 dB more sensitivity than can be achieved by any GPS hardware correlator in the terminal. fast. a manufacturer of bluetooth and wireless chips for mobile handsets • January 2008 . it can "exploit data available from the cellular network to speed GPS fixes and provide complementary. E-GPS combines CSR's "Matrix" technology with GPS – when a user initiates a location request they get a Matrix location instantly using cell tower information. Then CSR's "Fine Time Aiding" helps the device know where to look for a GPS signal. accurate to within 100m. to quickly acquire satellite information within seconds.

. do?uri=OJ:L:2005:344:0047:01:EN:HTML) [4] http:/ / www. eu/ LexUriServ/ LexUriServ.8125 MHz frequency band in the Community (http:/ / eur-lex. GOLAY etc. Radio paging services depend on the allocation and availability of appropriate frequencies in order to transmit and receive between fixed-base stations and radio paging receivers respectively. • The pager needs only to be active during the period it has been allocated to.. uk/ static/ archive/ ra/ topics/ paging/ document/ pwa-paging. This scheduling allocation protocol extends the battery life of the pager by several orders of magnitude. eu/ LexUriServ/ LexUriServ.8125 MHz.[1] ERMES failed to develop[2] and its frequency band has been reassigned to different use. Pager interrogation • The pager population is divided into 16 groups. • Each pager group is allocated to one of the 16 transmission batches [A. European Telecommunications Standard Institute (ETSI) has developed the European Telecommunications Standard ETS 300 133 for ERMES operating in the frequency band 169. labeled A through P. ofcom. org. nl/ PDW/ pdw. Related websites • PDW Paging Decoder [4] freeware • Audio samples including ERMES. com/ digital/ .[3] Technical specification Transmission parameters • ERMES transmits the data at 6250 bit/s.ERMES 63 ERMES ERMES (European Radio Messaging System) is a pan-European radio paging system.. gsm-antennes. • Each subsequence is further divided into 16 batches.4125-169. do?uri=CELEX:31990L0544:EN:HTML) [2] Ofcom's Public Wide Area Paging Information (http:/ / www. allowing it to go into sleep mode 15/16 (~=93%) of the time (a ~7% duty cycle). europa. [5] References [1] Council Directive 90/544/EEC of 9 October 1990 on the frequency bands designated for the coordinated introduction of pan-European land-based public radio paging in the Community (http:/ / eur-lex.4-169. htm) [3] Commission Decision of 20 December 2005 on the harmonisation of the 169. Transmission parameters. php?lang=eng [5] http:/ / kb9ukd. europa. pager interrogation • Each paging transmission is divided into 60 cycles of 1 minute in length. • Each cycle is divided into 5 subsequences of 12 seconds. • ERMES uses Frequency Shift Keying (4-FSK) modulation..P].

it is connected via TCP/IP.[2] This was published by the TIA as TIA-820-C. The EUIMID (and UIMID) are hardware identifiers that do not change throughout the life of the device they identify. and an R-UIM or CSIM manufacturer in the case of UIMID). anytime a mobile user sends or receives a message where the other party was not another real mobile user.25 or similar. Their most important characteristic is that they are globally unique. EUIMID EUIMID (expanded UIMID) is a unique identifier for an R-UIM (Removable User Identity Module) or CSIM (CDMA SIM application) card in CDMA2000 cellular systems that replaces the older UIMID identifier. Big Brother).0 (or higher) [1]. This tradeoff was removed in 2008 by the ability to specify MEID or EUIMID in OTASP signaling and in 2009 by the addition of these options to the CDMA air interface StatusRequest message. known as Short Form (SF_EUIMID) and Long Form (LF_EUIMID). SMCI all of which denote the concept of an ESME connecting to an SMSC. no two R-UIM devices should ever be given the same number. voting systems that process SMS votes (Pop Idol. they can identify the issuer of the code (likely a mobile phone operator in the case of EUIMID. etc. SMSC uses protocols such as SMPP. the TIA. OIS. The pseudo-UIMID is not unique. The SF_EUIMID has the unique ability to override the phone’s own MEID in signaling. Short Form EUIMID (SF_EUIMID) The Short Form EUIMID is based on the 56-bit MEID and is allocated from the same numbering space by the current Global Hexadecimal Administrator (GHA). X. This form requires new files within the R-UIM defined in 3GPP2 specification C. i. This is controlled by a flag inside the R-UIM stored in bit 2 of the UsgInd (Usage Indicator) elementary file (EF). The tradeoff is that the phone hardware cannot be easily identified. Typical examples of ESMEs are systems that send automated marketing messages to mobile users. ESME (pronounced EZ-mee) is essentially one of these but without all the wireless aspects. but can satisfy most uses of UIMID. Secondly. or not desirable.S0023-C v1.e. SME is a term used in many cellular circles to describe a network entity (mobile/cell phone) that can send/receive messages. Both forms produce a 32-bit pseudo-UIMID (pUIMID) with 0x80 in the upper 8 bits and the least significant 24 bits of the SHA-1 hash of the entire SF_EUIMID or the entire ICCID EF (for LF_EUIMID) in the lower 24 bits. CIMD. it is likely that the other sender/receiver is an ESME. UCP. Basically. There are two forms of EUIMID. another unique identifier should be used instead or the requirement for uniqueness should be removed.ESME 64 ESME External Short Messaging Entity (ESME) is a term originally coined by Aldiscon to describe an external application that connects to an SMSC to engage in the sending and/or receiving of SMS messages. Where this is not possible. . This may make it easier to provision a R-UIM that is manufactured without other unique identifiers (such as MIN or IMSI).

S0023-C v2. the CDMA air interface was also upgraded to the so-called 'Release E' which allows the transmission of all available identifiers in the StatusRequest message. 3gpp2. so it is recommended that the Luhn check digit be included plus a padding digit (0xf).0. pdf) . however. References [1] http:/ / www. it is recommended in Version 2. 0_081031. including the SIM cards for GSM. 3gpp2. org/ Public_html/ SC/ C. (http:/ / www. 0_060530. 3gpp2. S0023-C_v1. S0066-0_v2. Publication pending. Removable User Identity Module for Spread Spectrum Systems. Importantly. 0_081031.EUIMID 65 Long Form EUIMID (LF_EUIMID) The Long Form EUIMID is the ICCID that has been present in many generations of smart cards. 3GPP2. 3GPP2. 80 bits. org/ Public_html/ specs/ C. [4] In 2009. org/ Public_html/ specs/ C.0 there were no CDMA2000 protocols that provided visibility of the ICCID outside the R-UIM.S0023-C[3] that the pseudo-UIMID is generated from all 80 stored bits.0.S0023-C v2. Until the publication of C. 0_080729. The storage allocated for the ICCID is. (http:/ / www.0. pdf) [4] C. 3gpp2. 2008.S0066-0 v2. Removable User Identity Module for Spread Spectrum Systems.S0066-0 v2. Over-the-Air Service Provisioning for MEID-Equipped Mobile Stations in Spread Spectrum Systems. org/ Public_html/ specs/ C. (http:/ / www. pdf) [3] C. If an R-UIM or CSIM with Expanded UIMID is inserted in a phone the identifier that is usually transmitted as the 'ESN' over the radio interface is the 32-bit pseudo-UIMID. In Press. This is composed of up to 18 BCD digits -.up to 72 bits. S0023-C_v2.0 of C. 3GPP2. pdf [2] C. S0023-C_v2.

[3] [4] [5] [6] face2face was launched in July 2010[2] for smartphones including the iPhone. html). ws [2] "Proximate Global Introduces face2face" (http:/ / www. Mashable. face2face incorporates "reciprocal sharing functionality" so that only users who make themselves known to each other share location data. nytimes.ws [1] face2face is a proprietary proximity-based mobile application developed by Proximate Global Inc.[3] Privacy and security Responding to growing concerns about location-based apps revealing too much information about a user's whereabouts.[7] Overview face2face compiles existing online social and business networks including Facebook. BlackBerry. It works on BlackBerry. face2face. Users can also update their own statuses and share news across all of their social networks. within walking distance. Retrieved 2010-09-19. Those users are then connected to 3.[5] [9] References [1] http:/ / www. Awards face2face earned Mashable's "Spark of Genius" award in July 2010. Android. html). . people not in one of their networks cannot see the information. LinkedIn. statuses. "Face2face Brings Privacy to Location by Approximating Friends' Whereabouts" (http:/ / www.[3] face2face populates content based on users' news feed. com/ external/ venturebeat/ 2010/ 07/ 08/ 08venturebeat-face2face-brings-privacy-to-location-by-appr-41496. face2face allows users to choose with which members of their social networks they share location information.2. Retrieved 2010-09-19. The New York . [3] Jennifer Van Grove (2010-07-10). prnewswire.9 MB English social networking www. Initial release Stable release Size Available in Type Website July 2010 1. Android. without sacrificing privacy.5.face2face. and Twitter[8] and enables users to see when members of these networks are in close proximity.5 million friends of friends. "Mobile App Pinpoints Nearby Facebook and Twitter Friends" (http:/ / mashable. MySpace. . 2010-07-08. In its first month (July 2010). [4] JP Manninen (2010-07-08). Venture Beat. and proximity.[2] that allows users to identify when members of their social networks are nearby. com/ news-releases/ proximate-global-introduces-face2face-98015299. New York: PR Newswire. face2face had 10. com/ 2010/ 07/ 10/ face2face/ ). and many J2ME-compatible devices. iPhone. although its technology gathers that data.000+ app downloads. and many J2ME-compatible devices.35 6. protecting their privacy.[4] [6] face2face does not reveal precise location coordinates.face2face 66 face2face Original author(s) Proximate Global Inc.[3] although it does not reveal users' exact locations.

All modes use FSK modulation. Retrieved 2010-09-19. . Wired. . Twitter and MySpace on a single platform" (http:/ / www. .). In South Australia the State's SAGRN network for the Emergency Services paging system (CFS.face2face Times. wired. [9] "FAQs" (http:/ / face2face. or 6400/4. Each frame contains a sync followed by 10 data blocks. etc. 3200/4. [8] "Face2face consolidates Facebook. Retrieved 2010-09-19. At 3200/2. com/ 2010/ 07/ 29/ face2face-consolidates-facebook-linkedin-twitter-and-myspace-on-a-single-platform/ ). 67 External links • Official site (http://www. Erica (2010-07-26). [6] Olivia Solon (2010-07-26). A BCH type ECC is used to improve the integrity of the data. gomonews. There have been reported instances of individuals actively listening to pager traffic (private investigators. Retrieved 2010-09-19.ws) FLEX (protocol) FLEX is a communications protocol developed by Motorola and used in many pagers. [5] Naone. this is a 2 level FSK signal transmitted at 3200 bits per second. technologyreview. and can be monitored through several websites. com/ mobile-location-and-privacy-in-one-network-face2face/ ). Retrieved 2010-09-19. Retrieved 2010-09-19. "Proximity-based 'Face2face' app assuages privacy fears" (http:/ / www. com/ computing/ 25855/ ?a=f). Technology Review. Each 4 level symbol represents two bits for a bit rate of 3200 bits per second. 3200 or 6400 bits per second respectively. "App Lets You Know When Friends Are Nearby" (http:/ / www. uk/ news/ archive/ 2010-07/ 26/ face2face-social-network).. ws/ faqs). GoMo News. FLEX provides one-way communication only (from the provider to the pager device). intomobile.uk. this is a 4 level FSK signal transmitted at 1600 symbols per second. Intomobile. At 1600/2 this is on a 2 level FSK signal transmitted at 1600 bits per second. . but a related protocol called ReFLEX provides two-way messaging. 2010-07-29.ws. . this is a 4 level FSK signal transmitted at 3200 symbols per second or 6400 bits per second. The data blocks contain 256. 3200/2. . At 6400/4. 512 or 1024 bits for 1600. transmitting private information over it should be done with caution.face2face. co. [7] "Mobile location and privacy in one network: Face2Face" (http:/ / www. Security Since data transmission over FLEX is unencrypted and insecure. The standard has been designed to allow the pager's receiver to be turned off for a high percentage of the time and therefore save on battery usage.co. Transmission of message data occurs in one of four modes: 1600/2. 2010-08-10. MFS and SAAS) is run on the FLEX 1600 protocol. Retrieved 2010-09-19. . Proximate Global Inc. LinkedIn. The traffic on this network can be monitored via several websites. Data is transmitted in a set of 128 frames that takes 4 minutes to complete. At 3200/4. In The Netherlands the emergency services use the Flex-protocol in the nationwide P2000 network for pagers. MIT. SES. Face2face. news organizations.com.

org/ ftp/ Specs/ html-info/ 33220. the BSF establishes a shared secret between the simcard card and the service provider.FLEX (protocol) 68 External links • FLEX Technology: Paging Protocol [1] References [1] http:/ / www.gcd" extension. The user authentication is instantiated by a shared secret. This shared secret is limited in time and for a specific domain. 3gpp. GCD's are plain text files. GBA authenticates by making a network component challenge the simcard card and verify that the answer is similar by the one predicted by the HLR/HSS. one in the smartcard inside the mobile phone and the other is on the HLR/HSS. Generic Bootstrapping Architecture Introduction In mobile phones. This authentication is possible if the user owns a valid identity on an HLR Home Location Register or a Home Subscriber Server GBA is standardized at the 3GPP (http:/ / www. . The name of the file will end with a ". They are required by many wireless carriers to install applications on devices. Instead of asking the service provider to trust the BSF and relying on it for every authentication request. net/ FLEX_Technologies. html General content descriptor A General Content Descriptor (GCD) is a file which describes downloads like ringtones and pictures to wireless devices. htm) . Generic Bootstrapping Architecture (GBA) is one technology enabling the authentication of a user. nettwerked.

For example it could be implemented on SimpleSAMLPhP http:/ / rnd. feide. no/ simplesamlphp with 500 PHP lines of code and only a few tens of lines of code are Service Provider specific making it really easy to port it to another Web site. Every Web server already implement HTTP digest authentication and the effort to implement GBA on top of digest authentication is minimal. . . • A means to dialog with a smartcard and signed the challenge sent by the BSF. . making this solution a very low cost one when compared to PKI. as it is based on HTTP's well known "Digest access authentication". either Bluetooth SAP or a Java or native application could be used to serve the request coming from the browser.On device side is needed: • A Web browser (in fact an HTTP client) implementing digest authentication and the special case designed by a "3gpp" string in the HTTP header.Another advantage is the ease with which the authentication method may be integrated into terminals and service providers.Generic Bootstrapping Architecture 69 Strong points This solution has some strong points of certificate and shared secrets without having some of their weaknesses: .There is no need for user enrollment phase nor secure deployment of keys.

If there are several HSS in the network. This can be done by either setting up a pre-defined HSS to BSF. fi/ Publications/ C/ 22/ papers/ Olkkonen_final. References [1] Generic Authentication Architecture by Timo Olkkonen. is based on public-private key pairs and digital certificates. first released in May 2008. • The first. and they can be used in some application specific protocol between the client and services.org/demos/demo3. biz/ files/ 2008papers/ Session5A-2. which are the implementation servers. BSF retrieves data from the subscriber from the Home Subscriber Server (HSS) during the Zh [3] interface. for example. the services can retrieve the session keys from the operator. NAFs recover the key session of BSF during the Zn [5] interface. pdf) [2] http:/ / www.fokus. or by querying the Subscriber Locator Function (SLF). This is called bootstrapping. Bluetooth SIM Access Profile was used between the Firefox browser and the mobile phone. If NAF is not in the home network. GBA. omtp. The User Equipment (UE) is.omtp. over the Ua [4] interface.htm. After that.The NAF was developed on SimpleSAMLPhP and a Firefox extension was developed to process the GBA digest authencation request from the BSF. which uses the Diameter Base Protocol. Optional entities are drawn with lines network and borders dotted the scoreboard. which also uses the diameter at the base Protocol. The UE and Bootstrapping function server (BSF) mutually authenticate themselves during the Ub (number [2] above) interface. the customer and the operator are first mutually authenticated through 3G and Authentication Key (AKA) and they agree on session keys which can then be used between the client and services that the customer wants to use. Figure above shows the network GAA entities and interfaces between them. tml. Helsinki University of Technology (http:/ / www.ist-spice. aspx?Id=24ad518b-6dba-4155-ad51-3143bd43a234) . contents in this section are from external literature [1] . it must use a Zn-proxy to contact BSF . Later a partner developed a "zero installation" concept. icin. tkk. which can use any specific application protocol necessary. The UE also communicates with the Network Application Functions (NAF). is based on a shared secret between the client and server • The second.Presentation at ICIN 2008 by Peter Weik [2] • The Open Mobile Terminal Platform http://www.de developed an OpenID extension for Firefox which uses GBA authentication. • The Fraunhofer Fokus http://www.fraunhofer. Uses • The SPICE project developed an extended Use Case named "split terminal" where a user on a PC can authenticate with her mobile phone: http://www. org/ Publications/ Display.Generic Bootstrapping Architecture 70 Technical overview Actually. In the shared secret cases. the user's mobile phone. SSC. pdf%20 [3] OMTP Advanced Trusted Environment: OMTP TR1 (http:/ / www. There are two ways to use GAA (Generic Authentication Architecture). using the Digest access authentication AKA protocol.org references GBA in its Advanced Trusted Environment: OMTP TR1[3] recommendation. BSF must first know which one to use.

Gillin co-founded C/Base – an Internet partnership marketing consultancy. Gillin sold Ecount to Citi for US $200 million. Gillin is best known as the co-founder of Ecount. Biography Gillin was born in Philadelphia. Relay Type Industry Founded Startup company Technology. Paul Raden. Citi Prepaid Services. Gillin founded Relay. Ohio. Mobile 2009 Headquarters Radnor. relaynetwork. Deloitte Fast 500[6] . In 2009. Gillin holds two patents in the US Patent Office for his inventions around electronic payments.[1] He is currently CEO and co-founder of his third business venture. founded Ecount – an electronic payments company. Relay. Gillin remained as CEO of the renamed business. and is the recipient of multiple national and local awards including Ernst & Young Entrepreneur of the Year [3] . and Pete Flick. Steve Gillin. as well as numerous other recognitions for his companies including being named Deloitte Fast 50[5] .[2] until 2009. Philadelphia Business Journal Best Places to Work[7] . He attended Denison University in Granville. Amazon. Ecount was sold to Citi for US $200 million to integrate into Citi’s global transaction services business. Ecount was one of the first providers of corporate prepaid card solutions for the purpose of replacing paper checks and other inefficient payment methods. At the time. After the sale. inventor. In 1995."[8] Matt serves on the board of SpeakUp! and AidsAlive. At the time of its acquisition. In 2007. In 1997 Gillin and business partner. Hotmail and Citysearch. C/Base designed programs valued at over US $1. Pennsylvania Area served Website United States http:/ / www. and philanthropist. and Forbes "Best of The Web.5 billion for companies including Microsoft. together with Paul Raden. com . In 2007.Matt Gillin 71 Matt Gillin Matthew Gillin is an American entrepreneur. Eastern Technology Council Technology CEO of the Year [4] and Philadelphia Business Journal "40 Under 40". Pennsylvania. a company that helps businesses shift to mobile communications. Ecount was issuing more than US $4 billion in payments worldwide. a corporate prepaid card provider.

citiprepaid. which Gillin founded prior to Relay • SpeakUp! (http://www. -a087964372) [4] Eastern Technology Council Technology CEO of the Year (http:/ / www. com/ about/ 2008news/ sept-1-2008. aspx) [5] [[Deloitte (http:/ / www. xacp.allbusiness.com/human-resources/workforce-management/4059319-1. html) [2] Ecount renames to Citi Prepaid Services (http:/ / www. deloitte.com/profile/view?id=196368&authType=name& authToken=uFLx&pvs=pp&trk=ppro_viewmore) with his positions and start-up history • Management Page on Relay website (http://www.linkedin.relaynetwork. deloitte.aidsalive. thefreelibrary. com/ bow/ b2c/ category. . pdf)] Fast 50] [6] [[Deloitte Fast 500 (http:/ / www. com/ 9_21_06.speakup. com/ 2007/ 03/ 01/ business/ 01citi. jhtml?id=190)] "Best of the Web" Award] External links • Matt Gillin’s interview (http://www. com/ assets/ Dcom-UnitedStates/ Local Assets/ Documents/ TMT_us_tmt/ us_tmt_2006TechnologyFast500WinnersBrochure. References [1] The New York Times article on Ecount's acquisition by Citi (http:/ / www.com).Matt Gillin 72 Current work Gillin is currently CEO and co-founder of Relay. corp. Relay helps companies reach their customers through their mobile devices with their consent. easterntechnologycouncil. citi. pdf)]] [7] Philadelphia Business Journal "Best Places to Work" (http:/ / www. Gillin currently lives in a suburb of Philadelphia. nytimes. . forbes. html) [3] Ernst & Young Entrepreneur of the Year Award (http:/ / www.com/management.org/) • AidsAlive (http://www. org/ ea/ winners. Pennsylvania with his wife and two children. html) with Smart Business Philadelphia • Matt Gillin’s public profile (http://www. com/ Greater+ Philadelphia's+ 2002+ Ernst+ & + Young+ Entrepreneur+ Of+ The+ Year(R).org/) . html) [8] [[Forbes (http:/ / www.php) • Citi Prepaid Services (formerly Ecount) website (http://www. com/ assets/ Dcom-UnitedStates/ Local Assets/ Documents/ us_tmt_fast_Greater Phil. prepaid.

Some of GoTV’s mobile products/partners include: Astrology Zone Premier Bible-in-a-Year Call On Jesus Cracked NASCAR Sprint Cup Mobile℠ NBA2Go NHRA Mobile Oprah Mobile Revolver TV Romancing Royalty Sony's Crackle . GoTV Studios creates critically acclaimed original programming.GMLC 73 GMLC The Gateway Mobile Location Centre contains functionality required to support LCS (LoCation Services). GoTV Studios delivers new media content to multiple platforms for today’s consumer. the industry’s largest mobile media network. GoTV’s rich application technologies deliver engaging experiences that connect brand and media partners with their audiences via mobile. agencies and media owners. GoTV Networks GoTV Networks. A full suite of feature-rich custom applications and widgets meets specific partner requirements. Syndication & Distribution sales offices are strategically located to serve mobile and broadband partners in Los Angeles. CA. GoTV’s wide distribution network enables broad syndication of content to the widest audience possible. The GMLC is the first node an external LCS client accesses in a GSM or UMTS network. creates and syndicates original content to mobile. it sends positioning requests to either the VMSC (Visited Mobile Switching Centre). regional wireless carriers and online-mobile third-party distributors. GoTV enables media owners and brands to deliver compelling. San Francisco. there may be more than one GMLC. GoTV Studios. In one PLMN (Public Land Mobile Network). From mobile and broadband to broadcast and HD. the company’s wholly owned production studio. This network includes all major application storefronts. ranking in the top 10 of all music channels available on US carriers. and Kansas City. After performing registration authorization. GoTV’s technology. highly engaged content experiences through feature-rich smart applications distributed to the widest audience possible. syndication and production studio capabilities make GoTV the go-to partner for brands.5 to 4 minutes per segment. personalized. Seattle. GoTV has the most music channels in the US mobile marketplace. reaching new audiences in innovative new ways. The GMLC may request routing information from the HLR (Home Location register) or HSS (Home Subscriber Server). GoTV Studios. SGSN (Serving GPRS Support Node) or MSC (Mobile Switching Centre) Server and receives final location estimates from the corresponding entity. develops hundreds of original and custom shows every month ranging from 2. GoTV is headquartered in Los Angeles. major wireless carriers. the company’s wholly owned studio is also located in Los Angeles. The company’s mobile technology lab is located in San Diego.

gotvnetworks. but often run on batteries and includes a car lighter plug.3 to 5 inches (33 to 130 mm). com/ Handheld television A Handheld television is a portable device that usually uses a TFT LCD or Organic light-emitting diode color display. Pocket These TVs fit in your pocket Wearable These TVs sometimes are made in the form of a wristwatch. some models have mono 1/8" jacks for the broadcast signal that is usually relayed via F connector on standard television models. called the Panasonic IC TV MODEL TR-001 and MTV-1. Panasonic and Sinclair Research released the first TVs which were small enough to fit in a large pocket. some cell phones have an integrated television receiver feature. Some include HDMI. It had grayscale video at first. . USB and SD ports.2 mm) phono plugs for composite video~analog mono audio relay to serve them as composite monitors. Some handheld televisions also double as portable DVD players and USB PVR .GoTV Networks Sprint Exclusive Entertainment Sprint Football Live Univision V CAST Young Hollywood ES Música Hip Hop Official True Country 74 External links • GoTV Networks Website [1] References [1] http:/ / www. also. Sony released the first model of the Watchman. Several years later. History In the 1970s and early 1980s. Since LCD technology was not yet mature at the time. Screen sizes vary from 1. Many of these devices resemble handheld transistor radios. a pun on Walkman. the TV used a minuscule CRT which set the record for being the smallest CRT on a commercially marketed product. Size spectrum Portable These TVs cannot fit in your pocket. Hardware These devices often have stereo 1⁄8 inches (3. Later in 1982. Nowadays. a color model with an active-matrix LCD was released.

• in non-CDMA networks when the channel used by the phone becomes interfered by another phone using the same channel in a different cell. External links • History of the pocket TV [1] • Vintage Micro Television http://www. The term handover is more common than handoff in academic research publications and literature. which is located in an area overlapped by another cell. guenthoer. is transferred to that cell in order to free-up some capacity in the first cell for other users. htm Handover In cellular telecommunications. NEC TurboExpress game console Sega Game Gear TV tuner accessory Sony Watchman Similar types Some handheld televisions are wearable. the term handover or handoff refers to the process of transferring an ongoing call or data session from one channel connected to the core network to another. while handoff is slightly more common within the IEEE and ANSI organisations. ETSI and 3GPP. Purpose In telecommunications there may be different reasons why a handover might be conducted: • when the phone is moving away from the area covered by one cell and entering the area covered by another cell the call is transferred to the second cell in order to avoid call termination when the phone gets outside the range of the first cell. a few models are in the form of a wristwatch.net/journal/time-line/ References [1] http:/ / www. In British English the term handover is more common.Handheld television 75 Notable brands and models for handheld televisions • • • • • Casio Citizen Watch Co. Handover or handoff American English tends to use the term handoff. and is used within international and European organisations such as ITU-T. • when the capacity for connecting new calls of a given cell is used up and an existing or new call from a phone. who can only be connected to that cell.visions4. . IETF. and this is most commonly used within some American organizations such as 3GPP2 and in American originated technologies such as CDMA2000. and standardised within European originated standards such as GSM and UMTS. the call is transferred to a different channel in the same cell or to a different channel in another cell in order to avoid the interference. In satellite communications it is the process of transferring satellite control responsibility from one earth station to another without loss or interruption of service. de/ e-history.

Hard handovers are intended to be instantaneous in order to minimize the disruption to the call. In terrestrial networks the source and the target cells may be served from two different cell sites or from one and the same cell site (in the latter case the two cells are usually referred to as two sectors on that cell site). It requires the least processing by the network providing service.Handover • again in non-CDMA networks when the user behaviour changes. so the base stations bounce the link with the mobile back and forth. when a user is detected to be moving faster than a certain threshold. stops then the call may be transferred to a smaller macro cell or even to a micro cell in order to free capacity on the umbrella cell for other fast-traveling users and to reduce the potential interference to other cells or users (this works in reverse too. A special case is possible. • in CDMA networks a (see further down) may be induced in order to reduce the interference to a smaller neighboring cell due to the "near-far" effect even when the phone still has an excellent connection to its current cell. they also can be divided into hard and soft handovers: • A hard handover [1] is one in which the channel in the source cell is released and only then the channel in the target cell is engaged. which may be interfered or fading with a new clearer or less fading channel. The purpose of inter-cell handover is to maintain the call as the subscriber is moving out of the area covered by the source cell and entering the area of the target cell. In this case the connection to the target is established before the connection to the source is broken. rather than a brief event. The purpose of intra-cell handover is to change one channel. • A soft handover is one in which the channel in the source cell is retained and used for a while in parallel with the channel in the target cell. Such a handover. is called intra-cell handover. A hard handover is perceived by network engineers as an event during the call. Soft handovers may involve using connections to more than two cells: connections to three. four or more cells can be maintained by one phone at the same time. in which the source and the target are different cells (even if they are on the same cell site) is called inter-cell handover. 76 Types of handover In addition to the above classification of inter-cell and intra-cell classification of handovers. Such a handover. This is called ping-ponging. in which the cell is not changed. and when such combining is performed both in the downlink (forward link) and the uplink (reverse link) the handover is termed as softer. the signal of the best of all used channels can be utilised for the call at a given moment or all the signals can be combined to produce a clearer copy of the signal. when a fast-travelling user. then the mobile can switch with any of the base stations. connected to a large.g. When a call is in a state of soft handover. The latter is more advantageous. during which the two connections are used in parallel. Softer handovers are possible when the cells involved in the handovers have a single cell site. may be brief or substantial. When the mobile is between base stations. umbrella-type of cell. in which the source and the target are one and the same cell and only the used channel is changed during the handover. The most basic form of handover is when a phone call in progress is redirected from its current cell (called source) and its used channel in that cell to a new cell (called target) and a new channel. hence this handover is called make-before-break. the call can be transferred to a larger umbrella-type of cell in order to minimize the frequency of the handovers due to this movement). The interval. Thus the connection to the source is broken before or 'as' the connection to the target is made—for this reason such handovers are also known as break-before-make. • etc. e. For this reason the soft handover is perceived by network engineers as a state of the call. .

Because in a cellular network the majority of the handovers occur in places of poor coverage. have soft handovers. D-AMPS/IS-136. A disadvantage is that if a handover fails the call may be temporarily disrupted or even terminated abnormally. On the other hand. Fading and interference in different channels are unrelated and therefore the probability of them taking place at the same moment in all channels is very low.g. On one hand. by far a bigger advantage comes from the mere fact that simultaneously channels in multiple cells are maintained and the call could only fail if all of the channels are interfered or fade at the same time. This reduces the number of remaining free channels and thus reduces the capacity of the network. Thus the reliability of the connection becomes higher when the call is in a soft handover. those based on FDMA also face a higher cost for the phones (due to the need to have multiple parallel radio-frequency modules) and those based on TDMA or a combination of TDMA/FDMA. in which they occur. . However. 2G and 3G (third-generation). all CDMA based technologies. etc. One advantage of the soft handovers is that the connection to the source cell is broken only when a reliable connection to the target cell has been established and therefore the chances that the call will be terminated abnormally due to failed handovers are lower. GSM. analog or digital. Another advantage of the hard handoff is that the phone's hardware does not need to be capable of receiving two or more channels in parallel.Handover 77 Comparison of handovers An advantage of the hard handover is that at any moment in time one call uses only one channel. By adjusting the duration of soft handovers and the size of the areas. which must be capable of processing several channels in parallel. Technologies. This advantage comes at the cost of more complex hardware in the phone. Another price to pay for soft handovers is use of several channels in the network to support just a single call. In all current commercial technologies based on FDMA or on a combination of TDMA/FDMA (e. IS-136/DAMPS. Of the digital technologies. none of the 2G (second-generation) technologies have this feature (e. etc. AMPS. the network engineers can balance the benefit of extra call reliability against the price of reduced capacity.g. this is facilitated by the possibility to design not so expensive phone hardware supporting soft handovers for CDMA and on the other hand. However re-establishing this connection may not always be possible (in which case the call will be terminated) and even when possible the procedure may cause a temporary interruption to the call.) had this feature. where calls would frequently become unreliable when their channel is interfered or fading. in principle. Possibility of handover While theoretically speaking soft handovers are possible in any technology. soft handovers bring a significant improvement to the reliability of the calls in these places by making the interference or the fading in a single channel not critical. the cost of implementing them for analog technologies is prohibitively high and none of the technologies that were commercially successful in the past (e. The hard handover event is indeed very short and usually is not perceptible by the user. allow not so expensive implementation of soft handovers. this is necessitated by the fact that without soft handovers CDMA networks may suffer from substantial interference arising due to the so-called "near-far" effect. in digital systems it is unnoticeable.) changing the channel during a hard handover is realised by changing the pair of used transmit/receive frequencies. In the old analog systems it could be heard as a click or a very short beep.g. which utilise hard handovers. GSM. usually have procedures which can re-establish the connection to the source cell if the connection to the target cell cannot be made.). AMPS. TACS. NMT. which makes it cheaper and simpler. However. etc.

whose signals are used during a soft handoff. the user’s call must be terminated. Also. In analog systems the parameters used as criteria for requesting a hard handover are usually the received signal power and the received signal-to-noise ratio (the latter may be estimated in an analog system by inserting additional tones. If a user moves into a cell when all available channels are in use. The handover may be requested by the phone or by the base station (BTS) of its source cell and. These potential target cells are called neighbours and the list is called neighbour list. During a call one or more parameters of the signal in the channel in the source cell are monitored and assessed in order to decide when a handover may be necessary. In the late 80's the main reason was found out. 2G and 3G.Handover 78 Implementations For the practical realisation of handoffs in a cellular network each cell is assigned a list of potential target cells. Reasons for failure There are occurrences where a handoff is unsuccessful. a new frequency must be allocated for the call. AMPS. The cells in the neighbour list (called in CDMA neighbouring set) are checked more frequently than the rest and thus a handoff with a neighbouring cell is more likely. by a BTS of a neighbouring cell. The set of cells. a target candidate may be selected among the cells which are not in the neighbour list. Because frequencies cannot be reused in adjacent cells. however a handoff with others cells outside the neighbor list is also allowed (unlike in GSM. mainly based on CDMA. received quality of speech (RxQual). bit error rate (BER) and block error/erasure rate (BLER). which can be used for handing-off calls from this source cell to them. In some systems. there is the problem of signal interference where adjacent cells overpower each other resulting in receiver desensitization. Creating such a list for a given cell is not trivial and specialised computer tools are used. with frequencies just outside the captured voice-frequency band at the transmitter and assessing the form of these tones at the receiver). when the phone in soft or softer handoff is connected to several cells simultaneously. it processes the received in parallel signals using a rake receiver. when a user moves from one cell to another. IS-136/DAMPS. In CDMA systems. They implement different algorithms and may use for input data from field measurements or computer predictions of radio wave propagation in the areas covered by the cells. the most common criterion for requesting a handover is Ec/Io ratio measured in the pilot channel (CPICH) and/or RSCP.). in some systems. If the search finger finds a sufficiently-strong signal (in terms of high Ec/Io or RSCP) from a new cell this cell is added to the active set. The downlink (forward link) and/or uplink (reverse link) directions may be monitored. is referred to as the "active set". Each signal is processed by a module called rake finger. In CDMA systems. A usual design of a rake receiver in mobile phones includes three or more rake fingers used in soft handoff state for processing signals from as many cells and one additional finger used to search for signals from other cells. Lots of research was conducted regarding this. In non-CDMA 2G digital systems the criteria for requesting hard handover may be based on estimates of the received signal power. The phone and the BTSs of the neighbouring cells monitor each other others' signals and the best target candidates are selected among the neighbouring cells. etc. distance between the phone and the BTS (estimated from the radio signal propagation delay) and others. . NMT. This is done in an effort to reduce the probability of interference due to the aforementioned "near-far" effect.

with a [1] slightly larger audience of users in some eastern countries. google. com/ RealtimeMantra/ Telecom/ GSM_Handover_Call_Flow. 1970. pdf http:/ / www.S. com/ article_email/ SB114843472842861406-lMyQjAxMDE2NDI4NDQyMzQ0Wj. External links • • • • Intra-MSC GSM Handover Call Flow [2] Inter-MSC GSM Handover Call Flow [3] Handoff protocols [4] U. SMS tags and RFID tags. The consumer use and market for object hyperlinking methods is a very small and limited one in the U. References [1] WSJ Online 2006. The 3GPP UMA/GAN standard enables GSM/UMTS handoff to Wi-Fi and vice-versa. few US cell phone providers currently offer graphical tag readers or other support for object hyperlinking methods and this will likely continue until a clear linking method becomes dominate. a call being transferred from GSM to UMTS or from CDMA IS-95 to cdma2000. e. This alphanumeric sequence may be the objects part number or common name. com/ wiki/ index.mobi. JESSICA E. toolbox. com/ patents?vid=3663762 Hardlink (homonymy) A hardlink (one word) is one of several methods of object hyperlinking including graphical tags (2D barcodes). pdf http:/ / www. (http:/ / online. wsj. A common cell phone is the medium of this information exchange that is initiated whenever a user makes a connection with a hardlink database. Object hyperlinking and Physical world hyperlinks with a number of companies developing. eventhelix. eventhelix. such as Objecs. The hardlink method establishes a reference link between a physical world object and a . com/ terminology. This topic is not to be confused with. php/ Hard_handoff http:/ / www. This concept is also known as 'physical world connection'. Patent 3663762 [5]: Cellular Mobile Communication System — Amos Edward Joel (Bell Labs). The hardlink method does not require a graphical object tag or any special software be loaded on the users cell phone. php?letter=all& id=1 http:/ / www. Unlike Japan.S. and enters some alphanumeric sequence found on the target object. filed December 21. VASCELLARO. but does require the phone be internet enabled. The Bar Code Gets a Hip New Life. non-standardized methods of creating this connection. ylesstech. a hard link (two words) which is Unix terminology for a pointer to physical data on a storage volume. com/ RealtimeMantra/ Telecom/ GSM_Inter_MSC_Handover_Call_Flow. 1972 References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] http:/ / it. html) . what are currently.Handover 79 Vertical handover There are also inter-technology handovers where a call's connection is transferred from one access technology to another.g.mobi web page just as a traditional hyperlink establishes an electronic reference to information on a Web page. issued May 16.

including the iPhone and iPad. the iControlPad is able to add traditional physical gaming controls to devices which otherwise rely on inputs such as touchscreens and accelerometers. can be run in a wide variety of modes. B. and two digital trigger buttons on the gamepad's reverse. such as a smartphone or iPod Touch. Start. and gamepad. apps can be developed . including as a HID keyboard.[3] Overview The iControlPad's input controls include an eight-directional D-pad. tablet PCs and personal computers.[2] A mini USB port on the bottom of the iControlPad can be used to charge the internal 1500mAh battery. mouse. or plastic clamps. The sides of the iControlPad are detachable. which do not support Bluetooth gamepads. a Bluetooth device. R.[1] The iControlPad.iControlPad 80 iControlPad iControlPad The iControlPad in its standalone and clamp-on configurations (with iPhone 4). It is designed for use as either a standalone gamepad or attached to appropriately sized devices.[2] Due to the iControlPad's ability to operate as a Bluetooth keyboard—by mapping the D-pad and buttons to standard keyboard keys—it is able to communicate with devices such as those running Apple's iOS. Y. among others. Manufacturer Type Power Input iControlPad Ltd. X. for connecting with a suitable handheld.[2] In this way. facilitating compatibility between apps designed for the iCade and the iControlPad hardware.com icontrolpad. with two different attachment types: rubber grips. dual analog nubs.[1] One of the iControlPad's modes mimics the protocol used by the iCade. update the device's firmware. six digital face buttons. an arcade cabinet released for the Apple iPad. allowing compatibility with equipment which is limited to only certain types of input. such as the iPhone.com] The iControlPad is a wireless game controller compatible with a variety of smartphones. using a clamp system. joystick. for using the controller as a standard wireless gamepad. and charge attached devices using a USB On-The-Go connection and an appropriate adapter. L .[4] Since iOS natively supports keyboards. [1] Video game controller 1 × 1500mAH cell • • • 8 × Digital buttons (A. Select) Digital D-pad 2 × analog nubs Website [icontrolpad.

suing an unlicensed accessory maker.[10] This design.[5] 81 Development Development of the iControlPad began in 2007. The team had secretly added Bluetooth support to the iControlPad. with a D-pad on the left side. and four face buttons on the right in a landscape orientation. one large change was to occur very late in development. and would soon go into production. • a Supported via iControlPad's iCade mode. with testing using a hacked SNES gamepad to connect to an iPhone over the dock connection.[18] [19] 06 May 2011 06 Apr 2011 23 May 2011 31 May 2011 [20] Supported since version 02.00. using a design styled after the Sony PSP. [17] Supported since version 1.[13] and it was this version which finally became available for order in February 2011. • b Only on iPad. [22] Supported since version 1.[11] However. in order to increase compatibility beyond the iPhone and its proprietary connection. [23] Supported since version 1.[8] [9] By November 2009. [21] Supported since version 1. which featured clamps to attach it to the iPhone. a completely redesigned iControlPad prototype was under development.iControlPad with iControlPad compatibility using either its own protocol or that of the iCade.[12] This proved fortunate when Apple began exercising its rights over the dock connector. Little White Bear Studios 17 May 2010 xionchannel David Valdeita Appracatappra Physmo Bjango Retro Dreamer 02 Jul 2011 16 Aug 2010 Supported since version 1.7.12.2. the iControlPad team were forced to adapt to use the Bluetooth connection for the iPhone. was much closer to the version that was ultimately released.[7] and was first revealed in 2008. the first prototype iControlPad was produced. [16] Supported since version 1. • c Requires jailbreaking on iOS.3. Thus. . the iControlPad is able to control video games and video game console emulators across multiple platforms.0.4. This earliest concept was a one-piece case enveloping the iPhone.2. Thus.[14] Supported apps Apple iOS Title Atari's Greatest Hits a b Compression HD a HungryMaster a iMAME4All a c IronStar Arena a Mos Speedrun a Sideways Racing a Velocispider a Developer Atari Release date 06 Apr 2011 Notes [15] Supported since launch. This much larger version moved the controls below the screen and added two analog nubs and two trigger buttons to the controller.[6] Once the serial connection was working.

• a Requires jailbreaking on iOS. with DroidGamers describing them as "very loose"[5] . Reception Reception for the iControlPad has been mostly positive..[26] [27] Snes9x EX a Robert Broglia 16 Mar 2011 Android. the iControlPad "almost perfectly solves the touchscreen game control conundrum"..] for emulation on the go".[31] Gadgetoid honed in on the device's usefulness for classic gaming.[29] No Gravity a Realtech VR 24 Mar 2011 Support expected in next update.emu a PCE. Register Hardware said "the analogue nubs and face buttons work extremely well". conversely. webOS Supported since launch. but that "[he couldn't] recommend that the typical gamer run out right now and grab one."[2] .[30] • a Supported via iControlPad's iCade mode.[32] Early reviews were mixed on the quality of the controls. Register Hardware noted that while "patience and geekery" were required to get the controller working. while.3.13. Interstellar Force David Molnar 10 Mar 2011 Support expected in next update." due to its limited support on the iTunes App Store. Future releases Apple iOS Title Commodore 64 iAmiga Developer Manomio Manomio Release date 05 Sep 2009 TBA Notes [28] Support expected in next update. iOS. In their review.iControlPad 82 Multiplatform Title GBC. Gadgetoid lauded the inputs as having "a great tactile feel and a liberal amount of travel with a good response. [28] Support expected at launch. iOS. webOS Supported since launch. iOS.[31] The controls' responsiveness was later improved by replacing the original rubber keymat with a larger one.3.[2] TouchArcade's reviewer said of playing games with the iControlPad that "the experience feels great". iOS. webOS Supported since 1.emu a Developer Release date Platform Notes Robert Broglia 23 Apr 2011 Android. webOS Supported since 1. remarking that it was "awesome [. Android. webOS Supported since launch.[25] Robert Broglia 27 Aug 2010 Android. iOS.emu a MD.emu a NES.[24] Robert Broglia Robert Broglia 28 Jun 2011 09 Feb 2011 Android.13.

com/ home/ nes-emu/ updates). Retrieved 2011-07-21. [. [18] Murph.biz. 2011). "Compression HD Gets Support for iCade" (http:/ / www. June 25.. . July 21. You can order today for a delivery next week [. David. "iControlPad dumps Dock Connector for Bluetooth over Apple legal fears. Engadget. Retrieved 2011-07-18. Charlie (2011-02-09). Ex Plus Alpha. com/ ) on March 16. com/ icontrolpad-dumps-dock-connector-for-bluetooth-over-apple-legal-fears-android-bt-confirmed-28104830/ ). 2011). slashgear. com/ ). . com/ 2009/ 11/ 08/ latest-icontrolpad-prototype-bulks-up-gets-handled-on-video/ ). Samia (February 8. "iControlPad for Android Review: It's as easy as A. . Robert (February 28. explusalpha. "Naturally. [13] Davies. "The device has been in development for some time." [15] Foresman. Retrieved 2011-07-18. Chris (August 23. . [3] Kwan. "Game for Real with iPhone iControlPad" (http:/ / www. com/ ipad/ sideways/ versionhistory/ ). .. xionchannel. Archived from the original (http:/ / www.emu Updates" (http:/ / www. . explusalpha. Retrieved 2011-07-18. "Gaming on iOS is About to Get Physical With a Variety of External Joystick and Gamepad Solutions. Retrieved 2011-07-12. 2011).. Retrieved 2011-07-18. 2011). . Adds Support for All Phones" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2011-07-18. [16] Dotson. [24] Broglia. . 2011).]" [9] Sorrel. Craig (September 29. org/ web/ 20090316081844/ http:/ / www. "iControlPad for iPhone production parts now shipping" (http:/ / www. [20] "IronStar Arena for iCade" (http:/ / appracatappra. Ex Plus Alpha. explusalpha. AOL. 2010). [5] Grace. ars). com/ home/ gbc-emu/ updates). Google Code. 2011. Ex Plus Alpha. com/ gadgetlab/ 2011/ 02/ icontrolpad-for-iphone-finally-shipping-adds-support-for-all-phones/ ). Tom (April 13. com/ home/ snes9x-ex/ updates). SlashGear. "iControlPad with Bluetooth Shipping This Month" (http:/ / www. . Michael (2008-12-23). com/ downloads/ icp_manual3. slashgear. iCade cabinet coming in June" (http:/ / arstechnica. Retrieved 2011-07-18. "imame4all . iOS gamers gain infinite happiness" (http:/ / www. . Darren (July 10. but having “real” gaming controls is a great option as well. [22] "Version history for Sideways Racing. com/ gaming/ news/ 2011/ 04/ 100-classic-atari-games-for-ios-out-now-icade-cabinet-coming-in-june. . 148Apps. Mobile Magazine. [7] Stevens. Asavin (2010-08-27). [23] Bowman. . SlashGear. . "Velocispider V1. July 9. slashgear. html) (in Japanese).] using the accelerometer. 148apps. Retrieved 2011-07-12. google. Gadgetoid. Retrieved 2011-07-21. Tim (December 12. [14] Perkins. "iControlPad for iPhone Finally Shipping. com/ p/ imame4all/ ). php/ game-news/ hardware-a-devices/ 1493-icontrolpad-for-android-review-its-as-easy-as-a-b-x-y-).. 2010).. "iMAME4All gains experimental support for iCade. "Latest iControlPad prototype bulks up. "Snes9x EX Updates" (http:/ / www. July 16.Add real gaming controls to your iPhone!" (http:/ / web. Ex Plus Alpha. Retrieved 2011-07-04. iControlPad Ltd. "iControlPad gamepad heads to production. [12] Rothwell. Nilay (November 8.. Retrieved 2011-07-18. Chris (September 28.iControlPad 83 References [1] "iControlPad Quick Start Guide" (http:/ / icontrolpad.] A different form of the iControlPad appeared before in 2008 [. . co. Retrieved 2011-07-18. Retrieved 2011-07-18. [17] "HungryMaster 1." [4] Dotson. engadget. 2011). ." (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2011-07-12. com/ 2011/ 06/ what-we-are-up-to. [2] "iControlPad Review" (http:/ / www. 2011. . blogspot. warms hearts" (http:/ / www. 2008). iControlPad Ltd. . [8] Wattanajantra. B. [27] Broglia. .. 148Apps. Retrieved 2011-07-04. "Something we kept secret ." (http:/ / physmonews. com/ 2011/ 07/ 09/ icontrolpad-review/ ). Carter (February 14. cnet. Engadget. Retrieved 2011-07-12. 2009. . Retrieved 2011-07-18. . . . com/ 2008/ 12/ 23/ game-for-real-with-iphone-icontrolpad/ ). an iPad game" (http:/ / bjango. Appracatappra. blogspot.. [21] "What we are up to. "NES. com/ icontrolpad-for-iphone-production-parts-now-shipping-2398553/ ). "100 classic Atari games for iOS out now. archive. 148apps. Y.. almost. Retrieved 2011-07-17. [11] Davies. 2011). com/ news/ compression-hd-support-icade/ ). . gadgetoid. X. com/ 2011/ 07/ 10/ imame4all-gains-experimental-support-for-icade-ios-gamers-gain/ ). Retrieved 2011-07-04. Robert (March 16. com/ blog/ 2011/ 07/ velocispider-v1-2-out-now/ ).12" (http:/ / xionchannel. R3 Media LLC. "iControlPad unofficial iPhone gamepad coming soon" (http:/ / crave. Chris (April 6. 2011). "PCE. Retro Dreamer. explusalpha. Bjango.. Retrieved 2011-07-18. 2009). Retrieved 2011-07-18. .]" [10] Patel. com/ home/ pce-emu/ updates). Physmo. wired. droidgamers. DroidGamers. gets handled on video" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2011-07-04. Pilato Private Consulting. . com/ index. Engadget. uk/ mobiles/ icontrolpad-unofficial-iphone-gamepad-coming-soon-50000514/ ).2 Out Now" (http:/ / retrodreamer.emu Updates" (http:/ / www. engadget. SlashGear. icontrolpad. . [25] Broglia. com/ 2011/ 07/ hungrymaster-112. engadget. Ars Technica. Robert (February 28. com/ Craigix/ statuses/ 25788017664). Robert (April 23. com/ news/ gaming-ios-physical-variety-external-joystick-gamepad-solutions/ ). 2010). "At long. com/ 2008/ 12/ 23/ icontrolpad-gamepad-heads-to-production-warms-hearts/ ). [19] Valdeita. "The new iControlPad with Bluetooth is scheduled to ship February 16th. [6] "iControlPad . Retrieved 2011-07-28. . 2011." (http:/ / www. com/ icontrolpad-with-bluetooth-shipping-this-month-08131711/ ). com/ archives/ 985). you’ll still be able to take advantage of anything on the touchscreen [.. mobilemag." (http:/ / twitter. . Twitter. 2011). html). long last the iControlPad – a hardware gamepad for the iPhone – can be bought. pdf).MAME for ALL iOS devices" (http:/ / code. icontrolpad. 2011). 2011. CNET. Retrieved 2011-07-18. Retrieved 2011-07-04. Android BT confirmed" (http:/ / www. "GBC.. Well. Carter (June 30.emu Updates" (http:/ / www. [26] Broglia. Wired (magazine). Retrieved 2011-07-12. 2011). Gavin (July 27.

As part of an internal corporate reorganization." (http:/ / twitter.http:/ / www. including the needs of wireless operators to carry traffic from cell sites to network access points–referred to in the industry as backhaul. Bureau of Economic Analysis. http:/ / www. or EAs. making it the largest single holder of 39 GHz licensed auction spectrum in the United States. IDT Spectrum leases the spectrum to customers who use their own microwave equipment.&fnid=46162&ipo=1 In October of 2010. [31] Bailey. LLC all of its FCC licenses except for six point-to-point licenses that are not used in our business. Register Hardware. google. reghardware. jsp. Twitter. IDT Spectrum holds more than 500 MHz of spectrum in the top 200 U. LLC. History IDT Spectrum. EAs are delineated by the Regional Analysis Division. Retrieved 2011-07-18. [32] Patterson. Retrieved 2011-07-19. [30] Nogravity iPad2 + iCade.&fnid=46162&ipo=1 Current Holdings IDT Spectrum. . edgar-online. Inc. . TouchArcade. LLC. Retrieved 2011-07-19. In January 2005.http:/ aspx?ColLeft=3c2bcac1-dbf5-4776-9d3b-89001baee8d5& ColRight=76baaeb6-2549-44f5-8e1d-cd700701e704& cikid=683957&tabIndex=2&coname=IDT+SPECTRUM%2C+INC. IDT Spectrum renewed 633 of its 39 GHz licenses. "A Close Look at the 'iControlPad' Bluetooth Control Accessory" (http:/ / toucharcade. http://wireless2. Retrieved 2011-07-17. 2011).S. LLC's primary holdings include 633 spectrum licenses in the 39 GHz range. markets (Economic Areas by population) and approximately 940 MHz of spectrum in the top 50 U. IDT Spectrum's 39 GHz holdings–are contiguous across the United States / pro. 84 IDT Spectrum IDT Spectrum. Use of Licenses Among other business activities.S. net/ about/ press/ story.. Winstar Spectrum. IDT Corporation through its subsidiary Winstar Holdings. a subsidiary of IDT Corporation. (http:/ / www. TouchArcade. edgar-online. com/ 2011/ 07/ 13/ a-close-look-at-the-icontrolpad-bluetooth-control-accessory/ ). plus the surrounding counties that are economically related to these areas. http:/ / wireless2. com/ 2011/ 05/ 18/ review_igamer_icontrolpad/ ). to hold its spectrum licenses and then caused the spectrum licenses to be assigned to it.S. Department of Commerce and are based on 176 metropolitan or micropolitan statistical areas that serve as regional centers of economic activity. with interests primarily in the telecommunications and energy industries. holds and leases fixed wireless spectrum. . LLC. com/ ipo. LLC. Blake (June 18. http:/ / biz. (including Alaska. which now expire in October of 2020.jsp The FCC's 39 GHz auctioned license band spectrum is primarily licensed in Economic Areas. U. acquired FCC spectrum licenses and other assets from the bankruptcy estate of Winstar Communications. idt. 2011). July 18. . an international holding company. [29] "I'm working on adding . . and IDT Spectrum. Inc. com/ finance?q=NYSE%3AIDT In December of 2001. Hawaii and Puerto Rico). fcc. youtube. and caused Winstar Spectrum. The licenses held by IDT Spectrum are suited for high bandwidth point to point applications. . Andrew (May 18. com/ David994A/ status/ 92753291959742464).iControlPad [28] Patterson. gov/ UlsApp/ UlsSearch/ results.. yahoo.fcc. "iControlPad Bluetooth controller for mobile devices" (http:/ / www. 2011. markets. as well as an additional 16 LMDS licenses in the 28 GHz band. LLC to transfer and assign to IDT Spectrum. Winstar Holdings formed IDT Spectrum. July 16. com/ ic/ 140/ 140181.http:/ / pro. Blake (July 13. On average. aspx?ColLeft=3c2bcac1-dbf5-4776-9d3b-89001baee8d5& ColRight=76baaeb6-2549-44f5-8e1d-cd700701e704& cikid=683957&tabIndex=2&coname=IDT+SPECTRUM%2C+INC. LLC. com/ 2011/ 06/ 18/ manomio-demonstrates-icade-support-for-iamiga-emulator/ ). as well as other assets used in its connectivity services. in December 2004. com/ ipo. Retrieved 2011-07-19.gov/UlsApp/UlsSearch/results. html. 2011). Winstar Holdings formed IDT Spectrum and contributed to IDT Spectrum all of its interests in IDT Spectrum. are subsidiaries of IDT Corporation (NYSE: IDT). 2011. "Manomio Demonstrates iCade Support for 'iAmiga' Emulator" (http:/ / toucharcade. Winstar Holdings formed a subsidiary company. com/ watch?v=lNQv5rfGXzs). The majority of IDT Spectrum's 28 GHz LMDS licenses expire in October of 2018. YouTube.

e. terminals perform a registration to an IMS core system with apacket switched (PS) connection. It has been specified for use in a 3GPP-compliant cellular network by the GSM Association in the PRD IR. TS 23. Video Share is commercially launched for example by AT&T in USA. i. Image Share can be seen as a kind of spin-off from the Video Share mobile phone service. If this is selected. then these images are transferred between the Image Share software clients located in the mobile phones using the PS connection and the recipient is able to see the images.e. 85 Image share Image Share is a service for sharing images between users during a mobile phone call. but Image Share is not yet available from any mobile operator/service provider.idtspectrum.com/. usatoday. http:/ / content. During this process the normal CS voice session has been ongoing continuously. RFC 4975) used for transporting media between the mobile phones • IETF File transfer mechanisms [2] utilized for negotiating shared images between offerer and answerer via SIP/SDP offer/answer model . After the voice call is set up.e. Technical Features • Interoperable multi-vendor compliant service. An Image Share session begins by end-users setting up a normal circuit switched (CS) voice call.79 Image Share Interoperability Specification. 3GPP compliant IMS core system required for the service provider/operator offering Image Share • CSI (CS and IMS combinational) service compliant to 3GPP specifications TS 22. Then based on successful capability negotiation between the terminals. i. Image Share works across different mobile phones from various vendors (as long as they have the necessary software client installed) • IMS service. i.IDT Spectrum aspx?id=23410 Management The current President and CEO of IDT Spectrum is Michael Rapaport. registration for the service is performed using the capabilities offered by IMS platform with SIP protocol • MSRP (Message Session Relay Protocol. thus enhancing and enriching end-users voice communication. the end-user will be presented with an option in terminal UI offering the possibility of sharing one or several images.e. CS voice call set up required prior to sharing the images • SIP used for signaling via IMS.279 and TS 24.279.279. i.[1] According to the specification. "The terminal interoperable Image Share service allows users to share Images between them over PS connection with ongoing CS call." Image Share is a service that allows two clients to share packet-switched image data during a circuit-switched call. com/ topics/ article/ Michael+Rapaport/0gy2fDQeBhaNV/1 IDT Spectrum's Website is http://www.

. Stage 1 3GPP TS 23. txt [3] http:/ / www. shtml Instant message service center An Instant Message Service Center (IMSC) is a network element in the mobile telephone network which delivers instant messages.e. ietf. Comverse Technology. No mobile operator has launched Image Share so far (as of March 2008). Colibria. Jinny Software.279 Combining Circuit Switched (CS) and IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) services. The IMSC stores the message and then delivers it to the destination user when they are available. Operation When a user sends an instant message (IM message) to another user. Ericsson.Image share • Capability query performed using SIP OPTIONS method between the mobile phoness to find out whether the recipient is Image Share capable • Peer-to-peer service. Stage 3 References [1] http:/ / www. Companies Few companies who make many of the IMSCs in use in the GSM world are Miyowa. i. the phone actually sends the message to the IMSC.279 Combinied Circuit Switched (CS) and IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) sessions.79 Image Share Interoperability Specification [1] IETF RFC 4975 Message Session Relay Protocol 3GPP TS 22. The IMSC usually has a configurable time limit for how long it will store the message. References • • • • • GSM Association PRD IR. shtml [2] http:/ / www. Followap and OZ. including interworking between multiple networks. Nokia. gsmworld. com/ documents/ index. org/ internet-drafts/ draft-ietf-mmusic-file-transfer-mech-06. Other players include Acision. Feelingk and few others. Stage 2 3GPP TS 24. no server required in the network for sharing the images • Both live and pre-stored images can be shared between the participating mobile phones • Requires 3G or EDGE DTM (Dual Transfer Mode) mobile network 86 Usage According to GSMA press release [3] interoperability between different Image Share clients was successfully tested in a multi-vendor trial in May 2007. Now Wireless. com/ news/ press_2007/ press07_39.279 Combining Circuit Switched (CS) and IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) services. gsmworld.

IP. Most CDMA customers originate from the Americas or the Far East.[1] IMS is not intended to standardize applications but rather to aid the access of multimedia and voice applications from wireless and wireline terminals. Since it is becoming increasingly easier to access content and contacts using mechanisms outside the control of [2] traditional wireless/fixed operators. 3GPP2 and TISPAN by requiring support of networks other than GPRS. • 3GPP2 (a different organization from 3GPP) based their CDMA2000 Multimedia Domain (MMD) on 3GPP IMS. such as Wireless LAN. soft switches and "naked" SIP. Its original formulation (3GPP R5) represented an approach to delivering "Internet services" over GPRS. This term is now widely used in mobile communnications where especially CDMA customers want to use their phone in areas where there is no CDMA network or there is no roaming agreement in place to support roaming on the used standard. but additionally the task to sell an IMS based on a single service is also difficult as there are often (cheaper) alternatives to creating and deploying that particular service. In order to enable them to roam in Europe Inter Standard Roaming is the solution. IMS uses IETF protocols wherever possible. IP Multimedia Subsystem The IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) is an architectural framework for delivering Internet Protocol (IP) multimedia services. Interference in mobile communications Interference in mobile communications refers to Co channel and Adjacent channel interference. create a form of fixed-mobile convergence (FMC). two types of interference in mobile communications. services need not have their own control functions. According to the 3GPP. as part of their standardization work for 3G mobile phone systems in UMTS networks. It is easier to sell services than to sell the virtues of "integrated services". as the control layer is a common horizontal layer.g. In Europe there is hardly any CDMA network. CDMA2000 and fixed line.Inter standard roaming 87 Inter standard roaming Inter Standard Roaming is a general term in wireless telecommunications that refers to roaming between two standards. 3G. as a part of the vision for evolving mobile networks beyond GSM.IP developed the initial IMS architecture. i. It first appeared in Release 5 (evolution from 2G to 3G networks). when SIP-based multimedia was added. which was brought to the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP). The CDMA customers arriving in Europe can register on the available GSM networks. formed in 1999.e. e. adding support for CDMA2000. It was originally designed by the wireless standards body 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP). Session Initiation Protocol (SIP). the interest of IMS is being challenged. This is done by having a horizontal control layer that isolates the access network from the service layer. To ease the integration with the Internet. Support for the older GSM and GPRS networks was also provided. From a logical architecture perspective. However in implementation this does not necessarily map into greater reduced cost and complexity. This vision was later updated by 3GPP. . Alternative and overlapping technologies for access and provisioning of services across wired and wireless networks include combinations of Generic Access Network. History • IMS was originally defined by an industry forum called 3G.

Enhanced emergency sessions and IMS centralized services. enhancements to services centralization and continuity. • 3GPP release 9 added support for IMS emergency calls over GPRS and EPS. routing group identities. enhancements to Multimedia Telephony. Policy and Charging Control (PCC). Also added voice call continuity between circuit switching and packet switching domain (VCC). the function of AGCF (Access Gateway control function) and PES (PSTN Emulation Service) are introduced to the wire-line network for the sake of inheritance of services which can be provided in PSTN network. emergency sessions.1. Inter-operability between IMS using different IP-connectivity networks. • 3GPP release 8 added support for Long Term Evolution (LTE). System Architecture Evolution (SAE). fixed broadband connection to the IMS. enhancements to the Single Radio Voice Call Continuity (SRVCC). • 3GPP release 10 added support for inter device transfer. enhancements to IMS emergency sessions. speech recognition and speech-enabled services (Push to talk). IMS media plane security. presence. interworking with non-IMS networks. multiple registration and forking. Multimedia Session Continuity.IP Multimedia Subsystem • 3GPP release 6 added interworking with WLAN. 88 Architecture 3GPP / TISPAN IMS Architectural Overview . • 3GPP release 7 added support for fixed networks. by working together with TISPAN release R1.

WLAN. load balancing or organizational issues. CDMA2000. Other phone systems like plain old telephone service (POTS—the old analogue telephones). which grouped form one IMS administrative network. most of which use the standard Internet Protocol (IP). Each node can also be present multiple times in a single network. GPRS) and wireless access (e.g. Ethernet).HSS in IMS layer (as by standard) Each of the functions in the diagram is explained below. IMS terminals (such as mobile phones. for dimensioning. linked by standardized interfaces. The only requirement is that they can use IP and run Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) user agents. Fixed access (e. are supported through gateways. The IP Multimedia Core Network Subsystem is a collection of different functions.g. personal digital assistants (PDAs) and computers) can register directly on an IMS network. Digital Subscriber Line (DSL). H.IP Multimedia Subsystem 89 3GPP / TISPAN IMS Architectural Overview . even when they are roaming in another network or country (the visited network). GSM. mobile access (e. cable modems.. Access network The user can connect to an IMS network in various ways.g. W-CDMA. A function is not a node (hardware box): an implementer is free to combine 2 functions in 1 node.323 and non IMS-compatible VoIP systems. . or to split a single function into 2 or more nodes. WiMAX) are all supported.

performs authentication and authorization of the user. Authorization. It is similar to the GSM Home Location Register (HLR) and Authentication Centre (AuC). collectively called Call Session Control Function (CSCF). like sip:john. It contains the subscription-related information (subscriber profiles). A Subscriber Location Function (SLF) is needed to map user addresses when multiple HSSs are used. IP Multimedia Public Identity (IMPU). CSCF .g. IP Multimedia Private Identity The IP Multimedia Private Identity (IMPI) is a unique permanently allocated global identity assigned by the home network operator. and MSISDN.doe@example. Both IMPI and IMPU are not phone numbers or other series of digits.Home Subscriber Server The Home Subscriber Server (HSS). • A Proxy-CSCF (P-CSCF) is a SIP proxy that is the first point of contact for the IMS terminal. Every IMS user shall have one or more IMPI. The IMPU can also be shared with another phone. There are two types of GRUU: Public-GRUU (P-GRUU) and Temporary GRUU (T-GRUU). that can be digits (a Tel URI. User identities Various identities may be associated with IMS: IP Multimedia Private Identity (IMPI). The use of additional SBC between the IMS terminal and the P-CSCF as such pointless and also not feasible due to the signaling being encrypted on this leg. the IMPU.IP Multimedia Subsystem 90 Core network HSS . for Registration. IP Multimedia Public Identity The IP Multimedia Public Identity (IMPU) is used by any user for requesting communications to other users (e. Globally Routable User Agent URI (GRUU). Some networks may use a Session Border Controller for this function. are used to process SIP signalling packets in the IMS. There can be multiple IMPU per IMPI. The HSS subscriber database contains. a single phone-number for an entire family). The P-CSCF is at its core a specialized SBC for the User–network interface which not only protects the network. Globally Routable User Agent URI Globally Routable User Agent URI (GRUU) is an identity that identifies a unique combination of IMPU and UE instance. for example. subscriber service profiles. It can be located either in the visited network (in full IMS networks) or in the home network (when the visited network is not IMS compliant yet). or it may be . but also the IMS terminal. and Accounting purposes.Call Session Control Function Several roles of Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) servers or proxies. service triggers and other information. • T-GRUU do not reveal the IMPU and are valid until the contact is explicitly de-registered or the current registration expires Wildcarded Public User Identity A wildcarded Public User Identity expresses a set of IMPU grouped together. so that both can be reached with the same identity (for example. and can provide information about the subscriber's location and IP information. IMPI. is a master user database that supports the IMS network entities that actually handle calls. this might be included on a business card). IMSI. but Uniform Resource Identifier (URIs). or User Profile Server Function (UPSF). Administration. Wildcarded Public User Identity. and is used.com" ). like tel:+1-555-123-4567) or alphanumeric identifiers (a SIP URI. The terminal discovers its P-CSCF with either DHCP. • P-GRUU reveal the IMPU and are very long lived.

91 • An Interrogating-CSCF (I-CSCF) is another SIP function located at the edge of an administrative domain. and interface with the S-CSCF using Session Initiation Protocol (SIP). All necessary subscriber profile information is loaded from the HSS. which authorizes media plane resources e. and can inspect every signal. It uses Diameter Cx and Dx interfaces to the HSS to download user profiles and upload user-to-S-CSCF associations (the user profile is only cached locally for processing reasons only and is not changed). • it is assigned to an IMS terminal before registration. If located in the home network. • it also generates charging records • A Serving-CSCF (S-CSCF) is the central node of the signalling plane. Its IP address is published in the Domain Name System (DNS) of the domain (using NAPTR and SRV type of DNS records). . An example of an application server that is being developed in 3GPP is the Voice call continuity Function (VCC Server). SIP UA (user agent) mode or SIP B2BUA mode. but performs session control too. in which case it's called a Topology Hiding Inter-network Gateway (THIG).g. • it inspects the signaling and ensures that the IMS terminals do not misbehave (e. This prevents spoofing attacks and replay attacks and protects the privacy of the subscriber. It is a SIP server. • it handles SIP registrations.g. in order to provide their services it provides routing services.g. do not obey home network's routing policy) • it can also compress and decompress SIP messages using SigComp. and provides NAT and Firewall functions (pinholing). the IMS terminal must ignore any other unencrypted signalling • it provides subscriber authentication and may establish an IPsec or TLS security association with the IMS terminal. An AS can be located in the home network or in an external third-party network.g. the AS can operate in SIP proxy mode. and use it as a forwarding point (e. so that remote servers can find it. the IP address of the terminal) and the SIP address • • • • • it sits on the path of all signaling messages of the locally registered users. etc. bandwidth management. The PDF can also be a separate function. • it queries the HSS to retrieve the address of the S-CSCF and assign it to a user performing SIP registration • it also forwards SIP request or response to the S-CSCF • Up to Release 6 it can also be used to hide the internal network from the outside world (encrypting parts of the SIP message). during initial provisioning or via a 3GPP IMS Management Object (MO)) or in the ISIM or assigned in the PDP Context (in General Packet Radio Service (GPRS)). It is used for policy control. Depending on the actual service. The IBCF is practically a Session Border Controller specialized for the NNI. There are multiple options for this purpose. including a mandatory/optional capabilities to be matched between subscribers and S-CSCFs. The IBCF is used as gateway to external networks. typically using Electronic Numbering (ENUM) lookups it enforces the policy of the network operator there can be multiple S-CSCFs in the network for load distribution and high availability reasons. it can query the HSS with the Diameter Sh or Si interfaces (for a SIP-AS). It is always located in the home network. registering) for SIP packets to this domain. and can inspect every message it decides to which application server(s) the SIP message will be forwarded. From Release 7 onwards this "entry point" function is removed from the I-CSCF and is now part of the Interconnection Border Control Function (IBCF).g. quality of service (QoS) over the media plane. when it's queried by the I-CSCF. change normal signaling routes. and does not change for the duration of the registration • it sits on the path of all signalling. Application servers SIP Application servers (AS) host and execute services.IP Multimedia Subsystem configured (e. It's the HSS that assigns the S-CSCF to a user. which allows it to bind the user location (e. which reduces the round-trip over slow radio links • it may include a Policy Decision Function (PDF).

an Signalling System 7 (SS7) protocol). It includes routing functionality based on telephone numbers. The Media Resource Broker (MRB) is a functional entity that is responsible for both collection of appropriate published MRF information and supplying of appropriate MRF information to consuming entities such as the AS. while IMS uses Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) over IP. an Internet Protocol (IP) protocol) into Message Transfer Part (MTP. Application Logic provides the service(s) and interacts between the AS-ILCM and AS-OLCM. CS networks use ISDN User Part (ISUP) (or BICC) over Message Transfer Part (MTP). while IMS uses Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP). As user identities. and may optionally store session state depending on the specific service being executed. It can also manage access right to shared resources. For signalling. MRB can be used in two modes: • Query mode: AS queries the MRB for media and sets up the call using the response of MRB • In-Line Mode: AS sends a SIP INVITE to the MRB. Public Service Identity Public Service Identities (PSI) are identities that identify services. to pass ISDN User Part (ISUP) from the MGCF to the CS 92 . Each MRF is further divided into a Media Resource Function Controller (MRFC) and a Media Resource Function Processor (MRFP). Media Servers The Media Resource Function (MRF) provides media related functions such as media manipulation (e. PSI shall take the form of either a SIP or Tel URI. It transforms lower layer protocols as Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP. CS networks use Pulse-code modulation (PCM). For media.IP Multimedia Subsystem • SIP AS: Host and execute IMS specific services • IP Multimedia Service Switching Function (IM-SSF): Interfaces SIP to CAP to communicate with CAMEL Application Servers • OSA Service Capability Server (OSA SCS) : Interfaces SIP to the OSA framework Functional model The AS-ILCM and AS-OLCM store transaction state. PSIs are stored in the HSS either as a distinct PSI or as a wildcarded PSI: • a distinct PSI contains the PSI that is used in routing • a wildcarded PSI represents a collection of PSIs. which are hosted by Application Servers. • The MRFC is a signalling plane node that interprets information coming from an AS and S-CSCF to control the MRFP • The MRFP is a media plane node used to mix. source or process media streams. The MRB sets up the call Breakout Gateway A Breakout Gateway Control Function (BGCF) is a SIP proxy which processes requests for routing from an S-CSCF when the S-CSCF has determined that the session cannot be routed using DNS or ENUM/DNS. voice stream mixing) and playing of tones and announcements. The AS-ILCM interfaces to the S-CSCF (ILCM) for an incoming leg and the AS-OLCM interfaces to the S-CSCF (OLCM) for an outgoing leg. PSTN Gateways A PSTN/CS gateway interfaces with PSTN circuit switched (CS) networks.g. • A Signalling Gateway (SGW) interfaces with the signalling plane of the CS.

at the end of the month). an IP interconnection of this type is not aware of the specific end to end service and. • Offline Charging : All the SIP network entities (P-CSCF. It also controls the resources in a Media Gateway (MGW) across an H. or real-time credit control of postpaid services. An NGN interconnection mode can be direct or indirect. service specific network performance. PSTN might use G.g. as a consequence. "Defined levels of interoperability" are dependent upon the service or the QoS or the Security. I-CSCF. Online charging. QoS and security requirements are not necessarily assured. • A Media Gateway (MGW) interfaces with the media plane of the CS network. Specifically. also known as credit-based charging. The intermediate network domain(s) provide(s) transit functionality to the two other network domains. Billing systems in different domains will also exchange information. is used for prepaid services. IMS might use AMR.e.e. Both may be applied to the same session. IMS and PES) platforms with control.g. AS) involved in the session use the Diameter Rf interface to send accounting information to a CDF located in the same domain. Direct interconnection refers to the interconnection between two network domains without any intermediate network domain. and build a Call Detail Record (CDR). Each session carries an IMS Charging Identifier (ICID) as a unique identifier generated by the first IMS entity involved in a SIP transaction and used for the correlation with CDRs. Media Server (MS) and Media gateway (MGW) 93 NGN Interconnection There are two types of Next Generation Networking Interconnection: • Service oriented Interconnection (SoIx): The physical and logical linking of NGN domains that allows carriers and service providers to offer services over NGN (i. this is the case of "carrier grade" voice and/or multimedia services over IP interconnection. BGCF. It can also transcode when the codecs don't match (e. • Connectivity oriented Interconnection (CoIx): The physical and logical linking of carriers and service providers based on simple IP connectivity irrespective of the levels of interoperability. Media Resources Media Resources are those components that operate on the media plane and are under the control of IMS Core functions. session based). Charging Data Function (CDF) addresses are used for offline billing and Online Charging Function (OCF) for online billing. so that roaming charges can be applied. Charging Offline charging is applied to users who pay for their services periodically (e.711). Indirect interconnection at one layer refers to the interconnection between two network domains with one or more intermediate network domain(s) acting as transit networks. MRFC. This definition does not exclude that some services may provide a defined level of interoperability. For instance. MGCF. Inter Operator Identifier (IOI) is a globally unique identifier shared between sending and receiving networks. Different interconnection modes may be used for carrying service layer signalling and media traffic. Each domain has its own charging network. signalling (i. S-CSCF. which provides defined levels of interoperability. by converting between RTP and PCM. However only SoIx fully satisfies NGN interoperability requirements. The CCF will collect all this information..IP Multimedia Subsystem network. which is sent to the billing system (BS) of the domain. . Charging function addresses are addresses distributed to each IMS entities and provide a common location for each entity to send charging information. For example. etc.248 interface. • A Media Gateway Controller Function (MGCF) is SIP endpoint that does call control protocol conversion between SIP and ISUP/BICC and interfaces with the SGW over SCTP.

PCRF S-CSCF <-> AS Reference point between S-CSCF and AS. the number of spent credit units is reported and deducted from the account. scripts. OSA. Used to forward media streams from a TrGW to another TrGW belonging to a different IMS network. registration state and UE capabilities Supply the AS with information to allow it to execute multiple services Convey charging function addresses SIP SIP Ici Izi IBCFs TrGWs Used to exchange messages between an IBCF and another IBCF belonging to a different IMS network. IM-SSF) <-> SLF (I-CSCF or S-CSCF) <-> SLF UE. • When Immediate Event Charging (IEC) is used. After the service is over. The AS and MRFC use the Diameter Ro interface towards an OCF.announcement files and other resources) from an AS. DX_SLF_QUERY indicates a IMPU and DX_SLF_RESP return the HSS name. Also used to furnish CDF and/or OCF addresses. Used by AS to find the HSS holding the User Profile information in a multi-HSS environment. P-CSCF PDF.DH_SLF_QUERY indicates a IMPU and DX_SLF_RESP return the HSS name.212 Gq Gx ISC P-CSCF. a number of credit units is immediately deducted from the user's account by the ECF and the MRFC or AS is then authorized to provide the service. Used by I-CSCF or S-CSCF to find a correct HSS in a multi-HSS environment. The SCF can signal the S-CSCF to terminate the session when the user runs out of credits during a session. PDF PCEF.IP Multimedia Subsystem • Online charging : The S-CSCF talks to a Session Charging Function (SCF) which looks like a regular SIP application server. S-CSCF). AS Used by MRFC to fetch documents (e. Main functions are SIP to : • • • Notify the AS of the registered IMPU.g. the reserved credit units are then cleared. • When Event Charging with Unit Reservation (ECUR) is used. TS29. Used to exchange messages between UE and P-CSCF TCP/SCTP channels Cx (I-CSCF. 94 Interfaces description Interface Name Cr IMS entities Description Protocol Technical Specification MRFC. The service is not authorized when not enough credit units are available. including Filter criteria and their priority. Also used for media control related commands. GGSN Diameter Dh Diameter Dx Diameter Gm Go SIP Allows operators to control QoS in a user plane and exchange COPS (Rel5). Diameter (Rel6+) charging correlation information between IMS and GPRS network Used to exchange policy decisions-related information between P-CSCF and PDF Used to exchange policy decisions-related information between PCEF and PCRF Diameter Diameter TS29. Used to send subscriber data to the S-CSCF. the ECF first reserves a number of credit units in the user's account and then authorizes the MRFC or the AS. HSS AS (SIP AS.211. .

S-CSCF. IBCF Used for the interworking with another IMS network. AS P-CSCF. MRFP S-CSCF. AS AS.S-CSCF S-CSCF -> BGCF ISUP signalling to SIP signalling and forwards SIP signalling SIP to I-CSCF Used to exchange messages between S-CSCF and BGCF SIP SIP BGCF -> MGCF Used for the interworking with the PSTN/CS Domain. when the BGCF has determined that a breakout should occur in another IMS network to send SIP message from BGCF to the BGCF in the other network Used for exchanging messages between IMS and external IP networks Mk SIP Mm I-CSCF. MRFC. S-CSCF MRB. Used to exchange messages between CSCFs I-CSCF. MRFC.248 by an MRFP. BGCF. when the BGCF has determined that a breakout should occur in the other IMS network to send SIP message from BGCF to the IBCF in the other network Mw Rc Rf P-CSCF. MRFC SIP Mn Mp Mr Mr' Allows control of user-plane resources H. external IP network MGCF. if the AS has no knowledge of a S-CSCF assigned to that user or Public Service Identity Convey charging function addresses SIP 95 • Mg Mi Mj MGCF -> I. I-CSCF. SIP SIP Mx BGCF/CSCF.248 Allows an MRFC to control media stream resources provided H. so that it can ask more information from Application Server through Cr Interface. MGCF. This SIP message contains sufficient information to play tone and announcement or provide information to MRFC. S-CSCF SIP Used by the AS to request that media resources be assigned SIP. In Query mode (Not specified) to a call when utilizing MRB In-Line mode or In Query mode Used to exchange offline charging information with CDF Diameter Ro Used to exchange online charging information with OCF Diameter TS32. when the BGCF has determined that a breakout should occur in the same IMS network to send SIP message from BGCF to MGCF BGCF -> BGCF Used for the interworking with the PSTN/CS Domain.IP Multimedia Subsystem Ma I-CSCF <-> AS Main functions are to: • • Forward SIP requests which are destinated to a Public Service Identity hosted by the AS Originate a session on behalf of a user or Public Service Identity.299 . S-CSCF. Used to exchange information between S-CSCF and MRFC Used to exchange session controls between AS and MRFC Application Server sends SIP message to MRFC to play tone and announcement. MRFC AS. IM-MGW MRFC.

user service related information or user location information or charging function addresses (used when the AS has not received the third party REGISTER for a user)) between an AS (SIP AS or OSA SCS) and HSS. due to its common use for a large number of subscribers. AS (SIP AS. that of allowing for a SIP application to be dynamically and differentially (based on the user's profile) triggered. Also allow AS to activate/deactivate filter criteria stored in the HSS on a per subscriber basis Transports CAMEL subscription information including triggers for use by CAMEL based application services information. Facilitates the management of subscriber information related OSA SCS. Used by MRFC to fetch documents (scripts and other resources) from an AS MAP Si IM-SSF. while the services for the terminating party will be applied in the terminating network. For this situation. group lists. XCAP UE. which are informally known as "early IMS security. Initial Filter Criteria Initial Filter Criteria (iFC) are filter criteria that are stored in the HSS as part of the IMS Subscription Profile and are downloaded to the S-CSCF upon user registration (for registered users) or on processing demand (for services. OSA SCS). The term Shared iFC denotes an iFC which. HSS Used to exchange User Profile information (e. It is important to note that services for the originating party will be applied in the originating network. PCRF Used to exchange policy and charging related information between P-CSCF and PCRF Replacement for the Gq reference point. 3GPP defines some security mechanisms.IP Multimedia Subsystem Rx P-CSCF.203 may not be available for a while especially because of the lack of USIM/ISIM interfaces and prevalence of devices that support IPv4. Security aspects of early IMS and non-3GPP systems It is envisaged that security defined in TS 33. all in the respective S-CSCFs. • A Trigger Point in the form of a logical condition which is verified against initial dialog creating SIP requests or stand-alone SIP requests. to provide some protection against the most significant threats.g. Diameter 96 Sh AS (SIP AS. iFC are valid throughout the registration lifetime or until the User Profile is changed. The S-CSCF might apply filter criteria to determine the need to forward SIP requests to AS. This mechanism is also weak because the signaling is not protected on the User–network interface. which binds between the user's profile and its IP address. user related Diameter data. They represent a provisioned subscription of a user to an application. This mechanism relies on the authentication performed during the network attachment procedures. acting as unregistered users)." in TR33. to services and settings IM-SSF) Session handling One of the most important features of IMS. AS HTTP HTTP(s). The iFC may be composed of: • An Application Server URI where the request is to be forwarded in case of a match. . HSS Sr Ut MRFC.978. is only referenced in the Subscription Profile and provisioned on a different path between the HSS and the S-CSCF. is implemented as a filter-and-redirect signalling mechanism in the S-CSCF.

html).228. Georg Mayer (John Wiley & Sons. yet in its own and again different approach.org/ftp/Specs/html-info/23228. towards a Common-IMS platform. TS 23. Ahson (Editor) (CRC Press.IP Multimedia Subsystem CableLabs in PacketCable#PacketCable_2. 2008. yet the procedures are different. To compensate for the lack of IPsec capabilities. Later on. 3rd Generation Partnership Project [2] Alexander Harrowell. TLS has been added as an option for securing the Gm interface.fr/~gbertran/files/IMS_an_overview. published deltas to the 3GPP specifications where the Digest-MD5 is a valid authentication option.enst-bretagne.google. also TISPAN did a similar effort given their Fixed Networks scopes. A Pointless Multimedia Subsystem? (http:/ / www.com/present/ view?id=0ARnWgfNsabwWZGYycXo5aHhfMGdqNXB4ZGI&hl=en) • http://www. 97 References [1] Technical Specification Group Services and System Aspects (2006). ISBN 0-470-01818-6) • "The IMS: IP Multimedia Concepts and Services" by Miikka Poikselka. ISBN 1-4200-6459-2) . Aki Niemi.rennes. Stage 2. ISBN 0-470-01906-9) • "IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) Handbook" by Mohammad Ilyas (Editor).0. Later 3GPP Releases have included the Digest-MD5 method. Mobile Communications International External links • A decent IMS tutorial (http://www. the implementations on the Cx interface between the S-CSCF and the HSS are different. Hisham Khartabil.htm Books • "The 3G IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS): Merging the Internet and the Cellular Worlds" by Gonzalo Camarillo.3gpp. Syed A. Miguel-Angel García-Martín (John Wiley & Sons. allbusiness. Staff Writer (October 2006). 2006. Although all 3 variants of Digest-MD5 authentication have the same functionality and are the same from the IMS terminal's perspective. which adopted also the IMS architecture but has no USIM/ISIM capabilities in their terminals. com/ primary-metal-manufacturing/ foundries-nonferrous/ 4104136-1.pdf) • IMS Ten Minute Gorilla School (http://docs. IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS). 2006.

access combines IP and cellular technologies together to provide cost-efficient 2G and 3G coverage and capacity of mobile networks in various settings. Headquartered in Cambridge. Following suit.ip.access was founded in December 1999[8] as a wholly owned subsidiary of TTP Communications PLC.[17] In 2009.[10] and was subsequently spun off from TTP. com/ Products Website ip. after signing an OEM agreement with ip.access 98 ip.access relocated to new offices in Cambourne Business Park. WA and New Delhi. in both 2007[15] and 2008. and 3G. which produces rankings of top-performing private companies in the UK.access is a member of 3GPP. Motorola gained a stake in ip. and green technology companies in 26 EMEA countries. and markets picocell and femtocell technologies and infrastructure equipment for GSM.access also maintains operations and offices in Bellevue. its solutions also provide coverage to commercial passenger aircraft. Using satellite backhaul. an annual ranking of the fastest growing public and private technology.[11] In 2007. However.access ip. ip. Chairman Simon Brown. ip. ip.[16] The company was also cited as the number one picocell vendor in an independent study performed by global market intelligence company. Cambridge.access. it was named in the Deloitte Technology Fast 500 EMEA. media.[9] In March 2006. CFO nanoGSM® nano3G™ Oyster 3G™ http:/ / www. where it remains.access. CEO Dr. GPRS.[5] Femto Forum. ip. such as business offices and retail venues. both Cisco Systems[13] and Qualcomm[14] also made strategic financial investments in the company in 2008. EDGE. and Rothschild & Cie Gestion. manufactures.[18] . India. the company secured an £8. UK. as part of its June 2006 acquisition of TTP Communications. ADC[12] made a minority interest investment in the company. CTO Tim Arthur.[3] the Cambridge Network. ipaccess.[2] and users in remote rural areas. To accommodate its growing staff.access Limited is a multinational corporation that designs. ip.5 million round of funding from Intel Capital. Cambridge. ABI Research in 2008. Nick Johnson.[1] ships. Vega.[4] European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI).access Limited Type Privately Held Company Headquarters Cambourne.[7] History ip. Scottish Equity Partners. life sciences.access was named in The Sunday Times Fast Tech Track 100. telecommunications.[6] and an associate member of the Network Vendors Interoperability Testing (NVIOT) Forum. United Kingdom Area served Key people Worldwide Teresa M.

ip. 99 Products The company's technologies are employed by telecommunications firms such as AT&T. with the goal of addressing standards-oriented issues such as radio planning and control. messaging and data to both 2G and 3G handsets at an indoor range of up to 200m. and an OMC-R management system that delivers voice. nanoGSM® In 2002. ip. device provisioning.[27] the Oyster 3G is ip.access introduced the world’s first IP basestation controller for indoor GSM networks.ip.access nano3G Enterprise . full IP-based BSC.[19] In April 2009. nano3G™ nano3G is an end-to-end Femtocell system with access points for Enterprise. the company took part in the first Plugfest. and other devices.access' core 3G femtocell technology used by system integrators and OEM customers to integrate WCDMA femtocells into home gateways. E16 and E24] and Small Medium Business. access controller and element management system. the company announced its Oyster 3G product would support femtocell standards published by 3GPP and the Broadband Forum.access in compliance with the Broadband Forum's TR-069[20] technical specification. set-top boxes. providing carrier-class coverage to commercial[26] and consumer users.[25] nanoGSM uses 2G picocells that leverage the standard GSM air interface. and device-to-network standardization collaboratively with other members.[21] organized as an ETSI Plugtests™ held to demonstrate the effectiveness of the 3GPP femtocell standards in supporting interoperability between femtocell access points and network equipment from different vendors. and Cisco Systems.access became a founding member of the Femto Forum.[24] which has jointly developed a femtocell solution with ip. an organization promoting worldwide femtocell deployment. S-class [S8].[20] In March 2010. Oyster 3G™ Technology Launched at the 2007 3GSM World Congress in Barcelona.[22] which uses Oyster 3G as the core femtocell technology for its 3G MicroCell[23] product. E-class [E8.access In July 2007. The ip. Spain.

Best Technology Foresight[46] 2008 • The Sunday Times Fast Tech Track 100[16] 2009 • • • • Deloitte Fast 500 EMEA Femto Forum Awards .[24] Private Mobile Networks.[42] and TriaGnoSys.[30] SFR.[28] Blue Ocean Wireless.[42] Setcom. and personnel awards won by ip.[22] Bharti Airtel.Maritime Voice Services[48] [18] 2010 • GTB Power100[49] • World Vendor Awards .[32] Tele2.Femtocell or Femtocell Network Element Design and Technology Innovation[47] Femto Forum Awards .[33] Telefónica O2 Czech Republic.access' Oyster 3G is the core technology of AT&T's 3G MicroCell 2007 • • • • Light Reading Leading Lights Awards .ip.[41] Quortus.[2] Bouygues Telecom.Best Radio Access Product or Service[45] The Sunday Times Fast Tech Track 100[15] World Communications Award . Prototype.[43] Awards Corporate.Femtocell Service (Commercial.access 100 Customers and Partners Among ip.[38] Blue Ocean Wireless.Best Specialist Vendor[50] .Best New Product (Private Company)[44] Global Mobile Awards .[29] Monaco Telecom.access' major customers are AT&T. or Demo)[47] Global Telecoms Business Innovation Awards .[37] Altobridge. product.[40] Qualcomm.[39] Cisco Systems.[31] SPIE SA.access include the following: ip.[31] T-Mobile.[34] and Telia Sonera.[35] The company's technology partners[36] include AeroMobile.

com/ Operators/ att-wireless. 2011. Retrieved June 8. [5] ETSI Member Information (http:/ / portal.access Secures £8. "ip. [23] David Chambers. Press release. CEOWorld Magazine. com/ att-to-deploy-femtocell-technology-from-uk-firm-ip. uk/ fasttrack/ leagues/ dbIndex. com/ research/ 1003580-Picocell+ Equipment+ Vendor+ Matrix). [20] Bhushan. co. org/ 3gppmembership/ Results. AT&T to Deploy Femtocell Technology from UK Firm ip. asp?doc_id=153681). ipaccess.com. uk/ directory/ orgprofile/ default. "ip. com/ dlls/ 2008/ fin_012308.A New Body to Promote Femtocell Standardisation and Deployment" (http:/ / www. which provides care for children and young people with life-threatening illnesses and support for their families.access is a corporate supporter of East Anglia's Children's Hospices (EACH). July 30. . Retrieved June 14. etsi. [10] ip. Retrieved June 14.access (September 15. "ip. etsi. 2011. Deloitte. and Femto Forum. Press release. com/ content/ news/ press.5 million Funding to Accelerate Growth in Cost-Effective Cellular Infrastructure for Homes and Businesses" (http:/ / www. [7] NVIOT Forum Members (http:/ / www. co. Cisco. [13] Cisco Systems (January 23. Press release. Retrieved June 2. Retrieved June 2. uk/ 2006/ 06/ 07/ motorola_buys_ttpcom/ ).[52] References [1] ip. [26] Weaver. "Femto Forum Completes World's First Femtocell Plugfest" (http:/ / femtoforum. nviot-forum.access Organization Profile (http:/ / www. Amarendra. Telecoms. Retrieved June 2. html). com/ content/ news/ press. [22] Saabedra. access-3378/ ). 2006. Retrieved June 3. [4] ip. Think Femtocell. [15] 2007 Tech Track 100 League Table . "Cisco Makes Strategic Investment in ip. .access Moves to New Offices to Support Growth" (http:/ / www.access (http:/ / edageek. BBC News. [17] Picocell Equipment Vendor Matrix (http:/ / www. . [24] Donegan. ip. Light Reading Mobile. co. [21] Femto Forum (March 30. asp?Alone=1& SortBy=& SortDirection=& Param=).ip. 2008. May 21. The Sunday Times Fast Tech Track 100. Humberto. "ATT Wireless" (http:/ / www.access (February 2.access (March 13. 2011. 2009). June 7. Retrieved June 2.access and Altobridge Collaborate to Provide GSM ‘Sky/Sea Phone’ Services" (http:/ / www. lightreading. Light Reading Mobile. thinkfemtocell. ipaccess. ipaccess. [8] "About TTP" (http:/ / www. 2011. Press release. Retrieved June 14.access Demonstrates Progress on Femtocell Standards (http:/ / ceoworld. com/ content/ news/ press. html). . php?id=51). Retrieved June 3. telecoms.UK (http:/ / www.access (http:/ / gigaom. uk/ 2/ hi/ technology/ 7867091. femtoforum. 2005). uk/ fasttrack/ leagues/ dbIndex. org/ fem2/ pressreleases. 2007). com/ document.access Goes Indoors (http:/ / www. . Ken. Retrieved June 8. php?id=243).access 101 2011 • Femto Forum Awards . 2011. 2011. [9] ip. [11] Motorola gobbles up TTPcom (http:/ / www. com/ 2008/ 05/ 21/ qualcomm-backs-femtocell-maker/ ). 2009. 2011. 2011. April 07.). org/ femto/ membership. theregister. ip. 2008). [3] 3GPP Membership (http:/ / webapp. com/ 2007/ 07/ 30/ ip-access-adc/ . cambridgenetwork. Michelle. lightreading. biz/ ceo/ 2009/ 04/ 07/ ipaccess-demonstrates-progress-on-femtocell-standards). 2007. Femtocells Grow Into the Enterprise Space (http:/ / www. php). Retrieved June 8. Stacey. . org/ Portal_IntegrateAppli/ QueryResult. Network Vendors Interoperability Testing Forum. 3GPP. ip. phonenews. fasttrack. 2008. asp?doc_id=25238). Retrieved June 2. 2006). php?id=20).UK (http:/ / www. 2011. com/ content/ news/ press. Retrieved June 30. Press release. 2011. 2011. uk/ fast500emea/ fast-500-winners/ winners-2009/ ). deloitte. 2011.access" (http:/ / newsroom. . [25] Ip. . [18] 2009 Winners (http:/ / www. 2011. Pamela. 2011.Femtocell Network Element Design and Technology Innovation[51] Community Support ip. [12] Cheung. Press release. . TTP Group. fasttrack. 2011. GigaOM. asp?Member=ALL_PARTNERS& SortMember=Name& DirMember=ASC& SortPartner=Name& DirPartner=ASC& SortMarket=Name& DirMarket=ASC& SortObserver=Name& DirObserver=ASC& SortGuest=Name& DirGuest=ASC& Name=& search=Search). [16] 2008 Tech Track 100 League Table . ETSI. stm).access Joins Board of the Femto Forum . Phone News. February 15. co. ADC Makes Investment in ip. [19] ip. 2008. "ip. bbc. aspx?objid=73435).access (July 06. org/ About_the_NVIOT_Forum. December 3. The Sunday Times Fast Tech Track 100. ttp. Retrieved June 8. February 2. ABI Research. co. com/ corporate/ about/ ). [2] Mobiles Connect Across the Waves (http:/ / news. Retrieved June 9. 2011. 2010). php?id=27). 2011. co. Qualcomm Backs Femtocell Maker. [14] Higginbotham. May 13. 2011. The Register. asp?siteID=3& yr=2007& sort=num& area1=99& x=19& y=7). php?id=5). Cambridge Network. 2002. cisco. com/ document. [6] Femto Forum Members Listing (http:/ / www. 2009. 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TriaGnoSys Offer GSM Services for Brazilian Operators (http:/ / www. Bharti Airtel Deploys ip. [42] Harris. 2010. 2007. Telecommunications Insight. Retrieved June 16. com/ usubmit/ 2009/ 02/ 12/ 3984377. com/ document.access for Picocells (http:/ / www. SatNews.com. lightreading. Retrieved June 15. stm). com/ contractors/ fixed-mobile-convergence/ teleware/ press10. femtoforum. 2010. 2011. Light Reading. org/ awards2011/ 2011-winners/ ). com/ document. telecompaper. Global Telecoms Business. techeye. [38] ip. Light Reading Mobile. February 15.access Profile (http://www. lightreading. Business Weekly.net. com/ content/ news/ press. Light Reading Mobile. ipaccess. January 30. 2010. Mary. [45] GSM Association (February 13. htm). SFR Business Team and SPIE Collaborate to Bring Picocells to French Market (http:/ / www. [29] Bouygues Picks ip. October 23.access Sign Femtocell Partnership (http:/ / www. globaltelecomsbusiness.access.access and Altobridge to Develop GSM Solutions for Ships and Planes (http:/ / www. [31] ip.access Revs Up Coverage for Monaco Telecom (http:/ / www. [41] Wilson. Femto Forum. com/ news/ ipaccess-and-altobridge-to-develop-gsm-solutions-for-ships-and-planes). com/ en/ femtocell-and-picocell-solutions-from-our-partners). . February 05. LR Names 2007 Leading Lights Winners (http:/ / www.access. satnews. 2009. 2011. each. [35] TeliaSonera Picks ip. terrapinn. 2009. 2008. Retrieved June 8. June 12.businessweekly. 2011. htm).co. [52] "EACH Corporate Supporters" (http:/ / www. uk/ 2010/ 02/ 05/ 3g-femtocell-developer-kit-available-from-ip-access/ ). Retrieved June 15.access + Blue Ocean Wireless (http:/ / www. Retrieved June 30.ip.. lightreading.ipaccess. ipaccess. uk/ hi-tech/ 9043-mallinson-make-telecoms-power-list). Ray. techwatch. 2007. EACH. asp?doc_id=42398). php). [32] IP. February 12. 2007. Telecom Paper. EDN Magazine. Light Reading Mobile. com/ article/ 515584-ip_access_revs_up_coverage_for_Monaco_Telecom. September 2009. October 22. . . [51] "2011 Winners" (http:/ / www.access [27] Lennighan. [28] Shukla. . [48] "GTB Innovation Awards: Wireless Network Infrastructure" (http:/ / www. [33] Tele2 Picks ip. gsmworld. php?id=13). com/ cgi-bin/ story. totaltele. October 13. 2011. 2010. asp?doc_id=144533). com/ view. aspx?C=0& ID=349112). org. September 16. 2011. asp?doc_id=136327). . 2010. com/ 2010/ WVA/ ). html?Keywords=innovation& OrderType=1). Femtocells Key for Mobile Operators . com/ 2008/ wca/ C4415. com/ newsroom/ press-releases/ 1992. September 03. Terrapinn Holdings ltd. 2009. [30] ip. com/ file/ 98130/ tele2-picks-ipaccess-for-picocells. tmcnet. TechEye. htm). edn. [37] AeroMobile Flies with ip. Qualcomm. Press release. [47] "Femto Forum Femtocell Awards 2009" (http:/ / www. com/ femto/ aboutforum. Mobile Comms Technology. 2011. Press release. [46] "2007 World Communication Awards Winners" (http:/ / www. . Jan. TMCNet. "ip. telecomsinsight. Retrieved June 16. com/ document. businessweekly. com/ document. [43] Aroso. html). May 21. net/ mobile/ qualcomm-ip-access-sign-femtocell-partnership). lightreading. Terrapinn Holdings ltd. February 3.com. cgi?number=1844337422). 2011. php?id=96). [44] Le Maistre. lightreading. mobilecomms-technology. [34] ip.access (http:/ / www. html). femtoforum. "GSM Association Announces 2007 Global Mobile Awards Winners" (http:/ / www. 2007). 2011. asp?doc_id=187958). .access (http:/ / www. 2003. Telecom Paper. [49] Mallinson Makes Telecoms Power List (http:/ / www. uk/ how-to-help/ corporate_fundraising/ each_corporate_supporters). September 29.Vendors (http:/ / www. Anuradha. Light Reading Mobile. Retrieved June 9. . com/ Article/ 2277416/ Search/ Results/ GTB-Innovation-Awards-Wireless-network-infrastructure. asp?doc_id=71508). [40] Teleware Plc Selects ip.access (http:/ / www. TechWatch. Femto Forum. Retrieved June 16. Retrieved June 2. co. 2005). co. tmcnet. [36] "Femtocell and Picocell Solutions from our partners" (http:/ / www.access as Picocell Supplier for Private Mobile Networks (http:/ / www. 2010.access Builds Up T-Mobile (http:/ / www. ip. com/ document. com/ news/ aroso-triagnosys-offer-gsm-services-for-brazilian-operators). 2011. 2003. Dean.uk/hi-tech/ 9041-company-profile-ipaccess) . 2005.access Signs Contract with Czech Operator Telefónica O2 to Enhance GSM In-Building Coverage" (http:/ / www. com/ topics/ ip-communications/ articles/ 99565-bharti-airtel-deploys-ipaccess-nanogsm-picocell-india. [50] "World Vendor Awards 2010" (http:/ / www. February 2.com) • Business Weekly ip. . [39] Picocelling Marine Mobile Are ip. 102 External links • Official Company Website (http://www. TMCNet.. ip. April 6. October 16. Total Telecom. terrapinn.access (February 10.access (http:/ / www. telecompaper. 3G Femtocell Developer Kit Available From ip.access NanoGSM Picocell in India (http:/ / ipcommunications.

. IQAN is a trademark[1] for electronic control systems for mobile machinery. no longer existing company. owned by Parker Hannifin corporation. date March 29. USPTO registration No. The system has been was further developed within the Parker organisation. 1828046. VOAC Co. 2405313. 1994. around 1995 the Swedish company VOAC Hydraulics Co. History The CAN bus based system IQAN was developed by a small Swedish company around 1990-95. Source • VOAC history.. bought this company and in february 1996 VOAC Hydraulics was acquired by Parker Hannifin.IQAN 103 IQAN This article is about the Parker Hannifin trademark. First version was introduced on the market 1995. see Kitáb-i-Íqán. date November 21. The IQAN-system was integrated into Parkers product range of system components for mobile machinery. is an acronym för Volvo-Atlas Copco as well as a trademark. For Bahá'u'lláh's Book of Certitude. 2000. Shortly after. Notes [1] USPTO registration No.

3G). The former allows the developer to model the functional and non-functional behavior of the service.1 / April 7. including handheld devices (that can exploit different network interfaces.and resource-aware services. Introduction to Plastic The PLASTIC platform enables robust distributed lightweight services in the B3G networking environment through three different tools • A development environment leveraging model-driven engineering for the thorough development of SLA. WiFi. The latter is a QN solver for performing performance . a performance model based on Queueing Networks (QN). • A validation framework enabling off-line and on-line validation of networked services regarding functional and extra-functional properties. which may be deployed on the various networked nodes. Bluetooth.0. The Plastic project belongs to the EU's Sixth Framework Programme for Research and Technology Development (RTD). • Modeling tools: they are the PLASTIC service model editor and the PLASTIC SLA editor. from the service model. which may be deployed on the various networked nodes. including handheld devices. inscribed into STREP Information Society Technologies (IST). in particular assisting the development of services targeted at mobile devices. The former derives. Development environment The PLASTIC development environment enables the rigorous development of SLA and resource-aware services. The project started in January 2006 and will end in September 2008.g.. The PLASTIC project adopts and revisits service-oriented computing for the B3G network.IST-Plastic 104 IST-Plastic PLASTIC Original author(s) Initial release Stable release Operating system Type License Website Plastic consortium April 7. further enabling context-aware and secure discovery and access to such services. 2008 Cross-platform ? ? [1] Plastic. is a project that develops a design framework for mobile B3G services. e. The latter is for defining the service level specification by taking into account the feedbacks from the non-functional analysis tools. acronym of Providing Lightweight & Adaptable Service Technology for Information and Communication. • A service-oriented middleware leveraging multi-radio devices and multi-network environments for applications and services run on mobile devices. • Non-functional analysis tools: they are L-to-QN and QN-Solver. The PLASTIC development environment can be organized into the following five main blocks. 2008 0.

multi-network connectivity. The Context awareness Services feature concepts for managing contextual information and further easing the adaptation of services to best match user situations. the alternative that better fits the resource constraints of the device over which the service will run. according to quality parameters. Implementation of the PLASTIC middleware prototype is being finalized and will soon be available for download under open source licenses. • The communication layer allows for communication in the B3G networking environment according to the SOAP or CBR (content-based routing) protocols. now embedded in wireless devices. in particular enabling adaptive lightweight services to be run on mobile nodes and access to services over multi-radio. . The PLASTIC development environment relies on the Eclipse framework. Functionalities provided by the PLASTIC middleware may be used in conjunction but also in isolation according to the resource capacities of the host and the applications' requirements.. The lightweight WS-Security Services allow for adapting the security provision to the capacity of mobile device resources. each tool has been developed in a modular way hence providing also an API that would allow a developer to use the tool also outside Eclipse. • Resource-aware adaptation tools: they are an Abstract Resource Analyzer and a Customizer and are used at deployment-time in order to "extract". • Code generation tools: UML to HUTN and UML to WSDL are used to derive. multi-network links. B3G CBR provides content-based networking. in particular accounting for extra-functional properties. Last but not least. 105 Service-oriented middleware The PLASTIC middleware empowers the service-oriented architecture with B3G networking capabilities. i. The PLASTIC middleware specifically enriches the Web service architecture with key features for services to become truly pervasive by taking full benefit of the rich capacities. loosely coupled. • The middleware services layer brings advanced distributed resource management functionalities customized for the B3G networking environment. However. selecting the optimal communication link to/from nodes. to support the communication modes underlying large-scale. PLASTIC model to Adaptable Java Java skeleton of the service's code. The Publish-Subscribe Service enables effective event-based communication in the B3G network through CBR. from the resource-aware implementation of the service. the PLASTIC middleware is mobility-aware so that its functionalities adapt to the physical mobility of both clients and services. • Resource-aware programming model: it is a resource-aware extension of Java used to write the resource-aware code of the service. complementing traditional unicast and multicast addressed-based networks.e. all the tools of the PLASTIC development environment are implemented as Eclipse plug-ins. The Discovery Service enables the advertising and location of networked services. distributed applications. multi-party. SLA monitor generator and WS-Agreement generator generate monitors in order to check SLA at run-time. in particular exploiting the rich multi-radio. from the service model. This code is resource-aware in the sense that it adapts to possible different hosting devices. including multi-radio interfaces. information needed for Service Level Agreement (SLA) management and the service WSDL specification. The PLASTIC middleware brings multi-radio.IST-Plastic analysis. multi-network connectivity to services through a comprehensive layered architecture: • The multi-radio device management and networking layers together abstract multi-radio connectivity. B3G SOAP in particular allows for multi-network routing of SOAP messages over the multi-radio links.

by means of automatically generated on-line monitors. • PUPPET: a tool to generate stubs implementing external services invoked by the service under development. but rather as a set of techniques/tools that can be used alternatively. inria. cnr. depending on the constraints and requirements of a considered application/scenario. isti. or in combination.0 state machines. Weevil is intended to facilitate experimentation activities for distributed systems by providing engineers with a flexible. checking whether the responses conform to a given specification. and on-line validation. carried on at development time. Jambition is equipped with a visual interface (Minerva library) based on the common formalism of UML 2. repeatable process for evaluating their software on a networked testbed. The validation framework is not conceived as a fixed methodology. PLASTIC provides tools developed to support this phase in verifying both functional and extra-functional properties: • Dynamo-AOP: a framework for monitoring functional properties of the external services with which a BPEL process interacts to realize a composite service. it/ wiki/ tools . isti. expressed as a Service State Machine. services are tested in a simulated environment that reproduces functional and/or extra-functional run-time conditions. Events related to the extra-functional characteristics are logged and can be used to resolve controversies concerning SLA violations. • WEEVIL: a synthetic-workload generator coupled with an environment for managing the deployment and execution of experiments. configurable. fr/ plastic [2] http:/ / plastic. The tools of the PLASTIC Validation Framework can be downloaded from the Tool Repository Validation Framework. cnr. performed during live usage. During the off-line stage. it [3] http:/ / plastic. PLASTIC services validation is structured around two main stages: off-line validation. The tools made available for this purpose within the PLASTIC validation framework are: • Jambition: a model-based testing tool that automatically derives and executes invocation sequences on a service. thus.IST-Plastic 106 Validation framework The PLASTIC validation framework [2] supports the validation of networked services with regard to both functional and extra-functional properties. On-line validation foresees testing of a service after deployment and during live usage. The mock services automatically generated by Puppet exhibit a correct behaviour with respect to given extra-functional properties. • SLAngMon: a light-weight technology that can dynamically detect violations of extra-functional properties specified in SLAng. automated and. [3] of the Plastic References [1] http:/ / www-c.

3.phy. iTap provides suggestions for word completions after only one key press in all cases. and highlight the combination one wants. This way the predictive guesses iTap offers are enhanced based upon context of the word that is being typed. This dictionary also contains phrases and commonly used sentences. If a different word is desired. For example. If the phone does not recognize a word it then stores the word as an optional choice. iTap guesses the rest of the word. in order of descending commonality of their use. including words sharing the typed prefix. iTap in action Enter words 1. T9 completes custom words after one key press and on most phones other words that users have entered previously can be retrieved after three key presses. A space is automatically inserted after the word. 2. However. an arrow key can be pressed to highlight other words in a menu for selection. Comparison with T9 Similar to XT9. Press keypad keys (one press per letter) to begin entering a word. such as "progress" or words formed with different letters but requiring the same keypresses like "prohibited" or "spoil". References [1] Data entry apparatus having a limited number of character keys and method (http:/ / www. com/ patents?id=zQAGAAAAEBAJ) US Patent 6204848 (2001) External links • Some notes on iTap (http://www. iTap typically uses a different user interface (UI) than T9 does. google. T9 provides an API that can be used to create a similar UI if phone manufacturers decide to do so.inference.cam.iTap 107 iTap iTap is a predictive text technology for mobile phones. When entering three or more characters in a row. As the user types. It was designed as a replacement for the old letter mappings on phones to help with word entry. iTap will guess the best match based upon a built in dictionary. Press direction key "up" to enter the highlighted combination when it spells a word. When the memory space is filled the phone deletes the oldest word to make space for the new word. T9 enables these UI decisions to be largely up to the phone manufacturer and so far none of them have chosen to mimic the UI of iTap with T9.uk/mackay/itprnn/itap/) . developed by Motorola[1] as a competitor to T9. the phone automatically shows additional letters that form a suggested combination. Scroll right to view other possible combinations.ac. This makes some of the modern mobile phones features like text messaging and note-taking easier. entering "prog" will suggest "program". iTap is also able to complete words and phrases. However. (the most recent version of T9).

Bangalore.com [1] July Systems is a business that makes software for mobile telephones. Analytics. This Platform was the first internet to mobile social network (Unimobile messenger) and was used by people in 100+ countries. Kuala Lumpur Products Website Mi™ Platform .Studio. Ad Manager www. At present. New York. July Systems has offices located in Los Angeles. Rajesh and many of the same executive members started July Systems. Analytics . California Offices in . Bangalore. After VeriSign bought Unimobile. Mi Console.A tool with features such as push notifications and alerts 3. Products July Systems’ Mi™ comprises the following tools: 1.July Systems 108 July Systems July Systems Type Industry Founded Private Mobile Internet 2001 Headquarters Los Angeles. Mumbai and Kuala Lumpur with a service footprint across 150 countries. Los Angeles. Rajesh and the executive team built the first internet to mobile platform (1997-98). Company Overview July Systems provides cross-platform mobile software to businesses. Mumbai.An editorial and management tool set for mobile sites and applications. Ad Manager – A tool to manage advertisements on the mobile inventory to support monetization . New York. Atlanta. July Systems is a privately funded and backed by leading venture funds such as Intel Capital and Sequoia Capital.A tool for evaluating the effectiveness and popularity of mobile sites and applications 4. Studio . 2.julysystems.Atlanta. Customer Relationship Management (Mi™ Console) . It was co-founded in 2001[2] by the Indian entrepreneurs Rajesh TS Reddy and Ashok Narasimhan[3] .

in/ intel-capital-invests-in-july-systems-klg-systel-and-mcx-297/) • July Systems wins Mobile Excellence Awards (http://www.com/press-release/ july-systems-launches-html5-webapps-for-smartphones-1509173. com/ research/ stocks/ private/ snapshot. July Systems partner to develop mobile marketing opportunity (http://www. Business Week.html) • July Systems Powers Over 74 Million Page Views in a Single Game During the Cricket Championship 2011 (http://www. ameinfo.economictimes. com/2010-05-04/news/28457851_1_mobile-internet-mobile-screens-gprs-handsets) • July Systems Raises 7 Million $ In Funding – Ties In ESPN. businessweek.July Systems 109 Notes [1] http:/ / www.mia-india. [3] "There's Something About Rajesh" (http:/ / business.htm) • Watch IPL on your Mobile. com/ [2] "July Systems. KLG Systel and MCX (http://www. julysystems.com/) • Mobile Internet & Advertising Conference 2009 (http://www. Inc.businesswire. . . Courtesy July Systems (http://mobigyaan.financialexpress.indiatimes.com/news/ july-systems-wins-mobile-excellence-awards/726122/) External links • Official website (http://www. asp?privcapId=1997546).julysystems. com/ article/ work-in-progress/ theres-something-about-rajesh/ 2372/ 1). in.marketwire.com/news/home/20110404005613/en/ July-Systems-Powers-74-Million-Page-Views) • July Systems Launches HTML5 WebApps for Smartphones (http://www.com/265907.com/ watch-ipl-on-your-mobile-courtesy-july-systems) • Bangalore-based July Systems leads in tech for live streaming on cell (http://articles." (http:/ / investing. Forbes Magazine. Univision & Discovery (http://www.com) . com/2010/03/04/july-systems-raises-7-million-in-funding-ties-in-espn-univision-discovery/) • Intel Capital Invests in July Systems. References • Omnicom Media Group MENA.watblog.pluggd. July 2009.

S. app developers.with targeted advertising solutions so they can reach their audience with advertising. CMO.[4] and WPP. agencies and mobile shops . Adam Soroca.[2] Jumptap's network has a unique reach of over 83 million users in the U. • Advertisers . Jumptap received the following awards and recognition: • Gold award for Best Advertising and Marketing Search Engine at the Visiongain Mobile Advertising and Marketing Awards[10] • AlwaysOn Northeast 100 Private Company Award[11] . The company partners with digital and media agencies. Massachusetts. Type Industry Founded Private Mobile Advertising 2004 Headquarters Cambridge. Paran Johar. Lacey Brandt. Jumptap received the following notices of recognition and excellence: • • • • • AlwaysOn Top 100 Companies[6] IDC's Ten Emerging Players to Watch in 2007[7] FierceWireless Top Wireless Companies[8] Frost and Sullivan Entrepreneurial Award for Mobility Fortune Magazine Top 24 Innovators[9] In 2008. to deliver a powerful array of mobile advertising solutions. Inc. CFO.. wireless carriers and brand advertisers.brands. VP and GM Search and Advertising.[5] Awards and recognition In 2007.[3] Openwave.Jumptap 110 Jumptap Jumptap. • Mobile operators (wireless carriers) & content publishers .com [1] Employees Website Jumptap. with offices across North America. Jumptap received financial support of US$22 million from Valhalla Partners in 2006 as Round C financing. USA Key people Products George Bell. Mobile Advertising Network Monetization Platform 51-200 (2011) www. President and CEO. Inc. Massachusetts.Jumptap provides advertisers . Jumptap has strategic alliances with Autodesk. is a mobile ad network headquartered in Cambridge.These companies provide (the "inventory") and can contribute data to increase advertising relevancy and profit. publishers.jumptap.

prnewswire. AlwaysOn.com/pushing_the_barrier/2007/03/ • • • • • • • • jumptap_issues_. . AlwaysOn. FierceWireless .Pure Mobile Search" (http://wapreview. [6] "The 2007 AO 100 Top Companies" (http:/ / alwayson. [8] "Top Wireless Companies.jumptap. cnn.Fierce15. co. . tekrati.5% of the issued share capital of JumpTap. pl?ACCT=104& STORY=/ www/ story/ 10-30-2006/ 0004462037& EDATE=).com/news/view/ 354) JumpTap clears $21M in financing (http://www. External links • Official website (http://http://www. . edgar-online. fortune/ 11.typepad. [4] "Openwave Jumptap combine context and profiling for mobile ads" (http:/ / mediasoon.brand.msearchgroove.dll?FetchFilingOrig1?SessionID=cXB8jAWGR6rglcG&ID=4911130) FierceMobileContent Presents JumpTap with Top App Award (http://www. reuters. Press release. Hajim. Marketing Week. uk/ cgi-bin/ item. fortune_innovators. html).jumptap. com/ permalink/ post/ 25771). Oliver. com/ 022007/ online/ openwave-jumptap-combine-context-and-profiling-for-mobile-ads/ ). Retrieved 2010-05-07. . com/ cgi-bin/ stories.html) Review -"JumpTap . [10] "Jumptap Wins Best Advertising and Marketing Search Engine Award" (http:/ / www. jumptap.html) JumpTap's Product Overview (http://www.pushingthebarrier. Fortune Magazine. .com/) • JumpTap issues 30 new patents (http://www. Corey.com/boston/stories/2005/12/05/daily15.Jumptap 111 References [1] http:/ / www.com/) WPP Digital has acquired 2. com/ research/ 8331/ ). com/ Fierce15/ 2007/ ). marketingweek. com/ galleries/ 2007/ fortune/ 0704/ gallery. com/ p/ articles/ mi_m0EIN/ is_2006_Oct_4/ ai_n27047573) [3] "Autodesk and Jumptap form Strategic Alliance to Advance Development of Location-Enabled Search Services for Mobile Operators" (http:/ / www. com/ permalink/ post/ 15899/ ). (http://businessweek.com/EFX_dll/EDGARpro. [5] "WPP bolsters digital with Jumptap stake" (http:/ / www. "Top 24 Innovators" (http:/ / money. . . cgi?id=54846& u=pg_dtl_art_news& m=286). Tekrati. 2007" (http:/ / www. fiercewireless. [11] "The Northeast 100 Winners" (http:/ / alwayson. Mediasoon. Press release.bizjournals. com/ [2] Valhalla Partners Leads $22M Series C Round in JumpTap (http:/ / findarticles.com/answers/ threadview?id=754120) . Fierce Wireless. Inc.generalcatalyst.com/press-releases) Sponsored Podcasts About Timely Topics with JumpTap Executives (http://www. com/ article/ pressRelease/ idUS122527+ 20-Mar-2008+ BW20080320). [9] Ryan. goingon. [7] "IDC: Ten Emerging Mobile Players To Watch in 2007" (http:/ / vendor.com/product-overview) JumpTap Press Releases (http://www.com/blog/?p=245) Google Answers Thread with discussion of the JumpTap business model (http://answers. . goingon.jumptap.google. .

Two years later. Ubitrex was sold in 1994 to U. a capability that would later form the foundation for the creation of Librestream. In addition to Thacher.[2] The system included a hand-held device designed for use by clinicians. and lecture theatres. Where traditional video conferencing has been limited to boardrooms. this group included Bill Gillanders.. a group of eight professionals from the former Winnipeg arm of Symbol gathered to plan their next venture. successfully designed and developed a number of mobile devices. Kent Wotherspoon.Librestream 112 Librestream Librestream Technologies Inc. consisting of unique hand-held mobile devices and accompanying software. the team. Symbol bought AirWire. Only a few weeks into AirWire’s operation. Thacher bought back the device side of the business from Continental and formed AirWire Mobile Technologies Inc. one of which delivered Voice over IP (VoIP). regardless of location. which continued to support the substantial base of hospitals using the technology. mobile collaboration utilizes wireless. Symbol Technologies Inc. The group was convinced that together they could design and develop the necessary technology to allow individuals. venture capital backed company based in Winnipeg. cellular and broadband technologies enabling effective collaboration independent of location. when Kerry Thacher co-founded Ubitrex Corporation. hand-held mobile devices. all declined. the ability to collaborate in new ways. Canada. recent technological advancements have extended the capabilities of video conferencing for use with discreet.[1] Company history The origins of Librestream date back to the late 1980s in Winnipeg. The technology would extend the boundaries of traditional . and telestration (on-screen drawing) capabilities broadcast over secure networks. Subsequent to successful clinical use of this system. Differing from traditional video conferencing. Librestream is notable in that its technology. Mobile collaboration Mobile collaboration is a technology-based process of communicating utilizing electronic assets and accompanying software designed for use in remote locations.S-based Continental Healthcare Systems. and Chris Kavanagh. offices. Although many of the engineers received offers from Symbol to re-locate to New York. Tim Braun. Canada.S-based manufacturer of mobile devices. and weeks later Symbol closed its Winnipeg office. a large U. continuing to operate out of Winnipeg. is a privately-owned. Newest generation hand-held electronic devices include video. In 1999. Two things were clear: the emergence and continued growth of the Internet was certain. Conway Wieler. audio. enabling multi-party conferencing in real time. a small high-tech start-up that designed and developed a clinical information system for use in hospitals to capture patient data. permitting true mobile collaborative possibilities. a significant advancement in mobile device technology at that time. This activity led to the development of high-volume hand-held mobile expertise in Winnipeg for the first time. In August 2003 Thacher left Symbol. Rob McConnell. Don Freiling. took notice of AirWire’s unique expertise and contracted with Airwire to create a product to help Symbol pursue the healthcare market. and there existed a tangible [3] opportunity to develop enhanced video-handling capabilities for a next generation of hand-held devices. Over the next few years. Librestream provides technologies that enable mobile enterprise collaboration. extends traditional video conferencing and collaborative services to places previously unreachable such as an off-shore oil rig or a manufacturing plant floor a continent away. Later in 2003.

Alex (March 9. . Librestream developed their first alpha product.[12] With Inmarsat. 22. "Secure Wi-Fi Video on the Battlefield" (http:/ / www. Just for Canadian Doctors. Live. com/ News/ July_11_2005. in industries such as manufacturing. the MCD-1000. aspx?aid=1000228332). [3] Cash. 2005). com/ index. [2] Cash. . librestream. html). . . . .[9] 113 Technological advancement The impact of mobile collaboration technology is significant in its potential to change the way people work. By 2010. e-security Planet.[13] References [1] Herrell. "Virtually On-sight" (http:/ / www.[10] Business processes are optimized through accelerated problem resolution. Librestream (a combination of ‘free’ and stream’) was formed. Renee (May 28. pdf). controleng. one of multiple rugged hand-held devices in the Onsight product line. with Whitely. html). many of them Fortune 500 firms. Anil (2010). Control Engineering. With Verizon Wireless. com/ v4erizonb8usin4essa17com/ Enterprise-communications-the-next-decade. Librestream’s customer base grew to include global enterprises. com/ issues/ story. one of the leading video conferencing industry players at that time. Robert and Crumb. [10] Robbins. 4. Martin (July 11. pp. . . in 2006.Librestream video-conferencing beyond the boardroom to workplaces previously unreachable such as a manufacturing plant floor a continent away. Librestream continued to develop the technology and support their growing customer base. librestream. Winnipeg Free Press. [8] Macdonald. and Onsight is a core component of the Cisco Manufacturing Mobile Video Collaboration (MMVC) solution.[4] Led by the founding team’s vision. [4] Robbins. 2010). Bodyshop. . In 2006. Librestream is a Registered Cisco Developer Network member. "Being in Two Places At One Time" (http:/ / www.[8] government and public safety. The arrangement offered Librestream industry exposure and allowed the breadth and depth of the product to grow in response to evolving requirements. Energy Manufacturing. 2009). Cindy (December 2008). htm). php/ 3872836/ Secure-Wi-Fi-Video-On-The-Battlefield. . improvements in customer service and increased productivity. bodyshopbiz. Elizabeth. [6] Wadhwa. com/ pdf/ EnergyManufacturing2010.[5] energy. 2005). "New hand-held device targets work on shop floor: veteran high-tech team launches new venture" (http:/ / www. Backed by venture capital and individual investors. com/ trends/ article. com/ index. controleng. php?id=2819& tx_ttnews[tt_news]=11999& cHash=0387e9884a). reductions in downtimes and travel. Winnipeg Free Press. Martin (July 11. Librestream formed a marketing partnership with Tandberg.[7] insurance. downloadic. 2009). [5] Robbins. esecurityplanet. Librestream has tested and optimized the Onsight mobile devices for 4G LTE networks. pp. Eventually the mobile collaborative device evolved into the Onsight 1000. [7] Van’t Haaff. After the arrangement expired in July 2010. "Estimating from a distance now possible" (http:/ / www. coupled with desktop collaboration software. MCA. "Mobile video system visually connects global plant floor engineers" (http:/ / m. Librestream has successfully tested the Onsight system over the Inmarsat BGAN satellite network to provide mobile collaboration to land and maritime satellite customers. Control Engineering. pdf). Renee (May 28. Control Engineering. com/ index. html). "Mobile video system visually connects global plant floor engineers" (http:/ / m. Forrester Research White Paper. com/ News/ July_11_2005.[11] Strategic partners Librestream works with three strategic partners. "Mobile video system visually connects global plant floor engineers" (http:/ / m. 2010). The desktop collaboration software evolved into the Onsight Expert application. Gerry (March 25. Renee (May 28. justforcanadiandoctors. . php?id=2819& tx_ttnews[tt_news]=11999& cHash=0387e9884a). php?id=2819& tx_ttnews[tt_news]=11999& cHash=0387e9884a). controleng. Corey (March/April 2009). [9] Blackwell. With Cisco Systems. "New hand-held device targets work on shop floor: veteran high-tech team launches new venture" (http:/ / www.[6] healthcare. com/ pastissues/ JFCD2009/ JFCD-Mar-Apr2009. "Enterprise Communications: The Next Decade" (http:/ / www. visual interaction removes traditional restrictions of distance and time. librestream. 2009).

com/ featured-articles-body-TelePresence-in-Manufacturing-523-1. html). "Verizon Wireless Plays Full-Court Press on Broadband" (http:/ / www. with Whitely. . Forrester Research White Paper. allitwares. Robert and Crumb. Brian (January 5. "TelePresence in Manufacturing: IP-based video conferencing provides effective tools for remote collaboration" (http:/ / www. 114 List of devices with Assisted GPS List of devices with Assisted GPS: Apple • • • • • Apple iPad[1] Apple iPad 2 Apple iPhone 3G[2] Apple iPhone 3GS Apple iPhone 4 BlackBerry (RIM) • BlackBerry Bold[3] • BlackBerry Curve 8900[4] • BlackBerry Storm[5] • BlackBerry Storm 2 Dell • Dell Inspiron 1110 (Inspiron 11z) • Dell Streak E-TEN • E-TEN Glofiish X500 • E-TEN Glofiish M700 ESCORT • ESCORT Entourage CIS[6] • ESCORT Entourage PS[7] Google • Nexus One • Nexus S Hewlett Packard (HP) • Hewlett Packard IPAQ 614c • Hewlett Packard IPAQ 914 • Hewlett-Packard Veer HTC • • • • • • HTC Advantage X7500 (HTC Athena 100) HTC Advantage X7501 (HTC Athena) [8] HTC Advantage X7510 HTC Artemis 100[9] (HTC P3300) HTC Census (HTC P6000) HTC Desire[10] . Elizabeth. 2011). [13] Santo. . com/ News/ 2011/ 01/ Verizon-LTE-CES-broadband-Hitachi-Alcatel-Sierra-Motorola. downloadic. html). [12] Presher. "Enterprise Communications: The Next Decade" (http:/ / www. cedmagazine.Librestream [11] Herrell. Alex (March 9. 2010). aspx). . Automation and Control – Design News. com/ v4erizonb8usin4essa17com/ Enterprise-communications-the-next-decade. Al (December 2010). CEDMagazine.

Sprint Mogul PPC-6800. HTC P4550) • HTC Wildfire[21] Land Rover (vehicle) • Land Rover S1 LG • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • LG KC910 LG KM900 Arena Lg Incite Lg Rumor2 Lg GT505 Pathfinder LG Optimus Android GT540 LG Sentio Motorola A3100 Motorola A1600 Motorola A1000 Motorola A925 Motorola A835 Motorola MT710 Motorola Droid/Milestone Motorola Droid 2 Motorola Droid X Motorola Neo • Neo 1973 .5)[11] HTC EVO 4G HTC Hero HTC HD2 HTC Legend[12] HTC Magic HTC Omni HTC P3600i HTC Pharos 100[13] (HTC P3470) HTC Sedna 100 (HTC P6550) HTC Sirius 100[14] (HTC P6500) HTC Surround HTC Titan 100[15] (HTC P4000.List of devices with Assisted GPS • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • HTC Desire HD HTC Desire Z HTC Dream (with Android software release 1. HTC Kaiser 120. Verizon Wireless XV6800) HTC Touch2 [16] HTC Touch Cruise[17] (HTC P3650. HTC Polaris 100) HTC Touch Diamond[18] (HTC Diamond. HTC P3700) HTC Touch Find (HTC Polaris 200) HTC Touch HD (HTC Blackstone) HTC Touch Pro[19] (HTC Raphael 100) 115 • HTC Trinity 100 (HTC P3600) • HTC TyTN II[20] (AT&T Tilt.

Nokia N97 Mini Nokia N810 (with Diablo firmware upgrade) Nokia N900 Nokia X6 Nokia C5 Nokia C6 Nokia C7 116 Novatel • Novatel X720 • MiFi (tethering devices) • Novatel MiFi 2200 • Novatel MiFi 23xx series Orange • Orange San Francisco .List of devices with Assisted GPS • Neo FreeRunner Nikon • Nikon Coolpix P6000 Compact Digital Camera[22] Nokia • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Nokia 5230 Nokia 5800 Xpress Music Nokia 6110 Navigator Nokia 6210 Navigator Nokia 6220 Classic Nokia 6650 fold Nokia 6700 Classic Nokia 6710 Navigator Nokia E5-00 Nokia E52 Nokia E55 Nokia E66 (Dora) Nokia E71 Nokia E72 Nokia E75 Nokia E90 Communicator Nokia N78 Nokia N79 Nokia N8 Nokia N82 Nokia N85 Nokia N86 8MP Nokia N95 Nokia N95-3 North America Nokia N95 8GB Nokia N95 8GB North America Nokia N96 Nokia N97.

List of devices with Assisted GPS Palm • Palm Pre • Palm Treo 800w • Palm Treo Pro Sony • Sony HDR-XR520V Handycam Camcorder with built-in GPS receiver[23] Sony Ericsson • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Sony Ericsson Satio Sony Ericsson XPERIA X1 Sony Ericsson XPERIA X2[24] Sony Ericsson Xperia X8[25] Sony Ericsson XPERIA X10[26] Sony Ericsson Xperia X10 mini[27] Sony Ericsson Xperia X10 mini pro[28] Sony Ericsson XPERIA Arc Sony Ericsson Aino[29] Sony Ericsson C702 Sony Ericsson C905 Sony Ericsson G705 Sony Ericsson TM506 Sony Ericsson W715[30] Sony Ericsson W760 Sony Ericsson W995 Sony Ericsson Z780 Sony Ericsson Elm 117 BlackJack • Samsung Blackjack II Samsung • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Samsung Focus[31] Samsung i5700 Samsung Galaxy 3 Samsung Galaxy 5 Samsung Galaxy Fit Samsung Galaxy S Samsung Galaxy Tab Samsung Galaxy Ace Samsung GT-i8510 INNOV8 Samsung i8910 Samsung Monte S5620 Samsung Mythic (SGH-A897) Samsung Omnia Samsung Omnia Pro 7320 Samsung Omnia II Samsung Omnia 7 [32] Samsung SGH-i550 .

com/ www/ product. aspx?p_id=75& act=sd) [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] . php) [11] Android 1.iPhone 3G (http:/ / store. Mobile Computer: Products – HTC P3300: Overview (http:/ / www. com/ blackberrybold/ http:/ / en.Storm Specs for 9550 and 9530 (http:/ / us.List of devices with Assisted GPS • • • • Samsung SGH-i780 Samsung Galaxy Pop S5570 Samsung Nexus S I9023 Samsung Wave S5253 118 • Samsung Transform[33] Sierra Wireless • Sierra Wireless (some devices) Spice • Spice Mi-300[34] Sonim • • • • Sonim Technologies XP3.5 Platform Highlights (http:/ / developer. htc. com/ htc_desire-3077. com/ us/ FAQ_Detail. htc. php) [13] HTC – Touch Phone. Smartphone. com/ entourage/ ) ESCORT Entourage PS portable vehicle security and location awareness (http:/ / www. PDA Phone. PDA Phone.S. apple. htc. PDA Phone. com/ us/ browse/ home/ shop_iphone/ family/ iphone) http:/ / www. Mobile Computer: Products – HTC P3470: Overview (http:/ / www. com/ entourage/ ) HTC – Touch Phone. html#perf) [12] (http:/ / www. com/ smartphones/ blackberrystorm/ storm_specifications. blackberry.20-A QUEST Sonim Technologies Ingrid Sonim Technologies XP 3300 Force Sprint • Sprint Navigation Synapse-Phones • Synapse One Teltonika • Teltonika GH3000[35] Toshiba • Toshiba TG01 Tracker • Tracker G400 Zoombak • Zoombak tracking devices[36] References -iPad (http:/ / www. Mobile Computer: Products – HTC P6500: Overview (http:/ / www. Mobile Computer: Products – HTC Advantage: Overview (http:/ / www. PDA Phone. gsmarena.Touch Phone. Smartphone. gsmarena. aspx?id=32678) [14] HTC – Touch Phone. org/ wiki/ BlackBerry_Curve_8900/ BlackBerry . PDA Phone. escortradar. com/ www/ product. com/ www/ product. aspx?id=392) [10] (http:/ / www. blackberry. 5-highlights. aspx?id=526) [15] HTC . jsp) ESCORT Entourage CIS GPS vehicle security. com/ ipad/ ) Apple Store (U. com/ sdk/ android-1. com/ htc_legend-3141. htc. htc. wikipedia. Smartphone. Smartphone. escortradar.) . apple.20-E QUEST Sonim Technologies XP3. android. Smartphone. Mobile Computer (http:/ / www. com/ www/ product. aspx?id=436) [9] HTC – Touch Phone. recovery and location awareness (http:/ / www.

htc. com/ wportal/ devworld/ downloads/ download/ dw-300003-wpx10minia1?cc=gb& lc=en) Sony Ericsson X10 mini White Paper [28] (http:/ / developer. brighthub. com/ wportal/ devworld/ downloads/ download/ x8wp1?cc=gb& lc=en) Sony Ericsson X8 White Paper [26] (http:/ / developer. aspx?id=794) [18] HTC – Touch Phone. com/ sea/ product/ touch2/ overview. html) [23] HDR-XR520V 240GB High Definition Handycam Camcorder with built-in GPS receiver (http:/ / www. com) 119 . php) [22] Product's official page (http:/ / www. PDA Phone. php) Samsung Focus Samsung SGH-i550 in GSM Arena (http:/ / www. Dog & Pet Tracking. sonyericsson.List of devices with Assisted GPS [16] http:/ / www. gsmarena. Mobile Computer: Products – HTC TyTN II: Overview (http:/ / www. sonystyle. com/ samsung_i550-2115. gsmarena. htc. html [17] HTC – Touch Phone. htc. php) (http:/ / www. zoombak. com/ www/ product. Smartphone. PDA Phone. com/ sony_ericsson_w715-2642. Mobile Computer: Products – HTC Touch Cruise: Overview (http:/ / www. com/ www/ product. sonyericsson. PDA Phone. aspx) (http:/ / www. sonyericsson. sonyericsson. PDA Phone. teltonika. com/ htc_wildfire-3337. com/ webapp/ wcs/ stores/ servlet/ ProductDisplay?catalogId=1& storeId=10151& langId=-1& productId=8198552921665736672& SR=sony_search_seo& SQS=HDR-XR520V) [24] (http:/ / www. aspx?id=640) [21] (http:/ / www. Smartphone. aspx?id=167) (http:/ / www. aspx?id=46286) [19] HTC – Touch Phone. Mobile Computer: Products – HTC Touch Pro: Specification (http:/ / www. nikonusa. in/ spicemobiles/ Model. com/ mobile/ samsung/ reviews/ 92412. gsmarena. Smartphone. eu/ en/ pages/ view/ ?id=982) Zoombak GPS Auto & Vehicle Tracker. com/ cws/ products/ mobilephones/ overview/ x2?cc=ro& lc=ro) Sony Ericsson XPERIA X2 [25] (http:/ / developer. spicecorp. Mobile Computer: Products – HTC Touch Diamond: Specification (http:/ / www. sonyericsson. com/ wportal/ devworld/ downloads/ download/ dw-102192-wpx102?cc=gb& lc=en) Sony Ericsson X10 White Paper [27] (http:/ / developer. com/ cws/ products/ mobilephones/ overview/ aino?cc=ro& lc=ro) Sony Ericsson Aino [30] [31] [32] [33] [34] [35] [36] SE W715 in GSM Arena (http:/ / www. Smartphone. com/ www/ product. aspx?id=49524) [20] HTC – Touch Phone. htc. com/ Find-Your-Nikon/ Product/ Digital-Camera/ 26135/ COOLPIX-P6000. Car Security Device (http:/ / www. htc. sonyericsson. com/ www/ product. com/ wportal/ devworld/ downloads/ download/ dw-300004-wpx10minipro1?cc=gb& lc=en) Sony Ericsson X10 mini pro White Paper [29] (http:/ / www.

changing one's operator would require changing one's number. In most cases. In the US. while others argue that it prevents vendor lock-in and allows them to compete fairly on price and service. this relates to transferability between mobile phone lines only. the FCC has mandated this in order to increase competition among providers. Due to this conflict of interest. have argued against portability on the grounds that providing this service incurs considerable overhead. Hong Kong also fulfills the criteria listed above (no area code in Hong Kong. History Though it was introduced as a tool to promote competition in the heavily monopolized wireline telecommunications industry (see the First Report and Order on LNP and Number Pooling [4]). Asia. (MNP). LNP was required for all landline and wireless common carriers. however. The ability to keep a number while switching providers is thought to be attractive to consumers. refers to the ability to transfer either an existing fixed-line or mobile telephone number assigned by a local exchange carrier (LEC) and reassign it to another carrier. and are billed identically for the calling party. in other countries all mobile numbers are placed in higher priced mobile-dedicated area codes and the originator of the call to the mobile phone pays for the call. call billings are identical no matter for calling to fixed or mobile. since in most countries different mobile operators are provided with different area codes and. the mobile user usually pays for incoming calls. thus hindering competition. Details regarding the reasons for LNP and how it is to be implemented can be found in the First Report and Order referenced above. service area coverage and technology. Some operators. This latest mandate included carriers outside the top 100 MSAs that theretofore enjoyed a rural carrier exemption. In the rest of the world it is referred to as mobile number portability. Some cellular telephone companies will charge for this conversion as a regulatory cost recovery fee.[2] Wireless Number Portability is available in some parts of Africa. and most European countries including Britain. Although Hong Kong government approved for fixed-mobile number portability. and the United States are the only countries in the world that offer full number portability transfers between both fixed lines and mobile phone lines. In the US. LNP was mandated by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in 1996 with the First Report and Order on LNP and Number Pooling [4] . The mandate required all carriers in the top 100 MSAs (metropolitan statistical areas) to be "LNP-capable" and port numbers to any carriers sending a BFR (bona fide request).Local number portability 120 Local number portability Local number portability (LNP) for fixed lines. [1] In the United States and Canada. As of late November 2003. and mobile user pays for incoming calls). Australia. this service is still not available (see below for details). so long as the number is being ported to the same geographical area or telephone exchange. . number portability became popular with the advent of mobile telephones. without portability. number portability is usually mandated for all operators by telecommunications regulatory authorities. and full mobile number portability (FMNP) for mobile phone lines. It was also a major point made by CLECs (Competitive Local Exchange Carriers) preventing customers from leaving ILECs (Incumbent Line Exchange Carriers).[3] because mobile and fixed line numbers are mixed in the same area codes. mobile number portability is referred to simply as WNP or WLNP (Wireless LNP) . Canada. there are limitations to transferability with regards to geography. especially incumbent operators with large existing subscriber bases.

The operator that originates the call then uses this route to forward the call. first defined in the 1st. Onward Routing (OR) The operator that originates the call checks with the donor operator. [7] . (For an example of such a system. as well as NANPA and the ATIS [8] which are agreed upon by all member providers to help make LNP as cost-efficient and expedient as possible while still retaining a healthy level security for all providers and in respect of the highest level of customer service.Local number portability 121 Portability schemes There are four main methods to route a number whose operator has changed[5] . Historically. Numbers were also recycled in blocks. If the subscriber ceases to need the number then it is normal that the original donor receives the number back and “snaps back” the number to its network. are further detailed by the LNPA in order to ensure any provider can successfully port numbers to any other provider. Some mechanism for such forwarding must exist. the system worked quite well in a fixed line environment since everyone was attached to the same infrastructure.[6] All Call Query (ACQ) The operator that originates the call always check a centralized database and obtains the route to the call. the donor operator. In this case the second operator will return the number to the first and then it is assigned to the third. Query on Release (QoR) The operator that originates the call first checks with the operator to which the number initially belonged.) In the US. The operator that originates the call then checks the centralized database. In number portability the “donor network” provides the number and the “recipient network” accepts the number. In cellular communications the concept of a location registry exists to tie a “mobile station” (such as a cellular phone) to the number. The operator to which the number was designated routes itself the call to the new operator. numbers were assigned to various operators in blocks. there are standards for portability defined by the FCC and the LNPA. The operation of donating a number requires that a number is “snapped out” from a network and “snapped into” the receiving network. who were often also service providers. This model is called indirect routing. These rules. The donor operator verifies the call and informs that it no longer possesses the number. The donor operator checks its own database and provides a new route. If a number is dialed it is necessary to be able to determine where in the network the mobile station exists. 2nd and 3rd Reports and Orders by the FCC (publicly available at fcc. With number portability. The situation is slightly more complex if the user leaves the first operator for a second and then subsequently elects to use a third operator. With phone numbers assigned to various operators in blocks. The operator that originates the call first checks with the donor operator. see the article on the GSM network. Technical issues Complexity for number portability can come from many sources. Call Dropback Also known as Return to Pivot (RoP). as is done with ACQ. Once this occurs the granularity of such operations will represent a greater workload for the telecommunications provider. No central database is consulted. then provided these numbers to the subscribers of telephone services. The operators.gov). The donor operator checks its own database and obtains a new route. it is envisioned that the size of these blocks may grow smaller or even to single numbers. The situation becomes somewhat more complex in a wireless environment such as that created by cellular communications.

LNP. it is called a "pull. The Americas Canada In Canada. 122 Portability by country Africa Kenya The Communications Commission of Kenya announced in 2004 that mobile number portability would be available as of July 1. Providers use SS7 to route calls throughout the US/Canada network. the call is passed on to the STP and routed until it gets to a local carrier who will perform the "query" mentioned earlier and route the call accordingly. SS7 accesses databases for various services such as CNAM. 2006. Either provider can initiate the port using a SOA or LSOA (Service Order Activator) which directly edits the NPAC database mentioned before. wireline/competitive local exchange carriers must provide portability.Local number portability NeuStar provides a national database called the NPAC [9] (National Portability Administration Center) which contains the correct routing information for all ported and pooled numbers in the US and Canada. in WLNP—Especially with concern to the time intervals allowed. As of March 14. There are a few technical differences. Much of this process is duplicated in intermodal portability (porting between wireline and wireless providers). where it is identified either as a local call or not. wireless carriers must provide portability in most of Canada. the providers must concur the request and the new provider must "activate" the number using the LRN of the switch serving the customer on the agreed due date. 2005 and fixed-line number portability as of July 1. If the call is local. CLASS and. that provider sends an industry-standard LSR (Local Service Request) to the existing (or "old") provider. of course. The NANC [10] maintains detailed documentation [11] of the procedure common among US carriers to port numbers as described here. the number is ported.[12] Mobile Number Portability was officially [13] launched in April 1. If the new provider initiates the port. 2011." and if the old provider initiates. the switch has the NPA-NXX in its routing table as portable. If it is not a local number. 2007. so it sends a routing request to the STP (Signal Transfer Point) which accesses a local database that is updated by an LSMS (Local Service Management System) which holds all routing for all ported numbers to which the carrier is responsible for completing calls. Providers can also make these requests within the NPAC database directly. The LRN is no more than a simple 10-digit telephone number that resides in the switch of the service provider currently providing service for the ported telephone number." Once the number is pulled or pushed. The routing information necessary to complete these calls is known as an LRN (Local Routing Number). it sends back FOC (Firm Order Confirmation) and the process of porting the number(s) begins. a response is sent to the "query" containing the information necessary to properly route the call. it is a "push. When the Old Provider receives this request.[14] . LIDB. If routing information is found. When a provider receives a request to port a telephone number from a new customer. however. Calls to ported numbers are completed when a customer who calls a ported number sends the dialed number to a provider's SSP (Service Switch Point). At the point this is completed.

It was also one condition for Telmex. on October 31.[25] . if the Mexican company wanted to enter to the video market Triple play (telecommunications).[16] The handling of the service is handled by Telcordia Technologies. October 2009. number portability (both fixed and mobile) is available nationwide since March. 2009. the FCC made clear that the obligation to provide LNP extends to VoIP providers. In March. 2009. reversal of franchised monopoly).e. The number portability is available since July 5 of 2008.S. the same day of fixed line telephone market liberalization (i.[23] Mobile number portability is available since March 1. in defense and regulation of the great monopoly that Telmex has.[17] Brazil In Brazil. This service covered select rate centers in the Ameritech region. As of October 2009.S.Local number portability United States In the United States.[15] Mexico Mexico is the first Latin American country to have number portability in both mobile and local telephony. LNP was first implemented in the U. the FCC additionally ruled that number portability applies to landline numbers moving to mobile telephones and. upon the establishment of the original Number Portability Administration Center (NPAC) in Chicago. which was a requirement from the government. as well. the introduction of this service shall be decided by the fixed/mobile carriers in a voluntary basis. 2007. On November 10. LNP was deployed sequentially to the remaining RBOC areas. However. 2009. Thereafter. 1999. 123 Asia Hong Kong In Hong Kong. fixed-mobile number portability is not available.[16] Dominican Republic In the Dominican Republic. 1995. the "Concorcio Systor [20] Telconet [21] JR Electric Supply [22]" has implemented and is operating the ASCP (Administrador del Sistema Central de Portabilidad). it's not possible to port a fixed line number to a mobile line number and vice-versa[18] . Mobile Number Portability has been available since 12. FCC since has mandated Wireless Local Number Portability starting November 24. 2003 (in metropolitan areas). A neutral third party. number portability in both mobile and local telephony was launched September 30.[16] The Federal Commission of Telecommunications (COFETEL) applied this law. Illinois in 1998. and allowed operators to charge an additional monthly Long-Term Telephone Number Portability End-Use Charge as compensation.[24] Although the government allowed porting a fixed line number to a mobile carrier or vice versa. the FCC first mandated LNP among wireline carriers in 1997. the Dominican Telecommunications Institute (INDOTEL) selected Informática El Corte Inglés to administer the number portability.[19] Ecuador In Ecuador. The U. 2003. fixed line number portability is available since July 1. as switches and telephone networks were upgraded with Local Routing Number (LRN) capability.

and music/data downloaded may not be used. 番 号 ポ ー タ ビ リ テ ィ ー 制 度 (bangō portability seido – [27] [28] Users are able to change cellular commonly referred to as portability or MNP) began on October 24. Mobile number portability was launched on August 26. to be the first country to launch this service in the ME region. and the significance of mobile Internet mail. but it was of little effect due to already competitive price plans and customer loyalty. e-mail addresses are subject to change. They just have to pay the charges of new sim cards depending upon the provider they are migrating [32] 124 . The Japanese Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (MIC) spent three years to put mobile number portability into practice. the long time it took to establish mobile number portability. A centralized number portability clearinghouse (NPC) solution was implemented by CITC [30](the telecom regulation authority) and the two mobile phone operators were obliged to implement the MNP solution in their networks and to interface with the NPC. Oman In Oman. allowing operators to fence in subscribers with price plans. 2011. NTT DoCoMo. MNP was launched in July 8. 2001. KDDI and Softbank accelerated the price battle. mobile number portability plan to start by mid 2008. As a result. 2003. fixed line portability began in March. 2006. Japan In Japan.[31] Pakistan In Pakistan. Users are able to change cellular phone carriers without changing their number for a nominal fee of 3 OMR. according to an article on the National News Agency Bernama [29] Saudi Arabia In Saudi Arabia. However. because of high transition costs for the customer due to SIM lock.mnp-india. ‫ﻥ ﻥﻥ‬the PTA mandated mobile number portability on March 23. mobile number portability in Japan was not very successful. 2007. Malaysia In Malaysia. Mobile Number Portability was mandated on the Public Mobile Operators. phone carriers without changing their number for a fee of 5000 yen. 2006. Users are able to change their ‫ﻥﻥﻥﻥ‬ cellular phone service for a free. the service was provided to the mobile subscribers for free.com launched in India in Haryana state on November 25. 2006.[26] It was finally launched all over India on January 20. since its initial workgroup started in November. 2010. Overall. Nawras and Oman Mobile.Local number portability India Mobile number portability www. via the licenses issued to them by the Telecommunications Regulatory Authority (TRA).

Austria In Austria. As a result.[35] Sri Lanka The Sri Lankan government made a policy decision in August 2007 to introduce number portability for cellular phones in Sri Lanka.7% to 87. Elisa and DNA fell from 98. 2005.[37] In 2006. number portability was implemented in Oct 2002. 2008.974.[36] Denmark In Denmark. number portability was implemented in Oct 2004.159 mobile lines.293 fixed lines were ported. with the implementation of a Centralised Number Portability Database Solution.[38] roughly 7. 2001. This is supported by Sri Lanka Telecom owned Mobitel Lanka and other cellular operators. 125 Europe In the European Union. along with 456. This is currently implemented through voice call & SMS forwarding.[39] The impact of mobile number portability in Finland exceeds that of other countries. the dominant operator which has over 50% of market share. Mobile number portability was implemented on July 1. Cyprus In Cyprus. 2001.[34] Fixed-line portability began as of August 1.9% of lines were ported in 2006. the government gave six months' and one year's delay to the second and the third operator. mobile number portability service started from January 1. 2004.9%. 238.Local number portability Singapore Singapore was one of the first countries to introduce number portability for mobile telephones in 1997.[40] . In one year (June 2003 – June 2004). 2004 and should be required from mobile operators as from January 1. respectively. To prevent users' churning to the dominant operator. only SK Telecom's subscribers could move to other operators during the first six months. geographic. mobile number portability was implemented on July 25. [33] South Korea In South Korea.828. number portability is required from fixed operators since January 1. Belgium In Belgium. 2004. 2003. True number portability will be realized from June 13. all telephone providers are required to provide number portability under the Universal Services Directive (2002/22/EU).000 and the number of mobile lines was 5. 2004. non-geographic and mobile number portability is required as of July 12. as proposed by the Infocomm Development Authority (IDA) of Singapore. One thing different from other countries is that it started from SK Telecom. portability of fixed line numbers and ISDN was implemented on January 1. the combined market share of TeliaSonera.[36] Finland In Finland. Estonia In Estonia.000. Considering that the number of fixed lines by the end of 2006 was 2.

I. The Mobile Number Portability Central (MNPC) managed by the G. 2004. was put into commercial operations from February 2005. for geographic numbers and numbers for non-geographic services. Mobile number portability was implemented on November 1. it became possible to change geographic location or operator while keeping the same number. 1998. Portability for non-geographic numbers (including mobile numbers) is available since May 1. installed and operated by Systor Trondheim AS [20] of Norway. 2004. portability exists for geographic numbers since January 1. Italy In Italy. 1998. fixed number portability is available since January 1.I. geographic number portability has been available since January 1. number portability was implemented in Jul 2003.[43] Germany In Germany.Local number portability France In France. 2003. [45] operator group and developed. a new system was launched on May 21. 2001.[44] Luxembourg MNP was introduced in Luxembourg in June 2004. 2004. 2003. was put into service in 2000. The reference database was developed.[36] Ireland In Ireland. fixed number portability was introduced on January 1.[41] Mobile number portability was introduced on June 30.E Telcom E. The administrative solution for fixed and mobile number portability in Norway. Norway Fixed number portability was introduced in Norway in 2000. the National Reference Database (NRDB). The NRDB is owned and managed by the 8 largest network operators in Norway through the company NRDB AS. 2002. one year before the introduction of mobile number portability.[42] However. As of January 1. 2002. 2007 with two objectives: having a single contact for the customer (the new operator should take all the steps towards mobile number portability) and a maximum period of ten days for mobile number portability to have effect. 126 . installed and is presently operated by Systor Trondheim AS [20].[36] Hungary In Hungary.G.[36] Greece In Greece. due to its lack of effectiveness. Mobile number portability was implemented on March 1. mobile number portability is available since April 30.

3. 2002. R and many others) and the former State monopoly (Telefónica). The sole of them operating statewide—Telefónica—is obliged to provide other firms with access to their exchange facilities or rental/transfer of their copper last-mile loops. 2001. In the end.[46] The administrative Reference Entity (Entidade de Referencia (ER)) interconnecting all network operators and service providers is operated by a local third party. the former monopoly is still much in control of the fixed line market. without any cost to the end user. See Telephone numbering in Spain for more information. "71". Portabil S.A. fixed number portability was implemented on June 30. many users have no actual chance of applying for "true" fixed number portability.[52] Due to the billing scheme used in the Spanish phone call market. As cable providers do not have a statewide footprint. and so depriving consumers and business of a choice of broadband suppliers". but weaker competition meant that actual adoption of the fixed number portability process was quite sluggish. 2000. at fees regulated by the CMT (practice known as local loop unbundling).041.[49] Spain is the one country in the European Union where more customers have switched cell phone providers. In fact. 1. As of August 2004. Spain In Spain. that is. with more than 9 million carrier switches completed as of April 2007.Local number portability Portugal In Portugal.e. about 10% of all cellular lines in use. "72". cell number portability must complete in 5 business days (i. ) and fixed numbers (usually beginning with 9 or 8). Telefónica was fined in excess of €152 million by the European Commission on July 4. From June 2006 to June 2007 alone. as Telefónica set up a reselling program for their fixed lines and DSL internet access. a distinction must be made between cellphone numbers (beginning with "6" or.246 fixed line switches were completed. number portability was implemented in May 2004.[50] As for the fixed line market. and calling a cellphone is usually more expensive than calling a fixed line. a joint venture between the internationally well known companies Logica [48] and Systor Trondheim AS [20].556 cell phone lines switched carriers via this proceeding.[51] Fixed line market is peculiar in Spain. from October 2011. Full number portability in which a customer transfers a cell to a fixed number or vice versa is thus not possible. portability has been widely used by the competing carriers as a way to steal each other's customers. where the calling party assumes the full cost of the call. with 107 lines per 100 inhabitants [49] 127 . usually offering them free handsets or extra credit. Some of them can however get their service from a third company who will bill the service and then pay Telefónica for the copper pair rental and maintenance fees. 2007 on ground of "impeding competition on the Spanish broadband internet access market for more than five years. Slovakia In Slovakia. As of August 2007. The user wakes up using a new SIM-card from the new cell provider while keeping the number. with the actual switch occurring late at night to avoid missing any calls. giving up Telefónica's service altogether. The technical details for the process are regulated by the CMT (Comisión del Mercado de las Telecomunicaciones or Telecoms Market Commission) and all carriers are obliged to comply with their requirements. [47].957. with the customer receiving a single bill. "73" or "74". In the mature Spanish cell phone market (as of June 2007. excluding weekends) from the moment the request is confirmed by the customer. ). number portability among cell phone carriers is available since October 1. since only two local loop providers can operate at each particular region (or demarcación as regulated by the CMT): a cable carrier (such as Ono. Mobile number portability has been available since January 1. number portability is also available since year 2000. including profitable broadband access.

Retrieved March 31. The porting process is based on a peer to peer file exchange between fixed line operators. com. the Ofcom direction is intended to reflect the requirements of EU Directive 2002/22/EU. [3] Saltzman. mobile phone providers and broadband service providers to provide number portability under the Porting Authorisation Code rules and Migration Authorisation Code code of practice respectively. and the incumbent. 2008. . asp). 2009 that the regulator approved the procedure for fixed number portability. nanpa. . local telephone numbers have been portable since 1999. Retrieved April 4. com/ [8] http:/ / www. . gov/ wlnp/ [2] "MNP Introduction" (http:/ / www. Fixed number portability was initially planned to take place exactly 6 months following the mobile number portability. pta. References [1] http:/ / wireless. "Portabilidade Numérica (in Portuguese)" (http:/ / www. 2007. msn. fixed and mobile operators. gov.. br/ tutoriais/ tutorialport/ pagina_3. T.[55] United Kingdom In the United Kingdom. Since then. Mobile number portability has been available as of September 25. [4] http:/ / www. According to ACMA. For service providers who require knowledge of porting activity to enable them to deliver voice calls directly to the current "network owner". J. gov/ Bureaus/ Common_Carrier/ Orders/ 1996/ fcc96286. 2008. [6] Foster. Sympatico MSN. sympatico. fixed line portability was implemented in 1999 and mobile number portability was implemented on September 1. there is still progress to be made and the progress for fixed number portability has not proved to be going ahead as in-time as the mobile number portability. Network Working Group. Ofcom directs fixed-line telephone network providers. However. José Barbosa. Marc. html). 128 Oceania Australia In Australia.[57] New Zealand In New Zealand. pk/ media/ mnp_intro_080807. "RFC 3482 – Number Portability in the Global Switched Telephone Network (GSTN): An Overview" (http:/ / www. 2001. [7] http:/ / www. faqs. Pakistan Telecommunication Authority (PTA). SNPAC CRDB. 2009. . 2008. they can either form agreements with all of the fixed line operators. At the introduction of mobile number portability the Swedish operators joined forces and procured a central solution. pdf) (PDF). atis. McGarry. fcc. However. mobile number portability was implemented in Nov 2008. M. txt [5] Mello. local and mobile number portability began on April 1.One [56]. aspx?isfa=1& newsitemid=ab2bc4b4-6274-4552-8317-ef1ee2227a07& feedname=MARC-SALTZMAN& show=False& number=0& showbyline=True& subtitle=& detect=& abc=abc).[53] [54] Turkey In Turkey. As the UK is an EU member country. are working to get the process going and performing interoperability tests. Retrieved April 2. teleco. local number portability came into full effect at the start of 2000. org/ . or use a third party LNP provider such as Paradigm. . Yu. "'Wireless number portability' arrives in Canada" (http:/ / technology. fcc. it was not until September 9. ca/ Wireless+ number+ portability+ arrives+ in+ Canada/ How-To/ ContentPosting_MS. 2008. which is a central reference database now containing both the fixed and mobile portings. org/ rfcs/ rfc3482. on May 9.Local number portability Sweden In Sweden. 2001. Retrieved April 4.

Izumi. [24] "Mobile Number Portability in Hong Kong" (http:/ / www. [13] "Extracts of the Stakeholders Forum on the Unified Licensing Framework and New Market Structure Held on Thursday 19th March 2008 at KCCT" (http:/ / www. go. tct. com [23] Office of the Telecommunications Authority. . Edgar-Online. gc. [14] Cellular (wireless) telephone services (http:/ / www. jrelectricsupply. [17] "Number portability launched. [39] "Mobile Number Portability" (http:/ / www. 2008. "Interconnection and Related Competition Issues. 2008. [20] http:/ / www. . Retrieved March 19. "Mobile Number Portability: Case Finland" (http:/ / www. itst. net [22] http:/ / www. 2010. . tra. pk/ media/ Code_of_practic_22-03-2007. . . br/ Portal/ exibirPortalRedireciona. om/ test1/ pressroom. go. pag?docid=99382528). html). 2008. Retrieved November 5. Retrieved March 18. Archived from the original (http:/ / en. gov/ edocs_public/ attachmatch/ DOC-277752A1. . Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK). pdf). 2008. ofta.com. 2009. 2008. cck. Timo. htm) [32] http:/ / www. frost. . National IT and Telecom Agency (Denmark). html). dk/ statistics/ telestatistik/ halvarsstatistik/ 2007/ first-part-of-2007-1/ Telestatistik for 1 Halvar 2007. pdf) (PDF). Retrieved March 19. pta. 2009. gov. Retrieved March 18. dk/ numbering-issues-and-domain-aspects/ numbering-issues/ number-portability) on March 9. cck. Agência Nacional de Telecomunicações (ANATEL). mx/ 2008/ 04/ 15/ index. sg/ News%20and%20Events/ 20080416085608. [19] "Portabilidade (in Portuguese)" (http:/ / www. Retrieved August 6. . Office of the Telecommunications Authority (OFTA). Retrieved October 19. bernama. pdf). itu. Retrieved July 28. Retrieved March 18. gov. citc. . [41] "Results of the Public Consultation on the implementation of number portability" (http:/ / www. ficora. int/ ITU-T/ inr/ misc/ files/ bdt_numbsurvey-en. jp/ menu_05/ kouhoushi/ pdf/ 060530-e_1. Retrieved March 18. 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[25] "Press Release – Voluntary Implementation of Fixed Mobile Number Portability" (http:/ / www. fi/ en/ index/ palvelut/ palvelutaiheittain/ numerointi/ siirrettavyys/ matkapuhsiirrettavyys. 2010. [37] "Number Portability" (http:/ / web. htm) [15] "FCC Expands Local Number Portability to VoIP" (http:/ / hraunfoss. telconet. . gov. ke/ links/ consultations/ closed_consultations/ Number_portability2.Local number portability [9] http:/ / www. Hong Kong Government (March 28. . go. doc) (DOC). anatel. Inc. dk/ numbering-issues-and-domain-aspects/ numbering-issues/ number-portability). . soumu. nanc-chair. 2008. ida. org/ [11] http:/ / www. Statement No 1" (http:/ / www. do?acao=& codItemCanal=1362& codigoVisao=4& nomeVisao=Cidadão& nomeCanal=Telefonia Fixa& nomeItemCanal=Portabilidade). com/ bernama/ v3/ news_lite. pdf). npac. itst. ofta. uhcl. hk/ en/ press_rel/ 2009/ Jul_2009_r1. Retrieved November 5. [36] "Replies to Telecommunication Regulatory Survey" (http:/ / www. . pdf [33] http:/ / www. . hut. do?caminhoRel=Cidadao& codigoDocumento=139897). fcc. gov. 2010. International Telecommunication Union (ITU). hk/ en/ ca_bd/ mnp. gov. Idea Group. 2009. st [21] http:/ / www. sa [31] (http:/ / www. National IT and Telecom Agency (Denmark). Retrieved March 18. pdf). anatel. archive. Office of the Telecommunications Authority (OFTA). . 2008. edgar-online. 2010. FCC. 1995). Retrieved September 29. Finnish Communications Regulatory Authority (FICORA). "Business News Americas". org/ web/ 20080309125104/ http:/ / en. La Jornada._regulator_wants_*war_of_competition*). ofta. edu/ cs/ pub/ Kim_J6_JGIM. gov. aspx [34] "Demand for Number Portability in the Korean Telecommunications Market: Contingent Valuation Approach" (http:/ / sce. dll?FetchFilingHtmlSection1?SectionID=6677886-127408-269887& SessionID=0gHoHv7tKXdQl77). npac.

asp?path=25361. pts.27257. Retrieved March 18. php?id=8142). 2008. php) [52] Neelie Kroes. anacom. pdf) [50] AECOMO Spanish Mobile Communications Association news report (in Spanish) (http:/ / www. tk. it/ rel_03/ eng/ Relaz_eng_part04.html CRTC (Canadian) Factsheets (http://www.pk/index. pt [49] CMT June 2007 monthly report (in Spanish) (http:/ / www. Autorité de Régulation des Communications Életroniques et des Postes (ARCEP).gov/wlnp/ http://www.25381. do?reference=SPEECH/ 07/ 460& format=HTML& aged=0& language=EN& guiLanguage=en).gov.gov/cgb/consumerfacts/numbport. . 2008.27273).htm) (March 2007) • http://www.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=870&Itemid=636) (March 2007) • (http://www.uk UK guide to mobile number porting (http://www. aecomo. Swedish Post and Telecom Agency (PTS). pt/ template20. 2008.com/) • http://gsmsignalling. fr/ index.crtc. [45] http:/ / www. es/ web/ es/ tecnologia/ 2005/ 04/ 16/ 141248. lu [46] "Regulation no. . 2008. pdf) (PDF). Archived from the original (http:/ / www.ca/eng/INFO_SHT/t1021. Retrieved March 18. European Commissioner for Competition Policy.uk) .Local number portability [42] "Mobile Communications Services Qualitative Questionnaire" (http:/ / www. arcep. Retrieved March 19. tietoenator. 2008. 2008. [54] "Number portability for Telenor Mobile in Sweden" (http:/ / www.nanc-chair. europa. [55] "Annual Work Plan (2008)" (http:/ / www.htm) (March 2006) PCWorld. org/ web/ 20071020150339/ http:/ / www.fcc. jsp?categoryId=160182& contentId=289489) on October 20. com.pta.html) • Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission – Cellular (Wireless) Telephone Services (Fact Sheet) (http://www. paradigmone. Retrieved April 7. pt/ template20. TietoEnator. se/ sv/ Bransch/ Telefoni/ Nummerfragor/ Nummer--och-adressplaner/ Nummerportabilitet/ ). [47] http:/ / www. html [57] "Mobile number portability FAQs" (http:/ / acma.gov. agcom.pk/index.ca Mobile phone numbers go portable (http://www. au/ WEB/ STANDARD/ pc=PC_1787).ca/eng/INFO_SHT/t1021.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=870&Itemid=636 • An excellent single source of links to authentic regulatory and procedural documentation for LNP in the US (http://ported. Press conference on Telefónica decision (http:/ / www. consumer.pdf) (March 2007) External links • • • • http://wireless.htm) (March 2006) • (http://www.crtc.com/index3. tr/ Yayin/ Is_Planlari/ workplan2008. Autoridade Nacional de Comunicações (ANACOM). [56] http:/ / www. au/ LNPDatafeed. . anacom.html) • http://www. Autorité de Régulation des Communications Életroniques et des Postes (ARCEP). es/ es/ home/ novedades/ anexos/ NM_Junio07.pk/media/Code_of_practic_22-03-2007.25552. Retrieved April 4.ca//news/column/ 46e109880a010408001a024c0b8ced7d/pg0. jsp?categoryId=160182& contentId=289489). [43] "The new mobile number portability process comes into force on Monday 21 May 2007 in Metropolitan France" (http:/ / www. telcom.com/blog/2007/02/ are_you_ready_for_mobile_number_portability_mnp_1. published on August 18" (http:/ / web.pcworld. asp?ContentTypeID=2& ContentID=7422& CatTypeId=2& CatId=148) [51] Consumer magazine (in Spanish) (http:/ / www. logica.fcc. Autorità per le Garanzie nelle Comunicazioni. .portnumber.php • PortNumber. 58/2005. pt [48] http:/ / www. Telekomünikasyon Kurumu (Telecommunications Authority). [44] "Actions Undertaken by the Authority" (http:/ / www. fr/ fileadmin/ reprise/ dossiers/ marches/ questionnaire/ quest-comm-mobiles-ang. doc) (DOC). Retrieved March 31. . Retrieved April 4. gov. org/ content.co. cz/ default. 2008.com/number_portability. archive.mnp-india. July 4.gov. arcep. 130 • Malaysia Mobile Number Portability Watch (http://jerryong. pdf) (PDF). 2007 [53] "Nummerportabilitet (in Swedish)" (http:/ / www. . gov. portabil.gc.org/ • Mobile Number Portability Launched in India (http://www. 2008. .pta. Australian Communications and Media Authority (ACMA). cmt.pta.co. 2007.gc. Retrieved March 31. Brussels.25514. eu/ rapid/ pressReleasesAction. .

or a fixed object such as a building plan.110—General Information and subsequent standards. make user interaction implicit and build smart environments. Network location awareness (NLA) services collect network configuration and location information. Measuring wireless power levels can supply this degree of precision. positioning systems and/or locating services. refine application-relevant data. Navigational instruments provide location coordinates for vessels and vehicles.g. Surveying equipment identifies location with respect to a well-known locationa wireless communications device. Location awareness without the active participation of the device is known as non-cooperative locating or detection. Network location awareness (NLA) describes the location of a node in a network. e.g. and notify applications when this information changes.[9] • IEEE media access addressing according to MAC International standard ISO/IEC 10038[10] with ISO/IEC 11802[11] and ANSI/IEEE[12] edition. e.[17] . Real time locating is defined with ISO/IEC 19762-5 and ISO/IEC 24730-1. Index locating indicates presence at a known location. presence "near" a point of reference..[1] [2] The term applies to navigating. History of terminology The term originated for configurations settings of network systems and addressed network entities. International standardisation offers a common method using ISO/TS 16952[5] as originated with German standards DIN EN 61346[6] and DIN EN 81346. a location-aware mobile phone may confirm that it is currently in a building. Telecommunications Signaling System#7 (SS7)[8] and mirroring ANSI Standards T1. business administration and leisure applications. For example. Context models have been proposed[3] to support context-aware applications which use location to tailor interfaces. Less sophisticated systems can use wireless distance measurements to estimate a point of reference in polar coordinates (distance and direction) from another site. WGS84.Location awareness 131 Location awareness Location awareness refers to devices that can passively or actively determine their location. regional or local scope. using wireless signals or optical sighting. Coordinates are relative to either a standardized system of coordinates. • ISO procedure call addressing according to URN/UUID International standards ISO/IEC 11578[13] and ISO/IEC 9834[14] and IETF RFC 4122. These include: • ITU switched line access addressing according to International Telecommunications Union Q-Series standards. While location awareness began as a matter of static user location. as with fixed RFID readers and RFID tags. especially for moving targets. The term has been applied to traffic. Real-time locating adds timely delivery of results.[15] Variants "Crisp" locating offers precise coordinates. Location awareness is supported by navigation systems. discover services. possibly with phase angle measurements. the notion was extended to reflect movement. the term was redefined to include consumer-focused applications. real-time locating and positioning support with global. logistics. With the advent of global positioning systems and radio-equipped mobile devices.[16] Fuzzy locating offers less precision. increase the precision of information retrieval. Location in network terms relates to locating network nodes.[7] Location in mathematical terms offers coordinates that refer to a nominated point of reference.[4] Determining location Description in logical terms uses a structured textual form.

which is sufficient for applications that limit access. RADAR served for regional demand and NAVSTAR satellite systems for global demand. Conversely. but does not indicate that the object remains at that location. The task is to dynamically determine the current location and the time. On mobile devices. or for objects moving on a fixed route. such as tracking objects entering and leaving a warehouse. at some cost to the bearer's privacy. distance and direction to destination. Local systems degrade as distance from the locality increases. and is integral to ubiquitous and wearable computing.[22] [23] Consumer Location awareness enables new applications for ubiquitous computing systems and mobile phones. location aware search can prioritize results that are close to the device.[20] Business process Currently location awareness is applied to design innovative process controls. individuals gain self confidence with confirmation of current whereabouts.[21] Warehouse and routing RFID provides a time/location reference for an object. independent localized systems exist at scales ranging from one building to sub-national regions. Local Such solutions may apply concepts of RTLS and WPAN. Optical surveying technology preceded LASER triangulating aids. wireless LAN or DECT. (SAR) and combat search and rescue. It is essential for delineating land ownership and for architects and civil engineers designing construction projects.[19] Surveying Surveying is the static complement to navigating. and allowing retailers to publish special offers to potential customers who are near to the retailer.Location awareness 132 Applications Location-aware systems address the acquisition of coordinates in a grid (for example using distance metrics and lateration algorithms) or at least distances to reference points (for example discriminating presence at a certain choke point on a corridor or in a room of a building). (CSAR). such as charging tolls for crossing a bridge. GPS and similar systems have become ubituitous in long-haul transport operation and are becoming a standard automobile feature. . Applications include avalanche rescue or emergency and mountain rescue as well as with search and rescue. Allegedly. with results in proprietary terms of floor plans or room numbers. the device location can be disclosed to others.[18] Navigation Navigation and reckoning are key concerns for seafarers.[24] Infrastructure While governments have created global systems for computing locations. Such applications include publishing a user's location to appropriate members of a social network. aviators and professional drivers.

asp) [10] International Standard ISO/IEC 10038: 1993 (http:/ / www.Part 1: General application rules (http:/ / www. "Social psychology. [5] ISO/TS 16952-1:2006 Technical product documentation -. PMID 2634031. lancs. wiley-vch. Michael Beigl and Hans-W. iso. uk/ ~albrecht/ phd/ ).. "There is more to Context than Location" (http:/ / www. de/ publish/ dt/ books/ forthcomingTitles/ EE00/ 0-470-39868-X/ ?sID=2k2e8lg2r8ruf5ghork2ed46g1). blackviper. de/ article-00146. Signalling and Switching (http:/ / www. de/ index2. "A data-oriented survey of context models" (http:/ / carlo. dke. rfid-basis. doi:10. pdf) (PDF). com/ wiki/ Network_Location_Awareness_(NLA)) [2] Registering a Service Instance with NLA (http:/ / msdn. 89–101. pdf) (PDF). generally adopting WGS84 and NMEA. ISSN 0163-5808. Latour & M. (2006). Aidoo.. php?option=com_content& do_pdf=1& id=76) [20] Das neue Messen (http:/ / www.Computing in Context" (http:/ / www. Tuomela. The International Journal of Aging & Human Development 29 (3): 225–239.A.Location awareness 133 Regional This approach uses for example mobile phone systems.. 1707. [19] Test TomTom Navigator 6 (http:/ / www. O. Ajay (2009). 149–158. pp. U. html) [13] ISO/IEC 11578 Information technology—Open Systems Interconnection—Remote Procedure Call (RPC) (http:/ / www. org/ iso/ iso_catalogue/ catalogue_tc/ catalogue_detail. pdf) (PDF). "Advanced Interaction in Context" (http:/ / www. (1989). currently supplied by NAVSTAR and may in future employ the pending Galileo (satellite navigation) system. doi:10. com/ en-us/ library/ ms740123(VS. . ietf. . 85). Anlagen und Ausrüstungen und Industrieprodukte . Patrick (2006). . comp..1 Object Identifier components (http:/ / www. J. teco. Takaluoma. rlehmann. ieee. com/ ss7/ itu. 1st International Symposium on Handheld and Ubiquitous Computing (HUC99). [24] Blank. de/ publish/ dt/ books/ bySubjectBA00/ ISBN3-527-70263-6/ ?sID=lvkjcmj8ene7n5qci56q5gqsb3). Elsevier 23 (6): 893–902. wm-user. curino. [17] Sweeney. tekelec. org/ reading/ ieee/ std_public/ description/ lanman/ 10038-1993_desc. (1999). htm?csnumber=38178) [6] [DIN EN 61346 Industrielle Systeme. de/ cmd?bcrumblevel=1& contextid=dke& subcommitteeid=54759251& projid=103797592& level=tpl-proj-detailansicht& committeeid=54738887& languageid=de) [8] International Telecommunications Union Q-Series Standards. pp. htm?csnumber=2229) [14] Information technology—Open Systems Interconnection—Procedures for the operation of OSI Registration Authorities: Generation and registration of Universally Unique Identifiers (UUIDs) and their use as ASN. Vol. Springer LNCS. typically returning information in standardized coordinates as with WGS84 in standardized formats such as NMEA for outdoor usage or in symbolic coordinates referring to street addresses. org/ iso/ iso_catalogue/ catalogue_tc/ catalogue_detail.Reference designation system . int/ rec/ T-REC-Q/ e) [9] ANSI Standard T1. 18th international conference on advanced information systems engineering. proceedings of workshops and doctoral consortium. and a contextual world view". din. T. iso. html) [23] Rosemann.110 (http:/ / www. iso.1145/1361348. teco. Notes [1] Network location awareness (http:/ / wiki. microsoft. aspx) [3] Cristiana Bolchini and Carlo A. . . Lancaster University. Albrecht (2003). iso. Curino and Elisa Quintarelli and Fabio A. PhD dissertation. . K. itu. Global This approach relies on GPS technology. Gellersen (December 1999). htm?csnumber=53416) [15] A Universally Unique IDentifier (UUID) URN Namespace (http:/ / www. Schreiber and Letizia Tanca (2007). In T.2190/WUQU-VT01-021N-GX33..1361353. & Recker. GSM or LTE. ac. edu/ ~albrecht/ publication/ huc99/ advanced_interaction_context. [22] Fünf Jahre nach dem RFID-Hype erste Ernüchterung (http:/ / www. pdf) [21] Albrecht Schmidt. 1993 edition (http:/ / standards. ch/ data/ Das_neue_Messen_2-14. . org/ iso/ iso_catalogue/ catalogue_tc/ catalogue_detail. SIGMOD Rec. Van de Velde W. Anlagen und Ausrüstungen und Industrieprodukte – Strukturierungsprinzipien und Referenzkennzeichnung] [7] Industrielle Systeme. de/ ~albrecht/ publication/ draft_docs/ context-is-more-than-location. txt) [16] Malik. such as 3GPP.Strukturierungsprinzipien und Referenzkennzeichnung . A. "Context-aware process design: Exploring the extrinsic drivers for process flexibility". Petit. A. org/ iso/ iso_catalogue/ catalogue_tc/ catalogue_detail. wiley-vch. [4] Schmidt. uni-karlsruhe. "RFID für Dummies" (http:/ / www. contexts of aging. htm?csnumber=18000) [11] [ISO/IEC TR 11802-2:2005 Information technology—Telecommunications and information exchange between systems—Local and metropolitan area networks—Technical reports and guidelines—Part 2: Standard Group MAC Addresses] [12] ANSI/IEEE Std 802. "RTLS für Dummies" (http:/ / www. "Ubiquitous Computing . M. Luxembourg: Namur University Press. org/ rfc/ rfc4122. Computers & Graphics Journal.1D. [18] Schmidt. (ACM) 36 (4): 19–26..Teil 1: Allgemeine Regeln (IEC 81346-1:2009) (http:/ / www. us/ documents/ curino-context2007-survey. K. Van Laerhoven.

) • ReadPost Bremerhaven Germany: TokLoc. In addition.com) • RF Code. M-learning focuses on the mobility of the learner. Austin.com/ products/zone_monitoring/index. M-Learning also brings strong portability by replacing books and notes with small RAMs. TX 78758. One definition of mobile learning is: Any sort of learning that happens when the learner is not at a fixed. filled with tailored learning contents. . like other forms of E-learning. Using mobile tools for creating learning aides and materials becomes an important part of informal learning.php) • Location estimation in wireless telecommunication networks: Ekahau proprietary modified WLAN fuzzy locating system (http://www.ist-mobilife.org/) (Research Project) • Middleware for context collection and personal profile exchange (http://www. the Bluetooth LowEnergy based approach (http://www. Norway: SONITOR Ultra sound proprietary approach (http://www.html) • Albis Zurich Switzerland: ZOMOFI Microwave proprietary approach (http://www.de/ tokloc/tokloclocating/mission/mission. M-Learning. it is distinct in its focus on learning across contexts and learning with mobile devices. sonitor. and learning that reflects a focus on how society and its institutions can accommodate and support an increasingly mobile population.tokloc. notebooks and mobile phones. M-learning is convenient in that it is accessible from virtually anywhere. or "mobile learning". it is simple to utilize mobile learning for a more effective and entertaining experience.[1] In other words mobile learning decreases limitation of learning location with the mobility of general portable devices.html) External links • Capturing Ambient Intelligence for Mobile Communications through Wireless Sensor Networks (http://www. MP3 players. or learning that happens when the learner takes advantage of the learning opportunities offered by mobile technologies.albistechnologies.patentstorm.com. interacting with portable technologies.Location awareness 134 References • Sonitor Technologies. NO-0314 Oslo. Wikipedia on Nokia 770 is an example of mobile learning The term covers: learning with portable technologies including but not limited to handheld computers. USA: RF Code 433 MHz proprietary approach (http://www. There is also a new direction in MLearning that adds mobility of the instructor and includes creation of learning materials "on-the-spot. "in the field" using predominately smartphone with special software such as AHG Cloud Note. predetermined location.org) (Research Project) • Middleware Platform for Developing and Deploying Advanced Mobile Services (http://www. has different meanings for different communities. sharing is almost instantaneous among everyone using the same content. Although related to e-learning and distance education.org/) MLearning The term M-Learning. ist-e-sense.rfcode. which leads to the reception of instant feedback and tips. is also collaborative.ist-midas.portable-personality.us/patents/7228136.org/) (Research Project) • Bring advances in mobile applications and services within the reach of users (http://www.

. Apple Classrooms of Tomorrow (ACOT) in partnership with Orange Grove Middle School of Tucson. • Good IT support is needed. • Mobile learning supports the learning process rather than being integral to it. This was followed up in later years as technology improved. 8 track tape. ICML in Jordan.MLearning 135 History Pre-1970s Arguably the first instance of mobile learning goes back as far as 1901 when Linguaphone released a series of language lessons on wax cylinders. Mobile Learning in Malaysia. including: mLearn. Companies were formed that specialize in three core areas of mobile learning. etc. SALT Mobile in USA. Content Development Conferences and trade shows were created to specifically deal with mobile learning and handheld education. A+ and MCSE certification using the core tools that later became LMA. • It is important to bring new technology into the classroom. 1980s Alan Kay and his colleagues in the Learning Research Group at Xerox Palo Alto Research Center [PARC] propose the Dynabook as a book-sized computer to run dynamic simulations for learning. and CDs[2] 1970s. Their interim Dynabooks are the first networked workstations 1990s In May 1991. 2000s The European Commission funds the major multi-national MOBIlearn and M-Learning [4] projects. Palm corporation offers grants to universities and companies who create and test the use of Mobile Learning on the PalmOS platform.[3] Universities in Europe and Asia develop and evaluate mobile learning for students. to cover compact cassette tapes. • Mobile learning needs to be used appropriately. Handheld Learning in London. and IADIS Mobile Learning international conference series. 1. • It is necessary to have enough devices for classroom use . forecast) Value The value of mobile learning[5] --Tutors commented on the value of mobile learning as follows. Arizona. according to the groups of students involved. WMUTE. Authoring and publishing 2. Delivery and Tracking 3. use mobile computers connected by wireless networks for the 'Wireless Coyote' project. Knowledgility creates the first mobile learning modules for CCNA. • It will be more light weight device compare to books. However. for SMS and MMS this might be dependent on the students’ specific disabilities or difficulties involved. • Mobile learning could be utilised as part of a learning approach which uses different types of activities (or a blended learning approach). PCs. • Mobile learning can be a useful add-on tool for students with special needs. Analysis (costs / benefits. • Mobile learning can be used as a ‘hook’ to re-engage disaffected youth.

surveys.MLearning 136 Challenges Technical challenges include • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Connectivity and battery life Screen size and key size[6] Ability for authors to visualize mobile phones for delivery Possibilities to meet required bandwidth for nonstop/fast streaming Number of file/assets' formats supported by a specific device Content security or copyright issue from authoring group Multiple standards. cities and rural areas around the world. "the US market for Mobile Learning products and services is growing at a five-year compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 21.and m-learning Design of technology to support a lifetime of learning[7] [8] Tracking of results and proper use of this information No restriction on learning timetable Personal and private information and content No demographic boundary Disruption of students' personal and academic lives[9] Access to and use of the technology in developing countries[10] Social and educational challenges include Growth Over the past ten years mobile learning has grown from a minor research interest to a set of significant projects in schools. content conversion. Current areas of growth include: • • • • • Testing. The data indicate that the demand is relatively immune from the recession. job aids and just-in-time (J. with different national perspectives. How to assess learning outside the classroom How to support learning across many contexts Content's security (or) pirating issues Frequent changes in device models/technologies/functionality etc.I. higher education and lifelong learning sectors. multiple screen sizes. workplaces. Developing an appropriate theory of learning for the mobile age Conceptual differences between e.) learning Location-based and contextual learning Social-networked mobile learning Mobile educational gaming Deliver M-Learning to cellular phones using two way SMS messaging and voice-based CellCasting (podcasting to phones with interactive assessments) According to a report by Ambient Insight in 2008.T. museums. differences between academia and industry. The mLearning community is still fragmented. and between the school. ."[11] The findings of the report indicate that the largest demand throughout the forecast period is for custom development services. multiple operating systems Reworking existing e-Learning materials for mobile platforms Accessibility and cost barriers for end users: Digital divide.7% and revenues reached $538 million in 2007. and media services and that the healthcare sector accounts for 20% of the total US market for mobile learning.

personal digital assistants (PDAs).MLearning 137 Future Technologies currently being researched for mobile learning include:[12] • • • • • • • • Location aware learning Point-and-shoot learning with camera phones and 2D codes Near Field Communications (NFC) secure transactions Sensors and accelerometers in mobile devices in behavioral based learning Mobile content creation (including user generated content) Games and simulation for learning on mobile devices Context-aware ubiquitous learning Augmented reality on mobile devices Delivery While many think of mobile learning as delivering eLearning on small form factor devices. or wireless single-purpose devices can help deliver coaching and mentoring. mobile learning can enhance and support more traditional learning modes. personal media players (PMPs). surveys/polls. tests. Smartphones are one of the platforms used for mobile learning. or parts of courses. It includes the use of mobile/handheld devices to perform any of the following: • • • • • Deliver Education/Learning Foster Communications/Collaboration Conduct Assessments/Evaluations Provide Access to Performance Support/Knowledge Capture Evidence of Learning Activity Today. Cell or smartphones. it has the potential to do much more than deliver courses. making it more portable and accessible. and certifications). education and references. Mobile devices can also serve as powerful data collection tools and facilitate the capture of user created content. forms and checklists. conduct assessments and evaluations (e. In these ways. update alerts.[12] . or often referred to as eLearning “lite”. provide on-the-job support and access to information.g. quizzes.. any number of portable devices can quickly and easily deliver and support these functions. multi-game devices. and deliver podcasts.

Podcasting Podcasting consists of listening to audio recordings of lectures. At work • On the job training for someone who accesses training on a mobile device "just in time" to solve a problem or gain an update. It can also be of value to business people e. Miller & Newnham 2009).MLearning 138 Approaches In the classroom • Students using handheld computers. PDAs. Podcasts maybe be delivered using syndication. Podcasts may also provide supplemental information to enhance traditional lectures (McGarr 2009) (Steven & Teasley 2009). but only in cases in which students take notes (Callaway & Ewen 2009). and can be used to review live lectures (Clark & Westcott (2007) and to provide opportunities for students to rehearse oral presentations.g. For blended learning Mobile learning can provide support that enhances training in a corporate business or other classroom environment. Psychological research suggests that university students who download podcast lectures achieve substantially higher exam results than those who attend the lecture in person. Outdoor • Learning in museums or galleries with handheld or wearable technologies • Learning outdoors. The use of mobile learning in the military is becoming increasingly common due to low cost and high portability. for example on field trips. although it should be noted that this method of delivery is not always easily adopted (Lee. • Continuous learning and portable tools for military personnel. venue changes and cancellations. • Students using mobile devices(such as a Pocket PC) in the classroom to enhance group collaboration among students and instructors. Class management The mobile phone (through text SMS notices) can be used especially for distance education or with students whose course requires them to be highly mobile and in particular to communicate information regarding availability of assignment results. sales representatives who do not wish to waste time away from their busy schedules to attend formal training events. . etc. smartphones or handheld voting systems (such as clickers) in a classroom or lecture room (Tremblay 2010).

g.e.MLearning 139 Lifelong learning and self-learning The use of personal technology to support informal or lifelong learning. .g. but also podcasting (Horkoff Kayes2008) have been used for helping people to acquire a language. Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL).g. i. for authoring and publishing WAP. camera phone and SmartPhone Technical and delivery support for mobile learning: • 3GP For compression and delivery method of audiovisual content associated with Mobile Learning • GPRS mobile data service. include: • • • • • • • E-book Handheld audio and multimedia guides.: sending media or texts into a central portfolio. numeracy and participation in education amongst young adults. Mobile technologies and approaches. e. provides high speed connection and data transfer rate • Wi-Fi gives access to instructors and resources via internet Authoring: • Learning Mobile Author. for listening to audio recordings of lectures (podcasting) Personal Digital Assistant. or exporting audio files from a learning platform to your phone) Technologies Mobile devices and personal technologies that can support mobile learning. are also used to assist in language learning. in the classroom and outdoors Tablet PC UMPC. in museums and galleries Handheld game console. It organizes the annual mLearn international conference series. development and application of mobile and contextual learning. and teaching resources. e. such as using handheld dictionaries and other devices for language learning. mobile phone. Java ME and Smartphone Relevant organisations • The International Association for Mobile Learning[13] • The International Association for Mobile Learning (IAMLearn) has been formed as a membership organization to promote excellence in research. For instance handheld computers. Other • Improving levels of literacy. modern gaming consoles such as Sony PSP or Nintendo DS Personal audio player. emerging technologies. • Using the communication features of a mobile phone as part of a larger learning activity (e. IAMLearn manages a website to collate and disseminate information about new projects. cell phones.

html). org/ ) Bibliography • Callaway. cfm?id=155062) Wayne C. "Educating the Mobile Generation – using personal cell phones as audience response systems in post-secondary science teaching" (http://www.. 2008. Wireless Coyote: A Computer-Supported Field Trip. May 1993. Ambient Insight.. 171–175. (2007). 29(2). [8] Moore. April 2005.iheduc. ISBN 978-972-8924-36-2. • Lee. [9] Masters. 28 September 2007. acm. "The US Market for Mobile Learning Products and Services: 2008-2013 Forecast and Analysis" (http:/ / www. S.au/ pubs/procs/2007/08. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology 25 (3): 309–321. • McGarr. . blogspot. com/ Resources/ Documents/ AmbientInsight_2008-2013_US_MobileLearning_Forecast_ExecutiveOverview. K. Newnham. MOBIlearn. New Scientist. fil. 3. 2010. . "Language Learning by iPod: An Emerging Model" (http://www. Understanding. . 2009. Spain. S. "A review of podcasting in higher education: Its influence on the traditional lecture" (http://www.uniserve. • Tremblay.MLearning 140 Relevant journals • International Journal of Mobile and Blended Learning • International Journal of Mobile Learning and Organisation References [1] "Guidelines for learning/teaching/tutoring in a mobile environment" (http:/ / www.org. org/ archive [5] Mobile learning in practice:Piloting a mobile learning teachers’ toolkit in further education colleges.p8 [6] Maniar. Volume 36 Issue 5.1016/S0360-1315(99)00044-5. Proceedings of IADIS International Conference Mobile Learning. "Podcasting syndication services and university students: Why don't they subscribe?". Communications of the ACM . org/ download/ results/ guidelines. Proceedings of IADIS International Conference Mobile Learning.html). 6. Hand. [13] The International Association for Mobile Learning (http:/ / mlearning. Lonn. (2007). noe-kaleidoscope. "The effect of mobile phone screen size on video based learning".iheduc. 217-227.002. Miller. [12] "Mobile Learning Update" (http:/ / masieweb. Journal of Software 3 (4): 51–61.2008.. 17. Eric (2010). Hungary. 2009. Kayes.ascilite. 5–13. Ewen (18 February 2009). Lisbon. Oliver (2009).S. Mobile Learning History. Ng'ambi D. pp. (2009). (2009). Jonathan M. hu/ mobil/ 2005/ Masters_final. doi:10. 5.1016/j. "'iTunes university' better than the real thing" (http://www. . Computers & Education 34 (3-4): 177–193. October 2003. mobilearn. [11] Adkins. Seeing. & Allan. [7] Sharples. • Horkoff. The University of Sydney Symposium. pp. masie. "The design of personal mobile technologies for lifelong learning". (2009).au/ajet/ajet25/mcgarr..edu. W. pdf). pp.. [3] Wireless Coyote (http:/ / portal. Hank. M. m-learning. com/ 2010/ 01/ mobile-learning-in-cortina. soton. org/ citation.pdf). Retrieved June 9. . L. com/article/dn16624-itunes-university-better-than-the-real-thing. Learning in the Mobile Age. • Clark. com/ p7/ MobileLearningUpdate.htm). The Internet and Higher Education 12 (2): 88–92. 57-59 [4] http:/ / www. ac.Savill etc. Budapest. The Internet and Higher Education 12 (1): 53–59. Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching. Stephanie D.06. Barcelona..10. Retrieved June 8. J.2009. (2000). G (2008). The MASIE Center. Learning Consortium Perspectives. M. ambientinsight. [2] "Mobile Learning Community" (http:/ / trainandgo. 2009. pdf). Westcott. • Steven.com/Research-Articles/language-learning-by-ipod-an-emerging-model.Special issue on technology in K–12 education. Teasley. Portugal. pdf). E. "A portable document search engine to support off-line mobile learning" (http:/ / eprints.newscientist. N.1016/j. (December 2008). pp. (2008). "Podcasting in higher education: What are the implications for teaching and learning?". pdf). .org/p/32314). M. Bennett. Retrieved June 8. . Grant. (1993).C. ecs.htm). "After the broadcast: disrupting health sciences’ students' lives with SMS".editlib. S. J.001. "Low-key m-learning: a realistic introduction of m-learning to developing countries" (http:/ / www. C. (2005). doi:10.. Chesapeake. VA: AACE. uk/ 17441/ ). K. "Using short podcasts to reinforce lectures" (http://science. [10] Masters. doi:10.

html). Picocells are for areas even smaller than microcells. rooftops and other existing structures. An example of usage would be a large office. org. Intel's smart-phone "wireless Internet on a chip" is here (http:/ / www.org. or train station. CNet Asia. html) Manitoba (computer chip) Manitoba was a system-on-a-chip (SoC) introduced by Intel Corporation in 2003. com/ displayarticle19. It was a mostly unsuccessful attempt by Intel to break into the smart phones market. The antennas for macrocells are mounted on ground-based masts. Currently the smallest area of coverage can be implemented with a femtocell: used in homes or small offices. uk/ sitefinder/ glossary/ jargon/ ) External links • Mobile Phones: Jargon Explained (http://stakeholders.ofcom. [1] Scale The term macrocell is used to describe the widest range of cell sizes. wi-fitechnology.uk/sitefinder/glossary/jargon/) • White Paper: The Business Case for Metrocells (http://www. at a height that provides a clear view over the surrounding buildings and terrain.[1] After the chip's failure in the marketplace. February 13. Macrocell base stations have power outputs of typically tens of watts. References [1] Manitoba. References [1] Mobile Phones: Jargon Explained (http:/ / stakeholders. a microcell is used in a densely populated urban area. macrocells provide coverage larger than microcell. The chip integrated flash memory. Generally.Macrocell 141 Macrocell A macrocell is a cell in a mobile phone network that provides radio coverage served by a high power cellular base station (tower). Over a smaller cell area. a digital signal processor and an XScale processor core. Matthew Broersma.alcatel-lucent. 2003. a mall. Macrocells are found in rural areas or along highways.com/wireless/femto_small_cells. ofcom. the business was sold to Marvell in 2006 for $600 million. .

Microcell/picocell-only networks Certain mobile phone systems. A microcell is usually larger than a picocell. By comparison. older analog systems have fixed limits beyond which attempts to subdivide cells simply would result in an unacceptable level of interference. though the distinction is not always clear. and creating more cells to help serve high density areas. a hotel. and the ability of GSM to support microcells without using alternative technologies. A forerunner of these types of network was the CT2 cordless phone system. with a range of 40 feet (12 m).Microcell 142 Microcell A microcell is a cell in a mobile phone network served by a low power cellular base station (tower). Microcells are often deployed temporarily during sporting events and other occasions in which extra capacity is known to be needed at a specific location in advance. A microcell uses power control to limit the radius of its coverage area. PHS is deployed throughout major cities in Japan as an alternative to ordinary cellular service. meant GIP was rarely used. again with base stations deployed in areas where large numbers of people might need to make calls. Cell size flexibility is a feature of 2G (and later) networks and is a significant part of how such networks have been able to improve capacity. a cellular network operator can optimize the use of spectrum and ensure capacity can grow. . Power controls implemented on digital networks make it easier to prevent interference from nearby cells using the same frequencies. By subdividing cells. Rationale Like picocells. including use as cordless phone systems. CT2's limitations ensured the concept never took off. DECT is also used as a private. a picocell is 200 meters or less. GIP so that GSM networks could make use of it for microcellular access. or a transportation hub. CT2's successor. covering a limited area such as a mall. cordless phone system where its low power profile ensures that nearby DECT systems do not interfere with each other. notably PHS and DECT. and a femtocell is on the order of 10 meters. Microcellular systems are typically used to provide low cost mobile phone systems in high-density environments such as large cities. and DECT's use in general was limited to non-GSM private networks. such as train stations. which provided access to a looser network (without handover). only provide microcellular (and picocellular) coverage. DECT. non-networked.[1] although AT&T calls its product. microcells are usually used to add network capacity in areas with very dense phone usage. but in practice the success of GSM within Europe. a "microcell"..[2] A micro cellular network is a radio network composed of microcells. Typically the range of a microcell is less than two kilometers wide. DECT is used by many businesses to deploy private license-free microcellular networks within large campuses where wireline phone service is less useful. was provided with an interworking profile.

Tidningarnas Telegrambyrå AB (Sweden) Yonhap .Agência de Notícias de Portugal (Portugal) MTI .Agencia EFE (Spain) Kyodo . .Austria Presse Agentur (Austria) Belga . MINDS International acts as a research and development unit for innovations in the field of digital information and communication solutions for the media industry and supports technology exchange between the agencies.Associated Press (USA) APA .Algemeen Nederlands Persbureau (The Netherlands) AP .Agence Telegraphique Belge de Presse (Belgium) CTK . visionmobile.Kyodo News (Japan) Lusa .Russian News and Information Agency (Russia) Ritzau .Norsk Telegrambyrå (Norway) PAP .Schweizerische Depeschenagentur (Switzerland) STT .Deutsche Presse-Agentur (Germany) EFE . com/ EUROPE_NOKIA_COM_3/ r2/ support/ tutorials/ 7200/ english/ glossary.Polska Agencja Prasowa (Poland) PA .Suomen Tietotoimisto (Finland) TM News (Italy) TT .Microcell 143 External links • Ericsson press release describing a GSM/UMTS picocell base station intended for residential use [3] • Nokia 7200 Tutorial including definition of "Micro Cellular Network" [4] References [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / www.Magyar Távirati Iroda (Hungary) NTB . html#2 MINDS Initiated as an EU-funded project in 2004. att. nokia. shtml http:/ / www.Agence France-Presse (France) ANP . The MINDS network comprises the following agency partners: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • aap . com/ blog/ 2007/ 12/ do-we-really-need-femto-cells/ http:/ / www. com/ learn/ why/ 3gmicrocell/ faq. MINDS International (Mobile Information and News Data Services) was founded as an Association in fall 2007 by 11 news agencies from Europe and the USA. jsp http:/ / www. com/ ericsson/ press/ releases/ 20070209-1103860.australian associated press (Australia) AFP .Česká tisková kancelář (Czech Republic) dpa . ericsson. wireless.Press Association (UK) RIA Novosti .Yonhap News (South Korea) MINDS’ Mission Statement: MINDS International is a global network and platform of equal news agencies sharing ideas and exchanging knowledge to put business concepts forward in order to raise revenues and save costs in digital markets.Ritzaus Bureau I/S (Denmark) SDA .

com .MINDS 144 External links MINDS International website [1] References [1] http:/ / www. minds-international.

Mobify was named one of the “Top 25 Up and Comers”[1] in Backbone Magazine’s annual ranking of Canadian technology companies.Mobify 145 Mobify Mobify Type Industry Founded Mobile publishing & m-commerce Wireless 2007 Headquarters Vancouver.com) . References [1] Backbone Magazine Top 25 Up and Comers (http:/ / www. Canada Employees Website 20 http:/ / www. mobify. me Mobify is a mobile web company providing an interface to convert existing websites into a version optimized for mobile phones. aspx) External links • Mobify corporate site (http://mobify. com/ Magazine/ 2010-04/ Top300-2010/ top-25-up-and-comers. In May 2010. backbonemag.

Founding members The founding members of the Mobile Alliance were: • • • • • • • • • GSMA Hutchison 3G Europe mobilkom austria Orange FT Group Telecom Italia Telefonica/02 Telenor Group TeliaSonera T-Mobile Group . to participate in the Alliance. co-operation and information sharing.Mobile Access Protocol 146 Mobile Access Protocol MAP27 Mobile Access Protocol for MPT 1327 equipment This standard specifies an interface between a mobile radio and a data terminal equipment. the growth of non approved content around the world. or profiting from not approved content. Member commitments Members of the Alliance agree to. A conformance test definition is outside the scope of this standard. · implement notice and take down processes to enable the removal of any child sexual abuse content posted on their own services · implement technical mechanisms to prevent access to websites identified by an appropriate agency as hosting child sexual abuse content The Alliance encourages all mobile operators worldwide. Goal of the Alliance The Alliance’s ultimate aim is to help stem. Mobile Alliance Against Child Sexual Abuse Content The Mobile Alliance Against Child Sexual Abuse Content was founded in 2008 by an international group of mobile operators within the GSM Association [1] to work collectively on obstructing the use of the mobile environment by individuals or organisations wishing to consume or profit from child sexual abuse content. and ultimately reverse. regardless of access technology. accessing. the Alliance seeks to create significant barriers to the misuse of mobile networks and services for hosting. This interface gives access to and defines network layer procedures for call set-up and data transfer as specified in MPT 1327 and MPT 1343 or derivations thereof. there is a danger that broadband networks now being rolled out by mobile operators could be misused in the same way. Through a combination of technical measures. among other measures: · support and promote ‘hotlines’ or other mechanisms for customers to report child sexual abuse content discovered on the Internet or on mobile content services. While the vast majority of child sexual abuse content (child pornography) is today accessed through conventional connections to the Internet.

GPRS. There is a lack of common industry view on architectural framework.GSMA Selects LG Handsets to Lead ‘Horizon Phone’ Campaign (http:/ / www. Each day the number of mobile devices is increasing. connected user experience. protocols and interfaces and are not locked to proprietary technologies. There will be support for interoperability of applications and platforms. The applications layer to be bearer agnostic (examples: GSM. Important Components of a Mobile Architecture • Scalability – A Mobile Architecture must be able to be utilized with all recovery requirements on both large and small scale. CDMA. com/ news/ press_2008/ press08_09. seamless geographic and intergenerational roaming. global standards. Currently there is a lack of uniform interoperability plans and implementation. shtml) Mobile Architecture In the past computers needed to be disconnected from their internal network if they needed to be taken or moved anywhere. • Secure – Encryption is important. This increases costs and slows down 3rd party mobile development. gsmworld.Mobile Alliance Against Child Sexual Abuse Content • Vodafone Group • dotMobi 147 References [1] GSMA Press Release 2008 . An open approach is required across all industries to achieve same end results and services. The architecture framework and service enablers will be independent of Operating Systems (OS). . mobile architecture is the pieces of technology needed to create a rich. UMTS). Mobile architecture allows maintaining this connection whilst during transit[1] . transmission protocols must support encryption (SSL) via secure transit such as HTTPS • Reliable – Reliability is always important in all technologies and Mobile Architecture is no different Best Practices • • • • Data should be populated for database views Use version numbers to track updates during synchronization Maintain only necessary user details in middle ware The application should recognize when CPU battery is low and adjust background running to low to extend battery power • UI on multiple screens should have common elements[2] Future of Mobile Architecture A consortium of companies are pushing for products and services to be based on open. EDGE.

E.architecture. 2005).(transform. History 1980s • Twarog and Pereszlenyi Pinter used telephones to provide distant language learners with feedback and assistance. Collier. University of Wisconsin–Madison.Mobile Architecture 148 References [1] A Proposed Mobile Architecture for Distributed Database Environment (http:/ / citeseer. The Open University also recently used mobile phones for language learning[4] • • • • • A project in Ireland used MALL for Irish Language learning and assessment [5] [6] • The Le@rning Federation (TLF) used MALL for Indonesian Language learning across three states[7] [8] . 2001) 2000s • Dickey (2001) utilized teleconferencing to teach an English conversation course to students in South Korea. They also developed a course management system. Poodle. to facilitate deploying language learning material to mobile phones. C. com/ pdf/ Journal14. • Stanford University learning lab used integrated mobile phones in a Spanish learning program in 2001 (Brown. interact) Mobile Assisted Language Learning Definition Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL) describes an approach to language learning that is assisted or enhanced through the use of a handheld mobile device. 2003). anywhere. Morton. html) (1997) O. Bukhres. United Kingdom’s Open University used voice recorders and mini-camcorders to record interviews with other students and locals and to create audiovisual tours in distance-learning German and Spanish course (Kukulska-Hulme. Duke University provided all incoming freshmen with free iPods equipped with voice recorders. adapt. P. S. 2003. Amongst the pilot courses utilizing the players were several language courses. Vanderdijs. & Evans. which utilized both their listening and recording capabilities (Belanger. edu/ bukhres97proposed. MALL has evolved to support students’ language learning with the increased use of mobile technologies such as mobile phones (cellphones). a tipe of building or building components. pdf) (1997) The Architecture Journal : Journal 14 Kulathumani Hariharan Also: Mobile Architecture . move. Crawley [2] Best Practices: Extending Enterprise Applications to Mobile Devices (http:/ / www. students are able to access language learning materials and to communicate with their teachers and peers at any time. PDAs and devices such as the iPhone or iPad. City College Southampton [3] developed a web based “media board” (similar to a web-board but supporting Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS) as well as Short Message Service (SMS) and supplied learners of English as a Second Language (ESL) with mobile phones with inbuilt cameras and voice recording facilities (JISC.[1] [2] MALL is a subset of both Mobile Learning (m-learning) and Computer-assisted language learning (CALL). • 2001). 2005). 2005) developed several innovative projects using mobile phones to teach English at a Japanese university. psu. msarchitecturejournal. 1990s • Instructors at Brigham Young University-Hawaii taught a distance education English course from Hawaii to Tonga via telephone and computer (Green. MP3 and MP4 players. Zhang. Thornton and Houser (2002. ist. With MALL. 2005). developed several foreign language courses which have used wireless handheld computers for various classroom activities (Samuels.

handheldlearning.language2yourphone. What mobile devices lack in capability (regarding sound and video quality and screen size) they make up for in portability. however. MALL Professional Organizations At the writing of this article.co. The Future of MALL Consensus among the limited literature and studies available specifically about MALL indicate that the demand for it will only increase—along with the demand for second language acquisition and learning flexibility. due to the growth of wireless and emerging technologies. we can expect mobile devices to deliver better quality than is currently available among most mobile devices. MALL currently serves not only as a primary source of language education for students but also supports the retention and utilization of newly-acquired language skills—however they were acquired. tablet PCs. (Search for the group at http://www. http://www. 149 Current Trends Today. In the future. Through mobile participation in short exercises and tasks. http://www. due largely to a combination of increased popularity. industry.com) . demand and the advent of content generation tools that simplify the programming process through the use of templates and macros. The increasing number of possible delivery tools has spawned a wide-range of mobile language learning programs. The number of people capable of producing MALL content is also on the rise. providing 60 text message (SMS) lessons for €9. MP3 players. Their conference is the international signature event for learning using mobile or ubiquitous technologies.uk/ • SALT conference include sessions on learning languages over mobile phones • Mobile Learning Global Consortium – This LinkedIn group serves as a collaborative forum for the ways and methods being used to push the envelope beyond the cutting edge of mobility. With people working longer hours. Some of the resources for MALL are primarily language learning websites with some space dedicated to technology in language learning. flexible and collaborative learning strategies. and achieve. government.com opens for business in English providing lessons in Italian. and the mass consumer market. iPods.Mobile Assisted Language Learning • The first mobile phone language learning service. • Handheld Learning – Promotes learning with mobile or ubiquitous technologies. MALL is available through numerous devices including mobile phones. skills and abilities. connect. MALL designers have begun to move away from merely copying the traditions of standard non-mobile language learning and are implementing techniques that maximize the benefits of these new devices. Smartphones and more. changes in the cost and availability of wireless service—a luxury to most in the not-too-distant past—will make MALL available to a far wider and diverse audience. It is expected that designers will capitalize on this increase in quality—designing MALL programs that employ student-focused. Predicted growth is reinforced by the overall decrease in free time. as it relates to academia.linkedin. from very-short tutorials to full courses. Additionally. media-rich. it is difficult to find organizations that focus specifically on Mobile Assisted Language Learning. Other resources are primarily educational technology websites that dedicate some of their efforts to language learning. traditional classroom-based or even standard online courses will decrease. Spanish. hand-held computers. which help people learn. the time necessary for formal. learners are able to keep their linguistic talents sharp while reducing the risk of degradation of valuable knowledge. German and French. PDAs. MALL will be an ideal solution to busy students and professionals seeking to acquire one or more new languages.

The university provided a new tool for the students.org/index. Duke University's use of iPods in 2004 is an example of using collaborative learning in MALL. skills or attitudes occurring in individuals as a result of group interaction. to accentuate or aid the learning process. particularly those taking a language course. Affordances and Constraints Enhancing language learning through MALL affords some dynamics not available through the traditional classroom that the language learner can take advantage of. et al. The following are examples of collaborative learning using mobile devices: • Collaboration on a mobile phone can be achieved by asynchronous text messaging and instant messaging or a phone conversation. like a pencil or calculator. and make information about learning activities portable and easily accessible. there are some constraints to m-learning that limit what can be done in language acquisition through m-learning compared to traditional e-learning or classroom learning. http://www.wmute2008. • A tablet PC or a PDA can allow learners to collaborate on documents while at different locations. WMUTE provides opportunity for communication among local and international researchers. are used as tools. Collaborating on mobile devices is dependent on the device. learners do. In the same way. Some of these affordances are even unique to m-learning compared to regular e-learning.Mobile Assisted Language Learning • WMUTE .htm 150 Collaborative Learning in MALL Collaborative learning is the acquisition of knowledge. palm pilots or laptops. The devices. Kloper et al. Unlike other techniques collaborative learning encourages all involved to help support and motivate each other to achieve the learning goal. Among the most noted affordances for MALL is ubiquitous access to learning anytime at any place that the user has reception. A language can be learned through collaborative learning with the use of mobile devices But mobile devices don’t actually drive the learning. • Social interactivity-data exchange and collaboration with other learners can happen face-to-face. The effectiveness of collaborating varies on the project and mobile device. . The students in language courses used the iPods in various ways. The students also used the iPods to record conversations in the language they were learning. This enables users to brush up on language skills just before or just after a conversation in the language they are learning. downloading podcasts. the user does not need to be sitting in a classroom or at a computer to access learning materials. Mobile and Ubiquitous Technologies in Education. • Context sensitivity-mobile devices can both gather and respond to real or simulated data unique to the current location. (2002) claimed 5 properties of mobile devices which can produce unique educational affordances: • Portability-the small size and weight of mobile devices means they can be taken to different sites or moved around within a site. store and listen to songs in the language they were learning. 2008). including working collaboratively with language tutors. and for researchers to be acquainted with the market needs related to mobile learning. environment and time. Handheld delivery also affords new dynamics for collaborative learning as users can share the language learning process in small synchronous groups (Nah. be they phones. Compared to classroom or e-learning.Wireless. The students would record themselves completing an oral assignment and the tutors provided feedback on their assignment. [9] Collaborative learning is a student-centered approach to learning where the instructor is more like a facilitator than a teacher. Because the collaborative learning is student-centered it often succeeds in engaging the learner. In each instance learning can take place but the phones serve only as the delivery method for that information. find information from multiple sources to build ideas with partners.

N. Language Learning & Technology . larger screens. 71–82). "Augmented Learning: Research and Design of Mobile Educational Games. uk/ uploaded_documents/ southampton." Duke's University Center for Instructional Technology coordinated an evaluation of the academic use of iPod. This evaluation focused on the feasibility and effectiveness of the iPod as a tool for faculty and student academic use. Case studies: Anytime. administrators and important campus stakeholder groups. (Ed. 2005 http:/ / www.Joint Information Systems Committee. "Teaching tomorrow's class today:English by telephone and computer from Hawaii to Tonga.J. E.) "Mobile learning explorations at Stanford Learning Lab.Language Learning & Technology is a refereed journal which began publication in July 1997. a broad survey of first-year students and faculty. 39) Brown. ac. irrodl.International Journal on e-Learning http:/ / www. 95-98 2002 [20] [19] [18] [17] [16] [15] [14] [BOOK] Kululska-Hulme. com/ journal. Multimedia learning with mobile phones. "Environmental Detectives: PDAs as a window into a virtual simulated world. http://llt. K.E. resources that focus specifically on Mobile Assisted Language Learning are not common (check Augmented Reality Language Learning).. The most notable constraints for earlier MALL include poor sound and display quality coupled with very limited devices and download speeds. aace.International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning http:/ / www. asp?ref=0007-1013 (2008 vol. 2005. et al. Vaxjo. Henrichsen (Ed. B.pdf BJET . Belanger. K and Jenkins. other devices or to a common network. H. any place Learning. Klopfer. Alexandria. duke. jisc. Eric. 2) JCAL . Sweden: IEEE Computer Society. 19. Distance-. asp?ref=0266-4909&site=1 (2003 vol. This report summarizes the main findings of [21] [22] .Mobile Assisted Language Learning • Connectivity-a shared network can be created by connecting mobile devices to data collection devices. Innovative Practices with Elearning. 2005 vol. org/ (2007 Vol.html2001 [13] [12] [11] [10] Green. http:/ / cit. "Duke University iPod first year experience final evaluation report". Y. edu/ projects/ tomprof/newtomprof/postings/290. and discussions and feedback among staff.pdf [BOOK] Klopfer. & Evans." Routledge. E. 2001 IJEL ." MIT Press."http:/ / sll. student and faculty focus groups. 151 MALL Resources As with Professional Organizations.edu/ [REPORT] Menzies. Inc. org/ pubs/ IJEL/ (Specific volumes dedicated to m-learning) IRRODL . No. "Duke University iPod First-Year Experience.).scaffolding for difficult activities can be customized for individual learners. Squire. VA: Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Language. 2008). "Mobile Learning: A Handbook For Educators and Trainers (The Open and Flexible Learning Series).A. 21) JISC . com/ journal. Agnes. We more often find resources that are primarily language learning websites with some space dedicated to technology in language learning and vice-versa. stanford.Journal of Computer Assisted Learning http:/ / www.. 8. • Individuality. edu/ pdf/ipod_initiative_04_05. John." Proceedings of IEEE International Workshop on Wireless and Mobile Technologies in Education. drawing on course-level feedback. having functions and capacities similar to laptop computers (Nah.earning program (pp. blackwellpublishing. The journal seeks to disseminate research to foreign and second language educators in the US and around the world on issues related to technology and language education. Newer integrated PDA devices have narrowed the gap with higher access speeds.msu. 2008.Collier.British Journal of Educational Technology http:/ / www. blackwellpublishing. Traxler. David." In L.2005.

learnosity. M. au/ for_jurisdictions/ research_and_trials/ research2009." ReCALL. 20 (3): 331-347 2008 http:/ / www. White.org/recall/index. http:/ / www. elearning. "mLearning: Mobile Learning and Performance in the Palm of Your Hand. Lewis (Ed. The changing face of CALL(pp. 2003 [29] [28] Thornton. edu/ disted/ conference/ Resource_library/proceedings/03_50. 2006 [26] [27] Thornton.html Twarong.monashmall. C. edu/ Library/ Abstract/ DukeUniversityiPodFirstYe/ 36325 [23] 152 [BOOK] Metcalf. com/ blog/ index. html [4] http:/ / openuniuk. you can enter “language learning” as an exact phrase and turn up some resources specific to MALL. MNetComp Thesis.aset. com/ go/ client-ncca-ireland/ Learnosity Voice with Irish language learners [7] http:/ / thelearningfederation. C. Madison." HRD Press. html#sep08 [3] http:/ / www.. 7-10 July. 1: 9-16.net References [1] Chinnery G.pdf [9] [25] [24] Stacey. Proceedings ASET Conference 2002. html [2] Shield L. C. Stacey (Eds). http://mlearnopedia. [Online]: http:/ / llt. 426-434. com/ Open University Mobile Phone based language learning [5] http:/ / foghlaim. "The Potential of Using mobile Phone to Access the Internet for Learning EFL Listening Skills Within a Korean Context.com/ Samuels. org/ recall/ r_contents. "Wireless and handheld devices for language learning. 207–224). 2005 Nah. Mobile Assisted Language Learning and its Impact on Student Motivation and Acquisition.html [31] [30] Askraba. David S. edublogs. & Pereszlenyi-Pinter. & Houser. 2002 Thornton. (2006) "Going to the MALL: Mobile Assisted Language Learning"." Journal of Computer Assisted Learning. & Kukulska-Hulme A. " In B. "Learning links online: Establishing constructivist and collaborative learning environments. Motteram (Eds. org/ NCCA MALL/ FÓN Project [6] http:/ / www. & G. Ki-Chune. "M-learning in transit. cfm/ tlf The Le@rning Federation (TLF) MALL Project [9] 17 [10] 1 [11] 2 [12] 3 [13] 4 [14] 5 [15] 6 [16] 7 [17] 8 [18] 9 [19] 10 .) (2008) Special edition of ReCALL (20. 2006 mLearnopedia – By using the “search” function.). (2008). E. Morrison. J. (2002). P. L. P. html [8] http:/ / www.. Monash University. Directions in CALL: Experience. 2003.). 217-228. learnosity. experiments & evaluation (pp. uk/ innoprac/ learner/ southampton. V. Melbourne.org. edu. educause. learnosity." In S." In P. http:/ / connect. 3: 2008) on Mobile Assisted Language Learning: http:/ / www. Green. and Sussex.. C. & Houser. ac. Australia. McNamara and E. WI. uwex." The Modern Language Journal..Mobile Assisted Language Learning this collaborative assessment effort. Roland. eurocall-languages. "Telephone-assisted language study and Ohio University: A report. 72. 229–243).au/confs/2002/stacey. eurocall-languages. Peter. P. http://www. & Houser. "Using mobile web and video phones in English language teaching: Projects with Japanese college students. Language Learning & Technology 10." Proceedings of the 19th Annual Conference on Distance Teaching and Learning. msu. Untangling the Web: Establishing Learning Links. edu/ vol10num1/ emerging/ default. http://www. "Using mobile phones in English Education in Japan. (eds. 21.

and mobility.[6] insurance. permitting true mobile collaborative possibilities. This can be done in real time with advanced video. audio and telestrator capabilities.”[3] Impact on industry To date. and telestration (on-screen drawing) capabilities broadcast over secure networks. IM. audio and telestration capabilities. hand-held mobile devices. enabling multi-party conferencing in real time.[8] Mobile collaboration allows multiple users in multiple locations the ability to synergistically combine their input while working towards the resolution of problems or issues in today’s complex work environments. and lecture theatres. mobile collaboration utilizes wireless. Forecasts Cisco Systems predicts “two-thirds of the world’s mobile data traffic will be video by 2015. comparable to working together in the same room but without the associated expense and downtime typically involved in getting the experts to remote locations.[9] . offices.[7] government and public safety. audio. recent technological advancements have extended the capabilities of video conferencing for use with discreet. transmission technologies. cellular and broadband technologies enabling effective collaboration independent of location. collaboration tools. Where traditional video conferencing has been limited to boardrooms.[5] healthcare. the use of mobile collaboration technology extends to industries as diverse as manufacturing. and virtually every smart phone will be equipped with video chat. conferencing and telepresence systems. a non-profit alliance of technology vendors states that “one important driver for the growth of UC (unified communications) is mobility and the remote worker.Mobile Assisted Language Learning [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] [25] [26] [27] [28] [29] [30] [31] 11 12 13 14 15 16 18 19 20 21 22 23 153 Mobile collaboration Mobile collaboration is a technology-based process of communicating utilizing electronic assets and accompanying software designed for use in remote locations. No segment is growing faster than mobile communications. directory.[4] energy.[1] Scope The scope of mobile collaboration takes into account a number of elements that continue to evolve in their sophistication and complexity: video. Differing from traditional video conferencing.”[2] The Unified Communications Interoperability Forum (UCIF). Newest generation hand-held electronic devices feature video. and other UC features within a few years.

Recent trends in globalization and outsourcing in particular. com/ en/ US/ solutions/ collateral/ ns341/ ns525/ ns537/ ns705/ ns827/ white_paper_c11-520862. 2010). Elizabeth. [7] Macdonald. Just for Canadian Doctors. . Anil (2010). html). com/ issues/ story. pp. bodyshopbiz. repair and overhaul work. org/ Resources/ whitepapers. aspx). built. such as an automotive assembly plant a continent away. pdf). downloadic. "Being in Two Places At One Time" (http:/ / www.[10] The flexibility of hand-held mobile collaboration devices allow real-time communication to take place at any location where products are being designed. . Robert and Crumb. com/ v4erizonb8usin4essa17com/ Enterprise-communications-the-next-decade. ucif. supply chain management and equipment field service. "TelePresence in Manufacturing: IP-based video conferencing provides effective tools for remote collaboration" (http:/ / www. Cindy (December 2008). CISCO White Paper. Though these methods are not widely used they are quite useful and most likely will become widely popular. maintenance. com/ pdf/ EnergyManufacturing2010. html). for example. Forrester Research White Paper. Internet schools. "Enterprise Communications: The Next Decade" (http:/ / www. have meant that companies need to communicate with employees. 2011. .[13] Education Mobile callaboration technology might also be used for remote education. "Estimating from a distance now possible" (http:/ / www. librestream. inluding higher education. Alex (March 9. 2011. Homeschooling could really benifit from this technology as you participate in a lecture from anywhere in the world. 22.Mobile collaboration 154 Manufacturing Manufacturers of all kinds use mobile collaboration technology in a number of ways.[12] Healthcare Although telemedicine technology has been in use for a number of years in the healthcare sector. as well as the often inadequacies or absence of necessary transmission networks. Bodyshop. [6] Van’t Haaff. or a patient’s home. as well as IT/communication infrastructure troubleshooting. Automation and Control – Design News. will most certainly also benifit from this development in mobile education. the vast distances between a head office and the remote. while making its delivery more cost-effective. [2] "CISCO Visual Networking Index: Global Mobile Data Traffic Forecast Update. The use of mobile collaboration in the energy sector is enabling companies to conduct remote inspections. and inspected. harsh environment of an offshore oil rig. and customers the world over. . with Whitely. cisco. long-term care facility. . safety audits.[11] Energy Companies in the energy sector face unique challenges due to. aspx?aid=1000228332). . pp.[14] References [1] Herrell. Corey (March/April 2009). com/ featured-articles-body-TelePresence-in-Manufacturing-523-1. February 1. Energy Manufacturing. . [3] "UC: Driving the Next Step to Interoperability" (http:/ / www. Recent advancements in mobile collaboration technology and transmission networks are making it possible for employees in these situations to collaborate in secure and reliable ways with colleagues thousands of miles away. The use of mobile collaboration technology within the heathcare sector has the potential to improve the quality and access to care. com/ pastissues/ JFCD2009/ JFCD-Mar-Apr2009. pdf). [4] Presher. and assess patient issues. UCIForum White Paper. Most useful you can record your classes or lectures and review them. 2010-2015" (http:/ / www. discuss. From one on one tutoring to large classes it has many uses. allitwares. "Virtually On-sight" (http:/ / www. mobile collaboration technology extends these capabilities to locations now reachable through the use of hand-held devices such as a remote community. . html). suppliers. 4. [5] Wadhwa. Healthcare professionals in multiple locations can together view. justforcanadiandoctors. Improved communication through mobile collaboration affects many aspects of complex manufacturing such as production line maintenance. Al (December 2010).

a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA). The first conference dedicated to mobile commerce was held in London in July 2001. [12] "RigNet Signs Deal with Librestream for Onsight Mobile Collaboration System" (http:/ / www. Mobile commerce was born in 1997 when the first two mobile-phone enabled Coca Cola vending machines were installed in the Helsinki area in Finland. 2010). Peter (November 2009). . newtechmagazine. htm). December 3. Sanders. e-security Planet. [11] Robbins. downloadic. and returned 91 percent to the content owner. Alex (March 9. The Wall Street Journal. 2010. The machines accepted payment via SMS text messages. which is initiated and/or completed by using mobile access to computer-mediated networks with the help of an electronic device. "Secure Wi-Fi Video on the Battlefield" (http:/ / www. Control Engineering. Motorola. In order to exploit the potential mobile commerce market. Japan offered mobile purchases of airline tickets. 2009). New Technology Magazine. Peter (October 8. Government Purchasing Guide. html). pdf). pdf). "Mobile video system visually connects global plant floor engineers" (http:/ / m. controleng. aspx?aid=1000395046). As of 2008. Two major national commercial platforms for mobile commerce were launched in 1999: Smart Money (http:/ / smart. Renee (May 28. [14] "Mobile Collaboration Tool for University Education" (http:/ / www. . org/ portal/ web/ csdl/ doi/ 10.[2] PDAs and cellular phones have become so popular that many businesses are beginning to use mobile commerce as a more efficient way to communicate with their customers. Elizabeth. Ericsson. the first sales of digital content as downloads to mobile phones were made possible when the first commercial downloadable ringtones were launched in Finland by Radiolinja (now part of Elisa Oyj). . 1109/ WETICE. Mobile Commerce has been defined as follows: "Mobile Commerce is any transaction. with Tomi Ahonen and Steve Jones lecturing. ph/ money/ ) in the Philippines.Mobile collaboration [8] Blackwell. [10] Michaels. com/ index. php?id=2819& tx_ttnews[tt_news]=11999& cHash=0387e9884a). is the ability to conduct commerce using a mobile device. "Dreamliner Production Gets Closer Monitoring" (http:/ / www. UCL Computer Science and Peter J. "Enterprise Communications: The Next Decade" (http:/ / www. Gerry (March 25. . and NTT DoCoMo's i-Mode Internet service in Japan." (http:/ / www. 2010). a smartphone. 2003. The first university short course to discuss mobile commerce was held at the University of Oxford in 2003. Mobile-commerce-related services spread rapidly in early 2000. Forrester Research White Paper. also known as M-Commerce or mCommerce. Austria offered train ticketing via mobile device. "Case Study: Winnipeg Health Sciences Centre. 10002). mobile phone manufacturers such as Nokia. com/ trends/ article. com/ Brochures/ PR/ DreamlinerUseofMobile Video. 2003. com/ issues/ story. [9] Herrell. also using SMS. with Whitely. librestream. IEEE Computer Society. . In 1998. computer. Norway launched mobile parking payments. and Qualcomm are working with carriers such as AT&T Wireless and Sprint to develop WAP-enabled . librestream. 2009). involving the transfer of ownership or rights to use goods and services. esecurityplanet. or other emerging mobile equipment such as dashtop mobile devices. . Daniel. such as a mobile phone. i-Mode offered a revolutionary revenue-sharing plan where NTT DoCoMo kept 9 percent of the fee users paid for content. The first book to cover mobile commerce was Tomi Ahonen's M-profits in 2002. . The first mobile phone-based banking service was launched in 1997 by Merita Bank of Finland. Robert and Crumb. php/ 3872836/ Secure-Wi-Fi-Video-On-The-Battlefield. [13] Saunders. 155 Mobile commerce Mobile Commerce. Surgeons Using Wireless Mobile Communications in a New Assessment and Support System. com/ Brochures/ PR/ GovernmentPurchasing."[1] History First thought up by Matt Wilson. com/ v4erizonb8usin4essa17com/ Enterprise-communications-the-next-decade. com. Bentley demonstrated the potential for medical applications on mobile devices.

even though it is widely available and accessible. and phone capabilities. which are the least price sensitive. brick and mortar business owners. These items are represented by a virtual token that is sent to the mobile phone.Mobile commerce smartphones. portable audio players. and coupons) while still shopping in the physical store. and is being utilized by physical retailers as a way to compete with the lower prices typically seen through online retailers. and push notifications to improve the customer experience of shopping in physical stores. or by accessing the WAP portals of various travel agents or direct service providers. mobile commerce has moved away from SMS systems and into actual applications. "Profitability for device vendors and carriers hinges on high-end mobile devices and the accompanying killer applications. wallpapers. and loyalty cards. improvements in the capabilities of modern mobile devices make it prudent to place more of the resource burden on the mobile device. mobile content purchase and delivery mainly consists of the sale of ring-tones. Perennial early adopters. such as the youth market. coupons and loyalty cards Mobile ticketing technology can also be used for the distribution of vouchers. 156 Products and services available Mobile ticketing Tickets can be sent to mobile phones using a variety of technologies. information. Smartphones offer fax. In addition. Since the launch of the iPhone. have made an effort to take advantage of mobile commerce by utilizing a number of mobile capabilities such as location based services. must also be a key target for device vendors. e-mail. Tickets can be booked and cancelled on the mobile device with the help of simple application downloads." said Burchett. Users are then able to use their tickets immediately. SMS has significant security vulnerabilities and congestion problems. By creating what is referred to as a 'bricks & clicks' environment. barcode scanning. More recently. A customer presenting a mobile phone with one of these tokens at the point of sale receives the same benefits as if they had the traditional token. Content purchase and delivery Currently. and games for mobile phones. physical retailers can allow customers to access the common benefits of shopping online (such as product reviews. as well as more open to premium mobile content and applications. and big-box retailers in particular. Mobile vouchers. by presenting their phones at the venue. and video players into a single device is increasing the purchase and delivery of full-length music tracks and video. This is seen as a bridge between the gap created by e-commerce and in-store shopping. The convergence of mobile phones. Stores may send coupons to customers using location-based services to determine when the customer is nearby. The download speeds available with 4G networks make it possible to buy a movie on a mobile device in a couple of seconds. Knowing the location of the user allows for location-based services such • Local discount offers • Local weather • Tracking and monitoring of people . Location-based services The location of the mobile phone user is an important piece of information used during mobile commerce transactions. coupons.

These services include: • • • • • News Stock quotes Sports scores Financial records Traffic reporting Customized traffic information. but was impractical before the invention of modern mobile devices due to the bandwidth requirements.Mobile commerce 157 Information services A wide variety of information services can be delivered to mobile phone users in much the same way as it is delivered to PCs. . This customized data is more useful than a generic traffic-report broadcast. can be sent to a mobile device. Mobile Purchase Catalog merchants can accept orders from customers electronically. however. $119bn worth of goods and services will be purchased via a mobile phone. They allow the subscriber to react to market developments in a timely fashion and irrespective of their physical location. Mobile StoreFront The reinvention of the mobile phone as a touch sensitive handheld computer has for the first time made mobile commerce practically feasible. Many mobile SMS commerce solutions rely on a one-time purchase or one-time subscription. such as purchasing stocks. 'According to ABI Research. Some merchants provide mobile websites that are customized for the smaller screen and limited user interface of a mobile device. remitting money. the merchant may even deliver the catalog electronically.' Mobile brokerage Stock market services offered via mobile devices have also become more popular and are known as Mobile Brokerage. rather than mailing a paper catalog to the customer. or M-Banking. Mobile Browsing Using a mobile browser—a World Wide Web browser on a mobile device—customers can shop online without having to be at their personal computer. Unlike traditional auctions. In some cases. mobile is going to get a lot bigger in the ecommerce market. Auctions Over the past three years mobile reverse auction solutions have grown in popularity. based on a user's actual travel patterns. This service is often referred to as Mobile Banking. The research firm is predicting that in 2015. via the customer's mobile device. the reverse auction (or low-bid auction) bills the consumer's phone each time they place a bid. reverse auctions offer a high return for the mobile vendor as they require the consumer to make multiple transactions over a long period of time. Mobile banking Banks and other financial institutions use mobile commerce to allow their customers to access account information and make transactions.

2010. developed methods deployed globally through concerts and events involving any form of youth culture in 2008. Casual Collapse. From women's rights to gay marriage to not wearing a tie to work if you don't feel like it!ref>"Increasing Trend of Mobile Marketing" [3]. Retrieved August 23. but until now we neither had . images.Mobile commerce 158 Mobile marketing and advertising In the context of mobile commerce. Creativity: let's face it. The Term is now globally The GENERATION C phenomenon captures the an avalanche of consumer generated 'content' that is building on the Web. audio and video on an ongoing basis.</ref> Influence on youth markets Mobile media is a rapidly changing field. based on their experience with previous generations of South Koreans. which continue to 'collapse' without causing the apocalyptic aftermath often predicted by conservative minds. It also showed how products take on new life because of the mindset of the young. A brief introduction. This demonstrated how the global youth mobile market can react autonomously and create trends. and Japan involving viral mobile direct-marketing campaigns delivering products and coupons with instant savings to mobile devices. and SK Telecom.. The two main drivers fuelling this trend? (1) The creative urges each consumer undeniably possesses. Memetic research Leveious Rolando. Orange. Leveious and others members of Trendwatching. act to accelerate innovation in mobile commerce.000 end-users in eight days. formal requirements and laws modern societies have held dear. along with others. Companies have reported that they see better response from mobile marketing campaigns than from traditional campaigns. "Profitability for device vendors and carriers hinges on high-end mobile devices and the accompanying killer applications. Rolando conducted other experiments in Europe. combined with the rate at which the test subjects passed on particular information to others. And as creativity normally leads to content." said Gibran Burchett. The diagram explained vital aspects of mobile adoption and sales of mobile global products and services. Which then brings us to Casual Collapse: the ongoing demise of many beliefs. Rolando created a Venn-diagram model of rapidly evolving youth lifestyle trends. we're all creatives. Early pioneers in mobile advertising include Vodafone. New technologies. mobile marketing refers to marketing sent to mobile devices.com defined Content Generation a description of those born of the digital age of content and how their brains were re wired to think in real time content exchange. We're all artists. These researchers. and the sales of three different viable youth products to over 200. Mobile campaigns must be based on the global Content Generationor what is called Generation C and four other 'C's: Creativity. in partnership with leading mobile software and network providers. One group of subjects were given words and phrases to be used regularly in conversation. such as WiMax. who tend to be early adopters of any form of social technology services. The two tested a theory of rapid memetic dissemination. These studies were commissioned by top mobile providers like Deutsche Telekom (operator of T-Mobile) and Orange. They observed the youth cultural styles and trends. rituals. The control group was not given such a list This experiment measured the rate at which ideas and phrases were typically transmitted. On a 2007 trip to South Korea. Youpark. Control. and Celebrity. Mobile companies in South Korea believed that mobile technology would become synonymous with youth life style. Mobile devices are heavily used in South Korea to conduct mobile commerce. Youpark ApS. South Korea. the link with GENERATION C is obvious. John Sokol and Gibran Burchett are memetic researchers who pioneered mobile advertising with their early experimentation of DVB-H in 1999 with Sony BMG recording artist Wu-Tang Clan. was used to attract and retain an audience.. in the form of mobile commercials (or "mobisodes"). if not artists! (Notice we didn't mean talented artists .-). adding tera-peta bytes of new text. Rolando and his colleagues performed an experiment in which viral marketing. The experiments used disc jockeys and mobile youth street teams to drive instant purchases of event-ticket sales.

(2) The manufacturers of content-creating tools. to listen.of course -. 46& rep=rep1& type=pdf& ei=r_pxTPS7IYOBlAfWz4yJDg& usg=AFQjCNFiJARcpjsvcpZg5lzSoaXsgik8Mw) (PDF). Timpson. R. and to participate. psu. com/ blog/ index.thefango. the race is on to get them to create. [3] http:/ / youpark. 94. . • Jordan. Retrieved November 23. p.techmonitor. Hamburg: Hamburg University Press. . ever more powerful gadgets and gizmos. google. Marci. 1. 1. to play. Stephan. using -.com/index.global-innovation. 2010. 33.net/techmon/06sep_oct/tm/pdf/06sep_oct_sf4. Jim (2008). Herstatt. including deductions to pre-paid calling plans • Credit cards • Some providers allow credit cards to be linked to a phone's SIM card • Micropayment services • Stored-value cards. Retrieved August 23. often used with mobile-device application stores or music stores References [1] Tiwari. Herald Leader.. ist. Buse. including: • Premium-rate telephone numbers'. • "Mobile Storefront" (http://www. "Effective Optimization of Web Sites for Mobile Access: the transition from eCommerce to mCommerce" (http://jiad. Rory (2008).org/article111). Mobile Commerce News.php?option=com_content&view=category& layout=blog&id=1&Itemid=50). "From electronic to mobile commerce: opportunites through technology convergence for business services" (http://www.Mobile commerce the guts nor the means to go all out. to passively consume. Asia Pacific Tech Monitor (New Delhi (India) 23 (5): 38–45. which apply charges to the consumer's long-distance bill • Charges added to the consumer's mobile telephone bill. who relentlessly push us to unleash that creativity. peterjbentley. 2010.50 External links • Greene.net/ publications/PDF/APTM2006. • (http://www. S. 159 Payment methods Consumers can use many forms of payment in mobile commerce. edu/ viewdoc/ download?doi=10. html). Retrieved August 23. Journal of Interactive Advertising 9 (1): 65–70.pdf) • Troutman.their ever cheaper.thefango.html). Retrieved August 23. ISBN 978-3-937816-31-9. Instead of asking consumers to watch. 2010. 2010.mobilestarterstore. to produce. .com/hot-news. Buse. Cornelius (Sept-Oct 2006). php?p=21 • Tiwari. [2] "iStethoscope in Medical Journal" (http:/ / apps. ISSN 1525-2019.com/hot-news. "New arena service testing delivery to your seat" (http://www. Steve (Fall 2008). com/ Blog/ ?e=53483& d=08/ 29/ 2010& s=iStethoscope Pro in a medical journal). Kentucky Kernel.pdf) (PDF). Rajnish. com/ url?sa=t& source=web& cd=1& ved=0CBkQFjAA& url=http:/ / citeseerx. (2007). The Mobile Commerce Prospects: A strategic analysis of opportunities in the banking sector (http:/ / www. "Concessions one button away" (http://www.

low-cost. With the advent of mobile databases. portable phones. A database is a structured way to organize information. it is clear that a large percentage will require the use of a database of some sort. and base stations. portable Wireless networks Mobile computing constraints Three parties Mobile databases typically involve three parties: fixed hosts. mobiles and PDAs is increasing and likely to increase in the future with more and more applications residing in the mobile systems. or GPS units (for mapping or Automatic Vehicle Location systems). An example of this is a mobile workforce. Need for mobile databases • Mobile users must be able to work without a wireless connection due to poor or even non-existent connections. such as printers. or wireless routers. the chances are good that you will be required to build a mobile database application with synchronization. • Bandwidth must be conserved (a common requirement on wireless networks that charge per megabyte or data transferred). installations in fixed locations. The client and server have wireless connections. bar code scanners. that pass communications with the mobile units to and from the fixed hosts. .[1] The use of laptops. (Note that these networks need not be cellular telephone networks. things to be considered are: • • • • Users are not attached to a fixed geographical location Mobile computing devices: low-power. price information or distance travelled. This type of access and work load generated by such users is different from the traditional workloads seen in client–server systems of today. Mobile database system architecture For any mobile architecture. only recently modified data. Many applications such as databases would require the ability to download information from an information repository and operate on this information even when out of range or disconnected. mobile units. • Applications must be able to access local device/vehicle hardware. Fixed hosts perform the transaction and data management functions with the help of database servers. They are typically low-power devices such as mobile phones. • Applications must provide significant interactivity. Mobile databases let employees enter data on the fly.) Base stations are two-way radios. Information can be synchronized with a server database at a later time. • Limited life of power supply(battery) • The changing topology of network If your application meets any of those requirements. While those same analysts can’t tell us exactly which applications will be the most popular.Mobile database 160 Mobile database A mobile database is a database that can be connected to by a mobile computing device over a mobile network. • Users don't require access to truly live data. now users can load up their smart phones or PDAs with mobile databases to exchange mission-critical data remotely without worrying about time or distance. Mobile units are portable computers that move around a geographical region that includes the cellular network (or "cells") that these units use to communicate to base stations. This could be a list of contacts. In this scenario user would require to access and update information from files in the home directories on a server or customer records from a database. A cache is maintained to hold frequent data and transactions so that they are not lost due to connection failure.

Fla. IBM’s DB2 Everyplace is a relational database and enterprise synchronization server that extends enterprise applications to mobile devices. Products Sybase Inc. of Lake Worth.’s SQL Anywhere dominates the mobile-database field.and Cellica Database from Cellica Corporation NY [2]. that station transparently transfers the responsibility for the mobile unit's transaction and data support to whichever base station covers the mobile unit's new location. with about 68 percent of the mobile database market. Sybase's SQL Anywhere SQL Anywhere offers enterprise-caliber databases that scale from 64-bit servers with thousands of users down to small handheld devices. Microsoft SQL Server Compact and Oracle9i Lite are similar mobile databases. might serve your needs equally well. HanDBase from DDH Software Inc. . Products from lesser-known vendors. SQL Anywhere’s data exchange technologies extend information in corporate applications and enterprise systems to databases running in mission-critical frontline environments. Calif.Mobile database 161 When a mobile unit leaves a cell serviced by a particular base station. Design and management tools within SQL Anywhere enable developers to implement and deploy frontline applications and equip administrators to easily manage and support them.. such as SQLBase from Gupta Technologies LLC of Redwood Shores.

programming APIs. It includes support for Win32.Mobile database 162 SQL Anywhere Technologies SQL Anywhere Server is a high performing and embeddable relational database-management system (RDBMS) that scales from thousands of users in server environments down to desktop and mobile applications used in widely deployed. PalmOS. . Neutrino. IBM DB2 Everyplace (DB2e) DB2e stores. The data on the handheld device is synchronized to a server-based relational database management system (RDMS).1 Java ME Sync Client for cell phones and pagers Microsoft SQL Server Compact (formerly SQL Server 2005 Mobile Edition) Microsoft SQL Server Compact (SSC) is a small footprint embedded database designed for developers who target Microsoft Windows mobile-based devices or desktops. Windows CE. EPOC. SQL Remote: SQL Remote technology is based on a store and forward architecture that allows occasionally connected users to synchronize data between SQL Anywhere databases using a file or message transfer mechanism. and data and application synchronization software (to enterprise Oracle databases. and EPOC database clients. DB2e is currently available for Palm OS. Delphi.1. zero-administration environments. C++. Ultralite: UltraLite is a database-management system designed for small-footprint mobile devices such as PDAs and smart phones. which: • • • • Allows synchronization between DB2e and server database Mobile Device Administration Center (MDAC) Table encryption for version 8. session-based synchronization technology for exchanging data among relational databases and other non-relational data sources. Oracle9i Lite This is a complete solution for mobile or wireless applications that require the use of a relational database on the mobile client. It provides synchronization with Microsoft SQL Server. integrated development experience through Visual Studio and a Management Studio. organizes and manages data on a handheld device. and so on). retrieves. The database supports 100% Java development (through JDBC drivers and the database's native support for embedded SQLJ and Java stored procedures) as well as programming from any development tool that supports ODBC (Visual Basic. Mobilink: MobiLink is a highly-scalable. The Oracle9i Lite relational database is surprisingly powerful. integration with Oracle's Advanced Queuing (AQ) mechanism. Windows CE and embedded Linux DB2e on the handheld device includes: • IBM DB2 Database Engine • IBM Sync • Query By Example (QBE) DB2e includes a component called Synchronization Server. QAnywhere: QAnywhere facilitates the development of robust and secure store-and-forward mobile messaging applications.

microsoft.com. References [1] Organize your business with a mobile database.mcobject. Uses Mobile databases are highly concentrated in the retail and logistic industry.sybase. com External links • • • • • • • • SQL Anywhere Official Site (http://www. a research project that aims to support the development of SQL based applications for mobile environments. mspx) [2] http:/ / www.pdf http://www. This platform will isolate programmers from the problems related to mobility and disconnection.com/product_cf. MobiSnap will be based on SQL. retrieved 14/12/08 (http:/ / www. and synchronization capabilities of a full-power database.di. It is increasingly being used in aviation and transportation industry.unl. Compliant with Java and SQL92 standards.aspx .dooyoo.effiproz. thereby also providing close integration to legacy information systems.asc. cellica. mobile.com http://www. Microsoft. and delivers the performance. versatile Java database for truly portable embedded. scalability. and Web server applications.com/articles/article. com/ windowsmobile/ en-us/ business/ solutions/ small-business-database.informit. the JDataStore database features a very small footprint. focusing only on application specific problems. providing conquerable support for data divergence control and connectivity abstractions. MobiSnap MobiSnap.pt/dagora/docs/papers/epcm99-np. allowing them to easily develop new applications for mobile environments.Mobile database 163 Others Borland's JDataStore Borland JDataStore 6 is a fast.softpedia.informit. requires practically zero maintenance.aspx?p=25328 http://www.fct.uk/programming-languages/jdatastore-developer-edition http://www.com/articles/article. MobiSnap aims at developing a middle-ware infrastructure that allows access to relational database systems from mobile computers with a clear semantics in all operational scenarios (from high to unavailable connectivity).aspx?p=26223&seqNum=3 http://www. Kevin Ebi.co.com/mobile_database http://www.com/products/databasemanagement/sqlanywhere) http://www.

. break/fix or service requests) via communication between a mobilized workforce and computer systems to maintain an organization’s facilities. Developing and implementing a mobile application architecture on the enterprise scale is not an easy undertaking by any means. instruments and containers organizations use to track and secure equipment and other such assets frequently on the move. contrasting with a PC (personal computer) environment where in most cases software requires relatively few. which refers more broadly to the actual tools. docking station or other synchronization method. replacement. planning and selecting an implementation strategy. With the proliferation of smartphone and other mobile computing technologies. The idea behind mobile EAM as a business practice is that it enables remote workers – employees who spend part or all of their time away from a central office – access to data from the organization’s computer application software for enterprise asset management (commonly referred to as an enterprise system. While enterprise asset management encompasses the management of an organization’s entire asset portfolio across processes including equipment addition/ reduction. Challenges Nearly all challenges in mobile EAM practices can be traced to two factors: time and labor resources (including IT or information technology management) and investment costs. equipment. Using computer software to achieve standard mobile EAM practices. lock-outs and prior work history on the asset. stepwise job plans. typically using a handheld or other mobile computer. by definition. This is to distinguish from the term mobile asset management. if major. which thereby improves capital and labor allocation decision processes (including an ability to schedule more planned/preventive maintenance work). updates and lower upfront costs. EAM system or backend system). Mobile EAM technology When viewed and used on a handheld device. asset managers can expect an ever more tech-savvy workforce. mobile work order applications provide details such as location. strictly on the wireless automation of asset management data for such processes. buildings and grounds. In the mobile EAM process. mobile enterprise asset management is focused. as mobile applications are faced with a diversity of device operating systems. giving a maintenance technician or other remote worker more detailed asset information as well as the ability to transmit work data to the organization’s enterprise system when completed – through a wireless network. redundancy setup and maintenance budgets.Mobile Enterprise Asset Management 164 Mobile Enterprise Asset Management Mobile enterprise asset management (or mobile EAM) refers to the mobile extension of work processes for maintenance. safety alerts. accurate data flow between their remote workers and central management such as planners and schedulers. lower costs in mobile devices and a higher propensity of feature-rich. workflow-specific mobile applications. organizations often report such advantages as an increase in timely. output media (voice and data) and connectivity methods. Organizations looking to implement mobile EAM applications often seek the help of technology consulting firms and spend months researching. the organization eliminates a need for paper forms or other data reporting and communication methods (push-to-talk and radio) to move work order information to and from the point where the work is being performed. over-hauling. operations and repair of corporate or public-entity physical assets. It involves management of work orders (planned. structures and other assets.

particularly when part of an enterprise-wide capital and labor management strategy that integrates multiple systems in an enterprise architecture (EAM system. For EAM practices as a whole. Enterprise Systems Mobilized The enterprise systems you will find most often mobilized are: • • • • • • SAP Maximo Oracle TRIRIGA Datastream Ventyx References [1] http:/ / www. particularly in industries where physical assets form a significant cost proportion of organizations’ total assets. Inc. and other forms of wireless computing technology for mobile EAM solutions[2] is growing rapidly. life cycle costing. mobile EAM application. Market growth In a 2009 study[1] . “for the MEAP and packaged mobile application market…we now expect market growth annually of 15 to 20% through 2013. com/ DisplayDocument?doc_cd=172728 [2] http:/ / www. this means that an increasing proportion of organizations in capital-intensive industry sectors (such as those above) are adopting mobile technology as an integral part of their enterprise asset management strategy – corresponding with an enterprise-wide emphasis on whole life planning.). forecasted. These industries can include: • • • • • • • Facilities Management Utilities Life Sciences Government organizations Manufacturing Oil & Gas industry Transportation industry In such high-value asset scenarios. designed around service-oriented architecture principles for multiple systems integration and custom modification. com/ ME2/ dirmod. GIS. asp?sid=& nm=& type=MultiPublishing& mod=PublishingTitles& mid=B4771C6F22F34E4CA3FFFDA61E0EA2C5& tier=4& id=CEFEEBFEA2484118849FC7820858E920 .Mobile Enterprise Asset Management 165 Industries using mobile EAM The use of mobile enterprise application platforms (MEAPs)[1] . gartner. the asset lifecycle improvements introduced by the increase in enterprise data flow of mobile EAM processes can bring significant savings.” Gartner attributes this anticipated growth to enterprises’ increasing willingness (and ability) to extend decision-relevant information to employees. planned and proactive maintenance and other industry best practices. market analyst Gartner. who are themselves increasingly mobile. mobileenterprisemag. etc. labor dispatch/scheduling software.

It is intended to detect most (but not all) input errors. This is defined by 3GPP2 standard X. The decimal form is specified to be 18 digits grouped in a 5 5 4 4 pattern and is calculated by converting the manufacturer code portion (32 bits) to decimal and padding on the left with '0' digits to 10 digits and separately converting the serial number portion to decimal and padding on the left to 8 digits.S0008 [4]. If both the first two digits are in the range '0' through '9' then the check digit is calculated using the standard base 10 Luhn algorithm as the number meets the definition of IMEI.g. including an 8-bit regional code (RR). . devices with an MEID can use a pseudo ESN (pESN).[3] Administration The separation between International Mobile Equipment Identifiers (IMEIs) used by GSM/UTMS and MEIDs is based on the number ranges. As of TIA/EIA/IS-41 Revision D and TIA/EIA/IS-2000 Rev C. the TIA acts as the Global Hexadecimal Administrator (GHA) to assign MEID code prefixes (0xA0 and up). a 24-bit manufacturer code. and the GSM Association acts as the Global Decimal Administrator. and both can include an optional check-digit. In this case. A check-digit can be calculated from the 18 digit result using the standard base 10 Luhn algorithm and appended to the end. Consequently it may be printed on phones or their packaging in case of manual entry of an MEID (e. As of August 2006. The hexadecimal form is specified to be 14 digits grouped together where at least one of the first two ('RR') digits is in the range 'A' through 'F'. IMEI administrators can just assign numbers for dual-technology phones out of their existing ranges. http:/ / www. it is not intended to be a checksum or CRC to detect transmission errors. the check-digit is calculated using a modified (base 16) Luhn algorithm. There are two administrators: the Global Decimal Administrator (GDA) for IMEIs and the Global Hexadecimal Administrator (GHA).asp The middle ground between IMEIs and MEIDs is for inter-standard "worldphone" devices. because there is no bar code or the bar code is unreadable). com/ gsm-imei-number-allocation. The check-digit is never transmitted or stored.Mobile Equipment Identifier 166 Mobile Equipment Identifier A Mobile Equipment Identifier (MEID) is a globally unique number identifying a physical piece of CDMA mobile station equipment. The check digit (CD) is not considered part of the MEID. whose virgin form was exhausted in November 2008 [2] . and a 24-bit manufacturer-assigned serial number. Display formats There are two standard formats for MEIDs. The MEID was created to replace ESNs. babt. It consists of three fields.R0048 [1] but in practical terms it can be seen as an IMEI but with hexadecimal digits. These devices will have all decimal digits and can be allocated by any administration. Regional code R R Manufacturer code Serial number CD C X X X X X X Z Z Z Z Z Z An MEID is 56 bits long (14 hex digits). the ESN is still a required field in many messages—for compatibility. Since they must have all decimal digits the GHA has opened up the range '99' for these assignments. which is a manufacturer code of 0x80 (formerly reserved) followed by the least significant 24 bits of the SHA-1 hash of the MEID. The number format is defined by the 3GPP2 report S.

This problem can be avoided by using MIN or IMSI based addressing instead. (http:/ / www. Roughly. 0_050630. Another problem is that messages delivered on the forward paging channel using the pESN as an address could be delivered to multiple mobiles seemingly randomly. Code to convert This short Python script will convert an MEID to a pESN. A different problem occurs when ESN codes are stored in a database (such as for OTASP). org/ Public_html/ specs/ C. S0016-C_v1. pdf [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] .decode('hex')) #decode the hex MEID (convert it to binary!) pesn = "80" + s. 3gpp2. 3GPP2 specifications C. resolving this problem.800 pseudo-ESN entries. This specification also allows the PLCM to be based on the MEID or IMSI. org/ standards/ resources/ esn/ documents/ Collisions_pESN_wp. pdf http:/ / www. 0_040830. the risk of at least two phones having the same pseudo-ESN can be calculated using the birthday paradox and works out to about a 50 per cent probability in a database with 4. S0066-0_v1.upper() #put the last 6 digits of the hash after 80 print "pESN: " + pesn References http:/ / www. 0_050727. 0_041025.upper() s = hashlib. Quick F. In this situation. TIA. S0072-0_v1. org/ Public_html/ specs/ X.Mobile Equipment Identifier 167 pESN conflicts Because the pESN is formed by a hash on the MEID there is the potential for hash collisions. White Paper on Pseudo-ESN Collisions. Two mobiles using the same pESN within the same base-station area (operating on the same frequency) can result in call setup and page failures. S0008-0_v2. pdf Pellegrino G. 3GPP2 specification C.hexdigest()[-6:]. org/ meid) http:/ / www. tiaonline. tiaonline. The probability of a collision has been carefully examined [5] . 3gpp2. R0048-A_v4. org/ Public_html/ specs/ S.S0016 [7] (Revision C or higher) and C. pdf) [6] http:/ / www. org/ standards/ resources/ esn/ documents/ esn_meid_milestones_timeline. 3gpp2. import hashlib meid = raw_input("Enter an MEID: "). it is estimated that even on a heavily loaded network the frequency of this situation is closer to 1 out of 1 million calls than to 1 out of 100 000.sha1(meid. pdf CDG Resources on MEID and EUIMID (http:/ / cdg. 3gpp2. pdf [7] http:/ / www. These will cause an extremely rare condition known as a 'collision' on a pure ESN-only network as the ESN is used for the calculation of the Public Long Code Mask (PLCM) used for communication with the base-station. It is easy for the base station to ensure that all PLCM codes are unique when this is done. org/ Public_html/ specs/ C.S0066 [8] have been modified to allow the replacement MEID identifier to be transmitted. 3gpp2. 26 May 2005. pdf [8] http:/ / www. 0_051018.S0072 [6] provides a solution to this problem by allowing the PLCM to be established by the base station. org/ Public_html/ specs/ C.

phonescoop. security. telecommunications and computing. ATIS has not shown any interest in mobility support yet.com/articles/meid/) • CDMA Development Group MEID resource page (http://www. IPTV plus Mobile approach Although many think that “networked TV” will be the future of television. . issues on the requirements for mobility support were raised as an out-growth under the auspices of the Fixed-Mobile Convergence (FMC) trend. and ITU-T FG IPTV internationally. IPTV is currently dominated by Telco giants in an attempt to find a new source of cash-in. DVB-CBMS already finished Phase I and currently is working in Phase II. The reason why it is pursued is to build a content environment that combines the stability and usability of broadcasting and the diverse services of Internet. In Open IPTV Forum. mobility service entirely based on IMS (IP Multimedia Subsystem) which is a set of specification from 3GPP for delivering IP multimedia to mobile users will be forthcoming. audio. graphics and other broadband data services to the user on the move.cdg. The outstanding activities in this approach are Digital Video Broadcast (DVB)-CBMS (Convergence of Broadcasting and Mobile Services) and WorldDAB (DAB: Digital Audio Broadcasting) Forum. WorldDAB Forum is enhancing and extending Eureka 147 to support IP based services.org/standards/resources/meid/) • PhoneScoop MEID article (http://www. the usage of broadcasting networks may incur the loss of individuality of IP. and interactive functions. text and graphic services through IP-based the wired and wireless networks with support for Quality of Service/QoE. To make this approach more attractive. mobility. users can enjoy IPTV services anywhere and even while on the move. Even though this approach is classified as Mobile IPTV technically. Through Mobile IPTV. Technical approaches to Mobile IPTV Mobile TV plus IP This approach uses the traditional digital broadcast networks to deliver IP-based audio. Eureka 147 was originally developed for digital radio applications and extended to support video services. Currently. however. The outstanding activities are ATIS in the US. In addition. IPTV services are originally targeted to fixed terminals such as set-top boxes. ITU-T FG IPTV is collecting requirements regarding mobility and wireless characteristics. This is a prime example of the increasing convergence of broadcasting. DVB-IPI (IPI: IP Infrastructure) (is an open DVB standard that enables audio/video services to be delivered to and through the mobile device via IP networking. video. wide area wireless networks such as cellular networks are integrated to support interactivity.Mobile Equipment Identifier 168 External links • Official TIA Resource Page for MEID (http://www. The development of Mobile IPTV specification is at an early stage.org/meid) Mobile IPTV Mobile IPTV is a technology that enables users to transmit and receive multimedia traffic including television signal.tiaonline. DVB-CBMS is developing bi-directional mobile IP based broadcasting protocol specifications over DVB-H. Open IPTV Forum. video.

considering its rapid adaptation to customer needs. customer needs for watching TV programs on the go seems not to be so high. For the second obstacle. Mobile IPTV Use Bandwidth Minimum 2-3 Mbps . light-weightiness is essential. However this Internet approach has a shortcoming that the quality of services is not guaranteed since it is based on the best effort service model. Its goals are to define an end-to-end framework for mobile broadcast and compile the set of necessary enablers. stream server) and the destination (e. and be short of bandwidth. Mobile IPTV has at least one wireless interface with a device. They are usually termed as Internet TV or Web TV. With this approach. mobile terminal). One group of obstacles is technical and the other business. This resulted in a universe of highly diversified and dynamically independent production. Internet approach There are already countless Internet video services worldwide. A minimum of 2–3 Mbit/s of bandwidth needs to be provided.g. it’s not until the 4G wireless network is fully deployed that the wireless link bandwidth becomes broad enough to accommodate High Definition quality video services. Obstacles In addition. Since Mobile IPTV assumes at least one wireless link between the source (e. This approach is open for anybody to play a role in the value chain: anybody can be a content provider. there can be quite different models developing on the business type and infrastructure used. is only applicable to mobile terminals up to now and showing interest in expanding its specification to cover fixed terminals in Phase II. due to the characteristics of the IPTV service. Capability limitations implicate very strict requirements that only a restricted set of technologies can be considered as possible Mobile IPTV solutions. this approach may be dominant in the near future. Capability limitation Most of the mobile terminals have limited capabilities compared to fixed terminals. content might be a major player. However. Even when the 4G wireless network is available. low power processors. Wireless technologies for short-range use or control purposes are not fully considered yet. a service provider.Mobile IPTV 169 Cellular approach Open Mobile Alliance (OMA) BCAST is working for IP based mobile broadcasting networks. and limited storage. bandwidth greedy applications will come out: such as Ultra High Definition quality video services. however. There are many obstacles on the path to the successful launch and widespread use of Mobile IPTV businesses. most of the technical obstacles are related to the usage of the wireless link. The wireless link will always have less bandwidth than the wired link. Its features are bearer agnostic. OMA BCAST. As long as mobile devices use the Internet. As for business perspective. In addition. users can access an IPTV service through various wireless access networks. or simply a consumer. which lead to small displays. Bandwidth limitation Even though the effective bandwidth of wireless links is growing rapidly. which means any Broadcast Distribution Network can be adopted as its transport means. These are outgrown for a niche entertainment business. the openness gives global reach. This mainly ascribes to portability considerations.g.

Watching favourite TV programs live may be the most attractive feature of Mobile IPTV. The characteristics of the wireless can vary due to a variety of causes and the rate of change is very abrupt. Also. these may be able to be applied to Mobile IPTV. etc. So far. New killer features are required. This is mainly because there is limited time for enjoying visual services on the go. customers have many channels to enjoy their favourite TV programs whenever they want. packets delivered through the wireless link are exposed to a variety of signal degradation such as shadowing. Middleware concern Middleware is one of the key functions of the IPTV service. the coverage issue can be considerably mitigated. it is not possible to adopt fancy User Interface methods. This requires Mobile IPTV services to be far more attractive than the consumers’ expectation. Contents must be tailored for mobile environments. a service provider can control the usage of IPTV service remotely. Because it is practically impossible to deploy wireless networks to cover all geographical areas with no dead spots. However. fast/slow fading. services are restricted in some areas. Therefore many solutions devised for the relatively static wired computer network environment may not work properly. bandwidth. Even if mobile terminals are stationary. IP address—in a blink. For example. however. Packet losses are intrinsic and inevitable in the wireless link. temporal reflectors and obstacles around the mobile terminals can affect the received signal and cause burst packet losses. middleware acts as a transparent solution for adopting IPTV services on to various and different platforms. by adopting vertical hand-overs (hand-overs between different networks). . By slimming down the existing middleware. Usability is another main obstacle for the success of Mobile IPTV business. The lack of mobile contents frustrates the early adopters of Mobile TV. It is. too heavy to be implemented on a mobile device. vertical handover can change almost everything—the whole path between the sources and the sink. A highly creative and new way of interfacing is required. Due to the small form factor of mobile devices. By deploying middleware. PHY/MAC. Coverage implication The main reason for carrying mobile terminals is to get access to the services any time and any where. small display sizes. Currently. For example. there are several well known middleware solutions on a set-top box. Business issue The most significant problem of the Mobile IPTV business (this applies to Mobile TV in the same way) is that the consumer need for watching TV program on the go is not so high. random and short watching time should be considered.Mobile IPTV 170 Vulnerable wireless link The wireless link is very vulnerable. This means the liveness of TV programs become less and less important except for some events such as sports. Dynamic environment The wireless link is highly dynamic compared to the wired link. Considering the movement of mobile terminals.

 51–60. 2008. She. A Cross-Layer Interworking of DVBT and WLAN for Mobile IPTV Service Delivery.Mobile IPTV Working Group (http://www. Vol. 8. Mobile IPTV Requirements for Non-NGN.1109/AICCSA. 45. “IPTV over WiMAX: Key Success Factors. 2008 Page(s):975 . Toufik. IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting. Mubashar. I and Ahmed.-H. no. Computer Systems and Applications.org/) . Challenges and Solutions”. WG 2193 . 13.–L.kr/) • Internet Protocol Television Global Standards Initiative (http://www. AICCSA 2008.0001). al. 296–301. Ho. pp. 23–31. pp. 2008-April 4.or. Challenges.2008. Mobile IPTV Expanding the Value of IPTV.1109/ICN. 53. F.int/ITU-T/gsi/iptv/) • Open IPTV Forum (http://www.8) • Soohong Park.2008. Xie. Hou. Vol. Seong-Ho Jeong and Cheolju Hwang. 1. Ahmed. "Mobile IPTV: Approaches. IEEE 40th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences. 2008.4493663) • Carlsson. 382–390. vol. IEEE/ACS International Conference on March 31. P. 2007 • J. February 2008 • Djama. May–June 2009 • Soohong Park. pp.itu. Issue 3. pp.tta. pp.openiptvforum. 87–93. Cheolju Hwang and el. and L. Aug. 2007 • Mushtaq. No. IEEE Internet Computing. P2P-based mobile IPTV: Challenges and opportunities. T. TTA Technical Report (TTAR-08. Standards and QoS Support". (DOI 10.Mobile IPTV 171 References Related publications • Soohong Park and Seong-Ho Jeong. P. Mobile TV–To Live or Die by Content. The seventh International Conference on Networking. 2007 Related standard activities • TTA PG 219. C and Walden.980 (DOI 10. IEEE Communications Magazine.

is a telephone company that provides services for mobile phone subscribers. which includes location based service that discloses the actual coordinates of a mobile phone bearer. GSM localization is the use of multilateration to determine the location of GSM mobile phones. wireless service provider. it must emit at least the roaming signal to contact the next nearby antenna tower. stationary or moving. a Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) network operator will require a GSM frequency range. temporarily resides. Advanced systems determine the sector in which the mobile phone resides and roughly estimate also the distance to the base station. Such service is offered as an option of the class of location-based services (LBS). usually with the intent to locate the user. most notably the radio transmitter network and the core network. but the process does not require an active call.[2] Technology The technology of locating is based on measuring power levels and antenna patterns and uses the concept that a mobile phone always communicates wirelessly with one of the closest base stations.[1] Mobile positioning. you know that the phone is close to the respective base station. The precise spectrum obtained does depend on the type of mobile phone technology the operator intends to deploy. Recent allocation of 3G and WiMax licenses in Europe and India (only 3G in India) have been auctioned. Mobile phone tracking Mobile phone tracking refers to the attaining of the current position of a mobile phone. Further approximation can be done by interpolating signals between adjacent antenna towers. wireless carrier. and thereby also its user (bearer). Rural and desolate areas may see miles between base stations and therefore determine locations less precisely. or simply via GPS. Localization may occur either via multilateration of radio signals between (several) radio towers of the network and the phone. although the most common method is an auction. carrier service provider (CSP). or cellular company. For example. other service platforms such as voicemail and SMS centre will be deployed as well as billing and Customer Relationship Management (CRM) systems. The government allocates spectrum using whichever method it chooses.Mobile network operator 172 Mobile network operator A mobile network operator (MNO). Qualified services may achieve a precision of down to 50 meters in urban areas where mobile traffic and density of antenna towers (base stations) is sufficiently high. To locate the phone using multilateration of radio signals. GSM is based on the signal strength to nearby antenna masts. also known as mobile phone operator (or simply mobile operator or mobo ).[3] Localization-Based Systems can be broadly divided into: • • • • Network-based Handset-based SIM-based Hybrid . However the operator must also deploy essential equipment in order to offer the services. In addition. The more properly applied term locating refers to the purpose rather than a positioning process. so if you know which base station the phone communicates with. One essential characteristic that defines a mobile network operator is that they must have acquired a radio spectrum license from the government before they can clear mobile phone service within a country. is a technology used by telecommunication companies to approximate where a mobile phone.

In addition. round trip time and signal strength. would need to be in place to compel the cooperation of the service provider as well as to safeguard the privacy of the information. if the handset is also equipped with GPS then significantly more precise location information is then sent from the handset to the carrier. E-OTD. For example. The key disadvantage of this technique (from mobile operator's point of view) is the necessity of installing software on the handset. with cell identification as the least accurate and triangulation as moderately accurate. The accuracy of network-based techniques varies. Hybrid Hybrid positioning systems use a combination of network-based and handset-based technologies for location determination. Services allowing such cellphone tracking are Mologogo. smart phones. Often. Another difficulty would be to address the issue of foreign handsets that are roaming in the network. One of the key challenges of network-based techniques is the requirement to work closely with the service provider.g.Mobile phone tracking 173 Network-based Network-based techniques utilize the service provider's network infrastructure to identify the location of the handset. One example would be some modes of Assisted GPS.[6] [7] [8] . and then having the information sent via the network to the person that is trying to locate the telephone. The type of information obtained via the SIM can differ from what is available from the handset. Windows Phone. BlackBerry OS. without affecting the handsets. due to the difficulty of convincing different manufacturers to cooperate on a common mechanism and to address the cost issue. It requires the active cooperation of the mobile subscriber as well as software that must be able to handle the different operating systems of the handsets. iPhone. Alternatively tracking with both systems can also occur by having the phone attain his GPS-location directly from the satellites. which can both use GPS and network information to compute the location. yet still obtain measurements via the SIM. Both types of data are thus used by the telephone to make the location more accurate (ie A-GPS). SIM-based Using the SIM in GSM and UMTS handsets. with urban environments achieving the highest possible accuracy. or Android. signal strengths of the home and neighboring cells. Typically. This technique determines the location of the handset by computing its location by cell identification. One proposed work-around is the installation of embedded hardware or software on the handset by the manufacturers. such as E911. This avenue has not made significant headway. it may not be possible to obtain any raw measurements from the handset directly. would be able to run such software. as it entails the installation of hardware and software within the operator's infrastructure.[4] [5] The measurements that are available can include the serving Cell-ID. it is possible to obtain raw radio measurements from the handset. Windows Mobile. and newer "Forward Link" timing methods as the most accurate. and the implementation of the most current timing methods. e. instaMapper. a legislative framework. Handset-based Handset-based technology requires the installation of client software on the handset to determine its location. Buddyway and Google Latitude. The advantage of network-based techniques (from mobile operator's point of view) is that they can be implemented non-intrusively. The accuracy of network-based techniques is both dependent on the concentration of base station cells. such as one based on Symbian. which is continuously sent to the carrier.

location data obtained from mobile phone networks is usually given the same protection as the communication itself. Strict ethics and security measures are strongly recommended for services that employ positioning. Newer phones may also allow the tracking of the phone even when turned on and not active in a telephone call-.[10] In some instances law enforcement may even access a mobile phone's internal microphone to eavesdrop on local conversations while the phone is switched off. Other means is the antenna pattern that supports angular determination and phase discrimination. By comparing the relative signal strength from multiple antenna towers a general location of a phone can be roughly determined.[9] Bearer interest A phone's location can be uploaded to a common web site where one's "friends and family" can view one's last reported position.S.[13] China has proposed using this technology to track commuting patterns of Beijing city residents. and the user must give an informed. the locating of vehicles is equally sensitive to the constitutional guarantee on the secrecy of correspondence and thus any further use of tolling information beyond deducting the road fee is prohibited. The U. explicit consent to a service provider before the service provider can compute positioning data from the user's mobile phone. as in Germany. Newer phones may have built-in GPS receivers which could be used in a similar fashion. As the phone changes location. but with much higher accuracy. The United States however has no explicit constitutional guarantee on the privacy of telecommunications. regarding Some "Free" tracking services allow the cellular telephone number being tracked to be added to telemarketers' lists. including USA v. .Mobile phone tracking 174 Operational purpose In order to route calls to a phone the cell towers listen for a signal sent from the phone and negotiate which tower is best able to communicate with the phone. Officially. the antenna towers monitor the signal and the phone is roamed to an adjacent tower as appropriate.[14] [12] . Pen Register government tracking of individuals.[11] The Electronic Frontier Foundation is tracking some cases. since it enables someone to check where a person is without the person's consent. the authorities (like the police) can obtain permission to position phones in emergency cases where people (including criminals) are missing. Justice Department has argued that current laws allow them to track suspects without having probable cause to suspect a law is being violated. although such a use is technically possible. With tolling systems. This results from the roaming procedures that perform hand over of the phone from one base station to another. In Europe. Privacy Locating or positioning touches upon delicate privacy issues. so use of location data is limited by law. where most countries have a constitutional guarantee on the secrecy of correspondence. Even obviously criminal intent may not be inferred by such means.

"Kaplan's opinion said that the eavesdropping technique "functioned whether the phone was powered on or off.opencellid. sparking human rights concerns" (http:/ / voices. December 1. com/ posttech/ 2011/ 03/ china_said_it_may_begin.Google maps API to locate cell towers in the United States • Cellphone Tracking Powers on Request (http://www.org) • CellSpotting: A Global Cell Id-Based Information Service (http://www. . com/ politics/ security/ news/ 2006/ 05/ 70829). Wired.com/techtopics/mobility/apis/articles/location/) • Location API for J2ME (http://www-users. com) External links • privacyrights. 2006). googlepages.Protecting Your Privacy in the Age of the Super-Phone • Cell Reception (http://www. buddyway. The Chicago Syndicate.openBmap. pdf).umn.html) • OpenCellID: An OpenSource CellID database (http://www. instamapper.privacyrights. (http:/ / www. co. com/ ) [7] Mologogo (http:/ / www. some Nokia models will wake up when turned off if an alarm is set.com • GSM Localization on Mobile Phones (http://www. The Washington Post. FREE Phone Tracking System. com/ 2006/ 12/ roving-bug-in-cell-phones-used-by-fbi. Beijing.washingtonpost. China [3] "Location Based Services for Mobiles: Technologies and Standards“ (http:/ / to. Shu Wang. for instance. .org/fs/fs2b-cellprivacy. ieee-icc. com/ ) [9] "Roving Bug in Cell Phones Used By FBI to Eavesdrop on Syndicate" (http:/ / www. Shu Wang.cellspotting.cellreception. pdf). bbc. com/ ICC2008LBSforMobilessimplifiedR2.Mobile phone tracking 175 References [15] [1] "Tracking a suspect by mobile phone: Tracking SIM and handset" (http:/ / news. html).com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/11/ 22/AR2007112201444. org/ ).edu/~czhou/docs/jsr179/lapi/) • openBmap: Map and tools for a free and open Cell ID database in GPL and Creative Common Licence (http:// www. Beijing. co. mologogo.org (http://www. 2006. whereareyougps. eff. "China plans to track cellphone users. .com) • J2ME and Location-Based Services (http://developers. html). nz/ pcworld/ pcw. stm). Jungwon Min and Byung K. [2] "Location Based Services for Mobiles: Technologies and Standards“ (http:/ / to.cs.html?hpid=topnews). Yi.com/towers/) . googlepages. org/ issues/ cell-tracking [14] Cecilia Kang (March 3.edu/~walex/papers/ are_gsm_phones_the_solution_for_localization_wmcsa2006." Some handsets can't be fully powered down without removing the battery. wired. Yi. com/ ICC2008LBSforMobilessimplifiedR2.sun. washingtonpost. thechicagosyndicate. [6] InstaMapper (http:/ / www. html)." [12] http:/ / www. [15] WhereAreYou? GPS. IEEE International Conference on Communication (ICC) 2008. uk/ 1/ hi/ technology/ 4738219. BBC News. eff.htm#5) . swang. swang. 2011). . washingtonpost. Cnet. cnet. China [4] ETSI TS 102 223 V9. com/ ) [8] Buddyway (http:/ / www. com/ 2100-1029_3-6140191. org/ legal/ cases/ USA_v_PenRegister/ [13] http:/ / www. "Cell-Phone Tracking: Laws Needed" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2010-01-02. IEEE International Conference on Communication (ICC) 2008 (http:/ / www.cs. Retrieved June 24. Jungwon Min and Byung K.toronto. 2005-08-03. [11] "FBI taps cell phone mic as eavesdropping tool" (http:/ / news.0 SIM standard [5] Vodafone Local Zone (http:/ / pcworld. 2010. .org) . nsf/ mobwire/ F41D663EAD41BC01CC2574B000133BB3) PC World. [10] Ryan Singel (May 8.1.

The backbone or infrastructure supporting the system defines which category or taxonomy applies. There are a variety of views about what constitutes mobile equipment. Enhanced Specialized Mobile Radio (ESMR) or conventional two-way systems. and primarily communicate with telephones connected to the public switched telephone network. Mobile radio or mobiles refer to wireless communications systems and devices which are based on radio frequencies. shipboard. These systems run on push-to-talk-based infrastructure such as Nextel's iDEN. Early police radio systems were initially one way using MF frequencies above the AM broadcast band. and primarily intended to communicate with other radios rather than telephones. (called crossband).or 30-volt DC power. Early mobile radios used amplitude modulation (AM) to convey intelligence through the communications channel. This plus the need for more channels led to the eventual expansion of two-way radio communications into the VHF "high band" (150 to 174 . Power may vary with each platform. History Early users of mobile radio equipment included transportation and government. An obsolete term is radiophone. (1. (maritime mobile). such a device is typically powered by the host vehicle's 12 volt electrical system. For US licensing purposes. [1] A sales person or radio repair shop would understand the word mobile to mean vehicle-mounted: a transmitter-receiver (transceiver) used for radio communications from a vehicle. 25 to 50 MHz (vhf "low band") is particularly susceptible to the problem of electrical noise. Two-way radio is primarily a dispatch tool intended to communicate in simplex or half-duplex modes using push-to-talk. The frequency range used by most early radio systems. For mobile radios used in amateur radio. Specialized Mobile Radio (SMR). equipment. Railroads used medium frequency range (MF) communications (similar to the AM broadcast band) to improve safety. The connection sets up based on the user dialing. In time. and where the path of communications is movable on either end. Radios linked the caboose with the locomotive cab.7 MHz). Some early systems talked back to dispatch on a 30-50 MHz link. The connection is taken down when the end button is pressed. In the US. (sometimes called portable). Some mobile radios are mounted in aircraft. MPT-1327. problems with sources of electrical noise showed that frequency modulation (FM) was superior for its ability to cope with vehicle ignition and power line noise. Radiotelephones are full-duplex (simultaneous talk and listen). mobiles may include hand-carried. For example. on motorcycles. These systems used one-way broadcasting instead of two-way conversations. voice communications with rolling trains became possible. Disambiguation: Two-way versus telephone The distinction between radiotelephones and two-way radio is becoming blurred as the two technologies merge. a mobile radio installed in a locomotive would run off of 72.Mobile radio 176 Mobile radio This article is about professional equipment. Certain modern two-way radio systems may have full-duplex telephone capability. Mobile radios are mounted to a motor vehicle usually with the microphone and control panel in reach of the driver. A large ship with 117V AC power might have a base station mounted on the ship's bridge. or railroad locomotives. Instead of hanging out of a locomotive cab and grabbing train orders while rolling past a station. They run on telephony-based infrastructure such as AMPS or GSM. (aeronautical mobile). circuit switched. A parallel to this concept is the convergence of computing and telephones. see amateur radio mobile operation.

Examples of US 1950s-1960s tube-type mobile radios with no transistors: • • • • Motorola FMTRU-140D (dynamotor powered) Motorola Twin-V. One of the major challenges in early mobile radio technology was that of converting the six or twelve volt power supply of the vehicle to the high voltage needed to operate the vacuum tubes in the radio. These high voltage power supplies were inefficient. large system users with specialized requirements often had custom built radios designed for their unique systems. named for its "universal" 6 or 12 Volt power supply General Electric Progress Line (Early models without "T-Power" power supply) Kaar Engineering Model 501 177 Equipment from different US manufacturers had similar traits.essentially a six or twelve volt motor that turned a generator to provide the high voltages required by the vacuum tubes. This was partly dictated by Federal Communications Commission (FCC) regulations. by the FCC before it could be offered for sale. Manufacturers of mobile radios built customized equipment for large radio fleets such as the California Department of Forestry and the California Highway Patrol. Early tube-type radios used dynamotors . taxing vehicle electrical systems. or technically approved. Early tube-type radios operated on 50 kHz channel spacing with plus-or-minus fifteen kilohertz modulation deviation. power supply technology evolved to use first electromechanical vibrators. (called valves in British English). tube-type transmitter power amplifiers had been replaced with high-power transistors.Mobile radio MHz) and UHF (450 to 470 MHz). and the filaments of the vacuum tubes added to current demands. leading two-way radio users. Channel spacing narrowed to 20-30 kHz with modulation deviation dropping to plus-or-minus five kilohertz. 1970s. changed the 6V or 12V direct current (DC) to alternating current (AC) which could be passed through a transformer to make high voltage. 3-frequency receive. Systems with multiple-CTCSS tone encoders and more than two channels were unusual. As time went on. These traits continue in the design of modern radios. Radios were also required to have a lamp (usually red) indicating when the transmitter was on. The power supplies needed to power vacuum tube radios resulted in a common trait of tube-type mobile radios: their heavy weight due to the iron-core transformers in the power supplies. dictated by the bandwidth of the signal on each channel. then solid-state power supplies to provide high voltage for the vacuum tubes. This was done to allow more radio spectrum availability to accommodate the In the early 1970s. . that showed power was applied and the radio was ready to transmit. called "inverters". These circuits. Persons without a key to the vehicle could not transmit. By the mid to this custom-built mobile radio. The requirement that unauthorized persons be prohibited from using the radio transmitter meant that many radios were wired so they could not transmit unless the vehicle ignition was on. usually green or yellow. The UHF band has since been expanded again. a generator or alternator upgrade was needed to support the current required for a tube-type mobile radio. From the 1960s to the 1980s. the California Department of Forestry requirement for 6-frequency rapidly growing national group of transmit. In order to be type accepted. Solid state equipment arrived in the 1960s. and a 5-tone burst encoder was unusual. This meant that the number of radio channels that could be accommodated in the available radio frequency spectrum were limited to a certain number. Sometimes. Equipment had to be "type accepted". Some early mobile radios were the size of a suitcase or had separate boxes for the transmitter and receiver. with more efficient circuitry and smaller size. The power supply then rectified this high voltage to make the high voltage DC required for the vacuum tubes. scanning. the radio set had to be equipped with an indicator light.

Some mobile radios have alphanumeric displays that translate channel numbers (F1. more economical vehicles. A modern mobile radio consists of a radio transceiver. and a microphone with a push-to-talk button. Details Commercial and professional mobile radios are often purchased from an equipment supplier or dealer whose staff will install the equipment into the user's vehicles. At speeds over 100 MPH. etc. Hole arrays in the back of the microphone pick up ambient noise. The installer would have to locate this equipment in a way that does not interfere with the vehicle's sun roof. Some models may have an external. . California Highway Patrol mobile radios have noise-canceling microphones which reduce road and siren noise heard by the dispatcher. A computer and software is typically required to program the features and channels of the mobile radio. Each installation would also have a vehicle-mounted antenna connected to the transceiver by a coaxial cable.5-15 kHz with modulation deviation dropping to plus-or-minus 2. Ideally. Menus of options may be several levels deep and offer a complicated array of possibilities. Noise-canceling microphones require the operator speak directly into the front of the microphone. vehicle stability computer. F2) to a phrase more meaningful to the user. the ambient road and wind noise can make radio communications difficult to understand. separate speaker which can be positioned and oriented facing the driver to overcome ambient road noise present when driving. These protect the occupant's hearing and reduce background noise in the transmitted audio. be microprocessor controlled and have built-in options such as unit ID. or resonant. only the voice present on the front side of the microphone goes out on the air. shaking. channel spacing has had to be narrowed again to 12. or air bags. Some mobile radios use noise-canceling microphones or headsets. to the back of the microphone. Examples of US microprocessor-controlled mobile radios: • Motorola Astro Digital Spectra W9 • Kenwood TK-690 As use of mobile radio equipment has virtually exploded.5 kilohertz. Large fleet users may buy radios directly from an equipment manufacturer and may even employ their own technical staff for installation and maintenance. In order to fit into smaller. housed in a single box. Modern mobile radio equipment is "feature rich". today's radios are trending toward radically smaller sizes than their tube-type ancestors. This is applied. such as "Providence Base". Most fire engines and radios in heavy equipment use noise-canceling headsets. "Boston Base". out-of-phase. effectively reducing or canceling any sound which is present both in front and back of the microphone. Shock mounting systems are used to reduce the radio's exposure to vibration imparted by the motorcycle's modal.Mobile radio Examples of US hybrid partially solid state mobile radios: • • • • • Motorola Motrac Motorola MJ IMTS Car Telephone (1963) General Electric Transistorized Progress Line General Electric MASTR Professional and MASTR Executive RCA Super Carfone 178 Today Custom design for a particular customer is a thing of the past. Mobile radios installed on motorcycles are subject to extreme vibration and weather. electronic engine management system. A mobile radio may have 100 or more channels. Professional equipment designed for use on motorcycles is weather and vibration resistant. For example. Radios are now designed with a myriad of features to preclude the need for custom design.

on its roof. or rough diesel engine idle vibrations may damage antennas quickly. The volume level of the tone on some radios is loud and cannot be adjusted. An operator tossed the mike into the glove box and shut it. causing the push-to-talk button to be depressed and locking the transmitter on. usually 30. a driver may be upset when a dispatcher assigns a call (s)he wanted to another driver and may deliberately hold the transmit button down (for which the owner can be fined by the FCC). US Occupational Safety and Health Administration guidelines for non-ionizing radio energy generally say the radio antenna must be two feet from any vehicle occupants. Though initially relatively inexpensive mobile radio system components. A bane of push-to-talk systems is the stuck microphone: a radio locked on transmit which disrupts communications on a two-way radio system. 179 Antenna A mobile radio must have an associated antenna. which looks like a white plastic blade or fin. the size and shape being determined by frequencies used.Mobile radio Many radios are equipped with transmitter time-out timers which limit the length of a transmission. Large fleets usually test a few vehicles before making a commitment to a certain antenna location or type. Some types of vehicles in 24-hour use. . frequently damaged antennas can be costly to replace since they are usually not included in maintenance contracts for mobile radio fleets. The standard "quarter wave" antenna in the 25-50 MHz range can be over nine feet long. or hidden on the floor pan or underside of a vehicle. Radios with time-out timers transmit for the preset amount of time. One example of this problem occurred in a car with a concealed two-way radio installation where the microphone and coiled cord were hidden inside the glove box. On taxi systems. a rearview mirror. after which the transmitter automatically turns off and a loud tone comes out of the radio speaker. Aircraft antennas look like blades or fins. or may be installed inside windows. tall heights. The most common antennas are stainless steel wire or rod whips which protrude vertically from the vehicle. Mobile radio equipment is manufactured to specifications developed by the Electronics Industries Association/Telecommunications Industries Association (EIA/TIA). (Read the OSHA guidelines before attempting to install an antenna. A transit bus may have a ruggedized antenna. Temporary installations may have antennas which clip on to vehicle parts or are attached to steel body parts by a strong magnet. As soon as the push-to-talk button is released. Physics defines the antenna length: length relates to frequency and cannot be arbitrarily lengthened or shortened (more likely) by the end user. The location and type of antenna can affect system performance drastically. These specifications have been developed to help ensure that mobile radio equipment not only performs as expected by the user. with stiff suspensions. A 900 MHz antenna may be three inches long for a quarter wavelength. but also to prevent the sale and distribution of inferior equipment which could degrade communications. Some vehicles with concealed radio installations have antennas designed to look like the original AM/FM antenna. Microwave antennas may look like flat panels on the aircraft's skin.or 60-seconds.) This rule of thumb is intended to result in passengers being exposed to safe levels of radio frequency energy in the event the radio transmits. the tone stops and the timer resets. All specifications should be reviewed by radio system engineers to ensure that appropriate equipment is used to meet the end user's needs.

[4] The weak point of these systems has been connector technology which has been proven unreliable in some installations. Ambulances may have a similar arrangement with one radio for government emergency medical services dispatch and one for company dispatch. take place over the separate radio. Early Federal Express (FedEx) radio systems used a single radio for data and voice. 2) connects an amplified speaker. multiple radios may be required in cases where communications take place over systems on [3] more than one frequency band. allowed voice communication to the dispatch center. The walkie talkie inserted into a vehicular charger or converter while the user is in the vehicle. when acknowledged. The radio had a request-to-speak button which. a single radio with scanning might be employed for both systems. If a tow car company had a frequency on the same band as its auto club. For example. . The charger or converter 1) connects the walkie talkie to the vehicle's two-way radio antenna. A data terminal A mobile radio in a US ambulance often has two sets of controls: one in the patient area radio allows data communications to and another near the driver. 3) connects a mobile microphone. Each radio works over a single band of frequencies. Each radio user is issued a walkie talkie. tow cars may have one radio for towing company communications and a second for emergency road service communications.Mobile radio 180 Multiple radio sets Dispatch-reliant services. Multiple controls. such as tow cars or ambulances. and 4) charges the walkie talkie's battery.[2] Data radio Both tow cars and ambulances may have an additional radio which transmits and receives to support a mobile data terminal. microphones US ambulances often have radios with dual controls and dual microphones allowing the radio to be used from the patient care area in the rear or from the vehicle's cab. Each vehicle is equipped with a charger system console. this means data and voice communication can take place simultaneously over a separate radio. Walkie talkie converters in place of mobile radios Intended as a cost savings. Receiver performance is a problem in congested radio signal and urban areas. may have several radios in each vehicle. some systems employ vehicular chargers instead of a mobile radio. In the same way that a facsimile machine has a separate phone line. These installations are sometimes referred to as jerk-and-run systems. Since a mobile radio typically works on a single frequency band.

45-49. The 11th edition of Newton's Telecom Dictionary says radiophone is an. they also emphasize that future developments of mobile search must be sensitive to the mobile logic. Regional-level Planning Guide. and also present an in-depth study of user patterns. most of available content that has been written for mobile users is effectively invisible to users. Early internet content was largely provided by portals such as Netscape." Planning Emergency Medical Communications: Volume 2. Westlund. and "Evaluating Regional Alternatives.[3] There is a similar situation developing in the mobile content industry. Macro Corporation and The State of Arizona.4(e). portals were unable to provide total coverage. Market description "Competition for the US mobile search market promises to be fierce. Some Converta-Com systems allow the attachment of signaling devices or external devices not usually compatible with walkie talkies. saying radiophone is interchangeable with radiotelephone.'Exploring the logic of mobile search'. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Compañó. both of which show a fast-paced evolution.5 billion by 2011 (from Informa Telecoms & Media) to over $11 billion by 2008 (according to Piper Jaffray). and Feijóo(2011) outline a through review of research on mobile search usage. 1995) pp. there has been a vast increase in the depth of content developed for mobile phones. Given early adopter usage of mobile services." Planning Emergency Medical Communications: Volume 2. As the depth of available content grew. mobile search is not just a spatial shift of PC web search to mobile equipment. However. The Oxford English Dictionary conflicts with some uses. thanks to the large US online ad market and strong pushes by portals. according to a leading market research firm. but is witnessing more of treelike branching into specialized segments of mobile broadband and mobile content. One example is the title on a Special Products service manual Model T31BAT-3100B-SP3 'Dispatcher' Radiophone 25-54 MC 12 W RF Power 12VDC. As this happens mobile content shows a media shift toward mobile multimedia.7 billion"." [2] "Evaluating Regional Alternatives. (Washington. 45-49.Mobile radio 181 Notes [1] Cited in many references including on escutcheons and silk-screened face plates on 1960s Motorola products including early HT-200 and Dispatcher-series mobiles. 1995) pp. By 2011. pp. . [3] Paragraph 2. In a international journal article. Most of the operators run their own portals that showcase the best available content. mobile search will account for around $715 million. They conclude that mobile search has started to change mobile media consumption patters radically. Arizona Phase II Final Report: Statewide Radio Interoperability Needs Assessment. It was also seen on some Kaar Engineering mobile products. "obsolete term. (Chicago: Motorola Communications Division. the published forecasts for global mobile search vary from $1. Regional-level Planning Guide. One historic example is the NLN-4470A for MT-500 series radios. State of California Radio Communications System. Web or technology factors. (Washington. There are now few large organizations that do not offer a mobile service of some sort. DC: Department of Transportation. DC: Department of Transportation. or almost 15% of a total mobile advertising market worth nearly $4. Gómez-Barroso.this being the expected time users expect to find content in. 2004. 1965). Later HT-200s dropped the term. given the limitations of a mobile phones screen size and general navigability. Motorola has trademarked the name Converta-Com for a system which accomplishes all three of these tasks.[2] Mobile Search is important for the usability of mobile content for the same reasons as internet search engines became important to the usability of internet content. 15. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. [4] For example.[1] Depending on a researcher's particular bias toward telecom. Web search engine ability in a mobile form allows users to find mobile content on websites which are available to mobile devices on mobile networks. As a result Internet web search engines such as Google and AltaVista proved popular as a way of allowing users to find the increasingly specialist content they were looking for. Mobile search Mobile search is an evolving branch of information retrieval services that is centered around the convergence of mobile platforms and mobile phones and other mobile devices. Research from Qpass suggests that less than 36% of an operator's portal is within 30 seconds navigation distance for the user . Simply put.

current. A new approach by AskMeNow and MobileBits is to .[4] Thus. not all of these can be expected to become the industry standards. Most mobile 'Q&A' services are powered by human researchers and are therefore a type of organic search engine. "Whoever cracks the consumer and commercial code for delivering and monetizing relevant answers for people on the go will secure a license to print money. A usage example would be a user that wants to know the answer to a very specific question but is not in front of his/her computer. Whereas people might use a Web-connected personal computer to search for information about an 18th-century British author. These parameters provide structure to vertically deep and horizontally broad data categories that can stand-alone or are combined to comprise searchable directories. Cell phones also offer much less space to enter in search terms and smaller screens to display results. MLS can occupy several application categories/directories simultaneously. says the Internet search giants aren't yet delivering the kind of results the mobile content industry wants. The lack of clean comparative analysis based upon application occupancy of an individual category creates a challenge for marketers looking to maximize the value of applications to the supply chain including brand marketers looking to embed advertising within an application." 182 Types of mobile search Within the broad umbrella of mobile search (the ability to browse for mobile specific content). Beebe said. Some of the advances by the major portals in Internet search. Yahoo has launched a product branded as Yahoo [OneSearch][6] and Google has launched a mobile friendly version of their search engine as well. Searcher behaviour on mobiles is markedly different than on desktop machines. and media planners and buyers needing to evaluate one category with another or one directory with another. "What they're trying to do is take that core search capability and just jam it onto the phone. Mobile Search: Clash of the Titans. For example. weather and sports. and things within an identifiable space defined by distinct parameters. on the move/commuting where there the context of local and immediate is inherent in the searcher's need and 2. places. Mobile optimized search engines — Most major search engines have implemented a mobile optimized version of their products that take into consideration bandwidth and form factor limitations of the mobile platform. landmarks. they are more likely to use cell phones to find targeted information like news. Mobile Local Search is 30% of all digital searches with a surge in growth expected world-wide in 2010. What is Mobile Local Search (MLS)? Are all searches local? What are the component technologies of a powerful MLS application? How can advertisers purchase inventory ad units available within the application structure? Mobile Local Search is the search and discovery of persons. there are a range of services. The algorithms for mobile search engine results are thought to be evoloving and aspects such as location and predicitive searching will become increasingly important. such as Google's famous page-ranking scheme. Searches can be seen to fall into two categories 1. and actions that are relevant to the searcher’s past. don't apply in the mobile world since people aren't searching for Web sites as much as answers to specific questions. eMarketer Senior Analyst and the author of the new report. This is a double-edge sword for product designers and developers. by a real person.[5] The early deals are taking place as cell phone operators recognize that mobile Internet search is an inherently different business than its desktop counterpart." "Mobile search is a battle to define perhaps the most important new interface with the consumer." says John du Pre Gauntt. Mobile question and answer services — These services allow a user to text a question to a central database and receive a reply using text.Mobile search Beyond navigation is location-aware technology for mobile search. Alltel's group president of operations. Kevin Beebe. Given the relative immaturity of the market. and future location. analytic engines. "That's probably not the right approach. where every question is answered via text message. individuals. cities. neighborhoods. These parameters are evolving. An example of such a service in the US is Question Mania [7]." Mr. on the couch where mobiles are being used to surf for information in between watching TV and engaging in other mobile communication such as sms or using social networks. Today they include social networks. at least for a time. financial media analysts.

Orange sends the information in text format to the users mobile phone. An example is the service offered by Yell in the UK which is powered by MobilePeople's technology. More details can be found in mobile local search.sadko. services and other interesting information in the local area that the user has searched on. Services also usually come with a map and directions to help the user. Free service where real people research questions and deliver [12] answers. 199QUERY is the premier Australian and New Zealand Text service that answers any question sent to it by SMS using a mix of human experts and intelligent organic search engine.Mobile search use Semantic Web technology to automate the process. In addition. The basics of the services allow users to find local services in the vicinity of their current location. The information contains a text reminder of the requested information as well as links to local businesses. reverse billed SMS messages by using VoIP to connect the Caller directly to the Human search agent. without the need for text entry.com. Some emerging services such as MyHelpa in the UK address the perceived limitations of one-shot.. in a similar way to the recommendation engines provided by internet retail shops such as Amazon. It can also be known as 'Find My Nearest' or 'Mobile Yellow Pages' services. which provides users with a push-button experience of selecting from thousands of human-screened and categorized Web selections in three or four seconds. Unique in that SMS messages are then broadcast on TV. Uses real humans to answer any questions sent to the shortcode 66666.mobi US answerly. no keyword needed.com UK IE Founded by ex-Symbian and Psion CEO Colly Myers. . They index the content already on the operators' portal but also provide users access to mobile specific content that is available outside the confines of the portal. in a mobile context. questions may range from settling pub quizzes to standard directory enquiries. AQA uses human researchers to provide answers to any free form search queries or customer questions. typically in minutes.com US . The services often use location-based technology to pinpoint exactly where the user currently is. October 2010 October [13] 2008 2004 Any Question Answered 63336UK 57275IE Ask Any Question 66666UK UK AskDroid Desktop Search Widget [11] Answerly. 183 Main providers Name & Mobile URL 199QUERY SMS# 19978379AUS 272NZ AU C. Mobile discovery services These services offer users recommendations on what they should do next.com askdroid. An example of such search tools is the Worldport Navigator [8] for the iPhone.. An example of real usage is the Directory Enquiries (DQ) service operated by Orange in the UK. It was the first company to provide such a service using only a premium short code and not a mix of shortcode and keyword. or page-scrolling. An example would be recommending a user a similar ringtone to the one that s/he has just browsed for. Mobile navigation services — These services provide the indexing structure to the portals provided by mobile operators. Callers to the Orange landline DQ service are given the business and residential numbers they have requested verbally by an operator. Launch April [9] 2006 4info 44636 4Info. search. Dynamic Mobile Selection Interface Services — A new category of mobile search tool that is emerging is one in which a pre-selected set of possible search content is downloaded in advance by a mobile user and then allows for a final internet search step. Mobile directory search — This service is known by different names dependent on country and operator. They operate. Description Founded by Seb Maslin. An example of usage would be a user looking for a local cab or taxi company after a night out. Widget app for Android-based smartphones allowing one-button [10] access to any of 260 search engines. result review.

askmenow. a WAP 2. Offers Google SMS which allows users to obtain information by texting in structured syntax to an SMS shortcode. They offer 2005-11 services on SMS.com [18] 466453 AT Mindbreeze takes care of mobile information access to all 2005 enterprise ressources including content conversion to fit all kinds of mobile devices. Launched by AlienPants initially as a generalised service but later deliberately limited to computer game cheats. May 2009 Interchan www. Google has carrier deals with Britain's Vodafone. Ask and Microsoft at the same time. in Japan but not specifically for the SMS product.minfo. such as T-Mobile as the 'T-Mobile Cheat Service'. or mobile applications. by calling a toll-free number. Uses natural language search that allows users to ask a question and receive an answer.com Text 242 242 or voice 800-2ChaCha US 2008-01-03 DOTGO dotgo. and search by voice. DOTGO is an extension of the internet to cell phone text messaging. ? 2006-11 mInfo wap. Designed for all mobile devices. in a white labeled approach. Has an exclusive deal with China Telecom to power its Omni-search platform.com 1066958866(Chinese) 106695882929(English) China mInfo is a mobile search provider based in China.Mobile search AskMeNow [14] askmenow.com Google m. and KDDI Corp.55155.chacha.com. Infospace also provides local search services and offers many of these serivces to mobile carriers. Yahoo.tw [21] Jumptap Microsoft Live Search for Mobile (also Bing [22] Mobile ) 55155 Taiwan ? 1 800 CALL 411 (dial-in. 2005 ChaCha [15] www.com 27563 (ASKME) 184 US CA Gives users the option of searching for information using an SMS short code. WAP and on-phone applet. China Mobile. AskMeNow has a carrier deals with Rogers Wireless and Bell Mobility in Canada and Alltel Wireless in the United States. ? US GTIP and other co-branded customer implementations 61199 81444DE WAPUK/DE 82149IE(closed) 83246UK(closed) 83149UK(closed) UK UK IE DE January [20] 2003 Infospace ? ? Provider of meta-search. a technology by which they search the ? search engines and allow users the ability to search Google.com. in association with GamePlayer magazine.google. An SMS and voice natural language-based question answering service by ChaCha (search engine).0 site m. innovative because it enables Internet users (only with a US work permit) to earn money by finding answers. or as GuruGold in support of the on-screen 'Games Guru' on Sky One's primetime computer games program 'Gamezville'. the service is made available to multiple customers under each customer's own brand. 2004. download client applications specifically designed for Windows Mobile and BlackBerry devices (download [24] ). allows users on any carrier network to ask any question on any subject and the answer is provided by a human "guide". not an SMS#) ? US? JumpTap offers white-label mobile search. appeared in the [19] magazine in May. Users have the option of searching from their mobile browsers [23] (homepage ). Totally free mobile search which also enables free connect function. Available on all three mobile carriers. .com [16] DOTCOM (368266) DOTEDU (368338) DOTGOV (368468) DOTNET (368638) DOTORG (368674) US 2008 Fabasoft Mindbreeze [17] mindbreeze. first in-print co-branded service. from any phone. Limited to the categorical information they offer.

Sensis (AUS). EDC (DK). SonyEricsson. Eniro (DK). By providing a mix of extensive cached pre-selected common data search options (so that direct access to the internet is only needed for the final search option selected) plus a more intuitive GUI.com [29] US & Intl Aggregates results from multiple search engines. Yell (UK).mosio. Yahoo! has a search deal with British carrier Hutchison 3G UK Ltd. Inc. Google. Users upload an image from their mobile phones and search for relevant resources. Motorola. video etc. Gouden Gids (NL).com China Roboo is a mobile search provider based in China.com [26] US 2008 MobilePeople A/S Leading provider of Local search and advertising solution for mobiles ? DK mobilePeople is a private independent global leader in local mobile 2002-01 search and advertising solutions for directory publishers and directory assistance providers. which include restaurant guides. 2006-11 Mosio m. Wikipedia.. com sms to ask@mosio. including ring. It's similar to ChaCha except the answers are provided by the community as opposed to paid searchers. SMS-based service that uses a mix of human experts and sophisticated algorithms to provide bespoke answers to any customer query.. Yahoo. Schibsted (SE). Blackberry. It's differentiated from Google's and Yahoo's mobile search in that it only returns mobile results whereas the others may return links to non-mobile websites which may not render properly on a mobile phone. music. founded by Thomas Roberts. Mosio won the best mobile app award at SXSW in 2008. Yellow Pages Group (NZ) and Local Matters (USA). US & Intl Developed by Incandescent.net Question Answering Serive [25] www. Eniro (NO). videos. Nokia. according to the developer's most recent 2009 test results.com [28] ? ? US UK Texperts (formerly Re5ult and 82ASK) 66000 UK 2003-06 or 08? 2008 Towza m. Global customers include. ? .worldport. roboo. distribution and advertising utilising its award winning liquid Mobile Platform. mobi Taptu taptu. Designed for Windows Mobile and Nokia devices.mshd. Promedia (BE).net Worldport Navigator 2009 Yahoo! oneSearch [30] UK US . also offers refined searches for images. Páginas Amarelas (PT).towza. Sarah McVittie. and price comparison shopping tools. It caters for any handset including iPhone. The company builds mobile presence. Mosio is a mobile community based "question & answer" / search service. HTC. A mobile local search that is offered via mobile applications. Mobile specific. Golden Pages (IE). They focus on entertainment resources. theme. mobilePeople is headquartered in Copenhagen (DK) and has regional offices in London (UK). its graphical user interface (GUI) includes an unusual hexagonal ring structure to enable faster selection of options than with conventional mobile search systems. music. Schibsted (NO).net Roboo 413-648-7141 347-mshdnet US Free Question answering service 2010 185 http:/ / roboo. Worldport Navigator users can access data up to 50 times faster than with other search engines.Mobile search mshd. [31] 92466US (YAHOO) [8] www. January 2008 2008 Picollator http:/ / [27] picollator. image. Denver (US) and Melbourne (AUS). also has a directory listing of the mobile specific versions of popular websites. a unique mix of data access engine and mobile search abilities. built from the bottom up for mobile uses. com (WAP) http:/ / www.. It is currently available for the iPhone. LG and Samsung.

com/ [18] http:/ / m. com/ news/ prevreleases/ 21-05-04-gameplayer. android.37634.frompo. com/ ) [12] Answerly.00. net [26] http:/ / m. com/ details?id=com.aspx?id=1005170&src=article1_newsltr) • Mobile Local Search 2010 (http://mobilelocation. yahoo. com/ ) [14] http:/ / askmenow. askdroid [11] www. Get answers with search designed for mobile (http:/ / mobile. and Search Application Developers (http:/ / www. tw/ [22] http:/ / m. com/ [31] Yahoo! oneSearch. com/ Article. Oscar . questionmania. com [30] http:/ / mobile. Advertisers. com [24] http:/ / wls. Claudio (2011) 'Exploring the logic of mobile search'. com/ p/ search [7] http:/ / www. towza. com. net [9] "Question Answer SMS Service Launched in Australia" (http:/ / 199query.com/smpp/ content~db=all~content=a927256739~frm=abslink • Prospects of mobile search.Mobile search [32] www. Mobile Local Search Saturates Profit over LBS Vendors. 2006-04-01.The Search Wars Are Going Mobile (http:/ / www. José-Luis . bing. 2011). [10] https:/ / market. m. php?release=1). com [29] http:/ / m.com/Article.emarketer. com/ news/ prevreleases/ 06-01-03-smscheats. fiercewireless. Search and navigate results specifically designed for mobile cellular phones. com [25] http:/ / www. killerstartups. mobi/ [28] http:/ / taptu. 2010 186 References [1] [2] [3] [4] eMarketer . frompo. php [21] http:/ / www. com [16] http:/ / dotgo. com/ press-releases/ mobile-local-search-saturates-profit-over-lbs-vendors-advertisers-and-search-applicat) [5] Mobile Local Search Saturates Profit over LBS Vendors.answerly.html) • Mobile Search in the US (http://www.com provides a comprehensive search engine for Iphones.informaworld. com/ [27] http:/ / picollator. sadko. chacha. . com/ [17] http:/ / mindbreeze. Blackberrys and cellular phones.php?article_id=128&page=13& action=article&) . and Search Application Developers (http:/ / www. com [8] http:/ / www.com review on KillerStartups.Mobile Search in the US. live.com (http:/ / www. mshd.forrester. 2010 (http://avmediasearch. Gómez-Barroso. Behaviour & Information Technology' 'http://www. Compañó. com/ press-releases/ mobile-local-search-saturates-profit-over-lbs-vendors-advertisers-and-search-applicat) [6] http:/ / us. yahoo. Advertisers. 199QUERY Pty. Gomez-Barroso.7211. com [19] http:/ / www. worldport. answerly. emarketer. com/ news.com/Research/ Document/Excerpt/0. Retrieved 2008-02-10. fiercewireless.com/ Mobile Phone Search Engine US & Intl Frompo. mosio. emarketer. aspx?id=1005083) (Westlund.eu/index. com/ Article. alienpants. Ramón and Feijóo.heroku. com/ User-Gen-Content/ answerly-com-all-you-have-to-do-is-ask) [13] (http:/ / www.com (http:/ / www. live. alienpants. Compano & Feijo. Ltd. queryable. com/ External links • Forrester research on Western European Mobile internet usage (http://www. 55155. yahoo. com [15] http:/ / www.com/reports/ 1-mobile_local_search_2010_locationbased_search_market) • Westlund.. aspx?id=1005170& src=article1_newsltr) eMarketer . com/ onesearch) [32] http:/ / www. google. com [23] http:/ / m. (http:/ / www. php [20] http:/ / www.

and mobile telemedicine (49%). In South Africa.[8] The founders saw that the technology they were creating for corporate clients could be useful for NGOs to provide information to their target markets. or as near to free for the end user. FrontlineSMS. health surveys.” says Marcha Neethling. However. “Full profit want to reach people for different reasons.[9] . not only to generate profit from high income groups. Users do not need to have airtime or data bundles on their phones to use it. Ushahidi all work with mobiles in health.[1] Nowhere is the effect more dramatic than in Africa. Promote health mHealth is using mobile technology to provide groups with health information. emergency toll-free telephone services. companies such as TextToChange. Thus non-profit mobile technology is not aimed at advanced smart phones. The aim of the mobile community was to create a space that would be interactive and fun where young people could talk candidly and learn about love.[2] Only 10% of Africans have access to the internet.[7] Fight HIV/Aids The Praekelt Foundation is a South African example of a non profit organisation that is using mobile technology to create social change. but to provide information and create social change for low income groups.[5] mHealth activities come in the form of appointment reminders. The ultimate aim of non-profit mobile technology is to make it free. RapidSMS. relationships and sex and HIV/AIDS.[3] However. One of the mobile technologies developed by Praekelt Foundation is a mobile community called YoungAfricaLive (YAL). disaster relief and aid management. but people should not be charged for having access to life saving information. Their programmes have currently reached 50 million people across 15 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. emergency toll-free telephone services (55%). the majority of mHealth activities were limited in size and scope. This means enlisting donors and getting mobile networks on board. the lowest percentage in the world. and their penetration is expanding rapidly. people who are very poor have very basic phones. However.[4] This means that mobile technology is the largest platform in Africa. and can access a wide range of income groups. community mobilization and health promotion. health call centres. 50% of Africans have mobile phones. managing emergencies and disasters (54%). companies like Cell-Life and GeoMed and HealthSMS use mobile technology for health. education. where mobile technology often represents the first modern infrastructure of any kind. For example mobile technology is used to provide information on health. Internationally.Mobile technology in Africa 187 Mobile technology in Africa Mobile technology in Africa is a fastest growing market. finances or to access specific groups such as the youth. mobi-sites and mobile communities. At the summit the World Health Organization (WHO) released a report stating that eighty-three per cent of governments surveyed had at least one mHealth project in their country. head of operations at Praekelt Foundation.[6] In June 2011 the first African mobile health summit was held in Cape Town. information initiatives and patient monitoring among others. It was pioneered in part by the UN Foundation and Vodafone Foundation through partnerships with WHO and the social enterprise DataDyne. mHealth initiatives were health call centres (59%). Non-profit mobile technology Thus mobile technology can be used. who then joined with other partners in forging the mHealth Alliance. but ranges from sending out bulk SMSs to USSD.

com. “With YoungAfricaLive South Africa. habarimedia. Vodacom’s mobile platform. org/ global-issues/ technology/ mobile-health-for-development. au/ Research/ 2010-Global-Mobile-Communications-Key-Trends-and-Growth-in-a-Challenging-Environment. . edu/ http:/ / www. Johannesburg and donated a computer and seven mobile phones to the Club. which is a massive investment. The project is based in the Phomolong area of Tembisa. Vodacom is sponsoring the bandwidth. unfoundation. was receiving 3.[10] As (young) people were already using mobile technology to surf the net and download songs etc it seemed the perfect place to engage with this target group. as well as update the community on current events. php?articleID=958& pid=press_releases . Experts come on to the chat rooms to discuss sexual topics and allow users to ask personal questions anonymously. org/ news/ mobile-health-activity-spreads-over-4-5-countries-remains-limited-small-scale-and-single-issue[7] http:/ / www. All with a social call to action at the end. References [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / aiti. unfoundation. These will be uploaded to their Facebook page and website all in an effort to report on criminal activity in the community. Users have engaged with the community and many of the updated features of the community have come directly from user suggestions. watch videos that link to stories and can engage in anonymous chat rooms.[12] They partnered with The Khulisa's Youth out of School Ubuntu Club in Tembisa. which is notorious for high levels of criminal activity. htm https:/ / www. they participate in polls.Mobile technology in Africa The mobile community is unique to the Vodacom network. making them proud of their status and encouraging them to be responsible around sex. com/ news_article. org/ [9] http:/ / www. mit. The ongoing challenge with free mobile communities and technology is continuing to engage the service provider to allow the community to be entirely free. co. com/ magazine/ content/ 07_39/ b4051054.”[11] 188 Community crime fighting In 2011 Vodacom pioneered a project in South Africa to fight crime using mobile phones.2 million unique users monthly. Each mobile phone donated has internet capabilities and the members of the Club will be allocated a mobile phone that they will use to capture events. mhealthalliance. For example well known South African sexologist Dr Eve hosts live chats once a week. org/ our-solutions/ mobile-technology/ tech4dev/ index. html [6] http:/ / www. businessweek. Vodafone Live. com/ stats1. vodacom. Users have commented saying YoungAfricaLive creates a platform for them to express their ideas. The community is aimed at users between 16 and 24 and users receive daily news and celeb stories. (thus) sustainability is always a question. html [5] http:/ / www. htm http:/ / www. org/ [10] http:/ / www. These are used by the young patrollers in the community to keep in touch and to report all crime incidents. za/ mobile/ vodafone-live [11] South African sexologist Dr Eve [12] http:/ / www. praekeltfoundation.. budde. interview members of the community and create video clips. The South African Police Service also runs a national crime line which they encourage citizens to SMS in and report crimes in their communities. praekeltfoundation. At the end of 2010. internetworldstats. html [8] http:/ / www.

It also provides resources needed to efficiently serve a mobile subscriber such as registration. This will help when a call is received outside of the MSC's coverage area or for an incoming PSTN call. there has to be a method of connectivity between the MTSO and the cell site. . etc. This provides an interface to the (Public Switched Telephone Network) (PSTN). This may be by DS1. and once the phone and the tower switch on those frequencies. The MSC is connected to a close telephone exchange by a trunk group. can be switched automatically to a channel in the next cell. It also provides connectivity to the PSTN. it checks its database for the location of the phone. The MSC is responsible for switching calls to mobile units as well as to the local telephone system. If it finds a control channel to listen to. When a mobile phone is turned on. The region to be served by a Cellular Geographic Serving Area(CGSA) is split into geographic cells. location updating and call routing. Its subordinate BSC/RNC are responsible for assigning frequencies to each call. the cell site controllers provide control functions for a group of cell sites and actions of mobile phones through command and control data channels. Anytime a MSC successfully registers a subscriber the HLR record is also updated. The phone also transmits a registration request along with the SID. The MSC communicates with the phone over the control channel to tell it which frequencies to use. If both SIDs match then it knows that it is communicating with a cell in its home system. Other MTSO equipment. the call is connected. All cellular systems have at least one MTSO which will contain at least one MSC. With the subscriber's VLR Profile the MSC can determine the last known LAC/CID for this subscriber and knows which BTS to use when it needs to ring/page that phone for an incoming call. controlling handoffs so a mobile phone leaving one cell (formally known as BTS)'s coverage area. It also contains the equipment for controlling the cell sites that are connected to the MSC. These cells are ideally hexagonal in shape and they are initially laid out with their centers about 4 to 8 miles apart from each other. DS3. compiling billing information (with the help of its CBM/SDM). Then it picks a frequency pair the phone will use in that cell to take the call. authentication. receives the SID and then compares it to the SID programmed into the phone. recording billing data and processing data from the cell site controllers. If the subscriber has previously registered to a particular MSC then the MSC will have a record in its VLR and will therefore know the subscriber last registered location. The MTSO contains the switching equipment or Mobile Switching Center (MSC) for routing mobile phone calls. It is responsible for interconnecting calls with the local and long distance landline telephone companies.Mobile Telephone Switching Office 189 Mobile Telephone Switching Office The Mobile Telephone Switching Office (MTSO) is the mobile equivalent to a PSTN Central Office. If it cannot find any control channels to listen to then it assumes it is outside the range and displays a message indicating no service. When the MSC gets the call. A subscriber's VLR profile has a LAC(Location Area Code .Area server by cluster of BTS/cell sites) CID (Cell ID) as well as a list of allowed and disallowed services/features and other information. If the subscriber is unknown to the MSCs VLR. OCn or Ethernet circuits. Subscriber Registration The MSC also plays a major role in call routing. To achieve this. reassigning frequencies for handoffs. The systems in the MTSO are the heart of a cellular system. it will query the HLR to obtain the subscriber's profile and save it for a set length of time in its VLR. it listens for the network operator's SID (System Identification Code) on the control channel.

Wireless A to Z. The Irwin handbook of telecommunications. Telecommunication system engineering. The returning instructions for handoff sent during a call must use the voice channel. • James Harry Green (2005). if the SID on the control channel does not match the SID programmed into the phone. 2. Mobile ticketing is a method by which law enforcement agencies use in-car computers to create traffic citations in the field. John Wiley and Sons. As a result a MSC can serve a large are typically hundreds of miles. A MSC can serve many BSCs/RNCs which in turn server many BTS. Muller (2003). After handoff. Mobile ticketing is a prime example of horizontal telecommunication convergence. the BSC(GSM) or RNC(3G UMTS) will automatically instruct it to tune to a different frequency. • Roger L. then the phone assumes that it is roaming. Freeman (2005). Highly populated areas require more BTSs and BSCs/RNCs which will in turn obviously. one assigned to the newly entered BTS. place by analyzing measurements of radio signal strength made by the present controlling cell site and by its neighbors.[1] Applications for Mobile Tickets • • • • • • Airline check-in Cinema ticketing Concert/Event ticketing Consumer voucher distribution Mass transit Trade shows . This process is called handoff. John Wiley and Sons. pay for. and the entire returning process takes only about 300 milliseconds. then print a hard copy for the offender. Fundamentals of telecommunications. Mobile ticketing 1. The MSC also performs handovers/handoffs which occurs when a call needs to be handed off to a different BSC/RNC it serves or to completely new MSC. The remaining functions of a MSC are identical to a PSTN switch. Mobile ticketing is the process whereby customers can order. The advantages of mobile ticketing include reduced paperwork time. • Roger L. References • Nathan J. Mobile tickets reduce the production and distribution costs connected with traditional paper-based ticketing channels and increase customer convenience by providing new and simple ways to purchase tickets. The above in a MSC is what's considered as it's mobility management. Freeman (2004). McGraw-Hill Professional. The data regarding the new channel are sent rapidly (in about 50 milliseconds).Mobile Telephone Switching Office 190 Handovers As a mob unit engaged in a call moves away from a cell site or formally known as Base transceiver station and its signal weakens. McGraw-Hill Professional. will reduce the geographic coverage of a DMSC. The BTS. BSC/RNC are the RAN/UTRAN (Radio Access Network & UMTS Radio Access Network) subset in the mobile network. obtain and validate tickets from any location and at any time using mobile phones or other mobile handsets. reduced chance of tickets being made void by human error and immediate accessibility of citation information by other departments.

For repeated purchases such as daily train tickets. The drawbacks to text message purchasing is that either the vendor loses 40% of their revenue to the mobile operator. BCBP is said to be able to save the industry over US $500 million annually.[2] Mobile Tickets can be purchased in a variety of ways including online. around 40% of the transaction value is retained by the mobile operator and sms aggregator. The industry has set a deadline of the end of 2010 to implement 100% bar coded boarding passes (BCBP). either time. or a secure mobile application. A return message is sent containing the mobile ticket. WAP page. and very few ticket choices can be easily remembered and entered by SMS. The use of different ordering codes enables creating a variety of ticket types. GV for a single adult ticket in Gothenburg.Mobile ticketing 191 Advantage of mobile tickets • • • • Improved consumer convenience Increased revenue by increasing accessibility of tickets Reduced infrastructure costs (scanners retail at 30 times the cost of 1d scanners) Reduced ticket printing/mailing cost Using Mobile Tickets Mobile Purchase Over the past 10 years.or distance based pricing and different zone systems. GU for a youth ticket or GN as a night tariff ticket in Gothenburg). . Different ticket types can be ordered with a different code (e. SMS Purchase SMS purchase is usually achieved by sending an SMS message containing a short code (e.g. This trend will be accelerated by the increased functionality of today's mobile devices.g. The revenue share model need to be re-negoatiated separately with teleoperators to suit for mobile ticketing. which is not viable when the ticket has a conventional profit margin. via text messaging or over the phone from a voice call. The price of the ticket can be added to the users mobile phone bill or debited from their pre-paid service using premium SMS billing. The next logical step for consumers who are looking for even more convenient methods of doing business is mobile purchase. mobile applications or text messaging are good options. e-commerce has exploded. with many consumers becoming increasingly comfortable with purchasing online. The main business limitation is that when premium SMS is used for billing. but the limitation is the low usage volume of these kind of payment solutions. Upon full implementation. The International Air Transport Association (IATA) 2007 announced a global standard that paves the way for global mobile phone check-in using two-dimensional (2D) bar codes. Sweden) to a service number. Other methods for billing include having a mobile wallet that allows the phone user to charge their credit card. or any credit card purchase has to be achieved through a web page as the SMS has no security suitable for credit card entry.

WAP Push and MMS) . Each of the above methods has its specific benefits and drawbacks.This is the method proposed under the Near Field Communication (NFC) specification but not yet in general use. Text-only messaging is supported by all mobile phones and is the simplest method of delivery. GPRS.which can store and render barcodes delivered via SMS. IRDA or RFID. size of pixels. Bluetooth. New systems that make use of encryption of the data inside the barcode enable off-line scanning and validation.visual inspection or OCR Text messaging with WAP Push . allowing the user to setup an account and choosing payment options etc. It usually requires the sender to know the phone model in advance so that the picture is rendered at the correct resolution. which is especially important if users are purchasing tickets immediately prior to use. (Many transport ticketing systems. Text-based codes use OCR software. which is especially useful for transport tickets. Southend United Football Club is currently the only team in the UK to have a mobile ticketing facility offered to fans.Mobile ticketing Online Purchase Online purchase is still an option for mobile tickets. such as the London Oyster card travel system and the M-PhaTic system of the Swedish state railways SJ are designed so that scanners can operate as disconnected islands when connectivity to central systems is lost. Picture-based messages require a laser scanner (for 1-dimensional/linear barcodes) or camera based imager (for 2-dimensional barcodes) to photograph the message and decode it into a ticket ID. RFID is only supported by a very few phones yet.usually uses a barcode Dedicated Mobile application . reflections). and the portable venue or on-vehicle scanning devices cannot always have a connection to the live ticket database. Near Field Communication devices scan using an RFID reader. A dedicated mobile application can also help the user to organise and sort their tickets better than when an SMS or MMS inbox is full of similar tickets. Optically reading the display of a cell phone is heavily influenced by the quality of the display (resolution. Mobile Ticket Redemption Visually validated mobile tickets are validated without connection to a back office system.visual inspection or OCR Picture messaging (SMS. Picture messaging is supported by almost all phones and is generally the delivery method of choice. meaning faster and more successful scanning. • Device RFID . Mobile Ticket Scanning Visually validated mobile tickets do not require a scan device. Other forms of mobile ticket systems contact a server that is able to verify the ticket and record that it has been used. Very few phones outside Japan have RFID/NFC tags and so this method of delivery is largely unsupported. 192 Mobile Ticket Delivery Delivery of tickets to mobile phones can be done in a variety of ways: • • • • Text messaging (SMS) . Barcodes rendered on the device by a dedicated application have the advantage of being full screen without clutter. EMS. except of Japanese Osaifu-Keitai. Most forms of mobile tickets require some form of device to read the ticket from the user's device.) .

Secure. Barcode 1D and 2D delivered via secure encrypted SMS or GPRS. using a 3kb Java Platform Providers of the first ever Twitter to Mobile Barcode delivery solution Consulting on Offices based in London (UK). Worldwide. Utilises existing Chip and PIN technology for ticket code capture and data transfer.Brisbane/Australia Mobile Tickets Ltd In-Mobile Application. . fast. codeREADr Barcode:1D and Embedded data 2D print or virtual. Remote or local server. secure & also working customizable on Mobile Tickets in Facebook App Offices: Sofia/Bulgaria. PDA communicate with BO via WiFi/GPRS connection. dynamic user experience. scanner and kiosk equipment required for Mobile Ticketing Investment for Australia. PDA or Chip and PIN handset. Secure. Secure real time redemption of ticket. The solution includes PDA software and Back Office system. The solution is used to sales tickets on move. Eagle Eye Solutions Limited Central server lookup utilising either internet or existing financial networks. also offering solutions for the purchase of turnstiles. integrated thermal printer. Remote or local server. possible. Text-based SMS as response to text in. PDA or kiosk rental costs. reliable. Unique and multi use tickets available. iPhone at point of entry. For budget-conscious (scanner already in pocket). validated in real-time. text push. Capture of significant customer data. North America Banking and Payments. Remote or World wide delivery local server. Customer types unique code into kiosk. Mobile with partners in Europe. United States scanner devices. WAP Purchase. bCode Text-based SMS..Mobile ticketing 193 Solutions Company Delivery Method Scanning Method Validation Method Advantages Disadvantages Location Mobile Ticketing Solution Bissano Software ltd Worldwide delivery! Barcode scanner. Asia and Tickets. Integration into Chip and PIN system. Electronically (camera). strong device support. Requires Worldwide..

it Barcode-based MMS. INA secure server and/or local server. Investment for scanner devices. EXIO & MD-20 barcode scanners. local server as ticket code contains full information Investment in scanner devices required if existing units cannot be used. wide-reach. Europe. InMoDo (M-PhaTic) Text-based SMS. SMS.strong device support. integration with ticketing. Email. live voucher. fraud prevention. integrated marketing services. API integration into existing systems Rental of or investment for scanner devices. Secure and easy. strong device support. No investment for scanner devices. API to integrate to existing ticketing solutions Rental of or investment for scanner devices. High telecom costs of MMS messages.reliable. Secure. Secure control code system for visual validation. including handheld units from well-known brands. no phone settings or pre-registration required. Secure. Investment in scanner devices required if existing units cannot be used. Codes validated with mBARC/Newland scan engine. barcode 1D and 2D. range of scanners for different use-cases. Integration with proximity couponing via Bluetooth own servers. Remote or local server. RFID Imager/Camera-based Remote or scanners. (service worldwide) INA Finland Text-based SMS w/WAPpush. EMS or MMS. Remote or local server. CRM and access management solutions. Italy 194 Gavitec AG Barcode-based SMS. Secure. Off-the shelf image scanner. Visually / validators. single SMS. Finland. Remote or local server. Sweden. Worldwide Impact Mobile Barcode-based SMS w/WAPpush or MMS. No visual validation. single SMS. Secure. optional extra verification by phone.Mobile ticketing GEAR. worldwide . although implementation possible. Tampere. No settings or pre-registration needed. Problem with several phone models.

Off-the shelf barcode Remote or scanner. Mobimatics Caching GPRS manifest downloads stored on local devices. Remote or local server. API integration into existing systems Removal of human visual validation. EMS). 2D M-Scan Validator 1D. More reliable barcode scanning because of full-screen rendering of the barcode. Handheld QR code scanners. without any sign-up process or passwords. Mobile and Event Ticketing Solutions Secure. Airline Tickets / 2D Barcode Off-the shelf barcode Remote or scanner local server World wide delivery. MMS. MMS. including using other mobile phones as the inspection device Encrypted barcode contents enable off-line validation without synchronising ticket databases onto the local scanner. Micro Edition. secure. Worldwide deployments Micket Mobile Ticket Barcode-based SMS. wide-reach. Worldwide . visual ID included. or on-line validation. Encrypted/Plain text QR code. WAP Push or MMS. optimised barcode tailored to the mobile to ensure successful scanning - Worldwide Moo! Mobile Technology Barcode-based 2D barcode scanner SMS. NOKIA SMART. Rental of or Worldwide Investment for scanner devices. Twitter. United Kingdom. optimised 1D and 2D barcodes tailored to the mobile to ensure successful scanning Secure ticket purchase and delivery from the mobile. Mobile application must be installed on phone by the user or the operator Norway 195 Masabi Dedicated mobile application. local server. EMS. WAP Push or MMS Remote or local server Integrated branding Phone model and marketing required solution. Integration with Facebook. Barcodes delivered in a single SMS. (SMS. scanner / visually WAP. MBO Barcode-based Off the shelf image SMS. Secure. API available. Secure. usually Java Platform. Netherlands. Worldwide delivery. total fraud prevention. visual ID included. Nokia Smart. MMS. fraud prevention. Secure and Encrypted.Mobile ticketing Liquid Barcodes Barcode. Mobiqa Barcode-based SMS. barcode tickets delivered via encrypted SMS or GPRS Any 2D barcode scanner. Investment for scanner devices. Keyword Text-In/Push/WAP Purchase/Secure Interfaces Barcode SMS 1D. WAP. integrated marketing services. live voucher. 2D barcodes on mobiles Remote or local server Investment for scanner devices.

Mobile ticketing MogoTix QR code-based ticket delivered through SMS Validated using MogoTix iPhone or Android apps Remote or local server Self-service ticketing. Fixed and handheld scanners available. all options available Delivers tickets via SMS text message PCT patent pending On Device Verification® and dynamic elements on tickets and coupons. data necessary On Device None Verification®. tested with 2 optional scanner/validator systems. Investment for Worldwide scanners needed (but only if automatic validation is required). Credit card registration needed. easy integration of API. Plusdial SMS text message (one SMS is enough. Operated since 2001 with over 60 million tickets sold. downloaded to RFID chip (Mobile FeliCa) RFID reader (PaSoRi) Online lookup Secure RFID system Not usable for without visual non-compliant scanning. global delivery.g. system works in all mobile phone models without registration or even data settings requirements. Patented control code system for visual validation. fast setup. Still often uses paper ticket for confirmation. binary SMS to carry bar codes) Visually (naked eye) or validators reading textual content Remote or local server. ScreenTicket SMS with link delivered to web based mobile tickets and coupons. secure solutions Rental of or investment for scanner devices - Global. based out of Denmark ShowClix Ticketing LLC Remote server United States . No scanners needed Off-the shelf image scanner Remote server. even an Android smart phone with camera and downloadable software can be used as handheld validator. phones. As textual SMS used. event organizers can sign up to quickly sell mobile tickets to events iPhone or Worldwide Android phone required to scan tickets 196 NTT DoCoMo (Osaifu-Keitai) Online purchase. No investment needed when using visual checking. no need for e.

MMS. delivery and redemption. Content sent via SMS/WAP Push. Strong device support. Investment in traditional 2D scanners or smart phones. Secure. local database or custom integration Open system . Scalable worldwide with connectivity.can integrate with any coupon/ticket/loyalty programme. Secure. MMS. MMS specialist. NFC. WAP. USA. Read paper and mobile barcodes. Secure. visual ID included. EMS). NOKIA SMART. PDA MMS. strong device support. Strong device support. 2D-Barcode-based SMS. . unique one time use codes. custom built local server. 2D) Online lookup. delivery. Ltd Barcode. total fraud prevention. EMS). through end-to-end control over the entire GSM delivery path. CRM and access management solutions. Barcode-based SMS. barcode scanners (1D. Keyword Text-In/Push/WAP Purchase/Secure Interfaces Barcode.Mobile ticketing Sincoda Limited 2D barcode creation. (SMS. Secure RFID/NFC reader with dual SAM slots. Indian Investment for India . Barcode reader. Smartmachine CCD-camera based Online or barcode scanner. Content sent via WAP and embedded email 2D barcode. wide-reach. integration with ticketing. MMS. EMS). API option. WAP Push or MMS. Western Europe Trinity Mobile Limited Barcode (SMS. enterprise solution. authentication and redemption. or Kiosk NOKIA. scanner Highest privacy devices. United Kingdom 197 Skycore LLC 2D barcode creation. attached to an access control reader or built into a kiosk. remote or local. Pyrumas Software Pvt. NOKIA SMART. WAP. Airline Tickets / 2D Barcode Any 2D barcode scanner Removal of human visual validation.Chamrajpet. Investment for scanner devices. optional printer dock. Customised version for car parks Online lookup via GPRS or WiFi. Highest scanner privacy protection devices. Cross carrier (US). Off-the-shelf 2D Local or scanners and/or smart Remote phones authenticated Server. Worldwide Investment for Worldwide availability. (SMS. WAP Push. Airline Tickets / 2D Barcode Any 2D barcode scanner Online. Strategic partnership with IATA for mobile boarding passes. remote or local. Bangalore. WAP. local server or trickle fed PDA database. Free software tyntec Secure. Connectivity. Rental of or investment for scanners needed. local. Rental of or investment for scanners needed. end-to-end. 2D-Barcode via Mail to BlackBerry/PDA. to scan/read 2D barcodes. Wifi and GPRS Online. NFC or RFID via Sincoda terminal. protection through end-to-end control over the entire GSM delivery path. Worldwide Timoco Off-the shelf barcode Remote or scanner. MMS and Email.

WAP & Mobile Web Interfaces Premium and Standard Rate SMS Connections to 30+ Carriers Handheld units IPhone. com/ cgi-bin/ stories. 198 Wayin Solutions 1D and 2D Barcode-based message (SMS. integrated marketing services. Worldwide delivery! Offices: Sofia/Bulgaria. code lookup Online. WAP and EMAIL(Optional for Smartphones). strong devices device support. required. com/ index. prnewswire. rental of scanner units available (South Africa Only) Investment for South Africa scanner devices. highly flexible ticket product types Secure. Easy integration of api. Off-the shelf. World wide delivery Investment Offices: Finland. Latin possible. Mobile Ticketing Solution The solution includes PDA software and Back Office system. integrated thermal printer.mTicket.only SMS. live voucher. fraud prevention. The solution is used to sales tickets on move. Investment for EU base and soon Worldwide No phone settings or scanner Partner. Barcode scanner. Motorola .Secure.MMS. USA. 2D) WapOneline SMS. Romania. No need additional software to install on the phone. Investment for Europe multiple payment scanner methods. Ikôn. pre-registration devices.strong and reliable device support . 3G. API integration into existing systems. EMS. pl?ACCT=109& STORY=/ www/ story/ 03-11-2008/ 0004771817& EDATE= [2] http:/ / mttnow.Mobile ticketing Unwire SMS. custom Remote or built barcode local server scanners (1D . php?pageID=14 . Android.Brisbane/Australia References [1] http:/ / www. and remote or imager/camera-based local scanners No sign-up needed. Purchase Conf# or Barcode delivered to handset Remote or local server validation. PDA communicate with BO via WiFi/GPRS connection. Smart camera image scanner.co Text base SMS 100% compatible with all mobile handsets. www. WiFi. secure & required for America customizable customization and messaging service White label solution. Inc. DataTEK Group. smartphone apps and mobile web Visual.

Many use a Mobile Virtual Network Enabler. For some of the earlier markets that embraced the MVNO model. nor does it necessarily have all of the infrastructure required to provide mobile telephone service. such as mobile switching centers (MSCs) or a radio access network. Virgin replicated its UK success through its US operation Virgin .[3] launched in 1999 and currently has over 4 million customers in the UK. such as in the Scandinavia region. In many of the early markets the regulator forced Host Network Operators (HNO's) to open their network to a potential competitor. There is a distinction between MVNOs and service providers. the MVNO does not own any GSM. Some MVNOs run their own billing and customer care solutions known as business support systems (BSS). Some may own their own home location register. This resistance presented a challenging operating environment for the MVNO. an MVNO is an entity or company that works independently of the mobile network operator and can set its own pricing structures that are subject to the rates agreed with the MNO. most notably with regard to negotiating the best wholesale deal possible. in this case. Conversely and more recently many mobile network operators believe that there is merit in operating a wholesale MVNO business unit to complement their retail model. Regulatory intervention designed to lower the barriers for market entry and ultimately increase competition or a strategic decision by an MNO looking to extend its existing operations and target niche or underserved segments through a second or perhaps multiple brands. and the services they provide depend on the services of the hosting MNOs or MVNOs. and as a network within its own region. or HLR. And have therefore either openly embraced potential MVNO partners or endeavored to launch their own branded MVNOs. In general. MVNOs are roughly equivalent to the "switchless resellers" of the traditional landline telephone market. the MVNO appears as a roaming partner to other networks abroad. nor does it have the time consuming task of rolling out extensive radio infrastructure.[2] Background and history The emergence of the MVNO model in a market is often a result of one of two factors. and the individual situations of the MNO and MVNO. in that an MVNO doesn’t incur the significant capital expenditure on spectrum and infrastructure that an MNO does. The efficiency is obtained by the nature of the MVNO business model. who purchase wholesale mobile minutes and resell to end-users. The first commercially successful MVNO in the United Kingdom was Virgin Mobile UK. country.Mobile virtual network operator 199 Mobile virtual network operator A mobile virtual network operator (MVNO) is a company that provides mobile phone services but does not have its own licensed frequency allocation of radio spectrum. or other core mobile network related infrastructure. the regulatory authority sought to introduce the MVNO/wholesale model to drive competition into a market that was considered to involve significant market power which existed for early entrant MNO's in those countries. CDMA.[1] Conversely. Service providers generally do not have their own SIM cards. An MNO that does not have a frequency spectrum allocation in a particular geographical region may operate as an MVNO in that region. which presented a more favorable environment for a potential MVNO. a company that does have frequency allocation(s) and all the required infrastructure to run an independent mobile network is known simply as a mobile network operator (MNO). Usually. The regulatory perception was that the MVNO model would be a time efficient and cost effective route for telecoms companies to enter the market and therefore bring increased competition for the benefit of the consumer. which allows more flexibility and ownership of the subscriber's mobile phone number (MSISDN). An MVNO's roles and relationship to the MNO vary by market. The situation created was one of a reluctant HNO which felt that it was being forced into a commercial relationship that would eventually have a negative impact on its revenues.

and Baraka Telecom in Asia. The voice-centric. which in turn are operated by 515 companies (some companies operate multiple MVNOs in the same country). Aggregator MVNEs with their own platforms this includes aggregators which have developed one or more back-office solutions internally. strong brand MVNO is transforming the dynamics of the MVNE market. Specialised enablers these offer only parts of the back-office network such as messaging platforms. The new breed high-end. Most industry observers believe that over time. Tyntec. and mobile virtual network enabler (MVNE). Transatel.[4] However ventures in Australia have not been so successful. Elephant Talk. Examples of a non-consumer MVNO being wireless maingate and white Machine-to-Machine (M2M) data-based MVNOs. Elephant Talk. they choose to own more of their platforms. 120 MVNOs now offer mobile broadband services. distribution and customer care systems. Virgin ran using a service provider model—essentially reselling capacity on T-Mobile. Transatel. ASPIDER Solutions. 6GMOBILE. created when Telia failed to obtain a 3G license in their home market. rMVNOs. 200 MVNOs worldwide As of May 2011 there are 645 active MVNO operations in the world. Convergys. . and have complemented them with partnerships to provide end-to-end enablement services. ASPIDER Solutions. according to their MVNO solutions: Aggregator MVNEs these offer consulting and integration services and have bundled all of the back-office network components through alliances. while others will go out of business (examples are Disney Mobile and Helio in the USA and easyMobile in Europe). Initially. operationally light MVNOs of today have generally worked with an aggregator MVNE that managed the limited back-end operations on behalf of the MVNO. Martin Dawes Systems. particularly their logistics. Besides leveraging their own existing assets. Cognatel. This model formed the basis between the co-operation between Tele2 in Sweden and Telia. and failed in Singapore. 6GMOBILE.[5] MVNOs target both the consumer and enterprise markets. Companies include [7] Cognatel.Telogic Teleena. and subsequently rolled out in several European markets. including MVNO. Effortel. Companies include Teleena. These are distinct from domestic MVNO agreements and are intended to provide transparency of international tariffs. data platforms and billing solutions. which was acquired by Sprint Nextel for a total equity value of approximately USD$483 million. Companies include Ztar and TMNG. albeit with a different strategy. roaming mobile virtual networks operators (rMVNO). They still work with MVNEs. but they tend to opt for specialised ones with best-of-breed solutions and a strong reputation.Mobile virtual network operator Mobile USA. One specific sector of MVNO operations focuses on international. Qualution. consolidation will take place on the market. txtNation. there are three main categories of MVNEs. These promote their ability to quickly provide order-to-cash solutions to MVNOs. However the majority of MVNOs are consumer-focused and most have a focus on price as their unique selling point. and Baraka Telecom in Asia. They are not solely focused on the MVNO market. [6] Terminology The industry is going through stages characterized by alphabet soup nomenclature. LogicStar. The first MVNO was created by Tele2 in Denmark. According to Pyramid Research. aql.

product. Mobile operators and MVNOs There are three primary motivations for mobile operators to allow MVNOs on their networks. Network utilisation-driven strategies Many mobile operators have capacity. marketing). MVNOs are a way to implement a more specific marketing mix. along with specific domain knowledge software applications with specific content. help fight churn. such as GPRS. customer service. Discount MVNOs provide cut-price call rates to market segments. whether alone or with partners and they can help attack targeted segments. Ethnic MVNOs like Lebara iCard Mobile and Globalcell Mobile who target ethnic communities by providing inexpensive calls to their home country. 201 MVNO classification Business MVNOs like BeyondMobile and Abica provide bespoke services to businesses. Advertising-funded MVNOs like Blyk or MOSH Mobile build revenues from advertising to give a set amount of free voice. EVDO. grow average revenue per user by providing new applications and tariff plans and also can help with difficult issues like how to deal with fixed-mobile convergence by allowing MVNOs to try out more experimental projects and applications. . Product-driven strategies MVNOs can help mobile operators target customers with specialised service requirements and get to customer niches that mobile operators cannot get to. They usually host their services in one location. These are generally: Segmentation-driven strategies mobile operators often find it difficult to succeed in all customer segments. These companies are pushing their own business model as content driven MVNO. An MVNO strategy can generate economies of scale for better network utilisation. Lifestyle MVNOs like Helio focus on specific niche market demographics. and segment needs–especially in new areas like 3G. and content to their subscribers. MVNO models mean lower operational costs for mobile operators (billing. other Global Service or specialized application based MVNO are also growing. The opportunity for mobile operators to take advantage of MVNOs generally outweighs the competitive threat. text. sales.Mobile virtual network operator Exploiting the wireless IP networks competing infrastructure bandwidth with low traffic due to the lack of Mobile Driven Content. and provide access to their content in different countries via specialized Mobiles and existing IP coverage.

while the MVNO can improve its profitability by offering specialist and niche mobile solutions. customer billing and collection of consumption data and mobile handset management. the MSSE helps the MVNO to deploy its own network of low-power base-stations into areas the MNO could not justify. and operating within the MNO's spectrum license. invoicing and collect consumption data and handle handset management themselves. The MVNE is capable of handling Network Routing and the MVNE has typically entered into roaming deals with foreign MNOs. Mobile shared spectrum enabler (MSSE) The MSSE has no mobile infrastructure of its own. using Pico. collection of consumption data and mobile handset management. . The MNO can typically handle customer service. The MVNO is often able to produce and distribute for example voice minutes and data traffic. this is a task for the MNE's wholesale customers.and Femto-cell technologies. Additionally the MNO will usually handle marketing and sales to end users themselves. Mobile network enabler (MNE) An MNE is characterised by having their own mobile licence and own mobile infrastructure. The MNO can handle Network Routing and will usually have roaming deals with foreign MNOs. SMS and MMS messaging and data traffic themselves. It is therefore only an MNO that can establish themselves as an MNE. The MNE is capable of handling Network Routing themselves and the MNE will typically have roaming deals with foreign MNOs. Furthermore the MVNO will usually handle marketing and sales to end-users them self. The MVNE is not capable of producing and distributing for example voice minutes and data traffic. customer billing. Using its agreement with the MNO. their own mobile infrastructure and direct customer relationship to the end user. Mobile virtual network enabler (MVNE) MVNEs are characterised by neither having a mobile licence nor mobile infrastructure or any direct customer relationship with the end-users. The MNE will not handle marketing and sales to end-users. extend the reach of the its network at no cost. The MVNE handles the technical side and often also tasks like customer service and legal assistance for mobile providers without their own network. customer billing and collection of consumption data and handset management. The MNE handles the technical side of the business and often also handles areas like customer service and legal assistance for mobile providers without their own network. The MNE is able to produce and distribute for example voice minutes.Mobile virtual network operator 202 Understanding the MVNO value chain Mobile network operator (MNO) The traditional MNO is characterised by having their own mobile licence. SMS and MMS messages and data traffic. Additionally the MVNE will not handle marketing and sales to end-users. this is a task for the MVNE's wholesale customers. typically by tagging onto their existing fixed line operation. and the MVNO will typically be able to handle producing SMS and MMS messages. but the MVNE will typically be able to handle producing SMS and MMS messages. The MNO can produce and distribute for example voice-minutes. but is a technology provider that uses innovative hardware and software to enable MVNOs to create their own actual mini-networks. The MVNE functions as a middleman between the MNO and the mobile providers without their own networks. if it chooses.unlike the MNO . but the MNE has . The MNE will typically be able to handle customer relationship. while preserving and enhancing the relationship between MVNO and MNO.no direct customer relationship with the end user. There is no impact on the MNO's mainstream network and it can. A typical MVNO will be able to handle customer service. The MVNO is able to handle Network Routing themselves and will typically have entered into roaming deals with foreign MNOs. A typical MVNE will handle customer service. but the MVNO has the direct customer relationship with the end user. Mobile virtual network operator (MVNO) An MVNO is characterised by neither having their own mobile licence nor own mobile infrastructure.

• The MVNO is able to route and bill "on-net" call. • Interconnect. or other mobile/fixed operator based on "traffic wholesale" model. but the SP has the direct customer relationship with the end user. the SP will typically handle their own marketing and sales to end-users. The Host-MNO is seen as a utility in order to initiate a national mobile originating call without host-MNO Intelligent Network triggering • The MVNO numbering plan is completely independent from the MNO numbering plan.Mobile virtual network operator Service provider (SP) An SP has neither a mobile licence nor own mobile infrastructure. the MVNO own its SIM card. and own roaming agreement). The SP is not able to produce and distribute for example voice minutes and data traffic and cannot produce SMS or MMS messages themselves. and core network elements (MSC. but their distribution power will also be a central asset for many Branded Resellers. and have an independent SCCP layer compared to external mobile network (MNOs or roaming) • The MVNO can arrange interconnection agreement with one or several MVNO(s) on a "traffic wholesale" model (this traffic can be qualified by the MVNO for voice/data/SMS/MMS) • The MVNO can negotiate specific and direct interconnection agreement with any carrier. The SP will typically handle customer relationship. MSISDN. The MVNO is as such as possible independent from the host-MNO. in order to control traffic and subscriber services. A typical BR will not handle customer service. but has the direct customer relationship to end-users. @IP allocation and APN numbers are arranged by MVNO • The MVNO own in the country national Point Code. and the vocabulary must be technical in order to split the different models. IMSI. or mobile shared spectrum enabler (MSSE) This model is the most independent full MVNO model. 203 MVNO models and value chain As such. customer billing or collection of consumption data and handset management themselves. and manage the IMSI translation between national and roaming cases. The BR will primarily concentrate their activities around marketing and sales to end-users. AuC. Additionally. Example : 6GMOBILE (The Netherlands) aql (UK) [8] . HLR. This partner allocate a specific IMSI range. • The MVNO can be extended in future as MNO. there are several models of MVNO. GGSN). An SP is not able to handle Network Routing themselves and a SP will not enter into roaming deals with foreign MNOs. The BRs' positive contribution to the value chain is (naturally) their "brand". • IMSIs are from MVNO for national call (with its Mobile Network Code in the country) and roaming agreement is negotiated with a roaming partner. own subscriber provisioning. Branded reseller (BR) A BR has neither a mobile licence nor own mobile infrastructure. customer billing consumption data and handset management themselves. The BR cannot produce and distribute for example voice minutes and data traffic themselves and are not able to produce SMS or MMS messages. Full MVNO On-Brand • The MVNO has all the full-scale operator technology of a mobile operator (including own SIM Card. own billing. MNP. The BR cannot handle Network Routing themselves and the BR will not enter into roaming deals with foreign MNOs.

@IP allocation and APN numbers are arranged by MVNO • The MVNO own in the country National Point Code. • The MVNO can not be extended in future as MNO.Mobile virtual network operator 204 Full MVNO Basic • The MVNO has all the full-scale operator technology of a mobile operator (including own SIM Card. • IMSIs are from MVNO for national call (with its Mobile Network Code in the Country)and Roaming agreement is negotiated with a roaming partner. • Interconnect. own billing. and manage the IMSI translation between national and roaming cases. own subscriber provisioning. • The MVNO is not able to route and bill "on-net" call. @IP allocation and APN numbers are arranged by MVNO • MSISDN can be arranged by MVNO or host operator MNO • The MVNO own in the country National Point Code. IMSI. Telecable (Spain) Full MVNO Mono-IMSI • The MVNO has all the full-scale operator technology of a mobile operator (including own SIM Card. or Mobile shared spectrum enabler (MSSE) Example : KPN Spain. but not its own roaming agreement. own billing). • The MVNO numbering plan is not completely independent from the MNO numbering plan. AuC. The Host-MNO is yet controlling a national mobile originating call via Intelligent Network triggering. and have an independent SCCP layer compared to external mobile network (MNOs or roaming) • The MVNO can not arrange interconnection agreement with one or several MVNO(s) on a "traffic wholesale" model (this traffic can not be qualified by the MVNO for Voice/Data/SMS/MMS) • The MVNO can negotiate specific and direct interconnection agreement with any carrier. AuC. • The MVNO is not able to route and bill "on-net" call. MNP. and own roaming agreement). and have an independent SCCP layer compared to external mobile network (MNOs or roaming) • The MVNO can not arrange interconnection agreement with one or several MVNO(s) on a "traffic wholesale" model (this traffic can not be qualified by the MVNO for Voice/Data/SMS/MMS) • The MVNO can negotiate specific and direct interconnection agreement with any carrier. • IMSIs are from one and only one host operator MNO and thus roaming service. This partner allocate a specific IMSI range. own subscriber provisioning. • The MVNO can not be extended in future as MNO. MSISDN. or other mobile/fixe operator based on "traffic wholesale" model. IMSI are arranged by host operator MNO • MNP. The Host-MNO is yet controlling a national mobile originating call via Intelligent Network triggering. or other mobile/fixe operator based on "traffic wholesale" model. • Interconnect. • The MVNO numbering plan is not completely independent from the MNO numbering plan. or Mobile shared spectrum enabler (MSSE) .

The MVNO owns HLR and IN. The Host-MNO is yet controlling a national mobile originating call via Intelligent Network triggering.Mobile virtual network operator 205 Complete or extended MVNO • The MVNO has all the full-scale operator technology of a mobile operator (including own SIM Card. or other mobile/fixe operator based on "traffic wholesale" model. IMSI. own subscriber provisioning. • The MVNO can not be extended in future as MNO. • IMSIs are from one and only one host operator MNO and thus roaming service. • The MVNO is not able to route and bill "on-net" call. and can be seen as an extension of the host-MNO • The MVNO can not arrange interconnection agreement with one or several MVNO(s) on a "traffic wholesale" model (this traffic can not be qualified by the MVNO for Voice/Data/SMS/MMS) • The MVNO can not negotiate specific and direct interconnection agreement with any carrier. The MVNO numbering plan is not completely independent from the MNO numbering plan. or Mobile shared spectrum enabler (MSSE) Medium MVNO • • • • • • • • • • • The MVNO has not all the full-scale operator technology IMSIs are from one and only one host operator MNO and thus roaming service. and partially the subscriber provisioning. are arranged by host operator MNO • AuC. The MVNO can not be extended in future as MNO. and can be seen as an extension of the host-MNO The MVNO can not arrange interconnection agreement with one or several MVNO(s) on a "traffic wholesale" model (this traffic can not be qualified by the MVNO for Voice/Data/SMS/MMS) The MVNO can not negotiate specific and direct interconnection agreement with any carrier. • Interconnect. The Host-MNO is completely controlling mobile calls via Intelligent Network triggering. own billing). or other mobile/fixe operator based on "traffic wholesale" model. @IP allocation and APN numbers are arranged by MVNO • MSISDN can be arranged by MVNO or host operator MNO • The MVNO have not an independent SCCP layer compared to external mobile network (MNOs or roaming). • The MVNO numbering plan is not completely independent from the MNO numbering plan. Interconnect. The MVNO is not able to route and bill "on-net" call. • Roaming agreement is negotiated by Host-MNO. or Mobile shared spectrum enabler (MSSE) This is Complete MVNO without any routing capabilities (no MSC in the MVNO network). but not its own roaming agreement. MNP. IMSI. @IP allocation and APN numbers are arranged by MVNO MSISDN can be arranged by MVNO or host operator MNO The MVNO have not an independent SCCP layer compared to external mobile network (MNOs or roaming). . MNP are arranged by host operator MNO AuC.

Interconnect. @IP allocation and APN numbers are arranged by host operator MNO MSISDN can be arranged by MVNO or host operator MNO The MVNO have not an independent SCCP layer compared to external mobile network (MNOs or roaming). The MVNO can not be extended in future as MNO. MNP. KPN France. or other mobile/fixe operator based on "traffic wholesale" model. IMSI. The Host-MNO is completely controlling mobile calls via Intelligent Network triggering. Effortel Diameter MVNO • • • • • • • • • • The MVNO has not all the full-scale operator technology IMSIs are from one and only one host operator MNO and thus roaming service. The MVNO owns only IN. Transatel (France). or other mobile/fixe operator based on "traffic wholesale" model. no HLR in the MVNO network). Example : Fastweb (Italy). IMSI. and can be seen as an extension of the host-MNO The MVNO can not arrange interconnection agreement with one or several MVNO(s) on a "traffic wholesale" model (this traffic can not be qualified by the MVNO for Voice/Data/SMS/MMS) The MVNO can not negotiate specific and direct interconnection agreement with any carrier. The MVNO owns only Rating capabilities via Host-MNO Diameter oriented interfaces. or Mobile shared spectrum enabler (MSSE) This is IN MVNO without any charging capabilities (no MSC. The MVNO is not able to route and bill "on-net" call. and can be seen as an extension of the host-MNO The MVNO can not arrange interconnection agreement with one or several MVNO(s) on a "traffic wholesale" model (this traffic can not be qualified by the MVNO for Voice/Data/SMS/MMS) The MVNO can not negotiate specific and direct interconnection agreement with any carrier. or Mobile shared spectrum enabler (MSSE) This is Medium MVNO without any routing capabilities (no MSC. @IP allocation and APN numbers are arranged by host operator MNO MSISDN can be arranged by MVNO or host operator MNO The MVNO have not an independent SCCP layer compared to external mobile network (MNOs or roaming). The MNO owns the MVNO SIM Card. The MVNO numbering plan is not completely independent from the MNO numbering plan. The MVNO numbering plan is not completely independent from the MNO numbering plan. R (cable operator) (Spain). The MVNO can not be extended in future as MNO. Interconnect. Auc. Example : Sisteer (France) . The MVNO is not able to route and bill "on-net" call. no HLR in the MVNO network). The MNO owns the MVNO SIM Card.Mobile virtual network operator 206 IN MVNO • • • • • • • • • • The MVNO has not all the full-scale operator technology IMSIs are from one and only one host operator MNO and thus roaming service. MNP. Auc. The Host-MNO is completely controlling all mobile calls andIntelligent Network triggering.

Blycroft. . the Brazilian Agency of Telecommunications in November 2010. the European Commission issued a recommendation to national telecom regulators (NRAs) to examine the competitiveness of the market for wholesale access and call origination on public mobile telephone networks. The MNO owns the MVNO SIM Card.com) . com/ wp-dyn/ content/ article/ 2009/ 07/ 28/ AR2009072800878. Retrieved 21 Mar 2011. The MVNO is not able to route and bill "on-net" call. washingtonpost. com/ home/ mvno-directory). The MVNO owns only marketing. lvm. @IP allocation and APN numbers are arranged by host operator MNO MSISDN can be arranged by MVNO or host operator MNO The MVNO have not an independent SCCP layer compared to external mobile network (MNOs or roaming). and can be seen as an extension of the host-MNO The MVNO can not arrange interconnection agreement with one or several MVNO(s) on a "traffic wholesale" model (this traffic can not be qualified by the MVNO for Voice/Data/SMS/MMS) The MVNO can not negotiate specific and direct interconnection agreement with any carrier. The Host-MNO is completely controlling all mobile calls and Intelligent Network triggering.ja viestintäministeriö . AuC. org. References [2] Liikenne. "Sprint Nextel to Acquire Virgin Mobile USA" (http:/ / www. For example.zyairwireless. IMSI. [6] "1 in 4 MVNOs upgraded to offering mobile broadband" (http:/ / www. 2011-05-20.understandingmvno. [5] "MVNO Directory" (http:/ / www. In the Middle East.com (http:/ / about. aql. pdf) (Swedish) [3] About Virgin Mobile. com [1] OFCOM report (http:/ / www. and sometimes billing and provisioning. or Mobile shared spectrum enabler (MSSE) Known also as reseller or service provider model.Mobile virtual network operator 207 Light MVNO • • • • • • • • • • The MVNO has not all the full-scale operator technology IMSIs are from one and only one host operator MNO and thus roaming service. . The study resulted in new legislation from NRAs in countries like Ireland and France forcing operators to open up their network to MVNOs. uk/ consult/ condocs/ mobile_call_termination/ wmvct/ annexf/ ) • Understanding MVNOs (http://www. In Brazil.Etusivu (http:/ / www. The MVNO numbering plan is not completely independent from the MNO numbering plan. 2011-05-31. Jordan's TRA has issued its first MVNO regulations in 2008 facilitating the entrance of the first MVNO in the region. fi/ fileserver/ mvno pricing structures in finland. com/ home/ mvno-directory/ press-releases). Interconnect. [7] http:/ / www. in 2003. telecomsnetworks.com) • ZyAir Wireless (http://www. telecomsnetworks. MNP. virginmobile. or other mobile/fixe operator based on "traffic wholesale" model. virginmobile. Retrieved 2011-05-20. . Blycroft. telogic. the MVNO was regulated by Anatel. Legislation Presently many companies and regulatory bodies are strongly in favour of MVNOs. Washington Post. html). dk [8] http:/ / www. ofcom. com/ aboutus/ media/ news/ 2001/ 2001-06-25/ ) [4] Cecilia Kang (28 July 2009). The MVNO can not be extended in future as MNO. Retrieved 2011-05-31.

Mobile VPNs are used in environments where workers need to keep application sessions open at all times. causing applications to disconnect.[1] . which are useful for point-to-point connections when the network endpoints are known and remain fixed. as well as encryption of the data traffic in compliance with security standards such as FIPS 140-2 Link optimization and data compression improve performance over wireless networks. when they connect via other wireless or wired networks. smart card.[2] Comparison with other VPN types A VPN maintains an authenticated. notably for access to CJIS systems in law enforcement . the mobile VPN handles the logins automatically Software applications that run in an "always-connected" wired LAN environment run over the mobile VPN without modification Enforces authentication of the user. or a handheld user suspends and resumes the device Underlying virtual connection remains intact when the device switches to a different network. required by some regulations. launches applications that connect to corporate resources as needed. the device. and then logs off. field service management.) Other VPN types are IPsec VPNs. or suspend-and-resume their devices to preserve battery life. A mobile VPN maintains a virtual connection to the application at all times as the endpoint changes. a laptop goes into hibernation.[6] Function Persistence Roaming Application compatibility Security Acceleration Strong authentication Description Open applications remain active. the Internet.[2] Mobile VPNs are commonly used in public safety. In a mobile environment. handling the necessary network logins in a manner transparent to the user.[3] Increasingly. utilities and other industries. or both. the endpoint changes constantly (for instance. especially on cellular networks where bandwidth may be constrained. Enforces two-factor authentication or multi-factor authentication using some combination of a password. open and available when the wireless connection changes or is interrupted. or SSL VPNs. A conventional VPN cannot survive such events because the network tunnel is disrupted. hospital settings. or even the computing device itself to crash. home care.Mobile virtual private network 208 Mobile virtual private network A mobile virtual private network (mobile VPN or mVPN) provides mobile devices with access to network resources and software applications on their home network.[5] Mobile VPN functions The following are functions common to mobile VPNs.[4] Makers of mobile VPNs draw a distinction between remote access and mobile environments. they are being adopted by mobile professionals and white-collar workers as well. time out. which provide for access through a Web browser and are commonly used by remote workers (telecommuting workers or business travelers). fail. public key certificate or biometric device. encounter gaps in coverage. encrypted tunnel for securely passing data traffic over public networks (typically. as they connect via various wireless networks.[4] A remote-access user typically establishes a connection from a fixed endpoint. as users roam between different cellular networks or Wi-Fi access points). throughout the working day.

automatic vehicle location. scheduling. and historical customer service data as well as databases of customer-premises equipment. work order management. anti-virus and anti-spyware protection status. this is useful for ensuring delivery of the essential "mission-critical" applications (such as computer-assisted dispatch for public safety) or giving priority to streaming media or voice-over-IP Evaluates the patch status. parts ordering. maintenance tracking. estimating applications Field-service engineers. dispatch. asset tracking. parts ordering. and parts inventory. bandwidth of the connection. testing and training applications Claims systems. accounting Field Service Management which can include customer relationship management. TCP and UDP port. patient registration. time of day. and other aspects of the "health" of the device before allowing a connection. first responders registration plate databases. inventory. where they give mobile workers access to software applications. and in some VPNs. criminal databases including the CJIS system. the ability to control access by individual application software Quality of service Specifies the priority that different applications or services should receive when contending for available wireless bandwidth. repair technicians Field Sales Utilities Insurance Sales representatives Linemen. installation and repair technicians. customer-service. home care aides and hospice workers Physicians. electronic medical records. billing. Computerized physician order entry. emergency Computer-assisted dispatch. geographic information systems. field-service engineers Claims adjusters . in-home physical therapists and occupational therapists. and offers the ability to quarantine a device if there is possibility that it may have been lost or stolen Policy Management Enforces access policies based on the network in use. Electronic medical records. nurses and other staff Electronic health records. access requirements. delivered via SMTP.[8] Industry Public Safety Home Care Workers Applications Police officers. order fulfillment Dispatch. scheduling. etc.Mobile virtual private network 209 Mobile VPN management Some mobile VPNs offer additional "mobile-aware" management and security functions. Picture archiving and communications systems. state driver's license and vehicle services personnel. giving information technology departments visibility and control over devices that may not be on the corporate premises or that connect through networks outside IT's direct control. work-order management. firefighters. documentation access Customer relationship management. scheduling and billing applications Hospitals and Clinics Field Service Electronic health records.). SNMP or syslog Network Access Control (NAC) Mobile Analytics Notifications Mobile VPN industries and applications Mobile VPNs have found uses in a variety of industries.[7] Function Management console Description Displays status of devices and users. departmental intranet Visiting nurses. and optionally may integrate with policies to remediate the device automatically Gives administrators a view into how wireless networks and devices are used Alerts administrators of security concerns or connection problems that impact users. housekeeping. pharmacy. on layer-3 attributes (IP address. dashcam software.

com [10] http:/ / www.00.[9] Various handhelds and smartphones may also be used. that includes all mobile and desk phones • Short dialling – a short number to access each employee. in laptop or Tablet PC configurations. [2] Cheng. 2006. [3] http:/ / www. Through a connection between a leased line (E1/T1) and an enterprise PABX (Private Automatic Branch Exchange) system. December 11. Roger.[11] Mobile VPNs in telecommunications In telecommunication. http:/ / www. com/ products/ mobilevsssl. a mobile VPN is a solution that integrates all offices and employees in a common network that includes all mobile and desk phones. netmotionwireless. com/ industries/ default. netmotionwireless. com/ tip/ 0. 2007. com/ tip/ 0. Operating systems are typically Microsoft Windows-based. gd-itronix.00. html [6] http:/ / www.289483.com. wsj. columbitech. July 16. com/ business/ Toughbook.Mobile virtual private network 210 Mobile VPN devices Some mobile environments call for devices built to handle physical shock.[12] Using mVPNs the company has the following advantages:[13] • Direct connectivity – the corporate network becomes part of mobile operator's network through direct connection • Private numbering plan – the communication is tailored to company organisation • Corporate Business Group – all offices and employees are part of one common group. html). aspx . com/ article/ SB119717610996418467. html). com. netmotionwireless. aspx [4] http:/ / www. it connects remote and mobile users with the company. Lisa. by providing additional services and guarantees high quality for best value. http:/ / www.sid40_gci1210989_mem1. The Wall Street Journal. aspx [9] http:/ / www. com [8] http:/ / www. "Mobile VPN: Closing the Gap" (http:/ / searchmobilecomputing. Some manufacturers create ruggedized computers. netmotionwireless.sid40_gci1210989_mem1. http:/ / www. radio-ip. weather extremes or other conditions encountered outdoors or in the field. aspx [5] http:/ / searchmobilecomputing. techtarget. SearchMobileComputing. com/ support/ technotes/ 1515. panasonic. "Lost Connections" (http:/ / online. Vendors • • • • • • • Birdstep Technology ERICSSON Radio IP Software Columbitech NeoAccel NetMotion Wireless Nokia References [1] Phifer. techtarget.289483. com. netmotionwireless. Simultaneously mVPN makes internal communication more efficient.[10] Mobile VPN is available for all Symbian OS based smartphones by Nokia. no meter on his mobile or desk phone • Smart Divert – easy divert within company group • Groups and subgroups – Several sub-groups could be defined within the group with different changing as well as with separate numbering plan • Calls control – certain destinations could be allowed or barred both on mobile and desk phones. com [7] http:/ / www. netmotionwireless. such as the Panasonic Toughbook or the Itronix GoBook. com/ resources/ case_studies. including special mobile-capable versions such as Windows CE and Windows Mobile.

vpnc. Lasse Pajunen. 15–19 October 2007.com/columnists/ 2006/112706-mobile-ssl-vpn-yes. aspx) by Ramon Arja.Workflows for Mobile centric services composition [1] • "Developing Workflow Engine for Mobile Devices". July 2007 References [1] http:/ / research. MSDN Magazine.00. huawei.microsoft.com/en-us/magazine/ee412260. USA. July 9–11. • "Mobile Process Forms . Vila Real. SABRE. Anna Ruokonen. com/ projects/ mobile_business_processes . Lasse Pajunen. 5–8 October 2007 • "ActiveForms: A Runtime for Mobile Application Forms".An unified Messaging Interface". com/ publications/ view. The 11th International conference on EDOC-2007.html) • "Face-off: Mobile VPN is a better choice than an SSL VPN" (http://www.290660.networkworld. Germany.techtarget. com/ mobilevpn [12] http:/ / media. Suresh Chande. USA.Lasse Pajunen. 24–27 September 2007.sid40_gci1227022. Suresh Chande.html) by Tom Johnaton. Utah. Sameh Galal. Portugal. nokia. com/ product_data/ excerpt/ 10/ 04712190/ 0471219010. pdf [13] http:/ / www. Lasse Pajunen. Lasse Pajunen. Network World (24 November 2006) Mobile workflow Mobile Workflows can be defined as specialized Workflows aimed to address deployment of workflows in mobile device infrastructure enabling automation of process interaction with traditional business processes from within the device. Suresh Chande. Suresh Chande.org/) • "An Introduction to IPsec VPNs on Mobile Phones" (http://msdn. • "Designing User Interfaces for Mobile Business Processes using Messaging Interfaces". Annapolis.The 6th International Conference on mobile business ICMB 2007. Mobile Process . Maryland. Leipzig. Sameh Galal.Mobile virtual private network [11] http:/ / www. nokia.com/sDefinition/ 0. • "Modeling and Generating Mobile Business Processes". In the proceedings of The IEEE International Conference on Web Services (ICWS). September 2009 • Search Mobile Computing: mobile VPN (http://searchmobilecomputing. Salt Lake City. do?id=131& cid=79& pid=61 211 External links • VPN Consortium (http://www. Toronto Canada. wiley. WWW/internet 2007.

Info consortium The following companies were involved in the development of the Mobile. it also provides the capability of providing a greater voice coverage area than either carrier or WLAN technology alone since some areas do not have cellular service coverage and others do not have WiFi. Mobile to mobile convergence differs from conventional FMC in that the technology uses the WLAN to route calls via the internet as a primary function.Info is a technical platform for the distribution of traffic information and other location-coded services. which is delivered by Belgian company Mondial Telecom. The Mobile. Mobile to mobile convergence (MMC) is a term to describe a technology used in modern computing and telephony.info Mobile. Mobile. since most of the latter use the carrier network as the primary means of communication and do not leverage the lower cost and controls of internet protocol-based networks that are generally installed at most modern businesses.Mobile-to-mobile convergence 212 Mobile-to-mobile convergence The term mobile to mobile calling is used in many mobile phone plans to refer to making calls to other mobile phones using the same provider's network--which is often cheaper than other calls. The term is an offshoot of fixed mobile convergence (FMC) and uses dual mode (cellular network and WiFi) phones with a special software client and an application server to connect voice calls and business applications via a VoWLAN and/or through a cellular service. iOS and Android.Info platform: • Audi AG [1] • Bayern Digital Radio GmbH [2] • Bayerische Motoren Werke AG [3] • • • • • • • • • • • Blaupunkt GmbH [4] Daimler AG [5] DDG Gesellschaft für Verkehrsdaten mbH [6] GEWI Hard. In theory. . It is significant since it is viewed as a means to compete with carrier companies since the calls are routed around the cellular network. Other smartphone OS's are also considered. This is viewed as a more efficient use of networking technology than standard FMC solutions that are available as well. and uses the wireless carrier network if the WLAN is not present as a secondary function. They offer a MMC solution on Symbian.und Software Entwicklungsgesellschaft [7] Fraunhofer Institut Integrierte Schaltung [8] Navteq [9] Siemens VDO Automotiv AG [10] Teleatlas [11] T-Systems International GmbH. It was developed between 2004 and 2006 by an industry consortium and successfully tested during 2007 in a series of large-scale field trials. Media & Broadcast [12] Volkswagen AG [13] WDR [14] The project management and administration was performed by K&S GmbH Projektmanagement [15]. The first offering known in the market successfully deploying MMC is beCherry. The introduction of first operational services is expected for 2008.

de/ [15] http:/ / www. navteq. tmcforum. com/ http:/ / www. de/ [16] http:/ / www. com/ http:/ / www. org/ [17] http:/ / www. com/ [19] http:/ / www. com/ [10] http:/ / www. iis. org/ . ks-pm. fraunhofer. de/ http:/ / www. tpeg. audi. blaupunkt. bmwgroup. mobile-info. com/ [11] http:/ / www. wdr.info 213 Future development The work of the Mobile. ddg. com/ [14] http:/ / www. t-systems-mediabroadcast. com/ http:/ / www. org [18] http:/ / www. com http:/ / www. bayerndigitalradio.Info [17] TISA [16] TMC Forum [18] TPEG Forum [19] References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] http:/ / www.Info consortium. teleatlas. com/ http:/ / www.Mobile. is from 2008 on continued within the Traveller Information Services Association TISA [16]. volkswagenag. de/ http:/ / www. specifically the development and standardization of new services and applications. tisa. com/ [13] http:/ / www. gewi. External links • • • • Mobile. daimlerchrysler. siemensvdo. com/ [12] http:/ / www. de/ [9] http:/ / www.

External links • Mobispine home page [1] References [1] http:/ / www. Ukraine. provides services for operators and end-users. The services including eSMS (Executive Short Message System) service enabling users to send messages from PCs to mobile phones and aggregation of news and content via its Really Simple Syndication (RSS) based news reader. Sweden with development offices in Cluj. Currently we employ 25 people and the organization is constantly growing. mobispine. Corporate headquarter is in Stockholm. Products also come in line with iPhone MMS sending and receiving and also User Generated Content products that the mobile operators can benefit from. Romania and Kiev.Mobispine 214 Mobispine Mobispine a Value Added Services (VAS) company. com/ .

8 millimeters).modu 215 modu modu Industry Founder(s) Telecommunications Dov Moran Headquarters Kfar Saba. and has over 130 employees. and can be inserted into a variety of modu jackets.[2] . known as modu jackets.9 million $[3] Concept Today's modular phones are designed to pack in as many applications as possible. On January 14 2011. . The modu phone is the opposite: small and compact (it holds the Guinness world record for most compact phone at a depth of 7. and are thus larger in size. the modu phone essentially “changes” functionality and shape according to the user’s different needs and desires throughout the day. modu is headquartered in Kfar-Saba. most of whom are suing the company in order to receive back pay. Israel. In mid May 2011 Google acquired several patents of Modu Mobile for 4. it was announced that modu will be ceasing operations in February 2011 as it attempts to pay back debts and salaries owed to its workers. Each modu jacket has its own style and unique functions. Israel Area served Services Employees Website Israel and worldwide Mobile phone services 130+ [1] modu is an Israeli mobile phone company that was founded in 2007 by Dov Moran. modu company holds the record for the world’s lightest mobile phone. The modu phone enables users to personalize their mobile's looks and features in a simple way by inserting it into a range of unique phone enclosures. In this way. The concept behind this design is that the phone is small enough to fit into any jeans pocket.

modu jackets Seven types of modu jackets are currently available. The modu phone enables complete mobile functionality – texts. It contains 2GB of internal memory and a music player. The photo frame jacket serves as a desktop companion that charges the modu phone while displaying pictures and playing music. each surface creates a unique sound according to the density of the material from which it is made. the modu phone adopts a new interface and range of functions. including the new generation of the modu phone – modu T phone. The i-mu speaker. fully functional phone and a record holder of the Guinness Book of Records™.5G. as cited by the Guinness Book of World Records™. uses innovative technology to turn any surface on which it is placed into a resonance amplifier. It is scheduled for distribution winter 2010 and holds the record for the lightest touch phone in the world. the modu sport jacket offers extended functionalities for training sessions. The modu express. The photo frame jacket enables hands-free conversation and features a practical keypad that allows easy dialing and navigation through the modu phone menu. the modu night jacket turns the modu phone into a stylish device with a distinctive angled keyboard. Designed especially for exercisers.75G or 3. monitors workouts. calls. The modu jacket. Hence. It can also be operated with a remote control. With each individual modu jacket. included in the product box. modu 1 phone Alternatively. Incredibly light. which wraps easily around the arm. modu sport jacket modu express jacket modu night jacket modu shiny jacket modu speedy jacket photo frame jacket i-mu speaker .modu 216 Core: The modu 1 Phone The modu 1 phone is the heart of the modu jacket ecosystem and is the world’s lightest. yet fully functional and innovative. cool and designed surround lighting and a camera. which also acts as a charger. and Bluetooth™ applications. speedy. plays music and ensures that the user is available when needed. Further models are planned for the future. the phone will include a music player and a mass storage device of either 2. and shiny jackets offer enhanced mobile interfaces and experiences along with an ample range of fun new applications.

Engadget.Philippines Mobicity .com/?s=modu) External links • modu entry (http://www. .Nigeria Globe . cnet. Honduras Conoxel .Israel Claro .com/2008/02/07/modu-revealed/) • Gizmodo entry (http://gizmodo. com/ [2] "Modu closing up shop in February" (http:/ / www. html).online sales in Australia PurelyGadgets . com/ 2011/ 01/ 14/ modu-closing-up-shop-in-february/ ).com/) • Official modu blog (http://blog.modumobile.com) . Retrieved 2011-05-20. Retrieved 2011-01-14.modu 217 Partnerships modu partners include: BUG . engadget. Guatemala. . [3] "Google acquires Modu" (http:/ / news. Peru. El Salvador. cnet.online sales in United Kingdom TDT Distribution . modumobile.com/353637/modu-cellphone-changes-function-with-jackets) • News stream about modu from TalkingMobile (http://talkingmobile.modumobile. References • crunchgear entry (http://www.Brazil. com/ 8301-13506_3-20064624-17.techcrunch.Romania Micromax .India Notes [1] http:/ / www.

pdf http:/ / www. thanks largely to the success of this initial venture. The pager was activated by a 5-tone code. com/ mot/ doc/ 0/ 613_MotDoc. it was portable and notified the wearer that a message had been sent. notepager.Technical information on protocols. However. com/ support. had no display and could not store messages. au/ . model H03BNC1102D0 External links • • • • • MULTITONE ELECTRONICS Inventors & manufacturers of paging systems [1] A Timeline of Motorola Milestones and Innovations (PDF) [2] POCSAG and FLeX pager gallery [3] NotePage technical support [4] . carriers. after the less known 1955 (not 1956 as believed) Pager called "Handie-Talkie Radio Pocket Pager". starboy. etc. The Motorola Pageboy used to be very popular with fire brigades as an alarm receiver and. html http:/ / www. ru/ pagers/ pagers.6 Volt nickel-cadmium battery (NiCd). after which a voice message was transmitted. the first pager that we would today recognize as such was Motorola's Pageboy I. It was introduced in 1974 by the company and could selectively deliver a radio message to a particular individual. com/ http:/ / www. Infostream designer of pagers [5] Technical information on pager products References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] http:/ / www. and they ran on a rechargeable 4. com. infostream. It used a UHF frequency from 464 to 475 MHz.Motorola Pageboy 218 Motorola Pageboy Motorola Pageboy was the second pager ever produced by Motorola with individual-unit addressing. Motorola Pageboy. The successor of this device was the Motorola Pageboy II. Later versions of the Pageboy were able to deliver tone & voice. However.4 Volt mercury or 3. pagers quickly began to replace public announcement systems in hospital and factories. motorola. htm http:/ / www. multitone. The first implementation of the Pageboy alarm receiver could only give an attention tone. The first pager-like system was used in 1921 by the Detroit Police Department.

and Intel Capital.Motricity 219 Motricity Motricity.com in September 2003. Type Founded Founder(s) Public (NASDAQ: MOTR 2001 Ryan Weurch [1] ) Headquarters Bellevue. to focus the company on mobile content delivery services. • USD$32 million in August 2006. Originally formed as PowerByHand. Private Funding • USD$27 million in July 2004. as well as such existing investors as Technology Crossover Ventures. 2008[4] . Washington. with participation from other existing investors. The company currently has over 300 employees and is headquartered in Bellevue.. with the smartphone applications business going to the newly created Pocketgear. a European mobile content portal.com.de [3]. from Chicago–based Advanced Equities Inc. Wuerch founded PowerByHand. Corporate history In 2001. These rounds raised the company's total funding to over USD$150 million. led by Advanced Equities Inc. Inc. New Enterprise Associates. Advanced Equities . and Smartphone. with participation from other existing investors. • USD$30 million in July 2005..motricity. including New Enterprise Associates and Technology Crossover Ventures. Inc. in June. the company changed its name to Motricity and announced the acquisition of Mobile2Day. Additional funding came from Carl Icahn in the form of USD$50 million in March 2007 and another USD$50 million in October of that same year. • $40 million in April 2006. PowerByHand acquired a number of commercial Internet companies. a company that provides content. led by Advanced Equities Inc. a provider of software and services for the management and delivery of mobile data services. led by Silicon Valley-based Technology Crossover Ventures. eReader. Washington. North Carolina and London. Motricity later sold off these acquired units. In April 2004. In October 2004. This last was part of a USD$185 million round of funding.. PowerByHand merged with Pinpoint Networks. The name Motricity is a combination of the words mobile and electricity. the company changed its name to Motricity in October 2004 after its merger with Pinpoint Networks. one of the largest amounts of capital ever raised by a private company in North Carolina. USA Key people Services Website Ryan Weurch (Chairman and CEO) Mobile Portal Services www. with offices in Morrisville. including PalmGear. information and education for hand-held and mobile devices.com in October 2002.net in March 2004. and PocketGear.com [2] Motricity was formed in 2001 by Ryan Wuerch to provide integrated mobile content solutions for handheld and mobile devices.

2010.com/) . com/ 2010/ 01/ 22/ motricity-ipo).000. Kincaid. 220 Acquisition of InfoSpace Mobile Division and Future Direction The October 2007 round of funding was used in large part to finance the January 2008 acquisition of the mobile division of Seattle based Infospace for a reported USD$135 million[5] . TechCrunch. BusinessWire.Motricity Inc. Benjamin (2010-06-18). Retrieved 2008-09-02. adding to its USD$50 million already invested. . com/ story/ motricity-shares-fall-in-ipo-2010-06-18). and the corporate headquarters moved to Bellevue. motricity. newsobserver. nasdaq. Shortly after the InfoSpace acquisition was completed. asp?symbol=MOTR& selected=MOTR http:/ / www. Retrieved 2010-01-24. com/ news/ google/ 20080604005431/ en). move headquarters" (http:/ / www. Jason (2010-01-22). Motricity found that the mCore storefront acquired from InfoSpace was more technically appealing. Frank (2008-03-04). "Mobile Tech Developer Motricity Files For $250 Million IPO" (http:/ / www. html). Norton. Wolf. html). References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] http:/ / quotes. and decided to move forward with that solution. . "Motricity to buy InfoSpace unit for $135 million" (http:/ / www. raised its investment by another USD$100 million. leaving approximately 100 employees remaining in Durham[6] . Pimentel. WA. . . Retrieved 2008-09-02.motricity. businesswire. com/ business/ story/ 980542. techcrunch. The company went public on June 18. MarketWatch. Retrieved 2010-07-29. The total raised by this point in time was reported to be USD$405 million. The News & Observer. com/ business/ story/ 737571. PocketGear" (http:/ / www. com/ asp/ SummaryQuote. newsobserver. marketwatch. External links • Official website (http://www. Retrieved 2008-09-02. .000 shares at US$10 per share[8] . The initial strategy of the company was to leverage the Fuel storefront solution with the newly acquired mCore mobile portal solution to present a total solution for mobile providers. 2008-06-04. "Motricity shares fall in IPO despite reduced price range" (http:/ / www. 2010 the company filed for a $250 million IPO[7] . offering 6. IPO On January 22. This was followed shortly by the announcement that 250 employees based in Durham would be laid-off. The News & Observer. de/ "Motricity Co-Founder Launches New Venture. com/ http:/ / mobile2day. "Motricity to slash 250 jobs. Alan (2007-10-15).

[2] .214 defined telephone number used to route telephone calls in a mobile network from a GMSC (Gateway Mobile Switching Centre) to the target MSC (see Network Switching Subsystem). making it the smallest CRT built onto a commercially marketed product. Although this seems unnecessary since many vendors' VLR's are integrated with the MSC. • Consider the Panasonic IC TV MODEL TR-001 introduced in 1970 as the first in this category.and the address is also stored in the HLR. It can also be defined as a directory number temporarily assigned to a mobile for a mobile terminated call. the identification of the current MSC together with the subscriber number. A MSRN is assigned for every mobile terminated call.Mobile Station Roaming Number The Mobile Station Roaming Number is an E. while the MTV-1B would only work with British and South African UHF PAL signals. MSRN contains the current visitor country code(VCC).the MSRN is one of the returned parameters into SRI_ACK message.e. It was developed by Clive Sinclair and was released in 1978. The MTV-1 used a minuscule 2" CRT.MSRN 221 MSRN MSRN . the GSM specification indicates that the MSC and VLR (Visitor Location Register) do not need to reside on the same switch. The VLR generates this address on request from the MSC. Another temporary address that hides the identity of a subscriber. Sources • Retro thing [1] This device was uniquely small for a CRT-based television. In particular the MSRN is used into an MNP scenario (in this case it can be modified as 'RgN + MSISDN'). MTV-1 The MTV-1 was the first model of a near-pocket sized television. the MTV-1A could receive PAL or NTSC transmissions on VHF or UHF. There were two versions. Its physical size is almost identical to the Sinclair MTV1. If we have all the MSC working as a GMSC like the latest technologies so what would be the states of the MSRN ? we can use it only for test to route the calls to a specific MSC otherwise we don't need it to use it. They are considered two different nodes as they have their own routing addresses. the visitor national destination code (VNDC). i. not only the calls where the terminating MS lives on a different MSC than the originating MS.

quad-band and penta-band refer to a device (especially a mobile phone) supporting multiple frequencies used for communication. the terms multi-band. de/ mtv1/ index. de/ e-tube. Motorola Timeport. guenthoer. retrothing. tri-band. net/ journal/ time-line/ http:/ / www. visions4.MTV-1 222 External links • Franks Handheld TV Pages-Part 2 [3] • Franks Handheld TV Pages-Internal Pictures [4] • Vintage Micro Television http://www. dual-band.visions4.net/journal/time-line/ References [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / www. html http:/ / www. htm Multi-band In telecommunications. com/ video_tv/ index. In the mobile case. the first tri-band mobile phone (1999) . the purpose of doing so is to support roaming between different countries/regions whose infrastructure cannot support mobile services in the same frequency range. htm http:/ / www. guenthoer.

Kim. pdf).5 .7 . Standards ETSI • EN 300 748 • EN 301 215-3 • EN 301 997-2 UK Standards • MPT 1550 (obsolete) • MPT 1560 (obsolete) CEPT • ERC/DEC/(99)15 • ECC/REC/(01)04 Manufacturers of MVDS equipment • • • • • • • MDS America Inc Newtec EF Data BluWan Philips Broadband Network Hughes Network systems Thales Group (Thomson) . Sang G. Research for 42 GHz frequency has been done under the European Commition EMBRACE (Efficient Millimetre Broadband Radio Access for Convergence and Evolution) initiative. MVDS MVDS is an acronym for terrestrial Multipoint Video Distribution System. MVDS currently is a part of broader MWS (Multimedia Wireless System) standards.43. cdg. The near-far is more serious in CDMA-liked wireless multi-user communication systems. CA: CDMA Development Group Technology Forum (http:/ / www. References [1] Shu Wang. In European Union MWS works in 10. And multiuser detection techniques can help the receiver solve this problem [1] . where a near-by or strong signal source may block the signal receiption of far-away or weak user(s). San Francisco.13. & Hobin Kim (2006). swang.5 and 40. . org/ news/ events/ CDMASeminar/ 060420_NetworkCap/ ). Traditionally single-user receiver is known suffering from the so-called near-far problem. com/ CDG-TowardForwardLinkInterferenceCan.5 GHz frequency bands. Toward Forward Link Interference Cancellation (http:/ / to. Soonyil Kwon.Multiuser detection 223 Multiuser detection Multiuser detection (also known as joint detection) is one of the receiver design technology for detecting desired signal(s) from interference and noise. googlepages.

Mxim.p. It works with Java enabled devices. mximframework. and behaves nearly like a web solutions including device level controls. Mxim Content Server Mxim Content Server is content serving solution for mxim applications.MVDS • • • • • • Trophy electronics Technosystem Digital Network S. Overview Mxim Framework is application development framework for mobile phones. External links • Official Site [1] • Mxim hosting servers [1] References [1] http:/ / www. How it works? Mxim applications can develop using mxml and Mxim server renders mxml application user interface. It allows web developers can work using mxml to port web sites to the mobile applications. browseable content serving technology for hand held devices. It is a benchmark architecture for serving browseable content on cross platform devices. com .A (TDN) Marconi Technology Centres (GMTT) United Monolithic Semiconductors (UMS) DOK Ltd (Elvalink) Q-par Angus Ltd 224 Mxim Mxim (Method to serve text and images) is an application development framework for hand held devices.

Europe and urban areas worldwide. It can be used as an Assisted GPS by switching to Wi-Fi or Cellular positioning modes when GPS signals are weak or unavailable such as in an indoors environment. Symbian S60 and some Java ME phones. 7397424). It calculates the geographic location of a wireless device by analyzing the signals from nearby Wi-Fi access points and cellular towers and comparing it against a database of known data points.S. United States Key people Products Services Website Cyril Houri. It can also be used as an alternative to GPS on devices that don't have a GPS chip but have a Wi-Fi or Cellular radio. It can also be used to improve the time of acquisition of a position fix which can take up to 5 minutes with a standard GPS and less than one second with Wi-Fi or Cellular triangulation. Wi-Fi and Cellular triangulation techniques. allowing the user to open other applications on his device at the same time.. Moreover. navizon. com [1] Navizon is a hybrid positioning system combining GPS.Navizon 225 Navizon Mexens Technology. trail logging capability and MobiFindr that lets a user get a device's location just by sending a text message to it. iPhone. .app The software uses a unique technology to improve the coverage and accuracy of the system and covers the U. Applications Navizon includes some built-in features such as the Buddy Finder. the Alert System (also known as Geofencing). BlackBerry. Navizon was the first virtual GPS available for a jailbroken iPhone and the most downloaded through Installer. Inc Type Industry Founded Founder(s) Inc Telecommunications 2005 Cyril Houri Headquarters New York. Navizon has the ability to run in the background. NY. CEO Navizon Virtual GPS Location-Based Services & Positioning Technologies http:/ / www. Technology Navizon is an open system with a collaborative approach: it uses the data collected by users with a GPS device to improve the coverage and accuracy of the system when used in Wi-Fi or Cellular positioning modes. Mexens Technology Inc has received a Patent for its “System and Method for Enabling Continuous Geographic Location Estimation for Wireless Computing Devices” [2] (US Patent No. The software can be installed on several platforms such as Windows Mobile.

uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PALL&p=1& u=/netahtml/PTO/srchnum.com) • Navizon Official Blog (http://navizon.htm&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=7397424.PN.intomobile. The application runs in the background of the device allowing the location to be updated while other applications are running. htm& r=1& f=G& l=50& s1=7397424.navizon.Navizon 226 Community Navizon's strong growing community is unique by its diversity of cross-platforms and cross-carriers users.typepad. Contributors are rewarded when they discover new Wi-Fi access points or new cell towers.com) . navizon.000 people are registered worldwide thus improving every day the precision of the navigation system.techcrunch."Location Technologies Primer" (http://www. gov/ netacgi/ nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1& Sect2=HITOFF& d=PALL& p=1& u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum. PN. com [2] http:/ / patft.html) • Navizon Patent (http://patft. com/2008/06/29/navizons-mobfindr-gets-your-phone-to-text-home/) • Techcrunch June 2008 .&OS=PN/7397424&RS=PN/ 7397424) External links • Navizon Official Website (http://www.engadgetmobile. This is one of the key factor of the community growth.com/ gadgets/notag/iphone-faux+gps-hack-works-and-is-awesome-301459. & OS=PN/ 7397424& RS=PN/ 7397424 • Gizmodo September 2007 -Navizon faux GPS Hacks for IPhone works and is awesome (http://gizmodo.com/2008/02/11/ navizon-updated-to-include-moving-mode-alerts-and-more. Development The Navizon Software Development Kit (SDK) allows developers to include the Navizon positioning system into their own application. 700. References [1] http:/ / www.com/2008/06/04/ location-technologies-primer/) • Navizon updates (http://www.uspto.php) • Engadget Mobile June 2008 -"Navizon's Mobfindr gets your phone to text home" (http://www.

wireless safety and wireless security with portable radio accessories. The system uses a short range (less than 2 meters) wireless physical layer that communicates by coupling a tight. to intercept wireless transmissions to and from a microphone or headset. The concept is for a transmitter coil in one device to modulate a magnetic field which is measured by means of a receiver coil in another device.Near-field magnetic induction communication 227 Near-field magnetic induction communication A near field magnetic induction communication system is a short range wireless physical layer that communicates by coupling a tight. low-power. Uses Near Field Magnetic Induction technology secures wireless communication between two-way radio accessories by creating a magnetic communication "bubble" around headsets. This type of transmission is referred to as "far-field. the power density of near-field transmissions is extremely restrictive and attenuates or rolls off at a rate proportional to the inverse of the range to the sixth power (1/range6) or -60dB per decade.52 meters. Background: technical concepts Near field magnetic induction communication (NFMIC) systems differ from other wireless communications in that most conventional wireless RF systems use an antenna to generate and transmit a propagated electromagnetic wave. and frequency modulation) can be used in near-field magnetic induction systems. the carrier frequency is 13. the power density of far-field transmissions attenuates or rolls off at a rate proportional to the inverse of the range to the second power (1/range2) or -20dB per decade. In Diagram 2.000. is immune from radio frequency (RF) interference and virtually secure from eavesdropping. ." As shown in the graph below. The concept is for a transmitter coil in one device to modulate a magnetic field which is measured by means of a receiver coil in another device. phase modulation. within the magnetic bubble. At this distance the propagated energy levels are -40dB to -60dB (10. Near Field Magnetic Induction Communication technology enables users of two-way radios to experience wireless mobility.56MHz and has a wavelength (_) of 22 meters." According to Maxwell's equation for a radiating wire. rolling off at -20dB per decade. NFMI systems are designed to contain transmission energy within the localized magnetic field. low-power. The properties that make long range communication possible are a disadvantage for short range communication systems. At this frequency the crossover occurs at 3.000 to 1. The standard modulation schemes used in typical RF communications (amplitude modulation. In these types of systems all of the transmission energy is designed to radiate into free space. non-propagating magnetic field between devices. This magnetic field energy resonates around the communication system.5 meters. but does not radiate into free space. This type of transmission is referred to as "near-field. non-propagating magnetic field between devices. speaker-microphones and radios. This slow attenuation over distance allows far-field transmissions to communicate effectively over a long range.000 times) lower than an equivalent intentional far-field system. An eavesdropper would have to be standing next to the radio. This magnetic bubble has a radius of approximately 1. The crossover point between near-field and far-field occurs at approximately _/2_. at which point the propagating energy from the NFMI system conforms to the same propagation rules as any far-field system.

com/ downloads/ FreeLinc%20NFMI%20White%20Paper. com http:/ / www. freelinc. gov/ . freelinc. pdf http:/ / www. freelinc. uspto. pdf http:/ / www. com/ downloads/ FreeLinc_Intro_WhitePaper_8-01-06. freelinc. pdf http:/ / www. com/ downloads/ LawOrder_Aug2006_1-18103181-eprint.Near-field magnetic induction communication 228 References • • • • • FreeLinc [1] Near-Field Magnetic Induction Technology [2] Law and Order: The Magazine for Police Management [3] Two-way Radio Wireless Communication Accessories: Technology & Company Abstract [4] United States Patent and Trademark Office [5] References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] http:/ / www.

New Zealand and several African countries.[6] Other venture firms hold minority positions. wireless industry executive Bob Hunsberger became CEO. transportation and other industries. NetMotion Wireless develops software and solutions for organizations with mobile workforces. Motion Computing. Washington Products Employees Website Mobile VPN Software ~100 [1] NetMotion Wireless is a privately-held software company. founded in 2001 and based in Seattle.[2] In September of 2010.[10] . focusing on productivity and management. TELELOGOS. Washington. In 2005. Intermec.[7] Operations The bulk of the company's operations are located at the North American headquarters in Seattle. Washington (2001) Founded Headquarters Seattle. Sprint. InfoExpress.[2] History The company was formed in 2001 as a spin off from WRQ. NetMotion merged with Padcom. knk. insurance. Avaya. Palm. Washington. telecommunications. field service. OESIS OK. Three sales offices in Europe handle international sales including sales into Australia. Datastrip.[4] The majority shareholder became Liberty Partners[5] . Its software is used in public utilities. the company was recognized by Inc. hardware manufacturers. a private equity firm with more than $1 billion under management.[8] NetMotion Wireless has an intellectual property portfolio of a dozen U.[9] It also has strategic alliances with cellular carriers. Sierra Wireless. Microsoft. software developers. public safety. to help those organizations secure and optimize their investments in wireless data networking.NetMotion Wireless 229 NetMotion Wireless NetMotion Wireless Type Industry Private Computer software technology services Seattle. system integrators and standards and certification bodies. These partners include AT&T. healthcare. Motorola. Scientel Wireless. as one of the fastest-growing private companies in America.S. Sybase iAnywhere. patents. RSA. T-Mobile and Verizon Wireless. Inc. Ipelium.[3] In 2006. Inc.

[15] Mobility XE Releases:[16] • Version 6.[18] Industry Awards and Recognition NetMotion has been named as one of the fastest-growing wireless companies in the U. Bell Ambulance. maintains and optimizes data connections for these workers as they move in and out of wireless coverage areas and roam between networks.Network Access Control and recovery from Packet loss for real-time applications[17] • Version 8.5 . Trican Well Service. Johnson County (KS). Marshfield Clinic.1 .QoS capability for real-time applications such as VoIP • Version 8. James Parish (LA). Joseph’s Hospital (WI).S. Diamond Management and Technology Consultants. while resolving performance and security issues. JEA. St.900 organizations and more than 500. St. Hertz.000 concurrent device sessions and support for RSA SecurID two-factor authentication • Version 7. New York State Police.900 customers of NetMotion Wireless are Advocate Health Care. and has earned more than 25 industry awards[2] . City of Orlando. 500 | 5000 list of America's Fastest-Growing Private Companies[7] • Recognized as one of Washington State's 100 Fastest-Growing Private Companies[21] • Voted one of Washington State's 100 Best Companies to Work For[2] • Microsoft Gold Certified Partner for Mobility Solutions[22] .6 . It secures. City of Hays (KS).0 .509v3 digital certificates • Version 9. Southeast Water (UK).. Lee Memorial Health System.Support for Windows 7 64-bit client and Windows Server 2008 R2 and additional support for FIPS 140-2 Customers Among the 1. Unilever.Expanded capacity of up to 15. Strack.NetMotion Wireless 230 Products NetMotion’s primary product is Mobility XE. media. Mobile County (AL). Monroe County Sheriff’s Department (FL).0 . Continental Airlines. Florida Highway Patrol.5 . Gallatin County (MT).000 mobile workers. and their network connections and application sessions alive as they encounter coverage gaps and interruptions and roam between networks. MHMR Centers of Texas. Ameren Corporation. Puget Sound Blood Center. Windstream Communications. Grange Insurance. Orange County Sheriff’s Department. Comcast. Wichita Clinic.2 . City of Aurora (CO). • Named on the Inc. Cox Communications. Visiting Nurses of New York..Web acceleration and new policy management features for controlling access from/to specific applications and networks • Version 6.Analytics Module and support for two-factor authentication via smart cards and X. Optident. a Mobile VPN for mobile workers who use computing devices. including: • Ranked on the Deloitte LLP list of the fastest growing technology.[11] [12] [13] Mobility XE is used by more than 1. and Worksafe BC. for greater security and integration with systems management software • Version 9. TSI Terminal Systems Inc.[8] The essential functionality of the product is its ability to keep workers continuously logged in. Luke Medical System. Ltd.0 .Authentication of the device as well as the user.FIPS 140-2 validated encryption • Version 7. life sciences and clean technology companies in North America in 2009[19] and 2010[20] . Birmingham City Council (UK). Colorado Springs Police Department.[14] It also includes management features that give administrators visibility and control over those mobile devices. Beckman Coulter. telecommunications. St.

2010. [19] "Deloitte's 2009 Technology Fast 500" (http:/ / www. [18] www. com/ assets/ MobilityXE_datasheet. netmotionwireless. [15] Product Datasheet. html). com) [7] "Meet the 2010 Inc. SearchMobileComputing. cfm) [6] www. 2010) [22] "NetMotion Wireless Attains Gold Certified Partner Status in Microsoft Partner Program" (http:/ / www.00. pdf) [16] Release history on NetMotion Web site (http:/ / www. techtarget. retrieved December 11. September 2010 (retrieved December 10. libertypartners. 2-Whats-New_2010. aspx) [17] "NetMotion Brings Cross-Network Support to Wireless VoIP". com/ company/ NetMotion_Wireless_Inc/ ryrchri-1. pdf) [9] What's New in Mobility XE 9. 2010). 2006-06-15. pdf) [20] "Deloitte's 2010 Technology Fast 500" (http:/ / www. netmotionwireless. retrieved December 10. netmotionwireless. NetMotion Web site (http:/ / www. netmotionwireless. 2010. 2010. netmotionwireless. com/ Business/ US-EN/ Channel+ Partners/ PartnerSelect/ Motorola+ Validated+ Solutions/ Enterprise+ Mobility+ Validated+ Solutions). com/ tip/ 0. retrieved December 10. html). retrieved December 10. html).libertypartners. [23] "Enterprise Mobility Validated Solutions Search (http:/ / www. com [2] NetMotion Company Backgrounder (http:/ / www. com/ company/ press/ 02_2005. com/ partners/ alliances. 2008-05-07 (http:/ / www.netmotionwireless. netmotionwireless. com/ WorkArea/ linkit.com (http:/ / www. voipplanet. Padcom settle patent lawsuit with merger" (http:/ / www.com/resources/case_studies. [14] Phifer. "Mobile VPN: Closing the Gap" (http:/ / searchmobilecomputing. 2010) [8] NetMotion Wireless Company Fact Sheet (http:/ / www. 2010 (retrieved December 10. pdf).sid40_gci1210989_mem1. 2010.aspx) . VoIP Planet. com/ article/ 20060615/ SUB/ 606150710). retrieved December 10. hoovers. html). crunchbase. php/ 3745401). [11] BioPortfolio company profile (http:/ / www. retrieved December 11. com/ magazine/ 20100901/ index. com). 2010 [21] "Washington's 100 Fastest-Growing Private Companies revealed" (http:/ / www. com/ uploadedFiles/ Resources/ Collateral/ NetMotion-Wireless_Mobility-XE_9. html). aspx?LinkIdentifier=id& ItemID=1381) [3] NetMotion Wireless Achieves Record Growth in Second Half of 2004. deloitte. com/ index. netmotionwireless. aspx).netmotionwireless. libertypartners. September 17. netmotionwireless. aspx). retrieved December 10. netmotionwireless. com/ company/ netmotion-wireless). 2006. com/ assets/ Dcom-UnitedStates/ Local Assets/ Documents/ TMT_us_tmt/ us_tmt_Fast500winners_101509. aspx).netmotionwireless. com/ solutions/ article.289483. netmotionwireless. 2005 (retrieved December 10. 2010) External Links • Official website (http://www. [10] Strategic Alliance and Marketing Partners (http:/ / www. viewCompany/ companyID/ 31. com/ seattle/ stories/ 2010/ 09/ 13/ daily35. bioportfolio. motorola. Lisa. inc. RCR Wireless News. [13] Hoover's company profile (http:/ / www. 2010. [5] NetMotion Wireless page on Liberty Partners site (http:/ / www. com/ uploadedFiles/ Resources/ Collateral/ NetMotion-Wireless_Fact-Sheet_CO. Adds Industry Veteran as New Chief Executive (http:/ / www.com/partners/alliances. pdf). com/ assets/ Dcom-UnitedStates/ Local Assets/ Documents/ TMT_us_tmt/ us_tmt_2010 Technology Fast 500 Winners Brochure_191010. (searched/confirmed December 10. 2010. com/ company/ press/ 09_01_2009. rcrwireless.2 (http:/ / www.netmotionwireless. bizjournals.com/) • Strategic Alliance and Marketing Partners (http://www.NetMotion Wireless • Motorola Enterprise Mobility Validated Solution[23] 231 References [1] http:/ / www. com/ corporate/ company/ 12369/ Netmotion-Wireless. [4] "NetMotion.aspx) • Customer Case Studies (http://www.com (http:/ / www. deloitte. 5000 | A List of America's Fastest-Growing Private Companies" (http:/ / www. July 16. amalgamated from case studies and press releases.com. February 8. com/ products/ whatsnew. [12] CrunchBase company profile (http:/ / www. cfm/ Fuseaction/ Portfolio.

controllers. namely High Interconnect (H_IN) and Low Interconnect (L_IN). The former provides means for service activation and deactivation as well as service and stream accesses. namely message based and streaming type. The latter one is uni-directional and used for large amounts of data like media content. NoTA enables mobile device makers speed-up their product development by shortening the integration phase. Service Nodes and Application Nodes map into sub-systems consisting of all software and hardware resources needed to implement those.Network on Terminal Architecture 232 Network on Terminal Architecture Network on Terminal Architecture (i. MIPI Alliance originated solutions are expected to be key enablers for wide use of NoTA. memories. Low Interconnect provides network socket interface with uniform addressing mechanism. NoTA device consists of Service Nodes (SN) and Application Nodes (AN) that communicate through logical Interconnect (IN). The only means for a sub-system to use the other Sub-systems' resources is via Service Nodes. Additionally NoTA makes it possible to quickly bring-in 3rd party innovations into the products due to loosely coupled and functional-driver -less approach. Every NoTA Sub-system consists of the NoTA Interconnect stack. In order to maintain system level modularity. Sub-system consists of all the software and hardware resources (including peripherals. NoTA Main architecture NoTA Interconnect architecture NoTA Sub-system provides the physical implementation for a set of Nodes (ANs and/or SNs).e. the only way for a node to use SW&HW resources from other sub-systems is through Services Nodes. The former is bi-directional and used for Service Messages.) needed to implement the defined Nodes. NoTA principles • • • • • Loosely coupled Service based Interconnect centric Message & data driven (GALS) Implementation-wise heterogeneous . Service Nodes have unique Service Identifier (SID). internal buses etc. IN provides two basic means of communication. Interconnect is divided into two layers. L_IN internally can be divided into transport network independent and dependent [1] parts. NoTA) is a modular service based system architecture for mobile and embedded devices.

[4] Linux Kernel optimized Debian package is also available through gitorious. The NoTA basic framework was strongly influenced by Network-on-Chip (NoC) and Web Services research.org/knota [5]. Product companies are more agile to adopt new technology or technology that better meets users' needs in digital convergence devices. NoTA can be used for many inter-device use-cases (wireless based L_INdown). Performance and features meeting end-user needs. [8] Extending NoTA to the Internet is one of the research topics.g.notaworld. In addition. Reference implemenation source code packages (user-space) can be downloaded from either www. In case there are no ready-made products on the market. Cost reduction in product development can be achieved in two dimensions. So called NoTA Virtual Device (NVD) is expected to provide a solution here. There are currently projects running e. NoTA Interconnect Release 1 was released in December 2005. Secondly in many cases product vendors do not have to bear costs incurring from sub-system adaptation work specific to their technologies. Product vendors can purchase already productized NoTA Sub-systems removing time needed for vendor specific requirements definition. Through the NVD one can build combined service platforms where the services can be running intra-device. the application engine).g.org/nota.Network on Terminal Architecture 233 History The NoTA concept and the first implementations were the result of internal Nokia Research Center [2] activities started in 2003. discovery and access. Future Development Due to being agnostic to transport technology. Firstly system-level modularity allows free and fair competition between different technology vendors reducing Sub-system costs. with a handle based stream referencing approach. Release 1 only consisted of Service communication. Scalability in integration level allows product companies to do fast cost optimization without major extra R&D effort. off-chip interconnect with on-chip interconnect does not destroy the device functionality.g. More practical example is to integrate multiple ICs into the same package (e. An excellent outcome reveiled in the TronShow2010 [7] is the intelligent house built in Taiwan utilizing both the T-Kernel and NoTA technologies. through stacking) and use package internal interconnect technologies. This functionality. NoTA type system-level modularity allows technology vendors to do the implementation and testing without heavy involvement with other Sub-system provides (e. Release 3 became the official public release comprising all the essential functionalities.org [3] or gitorious. allows direct memory-to-memory streaming between different NoTA subsystems. called DOA (Direct Object Access). The objective of this work was to develop a novel embedded device architecture that could solve the existing R&D challenges. Release 2 added efficient data communication means. . Benefits in product development Fast-time-to-market is possible due to multiple reasons. activation/deactivation. implementation and integration phases. NoTA core is physical interconnect agnostic and hence replacing e. VTT (Technical Research Center of Finland) has demonstrated their NoTA (and Smart M3) based intelligent Greenhouse.g. Release 2 came out during the second half of 2006. as well as prepare the company to face the expected horizontalization and digital convergence. inter-device and/or in the Internet. in Finland (SHOK DIEM [6]) and in Japan to aply NoTA in the ubiquitous world.

Vesa Luukkala. org/ index-e. tekes. Springer Netherlands. ncl. DSD 2006 • A Method for Mobile Terminal Platform Architecture Development. A. Rodin Project IST-511599 [14]. Jörg Brakensiek. Johan Lilius. Report on the case study: Formal Techniques in MDA context.Porres. [11] • http://www. fi/ opencms/ opencms/ OhjelmaPortaali/ ohjelmat/ ELMO/ fi/ Dokumenttiarkisto/ Viestinta_ja_aktivointi/ Seminaarit/ MARTES_seminar_2006/ MARTES_Tampere_170506. J.. Dragos Truscan.Truscan.1st Oct. uk/ deliverables/ rodinD8. ac. pdf . cs. 2007. org [4] http:/ / gitorious.notaworld. tucs. Ian Oliver and Timo Eriksson. notaworld. • New Directions in Mobile Device Architectures. Risto Suoranta.A. youtube. 30th Sept. jsp?lang=en [11] https:/ / projects. fi/ proj/ notaconference/ index. vtt. fi/ en/ device [7] http:/ / www. May 17. • Specification and Validation of Non-Functional Constraints.org [3] • Testable Specifications of NoTA-based Modular Embedded Systems. Advances in Design and Specification Languages for Embedded Systems. Turku Centre for Computing Sciences. org/ knota/ [6] http:/ / www. artist-embedded.Eriksson. 2009 [10] References • NoTA Rel3 Specifications. Keynote material. vtt.1st International NoTA Conference. Klaus Kronlöf. com/ [3] http:/ / www. et al. tivit. MARTES Finnish Partners’ Workshop Tampere. D. 9 May 2007. com/ watch?v=bBiZKInFm-8 [9] http:/ / www3. 9th EUROMICRO Conference. pdf [15] http:/ / akseli. TUCS Technical Report No. • Use Case Driven Platform Development. nokia. Johan Lindqvist. 11th June 2008 [9] • NoTA2009 . WWRF-16. • Mobile Service based Platform Architecture for Mobile Devices. References [1] http:/ / www. Artist workshop on Foundations of Component-Based Design. org/ nota/ [5] http:/ / gitorious. org/ [2] http:/ / research. • Mobile Device Industry Goes Horizontal. tronshow. September 2007 [12] • Distributed intelligence – From devices to Smart spaces.2nd International NoTA Conference. nokia. San Jose. pdf [13] http:/ / www. Risto Suoranta. Samu Kontinen. html [8] http:/ / www. J. Ian Oliver. com/ NoTA/ wiki#no1 [12] http:/ / www. Eriksson. Ivan Porres and Timo O. ISQED 2006. J.Latva-Aho. org/ docs/ Events/ 2007/ Components/ Slides/ JohanLilius. Finland.Network on Terminal Architecture 234 Events • NoTA2008 . Dr. CA. mipi. fi/ proj/ notaconference2009/ index.Lilius.Rakkola. Shanghai.841. pdf [14] http:/ / rodin. jsp?lang=en [10] http:/ / www.S. 2006 [15]. Helsinki. forum. .Lindqvist. fi/ publications/ attachment. Risto Suoranta. 4th Oct. php?fname=TR841. 2006. T. U. I. Klaus Kronlöf. UBIQ Seminar. Samu Kontinen. 2007 [13] • Section 4.

-+ | Network Layer| +....| TCP +...... The layer supports signalling and traffic between those two elements..........-+ | Internet | +..| HTTP +.....| AS +....| Channels +..-+ | Application | +.......| NAS +........-+ | Transport | +....-+ Functionality Following form the part of Non Access Stratum • • • • Mobility management Call control Session management Identity management ....-+ | -+ | -+ | -+ | -+ | -+ | -+ +...Non Access Stratum 235 Non Access Stratum Non Access Stratum (NAS) is a functional layer in the Wireless Telecom protocol stack between Core Network and User Equipment..| IP +...-+ | Physical | +....-+ | Link Layer | +... +..

It handles non real-time charging requirements. gives the ball to the marketing department to run with it.Number Assignment Module 236 Number Assignment Module Number Assignment Module (NAM) . It completely breaks away from the traditional offline hard coding development mode based on service flow. the marketing department can really explore network resource potentials and the desires of subscribers.or multi-NAM features offer users the option of registering the phone with a local number in more than one market. in real time. It is based on a model that separates subscribers from accounts as well as features an off-the-shelf product management mode. With the OCS. and the product launch period is greatly shortened. The OCS is oriented to all subscriber types and service types. . Versatile system infrastructure The OCS has abstracted major objects of all charging processes as the pillars of its infrastructure and adopts customer-oriented design ideas. or you could say. The traditional billing system is always offline based on CDR file processing. Rapidly boosted marketing capabilities Both the traditional IN and the billing system are somewhat passive support systems for market promotion with the limited charging capabilities. and its charging execution process is not directly involved in service application control.The NAM is the electronic memory in the cellular phone that stores the telephone number and an Electronic Serial Number. This leads to a stable but versatile system infrastructure. Online charging system Online charging system (OCS) is a system allowing a Communications service provider to charge their customers. Phones with dual. The OCS offers unprecedented flexibility and extendibility. to create personalized and feasible promotion strategies that meet the marketing objectives. offers unified online charging and online control capabilities and can be used as a unified charging engine for all network services. making it a core basis for convergent billing in the network. based on service usage Architecture Functions within the OCS Online Charging Functions Characteristics Unified charging engine for all services The traditional IN provides real-time charging & rating capabilities only to prepaid subscribers. which enables online tariff configurations through rule-driven engine technology.

access channel. Its billing system can offer superb flexibility and a much wider billing space. or even to the status of a single user. In this way. to some particular local events for a group of users. "What we need is not a new technology. end users can be segmented not only according to their ages. operators were wondering whether or not they needed the OCS. Based on various occasions Promotion offers can also be implemented from periodic holidays for the whole customer base. bearer type. Successful operations remain the biggest concern for operators. the OCS solution is quite technically mature. but now many of them are busy figuring out how they could implement the OCS in their existing networks. It has helped many operators to accumulate valuable experience. simpler and more effective than innovating service functions. as to be detailed below. a subscriber can be charged according to how long he/she has used the service. Most likely they would be happy to keep the subscription and tell their friends what a great deal it is. etc. namely services (including tangible applications and intangible customer care) and pricing. but also according to cultures. to achieve the marketing targets. occupations and income. Based on real applications Due to the development of new communications technologies. The operator can then accurately work out differentiated pricing policies based on customer segmentation. operators can be proactive in the battle with changing market environments." said Shane Logan.Online charging system 237 Seizing earlier market opportunities Innovating tariff policies is much easier. even based on his/her birthday. The communications market might be the most complicated and flexible in product pricing among all the consumable industries. Telus. informing them that since they have used the network for 300 days. telecom product pricing is much more diversified. frequency and traffic. the Director of Service Architecture. Suppose that end users receive SMSs from the mobile operator. nationalities and behavioral patterns and so on. the operator can create differentiated pricing policies that meet market needs while increasing customer satisfaction and generating word-of-mouth advertising. to satisfy the value perceptions of different subscribers. wide-range penetration of the Internet. By flexibly using these widely ranged factors and source materials. contents. strengthen competitiveness and win in their respective markets. it is faster and more cost-effective for operators to adjust tariff policies than to modify product functions and services. A couple of years ago. As a matter of fact. price is usually the most important consideration when subscribers make their final choices. Although various bells and whistles influence some customers. and they would be entitled to new discounts on each 100th day thereafter. or accumulation of usage. Canada. and revenue distribution in the value chain. while improving subscriber experiences. For example. Worldwide commercial successes Presently. there are a variety of new elements including: location. Many operators show far more enthusiasm towards new services than towards tariff policies when choosing from the two core parts of communications products. . multi-service association. Based on customer segmentation As market competition heats up. and interwork with subscribers in real time. In addition to the traditional basic elements. their recharge value on that day would be doubled as a bonus. such as call duration. but a practical scheme that can be integrated into the existing network environment. and explosive growth of service innovations.

The system is able to cover the charging and billing requirements for all subscribers and services. and increasingly more are welcoming their debut. in Southern China has constructed the world's largest mobile IN. opencharging. the largest multinational mobile operator in the Middle East. org/ technical/ release_program/ charging_v1_0.. htm http:/ / www. 3gpp. openmobilealliance.0 OMA Charging V1. Their efforts were soon rewarded. Asia Pacific and Africa are integrating the OCS in their networks. the telecom industry has witnessed overwhelming success through commercial applications of the OCS. 3gpp.0 [3] External links • Opencharging [4] Java Open Source Online Charging System References [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / www. different measures should be taken to implement the OCS. org/ ftp/ Specs/ html-info/ 32296. Online Charging System (OCS): Applications and interfaces 3GPP 32. Middle East. A new operator can construct the OCS or even a comprehensive convergent billing network directly. China Mobile Guangdong. China Mobile Guangdong planned to gradually integrate existing prepaid and post-paid systems into the new solution. and adopted the convergent billing scheme with the OCS as the core. China Mobile Guangdong completed reconstructing the existing IN and deployed the first commercial OCS in the world which meets 3GPP specifications and paved the way towards large-scale evolution for existing INs.Online charging system In different network environments. new networks have for the most part discarded the traditional mode of constructing the IN and the billing system separately. Charging architecture and principles 3GPP 32. adopted a unified convergent billing system with the OCS as the core while constructing a new network in Nigeria. If their existing charging systems possess strong technical capabilities and market performance. To date. By offering more flexible tariff policies. Etisalat. In April 2007.296 [1] • 3GPP Telecommunication management. According to experts in the telecom industry.240 [2] • Open Mobile Alliance (OMA) Charging V1. Charging management. As a result. Other operators might need to adopt a new OCS to replace the existing systems if they will not support evolution. org/ . these new operators can provide network services quickly and lower the TCO greatly. org/ ftp/ Specs/ html-info/ 32240. Charging management. China Mobile Guangdong has won a bigger market share and provides outstanding service to more than 80 million subscribers. some operators can reconstruct their existing networks to make the networks evolve to the OCS. To realize convergent billing. aspx http:/ / www. htm http:/ / www. Operators from more than a dozen countries in Europe. 238 References • 3GPP Telecommunication management.

[5] . LG. HP (formerly Palm).openhandsetalliance.(Symbian).[3] The first commercially available phone running Android was the T-Mobile G1 (also known as the HTC Dream). Member firms include Google. led by Google with 34 members including mobile handset makers.[2] Android. an open source mobile phone platform based on the Linux kernel of the GNU/Linux operating system.[1] History The OHA was established on 5 November 2007. Microsoft. Nokia. Nvidia. and Samsung Electronics (bada).[1] An early look at the SDK was released to developers on 12 November 2007. Dell. application developers. Products At the same time as the announcement of the formation of the Open Handset Alliance on 5 November 2007. Texas Instruments. is based on an open source license and competes against mobile platforms from Apple. Qualcomm. Samsung. the flagship software of the alliance. Software companies.[4] and became available on 22 October. T-Mobile. Intel. Sony Ericsson. Sony. It was approved by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) on 18 August 2008. Handset manufacturers [www. the OHA also unveiled Android. Commercialization companies.com www.openhandsetalliance.com] The Open Handset Alliance (OHA) is a business alliance of 83 firms to develop open standards for mobile devices. HTC.Open Handset Alliance 239 Open Handset Alliance Abbreviation Formation Type OHA 2007 Open mobile platform (Android) development organization Region served Worldwide Membership Website Mobile operators. Research In Motion. some mobile carriers and chip makers. and Wind River Systems. Semiconductor companies. Motorola.

(joined as SiRF) Intel Corporation Marvell Technology Group Nvidia Corporation Qualcomm Synaptics Texas Instruments AKM Semiconductor ARM Atheros Communications ST-Ericsson (joined as Ericsson Mobile Platforms) HTC LG Sony Motorola Samsung Electronics December [7] 2008 • • Vodafone Softbank Borqs Teleca • • • • • • • • • • ASUSTek Garmin Huawei Technologies Sony Ericsson Toshiba Dell May-June 2009 September 2009 January 2010 • China Unicom [8] • SVOX [9] • • Acer [10] MIPS [11] Technologies • • Sasken Communication Technologies [12] Limited ZTE [13] Corporation May 2010 • NXP [14] Software Access [15] [17] • July 2010 November 2010 • • MediaTek [16] VisualOn .Open Handset Alliance 240 Members The members of the Open Handset Alliance are: Joining date Mobile operators KDDI Corporation NTT DoCoMo Sprint Nextel T-Mobile China Mobile Telecom Italia Telefónica Software companies • • • • • • • • • Commercialization Semiconductor companies companies • • • • Handset manufacturers • • • • • • Founding [6] • members • • • • • Ascender Corporation eBay Google LivingImage Myriad Nuance Communications PacketVideo SkyPop SONiVOX Aplix Noser Engineering The Astonishing Tribe Wind River Systems • • • • • • • • • • • Audience Broadcom Corporation CSR Plc.

. ZTE. • Google enters the wireless world (http://www. html). Open Handset Alliance. Open Handset Alliance. 2010-07-12. html). businesswire. html). 2007-11-05. com/ news/ home/ 20101109005339/ en/ VisualOn-Joins-Open-Handset-Alliance-Enhance-Multimedia). org/ templates/ story/ story. com/ en/ news/ info. com/ News-Items-SVOX-brings-speech-solutions-to-Android. [7] "Open Handset Alliance announces 14 new members" (http:/ / www. 2009-06-01. openhandsetalliance. aspx). . openhandsetalliance. 2008-08-18. nxp. [16] "MediaTek Joins the Open Handset Alliance Continuous Commitment to Providing Multimedia-Rich Android Solutions" (http:/ / www. 2009. . . Access. com/ press_110507. html). html). openhandsetalliance. com/ 2008/ 08/ 18/ htc-dream-fcc-approved-android-clear-for-launch/ ). php?storyId=94982690). zte. 2010-11-09. . com/ press_releases. [9] "SVOX announces its joining of the Open Handset Alliance" (http:/ / www.com/2007/11/05/technology/05cnd-gphone. access-company. engadget. openhandsetalliance. com/ developers. . . html). [4] "FCC Approved HTC Dream" (http:/ / www. html). mips. [2] "Open Handset Alliance members page" (http:/ / www. MIPS Technologies. Wipro Technologies • • • • • Cypress Semiconductor Corporation Freescale Semiconductor Gemalto Renesas Electronics Corporation Via Telecom • • • • • • • • Alcatel Mobile Phones Compal Communications Foxconn Haier Kyocera Lenovo Mobile Communication Technology Ltd NEC Sharp Corporation References [1] "Industry Leaders Announce Open Platform for Mobile Devices" (http:/ / www. html#mobile). pdf). sasken. VisualOn. com/ oha_members.. [17] "VisualOn Joins the Open Handset Alliance to Enhance the Multimedia Capabilities of the Android Platform" (http:/ / www. Engadget. 2009-09-30. OMRON • • • • • • • Accenture L&T Infotech SQLStar International Inc. openhandsetalliance. svox. [13] "ZTE to launch Android handsets this quarter" (http:/ / wwwen. Open Handset Alliance. Retrieved 2007-11-05. . SVOX. 2008-10-15. 2008-12-09. com/ news/ press/ ACCESS/ 2010/ 20100729_oha. 2010-07-91. 2010-01-22. [8] "Open Handset Alliance member announcements" (http:/ / www.wsj. com/ newsroom/ press/ 2010/ 22_Jan_2010. Open Handset Alliance. cn/ en/ press_center/ press_clipping/ 201001/ t20100115_179607. . [3] "Developers" (http:/ / www. [10] "Acer announces its joining of the Open Handset Alliance" (http:/ / phandroid. SASKEN. htm). Will You Answer?" (http:/ / www. html). Ltd. com/ news-events/ newsroom/ release-archive-2009/ 9_30_09. 2007-11-05. [12] "Sasken joins Open Handset Alliance" (http:/ / www. MediaTek. [11] "MIPS Technologies Joins the Open Handset Alliance" (http:/ / www. 2010-05-18. [5] "Google Is Calling. 2010-12-27. dot). 2009-05-27. Retrieved 2007-11-05. [6] "Open Handset Alliance Members" (http:/ / www. 2010-01-15. html?mod=dist_smartbrief) . . com/ oha_members. openhandsetalliance. [14] "NXP Software Joins the Open Handset Alliance" (http:/ / www. NXP. com/ userfiles/ PR NXP Software_OHA_Agreement_Final(1). .com/article/SB119517445580795065. mediatek. php?sn=43). . html?ex=1352005200&en=d7a169e184415788&ei=5088&partner=rssnyt&emc=rss) • Google's wireless initiatives go beyond Android (http://online. openhandsetalliance. 2007-11-05. Retrieved 2007-11-05. . . . com/ press_120908. [15] "Access Joins the Open Handset Alliance" (http:/ / www. com. com/ oha_members. Open Handset Alliance. software. com/ 2009/ 06/ 01/ acer-joins-oha-expects-end-of-year-android/ ).nytimes. [18] "Open Handset Alliance Members Mobile Operators" (http:/ / www. . npr. . . . Acer. Inc.Open Handset Alliance Unknown • China Telecommunications • Corporation [18] • Telus Bouygues [18] Telecom 241 Cooliris MOTOYA Co.

Inc. located in Pleasanton. Lin Weng PhD in a effort to reduce the amount of time engineers spent troubleshooting and optimizing GSM (2G) networks. e. multi-vendor wireless network optimization tool developed by Telecom Technology Services. aspx?Ticket=de5d0d74-0f06-4a4f-be8e-ec31f80ff968) (Exxplain. where RF stands for Radio Frequency. neighbor analysis were extended to the new standard with addition of pilot pollution analysis.g. e.S. ORFS ORFS stands for Output RF Spectrum.com video) Optpcs OptPCS is a 2G/3G/4G (LTE) dual band. These features and functions are now extended to LTE (4G).com/) official site • Google's Android and the Open Handset Alliance (http://www. The acronym ORFS is used in the context of mobile communication systems. drive data analysis.S. . California.. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) or ETSI. It stands for the relationship between (a) the frequency offset from the carrier and (b) the power. ORFS measurements are defined and required in order to prove conformance by various institutions. the features and functions of network topology creation. produced by the mobile station due to effects in modulation and power ramping and switching..openhandsetalliance. GSM. measured in a specific bandwidth and time.exxplain.O-Ring Face Seal: Hydraulic sealing system for hoses and fittings. As UMTS (3G) networks began to emerge in the U.com/TrainingDetails.Open Handset Alliance 242 External links • Open Handset Alliance (http://www.g.. the U. ORFS . The tool was developed in 1997 by Dr. parameter auditing.

[4] This solution allows operators to manage wireless device functionality including renumbering handsets. methods of distributing new software updates to cellphones or provisioning handsets with the necessary settings with which to access services such as WAP or MMS. [2] Motes are often located in places that are either remote or difficult to access. [3] Mechanism The OTA mechanism requires the existing software and hardware of the target device to support the feature.4 and ZigBee. option 2 updates the PRL. namely the receipt and installation of new software received via the wireless network from the provider. 868 MHz. Interop Technologies provides a number of nationwide wireless operators in the US with an SS7 Based Over-the-Air device management solution. over-the-air provisioning (OTAP) or over-the-air parameter administration (OTAPA). over-the-air service provisioning (OTASP). it is sometimes called Firmware Over The Air (FOTA). 900 MHz) and with low consumption and low data rate transmission using protocols such as 802. For service settings. OTA configuration has become increasingly important as new updates and services come on stream. Option 1 updates phone configuration. . More recently. It is often necessary to turn the phone off and back on for the new programming to take effect. Some phones with this capability are labeled as being "OTA capable. Methods Depending on implementation. or in the mobile content world. saving time and money if the nodes must be re-programmed. and put into use.S. the technology is often known as Device Configuration. digital television.[1] When OTA is used to update a phone's operating firmware. a carrier will send a broadcast SMS text message to all subscribers (or those using a particular model of phone) asking them to dial a service number to receive a software update. Typically it is done via the former method to avoid service disruption at an inconvenient time. with the new concepts of Wireless Sensor Networks and the Internet of Things. updating phone settings. Verizon Wireless in the U. This system enables firmware upgrades without the need of physical access. provides a number of OTA functions to its subscribers via the *228 service code.Over-the-air programming 243 Over-the-air programming Over-the-air programming (OTA) may refer to either free-to-air. Similarly Voitel Wireless that uses Verizon network uses *22890 service code to program Verizon based Voitel wireless phones. Various standardization bodies were established to help develop.4 GHz. Libelium has implemented a smart and easy-to-use OTA programming system for ZigBee WSN devices. applications and subscriber data and adjusting PRL to manage cost structures. OTA is taken to a new direction: for the first time OTA is applied using unlicensed frequency bands (2.15. Often. OTA software delivery can be initiated upon action. OTA via SMS optimises the configuration data updates in SIM cards and handsets and enables the distribution of new software updates to mobile phones or provisioning handsets with the necessary settings with which to access services such as WAP or MMS. One of them is the Open Mobile Alliance (OMA)." As mobile phones accumulate new applications and become more advanced. OTA messaging provides remote control of mobile phones for service and subscription activation. and manage OTA. or can be performed automatically. though many phones will automatically perform this action. such as a call to the provider's customer support system or other dialable service. where the networks consist of hundreds or thousands of nodes. but this requires subscribers to manually call the provider. oversee. As an example. New software is transferred to the phone. installed. personalization and programming of a new service for mobile operators and telco third parties.

or connectivity parameters. Genicio. libelium. add software to device. such as cable modems. etc. thus reducing the amount of time spent by both the owner and the user of the device on maintenance. archive. Non-OTA options for a user are a) to go to a store and seek help b) use a PC and a cable to connect to the device and change settings on a device. It allows an access point(AP) to discover the IP address of its controller. microsoft. David.15. com/ libeliumworld/ articles/ 111291292000) [3] Over the Air Programming with Waspmote.Mobile Explorer" (http:/ / web.4 and ZigBee .Over-the-air programming To provision parameters in a mobile device OTA. libelium. the device needs to have a provisioning client capable of receiving. 2001. com/ mobile/ phones/ mme/ default. Yarza. parameters changed or firmware or software updated. Félix. microsoft. asp) on 11 August 2001. References [1] "Mobile Phones . Similarities OTA is similar to firmware distribution methods used by other mass-produced consumer electronics. the term OTA implies the use of wireless mechanisms to send provisioning data or update packages for firmware or software updates to a mobile device . In general. which use TFTP as a way to remotely receive new programming.this is so that the user does not have to go to a store or a service center to have applications provisioned. the controller tells the other APs to include additional information in the Radio Resource Management Packets (RRM) that would assist a new access point in learning of the controller. tmcnet. Marcos Over the Air Programming with 802. com/ mobile/ phones/ mme/ default. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. org/ web/ 20010811201929/ www. One of the first . processing and setting the parameters. Alberto.48 series. When enabled. [2] Gascón. Bielsa. a Device Management client in a device may be capable of receiving and provisioning applications. com/ wifirevolution/ articles/ 24338-alaska-digitel-buys-ota-programming-solution-from-interop. 244 OTA Standards There is number of standards that describes OTA functions. htm . Microsoft.OTA (http:/ / www. It is sent in plain text however which would make it vulnerable to sniffing and why it is disabled by default. asp). Over-the-air provisioning(OTAP) is also available in wireless environments (though it is disabled by default for security reasons).OTA (http:/ / www. .GSM 03. For example. com/ ota) [4] http:/ / www. Retrieved 19 April 2011.

A P2000 pager External links • Live P2000 monitor [1] References [1] http:/ / monitor.P2000 (network) 245 P2000 (network) P2000 is a one-way communications network for pagers based on Motorola's FLEX-protocol in the Netherlands. Messages are similar to SMS-messages. Several tests have shown the network can cope with the largest disasters when large numbers of emergency personnel need to be reached. Several websites provide a live monitor for all messages on this network. which means means any message can be read by everyone with a receiver. livep2000. The FLEX-protocol does not provide encryption. The P2000 network is maintained by the Ministry of the Interior and Kingdom Relations. nl/ . The network is used by all emergency services and provides nationwide coverage.

and Basel. CEO and Team[1]. United States Key people Website James C. which provides a universal structure for mobile multimedia applications. Boston. California. International Multimedia Telecommunications Consortium. Chicago. http:/ / www. Gene Wen and Mark R Banham. PV's software is embedded in more than 249 million devices worldwide and more than 248 different products. with its headquarters in San Diego.PacketVideo 246 PacketVideo PacketVideo Corporation Type Founded Privately Held San Diego. • TwonkyMedia suite of products that connect home entertainment devices. USA Headquarters San Diego. packetvideo. Chicago. a white-label client-server software application to develop and launch on-device portals for rich media services. Tampere. Osama Al-shaykh. Charlotte. Affiliations PacketVideo is a member of industry forum and consortiums. FLO Forum. and consumer electronics companies. Tampere. including the Open Handset Alliance. Open Mobile Alliance. com PacketVideo Corporation or PV is a San Diego-based company that produces software for wireless multimedia. Locations PacketVideo has presence in three continents. Charlotte. MPEG Industry Forum. Major product groups from PV are: • CORE. and the Digital Living Network Alliance . Nice. History PV was founded in San Diego. handset manufacturers. Chandigarh. California on 10 August 1998 by James C. In 2003 PacketVideo sold its infrastructure division to Alcatel. Products PV's customers include mobile operators such as Verizon Wireless. including the display of video on mobile handsets. • MediaFusion. Sales and customer support centers are in San Diego. 3rd Generation Partnership Project. CORE is an established framework that can support any media services. NTT DoCoMo and Orange. California. Mobile DTV Alliance. and Basel. Broadcast Mobile Convergence Forum. Cheuk Chan. Tokyo. Brailean. Tokyo. Major development centers are in San Diego. Berlin. Brailean.

but current pagers in this category use other forms of alert as well. pagers mainly support the "critical messaging" markets. usually consisting of the phone number. often used in combination. packetvideo. numeric pages. In general.PacketVideo 247 References [1] http:/ / www. the paged person will receive an alert from the pager with the phone number and/or a pager code within a few minutes. Function and operation Paging is a subscription service offered in a variety of plans and options to meet the needs of a subscriber and the type of device used. others light up and some vibrate. the text is displayed. The first pager system had a range of approximately 40 km (25 mi) and the physicians paid US$12 per month for the service.[2] A Motorola alphanumeric pager used in Brazil in the 1990s. and SMS messages. In the case of email paging. They were named beepers because they originally made a beeping noise. Some use audio signals. A one-way numeric pager can only receive a message consisting of a few digits. and sometimes giving the caller an option to leave a voice mail message. pagers filled the role of common personal and mobile communications. The actual pager device was developed and manufactured by Reevesound Company of New York and weighed approximately 200 grams (6 oz). Today. html External links • PacketVideo Corporation (http://www. all pagers are given unique phone numbers while alphanumeric pagers are given an email address. typically a phone number that the user is then requested to call. The current numeric pager . When calling a phone number assigned to a pager. as well as two-way pagers that have the ability to send and receive email.com/) Pager A pager (often called a beeper) is a simple personal telecommunications device for short messages. Alphanumeric pagers are available. operated by Teletrim Until the popular adoption of mobile phones in the 1990s. The majority of restaurant pagers fall into this category. • Beepers were the first and are the simplest form of paging.[1] The first practical pager was introduced in 1950 by physicians in the New York City area. the calling party reaches a recorded greeting asking the caller to enter a numeric message.packetvideo. com/ management_team. Generally. The numeric message given is usually a phone number.

The U. the units either have a small built in keypad that allows the user to input messages. paging industry generated $2. increasing speed of a message reply and reducing the chance of a miss-communication. These devices are usually given an email address to receive text messages. or the message can be typed from a wireless keyboard and is received by the pager.2 billion in 2003. Because of superior building penetration and availability of service in disaster situations. GPS allows field agents location information to be sent back to a control centre that can use the information to send only location relevant information. satellite systems continue to perform.S. an informal language wherein sets of numbers symbolize preset messages. 248 • Two-way Alphanumeric pagers are alphanumeric pagers capable of both sending and receiving text messages and email. To do this.[3] • Numeric pagers are the type of devices offering only a numeric display of the phone number to be called and pager codes.Pager • Voice/Tone pagers provide the ability to listen to a recorded voice message when an alert is received. where radio transmitters are thought to interfere with sensitive medical equipment and where there is a greater need of assurance for a timely delivery of a message. One such type of location is a large hospital complex. flashes or beeps when a table becomes free.this has the advantage of standardising communications. to improve response times by designating jobs or activities only to the closest field personnel.[4] A pager technology in wide use today is the restaurant pager. Within a short timespan. while cellular systems are built to fill holes in existing networks. the functionality of the pager shifted from necessary professional use to a social tool integrated in one's personal life. pagers evolved from a A Skyper pager that is in use for ham radio . or when their meal is ready. Most modern paging systems use simulcast delivery by satellite controlled networks. • Alphanumeric pagers are essentially modified versions of numeric pagers with sophisticated display to accommodate text. Many paging transmitters may overlap a coverage area. where cellular coverage is often weak or nonexistent. two-way pagers are offered with GPS. usually from the beeper category. When terrestrial networks go down in an emergency. and. Other pager models rely on existing message templates that the user can choose to send back . and also in places where the operation of the radio transmitters contained in mobile phones is problematic or prohibited. customers are given a theft-protected portable receiver which usually vibrates. This type of distributed system makes them inherently more reliable than terrestrial based cellular networks for message delivery.1 billion in revenue in 2008. Increasingly. The front end of a numeric pager Pager use in the 21st century Pagers are still in use today in places where mobile phones typically cannot reach users.[3] A dual-frequency Unication pager for use by EMS units In popular culture As is the case with many new technologies. down from $6. pagers are often used by first responders in emergencies. Mainly used in the hospitality industry.

the 30 Rock sitcom character Dennis Duffy attracts disdain and mockery for his career as a pager salesman. due to the widespread adoption of email. The segment explored the device's entrance into mainstream pop culture. Common paging protocols include TAP.[7] Security Pagers also have privacy advantages compared with cellular phones. The growing popularity of cellphones in the early 21st century was accompanied by a corresponding decline in pager use by the general population. This shift accounts for Sam Flynn's amusement when Alan Bradley says "I was paged last night" in Tron: Legacy. ReFLEX. resulting in a much wider coverage area per . and are less subject to these delays. if a pager has nationwide service. Since a one-way pager is a passive receiver only (it sends no information back to the base station). 249 A mid 1990s opaque black Avont pager model Original Motorola "beeper" pager. along with underground acts such as A Tribe Called Quest began referencing forthcoming mobile technologies. pagers typically receive signals using the FLEX protocol in the 900 MHz band. it also discussed the humorous use of calculator spelling to send messages through the devices. In the song 3-Way (The Golden Rule) by American comedy troupe The Lonely Island. Upcoming mainstream artists such as Ice Cube and Method Man. but email-based message submission methods do not usually provide any way to ensure that messages have been received by the paging network. Thus. Technical information Many paging network operators now allow numeric and textual pages to be submitted to the paging networks via email. A Tribe Called Quest's single 'Skypager' directly speaks of the importance of such a wireless communication device. used in NYC in the late 1970s. This can result in pager messages being delayed or lost.[6] The smash hit "Bugaboo" from Destiny's Child also makes reference to pagers. it became the subject of various forms of media. Q-Tip conveys that the skypager "serves an important communicative function for a young professional with a full calendar". as a message sent to a pager must be broadcast from every paging transmitter in the pager's service area. most notably in the 1990s hip-hop scene. In the United States. Commercial paging transmitters typically radiate 1000 watts of effective power. This is convenient for many users. However. Past paging protocols include Two-tone and 5/6-tone. in particular the pager. its location cannot be tracked. POCSAG. That I met last week at the Pay-less". Older forms of message submission using the Telocator Alphanumeric input Protocol protocol involve modem connections directly to a paging network. this can also be disadvantageous. Justin Timberlake states "You know I just got a page from a girl.Pager tool for "technocratic elites" to a tool used by "kids living in the projects"[5] During the rise of the pager. Pagers were a featured segment on the 1991 episode I Love the '90s: Part Deux. ERMES and NTT. a message sent to it could be intercepted by criminals or law enforcement agencies anywhere within the nationwide service area. Likewise. For this reason. older forms of message submission retain their usefulness for disseminating highly-important alerts to users such as emergency services personnel. Golay. FLEX.

and Popular Culture. retrieved 17 January 2010 [4] AnythingResearch.com report on Paging Industry market size (http:/ / www. and the FM commercial broadcast band (88-108 MHz). Although 900 MHz FLEX paging networks tend to have stronger in-building coverage than mobile phone networks. . htm) 2003 and 2008 research data used with permission [5] Heckman. most one-way pagers do not display any information about whether a signal is being received or about the strength of the received signal. one-way paging networks have no way to track whether a message has been successfully delivered to a pager. com/ lyrics/ The+ Lonely+ Island/ 3-Way+ The+ Golden+ Rule/ [8] http:/ / www. uk/ sectors/ pager-patient. Messages can be sent in the form of SMS. htm). This was useful for times when the pager was off/out of coverage area. commercial paging service providers will work with large institutions to install repeater equipment in the event that service is not available in needed areas of the subscribing institution's buildings. Other paging protocols used in the VHF. which allowed a customer to call their pagernumber. Because of this. This is especially critical in hospital settings where emergency staff must be able to reliably receive pages in order to respond to patient needs. some paging companies began offering a service. Despite the fact that the network provides world-wide coverage the messages are only sent to pre-selected message delivery areas which can be set on a web-based interface or by binding the service to a satellite phone.. Patient Paging Systems offer waiting patients the opportunity to leave the waiting area but still be contactable. of a broadcast station. ‘Do You Know the Importance of a Sky Pager?’: Telecommunications. Since one-way pagers do not contain transmitters. com/ industry/ Paging. as it would know what number paged you even if you never actually received the page. Unlike mobile phones.Pager tower than a mobile phone transmitter. lyricshall. Jeff. January 1951.” [7] http:/ / www. Onsite Paging Systems in Hospitals Unlike wide area paging systems on site pager systems are local area services. the VHF band. and have numeric messages read back to them. Popular Science (http:/ / books. com/ books?id=ZyEDAAAAMBAJ& pg=PA104& dq=popular+ science+ 1950+ can+ our+ jets+ support& hl=en& ei=4n2-TJmUBNnhnQfCvvGJDg& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=5& ved=0CD8Q6AEwBA#v=onepage& q& f=true) [3] Tyson. Davin (2006). How Restaurant Pagers Work (http:/ / electronics. and 900 MHz bands include POCSAG and ERMES. anythingresearch. African-Americans. html [2] Pocket Radio Pages Doctors Night Or Day. the message will not be received and the sender of the message will not be notified of this fact. Other radio bands used for pagers include the 400 MHz band. email or from a web interface. Pagers using the commercial FM band receive a subcarrier.6 Watts per channel. hospitals commonly use on site paging for communication with staff and increasingly for calling waiting patients when their appointment is due (Patient Paging Systems).sid40_gci212739. pagercall. which typically radiates around 0. com/ restaurant-pager. com/ sDefinition/ 0. 400 MHz UHF. Pager in movies • 2001 The Debut References [1] http:/ / searchmobilecomputing. google. asp . Reference: Patient Paging Systems [8] 250 Satellite pager A service based on the Iridium satellite constellation uses satellites to deliver short text messages to one-way pagers similar to those used by terrestrial paging networks. called the Subsidiary Communications Authority. techtarget. if a one-way pager is turned off or is not receiving a usable signal at the time a message is transmitted. In the mid 1990s. Davin (2006).00. and Popular Culture (p175) [6] Heckman. co. howstuffworks. “‘Do You Know the Importance of a Sky Pager?’: Telecommunications. African-Americans.

The peer-to-peer video sharing functionality is defined by the Phase 1 of the GSMA Video Share service. too. etc. with audio being optional (since there is an audio session already open on the CS domain). However.Pager 251 External links • BBC news reports closure of UK domestic pager systems in 2001 (http://news. One possible solution is the Early IMS Authentication method. So the IMS adds up extra security and management features that are normally required by a mobile operator by default. mobile operators may want to use it without username/password provisioning and the related frauds problems.htm) . • 800Beepers User Manuals (http://www. The GSM Association calls it "Video Share".uk/1/hi/uk/1137923. carriers. In the future USIM/ISIM based authentication could be introduced. It could work with a pure IETF Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) infrastructure and simple HTTP Digest authentication. P2P video sharing does not require a full IMS implementation. The most basic form is typically connected to a classical circuit-switched (CS) telephone call. For a more detailed description of the full GSMA Video Share service.800beepers. It is also possible to share photos or files. Early proprietary implementations might also run a simple SIP infrastructure. and (b) is responsible for interconnection of access and network systems to support end-to-end services. and connection control (switching) functions. The session is normally a video stream. Note 2: The term "center" does not imply a physical location. a facility that (a) supports access-independent call control/service control.php?main_page=page&id=6& zenid=f081fb7631873c12bf1fdddc007ec50d) PCS switching center PCS switching center: In personal communications service. stm) • NotePage technical support (http://www.Technical information on protocols. .php?main_page=page&id=25& zenid=f081fb7631873c12bf1fdddc007ec50d) • 800Beepers Enhanced Options / Services (http://www. Actually.notepager.com/support. Peer-to-peer video sharing Peer-to-peer video sharing is a basic service on top of the IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS).co.800beepers. Note 1: The PCS switching center represents a collection of one or more network elements. too. please see the Wikipedia entry for Video Share.com/index.com/index. While talking on the CS line the speaker can start in parallel a multimedia IMS session. References  This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the General Services Administration.bbc.

Usually. Two major operators started commercial implementations: "Turbo Call" [1] from Telecom Italia Mobile (TIM) in Italy and Telecomunicações Móveis Nacionais. it is difficult to make a good business model for it. the video sharing client looks up the destination URI based on the MSISDN number of the B party of the current open CS voice call.nokia. do) Service description at TIM (in Italian) External links • http://www. Popularity TIM Italy reported about 10% penetration (based on the potentially available customers with appropriate handsets).nokia. When the video session is triggered (by simply pulling down the back-side camera cover on a 6680). History The P2P video sharing was introduced in 2004 by Nokia. and the resulting increased revenue would be enough to cover the costs of the video sharing service.html) Announcement of the "Turbo Call" service from TIM in cooperation with Nokia . the first commercial services were based on the idea that video sharing will increase the length of the voice sessions.Technical description on the Forum Nokia site • http://press.com/sip/e2e/videoshare. The 6680 is especially suited for turning on the video sharing by having a slider on top of the back-side camera. The first handsets to support P2P video sharing were the Nokia 6630 and 6680. SA (TMN) in Portugal.com/id/ced67f36-2a98-4f21-9277-209bb4a2429c/Video_Sharing.pdf) .html (http://press.com/PR/200502/980522_5.shtml (http://www. this method is not really scalable. However. since the user has to enter very complex strings into the phone book manually.nokia. Because this service does not involve any application server. tim.com/PR/200502/980522_5.GSM Association Video Share homepage • http://sw.nokia. Supported handsets • Nokia 6630.com/ id/ced67f36-2a98-4f21-9277-209bb4a2429c/Video_Sharing. Later the Nokia N70 was added to the commercially supported handsets. shtml) .com/sip/e2e/videoshare.gsmworld. The video sharing is possible only if this number has a valid entry in the phone book and a valid URI for the SIP call.pdf (http://sw. 6680 • Nokia N70 • Nokia 5230 References [1] (http:/ / www.Peer-to-peer video sharing 252 Early implementation by Nokia The early Nokia implementation requires the manual setting of an attribute in the phone book. it/ consumer/ c366/ i56102/ o683_684/ servizio.gsmworld.

PCS services are provided in the 1850-1990 MHz frequency band (commonly referred to as the "1900 MHz band"). as long as the network meets the service description characteristics described in the standard.[1] More specifically. providing services similar to advanced cellular mobile or paging services. PCS and the IMT-2000 standard of which PCS is a part do not specify a particular air interface and channel access method.and digital-cellular phone systems. International Telecommunications Union 1997. 2011. Retrieved 2011-03-11. personal mobility.[2] Described in more commercial terms. These frequency bands are particular to North America and other frequency bands may be designated in other regions. office buildings and other fixed locations. "Personal Communications Services (PCS) A new generation of wireless-phone technology that introduces a range of features and services surpassing those available in analog- . PCS can also be used to provide other wireless communications services.org/5x7DguDqd).verizon.[6] Notes [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] Institute for Telecommunication Sciences 2011.[5] This frequency band was designated by the United States FCC and Industry Canada to be used for new wireless services to alleviate capacity caps inherent in the original AMPS and D-AMPS cellular networks in the 800-894 MHz frequency band (commonly referred to as the "850 MHz band"). Sprint PCS was the first company to build and operate a PCS network. as well as wireless communications to homes. Cambridge Telecom Report 2000. providing a user with an all-in-one wireless phone. including services that allow people to place and receive communications while away from their home or office. Mexico and the United States. verizon. In addition.webcitation. 2011. Archived from the original (http://www22.com. messaging. Verizon Communications Inc. PCS refers to any of several types of wireless voice and/or wireless data communications systems. typically incorporating digital technology. References • "Glossary of Telecom Terms : P" (http://www.[4] In Canada.com/wholesale/glossary/?l=p) on 2011-03-11. First PCS Network in the United States In the United States. launching service in November. 2011. PCS is a generation of wireless-phone technology that combines a range of features and services surpassing those available in analog. paging. Verizon Communications Inc.Personal Communications Service 253 Personal Communications Service At the most basic level Personal Communications Service or PCS describes a set of wireless communications capabilities that allows some combination of terminal mobility.[3] The International Telecommunications Union describes Personal Communications Services as a component of the IMT-2000 (3G) standard. After completing the customer migration. launching service in 1997. Federal Communications Commission 2008. Sprint PCS originally built out the network using GSM radio interface equipment. and data service. Wireless service providers may deploy equipment using any of several air interface and channel access methods. Sprint PCS later selected CDMA as the radio interface for its nationwide network and built out a parallel CDMA network in the Baltimore-Washington area. Cellular Networking Perspectives Ltd. and service profile management. Sprint operated the two networks in parallel until finishing a migration of its area customers to the CDMA network. 1995 in the Baltimore-Washington metropolitan area. Sprint PCS sold the GSM radio interface network equipment to Omnipoint Communications in January 2000.

com/ glossary. 2010-10-07.org/5x7EBShz6).org/5x7DGMe4m). "PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICE (PCS) Any of several types of wireless." • "Wireless. www. in November 1995. Archived from the original (http://www. Retrieved 2011-03-11.html) on 2011-03-11.webcitation. PCS provides the user with an all-in-one wireless phone. Archived from the original (http://www. voice and/or data communications systems. 2011." "Sprint Sells GSM Wireless Network Infrastructure in Washington/Baltimore Area To Omnipoint After Upgrading Customers to Newer CDMA System .html#p) on 2011-03-11. gov/services/broadbandpcs/) . CBS Interactive. Telecom and Computer Glossary" (http://www. org/5x7EyxALO).Company Business and Marketing" (http://www. A set of capabilities that allows some combination of terminal mobility. and service profile management. "PCS1900 North American PCS frequencies. International Telecommunications Union.gov.com. the nation's first PCS network.webcitation. Cellular Networking Perspectives Ltd. cnp-wireless.its.bldrdoc. Retrieved 2011-03-11. Retrieved 2011-03-11. Retrieved 2011-03-11.bldrdoc.Personal Communications Service and digital-cellular phone systems.gov/glossary. Federal Communications Commission. Archived from the original (http://www.int. fcc. "An affiliate of Sprint launched the GSM system in Washington/Baltimore.org/5x7GHvEsu) (PDF). Retrieved 2011-03-11.itu. messaging. Archived from the original (http://www.com/p/articles/mi_m0BFP/is_2000_Jan_3/ai_58463612/) on 2011-03-11.cnp-wireless.1224 Vocabulary of Terms for International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 (IMT-2000) (Question ITU-R 39/8)" (http://www." "PCS" (http://www.webcitation.1224-0-199702-I!!PDF-E. personal mobility. personal mobility.pdf) on 2011-03-11.int/ dms_pubrec/itu-r/rec/m/R-REC-M." "Glossary of Telecommunications Terms" (http://www. Archived from the original (http:// 254 • • • • findarticles. and data service.itu.gov/fs-1037/) on 2011-03-11. 2000-01-03. 1997-07-01.webcitation. its. and service profile management.fcc. "PCS system A collection of facilities which provide some combination of terminal mobility.org/5x7CwBtjf). paging. The Institute for Telecommunication Sciences. typically incorporating digital technology. Cambridge Telecom Report." "Recommendation ITU-R M.webcitation. 2008-11-15. 1850-1990 MHz" External links • United States Federal Communications Commission Broadband PCS service description (http://wireless. "PCS: Abbreviation for Personal Communications Service.gov.fcc.

Phizzle identified the Sports/Entertainment Industry as the prime market ready for the technology and began working with the Cleveland Cavaliers in 2008. and with such networks as Fox Sports Network[5] in regions across the US. voting and polling. networks. Phizzle has a strong Sports/Entertainment Industry focus with clients in the NBA[3] . mobile communication Phizzle Website [1] Phizzle.Phizzle 255 Phizzle Phizzle Developer(s) Phizzle. The mobile connection to audiences usually begins with a "call to action" that is not on the mobile platform itself.0 Type Website Web application. Advertising and sponsorship can also be a part of the SMS messages or WAP sites that the Phizzle platform initiates. Stable release Version 1. magazine ads. The name "Phizzle" was chosen due to the futuristic nature of mobile phones and because it is slang for and a play on the word phone[7] . Thus. Since then. Instead the platform user will advertise an invitation to participate to their audience where they frequent such as traditional or digital signage in venues. and local advertisers. brands. and NHL. Type Private Headquarters San Francisco. California Key people Website Benjamin Davis. The platform does also have reach into the retail and pharmaceutical markets. After a platform build out in 2006 and 2007. TV networks. The platform specifically allows for mobile marketing campaigns to be set up and run that can pass along useful information to audiences. arenas. Inc. etc. Phizzle has been bringing in other major professional sports teams and sports networks to facilitate reach . and local advertisers to converge and deliver targeted ads to their focused audiences. The communication that usually transpires is by SMS (text messages). The platform establishes a mobile ecosystem as it provides intimate interaction for audiences and fans with their sports teams. highways. The text messages may also have WAP push links that launch WAP sites for the audience or fan to continue further interaction with. or other means such as TV and radio commercials. There are a variety of campaign types that can be set up that include alerts and subscriptions. and beyond TV networks[6] . and trivia. fans and customers. com [2] Phizzle is a mobile marketing technology platform that allows its users to connect with their audiences via mobile interactivity. The mobile platform allows the user to communicate with its audience through the opt-in campaigns. History The idea for Phizzle came about in late 2005 after Ben Davis sold a mobile game company that he helped found in 2004. the Phizzle platform also serves as a mobile ad network for sports teams. NFL [4] . retail stores. to name a few. contests and sweepstakes. Inc. phizzle. CEO http:/ / www.

sweepstakes[9] and contests.shtml) . 2009 [5] "FSOhio connects with Cavs fans" . org/ portal/ artman/ publish/ printer_15041. urbandictionary. html) [6] "Advantage Broadcast Solutions Partners with Phizzle to Further Enhance Interactivity of Satellite Meetings" .com July 10. com [3] "Phizzle Goes To The Mobile Hoop For NBA All-Star Weekend 2010" . digidaydaily. (http://www.Akron Beacon Journal Apr 30. phizzle. com/ note. 2010 (http:/ / www. com/ / [2] http:/ / www. 2009 (http:/ / www. sportsvideo.com/) • Sports Video Group . facebook. com/ sports/ cavs/ 44090407. com/ stories/ phizzle-goes-to-the-mobile-hoop-for-nba-all-star-weekend-2010/ ) [4] (http:/ / www. mobile coupons.April 10.org/portal/dsports/articles/publish/ Ben_Davis_III. These features allow for real-time interaction with audiences and fans while on their mobile devices. com/ p/ articles/ mi_pwwi/ is_200910/ ai_n39266353/ ) [9] "FSN Wisconsin: AirTran Airways/Fox Sports Wisconsin "Text Me Out to the Ballgame Get Away Sweepstakes" Rules!" .sportsvideo. php?note_id=68283858018) [10] "Fox Sports Ohio Adds Sizzle Via Phizzle for Reds Fans" . com/ portal/ site/ mercurynews/ ?ndmViewId=news_view& newsId=20100309005180& newsLang=en) [7] "Phizzle" . voting and polling[10] . com/ define. php?term=phizzle) [8] "" BNET .October. References [1] http:/ / www. trivia games. 2009 (http:/ / findarticles.Mar 27. phizzle. shtml) External links • Phizzle. ohio. 2009 (http:/ / www. htm) "Oakland Raiders Raiders' Billboard Campaign" . 256 Features The Phizzle platform features the following capabilities and mobile campaign types: text2screen[8] . 2010 (http:/ / businesswire.Ben Davis profile (http://www. phizzle.OaklandRaiders.March 09. and campaign tracking and data tools.Sports Video Group .Urban Dictionary (http:/ / www. mercurynews.Phizzle to their audiences and fans across the US. 2009 (http:/ / www.SJ Mercury News .digiday:Daily .February 12. subscription alerts. WAP sites. com/ news/ Raiders.phizzle. Inc.

it reveals a telephone keypad. 240 x 320 resolution Ringtones & notifications Polyphonic ringtone Connectivity USB. Since their acquisition by Sprint Nextel.[1] Photos released on December 9. 2006 showed the Ocean in test apparatus documentation. 2006 from a FCC filing. 262K color TFT-LAC. Customers had until this date to port out their wireless phone number to another wireless carrier without a loss of service.35 pounds 200 MB + up to 2 GB extra memory available via microSD. [2] and later on February 21. bluetooth The Helio Ocean is a dual slider Internet-enabled multimedia wireless mobile device sold by mobile virtual network operator (MVNO) wireless carrier Helio. Virgin Mobile USA terminated the wireless voice and data services of those customers who had a Helio Ocean or other Helio branded devices on May 25. President & COO of Helio. and manufactured by Pantech Curitel. appealing to a more mainstream audience and not just the "ultra-cool hipsters" the company had previously targeted. Wonhee Sull.[3] [4] When publicly released on Friday. 2007.4" QVGA display.33" (H) x 2. Release The device became first known to the public on November 24. May 11.Helio Ocean 257 Helio Ocean Helio Ocean PN-810 Compatible networks Dimensions Weight Memory Display CDMA 1xEV-DO 800/1900 MHz 4. 2007 a full gallery depicting the Helio Ocean was available through the FCC website. it reveals a full 35-key QWERTY keyboard. A deactivated Helio Ocean still is able to be used as a digital camera allowing images and video files to be downloaded via the included USB interface cable directly to a computer. When slid down in the horizontal position. said that work on the Ocean device started "before Helio was officially a company.[7] Dr.[5] the Ocean was billed as "the ultimate messaging and talking machine" and "the definitive mobile social networking experience."[6] The Ocean is seen as a breakthrough device for Helio. 2010.20" (W) x 0.86" (D) 5. A distinctive design feature of the Ocean is its dual sliding mechanism — when slid down in the vertical position."[8] . SDHC is not compatible 2.61 ounces / 0.

a 2 megapixel camera with flash. to telephony functions. For communication. allowing the device to be able to read a variety of popular file formats (among them DOC. visible via MapQuest. . The Ocean device has several advanced features such as stereo bluetooth. XLS. Windows Live Hotmail. Multimedia The integrated music and video player supports multiple file formats (including MP3. Helio began adding support for push e-mail to the Helio Ocean in July 2007 with Push support for Yahoo! Mail. 2008 push support was added for Gmail. an alarm clock and a calendar. a MPEG-4 video camera. EarthLink. which displays turn-by-turn directions. the application warns users that it should not be used while driving. 2007. MMS support. The music player runs on a separate microprocessor. and a removable battery. and WMA) and allows for over-the-air (OTA) downloads. a voice memo recorder. and AOL Mail.[11] [12] Ultimate Inbox The Helio Ocean also includes several choices of E-mail communication with support for Helio Mail. 2007 Helio released a file viewer program for Ocean users. On April 23. PDF. Standard programs include an internet browser. Windows Live Hotmail. Gmail. HTML. PPT. T9 Text. address book (with multiple online syncing abilities). and Korean character set support. an efficiency that allows for an estimate 15 hours of music listening on a single battery charge. however. Additionally.[14] [15] There is also instant messaging support for AOL Instant Messenger. connectivity to Microsoft Exchange has been available on the Ocean since July 25. GPS The device is location aware with its internal GPS. Yahoo! Mail. The Ocean is loaded with a version of Google Maps. the device includes caller ID (with support for photo caller ID).[10] On November 29. and two additional user-defined POP or IMAP accounts. In addition. Yahoo! Messenger. MPEG-4. a speaker phone.Helio Ocean 258 Features The Ocean is a prime example of a converged device. only Helio phones) to broadcast their current location to each other. the Buddy Beacon [9] application allows friends with Buddy Beacon-enabled phones (as of Dec 2008.[13] For a nominal fee per month. The Helio Ocean has a considerable amount of features at the time of its release. a calculator.264. built-in GPS. H. TXT) as well as several image types in both landscape and portrait modes. 3G speed EV-DO network support. along with automatic notifications for POP/IMAP accounts. and Windows Live Messenger. the Ocean's functions include those of a camera phone and a portable media player. AAC. Helio Ocean running Google Maps in portrait mode. AOL Mail.

Helio Ocean 259 Opera Mini On August 2. opera.[21] YouTube On December 12. 2007 Helio announced the launch of an improved version of Myspace Mobile that operates nearly five times faster than Helio's original self-developed application.engadget. reads most of the important stuff (http:/ / www.helio. com/ id/ 11374772) . ulocate.opera. msn.msn. msnbc.cnet.engadgetmobile.helio. the Ocean got official software support for the Opera Mini browser when Helio became the first U.crave.com [5] Helio Ocean now available (http:/ / www.com [15] The Ocean gets Exchange Activesync (http:/ / crave. leading some to refer to the Ocean as a "MySpace phone.com [11] Helio File Viewer Now Available for Ocean Users (http:/ / www.com [7] Ocean smart phone could broaden Helio's appeal (http:/ / www. engadgetmobile."[16] MySpace Mobile MySpace Mobile is available for the Helio Ocean. com/ pressreleases/ en/ 2008/ 03/ 19/ ) .including Opera Mini. news.helio. com/ 8301-1_105-9832752-1.heliocity.news. com/ 8301-2007_4-9754949-12.msnbc.com [13] Gmail (and POP/IMAP!) gets Push support in Ultimate Inbox (http:/ / www. com/ id/ 17800969) . helio. Users can fully log in to personalize. helio.com [19] Opera Mini officially surfs Helio's Ocean (http:/ / www.crave. heliocity. helio. html) .helio.[22] [23] The Ocean is able to do video capture and upload to YouTube as well as GPS tagging of videos.com . msnbc. com/ buddybeacon.com [23] Helio brightens its YouTube offering (http:/ / crave.com [2] The next Kickflip? Helio-branded Pantech in the wild (http:/ / www. (http:/ / www. 2007 Helio announced a more enriched YouTube experience.com [6] Ocean Media Fact Sheet (http:/ / www. Opera Mini now surfing Helio's Ocean.com [12] Helio outs File Viewer for Ocean.download. engadgetmobile. engadget.news. net/ 2007/ opera-mini-for-everybody-custom-apps-yay/ ) heliocity.S carrier to sign a deal with Opera. msn. com/ page?p=press_release_detail& contentid=1195242138800) helio. com/ 8301-2007_4-9897598-12. download. on March 19.msn.com [18] Opera Mini Surfs on the Helio Ocean (http:/ / www. com/ 2006/ 11/ 24/ fcc-fridays/ ) . computer-advice. On July 19.helio. com/ 2006/ 12/ 09/ the-next-kickflip-helio-branded-pantech-in-the-wild/ ) . helio. com/ photos/ helios-pantech-pn-810-qwerty-device-pops-up-in-fcc/ ) . php [10] Cell industry gathers under iPhone cloud (http:/ / www. at the time the "most complete" on a mobile device. 2008. 2007. com/ page?p=press_release_detail& contentid=1185327373909) helio. html) .engadgetmobile.info [4] Helio's Pantech PN-810 QWERTY device pops up in FCC (Gallery) (http:/ / www.com [9] http:/ / www. heliocity.net [17] Give a wave.computer-advice.com [22] Helio Launches Most Complete YouTube Experience (http:/ / www. html) .net [14] Helio Launches Mail for Microsoft Exchange (http:/ / www. pdf) . engadgetmobile. com/ page?p=press_release_detail& contentid=1178851101604) . helio. References [1] FCC Fridays (http:/ / www."[20] Helio was the first cellular provider to take the MySpace experience mobile. helio. com/ page?p=press_release_detail& contentid=1174770553372) . com/ Ocean-smart-phone-could-broaden-Helios-appeal/ 2100-1039_3-6171062. helio. download. html) . html) .engadgetmobile. those in the Helio community had figured out how to build custom applications (the device is Java-based) . com/ page?p=press_release_detail& contentid=1197419200979) . com/ livefiles/ support/ ocean_fact_sheet.cnet. net/ 2008/ gmail-gets-push-support-in-ultimate-inbox) . com/ 2007/ 11/ 19/ helio-outs-file-viewer-for-ocean-reads-most-of-the-important-st/ ) .[16] [17] Several months later. info/ 2007/ 02/ 21/ helios-pantech-pn-810-qwerty-device-pops-up-in-fcc/ ) . cnet. rate videos and use other community features. com/ page?p=press_release_detail& contentid=1184806233919) .com [21] Helio Continues to Lead Mobile Social Networking with New Myspace on Helio Application (http:/ / www.msnbc. com/ 8301-1_105-9749860-1.com [3] Helio's Pantech PN-810 QWERTY device pops up in FCC (http:/ / www. cnet.com [8] Meet the New Helio Ocean (http:/ / www.[18] [19] It was speculated that Helio had followed the "incredible community response to Opera Mini.com [16] Opera Mini for everybody! Custom apps! Yay! (http:/ / www.com [20] MySpace users to get their own cell phones (http:/ / www.

thus chopping the speech of the transmitting operator. as if the listener was walking by a picket fence.net) . reasonably simple unit that connects to a Base Station Controller (BSC). train stations. In particular. the integration of picocells with macrocells through a Heterogeneous Network can be useful in seamless handoffs and increased mobile data capacity.helio. Picocells provide coverage and capacity in areas difficult or expensive to reach using the more traditional Macrocell approach[1] .helio ocean updates Unofficial Helio Ocean Site (http://www.fcc. the picocell base station[2] is typically a low cost. picocells are typically used to extend coverage to indoor areas where outdoor signals do not reach well. which imitates the noise produced by dragging a stiff object across a picket fence.helio.com/) . and aggregates data to be passed to the Mobile Switching Centre (MSC) and/or the Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN).youtube.fcc. or (more likely) by the landline user to whom the cellphone is connected. the phrase was used to describe the way an FM transmitter will cut in and out as it nears the capture threshold of the receiver.myhelioapps.net Custom community-maintained applications (http://www.helioocean. Connectivity between the picocell heads and the BSC typically consists of in-building wiring. This is potentially a more cost effective approach.com Compare AT&T iPhone to Helio Ocean (http://compare. Although originally deployed systems (1990s) used PDH links such as E1/T1 links.heliocity.). such as train stations. Aircraft use satellite links[3] . small (typically the size of a ream of A4 paper). Originally from amateur radio. In this case.com Internal photographs of the Ocean (https://fjallfoss.com/watch?v=e3R_ExzzF3k) . This form of picocell is sometimes called an access point base station or 'enterprise femtocell'.com) . but also many of the functions of the BSC and some of the MSC. More recent work has developed the concept towards a head unit containing not only a picocell.Helio Ocean 260 External links • • • • • • • Helio Ocean updates (http://www. such as in-building (offices. cgi?attachment_id=731378&native_or_pdf=pdf) . Picocell A picocell is a small cellular basestation typically covering a small area.heliocity. In cellular wireless networks.com/) . without the need for the BSC/MSC infrastructure. Picocells offer many of the benefits of "small cells" (similar to femtocells) in that they improve data throughput for mobile users and increase capacity in the mobile network.youtube. the unit contains all the capability required to connect directly to the Internet.myhelioapps. shopping malls.gov Picket-fencing Picket fencing is slang for the chopping effect sometimes heard by cell phone users at the edge of a cell's coverage area.[4] .com Unofficial Helio community (http://www.helioocean. or if it actually referred to the chopping sound itself. It is not clear if the phrase was intended to describe the loss of the speech.com) . etc. more recent systems use Ethernet cabling. or to add network capacity in areas with very dense phone usage. and hearing a conversation on the other side that changes audibily depending on the position of the pickets relative to the listener.helio-ocean2. such as GSM.gov/prod/oet/forms/blobs/retrieve. In cellular networks. or more recently in-aircraft. Multiple picocell 'heads' connect to each BSC: the BSC performs radio resource management and hand-over functions. "Picket fencing" refers to the way portions of speech are stripped from the conversation.com Helio Ocean video review (http://www.

Predictive text systems take time to learn to use well. com/ research/ 1003580-Picocell+ Equipment+ Vendor+ Matrix). The most widely used. . Huawei and Airwalk[5] . predictive text systems are T9. Each key press results in a prediction rather than repeatedly sequencing through the same group of "letters" it represents. Retrieved 2010-12-21. . comparable to using a keyboard. and so generally. There are many unique ways to build a device that predicts text. a calendar. ZTE. these factors are found to cause tremendous variance in the efficiency gain. and of multi-tap is KSPC=2. eetimes. CDMA. Most predictive text systems have a user database to facilitate this process. punctuation is ignored.access. an e-mail. could. Predictive text makes efficient use of fewer device keys to input writing into a text message. of a keyboard is KSPC=1. and the like.15" for English. and a femtocell is on the order of 10 meters. linguistic settings that offer predictions that are re-prioritized to adapt to each user. There are various levels of risk in predictive text systems. Eetimes. com/ picocells/ nanoBTS_picocells. because the predicted text that is automatically written that provide the speed and mechanical efficiency benefit. and no input mistakes are made typing or spelling. the user's level of learned ability to operate predictive text software. Retrieved 2010-12-21. KSPC.[2] The theoretical keystrokes per character. a picocell is 200 meters or less. Retrieved 2010-12-21. Typically the range of a microcell is less than two kilometers wide. The choice of which predictive text system is the best to use involves matching the user's preferred interface style. on average. php). com/ blog/ 2007/ 12/ do-we-really-need-femto-cells/ [7] http:/ / www. This learning adapts.[1] In practice. radio-electronics. to a user's disambiguating feedback that results in corrective key presses. but all predictive text systems have initial. [4] "Mobile Experts Picocell Forecast" (http:/ / mobile-experts.access. a "microcell".00. invariable order. . UMTS and LTE from manufacturers including ip. such as on mobile phones and in accessibility technologies.Picocell Picocells are available for most cellular technologies including GSM. net/ product_info. .access nanoBTS picocell" (http:/ / www. wireless. [5] "picocell vendor matrix" (http:/ / www. in the same. [6] http:/ / www. such as pressing a "next" key to get to the intention. com/ analysis/ satellite/ 2010-04/ thales-in-flight-connectivity. Eatoni' LetterWise is a predictive multi-tap hybrid. Retrieved 2010-12-21. by way of the device memory. iTap. [2] "ip. although AT&T calls its product. . ipaccess. This is approximately true providing that all words used are in its database. Predictive text could allow for an entire word to be input by single keypress. and LetterWise/WordWise. visionmobile. if the user is not careful to review. com/ design/ audio-design/ 4012603/ A-picocell-primer). and the user's efficiency goal. ip. php). an address book.03. a device's system has user options to setup the choice of multi-tap or of any one of several schools of predictive text methods. jsp Predictive text Predictive text is an input technology used where one key or button represents many letters. php?products_id=41). Theoretically the number of keystrokes required per desired character in the finished writing is. com/ learn/ why/ 3gmicrocell/ faq. versus multi-tap systems. result in transmitting misinformation. general. which when operating on a standard telephone keypad achieves "KSPC=1. with a range of 40 feet (12 m). att. ABI Research. [3] "In-flight picocell connectivity" (http:/ / www.[6] .[7] 261 References [1] "picocell primer" (http:/ / www. abiresearch. .

punctuation is ignored. Using multi-tap. though Eatoni offers a dictionary-less disambiguation system. This ideal circumstance gives predicive text software the reduction in the number of key strokes a user is required to enter a word. it will appear. For instance. non-dictionary systems Traditional disambiguation works by referencing a dictionary of commonly used words. texts. pressing "4663" will typically be disambiguated as the word "good". or is correctly disambiguated by non-dictionary systems. For instance. but Eatoni Ergonomics' products uses a disambiguation process. 1971). A non-dictionary system constructs words and other sequences of letters from the statistics of word parts. abbreviations. a key is pressed multiple times to access the list of letters on that key. as the user presses the number buttons. an algorithm searches the dictionary for a list of possible words that match the keypress combination. SMSes. The most common system of SMS text input is referred to as "multi-tap". . with the risky effect of either enhancing or frustrating user efforts to enter text. hoof are also valid disambiguations of the sequence of key strokes. However. urls. or use a key to cycle through the possible combinations.Predictive text 262 Background Short message service (SMS) permits a mobile phone user to send text messages. proper nouns. The ideal dictionary would include all slang. as long as the word exists in the predictive text dictionary. The most widely used systems of predictive text are Tegic's T9. multi-tap is easy to understand. Motorola's iTap. T9 and iTap use dictionaries. and the Eatoni Ergonomics' LetterWise and WordWise.474) [4]. To attempt predictions of the intended result of keystrokes not yet entered. foreign-language words and other user-unique words. and no typing mistakes are made. and txts) as a short message. All predictive text systems requires a linguistic database for every supported input language. Dictionary vs. Either system (disambiguation or predictive) may include a user database. The user can then confirm the selection and move on. no spelling mistakes are made. and offers up the most probable choice. In ideal predictive text entry. Aspects of predictive text have been patented for instance by Kondraske(1985) [3]. A user can type by pressing an alphanumeric keypad without looking at the electronic equipment display. the user must either pause or hit a "next" button. all words used are in the dictionary. multi-tap is not very efficient. pressing the"2" key once displays an "a". until mobile phone text messaging came into widespread use. The user database is for storing words or phrases which are not well-disambiguated by the pre-supplied database. Some disambiguation systems further attempt to correct spelling. (also called messages. format text or perform other automatic rewrites. and as a fully functional keypad to text system for communicating with deaf people via phone in 1988 (Roy Feinson #4. twice displays a "b" and three times displays a "c". a set of statistical rules to recreate words from keystroke sequences. and can be used without any visual feedback. History Predictive entry of text from a telephone keypad has been known at least since the 1970s (Smith and Goodwin. To enter two successive letters that are on the same key. which can be further classified as a "learning" system when words or phrases are entered into the user database without direct user intervention. In dictionary-based systems.754. hood. requiring potentially many keystrokes to enter a single letter. though alternatives such as home. Predictive text was mainly used to look up names in directories over the phone. disambiguation may be combined with a word completion facility. The user presses the number corresponding to each letter and. provided that a linguistic database in English is currently in use. Thus.

There is at least one reported case of a man stabbed to death in a fight caused by a text message rendered incorrectly by predictive text software.[7] though the phenomenon has nothing to do specifically with T9 per se and occurs in other systems. In this case. predictive text reduced the number of button presses from 5 to 3. context. is slang.161 keypad used for text messaging Companies and products Predictive text is developed and marketed in a variety of competing products. the same key sequence also corresponds to other words. A dictionary-based predictive system is based on hope that the desired word is in the dictionary. Eatoni Ergonomic's LetterWise. will generally be disambiguated as the word "good". (character. • Press 3 (def) twice to select e. The effect is even greater with longer. In these cases. dictionary less. Textonyms As mentioned above. more complex words. rather than word-based prediction). or is a proper noun. includes multi-language dictionary. • Press 4 (ghi) twice to select h. some other mechanism must be used to enter the word. Oizea Type (temporal ambiguity). spell-check. • Press 3 once to select the (def) group for the third character. "Are you home?" could be rendered as "Are you good?" This fact can lead to misunderstandings. A standard ITU-T E. Furthermore. layer-based advanced text prediction. in a phone with predictive text. the simple dictionary approach fails with agglutinative languages. Prevalent Devices's Phraze-It. it is only necessary to: • Press 8 once to select the (tuv) group for the first character. WordWise (word-based prediction without a dictionary). "hood" and so on. EQ3 (a Qwerty-like layout compatible with regular telephone keypads). "gone". However. Xrgomics' TenGO (a six-key reduced QWERTY keyboard system). Other products include Motorola's iTap. Intelab's Tauto.Predictive text 263 Example Consider a typical phone keypad: Suppose a user wishes to type "The".[6] Words produced by the same combination of keypresses may be referred to as "textonyms" (or "txtonyms") or "T9onyms" (pronounced "tynonyms"). Nuance Communications's T9 is the market leader.[8] . "hoof". it would be necessary to do the following: • Press 8 (tuv) once to select t. and WordLogic's patented Intelligent Input Platform™ [5](patented. Clevertexting (statistical nature of the language. Meanwhile. provided with a linguistic database in English. built-in Web search and more). such as "home". For example. That hope may be misplaced if the word differs in any way from common usage—in particular. The system updates the display as each keypress is entered to show the most probable entry. grammar and semantics). where a single word doesn't necessarily represent a single semantic entity. if the word is not spelled or typed correctly. Adaptxt (considers language. Such confusions may lead to mistaken meaning even if all of the words are typed correctly and spelled correctly. In a traditional "multi-tap" keypad entry system. dynamic key allocation). the key sequence 4663 on a telephone keypad. • Press 4 once to select the (ghi) group for the second character.

Blogs. google. Text_row_man_faces_jail_for_killing_friend/ ). the use of the word "book" to mean "cool" since book is debatably considered more frequent than "cool" by some predictive text systems . . "KSPC (Keystrokes per Character) as a Characteristic of Text Entry Techniques" (http:/ / www. Computer Sci. Smith and Nancy C. J. for example.New York Times" (http:/ / www. textonyms may be adopted in regular speech. [9] http:/ / stream. com/ patents?vid=4754474 [5] http:/ / wordlogic.300) • An Australian newspaper article on textonyms (http://www. "Values [of KSPC] for English range from about 10 for methods using only cursor keys and a SELECT key to about 0. are not the only issue. nytimes. com/ usp. Retrieved 2009-07-08. php?/ weblog/ comments/ how_book_becomes_an_adjective/ = • "Alphabetic Data Entry Via the Touch-Tone Pad: A Comment".5942.com/article. Scott MacKenzie (2002).ac. html). 9 February 2011. com/ index. Retrieved 1 May 2011. Retrieved 2009-07-08. The Bolton News. . PDF). More important. org/ fulltext/ jcs/ jcs12189-199.phy. ca/ mack/ hcimobile02. according to the above references. 2005. Proceedings of MobileHCI 2002. "In a Sea of Cellphones.html) • Technical notes on iTap (including lists of textonyms) (http://www. chicagotribune. found by the predictive text system. they are very unlikely to be recognized correctly by a disambiguation system. . The system may. in this example. Goodwin.Predictive text Reportedly. "Investigating Text Input Methods for Mobile Phones" (http:/ / www. [2] O'Riordan et. 13(2) Page 189-190 External links • New Scientist article on textonyms (http://www. . pdf). HUMAN FACTORS.com. When mis-typings or mis-spellings occur. thereby supporting the characterisation and comparison of text-entry methods before labour-intensive implementations and evaluations". yorku.thesundaymail.uk/mackay/itprnn/ itap/) . or even the most important issue.5 for word prediction techniques. 112patent. theboltonnews.com. limiting the effectiveness of predictive text implementations.[9] 264 Disambiguation failure and misspelling Textonyms in which a disambiguation systems gives more than one dictionary word for a single sequence of keystrokes.news. I (2):189-199. The Mitre Corporation. html?ex=1315281600& en=5da0625183b88386& ei=5088& partner=rssnyt& emc=rss). but are not. al. [8] By David Pogue (2006-09-07). uk/ news/ districtnews/ 8841133. [3] http:/ / www. are words for which the disambiguation produces a single. pdf [4] http:/ / www.com. References [1] I. Sidney L. incorrect response.chicagotribune. co.ns?id=mg18524832. com/ 2006/ 09/ 07/ technology/ 07pogue.00. It is demonstrated that KSPC is useful for a priori analyses. though error correction mechanisms may mitigate that effect. a Pearl . com [6] "Text row man faces jail for killing friend" (http:/ / www. Nytimes. framfab. [7] "Slang early-warning alert: `Book' is the new `cat's pajamas' | Change of Subject" (http:/ / blogs.cam. when the intended word was "Blaire" or "Claire" both of which correspond to the keystroke sequence. scipub.newscientist.au/printpage/ 0.12730392. com/ news_columnists_ezorn/ 2007/ 01/ slang_earlywarn. respond with "Blairf" upon input of 252473. for example. 2007-01-19. 1971. .inference.

Current mobile phones usually have bluetooth switched ON by default. . for example content in tourist hot spots may only be distributed to devices registered outside the local area. Uses of proximity marketing include distribution of media at concerts. or more commonly is specifically targeted to devices known to be in a particular area. many users keep their Bluetooth devices in OFF mode. Communications may be both time and place specific. This has the advantage that only those who choose to will receive content.suggesting people make their Bluetooth handsets 'discoverable' in order to receive free content . or a desire to save battery life. The process of Bluetooth based proximity marketing involves setting up Bluetooth "broadcasting" equipment at a particular location and then sending information which can be text. content at a conference venue may depend on the event in progress.such as posters. is one transmission medium used for proximity marketing. Some implementations of Bluetooth proximity marketing require users to run Java applications on their phones to enable them to receive content. Distribution may be via a traditional localized broadcast. The location of a device may be determined by: • A cellular phone being in a particular cell • A Bluetooth or WiFi device being within range of a transmitter. Other standard data exchange formats such as Vcard can also be used. e. gaming and social applications. often regions where Bluetooth proximity marketing is in operation it is accompanied by advising via traditional media . Others require no handset-side software. Bluetooth-based systems Bluetooth. and advertising. images. a short-range wireless system supported by many mobile devices. Screen sizes and supported file formats varies greatly. Transmissions can be received by individuals in that location who wish to receive them and have the necessary equipment to do so." A 'discoverable' Bluetooth device within range of the server is automatically sent a message asking if the user would like to receive the free content. It used to be the case that due to security fears. Because of this. or ON but not set to be 'discoverable'. audio or video to Bluetooth enabled devices within range of the broadcast server. Communications may be further targeted to specific groups within a given location. television screens or field marketing teams .Proximity marketing 265 Proximity marketing Proximity marketing is the localized wireless distribution of advertising content associated with a particular place. • An Internet enabled device with GPS enabling it to request localized content from Internet servers.g. the Bluetooth system must be able to automatically recognize phone models and deliver the proper content automatically. information (weblinks on local facilities). and a majority of users now leave bluetooth switched on for easy connection with car kits and headsets. The diversity of mobile phones is huge. To obtain the optimal user experience with Bluetooth Marketing.this is often referred to as a "Call-to-Action.

In the Philippines. Public land mobile network A public land mobile network (PLMN) is a regulatory term in telecommunications. It is also used for commercial service known as Proxima SMS. Some phones/devices have an option to turn off the receipt of such messages. Each operator providing mobile services has its own PLMN. GSM-based proximity broadcast systems are used by select Government Agencies for information dissemination on Government-run community-based programs to take advantage of its reach and popularity. Philippines has the world's highest traffic of SMS (locally referred to as texting). and in the late 20th century became almost entirely digital in nature — except for the final link from the central (local) telephone office to the user (the local loop). etc. These links mostly incorporate SDH digital transmission networks via fibre optic on land and digital microwave links.Cell Broadcast (SMS-CB) allows messages (advertising. The PSTN also furnishes much of the Internet's long-distance infrastructure and. for the majority of users. PSTN service may be informally called Plain Old Telephone Service or POTS. Public switched telephone network Public Land Mobile Networks need to connect to the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) in order to route calls. It also extends into mobile as well as fixed telephones.) to be broadcast to all mobile users in a specified geographical area. it also allows each customer with a mobile phone to be tracked though the centre which shops they go into and for how long.Proximity marketing 266 GSM-based systems GSM 03. in much the same way that the Internet is the concentration of the world's public IP-based packet-switched networks. . There are also capabilities for messages to be sent by emergency services. GSM localization accuracy varies depending on location. The PSTN is the world's collection of interconnected voice-oriented public telephone networks. The system enables special offer texts to be sent to the phone. the access network as well. It is both commercially.41 which defines the Short Message Service .[1] A PLMN is identified by the Mobile Country Code (MCC) and the Mobile Network Code (MNC). a super-regional shopping centre in the UK. and share the circuits among many users through packet switching. Access to PLMN services is achieved by means of an air interface involving radio communications between mobile phones or other wireless enabled user equipment and land based radio transmitters or radio base stations or even fibre optic distributed SDH network between mobile base stations and central stations via SDH equipment (ADMs) with integrated IP network services.and government-owned. PLMNs interconnect with other PLMNs and Public switched telephone networks (PSTN) for telephone communications or with internet service providers for data and internet access of which links are defined as interconnect links between providers. the end Internet user avoids having to pay usage tolls to anyone other than their ISP. has a GSM based system supplied by NTL to help its GSM coverage for calls. Bluewater. This aggregation of circuit-switching telephone networks has evolved greatly from the days of Alexander Graham Bell. A PLMN is a network that is established and operated by an administration or by a recognized operating agency (ROA) for the specific purpose of providing land mobile telecommunications services to the public. Because Internet Service Providers (ISPs) pay the long-distance carriers for access to their infrastructure. There are provisions for "welcome" messages to be sent when entering new countries introducing networks available. public information.

These days (as of January. the GSM PLMN objectives conceptually remained the same. the Internet has some way to go before this transition can be made. 267 Specifications A GSM PLMN may be described by a limited set of access interfaces and a limited set of GSM PLMN connection types to support the telecommunication services described in the GSM 02-series of specifications. Sometimes separate PLMN is defined for each country or for each service provider. A number of large private telephone networks are not connected to the PSTN. With respect to their functions. that are compatible with those offered by existing networks like PSTN and ISDN. the Quality of Service (QoS) guarantee is one aspect that needs to be improved for Voice over IP (VOIP) technology.Public land mobile network Many observers believe that the long-term future of the PSTN is to be just one application of the Internet — however. but only through controlled gateways such as private branch exchanges. For example. they can be connected through the same PSTN/ISDN. • To provide facilities for automatic roaming. and are used for military purposes (such as the Defense Switched Network). In fact GSM can be treated as an example of a PLMN system. • To give access to the GSM network for a mobile subscriber in a country that operates the GSM system. If there are two mobile service suppliers in the same country. A public land mobile network may be defined as a number of mobile services switching centre areas within a common numbering plan and a common routing plan. or else specific to each country. There are also private networks run by large companies which are linked to the PSTN. Its case is same as that of PSTN. PLMN mostly refers to the whole system of hardware and software which enables wireless communication. The PSTN is largely governed by technical standards created by the ITU-T. locating and updating of mobile subscribers. even though different PLMNs may be interconnected through the PSTN/ISDN for the forwarding of calls or network information. Sometimes it refers to the whole circuit-switched system. This is just one view-point on PLMN.g.163/E.164 addresses (usually called telephone numbers) for addressing.g. . Access to PLMN services is achieved by means of an air interface involving radio communications between mobile phones or other wireless enabled user equipment and land based radio transmitters or radio base stations PLMNs interconnect with other PLMNs and PSTNs for telephone communications or with internet service providers for data and internet access. The MSCs of a PLMN can be interconnected similarly to allow interaction. the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) or as an integral part of the PSTN. PLMN is not a term specific to GSM. both voice and non voice. Even as times changed. the PLMNs may be regarded as independent communications entities. irrespective of the service area or service provider. and uses E. The PLMN is connected via an NCP to the PSTN/ISDN. • To provide the subscriber a wide range of services and facilities. Objectives of a GSM PLMN The general objective of a PLMN is to facilitate wireless communication and to interlink the wireless network with the fixed wired network. The PLMN was specified by the European Telecommunications Standard Institute (ETSI) following up with their GSM specification. A PLMN may have several interfaces with the fixed network (e. one for each MSC). 2006) much discussions are going on to form the structure of UMTS PLMN for the third generation systems. Inter-working between two PLMNs may be performed via an international switching centre. e. A PLMN may be considered as an extension of a fixed network. PLMN is network that is established and operated by an administration or by a recognized operating agency (ROA) for the specific purpose of providing land mobile telecommunications services to the public.

The gateway is often implemented in an MSC. regional. 2. fax. Through the GIWU. PSTN can be treated as an integral part of PLMN. The purpose of OSS is to offer the customer cost-effective support for centralized. extending the services offered by PSTN to wireless networks. Each of these has various subsystems. PLMN can be treated as an integral part of PSTN. An important function of OSS is to provide a network overview and support the maintenance activities of different operation and maintenance organizations. The implementation of OMC is called the operation and support system (OSS). and local operational and maintenance activities that are required for a GSM network. voice mail. email. which are grouped under three major systems: the Network and Switching Subsystem (NSS). the MXE handles short message service.Public land mobile network 268 Services • Bearer Services : These services give the subscriber the capacity required to transmit appropriate signals between certain access points (user-network interfaces). and notification. fax mail. Specifically. There are three viewpoints of interoperability between PLMN and PSTN: 1. Architecture GSM architecture is basically the PLMN architecture itself as the subject is GSM PLMN. which depends on each other or connects to each other for the purpose of call routing. along with the signaling system and the various components (both hardware and software). • Supplementary Services : Modify or supplement basic telecommunication services and are offered together or in association with basic communication services. Operation and Support System (OSS) The operations and maintenance center (OMC) is connected to all equipment in the switching system and to the BSC. and data messaging. cell broadcast. . PLMN and PSTN can be treated as two separate systems. through which it facilitates call routing. The MSC is then referred to as the GMSC. • Tele Services : Provide subscriber with necessary capabilities including terminal equipment function to communicate with other subscribers. Additional functional elements Other functional elements shown are as follows: • message center (MXE)-The MXE is a node that provides integrated voice. and the operation and support system (OSS). 3. The OSS is the functional entity from which the network operator monitors and controls the system. The GIWU hardware equipment is physically located at the MSC/VLR. • GSM interworking unit (GIWU)-The GIWU consists of both hardware and software that provides an interface to various networks for data communications. users can alternate between speech and data during the same call. • gateway mobile services switching center (GMSC)-A gateway is a node used to interconnect two networks. • mobile service node (MSN)-The MSN is the node that handles the mobile intelligent network (IN) services. Subsystems The GSM PLMN is divided into signaling network and mobile network. the Base Station Subsystem (BSS). Various interfaces between the GSM subsystems are to be considered.

telecomspace.Public land mobile network 269 Conclusion A PLMN is essential for the effective working of any wireless network.com/gsm. References [1] This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the General Services Administration. just like the need for PSTN in wireline networks. External links • Federal Standard 1037C (http://www.its.gov/fs-1037/fs-1037c.htm) (1996) • GSM Overview (http://www.html) . PLMN facilitates interoperation with its own subsystems in order to perform operation of the GSM system in particular and any wired network in general.bldrdoc.

you can: • Browse the files on your PC • Navigate the mouse on your screen with real time display feedback • Use keymaps for popular applications like VLC media player. Note that only a notification is pushed to the device. IM. The notification will typically be a text string with a URL link. A PC component of the program interacts with the mobile component to facilitate the control. au/ PuppetMaster Push Proxy Gateway A Push Proxy Gateway is a component of WAP Gateways that pushes URL notifications to mobile handsets. the device must do something with the notification in order to download or view the content associated with it. ringtone downloads. lim. com.. Winamp etc. or create a user-defined keymap References [1] http:/ / www. Media Player Classic. Using the PuppetMaster. Notifications typically include MMS. Most notifications will have an audible alert to the user on the device. Technical specifications WAP Push Process . It works using Bluetooth or GPRS technology. email. and new device firmware notifications.PuppetMaster (application) 270 PuppetMaster (application) PuppetMaster Operating system Windows Type License Website Mobile Application Proprietary [1] PuppetMaster is an application for Windows and mobile which enables the mobile phone to be used as a universal remote control for Microsoft Windows.

Push Proxy Gateway

271

PUSH to PPG
A push message is sent as an HTTP POST to the Push Proxy Gateway. The POST will be a multipart XML document, with the first part being the PAP (Push Access Protocol) Section and the second part being either a Service Indication or a Service Loading. +---------------------------------------------+ | HTTP POST | +---------------------------------------------+ | PAP XML | +---------------------------------------------+ | Service Indication or Service Loading XML | +---------------------------------------------+ POST The POST contains at a minimum the URL being posted to (this is not standard across different PPG vendors), and the content type. An example of a PPG POST:
POST /somelocation HTTP/1.1 Host: ppg.somecarrier.com Content-Type: multipart/related; boundary=someboundarymesg; type="application/xml"

\ | | | / WAP PUSH Flow

PAP The PAP XML contains at the minimum, a <pap> element, a <push-message> element, and an <address> element. An example of a PAP XML:
--someboundarymesg Content-Type: application/xml

<?xml version="1.0"?> <!DOCTYPE pap PUBLIC "-//WAPFORUM//DTD PAP 1.0//EN" "http:/ / www. wapforum. org/ DTD/ pap_1. 0. dtd"> <pap> <push-message push-id="some_push_id"> <address address-value="WAPPUSH=+12065551212/TYPE=PLMN@ppg.somecarrier.com" /> </push-message> </pap>

The important parts of this PAP message are the address value and type. The value is typically a MSISDN and type indicates whether to send to an MSISDN (typical case) or to an IP Address. The TYPE is almost always MSISDN as the Push Initiator (PI) will not typically have the Mobile Station's IP address - which is generally dynamic. In the case of IP Address: TYPE=USER@a.b.c.d Additional capability of PAP can be found in the PAP article.

Push Proxy Gateway Service Indication A PUSH Service Indication (SI) contains at a minimum an <si> element and a <indication> element. An example of a Service Indication:
--someboundarymesg Content-Type: text/vnd.wap.si <?xml version="1.0"?>

272

<!DOCTYPE si PUBLIC "-//WAPFORUM//DTD SI 1.0//EN" "http:/ / www. wapforum. org/ DTD/ si. dtd"> <si> <indication si-id=345532 href="http://mmsc.somecarrier.com/CFJIOJF43F"> A new MMS has been received, download? </indication> </si>

PPG delivery to mobile station
Once a push message is received from the Push Initiator, the PPG has two avenues for delivery. If the IP address of the Mobile Station is known to the PPG, the PPG can deliver directly to the mobile station over an IP bearer. This is known as "Connection Oriented Push". If the IP address of the mobile station is not known to the PPG, the PPG will deliver over an SMS bearer. Delivery over an SMS bearer is known as "Connectionless Push". Connectionless Push In Connectionless Push, an SMSC BIND is required for the PPG to deliver its push message to the mobile station. Typically, a PPG will have a local SMS queuing mechanism running locally that it BINDs to, and which in turn BINDs to the carrier's SMSC. This mechanism should allow for queuing in the event of an SMS infrastructure outage, and also provide for message throttling. Since a WAP Push message can be larger than a single SMS message can contain, the push message may be broken up into multiple SMS messages, as a multipart SMS. Connection Oriented Push In Connection Oriented pushes (where the device supports it), an SMSC BIND is not required if the gateway is aware of the handsets IP Address. If the gateway is unable to determine the IP Address of the handset, or is unable to connect to the device, the push notification will be encoded and sent as an SMS. Connection Oriented Push is used less frequently than Connectionless Push for several reasons including: • Devices while registered to the network, may not have a data session (PDP Context in the GSM world) established. • A separate IP->MSISDN table has to be maintained in Connection Oriented Push. • Typically, the PPG or another part of the gateway has to receive RADIUS or other accounting packets in order to support Connection Oriented Push.

Push Proxy Gateway

273

Other PUSH Attributes
• Push notifications can be confirmed or unconfirmed. Most carriers use unconfirmed pushes due to the high volume and resource constraints related to confirmed push. This is controlled by setting confirmed in the quality-of-service tag element. • Push notifications can be set to expire if not delivered before a certain time. This is controlled by setting deliver-before-timestamp in the pushmessage element. Many other attributes exist and are detailed in the specifications at the Open Mobile Alliance and other sites.

PPG Vendors
PPG vendors include Nokia Siemens Networks, Ericsson, Bytemobile, Gemini Mobile Technologies, Openwave, Acision, Huawei, Azetti [1], Alcatel,WIT Software [2] ,ZTE ,and open source Kannel.

References
• OMA WAP Specifications: • Push Message (Version 22, March 2001 - ref WAP-251-PushMessage-20010322-a) [3] • Service Indication (Version 31, July 2001 - ref WAP-167-ServiceInd-20010731-a) [4] • Service Loading (Version 31, July 2001 - ref WAP-168-ServiceLoad-20010731-a) [5]

References
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] http:/ / www. azetti. com http:/ / www. wit-software. com http:/ / www. openmobilealliance. org/ tech/ affiliates/ wap/ wap-251-pushmessage-20010322-a. pdf http:/ / www. openmobilealliance. org/ tech/ affiliates/ wap/ wap-167-serviceind-20010731-a. pdf http:/ / www. openmobilealliance. org/ tech/ affiliates/ wap/ wap-168-serviceload-20010731-a. pdf

In 2009. TED selected Kamal a TEDIndia Fellow[11] and the World Economic Forum recognized him as a Young Global Leader. Quadir is a Bangladeshi American entrepreneur and artist best known as the creator of CellBazaar. a Lausanne. Industry Mobile Telecommunication Website www.[7] Kamal is currently heading bKash which provides financial services through an extensive network of community-based agents and existing technology.Kamal Quadir 274 Kamal Quadir Kamal Quadir Quadir in 2008 Occupation CEO of bKash Limited [1][2] Founder of CellBazaar Inc. [3][4] bKash Limited Industry Financial Services Website www. after reaching 4 million users.com [5] CellBazaar Inc. a mobile phone based electronic marketplace which. Switzerland based organization of young thinkers.[4] He is involved with Anwarul Quadir Foundation which recognizes innovations in developing countries. including mobile phones. was acquired by Norwegian telecommunications operator Telenor in 2010.com [6] Kamal S.[8] Kamal is one of the most-cited (recently in the Wall Street Journal[9] ) thinkers in mobile innovations who has been credited for "grass-root level market creation"[10] with emerging technologies. Kamal is a founding member of Open World Initiatives.bkash. He is a First Mover Fellow of The Aspen Institute.[12] .cellbazaar.

and there are no monthly or posting fees. Computer or Web and Voice (IVR).Kamal Quadir 275 Early life Quadir was an intern at Insight Venture Partners in New York. thereby creating jobs. launched in 2006 in Bangladesh.[13] CellBazaar CellBazaar is an electronic marketplace.[15] The CellBazaar marketplace is available to more than 25 million people in Bangladesh. . especially in developing countries. each of which connects to one customer-generated marketplace. This will highly benefit the country as 83% of the population lives under $2 a day and access to finance can help in improving their economic situation.[14] Nokia. CellBazaar has been credited as a revolutionary service in mobile telecommunications to have the potential to significantly contribute to socioeconomic development particularly in developing countries due to the ability to bridge non-existing wired telecommunications and transportation infrastructure and delivering various services directly to the end-user. In Bangladesh.. ensuring access to a broader range of financial services for the people of Bangladesh is the ultimate objective of bKash. bKash is working both as an extension of BRAC Bank and as a full-scale mobile phone-based payment switch. bKash bKash Limited is a joint venture between BRAC Bank Ltd. led the Business Development Division of Occidental Petroleum's initiative in Bangladesh and worked for New York City's Chamber of Commerce. that allows buyers and sellers to connect with one another and buy and sell goods and services using their mobile phones or computers. the isolated and uninformed farmers and traders have little bargaining power with exploitative middlemen. He was also the co-founder and creative director of GlobeKids Inc. including farmers that use the service to sell their harvest at fair market prices and struggling students that find and connect with tutors. USA. and Money in Motion LLC. an animation company. and delivering products and services that improve the lives of millions of poor people. The service is accessible via Text message (SMS). He is also an accomplished artist whose art works are in the permanent collection of the Bangladesh National Museum and the Liberation War Museum. Kamal has a BA from Oberlin College and an MBA from the MIT Sloan School of Management. accredited CellBazaar as a door opener to mobile commerce. Users pay only the standard SMS or Internet charges for accessing the service on mobile. Limited communication has always been a hindrance for performing business. stimulating the economy. It has a special focus to serve the low income people of the country and promote sustainable micro-savings to achieve broader financial inclusion by providing financial services that are convenient. in their Expanding Horizons magazine. WAP or Internet enabled handset.. CellBazaar enables entrepreneurs and small businesses in Bangladesh to start and grow operations in a market that wouldn't otherwise be available in their local community. Providing financial services using this mean can make the service more accessible and cost effective for the vast population of Bangladesh. Bangladesh. affordable and reliable. Less than 15% of Bangladeshis are connected to the formal financial system whereas 44% of total population are having mobile phones.

weforum. php [14] Revolutionary service in mobile telecommunications [15] Expanding Horizons by Nokia & Nokia Siemens Network (http:/ / expandinghorizons.org/laureates/stories/index. shtml [18] (http:/ / www.html) Livemint. dot [13] http:/ / www. org/ section_full_story. net/ newDesign/ news-details. com/ making-markets-mission-markets-and-better-world-books [8] http:/ / www.Kamal Quadir 276 Awards • Year 2009 • "Young Global Leader (YGL)" by the World Economic Forum of Davos [16] • Year 2008 • Global Mobile Award of the GSM Association in the category of "Best Use of Mobile for Social & Economic Development" [17] • Telecom Asia’s “Asian Innovation of the Year” Award [18] • India's Manthan Award for “Best E-Content for Development” [19] • Year 2007 • Tech Award for "Applying Technology to Benefit Humanity” [20] • Year 2005 • MIT Ideas Award [21] References [1] http:/ / www. com/ [6] http:/ / www. wsj. com/ history/ index.com/article/SB122081673203508037. telecomasia. cellbazaar.shtml) Telecom Asia’s award page (http://www. vilcap. livemint. cellbazaar. thedailystar.org/section_full_story. com [2] http:/ / www. com/ issues/ ?issue=ExpandingHorizonsQ22008& page=13) [16] http:/ / www. manthanaward.com/2008/12/18222207/Making-markets-with-mobiles.livemint. html [10] http:/ / www. com/ About. php?id=164 [21] http:/ / web.techawards. bkash.telecomasia. php?nid=175903 [9] http:/ / online. org/ en/ media/ Latest%20Press%20Releases/ PR_YGL2009 [17] http:/ / www. World Economic Forum (http:/ / www.edu/newsoffice/2005/awards-ideas-0601. nokia. asp?id=667 [20] http:/ / www. edu/ office/ creativity/ speakers-and-symposia/ entrepreneurship-week. net/ content/ closing-divide-humble-phone-0) [19] http:/ / www.org/en/media/Latest Press Releases/PR_YGL2009) MIT Ideas award page (http://web.quadir. htm) [5] http:/ / www. html [11] http:/ / www. com/ [7] http:/ / www. mit. techawards. com [4] Highlighted Profiles of the Young Global Leaders. thedailystar.com/history/index. net/ newDesign/ news-details.net/content/closing-divide-humble-phone-0) India's Manthan award page (http://www.com/person/kamal-quadir) . org/ laureates/ stories/ index.crunchbase.php?id=164) GSMA Global Mobile Award page (http://www. weforum. com/ article/ SB122081673203508037. html External links • • • • • • • • • • Anuwarul Quadir Foundation (http://www. com/ pages/ view?id=305 [12] http:/ / new. com/ 2008/ 12/ 18222207/ Making-markets-with-mobiles. edu/ newsoffice/ 2005/ awards-ideas-0601.html) Kamal Quadir at Crunchbase (http://www. globalmobileawards.mit. bkash.org) The Tech Award page (http://www.manthanaward.asp?id=667) World Economic Forum's Young Global Leader (YGL) of 2009 (http://www.com article (http://www. php?nid=175903 [3] http:/ / corp.html) Wall Street Journal article (http://online. org/ en/ Communities/ Young Global Leaders/ Whoweare/ index.wsj.weforum. bkash. ted. oberlin.globalmobileawards.

bkash.[1] He currently serves as co-founder of his third business venture. Biography Raden was born in Philadelphia.[3] Deloitte Fast 500. where he received a B.[4] Philadelphia Business Journal Best Places to Work. In 2007. Amazon.harvard. Indiana. Steve Gillin. where he served as Director of Marketing for two wholly owned subsidiaries.cid.com) 277 Paul Raden Paul Raden is an Internet and technology entrepreneur and inventor. Upon graduation. Raden has received numerous recognitions for his companies including being named Deloitte Fast 50.edu/cidtrade/geneva/sessions/session04. Hotmail and Citysearch. together with Matt Gillin. before attending Business School at the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania.[2] until 2009. After the sale. Raden holds two patents in the US Patent Office for his inventions around electronic payments. and Pete Flick.com) • Comapny page of bKash Limited (http://www. In 2009.com/portfolio/cellbazaar) • Corporate page at CellBazaar.oberlin. In 1995. Citi Prepaid Services.[5] and Forbes "Best of The Web. Matt Gillin."[6] . a company that helps businesses shift to mobile communications. Raden sold Ecount to Citi for US $200 million. he served as a management consultant before joining Ocwen Financial Corporation. Pennsylvania. In 1997 Raden and business partner.A. in English. C/Base designed programs valued at over US $1. Oberlin.com (http://www. a corporate electronic payments provider. He attended the University of Notre Dame in Notre Dame.Kamal Quadir • CellBazaar at Crunchbase (http://www. In 2007.html) • WTO Public Symposium 2003: Session IV . Ecount was issuing more than US $4 billion in payments worldwide."Cancun: Next Stop on the Road to the 2015 Millennium Development Goals" (http://www.edu/alummag/oamcurrent/oam_winter99/profile. Ecount was sold to Citigroup for US $200 million to integrate into Citi’s global transaction services business.html) • CellBazaar portfolio at Omidyar. He then worked at Drexel Burnham Lambert. At the time.com (http://corp. He is a frequent guest lecturer on entrepreneurship at the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania where he received his MBA.edu (http://www. Raden founded Relay. founded Ecount – an electronic payments company.cellbazaar.5 billion for companies including Microsoft. Raden remained as Managing Director and CMO of the renamed business. Raden co-founded C/Base – an Internet partnership marketing consultancy. Ecount was one of the first providers of corporate prepaid card solutions for the purpose of replacing paper checks and other inefficient payment methods.com/company/cellbazaar) • The Business of Art. Japan. Raden began his career teaching English in Tokyo. Raden is best known as the co-founder of Ecount.crunchbase. At the time of its acquisition. Relay.omidyar.

which Raden founded prior to Relay • Ecount sold to Citigroup (http://www.com/watch?v=WKUg52ueZwg&feature=related) at the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania • Video interviews (http://wep. jhtml?id=190)] "Best of the Web" Award] External links • Paul Raden’s public profile (http://www.Paul Raden 278 Relay Type Industry Founded Startup company Technology.htm) . References [1] [2] [3] [4] The New York Times article on Ecount's acquisition by Citi (http:/ / www. com/ assets/ Dcom-UnitedStates/ Local Assets/ Documents/ TMT_us_tmt/ us_tmt_2006TechnologyFast500WinnersBrochure.aspx?aiv=2) with Paul Raden for Wharton Entrepreneurial Programs • Citi Prepaid Services (formerly Ecount) website (http://www.newspringcapital. relaynetwork. deloitte.com/management.wharton.com). nytimes. pdf)] Fast 50] [[Deloitte Fast 500 (http:/ / www. pdf)]] [5] Philadelphia Business Journal "Best Places to Work" (http:/ / www.youtube. xacp. forbes. html) [6] [[Forbes (http:/ / www. Pennsylvania Area served Website United States http:/ / www.linkedin. com Current work Raden is currently co-founder and Chief Xperience Officer of Relay. com/ assets/ Dcom-UnitedStates/ Local Assets/ Documents/ us_tmt_fast_Greater Phil. com/ bow/ b2c/ category. com/ 9_21_06. Mobile 2009 Headquarters Radnor.com/EcountNew0301. prepaid. Relay helps companies reach their customers through their mobile devices with their consent.upenn. html) [[Deloitte (http:/ / www.citiprepaid. deloitte.com/pub/paul-raden/0/154/346) with his positions and start-up history • Management Page on Relay website (http://www. citi. com/ 2007/ 03/ 01/ business/ 01citi.edu/alumni/alumniimpact.relaynetwork. corp. html?_r=2) Ecount renames to Citi Prepaid Services (http:/ / www. com/ about/ 2008news/ sept-1-2008.php) • Paul Raden speaks (http://www.

and dispatches "unsolicited commands" up to the RIL Daemon. therefore. Except for PPP connections. Android RIL The Android Open Source Project provides a Radio Interface Layer (RIL) between Android telephony services (android. and a RIL proxy.[1] Windows Mobile RIL A RIL is a key component of Microsoft's Windows Mobile OS. which processes AT commands and events. It consists of a stack of two components: a RIL Daemon and a Vendor RIL. The RIL provides the system interface between the CellCore layer within the Windows Mobile OS and the radio protocol stack used by the wireless modem hardware.. TAPI) into commands supported and understood by the modem.g. which manages requests from the multiple clients to the single RIL driver.) In essence. External links • Android Platform Development Kit . the final link to the modem is typically the standard serial driver provided by the OEM’s platform. Instead. 2008 • MSDN: Radio Interface Layer [3] • Windows Mobile RIL White Paper [4] • RIL Patent information [5] • MSDN: CellCore [6] • MSDN: CellCore Catalog Items [7] • MSDN: RIL Driver [8] • MSDN: RIL Proxy [9] . but then bypass the RIL to connect directly to the virtual serial port assigned to the modem. however. The RIL Daemon talks to the telephony services and dispatches "solicited commands" to the Vendor RIL. The RIL enables wireless voice or data applications to communicate with a GSM/GPRS or CDMA2000 1X modem on a Windows Mobile device. the RIL accepts and converts all direct service requests from the upper layers (i. also allows OEMs to integrate a variety of modems into their equipment by providing this interface.telephony) and the radio hardware. Note that the RIL does not communicate directly with the modem. all interaction between the Windows Mobile OS and the device radio stack is via the RIL. The Vendor RIL is specific to a particular radio implementation. The RIL comprises two separate components: a RIL driver. a mobile phone. delivered at Linux World. (PPP connections initially use the RIL to establish the connection.Radio Interface Layer [1] • Top ten tips for developing android handsets [2] by Wayne Lee from Qualcomm.e.Radio Interface Layer 279 Radio Interface Layer A Radio Interface Layer (RIL) is a layer in an operating system which provides an interface to the hardware's radio and modem on e. The RIL.

kandroid. aspx http:/ / msdn. microsoft.Radio Interface Layer 280 References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] http:/ / www. com/ en-us/ library/ aa919915. com/ docs/ services/ RIL_whitepaper_MS_Intrinsyc_June2004. freepatentsonline. bloobble. com/ en-us/ library/ aa921992. aspx http:/ / www. com/ en-us/ library/ aa921520. intrinsyc. aspx . com/ broadband-presentations/ presentations?itemid=1509 http:/ / msdn. microsoft. aspx http:/ / msdn. com/ en-us/ library/ aa920475. microsoft. aspx http:/ / msdn. org/ android_pdk/ telephony. microsoft. microsoft. html http:/ / msdn. com/ en-us/ library/ aa922988. pdf http:/ / www. com/ 6826762. html http:/ / www.

100 collection partners. ReCellular partners raised $4. silver and palladium from circuit boards. is the world's largest recycler and reseller of cell phones. 281 ReCellular. ReCellular. including cardboard. Michigan. cadmium and lead from battery packs. On average. • Individual businesses partner with ReCellular to dispose of their corporate communications equipment.000 collection sites across the nation. iron. Michigan. [4] . collecting more than 125. partner with ReCellular to facilitate recycling programs for their customers. ReCellular is headquartered in Ann Arbor..[1] ReCellular collects cell phones for resale and recycling. Inc. In November 2006. Many organizations use the proceeds from their wireless recycling programs to benefit charitable causes. named ReCellular to the Green 50. Used cell phones are a growing electronic waste challenge.0 million for non-profit programs in 2008. United States ReCellular. and plastic from cases and accessories.[3] ReCellular’s zero-waste policy dictates that all donated materials are recycled.S. Reuse and Recycling Approximately half of the phones ReCellular collects are reprogrammed and sold for reuse.000 phones each week. representing nearly 40. the magazine Inc. American cell phone subscribers replace their cell phones every 18 months.ReCellular. paper and plastic shipping materials – diverting more than 1 million pounds of materials from landfills per year. and retailers such as Best Buy and Wal-Mart. including: • Wireless carriers such as AT&T Mobility and Sprint. copper wiring from phone chargers. Type Private Headquarters Ann Arbor. Obsolete or non-functional phones are dismantled and recycled to reclaim valuable materials.000 tons of electronics waste. representing an estimated 65. Inc. nickel.[2] Founded in 1991. • Grassroots and charitable organizations such as Cell Phones for Soldiers partner with ReCellular to operate donate-a-phone fundraising programs. Inc. between 100 million and 130 million cell phones are thrown away each year. such as: gold. Collection Sources ReCellular has built a network of nearly 1. Inc. In the U. and more than $20 million for charities since 1996.

itworld. • Skytel ReFLEX Two-Way Paging Service Provider [2] • ReFLEX White Paper [1] . 3200 and 6400 BPS ReFLEX 25 .ReCellular.x External links • Two Way Paging Article [2] • Article [3] • "ReFLEX Rules: The Role of Pervasive Low-Cost Networks and Devices in the Future of Mobile Data Messaging whitepaper" [1] (pdf).x can operate on both ReFLEX25 and ReFLEX50 networks. Devices compliant with ReFLEX 2. 2001. com/ Infotech/ 21237/ page1/ http:/ / www. Inc. com/ green-it/ 58370/ fighting-e-waste-one-cell-phone-time http:/ / www. ReFLEX25 and ReFLEX50. pdf http:/ / www.7 of the ReFLEX protocol was released. technologyreview. • • • • FLEX . inc. html http:/ / www. Although ReFLEX Two-Way Paging is a rather dated technology. 282 Data Eraser tool ReCellular also offers a Cell Phone Data Eraser tool that enables consumers to remove personal information from their old cell phones prior to recycling.1-way communications 1600. The Motorola PageWriter released in 1996 was one of the first devices to use the ReFLEX network protocol.2-way up to 6400 BPS ReFLEX 50 . html External links • ReCellular (http://www. epa. com/ magazine/ 20061101/ green50_recyclers. Versions ReFLEX is based on the one-way FLEX protocol and originally came in two variants. gov/ oswer/ docs/ iwg/ CellPhones.com) ReFLEX ReFLEX is a wireless protocol developed by Motorola which is used for two-way paging. The primary difference between the ReFLEX versions are inbound speed. pcworld.2-way up to 9600 BPS ReFLEX 2. Sag Harbor Group. Later version 2.recellular. com/ article/ 157818/ how_to_keep_your_cell_phone_info_private.[5] References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] http:/ / www. it is finding new uses in AMR Automatic Meter Reading and low cost telemetry applications.7.7.

REVIVAL has been developed to support a range of mobile operating systems. usamobility.se/) . se/ nyheter/ artikel. 2683/ 1. se/ 2. restore and migration [1] Remote wipe Mobile activity logging [1] Security References [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / www.[1] One of the biggest organizations connected to REVIVAL today is “SJ”. Swedish Railways. telekomidag. 1085/ 1. se/ nyheter/ artikel. 342382/ de-ger-battre-koll-pa-mobilen http:/ / www. com REVIVAL Mobile Management Suite REVIVAL Mobile Management Suite is a mobile device management tool developed and provided by The Institution. se/ 2. 351122/ smarta-telefoner-it-avdelningarnas-huvudvark http:/ / computersweden. It is also used to facilitate in handling. pdf [2] http:/ / www.theinstitution. skytel. telekomidag. including iPhone.ReFLEX 283 References [1] http:/ / www.[1] [2] [3] REVIVAL Mobile Management Suite can be installed on-site at the customer’s facilities or it can be hosted by a selected hosting partner. Symbian and OMA-DM devices. IBM Lotus Notes. idg. with a research and development office in Hong Kong. Nitrodesk Touchdown among others Application deployment. idg. Windows Mobile. using and updating mobile phones. com/ pdf/ reflexwhitepaper. php?id=27675 External links • Official website (http://www.[4] Technology The main purpose of this technology is to oversee diverse mobile device populations by securing and storing mobile phone data. It's features include: • • • • • • • • • • Inventory and asset control Remote control of display. Android. configuration and handling Location based reporting [3] Backup. file systems and more Support cases management Mail settings for MS Exchange. php?id=32645 http:/ / www.[1] [2] The Institution was founded in 2006 and is based in Stockholm.

but this has failed to be taken up by operators. Main features of RCS are: • Enhanced Phonebook. which enables a large variety of messaging options including chat and messaging history • Enriched Call. or the way it was deployed failed to result in great take-up by consumers. with service capabilities and presence enhanced contacts information • Enhanced Messaging. but has long been touted as a benefit of IMS. which enables multimedia content sharing during a voice call.g.Rich Communication Suite 284 Rich Communication Suite Rich Communication Suite (RCS) is an industry effort focused on the use of IMS (IP Multimedia Subsystem) for providing mobile phone communication services. Wider and large scale IMS deployment. Interoperability between different terminal vendor RCS clients and RCS service interworking between operators are the key aims of RCS Initiative. These capabilities would be available on any type of devices using an open communication between devices and networks. charging and routing. registration. RCS reuses the capabilities of 3GPP specified IMS (IP Multimedia Subsystem) core system as the underlying service platform taking care of issues such as authentication. RCS is considered by some to be not fit for purpose [2] and has not been rolled out commercially by any major operator as of September 2010. It is to be noted that much of the capability of RCS is already available from Internet service providers. However. with service capabilities and presence enhanced contacts information • Enhanced Messaging. According to the press release. "Rich Communication" in itself is meaningless jargon. Bundling this feature with the two other features may help to increase uptake. This allows the service capabilities as well as presence information of the different recipients to be shown in the terminal phonebook application. The core feature set of RCS includes: • Enhanced Phonebook. The following standardized services are a part of RCS concept: • • • • • • • Presence Voice call IM Video Share Image Share SMS MMS . which enables a large variety of messaging options including chat and messaging history • Enriched Call. video sharing and buddy lists. thus RCS takes on board different services defined by e.[1] from the end-user point of view RCS would enable communication such as instant messaging. 3GPP and OMA and combines them with the Enhanced Phonebook. which enables multimedia content sharing during a voice call. Technical features RCS leverages the various existing standards. authorization. which refers to the use of more than just voice for communication. For many years Nokia and Ericsson have been pushing a "see what I see" capability.

uk/ news/ news-anaylsis/ 8635-thrutu-launches-rcs-lite-lite) . The intention was to have interoperable rich communication services available in 2008. htm) GSMA To Take Rich Communication Suite Forwards (http:/ / gsmworld. nokia. References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] http:/ / www. co. htm) GSMA RCS work program webpage (http:/ / www. htm) http:/ / www. In March 2011. blogspot. GSMA press release [3] tells RCS integration testing takes place in Helsinki at the end of September 2008 hosted by TeliaSonera with a full update on the progress of initiative in Mobile Asia Congress during November. Metaswitch launched the Thrutu service that has been described[8] as 'RCS-lite'. and SFR [6] announced intentions to offer a user trial in the second half over 2009. However. Current aim is that the first interoperable RCS services are set to be launched in mid 2009. Orange. gsmworld. Note that membership of the RCS initiative does not imply that a company is planning significant launch. As of 15 September the RCS initiative is moved to a GSMA work program.[5] In January 2009. SK Telecom launched an RCS service called HD Video Call in South Korea in November 2010. At Mobile World Congress 2009. mobileeurope. RCS Initiative also announced a RCS prototype interoperability demo at IMS World Forum 2008 in Paris. asp?id=697) Thrutu launches RCS-lite-lite app (http:/ / www. RCS Initiative demonstrated interoperability of the prototype RCS compatible terminals at the Barcelona 3GSM exhibition 2008. allowing the sharing features of RCS without the infrastructure. developed reference implementations of the services and conducted interoperability testing in multi-vendor environment. francetelecom. as of September 2010 none of these operators have commercially deployed RCS. the HD Video Call service also supports sharing photos and sketches over an RCS-based service. As well as allowing users to share video. sk. com/ happychannel/ news/ news_view. Subsequent to that event. com/ 2009/ 08/ mobile-ims-and-lte-networks-dead-parrot. com/ A4136001?newsid=1189463 Nokia's press release http:/ / disruptivewireless.[4] The GSMA RCS work program contains further details. the first multi-operator trial took place using multiple core IMS vendors along with clients and devices. the 3 major French mobile operators. com/ en_EN/ finance/ news/ cp090211en. com/ our-work/ mobile_lifestyle/ rcs/ gsma_rcs_project. com/ newsroom/ press-releases/ 2008/ 1132. html Disruptive analysis GSMA press release about RCS integration testing (http:/ / gsmworld. there were live demonstrations and many RCS member booths featured information on RCS service components.[7] and demonstrated it at Mobile World Congress 2011. by February 2008 the RCS Initiative has defined a core feature set. com/ newsroom/ press-releases/ 2008/ 1132. Bouygues Telecom.Rich Communication Suite 285 Status According to Nokia . jsp SK Telecom to participate in Mobile World Congress (http:/ / www.

In February 2009. West Devon since January 2009 Salisbury since Feb 2009. West Dorset since November 2009. Middlesbrough since June 2008. Teignbridge since January 2010. First Capital Connect.RingGo 286 RingGo RingGo is a pay by phone parking service currently offered in public car parks and on-street locations in the United Kingdom. Epping Forest since March 2010. October 2009. Cherwell since May 2008. This implementation project by the First Group. Phone parking has received some bad press notably in respect to the City of Westminster implementation which is not RingGo. The first major implementation (from June 2006) was for the First Great Western Railway. C2C. further stations were added. Transpennine Express. Poole since August 2008. National Express East Anglia. Suffolk Coastal since June 2008. North Hertfordshire since March 2010. Christchurch since Feb 2007. was an early step in the fast growing trend away from the established paradigm of paying for parking using electro-mechanical machines which dispense paper tickets – the pay and display model. The generic advantages to car park operators are: • The reduction in theft from and vandalism to coin based machinery . Test Valley since August 2008 Havant since August 2008. March 2010. Dorset since February 2010. Ealing in limited areas since May 7. London Borough of Richmond upon Thames since March 2009 Wandsworth since March 2009. Luton since November 2009. The generic advantages to members of the public of phone parking services are: • • • • • Avoidance of the need to have coinage The ability to pay the correct amount only Security – payment can be made from within a locked car Can extend without having to go back to the car Company accounts which are available only to nominated vehicles or drivers can cut expense claim administration costs The specific disadvantages to rail users at Oxford station is that there is no alternative method of payment (apart from paying the full non-rail-user price from the machine in the car park). Taunton since December 2007 Southwark since January 2008 North Cornwall since January 2008. Portsmouth since July 2007. Canterbury since December 2009. Arriva Trains Wales railway station car parks have implemented RingGo (August 2008. London Borough of Bromley since May 2010 and Cornwall since June 2010 Parking is a niche in which electronic money as opposed to cash-money is now making some significant advances. 60 stations were involved such as Taplow railway station. Chiltern Railways. High Wycombe since May 7. Since then. Trafford for Old Trafford Match Day parking. Allerdale since August 2009. London Borough of Redbridge since November 2009. Brent since July 2008. Sheffield since January 2010. Bristol since December 2008. December 2008. North Devon since May 2009. the daily code number cannot be seen while queuing for a ticket (since this is only displayed on the platform to ensure a rail user discount) and there is an unavoidable phone charge for pay-as-you-go phone users. Scarborough since June 2009. For contract phones the local telephone number means that it will be included in its free minutes package. taking the total to 72 (although not offered at the Reading station Multi Storey Car Park due to a major investment in a chip coin system). July 2008. since August 2009. including: Bournemouth since July 2006. Eastleigh since September 2009. Various local authorities have rolled out RingGo. Hartlepool since June 2008. The service is also offered in NCP operated and managed car parks since March 2010. March 2010. March 2010 and March 2010 respectively). South West Trains. several Network Rail. Shepway since December 2009. Oxford since May 2008. Woking since September 2009. Stockton-on-Tees since June 2008. Reigate and Banstead since May 2009 Dover since June 2009 Torridge since June 2008. Hounslow since December 2006.

co. which can be used in the machine. counterfeit £1 coins and shrinkage On 1st October 2009. Richmond Council introduced variable parking charges which are linked to the carbon dioxide emissions of vehicles parking there (carbon metered parking). The RingGo brand is wholly owned by Cobalt Telephone Technologies Ltd. firstgreatwestern.RingGo • Lower capital costs when contrasted with buying new parking machines • Reduction in cash handling costs such as banking. html http:/ / www. co. ctt. com/ fake-one-pound-coins-part-one/ . ringgo. co. bis. uk/ index. RingGo phone parking is also now being used as a method of payment for Portsmouth City Council's Park and Ride service (since May 2010). alism. uk/ 1/ hi/ england/ dorset/ 5179176. a UK private company. uk/ Content. bbc. MyRingGo. com http:/ / www. Payment of the service is either via RingGo or by a special Richmond smart card. stm http:/ / www. pdf http:/ / www. org/ publ/ cpss38. uk http:/ / blog. 287 External links • • • • • • The RingGo website [1] and also The MyRingGo website [2] for details on how it works and where it is available First Great Western [3] BBC News item on RingGo [4] Bank for International Settlements [5] Cobalt Telephone Technologies [6] [7] References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] http:/ / www. co. aspx?id=185 http:/ / news.

the user can have access to the same set of services.39) as the ability for a cellular customer to automatically make and receive voice calls. such as SIM card capability. the required subscriber data must first be requested by the visited network e. Roaming in general Roaming is divided into "SIM-based roaming" and "Username/password-based roaming". The "visiting" subscriber acquires . • Username/password based roaming: GSM subscriber roams onto a Public WLAN operated by: • their GSM Operator. determine the access possibilities.[1] Traditional GSM Roaming is defined (cf. from a WLAN to a WLAN or a GSM network to a GSM network. i. This can be done by using a communication terminal or else just by using the subscriber identity in the visited network. has already been described above and is likewise defined by the foreignness of the network based on the type of subscriber entry in the home subscriber register. Using the example of WLAN/GSM roaming. whereby the technical term "roaming" also encompasses roaming between networks of different network standards. antenna and network interfaces. authentication. e. the term "roaming" can also be applied to the CDMA technology. seamless access to these services across different access types is provided. roaming is a general term referring to the extension of connectivity service in a location that is different from the home location where the service was registered. Roaming is technically supported by mobility management.e. including: • Access to corporate Intranet services. and • Access to public Internet. GSM Association Permanent Reference Document AA.39): • SIM-based (roaming): GSM subscriber roams onto a Public WLAN operated by: • their GSM Operator.g.g. authorization and billing procedures. If a subscriber has no entry in the home subscriber register of the network (e. send and receive data. or • another Operator who has a roaming agreement with their GSM Operator. Traditional roaming in networks of the same standard. Home and visited networks The differentiation between home network and visited network is technically given by the type of subscriber entry in a specific network. However.Roaming 288 Roaming In wireless telecommunications. or • another Operator who has a roaming agreement with their GSM Operator. differentiation also exists. GSM Association Permanent Reference Document AA. Service scenarios may include access to a range of different services. WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network) or GSM.g. such as e. including home data services. from the subscriber's home network in order that the subscriber can be authenticated and any authorization for using the network services can be checked. irrespective of access type. In the case of session continuity. Device equipment and functionality. clearly roaming can be bi-directional. Although these user/network scenarios focus on roaming from GSM Network Operator's network(s). The term "roaming" originates from the GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) sphere. Roaming ensures that the wireless device is kept connected to the network. from Public WLAN Operators to GSM Networks. • Access to operator walled garden services. In terms of user service scenarios. and power management. by means of using a visited network. without losing the connection. the following scenarios can be differentiated (cf. Home Location Register (HLR) in GSM networks or local customer database in WLANs). when travelling outside the geographical coverage area of the home network.g. or access other services.

If successful. The TAP/CIBER files are rated as per the tariffs charged by the visited operator.g. notices that it is not registered with its own system. The usage by a subscriber in a visited network is captured in a file called the TAP (Transferred Account Procedure) for GSM / CIBER (Cellular Intercarrier Billing Exchange Record) for CDMA. the possibility of assigning the subscriber data is always indispensable in order that authentication. For the legal aspects of authentication. Once this number is defined. AMPS etc. the home network forwards the incoming call to the temporary phone number. the visited network begins to maintain a temporary subscriber record for the device. If there is no roaming agreement between the two networks. time of call and duration. In order that a subscriber is able to "latch" on to a visited network. For the roaming procedure in practice. That network must then provide an internal temporary phone number to the mobile. The visited network contacts the home network and requests service information (including whether or not the mobile should be allowed to roam) about the roaming device using the IMSI number.. this is tested by all the mobile phones are working in roaming condition 289 Roaming agreements The legal roaming business aspects negotiated between the roaming partners for billing of the services obtained are usually stipulated in so called roaming agreements. 2. Likewise. location update procedures or financial security or warranty procedures. Visited Location Register (VLR)) and the authorized network services are enabled. the home network updates its information to indicate that the mobile is on the host network so that any information sent to that device can be correctly routed. the process resembles the following: 1. the term roaming is not linked to a specific network standard. which he uses in the home network. which terminates at the host network and is forwarded to the mobile. 3. location. The GSM Association broadly outlines the content of such roaming agreements in standardized form for its members. this is also referred to as Global Service Roaming Capability. the public telephone network routes the call to the phone's registered service provider. a roaming agreement needs to be in place between the visited network and the home network. but rather to the type of subscriber entry in the home subscriber register of the mobile radio network. as e.g. maintenance of service is impossible. If a call is made to a roaming mobile. TAP records are generally used for wholesale Inter-Operators settlements only. If a subscriber can use his personal service profile. in the visited network as well. the roaming agreements typically can comprise minimal safety standards. . the TADIG testing is to check the billability of the calls. authorization and billing of the visiting subscriber. authorization and billing of the subscriber can be performed in the corresponding network. called party. calling party.. but in general. The home operator then bills these calls to its subscribers and may charge a mark-up/tax applicable locally. Thus. While the IREG testing is to test the proper functioning of the established communication links. this new "visited" network sees the device. When the mobile device is turned on or is transferred via a handover to the network. and attempts to identify its home network.Roaming an entry in a user database of the visited network (e. etc. This agreement is established after a series of testing processes called IREG (International Roaming Expert Group) and TADIG (Transferred Account Data Interchange Group). who then must route it to the visited network. and service is denied by the visited network. A TAP/CIBER file contains details of the calls made by the subscriber viz. As recently many carriers launched own retail rate plans and bundles for Roaming. file and is transferred to the home network. The roaming process The details of the roaming process differ among types of cellular networks.

some carriers define "nationwide" as anywhere in the U. forcing service providers to lower their roaming fees across the 27-member bloc. However. the regulation will expire in mid 2012. In a country like India. Due to the success of GSM and the decrease in cost. For commercial and license reasons. whereas others define it as anywhere within the carrier's network. for the establishment of a call. For example. or lower. The visited operator tariffs may include tax. and would be based on duration in case of voice calls.Roaming 290 Tariffs As we know roaming fees are traditionally charged on a per-minute basis and they are typically determined by the service provider's pricing plan. discounts etc. The regulation sets a price cap of €0..46 in 2008. Russia.39 (€0. since countries have allocated different frequency bands for GSM communications (there are two groups of countries: most GSM countries use 900/1800 MHz. consequently. An operator intending to provide roaming services to visitors publishes the tariffs that would be charged in his network at least sixty days prior to its implementation under normal situations.e. regional roaming is rarely offered to clients except in nations with wide geographic areas like the USA. €0.11 (excluding tax) maximum price for SMS text message included into this regulation. as it is used by over 80% of the world's mobile operators. the Regulation on roaming charges has been in force since 30 June 2007. Since mid 2009 there is also an €0. Roaming in Europe In the European Union. Some operators also charge a separate fee for call setup i. However. Several carriers in the both United States and India have eliminated these fees in their nationwide pricing plans. this type of roaming is common. a subscriber of T-Mobile USA who is allowed to roam on AT&T Mobility's service would have national roaming rights. even then. operators may have provide commercial offers restricted to a region (sometimes to a town). to create a more competitive market by allowing the new entrant to offer coverage comparable to that of established operators (by requiring the existing operators to allow roaming while the new entrant has time to build up its own network). Additional notions and types of roaming • Regional roaming: This type of roaming refers to the ability of moving from one region to another region inside national coverage of the mobile operator.24 in 2007.excluding tax. India.22 in 2008. This charge is called a flagfall charge. All of the major carriers now offer pricing plans that allow consumers to purchase nationwide roaming-free minutes. carriers define "nationwide" in different ways. etc. there may be problems. but the United States and some other countries in the Americas have allocated 850/1900 MHz): for a phone to work in a . €0. €0. in which there are a number of regional operators. For example. • National roaming: This type of roaming refers to the ability to move from one mobile operator to another in the same country. where the number of regional operators is high and the country is divided into circles.15 (€0. the charging may be based on the data volume sent and received. For data calls. • International roaming: This type of roaming refers to the ability to move to a foreign service provider's network.S..[2] If the Commission is satisfied that competition will continue to keep prices at this level. Broadly speaking. This has often taken place when a new company is assigned a mobile telephony license.43 in 2009) per minute for outgoing calls. It is. It later also included EEA member states.19 in 2009) per minute for incoming calls . Initially. international roaming is easiest using the GSM standard. this type of roaming is not allowed unless under very specific circumstances and under regulatory scrutiny.49 in 2007. and €0. of particular interest to international tourists and business travellers. €0.

or features and phones that aren't available on your local mobile phone operator. where there is no cost difference between on and off network usage. when at least one of the phones belong outside that area. there is significant challenge in achieving seamless roaming across these technologies. this is usually determined by a computer estimate because it its impossible to guarantee coverage (see Dead zone (cell phone)). • Inter-standards roaming: This type of roaming refers to the ability to move seamlessly between mobile networks of different technologies. • Permanent Roaming: This type of roaming refers to customers who purchase service with a mobile phone operator intending to permanently roaming. The benefits of getting service from a mobile phone operator that isn't local to you can include cheaper rates. these technologies were implemented in accordance with technological standards laid down by different industry bodies and hence the name. Since mobile communication technologies have evolved independently across continents. 291 . they will be denied service. or to get to a particular mobile phone operator's network to get free calls to other customers of that mobile phone operator through a free unlimited mobile to mobile feature. This means that a Mobile Signature transaction issued by an Application Provider should be able to reach the appropriate MSSP. Typically. • Inter MSC Roaming[4] Network elements belonging to the same Operator but located in different areas (a typical situation where assignment of local licenses is a common practice)pair depends on the switch and its location. This is currently an ongoing effort. and this should be transparent for the AP(reference [3]). but furthermore this situation could introduce the fairly new concept of roaming on a per MSC basis instead of per Operator basis. Usually implemented with trombone routing[6] also known as tromboning[7] The routing of trombone roaming.Hence. Most mobile phone operators will require the customer's living or billing address be inside their coverage area or less often inside the government issued radio frequency license of the mobile phone operator. and thus be tri or quad band. so it is avoided. even if the AP and the end-user have not contracted a commercial relationship with the same MSSP. and this might be a cost burden. Most mobile phone operator discourage or prohibit permanent roaming since they must pay per minute rates to the network operator their customer is roaming onto to.[5] while they can not pass that extra cost onto customers ("free roaming"). • Mobile Signature Roaming: The concept of Mobile signature Roaming is: an access point should be able to get a Mobile Signature from any end-user. • Trombone roaming: Roaming calls within a local tariff area. A number of the standards making industry bodies have come together to define and achieve interoperability between the technologies as a means to achieve inter-standards roaming. or a relative or friends address which is in the required area. software changes and a greater processing capability are required. To accidentally become a permanent roaming customer does not usually happen. or be off-network.Roaming country with a different frequency allocation. But this is actually a burden. If a potential customer's address is not within the requirements of that mobile phone operator. Otherwise. In order to permanently roam customers may use a false address and online billing. This becomes possible because of the increasing popularity and availability of "free roaming" service plan. it must support one or both of that country's frequencies. an AP would have to build commercial terms with as many MSSPs as possible. and a 3rd party billing option.

org/xpl/freeabs_all.. Roaming services typically refers to coverage on another carrier’s network that we make available to you based on our agreements with other carriers.htm) . com/ footer/ termsandconditions/ terms. ieee.Trombone Rooting (http:/ / www. "T-Mobile Dumps Customers Who Roam Too Much" (http:/ / www. any of the following apply: 40% of airtime minutes or 750 minutes of usage are incurred outside Centennial-owned systems. Customers must have a mailing address and live in Centennial’s Primary Service Area. org/ xpl/ freeabs_all. 8 June 2007 [3] http:/ / portal. European Telecommunications Standards Institute. deny your continued use of other carriers' coverage or change your plan to one imposing usage charges for off-net usage. Your roaming usage allowance is equal to the lesser of (i) 300 minutes or (ii) 30% of the anytime minutes included in your plan. Your off-net usage allowance is equal to the lesser of 750 minutes or 40% of the Anytime Minutes included with your plan.. htm) Standardisation Organizations • ETSI website. AT&T will provide notice that it intends to take any of the above actions.internationalcellphoneguide.com/) External links • International Cell Phone Guide (http://www. [6] PHS MoU Group: Note .co. com/ uscellular/ SilverStream/ Pages/ x_page. or change your plan to one imposing usage charges for roaming services. com/ customersupport/ acceptable_use_policy.ieee. euractiv.'Guide to International Cell Phone Roaming Services for Travelers • Roaming .Using my mobile abroad: are prices dropping ? (http://ec. com/ terms. southernlinc. (http:/ / www. jsp?arnumber=686490 [5] Roaming-Included Plans: .eu/information_society/activities/ roaming/index_en.Roaming 292 References [1] CDMA Roaming (http:/ / wiki. competition-commission.. html) OFF-NET USAGE If your minutes of use (including unlimited services) on other carrier networks ("off-net usage") during any two consecutive months exceed your off-net usage allowance. att. Global System for Mobile communications by the GSM Association (GSMA) (http://www. at our sole option.jsp?arnumber=686490) • Mobile Europe describes how the roaming industry will cope with pending EU legislation and the arrival of mobile VoIP (http://www. Roaming Services.europa. gsmworld. and you may choose to terminate your Customer Agreement without incurring any additional fees for termination. org/ docbox/ EC_Files/ EC_Files/ ts_102207v010103p. deny your continued use of roaming services. org. interrupt. shtml) Termination By Us We may limit. In the event that we intend to take any of the above actions.com/) . If your minutes of use for roaming services during any two consecutive months exceeds a reasonable roaming usage allowance or if a majority of minutes in a given month are used while roaming. AT&T may.uk/magazine/features. there is excessive use of free minutes from included calling features. over two consecutive billing cycle. informationweek. . com/ wps/ portal/ AlltelPublic/ c1/ 04_SB8K8xLLM9MSSzPy8xBz9CP0os3hnP2-DoCBDAwN_HxcnAyNLZ0PLIE9DIN9MPxykA0mFu3eokYFRgFOwWZi7i5GBgQFE3gAHcDTQ9_PIz03VL8 dl2/ d1/ L0lDU0lKSWdrbUEhIS9JRFJBQUlpQ2dBek15cXchL1lCSkoxTkExTkk1MC01RncvN19DTkswUlIxMDBPTERCMDI5QzE5UkkxMTBHNC9JX19fXzE!/ ?WCM_PORTLET=PC_7_CNK0RR100OLDB029C19RI110G4_WCM& WCM_GLOBAL_CONTEXT=/ wps/ wcm/ connect/ Alltel/ alltel. wireless. uscc.. org/ wiki/ Main_Page) [2] "New caps on roaming charges in place for August" (http:/ / www. uk/ rep_pub/ reports/ 1995/ 374telephone. terminate or refuse to provide a Service for the following reasons.. InformationWeek. com/ en/ infosociety/ new-caps-roaming-charges-place-august/ article-164430). Retrieved 2008-03-15. (http:/ / www. • GSM website. html?p=legal_csa) ).mobileeurope. and you may terminate the agreement. com/ en/ legal/ legal_terms_privacy_popup. (http:/ / www..ehtml?o=2101) . centennialwireless. phsmou.. etsi. we may. terminate your Services.. at its option terminate your service. html).European Commission • Intra MSC Roaming (http://ieeexplore. we will provide you with prior notice. nextel. • Direct access to ETSI standards publications. com/ blog/ main/ archives/ 2007/ 11/ tmobile_dumps_c.. (2) a majority of minutes or (3) a majority of data kilobytes in a given month are used while roaming. Sprint may terminate service if (1) more than 800 minutes. asp) Additional Terms . Eric (Nov 20. jsp?q_termsKey=postpaidServiceAgreement& q_termsName=Service+ Agreement) Zeman. (f) if the majority of your Service is used roaming on a network not owned or operated by Alltel. alltel. (http:/ / www. org/ newsletter/ issue40/ p2. 2007). or for any other good cause: . cdg. pdf [4] http:/ / ieeexplore. Centennial Wireless may discontinue your service if. b. com/ cell-phone-service/ legal/ service-agreement. php) (http:/ / www.... (http:/ / nextelonline. php) [7] Competition Commission: Telephone number portability: A report on a reference under section 13 of the Telecommunications Act 1984 (http:/ / www.

pdf) (PDF). RXQUAL. which operated on the 450 MHz frequency band and attracted 100.Article talk about the Local Roaming Number Value Add Service. 2009. cn:漫 游 293 RTMI RTMI (Radio Telefono Mobile Integrato) was the first mobile communication service in Italy.iFast.1st-in-cell-phones. and DTX DL Rate Measurements in TEMS Investigations (Technical Paper)" (http:/ / www. 0 is the best quality. ascom. In the 1980s. Retrieved 2010-08-19.com/roaming/gsminfo/index. It operated on the 160 MHz frequency band and was used by a few people working in the public sector (public administrations and defense officials). Rxqual RxQual is used in GSM and is a part of the Network Measurement Reports (NMR). .dmoz.org) .shtml) . • 1st In Cell Phones (http://www.starhome.Index of GSM operators in a country.aspx?Page=local_roaming_number) . External links • Mobile Systems (http://www. and their roaming partners indexed by country.'Money Saving Tips for Travel Phone Users. started in 1973. 7 is the worst.com/Content.org/Science/Technology/Electrical_Engineering/Communications/ Mobile_Systems/) at the Open Directory Project .Roaming • GSM operators and their roaming agreements (http://gsmworld.[1] This is an integer the value of which can be between 0 and 7 and reflects the quality of voice. com/ en/ measurements-in-investigation-2. Ascom.Lists some of the issues in Inter-standards roaming • Local Roaming Number (http://www. the Radio Telephone Mobile (RTM) emerged.com/) . Maintained by GSM Alliance • International Forum on ANSI-41 Standards Technology (http://www.000 customers. References [1] "FER.

By using a time-multiplexed scheme called TM-GPS. . requiring only one RF radio. . electronicproducts. com/ Improving_S-GPS_sensitivity-article-farr_avago_jun2008-html. aspx). The use of two radios with a single antenna imparts new design challenges. Simultaneous GPS allows a cellphone to receive both GPS and voice data at the same time. the reception of the telephone call and the GPS signal are alternated one after the other. from manufacturers such as Qualcomm. Avago Technologies.S-GPS 294 S-GPS Simultaneous GPS or S-GPS is a method to enhance a mobile phone's satellite-based position reporting ability to a carrier. but the commercial availability of S-GPS chipsets. Ordinarily. a built-in GPS device is used to determine the location of an E911 call made from CDMA phones. As the name implies. which improves sensitivity and allows service providers to offer location-based services.[1] References [1] "Improving S-GPS sensitivity" (http:/ / www2. has led to adoption of the method in newer handsets.

Unique to SEVEN applications is their ability to deliver a desktop-like experience for core messaging applications like email. and underlying platform.[11] In early 2011. CA. Inc. are turnkey multi-device. the than eight million accounts company announced Verizon Wireless as a customer[12] and also announced its Open Channel traffic optimization software.com [1] Mobile software 2000 Redwood City. The company has research and development centers around the globe. which include SEVEN Mobile Applications.[7] In 2006.[6] In 2004 the company was selected as part of FierceWireless' annual list of "The Fierce 15. IM and social networking. the company claimed in a press release to have more [10] actively synchronized on mobile devices using SEVEN. CA Worldwide SEVEN Networks. In 2010. and expanded its platform with analytics." which recognizes the 15 most promising and innovative wireless startups of the year. multi-service solutions that enable operators and device manufacturers to simplify the delivery of services across a broad device portfolio while optimizing traffic on their network. SEVEN mobile messaging applications.SEVEN Networks 295 SEVEN Networks Industry Founded Headquarters Area served Products Website Seven. applications and social networking for a number of customers worldwide.[5] History The company was formerly known as Leap Corporation and changed its name to SEVEN Networks. a social networking and integrated messaging solution that will be available worldwide on several of the company’s bada and Android handsets.[3] Operating on a wide range of mobile devices (from feature phones to smartphones). which claims to cuts the data consumption of smartphones and other mobile devices by up to 70 percent.[8] Since then. the company announced that it was selected by Samsung Electronics to provide push technology for Samsung Social Hub. the company announced Sprint as a customer.[13] . content providers. and device manufacturers with software for real-time messaging. Headquartered in Redwood City. Inc. added mobile instant messaging to its application portfolio. in December 2000.[2] SEVEN develops and markets a push-based software platform and applications. is a privately funded American corporation founded in 2000. including a facility in Estonia and a green data center in the Bay Area and employs about 265 employees [4] worldwide. SEVEN provides solutions for wireless operators. the company has expanded its product portfolio to include support for a broad range of email services globally.[9] As of January 2010. Push Notifications and Open Channel.

Open Channel received the GSMA Global Mobile Award (which recognizes excellence. businessweek. fiercewireless. email messaging solutions and providers of services in the cloud. fiercewireless. retrieved 20 May 2010. INQ. asp?doc_id=203580). phonescoop. retrieved 20 May 2010 [10] Wireless Week (http:/ / www.php?file=SEVEN_casestudy. BlackBerry) References [1] http:/ / www.[19] Partners The firm works with mobile platform providers. com/ research/ stocks/ private/ snapshot.[15] According to early tests. php?n=5745). seven. with only a small fraction of them actually returning data. retrieved 17 March 2011 [11] Seven Press Release (http:/ / www. crunchbase. com/ press_releases/ 2010/ SEVENReportsaFullYearofProfitabilityasCompanysUserBaseContinuestoGrowFasterthanMarket. retrieved 17 March 2011 [4] Wireless Week (http:/ / www. retrieved 20 May 2010. retrieved 17 March 2011 .com/download. com/ special-reports/ seven). retrieved 20 May 2010 [3] [www.[22] Symbian and Windows Mobile. It works by monitoring all requests for data from smartphone applications. device manufacturers. mobileburn.[17] In February 2011. Nokia. retrieved 17 March 2011 [5] CrunchBase (http:/ / www. including: HTC. retrieved 17 March 2011 [13] Light Reading Mobile (http:/ / www. com/ news/ item.[23] They work on products from device manufacturers. LG.[16] Open Channel is transparent to connected applications and requires no changes or special integration by mobile developers. smart signaling and other network optimizations. com/ news. com [2] Linkedin (http:/ / www. retrieved 17 March 2011 [14] RCR Wireless News (http:/ / www. BREW. com/ News/ 2010/ 12/ 2-Straight-Out-10-for-Seven-Business/ ). to sell mobile messaging services. [12] FierceWireless (http:/ / www. Twitter and others. Samsung. the solution can help mobile devices reduce their time on a network by up to 40 percent and help reduce mobile traffic by up to 70 percent while boosting battery life by up to 25 percent. Microsoft (Exchange and Windows Live) and Yahoo!. jsp?Id=2916). which make up to hundreds of requests per hour. linkedin. html). [7] Fiercewireless (http:/ / www. wirelessweek. Motorola. com/ company/ seven). wirelessweek. rcrwireless. com/ companies/ seven-networks). Sanyo.equinix. it does not require changes to the network and can work in conjunction with new standards for fast network dormancy. like Facebook.[20] bada. achievement and innovation within the mobile communications industry[18] ) for Best Mobile Technology Breakthrough.[24] The firm has partnered with many of the top Internet Service Providers including Google.pdf Equinix Case Study]. seven.[21] J2ME. and infrastructure providers such as Equinix.[25] Savvis and Oracle. email. and are embedded on more than 550 device types. com/ document. and Sony Ericsson. retrieved 20 May 2010 [9] Phonescoop (http:/ / www. Its systems run on commonly deployed mobile platforms including Android. determining when content for a particular app is available and then allowing the phone to go out and get that content. com/ press-releases/ verizon-wireless-expands-push-services-using-seven-networks-technology). Additionally.SEVEN Networks 296 Open Channel Open Channel was launched in February 2011 in order to help carriers manage the impact of push messaging notifications on their networks. retrieved 20 May 2010 [8] Mobileburn (http:/ / www. com/ article/ 20110125/ ENABLERAPPS/ 110129977/ seven-networks-optimization-tool-reduces-data-traffic-improves). and infrastructure partners. asp?privcapId=715608). Competition • • • • Apple Push Notification Service (APNs) Good Technology Nokia Messaging Research In Motion (RIM. retrieved 17 March 2011 [6] Businessweek (http:/ / investing.[14] The platform instead acts as a buffer in the network. lightreading. com/ News/ 2010/ 12/ 2-Straight-Out-10-for-Seven-Business/ ).

retrieved 17 March 2011 [19] GSM World (http:/ / www. 2000. com/ 2011/ 01/ 25/ in-smartphones-seven-finds-a-new-heaven/ ). which is the front part of a Japanese word Shashin meaning photograph.seven. retrieved 17 March 2011 [17] IntoMobile (http:/ / www. gsmworld. and Mail. com/ 3g4g/ news/ MWC-Network-optimization-gets-specific-0131/ index. In current usage. seven. com/ about_us. retrieved 20 May 2010 [23] Gomobi (http:/ / www. but has come to apply to all the mobile phone carriers. downloadsquad. as well as to mail with accompanying picture sent via other hand held devices and PCs. com/ 2009/ 11/ 23/ seven-on-android-ah-push-it-push-it-real-good/ ). The term has come to mean not only mail with pictures attached. This term is made from Sha. sha-mail refers not only to Softbank. html). gomobi.com/) Sha-Mail Sha-Mail (写 メ ー ル ) is a kind of mailing service of J-Phone (now Softbank). html). equinix. retrieved 20 May 2010 [22] Csnet (http:/ / news. com/ newsroom/ press-releases/ 2010/ 5433. retrieved 20 May 2010 [21] Astricon (http:/ / www. The term came into usage after Softbank (then Vodafone) introduced the service in November. but is also sometimes used to refer to the pictures themselves that have been taken with camera phones and other such devices.SEVEN Networks [15] Connected Planet Online (http:/ / connectedplanetonline. gsmworld. retrieved 17 March 2011 [16] GigaOM (http:/ / gigaom. html). intomobile. customers_partners. cnet. org/ email/ seven-a-free-push-mail-software-for-windows-mobile-symbian-android-palm-and-java-enable-mobile-phones. html). retrieved 20 May 2010 [25] Equinix (http:/ / www. Sha-Mail is used to send pictures and/or email through mobile handsets. com/ Start-up-Seven-addicted-to-Java/ 2100-1041_3-5427634. retrieved 17 March 2011 [18] GSM World (http:/ / www. net/ topics/ broadband-mobile/ articles/ 39564-seven-develops-integrated-mobile-messaging-solution-qualcomms-brew. com/ news/ press/ SEVEN-Networks-Uses-Equinix-to-Connect-to-Growing-Mobile-Ecosystem/ ) retrieved 17 March 2011 297 External links • Official website (http://http://www. retrieved 20 May 2010 [24] Seven (http:/ / www. astricon. htm). com/ 2011/ 01/ 28/ seven-open-channel/ ). It can be abbreviated to sha-me (写 メ ) . htm). htm). retrieved 17 March 2011 [20] Downloadsquad (http:/ / www. com/ newsroom/ press-releases/ 2011/ 6034.

(2006). As a touchscreen keyboard replacement.5 phones including the HTC Hero and Droid Eris. It is this system that was the basis for the software release on IBM alphaWorks that is generally associated with the term "ShapeWriter". Proc. It was available only for Android OS versions 1. References • Zhai. a user draws words on a graphical keyboard using a pen. This system introduced the notion that every word in a large lexicon should be possible to write by tracing the letters. CHI 2003. UIST 2004. Competitors Other similar products include SlideIT. (2003). S. Android ShapeWriter software was made available as a free application for Android (operating system) smartphones through the Android Market. and mobile phones invented by Shumin Zhai and Per Ola Kristensson at IBM Almaden Research Center and the Department of Computer and Information Science at Linköping University. Inc. P. P. the user draws a pen gesture that connects all the letters in the desired word. 2010. IBM Research Report RJ10393. Using ShapeWriter text entry software. (2004).000 . S. handheld PCs. Introduction to Shape Writing [3]. 2006. The next version described by Per Ola Kristensson and Shumin Zhai (2004) has a fundamentally different recognition engine that can recognize 50.000 users on Android worldwide. • Kristensson. Shorthand Writing on Stylus Keyboard [1]. and Zhai. and MessagEase. November 1. P. . is a keyboard text input method for tablet. After some usage the user learns the movement pattern for the commonly used words and can write them faster than is possible on a traditional virtual keyboard. ShapeWriter for Android was available in 7 European languages including English. It used a handwriting recognition algorithm that relied on dynamic programming to recognize the word patterns drawn from a lexicon. ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. Instead of tapping the keys. ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology. The first system described by Shumin Zhai and Per Ola Kristensson (2003) was only a prototype system that could recognize about 100 pen gestures for the top 100 words used in the English language. ShapeWriter. Spanish. was purchased by Nuance Communications and the ShapeWriter software was removed from the Android Market indefinitely on June 20. There was also a Beta release for Android 1.O. Proc.O. Swype. and Kristensson. S.6 or higher.ShapeWriter 298 ShapeWriter ShapeWriter (previously known as Shorthand-Aided Rapid Keyboarding (SHARK)). is had over 50.000 words with low latency. SHARK²: A Large Vocabulary Shorthand Writing System for Pen-Based Computers [2].60. • Zhai.O. and German. and Kristensson.

gov/ netacgi/ nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO2& Sect2=HITOFF& p=1& u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsearch-bool. There are two types of short codes: dialing and messaging.938& RS=7. 1145/ 1029632. htm http:/ / patft.938 System and method for improved user input on personal computing devices [7] US Patent 7. with an optional prefix of "1" (the country code for the US and Canada). on a land-line phone.164 standard) may be of any length. ibm. System and method for recognizing word patterns based on a virtual keyboard layout.ShapeWriter 299 External links Homepage [4] Download a version of ShapeWriter for tablet PC [5] More scientific articles about ShapeWriter are available here [6] United States Patent 7. charity donations and mobile services. com/ u/ zhai/ papers/ IBM_Research_Report_ShapeWriting-rj10393. com/ u/ zhai/ shapewriter-pubs. ibm. Technology Normal telephone numbers (following the E. one could not use the short code 12345.250. providers generally have agreements to avoid overlaps. so the network knows the end of the dialed number. ibm. that can be used to address SMS and MMS messages from certain service provider's mobile phones or fixed phones. alphaworks. Like telephone numbers. 1029640 http:/ / www. almaden. pdf http:/ / www.938/ kumhyr [8] http:/ / patft. the word "STOP" to terminate the service.250. since then one could not dial the phone number 1-234-555-4626 (or any other number that shared the prefix 12345). 642630 http:/ / doi. Even so. uspto. significantly shorter than full telephone numbers.S. com/ http:/ / www.251. and thus one can use short numbers without clashing with longer numbers. acm. html& r=1& f=G& l=50& co1=AND& d=PTXT& s1=7. 2002 [8] • Download an email and note application using ShapeWriter for the iPhone or iPod touch (opens in iTunes) [9] • • • • • References http:/ / doi. woa/ wa/ viewSoftware?id=285484703& mt=8 [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] Short code Short codes (also known as short numbers) are special telephone numbers. but on a mobile phone there is no such ambiguity. some classes of numbers are inter-operator (U.367. for example. Messages sent to short code can be billed at a higher rate than a standard SMS and may even subscribe a customer to a recurring monthly service that will be added to their mobile phone bill until they text. dialed numbers are generally seven or ten digits long. org/ 10. shapewriter. short codes are unique to each operator at the technological level. html& r=1& f=G& l=50& co1=AND& d=PTXT& s1=7251367& OS=7251367& RS=7251367# [9] http:/ / phobos. almaden. December 20. On mobile phones. acm. In some countries. ordering ringtones. . com/ WebObjects/ MZStore. Short codes are designed to be easier to read and remember than normal telephone numbers.250. gov/ netacgi/ nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO2& Sect2=HITOFF& p=1& u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsearch-bool.250. uspto. apple. 1145/ 642611. org/ 10. numbers are terminated with the "Send" or "Call" key and sent all at once over the network.938& OS=7.[1] Short codes are widely used for value-added services such as television program voting. For instance. inter-operator numbers are called common short codes). for example. com/ tech/ sharktext http:/ / www. such as the United States. the network must apply heuristics to determine when dialing is complete — in the US. and so when dialed from landline telephones.

116xxx . 909 for adult content and 900 for everything else). while two or three (depending on billing type=MO/MT) trailing digits express the price. There are also other four digit shortcodes. standard rate (user is responsible for standard carrier charges). Codes are seven digits in length for MO and five (not billed) or eight (billed) for MT direction. In ads or in other printed material where a provider has to inform about both the prefix and the short code number.directory services. The service then responds to the command appropriately.Long version: Text Football to 72404 for latest football news. Leading three digits are purpose type prefixes (908 for micropayments. SMS sent to 9090930 is billed for Kč30. used by a network operators for service only purposes (operator dependent) Denmark Codes are four digits in length.g. Examples include: 118xxx . An automated program can handle the response and typically requires the sender to start the message with a command word or prefix. Communications Alliance Ltd and WMC Global are responsible for governing premium and standard rate short codes in Australia. Common Short Codes beginning with a leading '4' are reserved for private use by wireless carriers. Canadian Short codes are governed by the Canadian Wireless Telecommunications Association. Short code-based messages vary between zero-rated (paid for by campaign). . starting with the prefix "19" followed by an additional four or six digits and two. This is in addition to the EU-wide emergency number 112.emergency helplines. Example 2 . C$1-10). e. digits at position four and five determines the service provider registered by a network operator. Czech Republic Messages sent to/from these short codes are known as Premium Rate SMS. Canada Canadian Common Short Codes can be five or six digits long. and premium rate (varies.[2] Transactional and Subscription services require a double sms MO opt-in or Web based opt-in with an MO reply.Short version: football@72404 Regional differences European Union Common EU-wide codes are six digit long and start with 11. You can have a look at the different categories here [3]. Albania Short Codes are five digits in length and start with 5. Australia Short codes are six or eight digits in length.[2] Belgium Codes are four digits in length. also are known as short codes for value added service.[4] Chile Codes are three and four digits in length. Dominican Republic Codes are four or five digits in length. starting with nine. the advertisement will typically follow this format: Example 1 . Four-digit Common Short Codes are not permitted due to handset incompatibilities.Short code 300 Short codes and service identifiers (prefix) Short codes are often associated with automated services.

3 = €0. Malaysia Codes are five digits in length. which is designated by a local telecommunications law for "network services". Any length of full message can be sent. Greece Codes are five digits in length. start with "2" or "3".[6] Morocco Code are four keys digits in length. whose characters. Dialing shortcodes are generally 3 digits. and reserved for public services. commercial ringtones and mobile stuff download. usually five or six.30 up to 10. Nepal Codes are three to four digits in length. They all start by the digit "1". which is designated by a local telecommunications law for "network services". starting from three digits up to five.on a monthly basis. however short codes have no fixed length.[5] Italy In Italy short codes have no fixed length. Texts sent to these Short Codes are commonly referred to as Premium Rate SMS Messages and cost around Rs 1 to Rs 3 per text depending on the operator as well as the service.00. Codes are MT billed so subscription services are allowed. on a typical mobile phone keypad. Widely-known short codes are in the 48xxx range. dedicated codes are generally live in 4 weeks.Short code Finland Codes are five or more digits in length. and are four digits. Hungary Codes are four or five digits in length. The second digit generally indicates the maximum price. Germany Codes are four or five digits in length. with 0 = completely free. Republic of Ireland Short codes are five digits in length. Lithuania In Lithuania short codes also have no fixed length. starting from three digits up to five. ranging from 100–500 (some providers only support). Indonesia Codes are four digits in length with Rp2000 premium price. Codes beginning 59 are ostensibly intended for adult services. South Codes are generally four to six digits in length. but few if any of these codes are used. and start with 5. The Netherlands 301 . The five digits can be extended by three digits further representing three additional characters. France Codes are five digits in length. and 7 having no maximum. SMS shortcodes are used for a range of purposes. premium pricing from RM0. and shared codes after 1 week. Korea. Upon service description approval by mobile operators. Starting digits define the cost of the service. represent short codes. India There are many companies in the Indian market who rent keywords. 1 = standard text rate only. Short codes are five digits in length and have to start with the digit '5'. They all start by the digit "4".60.

affordable and viable infrastructure and services in information and communications technology (ICT) accessible to all. Each short code or short code range (a range will generally be 34000 to 34009) are assigned specific tariffs or end user prices (EUP).50 to R50. The tariff charges can range from R0.[8] however again is not directly related to premium SMS. Philippines Codes are four digits in length. There is relevant documentation for Bulk SMS and SPAM control via NTC's "AMENDMENT TO THE RULES AND REGULATIONS ON BROADCAST MESSAGING SERVICES". South Africa Codes are five digits in length. Calls to short codes . Poland Commercial codes are five digit long (1xxxx) and are reachable from both mobile and fixed networks.[7] Although they are ultimately responsible for the governance of premium and non-premium shortcodes in the Philippines. Taiwan 302 . their regulatory guidelines are not comprehensive when applied to shortcodes. and advises on the regulatory issues to consider when connecting to a short code in the Philippines is txtNation.00 on mobile originated billing and from R0. One company that maintains a list of.are routed based on the location of the number originating the call. 34001 or 42001.Short code Codes are four digits in length. For example. The cost of the call or SMS to the short number varies from 1. hence. Sweden Codes are five digits in length. more focusing on the carriers and their technical infrastructure. the subscriber might need to prefix the short code with an appropriate area code.from any type of network . New Zealand Codes are three and four digits in length. You will find no information specific to running premium SMS or standard rate SMS services on NTC's website. Panama Codes are four digits in length.[9] Russia Codes are four digits in length.50 to R30.00 using mobile terminated billing.2 to 300 rubles. The National Telecommunications Commission (NTC) is a regulatory agency providing an environment that ensures reliable. Nigeria Codes are four to five digits in length. Serbia Codes are four digits in length.[10] [11] Spain Codes are four digits in length. Short codes will start with either a "3" or "4". if wishing to reach a particular geographical area. Singapore Codes are five digits in length. Norway Codes are four and five digits in length. depending on the number and the carrier.

are administered by NeuStar. as well as enabling businesses to have their own number. Premium services use codes that can be set to deliver a charge to a participant’s mobile phone (in accordance with the service provider’s terms of service). product promotions and campaigns. United States of America As of May 31. United Kingdom Codes are five digits in length. which can be used in place of short codes or premium-rated short messages for SMS reception in several applications.Short Codes don’t support voice. • Limiting . Long Numbers address some of the disadvantages of short codes. • Expensive . To stop a subscription based shortcode service text the word 'STOP' to the shortcode number. it can take 2-3 months before your campaign is live with all of the major carriers. Other codes (typically used by advertisers) can be free to receive “your standard rate applies” or free to send and receive. And you start paying from day one.[17] [18] 303 Alternatives to short codes for SMS reception An alternative to inbound SMS is based on long numbers (international number format. You have to pay more to an aggregator for connectivity.g.Short code Codes are usually four digits in length. • Restrictive . mostly starting with 6 or 8. it will cost $500 or $1. voting and quizzes.[16] Short codes can be leased at the rate of $1000 a month for a selected code or $500 for a random code. A US short code only works in the US. Adult related mobile services must use codes starting with 69 or 89.S.[14] Carriers use short codes with fewer digits for carrier-specific programs . Shortcodes can also be used to deliver additional content or a mobile URL link that when prompted opens the mobile web browser linking the user to a mobile web page.CTIA.[12] The range of codes may be expanded in time to use other leading digits such as 4. You can get a shared short code to lower your costs. the standard lengths for interoperable short codes are five and six digits. "Text 611 to see how many minutes you have remaining on your plan. Long numbers are internationally available. +44 7624 805000).The MMA Best Practices are a 165 pages. The carriers can reject your campaign at their discretion.g. Common short codes in the U. . under a deal with Common Short Code Administration [15] . All charges and associated terms linked to a premium code should be transparent to the consumer. rather than short codes which are usually shared across a number of brands.000 a month just to get a number. long before you go live.e. SMS shortcodes are often owned by holding companies[13] who then lease them out to service providers and advertisers to promote SMS services. starting with digits "19".It takes a long time to launch a short code program.[16] Some carriers assign a subset of their carrier-specific codes to third parties. Turkey Codes are four digits in length. specifically: • Long Lead Time .. if you get a short code. e. UK Premium rated SMS services are regulated by PhonepayPlus." Codes starting with 1 are not permitted. Mobile operators sometimes use proprietary codes (either with a different leading digit or shorter in length for their own use). Some carriers don’t support short codes. For example. 2006. Codes starting 7 are used by charities. long numbers are non-premium inbound numbers. such as television voting. Additionally. 4 digit codes on T-Mobile USA's network are reserved for a "Beta test service" or "Free to end user" marketing campaigns. In the US. but then you are sharing the number with lots of providers and do not have sole control over the number. In the US. charitable fund-raising and marketing promotions such as news alerts.It costs a lot to get a dedicated short code.

Short code

304

References
[1] Evan Neufeld, Senior Analyst, Common Short Codes: Cracking The Mobile Marketing Code (http:/ / www. youra. com/ stats/ mobileuse. pdf), October 2007 [2] http:/ / clients. txtnation. com/ entries/ 129428-australia-premium-sms-regulations [3] http:/ / www. mobileweb. be/ en/ mobileweb/ sms-numberplan. asp [4] http:/ / www. txt. ca/ [5] http:/ / www. regtel. ie [6] http:/ / clients. txtnation. com/ entries/ 182820-malaysia-premium-sms-regulations [7] http:/ / portal. ntc. gov. ph/ wps/ portal [8] http:/ / clients. txtnation. com/ attachments/ token/ 4lczcuqluzi6exm/ ?name=Phillippines_NTC_Guidelines. pdf [9] http:/ / clients. txtnation. com/ entries/ 339246-philippines-shared-short-code-requirements-and-restrictions [10] http:/ / www. waspa. org. za [11] http:/ / www. smscode. co. za [12] (http:/ / www. short-codes. com/ ) [13] A Short Guide to a (UK) Short Code (http:/ / www. smsshortcodes. co. uk/ shared-and-dedicated-shortcodes. htm) by "Steve", SMSshortcodes.co.uk March 11th, 2009 [14] Common Short Code Administration Announces Open Registration of 6-Digit Codes (http:/ / www. usshortcodes. com/ csc_press053106. html), Press Release, CTIA, May 31, 2006 [15] http:/ / usshortcodes. com [16] Decoding Short Codes (http:/ / www. wirelessweek. com/ article. aspx?id=146359), by Monica Alleven, WirelessWeek, April 15, 2007 [17] Free to end user (FTEU) (http:/ / www. mobilestorm. com/ digital-marketing-blog/ free-to-end-user-fteu/ ) by "Steve", Digitial Marketing Blog, July 23rd, 2007 [18] Personal communication, T-Mobile Customer Support

14. http://clients.txtnation.com/entries/158302-belgium-premium-sms-regulations 15. http://clients.txtnation.com/entries/158290-canada-premium-sms-regulations

External links
• UK Shortcode availability tool (http://www.availableshortcodes.com/) • Australian short code search (http://web.acma.gov.au/numb/openAccess/inquiry/viewAllocationSearch.do) (Australian Communications and Media Authority) • Short Code Management Group (http://www.short-codes.com/) (U.K.) • Common Short Code Administration (http://www.usshortcodes.com/) (U.S.) • US Short Codes WHOIS Directory (http://www.usshortcodeswhois.com/) (U.S.) • The Mobile Guide to Common Short Codes (http://www.coolshortcodes.com/) • US Shared Short Codes WHOIS Directory (http://www.sharedshortcodeswhois.com/) (U.S.) • Short code Provider in India (http://www.shortcodes.in/) (INDIA)

Short message peer-to-peer protocol

305

Short message peer-to-peer protocol
The Short Message Peer-to-Peer (SMPP) protocol is a telecommunications industry protocol for exchanging SMS messages between SMS peer entities such as short message service centers and/or External Short Messaging Entities. It is often used to allow third parties (e.g. value-added service providers like news organizations) to submit messages, often in bulk. SMPP was originally designed by Aldiscon, a small Irish company that was later acquired by Logica (now split off and known as Acision). The protocol was originally created by a developer, Ian J Chambers, to test functionality of the SMSC without using SS7 test equipment to submit messages. In 1999, Logica formally handed over SMPP to the SMPP Developers Forum, later renamed as The SMS Forum and now disbanded. The SMPP protocol specifications are still available through the website which also carries a notice stating that it will be taken down at the end of 2007. As part of the original handover terms, SMPP ownership has now returned to Acision due to the disbanding of the SMS forum. The protocol is based on pairs of request/response PDUs (protocol data units, or packets) exchanged over OSI layer 4 (TCP session or X.25 SVC3) connections. PDUs are binary encoded for efficiency. The most commonly used versions of SMPP are v3.3, the most widely supported standard, and v3.4, which adds transceiver support (single connections that can send and receive messages). Data exchange may be synchronous, where each peer must wait for a response for each PDU being sent, and asynchronous, where multiple requests can be issued in one go and acknowledged in a skew order by the other peer. The latest version of SMPP is v5.0. To date SMPP development is suspended and SMS forum is disbanded. From SMS forum website: July 31, 2007 - The SMS Forum, a non-profit organization with a mission to develop, foster and promote SMS (short message service) to the benefit of the global wireless industry will disband by July 27, 2007 A press release, attached to the news, also warns that site will be suspended soon. In spite of this the site is still mostly functioning and specifications can still be downloaded (as of 12 July 2011).

Example
This is an example of the binary encoding of a 60-octet submit_sm PDU. The data is shown in Hex octet values as a single dump and followed by a header and body break-down of that PDU. This is best compared with the definition of the submit_sm PDU from the SMPP specification in order to understand how the encoding matches the field by field definition. The value break-downs are shown with decimal in parentheses and Hex values after that. Where you see one or several hex octets appended, this is because the given field size uses 1 or more octets encoding. Again, reading the definition of the submit_sm PDU from the spec will make all this clearer.

Short message peer-to-peer protocol

306

Hexdump
00 00 00 3C 00 00 00 04 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 05 00 02 08 35 35 35 00 01 01 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 0F 48 65 6C 6C 6F 20 77 69 6B 69 70 65 64 69 61

PDU Header
'command_length', (60) ... 00 00 00 3C 'command_id', (4) ... 00 00 00 04 'command_status', (0) ... 00 00 00 00 'sequence_number', (5) ... 00 00 00 05

PDU Body
'service_type', () ... 00 'source_addr_ton', (2) ... 02 'source_addr_npi', (8) ... 08 'source_addr', (555) ... 35 35 35 00 'dest_addr_ton', (1) ... 01 'dest_addr_npi', (1) ... 01 'dest_addr', (555555555) ... 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 00 'esm_class', (0) ... 00 'protocol_id', (0) ... 00 'priority_flag', (0) ... 00 'schedule_delivery_time', (0) ... 00 'validity_period', (0) ... 00 'registered_delivery', (0) ... 00 'replace_if_present_flag', (0) ... 00 'data_coding', (0) ... 00 'sm_default_msg_id', (0) ... 00 'sm_length', (15) ... 0F 'short_message', (Hello wikipedia) ... 48 65 6C 6C 6F 20 77 69 6B 69 70 65 64 69 61'

External links
• Short Message Peer-to-Peer Protocol Specification v3.4 [1] • Short message peer-to-peer protocol
[2]

at the Open Directory Project

References
[1] http:/ / www. spboss. com/ download/ %E8%BF%90%E8%90%A5%E5%95%86%E9%80%9A%E8%AE%AF%E5%8D%8F%E8%AE%AE/ SMPP_v3_4_Issue1_2. pdf [2] http:/ / www. dmoz. org/ Computers/ Mobile_Computing/ Wireless_Data/ Short_Messaging_Service/

2. it will reach an SMS center first. It is possible to specify a cutoff period after which the SMS message will be deleted from the SMS center. Operation When a user sends a text message (SMS message) to another user. It will forward the SMS message when the recipient is available. The SMS center then forwards the SMS message towards the destination. Validity Period of an SMS Message . the message gets stored in the SMSC (short message service center) which delivers it to the destination user when they are available. the SMSC will store the SMS message.An SMS message is stored temporarily in the SMS center if the recipient mobile phone is offline. An SMS center (SMSC) is responsible for handling the SMS operations of a wireless network. I.. 1. The main duty of an SMSC is to route SMS messages and regulate the process. This status report is sent to the SMS sender in the form of an SMS. II.Short message service center 307 Short message service center A Short Message Service Center (SMSC) is a network element in the mobile telephone network which delivers SMS messages. when the mobile phone is switched off). If the recipient is unavailable (for example. Once deleted. Message Status Reports . the SMS message will no longer be available for dispatch to the recipient mobile phone (even if it becomes online). This is a store and forward option. 3. When an SMS message is sent from a mobile phone.The SMS sender needs to set a flag in the SMS message to notify the SMS center that he wants the status report about the delivery of this SMS message. 4... References .

particularly in radio. such as those used in broadcasting. are expressed in dB-millivolts per metre (dBmV/m). Typically. Substituting the formula for and solving for the maximum electric field yields into the . When the antenna is viewed broadside ( maximum and given by ) the electric field is Solving this formula for the peak current yields The average power to the antenna is where one for is the center-fed half-wave antenna’s radiation resistance. In broadcasting terminology.1 mV/m: the minimum strength at which a station can be received with acceptable quality on most receivers Relationship to Average Radiated Power The electric field strength at a specific point can be determined from the power delivered to the transmitting antenna. It may also be referred to as received signal level or field strength. High-powered transmissions. such as mobile phones. If constructed from thin conductors. signal strength refers to the magnitude of the electric field at a reference point that is a significant distance from the transmitting antenna. is the peak current at the feed-point. is the speed of light in a vacuum. 1 mV/m is 1000 µV/m or 60 dBµ (often written dBu).Signal strength 308 Signal strength In telecommunications. is the permittivity of free-space. it is expressed in voltage per length or signal power received by a reference antenna. For very low-power systems. the current distribution is essentially sinusoidal and the radiating electric field is given by Current distribution on antenna of length equal to one half wavelength ( ). where is the angle between the antenna axis and the vector to the observation point. Examples • 100 dBµ or 100 mV/m: blanketing interference may occur on some receivers • 60 dBµ or 1. and is the distance to the antenna in meters. its geometry and radiation resistance.0 mV/m: frequently considered the edge of a radio station's protected area in North America • 40 dBµ or 0. Consider the case of a center-fed half-wave dipole antenna in free space ( ). signal strength is usually expressed in dB-microvolts per metre (dBµV/m) or in decibels above a reference level of one milliwatt (dBm).

com/) • Cell Phone Signal Strength Map (http://www.com) • Global map of cell phone signal by network. Weak signal strength can also be caused by destructive interference of the signals from local towers in urban areas. hospitals and factories often have no usable signal further than a few metres from the outside walls. the terrain and vegetation. (http://www. the electric field and radiation Using a procedure similar to that above.gotreception. Consequently. The more advanced models now typically include an external directional antenna and an amplifier (usually operating at 55 dB gain).Signal strength 309 Therefore. Some rural areas are unlikely ever to be effectively covered since the cost of erecting a cell tower is too high for only a few customers. or by the construction materials used in some buildings causing rapid attenuation of signal strength. Cell phones in the U.S. References External links • Maps of Cell Phone Signal Strength Across the United States (http://www. operate at around 800 MHz and PCS phones at 1900 MHz. Even in high reception areas it is often found that basements and the interiors of large buildings have poor reception. classified as UHF and low energy microwaves respectively. Cellphone signals Although there are cell phone base station tower networks across many nations globally.com/) . Large buildings such as warehouses. which is generally enough to turn a very weak signal into a clear one over the local area (from around a thousand square feet to over twenty thousand).opensignalmaps. In this case. This has led to the rapid growth in the home cellular repeater market. if the average power to a half-wave dipole antenna is 1 mW. Based on crowdsourced data. For a short dipole ( resistance are ) the current distribution is nearly triangular. This is particularly true for the networks which operate at higher frequency since these are attenuated more rapidly by intervening obstacles.signalmap. then the maximum electric field at 313 m (1027 ft) is 1 mV/m (60 dBµ). there are still many areas within those nations that do not have good reception. although they are able to use reflection and diffraction to circumvent obstacles. the maximum electric field for a center-fed short dipole is It must be emphasized that the formulas above are illustrative and only apply when there are no conductive objects near the antenna and observation point and when the path between the two is unobstructed. they might not provide accurate estimates of signal strength for radio transmitters in environments where signals are scattered and absorbed by buildings.

Dasur has developed this generation of text input solutions for mobile phones and PDAs. "Google" can be entered as "gogle") • Graffiti mode. In 2009 the two keyboards were merged into one product branded SlideIT which offers an 'ABC' mode with the ThumbKey unique algorithm and the 'Slide' mode with the sliding algorithm. regular typing and "sliding". At the end of 2010 Dasur released a new version for Symbian and in early 2011 version 3. Based on this engine. allowing numbers and symbols to be entered by drawing them (similar to handwriting recognition) • Speech recognition (only available on the Android OS) . Product SlideIT allows a user to enter a word by sliding a finger or stylus from letter to letter on a virtual keyboard. lifting only between words.g. which can be combined (e. Over the last 20 years. type part of a word and slide the rest of it) • Predictive suggestions. This allows for text input at much higher rates than normal mobile phone and other small touch-screen keyboards. allowing only part of a word to be entered • Disambiguation. allowing for imprecise typing/sliding • Customizable dictionary • Available in many different languages (40+ as of February 2011) • Can use short abbreviations or other shorthand text to input a long text quickly • Automatic spacing and capitalizing • Automatically doubles letters to ease sliding (e.0 for the Android was released. which suggests words whose letters are near the ones entered.SlideIT 310 SlideIT SlideIT is a text input method for touchscreen devices developed by Dasur Ltd [1] based on pattern recognition. The algorithm processed the typed letters and its disambiguation feature suggested the intended word and also displayed additional possibilities next to the keyboard. Developer Dasur is a technology company that specializes in complex mathematical applications. Dasur has developed a powerful pattern recognition engine which can be the basis for many applications. History The first version was released on 2007 as two separate keyboards. Dasur's ThumbKey used a unique algorithm that allowed users to just press in the general vicinity of the required key for the intended word to appear on the screen.g. ThumbKey and SlideIT. Main Features • Two modes for entering text. SlideIT uses advanced pattern recognition and error-correction algorithms together with a complicated language model and word database to ensure maximum accuracy of outputted text while allowing the user a lot of freedom and inaccuracy in entering text. ThumbKey's technology brought the touchscreen method to a more accurate and easier level of operation with the option of using only one hand.

[4] the Ovi (Nokia) store. D.199. com/ books?id=ksxK7J95IF8C& pg=PA41& dq=typists+ "120+ words+ per+ minute"& hl=en& ei=9sbqTL_zF4HvcMeu1YgL& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=5& ved=0CEoQ6AEwBA#v=onepage& q=typists "120 words per minute"& f=false). Norwegian. SlideIT currently has 40+ freely available language packs: Afrikaans. Katalin (2005). Slovenian. mobiletextinput. Indonesian. and Karat. D. p. Greek. Dutch. Brazilian.. Halverson. Patterns of entry and correction in large vocabulary continuous speech recognition systems. Hungarian. Dvorak and Colemak layouts). holds the world speed record for text input into a mobile phone. . types 33 words per minute. using a standard full-size QWERTY keyboard. Serbian. com/ about.[3] A sliding style keyboard. google. Russian. Bulgarian. Portuguese. Polish. Lithuanian. Latvian. google. Icelandic. ISBN 1-84542-272-4. 41. UK & Northampton. Finnish. Windows Mobile and Symbian S60 v5. php) External links • United States Patent 7. php [2] Karat. Croatian. com/ books?id=ksxK7J95IF8C& printsec=frontcover& dq=reappraisal+ microeconomics& hl=en& ei=ZNnqTKykO8XQcaqq1ckK& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=1& ved=0CCcQ6AEwAA#v=onepage& q& f=false). (1999). Catalan. Romanian.786. Swedish. mobiletextinput. Massachusetts: Edward Elgar Publishing. com/ Download. 568–575. Belorussian.M. Albanian. Hebrew. C. Danish.SlideIT 311 Languages The keyboard can be customized with a primary and secondary language. "Reduced keyboards system using unistroke input and having automatic disambiguating and a recognition method using said system".[2] PDAs and smartphones allow much slower speeds.html&r=1&f=G&l=50& d=PALL&RefSrch=yes&Query=PN/7199786) . [3] Ayres. Horn. Arabic. There is a free demonstration version limited to 14 days and a full commercial version which is sold on Dasur's web site.gov/netacgi/ nph-Parser?Sect2=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&p=1&u=/netahtml/PTO/search-bool. retrieved 22 November 2010 [4] SlideIT download page (http:/ / www. Italian. Suraqui. German..uspto. Slovak. References [1] http:/ / www. (http://patft. Persian. SlideIT for iPhone and Windows Tablet PC will be available soon. "120 wpm for very skilled typist" (http:/ / books. Sliding style keyboards for touch screens can increases typing speed by 30-40% and yields potential typing speeds of more than 50 words per minute – matching the average speed of a professional typist. C. English (Qwerty. On the Reappraisal of Microeconomics: Economic Growth and Change in a Material World (http:/ / books. Cheltenham. Martinás. French. Speed The average computer user. Competitors Other similar products include ShapeWriter and Swype. Estonian. CHI 99 Conference Proceedings. as of Late 2010. Czech. Turkish and Ukrainian. Spanish. Availability SlideIT can be run on any Android phone or tablet computer. and the user can switch between them at any time by pressing a button. and on the Android Market. J. Robert U.

S.Smart pipe 312 Smart pipe Smart pipe. Examples While there is no real industry standard definition of a smart pipe. In addition to pricing. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) introduced around its upcoming 700 MHz spectrum auction. bloggers. . Billing Directory assistance. was criticized for some statements he made about how Vodafone will always have a unique relationship with its subscribers through its billing relationship.[6] Although Sarin’s point has been true traditionally. and existing media companies like Google via the Android platform. refers to an operator’s network which leverages existing or unique service abilities. and provides unlimited data access in exchange for a fixed monthly premium. PayPal Mobile. The need for operators to innovate around a smart pipe is rising as they face rising pressure from media companies[2] and new technologies. there are several operators. and often unique. Obopay. directory services Quality of service By exposing these types of services to the mobile ecosystem. Nokia’s consumer portal Ovi.[2] [3] [4] such as: • • • • • • • • • • Location-based services Presence information Customer analytics Computing platforms. such as Apple’s iPhone. network operators can maintain the value of their pipes while enabling entrepreneurs to create new business models and generate entirely new revenue streams.[5] Recently. and even the open-access policies of the U. as the article points out there are several new threats to that exclusivity such as traditional credit card. Network operator 3 led the way with the release of its X-Series line of devices in 2006. While not necessarily a full realization of a smart pipe. and the operator’s customer relationships.[1] The X-Series platform bundles a set of services. and Apple via iPhone. Among the commonly understood operational models for a MNO are smart pipes. Yahoo via Go. mobile or application • Mobile operating systems User interfaces Personalization Application programming interfaces (APIs). walled gardens. 3 is one of the first operators to offer such a combination of bandwidth and value-added services for flat-rate pricing. Arun Sarin. there is a set of services commonly viewed as parts of a smart pipe. for devices or networks Payment. related to a mobile network operator (MNO or operator). The use of the term “smart” refers to the operator’s ability to add value for added. types of services and content beyond bandwidth and network speed only. and dumb pipes. and researchers who have described aspects of a smart pipe which are generally accepted. CEO of Vodafone. to provide value beyond that of data connectivity only. several of which are unique to 3.

com/ blog1/ 2008/ 01/ 14/ the-pipe-is-only-dumb-if-you-make-it-that-way/ ) [4] Staying Relevant in a Dumb Pipe Era (http:/ / www. wirelessweek. and a dumb pipe is a report from Juniper Research titled Business Models for Mobile Content Players. aspx) [5] Making Pipes Smart (http:/ / www. it is a generally understood term in the mobile industry. There are numerous blog postings and trade articles which refer to the operator dumb pipe/smart pipe dilemma. com/ story/ analysys-wimax-carriers-risk-becoming-dumb-pipes/ 2007-07-16 . goes 'La la la' (http:/ / www. uk/ 2007/ 11/ 19/ vodafone_ceo_blind/ ) [7] http:/ / www. Strategic Options & Scenarios 2007-2012: • Juniper Research Report [10] The author is not affiliated with Juniper in any way. and although the full report requires purchase. wired. operator portal (or walled garden). uk/ news/ h3gnews/ pressnewsview. the Media Brands (http:/ / gigaom. com/ apps/ pbcs. there are a number of summaries available on the web: • Smart-Pipe Strategy to Provide MNOs with 31% Share of $188bn Mobile Content Market by 2012 [11] • Study About MNOs Share of Mobile Content Market [12] • Mobile Entertainment in Western Europe [13] A Google search will list several more: • Google search of Juniper report [14] References [1] Hutchison Whampoa announces the global launch of the X-Series from 3 (http:/ / www. Others include: • Wired: How the iPhone Blew Up the Wireless Industry [7] • WiMAX Carriers Risk Becoming Dumb Pipes [8] A reference which describes a smart pipe. co. dll/ article?AID=/ 20070911/ SUB/ 70911004/ 1008) [6] Vodafone CEO sticks head in sand. omp?collcid=1019745742912& cid=1163170230108& index=1) [2] The Operators vs. some of which are referenced in this article. rcrnews. theregister. co.Smart pipe 313 Further reading While there is no real industry standard definition of smart pipe. three. fiercebroadbandwireless. com/ staying-relevant-in-a-dumb-pipe. com/ 2008/ 01/ 13/ the-operators-vs-the-media-brands/ ) [3] The Pipe is Only Dumb if You Make It that Way (http:/ / mobhappy. com/ gadgets/ wireless/ magazine/ 16-02/ ff_iphone?currentPage=all [8] http:/ / www.

or both and financial and non-financial transactions. Pull messages are those that are initiated by the customer. When the request is received the password is sent to the consumer’s phone via SMS. Push and pull messages SMS banking services are operated using both push and pull messages. Insufficient funds. as published and updated by the bank. Reporting of salary and other credits to the bank account. Push messages are those that the bank chooses to send out to a customer's mobile phone. such as a large withdrawal of funds from the ATM or a large payment using the customer's credit card. Instead of relying on traditional memorized passwords. One-time password and authentication .SMS banking 314 SMS banking SMS banking is a technology-enabled service offering from banks to its customers. OTPs are Screenshot of a typical SMS Banking message on the latest tool used by financial and banking service providers in the a mobile screen fight against cyber fraud. Large value withdrawals on the ATM or EFTPOS on a debit card. Successful or un-successful execution of a standing order. (see section below on Typical Push and Pull messages). Large value withdrawals on an account. using a mobile phone. Large value payment on a credit card or out of country activity on a credit card. a customer can be authorized to carry out either non-financial transactions. or requests for current information like currency exchange rates and deposit interest rates. Successful payment of a cheque issued on the account. Another type of push message is One-time password (OTPs). Typical push and pull services offered under SMS banking Depending on the selected extent of SMS banking transactions offered by the bank. This functionality to choose activities can be done either by integrating to the internet banking channel or through the bank’s customer service call centre. etc. for obtaining information or performing a transaction in the bank account. permitting them to operate selected banking services over their mobile phones using SMS messaging. classified by push and pull services as outlined below. The bank’s customer is empowered with the capability to select the list of activities (or alerts) that he/she needs to be informed. Examples of pull messages for information include an account balance enquiry. SMS banking solutions offer customers a range of functionality. OTPs are requested by consumers each time they want to perform transactions using the online or mobile banking interface. without the customer initiating a request for the information. Typically push messages could be either Mobile marketing messages or messages alerting an event which happens in the customer's bank account. Typical push services would include: • • • • • • • • • Periodic account balance reporting (say at the end of month). The password is expired once it has been used or once its scheduled life-cycle has expired.

SLAs give the service parameters in which a messaging solution is guaranteed to perform. [1] 315 Concerns and skepticism about SMS banking There is a very real possibility for fraud when SMS banking is involved. Transfers between customer's own accounts. urgent warning messages. etc. Stop payment instruction on a cheque. Requesting for an ATM card or credit card to be suspended. email. The convenience factor The convenience of executing simple transactions and sending out information or alerting a customer on the mobile phone is often the overriding factor that dominates over the skeptics who tend to be overly bitten by security concerns. Mini statement request. it is extremely important that SMS gateway providers can provide a decent quality of service for banks and financial institutions in regards to SMS services. unlike other channels such as the post. As a personalized end-user communication instrument. like the ATM and internet banking. like moving money from a savings account to a current account to fund a cheque. as they carry the mobile phone all the time no matter where they are. [2] Quality of service in SMS banking Because of the concerns made explicit above. Besides. e. such as SMS alerts. The SMS banking channel also acts as the bank’s means of alerting its customers. Internet. today mobile phones are perhaps the easiest channel on which customers can be reached on the spot. throughput. Fixed deposit interest rates enquiry. are received by the customer instantaneously. it is necessary to give the bank customer delivery guarantees of all messages.g. Therefore. De-activating a credit or debit card when it is lost or the PIN is known to be compromised. telephone banking. Electronic bill payment. Foreign currency exchange rates enquiry. when there is an ATM fraud happening in the region.[3] . on which a bank's notifications to the customer involves the risk of delayed delivery and response. the operation of SMS banking functionality over phone key instructions makes its use very simple. especially in an emergency situation. as SMS uses insecure encryption and is easily spoofable (see the SMS page for details). as well as measurements on the speed of delivery. but has the limitation of use only when the customer has access to a computer and the Internet. the provision of Service Level Agreement(SLA) is a requirement for this industry. the bank can push a mass alert (although not subscribed by all customers) or automatically alert on an individual basis when a predefined ‘abnormal’ transaction happens on a customer’s account using the ATM or credit card. This is quite different from internet banking which can offer broader functionality. Also. This capability mitigates the risk of fraud going unnoticed for a long time and increases customer confidence in the bank’s information systems. etc.SMS banking Typical pull services would include: • • • • • • • • • Account balance enquiry. the SMS banking channel is not intended to be used for very high-risk transactions. Supporters of SMS banking claim that while SMS banking is not as secure as other conventional banking channels.

Proceedings of the 37th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS'04) . . M. This concern sometimes arises within the group of the bank’s technology personnel. [2] Key Pousttchi. 5-6. Martin Schurig. Douglas. & Jack.. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies 66(2). vol. "Assessment of Today's Mobile Banking Applications from the View of Customer Requirements". The lack of encryption is inherent to the SMS banking channel and several banks that use it have overcome their fears by introducing compensating controls and limiting the scope of the SMS banking application to where it offers an advantage over other channels. 7. means to connect to the SMSC could be different. Technologies employed for SMS banking Most SMS banking solutions are add-on products and work with the bank’s existing host systems deployed in its computer and communications environment.Track 7. due to their familiarity and past experience with encryption on the ATM and other payment channels. 1 (3).). Sometimes ATM type PINs are also employed. (2008). There is only one open source online banking platform supporting mobile banking and sms payments called Cyclos. 2004. Vol. References [1] Peevers. and Corbitt. such as using simple modems or connecting over leased line using low level communication protocols (like SMPP. A. Advanced SMS banking solutions also cater to providing failover mechanisms and least-cost routing options. Depending on the volume of messages that are require to be pushed. (2003) Mobile banking: Concept and Potential. Suppliers of SMS banking software solutions have found reliable means by which the security concerns can be addressed. S. pp. These solutions are able to connect seamlessly to multiple SMSC operators in the country of operation. Well developed and mature SMS banking software solutions normally provide a robust control environment and a flexible and scalable operating environment. As most banks have multiple backend hosts. but the usage of PINs in SMS banking makes the customer's task more cumbersome. which is developed to stimulate and empower local banks in development countries. A usability comparison of three alternative message formats for an SMS banking service. p.. B. G. International Journal of Mobile Communications. and to have open interfaces which allow for messaging between existing banking host systems using industry or de-facto standards. hicss. the more advanced SMS banking systems are built to be able to work in a multi-host banking environment. [3] Barnes.70184a.SMS banking 316 Compensating controls for lack of encryption The lack of encryption on SMS messages is an area of concern that is often discussed. UCP etc.J. Most online banking platforms are owned and developed by the banks using them. G. Typically the methods employed are by pre-registration and using security tokens where the transaction risk is perceived to be high.

meaning that international SMS can only transit from one operator to another if there is a bi-lateral roaming agreement in place. therefore being able to route messages on behalf of the client operators. SMS Hubbing is about providing a higher level of service to SMS. SMS hubbing enables a broad international SMS coverage for mobile operators (“client operators”) through the connection to independent hubs. the revenue benefits of an extra interworking connection might not justify the investment required to set it up in the first place. by introducing end-to-end quality of service through Service Level Agreements (SLAs). each subscriber expects to be able to send an SMS to other subscribers. While SMS interoperability is limited to bi-lateral interworking / roaming agreements between operators. by replacing much of the unproductive. Outside this frame of main roaming agreements that generate the majority of international traffic for voice and messaging. part of the Open Connectivity project. SMS Hubbing is about simplifying the SMS interworking system.[1] Regardless of the maturity of the operator or number of subscribers. as well as developed standards and requirements that SMS hubs should follow. culminating to the development of the SMS Hubbing trials in 2006. identical investments in international agreements made traditionally by mobile operators. Every operator has the need to establish roaming agreements in order to provide subscribers with the possibility to roam outside their home network. As well as this. In the same way. which are basically hubs for voice. it is unlikely that full international SMS reach will be achieved by setting up more and more agreements. This initiative created a new structure for international SMS interoperability. who have multiple agreements in place with other operators.SMS hubbing 317 SMS hubbing SMS hubbing is a new structure for the international flow of SMS between operators. in an attempt to fix the many interoperability problems with this messaging technology. SMS Hubbing works with the same concept of voice connectivity model: rather than relying on costly and multiple individual agreements. The GSM Association (GSMA) found in SMS Hubbing the solution to a problem that limits the continuing growth of international SMS. It is clear that SMS Hubbing does not replace bilateral agreements. In addition to that. Background The lack of complete international SMS interoperability is caused by the way the GSM world is interconnected: each operator has a need to establish SMS interworking with all other mobile operators. reshaping the way that international mobile inter-operability works by implementing hubs to intermediate the SMS traffic and to offer a larger SMS coverage. which are time consuming and costly to put in place. it makes sense for mobile operators to allocate SMS traffic that belongs to non-connected destinations to an SMS hub. voice traffic flows via telehouses. . regardless of country and mobile network. many operators connect to hubs to transit MMS messages.

many operators generally connect to an MMS hub.160characters. as well as focusing on areas that have a direct interface to customers. Because of many interoperability problems. The hub concept follows this trend. hubbing can be applied in different areas. The SMS Hubbing model reduces complexity for operators. a hub will negotiate a transit fee with an originating operator on a per-SMS basis for the use of the hub. being able to send and receive message to all countries and networks.com) • Making SMS Hubbing a Reality. Business model Under the GSMA’s SMS Hubbing structure. References [1] Open Connectivity SMS Hubbing Architecture (http:/ / www. which route the messages more efficiently on behalf of the operator. Mobile operators have been gradually outsourcing non-core functions to invest on areas that need a closer management of the operator. Ubiquity and simplicity in increasing SMS coverage SMS Hubbing allows operators to manage a single legal. the originating operator will also pay a termination fee to the terminating operator. As is the usual practice. an operator looking to increase their international SMS coverage does not need to manage multiple bi-lateral agreements. com/ documents/ IR7520_unrest.gsmworld. removing a costly and complex area of technical interface and replacing it with a more efficient and effective outsourced solution. also on a per-SMS basis. Other types of hubbing Beyond SMS. 160 Characters (http://www. Mobile operators can simplify this by connecting to a hub. gsmworld.org/news.gsmworld. technical and billing relationship rather than hundreds of additional roaming agreements for SMS messaging only. Mobile subscribers also take advantage of an enlarged SMS reach. as well the cost for SMS interworking agreements.htm) .SMS hubbing 318 Benefits With the SMS Hubbing model.com/our-work/programmes-and-initiatives/ open-connectivity-programme/sms_hubbing.php?action=view& nid=2138) • OC compliant SMS Hubs (http://www. pdf) External links • GSM Association (http://www. such as MMS.

setting your own mobile number. and for the ease of data entry from a full size console. Operators can respond by blocking different source addresses in their Gateway-MSCs. product). Often it is done in order to impersonate a user that has roamed onto a foreign network and is submitting messages to the home network. to set who the message appears to come from by replacing the originating mobile number (Sender ID) with alphanumeric text. and operate a complaints helpline. but fraudsters can change addresses easily to by-pass these measures. A sender transmits an SMS message from an online computer network for lower more competitive pricing. in which they stated they were not averse to the operation of such services. This is a quantifiable revenue leakage. How SMS spoofing is carried out SMS Spoofing occurs when a sender manipulates address information. the integrity of the home operator’s billing process may be compromised. A sender does not have a mobile phone. Interconnect partners may threaten to cut off the home network unless a remedy is implemented. and they need to send an SMS from a number that they have provided the receiver in advance as a means to activate an account. 2.[1] Legality In 2007. These messages can be of concern to interconnect partners. or a product name) and illegitimate uses (such as impersonating another person. The impact of this activity is threefold: 1. If this situation occurs. due to the potential impact on normal interconnect services. The UK premium rate regulator. Frequently. 2. An SMS Spoofing attack is often first detected by an increase in the number of SMS errors encountered during a bill-run. available on most mobile phones and personal digital assistants. While fraudsters normally used spoofed-identities to send messages. that genuine subscribers may be billed for roaming messages they did not send. PhonepayPlus (formerly ICSTIS) concluded a public consultation on anonymous SMS. They must spoof their own number in order to properly identify themselves. The risk therefore emerges. If fraudsters move to using source addresses at a major interconnect partner. with potentially huge impact on the brand. Their customers may complain about being spammed. these messages are addressed to destinations outside the home network – with the home SMSC essentially being “hijacked” to send messages into other networks. This is a major churn risk. Spoofing has both legitimate uses (setting the company name from which the message is being sent. These errors are caused by the spoofed subscriber identities. or the content of the messages may be politically sensitive. from 2008 PhonePayPlus are introducing new regulation covering anonymous SMS which will require anonymous SMS service providers to send a follow-up message to the recipient stating that a spoofed SMS has been sent to them. The home network can incur termination charges caused by the delivery of these messages to interconnect partners. It is illegal in Australia. there is a risk that these identities may match those of real home subscribers. . The legitimate use cases for SMS spoofing include: 1. However. Home subscribers will be unable to send messages into these networks.SMS spoofing 319 SMS spoofing SMS spoofing is a relatively new technology which uses the short message service (SMS). company. 3. it may become unfeasible to block these addresses.

org/interviews/ sms-spoofing-intro/) .SMS spoofing 320 Protecting users from SMS spoofing If a user can prove that their SMS sessions have been spoofed. They were able to successfully spoof SMS messages and make them appear to come from other people's cellular phones. Twitter used the SMS originator to authenticate the user. which requires an SMS from a phone number that the user registers with. Examples of SMS spoofing • Messages sent from Google are sent with the Sender ID "Google". the local system may or may not allow the replying message to be sent through to the spoofed "origin. asp) [2] Twitter and Jott Vulnerable to SMS and Caller ID Spoofing http:/ / www. dhanjani. A user may also modify the phone's settings so that only messages from authorized numbers are allowed. Nitesh Dhanjani discovered a security vulnerability when sending a spoofed SMS message to Twitter. • Skype sends messages from its users with the mobile number they registered with.[2] References [1] An overview on how to stop SMS Spoofing in mobile operator networks (September 9. com/ SMSSpoofing." • A user who does not have a mobile phone attempts to sign up for a Foxytag account.Q&A with Computer Crime Research Center staff (http://www. A dynamically assigned number from an anonymous SMS service will not work because the user is not given the dynamic number in advance to register with. These people were using GSM based cellular phone services in various parts of India and other Asian as well as African countries. openmindnetworks. they should contact both law enforcement and their cellular provider. The Asian School of Cyber Laws (Pune) recently conducted experiments in SMS spoofing at the national and international level. Note that when a user attempts to "reply" to the SMS. com/ blog/ 2007/ 04/ twitter-and-jot. who should be able to track where the SMS messages were actually sent from.crime-research. Nitesh used hoaxMail to spoof the SMS message and therefore could trick Twitter to post the message on the victims Twitter page. This is not always effective since hackers could be impersonating the user's friends as well. html External links • SMS spoofing . 2008) (http:/ / www.

com/ p/ articles/ mi_hb4750/ is_200508/ ai_n17323894 Soft handover Soft handover or soft handoff refers to a feature used by the CDMA and WCDMA standards. (2005). as well as concerns about non-authorized personal surveillance. The RNC examines the quality of all these bit streams and dynamically chooses the bit stream with the highest quality. where a cell phone is simultaneously connected to two or more cells (or cell sectors) during a call. These problems can be solved with further development of location-based services (LBS) and relevant legal and organisational regulation. if the signal degrades rapidly. it is easy to trace many people at the same time and it is possible to analyse movements in real time. & Mark. and determine whether or not to request or end soft handover with the cell sectors on the list. The most important problems of SPM are related to data security. References [1] http:/ / findarticles. for IS-95/CDMA2000 CDMA cell phones continuously make power measurements of a list of neighboring cell sites. 547-561). Location based services . there will be a relatively high probability of having adequate signal strength from one of the other radio base stations. If the signal power from two or more radio base stations is nearly the same. If any one of these signals fades significantly. along with information about the quality of the received bits.new challenges for planning and public administration? [1] Futures 37. it is referred to as softer handoff. The disadvantage of mobile positioning today is relatively low preciseness. it is possible for a CDMA phone to simultaneously receive signals from two or more radio base stations that are transmitting the same bit stream (using different transmission codes) on the different physical channels in the same frequency bandwidth. Positioning data is digital. The biggest advantage of mobile positioning-based methods is that mobile phones are widespread. R. Again. Ü. The SPM methods and experiments were developed in Estonia by Positium and Institute of Geography University of Tartu during 2003-2006 (Ahas.Social positioning method 321 Social positioning method The social positioning method (SPM) studies space-time behaviour by analysing the location coordinates of mobile phones and the social characteristics of the people carrying them. the phone receiver can combine the received signals in such a way that the bit stream is decoded much more reliably than if only one base station were transmitting to the subscriber station. positioning works inside buildings. the chance is still good that a strong signal will be available at one of the other cell sectors that is supporting the call in soft handover. . Due to the properties of the CDMA signaling scheme. If the sectors are from the same physical cell site (a sectorised site). the boom in the generation of phones with a GPS will raise positioning accuracy. Today mobile positioning can be applied only by obtaining participants’ personal acceptance. all the cell site sectors that are actively supporting a call in soft handover send the bit stream that they receive back to the Radio Network Controller (RNC). This technique is a form of mobile-assisted handover. On the uplink (phone-to-cell-site). Soft handover results in a diversity gain called soft handover gain. and collection of movement data is done by a third party at regular intervals.

ibcn. pdf .Soft handover 322 External links • Mobile and Broadband Access Networks [1] References [1] http:/ / www. intec. be/ opnet/ OPNET-UMTS_session1. ugent.

The Gateway is also planned to be used in vehicles with a roof-mounted . Viviane Reding.com [1] Solaris Mobile is a joint venture company between SES Astra and Eutelsat Communications to develop and commercialize the first geostationary satellite systems in Europe for broadcasting video. particularly in rural and less populated regions. To avoid the requirement for mobile phones with S-band reception for the satellite services. providing TV and other services from geostationary satellites to millions of cable and direct-to-home viewers – have so far invested €130m in the venture. in the Republic of Ireland. such as mobile phones. The Gateway is a compact S-band receiver which decodes DVB-SH transmissions from the Solaris satellite and relays them over WiFi to any compatible handset with a web browser. unavailable with purely terrestrial systems. The agreement to set up Solaris Mobile was reached in 2006 with the company formed in 2008. Solaris Mobile has developed a 'Pocket Gateway' in conjunction with Finnish company Elekrobit. "Mobile satellite services have huge potential: they can enable Europeans to access new communication services.Solaris Mobile 323 Solaris Mobile Solaris Mobile Limited Type Industry Founded Headquarters Key people Products Website Privately owned joint venture Telecommunications 2008 Dublin. and deliver interactive services such as online reservations. viable at high vehicle speeds. radio and data to in-vehicle receivers and to mobile devices[2] . For in-vehicle use. and support for emergency and rescue services in isolated regions. The services to be developed include video. The coverage across Europe will also enable the system to be used for situations when other means of communication are not possible. has commented.solarismobile. and voice communications. delivering high-quality live TV. interactive services. such as gathering data (traffic. Applications The EU Telecoms Commissioner. or toll payments. the mobile satellite receivers could also double as web browsers providing full Internet access. weather. emergency warnings. multimedia data. Ireland Steve Maine (CEO) Mobile Satellite Services www."[3] Solaris Mobile primarily intends to provide mobile TV and interactive services to handheld and vehicle receivers. anywhere. The primary aim is the delivery of mobile television any time. Its headquarters is in Dublin. under extreme conditions or when terrestrial networks have been compromised. and universal coverage. and SES Astra and Eutelsat – both successful European satellite operators. portable media players and PDAs. [4] Solaris claims the technology brings a "fully-fledged TV experience" to mobile television. radio. dozens of TV channels per country. pollution) from moving vehicles.

[5] 324 Technology The Solaris Mobile services use DVB-SH technology to deliver IP based data and media content to handheld and in-vehicle terminals using a hybrid satellite/terrestrial system with satellite transmission serving the whole of Europe and beyond.[14] In May 2010. the company remains confident of "its ability to meet the commitments made under the European Commission selection process". Solaris Mobile. The selection process was launched in August 2008 and attracted four applications by prospective operators (ICO. the S-band payload was found to show "an anomaly" which has put in doubt the payload's capability to provide mobile satellite services for Solaris. Italy. EU Member States now have to ensure that the two operators have the right to use the specific radio frequencies identified in the Commission's decision and the right to operate their respective mobile satellite systems for 18 years from the selection decision. but not all of the services it was planning to offer. Luxembourg. the company had been actively pursuing licenses from European member states and it had just been granted 18-year licences to operate Mobile Satellite Services in France.Solaris Mobile antenna for S-band reception with services accessed on passengers' mobile phones. the European Commission selected two operators. and sit alongside the UMTS frequencies already in use across Europe for 3G terrestrial mobile phone services.[3] [11] [12] [13] Although the EU’s decision was announced days after the apparent failure of the payload intended to serve Solaris. allowing the reuse of existing cellular towers and antennas. Solaris Mobile filed the insurance claim. TerreStar).[7] Further testing of the satellite was undertaken to establish its future in the Solaris programme. giving these operators "the right to use the specific radio frequencies identified in the Commission's decision and the right to operate their respective mobile satellite systems".[6] Solaris was intended to first use the Eutelsat W2A satellite at 10° east. 2009. Inmarsat. The operators are compelled to start operations within 24 months from the selection decision. to add to existing licenses for Finland. which contains an S-band payload. The technology was demonstrated at the GSMA Mobile World Congress in Barcelona in February 2010. and was scheduled for launch in early 2009. On 1 July 2009. Sweden and Germany. The technical findings indicate that the company should be able to offer some.00 GHz) are reserved for the exclusive use of satellite and terrestrial mobile services.[8] Regulatory On June 30.[9] [10] In May 2009. The S-band frequencies used (2. Handsets equipped with the first DVB-SH chipsets were successfully demonstrated live at the Mobile World Congress in Barcelona in February 2008. and Slovenia. However. Inmarsat Ventures and Solaris Mobile. 2008 the European Parliament and the Council adopted the European’s Decision to establish a single selection and authorisation process to ensure a coordinated introduction of mobile satellite services (MSS) in Europe. and terrestrial repeaters for urban and indoor penetration. Investigation of S-band payload has confirmed significant non-compliance from its original specifications. Solaris Mobile announced that following the granting of spectrum by the European Commission. and the simple incorporation of Solaris services in mobile handsets.[15] . following the successful launch on April 3.

reuters. Press release. . solarismobile. com/ article/ pressRelease/ idUS186611+ 06-Feb-2008+ PRN20080206).Band process_en. "Statement re Solaris Mobile S-band capacity" (http:/ / www. com/ ses/ siteSections/ newsroom/ Latest_News/ index. php?pressRelease=/ pressReleases/ pressReleaseList/ 09-05-14/ index. . 2008). ses. htm). com/ assets/ downloads/ Statement re Solaris Mobile S-band capacity_en. SES Statement on Solaris Mobile S-band capacity (http:/ / www. . ses-astra.com/) SES Astra (http://www. Reuters (February 6. 2009 [7] Solaris Mobile (May 14. [12] Inmarsat and Solaris win EU spectrum rights (http:/ / www. Retrieved on June 1. do?reference=MEMO/ 09/ 237). . eu/ rapid/ pressReleasesAction. [4] Broadcasting in motion (http:/ / www. solarismobile. Press release. pdf).htm) . com/ assets/ downloads/ Solaris Mobile welcomes the European Commission selection decision for the S. ses-astra. Press release. solarismobile. "New Satellites for Europe: Commission starts selection procedure for operators of pan-European mobile satellite services" (http:/ / europa. Press release. External links • • • • Solaris Mobile website (http://www. . [3] European Commission (May 14. eu/ information_society/ policy/ ecomm/ current/ pan_european/ index_en. 2009). SES ASTRA Statement on Solaris Mobile S-band capacity (http:/ / www. php?pressRelease=/ pressReleases/ pressReleaseList/ 09-05-14/ index. pdf). . 2009 [14] Solaris Mobile (May 14. Solaris Mobile website. "Solaris Mobile welcomes the European Commission selection decision for the S-band process" (http:/ / www. . 2008). [11] European Commission (May 14. Press release. com/ [2] SES ASTRA (February 21.com) Eutelsat (http://www. com/ ses/ siteSections/ newsroom/ Latest_News/ index. com/ our-solutions/ mobile-tv/ ). php?pressRelease=/ pressReleases/ pressReleaseList/ 09-07-01-1/ index. php) [8] Solaris Mobile (July 1. Retrieved July 27. php) [9] European Commission (August 22. pdf).com) • ICO (http://www. [6] Major Players of the DVB-SH Ecosystem Join Forces to Demonstrate Live Mobile TV (http:/ / www.com/) • W2A satellite on Gunter's Space Page (http://space. do?reference=IP/ 09/ 770).ico. SES statement: Solaris Mobile Files Insurance Claim (http:/ / www. ses-astra. "European Commission paves the way for European mobile satellite services" (http:/ / europa. "European License Progress" (http:/ / www. com/ business/ en/ news-events/ press-archive/ 2008/ 08-02-21/ index. [15] Solaris Mobile (May 11. 2009). Press release. SES ASTRA statement: Solaris Mobile Files Insurance Claim (http:/ / www. php). 2009). do?reference=IP/ 07/ 1243). . com/ business/ en/ news-events/ news-latest/ index. "Mobile Satellite Services in Europe: Frequently Asked Questions" (http:/ / europa. php). eu/ rapid/ pressReleasesAction. com/ article/ rbssTechMediaTelecomNews/ idUSBRQ00733920090514) Reuters (May 14. Press release. . 2007). European Commission Information Society website. 2010). "Commission boost for mobile satellite services paves the way for EU-wide high speed data communications" (http:/ / europa. . Retrieved on June 1.solarismobile. europa. Press release. solarismobile.de/doc_sdat/eutelsat-w2a. com/ business/ en/ news-events/ news-latest/ index. "Pocket Gateway Device" (http:/ / www.ses. "Steve Maine Appointed By SES ASTRA And EUTELSAT As CEO Of Joint Venture For Mobile Satellite Services" (http:/ / www. 2009 [5] Solaris Mobile (February 10. php?pressRelease=/ pressReleases/ pressReleaseList/ 09-07-01-1/ index. com/ media-center/ press-releases/ european-license-progress). solarismobile. reuters. 2009). 2009).Solaris Mobile 325 References [1] http:/ / www. eu/ rapid/ pressReleasesAction. Retrieved July 27. com/ assets/ downloads/ SolarisMobileFilesInsuranceClaim. php). "Solaris Mobile Files Insurance Claim" (http:/ / www. 2009). 2008). solarismobile. com/ media-center/ press-releases/ pocket-gateway-device). eu/ rapid/ pressReleasesAction. do?reference=IP/ 08/ 1250). [10] European Commission (August 7. Press release. Press release.skyrocket. 2009 [13] Pan-European numbers and services (http:/ / ec. 2010).ses-astra.com) SES website (http://www. ses.eutelsat. solarismobile.

The FD-3. . Roughly two years later. with a measurement of 87 x 198 x 33 millimeters.Sony Watchman 326 Sony Watchman The Sony Watchman is a line of portable pocket televisions trademarked and produced by Sony. where the wrist strap served as the antenna. which had a grayscale five centimeter display. Upon the release of further models after the FD-210. The device was sold in Japan with a price of 54. In 1990. introduced in 1984 had a built-in AM/FM Stereo radio. introduced in 1986. the display size increased. Sony Watchman FD210 Later Releases Sony manufactured more than 65 models of the Watchman before its discontinuation in 2000. had a built-in digital clock. and new features were introduced. and introduced Sony's Straptenna. The FD-280/285. the FDL-310. The FD-40/42/44/45 were among the largest Watchmans. The device weighed around 650 grams. was water-resistant. which featured an ergonomic body which made it easier to hold. a Watchman with a Sony FDL-3500 color LCD display was introduced. The FD-40 introduced a single composite A/V input. In 1988/1989. utilizing a 4" CRT display. FD-210 The initial model was introduced in 1982 as the FD-210. the FDL 330S color Watchman TV/Monitor with LCD display was introduced. The FD-45. was the last Watchman to use a black and white CRT display. the device was introduced to Europe and North America. One of the last Watchmans was the FDL-22 introduced in 1998. made from 1990 to 1994.(* Edit) in 1984. The FD-30. introduced in 1987.800 yen.

because they now require to be connected to a digital converter box. External links • Reverse Time Page [1] • The Short History of Pocket TV [1] • Vintage Micro Television http://www.Sony Watchman 327 Legacy Due to the switch of over-the-air television to digital. Because of this.visions4.net/journal/time-line/ References [1] http:/ / uv201. the Sony Watchman. most models of the Sony Watchman in the US have lost their usefulness. htm . especially the older CRT-based models. are becoming increasingly popular as collector's items. com/ TV_Pages/ panasonic_tr001.

such as on devices running the Windows Mobile operating system. It uses error-correcting algorithms and a language model to guess the intended word.com www.swypeinc. or 370 characters per minute. lifting only between words. Bada.94 seconds. It also includes a tapping predictive text system in the same interface. which corresponds to a speed of nearly 58 words per minute.swypeinc.[2] Software Design Swype allows users to enter words by sliding a finger or stylus from letter to letter.[2] Swype is designed for use on touchscreen devices with a traditional QWERTY keyboard. a new Guinness World Record of 35. Operating system Type License Website Android. with the chief technical officer (CTO) and founder Cliff Kushler claiming to have reached 55 words per minute.Swype 328 Swype Swype Original author(s) Swype Inc. .com] Swype is an input method for touchscreens developed by Swype Inc. and as small as 500–900 kilobytes in most cases. word search engine with corresponding database.[2] Speed The creators of Swype predict that users will achieve over 50 words per minute.94 using a [6] Samsung Galaxy S. Windows Mobile Text input Proprietary [www. Symbian. and a manufacturer customizable interface.54 seconds was set for the fastest text message on a touchscreen mobile phone using Swype on the Samsung Omnia II.[3] [4] On 22 March 2010.[2] Major components Swype consists of three major components that contribute to its accuracy and speed: an input path analyzer.[1] Swype was first commercially available on the Samsung Omnia II running Windows Mobile.[5] and reportedly improved on 22 August of the same year to 25.[2] The software has a size of less than one megabyte. The Guinness world record text message consists of 160 characters in 25 words and was typed in 25.

UK English .Portugal Romanian Russian Serbian (Latin KB) Slovak Slovene Spanish Swedish Thai Turkish Ukrainian .Mandarin (simplified) Chinese Traditional w/Bopomofo Croatian Czech Danish Dutch English .US Estonian Farsi Finnish French French Canadian Galician German Greek Hebrew Hungarian Icelandic Indonesian Italian Japanese Korean Latvian Lithuanian Malay Norwegian (Bokmål) Norwegian (Nynorsk) Polish Portuguese .Brazil Portuguese .Swype 329 Languages Swype is currently available for the following languages:[7] • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Arabic Basque Bulgarian Catalan Chinese .

2010. verizonwireless. com/ [12] Swype News Page (http:/ / www. Another well-known input program is SwiftKey. Motorola DEFY. t-mobile. 2010. . It does not have input using paths. com/ 2010/ 03/ samsung-mobile-and-swype-set-new-guinness-world-record/ ). here comes Swype (http:/ / news. Retrieved July 14. Move over T9. com/ ) Swype product page (http:/ / www. and Motorola Droid 2 Android-based smartphones come with Swype pre-installed. Inc. com/ showthread.) T-Mobile G2. which runs the Android OS. samsungusanews. Retrieved June 20. CNet News.Swype • Urdu • Vietnamese Support for these languages depends on OEM and carrier decisions. uk/ local/ manchester/ hi/ people_and_places/ newsid_8939000/ 8939790. but utilises more advanced predictive software. virginmobileusa. 2011.[15] In December 2010.[13] The Samsung Galaxy S. Nokia 5230. 2010. 2010. com/ product. both of which also involve tracing a path over letters on a virtual keyboard.g. tv/ file/ 1372350) Rafe Needleman. com/ 8301-17939_109-10037202-2. an update including Swype was pushed to Sprint's HTC Evo 4G users. swypeinc. 9 September 2008 [5] Samsung USA (March 22. [8] T-Mobile G2 product page (http:/ / www. swype. Swype opened a public beta for the Android operating system.[16] In July 2011. 6 November 2010. cnet. stm). swypeinc. com/ news.[10] The most recent additions include the Samsung Galaxy S GT-i9000 and Nokia C7.[11] as well as the Samsung Droid Charge. and the Nokia X6. 2010). References Swype Home Page (http:/ / www. html) Tech Crunch 50 Swype Presentation (http:/ / blip. swype. "Samsung Mobile And Swype Set New Guinness World Record" (http:/ / www. com/ learn-overview#/ mytouch-slide-360) [10] Samsung Omnia II Product Page (http:/ / www. HTC HD2 (T-Mobile USA version. The manufacturer claims that the same algorithms can be applied to almost any world language. Motorola i1. August 24. com/ b2c/ store/ controller?item=phoneFirst& action=viewPhoneDetail& selectedPhoneId=5110/ ) [11] http:/ / swypeinc. 330 Availability Swype currently ships on the Samsung wave s8500. allowing the keyboard to predict the next word in the sentence at a personalised level. Nokia C6-00. php?1493). manufactured by Samsung and distributed by Verizon Wireless.5 mm Jack and myTouch Slide 3G (the latter both by T-Mobile USA)[9] It also ships on the Omnia II mobile handset. BBC News. Swype expects to be preloaded on over 100 million devices. com/ ) [14] http:/ / www. swypeinc. The software's manufacturer. Swype is available for the Symbian platform S60 5th edition devices e. html). It is available on the Ovi store.[8] T-Mobile MyTouch 3G 3. Virgin Mobile USA introduced Swype on the LG Optimus V [14]. com/ cell-phones/ lg-optimus-v-phone. Motorola CLIQ. com/ shop/ Phones/ cell-phone-detail. the Nokia 5800 Xpressmusic. html) [13] (http:/ / beta. Motorola Atrix 4G. t-mobile. Nokia N97 original and mini. jsp [1] [2] [3] [4] . co. Swype was released for Symbian^3 on October 16. Motorola CLIQ XT. [7] Do Not Post requests for your device to include other languages! (http:/ / forum. . Press release.[17] Competitors Swype is similar in concept to SlideIT and ShapeWriter. [6] "Salford woman makes bid for fastest text title" (http:/ / news. Motorola Droid X. Swype released a beta version for iOS (Apple) devices(iOS jailbreaking is required). is planning to market the software to other mobile device makers and expects a widespread adoption of the software among touch-based mobile devices. Swype. aspx?cell-phone=T-Mobile-G2-with-Google) [9] T-Mobile MyTouch Slide product page (http:/ / mytouch.[12] On June 16. By the end of this year. bbc.

098. allaboutsymbian. com/ android-keyboard-maker-swype-closes-6-million-c-round-2011-7#ixzz1RubyKO9k 331 External links • Official website (http://www.098. talkandroid.com) • United States Patent 7. com/ 23747-htc-evo-4g-update-3-70-651-1-brings-swype-scan-now/ [17] http:/ / www. (http://patft. R.250.938/kumhyr) .250.&OS=PN/7. php [16] http:/ / www.250.938&OS=7.250.896. C.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PALL&p=1&u=/ netahtml/PTO/srchnum.htm&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=7.PN.896&RS=PN/ 7. Kushler.938&RS=7.938 System and method for improved user input on personal computing devices (http:/ /patft.uspto.098. businessinsider.swypeinc.896) • United States Patent 7.Swype [15] http:/ / www. com/ news/ item/ 12198_Swype_now_available_for_Symbia. Marsden.uspto.098.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO2&Sect2=HITOFF&p=1&u=/netahtml/PTO/search-bool. "System and method for continuous stroke word-based text input". html&r=1&f=G&l=50&co1=AND&d=PTXT&s1=7.896.

The company’s focus in the mobile middleware market is on business environments across industries. LLC is a mobile enterprise application platform (MEAP)[2] [3] and software provider based in the Chicago suburb of Hoffman Estates. Partners Syclo's partnership ecosystem is particularly important to its global reach and serving the application architecture of enterprise systems makers such as IBM [8] (IBM Maximo Asset Management). and Customer Relationship Management (CRM). and Stuttgart. oil and gas. and Oracle. LLC Type Industry Founded privately held company (LLC) computer software 1995 Headquarters Hoffman Estates. and mobile computers for technicians and staff performing work away from a central office. History After his consulting company. and managing a wireless business application architecture[5] . Illinois. a software suite built on the Agentry platform. making Syclo an integral part of SAP’s mobile business application strategy [13] . to handhelds. including packaged software for Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP). and in 1998 Rush University Medical Center. EVP. was the first organization to deploy Syclo's SMART Mobile Suite . Of note is the company’s mobile co-innovation development agreement[9] with business software firm SAP in 2009[10] . Agentry also includes mobile device management capabilities embedded into its application platform. London. Germany) Key people Richard Padula. Syclo's SMART Mobile Suite of workflow-specific products. Richard Padula started Syclo in 1995 in Barrington. enabling SAP [11] and Syclo to co-brand and offer SMART Mobile Suite applications for use with SAP ERP and SAP CRM[12] . Syclo’s flagship Agentry mobile development platform was introduced a year later. CEO Jeffrey Kleban. SAP AG. Illinois.syclo. Competitive Advantage Systems.Syclo 332 Syclo Syclo. offering mobile applications to extend enterprise systems. an extensible framework based on fourth-generation programming language for developing. including utilities. smartphones. developed a computer-based wireless order system for Sprint Nextel field workers. and life sciences. Syclo offers the Agentry mobile platform. that utilize field service management processes[4] and typically have significantly valued hard assets to service and protect. deploying.com [1] Products Employees Website Syclo. Alliances & Partnerships Agentry Mobile Platform Syclo SMART Mobile Suite 100+ www. has been implemented by more than 750 customers in 35 countries and 20 different industries[6] . TRIRIGA. [7] Chicago’s largest healthcare facility. Enterprise Asset Management (EAM). . Illinois (additional offices in Chicago.

chicagotribune. com/ 2002-04-18/ business/ 0204180344_1_keyboard-pcs-computer) [8] http:/ / www-935.html) . syclo. William and Michael Maoz (2009-04-06). "PC Prescription for Hospital's Maintenance Ills. com/ usa/ solutions/ mobility-solutions/ syclo/ index. "Mobile Expert Interview Series: Syclo's Jeff Kleban. (http:/ / www. "SAP-Syclo Co-innovation Enhances Mobile Field Service Offerings." Gartner.blogspot.com." IDC. "Magic Quadrant for Mobile Enterprise Application Platforms. Mini (2010-09-08).sap. Jason (2001-10-08). syclo. plantservices." SAP. idc.com/2010/05/ mobile-expert-interview-series-syclos. com/ DisplayDocument?doc_cd=172728 [13] Clark.info." Gartner.asp?privcapId=10636008/) • Swamy. (http:// smart-products. jsp?sessionId=& containerId=222007& sessionId=90D98F98A15C750D9329AE9C5C40BD02) [5] Brooks. "Syclo Private Vendor Watchlist Profile: Mobile Middleware with Industry-Specific Focus.com/topics/smart-mobile/articles/ 100295-syclos-smart-mobile-suite-overcomes-device-diversity. com/ industrynews/ 2009/ 086. plantservices.htm) • Volkel. sap. (http:/ / articles.businessweek. com/ DisplayDocument?doc_cd=172728) [3] http:/ / www. (http://en. (http:/ / www. sap. (http:/ / www. Kevin (2010-05-07). eweek. com/ irj/ ecohub/ solutions/ SMARTMobileSuite) [10] http:/ / www." eweek. Barbara (2002-04-18). Syclo Partner for Mobile. Frank (2010-05-20)." Chicago Tribune. gartner. com/ DisplayDocument?id=930912) External links • Official website (http://www.syclo." TMC. sdn. (http:/ / www.Syclo 333 References [1] http:/ / www. (http:/ / www. William and Michael J. Stephen (2010-02).com/research/stocks/ private/snapshot.) Plant Services.com/) • Syclo LLC Private Company Information . pdf [4] Drake.info/ sap-on-ipad-it s-all-going-mobile/32788/2) • Benedict.SMART Mobile Suite (http:/ / ecohub. "SAP on iPad: It’s All Going Mobile. gartner. (http://mobileenterprisestrategies.blogspot. gartner. html) [7] Rose. html [11] http:/ / www." (2009-05-06. King (2009-12-16). epx [12] http:/ / www.tmcnet. com/ getdoc. "Syclo's Smart Mobile Suite Overcomes Device Diversity. com/ c/ a/ Mobile-and-Wireless/ App-Independence/ ) [6] "SAP.BusinessWeek (http://investing.net. com/ [2] Clark. com/ content/ pdf/ Syclo_Gartner_MEAP_Report. "App Independence. com/ services/ us/ gts/ pdf/ eus_br_driving-effiency-with-connected-field-service-workers. pdf [9] SAP Eco Hub." MobileEntepriseStrategies. ibm. com/ industrynews/ 2009/ 086.

enabling them to be recognized in the future. In later versions of T9. It looks up in the dictionary all words corresponding to the sequence of keypresses and orders them by frequency of use. as opposed to the multi-tap approach used in the older generation of mobile phones in which several letters are associated with each key. NEC. Design T9's objective is to make it easier to type text messages. by looking at neighbouring keys on the keypad to ascertain an incorrect keypress. This feature allows the user to insert sentence and word punctuation using the '1'-key. the word "testing" would be . This enables users to write messages in their native as well as a foreign language. Samsung Electronics. while others implement one for the duration of the session. Depending on the language. It allows words to be entered by a single keypress for each letter. After introducing a new word.. As T9 gains familiarity with the words and phrases the user commonly uses. and Intelab's Tauto. 4663 matches "good". isn't as well as the possessive 's). The user database (UDB) can be expanded via multi-tap. after entering "eat" the phone will suggest "food" and it can be confirmed by simply pressing next). The implementation of the user database depends on the version of T9 and how T9 is actually integrated on the device. "gone". e. Depending on the context. Some phone manufacturers implement a permanent user database. For words entered by the user. "home". the system will also provide completions. Sanyo. For instance. the order of the words presented adapts to the usage pattern.[2] T9 is used on phones from LG. The UDB is an optional feature which allows words that were explicitly entered by the user to be stored for future reference. Eatoni's LetterWise and WordWise. originally developed by Tegic Communications. Some implementations also learn commonly used word pairs and provide word prediction (e. Features Some T9 implementations feature smart punctuation. in English. Such combinations are known as textonyms. In later versions of T9. SureType created by RIM. the user can select a primary and secondary language and matches from both languages are presented.g. it speeds up the process by offering the most frequently used words first and then lets the user access other choices with one or more presses of a predefined Next key. "hood".T9 (predictive text) 334 T9 (predictive text) T9. now part of Nuance Communications. T9 also supports word breaking after punctuation to support clitics such as l' and n' in French and 's in English. Sagem and others. "home" is referred to as an textonym of "good". and selecting one letter often requires multiple keypresses. When the user uses "home" more often than "good". in addition to words and stems. is a patented[1] predictive text technology for mobile phones. Nokia. The dictionary can be expanded by adding missing words. eventually the two words will switch position. smart punctuation inserts sentence punctuation (period) or embedded punctuation (period or hyphen) or word punctuation (apostrophe in can't. the next time the user tries to produce that word T9 will add it to the predictive dictionary. Another powerful feature is its ability to automatically recognise and correct typing/texting errors. etc. word completion can be enabled. Its main competitors are iTap created by Motorola. if you often write "eat food".g. The number of words stored depends on the implementation as well as the language. When the user enters matching key-presses. which stands for Text on 9 keys. won't. It was also used by Texas Instruments PDA Avigo during the late '90s. Siemens. Sony Ericsson. It combines the groups of letters on each phone key with a fast-access dictionary of words. For example. Information about common word combinations can also be learned from the user and stored for future predictions.

com (http://www. e. (http:/ / www. com/ patents?id=PmgCAAAAEBAJ) US Patent 5818437 (1998) [2] Nuance Communications press release (http:/ / www. and partial words (also known as stems) but because of this compression..g.com/t9/) • Nuance T9 End user facing site (http://t9. External links • Nuance T9 Customer facing site (http://www. it over-generates words which are sometimes visible to the user as 'junk words'. "8278494" still results in T9 suggesting the words "tasting" (8278464).T9 (predictive text) entered with the key combination "8378464".html/) .validconcept. nuance.nuance. google. Entering the same number but with two incorrect keypresses of neighbouring keys. This is a side effect of the requirements for small database sizes on the lower end embedded devices. and "tapping" (8277464).com/articles-t9. T9 uses an optimized algorithm which maintains the order of words.com/) • History of T9 article at Validconcept. 335 Algorithm In order to achieve compression ratios of close to 1 byte per word. com/ news/ pressreleases/ 2007/ 20070824_tegic. "testing" (8378464). References [1] Reduced keyboard disambiguating computer. asp) (2007).

recommendation. Content comes from a variety of sources. the New York Times Bits Blog. My Taptu will display a preview of the article and its source in the app itself. . consumption and sharing of content across all personal screen-based devices. tools and applications that enable highly personalized creation. For example.” This allows it to watch web sites that have no RSS feed and no mobile presence and turn their content into streams. The company is based in Cambridge and Denver. It has received [4] [5] [6] and Apple promoted the App on its UK App Store front page by selecting it as a several positive reviews.stop app" through "streams. search. is "aimed at solving information overload.Taptu 336 Taptu Taptu Ltd."[2] It presents all the information that a person "is into" in a "one. 4) Web Watcher Streams: Taptu has technology that it calls the “web watcher. Its flagship product is the recently launched My Taptu. They can also add the feeds of select newsmakers or publishers that My Taptu have curated. 2) Single Streams: The single stream of content comes from one source. the app. discovery. 3) Mixed Streams: Mixed streams are curated by topic. curation. Engadget.”[3] My Taptu has tried to separate itself in the increasingly crowded social news space by offering various ways of personalizing and building My Taptu. Currently. and help people discover content they might have not originally sought out. Taptu is a privately held company that was founded in Cambridge in 2007 and is backed by funding from Venture Capitalists including DFJ Esprit and Sofinnova. Taptu Inc Type Industry Founded Private Social Media 2007 Headquarters Cambridge. UK Key people Products Employees Mitch Lazar (CEO) Mobile Social News Aggregator 40-45 (2009) Taptu is a social media and technology company that builds platforms. and runs all of the news or content coming only from that source. Facebook. My Taptu was released in the App Store and the Android Marketplace on November 9th. management.[1] According to Taptu. the technology news stream could contain news flowing from TechCrunch. including the iPhone and Android phones." or what CNET describes as “content playlists. Wall Street Journal among others. feature App of the Week shortly after My Taptu launched. Gizmodo. or Linked In feeds to My Taptu. the app lets users add content through: 1) Social Streams: Users can add their Twitter. Taptu believes mixed streams put a story into a wider context. 2010. and most significantly on touch screen mobile devices. Read Write Web. Products Taptu currently has two products. a person can add “The New York Times” breaking news as a stream. a social news aggregator that draws heavily on the company’s mobile search heritage but attempts to move them beyond search. Any time someone in a user's social circle shares a link with them. Colorado." or what Taptu calls "app hopping. For example. which is available on the iPhone and Android devices. The company uses it to fill out their fashion streams.

with an announcement from Mitch Lazar stating the intention to focus on the news aggregation product. do [9] http:/ / blog. taptu. Boris Johnson. html [4] http:/ / www. uk/ technology/ pda/ 2010/ nov/ 09/ taptu-app-aggregator). which bought out 3i’s investments in 2009. Mobile Search Awards. "My Taptu app takes the visual news aggregator to mobile" (http:/ / www. html [5] http:/ / www. aspx#axzz16i3svHVa [6] http:/ / recombu. techcrunch. a mobile Wikipedia service. Mobile Entertainment Awards[12] [13] Commercial Category. MEX 2008 & the winners of the MEX Awards" (http:/ / www. taptu. co. It was closed in early 2011. He stepped into the role on 20 October 2010. . . MEX Design Competition[14] Red Herring Top 100 European Tech Startups. [13] "Taptu Wins "Best Search Provider 2008" at Mobile Entertainment Awards" (http:/ / www. com/ about/ press/ 2010-09-20 [11] "Taptu Takes Mobile Search Award" (http:/ / www. April 2008[15] Global Community Award. com/ apps/ android/ my-taptu-app-review_M12697. Taptu first product was a mobile search engine. provided as a web site using html optimised for phones. Mobile Entertainment. riding a “Boris Bike” Danny MacAskill-style at a local London skate park. One of its successful videos [7] depicts the mayor of London. com/ ?p=570). com/ blog/ 2008/ 09/ 28/ taptu-wins-best-search-provider-2008-at-mobile-entertainment-awards/ ). Jemima (9 November 2010).[8] 337 Other Product Taptu’s other product is Wapedia. com/ watch?v=4iQ0KTYdDhk [8] http:/ / www. Mobile User Experience. February 2008[16] Meffys 2010. Steve Ives. . is CEO of Taptu. [14] "Day One. September 2008[11] Best Search Provider 2008. founder and former CEO. Management Mitch Lazar. Mobile Marketing Magazine. com/ 8301-19736_1-20022141-251. MobileMonday Peer Awards. Winner of Content Discovery and Personalisation Award[17] TechCrunch Europas 2010. [12] "ME Awards 2008: The winners in full" (http:/ / www. cnet. . co. and dedicated "apps" for iPhone and Android. taptu. html [7] http:/ / www. moved over to president where he remained until early 2011[9] [10] Funding Taptu is backed by Sofinnova and DFJ Esprit. macworld. biz/ news/ 31544/ ME-Awards-2008-The-winners-in-full). The Guardian (London). mobile-ent. uk/ 2008/ 09/ taptu-takes-mob. thisislondon. com/ article/ 155636/ 2010/ 11/ mytaptu. mobilemarketingmagazine. laptopmag. uk/ standard/ article-23900593-is-it-wheelie-him-mayor-in-boris-bike-video-stunts-on-web. . com/ 2010/ 11/ 09/ mytaptu-arrives-to-take-on-flipboard-and-pulse-in-the-touch-aggregator-stakes/ [2] Kiss. [3] http:/ / www. guardian. html). Taptu Blog. com/ review/ software/ my-taptu. youtube. the company commissioned a series of online videos.Taptu To support the launch of My Taptu. mobileuserexperience. com/ 2010/ 10/ 20/ announcing-mitch-lazar-as-taptus-new-ceo/ [10] http:/ / www. co. after spending 3 months as President and COO. . Recognition and Awards • • • • • • • Overall Mobile Search Company of the Year. former MD of Yahoo Mobile Europe. Highly Commended in the category of Best Mobile Start Up[18] References [1] http:/ / eu. The videos are designed to illustrate that My Taptu had a wide enough depth and breadth of content to appeal to any niche interest or passion a person has.

fear of flying or arachnophobia (fear of spiders).3i. effectiveness and affordability of mental health care.[3] have used Virtual Reality (VR) (simulated real environments through digital media) to successfully treat Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Technology can therefore be used in innovative ways to provide support for those with mental health . virtual reality. .Taptu blog (http://blog. The VR system offers a sense of realism in a safe environment.podtech.com) . com/ 2010/ 11/ 20/ the-europas-european-startup-awards-2010-the-winners-and-finalists/ ). it is argued.co. SMS. techcrunch. pictures of the patient's family or their voice. Relatively new technology such as mobile phones have also been used to help people with mental health problems by providing timely information.[2] Technology and the Treatment of Mental Health Issues Traditional methods of helping people with a mental health problem have been to use approaches such as medication. instant messaging and podcasts. For example. taptu. blogs. New technology can also be used in conjunction with traditional methods. anonymous and accessible way to receive therapeutic advice. Rizzo et al. TechCrunch Europas 2010. com/ blog/ 2008/ 04/ 16/ taptu-honoured-as-recipient-of-red-herring-top-100-europe-list/ ). computer programmes. Demo of how Taptu is way better than Google for mobiles by Robert Scoble Technology and mental health issues The use of communicative and other new technologies as a supplement to mainstream therapies for mental disorders is an emerging mental health treatment field which.taptu. video conferencing.[5] David Haniff[6] produced a computer application that would present media to someone suffering from depression in order to lift their mood. . counselling.html) Sky News Technofile: The Google Years: The Future of Online Search Engines (http://news. Meffys 2010. com/ attend/ meffys-winners-showcase-dynamic-mobile-media-industry). Mobile Monday Barcelona. Taptu Blog.com) 3i investors portfolio: Taptu (http://www.uk/news_analysis/113999/ Mobile_search_company_Taptu_aims_high. For example. social networks. mobilemondaybarcelona. [18] "TechCrunch Europas 2010" (http:/ / eu. . By gradually exposing the person to their fear with a Virtual Environment the patient becomes accustomed to the trigger of their problem to an extent that it no longer becomes an issue.sky. computer games.com/blog/?p=413) • PodTech. [17] "Meffys 2010" (http:/ / www.html) • WapReview.mobileeurope. [16] "MobileMonday Peer Awards Barcelona 2008" (http:/ / www. Computer games have also been used to provide therapy for adolescents. exercise and a healthy diet.Taptu [15] "Taptu honoured as recipient of Red Herring Top 100 Europe list" (http:/ / www.net/home/4516/ demo-of-how-taptu-is-way-better-than-google-for-mobiles). com/ peerawards/ ). could improve the accessibility. This form of treatment has also been applied to other mental health problems such as phobias (where anxiety is triggered by a certain situation). meffys. . Taptu (http://wapreview.net (http://www. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT). the telephone.taptu.com/portfolio/companies/taptu.com/ skynews/Home/video/Google-10-Years-The-Future-Of-Online-Search-Engines/Video/ 200809115094007?lpos=video_0&lid=VIDEO_15094007_Google+10+Years%3A+The+Future+Of+ Online+Search+Engines) • Mobile Search Company Taptu aims high (http://www.[4] Many adolescents are reluctant to have therapy and a computer game is a fun. 338 External links • • • • Taptu homepage (http://www.[1] Mental health technologies used by professionals as an adjunct to mainstream clinical practices include email.

Technology and mental health issues problems. pdf [2] http:/ / dartware. M. by the Personal Communication Industry Association. pdf).[2] TAP. ie/ books?id=sX87shVB0ugC& printsec=& pg=PA56). sciencedirect. Nagel. "Design and Mental Health Guidelines for Mental Health Technologies" (http:/ / www. [6] Haniff. Interacting with Computers 22 (4): 243–252. ac.avtech. J. The Use of Technology in Mental Health : Applications. com/ stellent/ groups/ public/ documents/ data_sheet/ 002641.[1] This protocol is used to send SMS/text alerts to a cell phone or a pager. tap-ixo. Ill. Swindon: British Computer Society. pdf). ac. A.com/Support/TAP/index. ISBN 9781902505954. . Matthews. Gavin. google. BCS-HCI '07 Proceedings of the 21st British HCI Group Annual Conference on People and Computers: HCI. However. M. IL: Charles C.).pdf . uk/ modules/ F24VS2/ Resources/ RizzoVirtualRealityExposure2006. pp. com/ science?_ob=ArticleURL& _udi=B6V0D-4YH568S-1& _user=10& _coverDate=07/ 31/ 2010& _rdoc=1& _fmt=high& _orig=gateway& _origin=gateway& _sort=d& _docanchor=& view=c& _searchStrId=1703402087& _rerunOrigin=scholar. P. one size does not fit all and some technologies may not be suitable for certain people.com • Directory of TAP Dialup Numbers (http://www. . com/ books?id=sX87shVB0ugC& printsec=frontcover& source=gbs_ge_summary_r& cad=0#v=onepage& q& f=false). Washington D. Graap. DeeAnna Merz Nagel and Stephen Goss (eds).picell. B. Thomas Pub Ltd. Spira. pp. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Novel Approaches to the Diagnosis and Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. .net/tap-phone-numbers. 171–172. Stephen (eds) (2010). In Roy.: Charles C. "Personal Investigator: A therapeutic 3D game for adolecscent psychotherapy" (http:/ / www. Wiederhold. B (2006). [3] Rizzo. Coyle. David. Mark (July 2010). bcs. Goss. Journal of Interactive Technology & Smart Education 2 (2): 73–88. macs. Kate.C: IOS Press. "Mental Health Issues and Pervasive Computing" (http:/ / www. In Kate Anthony. Thomas Publishers.net • (http://www. hw. McNerney. Joe (2010). . google& _acct=C000050221& _version=1& _urlVersion=0& _userid=10& md5=f5ee46f9d4213e1f3975dd8f33fefe2a& searchtype=a). Springfield. [4] Coyle. Stephen. David (2007). Ethics and Practice. pdf). A.[3] References [1] http:/ / www. [5] Goss. DeeAnna Merz. B. pp.com/fileadmin/documents/tap_v1p8.. info/ External links • Directory of TAP Dialup Numbers (http://www. K. verisign. google. (ed. .htm) from avtech. com/ support/ docs/ web/ Content/ 06-Notifiers/ 06-01-ConfiguringNotifications/ AlertViaCellPhone. M. Matthews. D. Nisbet. Sharry. macs. htm [3] http:/ / www.. 339 References [1] Doherty. ISBN 9780398079536.but not as we know it . [2] Anthony. 56–67. Springfield. "Using Cell/Mobile Phone SMS to Enhance Client Crisis and Peer Support" (http:/ / books. Doherty (2005). Ferns.J. hw. uk/ modules/ F24VS2/ Resources/ RizzoVirtualRealityExposure2006.htm) from notepage.Volume 2. "A Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy Application for Iraq War Military Personnel with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder: From Training to Toy to Treatment" (http:/ / www. J. initially known as Motorola Page Entry (PET) was adopted in September 1988. 235–250. ISBN 9780398079536. Wiederhold. org/ upload/ pdf/ ewic_hc07_popaper4. In Devian Ramduny-Ellis and Dorothy Rachovides (eds).notepage. . Pair. Manson. TAP defines an industry standard for sending alphanumeric messages to pagers. Ethics and Practice (http:/ / books. The Use of Technology in Mental Health: Applications. Telelocator Alphanumeric Protocol Telelocator Alphanumeric Protocol (TAP) is a protocol for submitting requests to a cellular or pager service as a numeric or alphanumeric message.

US" (http:/ / shop. t-mobile. The Internet-connected mobile phone acts as a portable router when providing tethering services to others. sprint. to support tethering (http:/ / www. sprint. or over Bluetooth. you may not use a phone (including a Bluetooth phone) as a modem in connection with a computer. including for example. are not permitted. shtml?ECID=vanity:termsandconditions#3). com/ Templates/ Popup. . . or by physical connection using a cable. "Except with Phone-as-Modem plans. PDA. androidcentral. com/ android-internet-tether [3] "Sprint Terms & Conditions . or similar device. geek. This feature was available before but only by 'rooting' devices and using the Linux iptables application.com. Retrieved 2011-03-14. Retrieved 2010-10-13. tethering may be provided at no extra cost.US" (http:/ / www. examples include T-Mobile in the UK.Tethering 340 Tethering Tethering means sharing the Internet connection of an Internet-capable mobile phone with other devices. . t-mobile." [4] Verizon Wireless and AT&T Mobility currently offer wired tethering to their plans for a fee. aspx?PAsset=Ftr_Ftr_TermsAndConditions& print=true). Many mobile phones are equipped with software to offer tethered Internet access.[2] Tethering in carriers' contracts Depending on the mobile phone's carrier. As cited in Sprint Nextel's Terms of Service. while others forbid tethering or impose added data charges. References [1] Geek.com: Android 2. In the case of tethering over wireless LAN." T-Mobile has a similar clause in its Terms & Conditions: "Unless explicitly permitted by your Data Plan. Often phone contracts that advertise unlimited or "all you can eat" Internet and data usage will bury these hidden charges in their terms of use. The operating system Android supports this . com/ en/ legal/ legal_terms_privacy_popup. This sharing can be offered over a wireless LAN (Wi-Fi). the feature may be branded as a mobile hotspot. However. com/ articles/ mobile/ android-2-2-to-support-tethering-and-turn-your-phone-into-a-mobile-wifi-hotspot-20100514/ ) [2] http:/ / www. using your Device as a modem or tethering your Device to a personal computer or other hardware.2 Froyo.2.com. other uses. some carriers impose a one time charge to enable tethering. [4] "T-Mobile Terms & Conditions . starting [1] from version 2. We reserve the right to deny or terminate service without notice for any misuse or any use that adversely affects network [3] performance. while Sprint Nextel offers a Wi-Fi connected "mobile hotspot" tethering feature at an added charge.

The Boston Globe (New York Times): References [1] http:/ / www. Carolyn (2007-04-09). via cellphone" pp. Our thumbcasts are hand-crafted by local correspondents and delivered direct to you as text messages. 80108. coming from the generally audio-based podcast. or other mobile distribution mechanism.E4. Timeline • On 15 March 2007 US mobile media company 80108 Media launches their public Web site at [1]. boston. The term 'thumbcast' became one of that day's 'Hot Searches' on the site. picture. com/ business/ globe/ articles/ 2007/ 04/ 09/ snippets_of_news_via_cellphone/ . References Johnson. or video content via short message service. WAP push. com [2] http:/ / www. and the distribution of content directly to mobile phones. [2] . "Snippets of news. • On 9 April 2007 the Boston Globe published an article titled Snippets of news. via cellphone [2] with the following opening sentence: Thumbcasts are coming to Boston. The term is an evolution specialized for original mobile content. the input mechanisms of multi-tap and predictive text. audio. multimedia messaging service. The company provided the following brief definition for the term: Think: podcast for your phone. E1.Thumbcast 341 Thumbcast Thumbcast is a term used for the mobile delivery of text. referring to the SMS subscription channels as thumbcasts. Retrieved 2007-04-09.

together with several European input languages. Slide down to input a symbol on the bottom. TouchPal v2 came out in late December 2007. It also includes customizable emoticons and a few other features. It also provides changeable keypress sound. Tapping on the keys directly to input predictively. Users can switch keyboard layouts by finger sweeping. TouchPal v3 significantly improved the predictive algorithm by incorporating its patent pending context-based word prediction and mistyping auto-correction algorithm. The keyboard is one-layer design. Tap directly to input predictively. designed and developed by CooTek. Technology TouchPal default keyboard layout is designed based on the T+ technology. while keeps the general computer keyboard layout. Besides what v1 has. The overall layout of all the letters follows a common computer keyboard layout. History TouchPal v1 was released in October 2007. It has many useful features such as self-defined "My Sentences" and "My Commands". drag & drop buttons. TouchPal v3 English version was released in April 2008. Slide to the left/right to precisely input the letter on the left/right. It places a virtual keyboard on the touch screen of the handhelds. There are not additional function keys such as Shift or Ctrl because the functions achieved by them were built-in and can be easily implemented directly by finger tapping or sliding. 3. with which you can enter text by tapping on the screen. It only supports English input. It is an alternative text input method to the traditional physical keyboards. It only has the T+ layout virtual keyboard. German. It supports three layouts on one virtual keyboard: T+ layout. the skins. Sliding on a key in four directions like a "+" to input precisely. Spanish. French. With its SDK. 5.TouchPal 342 TouchPal TouchPal is an alternative software input method for mobile devices. 2. TouchPal v3 has a lot of new features. and Dutch. Italian. It combines two letters and one symbol on each key. a patent pending technology owned by CooTek. and can change the keyboard layout. 4. 1. TouchPal v3 Chinese input version came out one month later. for example the QWERTY layout. TouchPal v3 has much better extensibility than the previous two versions. Below is a summary of the basic usage. full QWERTY layout. . users can self develop the supported input languages. whose layout looks like a "T". comprehensive content editing functions. and 9-key PhonePad layout. Slide up then down to input the numbers on the top. Slide up to input uppercase letters. It is a software application running on Windows Mobile devices. This makes each button big enough for thumb tapping. It supports several European languages input such as English. Compared with the previous two versions. its virtual keyboard is resizable by finger sliding. There is cool animation effect when turning the pages or switching the layouts.

[1] There are occasions when the cable between the antenna and the receiver is so lossy (too thin or too long) that the signal weakens from the antenna before reaching the receiver. wmexperts. A TMA reduces the base transceiver station noise figure (NF) and therefore improve its overall sensitivity. com/ articles/ software/ great_new_soft_keyboard. February 10. is weaker than the other. which in turn implies a lower drain from its batteries. Nate Adcock. the TMA can only partially correct. 2007 4. in other words the mobile mast is able to receive weaker signals. com/ cms/ index. CooTek (http://www. .cootek. In other words. 2008 3. Nate Adcock. therefore it may be decided to install TMAs from the start to make the system viable. the link imbalance. This can be fixed by making the transmitter on that link stronger or the receiver more sensitive to weaker signals. October 4.com) website Tower Mounted Amplifier A Tower Mounted Amplifier or Mast Head Amplifier is a Low-noise amplifier (LNA) mounted as close as practical to the antenna in mobile masts or Base Transceiver Stations. or palliate. Crowded mast with TMAs (white rectangular boxes) mounted behind all the panel (rectangular) antennas TMAs are used in mobile networks to improve the sensitivity of the uplink in mobile phone masts. Great New Soft Keyboard (http:/ / www. Benefits in mobile communications In two way communications systems. Dieter Bohn. June/July 2008 issue (http://www.TouchPal 343 References 1.pocketpcmag. pocketpcmag.com. 2007 External links 1. TouchPal: One of the Best Soft Keyboards. normally referenced as unbalanced links. CooTek's TouchPal brings iPhone-like touchpad to Windows Mobile (http:/ / www. Since the transmitter is a mobile phone it cannot be easily modified to transmit stronger signals. Smartphone and Pocket PC Magazine. Smartphone and Pocket PC Magazine.html).com/cms/current-issue/) 2. Engadget Mobile. one link. engadgetmobile. thus a longer battery charge. there are occasions when one way. Sean Cooper. Improving the uplink translates into a combination of better coverage and mobile transmitting at less power. com/ 2007/ 10/ 12/ cooteks-touchpal-brings-iphone-like-touchpad-to-windows-mobile/ ). October 12. php?q=blogs/ 30/ touchpal_a_very_well_done_soft_keyboard). TouchPal-A Well-Done Soft Keyboard Alternative! (http:/ / www. WMExperts.

3. The principle can be demonstrated mathematically. The third amplifier's temperature is influencing even less. The receiver may alternatively be housed in a cabinet or hut at the base of the tower. 3.Tower Mounted Amplifier 344 Drawbacks/pitfalls 1. it may cause the TMA to create its own interference which is passed on to the receiver. There might be practical room restrictions. If the TMA fails. 2. However. unless it can be bypassed. therefore it is possible analyse call records and establish where TMAs are needed. And so on until N stages. If the received signal is not weak. it may render the system unusable until serviced. with some stages producing other changes (like changing the signal's frequency). [5] [6] .g. Servicing TMAs is harder than servicing receivers . Each stage consists of a noise figure (F) and an amount of amplification. as it is reduced by its preceding amplifier gains . If the received signal is strong enough. installing a TMA will not deliver its intended benefit. Then the signal is amplified in further stages within the receiver. visual. .as the TMA may be dangerously near (near field) of the antenna and high up in a tower. It is actually not amplified all at once but in stages. IS-95 or WCDMA .g. or gain (G). it is not simple to detect and correct unbalanced links since the link balance is not constant. the receiver's noise figure is calculated by modularly assessing each amplifier stage. 2.aka European 3G -). In some mobile networks (e.and thus more expensive . other mobile networks (e. 4. The second amplifier's temperature ( ) will also influence the total but it is reduced (divided) by the gain of the first amplifier . the receiving path starts with the signal originating at the antenna. 2. [2] 3. So amplifier number 1 will be right after the antenna and described by and . The relationship of the stages is known as the Friis formula. Simple phone mast with three TMAs (horizontal rectangular boxes) visible at the top of metal tower and before rectangular antennas Note that: 1. nothing reduces its contribution to the total. link balance changes with traffic load. [3] [4] Mathematical principles In a receiver.[1] 1. or structural weight restrictions to install a TMA at the top of a phone mast. GSM) have a constant link. The first amplifier will set the temperature ( ).

but this time its noise addition ( ) is reduced by • Stage 4: Then comes the receiver. net/ Library/ Techpub/ 75177. "Product description of a TMA manufacturer" (http:/ / www.receiver (stage 4) • Stage 1: By using the shortest.R. [5] Conner. F. the TMA. ISBN 0-7131-3459-3 [6] Saunders. htm).Connecting Cable (stage 1) . is from In this way. . Ltd. pdf?refer=Library& C=Tower-Mounted+ Amplifier+ Systems& L=ClearGain+ Amplifier+ Systems). installation and trouble shooter of a TMA manufacturer" (http:/ / www. the closer is to zero and the more will increase. Antennas and Propagation for wireless communication systems. Powerwave. The first stage after the antenna is actually the connecting cable. Noise (2nd ed. whose noise figure is less downgraded by the cables. it will increase What can be done to improve the receiver to pick up very weak signals? It must have a lower noise figure. [6] This number is normally expressed in decibels (dB) thus: References [1] [2] [3] [4] Laiho. Novosad. net.Receiver (stage 2). Updating the Friis formula with this case. the least lossy connecting cable between the antenna and the TMA. (1982).. Simon R. • Stage 2: The TMA of noise figure and gain . au/ reception/ tv/ mast_head. . and from the second cable.. The more loss. words. Radio Network Planning and Optimisation for UMTS. London: John Wiley & Sons. the cable losses are now negligible and do not significantly affect the system noise figure. • Stage 3: Then comes the next cable ( and ). that is when the TMA comes into use. adcbroadband.. Wacker. Therefore: • Stage 1: • Stage 2: is equal to the loss of the cable and will increase with ambient temperature [7] will depend on the lossiness of the cable. as .Tower Mounted Amplifier 345 Applying the Friis formula to TMAs Typical receiver without TMA Start with a typical receiver: Antenna .short connecting cable (stage 1) .). the noise figure is now: is low . is nearly one. Since the element is lossy is less than one. ADC. com/ tma. Typical receiver with TMA It is a chain of 4 modules: antenna .longer connecting cable (stage 3) . . "TMA description. ISBN 0-471-98609-7 [7] Noise Figure of lossy stage . powerwave. Ltd. London: Edward Arnold. So will counteract the effects of . asp). ISBN 0-471-48653-1 "TV distortion cause by too strong received signals" (http:/ / abc.TMA (stage 2) . in order . London: John Wiley & Sons.

B2B. Easyborder. • LeFrenchMobile is a mobile phone service for foreign visitors coming to France for a short period of time.html) Transatel Transatel Type Industry Founded Private Mobile telecommunications 2000 Headquarters 22 Place des Vosges 92979 Paris La Défense France Key people Products Revenue Employees Website Jacques Bonifay [1] . www. Equilibre) and MVNE 13 million EUR (2010) estimation 80 (2011) www.Tower Mounted Amplifier 346 External links • TMA test equipment (http://www. from 6 to 24 months. • MVNA (Aggregator) : the MVNA purchases mobile airtime in bulk form the partner mobile operator. Transatel proposes different mobile telephony offers in Belgium. • Phonethic is a charity mobile phone offer available in Belgium. documentation and customer service in Japanese. for all kinds of MVNOs (postpaid. Transatel won several prizes in France. in Luxembourg and in the Netherlands: • The multi-country offers are dedicated to frequent travelers and inhabitants of the border area in France. • Eurokeitai is an offer for the Japanese community in France.. who each in turn sells the mobile service to end . with services. born from a partnership between 4 NGOs and Transatel. with SIP services. adds its service platform and wholesales this airtime to multiple MVNOs.transatel.com/article/CA221314. prepaid. The MVNE activity is divided into two categories: • MVNE ASP (Application Service Provider): the MVNO signs a contract for purchasing airtime with the MNO. Transatel works with companies wanting to launch a mobile virtual network operators (MVNO) under their own brand. and in the Netherlands. Brussels. Transatel is the technical service provider of either the MNO or the MVNO according to their choice. B2C. Switzerland and Benelux. the company has positioned itself on the MVNE market in Europe. As an MVNE.). Activity As an MVNO.transatel-solutions.. Luxembourg. with headquarters in Paris and offices in London. On top of managing several MVNOs.tmworld. in France. may it be prepaid or postpaid.com [3] Transatel is a pan-European company founded in August 2000. CEO MVNO (Easypass. including the OSEO-DeloitteTechnology Fast 50 for the Paris region in 2007[4] .com [2] . which awards the innovation policy of IT companies.

Transatel provides provisionning services. transatel. fr/ a_la_une/ actualites/ transatel_primee_par_oseo_au_deloitte_technology_fast_50_de_2007). Oseo. Tri-cell makes a number of measurements within the phone and sends these measurements to a central server that uses a hybrid of methods to calculate the location of the phone on a continuous basis. External links • Transatel – Corporate website (http://www. transatel. reusing its MVNE infrastructure across Europe to provide M2M services with similar business models. based on cloud-based services.transatel-m2m. html [2] http:/ / www. trisent. oseo. Tri-cell was invented by the company Trisent [1] Communication Ltd.Transatel users.com) • Transatel M2M (http://www. As an MVNA. com . transatel-mobile.com) • Transatel solutions (Activities : MVNE and MVNA) (http://www.com) Tri-cell Tri-cell is one of several location based services technologies that are used to locate or track the location of a mobile phone. com [3] http:/ / www. transatel-solutions. primée par OSEO au Deloitte Technology Fast 50 de 2007" (http:/ / www. rated billing and voice/data services.fr (French). References [1] http:/ / www. The Business Model for the MVNE activity. In 2011. Other technologies include TDOA and AGPS.transatel. Transatel entered the M2M (Machine-to-Machine) market.transatel-solutions. com [4] "Transatel. com/ fr-abonnement-equipe.com) • Transatel. 347 References [1] http:/ / www. The first mobile operator dedicated to crossborder workers and frequent travellers (http://www.

May.org/meid) . References [1] 3GPP2 SC. UIMID codes are allocated by the TIA using industry-defined guidelines and with codes that have been transferred from the ESN administrator (also the TIA). 0_UIM_ID_Guidelines. In all known systems the UIMID displaces the ESN in signaling (based on the 'UsgInd' field stored in the R-UIM). The HLR will store the MIN or IMSI alongside the ESN in each record. R4004-0_v2.org/standards/resources/esn/) • CDMA Development Group MEID and EUIMID resource page (http://www. The pUIMID is composed of the prefix 0x80 to make it distinct from unique UIMID codes and a 24-bit SHA-1 hash of the EUIMID. pUIMID codes are not unique as there are only 224 of them and many times more EUIMID codes. The replacement identifier is EUIMID although for backwards compatibility a pseudo-UIMID (pUIMID) is still retained in cards. org/ public_html/ Specs/ SC.[1] ESN and UIMID codes were exhausted by late 2008 at which point only reclaimed codes could be assigned to manufacturers including portions of blocks assigned to manufacturers but never used and portions used for technologies other than CDMA2000. User Identification Module ID Manufacturer’s Code Assignment Guidelines and Procedures (http:/ / www.UIMID 348 UIMID A UIMID (user identity module identifier) is a 32-bit Electronic Serial Number (ESN) stored in a R-UIM or CSIM ('smart card') used for TDMA or CDMA2000 phones (mainly the latter). 3gpp2. Because the UIMID is allocated from the same numbering space as ESN this is transparent to the network. It is given a different name to avoid confusion with the hardware ESN stored in the phone. Version 2.cdg. 2010. 2010. The TIA stopped accepting applications for UIMID blocks on June 30.R4004-0.0.tiaonline. and if an ANSI-41 message is received containing a different pair it will be rejected. pdf) External links • Official TIA Resource Page for ESN and UIMID (http://www. The reason the UIMID is transmitted instead of the ESN is because the R-UIM contains the MIN or IMSI and devices such as the HLR running the ANSI-41 mobility management protocol insist on a static association between these identifiers.

The company employs an intelligent query search engine to process text queries sent to the number 2SNAP (27627) and quickly returns the relevant info that the user has requested in text form. mobile-review. Nokia. UpSNAP is the #1 direct response advertising network on mobile phones. UpSNAP developed a patented method of accepting queries and producing results via text messaging. a Motorola operating system which also allows SMS messages to be read and edited on the existing dashboard display. Multi-Handset Interface (MHI) is the US sales name for UHI. serving close to a billion ads per month. com/ 1502912 . analogous to the pay-per-click model of internet search. UpSNAP’s multi-modal ad platform drives performance from voice. com/ uhicradles.[1] There are a large number of different cradles now available for various phones[2] . References [1] Mobile-review. The hands-free capability uses the car's on-board audio system and a microphone located underneath the interior roof light[3] . It is controlled by COMAND. Siemens AG. mercupgrades. Samsung) in Mercedes-Benz cars. the user is also given the option to receive a free call-connect via a VOIP bridge. shtml) [2] Mercedes UHI and MHI Phone Cradles (http:/ / www. com/ 4x4/ radio/ uhi_harness. They generate revenue via a pay-per-call model. gif Upsnap UpSNAP is the name of both a mobile-oriented search engine and the company that runs the search engine. The mobile phone is placed in a cradle connected to a telephone network unit and operated using the buttons on the multi-function steering wheel.com CeBIT 2003. With 4-1-1 directory queries. com/ exhibition/ cebit-motorola-en. com [2] http:/ / upsnap. Products from Motorola for both pedestrians and drivers-users (http:/ / www. aka SMS. urbanup. With the ability to deliver content and advertising solutions to all US Mobile Devices. video and WAP traffic via pay per call. shtml) [3] http:/ / www.Universal Handy Interface 349 Universal Handy Interface Universal Handy Interface (UHI) is a Motorola designed universal interface for mobile phone use (Motorola. whnet. Sony Ericsson. SMS. External links • UpSNAP Mobile search and 411 info services [1] • Urban Dictionary definition of UpSNAP [2] References [1] http:/ / upsnap.

and each of these streaming sessions can be initiated by any of the parties on the voice call. The sending User is then able to stream one-way live or recorded video. the recipient can choose to reject the streamed video. one-way video stream in conjunction with.Video share 350 Video share Video Share is an IP Multimedia System (IMS) enabled service for mobile networks that allows users engaged in a circuit switch voice call to add a unidirectional video streaming session over the packet network during the voice call. This concept is described in the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) specification documents 3GPP TS 22. .279 and 3GPP TS 24. In this scenario. In the industry. Video Share is also referred to by other names such as See What I See and Rich Voice Call. Any of the parties on the voice call can initiate a video streaming session. The second phase (also called Phase 2) introduces the Video Share Application Server in the solution and supports more complex features and capabilities. and integration of video share with instant messaging. It is often referred to as a Combinational Service. 3GPP TS 23. along with the receiving User. The sender will be able to see what is being streamed on their handset. As part of the VS invitation. The video source can either be the camera on the phone or a pre-recorded video clip. The CS voice call will remain connected. and either the sender or recipient in a video share session can terminate the session at any time. Both users will have the ability initiate a video share session. video streaming to a web portal. but not synchronized to a circuit switch voice call. It is intended that both sender and receiver will receive feedback when the other party terminates a session or the link drops due to lack of coverage. The default behavior is that the receiving handset will automatically go to speakerphone mode when video is received. AT&T [3] (formerly Cingular) is one of mobile operators who have deployed the Video Share service nationwide.279. The Video Share Client will drop a VS session when the handset transitions from UMTS to GSM during the session. Video Share is supported only in UMTS and EDGE (with DTM) networks. There can be multiple video streaming sessions during a voice call. either party (calling or called) can start a Video Share (VS) session. The Video Share service [1] is defined by the GSM Association (GSMA). GSM Association has split the Video Share service definition [2] into 2 distinct phases. It is not supported in a GPRS or a CDMA network. The Video Share service requires a 3GPP compliant IMS core system. such as point-to-multipoint video share calls. Video share is initiated from within a voice call. the sender can “narrate” over the CS audio connection while both parties view the video.279. After a voice call is established. unless the headset is in place. meaning that the service combines a circuit switch voice call with a packet switch multimedia session. The first phase (also called Phase 1) involves sharing a simple peer-to-peer.

the snow outside. where a video clip recorded on the phone (or resident in the network) can be shared between two parties – something not delivered in a typical Video Call implementation. A 3-4 minute voice call may involve a minute of Video Sharing. GSMA decided to create a separate project for Video Share. Video Sharing has no privacy implications for the recipient since the sharing of video is one-way. Display screen on a mobile phone has limited real estate. videophone. a Video Sharing session starts as a normal voice conversation. the Video Share service used to demonstrate IMS interworking over SIP [4] . Push-to-Video (P2video or PTV). Parties on the call are fully aware that they are involved in a video call. Phase 2 of the GSMA Video Share project was kicked off in May/June 2007 and is currently in progress. Rich Voice Call. Video Calling has historically been “I see you. By contrast. This was a proprietary solution on top of a SIP or IMS infrastructure. and depending on the conversation. you see me” type of service where the camera is pointed at the parties on the call (eg. Extensions to Video Share include Video Clip Sharing. The camera on the sender’s mobile phone is usually pointed at some object or activity that he/she wants to share with the recipient. Video Call involves simultaneous two-way Video and Audio transmission between the 2 parties (from start to finish).. Video Share was also tested on the IPX [5] to prove that the service might become universally available in the future. such as AT&T. the intent is known upfront. Differences between video share and video call Video Share is sometimes confused with traditional two-way Video Call service. 2.Video share 351 History Peer-to-peer video sharing was introduced by Nokia phones first in 2004. a video clip of kids). and the length of the video is tied to the length of the voice call. An interoperability technical reference specification for Video Share [7] is also available from GSMA. Subsequently. . Some European operators offered commercial services based on these phones already in 2005. There are other subtle differences between the two services as far as the user experience is concerned: 1. Service definition for the first phase of the Video Share project was completed in September/October 2006. The GSMA Video Share service [2] was originally defined. a new car. On the other hand. During the SIP trials. The caller initiates the call as a Video Call. etc. implemented and tested during the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) trials conducted by the GSM Association in 2005/2006. Similar services popped under the names of See What I See.g. Phase 1 of the Video Share project built on and leveraged the results from the SIP trials. whereas Video Share involves adding and removing one or more one-way Video sessions to an existing voice call between the 2 parties. Splitting the screen into Picture-in-Picture (in order to display both sending and received video streams) significantly degrades the Video Call user experience on a mobile phone (Video Call with Picture-in-Picture is effective in corporate applications such as video conferencing where a large screen is used). have deployed the Video Share service [6] based on the Phase 1 service definition. webcam). 3. In a Video Call. it may lead to one party sharing something with the other party while they talk about it (e. Mobile operators worldwide.

e. A user’s subscription is usually bound to their smart card (ISIM/USIM) such that the Video Share service is portable in the sense that the user may be able to send and receive video share on any capable handset. VS-compliant handsets contain an ISIM/USIM properly provisioned with IMS public/private identities and access credentials. i. The Video Share service uses the standard IMS Core infrastructure to transmit signaling and media traffic. SIP is used for call control and signaling. The called party has the option to accept or reject a video stream at the start of the session . Functionality supported by a GSMA Video Share Client includes: • Registration. media is transferred directly between the terminals. and proprietary RTOS. Authentication and Video Share initiation • IMS registration upon power up using IMS access credentials stored in the ISIM/USIM • Video Share Capability Exchange prior to the initiation of a video share call using SIP. The Phase 1 Video Share architecture does not include an Application Server.Video share 352 Architecture The Phase 2 Video Share solution consists of a Client Application running on mobile handsets and an Application Server deployed in the mobile network. including the codecs supported • Display icon indicating the capability status of the other device (that is. whether the other device is VS capable or not) • Ability for the user to start and stop a VS session. Typically. Symbian. and RTP/RTCP is used for video transmission. The Video Share Client supports SIP and RTP/RTCP transmission. the Video Share Client is implemented as a native application running on mobile operating systems such as Windows Mobile. Linux. IP Packet Exchange (IPX) proxies may be part of this infrastructure to allow interconnection between operators and to provide a collection point for session accounting records used for inter-operator traffic charging. Video Share Client The Video Share (VS) Client is a software application running on the mobile handset.

Operator-defined subscriber and service policies can be enforced even if a subscriber has modified the policy on his/her handset. Sony Ericsson [15] . The Video Share Application Server typically runs on a carrier grade fault tolerant hardware platform. Samsung [12]. The Application Server supports the SIP Back-to-Back User Agent (B2BUA) call control architecture that enables service policy control and enforcement capabilities of the video share session. Video Share session control policies. Motorola [10]. Aylus Networks [17]. can be applied: • Call Termination • Call Barring • Call Gapping • Video Stream Quality Enforcement • Support for point-to-multipoint video share sessions by setting up multiple legs for a video share session • Enable interoperability between different clients/endpoint devices by providing client normalization functions such as (a) protocol conversion. Comneon GmbH [18]. and (c) rate adaptation • Enhanced charging capabilities. Wi-Fi or both) Time-sensitive promotional period (peak. (b) video transcoding.Video share • Usability • Privacy policies that allow users to block other users from performing a Capability Exchange with their device and/or streaming video to their device • Ability for either a transmitting or receiving device to terminate a VS session at any point during the session • Ability for both transmitting and receiving devices to display the video that is being streamed • Codec Support • H. 353 Video Share Application Server The Video Share Application Server is an IMS Application Server that interfaces with the S-CSCF network element in the IMS network through the 3GPP-defined ISC interface. The Application Server can be configured to include parameters in the charging records that are specific to the Video Share service. Functionality supported by the Video Share Application Server includes: • Video Share Service Control. A server-based application server will enforce access control and charging policies based on the following triggers: • • • • • • • • Inbound roaming access (mobile originating subscriber requests session from a visited network) Outbound roaming access (session request to a mobile terminating subscriber located in visited network) Home network access Access network type (UMTS. RADVISION [19].Nokia [9].263 Profile 0 (Level 10). provisioning and configuration in the network. this might require overwriting the policy on the handset with that on the Server. Ecrio Inc [14]. such as the following. The Application Server provides a central point for service control. receive-only or both) • Once these trigger conditions are met. The Application Server makes it possible to support a range . In some cases. and for enforcing service policies such as admission control and registration control. off-peak or promotional time period) IMSI or Public User Identifier (PUID) of calling or called user Location area of calling or called user Mobile originating or mobile terminating direction (send-only. Policies can be enforced by the Server in real time. or during session establishment by ensuring that the policy on the handset matches the operator-defined policy stored on the Server. NMS Communications [13]. LG [16]. PicoMobile (Marvell) [11]. Support for other codecs is desired but optional • Support for H263-2000 RTP payload format • Support for RTCP sender and receiver reports Vendors providing Video Share clients based on the GSMA service definition include: Alcatel Lucent [8].

Contact Address. etc. initiated. User registration statistics including those registered. PUID. registration rejected 3. thereby making it possible to conduct a real time Video Share session with a PC user using a web browser. Session statistics including those established. • Ability to record and store the streamed video on a network based Video Share Storage.Video share of charging plans. Jitter and Delay Statistics – data from RTCP sender and receiver reports received from the two video sharing client endpoints • Capability Exchange caching and optimization • Support for non-3G device endpoints such as a Web Portal. terminated. • Redirection of Video Share session to different endpoints based on configured service policies. 4. Solaiemes sells a customizable Application Server that can be integrated by 3rd parties in enterprise and vertical markets. and failed 2. Connection Packet Loss – data obtained from RTCP sender and receiver reports received from the two video sharing client endpoints 2. Date. de-registered. Active Call Detail information including Time. From and To header information. Aylus Networks [20] [17] 354 provides a Video Share Application Server with advanced features and capabilities. • Detailed Statistics including: 1. Media Stream Quality Statistics 1. Service Description The basic steps involved in setting up and tearing down a Video Share session are as follows: • • • • • • Circuit Switch Call Setup Capability Query Invitation Procedure Video Transmission Teardown of Video Session Teardown of Circuit Switch Call .

the video is streamed to the Portal instead of User B. and accessed using a PC with a web browser. The Application Server is integrated into the operator’s IMS Core network. Users sign up for the service through the operator. . When either party decides to stop the Video Share session. Video is sent between Video Share clients using RTP (Real-Time Transport Protocol). This is performed with the SIP OPTIONS method. and sign up for the service with the third party. The video transport is augmented by a control protocol (RTCP) to allow monitoring of the data delivery using RTCP RR (Receiver Report) and RTCP SR (Sender Report) packets. After the Video Share session has been set up. • Option 1: The solution is deployed in the mobile operator’s IMS network. In the case of a Web Portal based Video Share session. The Video Share session is initiated by sending a SIP INVITE message to the called party. • Option 2: The solution is deployed as a hosted service by a third party.Video share 355 The Video Share session begins with Circuit Switch call between User A and User B. independent of the mobile operator. transmission of the actual video can begin. The next step is the Capability Exchange in which the other handset is queried to determine if the recipient is capable of supporting a Video Share session. After these steps the Circuit Switch voice call session still exists. Deployment Options There are multiple options for deploying the Video Share service. Video Share clients are pre-loaded on selected handsets by the operator. which is widely used in internet and mobile communities for video streaming. Users download the Video Share client from the third party using a well established handset application download procedure. the session will be torn down (using RTCP BYE) and the SIP session stopped (using SIP BYE). Both handsets can perform this capability exchange.

nmscommunications. gsmworld. gsmworld. com/ learn/ messaging-internet/ media-entertainment/ attvideoshare.74 Video Share Interoperability Specification 1. com [15] http:/ / www. com [17] http:/ / www. com/ documents/ services/ se41. September 2008 [8] http:/ / www. solaiemes. com [18] http:/ / www. com [14] http:/ / www. com/ Products/ Developer/ Clients/ VideoShare/ [20] http:/ / www. com [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] . com/ sip/ e2e/ videoshare. shtml (http:/ / www. com/ learn/ messaging-internet/ media-entertainment/ video-share-faqs. ecrio. com [16] http:/ / www. com [19] http:/ / www. pdf) The GSMA's SIP Trials. picomobile. com [10] http:/ / www. motorola. gsmworld. com [11] http:/ / www.2. com [9] http:/ / www. jsp (http:/ / www. GSMA Document. lge. pdf) Video Share Definition 2. att. sonyericsson. alcatel-lucent. net/ [12] http:/ / www. aylus. comneon. gsmworld. com/ news/ press_2006/ press06_18. radvision. shtml) GSMA Press Release on video share trials. wireless. jsp) AT&T FAQ for Video Share (http:/ / www. gsmworld. com/ sip/ sip_trial_guide. att. wireless. February 2007 (http:/ / www. nokia. 15 February 2006 (http:/ / www. GSMA Document. pdf) IR. com/ documents/ ir7412. samsung. 27 March 2007 http:/ / www. com [13] http:/ / www.Video share 356 References http:/ / www.0.

VoiceMode provides an easy alternative to multi-tap.com/solutions/voicemode. References [1] http:/ / voicesignal. is a speech-to-text (dictation) application that runs on a mobile phone.VoiceMode 2.voicesignal. rather than creating messages using the keypad of most mobile devices. IM.VoiceMode 357 VoiceMode VoiceMode Developer(s) VoiceSignal Technologies Stable release 2.0 flash demo. The device-only implementation is server-based as to avoid network related interruptions and delays.0 is fairly accurate and can be used to input text into applications running on most mobile devices including email. VoiceMode 2. VoiceMode 2.com • http://www.voicesignal.0 VoiceMode 2. SMS. . Other VoiceSignal Products • VSpeak • VSuite • VSearch External links • http://www. Small Footprint It is designed specifically for the limited memory of mass market phones. and calendar appointments.0 delivers true large vocabulary. com/ . It allows users to dictate a messages into their mobile device.0 is compact and handset manufacturers often deploy it in all phone segments. by VoiceSignal.php. VoiceMode 2.0 / 5 April 2006 Type License Website Automatic speech-to-text Proprietary VoiceSignal Technologies Website [1] VoiceMode. T-9 or other text creation input methods. continuous dictation running entirely embedded in the mobile device.

including global roaming with Taiwan and Thailand. W-SIM terminals can be used in Japan.W-SIM 358 W-SIM W-SIM (Willcom-SIM) is a SIM card developed by Willcom which. Higher-spec version of WS003SH. China Netcom had W-SIMs available. W-SIM ( RX420AL) WILLCOM branded terminals • WS001IN / "TT" Hand-set terminal by Net Index. For Mainland China. • WS009KE / 9(nine) Hand-set terminal by KES. Stylish and slender version of W-ZERO3. and users can change to a different radio module W-SIM without changing the terminal itself. • WS008HA / WS008HA ExpressCard data communication terminal by Hagiwara Sys-Com. • WS005IN / nico. which do not have radio modules. such as the radio receiver/transmitter. containing not only user data but also all the transmission technology needed for a mobile device to work. It is currently used in some terminals (listed below). in addition to standard SIM functions. • WS004SH / W-ZERO3 Hand-set terminal(smartphone) by Sharp. . The W-SIM core module is an extended version of a SIM card. • WS002IN / "DD" Data communication terminal by Net Index. In addition. built inside. though its PHS network is due to be phased out this year. Similar to traditional handsets made by WILLCOM. a GSM version called the CM-G100 had been developed for use in other countries. • WS003SH / W-ZERO3 Hand-set terminal(smartphone) by Sharp. Hand-set terminal by Net Index. also has the core components of a cellular telephone (PHS). • WS007SH / W-ZERO3 [es] Hand-set terminal(smartphone) by Sharp. A terminal device developer can build a customized terminal without the design and development of a radio module.

com/ entry/ 1234000207064450/ http:/ / www. War viewing involves travelling around either in a vehicle or on foot and using a video receiver and screen to view transmissions (usually) in the 2.4 GHz license WARspyla. lobbies.com's Warviewing box free ISM band. but the 2. higher quality equipment or particularly favourable conditions.W-SIM 359 Terminals branded by other than WILLCOM • Kids Ke-tai papipo! Hand-set terminal by Bandai. jp/ ws/ special/ index.4 GHz video feeds. com/ ja/ lineup/ rx/ 410in/ http:/ / www. willcom-inc.'s page [1] Engadget entry [2] TT Phone [3] DD "Data Driver" [4] Sharp W-Zero3 PDA phone [5] References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] http:/ / www. co. engadget. willcom-inc. WarViewing is derived from the term WarDriving (where people drive around with Wi-Fi equipment and look for wireless computer networks) which was originally derived from Wardialing (an outdated practice where people would use a modem to brute-force dial phone numbers searching for other computer modems which would answer). . html http:/ / www. War Viewers will usually mount an external omni-directional antenna to a vehicle to extend the limited range of reception (much like War Drivers do). External links • • • • • Willcom Inc. These are usually broadcast from X10 cameras in major cities from traffic cameras. although longer ranges are possible with directional antennas. com/ ja/ lineup/ ws/ 002in/ http:/ / www. The internal code is WS006. html WarViewing WarViewing (also known as War Watching and Warspying) is the sport and hunt for unprotected 2. or locally owned shops.4 GHz allocation is predominantly used for wireless cameras. com/ ja/ lineup/ ws/ 001in/ index. This is a set of international frequency allocations that are intended for a number of public uses. sharp. willcom-inc. Expected ranges in an urban environment can be from as little as a few metres up to about 50 metres. home video senders and Wi-Fi computer networks.

WarViewing A small screen and openly available 2. The widgets are created using Extensible Markup Language (XML). and to cut down on interference. news headlines retrievers and weather forecast information. from the Finnish mobile company Nokia. including non-Nokia ones. WidSets was officially launched on October 2006. TV senders. a battery. Widsets like widgets.4 GHz video receiver. As the video signals are broadcast in a license free ISM band. warspyla.0 for both the client and the SDK. Further inquiries. Widsets are micro-applications intended to perform a single function. based on the Java MIDP 2. which means that the antennas used are interchangeable. The Register asked Nokia about the status of WidSets in June 2009. it is both a widget engine and a widget deployment service where mini-applications called widgets can be uploaded to WidSets servers to be compiled and then automatically deployed to MIDP 2. then sometimes a directional antenna like a patch antenna or yagi antenna is used to try and pinpoint the exact location of a transmitter. com/ forum/ forum/ ?action=picasagallerybrowser& album=WarySpyingBox WidSets WidSets is a mobile runtime technology.on a wide variety of mobile phones. it is not illegal in the UK to receive them even if they are not intended for you.0 platform. A warspyer uses a 2. however. generally rely on some kind of web service to provide information to the user. 360 External links • WARspy Los Angeles [1] • Building a Warspying Box [2] • DeAuthThis. and was regarded as a mobile counterpart to Netvibes. com/ [2] http:/ / revision3.[2] The current version as of May 2008 is version 2.[1] Widsets is a combined application and service that is similar to what a Widget does on a desktop PC .4 GHz video receiver is usually used to see what video transmissions there are out there.Com's Warspying Box [3] References [1] http:/ / www. it worked on all Java MIDP 2. CCTV cameras. Cascading Style Sheets (CSS). com/ systm/ warspyingbox/ [3] http:/ / deauththis. . and a mobile service powered by the said technology.0 compliant mobile phones running the WidSets client software. and sometimes a signal booster. X10 cameras.[3] Example widgets include currency converters. lead to Nokia admitting that WidSets isn't developed any longer. and Helium scripting language. etc. an LCD screen.0. and was told that Widsets was part of Ovi. Finds can include wireless covert surveillance cameras. Wi-Fi networks currently share approximately the same frequency band as the video transmissions. home video senders.0 phones. If war viewing is done on foot.

. For example.uk/A4646046) Wireless Informatics Wireless Informatics describes the evolution of traditional customer support practices within the mobile industry from problem management to problem prevention. oreilly. co.nokia. trends analysis made within an existing customer care center can be applied 'upstream'. html). Retrieved 2009-08-29.nokia. theregister.co. device manufacturers and service providers as a means of overcoming the negative impact of service and technology complexity on both operating costs and customer/brand loyalty. Bill (2009-07-30). Because added complexity across mobile technologies coupled with a rise in market competition makes managing the mobile user experience through traditional support channels an increasingly complex and potentially costly business. best practices and experiences throughout the mobile value-chain as a means of mitigating end-user support requirements.widsets.WidSets 361 References [1] WidSets Developer Wiki (http:/ / dev.Europe (http://europe.com/A4361262) • Mobilise your Web with WidSets .UK (http://www. The Register. validating and disseminating knowledge. widsets. com/ wiki/ Getting_started) [2] Mobile 2. uk/ 2009/ 06/ 30/ widsets_killed/ print. Wireless Informatics 'methodologies' are being adopted by mobile operators.0: Nokia launches WidSets (http:/ / radar.com/) • Mobilise your Web with WidSets . service etc before the problem erupts and drives a costly spike in support calls. "Nokia admits killing off Widsets" (http:/ / www. Wireless Informatics supports the notion of using collating. perhaps within the organisation's product management or retail division to eliminate a troublesome component. External links • WidSets Official Website (http://www. com/ archives/ 2006/ 10/ mobile-20-nokia-launches-widse. . html) [3] Ray.

promoted. World Mobile Congress and Mobile World Congress will be marketed. organized and produced by China management. Sources • http://delson.org/wwc07/ • http://mobilecongress.com/ .htm • http://delson.org/wmc/main. Therefore. It was founded by Delson Group Inc. and now strongly supported by China authority and leading industries. In middle 2009. China decided to enhance World Mobile Congress and Mobile World Congress for its long-term international strategy of the China mobile communication industry.World Mobile Congress 362 World Mobile Congress World Mobile Congress aka Mobile World Congress is a global technology and R&D platform to foster international collaboration in next generation mobile wireless communications.

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