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Company / developer Oracle Corporation Programmed in C OS family Unix Working state Current Mixed open source / closed Source model source Initial release 1992 11 Express 2010.11 / Latest stable release November 15, 2010; 8 months ago Marketing target Workstation, Server Available language(s) English Available programming C languages(s) SPARC, IA-32, x86-64, Supported platforms PowerPC (Solaris 2.5.1 only) Kernel type Monolithic OpenSolaris Desktop or CDE Default user interface or GNOME License Various Official website oracle.com/solaris Solaris is a Unix operating system originally developed by Sun Microsystems. It superseded their earlier SunOS in 1993. Oracle Solaris, as it is now known, has been owned by Oracle Corporation since Oracle's acquisition of Sun in January 2010. Solaris is known for its scalability, especially on SPARC systems, and for originating many innovative features such as DTrace, ZFS and Time Slider. Solaris supports SPARC-based and x86-based workstations and servers from Sun and other vendors, with efforts underway to port to additional platforms. Solaris is registered as compliant with the Single Unix Specification.
1 Usage with installation o 3. then in June 2005 Sun Microsystems released most of the codebase under the CDDL license. to permit their industry partners access to the in-development Solaris source code. but also the OpenWindows graphical user interface and Open Network Computing (ONC) . as part of the Illumos Foundation. As a result. Contents [hide] • • • • • • • • • • 1 History 2 Supported architectures o 2. the OpenSolaris community forked the OpenIndiana project. SunOS 4.0 and later. After the acquisition of Sun Microsystems in January 2010. the Solaris name is almost exclusively used to refer to the SVR4-derived SunOS 5. 1991. This became Unix System V Release 4 (SVR4).Solaris was historically developed as proprietary software. However. On September 4. through the Oracle Technology Network (OTN). The justification for this new "overbrand" was that it encompassed not only SunOS. but a new marketing name was introduced at the same time: Solaris 2. and founded the OpenSolaris open source project. Oracle will also begin a technology partner program. AT&T and Sun announced that they were collaborating on a project to merge the most popular Unix variants on the market at that time: BSD. after full binary releases are made. System V. Sun announced that it would replace its existing BSD-derived Unix. with one based on SVR4. This was identified internally as SunOS 5. starting with Solaris 11. updates to the Solaris source code will still be distributed under the CDDL license. Oracle decided to discontinue the OpenSolaris distribution and the development model.1.1 Other platforms 3 Installation and usage options o 3. and Xenix. While SunOS 4. With OpenSolaris Sun wanted to build a developer and user community around the software.2 Usage without installation 4 Desktop environments 5 License 6 Version history 7 Development release 8 See also 9 References 10 External links History In 1987.x micro releases were retroactively named Solaris 1 by Sun.
 It has historically been tightly integrated with Sun's SPARC hardware (including support for 64-bit SPARC applications since Solaris 7). supporting a large number of CPUs. and optimize Solaris and OpenSolaris on its rack and blade servers and offer them as one of several choices in the overall Dell software menu" IBM . As of 2009. In January 2006 a community of developers at Blastwave began work on a PowerPC port which they named Polaris. Other platforms Solaris 2. Sun dropped the "2. HewlettPackard. . Solaris has a reputation for being well-suited to symmetric multiprocessing. announced its first official source code release. This has often led to more reliable systems. Supported architectures Solaris uses a common code base for the platforms it supports: SPARC and i86pc (which includes both x86 and x86-64).1 included support for the PowerPC platform (PowerPC Reference Platform). However. for example.also distributes Solaris and Solaris Subscriptions for select x86-based IBM System x servers and BladeCenter servers Intel Hewlett-Packard . and IBM.5.4. but at a cost premium over commodity PC hardware. but the port was canceled before the Solaris 2. as well as x86 systems manufactured by companies such as Dell." from the number.6. an OpenSolaris community project based on the Blastwave efforts and Sun Labs' Project Pulsar. so Solaris 7 incorporates SunOS 5. which re-integrated the relevant parts from Solaris 2. The SunOS minor version is included in the Solaris release number.will "test. and the latest release SunOS 5. After Solaris 2.functionality. with which it is marketed as a combined package.7.distributes and provides software technical support for Solaris on ProLiant server and blade systems Fujitsu Siemens As of July 2010. allowing Sun to capitalize on the availability of commodity 64-bit CPUs based on the x86-64 architecture. the following vendors support Solaris for their x86 server systems: • • • • • Dell .1 into OpenSolaris. certify. Solaris 2.6 release. Solaris 10. Sun has heavily marketed Solaris for use with both its own "x64" workstations and servers based on AMD Opteron and Intel Xeon processors. Dell and HP certify and resell Oracle Solaris.5.10 forms the core of Solaris 10. and IBM stopped direct support for Solaris on x64 kit. In October 2006.4 incorporated SunOS 5. includes support for 64-bit x86 applications. Oracle Enterprise Linux and Oracle VM on their respective x86 platforms. it has also supported x86 systems since Solaris 2.1 and the latest version.
On October 17. can be installed as well in a packaged form from sunfreeware. like Apache. allowing Solaris to run native Linux binaries on x86 systems. IBM. and Sine Nomine Associates demonstrated a preview of OpenSolaris for System z running on an IBM System z mainframe under z/VM. IBM authorized the use of Sirius on System z IFL processors. OpenCSW and Blastwave. etc. 2007. Sun. 2008 a prototype release of Sirius was made available and on November 19 the same year. On November 28. and also due to the primary developer's Australian nationality: HMS Sirius of 1786 was a ship of the First Fleet to Australia). This feature is called "Solaris Containers for Linux Applications" or SCLA. Installation of Solaris is not necessary for an individual to use the system.A port of Solaris to the Intel Itanium architecture was announced in 1997 but never brought to market. called Sirius (in analogy to the Polaris project. Installation and usage options Solaris can be installed from various pre-packaged software groups. Additional software. based on the branded zones functionality introduced in Solaris 10 8/07. Usage with installation Solaris 10 text installation . MySQL. Solaris also supports the Linux platform ABI. ranging from a minimalistic "Reduced Network Support" to a complete "Entire Plus OEM".
the operating system will reside on the same system where the installation occurred. This may be selected for businesses or educational institutions where rapid setup is required (workstations can be "rolled off" of a loading dock. including configuration and automatic installation of third-party software. and be immediately usable) or rapid replacement is required (if a desktop hardware failure occurs. Solaris can be interactively installed from a graphical console. Solaris can be interactively installed from a text console on platforms without a video display and mouse. in a local area. Solaris can be automatically installed over a network. or in an environment where an internal disk is only used for swap space. This may be selected for servers. or can be mounted via the network from a remote system.) . the operating system still runs locally on the system. Applications may be individually installed on the local system. In this configuration. the MAC address registered into a central server. and a user can resume their work from their last saved point. When Solaris is installed. Usage without installation Solaris can be used without separately installing the operating system on a desktop or server.Solaris 10 graphical installation Solaris can be installed from physical media or a network for use on a desktop or server. in a rack. a new workstation is pulled from a closet. System administrators can customize installations with scripts and configuration files. Solaris can be booted from a remote server providing an OS image in a diskless environment. plugged in. Applications may or may not reside locally when they are running. This may be selected for personal workstations or laptops. where a console may normally be used. from a terminal server or even dial up modem. without purchasing additional software management utilities. in a remote data center. plugged in.
The X Window System originated from MIT's Project Athena in 1984 and allowed for the display of an application to be disconnected from the machine where the application was running. the thin client can be swapped and the user can resume their work from the exact point of failure. and provided backward compatibility for SunView applications from Sun's older desktop environment. The OPEN LOOK Virtual Window Manager (olvwm) can still be downloaded for Solaris from sunfreeware and works on releases as recent as Solaris 10. which shipped with Solaris 2.2. and graphical rendering runs on one or more remote servers. window manager. placed on a desktop. Applications. Sun’s original bundled SunView application suite was ported to X. OpenWindows supported both NeWS and X applications. Desktop environments olvwm with OpenWindows on Solaris Early releases of Solaris used OpenWindows as the standard desktop environment.6. and a user can start work immediately. The OPEN LOOK Window Manager (olwm) with other OPEN LOOK specific applications were dropped in Solaris 9. whether or not the work was saved. In Solaris 2. OpenWindows 3. separated by a network connection.0 to 2. a common printing language released in 1982. and switched to X11R5 with Display Postscript support. Sun later dropped support for legacy SunView applications and NeWS with OpenWindows 3. NeWS allowed applications to be built in an object oriented way using PostScript.3. The graphical look and feel remained based upon OPEN LOOK. providing long term binary backwards compatibility with existing applications.Solaris can also be used from a thin client. Administrators can add a user account to a central Solaris system and a thin client can be rolled from a closet. but support libraries were still bundled. .2 was the last release under Solaris 8.3. If there is a hardware failure. operating system.
CDE was an initiative to create a standard Unix desktop environment.4. CDE was available as an unbundled add-on for Solaris 2. The project has been inactive since late 2006. also compile and run on recent versions of Solaris. Sun's office suite.6 through 10. The CDE applications are no longer included in OpenSolaris and Solaris 11. Sun helped codevelop the Common Desktop Environment. the Common Open Software Environment initiative.Common Desktop Environment Sun and other Unix vendors created an industry alliance to standardize Unix desktops. IBM provided the file manager. Solaris 9 8/03 introduced GNOME 2. In 2001. and was included in Solaris 2. Each vendor contributed different components: HewlettPackard contributed the window manager. As a member of COSE. based on the GTK+ toolkit.4 and 2. Sun describes JDS as a "major component" of Solaris 10. Sun issued a preview release of the open-source desktop environment GNOME 1. which is based on GNOME and comes with a large set of applications. CDE unified Unix desktops across multiple open system vendors. It is considered by the Free Software Foundation to be free but the GPL is incompatible with it. This new desktop environment was based upon the Motif look and feel and the old OPEN LOOK desktop environment was considered legacy. and Sun provided the e-mail and calendar facilities as well as drag-and-drop support (ToolTalk). The CDDL is an OSI-approved license. including StarOffice. Solaris 10 includes Sun's Java Desktop System (JDS). for Solaris 8. . The open source desktop environments KDE and Xfce. License Solaris' source code (with a few exceptions) has been released under the Common Development and Distribution License (CDDL) via the OpenSolaris project. but many libraries remain for binary backwards compatibility.5.0 as an alternative to CDE. Sun was investing in a new desktop environment called Project Looking Glass since 2003. along with numerous other window managers.
support 1999 for only the sun4c architecture. both binary and source versions are currently downloadable and licensed without cost. Updates to Solaris versions are periodically released. See SunOS article 2003 for more information.1 5.0 - 2. First appearance of NIS+.OpenSolaris was seeded on June 14. Service Management Facility. In ascending order. and Solaris Trusted Extensions. such as Solaris 10 10/09. and Sun has said that future releases of Solaris proper will henceforth be derived from OpenSolaris. Version history Solaris logo introduced with Solaris 10 and used until Oracle's acquisition of Sun Notable features of Solaris currently include DTrace. ZFS.1.0 5.2 5. the following versions of Solaris have been released: Colour Meaning Red Release no longer supported Green Release still supported Blue Future release Release date Solaris SunOS version version SPARC x86 1.x 4.1 December 1992 May 1993 2. Doors. Solaris Volume Manager. First to support sun4d architecture. Solaris Multiplexed I/O. Source for upcoming features such as Xen support is now added to the OpenSolaris project as a matter of course. first Solaris x86 April 1999 release. First to support May 1999 multithreading libraries (UI threads API in libthread). 2005 from the then-current Solaris development code base.x 1991– 1994 June 1992 - End of support Major new features 2. Preliminary release (primarily January available to developers only).2 May 1993 - SunOS 4 rebranded as Solaris 1 for September marketing purposes. . Solaris Containers. Support for sun4 and sun4m architectures added. First Solaris 2 release to support SMP. SPARC-only release.
POSIX. Doors added but undocumented. IPMP. DTrace (Dynamic Tracing). sun4d support removed. Includes x86-64 (AMD64/Intel 64) support.2.1 5. Dropped MCA support on x86 platform. iPlanet Directory Server.3 5. 2003 October 2014 - 10 5. OpenWindows dropped. user and group IDs (uid_t.1 May 1996 September 2005 2.6 5. NFSv3 and NFS/TCP. 2005 SPARC-only release. PAM. also included processor sets and early resource management technologies.6 July 1997 July 2006 7 5. Added native support for file system meta-data logging (UFS logging). Includes OSF/Motif runtime support. enhanced procfs. Solaris Volume Manager.4 November 1994 2. Last update was Solaris 7 11/99.3 November 1993 - June 2002 September 2003 December 2003 2. Includes Kerberos 5. TrueType fonts.5 November 1995 2.4 5. Includes Multipath I/O. sun4c support removed. SPARCserver 600MP series support dropped. gid_t) expanded to 32 bits. WebNFS.5. Resource Manager.9 May 28. Support added for autofs and CacheFS filesystems. Last update is Solaris 8 2/04. first support for IPv6 and IPsec (manual keying only). First unified SPARC/x86 release. Most current update is Solaris 9 9/05.1c-1995 pthreads added. Only release to support PowerPC platform. The first 64-bit UltraSPARC release. large file support. 2002 January 10. OpenWindows 3. Introduced Role-Based Access Control (RBAC). Ultra Enterprise support added.10 January 31. IKE IPsec keying. mdb modular debugger. Solaris Containers. extended file attributes.5.8 February 2000 March 2012 9 5. and Linux compatibility added.7 November 1998 August 2008 8 5. First to support UltraSPARC and include CDE.5 5.3 switches from NeWS to Display PostScript and drops SunView support. Service Management Facility (SMF) which . Dropped sun4 (VMEbus) support.
Solaris 10 6/06 ("U2") added the ZFS filesystem. IP Instances (part of the OpenSolaris Network Virtualization and Resource Control project). iSCSI Initiator support and fcinfo command-line tool. Support for sun4m and UltraSPARC I processors removed. Solaris 10 8/07 ("U4") added Samba Active Directory support. Adds Java Desktop System (based on GNOME) as default desktop. iSCSI Target support and Solaris Containers for Linux Applications (based on branded zones). Support for EISA-based PCs removed.  Solaris 10 10/08 ("U6") added boot from ZFS and can use ZFS as its root file system. Logical . Solaris 10 5/08 ("U5") added CPU capping for Solaris Containers. NFSv4. SpeedStep support for Intel processors and PowerNow! support for AMD processors. Solaris 10 11/06 ("U3") added Solaris Trusted Extensions and Logical Domains. Least privilege security model.  • • • • • • Solaris 10 1/06 (known internally as "U1") added the GRUB bootloader for x86 systems.d scripts. enhanced version of the Resource Capping Daemon (rcapd). performance improvements. Solaris 10 10/08 also includes virtualization enhancements including the ability for a Solaris Container to automatically update its environment when moved from one system to another.replaces init.
ZFS cache devices and nss_ldap shadowAccount Support. container cloning using ZFS cloned file systems.• • • Domains support for dynamically reconfigurable disk and network I/O. fast reboot.11 2010. network virtualization and QoS.11 November 15. updated GNOME. virtual consoles. ZFS triple parity RAID-Z and Oracle Solaris Auto Registration. and performance enhancements for ZFS on solidstate drives. ZFS encryption and deduplication. Solaris 10 10/09 ("U8") added user and group level ZFS quotas. Removes Xsun. • . 11 Express 5. 2010 - Solaris 10 8/11 ("U10") Adds new packaging system (IPS=Image Packaging System) and associated tools. Solaris 10 Containers. CDE. Solaris 10 5/09 ("U7") added performance and power management support for Intel Nehalem processors. Solaris 10 9/10 ("U9") added physical to zone migration. and paravirtualization support when Solaris 10 is used as a guest OS in Xen-based environments such as Sun xVM Server. improvements to patching performance.
Updates to that project are built and delivered several times a year until the next official release comes out. which is then maintained as a derived project. A more comprehensive summary of some Solaris versions is also available. .0. Development release The underlying Solaris codebase has been under continuous development since work began in the late 1980s on what was eventually released as Solaris 2. taken near the time of its release. Solaris releases are also described in the Solaris 2 FAQ. Each version such as Solaris 10 is based on a snapshot of this development codebase.
 It was updated every two weeks. See also • • • • • • • • • • Blastwave . The next release of OpenSolaris based on build 134 was due in March 2010 but it was never fully released. allowing anyone to try out new features and test the quality and stability of the OS as it progressed to the release of the next official Solaris version. In 2007.05. Although the download license seen when downloading the image files indicates its use is limited to personal. In 2003. educational and evaluation purposes. including providing an open source binary distribution of the OpenSolaris project. The Solaris Express Community Edition (SXCE) was intended specifically for OpenSolaris developers. and released build 151a as 2010. renamed Solaris Express Developer Edition (SXDE). replacing SXDE. Under the program name Software Express for Solaris (or just Solaris Express). with users recommended to migrate to the OpenSolaris distribution. SXCE releases terminated with build 130 and OpenSolaris releases terminated with build 134 a few weeks later.The Solaris version under development by Sun since the release of Solaris 10 in 2005 is codenamed Nevada.software packages for production Sparc and x86/AMD64 Solaris 8 upwards Comparison of operating systems Illumos OpenCSW .Software forked from Blastwave OpenIndiana OpenSolaris Operating systems timeline Sun Management Center Sun xVM Trusted Solaris . with different license terms. Instead Oracle renamed the binary distro to Solaris 11 Express. until it was discontinued in January 2010. a binary release based on the current development basis was made available for download on a monthly basis. and is derived from what is now the OpenSolaris codebase. Sun announced Project Indiana with several goals. The first release of this distribution was OpenSolaris 2008.11 in November 2010. A later change to this program introduced a quarterly release model with support available. the license acceptance form displayed when the user actually installs from these images lists additional uses including commercial and production environments. though the packages were made available on the package repository. an addition to the Solaris development process was initiated.
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