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Company / developer Oracle Corporation Programmed in C OS family Unix Working state Current Mixed open source / closed Source model source Initial release 1992 11 Express 2010.11 / Latest stable release November 15, 2010; 8 months ago Marketing target Workstation, Server Available language(s) English Available programming C languages(s) SPARC, IA-32, x86-64, Supported platforms PowerPC (Solaris 2.5.1 only) Kernel type Monolithic OpenSolaris Desktop or CDE Default user interface or GNOME License Various Official website oracle.com/solaris Solaris is a Unix operating system originally developed by Sun Microsystems. It superseded their earlier SunOS in 1993. Oracle Solaris, as it is now known, has been owned by Oracle Corporation since Oracle's acquisition of Sun in January 2010. Solaris is known for its scalability, especially on SPARC systems, and for originating many innovative features such as DTrace, ZFS and Time Slider. Solaris supports SPARC-based and x86-based workstations and servers from Sun and other vendors, with efforts underway to port to additional platforms. Solaris is registered as compliant with the Single Unix Specification.
 On September 4. then in June 2005 Sun Microsystems released most of the codebase under the CDDL license. As a result. through the Oracle Technology Network (OTN). the OpenSolaris community forked the OpenIndiana project. Oracle will also begin a technology partner program. Oracle decided to discontinue the OpenSolaris distribution and the development model. However.1 Other platforms 3 Installation and usage options o 3. Contents [hide] • • • • • • • • • • 1 History 2 Supported architectures o 2. but also the OpenWindows graphical user interface and Open Network Computing (ONC) . This was identified internally as SunOS 5.Solaris was historically developed as proprietary software. and founded the OpenSolaris open source project.1 Usage with installation o 3. and Xenix. The justification for this new "overbrand" was that it encompassed not only SunOS. 1991. starting with Solaris 11. to permit their industry partners access to the in-development Solaris source code. While SunOS 4. with one based on SVR4.x micro releases were retroactively named Solaris 1 by Sun.1. updates to the Solaris source code will still be distributed under the CDDL license. but a new marketing name was introduced at the same time: Solaris 2. after full binary releases are made. With OpenSolaris Sun wanted to build a developer and user community around the software. SunOS 4. AT&T and Sun announced that they were collaborating on a project to merge the most popular Unix variants on the market at that time: BSD. Sun announced that it would replace its existing BSD-derived Unix. the Solaris name is almost exclusively used to refer to the SVR4-derived SunOS 5. After the acquisition of Sun Microsystems in January 2010. This became Unix System V Release 4 (SVR4).0 and later.2 Usage without installation 4 Desktop environments 5 License 6 Version history 7 Development release 8 See also 9 References 10 External links History In 1987. as part of the Illumos Foundation. System V.
1 into OpenSolaris. and IBM stopped direct support for Solaris on x64 kit.6. and IBM. Sun dropped the "2. Supported architectures Solaris uses a common code base for the platforms it supports: SPARC and i86pc (which includes both x86 and x86-64). supporting a large number of CPUs. The SunOS minor version is included in the Solaris release number.4 incorporated SunOS 5.1 included support for the PowerPC platform (PowerPC Reference Platform). Solaris 2. with which it is marketed as a combined package. and optimize Solaris and OpenSolaris on its rack and blade servers and offer them as one of several choices in the overall Dell software menu" IBM . an OpenSolaris community project based on the Blastwave efforts and Sun Labs' Project Pulsar. for example.1 and the latest version.5. so Solaris 7 incorporates SunOS 5. allowing Sun to capitalize on the availability of commodity 64-bit CPUs based on the x86-64 architecture. Solaris has a reputation for being well-suited to symmetric multiprocessing. It has historically been tightly integrated with Sun's SPARC hardware (including support for 64-bit SPARC applications since Solaris 7). it has also supported x86 systems since Solaris 2. HewlettPackard. certify. However. but the port was canceled before the Solaris 2.will "test. Oracle Enterprise Linux and Oracle VM on their respective x86 platforms. includes support for 64-bit x86 applications. In October 2006. In January 2006 a community of developers at Blastwave began work on a PowerPC port which they named Polaris. As of 2009.functionality. Sun has heavily marketed Solaris for use with both its own "x64" workstations and servers based on AMD Opteron and Intel Xeon processors.distributes and provides software technical support for Solaris on ProLiant server and blade systems Fujitsu Siemens As of July 2010. . Dell and HP certify and resell Oracle Solaris. Solaris 10. This has often led to more reliable systems. and the latest release SunOS 5.4. the following vendors support Solaris for their x86 server systems: • • • • • Dell ." from the number. as well as x86 systems manufactured by companies such as Dell.5.7. announced its first official source code release.10 forms the core of Solaris 10.6 release. but at a cost premium over commodity PC hardware. Other platforms Solaris 2.also distributes Solaris and Solaris Subscriptions for select x86-based IBM System x servers and BladeCenter servers Intel Hewlett-Packard . which re-integrated the relevant parts from Solaris 2. After Solaris 2.
and also due to the primary developer's Australian nationality: HMS Sirius of 1786 was a ship of the First Fleet to Australia). etc. 2007. This feature is called "Solaris Containers for Linux Applications" or SCLA. IBM authorized the use of Sirius on System z IFL processors. IBM. MySQL. allowing Solaris to run native Linux binaries on x86 systems. ranging from a minimalistic "Reduced Network Support" to a complete "Entire Plus OEM". Installation of Solaris is not necessary for an individual to use the system. called Sirius (in analogy to the Polaris project. can be installed as well in a packaged form from sunfreeware. On October 17. 2008 a prototype release of Sirius was made available and on November 19 the same year. Additional software.A port of Solaris to the Intel Itanium architecture was announced in 1997 but never brought to market. Solaris also supports the Linux platform ABI. and Sine Nomine Associates demonstrated a preview of OpenSolaris for System z running on an IBM System z mainframe under z/VM. Sun. OpenCSW and Blastwave. based on the branded zones functionality introduced in Solaris 10 8/07. Usage with installation Solaris 10 text installation . Installation and usage options Solaris can be installed from various pre-packaged software groups. like Apache. On November 28.
Applications may or may not reside locally when they are running. in a local area. Applications may be individually installed on the local system. In this configuration. Solaris can be automatically installed over a network. the operating system will reside on the same system where the installation occurred. This may be selected for personal workstations or laptops. where a console may normally be used. and a user can resume their work from their last saved point. the operating system still runs locally on the system. plugged in.) .Solaris 10 graphical installation Solaris can be installed from physical media or a network for use on a desktop or server. Solaris can be interactively installed from a graphical console. System administrators can customize installations with scripts and configuration files. in a rack. This may be selected for servers. When Solaris is installed. or in an environment where an internal disk is only used for swap space. Solaris can be interactively installed from a text console on platforms without a video display and mouse. including configuration and automatic installation of third-party software. from a terminal server or even dial up modem. in a remote data center. a new workstation is pulled from a closet. the MAC address registered into a central server. Solaris can be booted from a remote server providing an OS image in a diskless environment. This may be selected for businesses or educational institutions where rapid setup is required (workstations can be "rolled off" of a loading dock. Usage without installation Solaris can be used without separately installing the operating system on a desktop or server. and be immediately usable) or rapid replacement is required (if a desktop hardware failure occurs. or can be mounted via the network from a remote system. plugged in. without purchasing additional software management utilities.
The OPEN LOOK Window Manager (olwm) with other OPEN LOOK specific applications were dropped in Solaris 9. Sun later dropped support for legacy SunView applications and NeWS with OpenWindows 3.0 to 2. Sun’s original bundled SunView application suite was ported to X. but support libraries were still bundled.6. the thin client can be swapped and the user can resume their work from the exact point of failure. and a user can start work immediately. Desktop environments olvwm with OpenWindows on Solaris Early releases of Solaris used OpenWindows as the standard desktop environment.Solaris can also be used from a thin client. window manager. which shipped with Solaris 2. and provided backward compatibility for SunView applications from Sun's older desktop environment. and switched to X11R5 with Display Postscript support. The graphical look and feel remained based upon OPEN LOOK. operating system. In Solaris 2. placed on a desktop.2 was the last release under Solaris 8. If there is a hardware failure. Administrators can add a user account to a central Solaris system and a thin client can be rolled from a closet. NeWS allowed applications to be built in an object oriented way using PostScript. . a common printing language released in 1982. and graphical rendering runs on one or more remote servers. separated by a network connection.3.3. providing long term binary backwards compatibility with existing applications.2. Applications. OpenWindows 3. whether or not the work was saved. OpenWindows supported both NeWS and X applications. The X Window System originated from MIT's Project Athena in 1984 and allowed for the display of an application to be disconnected from the machine where the application was running. The OPEN LOOK Virtual Window Manager (olvwm) can still be downloaded for Solaris from sunfreeware and works on releases as recent as Solaris 10.
based on the GTK+ toolkit. IBM provided the file manager. Each vendor contributed different components: HewlettPackard contributed the window manager. including StarOffice. also compile and run on recent versions of Solaris.6 through 10.Common Desktop Environment Sun and other Unix vendors created an industry alliance to standardize Unix desktops. The CDE applications are no longer included in OpenSolaris and Solaris 11. which is based on GNOME and comes with a large set of applications. and Sun provided the e-mail and calendar facilities as well as drag-and-drop support (ToolTalk). The CDDL is an OSI-approved license. CDE was available as an unbundled add-on for Solaris 2. CDE was an initiative to create a standard Unix desktop environment. Sun issued a preview release of the open-source desktop environment GNOME 1. CDE unified Unix desktops across multiple open system vendors. Sun helped codevelop the Common Desktop Environment. Sun describes JDS as a "major component" of Solaris 10.0 as an alternative to CDE. As a member of COSE. License Solaris' source code (with a few exceptions) has been released under the Common Development and Distribution License (CDDL) via the OpenSolaris project. Sun's office suite. for Solaris 8. In 2001.5. It is considered by the Free Software Foundation to be free but the GPL is incompatible with it. but many libraries remain for binary backwards compatibility. The open source desktop environments KDE and Xfce. Solaris 10 includes Sun's Java Desktop System (JDS). Sun was investing in a new desktop environment called Project Looking Glass since 2003. The project has been inactive since late 2006. along with numerous other window managers.4 and 2.4. and was included in Solaris 2. This new desktop environment was based upon the Motif look and feel and the old OPEN LOOK desktop environment was considered legacy. the Common Open Software Environment initiative. Solaris 9 8/03 introduced GNOME 2. .
0 - 2. SPARC-only release. the following versions of Solaris have been released: Colour Meaning Red Release no longer supported Green Release still supported Blue Future release Release date Solaris SunOS version version SPARC x86 1. such as Solaris 10 10/09. Source for upcoming features such as Xen support is now added to the OpenSolaris project as a matter of course.OpenSolaris was seeded on June 14.0 5. First appearance of NIS+.x 4. and Solaris Trusted Extensions. First to support May 1999 multithreading libraries (UI threads API in libthread). ZFS.2 May 1993 - SunOS 4 rebranded as Solaris 1 for September marketing purposes.2 5. Preliminary release (primarily January available to developers only). 2005 from the then-current Solaris development code base. first Solaris x86 April 1999 release. .1 5.1. both binary and source versions are currently downloadable and licensed without cost. In ascending order. Updates to Solaris versions are periodically released. Service Management Facility. Support for sun4 and sun4m architectures added. support 1999 for only the sun4c architecture.x 1991– 1994 June 1992 - End of support Major new features 2. First to support sun4d architecture. Version history Solaris logo introduced with Solaris 10 and used until Oracle's acquisition of Sun Notable features of Solaris currently include DTrace. Solaris Multiplexed I/O. See SunOS article 2003 for more information.1 December 1992 May 1993 2. and Sun has said that future releases of Solaris proper will henceforth be derived from OpenSolaris. Doors. Solaris Containers. First Solaris 2 release to support SMP. Solaris Volume Manager.
Includes x86-64 (AMD64/Intel 64) support. Solaris Containers. DTrace (Dynamic Tracing). gid_t) expanded to 32 bits.3 switches from NeWS to Display PostScript and drops SunView support. OpenWindows 3. user and group IDs (uid_t. Last update was Solaris 7 11/99. PAM. sun4d support removed. 2005 SPARC-only release. SPARCserver 600MP series support dropped.5 5. Most current update is Solaris 9 9/05.6 July 1997 July 2006 7 5. Includes Multipath I/O. First unified SPARC/x86 release. large file support. Last update is Solaris 8 2/04. iPlanet Directory Server. and Linux compatibility added.5 November 1995 2.6 5.4 November 1994 2. Support added for autofs and CacheFS filesystems. The first 64-bit UltraSPARC release.5. NFSv3 and NFS/TCP. Includes OSF/Motif runtime support.2.3 November 1993 - June 2002 September 2003 December 2003 2. Doors added but undocumented. IPMP. Resource Manager. Solaris Volume Manager. Service Management Facility (SMF) which . Added native support for file system meta-data logging (UFS logging). 2002 January 10. Dropped sun4 (VMEbus) support.9 May 28. first support for IPv6 and IPsec (manual keying only). extended file attributes.4 5.10 January 31. OpenWindows dropped. also included processor sets and early resource management technologies.5. mdb modular debugger.3 5.1 May 1996 September 2005 2.8 February 2000 March 2012 9 5. IKE IPsec keying. sun4c support removed. TrueType fonts. First to support UltraSPARC and include CDE.1c-1995 pthreads added. WebNFS. Dropped MCA support on x86 platform. Ultra Enterprise support added. enhanced procfs. 2003 October 2014 - 10 5.7 November 1998 August 2008 8 5. Introduced Role-Based Access Control (RBAC). Includes Kerberos 5.1 5. Only release to support PowerPC platform. POSIX.
iSCSI Target support and Solaris Containers for Linux Applications (based on branded zones). SpeedStep support for Intel processors and PowerNow! support for AMD processors. enhanced version of the Resource Capping Daemon (rcapd). Logical . performance improvements.replaces init. iSCSI Initiator support and fcinfo command-line tool.  • • • • • • Solaris 10 1/06 (known internally as "U1") added the GRUB bootloader for x86 systems. NFSv4. Solaris 10 10/08 also includes virtualization enhancements including the ability for a Solaris Container to automatically update its environment when moved from one system to another. Support for sun4m and UltraSPARC I processors removed. Least privilege security model. Support for EISA-based PCs removed.  Solaris 10 10/08 ("U6") added boot from ZFS and can use ZFS as its root file system. Solaris 10 11/06 ("U3") added Solaris Trusted Extensions and Logical Domains. Solaris 10 8/07 ("U4") added Samba Active Directory support. Solaris 10 6/06 ("U2") added the ZFS filesystem.d scripts. IP Instances (part of the OpenSolaris Network Virtualization and Resource Control project). Adds Java Desktop System (based on GNOME) as default desktop. Solaris 10 5/08 ("U5") added CPU capping for Solaris Containers.
ZFS triple parity RAID-Z and Oracle Solaris Auto Registration. ZFS encryption and deduplication. • . updated GNOME. ZFS cache devices and nss_ldap shadowAccount Support. Solaris 10 10/09 ("U8") added user and group level ZFS quotas. Solaris 10 5/09 ("U7") added performance and power management support for Intel Nehalem processors. Solaris 10 9/10 ("U9") added physical to zone migration. container cloning using ZFS cloned file systems. improvements to patching performance. 11 Express 5. Removes Xsun. network virtualization and QoS. fast reboot.11 2010.11 November 15. 2010 - Solaris 10 8/11 ("U10") Adds new packaging system (IPS=Image Packaging System) and associated tools. virtual consoles. and paravirtualization support when Solaris 10 is used as a guest OS in Xen-based environments such as Sun xVM Server. Solaris 10 Containers. CDE.• • • Domains support for dynamically reconfigurable disk and network I/O. and performance enhancements for ZFS on solidstate drives.
Each version such as Solaris 10 is based on a snapshot of this development codebase. which is then maintained as a derived project.0. Development release The underlying Solaris codebase has been under continuous development since work began in the late 1980s on what was eventually released as Solaris 2. Updates to that project are built and delivered several times a year until the next official release comes out. . taken near the time of its release. A more comprehensive summary of some Solaris versions is also available. Solaris releases are also described in the Solaris 2 FAQ.
and is derived from what is now the OpenSolaris codebase. including providing an open source binary distribution of the OpenSolaris project. The first release of this distribution was OpenSolaris 2008. Instead Oracle renamed the binary distro to Solaris 11 Express. allowing anyone to try out new features and test the quality and stability of the OS as it progressed to the release of the next official Solaris version. Sun announced Project Indiana with several goals.The Solaris version under development by Sun since the release of Solaris 10 in 2005 is codenamed Nevada. a binary release based on the current development basis was made available for download on a monthly basis. with users recommended to migrate to the OpenSolaris distribution. and released build 151a as 2010. It was updated every two weeks.11 in November 2010. SXCE releases terminated with build 130 and OpenSolaris releases terminated with build 134 a few weeks later. renamed Solaris Express Developer Edition (SXDE). In 2007. Under the program name Software Express for Solaris (or just Solaris Express). the license acceptance form displayed when the user actually installs from these images lists additional uses including commercial and production environments. In 2003. until it was discontinued in January 2010. The Solaris Express Community Edition (SXCE) was intended specifically for OpenSolaris developers. an addition to the Solaris development process was initiated. Although the download license seen when downloading the image files indicates its use is limited to personal. The next release of OpenSolaris based on build 134 was due in March 2010 but it was never fully released.Software forked from Blastwave OpenIndiana OpenSolaris Operating systems timeline Sun Management Center Sun xVM Trusted Solaris . educational and evaluation purposes.05. See also • • • • • • • • • • Blastwave . though the packages were made available on the package repository.software packages for production Sparc and x86/AMD64 Solaris 8 upwards Comparison of operating systems Illumos OpenCSW . replacing SXDE. with different license terms. A later change to this program introduced a quarterly release model with support available.
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