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Company / developer Oracle Corporation Programmed in C OS family Unix Working state Current Mixed open source / closed Source model source Initial release 1992 11 Express 2010.11 / Latest stable release November 15, 2010; 8 months ago Marketing target Workstation, Server Available language(s) English Available programming C languages(s) SPARC, IA-32, x86-64, Supported platforms PowerPC (Solaris 2.5.1 only) Kernel type Monolithic OpenSolaris Desktop or CDE Default user interface or GNOME License Various Official website oracle.com/solaris Solaris is a Unix operating system originally developed by Sun Microsystems. It superseded their earlier SunOS in 1993. Oracle Solaris, as it is now known, has been owned by Oracle Corporation since Oracle's acquisition of Sun in January 2010. Solaris is known for its scalability, especially on SPARC systems, and for originating many innovative features such as DTrace, ZFS and Time Slider. Solaris supports SPARC-based and x86-based workstations and servers from Sun and other vendors, with efforts underway to port to additional platforms. Solaris is registered as compliant with the Single Unix Specification.
 The justification for this new "overbrand" was that it encompassed not only SunOS. the OpenSolaris community forked the OpenIndiana project.1 Other platforms 3 Installation and usage options o 3. While SunOS 4. On September 4. with one based on SVR4. and Xenix. 1991. System V. AT&T and Sun announced that they were collaborating on a project to merge the most popular Unix variants on the market at that time: BSD. as part of the Illumos Foundation. then in June 2005 Sun Microsystems released most of the codebase under the CDDL license.1. After the acquisition of Sun Microsystems in January 2010.Solaris was historically developed as proprietary software. SunOS 4. updates to the Solaris source code will still be distributed under the CDDL license. With OpenSolaris Sun wanted to build a developer and user community around the software.x micro releases were retroactively named Solaris 1 by Sun. As a result. but a new marketing name was introduced at the same time: Solaris 2. Contents [hide] • • • • • • • • • • 1 History 2 Supported architectures o 2. Oracle decided to discontinue the OpenSolaris distribution and the development model. This became Unix System V Release 4 (SVR4). Sun announced that it would replace its existing BSD-derived Unix. This was identified internally as SunOS 5. starting with Solaris 11. and founded the OpenSolaris open source project. the Solaris name is almost exclusively used to refer to the SVR4-derived SunOS 5. through the Oracle Technology Network (OTN). but also the OpenWindows graphical user interface and Open Network Computing (ONC) . after full binary releases are made. However. to permit their industry partners access to the in-development Solaris source code.1 Usage with installation o 3.2 Usage without installation 4 Desktop environments 5 License 6 Version history 7 Development release 8 See also 9 References 10 External links History In 1987. Oracle will also begin a technology partner program.0 and later.
as well as x86 systems manufactured by companies such as Dell. .1 included support for the PowerPC platform (PowerPC Reference Platform)." from the number. Solaris 2.distributes and provides software technical support for Solaris on ProLiant server and blade systems Fujitsu Siemens As of July 2010. announced its first official source code release. However. with which it is marketed as a combined package. Solaris has a reputation for being well-suited to symmetric multiprocessing. Oracle Enterprise Linux and Oracle VM on their respective x86 platforms. and the latest release SunOS 5. It has historically been tightly integrated with Sun's SPARC hardware (including support for 64-bit SPARC applications since Solaris 7). In January 2006 a community of developers at Blastwave began work on a PowerPC port which they named Polaris. Supported architectures Solaris uses a common code base for the platforms it supports: SPARC and i86pc (which includes both x86 and x86-64).also distributes Solaris and Solaris Subscriptions for select x86-based IBM System x servers and BladeCenter servers Intel Hewlett-Packard . The SunOS minor version is included in the Solaris release number. Solaris 10. allowing Sun to capitalize on the availability of commodity 64-bit CPUs based on the x86-64 architecture. In October 2006. and optimize Solaris and OpenSolaris on its rack and blade servers and offer them as one of several choices in the overall Dell software menu" IBM .10 forms the core of Solaris 10. but the port was canceled before the Solaris 2. the following vendors support Solaris for their x86 server systems: • • • • • Dell .1 into OpenSolaris. but at a cost premium over commodity PC hardware. Sun has heavily marketed Solaris for use with both its own "x64" workstations and servers based on AMD Opteron and Intel Xeon processors. This has often led to more reliable systems. After Solaris 2.will "test.6.5.4 incorporated SunOS 5. it has also supported x86 systems since Solaris 2.1 and the latest version. supporting a large number of CPUs.6 release. so Solaris 7 incorporates SunOS 5. Other platforms Solaris 2. Dell and HP certify and resell Oracle Solaris. As of 2009. for example.7. certify.functionality. and IBM. and IBM stopped direct support for Solaris on x64 kit. HewlettPackard. which re-integrated the relevant parts from Solaris 2.5. Sun dropped the "2. an OpenSolaris community project based on the Blastwave efforts and Sun Labs' Project Pulsar.4. includes support for 64-bit x86 applications.
and also due to the primary developer's Australian nationality: HMS Sirius of 1786 was a ship of the First Fleet to Australia). like Apache.A port of Solaris to the Intel Itanium architecture was announced in 1997 but never brought to market. Installation of Solaris is not necessary for an individual to use the system. IBM. OpenCSW and Blastwave. 2007. IBM authorized the use of Sirius on System z IFL processors. and Sine Nomine Associates demonstrated a preview of OpenSolaris for System z running on an IBM System z mainframe under z/VM. etc. Additional software. ranging from a minimalistic "Reduced Network Support" to a complete "Entire Plus OEM". On November 28. called Sirius (in analogy to the Polaris project. can be installed as well in a packaged form from sunfreeware. based on the branded zones functionality introduced in Solaris 10 8/07. MySQL. On October 17. Solaris also supports the Linux platform ABI. Installation and usage options Solaris can be installed from various pre-packaged software groups. Sun. allowing Solaris to run native Linux binaries on x86 systems. This feature is called "Solaris Containers for Linux Applications" or SCLA. Usage with installation Solaris 10 text installation . 2008 a prototype release of Sirius was made available and on November 19 the same year.
plugged in. plugged in. without purchasing additional software management utilities.Solaris 10 graphical installation Solaris can be installed from physical media or a network for use on a desktop or server. This may be selected for servers. including configuration and automatic installation of third-party software. In this configuration. Applications may be individually installed on the local system. or in an environment where an internal disk is only used for swap space. in a local area. a new workstation is pulled from a closet. in a remote data center. Solaris can be automatically installed over a network. When Solaris is installed.) . Solaris can be booted from a remote server providing an OS image in a diskless environment. where a console may normally be used. and a user can resume their work from their last saved point. Applications may or may not reside locally when they are running. Solaris can be interactively installed from a graphical console. in a rack. the operating system still runs locally on the system. Usage without installation Solaris can be used without separately installing the operating system on a desktop or server. System administrators can customize installations with scripts and configuration files. This may be selected for personal workstations or laptops. the operating system will reside on the same system where the installation occurred. from a terminal server or even dial up modem. This may be selected for businesses or educational institutions where rapid setup is required (workstations can be "rolled off" of a loading dock. the MAC address registered into a central server. or can be mounted via the network from a remote system. and be immediately usable) or rapid replacement is required (if a desktop hardware failure occurs. Solaris can be interactively installed from a text console on platforms without a video display and mouse.
providing long term binary backwards compatibility with existing applications.0 to 2. and graphical rendering runs on one or more remote servers. . a common printing language released in 1982. Administrators can add a user account to a central Solaris system and a thin client can be rolled from a closet. and provided backward compatibility for SunView applications from Sun's older desktop environment. Sun later dropped support for legacy SunView applications and NeWS with OpenWindows 3. separated by a network connection. The graphical look and feel remained based upon OPEN LOOK. The OPEN LOOK Virtual Window Manager (olvwm) can still be downloaded for Solaris from sunfreeware and works on releases as recent as Solaris 10. In Solaris 2.6. window manager.Solaris can also be used from a thin client. OpenWindows 3. whether or not the work was saved. the thin client can be swapped and the user can resume their work from the exact point of failure. NeWS allowed applications to be built in an object oriented way using PostScript. and switched to X11R5 with Display Postscript support. If there is a hardware failure.2 was the last release under Solaris 8. operating system. Desktop environments olvwm with OpenWindows on Solaris Early releases of Solaris used OpenWindows as the standard desktop environment. placed on a desktop. The OPEN LOOK Window Manager (olwm) with other OPEN LOOK specific applications were dropped in Solaris 9. and a user can start work immediately.2. which shipped with Solaris 2. OpenWindows supported both NeWS and X applications. Sun’s original bundled SunView application suite was ported to X. Applications.3. but support libraries were still bundled.3. The X Window System originated from MIT's Project Athena in 1984 and allowed for the display of an application to be disconnected from the machine where the application was running.
which is based on GNOME and comes with a large set of applications. The project has been inactive since late 2006.4. but many libraries remain for binary backwards compatibility. License Solaris' source code (with a few exceptions) has been released under the Common Development and Distribution License (CDDL) via the OpenSolaris project. This new desktop environment was based upon the Motif look and feel and the old OPEN LOOK desktop environment was considered legacy. . Solaris 10 includes Sun's Java Desktop System (JDS). The CDDL is an OSI-approved license. the Common Open Software Environment initiative. The open source desktop environments KDE and Xfce. and Sun provided the e-mail and calendar facilities as well as drag-and-drop support (ToolTalk). Sun issued a preview release of the open-source desktop environment GNOME 1.6 through 10. Solaris 9 8/03 introduced GNOME 2.Common Desktop Environment Sun and other Unix vendors created an industry alliance to standardize Unix desktops. Sun was investing in a new desktop environment called Project Looking Glass since 2003. CDE unified Unix desktops across multiple open system vendors. and was included in Solaris 2. In 2001. The CDE applications are no longer included in OpenSolaris and Solaris 11. Sun helped codevelop the Common Desktop Environment.5. for Solaris 8. CDE was an initiative to create a standard Unix desktop environment. Sun describes JDS as a "major component" of Solaris 10. including StarOffice. based on the GTK+ toolkit. Each vendor contributed different components: HewlettPackard contributed the window manager. As a member of COSE. CDE was available as an unbundled add-on for Solaris 2.0 as an alternative to CDE. IBM provided the file manager.4 and 2. It is considered by the Free Software Foundation to be free but the GPL is incompatible with it. Sun's office suite. also compile and run on recent versions of Solaris. along with numerous other window managers.
See SunOS article 2003 for more information. Solaris Multiplexed I/O. such as Solaris 10 10/09.0 - 2. Source for upcoming features such as Xen support is now added to the OpenSolaris project as a matter of course. Solaris Containers. . first Solaris x86 April 1999 release. First Solaris 2 release to support SMP. ZFS. Version history Solaris logo introduced with Solaris 10 and used until Oracle's acquisition of Sun Notable features of Solaris currently include DTrace.x 4. Doors. the following versions of Solaris have been released: Colour Meaning Red Release no longer supported Green Release still supported Blue Future release Release date Solaris SunOS version version SPARC x86 1. and Solaris Trusted Extensions. Support for sun4 and sun4m architectures added. Preliminary release (primarily January available to developers only).1 December 1992 May 1993 2. First to support May 1999 multithreading libraries (UI threads API in libthread).2 May 1993 - SunOS 4 rebranded as Solaris 1 for September marketing purposes. 2005 from the then-current Solaris development code base. First appearance of NIS+. and Sun has said that future releases of Solaris proper will henceforth be derived from OpenSolaris.1 5. First to support sun4d architecture.x 1991– 1994 June 1992 - End of support Major new features 2. Updates to Solaris versions are periodically released.OpenSolaris was seeded on June 14. In ascending order. Service Management Facility. support 1999 for only the sun4c architecture.0 5. both binary and source versions are currently downloadable and licensed without cost.1. Solaris Volume Manager.2 5. SPARC-only release.
3 switches from NeWS to Display PostScript and drops SunView support. 2003 October 2014 - 10 5. also included processor sets and early resource management technologies. Dropped sun4 (VMEbus) support. Resource Manager. Added native support for file system meta-data logging (UFS logging). SPARCserver 600MP series support dropped. DTrace (Dynamic Tracing). large file support. Most current update is Solaris 9 9/05. enhanced procfs. Ultra Enterprise support added.4 5.6 July 1997 July 2006 7 5. and Linux compatibility added. 2002 January 10. extended file attributes. First unified SPARC/x86 release.5. mdb modular debugger.9 May 28. first support for IPv6 and IPsec (manual keying only).5. Solaris Containers. POSIX.8 February 2000 March 2012 9 5.1 May 1996 September 2005 2. 2005 SPARC-only release. PAM. WebNFS.6 5. Doors added but undocumented. sun4d support removed.7 November 1998 August 2008 8 5. Last update was Solaris 7 11/99.4 November 1994 2. Last update is Solaris 8 2/04.2.5 November 1995 2. OpenWindows dropped.5 5. TrueType fonts. First to support UltraSPARC and include CDE. Only release to support PowerPC platform. Includes Multipath I/O. The first 64-bit UltraSPARC release. NFSv3 and NFS/TCP.1c-1995 pthreads added. Dropped MCA support on x86 platform. gid_t) expanded to 32 bits. Includes Kerberos 5.1 5. OpenWindows 3. Solaris Volume Manager. Includes OSF/Motif runtime support. Support added for autofs and CacheFS filesystems. Introduced Role-Based Access Control (RBAC). IKE IPsec keying. sun4c support removed.3 5. Service Management Facility (SMF) which . IPMP. iPlanet Directory Server. Includes x86-64 (AMD64/Intel 64) support.3 November 1993 - June 2002 September 2003 December 2003 2.10 January 31. user and group IDs (uid_t.
Solaris 10 8/07 ("U4") added Samba Active Directory support.replaces init. Adds Java Desktop System (based on GNOME) as default desktop. Solaris 10 6/06 ("U2") added the ZFS filesystem.d scripts. Solaris 10 11/06 ("U3") added Solaris Trusted Extensions and Logical Domains. performance improvements. Solaris 10 5/08 ("U5") added CPU capping for Solaris Containers. Support for sun4m and UltraSPARC I processors removed. Support for EISA-based PCs removed. Least privilege security model. Solaris 10 10/08 also includes virtualization enhancements including the ability for a Solaris Container to automatically update its environment when moved from one system to another. iSCSI Initiator support and fcinfo command-line tool. SpeedStep support for Intel processors and PowerNow! support for AMD processors.  • • • • • • Solaris 10 1/06 (known internally as "U1") added the GRUB bootloader for x86 systems. enhanced version of the Resource Capping Daemon (rcapd). iSCSI Target support and Solaris Containers for Linux Applications (based on branded zones). IP Instances (part of the OpenSolaris Network Virtualization and Resource Control project). Logical . NFSv4.  Solaris 10 10/08 ("U6") added boot from ZFS and can use ZFS as its root file system.
Solaris 10 Containers. Solaris 10 5/09 ("U7") added performance and power management support for Intel Nehalem processors. fast reboot. Solaris 10 10/09 ("U8") added user and group level ZFS quotas. virtual consoles. and paravirtualization support when Solaris 10 is used as a guest OS in Xen-based environments such as Sun xVM Server.11 November 15. Solaris 10 9/10 ("U9") added physical to zone migration. network virtualization and QoS. Removes Xsun.11 2010. and performance enhancements for ZFS on solidstate drives. 2010 - Solaris 10 8/11 ("U10") Adds new packaging system (IPS=Image Packaging System) and associated tools.• • • Domains support for dynamically reconfigurable disk and network I/O. 11 Express 5. ZFS cache devices and nss_ldap shadowAccount Support. ZFS triple parity RAID-Z and Oracle Solaris Auto Registration. improvements to patching performance. CDE. • . updated GNOME. container cloning using ZFS cloned file systems. ZFS encryption and deduplication.
 A more comprehensive summary of some Solaris versions is also available. Development release The underlying Solaris codebase has been under continuous development since work began in the late 1980s on what was eventually released as Solaris 2. taken near the time of its release. . which is then maintained as a derived project. Solaris releases are also described in the Solaris 2 FAQ.0. Updates to that project are built and delivered several times a year until the next official release comes out. Each version such as Solaris 10 is based on a snapshot of this development codebase.
 Although the download license seen when downloading the image files indicates its use is limited to personal. an addition to the Solaris development process was initiated. though the packages were made available on the package repository. a binary release based on the current development basis was made available for download on a monthly basis. In 2007. the license acceptance form displayed when the user actually installs from these images lists additional uses including commercial and production environments. and is derived from what is now the OpenSolaris codebase. A later change to this program introduced a quarterly release model with support available. including providing an open source binary distribution of the OpenSolaris project. It was updated every two weeks.software packages for production Sparc and x86/AMD64 Solaris 8 upwards Comparison of operating systems Illumos OpenCSW . See also • • • • • • • • • • Blastwave .05. and released build 151a as 2010. Under the program name Software Express for Solaris (or just Solaris Express). SXCE releases terminated with build 130 and OpenSolaris releases terminated with build 134 a few weeks later.Software forked from Blastwave OpenIndiana OpenSolaris Operating systems timeline Sun Management Center Sun xVM Trusted Solaris . replacing SXDE. with different license terms. Instead Oracle renamed the binary distro to Solaris 11 Express. with users recommended to migrate to the OpenSolaris distribution. The first release of this distribution was OpenSolaris 2008. renamed Solaris Express Developer Edition (SXDE). allowing anyone to try out new features and test the quality and stability of the OS as it progressed to the release of the next official Solaris version. Sun announced Project Indiana with several goals.The Solaris version under development by Sun since the release of Solaris 10 in 2005 is codenamed Nevada.11 in November 2010. educational and evaluation purposes. The next release of OpenSolaris based on build 134 was due in March 2010 but it was never fully released. The Solaris Express Community Edition (SXCE) was intended specifically for OpenSolaris developers. In 2003. until it was discontinued in January 2010.
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