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John Swales (1990)

Move 1: Establishing a territory

Step 1: Claiming centrality and/or Step 2 : Making topic generalizations and/or Step 3: Reviewing items of previous research

Move 2: Establishing a niche Step 1a: Counter-claiming or

Step 1b:
Step 1c: Step 1d:

Indicating a gap or
Question-raising or Continuing a tradition

Move 3: Occupying the niche

Step 1a: Outlining purposes or Step 1b: research Announcing present

Step 2: Announcing principle findings Step 3: Indicating Research article structure

Move 1: Establish background

Introduce key ideas and reasons for writing the literature review i.e. why is it important?

Move 2: Points of interest

Reviewing published articles and research What are the authors intentions? What are the arguments? Do they make any assumptions? Make sure you have an understanding of the main ideas and arguments

Move 3: Taking the research further

Indicate to your reader your questions, the purpose and the structure of text.

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