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Company / developer Oracle Corporation Programmed in C OS family Unix Working state Current Mixed open source / closed Source model source Initial release 1992 11 Express 2010.11 / Latest stable release November 15, 2010; 8 months ago Marketing target Workstation, Server Available language(s) English Available programming C languages(s) SPARC, IA-32, x86-64, Supported platforms PowerPC (Solaris 2.5.1 only) Kernel type Monolithic OpenSolaris Desktop or CDE Default user interface or GNOME License Various Official website oracle.com/solaris Solaris is a Unix operating system originally developed by Sun Microsystems. It superseded their earlier SunOS in 1993. Oracle Solaris, as it is now known, has been owned by Oracle Corporation since Oracle's acquisition of Sun in January 2010. Solaris is known for its scalability, especially on SPARC systems, and for originating many innovative features such as DTrace, ZFS and Time Slider. Solaris supports SPARC-based and x86-based workstations and servers from Sun and other vendors, with efforts underway to port to additional platforms. Solaris is registered as compliant with the Single Unix Specification.
x micro releases were retroactively named Solaris 1 by Sun.Solaris was historically developed as proprietary software. Oracle decided to discontinue the OpenSolaris distribution and the development model. but also the OpenWindows graphical user interface and Open Network Computing (ONC) . 1991. then in June 2005 Sun Microsystems released most of the codebase under the CDDL license. However. AT&T and Sun announced that they were collaborating on a project to merge the most popular Unix variants on the market at that time: BSD. Contents [hide] • • • • • • • • • • 1 History 2 Supported architectures o 2. the OpenSolaris community forked the OpenIndiana project. System V. On September 4. the Solaris name is almost exclusively used to refer to the SVR4-derived SunOS 5. The justification for this new "overbrand" was that it encompassed not only SunOS. and founded the OpenSolaris open source project.1 Other platforms 3 Installation and usage options o 3. As a result. SunOS 4. and Xenix. after full binary releases are made. through the Oracle Technology Network (OTN).2 Usage without installation 4 Desktop environments 5 License 6 Version history 7 Development release 8 See also 9 References 10 External links History In 1987. While SunOS 4. but a new marketing name was introduced at the same time: Solaris 2.1 Usage with installation o 3. After the acquisition of Sun Microsystems in January 2010.1. This was identified internally as SunOS 5. Oracle will also begin a technology partner program.0 and later. with one based on SVR4. Sun announced that it would replace its existing BSD-derived Unix. starting with Solaris 11. With OpenSolaris Sun wanted to build a developer and user community around the software. to permit their industry partners access to the in-development Solaris source code. updates to the Solaris source code will still be distributed under the CDDL license. This became Unix System V Release 4 (SVR4). as part of the Illumos Foundation.
1 into OpenSolaris. so Solaris 7 incorporates SunOS 5. which re-integrated the relevant parts from Solaris 2. certify. Other platforms Solaris 2. and the latest release SunOS 5.will "test. supporting a large number of CPUs. Sun has heavily marketed Solaris for use with both its own "x64" workstations and servers based on AMD Opteron and Intel Xeon processors. but the port was canceled before the Solaris 2. Solaris has a reputation for being well-suited to symmetric multiprocessing.7. HewlettPackard. Solaris 2. However. announced its first official source code release. as well as x86 systems manufactured by companies such as Dell. .5. for example. Solaris 10.1 included support for the PowerPC platform (PowerPC Reference Platform).10 forms the core of Solaris 10.6 release.4 incorporated SunOS 5.1 and the latest version. It has historically been tightly integrated with Sun's SPARC hardware (including support for 64-bit SPARC applications since Solaris 7). Sun dropped the "2. Supported architectures Solaris uses a common code base for the platforms it supports: SPARC and i86pc (which includes both x86 and x86-64). and IBM.distributes and provides software technical support for Solaris on ProLiant server and blade systems Fujitsu Siemens As of July 2010. As of 2009. After Solaris 2. In October 2006. Dell and HP certify and resell Oracle Solaris. includes support for 64-bit x86 applications.5. but at a cost premium over commodity PC hardware." from the number. the following vendors support Solaris for their x86 server systems: • • • • • Dell . an OpenSolaris community project based on the Blastwave efforts and Sun Labs' Project Pulsar. Oracle Enterprise Linux and Oracle VM on their respective x86 platforms. This has often led to more reliable systems.also distributes Solaris and Solaris Subscriptions for select x86-based IBM System x servers and BladeCenter servers Intel Hewlett-Packard .functionality. allowing Sun to capitalize on the availability of commodity 64-bit CPUs based on the x86-64 architecture. In January 2006 a community of developers at Blastwave began work on a PowerPC port which they named Polaris. it has also supported x86 systems since Solaris 2. and optimize Solaris and OpenSolaris on its rack and blade servers and offer them as one of several choices in the overall Dell software menu" IBM . with which it is marketed as a combined package.6. The SunOS minor version is included in the Solaris release number. and IBM stopped direct support for Solaris on x64 kit.4.
Installation of Solaris is not necessary for an individual to use the system. called Sirius (in analogy to the Polaris project. 2008 a prototype release of Sirius was made available and on November 19 the same year. On November 28. ranging from a minimalistic "Reduced Network Support" to a complete "Entire Plus OEM". based on the branded zones functionality introduced in Solaris 10 8/07. IBM authorized the use of Sirius on System z IFL processors. On October 17. Solaris also supports the Linux platform ABI. Installation and usage options Solaris can be installed from various pre-packaged software groups. allowing Solaris to run native Linux binaries on x86 systems. like Apache. can be installed as well in a packaged form from sunfreeware. and also due to the primary developer's Australian nationality: HMS Sirius of 1786 was a ship of the First Fleet to Australia). and Sine Nomine Associates demonstrated a preview of OpenSolaris for System z running on an IBM System z mainframe under z/VM. 2007. OpenCSW and Blastwave. This feature is called "Solaris Containers for Linux Applications" or SCLA. MySQL. IBM. etc.A port of Solaris to the Intel Itanium architecture was announced in 1997 but never brought to market. Sun. Additional software. Usage with installation Solaris 10 text installation .
and be immediately usable) or rapid replacement is required (if a desktop hardware failure occurs. Solaris can be interactively installed from a graphical console. in a remote data center. the operating system still runs locally on the system.Solaris 10 graphical installation Solaris can be installed from physical media or a network for use on a desktop or server. Solaris can be interactively installed from a text console on platforms without a video display and mouse. This may be selected for businesses or educational institutions where rapid setup is required (workstations can be "rolled off" of a loading dock. a new workstation is pulled from a closet. where a console may normally be used. the operating system will reside on the same system where the installation occurred. plugged in. In this configuration. without purchasing additional software management utilities. or can be mounted via the network from a remote system. This may be selected for servers. Applications may be individually installed on the local system. and a user can resume their work from their last saved point. including configuration and automatic installation of third-party software.) . in a local area. Usage without installation Solaris can be used without separately installing the operating system on a desktop or server. plugged in. This may be selected for personal workstations or laptops. from a terminal server or even dial up modem. Solaris can be automatically installed over a network. Applications may or may not reside locally when they are running. When Solaris is installed. in a rack. the MAC address registered into a central server. System administrators can customize installations with scripts and configuration files. Solaris can be booted from a remote server providing an OS image in a diskless environment. or in an environment where an internal disk is only used for swap space.
which shipped with Solaris 2. NeWS allowed applications to be built in an object oriented way using PostScript.6. but support libraries were still bundled. OpenWindows 3. operating system. OpenWindows supported both NeWS and X applications. separated by a network connection.3. placed on a desktop. whether or not the work was saved. Sun’s original bundled SunView application suite was ported to X. If there is a hardware failure.0 to 2. The OPEN LOOK Window Manager (olwm) with other OPEN LOOK specific applications were dropped in Solaris 9. Administrators can add a user account to a central Solaris system and a thin client can be rolled from a closet. The OPEN LOOK Virtual Window Manager (olvwm) can still be downloaded for Solaris from sunfreeware and works on releases as recent as Solaris 10.2 was the last release under Solaris 8.3. and a user can start work immediately. and switched to X11R5 with Display Postscript support. Sun later dropped support for legacy SunView applications and NeWS with OpenWindows 3. Desktop environments olvwm with OpenWindows on Solaris Early releases of Solaris used OpenWindows as the standard desktop environment.2. and provided backward compatibility for SunView applications from Sun's older desktop environment.Solaris can also be used from a thin client. and graphical rendering runs on one or more remote servers. The X Window System originated from MIT's Project Athena in 1984 and allowed for the display of an application to be disconnected from the machine where the application was running. . the thin client can be swapped and the user can resume their work from the exact point of failure. Applications. The graphical look and feel remained based upon OPEN LOOK. In Solaris 2. providing long term binary backwards compatibility with existing applications. window manager. a common printing language released in 1982.
 It is considered by the Free Software Foundation to be free but the GPL is incompatible with it. Sun was investing in a new desktop environment called Project Looking Glass since 2003. which is based on GNOME and comes with a large set of applications. The project has been inactive since late 2006.5. Sun helped codevelop the Common Desktop Environment. Solaris 9 8/03 introduced GNOME 2. along with numerous other window managers. As a member of COSE. also compile and run on recent versions of Solaris. but many libraries remain for binary backwards compatibility. CDE was an initiative to create a standard Unix desktop environment. Sun issued a preview release of the open-source desktop environment GNOME 1. and Sun provided the e-mail and calendar facilities as well as drag-and-drop support (ToolTalk).4 and 2. IBM provided the file manager. the Common Open Software Environment initiative. . The open source desktop environments KDE and Xfce. Sun describes JDS as a "major component" of Solaris 10. CDE unified Unix desktops across multiple open system vendors. The CDE applications are no longer included in OpenSolaris and Solaris 11. based on the GTK+ toolkit.6 through 10. In 2001. License Solaris' source code (with a few exceptions) has been released under the Common Development and Distribution License (CDDL) via the OpenSolaris project.0 as an alternative to CDE.Common Desktop Environment Sun and other Unix vendors created an industry alliance to standardize Unix desktops. and was included in Solaris 2. Sun's office suite.4. The CDDL is an OSI-approved license. including StarOffice. This new desktop environment was based upon the Motif look and feel and the old OPEN LOOK desktop environment was considered legacy. CDE was available as an unbundled add-on for Solaris 2. Each vendor contributed different components: HewlettPackard contributed the window manager. Solaris 10 includes Sun's Java Desktop System (JDS). for Solaris 8.
and Sun has said that future releases of Solaris proper will henceforth be derived from OpenSolaris.x 1991– 1994 June 1992 - End of support Major new features 2. SPARC-only release.1. Solaris Containers. Source for upcoming features such as Xen support is now added to the OpenSolaris project as a matter of course.0 5. Updates to Solaris versions are periodically released. Support for sun4 and sun4m architectures added. 2005 from the then-current Solaris development code base. and Solaris Trusted Extensions. Version history Solaris logo introduced with Solaris 10 and used until Oracle's acquisition of Sun Notable features of Solaris currently include DTrace.2 5. support 1999 for only the sun4c architecture.1 December 1992 May 1993 2. First to support May 1999 multithreading libraries (UI threads API in libthread). See SunOS article 2003 for more information.OpenSolaris was seeded on June 14. Preliminary release (primarily January available to developers only). such as Solaris 10 10/09. First Solaris 2 release to support SMP.0 - 2. Solaris Volume Manager. First to support sun4d architecture. the following versions of Solaris have been released: Colour Meaning Red Release no longer supported Green Release still supported Blue Future release Release date Solaris SunOS version version SPARC x86 1. Solaris Multiplexed I/O.x 4. both binary and source versions are currently downloadable and licensed without cost.2 May 1993 - SunOS 4 rebranded as Solaris 1 for September marketing purposes. First appearance of NIS+.1 5. In ascending order. Doors. first Solaris x86 April 1999 release. . ZFS. Service Management Facility.
First to support UltraSPARC and include CDE. Support added for autofs and CacheFS filesystems.3 5. mdb modular debugger. large file support. 2005 SPARC-only release. Introduced Role-Based Access Control (RBAC).3 switches from NeWS to Display PostScript and drops SunView support.6 5. 2002 January 10. also included processor sets and early resource management technologies. Service Management Facility (SMF) which .3 November 1993 - June 2002 September 2003 December 2003 2. DTrace (Dynamic Tracing).1c-1995 pthreads added. sun4c support removed. Includes Kerberos 5. Includes x86-64 (AMD64/Intel 64) support. WebNFS. Includes OSF/Motif runtime support. IPMP. OpenWindows 3.8 February 2000 March 2012 9 5. user and group IDs (uid_t. Ultra Enterprise support added. PAM.1 May 1996 September 2005 2. iPlanet Directory Server. First unified SPARC/x86 release. Last update is Solaris 8 2/04. and Linux compatibility added. Last update was Solaris 7 11/99. SPARCserver 600MP series support dropped. extended file attributes. Most current update is Solaris 9 9/05.5. Added native support for file system meta-data logging (UFS logging).9 May 28. Resource Manager.5 5.10 January 31. Dropped MCA support on x86 platform.5. Solaris Containers. first support for IPv6 and IPsec (manual keying only).7 November 1998 August 2008 8 5.2. sun4d support removed. 2003 October 2014 - 10 5. Doors added but undocumented. NFSv3 and NFS/TCP. IKE IPsec keying. Dropped sun4 (VMEbus) support.4 5.4 November 1994 2.6 July 1997 July 2006 7 5. The first 64-bit UltraSPARC release.1 5. OpenWindows dropped. gid_t) expanded to 32 bits. Only release to support PowerPC platform. enhanced procfs. POSIX. TrueType fonts.5 November 1995 2. Solaris Volume Manager. Includes Multipath I/O.
Adds Java Desktop System (based on GNOME) as default desktop. Support for sun4m and UltraSPARC I processors removed.replaces init. Least privilege security model. iSCSI Initiator support and fcinfo command-line tool. IP Instances (part of the OpenSolaris Network Virtualization and Resource Control project). Logical .d scripts.  Solaris 10 10/08 ("U6") added boot from ZFS and can use ZFS as its root file system. NFSv4. iSCSI Target support and Solaris Containers for Linux Applications (based on branded zones). SpeedStep support for Intel processors and PowerNow! support for AMD processors. enhanced version of the Resource Capping Daemon (rcapd). Solaris 10 10/08 also includes virtualization enhancements including the ability for a Solaris Container to automatically update its environment when moved from one system to another. Solaris 10 8/07 ("U4") added Samba Active Directory support.  • • • • • • Solaris 10 1/06 (known internally as "U1") added the GRUB bootloader for x86 systems. Solaris 10 11/06 ("U3") added Solaris Trusted Extensions and Logical Domains. Solaris 10 6/06 ("U2") added the ZFS filesystem. performance improvements. Solaris 10 5/08 ("U5") added CPU capping for Solaris Containers. Support for EISA-based PCs removed.
CDE. virtual consoles. Solaris 10 5/09 ("U7") added performance and power management support for Intel Nehalem processors. network virtualization and QoS. ZFS triple parity RAID-Z and Oracle Solaris Auto Registration. updated GNOME. 2010 - Solaris 10 8/11 ("U10") Adds new packaging system (IPS=Image Packaging System) and associated tools. improvements to patching performance. ZFS encryption and deduplication.11 November 15. Solaris 10 10/09 ("U8") added user and group level ZFS quotas. container cloning using ZFS cloned file systems. and performance enhancements for ZFS on solidstate drives.• • • Domains support for dynamically reconfigurable disk and network I/O. Solaris 10 9/10 ("U9") added physical to zone migration. • .11 2010. and paravirtualization support when Solaris 10 is used as a guest OS in Xen-based environments such as Sun xVM Server. 11 Express 5. fast reboot. ZFS cache devices and nss_ldap shadowAccount Support. Solaris 10 Containers. Removes Xsun.
 Solaris releases are also described in the Solaris 2 FAQ. Each version such as Solaris 10 is based on a snapshot of this development codebase. which is then maintained as a derived project. A more comprehensive summary of some Solaris versions is also available. taken near the time of its release.0. Development release The underlying Solaris codebase has been under continuous development since work began in the late 1980s on what was eventually released as Solaris 2. . Updates to that project are built and delivered several times a year until the next official release comes out.
with different license terms. and released build 151a as 2010. SXCE releases terminated with build 130 and OpenSolaris releases terminated with build 134 a few weeks later.software packages for production Sparc and x86/AMD64 Solaris 8 upwards Comparison of operating systems Illumos OpenCSW .11 in November 2010. Sun announced Project Indiana with several goals. with users recommended to migrate to the OpenSolaris distribution. The first release of this distribution was OpenSolaris 2008. and is derived from what is now the OpenSolaris codebase. until it was discontinued in January 2010. though the packages were made available on the package repository. educational and evaluation purposes. Instead Oracle renamed the binary distro to Solaris 11 Express. In 2007. It was updated every two weeks. In 2003.The Solaris version under development by Sun since the release of Solaris 10 in 2005 is codenamed Nevada. A later change to this program introduced a quarterly release model with support available. Under the program name Software Express for Solaris (or just Solaris Express). The next release of OpenSolaris based on build 134 was due in March 2010 but it was never fully released. Although the download license seen when downloading the image files indicates its use is limited to personal. The Solaris Express Community Edition (SXCE) was intended specifically for OpenSolaris developers. allowing anyone to try out new features and test the quality and stability of the OS as it progressed to the release of the next official Solaris version. including providing an open source binary distribution of the OpenSolaris project. an addition to the Solaris development process was initiated. renamed Solaris Express Developer Edition (SXDE).Software forked from Blastwave OpenIndiana OpenSolaris Operating systems timeline Sun Management Center Sun xVM Trusted Solaris . a binary release based on the current development basis was made available for download on a monthly basis. the license acceptance form displayed when the user actually installs from these images lists additional uses including commercial and production environments. See also • • • • • • • • • • Blastwave . replacing SXDE.05.
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