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Dictionary of sacred words

- Dictionary of (some) genuine vocalic1 words Joannes Richter

Fig. 1: Faustina Senior coin

depicting the E at the entrance in the center between 6 columns of Apollo's temple at Delphi.

Some words in modern English reveal the religious symbolism hidden in ancient languages. Most evidence involves the special treatment of vowels. Vowels have been hidden, but the hiding seemed to be necessary for sacredness and protection. In fact the vowels may have been the carriers of symbolism, whereas the consonants were merely providing the carrier structure. Consonants had to be provided with special markers to read the hidden vowels behind the carriers, which only could be identified by the wise men. This process of marking the hidden vowels has been named vowelizing marking the vowel points. Although the special use of vowels has been an ancient Hebrew tradition some of the vowelizing symbolism seems to have been preserved in English language. Some of the most important words (the personal pronouns I and You) may have been designed to be exclusively consist of vowels. And although the Bible fails to explain the symbols in the divine names we may still be able to identify some of the symbolism in the Greek translations and other documents. If words merely consisting of vowels purposely had been designed and reserved for religious symbols any consonant in a word may have been a foreign body, disturbing the harmony in the naming convention. Another idea may have been to design words like in which every vowel ,,,,,, had to be a unique singularity, avoiding any duplication of symbols. These designs may have been repeated in the course of evolving languages. The number of vowels may have started low and probably grew up to seven or more characters, differing from language to language. Initially the basic vowel set may have been a trio I, A and U (or in Greek: Omega), which ultimately evolved to ,,,,,,.

1 Containing, marked by, or consisting of vowels.

Words like the heptagram and eioudeon for Jews and the shorter words and Iave suggest to investigate the idea of religious symbolism in the vowels, which might help us to understand and identify the of the most prominent ancient words. The study of these etymological (and of course religious) vocalic concepts may be considered as a complex enigma, which is much more fascinating than the rather crude phantasies of modern novelists. Even more fascinating is the idea of a common design for these names, shared (at least) by several peoples like the Roman, Greek and Jewish population. In the end summarizing a dictionary of sacred, vocalic words seemed to be a matter of time. Too much evidence had been found for the concentration of vowels in some categories of words, such as the divine names, the personal pronouns, the yes-words and the matrimonial concepts. Most of these words may have been designed as derivates of the biblical God YHVH, but others such as IUpiter are very old. We should not be surprised to locate a prehistoric common core, but it's too early to find cores today...

Fig. 2: Y-Symbol for Albertus Magnus (1617)

Symbola aureae mensae duodecim nationum by Michael Maier - typis Antonij Hummij, impensis Lucae Iennis, 1617 - 621 pages

Actually religious symbolism may already be identified in the very expressions vowel points and vowelize, which clearly mark the vowels as the most important Hebrew letters, which normally should not be written for their sacredness. Instead the vowel points were serving as the mothers of reading (matres lectionis) to mark the hidden vowels. The process of inserting the vowel points (defined as vowelizing) refers to the use of certain consonants to indicate a vowel. The letters which could be vowelized in Hebrew are aleph, he, waw (or vav) and yod (or yud). The yod and waw in particular are more often vowels than they are consonants.

The Tetragrammaton
The writings of the Church Fathers contain several references to forms of the Tetragrammaton in Greek or Latin. The Greek form of the divine name, "Iao", is the equivalent of the Hebrew trigrammaton YHW. 2 The Tetragrammatons letters, properly read from right to left (in Biblical Hebrew), are: Yodh ("Y"), He ("H"), Waw ("W" or placeholder for "O"/"U" vowel 3 ), He ("H" or often a silent letter at the end of a word). The spellings of the Tetragrammaton occur among the many combinations and permutations of names of powerful agents that occur in Jewish magical papyri found in Egypt. One of these forms is the heptagram . In the Jewish magical papyri, Iave and I Yaba occurs frequently. The form Yahu or Yaho is attested not only in composition but also by itself in Aramaic papyri. This is the form reflected as [a.o] in Greek magical papyri4. From these examples we may recognize the frequent and multiple use of various vowels. The heptagram even seems to consist of a series of unique, pure vowels. Another sample of nearly unique series of pure vowels is the name eioudeon for Jews, which does reveal a great number of vowels. An inscription at the seven pillars of the Milete theater documents the Greek expression: topos eioudeon ton kai theosebion to be translated to: Place of the Jews, who are also called God-fearing5.

Vow and Vowel

The words vow and vowel may be correlating although vow and vowel have been derived from different Latin roots.

2 3 4 5

From Tetragrammaton see mater lectionis The letter [h] was not represented by a separate letter in Greek. Light from the Ancient East, door Adolf Deissmann, p. 451 see: Jewish Inscription at the Miletus Theatre and also The Creation of West-European Pronouns (Summary)

[derived from old French vou - Latin root votum from the Latin verb vovere (to vow)] 1. An earnest promise to perform a specified act or behave in a certain manner, especially a solemn promise to live and act in accordance with the rules of a religious order: take the vows of a nun. 2. A declaration or assertion.

[Middle English vowelle, derived from old French vouel Latin root (littera) vocalis (sounding letter) from vox, voc-, voice; see wekw- in Indo-European roots.] vowel - a letter of the alphabet standing for a spoken vowel 1. A speech sound, created by the relatively free passage of breath through the larynx and oral cavity, usually forming the most prominent and central sound of a syllable. 2. A letter, such as a, e, i, o, u, and sometimes y in the English alphabet, that represents a vowel.

to mark the vowel points in (a Hebrew word or text).

Vowel point
(Linguistics / Letters of the Alphabet (Foreign)) any of several marks or points placed above or below consonants, especially those evolved for Hebrew or Arabic, in order to indicate vowel sounds.

6 Also vocalize

The Hebrew letters Y, H and W and the Greek I, a and

The translation of the Hebrew trigrammaton YHW to the vocalic Greek equivalent suggests to consider the letter Yodh (Y) equivalten to T, the He (H) to the vowel alfa (A) and Waw (W) to Omega ().

The Ego-pronoun Y in Wyclif's Bible

In Wyclif's Bible the personal pronoun of the first person singular has been defined as an upper case character Y. This corresponds to the first letter of the trigrammaton YHW and the tetragrammaton YHWH.

Hosea 11-97
9 Yschal not do the strong veniaunce of my wraththe. Y schal not turne, to leese Effraym; for Y am God, and not man. Y am hooli in the myddis of thee, and Y schal not entre in to a citee. In Hosea 11-9 the personal pronoun of the first person singular has been defined as Y instead of the modern I. The word Y correlates to the Spanish word yo8. It has been suggested the English people capitalize I to highlight the I-pronoun against a lower case i. This may be a good argument for an i, but there is no good reason to capitalize Y to highlight the Y-pronoun against a lower case y. The Spanish word y, representing and has not been written in capital letters as well. Capitalizing Y may have been selected to symbolize the divine concept in the Y-character. In fact the Y-symbol as held up by the androgynous human being in Symbola aureae mensae duodecim nationum may refer to the Yodh-character and to the Ego-pronoun9 as defined in Wyclif's Bible.

Patristic writings
From the chapter Patristic writings10 in Wikipedias Tetragrammaton we may identify a great number of Iao-versions for the divine name. Most of these words are genuine vocalic concepts. According to the Catholic Encyclopedia (1907) and B.D. Eerdmans: Diodorus Siculus writes (Iao); Irenaeus reports that the Gnostics formed a compound (Iaoth) with the last syllable of Sabaoth. He also reports that the Valentinian heretics use (Iao); Clement of Alexandria writes (Iaou)see also below; Origen of Alexandria, Iao; Porphyry, (Ieuo); Epiphanius (d. 404), who was born in Palestine and spent a considerable part of his life there, gives Ia and Iabe (one codex Iaue); Pseudo-Jerome, tetragrammaton legi potest Iaho; Theodoret (d. c. 457) writes (Iao); he also reports that the Samaritans say or (both pronounced at that time /ja'v/), while the Jews say (Aia). 11
7 8 9 10 Book Osee in Wyclif's Bible to be translated as the pronoun I Personal pronoun of the 1st person singular Patristics or Patrology is the study of Early Christian writers, known as the Church Fathers. (c. 100 CE - 451 CE or the 8th century 11 The latter is probably not but Ehyeh = "I am " or "I will be", Exod. 3:14 which the Jews counted among the names of God.

James of Edessa, Jehjeh; Jerome speaks of certain ignorant Greek writers who transcribed the Hebrew Divine name as . Of course these words may have used as a base for generating the ego-pronoun (as an image of the divine name). Comparing these names to some of the Ego-pronouns we may definitely find some remarkable correlations. Especially (Iaou) as defined by Clement of Alexandria, from the Codex Laurentianus, (Ieuo) introduced by Porphyry and Iaue referenced by Epiphanius (d. 404) seem to correspond to some of the Alpine, genuine, three-vowel Ego-pronouns (in Romansh) iou, (in Romansh and Occitan) ieu and (Romansh) iau respectively their Italian equivalent io, Sicilan equivalent iu and Slawish equivalent ja. In vulgar Latin the personal pronouns12 came into more and more frequent use at the beginning of the Christian Era 13. Ego and tu are very common in Petronius 14. Ego lost its g in all the territory, but probably not until the end of the Vulgar Latin period. According to Meyer-Lbke, Lat. Spr. 484, eo occurs in manuscripts of the sixth century.15 The early design of the Ego-pronouns ieu, iau, iou, io, iu and ja may have been influenced and/or inspired by the reading of these ancient codices. All of these names and Ego-pronouns are vocalic designs. This of course may have convinced Wyclif to apply a Y-symbol as an ego-pronoun, later to be replaced by an I, which both had to be capitalized in honor to the image of the divine Creator. Obviously the mystical wisdom had not been lost in 1617, in which the androgynous Y-Symbol for Albertus Magnus has been documented. Androgyny may also explain the symbolism in the male character I and the female symbol U, which are to be linked by the other vowels. In the Patristic writings most names seem to end with an Omega-vowel, although the tetragrammaton YHW ends in a Waw-symbol, which may also be interpreted as a double-U (W). The problems in coding the vowels in proper alphabetic letters probably posed some of the translators into serious conflicts.

Dictionary of (some) vocalic words

A variety of sources
This dictionary merely starts with a rather unstructured summary of vocalic words. It seems to be too early to structure the concept as long as so much sources remain uncovered. Most civilisations concentrated on different vowels for their symbolism. Some examples may illustrate the various origins of religious concepts: The Jews honored the letters IHVH (earliest: Mesha Stele , 840 BC) The Greeks at Delphi honoured the vowel E or Ei at the Apollo temple (E - of the E-symbol Engraven Over the Gate of Apollos Temple at Delphi, earliest documention by Plutarch, * 45 I - c. 125 ) The Romans honored the letters *Iou (Jupiter, earliest temple c. 600 BC), giving rise to a great variety of names for the weekday Thursday jeudi in French, jueves in Spanish, joi in

12 The Prime Words in Adam's Language 13 also known as the "Common Era" or the "Vulgar Era" 14 Source: Vulgar Latin (page 34) 15 Source: Vulgar Latin (See 263), (page 161).

Romanian, gioved in Italian, dijous in Catalan, Xoves in Galego, Joibe in Furlan. Some peoples may have concentrated on the central vowel E, respectively H (Greek: Eta) or O in the names, whereas others concentrated on the male, respectively female antipodes I, respectively U. Combinations of U and I may have lead to the design of the Y-vowel as found in the Y-Symbol for Albertus Magnus (1617).

Personal pronouns
Most of the sacred vowels have been applied in the definitions of the Ego-pronouns such as ieu, iau, iou, io, iu and ja and in other personal pronouns (e.g. we and you).

Another category of vocalic words may be identified in the Yes-words 16, which in analogy to the Ego-pronouns may have been introduced around the beginning of the Christian Era 17. Early Middle English had a four-form system, but according to Tyndale modern English has reduced this to a two-form system consisting of 'yes' and 'no' . The answers to positively framed questions ("Will he go?") were yea and nay, whilst the answers to negatively framed questions ("Will he not go?") were yes and no. Other languages use a three-form system. Swedish and Danish have ja, jo, and nej. Norwegian has ja, jo, and nei. Icelandic has j, j and nei. All of these concepts use various vowels for better pronounciation, which would explain these variants as natural contrasts to improve communications.

Aye- and nay-words

Some of the religious concepts seem to have concentrated on eternal processes. One of the main concepts is procreation, which required an androgynous couple to generate children in a way the Creator started procreation. As a rule the very words for ever, always and eternal reveal a surplus of vowels in many languages. From Middle English aye, ai, agg, from Old Norse ei, ey, from Proto-Germanic *:ui ever, always (compare Old English , , Middle Dutch ie, German je), accusative of *aiwaz age; law (compare Old English (w) law, West Frisian ieu id, Dutch eeuw century), from Proto-Indo-European *h ius long time (compare Irish aois age, period, Latin vum eternity, Ancient Greek ain). C Of course some of these words seem to correlate to ego-pronouns and yes-words (including the maritime yes-word aye-aye), probably because the limited number of vowels cannot encode an unlimited set of sacred words. Nay probably has been derived from aye (by negating ever to never).

The We-pronoun and other runic UI-words

The oldest form to write we probably may be found from the runes in which we had been written as UIR18 (German: we), which clearly includes the characters U and I. The etymology for the wir (we)-runes19 documents: Islandic. ver, Swedish-Danish: vi, gothic veis, English we, Dutch wij.

16 17 18 19

sources: Yes and no and yes-no questions also known as the "Common Era" or the "Vulgar Era" Source: The Runes-Dictionary by Udo Waldemar Dieterich (1844) Runes #1438 and #1065 in The Runes-Dictionary by Udo Waldemar Dieterich (1844)

The Runes-Dictionary lists a great number of other runic words and a number of names starting with the UI-sequence such as: Runic word UI UIU UIUR UIR UII UIRA Runic word ui uithu uithur uithr uithi uirtha Translation sacred location wide tree, forest with with to be honored Correlated English words Dutch: wijden ( wemaking) wide wood with with worth

Table 1: Runic words starting with UI-sequences It is to be checked whether these words do include some religious symbolism. Of course UI as a sacred location meets the conditions for religious cores. UIR is to be understood as: Joining the female U and the male I elements will setup a sacred location UI.

A concept of eternity
Generally the concept of eternity must have been a basic concepts to be expressed by the vowels. The vocal sounds, which basically may be prolonged eternally20 , seem to express long or even eternal concepts, such as God, the matrimonial couple, which of course had been ordered to eternally procreate, eternity itself, the (matrimonial) acclamation yes, which had to be used in vows (basically consisting of vowels)...

The D-consonants
Divine names suche as Dios, Dio, Dieu often include a header symbol Dor (Th), which as a consonant disturbes the genuine vowel-concepts. These D-symbols may eventually be understood as from-characters (designed in analogy to d'IU-piter, in the sense of IU's father or the father of IU): Dio is the father of io (Italian) Diu is the father of iu (in Sicilian) Deus is the father of eu (Portugese)21 Dieu is the father of ieu (Provencal)22

In a strict sense most ego-pronouns are purer than the divine names and may have been considered as more sacred. This at least would be confirmed by the highest priority in the Swadesh-lists (which unfortunately do not include the divine names at all!). Most personal pronouns of the 2 nd person singular (the Thou-pronouns) will also start with a heading consonant Dor (Th). Of course the consonants Dor (Th) in the Thou-pronouns and in the divine names may correlate, but no evidence has been found (yet) for this thesis. The following dictionary cannot be more than an initial design, a concept for the sketch to illustrate the magnificent idea of evolving language from a common design.

20 That is: as long as the singer may prolong his breath ... 21 compare: Deus e eu no Serto (God and me in the backwoods) by the artists: Victor e Leo 22 Compare the use of ieu and Dieu in: Mirio (English Version) - A Provenal poem by Frdric Mistral

Vocalic word IHVH

Derived from:

Quotation from:

Year / Period 840 BC

Tetragrammaton The Mesha Stele bears the earliest known reference to the sacred Hebrew name of God YHWH. Heptagrammaton Permutated form of the Tetragrammaton Jews


inscription in the Milete theater, built in the 4th Cent. BC 4th century BC. Additional structures are 0 AD from Roman eras. Greek magical papyri, Origen of Alexandria, Valentinian heretics Diodorus Siculus, Theodoret Irenaeus (Gnostic) 3rd Cent. AD 60-30 BC 393 457 AD 200 202 AD c.150 - c. 215 AD 11th Cent. AD 234c. 305 AD ca. 310320 403 AD c. 393 c. 457 AD c. 393 c. 457 AD


The equivalent of the Hebrew trigrammaton YHW.

(Iaoth) equivalent of YHWH (Iaou) (Ieuo) Ia and Iabe Iaue Iaho /ja'v/ (Aia)

Tetragrammaton Clement of Alexandria Tetragrammaton Codex Laurentianus V 3, from the 11th century Tetragrammaton Porphyry Tetragrammaton Epiphanius Tetragrammaton Pseudo-Jerome Tetragrammaton Theodoret Tetragrammaton Jewish, according to Theodoret

Yahu or Yaho Tetragrammaton Aramaic papyri Iave and I Tetragrammaton Jewish magical papyri /Yaba Jehovah God Jehovah is favored by Protestant denominations as the English spelling of the personal name of God 23 James of Edessa E - of the E-symbol Engraven Over the Gate of Apollos Temple at Delphi, documented by Plutarch c. 640 708 AD * 45 I - c. 125 AD

Jehjeh E, Ei

unknown unknown

I, El


In Divina commedia - Paradiso, Canto ca. 1360 AD XXVI24 Dante documents the initially applied divine name as I and subsequently as El25: Wyclif's Bible Ego-pronoun26 c. 1328 1384 AD

23 Info from Tetragrammaton: Most scholars believe "Jehovah" to be a late (ca. 1100 CE) hybrid form derived by combining the Latin letters JHVH with the vowels of Adonai, but there is some evidence that it may already have been in use in Late Antiquity (5th century). 24 source: Divina commedia - Paradiso, Canto XXVI

Y I Thou UUe You Jou Jo Jau ieu

Androgyny I Thou We You

Y-Symbol for Albertus Magnus (1200-1280 1617 AD AD)27 Modern English Ego-pronoun Personal pronoun of the 2nd person singular Personal pronoun of the 1st person plural Personal pronoun of the 2nd person plural Sutsilvan Ego-pronoun Ego-pronoun in Lower Engadin Ego-pronoun (Jauer) Romansh (Grischun)

Occitan Ego-pronoun related to the divine name Dieu, derived from the Old Provenal ieu, an alternative form of eu (I) derived from Vulgar Latin *eo < Latin ego Portugese Ego-pronoun related to the divine name Deus Sicilian Ego-pronoun related to the divine name Diu Italian Ego-pronoun related to the divine name Dio Slawish Ego-pronoun

eu iu io ja IU-piter IOU-piter Dio Dieu Diu Deus Huwen, Huwelijk Ehe


The father of the Jupiter Ego-pronoun God God God God To marry matrimony matrimony Divine name in Italy Divine name in France Divine name in Sicily Divine name in Portugal Dutch, probably based on the vowel H (Eta) German, probably based on the vowel H (Eta) Yes-word in Great Britain Yes-word in Great Britain c. 0 AD c. 0 AD

Yes Yeah ja

yes yes yes

Yes-word in the Netherlands, Germany, and c. 0 AD Scandinavian languages

25 I s'appellava in terra il sommo bene onde vien la letizia che mi fascia; e El si chiam poi ...- 'I' was the name on earth of the Sovereign Good, whose joyous rays envelop and surround me. Later 'El' became His name... 26 Personal pronoun of the 1st person singular 27 Symbola aureae mensae duodecim nationum by Michael Maier - typis Antonij Hummij, impensis Lucae Iennis, 1617 - 621 pages

Aye - aye *h i)us aye, ai, agg *-ui ieu eeuw n, n nay nieuw new

yes long time Ever, always Ever, always Century, centennial Century never no new new

Maritime Yes-word in Great Britain Proto-Indo-European Middle English Proto-Germanic West Frisian (from Proto-Germanic *:ui ) Dutch equivalent to old-English ne (not) + , (ever, always). English (obsolete) - probably a negation not everlasting for aye (ever) Dutch: a negation (not everlasting, not always) for West Frisian ieu English, probably derived from Dutch nieuw We ( Wir in German, from the Runes) We in the St Gall Paternoster Dutch: wijden ( the we-making) ca. 4th century AD 8th century AD ca. 4th century AD ca. 4th century AD ca. 4th century AD Table 2: Dictionary of (some) vocalic words

uir uuir ui uithr, uithi uirtha

we we Sacred place with worth